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Sample records for vocabulary self-paced activity

  1. Preparative activities in posterior parietal cortex for self-paced movement in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemba, Hisae; Matsuura-Nakao, Kazuko; Matsuzaki, Ryuichi

    2004-02-26

    Cortical field potentials were recorded by electrodes implanted chronically on the surface and at a 2.0-3.0 mm depth in various cortices in monkeys performing self-paced finger, toe, mouth, hand or trunk movements. Surface-negative, depth-positive potentials (readiness potential) appeared in the posterior parietal cortex about 1.0 s before onset of every self-paced movement, as well as in the premotor, motor and somatosensory cortices. Somatotopical distribution was seen in the readiness potential in the posterior parietal cortex, although it was not so distinct as that in the motor or somatosensory cortex. This suggests that the posterior parietal cortex is involved in preparation for self-paced movement of any body part. This study contributes to the investigation of central nervous mechanisms of voluntary movements initiated by internal stimulus.

  2. In-Class Extensive Reading Activity to Assist Self-Paced Learning in a Large Class-Size Environment

    OpenAIRE

    鬼田, 崇作

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show the effects an extensive reading activity had in assisting students in a self-paced learning, large class-size English environment. As the student body was diverse, encompassing varying levels of ability, learning styles, interests and proficiency, it is essential that teachers pay attention to these differences and adapt the materials to each learner's individual differences. However, it is difficult for a teacher to satisfy all of their individual studen...

  3. Application of decision-making theory to the regulation of muscular work rate during self-paced competitive endurance activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renfree, Andrew; Martin, Louise; Micklewright, Dominic; St Clair Gibson, Alan

    2014-02-01

    Successful participation in competitive endurance activities requires continual regulation of muscular work rate in order to maximise physiological performance capacities, meaning that individuals must make numerous decisions with regards to the muscular work rate selected at any point in time. Decisions relating to the setting of appropriate goals and the overall strategic approach to be utilised are made prior to the commencement of an event, whereas tactical decisions are made during the event itself. This review examines current theories of decision-making in an attempt to explain the manner in which regulation of muscular work is achieved during athletic activity. We describe rational and heuristic theories, and relate these to current models of regulatory processes during self-paced exercise in an attempt to explain observations made in both laboratory and competitive environments. Additionally, we use rational and heuristic theories in an attempt to explain the influence of the presence of direct competitors on the quality of the decisions made during these activities. We hypothesise that although both rational and heuristic models can plausibly explain many observed behaviours in competitive endurance activities, the complexity of the environment in which such activities occur would imply that effective rational decision-making is unlikely. However, at present, many proposed models of the regulatory process share similarities with rational models. We suggest enhanced understanding of the decision-making process during self-paced activities is crucial in order to improve the ability to understand regulation of performance and performance outcomes during athletic activity.

  4. Can Pacing Be Regulated by Post-Activation Potentiation? Insights from a Self-Paced 30 km Trial in Half-Marathon Runners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Del Rosso

    Full Text Available Given the co-existence of post-activation potentiation (PAP and fatigue within muscle, it is not known whether PAP could influence performance and pacing during distance running by moderating fatigue. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of PAP on pacing, jumping and other physiological measures during a self-paced 30 km trial.Eleven male endurance-trained runners (half-marathon runners volunteered to participate in this study. Runners participated in a multi-stage 30 km trial. Before the trial started, determination of baseline blood lactate (bLa and countermovement jump (CMJ height was performed. The self-paced 30 km trial consisted of 6 × 5 km splits. At the end of each 5 km split (60 s break, data on time to complete the split, CMJ height, Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE and blood lactate were collected while heart rate was continuously monitored.There was a significant decrease in speed (e.g. positive pacing strategy after the 4th split, p<0.05 with a progressive increase in RPE throughout the trial. Compared with baseline, CMJ height was significantly (p<0.05 greater than baseline and was maintained until the end of the trial with an increase after the 5th split, concomitant with a significant reduction in speed and an increase in RPE. Significant correlations were found between ΔCMJ and ΔSPEED (r = 0.77 to 0.87, p<0.05 at different time points as well as between RPE and speed (r = -0.61 to -0.82, p<0.05.Our results indicates that fatigue and potentiation co-exist during long lasting endurance events, and that the observed increase in jump performance towards the end of the trial could be reflecting a greater potentiation potentially perhaps counteracting the effects of fatigue and preventing further reductions in speed.

  5. Self-Paced Instruction: Hello, Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuba, Richard J.; Flammer, Gordon H.

    1975-01-01

    Answers criticisms of self-paced instruction (SPI) by citing advantages of SPI over lecture methods. Concludes that criticisms of SPI are useful since they indicate in which areas further research should be conducted to improve this method of instruction. (MLH)

  6. A Preliminary fMRI Study of a Novel Self-Paced Written Fluency Task: Observation of Left-Hemispheric Activation, and Increased Frontal Activation in Late vs. Early Task Phases

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    Laleh eGolestanirad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuropsychological tests of verbal fluency are very widely used to characterize impaired cognitive function. For clinical neuroscience studies and potential medical applications, measuring the brain activity that underlies such tests with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is of significant interest - but a challenging proposition because overt speech can cause signal artifacts, which tend to worsen as the duration of speech tasks becomes longer. In a novel approach, we present the group brain activity of 12 subjects who performed a self-paced written version of phonemic fluency using fMRI-compatible tablet technology that recorded responses and provided task-related feedback on a projection screen display, over long-duration task blocks (60 s. As predicted, we observed robust activation in the left anterior inferior and medial frontal gyri, consisting with previously reported results of verbal fluency tasks which established the role of these areas in strategic word retrieval. In addition, the number of words produced in the late phase (last 30 s of written phonemic fluency was significantly less (p < 0.05 than the number produced in the early phase (first 30 s. Activation during the late phase vs. the early phase was also assessed from the first 20 s and last 20 s of task performance, which eliminated the possibility that the sluggish hemodynamic response from the early phase would affect the activation estimates of the late phase. The last 20 s produced greater activation maps covering extended areas in bilateral precuneus, cuneus, middle temporal gyrus, insula, middle frontal gyrus and cingulate gyrus. Among them, greater activation was observed in the bilateral middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann area BA 9 and cingulate gyrus (BA 24, 32 likely as part of the initiation, maintenance, and shifting of attentional resources.

  7. Is Self-Paced Instruction Really Worth It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, J. A.; Crowe, C. T.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a self-paced, learning-for-mastery course in undergraduate fluid mechanics. Includes the method of course assessment, method of student evaluation, and a description of the instructor's role and work load. Summarizes aspects of self-paced instruction considered favorable and unfavorable. (GS)

  8. Cortical field potentials preceding self-paced forelimb movements and influences of cerebellectomy upon them in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohishi, Hiroko; Ichikawa, Jun; Matsuzaki, Ryuichi; Kyuhou, Shin ichi; Matsuura-Nakao, Kazuko; Seki, Tomomi; Gemba, Hisae

    2003-11-27

    Seven rats were well trained to move lever to the left by right forelimb at self-pace (self-paced forelimb movements). Cortical field potentials associated with self-paced forelimb movements were recorded by electrodes implanted chronically on the surface and at a 2.0 mm depth in the forelimb motor cortex on the left side. A surface-negative, depth-positive potential starting about 1.0 s prior to the movement was recorded in the rostral part of the forelimb motor cortex. Further we found that the premovement potential was eliminated by the cerebellar hemispherectomy on the right side. This suggests the participation of the cerebellar hemisphere in preparing the activity of the motor cortex before self-paced forelimb movements in rats, by cerebello-thalamo-cortical projections.

  9. Language switch costs in sentence comprehension depend on language dominance: Evidence from self-paced reading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bultena, S.S.; Dijkstra, A.F.J.; Hell, J.G. van

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated two prominent issues in the comprehension of language switches. First, how does language switching direction affect switch costs in sentence context? Second, are switch costs modulated by L2 proficiency and cross-linguistic activation? We conducted a self-paced reading task

  10. A Self-Paced Team Sport Match Simulation Results In Reductions In Voluntary Activation And Modifications To Biological, Perceptual And Performance Measures At Half-Time, And For Up To 96 Hours Post-Match.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofari, Paul; Kemp, Justin; Cormack, Stuart

    2017-02-23

    Assessing responses to soccer match-play is limited by match variability or unrealistic simulations. To address this, the biological, perceptual, and performance response were assessed using a self-paced, simulated soccer match protocol using a non-motorized treadmill. Twelve male team-sport athletes performed the 90-min simulation. Match activity; quadriceps twitch interpolation [voluntary activation (%VA) and potentiated twitch (POT)]; biochemical markers; strength and power performance; rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and self-report wellness were collected pre-, half-time, post-, and 2, 24, 48, 72 and 96-h post-match. Change compared to pre-match was calculated using effect size (ES) ±90% confidence limit, and relationships were assessed using regression analysis. Subjects covered 12445.8±768.7 m at 87.1±3.2% maximal HR (mean±SD). Reductions in %VA and POT was present at half-time (-0.38±0.46 and -0.79±0.30, respectively), and persisted post-match. Squat jump height decreased at half-time (-0.42±0.31) and was decreased until Post96. Perceptual fatigue, soreness (-0.92±0.88 and -1.49±0.76, respectively) and creatine kinase (CK, 1.11±0.43) peaked at Post24. Pre-test strength (N.kg) correlated with changes in CK (r=-0.58 to -0.81), peak oxygen consumption (V˙ O2peak) correlated with reduced perceived wellness at Post24 (r=0.44 to 0.58) and RPE post (r=-0.71±0.28). High-speed running correlated with soreness (r=0.42) and very high speed running with reduced POT (r=0.61). Previously unreported half-time reductions in %VA and POT plateaued by post-match, suggesting a role in regulating second-half performance. Perceptual and neuromuscular responses appear related to running intensity. Greater lower-body strength and V˙ O2peak were associated with less CK (i.e., muscle damage) and perceptual responses post-match, respectively, suggesting a training focus should be placed on these capacities.

  11. Active Learning Strategies and Vocabulary Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Using a quantitative method of data collection, this research explored the question: Do active learning strategies used in grades 5 and 6 affect student vocabulary achievement in a positive or negative direction? In their research, Wolfe (2001), Headley, et al., (1995), Freiberg, et al., (1992), and Brunner (2009) emphasize the importance of…

  12. THE VOCABULARY SELF-COLLECTION STRATEGY:ENHANCING ACTIVE VOCABULARY THROUGH TOPICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    IntroductionThe majority of English courses books in China provide students with long lists of vocabulary attached tothe end of the texts.Since vocabulary is regarded as central to language learning.Students are supposedto memorise all the new words and expressions on which they will be tested.Teachers rarely considerwhich items may be students active vocabulary and which items may be students passive vocabulary.Therefore.they treat all the new words and expressions with an equal amount of time and care:andstudents tend to treat all the new items as active vocabulary.The consequence of this approach is often:students get bored of memorising the long lists:even if they succeed in memorising all the new items,they are usually still unable to use themactively.This inappropriate method of teaching vocabulary tends to make students lose interest inlearning.

  13. Interaction Equivalency in Self-Paced Online Learning Environments: An Exploration of Learner Preferences

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    Jason F. Rhode

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This mixed methods study explored the dynamics of interaction within a self-paced online learning environment. It used rich media and a mix of traditional and emerging asynchronous computer-mediated communication tools to determine what forms of interaction learners in a self-paced online course value most and what impact they perceive interaction to have on their overall learning experience. This study demonstrated that depending on the specific circumstance, not all forms of interaction may be either equally valued by learners or effective. Participants differentiated among the various learning interactions available and indicated that informal interactions were as important as formal interactions in determining the quality of the online learning experience. Participants also reported the activity of blogging as being equally valued and in some ways superior to instructor-directed asynchronous discussion via the discussion board in a learning management system.

  14. Learning discriminative patterns for self-paced EEG-based motor imagery detection

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    Haihong eZhang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Detecting motor imagery activities versus non-control in brain signals is the basis of self-paced brain-computer interfaces (BCIs, but also poses a considerable challenge to signal processing due to the complex and non-stationary characteristics of motor imagery as well as non-control. This paper presents a self-paced BCI based on a robust learning mechanism that extracts and selects spatio-spectral features for differentiating multiple EEG classes. It also employs a nonlinear regression and post-processing technique for predicting the time-series of class labels from the spatio-spectral features. The method was validated in the {BCI Competition IV} on {Dataset I} where it produced the lowest prediction error of class labels continuously. This report also presents and discusses analysis of the method using the competition data set.

  15. Design Recommendations for Self-Paced Online Faculty Development Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzuto, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    An increased need for self-paced, online professional development opportunities in higher education has emerged from a variety of factors including dispersed geographic locations of faculty, full teaching loads, and institutional evaluation requirements. This article is a report of the examination of the design and evaluation of a self-paced…

  16. Self-Paced Instruction Methods in a Required Sophomore Course.

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    King, Franklin G.; Hossain, Muhammad A.

    1984-01-01

    Compares a personalized system of instruction (PSI) to the lecture method and linear self-paced instruction (LSPI) of teaching stoichiometry to undergraduate students. Discusses the methods used to assess student achievement which includes: the use of common midterms and final examinations; and modules, mini-courses and mini-course final exams.…

  17. The Effects of Self-Paced Blended Learning of Mathematics

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    Balentyne, Phoebe; Varga, Mary Alice

    2016-01-01

    As online and blended learning gain more popularity in education, it becomes more important to understand their effects on student learning. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of self-paced blended learning of mathematics on the attitudes and achievement of 26 high ability middle school students, and investigate the relationship…

  18. Reader Comment: A Realistic Appraisal of First Efforts at Self-Paced Instruction

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    Craver, W. Lionel, Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Examines a number of reasons for the apparent failure of self-paced instruction when it is first adopted by enthusiastic engineering instructors, and describes how and why the typical self-paced course improves during the second offering. (JR)

  19. Examining the Effectiveness of a Semi-Self-Paced Flipped Learning Format in a College General Chemistry Sequence

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    Hibbard, Lisa; Sung, Shannon; Wells, Breche´

    2016-01-01

    Flipped learning has come to the forefront in education. It maximizes learning by moving content delivery online, where learning can be self-paced, allowing for class time to focus on student-centered active learning. This five-year cross-sectional study assessed student performance in a college general chemistry for majors sequence taught by a…

  20. Examining the Effectiveness of a Semi-Self-Paced Flipped Learning Format in a College General Chemistry Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, Lisa; Sung, Shannon; Wells, Breche´

    2016-01-01

    Flipped learning has come to the forefront in education. It maximizes learning by moving content delivery online, where learning can be self-paced, allowing for class time to focus on student-centered active learning. This five-year cross-sectional study assessed student performance in a college general chemistry for majors sequence taught by a…

  1. Self-Paced Heat Acclimation Procedures,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-01

    ro"" IM7 amno- OF P mor es ,s Ovw.aTEDO ,;,A-n EOUnclassified- *, .-,,. / U1’ry CLASIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (Wlwt Dote Interd) V% - 7I -N-. W...completed a health questionnaire, activity questionnaire, and history of heat exposure prior to testing. These forms and outdoor temperatures during...0 a" N. +1 E-4 00 . r- C14 r-. +1 U CIO >1 00 - 41 + E-4 + sodium, potassium, protein , carbohydrate and fat. One day prior to testing, skinfold

  2. Does Translation Contribute to Learners' Free Active Vocabulary?

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    Asiyaban, Amir R.; Bagheri, Mohammad S.

    2012-01-01

    This research was conducted to find out whether or not using "translation" technique in vocabulary teaching would have any positive effects on the "free active" vocabulary of Iranian learners of English. To carry out the research, eighty-eight intermediate male and female students were chosen. The participants were divided into…

  3. Social Interaction in Self-paced Distance Education

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    Terry Anderson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a case study of a self-paced university course that was originally designed to support independent, self-paced study at distance. We developed a social media intervention, in design-based research terms, that allows these independent students to contribute archived content to enhance the course, to engage in discussions with other students and to share as little or as much personal information with each other as they wished. We describe the learning design for the intervention and present survey data of student and tutor perception of value and content analysis of the archived contributions. The results indicate that the intervention was positively received by tutors and by the majority (but not all students and that the archive created by the students’ contributions was adding value to the course. We conclude that the intervention was a modest, yet manageable example of a learning enhancement to a traditional cognitive-behavioral, course that has positive impact and potential with little negative impact on workload.

  4. Self-paced model learning for robust visual tracking

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    Huang, Wenhui; Gu, Jason; Ma, Xin; Li, Yibin

    2017-01-01

    In visual tracking, learning a robust and efficient appearance model is a challenging task. Model learning determines both the strategy and the frequency of model updating, which contains many details that could affect the tracking results. Self-paced learning (SPL) has recently been attracting considerable interest in the fields of machine learning and computer vision. SPL is inspired by the learning principle underlying the cognitive process of humans, whose learning process is generally from easier samples to more complex aspects of a task. We propose a tracking method that integrates the learning paradigm of SPL into visual tracking, so reliable samples can be automatically selected for model learning. In contrast to many existing model learning strategies in visual tracking, we discover the missing link between sample selection and model learning, which are combined into a single objective function in our approach. Sample weights and model parameters can be learned by minimizing this single objective function. Additionally, to solve the real-valued learning weight of samples, an error-tolerant self-paced function that considers the characteristics of visual tracking is proposed. We demonstrate the robustness and efficiency of our tracker on a recent tracking benchmark data set with 50 video sequences.

  5. The Self-Paced Graz Brain-Computer Interface: Methods and Applications

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    Reinhold Scherer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the self-paced 3-class Graz brain-computer interface (BCI which is based on the detection of sensorimotor electroencephalogram (EEG rhythms induced by motor imagery. Self-paced operation means that the BCI is able to determine whether the ongoing brain activity is intended as control signal (intentional control or not (non-control state. The presented system is able to automatically reduce electrooculogram (EOG artifacts, to detect electromyographic (EMG activity, and uses only three bipolar EEG channels. Two applications are presented: the freeSpace virtual environment (VE and the Brainloop interface. The freeSpace is a computer-game-like application where subjects have to navigate through the environment and collect coins by autonomously selecting navigation commands. Three subjects participated in these feedback experiments and each learned to navigate through the VE and collect coins. Two out of the three succeeded in collecting all three coins. The Brainloop interface provides an interface between the Graz-BCI and Google Earth.

  6. A Combination of Pre- and Postprocessing Techniques to Enhance Self-Paced BCIs

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    Raheleh Mohammadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental task onset detection from the continuous electroencephalogram (EEG in real time is a critical issue in self-paced brain computer interface (BCI design. The paper shows that self-paced BCI performance can be significantly improved by combining a range of simple techniques including (1 constant-Q filters with varying bandwidth size depending on the center frequency, instead of constant bandwidth filters for frequency decomposition of the EEG signal in the 6 to 36 Hz band; (2 subject-specific postprocessing parameter optimization consisting of dwell time and threshold, and (3 debiasing before postprocessing by readjusting the classification output based on the current and previous brain states, to reduce the number of false detections. This debiasing block is shown to be optimal when activated only in special cases which are predetermined during the training phase. Analysis of the data recorded from seven subjects executing foot movement shows a statistically significant 10% ( average improvement in true positive rate (TPR and a 1% reduction in false positive rate (FPR detections compared with previous work on the same data.

  7. Self-Paced Economics Instruction: A Large-Scale Disaggregated Evaluation

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    Soper, John C.; Thorton, Richard M.

    1976-01-01

    This paper reports on an evaluation of the Sterling Institute self-paced macroeconomics course at Northern Illinois University. Results show that a completely self-paced teaching format for macroeconomics is inferior to a well-directed, concept-oriented, graduate-student instructed, lecture-discussion taught course. (Author/RM)

  8. Assisting in Providing Pre-Employment and In-Plant Training. Self-Paced Instructional Module, Module Number X-A.

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    Simmons, Kenneth L.; Brooks, Kent

    One of 33 self-paced instructional modules for training industry services leaders, this module contains three sequential learning activities on assisting in providing pre-employment and inplant training in an industry services program. (Industry services are manpower services provided by public agencies to new or expanding private industries.) The…

  9. Self-Paced Mathematics Instruction: How Effective Has it Been in Secondary and Postsecondary Schools?

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    Schoen, Harold L.

    1976-01-01

    Seventeen studies of self-paced instruction in algebra, geometry, trigonometry, and college mathematics courses are reviewed. In general these studies did not find the individualized programs to be superior to theregular instruction with which they were compared. (SD)

  10. Self-Paced Mathematics Instruction: How Effective Has it Been in Secondary and Postsecondary Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Harold L.

    1976-01-01

    Seventeen studies of self-paced instruction in algebra, geometry, trigonometry, and college mathematics courses are reviewed. In general these studies did not find the individualized programs to be superior to theregular instruction with which they were compared. (SD)

  11. Automatic artefact removal in a self-paced hybrid brain- computer interface system

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    Yong Xinyi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A novel artefact removal algorithm is proposed for a self-paced hybrid brain-computer interface (BCI system. This hybrid system combines a self-paced BCI with an eye-tracker to operate a virtual keyboard. To select a letter, the user must gaze at the target for at least a specific period of time (dwell time and then activate the BCI by performing a mental task. Unfortunately, electroencephalogram (EEG signals are often contaminated with artefacts. Artefacts change the quality of EEG signals and subsequently degrade the BCI’s performance. Methods To remove artefacts in EEG signals, the proposed algorithm uses the stationary wavelet transform combined with a new adaptive thresholding mechanism. To evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm and other artefact handling/removal methods, semi-simulated EEG signals (i.e., real EEG signals mixed with simulated artefacts and real EEG signals obtained from seven participants are used. For real EEG signals, the hybrid BCI system’s performance is evaluated in an online-like manner, i.e., using the continuous data from the last session as in a real-time environment. Results With semi-simulated EEG signals, we show that the proposed algorithm achieves lower signal distortion in both time and frequency domains. With real EEG signals, we demonstrate that for dwell time of 0.0s, the number of false-positives/minute is 2 and the true positive rate (TPR achieved by the proposed algorithm is 44.7%, which is more than 15.0% higher compared to other state-of-the-art artefact handling methods. As dwell time increases to 1.0s, the TPR increases to 73.1%. Conclusions The proposed artefact removal algorithm greatly improves the BCI’s performance. It also has the following advantages: a it does not require additional electrooculogram/electromyogram channels, long data segments or a large number of EEG channels, b it allows real-time processing, and c it reduces signal distortion.

  12. Spontaneous Velocity Effect of Musical Expression on Self-Paced Walking.

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    Jeska Buhmann

    Full Text Available The expressive features of music can influence the velocity of walking. So far, studies used instructed (and intended synchronization. But is this velocity effect still present with non-instructed (spontaneous synchronization? To figure that out, participants were instructed to walk in their own comfort tempo on an indoor track, first in silence and then with tempo-matched music. We compared velocities of silence and music conditions. The results show that some music has an activating influence, increasing velocity and motivation, while other music has a relaxing influence, decreasing velocity and motivation. The influence of musical expression on the velocity of self-paced walking can be predicted with a regression model using only three sonic features explaining 56% of the variance. Phase-coherence between footfall and beat did not contribute to the velocity effect, due to its implied fixed pacing. The findings suggest that the velocity effect depends on vigor entrainment that influences both stride length and pacing. Our findings are relevant for preventing injuries, for gait improvement in walking rehabilitation, and for improving performance in sports activities.

  13. Modality determines VO2max achieved in self-paced exercise tests: validation with the Bruce protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Nicholas J; Scheadler, Cory M; Lee, Taylor L; Neuenfeldt, Noah C; Michael, Timothy J; Miller, Michael G

    2016-07-01

    The Bruce protocol is traditionally used to assess maximal cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max), but may have limitations, such as an unknown duration and large work rate increases. The use of self-paced VO2max tests (SPVs) may be beneficial if they are able to elicit similar maximal values in a set period of time. In addition, differences in modality between SPVs have not been explored. The purpose of this study was to compare SPVs, utilizing two different modes, with the Bruce (treadmill) protocol. Thirteen healthy, recreationally active individuals (eight men, five women) volunteered and participated in three different laboratory visits with each utilizing a different VO2max testing protocol. The first visit consisted of the Bruce protocol test, and the remaining visits entailed a maximal SPV on a treadmill (TM SPV) and a cycle ergometer (CE SPV). There were no differences in VO2max values between the TM SPV and the Bruce protocol tests (55.6 ± 4.9 vs. 56.2 ± 6.8, respectively; p = .510). As expected, the CE SPV (48.3 ± 7.6) was significantly lower than the other two tests (p VO2max as the Bruce protocol and did so with less incline and in less time suggesting that there are no changes in the limits of VO2max even when the test is self-paced and perceptually regulated.

  14. The neural bases of the constructive nature of autobiographical memories studied with a self-paced fMRI design

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    Botzung, A.; Denkova, E.; Ciuciu, P.; Scheiber, C.; Manning, L. [CNRS, Strasbourg (France)

    2008-07-01

    In Conway and Pleydell-Pearce's model (2000), autobiographical memories are viewed as transitory mental representations, more often generated in an effort-full way. An important claim of the model concerns the dynamic process that evolves over time, from the left prefrontal areas to posterior regions, to retrieve specific memories. The present work aims at investigating, using fMRI, the temporal distribution of effort-full autobiographical memory construction. In addition, a self-paced design was implemented to elucidate the question of the timing window required to evoke recollections. The results showed a large pattern of brain regions, which included the two major poles of activation predicted by Conway and Pleydell-Pearce's model. Likewise, we were able to detect the earlier implication of the left dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex, by comparison with posterior structures, which seemed to confirm its involvement in the effort-full retrieval process. Finally, the self-paced procedure allowed us to refine the timing window necessary to construct past events. (authors)

  15. Potentiation and Electrical Stimulus Frequency During Self-Paced Exercise and Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Froyd Christian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of potentiation on stimulation-induced muscle function during and after an intense bout of self-paced dynamic exercise. Ten active subjects performed a time trial involving repetitive concentric extension-flexion of the right knee using a Biodex dynamometer. Electrical stimulation before and after a 5 s maximal isometric voluntary contraction was performed before the start of the time trial and immediately (< 5 s after each 20% of the time trial as well as 1, 2, 4 and 8 min after time trial termination. Potentiation was observed before the time trial and as early as 1-2 min after the time trial, but no potentiation was detected during or immediately after the time trial for neither single or paired stimuli. At termination of the time trial, “potentiated” peak torque was significantly more reduced than “unpotentiated" peak torque for single stimulus (-65 ± 10% and -42 ± 18%, respectively and paired stimuli at 100 Hz (-51 ± 10% and -33 ± 15%, respectively. Faster recovery for “potentiated” compared to “unpotentiated” peak torque indicate that potentiate peak torque measurements or delay the post-exercise measurements more than a few seconds, will underestimate peripheral fatigue. In conclusion, the potentiation after maximal contraction disappears during intense exercise. Whether the muscle is already potentiated during intense contraction or fatiguing mechanisms inhibits potentiation remains to be clarified

  16. MCTS self-paced training kit (exam 70-680) configuring Windows 7

    CERN Document Server

    McLean, Ian

    2010-01-01

    NOTE: The most recent printings of this title incorporate corrections to errors found in the earlier printings. This Self-Paced Training Kit is designed to help maximize your performance on 70-680, the required exam for the Microsoft® Certified Technology Specialist (MCTS): Windows 7, Configuration certification.This 2-in-1 kit includes the official Microsoft study guide, plus practice tests on CD to help you assess your skills. It comes packed with the tools and features exam candidates want most-including in-depth, self-paced training based on final exam content; rigorous, objective-by-obj

  17. Active object recognition using vocabulary trees

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, N

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available , vol. 1, pp. 67–76, 2000. [16] K. D. Gremban and K. Ikeuchi, “Planning multi- ple observations for object recognition,” in Interna- tional Journal of Computer Vision (IJCV), pp. 137– 172, 1994. [17] F. G. Callari and F. P. Ferrie, “Active recognition... and Automation (ICRA), pp. 1008 – 1013, 2010. [20] F. Callari and F. Ferrie, “Active object recognition: Looking for differences,” in International Journal of Computer Vision, pp. 189–204, 2001. [21] J. Sivic and A. Zisserman, “Video google: A text retrieval...

  18. Self-Paced Learners Meet Social Software: An Exploration of Learners' Attitudes, Expectations and Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Terry; Poellhuber, Bruno; McKerlich, Ross

    2010-01-01

    Social networking and communications tools have become widely used in entertainment and social applications and there is growing interest in their use in formal education applications. Distance education and especially those types that are based on self-paced programming models may be the biggest beneficiaries of the use of these new tools to…

  19. Early Sensitivity to Discourse-Level Anomalies: Evidence from Self-Paced Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Andrew J.; Kidd, Evan; Haigh, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Two word-by-word, self-paced reading experiments investigated the speed with which readers were sensitive to discourse-level anomalies. An account arguing for delayed sensitivity (Guzman & Klin, 2000) was contrasted with one allowing for rapid sensitivity (Myers & O'Brien, 1998). Anomalies related to spatial information (Experiment 1) and…

  20. Rapid Application Development of a Self-Paced Pre-Service Teacher Technology Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, Linda; Javeri, Manisha; Mahoney, Chris; Strongin, Dawn; Gall, James

    With technology changing rapidly, instruction on its use must change rapidly as well. Instructional designers are thus increasingly dependent on the use of rapid application development (RAD) procedures for producing timely instruction related to technology use. In recent years, the use of self-paced instruction in the educational environment has…

  1. Self-Pacing a Gross Motor Skills Course: Crawler Tractor Operator, MOS 62E20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Mark F.; Taylor, John E.

    As part of the Army's emphasis on performance-oriented instruction in training centers, a study was conducted to determine the feasibility of using self-paced instruction in a gross motor skills course. The Crawler Tractor Operator Course, a seven-week heavy equipment course conducted at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri was selected for the study…

  2. Prolonged self-paced exercise in the heat - environmental factors affecting performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Nicklas; Jørgensen, Rasmus; Flouris, Andreas D

    2016-01-01

    In this review we examine how self-paced performance is affected by environmental heat stress factors during cycling time trial performance as well as considering the effects of exercise mode and heat acclimatization. Mean power output during prolonged cycling time trials in the heat (≥30°C) was ...

  3. Children's Use of Self-Paced Slideshows: An Extension of the Video Deficit Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Kara D.; Baldwin, Dare

    2015-01-01

    Past research has established that children typically learn better from live demonstrations than from two-dimensional (2D) media. In the present set of experiments, we investigated the efficacy of a new 2D learning medium-the self-paced slideshow. A primary goal was to determine whether the "video deficit effect" extended to self-paced…

  4. Effects of wind application on thermal perception and self-paced performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, L.P.J.; Haan, A. de; Koning, J.J. de; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Physiological and perceptual effects of wind cooling are often intertwined and have scarcely been studied in self-paced exercise. Therefore, we aimed to investigate (1) the independent perceptual effect of wind cooling and its impact on performance and (2) the responses to temporary wind cooling

  5. Emerging Vocabulary Learning: From a Perspective of Activities Facilitated by Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zengning

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the current mobile vocabulary learning practice to discover how far mobile devices are being used to support vocabulary learning. An activity-centered perspective is undertaken, with the consideration of new practice against existing theories of learning activities including behaviorist activities, constructivist activities,…

  6. Superior self-paced memorization of digits in spite of a normal digit span: the structure of a memorist's skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yi; Ericsson, K Anders; Yang, Dan; Lu, Chao

    2009-11-01

    Over the last century many individuals with exceptional memory have been studied and tested in the laboratory. This article studies Chao Lu, who set a Guinness World Record by memorizing 67,890 decimals of pi. Chao Lu's superior self-paced memorization of digits is shown through analyses of study times and verbal reports to be mediated by mnemonic encoding and retrieval processes. Furthermore, Chao Lu's development of his superior memory for decimals of pi is consistent with his engagement in thousands of hours of memorization. In contrast to most other studied memorists, who have digit spans over 15 digits, Chao Lu exhibited a digit span in only the normal range. Implications for different types of memorization skills and associated practice activities are discussed.

  7. Towards Development of a 3-State Self-Paced Brain-Computer Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bashashati

    2007-01-01

    the presence of a right- or a left-hand movement and the second classifies the detected movement as a right or a left one. In an offline analysis of the EEG data collected from four able-bodied individuals, the 3-state brain-computer interface shows a comparable performance with a 2-state system and significant performance improvement if used as a 2-state BCI, that is, in detecting the presence of a right- or a left-hand movement (regardless of the type of movement. It has an average true positive rate of 37.5% and 42.8% (at false positives rate of 1% in detecting right- and left-hand extensions, respectively, in the context of a 3-state self-paced BCI and average detection rate of 58.1% (at false positive rate of 1% in the context of a 2-state self-paced BCI.

  8. Self-Paced E-Training in E-Learning for University Teaching Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norah Ahmed Al-Malki

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The shift towards adopting e-training methods and practices in the workplace to equip staff with soft and hard skills have become an essential component of training in many Higher Education institutions. The aim of this paper is to advocate such a shift in Saudi universities through presenting the preliminary outcomes of a short-scale pilot study conducted by the Deanship of E-learning and Distance Education (DELDE during August 2014. Basically, the paper introduces the results of a first run of a self-paced e-training program focusing on introducing topics related to e-learning development and instruction. The paper 1 explores the pedagogical motivation for adopting the self-paced learning model, 2 outlines the elements of the developed course, and 3 discusses the results of the first run of the e-training program.

  9. A self-paced oral feeding system that enhances preterm infants' oral feeding skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, C; Fucile, S; Schanler, R J

    2015-06-01

    Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants have difficulty transitioning to independent oral feeding, be they breast- or bottle-feeding. We developed a 'self-paced' feeding system that eliminates the natural presence of the positive hydrostatic pressure and internal vacuum build-up within a bottle during feeding. Such system enhanced these infants' oral feeding performance as monitored by overall transfer (OT; % ml taken/ml prescribed), rate of transfer (RT; ml/min over an entire feeding). This study hypothesizes that the improvements observed in these infants resulted from their ability to use more mature oral feeding skills (OFS). 'Feeders and growers' born between 26-29 weeks gestation were assigned to a control or experimental group fed with a standard or self-paced bottle, respectively. They were monitored when taking 1-2 and 6-8 oral feedings/day. OFS was monitored using our recently published non-invasive assessment scale that identifies 4 maturity levels based on infants' RT and proficiency (PRO; % ml taken during the first 5 min of a feeding/total ml prescribed) during bottle feeding. Infants oral feeding outcomes, i.e., OT, RT, PRO, and OFS maturity levels were enhanced in infants fed with the self-paced vs. standard bottle (p ≤ 0.007). The improved oral feeding performance of VLBW infants correlated with enhanced OFS. This study is a first to recognize that VLBW infants' true OFS are more mature than recognized. We speculate that the physical properties inherent to standard bottles that are eliminated with the self-paced system interfere with the display of their true oral feeding potential thereby hindering their overall oral feeding performance.

  10. Structured Approach vs. Self-Paced Modular Approach in Teaching Trigonometry

    OpenAIRE

    Rodin M. Paspasan

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to determine which approach in the teaching of Mathematics allowed students to achieve a higher mathematical performance and to establish the learning styles of the students to showed greater confidence on a written posttest - the self-paced modular approach or the structured lecture demonstration based approach. The instruments used in the study are Trigonometry Achievement Test (PTAT) designed by the researcher and the Grasha - Reichmann Student Learning Style Survey. Hence....

  11. The Value of Picture-Book Reading-Based Collaborative Output Activities for Vocabulary Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chia-Ho

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of three instructional modes: picture-book reading-only (PRO), picture-book reading plus vocabulary instruction (PRVI), and picture-book reading plus reading-based collaborative output activity (PRCOA) on young adult EFL (English as a foreign language) learners' vocabulary acquisition and retention. Eighty…

  12. The Value of Picture-Book Reading-Based Collaborative Output Activities for Vocabulary Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chia-Ho

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of three instructional modes: picture-book reading-only (PRO), picture-book reading plus vocabulary instruction (PRVI), and picture-book reading plus reading-based collaborative output activity (PRCOA) on young adult EFL (English as a foreign language) learners' vocabulary acquisition and retention. Eighty…

  13. Challenge of engaging all students via self-paced interactive electronic learning tutorials for introductory physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVore, Seth; Marshman, Emily; Singh, Chandralekha

    2017-06-01

    As research-based, self-paced electronic learning tools become increasingly available, a critical issue educators encounter is implementing strategies to ensure that all students engage with them as intended. Here, we first discuss the effectiveness of electronic learning tutorials as self-paced learning tools in large enrollment brick and mortar introductory physics courses and then propose a framework for helping students engage effectively with the learning tools. The tutorials were developed via research in physics education and were found to be effective for a diverse group of introductory physics students in one-on-one implementation. Instructors encouraged the use of these tools in a self-paced learning environment by telling students that they would be helpful for solving the assigned homework problems and that the underlying physics principles in the tutorial problems would be similar to those in the in-class quizzes (which we call paired problems). We find that many students in the courses in which these interactive electronic learning tutorials were assigned as a self-study tool performed poorly on the paired problems. In contrast, a majority of student volunteers in one-on-one implementation greatly benefited from the tutorials and performed well on the paired problems. The significantly lower overall performance on paired problems administered as an in-class quiz compared to the performance of student volunteers who used the research-based tutorials in one-on-one implementation suggests that many students enrolled in introductory physics courses did not effectively engage with the tutorials outside of class and may have only used them superficially. The findings suggest that many students in need of out-of-class remediation via self-paced learning tools may have difficulty motivating themselves and may lack the self-regulation and time-management skills to engage effectively with tools specially designed to help them learn at their own pace. We

  14. The impact of the perception of rhythmic music on oscillatory self-paced movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu ePeckel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by theories of perception-action coupling and embodied music cognition, we investigated how rhythmic music perception impacts self-paced oscillatory movements. In a pilot study, we examined the kinematic parameters of self-paced oscillatory movements, walking and finger tapping using optical motion capture. In accordance with biomechanical constraints accounts of motion, we found that movements followed a hierarchical organization depending on the proximal/distal characteristic of the limb used. Based on these findings, we were interested in knowing how and when the perception of rhythmic music could resonate with the motor system in the context of these constrained oscillatory movements. In order to test this, we conducted an experiment where participants performed four different effector-specific movements (lower leg, whole arm and forearm oscillation and finger tapping while rhythmic music was playing in the background. Musical stimuli consisted of computer-generated MIDI musical pieces with a 4/4 metrical structure. The musical tempo of each song increased from 60 BPM to 120 BPM by 6 BPM increments. A specific tempo was maintained for 20s before a 2s transition to the higher tempo. The task of the participant was to maintain a comfortable pace for the four movements (self-paced while not paying attention to the music. No instruction on whether to synchronize with the music was given. Results showed that participants were distinctively influenced by the background music depending on the movement used with the tapping task being consistently the most influenced. Furthermore, eight strategies put in place by participants to cope with task were unveiled. Despite not instructed to do so, participants also occasionally synchronized with music. Results are discussed in terms of the link between perception and action (i.e. motor/perceptual resonance. In general, our results give support to the notion that rhythmic music is processed in a

  15. Learning from feedback training data at a self-paced brain-computer interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haihong; Liyanage, Sidath Ravindra; Wang, Chuanchu; Guan, Cuntai

    2011-08-01

    Inherent changes that appear in brain signals when transferring from calibration to feedback sessions are a challenging but critical issue in brain-computer interface (BCI) applications. While previous studies have mostly focused on the adaptation of classifiers, in this paper we study the feasibility and the importance of the adaptation of feature extraction in a self-paced BCI paradigm. First, we conduct calibration and feedback training on able-bodied naïve subjects using a new self-paced motor imagery BCI including the idle state. The online results suggest that the feature space constructed from calibration data may become ineffective during feedback sessions. Hence, we propose a new supervised method that learns from a feedback session to construct a more appropriate feature space, on the basis of the maximum mutual information principle between feedback signal, target signal and EEG. Specifically, we formulate the learning objective as maximizing a kernel-based mutual information estimate with respect to the spatial-spectral filtering parameters. We then derive a gradient-based optimization algorithm for the learning task. An experimental study is conducted using offline simulation. The results show that the proposed method is able to construct effective feature spaces to capture the discriminative information in feedback training data and, consequently, the prediction error can be significantly reduced using the new features.

  16. Task-Difficulty Homeostasis in Car Following Models: Experimental Validation Using Self-Paced Visual Occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekkanen, Jami; Lappi, Otto; Itkonen, Teemu H; Summala, Heikki

    2017-01-01

    Car following (CF) models used in traffic engineering are often criticized for not incorporating "human factors" well known to affect driving. Some recent work has addressed this by augmenting the CF models with the Task-Capability Interface (TCI) model, by dynamically changing driving parameters as function of driver capability. We examined assumptions of these models experimentally using a self-paced visual occlusion paradigm in a simulated car following task. The results show strong, approximately one-to-one, correspondence between occlusion duration and increase in time headway. The correspondence was found between subjects and within subjects, on aggregate and individual sample level. The long time scale aggregate results support TCI-CF models that assume a linear increase in time headway in response to increased distraction. The short time scale individual sample level results suggest that drivers also adapt their visual sampling in response to transient changes in time headway, a mechanism which isn't incorporated in the current models.

  17. Self-pacing direct memory access data transfer operations for compute nodes in a parallel computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blocksome, Michael A

    2015-02-17

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for self-pacing DMA data transfer operations for nodes in a parallel computer that include: transferring, by an origin DMA on an origin node, a RTS message to a target node, the RTS message specifying an message on the origin node for transfer to the target node; receiving, in an origin injection FIFO for the origin DMA from a target DMA on the target node in response to transferring the RTS message, a target RGET descriptor followed by a DMA transfer operation descriptor, the DMA descriptor for transmitting a message portion to the target node, the target RGET descriptor specifying an origin RGET descriptor on the origin node that specifies an additional DMA descriptor for transmitting an additional message portion to the target node; processing, by the origin DMA, the target RGET descriptor; and processing, by the origin DMA, the DMA transfer operation descriptor.

  18. .VO2max is not altered by self-pacing during incremental exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidnok, Weerapong; Dimenna, Fred J; Bailey, Stephen J; Burnley, Mark; Wilkerson, Daryl P; Vanhatalo, Anni; Jones, Andrew M

    2013-02-01

    We tested the hypothesis that incremental cycling to exhaustion that is paced using clamps of the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) elicits higher .VO2max values compared to a conventional ramp incremental protocol when test duration is matched. Seven males completed three incremental tests to exhaustion to measure .VO2max. The incremental protocols were of similar duration and included: a ramp test at 30 W min(-1) with constant cadence (RAMP1); a ramp test at 30 W min(-1) with cadence free to fluctuate according to subject preference (RAMP2); and a self-paced incremental test in which the power output was selected by the subject according to prescribed increments in RPE (SPT). The subjects also completed a .VO2max 'verification' test at a fixed high-intensity power output and a 3-min all-out test. No difference was found for .VO2max between the incremental protocols (RAMP1 = 4.33 ± 0.60 L min(-1); RAMP2 = 4.31 ± 0.62 L min(-1); SPT = 4.36 ± 0.59 L min(-1); P > 0.05) nor between the incremental protocols and the peak.VO2max measured during the 3-min all-out test (4.33 ± 0.68 L min(-1)) or the .VO2max measured in the verification test (4.32 ± 0.69 L min(-1)). The integrated electromyogram, blood lactate concentration, heart rate and minute ventilation at exhaustion were not different (P > 0.05) between the incremental protocols. In conclusion, when test duration is matched, SPT does not elicit a higher .VO2max compared to conventional incremental protocols. The striking similarity of .VO2max measured across an array of exercise protocols indicates that there are physiological limits to the attainment of .VO2max that cannot be exceeded by self-pacing.

  19. Faster self-paced rate of drinking for alcohol mixed with energy drinks versus alcohol alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A; Fillmore, Mark T; Maloney, Sarah F; Stamates, Amy L

    2017-03-01

    The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has been associated with higher rates of binge drinking and impaired driving when compared with alcohol alone. However, it remains unclear why the risks of use of AmED are heightened compared with alcohol alone even when the doses of alcohol consumed are similar. Therefore, the purpose of this laboratory study was to investigate if the rate of self-paced beverage consumption was faster for a dose of AmED versus alcohol alone using a double-blind, within-subjects, placebo-controlled study design. Participants (n = 16) of equal gender who were social drinkers attended 4 separate test sessions that involved consumption of alcohol (1.97 ml/kg vodka) and energy drinks, alone and in combination. On each test day, the dose assigned was divided into 10 cups. Participants were informed that they would have a 2-h period to consume the 10 drinks. After the self-paced drinking period, participants completed a cued go/no-go reaction time (RT) task and subjective ratings of stimulation and sedation. The results indicated that participants consumed the AmED dose significantly faster (by ∼16 min) than the alcohol dose. For the performance task, participants' mean RTs were slower in the alcohol conditions and faster in the energy-drink conditions. In conclusion, alcohol consumers should be made aware that rapid drinking might occur for AmED beverages, thus heightening alcohol-related safety risks. The fast rate of drinking may be related to the generalized speeding of responses after energy-drink consumption. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. The challenge of engaging all students via self-paced interactive e-learning tutorials for introductory physics

    CERN Document Server

    DeVore, Seth; Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    As research-based self-paced e-learning tools become increasingly available, a critical issue educators encounter is implementing strategies to ensure that all students engage with them as intended. Here, we discuss the effectiveness of research-based e-learning tutorials as self-paced learning tools in large enrollment brick and mortar introductory physics courses. These interactive tutorials were developed via research in physics education and were found to be effective for a diverse group of introductory physics students in one-on-one implementation. Instructors encouraged the use of these self-paced tools in a self-paced learning environment by telling students that they would be helpful for solving the assigned homework problems and that the underlying physics principles in the tutorial problems would be similar to those in the in-class quizzes (which we call paired problems). We find that many students, who struggled in the courses in which these adaptive e-learning tutorials were assigned as a self-stu...

  1. The Role of Perceived User-Interface Design in Continued Usage Intention of Self-Paced E-Learning Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Vincent; Cheng, T. C. Edwin; Lai, W. M. Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    While past studies on user-interface design focused on a particular system or application using the experimental approach, we propose a theoretical model to assess the impact of perceived user-interface design (PUID) on continued usage intention (CUI) of self-paced e-learning tools in general. We argue that the impact of PUID is mediated by two…

  2. Comparing E-Learning Tools' Success: The Case of Instructor-Student Interactive vs. Self-Paced Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Po-An J.; Cho, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    e-Learning tools have profoundly transformed modern pedagogical approaches. Vendors provide different types of systems, such as self-paced (SP) and instructor-student interactive (ISI) e-Learning tools. Although both types of tools represent promising solutions to facilitate the learning process, it is important to theoretically identify a…

  3. Self-Paced Tutorial Courses for Mineral Science - Metallurgy Departments. Final Progress Report (July 1975-August 1980).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twidwell, L. G.

    Four courses in extractive metallurgy (Pyrometallurgy, Hydrometallurgy, Electrometallurgy; and Physical Chemistry of Iron and Steel) were prepared in a modular, self-paced format. Development of the course materials included: (1) preparation of course outlines by unit coordinators and advisory committees; (2) approval of course outlines (included…

  4. How Adults Learn from Self-Paced, Technology-Based Corporate Training: New Focus for Learners, New Focus for Designers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrovolny, Jackie

    2006-01-01

    "How" do adults learn from self-paced, technology-based corporate training, which they select based on its relevance to their current employment responsibilities? Specifically, "how" do adults use the following learning strategies: prior experience, reflection, metacognition, conversations, generative learning strategies, and authentic…

  5. The Role of Integrating Various Patterns of Activity Sequencing in Promoting the Receptive Vocabulary Size of EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahlam Bouirane

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The motivation underlying this research is the poor receptive vocabulary size (RVS among third year students of English as a foreign language (EFL. The purpose is to report the efficiency of integrating various patterns of activity sequencing in promoting RVS through quasi-experimentation. The research used a questionnaire to collect the participants’ perceptions of vocabulary and vocabulary learning, and to neutralize the bias of individual variables. Next, the research used the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT to test the RVS at the beginning and end of the quasi-experiment. The questionnaire results revealed that the students have positive high perceptions of vocabulary and vocabulary learning activities. The VLT results showed significant differences in the RVS of the participants between the quasi-experiment phases.

  6. Effects of Three Forms of Reading-Based Output Activity on L2 Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassaei, Ehsan

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigated the effects of three forms of output activity on EFL learners' recognition and recall of second language (L2) vocabulary. To this end, three groups of learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) were instructed to employ the following three output activities after reading two narrative texts: (1) summarizing the…

  7. Effects of Three Forms of Reading-Based Output Activity on L2 Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassaei, Ehsan

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigated the effects of three forms of output activity on EFL learners' recognition and recall of second language (L2) vocabulary. To this end, three groups of learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) were instructed to employ the following three output activities after reading two narrative texts: (1) summarizing the…

  8. Teaching English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝丹

    2014-01-01

    Grammar provides the overall patterns, and vocabulary is the material to put in the patterns. Without grammar we can convey a little, but without vocabulary we can convey nothing. Vocabulary teaching is an indispensable part of English curriculum. Art is a kind of creation. Teaching vocabulary artistically can make teachers and students build up created consciousness in teaching and learning vocabulary activities and teachers put their experience and emotions towards beauty into teaching activities to raise general vocabulary teaching activities to appreciation of beauty and creative activities, convert bitter into happy, tense into ease. Thus the non-intellectual factors like motive, interest, emotion, self-confidence and so on can be developed naturally and they will elaborate a great part in English vocabulary teaching. At the same time, the relationship between teachers and students can get improved fundamentally furthest and it pushes vocabulary teaching powerfully in turn.

  9. Logical metonymy resolution in a words-as-cues framework: evidence from self-paced reading and probe recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarcone, Alessandra; Padó, Sebastian; Lenci, Alessandro

    2014-06-01

    Logical metonymy resolution (begin a book → begin reading a book or begin writing a book) has traditionally been explained either through complex lexical entries (qualia structures) or through the integration of the implicit event via post-lexical access to world knowledge. We propose that recent work within the words-as-cues paradigm can provide a more dynamic model of logical metonymy, accounting for early and dynamic integration of complex event information depending on previous contextual cues (agent and patient). We first present a self-paced reading experiment on German subordinate sentences, where metonymic sentences and their paraphrased version differ only in the presence or absence of the clause-final target verb (Der Konditor begann die Glasur → Der Konditor begann, die Glasur aufzutragen/The baker began the icing → The baker began spreading the icing). Longer reading times at the target verb position in a high-typicality condition (baker + icing → spread ) compared to a low-typicality (but still plausible) condition (child + icing → spread) suggest that we make use of knowledge activated by lexical cues to build expectations about events. The early and dynamic integration of event knowledge in metonymy interpretation is bolstered by further evidence from a second experiment using the probe recognition paradigm. Presenting covert events as probes following a high-typicality or a low-typicality metonymic sentence (Der Konditor begann die Glasur → AUFTRAGEN/The baker began the icing → SPREAD), we obtain an analogous effect of typicality at 100 ms interstimulus interval.

  10. Using Multimedia Vocabulary Annotations in L2 Reading and Listening Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing Xu

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the role of multimedia vocabulary annotation (MVA) in facilitating second language (L2) reading and listening activities. It examines the multimedia learning and multimedia language learning theories that underlie the MVA research, synthesizes the findings on MVA in the last decade, and identifies three underresearched areas on…

  11. Using Multimedia Vocabulary Annotations in L2 Reading and Listening Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing Xu

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the role of multimedia vocabulary annotation (MVA) in facilitating second language (L2) reading and listening activities. It examines the multimedia learning and multimedia language learning theories that underlie the MVA research, synthesizes the findings on MVA in the last decade, and identifies three underresearched areas on…

  12. Preschool Children's Use of Thematic Vocabulary during Dialogic Reading and Activity-Based Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahn, Naomi L.; Coogle, Christan Grygas; Storie, Sloan

    2016-01-01

    An adapted alternating treatments design was used to compare the expressive use of thematic vocabulary by three preschool children with developmental delays during Dialogic Reading, a shared book reading intervention, and Activity-Based Intervention, a naturalistic play-based teaching method. The design was replicated across two early childhood…

  13. The Effect of Activity Based Lexis Teaching on Vocabulary Development Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mert, Esra Lule

    2013-01-01

    "Teaching word" as a complimentary process of teaching Turkish is a crucial field of study. However, studies on this area are insufficient. The only aim of the designed activities that get under way with the constructivist approach on which new education programs are based is to provide students with vocabulary elements of Turkish. In…

  14. A Pilot Study on the Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Brain Rhythms and Entropy during Self-Paced Finger Movement using the Epoc Helmet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodranghien, Florian C A A; Langlois Mahe, Margot; Clément, Serge; Manto, Mario U

    2017-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the cerebellum is emerging as a novel non-invasive tool to modulate the activity of the cerebellar circuitry. In a single blinded study, we applied anodal tDCS (atDCS) of the cerebellum to assess its effects on brain entropy and brain rhythms during self-paced sequential finger movements in a group of healthy volunteers. Although wearable electroencephalogram (EEG) systems cannot compete with traditional clinical/laboratory set-ups in terms of accuracy and channel density, they have now reached a sufficient maturity to envision daily life applications. Therefore, the EEG was recorded with a comfortable and easy to wear 14 channels wireless helmet (Epoc headset; electrode location was based on the 10-20 system). Cerebellar neurostimulation modified brain rhythmicity with a decrease in the delta band (electrode F3 and T8, p Epoc headset.

  15. Fast self paced listening times in syntactic comprehension is aphasia -- implications for deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Michaud

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sixty one people with aphasia (pwa and forty one matched controls were tested for the ability to understand sentences that required the ability to assign particular syntactic structures. Participants paced themselves word-by-word through twenty examples of eleven spoken sentence types and indicated which of two pictures corresponded to the meaning of each sentence. Sentences were developed in pairs such that comprehension of the experimental version of a pair required an aspect of syntactic processing not required in the corresponding baseline sentence. The need for the syntactic operations required only in the experimental version was triggered at a “critical word” in the experimental sentence. Listening times for critical words in experimental sentences were compared to those for corresponding words in the corresponding baseline sentences. We adjusted self paced listening times for word duration by subtracting word durations from tag-to-tag self paced listening times to correct for word duration, yielding what we have previously called “corrected listening times.” Corrected listening times above ceiling (10,000 msec for sentence-final words and 5,000 msec for all other words were discarded. For controls, this led to 0.2% of data being discarded and for PWAs 2.2% were discarded. Corrected listening times that were more than 3 standard deviations above or below the mean for that sentence type for each subject were adjusted either down to the upper limit or up to the lower limit of the 3SD range (not discarded. For accurate sentences, 1.7% of the control data were adjusted and 1.8% of the aphasic data were adjusted. For inaccurate sentences, 10% of the corrected listening times were adjusted for controls and 3.3% for aphasics. Our interest is in incremental parsing and interpretation. The measure we used of this process was the residual of a regression of corrected self paced listening times for critical words in experimental sentences

  16. Distractor Effect of Auditory Rhythms on Self-Paced Tapping in Chimpanzees and Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Hattori

    Full Text Available Humans tend to spontaneously align their movements in response to visual (e.g., swinging pendulum and auditory rhythms (e.g., hearing music while walking. Particularly in the case of the response to auditory rhythms, neuroscientific research has indicated that motor resources are also recruited while perceiving an auditory rhythm (or regular pulse, suggesting a tight link between the auditory and motor systems in the human brain. However, the evolutionary origin of spontaneous responses to auditory rhythms is unclear. Here, we report that chimpanzees and humans show a similar distractor effect in perceiving isochronous rhythms during rhythmic movement. We used isochronous auditory rhythms as distractor stimuli during self-paced alternate tapping of two keys of an electronic keyboard by humans and chimpanzees. When the tempo was similar to their spontaneous motor tempo, tapping onset was influenced by intermittent entrainment to auditory rhythms. Although this effect itself is not an advanced rhythmic ability such as dancing or singing, our results suggest that, to some extent, the biological foundation for spontaneous responses to auditory rhythms was already deeply rooted in the common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans, 6 million years ago. This also suggests the possibility of a common attentional mechanism, as proposed by the dynamic attending theory, underlying the effect of perceiving external rhythms on motor movement.

  17. Distractor Effect of Auditory Rhythms on Self-Paced Tapping in Chimpanzees and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Yuko; Tomonaga, Masaki; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2015-01-01

    Humans tend to spontaneously align their movements in response to visual (e.g., swinging pendulum) and auditory rhythms (e.g., hearing music while walking). Particularly in the case of the response to auditory rhythms, neuroscientific research has indicated that motor resources are also recruited while perceiving an auditory rhythm (or regular pulse), suggesting a tight link between the auditory and motor systems in the human brain. However, the evolutionary origin of spontaneous responses to auditory rhythms is unclear. Here, we report that chimpanzees and humans show a similar distractor effect in perceiving isochronous rhythms during rhythmic movement. We used isochronous auditory rhythms as distractor stimuli during self-paced alternate tapping of two keys of an electronic keyboard by humans and chimpanzees. When the tempo was similar to their spontaneous motor tempo, tapping onset was influenced by intermittent entrainment to auditory rhythms. Although this effect itself is not an advanced rhythmic ability such as dancing or singing, our results suggest that, to some extent, the biological foundation for spontaneous responses to auditory rhythms was already deeply rooted in the common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans, 6 million years ago. This also suggests the possibility of a common attentional mechanism, as proposed by the dynamic attending theory, underlying the effect of perceiving external rhythms on motor movement.

  18. SELF-PACED READING AND THE ACHIEVEMENT OF PERSIAN EFL LEARNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Toghyani Khorasgani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating the effects of reading goals on L2 reading comprehension in a computer-mediated environment when reading is self-paced by the learners and students are responsible for their own comprehension. Sixty participants (30 males & 30 females in three groups of 20 were involved. A computer program, written in C#.NET program, presented the text on the screen four lines at a time, and measured the amount of time students would spend on each page initially, how many times students re-read pages, and how much time students would spend re-reading pages. L2 learners’ comprehension and learning strategies were measured in three ways: recall of materials, time spent reading each page of the text and time spent re-reading pages, and the number of times pages were re-read. Finally, after one month from the first test a posttest was administered to determine which group could remember materials better. The results revealed that recall of materials was significantly greater for the teaching-goal group than the other two groups in both first and second tests. Time spent re-reading was significantly greater for the teaching-goal group as well. These findings suggest that reading goals do have an effect on comprehension and recalling in a computer-mediated environment and students with a different reading goal performed differently while reading passages.

  19. Structured Approach vs. Self-Paced Modular Approach in Teaching Trigonometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodin M. Paspasan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine which approach in the teaching of Mathematics allowed students to achieve a higher mathematical performance and to establish the learning styles of the students to showed greater confidence on a written posttest - the self-paced modular approach or the structured lecture demonstration based approach. The instruments used in the study are Trigonometry Achievement Test (PTAT designed by the researcher and the Grasha - Reichmann Student Learning Style Survey. Hence. the result shows on the test of significant difference on the respondents learning styles and level of performance established independent learning conditions and demonstrate remarkably higher mathematical performance, respectively. In the light of the statistical analysis and the findings of the study, it could be generalized that SPMA made the students learning styles more independent because they prefer to work at their own pace. Hence, SPMA help them also improve their level of performance in relation to plane trigonometry regardless of their mathematical abilities compared to structured approach. Along these lines, the subsequent recommendations are presented for consideration: The teachers should use collective learning style inventories so that students remain interested throughout their mathematics course. And should use SPMA in teaching trigonometry and other disciplines in the field of mathematics.

  20. Analysis of a Student-Centered, Self-Paced Pedagogy Style for Teaching Information Systems Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Paranto

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The entry-level skills for students enrolling in a college-level information systems course can vary widely. This paper analyzes the impact of a "student-centered" pedagogy model, in which students use a self-paced approach for learning the material in an introductory information systems course, with pre-assigned dates for lectures and for assignment/exam deadlines. This new paradigm was implemented in several sections of an introductory information systems course over a two-semester time span. Under the new model, tutorial-style textbooks were used to help students master the material, all other materials were available online, and all exams were given using a hands-on, task-oriented online testing package, which included a multiple-choice/true-false component to test student understanding of the conceptual portion of the course. An anonymous student survey was used to gain student perceptions of the level of learning that took place under the new paradigm, as well as to measure student satisfaction with the course design, and a pre-/post-test was used to provide a measure of student learning.

  1. Influence of music on maximal self-paced running performance and passive post-exercise recovery rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sam; Kimmerly, Derek S

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of fast tempo music (FM) on self-paced running performance (heart rate, running speed, ratings of perceived exertion), and slow tempo music (SM) on post-exercise heart rate and blood lactate recovery rates. Twelve participants (5 women) completed three randomly assigned conditions: static noise (control), FM and SM. Each condition consisted of self-paced treadmill running, and supine postexercise recovery periods (20 min each). Average running speed, heart rate (HR) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during the treadmill running period, while HR and blood lactate were measured during the recovery period. Listening to FM during exercise resulted in a faster self-selected running speed (10.8±1.7 vs. 9.9±1.4 km•hour-1, Pincrease self-paced intensity without altering perceived exertion levels while listening to SM after exercise can accelerate the recovery rate back to resting levels.

  2. Self-paced brain-computer interface control of ambulation in a virtual reality environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Po T.; King, Christine E.; Chui, Luis A.; Do, An H.; Nenadic, Zoran

    2012-10-01

    Objective. Spinal cord injury (SCI) often leaves affected individuals unable to ambulate. Electroencephalogram (EEG) based brain-computer interface (BCI) controlled lower extremity prostheses may restore intuitive and able-body-like ambulation after SCI. To test its feasibility, the authors developed and tested a novel EEG-based, data-driven BCI system for intuitive and self-paced control of the ambulation of an avatar within a virtual reality environment (VRE). Approach. Eight able-bodied subjects and one with SCI underwent the following 10-min training session: subjects alternated between idling and walking kinaesthetic motor imageries (KMI) while their EEG were recorded and analysed to generate subject-specific decoding models. Subjects then performed a goal-oriented online task, repeated over five sessions, in which they utilized the KMI to control the linear ambulation of an avatar and make ten sequential stops at designated points within the VRE. Main results. The average offline training performance across subjects was 77.2±11.0%, ranging from 64.3% (p = 0.001 76) to 94.5% (p = 6.26×10-23), with chance performance being 50%. The average online performance was 8.5±1.1 (out of 10) successful stops and 303±53 s completion time (perfect = 211 s). All subjects achieved performances significantly different than those of random walk (p ambulation after only 10 minutes training. The ability to achieve such BCI control with minimal training indicates that the implementation of future BCI-lower extremity prosthesis systems may be feasible.

  3. The effect of uphill and downhill walking on gait parameters: A self-paced treadmill study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimel-Naor, Shani; Gottlieb, Amihai; Plotnik, Meir

    2017-07-26

    It has been shown that gait parameters vary systematically with the slope of the surface when walking uphill (UH) or downhill (DH) (Andriacchi et al., 1977; Crowe et al., 1996; Kawamura et al., 1991; Kirtley et al., 1985; McIntosh et al., 2006; Sun et al., 1996). However, gait trials performed on inclined surfaces have been subject to certain technical limitations including using fixed speed treadmills (TMs) or, alternatively, sampling only a few gait cycles on inclined ramps. Further, prior work has not analyzed upper body kinematics. This study aims to investigate effects of slope on gait parameters using a self-paced TM (SPTM) which facilitates more natural walking, including measuring upper body kinematics and gait coordination parameters. Gait of 11 young healthy participants was sampled during walking in steady state speed. Measurements were made at slopes of +10°, 0° and -10°. Force plates and a motion capture system were used to reconstruct twenty spatiotemporal gait parameters. For validation, previously described parameters were compared with the literature, and novel parameters measuring upper body kinematics and bilateral gait coordination were also analyzed. Results showed that most lower and upper body gait parameters were affected by walking slope angle. Specifically, UH walking had a higher impact on gait kinematics than DH walking. However, gait coordination parameters were not affected by walking slope, suggesting that gait asymmetry, left-right coordination and gait variability are robust characteristics of walking. The findings of the study are discussed in reference to a potential combined effect of slope and gait speed. Follow-up studies are needed to explore the relative effects of each of these factors. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Increased Complexities in Visual Search Behavior in Skilled Players for a Self-Paced Aiming Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyi S. Chia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The badminton serve is an important shot for winning a rally in a match. It combines good technique with the ability to accurately integrate visual information from the shuttle, racket, opponent, and intended landing point. Despite its importance and repercussive nature, to date no study has looked at the visual search behaviors during badminton service in the singles discipline. Unlike anticipatory tasks (e.g., shot returns, the serve presents an opportunity to explore the role of visual search behaviors in movement control for self-paced tasks. Accordingly, this study examined skill-related differences in visual behavior during the badminton singles serve. Skilled (n = 12 and less skilled (n = 12 participants performed 30 serves to a live opponent, while real-time eye movements were captured using a mobile gaze registration system. Frame-by-frame analyses of 662 serves were made and the skilled players took a longer preparatory time before serving. Visual behavior of the skilled players was characterized by significantly greater number of fixations on more areas of interest per trial than the less skilled. In addition, the skilled players spent a significantly longer time fixating on the court and net, whereas the less skilled players found the shuttle to be more informative. Quiet eye (QE duration (indicative of superior sports performance however, did not differ significantly between groups which has implications on the perceived importance of QE in the badminton serve. Moreover, while visual behavior differed by skill level, considerable individual differences were also observed especially within the skilled players. This augments the need for not just group-level analyses, but individualized analysis for a more accurate representation of visual behavior. Findings from this study thus provide an insight to the possible visual search strategies as players serve in net-barrier games. Moreover, this study highlighted an important aspect of

  5. Fixed and self-paced treadmill walking for able-bodied and transtibial amputees in a multi-terrain virtual environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinitski, Emily H; Lemaire, Edward D; Baddour, Natalie; Besemann, Markus; Dudek, Nancy L; Hebert, Jacqueline S

    2015-02-01

    A self-paced treadmill automatically adjusts speed in real-time to match the user's walking speed, potentially enabling more natural gait than fixed-speed treadmills. This research examined walking speed changes for able-bodied and transtibial amputee populations on a self-paced treadmill in a multi-terrain virtual environment and examined gait differences between fixed and self-paced treadmill speed conditions. Twelve able-bodied (AB) individuals and 12 individuals with unilateral transtibial amputation (TT) walked in a park-like virtual environment with level, slopes, and simulated uneven terrain scenarios. Temporal-spatial and range-of-motion parameters were analyzed. Within the self-paced condition, all participants significantly varied walking speed (pmultiple movement scenarios in order to elicit more natural gait across various terrain. Fixed-speed treadmills may induce gait compensations to maintain the fixed speed.

  6. Heat stress exacerbates the reduction in middle cerebral artery blood velocity during prolonged self-paced exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Périard, J D; Racinais, S

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the influence of hyperthermia on middle cerebral artery mean blood velocity (MCA Vmean). Eleven cyclists undertook a 750 kJ self-paced time trial in HOT (35 °C) and COOL (20 °C) conditions. Exercise time was longer in HOT (56 min) compared with COOL (49 min; P heat appears to have exacerbated the reduction in MCA Vmean, in part via increases in peripheral blood flow and a decrease in arterial blood pressure.

  7. Using Mobile Phones for Vocabulary Activities: Examining the Effect of Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Stockwell

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available While problems such as small screens and inconvenient keypads have been pointed out by researchers (e.g., Thornton & Houser, 2002, we still have little knowledge of how the mobile platform affects the way in which activities are completed and how learners make decisions about using mobile phones. Stockwell (2007b provided preliminary evidence that learners generally require more time to complete vocabulary activities and achieved slightly lower scores on mobile phones when compared to completing the same activities on desktop computers, but data in the study were limited. The current study examines 175 pre-intermediate learners of English who could choose to complete vocabulary activities on either a mobile phone or a desktop computer to identify the effect of the mobile platform. Data were collected from three cohorts of learners over a three-year period, and learner activity was analysed for the amount of time required to complete activities on both platforms and the scores they achieved for the activities. The results of the study are discussed in terms of how the platform affects learners’ ability to complete tasks, whether continued usage contributes to improved performance or sustained usage of the mobile platform over time. Trends across the yearly cohorts were also identified.

  8. Teaching Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard-Clouston, M.

    2013-01-01

    Vocabulary is central to English language teaching. Without sufficient vocabulary, students cannot understand others or express their own ideas. Teachers who find the task of teaching English vocabulary a little daunting are not alone! This book presents important issues from recent vocabulary research and theory so that teachers may approach…

  9. Teaching Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard-Clouston, M.

    2013-01-01

    Vocabulary is central to English language teaching. Without sufficient vocabulary, students cannot understand others or express their own ideas. Teachers who find the task of teaching English vocabulary a little daunting are not alone! This book presents important issues from recent vocabulary research and theory so that teachers may approach…

  10. Influence of chronotype on responses to a standardized, self-paced walking task in the morning vs afternoon: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Jacopo A; Calogiuri, Giovanna; Weydahl, Andi

    2013-06-01

    The response to sub-maximal physical activity performed in the morning and late afternoon by individuals with different chronotypes was investigated. 22 participants filled out the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire and underwent a self-paced walking task that consisted of walking from the top to the bottom of a hill and back three times (1,836 meters, with a slope of 14.16%). The task was repeated twice: late afternoon (16:30) and early morning (08:30). Walking speed (time for completion in seconds), heart rate, and perceived exertion were measured during each task, with overall results given as a general descriptive analysis. Preliminary findings suggest that chronotype is likely to influence the responses to exercise, mostly with evening-types seeming at a disadvantage when performing a physical task in the morning. Individuals can be classified by circadian typology or chronotype, which is the propensity to be a morning-type, evening-type, or neither-type. The circadian typology, commonly referred to as being a morning person or an evening person or somewhere in between, is involved not only in the expression of physiological rhythms, but also in habits and lifestyles, such as sleeping patterns (Park, Matsumoto, Seo, & Shinkoda, 1999) that emerge especially during adolescence (Park, Matsumoto, Seo, Kang, & Nagashima, 2002) and remain throughout adult life (Koukkari & Sothern, 2006).

  11. Effect of work duration on physiological and rating scale of perceived exertion responses during self-paced interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Stephen; Sjursen, Jarl Espen

    2004-10-01

    This study compared running velocity, physiological responses, and perceived exertion during self-paced interval training bouts differing only in work bout duration. Twelve well-trained runners (nine males, three females, 28+/-5 years, VO2 max 65+/-6 mL min(-1) kg(-1)) performed preliminary testing followed by four "high-intensity" interval sessions (Latin squares, 1 session week(-1) over 4 weeks) consisting of 24 x 1, 12 x 2, 6 x 4, or 4 x 6-min running bouts with a 1:1 work-to-rest interval (total session duration 48 min). The average running velocity decreased (93%, 88%, 86%, 84% vVO2 max, P VO2 averaged about 92+/-4% of VO2 max for 2-, 4-, and 6-min intervals compared with only 82+/-5% for 1-min bouts (P VO2 and heart rate during 4-min intervals. The average RPEpeak (rating scale of perceived exertion) was approximately 17+/-1 for all four interval sessions. RPE increased by 2-4 U during an interval training session. The mean lactate concentration was similar across sessions (4.3+/-1.1-4.6+/-1.5 mmol L(-1)). Under self-paced conditions, well-trained runners perform "high-intensity" intervals at an RPE of approximately 17, independent of interval duration. The optimal interval duration for eliciting a high physiological load is 3-5 min under these training conditions. Increases in RPE during an interval bout are not associated with increasing blood lactate concentration.

  12. Practice and forgetting effects on vocabulary memory: an activation-based model of the spacing effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlik, Philip I; Anderson, John R

    2005-07-08

    An experiment was performed to investigate the effects of practice and spacing on retention of Japanese-English vocabulary paired associates. The relative benefit of spacing increased with increased practice and with longer retention intervals. Data were fitted with an activation-based memory model, which proposes that each time an item is practiced it receives an increment of strength but that these increments decay as a power function of time. The rate of decay for each presentation depended on the activation at the time of the presentation. This mechanism limits long-term benefits from further practice at higher levels of activation and produces the spacing effect and its observed interactions with practice and retention interval. The model was compared with another model of the spacing effect (Raaijmakers, 2003) and was fit to some results from the literature on spacing and memory.

  13. Vocabulary notebooks

    OpenAIRE

    KOZETA HYSO

    2012-01-01

    Vocabulary notebooks are one way of promoting learner independence. Introducing vocabulary notebooks to provide the learners with an area of language learning where they could be given a relatively high level of independence that would build their confidence in their ability to act independently in terms of vocabulary learning. This article is focused on the effectiveness of keeping the vocabulary notebooks to empower the learner’s independence on their foreign language learning and also to e...

  14. Visualizing Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skophammer, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Vocabulary can become tedious and a chore if it is approached as such. By making art terms and vocabulary meaningful, students will remember and use them for years to come. In this article, the author describes two vocabulary review projects that work wonderfully and create great works of art: (1) cursive creature rubbings; and (2) bubbling bodies…

  15. Visualizing Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skophammer, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Vocabulary can become tedious and a chore if it is approached as such. By making art terms and vocabulary meaningful, students will remember and use them for years to come. In this article, the author describes two vocabulary review projects that work wonderfully and create great works of art: (1) cursive creature rubbings; and (2) bubbling bodies…

  16. Comparing the Effectiveness of Self-Paced and Collaborative Frame-of-Reference Training on Rater Accuracy in a Large-Scale Writing Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raczynski, Kevin R.; Cohen, Allan S.; Engelhard, George, Jr.; Lu, Zhenqiu

    2015-01-01

    There is a large body of research on the effectiveness of rater training methods in the industrial and organizational psychology literature. Less has been reported in the measurement literature on large-scale writing assessments. This study compared the effectiveness of two widely used rater training methods--self-paced and collaborative…

  17. Can SPOC (Self-Paced Online Course) Live Long and Prosper? A Comparison Study of a New Species of Online Course Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southard, Sheryne; Meddaugh, Joshua; France-Harris, Antoinette

    2015-01-01

    Numerous formats exist for online course delivery: pure online, blended or hybrid, flipped and web-enhanced. The literature is replete with comparison studies on the efficacy of online, hybrid and traditional format courses. However, the self-paced online course, a relatively new and rare variation, has received very little coverage in the body of…

  18. Processing Subject-Object Ambiguities in the L2: A Self-Paced Reading Study With German L2 Learners of Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havik, E.M.; Roberts, L.; Hout, R.W.N.M. van; Schreuder, R.; Haverkort, M.

    2009-01-01

    The results of two self-paced reading experiments are reported, which investigated the online processing of subject-object ambiguities in Dutch relative clause constructions like Dat is de vrouw die de meisjes heeft/hebben gezien by German advanced second language (L2) learners of Dutch. Native spea

  19. Comparative Analysis of Nursing Students' Perspectives toward Avatar Learning Modality: Gain Pre-Clinical Experience via Self-Paced Cognitive Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commendador, Kathleen; Chi, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to better understand the nature of nursing students' perspectives toward simulative learning modality for gaining pre-clinical experience via self-paced cognitive tool--Avatar. Findings indicates that participants engaged in synchronous Avatar learning environment had higher levels of appreciation toward Avatar learning…

  20. Predicting Final Examination Grades in a Self-Paced Introductory Psychology Course: The Role of Motivational Orientation, Learning Strategies, Procrastination, and Perception of Daily Hassels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Ronald L.

    This study examined the effectiveness of using selected self-report measures assessing motivational orientation, learning strategies, procrastination, and perceptions of daily hassles to facilitate the prediction of final examination grades in a self-paced introductory psychology course. Four surveys purporting to measure the constructs were…

  1. Predicting Student Performance in a College Self-Paced Introductory Psychology Course: The Role of Motivational Orientation, Learning Strategies, Procrastination and Perception of Daily Hassles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Ronald L.

    This study examined the effectiveness of using selected self-report measures assessing motivational orientation, learning strategies, procrastination, and perceptions of daily hassles to facilitate the prediction of student engagement in a self-paced introductory psychology course. Research has shown these factors to be associated with academic…

  2. Comparing the Effectiveness of Self-Paced and Collaborative Frame-of-Reference Training on Rater Accuracy in a Large-Scale Writing Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raczynski, Kevin R.; Cohen, Allan S.; Engelhard, George, Jr.; Lu, Zhenqiu

    2015-01-01

    There is a large body of research on the effectiveness of rater training methods in the industrial and organizational psychology literature. Less has been reported in the measurement literature on large-scale writing assessments. This study compared the effectiveness of two widely used rater training methods--self-paced and collaborative…

  3. Reflection Paper on a Ubiquitous English Vocabulary Learning System: Evidence of Active/Passive Attitude vs. Usefulness/Ease-of-Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    "A ubiquitous English vocabulary learning system: evidence of active/passive attitudes vs. usefulness/ease-of-use" introduces and develops "Ubiquitous English Vocabulary Learning" (UEFL) system. It introduces to the memorization using the video clips. According to their paper the video clip gives a better chance for students to…

  4. Understanding the Active Ingredients in an Effective Preschool Vocabulary Intervention: An Exploratory Study of Teacher and Child Talk during Book Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasik, Barbara A.; Hindman, Annemarie H.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: In order to identify the active ingredients in an effective professional development intervention focused on enhancing preschool vocabulary instruction, this study examines the frequency with which teachers and children discussed theme-related vocabulary words during shared book reading. Head Start teachers received 1 year of…

  5. Vocabulary in SLA Theory and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    HUSTON, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1980's, vocabulary acquisition has been one of the most actively researched aspects of SLA (Lightbown & Spada, 2006). Four factors emerge in an investigation of the development of the role of L2 vocabulary learning in SLA. First, successive SLA theories marginalized vocabulary, often emphasizing the importance of grammar. Second, a growing body of empirical research showed the efficiency and effectiveness of direct vocabulary teaching. Third, overestimates of L1 vocabulary size led ...

  6. 外语词汇学习策略与积极/消极词汇关系%The Vocabulary Learning Strategies in Relation to the Active and Passive Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海峰

    2012-01-01

    By selecting randomly 186 fresh students from a university in western China,this research is aimed at testing their vocabulary levels in terms of active vocabulary and passive vocabulary repectively as well as surveying their learning strategies.As the research has found,the college studetns adopt more mechanical learning strategies than cognitive strategies and the total application level is low and confined to surface-level.Their passive vocabulary are obviouly greater than their active ones,indicating the trend that in contrast to the lowering vocabulary level,the passive vocabulary is gaining up its proportion in the total vocabulary,which is directly related to the scope and the level of those selected learning strategies.It is suggested that teachers should pay attention to train students' adoption of deep-level strategies.%选择中国西部某大学一年级新生,随机抽取186人,测试他们的积极词汇与消极词汇水平,问卷调查他们的学习策略。研究发现:大学生的机械学习策略多于认知策略,且总体策略应用水平不高,局限于浅层。他们的消极词汇明显多于积极词汇,且词汇水平越低,消极词汇所占的比例越大。这和学习策略采用的范围和层次直接相关,建议教师注意培训学生对深层策略的应用。

  7. Toward brain-actuated car applications: Self-paced control with a motor imagery-based brain-computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Zhou, Zongtan; Yin, Erwei; Jiang, Jun; Tang, Jingsheng; Liu, Yadong; Hu, Dewen

    2016-10-01

    This study presented a paradigm for controlling a car using an asynchronous electroencephalogram (EEG)-based brain-computer interface (BCI) and presented the experimental results of a simulation performed in an experimental environment outside the laboratory. This paradigm uses two distinct MI tasks, imaginary left- and right-hand movements, to generate a multi-task car control strategy consisting of starting the engine, moving forward, turning left, turning right, moving backward, and stopping the engine. Five healthy subjects participated in the online car control experiment, and all successfully controlled the car by following a previously outlined route. Subject S1 exhibited the most satisfactory BCI-based performance, which was comparable to the manual control-based performance. We hypothesize that the proposed self-paced car control paradigm based on EEG signals could potentially be used in car control applications, and we provide a complementary or alternative way for individuals with locked-in disorders to achieve more mobility in the future, as well as providing a supplementary car-driving strategy to assist healthy people in driving a car. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of double--blind carbohydrate ingestion during 60 km of self-paced exercise in warm ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassif, Camila; Gomes, Aline Regina; Peixoto, Gustavo H C; Chagas, Mauro Heleno; Soares, Danusa Dias; Silami-Garcia, Emerson; Drinkwater, Eric J; Cannon, Jack; Marino, Frank E

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated double blind ingestions of placebo (PLA) versus 6% carbohydrate (CHO) either as capsules (c) or beverage (b) during 60 km self-paced cycling in the heat (32°C and 50% relative humidity). Ten well-trained males (mean ± SD: 26±3 years; 64.5±7.7 kg and 70.7±8.8 ml.kg-1.min-1 maximal oxygen consumption) completed four separate 60 km time trials (TT) punctuated by 1 km sprints (14, 29, 44, 59 km) whilst ingesting either PLAb or PLAc or CHOb or CHOc. The TT was not different among treatments (PLAb 130.2±11.2 min, CHOb 140.5±18.1 min, PLAc 143.1±29.2 min, CHOc 137.3±20.1 min; P>0.05). Effect size (Cohen's d) for time was only moderate when comparing CHOb - PLAb (d = 0.68) and PLAb - PLAc (d = 0.57) whereas all other ES were 'trivial' to 'small'. Mean speed throughout the trial was significantly higher for PLAb only (P<0.05). Power output was only different (P<0.05) between the sprints and low intensity efforts within and across conditions. Core and mean skin temperatures were similar among trials. We conclude that CHO ingestion is of little or no benefit as a beverage compared with placebo during 60 km TT in the heat.

  9. Sex-specific responses to self-paced, high-intensity interval training with variable recovery periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, C Matthew; Vervaecke, Lauren S; Kutz, Matthew R; Green, J Matthew

    2014-04-01

    This study examined sex-specific responses during self-paced, high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Sixteen (8 men and 8 women) individuals completed a peak oxygen uptake test and 3 treadmill HIIT sessions on separate days. The HIIT sessions consisted of six 4-minute intervals performed at the highest self-selected intensity individuals felt they could maintain. Recovery between intervals was counterbalanced and consisted of 1-, 2-, or 4-minute recovery during each trial. Relative measures of intensity, including percentage of velocity at VO2peak (vVO2peak), %VO2peak, %HRmax, and blood lactate concentration ([La]), were observed during the trials. Perceived readiness was recorded immediately before and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded at the end of each interval with session RPE recorded after each trial. Results revealed a significant effect of sex on %vVO2peak (p high-intensity exercise, as they will self-select intensities resulting in greater cardiovascular strain. Moreover, results confirm previous findings suggesting that a 2:1 work-to-rest ratio is optimal during HIIT for both men and women.

  10. A delivery mode study: The effect of self-paced video learning on first-year college students' achievement in calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktaviyanthi, Rina; Herman, Tatang

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the effect of two different modes of deliver are proposed. The use of self-paced video learning and conventional learning methods in mathematics are compared. The research design classified as a quasi-experiment. The participants were 80 students in the first-year college and divided into two groups. One group as an experiment class received self-paced video learning method and the other group as a control group taught by conventional learning method. Pre and posttest were employed to measure the students' achievement, while questionnaire and interviews were applied to support the pre and posttest data. Statistical analysis included the independent samples t-test showed differences (p engaging and paying attention in learning, helping students in making the concepts of Calculus are visible, interesting media and motivating students to learn independently.

  11. Representing number in the real-time processing of agreement: self-paced reading evidence from Arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Matthew A; Idrissi, Ali; Almeida, Diogo

    2015-01-01

    In the processing of subject-verb agreement, non-subject plural nouns following a singular subject sometimes "attract" the agreement with the verb, despite not being grammatically licensed to do so. This phenomenon generates agreement errors in production and an increased tendency to fail to notice such errors in comprehension, thereby providing a window into the representation of grammatical number in working memory during sentence processing. Research in this topic, however, is primarily done in related languages with similar agreement systems. In order to increase the cross-linguistic coverage of the processing of agreement, we conducted a self-paced reading study in Modern Standard Arabic. We report robust agreement attraction errors in relative clauses, a configuration not particularly conducive to the generation of such errors for all possible lexicalizations. In particular, we examined the speed with which readers retrieve a subject controller for both grammatical and ungrammatical agreeing verbs in sentences where verbs are preceded by two NPs, one of which is a local non-subject NP that can act as a distractor for the successful resolution of subject-verb agreement. Our results suggest that the frequency of errors is modulated by the kind of plural formation strategy used on the attractor noun: nouns which form plurals by suffixation condition high rates of attraction, whereas nouns which form their plurals by internal vowel change (ablaut) generate lower rates of errors and reading-time attraction effects of smaller magnitudes. Furthermore, we show some evidence that these agreement attraction effects are mostly contained in the right tail of reaction time distributions. We also present modeling data in the ACT-R framework which supports a view of these ablauting patterns wherein they are differentially specified for number and evaluate the consequences of possible representations for theories of grammar and parsing.

  12. The effect of double--blind carbohydrate ingestion during 60 km of self-paced exercise in warm ambient conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Nassif

    Full Text Available This study evaluated double blind ingestions of placebo (PLA versus 6% carbohydrate (CHO either as capsules (c or beverage (b during 60 km self-paced cycling in the heat (32°C and 50% relative humidity. Ten well-trained males (mean ± SD: 26±3 years; 64.5±7.7 kg and 70.7±8.8 ml.kg-1.min-1 maximal oxygen consumption completed four separate 60 km time trials (TT punctuated by 1 km sprints (14, 29, 44, 59 km whilst ingesting either PLAb or PLAc or CHOb or CHOc. The TT was not different among treatments (PLAb 130.2±11.2 min, CHOb 140.5±18.1 min, PLAc 143.1±29.2 min, CHOc 137.3±20.1 min; P>0.05. Effect size (Cohen's d for time was only moderate when comparing CHOb - PLAb (d = 0.68 and PLAb - PLAc (d = 0.57 whereas all other ES were 'trivial' to 'small'. Mean speed throughout the trial was significantly higher for PLAb only (P<0.05. Power output was only different (P<0.05 between the sprints and low intensity efforts within and across conditions. Core and mean skin temperatures were similar among trials. We conclude that CHO ingestion is of little or no benefit as a beverage compared with placebo during 60 km TT in the heat.

  13. Representing number in the real-time processing of agreement: Self-paced reading evidence from Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A. Tucker

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the processing of subject-verb agreement, non-subject plural nouns following a singular subject sometimes attract the agreement with the verb, despite not being grammatically licensed to do so. This phenomenon generates agreement errors in production and an increased tendency to fail to notice such errors in comprehension, thereby providing a window into the representation of grammatical number in working memory during sentence processing. Research in this topic, however, is primarily done in related languages with similar agreement systems. In order to increase the cross-linguistic coverage of the processing of agreement, we conducted a self-paced reading study in Modern Standard Arabic. We report robust agreement attraction errors in relative clauses, a configuration not particularly conducive to the generation of such errors for all possible lexicalizations. In particular, we examined the speed with which readers retrieve a subject controller for both grammatical and ungrammatical agreeing verbs in sentences where verbs are preceded by two NPs, one of which is a local non-subject NP that can act as a distractor for the successful resolution of subject-verb agreement. Our results suggest that the frequency of errors is modulated by the kind of plural formation strategy used on the attractor noun: nouns which form plurals by suffixation condition high rates of attraction, whereas nouns which form their plurals by internal vowel change (ablaut generate lower rates of errors and reading-time attraction effects of smaller magnitudes. Furthermore, we show some evidence that these agreement attraction effects are mostly contained in the right tail of reaction time distributions. We also present modeling data in the ACT-R framework which supports a view of these ablauting patterns wherein they are differentially specified for number and evaluate the consequences of possible representations for theories of grammar and parsing.

  14. Investigation of the effects of transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) on self-paced rhythmic movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlet, Manuel; Wade, Alanna; Novembre, Giacomo; Keller, Peter E

    2017-03-18

    Human rhythmic movements spontaneously entrain to external rhythmic stimuli. Such sensory-motor entrainment can attract movements to different tempi and enhance their efficiency, with potential clinical applications for motor rehabilitation. Here we investigate whether entrainment of self-paced rhythmic movements can be induced via transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), which uses alternating currents to entrain spontaneous brain oscillations at specific frequencies. Participants swung a handheld pendulum at their preferred tempo with the right hand while tACS was applied over their left or right primary motor cortex at frequencies equal to their preferred tempo (Experiment 1) or in the alpha (10Hz) and beta (20Hz) ranges (Experiment 2). Given that entrainment generally occurs only if the frequency difference between two rhythms is small, stimulations were delivered at frequencies equal to participants' preferred movement tempo (≈1Hz) and ±12.5% in Experiment 1, and at 10Hz and 20Hz, and ±12.5% in Experiment 2. The comparison of participants' movement frequency, amplitude, variability, and phase synchrony with and without tACS failed to reveal entrainment or movement modifications across the two experiments. However, significant differences in stimulation-related side effects reported by participants were found between the two experiments, with phosphenes and burning sensations principally occurring in Experiment 2, and metallic tastes reported marginally more often in Experiment 1. Although other stimulation protocols may be effective, our results suggest that rhythmic movements such as pendulum swinging or locomotion that are low in goal-directedness and/or strongly driven by peripheral and mechanical constraints may not be susceptible to modulation by tACS.

  15. Vocabulary knowledge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严爽

    2016-01-01

    Knowing a word refers to more than just a matter of knowing its form, meaning, pronunciation and spelling. It also refers to one's knowledge of the relationships the word is involved in, such as its collocations, semantic associations and so on. Words are not isolated entities. This paper focuses on vocabulary knowledge and helps us get an idea of what needs to be learned and the process of English vocabulary learning.

  16. A Self-Paced Online Module for Teachers Using Climate Change as a Context for Bringing Sustainability Education to the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, E. P.; Santone, S.; Smith, G.; Cordero, E.

    2013-12-01

    Sustainability education is an approach to learning that builds knowledge, skills, and values needed to create lasting economic prosperity, environmental health, and social justice. In collaboration with Creative Change Educational Solutions (http://www.creativechange.net/) and with funding from the Clarence E. Heller Charitable Foundation and NASA, scientists and science educators at San José State University (SJSU) are developing an online 'Introduction for Sustainability' course for middle and high school educators. The module will introduce sustainability as a context for learning, highlight connections to climate change science and solutions, and provide strategies for linking the environmental, economic and social dimensions of climate destabilization to fundamental sustainability concepts. This self-paced course will be piloted during the 2013-2014 academic year. Upon completion, participants will receive inexpensive university credit ( $50/unit) from SJSU. Course goals are to demonstrate the applicability of sustainability themes across disciplines; increase learners' knowledge about the causes and impacts of climate change and related sustainability challenges; and support learners in integrating course content and methods into their classroom teaching. Course activities combine: 1) reading selections and questions; 2) online discussion; 3) digital media (short videos and tutorials); and 4) journal entries and other written assignments, including consideration of how course content aligns with the Common Core and Next Generation Science Standards. The module is divided into five sections: 1) Defining What Matters - What Do We All Need for a Fulfilling Life?; 2) The Commons and Ecosystem Services; 3) Causes and Impacts of Climate Change; 4) Individual and Collective Actions to Mitigate Its Effects; and 5) Integrating Sustainability into the Curriculum. Initial recruitment for the course will take place among participants in workshops offered by the Bay

  17. Mediated Vocabulary in Native Speaker-Learner Interactions during an Oral Portfolio Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tocaimaza-Hatch, C. Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    This project investigated vocabulary learning from a sociocultural perspective--in particular, the way in which lexical knowledge was mediated in Spanish second language (L2) learners' and native speakers' (NSs') interactions. Nine students who were enrolled in an advanced conversation course completed an oral portfolio assignment consisting of…

  18. Vocabulary Is a Key to English Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢翌春

    2008-01-01

    Vocabulary size is an important criterion to measure one's English proficiency. More words mean more freedom in language use. To many English learners, language skill remains difficult due to insufficient vocabulary. Both learners and teachers should be active to find an appropriate way to improve that condition. So it is necessary to know the feature of vocabulary and some effective ways to enlarge vocabulary size.

  19. A Ubiquitous English Vocabulary Learning System: Evidence of Active/Passive Attitudes vs. Usefulness/Ease-of-Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yueh-Min; Huang, Yong-Ming; Huang, Shu-Hsien; Lin, Yen-Ting

    2012-01-01

    English vocabulary learning and ubiquitous learning have separately received considerable attention in recent years. However, research on English vocabulary learning in ubiquitous learning contexts has been less studied. In this study, we develop a ubiquitous English vocabulary learning (UEVL) system to assist students in experiencing a systematic…

  20. A Ubiquitous English Vocabulary Learning System: Evidence of Active/Passive Attitudes vs. Usefulness/Ease-of-Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yueh-Min; Huang, Yong-Ming; Huang, Shu-Hsien; Lin, Yen-Ting

    2012-01-01

    English vocabulary learning and ubiquitous learning have separately received considerable attention in recent years. However, research on English vocabulary learning in ubiquitous learning contexts has been less studied. In this study, we develop a ubiquitous English vocabulary learning (UEVL) system to assist students in experiencing a systematic…

  1. VOCABULARY STRATEGIES AND VOCABULARY LEARNING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This research is a comparative study of Chinese EFLgradutes′vocabulary strategies applied in their EGeneralAP(English for General Academic Purposes)and ESpecialAP(English for Special Academic Purpose)learning.Participantswere the first-year graduates of non-English major in ChinaPharmaceutical University(N=102).The present study uses ataxonomy of strategies developed by O’Malley and Chamot(1990),which was modified to more accurately reflectvocabulary strategies(altogether 31 sub-strategy variables within16 strategies).Analysis through SAS(Statistic Analysis System)on the collected date has revealed that:1)Learners apply more types of vocabulary stategies inEGeneralAP than in ESpecialAP vocabulary learning.2)Translation and Extensive Reading gain higher frequencyof application in ESpecialAP learning.3)11 vocabulary strategies strongly predict EGeneralAPvocabulary achievement and only 6 strategies strongly predictESpecialAp vocabulary achievement.At the end of the paper,some practical suggestions aremade for EFL graduate teachers to adjust their teaching targetand methods.

  2. Developing Mathematical Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Eula Ewing; Orme, Michelle P.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of mathematical vocabulary, difficulties students encounter in learning this vocabulary, and some instructional strategies. Two general methods for teaching vocabulary are discussed: context and explicit vocabulary instruction. The methods are summarized as they apply to mathematical vocabulary instruction and…

  3. The Effect of the Explicit Instruction of Formulaic Sequences in Pre-Writing Vocabulary Activities on Foreign Language Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Abdel Salam El-Dakhs

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the effect of the explicit instruction of formulaic sequences in pre-writing vocabulary activities on foreign language writing. To this end, a total of 81 Saudi pre-intermediate learners of English as a foreign language participated in a 10-week study of a pretest/posttest design. In every 2-hour session of a total of 10 sessions, the participants were required to read a news story and then re-write it individually without looking back at the original story. During the treatment period, the participants received different pre-writing vocabulary practice. One group, consisting of 44 students, practiced individual words in the news stories while the remaining 37 students studied formulaic sequences in the new stories before re-writing the stories in their own language. Analyzing the students’ writing showed that the explicit instruction of formulaic sequences led to an increased use of the sequences in students’ writing. The results also partially supported a positive influence for the explicit instruction of formulaic sequences on the learners’ lexical choices and overall writing quality. The practice provided on formulaic sequences in the study did not, however, result in any significant improvement in the learners’ use of formulaic sequences in autonomous story re-writing. Relevant pedagogical implications are proposed.

  4. Palula Vocabulary

    OpenAIRE

    Liljegren, Henrik; Haider, Naseem

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this volume is to provide a complement to Towards a grammatical description of Palula (Liljegren 2008). The 1460 main entries included in the present work are limited to those lexical items that are cited or exemplified in the aforementioned work. The work is the result of linguistic research in and with the Palula community (Pakistan). It contains much of the basic vocabulary used in today's Palula, presented along with illustrative example sentences, grammatical informat...

  5. A maximum mutual information approach for constructing a 1D continuous control signal at a self-paced brain-computer interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haihong; Guan, Cuntai

    2010-10-01

    This paper addresses an important issue in a self-paced brain-computer interface (BCI): constructing subject-specific continuous control signal. To this end, we propose an alternative to the conventional regression/classification-based mechanism for building the transformation from EEG features into a univariate control signal. Based on information theory, the mechanism formulates the optimum transformation as maximizing the mutual information between the control signal and the mental state. We introduce a non-parametric mutual information estimate for general output distribution, and then develop a gradient-based algorithm to optimize the transformation using training data. We conduct an offline simulation study using motor imagery data from the BCI Competition IV Data Set I. The results show that the learning algorithm converged quickly, and the proposed method yielded significantly higher BCI performance than the conventional mechanism.

  6. Exploring the Cause of English Pronoun Gender Errors by Chinese Learners of English: Evidence from the Self-paced Reading Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yanping; Wen, Yun; Zeng, Xiaomeng; Ji, Yifei

    2015-12-01

    To locate the underlying cause of biological gender errors of oral English pronouns by proficient Chinese-English learners, two self-paced reading experiments were conducted to explore whether the reading time for each 'he' or 'she' that matched its antecedent was shorter than that in the corresponding mismatch situation, as with native speakers of English. The critical manipulation was to see whether highlighting the gender information of an antecedent with a human picture would make a difference. The results indicate that such manipulation did make a difference. Since oral Chinese does not distinguish 'he' and 'she', the findings suggest that Chinese speakers probably do not usually process biological gender for linguistic purposes and the mixed use of 'he' and 'she' is probably a result of deficient processing of gender information in the conceptualizer. Theoretical and pedagogical implications are discussed.

  7. Student-Created Vocabulary Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, Donald

    2016-01-01

    In this paper is described a preliminary study at a Japanese university on student affect toward self-created vocabulary tests. In order to foster greater learner autonomy in their vocabulary study, students were tasked with selecting words they wished to learn and creating their own tests using a template provided by the teacher. At the end of the course, a survey examining student attitudes toward the activity was conducted with 140 participants. The results were encouraging as they indicat...

  8. English Vocabulary Teaching Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏

    2012-01-01

    Vocabulary is very necessary in language teaching and acquisition.If students have a certain amount of vocabulary,they will overcome many difficulties in reading.listening、 speaking and writing.In vocabulary teaching,scholars have been working hard to find better ways.This paper attempts to find how to improve students’ enthusiasm of learning vocabulary and teach vocabulary more successfully and effectively.

  9. Vocabulary – semantics – consciousness: scientific-analitical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Telegina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article studies relations between vocabulary, words meaning, conceptualization process, thinking, consciousness. Consciousness strategies detection necessitates study of mental vocabulary, expressing mental activity state and processes.

  10. IMPROVING VOCABULARY TEACHING IN INTENSIVE READING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    IntroductionIn China,intensive reading is the main method for teaching English.One feature of the textbooks isthat they all have large quantities of new words in each text,so vocabulary is one of the mostimportant aspects of this course.Recently,I conducted a survey among students who entered thePetroleum University in Shandong.To the question‘What is the greatest problem in your Englishstudies?’,82 out of the t00 students answered-vocabulary.This,to some extent,suggests that ourapproaches to vocabulary teaching should be improved.This article explores more effective ways toteach vocabulary.It suggests the idea of classifying and grouping vocabulary items and how to teachthem differently.A series of task-based activities are recommended to present and review vocabulary.

  11. Performance of a Self-Paced Brain Computer Interface on Data Contaminated with Eye-Movement Artifacts and on Data Recorded in a Subsequent Session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Fatourechi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a specific self-paced BCI (SBCI is investigated using two different datasets to determine its suitability for using online: (1 data contaminated with large-amplitude eye movements, and (2 data recorded in a session subsequent to the original sessions used to design the system. No part of the data was rejected in the subsequent session. Therefore, this dataset can be regarded as a “pseudo-online” test set. The SBCI under investigation uses features extracted from three specific neurological phenomena. Each of these neurological phenomena belongs to a different frequency band. Since many prominent artifacts are either of mostly low-frequency (e.g., eye movements or mostly high-frequency nature (e.g., muscle movements, it is expected that the system shows a fairly robust performance over artifact-contaminated data. Analysis of the data of four participants using epochs contaminated with large-amplitude eye-movement artifacts shows that the system's performance deteriorates only slightly. Furthermore, the system's performance during the session subsequent to the original sessions remained largely the same as in the original sessions for three out of the four participants. This moderate drop in performance can be considered tolerable, since allowing artifact-contaminated data to be used as inputs makes the system available for users at ALL times.

  12. My World of Words: Building Vocabulary Lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MarcoPolo Education Foundation.

    This lesson uses students' areas of interest both in and out of school to generate personalized vocabulary lists. Working in small groups, grade 3 to 5 students select their own vocabulary words and research their meanings. In a culminating activity that uses text and illustration, each student will create a "My World of Words Journal." During…

  13. Helping Teachers Connect Vocabulary and Conceptual Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, A. Susan

    2008-01-01

    A focus on mathematics vocabulary must be part of teachers' instructional plans to develop students' understanding of key ideas. The author presents examples from work with preservice teachers regarding two vocabulary strategies and other related activities that can be used by middle and high school mathematics teachers. (Contains 8 figures.)

  14. Activating Junior Secondary School Students’ Prior Knowledge for the Development of Vocabulary, Concepts and Mathematics through Instructional Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olu Oyinloye

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the activation of students’ prior knowledge for the development of vocabulary, concepts and mathematics. It has been observed that many secondary school students are not performing well in the examination conducted by the West African Examinations Council and National Examinations Council of Nigeria. The situation became worrisome because of the dwindling performance of students in English Language and Mathematics which are compulsory subjects for securing admission into tertiary institutions in Nigeria. Four research questions were formulated and translated to test whether a significant difference exist between students’ achievement in comprehension in English Language and Mathematics before and after the treatment. The study is a quasi experimental which involves two hundred and sixty students selected through random sampling technique. The experimental sessions lasted six weeks. The experimental groups were engaged in collaborative work in smaller groups where they discussed issues related to the new topics using their prior knowledge. Experimental and control groups were given pre-test before the commencement of the study and achievement test after the experiment. The data collected was subjected to t-test statistics and the findings of the study show that the students in the experimental group performed better than those in the control group.

  15. Teaching Vocabulary through Poetry in an EFL Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozen, Baki; Mohammadzadeh, Behbood

    2012-01-01

    This study has been conducted to investigate the effectiveness of using poetry to teach vocabulary in a foreign language classroom. It aims to find answers to two research questions (1) "Do the learners enhance more extensive vocabulary knowledge by means of poetry-based vocabulary teaching activities than the traditional coursebook…

  16. Preschool children’s foreign language vocabulary learning by embodying words through physical activity and gesturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Toumpaniari (Konstantina); S.M.M. Loyens (Sofie); M.-F. Mavilidi (Myrto-Foteini); G.W.C. Paas (Fred)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractResearch has demonstrated that physical activity involving gross motor activities can lead to better cognitive functioning and higher academic achievement scores. In addition, research within the theoretical framework of embodied cognition has shown that embodying knowledge through the

  17. Preschool Children's Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning by Embodying Words through Physical Activity and Gesturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumpaniari, Konstantina; Loyens, Sofie; Mavilidi, Myrto-Foteini; Paas, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that physical activity involving gross motor activities can lead to better cognitive functioning and higher academic achievement scores. In addition, research within the theoretical framework of embodied cognition has shown that embodying knowledge through the use of more subtle motor activities, such as task-relevant…

  18. Rote Memorization of Vocabulary and Vocabulary Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weidong; Dai, Weiping

    2011-01-01

    Rote memorization of vocabulary has long been a common way for Chinese students to learn lexical items. Cultural, educational background and traditional teaching practice in China are identified to be the factors that contribute to many students' heavy reliance on memorization as their sole approach to vocabulary learning. In addition to rote…

  19. On Vocabulary Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑洁

    2013-01-01

    An efficient vocabulary learning strategy can supply students with exact meanings and usage of words. There are many differences between Chinese and English,so the result of memorizing vocabulary by rote is always not good. The paper holds the Incidental Vocabulary Learning to improve the English ability.

  20. A harmonized vocabulary for soil observed properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Bruce; Wilson, Peter; Cox, Simon; Vleeshouer, Jamie

    2014-05-01

    Interoperability of soil data depends on agreements concerning models, schemas and vocabularies. However, observed property terms are often defined during different activities and projects in isolation of one another, resulting in data that has the same scope being represented with different terms, using different formats and formalisms, and published in various access methods. Significantly, many soil property vocabularies conflate multiple concepts in a single term, e.g. quantity kind, units of measure, substance being observed, and procedure. Effectively, this bundles separate information elements into a single slot. We have developed a vocabulary for observed soil properties by adopting and extending a previously defined water quality vocabulary. The observed property model separates the information elements, based on the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Observations & Measurements model and extending the NASA/TopQuadrant 'Quantities, Units, Dimensions and Types' (QUDT) ontology. The imported water quality vocabulary is formalized using the Web Ontology Language (OWL). Key elements are defined as sub-classes or sub-properties of standard Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) elements, allowing use of standard vocabulary interfaces. For the soil observed property vocabulary, terms from QUDT and water quality are used where possible. These are supplemented with additional unit of measure (Unit), observed property (ScaledQuantityKind) and substance being observed (SubstanceOrTaxon) vocabulary entries required for the soil properties. The vocabulary terms have been extracted from the Australian Soil and Land Survey Field Handbook and Australian Soil Information Transfer and Evaluation System (SITES) vocabularies. The vocabulary links any chemical substances to items from the Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) ontology. By formalizing the model for observable properties, and clearly labelling the separate elements, soil property observations may

  1. Preschool children’s foreign language vocabulary learning by embodying words through physical activity and gesturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Toumpaniari (Konstantina); S.M.M. Loyens (Sofie); M.-F. Mavilidi (Myrto-Foteini); G.W.C. Paas (Fred)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractResearch has demonstrated that physical activity involving gross motor activities can lead to better cognitive functioning and higher academic achievement scores. In addition, research within the theoretical framework of embodied cognition has shown that embodying knowledge through the u

  2. Measuring Vocabulary: An overview of four types of vocabulary tests

    OpenAIRE

    Helga Hilmarsdóttir 1985

    2010-01-01

    In this essay four types of vocabulary tests are examined and the focus is on the variety in vocabulary tests. The main incentive with writing this essay was to make an overview of vocabulary measurement tools and to examine whether there existed a standardized vocabulary test. In the first chapter an attempt is made to answer the question of what vocabulary knowledge is. Receptive and productive knowledge of vocabulary is discussed as well as the distinction of vocabulary into breadth and...

  3. Teachers’ Vocabulary Developing Educational Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Lea

    From a perspective of teachers’ continuing professional development (CPD) this paper considers the importance of the influence of teachers’ vocabulary in relation to their understanding and development of teaching practices. As the teacher spends most of her/his career teaching inside the classroom...... educational systems, teacher agency is an important issue. If teacher agencyis understood as the teachers’ active contribution to shaping their work and its conditions – for the overall quality of education (Biesta et al. 2015) then there may be a case for focusing on the development of teacher’s vocabulary...... interview techniqu, 2007) to examine the teachers’ ‘practical reasoning’, to develop (elicitation and reconstruction) a ‘practical argument’ (following: Fenstermacher & Richardson 1993), which points to a process of five premises. In the data collecting and in the analysis of the teachers’ vocabulary...

  4. Four Weeks of Inspiratory Muscle Training Improves Self-Paced Walking Performance in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Edwards

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine whether a programme of inspiratory muscle training (IMT improves accumulative distance of self-paced walking in overweight and obese adults. Methods. A total of 15 overweight and obese adults were randomized into experimental (EXP: =8 and placebo (PLA: =7 groups. Lung function, inspiratory muscle performance, 6-minute walking test, and predicted ̇VO2 max were assessed prior to and following the 4-week IMT intervention. Both groups performed 30 inspiratory breaths, twice daily using a proprietary inspiratory resistance device set to 55% of baseline maximal effort (EXP, or performing the same inspiratory training procedure at the minimum resistive setting (PLA. Results. Lung function was unchanged in both groups after-training; however inspiratory muscle strength was significantly improved in EXP (19±25.2 cm H2O gain; <0.01 but did not significantly change in PLA. Additionally, the posttraining distance covered in the 6-minute walking test was significantly extended for EXP (62.5±37.7 m gain; <0.01, but not for PLA. A positive association was observed between the change (% of performance gain in the 6-minute walking test and body mass index (=0.736; <0.05 for EXP. Conclusion. The present study suggests that IMT provides a practical, minimally intrusive intervention to significantly augment both inspiratory muscle performance and walking distance covered by overweight and obese adults in a clinically relevant 6-minute walk test. This indicates that IMT may provide a useful priming (preparatory strategy prior to entry in a physical training programme for overweight and obese adults.

  5. Early vocabulary development in children with bilateral cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Välimaa, Taina; Kunnari, Sari; Laukkanen-Nevala, Päivi; Lonka, Eila

    2017-06-16

    Children with unilateral cochlear implants (CIs) may have delayed vocabulary development for an extended period after implantation. Bilateral cochlear implantation is reported to be associated with improved sound localization and enhanced speech perception in noise. This study proposed that bilateral implantation might also promote early vocabulary development. Knowledge regarding vocabulary growth and composition in children with bilateral CIs and factors associated with it may lead to improvements in the content of early speech and language intervention and family counselling. To analyse the growth of early vocabulary and its composition during the first year after CI activation and to investigate factors associated with vocabulary growth. The participants were 20 children with bilateral CIs (12 boys; eight girls; mean age at CI activation = 12.9 months). Vocabulary size was assessed with the Finnish version of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories (CDI) Infant Form and compared with normative data. Vocabulary composition was analysed in relation to vocabulary size. Growth curve modelling was implemented using a linear mixed model to analyse the effects of the following variables on early vocabulary growth: time, gender, maternal education, residual hearing with hearing aids, age at first hearing aid fitting and age at CI activation. Despite clear vocabulary growth over time, children with bilateral CIs lagged behind their age norms in receptive vocabulary during the first 12 months after CI activation. In expressive vocabulary, 35% of the children were able to catch up with their age norms, but 55% of the children lagged behind them. In receptive and expressive vocabularies of 1-20 words, analysis of different semantic categories indicated that social terms constituted the highest proportion. Nouns constituted the highest proportion in vocabularies of 101-400 words. The proportion of verbs remained below 20% and the proportion of function words and

  6. Vocabulary Instruction: Software Flashcards vs. Word Clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Vahid Mansouri

    2015-01-01

    When it comes to language learning, vocabulary learning is the main activity focused on. Vocabulary learning is the main problem and also the goal of new language learners. It is one of the major problems that language learners encounter during learning a new language. Krashen (1989) (cited in Tokac, 2005) points out the role of vocabulary in a language by stating that most of the meaning in a language is carried by words. This is why people visiting a foreign country prefer to take their dic...

  7. Vocabulary Learning Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Craven, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    The prominent role of vocabulary knowledge in second or foreign language learning has been recently recognized by theorists and researchers in the field. This article aims to provide a digest of recent research on vocabulary learning strategies specifically in the English as a foreign language context in Japan. In Japan where there is minimal exposure to English in daily life and where word knowledge is often tested, teachers should be informing learners about vocabulary learning strategies a...

  8. Tagging vs. Controlled Vocabulary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Toine; Petras, Vivien

    2015-01-01

    elements like core bibliographic data, controlled vocabulary terms, reviews, and tags to the retrieval performance. Our comparison is done using a test collection of over 2 million book records with information elements from Amazon, the British Library, the Library of Congress, and LibraryThing. We find...... that tags and controlled vocabulary terms do not actually outperform each other consistently, but seem to provide complementary contributions: some information needs are best addressed using controlled vocabulary terms whereas other are best addressed using tags....

  9. NASA thesaurus aeronautics vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The controlled vocabulary used by the NASA Scientific and Technical Information effort to index documents in the area of aeronautics is presented. The terms comprise a subset of the 1988 edition of the NASA Thesaurus and its supplements issued through the end of 1990. The Aeronautics Vocabulary contains over 4700 terms presented in a hierarchical display format. In addition to aeronautics per se, the vocabulary covers supporting terminology from areas such as fluid dynamics, propulsion engineering, and test facilities and instrumentation.

  10. Food and Feed Commodity Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food and Feed Vocabulary was developed to consolidate all the major OPP Commodity Vocabularies into one standardized vocabulary. The EPA-preferred term is the only term that can be used in setting tolerances.

  11. TEACHING VOCABULARY THROUGH SENTENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    irfan tosuncuoglu

    2015-12-01

    Almost every teacher is certain about that vocabulary is an important facet of learning a second language. It may be more important than grammar, at least in so far as this concerns communication , and particularly in the early stages when learners seem to understand that amassing a basic vocabulary is very important to fluency in another language. As a rule, receptive vocabulary exceeds productive vocabulary and why listening with comprehension and speaking with comprehension are two very different things—the latter a more difficult cognitive process than the former. Furthermore, vocabulary acquisition is highly idiosyncratic and depends largely on the learner and her or his individual learning styles and cognitive abilities. No two people learn alike. In particular, as understanding and fluency increases,  individual interests and even needs will change, which then requires teacher-assisted guidance and remediation vis-à-vis the compilation of a specified and nuanced vocabulary that is tailored to the learner’s more practical linguistic needs, whatever these might be. In this case, new vocabulary items are more likely to be recalled and communicative. Essential to such an approach to teaching vocabulary acquisition, it is argued here, is exposure to authentic language, that is, reading, writing, listening, and speaking in class that both engages the visual, tactile, and aural-oral senses and imprints. In the case of texts, it is paramount that the comprehension level be such that the learner can guestimate with a nigh degree of accuracy the meaning and proper usage of new vocabulary items without a dictionary and thus from their context. And the more often these new vocabulary items appear, the more likely it is that their full meaning will be understood and committed to memory.  For that reason we wanted to make use of sentences in vocabulary teaching.

  12. Vocabulary Instruction: Software Flashcards vs. Word Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Mansouri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available When it comes to language learning, vocabulary learning is the main activity focused on. Vocabulary learning is the main problem and also the goal of new language learners. It is one of the major problems that language learners encounter during learning a new language. Krashen (1989 (cited in Tokac, 2005 points out the role of vocabulary in a language by stating that most of the meaning in a language is carried by words. This is why people visiting a foreign country prefer to take their dictionaries with them rather than grammar books. And on the other hand, nowadays everything is connected to technology and language learning and teaching is not an exception. As Stockwell (2007 cites, vocabulary has been one of the most commonly taught language areas through technology in recent years. Integration of computer and second/foreign language teaching is admired by many researchers. It is clear that technology can help enhance the degree of vocabulary learning, but the point is that which computer assisted vocabulary learning can work better and would be more efficient? In this paper we will discuss and analyze the usage of two kinds of different ways of using technology and see which of the methods will work better. A comparison between vocabulary software flashcard and word clouds (Wordle on vocabulary learning (retention will be compared by the researcher. We will see that using which method will encourage learners more and they will do better with which kind of using technology? The study is carried out in Iran on 44 English learners. The result is really surprising. Both of the groups were interested in technology, but one group did really better. Keywords: CALL, CAVL, Software flashcard, Word Clouds, Wordle, Vocabulary learning

  13. Research on Vocabularies of Business Interpretation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杰

    2014-01-01

    With increasingly international business activities, business English has already become main language tool of commu-nication. Many new business English vocabularies emerge. If interpreters want to assume business interpretation work successfully, he or she has to learn the meaning of these words and their features in business field. This essay will do some research around vo-cabularies of business interpretation from the characteristics of these words/phrases such as more abbreviations, professional termi-nology, polysemy and so on.

  14. Discussion about English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenxia Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Vocabulary becomes more and more crucial in English learning.The article depicts six main domains about the mastery and enlargement of vocabulary,and they are motivation and aim,major fields,word,ways,radiation,and concrete execution respectively.

  15. Building Mathematics Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovarik, Madeline

    2010-01-01

    Although mathematics is visual language of symbols and numbers it is also expressed and explained through written and spoken words. For students to excel in mathematics, they must recognize, comprehend and apply the requisite vocabulary. Thus, vocabulary instruction is as critical in content areas as it is in language arts. It is especially…

  16. The Superlearning of Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillmer, H. Thompson

    1983-01-01

    Describes the use of Georgi Lozanov's technique using rhythm, breathing, music, and meditation to bring about hypermnesia, or supermemory, to teach vocabulary to 15 university students. Reviews students' vocabulary gains, as seen in pre- and post-test scores, and describes how some students implemented superlearning techniques with their own…

  17. Vocabularies in the VO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, A. J. G.; Gray, N.; Ounis, I.

    2009-09-01

    There are multiple vocabularies and thesauri within astronomy, of which the best known are the 1993 IAU Thesaurus and the keyword list maintained by A&A, ApJ and MNRAS. The IVOA has agreed on a standard for publishing vocabularies, based on the W3C skos standard, to allow greater automated interaction with them, in particular on the Web. This allows links with the Semantic Web and looks forward to richer applications using the technologies of that domain. Vocabulary-aware applications can benefit from improvements in both precision and recall when searching for bibliographic or science data, and lightweight intelligent filtering for services such as VOEvent streams. In this paper we present two applications, the Vocabulary Explorer and its companion the Mapping Editor, which have been developed to support the use of vocabularies in the Virtual Observatory. These combine Semantic Web and Information Retrieval technologies to illustrate the way in which formal vocabularies might be used in a practical application, provide an online service which will allow astronomers to explore and relate existing vocabularies, and provide a service which translates free text user queries into vocabulary terms.

  18. Content Area Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Students' vocabulary knowledge is a significant predictor of their overall comprehension. The Common Core State Standards are raising the expectations for word learning and there are now 4 distinct standards related to vocabulary as well as expectations in other standards, including content areas. To address these expectations, teachers need…

  19. The efficacy of a vocabulary intervention for dual-language learners with language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Maria Adelaida; Morgan, Gareth P; Thompson, Marilyn S

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the authors evaluated the efficacy of a Spanish-English versus English-only vocabulary intervention for dual-language learners (DLLs) with language impairment compared to mathematics intervention groups and typically developing controls with no intervention. Further, in this study the authors also examined whether the language of instruction affected English, Spanish, and conceptual vocabulary differentially. The authors randomly assigned 202 preschool DLLs with language impairment to 1 of 4 conditions: bilingual vocabulary, English-only vocabulary, bilingual mathematics, or English-only mathematics. Fifty-four DLLs with typical development received no intervention. The vocabulary intervention consisted of a 12-week small-group dialogic reading and hands-on vocabulary instruction of 45 words. Postintervention group differences and linear growth rates were examined in conceptual, English, and Spanish receptive and expressive vocabulary for the 45 treatment words. Results indicate that the bilingual vocabulary intervention facilitated receptive and expressive Spanish and conceptual vocabulary gains in DLLs with language impairment compared with the English vocabulary intervention, mathematics intervention, and no-intervention groups. The English-only vocabulary intervention differed significantly from the mathematics condition and no-intervention groups on all measures but did not differ from the bilingual vocabulary intervention. Vocabulary growth rates postintervention slowed considerably. Results support the idea that bilingual interventions support native- and second-language vocabulary development. English-only intervention supports only English. Use of repeated dialogic reading and hands-on activities facilitates vocabulary acquisition.

  20. Improving Elementary School Students’ English Vocabulary Through Local Cultural Content Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Manurung

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Elementary students of a certain public school in Indonesia had difficulties in learning English. One of the crucial problems was learning English vocabulary. In an attempt to help the students learn and improve English vocabulary, the researchers decided to use CAR to teach English vocabulary with local cultural content materials. The aim of this study was to investigate how the teaching of English vocabulary with local cultural content materials contributed to the improvement of the students’ English vocabulary mastery. The topics covered in the materials were selected based on schemata theory. Vocabulary learning process was done through several activities provided in the materials: classroom and outside vocabulary learning. The results showed that the teaching of local cultural content materials have contributed to the improvement of the Elementary students’ vocabulary mastery. The schematic knowledge found in the familiar topics has aroused the students’ interest and motivation in learning English vocabulary. Students who were more familiar with the topics could respond to the vocabulary learning better than those who were not familiar with. The vocabulary mastery was more successful only if the students participated in both classroom and outside vocabulary learning process. Keywords: Vocabulary Mastery, Vocabulary Improvement, Local Cultural Content Materials, Vocabulary Learning, Schemata

  1. Effects of Hierarchy Vocabulary Exercises on English Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Ying; Hsu, Wei Shu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the effectiveness of hierarchy vocabulary exercises and copying vocabulary exercises on EFL students' vocabulary acquisition and reading comprehension. Two specific factors were probed: (a) vocabulary gains and retention from different exercises; (b) reading comprehension performance through different…

  2. Interactive College English Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨敏

    2013-01-01

    Vocabulary learning is the foundation of language learning and the security to realize the language communication. However, vocabulary learning for many students is a difficulty which is hard to pass across. This paper attempts to explore the present vocabulary teaching reform, which aims to establish a teaching method that is to help students develop vocabulary learn-ing interest with the game.

  3. Supplements to Traditional Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    布亚男

    2012-01-01

      In a word, Vocabulary plays an indispensable part in language proficiency and provides much of the basis of how wel learns language, so it cannot be ignored. I discussed Schools’ viewpoints on the vocabulary teaching ,Reason for forgetting, Traditional approach to vocabulary teaching, supplements to vocabulary teaching,the author hope the above content can offer some hints for language learners.

  4. Redefining Vocabulary: The New Learning Strategy for Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander-Shea, Aimee

    2011-01-01

    Although vocabulary development is an important part of the social studies curriculum, vocabulary activities are often inadequate, leaving students with cursory knowledge of terms. Worse still is the fact that many of the most critical words demarcating the field are not included in those activities. Therefore, a transformation from viewing…

  5. Linking open vocabularies

    CERN Document Server

    Greifender, Elke; Seadle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Linked Data (LD), Linked Open Data (LOD) and generating a web of data, present the new knowledge sharing frontier. In a philosophical context, LD is an evolving environment that reflects humankinds' desire to understand the world by drawing on the latest technologies and capabilities of the time. LD, while seemingly a new phenomenon did not emerge overnight; rather it represents the natural progression by which knowledge structures are developed, used, and shared. Linked Open Vocabularies is a significant trajectory of LD. Linked Open Vocabularies targets vocabularies that have traditionally b

  6. Vocabulary development at home: A multimedia elaborated picture supporting parent-toddler interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gremmen, M.C.; Molenaar, I.; Teepe, R.C.

    2016-01-01

    Some children enter elementary school with large vocabulary delays, which negatively influence their later school performance. A rich home language environment can support vocabulary development through frequent high-quality parent-toddler interaction. Elaborated picture home activities can support

  7. Technology-enhanced storytelling stimulating parent-child interaction and preschool children's vocabulary knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teepe, R.C.; Molenaar, I.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2017-01-01

    Preschool children's vocabulary mainly develops verbal through interaction. Therefore, the technology-enhanced storytelling (TES) activity Jeffy's Journey is developed to support parent-child interaction and vocabulary in preschool children. TES entails shared verbal storytelling supported by a

  8. Marine Navigational Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王惠灵

    2014-01-01

    Every industry has its professional terms or particular use of common words. The marine industry is no exception. This paper attempts to give a brief introduction to the elementary vocabularies related to marine industry from six aspects: types of ships;ship’s structure and equipment, manning, logbook, safety and organizations concerned. The corresponding Chinese terms is given simultaneously. It concludes that a good master of these vocabularies is useful and necessary for Chinese seafarers whose native language is not English.

  9. Vocabulary teaching strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐桂荣

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary has always been one of the significant issues related both with teachers and learners of foreign languages. How to teach vocabulary efficiency? Teachers should choose proper ways to instruct words. Many teachers often write new words they want to teach on the blackboard and then explain them one by one. It makes students feel bored. This paper will summarize some teaching approaches that are better on teaching English words.

  10. Vocabulary Acquisition in L2: Does CALL Really Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averianova, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Language competence in various communicative activities in L2 largely depends on the learners' size of vocabulary. The target vocabulary of adult L2 learners should be between 2,000 high frequency words (a critical threshold) and 10,000 word families (for comprehension of university texts). For a TOEIC test, the threshold is estimated to be…

  11. Using Explicit Instruction to Promote Vocabulary Learning for Struggling Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, D. Bruce; Mraz, Maryann; Nichols, William D.; Rickelman, Robert J.; Wood, Karen D.

    2009-01-01

    Research supports the need for active vocabulary learning across grade levels and subject areas to help increase readers' comprehension of diverse texts that they encounter. Given the increasing emphasis on decoding and reading comprehension, the relative importance of vocabulary instruction has been diminished in recent years. The authors argue…

  12. Children's executive and social functioning and family context as predictors of preschool vocabulary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teepe, R.C.; Molenaar, I.; Oostdam, R.J.; Fukkink, R.G.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2017-01-01

    The primary source for young children's vocabulary development is parent-child interaction. How parent-child interaction influences vocabulary depends on the child's functioning and the family context. Although research shows the effect of the family context on vocabulary (e.g., reading activities

  13. Improving new vocabulary learning in context

    OpenAIRE

    Colombia Ovalle María

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to help students increase their vocabulary learning in context because when learners participate in a special class with different activities and keep in mind the situation, they remember new words. The study was carried out in the action research method, and the activities provided to students encouraged learning and motivated them to practice English more.

  14. Vocabulary Knowledge and Vocabulary Use in Second Language Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark D.; Acevedo, Anthony; Mercado, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Research has consistently shown diversity of vocabulary to be an important indicator of second language (L2) writing development as well as L2 writing performance. These studies underscore the importance of vocabulary to L2 writing. However, they provide little to indicate what kind of vocabulary learners of English may need to know in order to…

  15. Vocabulary Knowledge and Vocabulary Use in Second Language Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark D.; Acevedo, Anthony; Mercado, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Research has consistently shown diversity of vocabulary to be an important indicator of second language (L2) writing development as well as L2 writing performance. These studies underscore the importance of vocabulary to L2 writing. However, they provide little to indicate what kind of vocabulary learners of English may need to know in order to…

  16. Talking about Cultural Elements in Vocabulary and English Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jinjing

    2015-01-01

    By illustrating the significance of cultural elements in vocabulary and current situations in English vocabulary teaching,the author hope that English teachers can pay more attention to cultural elements behind the conceptual meanings of English words and change their method of teaching to motivate students' interest in vocabulary learning.

  17. Talking about Cultural Elements in Vocabulary and English Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang; Jinjing

    2015-01-01

    By illustrating the significance of cultural elements in vocabulary and current situations in English vocabulary teaching,the author hope that English teachers can pay more attention to cultural elements behind the conceptual meanings of English words and change their method of teaching to motivate students’ interest in vocabulary learning.

  18. Vocabulary Plus: Comprehensive Vocabulary Instruction for English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkin, Rhoda

    2010-01-01

    "Vocabulary Plus" is an interactive strategy which links vocabulary development with content area learning for English learners. This strategy uses interactive read-alouds of thematically- connected informational text matched to the grade-appropriate state standards and content of core subjects. When using "Vocabulary Plus",…

  19. General Reviews of Vocabulary Retention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yuan

    2013-01-01

    This paper will try to review two important theories (repletion and retrieval) which are crucial for vocabulary retention. These two methods are well connected and each of them cannot lead to successful vocabulary retention without sensible utilization of the other.

  20. How to Enlarge Productive Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘菁

    2015-01-01

    Haycraft defined receptive vocabulary as "words that the student recognizes and understands when they occur in a text, but which he cannot produce correctly", while productive vocabulary is "words which the student understands can pronounce correctly and use constructively in speaking and writing" (1978:44).In English language teaching practice, students' productive vocabulary size lags far behind there ceptive vocabulary size. Based on the SLA theories, many reasons caused this problem and some solutions will be discussed.

  1. Teaching Vocabulary across the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bintz, William P.

    2011-01-01

    Learning vocabulary is an important instructional aim for teachers in all content areas in middle grades schools. Recent research, however, indicates that vocabulary instruction may be problematic because many teachers are not "confident about best practice in vocabulary instruction and at times don't know where to begin to form an instructional…

  2. Vocabulary Intervention for School-age Children with Language Impairment: A Review of Evidence and Good Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Sara C; Mills, Monique T

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide evidence to support direct vocabulary intervention practices for primary school-age children with language impairment (LI). A rationale for providing direct vocabulary intervention for children with LI is outlined by reviewing typical and atypical vocabulary acquisition, evidence of instructional strategies from research in mainstream and special education is summarised, and suggestions for vocabulary intervention activities that facilitate deep word knowledge are provided. Suggestions for choosing appropriate vocabulary, using strategies during direct intervention, and conducting activities that increase depth of vocabulary knowledge are included.

  3. THE INFLUENCE OF VOCABULARY JOURNAL IN TEACHING STUDENTS’ VOCABULARY MASTERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Rakhmawati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research is to find out the influence of vocabulary journal as media in teaching student vocabulary at the eighth grade students of SMP Al-Fajar. The quantitative method was conducted and this research is a population research, because all the member of population is taken as sample, which consisted of 30 students of eighth grade. To collect the data, the writer used pre-test and post-test, then the vocabulary test was used as the research instrument. To know whether there is an influence, the writer analyzed the data by using paired-sample T-test.The result shows that there is significant influence of vocabulary journal in teaching students’ vocabulary mastery.Keywords: Influence, vocabulary journal, students’ vocabulary mastery

  4. Vocabulary Teaching Strategies in College

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱荣

    2009-01-01

    We all focus on the students' abilities of listening, speaking, wading, writing and translating in college teaching. But actually, it is nothing without vocabulary. Thus, vocabulary teaching is an essential part in English teaching. However, seme traditional teaching takes vocabuhury out from the context, which costs a lot of time and energy, but students are involved in the dull circle of memorizing to forgetting to memorizing again. Finally, they lose their patience on English learning and maybe give it up. In this paper, we discuss some vocabulary teaching strategies, so as to help the memorizing of vocabulary and enhance the efficiency of vocabulary teaching and learning.

  5. ATTENTION TO VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT IN READING:QUANTITY AND QUALITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    It has long been argued that little or no classroomattention is given to vocabulary(Carter,1987;Zim-merman,1997),whereas the opposite might be saidof Chinese tertiary English majors.But problems stillremain:Does more time spent on vocabulary teachingand learning prove effective?Does more attentionneed to be paid to the quality of teaching and learningof vocabulary?To answer these questions,I argue inthis article for a balance of quality and quantity of at-tention to vocabulary development.In the first partof the article,I present five common procedures invocabulary teaching and learning in Chinese collegesand universities and analyse the reasons for the low ef-ficiency in vocabulary teaching and learning.In thesecond,I put forward three techniques—a semanticmapping activity,creating meaningful contexts andusing an integrated approach in teaching and learningvocabulary.

  6. Modelling Vocabulary Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meara, Paul

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes some simple simulation models of vocabulary attrition. The attrition process is modelled using a random autonomous Boolean network model, and some parallels with real attrition data are drawn. The paper argues that applying a complex systems approach to attrition can provide some important insights, which suggest that real…

  7. Building Your Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ScottThornbury

    2004-01-01

    “I'm not 100% convinced that memorizing the dictionary is the best way of improving your vocabulary,” says the character played by Hugh Grant in Woody Allen's film Small Time Crooks.Yet why not?Ifyou could memorize the dictionary-or even

  8. Vocabulary Games: More than Just Wordplay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzutti, Nico

    2016-01-01

    Games offer more than just fun and play, and the analyses suggest that varying vocabulary activities is important if learners are to practice all the aspects of word knowledge. However, despite all the evidence, just claiming that playing games is a good way to practice the language is often not enough to win the argument. Because author Nico…

  9. Reading vocabulary knowledge and deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, P

    1996-01-01

    With respect to reading vocabulary knowledge and deafness, this article addresses two broad questions: (1) Why is vocabulary knowledge related to reading comprehension ability? (2) How is reading vocabulary (i.e., word meanings) acquired? The article argues that the answers to these questions are best addressed by a vocabulary acquisition model labeled the knowledge model. In essence, this model asserts that both breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge are critical. It is necessary to teach vocabulary, especially to poor readers, who are not likely to derive many word meanings from the use of context during natural or deliberate reading situations. On the basis of theoretical and research syntheses, the article offers implications for vocabulary instruction for deaf children and adolescents.

  10. Creativity in Building ESP Vocabulary in the Context Of ICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvyda Liuolienė

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article aims at analyzing various creative methods of expanding students’ ESP vocabulary – the basic tool for communication and knowledge – in the context of ICT. The authors tackle traditional ways of using authentic texts and proceed with innovative methods of ESP vocabulary building such as using the Internet as an extremely diverse source of activities as well as emphasize the advantages of mock trials for law students and the most challenging activities – presentations and project-based learning. The framework of ICT offers numerous integrated and interactive materials and creative ways of vocabulary building.

  11. The pace of vocabulary growth helps predict later vocabulary skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Meredith L; Raudenbush, Stephen W; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Children vary widely in the rate at which they acquire words--some start slow and speed up, others start fast and continue at a steady pace. Do early developmental variations of this sort help predict vocabulary skill just prior to kindergarten entry? This longitudinal study starts by examining important predictors (socioeconomic status [SES], parent input, child gesture) of vocabulary growth between 14 and 46 months (n = 62) and then uses growth estimates to predict children's vocabulary at 54 months. Velocity and acceleration in vocabulary development at 30 months predicted later vocabulary, particularly for children from low-SES backgrounds. Understanding the pace of early vocabulary growth thus improves our ability to predict school readiness and may help identify children at risk for starting behind.

  12. Language understanding and vocabulary of early cochlear implanted children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Percy-Smith, Lone; Busch, Georg Walter; Sandahl, Minna;

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with the level of language understanding, the level of receptive and active vocabulary, and to estimate effect-related odds ratios for cochlear implanted children's language level....

  13. The effect of vocabulary notebooks on vocabulary acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Bozkurt, Neval

    2007-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Teaching English as a Foreign Language, Bilkent University, 2007. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2007. Includes bibliographical references leaves 82-87 This study investigated the effectiveness of vocabulary notebooks on vocabulary acquisition, and the attitudes of teachers and learners towards keeping vocabulary notebooks. The study was conducted with the participation of 60 pre-intermediate level students, divided into one treatment ...

  14. VOCABULARY AND LANGUAGE TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrudan Cristiana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have looked at the difference between teaching language structure and teaching vocabulary. We have discussed how counts of frequency alone are not enough to determine what words should be taught. We have seen that knowing a word means more than just knowing its meaning. Even that is problematical since meaning includes sense relations and context, for example. To know a word we also need to know about its use, how it is formed and what grammatical behavior it provokes. Above all, in this paper, we have approached the idea of how vocabulary teaching and learning need to be emphasized in order for students to be competent language users.

  15. English Vocabulary Memorizing Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯首慧

    2014-01-01

    With the high-speed development of society, English has already become a university language and learning English is the basic requirement to learners. Vocabulary learning is one of the key factors in English Learning. This paper focuses on the vocabulary memories strategies.%随着社会高速发展,对任何学习者来说,掌握英语,这个世界性语言是学习中最基本的要求。词汇学习当然是英语学习中关键因素之一。本文将侧重介绍词汇记忆的策略。

  16. The electric vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheils, James

    2012-01-01

    Since the 1600s, the developments in the understanding of electrical phenomena have frequently altered the models and metaphors used by physicists to describe and explain their experiments. However, to this day, certain relics of past theories still drench the vocabulary of the subject, serving as distracting fog for future students. This article attempts, through historical illumination, to shine through the mist of electrostatic terminology and offer a clearer view of the classical model of electricity.

  17. Techniques to improve the vocabulary of the students at the college level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sripada Pushpa Nagini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper suggests effective techniques to improve the vocabulary of the students in English as a Second Language context based on an experimental study. The study was conducted in India (South Asia, in an Engineering college for freshmen in the age group of eighteen to nineteen years. The paper makes a comparison of two vocabulary teaching strategies and the results show that explicit vocabulary teaching is more effective than implicit vocabulary teaching. The experimental group also showed greater involvement as they enjoyed doing reading and vocabulary exercises than the control group that did only reading activities. The study makes an important contribution to the existing research as it recommends focused vocabulary teaching by suggesting various techniques for teaching vocabulary.

  18. Features of Medical English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘翠萍

    2015-01-01

    Medical English is relatively more difficult than general English,especially its vocabulary.Those medical English words are long and complex,making it hard to remember.But medical English vocabulary has its own features,which would help us in learning vocabulary.On the basis of many medical English materials,the paper explores the features of etymology,affixes and roots of medical English.

  19. Features of Medical English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘翠萍

    2015-01-01

    Medical English is relatively more difficult than general English,especially its vocabulary.Those medical English words are long and complex,making it hard to remember. But medical English vocabulary has its own features,which would help us in learning vocabulary.On the basis of many medical English materials,the paper explores the features of etymology,affixes and roots of medical English.

  20. The relationship between Iranian EFL learners’ self-regulatory vocabulary strategy use and their vocabulary size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Reza Amirian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Self-regulation is referred to as learners’ self-generated ideas and actions which are systematically directed towards achieving educational goals and require learners’ active participation in the learning process (Zimmerman & Bandura, 1994. The present study investigated the relationship between Iranian EFL students’ self-regulation capacity for vocabulary learning and their vocabulary size. For this purpose, the researchers made use of two main instruments: the self-regulation capacity in vocabulary learning scale developed by Tseng et al. (2006 consisting of five subscales of commitment, metacognitive, emotion, satiation and environment control, and a bilingual vocabulary size test developed and validated by Karami (2012. The results of the data analysis revealed no significant relationship between the two variables measured by these instruments. However, the results of the multiple regressions indicated that the metacognitive control compared to the other subscales made a better contribution to the prediction of learners’ vocabulary size. In addition, based on the analysis of variance (ANOVA, which examined and compared the self-regulatory strategy use of learners in different experience groups, the first year students had a higher mean score in their self-regulation capacity, which can possibly be attributed to the strategies they have learnt in their Study Skills courses. Finally, it was suggested that teachers must try to develop self-regulatory power in the learners because their creative effort and informed decisions in trying to improve their own learning are highly important.

  1. Summarizing Vocabularies in the Global Semantic Web

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Zhang; Gong Cheng; Wei-Yi Ge; Yu-Zhong Qu

    2009-01-01

    In the Semantic Web, vocabularies are defined and shared among knowledge workers to describe linked data for scientific, industrial or daily life usage. With the rapid growth of online vocabularies, there is an emergent need for approaches helping users understand vocabularies quickly. In this paper, we study the summarization of vocabularies to help users understand vocabularies. Vocabulary summarization is based on the structural analysis and pragmatics statistics in the global Semantic Web. Local Bipartite Model and Expanded Bipartite Model of a vocabulary are proposed to characterize the structure in a vocabulary and links between vocabularies. A structural importance for each RDF sentence in the vocabulary is assessed using link analysis. Meanwhile, pragmatics importance of each RDF sentence is assessed using the statistics of instantiation of its terms in the Semantic Web. Summaries are produced by extracting important RDF sentences in vocabularies under a re-ranking strategy. Preliminary experiments show that it is feasible to help users understand a vocabulary through its summary.

  2. Enhancing vocabulary acquisition by encouraging extensive reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奚亚芳

    2012-01-01

    Current situation of vocabulary teaching The importance of vocabulary in learning a second or foreign language has been widely acknowledged and the findings of a sea of research studies have convinced us to regard vocabulary k nowledge as a

  3. Learners' independent records of vocabulary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Philip; Leeke, Philip

    1999-01-01

    Handbooks recommend a variety of quite complicated procedures for learning and remembering vocabulary, but most learners only engage in very simple procedures. The aim of this project was to establish a basis for identifying optimal vocabulary recording procedures by finding out what learners...... currently do. We administered a questionnaire, interviewed learners who said that they kept vocabulary records of some kind and examined their records. Two-thirds had given up making vocabulary lists on entering the L2 environment and/or starting to read extensively, but several made interesting lists...

  4. A Mobile Game-Based English Vocabulary Practice System Based on Portfolio Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ting-Ting Wu; Yueh-Min Huang

    2017-01-01

    .... However, learning a foreign language is difficult and stressful. In addition, memorizing English vocabulary is often considered boring, and learners may lack motivation for learning activities...

  5. On Vocabulary Acquisition by Chinese Learners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔莉; 南二丽

    2006-01-01

    It is admitted that vocabulary acquisition, as the smallest unit in English leaning, is the most basic, decisive yet difficult part. Yet vocabulary acquisition has always obsessed and fascinated Chinese learners of English. This paper mainly presents a discussion of English vocabulary acquisition by Chinese learners in the respect of vocabulary size and correct use. Through the analysis of the problems existing in the present vocabulary learning and teaching, author also presents some learning strategies to expand vocabulary size.

  6. Improving New Vocabulary Learning in Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colombia Ovalle María

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to help students increase their vocabulary learning in context because when learners participate in a special class with different activities and keep in mind the situation, they remember new words. The study was carried out in the action research method, and the activities provided to students encouraged learning and motivated them to practice English more.

  7. Discussion on English Vocabulary and Description

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Lan; Zhang Shiying

    2013-01-01

    Compared with the study of Grammar, syntax, the description on vocabulary is comparatively slower than them. The related theories of vocabulary description have fast developed since the 1980s and 1990s have experienced a growing interest in vocabulary learning and teaching----The vocabulary size, text coverage, word list, meaning of vocabulary in context, and collocation have been discovered and described, which helped new insights in arrange of different research fields have all added to our understanding of vocabulary development. Vocabulary acquisition research, based on vocabulary description, has established itself as a central research focus for language acquisition researchers and contributed to the focus of practical teaching and learning in English.

  8. The Relationship between Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Vocabulary Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Nasser; Mortazavi, Fariba

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated the relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary size of Iranian university EFL students. Participants in the present study were a total of 67 EFL learners, studying at Shiraz Azad University as senior English Translation students. The instruments utilized for data collection were three tests: A…

  9. Problems of Controlled Vocabulary versus Uncontrolled Vocabulary in Subject Indexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-chen Chen

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is mainly to survey the centennial controversy between controlled vocabulary v. uncontrolled vocabulary of subject indexing in the western library and information society. We also discuss the related problems in Chinese information retrieval systems and analyze the factors affecting their performance. [Article content in Chinese

  10. The Relationship between Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Vocabulary Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Nasser; Mortazavi, Fariba

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated the relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary size of Iranian university EFL students. Participants in the present study were a total of 67 EFL learners, studying at Shiraz Azad University as senior English Translation students. The instruments utilized for data collection were three tests: A…

  11. Improving Vocabulary of English Language Learners through Direct Vocabulary Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Meghan; Feng, Jay

    2016-01-01

    This is a report of a professional development project. The purpose of the project was to provide professional development to teachers in vocabulary instructional strategies and to examine vocabulary acquisition of English language learners. The participants were 8 second grade ELL students and 6 second grade teachers. The eight second grade…

  12. Vocabulary Breadth and Field Dependence/Independence Cognitive Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Nassim Golaghaei

    2011-01-01

    This article is primarily bidirectional in that it is concerned with two fields of cognitive styles of field-dependency/independency on one hand and breadth of vocabulary knowledge on the other hand. In other word, this research is primarily intended to investigate the nature of the students' vocabulary knowledge in the field of passive and active knowledge of L2 words as a whole with regard to their preferred cognitive style of field dependency/independency. A group of 60 undergraduate stude...

  13. Strategies for teaching and learning vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Teng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article presents an overview of current research on second language vocabulary learning and proposes eight strategies for teaching and learning vocabulary. First, to facilitate effective vocabulary teaching, choosing high-frequency words is essential. Teachers of vocabulary also need to add explicit, intentional teaching to incidental learning. In addition, vocabulary learning strategies including morphological awareness and lexical inference provides a platform by which learners can improve both receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge. This article also suggests that productive vocabulary knowledge needs more attention than receptive vocabulary knowledge, and that available textbooks seldom address vocabulary sufficiently. In summary, it is very important for all learners and teachers to acknowledge that learning vocabulary is incremental in nature, and we should develop a principled, long-term program for teaching and learning vocabulary.

  14. Essential French Vocabulary Teach Yourself

    CERN Document Server

    Saint-Thomas, Noel

    2010-01-01

    Essential French Vocabulary is the course for you if you need help with your study of French. This fully revised edition of our best-selling course now comes with free downloadable audio support containing hints on how to learn vocabulary effectively.

  15. Teaching Vocabulary for Peace Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Matos, Francisco Gomes

    2002-01-01

    Shows English-as-a-Second-Language educators how vocabulary teaching can become humanizingly meaningful through the use of techniques inspired by some of the interdependent traditions to peace, and to make a plea for ESL teachers and learners to humanize their repertoires of best practices in vocabulary teaching and learning. (Author/VWL)

  16. Methods of Enlarging English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁小航

    2012-01-01

      In order to enlarge English vocabulary , we need to have some methods. I’d like to share my experience with begin⁃ners how I enlarge English vocabulary when when I am learning English. It is a long process and needs hard work and patience.

  17. The State of Vocabulary Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairrell, Angela; Rupley, William; Simmons, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-four studies were included in this systematic review of vocabulary research literature. The review corroborates the findings of past studies that several strategies have emerged that increase students' vocabulary knowledge. Findings further reinforce the National Reading Panel's recommendations regarding the context and magnitude of studies…

  18. Reading, Dictionaries, and Vocabulary Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppescu, Stuart; Day, Richard R.

    1993-01-01

    The usefulness of bilingual dictionaries for vocabulary learning was examined with 293 Japanese university students studying English as a foreign language. Students who used a dictionary during reading scored significantly better on a vocabulary test than those who did not, but there was evidence for differential item functioning. (25 references)…

  19. VOCABULARY AND LANGUAGE TEACHING

    OpenAIRE

    Abrudan Cristiana

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we have looked at the difference between teaching language structure and teaching vocabulary. We have discussed how counts of frequency alone are not enough to determine what words should be taught. We have seen that knowing a word means more than just knowing its meaning. Even that is problematical since meaning includes sense relations and context, for example. To know a word we also need to know about its use, how it is formed and what grammatical behavior it provokes. Above ...

  20. Tectonic Vocabulary & Materialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvejsel, Marie Frier; Beim, Anne; Bundgaard, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    By referring to the fundamental question of how we unite aesthetics and technology – tectonic theory is necessarily a focal point in the development of the architectural discipline. However, a critical reconsideration of the role of tectonic theory seems necessary when facing the present everyday...... architectural practice. In this matter the paper focuses on the need to juxtapose theoretical studies, to bring the present vocabulary of the tectonic further, as well as to spur further practical experiments enabling theory to materialize in the everyday of the current practice....

  1. Nuclear engineering vocabulary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumont, X. [FRAMATOME, Dept. Corporate R and D, 92 - Paris-La-Defence (France); Andrieux, C. [CEA Saclay, Direction des Technologies de l' Information, DTI, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2001-07-01

    The members of the CSTNIN - the Special Commission for Nuclear Engineering Terminology and Neology - have just produced a Nuclear Engineering Vocabulary, published by SFEN. A 120-page document which, to date, includes 400 nuclear engineering terms or expressions. For each term or expression, this Glossary gives: the primary and secondary subject field in which it is applied, a possible abbreviation, its definition, a synonym if appropriate, any relevant comments, any associated word(s), the English equivalent, its status on the date of publication of the Glossary. (author)

  2. Tectonic Vocabulary & Materialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvejsel, Marie Frier; Beim, Anne; Bundgaard, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    to establish a Nordic Network for Research and Teaching in Tectonics is currently forming. This paper seeks to jointly reflect upon these initiatives in order to bring them further, with the intention to clad a discourse on the future of tectonic architectural research that addresses the conditions of everyday...... architectural practice. In this matter the paper focuses on the need to juxtapose theoretical studies, to bring the present vocabulary of the tectonic further, as well as to spur further practical experiments enabling theory to materialize in the everyday of the current practice....

  3. Hemispheric Asymmetries in the Activation and Monitoring of Memory Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammattei, Jeannette; Arndt, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Previous research on the lateralization of memory errors suggests that the right hemisphere's tendency to produce more memory errors than the left hemisphere reflects hemispheric differences in semantic activation. However, all prior research that has examined the lateralization of memory errors has used self-paced recognition judgments. Because…

  4. PROMOTING INCIDENTAL VOCABULARY LEARNING THROUGH VERBAL DRAMATIZATION OF WORDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Looi-Chin Ch’ng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that explicit teaching of vocabulary is often practised in English as a Second Language (ESL classrooms, it has been proven to be rather ineffective, largely because words are not taught in context. This has prompted the increasing use of incidental vocabulary learning approach, which emphasises on repeated readings as a source for vocabulary learning. By adopting this approach, this study aims to investigate students’ ability in learning vocabulary incidentally via verbal dramatization of written texts. In this case, readers’ theatre (RT is used as a way to allow learners to engage in active reading so as to promote vocabulary learning. A total of 160 diploma students participated in this case study and they were divided equally into two groups, namely classroom reading (CR and RT groups. A proficiency test was first conducted to determine their vocabulary levels. Based on the test results, a story was selected as the reading material in the two groups. The CR group read the story through a normal reading lesson in class while the RT group was required to verbally dramatize the text through readers’ theatre activity. Then, a post-test based on vocabulary levels was carried out and the results were compared. The findings revealed that incidental learning was more apparent in the RT group and their ability to learn words from the higher levels was noticeable through higher accuracy scores. Although not conclusive, this study has demonstrated the potential of using readers’ theatre as a form of incidental vocabulary learning activity in ESL settings.

  5. English Vocabulary Teaching in High school

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄肖容

    2014-01-01

    <正>1.Introduction At present,because of the influence of"the one-sided pursuing of the proportion of students’entering schools of a higher grade",the middle school foreign language teaching stresses on memorizing vocabulary mechanically,and neglects actual practice.Finally the knowledge students have learned can not be applied actively,and they even can not carry on the

  6. The Application of Corpus-based Teaching Approach to Medical English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞君; 王连柱; 王兰英

    2009-01-01

    Insufficient vocabulary has become a barrier to reading comprehension and translation in the process of ME (medical English) study to the third-year students at medical universities or colleges.The current study was designed to investigate corpus- based teaching ap-proach to enlarging students'vocabulary in the course of higher learning of ML (medical literature).The study was carried out from 2006.9 to 2008.9 among third -year medical students in our college.Students were encouraged to augment their vocabulary by active practice,intensive learning,and comprehensive learning respectively through discovering study by using self-made ME corpuses (90,000 words).In doing so, their vocabulary was enlarged by actively using the essential vocabulary,attaching more attention to the difficult technical vocabulary,and getting familiar with medical terms,which eliminated their language barrier,improved their integrated language proficiency,and developed their sense of achievement.

  7. Self-paced reaching after stroke: A quantitative assessment of longitudinal and directional sensitivity using the H-man planar robot for upper limb neurorehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Hussain

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Technology aided measures offer a sensitive, accurate and time-efficient approach for the assessment of sensorimotor function after neurological insult compared to standard clinical assessments. This study investigated the sensitivity of robotic measures to capture differences in planar reaching movements as a function of neurological status (stroke, healthy, direction (front, ipsilateral, contralateral, movement segment (outbound, inbound, and time (baseline, post-training, 2-week follow-up using a planar, two-degrees of freedom, robotic-manipulator (H-Man. Twelve chronic stroke (age: 55±10.0 years, 5 female, 7 male, time since stroke: 11.2±6.0 months and nine aged-matched healthy participants (age: 53±4.3 years, 5 female, 4 male participated in this study. Both healthy and stroke participants performed planar reaching movements in contralateral, ipsilateral and front directions with the H-Man, and the robotic measures, spectral arc length (SAL, normalized time to peak velocities 〖(T〗_peakN, and root-mean square error (RMSE were evaluated. Healthy participants went through a one-off session of assessment to investigate the baseline. Stroke participants completed a 2-week intensive robotic training plus standard arm therapy (8 x 90 minute sessions. Motor function for stroke participants was evaluated prior to training (baseline, week-0, immediately following training (post-training, week-2, and 2-weeks after training (follow-up, week-4 using robotic assessment and the clinical measures Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA, Activity-Research-Arm Test (ARAT, and grip-strength. Robotic assessments were able to capture differences due to neurological status, movement direction, and movement segment. Movements performed by stroke participants were less-smooth, featured longer T_peakN, and larger RMSE values, compared to healthy controls. Significant movement direction differences were observed, with improved reaching performance for the front, compared

  8. Effective Strategies for Turning Receptive Vocabulary into Productive Vocabulary in EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraj, Avan Kamal Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary acquisition has been a main concern of EFL English teachers and learners. There have been tons of research to examine the student's level of receptive vocabulary and productive vocabulary, but no research has conducted on how turning receptive vocabulary into productive vocabulary. This study has reported the impact of the teaching…

  9. FL Vocabulary Learning of Undergraduate English Majors in Western China: Perspective, Strategy Use and Vocabulary Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baicheng

    2009-01-01

    The present study, by use of questionnaire and vocabulary tests, has investigated the foreign language vocabulary learning situation of 481 undergraduates in terms of their perspective of vocabulary learning, strategy use and vocabulary size. Based on the questionnaire investigation and vocabulary level tests, the characteristics of the subjects'…

  10. Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Arabic Vocabulary Size among Pre-University Students in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharudin, Harun; Ismail, Zawawi

    2014-01-01

    Vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary size are among the main factors that help determine how students learn second language vocabulary. The present study was an attempt to exploring the relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and Arabic vocabulary size of 742 pre-university in "Religious High School" (SMKA) and…

  11. The Challenge of Effective Vocabulary Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cárdenas B. Melba Libia

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Helping students develop vocabulary competence is one of the main challenges English language teachers face. This paper addresses the main aspects we should consider when planning and developing lessons in terms of vocabulary improvement. To achieve that objective, we will analyse the linguistic background and principles of vocabulary teaching and learning, as well as some ways of opening up vocabulary.

  12. Second Language Vocabulary Growth at Advanced Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Meral

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the receptive vocabulary growth of advanced EFL learners in an English-medium degree programme. The study used the Vocabulary Size Test in a cross-sectional design to measure the vocabulary size of learners at various stages of study. The effect of word frequency on vocabulary development and the presence of an…

  13. Techniques for Vocabulary Teaching in Elementary English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽华

    2004-01-01

    All teachers know very well how important vocabulary is in learning language, but, for many years, vocabulary has all been neglected in language teaching. In this essay will try to introduce some practical and effective methods in presenting, practising,and consolidating vocabulary in elementary level in which, I wish, the elementary teachers may get some inspiration for their vocabulary teaching.

  14. For ELLs: Vocabulary beyond the Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Nancy S.; Truxaw, Mary P.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, a classroom teacher discusses ambiguities in mathematics vocabulary and strategies for ELL students in building understanding. The authors note that mathematics vocabulary may be more difficult to learn than other academic vocabulary for several reasons: (1) definitions are filled with technical vocabulary, symbols, and diagrams;…

  15. Exploiting pupils' multiple intelligences in the process of teaching English vocabulary

    OpenAIRE

    KUTTENBERGOVÁ, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    The diploma thesis is devoted to exploiting pupils' multiple intelligences in the process of learning English vocabulary. The theoretical part deals with the theory of vocabulary acquisition and the description of Howard Gardner´s multiple intelligences. The practical part deals with the application of these theories into lessons where activities connected with multiple intelligences will be used for new vocabulary teaching. The aim of this diploma thesis is to find out which types of intelli...

  16. DSpace and customized controlled vocabularies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skourlas, C.; Tsolakidis, A.; Kakoulidis, P.; Giannakopoulos, G.

    2015-02-01

    The open source platform of DSpace could be defined as a repository application used to provide access to digital resources. DSpace is installed and used by more than 1000 organizations worldwide. A predefined taxonomy of keyword, called the Controlled Vocabulary, can be used for describing and accessing the information items stored in the repository. In this paper, we describe how the users can create, and customize their own vocabularies. Various heterogeneous items, such as research papers, videos, articles and educational material of the repository, can be indexed in order to provide advanced search functionality using new controlled vocabularies.

  17. Core vocabulary of young children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckers, Stijn R J M; Van Zaalen, Yvonne; Van Balkom, Hans; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a core vocabulary list for young children with intellectual disabilities between 2 and 7 years of age because data from this population are lacking in core vocabulary literature. Children with Down syndrome are considered one of the most valid reference groups for researching developmental patterns in children with intellectual disabilities; therefore, spontaneous language samples of 30 Dutch children with Down syndrome were collected during three different activities with multiple communication partners (free play with parents, lunch- or snack-time at home or at school, and speech therapy sessions). Of these children, 19 used multimodal communication, primarily manual signs and speech. Functional word use in both modalities was transcribed. The 50 most frequently used core words accounted for 67.2% of total word use; 16 words comprised core vocabulary, based on commonality. These data are consistent with similar studies related to the core vocabularies of preschoolers and toddlers with typical development, although the number of nouns present on the core vocabulary list was higher for the children in the present study. This finding can be explained by manual sign use of the children with Down syndrome and is reflective of their expressive vocabulary ages.

  18. Vocabulary Breadth and Field Dependence/Independence Cognitive Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassim Golaghaei

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is primarily bidirectional in that it is concerned with two fields of cognitive styles of field-dependency/independency on one hand and breadth of vocabulary knowledge on the other hand. In other word, this research is primarily intended to investigate the nature of the students' vocabulary knowledge in the field of passive and active knowledge of L2 words as a whole with regard to their preferred cognitive style of field dependency/independency. A group of 60 undergraduate students majoring in the field of English Language Teaching was selected. They were then divided into two groups based on the basis of their preferred cognitive styles of field-dependency / independency. Four types of tests, the 1000 frequency word-level test, the passive version of vocabulary Levels Test, the Productive Version of the Vocabulary Levels Test, and the Group Imbedded Figures Test were administered to the participants. The conclusion drawn after the analysis of the data was that the fieldindependent group outperformed their field-dependent counterparts in dealing with both passive and productive vocabulary levels. Finally, the findings of this research could be interpreted as being supportive of the idea that the field-dependent/independent cognitive style could be considered as an effective factor influencing the learners' vocabulary learning in the field of second language acquisition.

  19. Vocabularies of happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Bratu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to explore through interviews the vocabularies of happiness that interviewees invoke in face-to-face interactions to account for their happiness or lack thereof and, especially, for the (unhappiness of others. In other words, how do respondents present their own or others’ happiness – be they close or distant acquaintances, or people in general, in an interview conversation? Also, what understanding of others do these accounts make visible? This work embraces a discursive psychological (DP perspective, focusing on how different versions of happiness are being put together by respondents presenting themselves as competent and credible individuals, while at the same time positioning themselves in a moral order of happiness.

  20. Learners' independent records of vocabulary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Philip; Leeke, Philip

    1999-01-01

    Handbooks recommend a variety of quite complicated procedures for learning and remembering vocabulary, but most learners only engage in very simple procedures. The aim of this project was to establish a basis for identifying optimal vocabulary recording procedures by finding out what learners...... currently do. We administered a questionnaire, interviewed learners who said that they kept vocabulary records of some kind and examined their records. Two-thirds had given up making vocabulary lists on entering the L2 environment and/or starting to read extensively, but several made interesting lists...... to be bilingual and single-word focused. The optimal listing procedures are those which represent a compromise between linguistically and psychologically effective practices and the amount of investment learners are actually prepared to put in. It is important to distinguish records made in class, which should...

  1. TOEFL IBT vocabulary flash review

    CERN Document Server

    Llc, Learning Express

    2014-01-01

    The Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) measures the English proficiency of people whose native language isn't English. This portable guide features 600 essential TOEFL vocabulary flashcards, bound in a convenient book format, with definitions, sample sentences, synonyms, and pronunciation. The cards include the most-tested vocabulary on the exam. The perfect companion to any TOEFL study plan, this book is pocket-sized for portability and great for study anywhere, anytime!

  2. Significant efficiency findings while controlling for the frequent confounders of CAI research in the PlanAlyzer project's computer-based, self-paced, case-based programs in anemia and chest pain diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, H C; Healy, J C; Bell, J R; O'Donnell, J F; Shultz, E K; Wigton, R S; Hirai, F; Beck, J R

    1991-04-01

    Richard E. Clark in his widely published comprehensive studies and meta-analyses of the literature on computer assisted instruction (CAI) has decried the lack of carefully controlled research, challenging almost every study which shows the computer-based intervention to result in significant post-test proficiency gains over a non-computer-based intervention. We report on a randomized study in a medical school setting where the usual confounders found by Clark to plague most research, were carefully controlled. PlanAlyzer is a microcomputer-based, self-paced, case-based, event-driven system for medical education which was developed and used in carefully controlled trials in a second year medical school curriculum to test the hypothesis that students with access to the interactive programs could integrate their didactic knowledge more effectively and/or efficiently than with access only to traditional textual "nonintelligent" materials. PlanAlyzer presents cases, elicits and critiques a student's approach to the diagnosis of two common medical disorders: anemias and chest pain. PlanAlyzer uses text, hypertext, images and critiquing theory. Students were randomized, one half becoming the experimental group who received the interactive PlanAlyzer cases in anemia, the other half becoming the controls who received the exact same content material in a text format. Later in each year there was a crossover, the controls becoming the experimentals for a similar intervention with the cardiology PlanAlyzer cases. Preliminary results at the end of the first two full trials shows that the programs have achieved most of the proposed instructional objectives, plus some significant efficiency and economy gains. 96 faculty hours of classroom time were saved by using PlanAlyzer in their place, while maintaining high student achievement. In terms of student proficiency and efficiency, the 328 students in the trials over two years were able to accomplish the project's instructional

  3. Developing High-School Students'Motivation Through Vocabulary Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李生敏

    2012-01-01

    As is commonly accepted motivation is the key to success, and interest is the best teacher what the teacher is to do in class is to provide methods for learning to take place. I used to be a teacher in a high-school for two years, during the process of teaching, I had found that the classroom atmosphere was getting less and less active, a part of students idled in class, they were taking a less active role in classroom activities, one-third students even dropped out. They were caused by the lack of vocabulary. Based on some approaches that I have learned from English language Teaching Methodology and considering the characteristics of my students. I decided to adopt vocabulary design in my lessons to motivate the learners, and help them grasp vocabulary and keep up their English learning.

  4. Effects of individualized word retrieval in kindergarten vocabulary intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damhuis, C.M.P.; Segers, P.C.J.; Scheltinga, F.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of adaptive word retrieval intervention on a classroom vocabulary program on children's vocabulary acquisition in kindergarten. In the experimental condition, word retrieval was provided in a classroom vocabulary program, combining implicit and explicit vocabulary

  5. THE EFFICIENCY OF VOCABULARY TEACHING METHODS IN TURKİSH LANGUAGE TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şükran DİLİDÜZGÜN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Realising communication requires senders’ vocabulary knowledge to use correct words to transfer their ideas to receivers. The more vocabulary one has the more capable one is to express oneself and to comprehend messages. A little vocabulary is enough for daily affairs, but people need to get vocabulary education officially to improve their cognivite development, and intellectual thinking. This education is limited to the vocabulary in Turkish coursebooks. Therefore, the vocabulary in coursebooks ought to be taught via the methods which enable ones to store it in long term memory and retrieve when needed. This study aims to evaluate Turkish coursebooks in the context of vocabulary teaching methods and to propose activities in the light of findings to contribute to the field. Firstly, the vocabulary teaching methods in the 6th grade Turkish coursebook taken as sample have been classified in a descriptive manner. After that, these methods have been evaluated in the context of retrival levels of students applying a vocabulary test prepared with the words chosen randomly from the 6th level Turkish coursebook to 180 7th grade students from all over Turkey who studied the same book in the previous year to determine the effiency of the methods used.

  6. Vocabulary development at home: A multimedia elaborated picture supporting parent-toddler interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gremmen, M.C.; Molenaar, I.; Teepe, R.C.

    2016-01-01

    Some children enter elementary school with large vocabulary delays, which negatively influence their later school performance.A rich home language environment can support vocabulary development through frequent high-quality parent–toddler interaction. Elaborated picture home activities can support

  7. The Effectiveness of Using Corpus-Based Materials in Vocabulary Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paker, Turan; Özcan, Yeliz Ergül

    2017-01-01

    Our study aimed at finding out the effectiveness of corpus-based vocabulary teaching activities as well as students' attitudes towards concordance-based materials when corpus-based tasks in English vocabulary learning are used. The study was conducted in a preparatory school in a private university. The participants were 28 intermediate level…

  8. Using Songs to Enhance L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Yvette; Gómez Gracia, Remei

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the effects of a teaching sequence of song-based activities on the L2 vocabulary acquisition of a group of five-year-old Spanish child EFL learners. Twenty-five preschool children received three 30-minute lessons organized around the presentation and practice of a well-known children's song. Vocabulary picture tests were…

  9. Technology-Enhanced Storytelling Stimulating Parent-Child Interaction and Preschool Children's Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teepe, R. C.; Molenaar, I.; Verhoeven, L.

    2017-01-01

    Preschool children's vocabulary mainly develops verbal through interaction. Therefore, the technology-enhanced storytelling (TES) activity Jeffy's Journey is developed to support parent-child interaction and vocabulary in preschool children. TES entails shared verbal storytelling supported by a story structure and real-time visual, auditory and…

  10. MALL in the Wild: Learners' Designs for Scaffolding Vocabulary Learning Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Joshua; Luckin, Rosemary; Winters, Niall

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to inform the design of mobile apps for vocabulary learning. Learning vocabulary involves developing, connecting, and sustaining various types of knowledge and skills. Learners do not typically acquire these all at once, but rather over the course of distinct episodes of activity. Yet, little is known about learning experience…

  11. Explicit Vocabulary Instruction in an English Content-Area Course with University Student Teachers: When Comprehensible Input Needs to Be Comprehended

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimas, Héctor Manuel Serna

    2011-01-01

    This action research study explores explicit vocabulary instruction in an L2 (English) content-area course with a group of university student teachers. The study reviews several positions on the treatment of vocabulary in L2 contexts. The researcher takes up the teaching of explicit vocabulary through class activities and the students' completion…

  12. Teaching Techniques: Physical Vocabulary in the Beginner-Level Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiullo, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    After having success with this warm-up activity in his theater classes, the author adapted it for his beginner-level English classes, knowing his students would appreciate the opportunity to move around. The activity allows students to create their own physical interpretation of a vocabulary word, which increases their ability to remember it…

  13. The Relationship between Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Breadth and Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian; Lu, Xiaofei

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary breadth and depth knowledge. One hundred and fifty first-year university students in China took the Vocabulary Levels Test, a meaning recall task, and the Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge Test. The first two tests were used to elicit two types of vocabulary…

  14. The Relationship between Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Breadth and Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian; Lu, Xiaofei

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary breadth and depth knowledge. One hundred and fifty first-year university students in China took the Vocabulary Levels Test, a meaning recall task, and the Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge Test. The first two tests were used to elicit two types of vocabulary…

  15. Breadth and Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge and Their Effects on L2 Vocabulary Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardakçi, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge have been studied from many different perspectives, but the related literature lacks serious studies dealing with their effects on vocabulary profiles of EFL learners. In this paper, with an aim to fill this gap, the relative effects of breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge on L2 vocabulary profiles…

  16. Discussion on English Vocabulary and Description

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈岚; 代显华

    2013-01-01

      Compared with the study of Grammar, syntax, the description on vocabulary is comparatively slower than them. The related theories of vocabulary description have fast developed since the 1980s and 1990s have experienced a growing interest in vocabulary learning and teaching----The vocabulary size, text coverage, word list, meaning of vocabulary in context, and collocation have been discovered and described, which helped new insights in arrange of different research fields have all added to our understanding of vocabulary development. Vocabulary acquisition research, based on vocabulary description, has established itself as a central research focus for language acquisition researchers and contributed to the focus of practical teaching and learning in College English.

  17. The Choice of Effective Vocabulary Learning Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建芳

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to make a comparison between good and poor language learners in the use of vocabulary learning strategies.It will introduce some helpful vocabulary learning strategies to help those frustrated Chinese college non-English major learners.

  18. Review of L2 Vocabulary Acquisition Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周先军

    2014-01-01

    Vocabulary is important in language and language acquisition, but it did not catch as much attention as it deserved for a long time. In this thesis, I’ll go through changes of vocabulary studied in linguistics and language teaching as well as rise of L2 vocabulary acquisition studies. Several aspects of L2 vocabulary acquisition studies will then be reviewed.Issues that need to be further studied will at last be put forward.

  19. Considerations on Carrying Out Vocabulary Teaching Efficiently

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴白音那

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyses current situations and some problems with vocabulary leaning confronted by students (especially Mongolian students) in Inner Mongolian, which should be solved urgently since the requirements of College English Teaching Curriculum are increasing, and it points out the improvement of vocabulary teaching strategies should become college English teachers' main concern. Finally, interesting methods of presenting vocabulary and effective ways of checking students' vocabulary are suggested ...

  20. Review of L2 Vocabulary Acquisition Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周先军

    2014-01-01

    Vocabulary is important in language and language acquisition, but it did not catch as much attention as it deserved for a long time. In this thesis, I’ll go through changes of vocabulary studied in linguistics and language teaching as well as rise of L2 vocabulary acquisition studies. Several aspects of L2 vocabulary acquisition studies will then be reviewed .Issues that need to be further studied will at last be put forward.

  1. Investigating Learning Strategies for Vocabulary Development: A Comparative Study of Two Universities of Quetta, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irum Fatima

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this research is to investigate the vocabulary learning strategies employed by the undergraduate students of Sardar Bahadur Khan Women’s University (SBKWU and University of Balochistan (UOB, Quetta, Pakistan. A quantitative design was employed in this study to answer the two research questions of the present study. The quantitative data was obtained from the responses of 180 undergraduates in a questionnaire adapted from the study by Noor and Amir (2009 on vocabulary learning strategies proposed by Gu and Johnson (1996. The questionnaire comprised of 45 close-ended items on four broad vocabulary learning strategies, metacognitive regulation strategy, cognitive strategy, memory strategy, and activation strategy. Descriptive statistics was run in SPSS to obtain the results. The independent-samples t-test was run to test for statistically significant differences if any in the use of vocabulary learning strategies across the undergraduates of two universities. However, cognitive regulation strategy, and activation strategy emerged as the most influential source of learning new English words. The findings also revealed that there were no statistically significant differences found in practicing vocabulary learning strategies between undergraduates of SBKWU and UOB. The findings of the study have implications on enhancing teaching and learning by acquainting students with vocabulary learning strategies that can enhance their vocabulary in English language and can result to boost up their proficiency in this language. Keywords: Vocabulary development, learning strategies, gender difference

  2. Perfecting Language: Experimenting with Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absalom, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    One of the thorniest aspects of teaching languages is developing students' vocabulary, yet it is impossible to be "an accurate and highly communicative language user with a very small vocabulary" (Milton, 2009, p. 3). Nation (2006) indicates that more vocabulary than previously thought is required to function well both at spoken and…

  3. Vocabulary Pruning for Improved Context Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Rasmus Elsborg; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    of term relevancy, when pruning the vocabularies. With reduced vocabularies documents are classified using a latent semantic indexing representation and a probabilistic neural network classifier. Reducing the bag-of-words vocabularies with 90%-98%, we find consistent classification improvement using two...

  4. Pruning the vocabulary for better context recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Rasmus Elsborg; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    of term relevancy, when pruning the vocabularies. With reduced vocabularies, documents are classified using a latent semantic indexing representation and a probabilistic neural network classifier. Reducing the bag-of-words vocabularies with 90%-98%, we find consistent classification improvement using two...

  5. Teachers' Technology Use in Vocabulary Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilickaya, Ferit; Krajka, Jaroslaw

    2010-01-01

    It cannot be denied that vocabulary learning is central to learning a language, be it a mother tongue or the second/foreign language. According to Nunan (1991), learning vocabulary in the very early stages is more fundamental than grammar, since without vocabulary one would not be able to use the structures and functions for effective…

  6. Vocabulary Teaching Based on Semantic-Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangru, Cao

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary is an indispensable part of language and it is of vital importance for second language learners. Wilkins (1972) points out: "without grammar very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed." Vocabulary teaching has experienced several stages characterized by grammatical-translation method, audio-lingual…

  7. Vocabulary Expansion in Modern Standard Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Louise

    1997-01-01

    Examines the discrepancy between spoken and written vocabularies in modern standard Chinese (MSC) textbooks that contributes to slow vocabulary development, and outlines a teaching technique to extend students' vocabulary using the ideographic nature of MSC characters rather than phonetic learning to increase efficient use of vocabulary…

  8. Vocabulary of Toddlers Who Are Late Talkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacRoy-Higgins, Michelle; Shafer, Valerie L.; Fahey, Katlin J.; Kaden, Elyssa R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand vocabulary characteristics in toddlers who are late talkers (LT) as compared with age-matched (AM) and vocabulary-matched (VM) peers. The semantic categories (e.g., animals, foods, toys) and the percentage of nouns, verbs, and closed-class words in the vocabularies of 36 toddlers (12 LT, 12 AM, 12 VM)…

  9. How to develop vocabulary learning strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董振

    2010-01-01

    @@ Due to limited class time,students will not be able to learn all the vocabulary simply from class teaching.Thus we need to help students develop items vocabulary learning strategies so that they can effectively acquire more vocabulary on their own,especially outside the class.Below are some strategies.

  10. Learning Strategies in Acquisition of Medical Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田俊英; 蒋东坡

    2016-01-01

    Medical vocabulary consists of so many words and terms.Medical students are often terrified by large vocabulary.The paper aimed to analyze the problems lie in acquisition of medical vocabulary,review literature of learning strategies of medical vocabulary,and offers a few simple rules for students to follow to facilitate their acquisition of medical vocabulary.

  11. Listening Vocabulary: Embracing Forgotten Aural Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    This article describes an innovation in the teaching and learning of vocabulary in English as a Foreign Language classes. Whereas vocabulary coverage in classrooms and textbooks traditionally focuses on lists of target words in printed form, this article promotes the notion of "aural vocabulary" as an important part of…

  12. Vocabulary Levels and Size of Malaysian Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harji, Madhubala Bava; Balakrishnan, Kavitha; Bhar, Sareen Kaur; Letchumanan, Krishnaveni

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary is a fundamental requirement of language acquisition, and its competence enables independent reading and effective language acquisition. Effective language use requires adequate level of vocabulary knowledge; therefore, efforts must be made to identify students' vocabulary base for greater efficiency and competency in the language.…

  13. Academic Listening: A Source of Vocabulary Acquisition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Karina

    2003-01-01

    Presents a study of the acquisition of English-as-a-Foreign-Language vocabulary through academic listening. Explored the effects of EFL proficiency and lecture comprehension on vocabulary acquisition as well as the relationship between vocabulary gain and the following factors: frequency of occurrence, types of word, type of word elaboration, and…

  14. Cultivating Pragmatic Competence in English Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘果果

    2007-01-01

    vocabulary is one of the most important elements of the language. It is closely related with context and pragmatic. This paper intends to find out some effective method of vocabulary teaching under the pragmatic principles, exploring how to improve pragmatic competence of students in English vocabulary teaching.

  15. Teacher's Role in English Vocabulary Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵新颜

    2009-01-01

    Vocabulary is the basis for learning any language.Anyone who wants to learn a language well faces the challenge of enlarging his/her vocabulary effectively.From six aspects,this paper discusses what teachers should do to help their students with vocabulary acquisition.

  16. Developing Vocabulary and Speaking Skills for EFL Learners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽波

    2013-01-01

    [Introduction]A great number of researchers have investigated how to improve EFL learners’sub-skills through various classroom activities. Within this,some research has been specifically conducted on why teachers should help learners enlarge their vocabulary knowledge and to develop their speaking skills through diverse tasks(Thurston,1997;Marco,1998;Nation,2004;Demo,2001). One common outcome from the above research indicates that the most productive way for learners to develop speaking and vocabulary learning skills is through different activities rather than for example repeating words;memorizing grammatical rules or simply talking to native speakers whenever learners have the chance. It can be concluded from the previous research that it is essential for teachers to investigate what activities/tasks are appropriate to be utilised in order to help learners develop their sub-skills and vocabulary. This article aims to shed light on two activities which are designed to help EFL learners develop their vocabulary knowledge and speaking skills. These activities are specifically organised for EFL learners to gradually develop their discourse skills. The targeted EFL learners are intermediate learners who are year 12 learners in China. The ultimate goal of the article is to share opinions with EFL teachers about what kinds of activities are efficient and should be adopted in the EFL classroom teaching.

  17. WORD ASSOCIATIONS IN VOCABULARY LEARNING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    With the widespread adoption of new college Englishtextbooks,vocabulary learning seems a more important taskthan ever before for college students.This paper is about aresearch on how to help students learn English words moremeaningfully and enlarge their vocabulary more efficiently.This paper first discusses word meaning,concept,andconcept network,then explores the associative network of wordsand their associations,which corresponds to English lexicalrelations.The lexical network can be realized onto a computer tobenefit students in their learning.

  18. Coherence analysis of magnetoencephalography signals related to self-paced finger press%手指自主按键运动中脑磁图信号的相干性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯文生; 张阳; 李卫娜; 吴小鹰; 吴国材; 冯华; 郑小林

    2011-01-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the connection between spatially separated brain regions, as well as the changes of the connection in time and frequency domain.Self-paced finger press related magnetoencephalography signals were recorded and analyzed by means of coherence analysis.The coherence coefficient of two signals corresponding to different cortical areas was calculated.Time frequency analysis was also used to determine if the cortical connection changes closely co-vary with time over the course of motor task in the three frequency band-α(5-15 Hz) 、β ( 16-25 Hz) and low γ(30-45 Hz).The results showed that channels with the most significant coherence relative to the selected reference channel were approximately in the same area, and with an increase of frequency band both the coherence coefficient and the coupled area declined.Moreover, the coherence coefficient changed co-varied with time in the three frequency band.It was infered that there are different neuronal modulations in the contralateral motor cortex, and this modulation co-varies with time, which consequently reflects the changes of correlation between different brain regions in time and frequency domain.%为了获取手指运动过程中不同脑功能区之间的联系,以及这种功能性联系在时频域和空间的变化,记录了与手指运动相关的脑磁图信号,然后对其进行相干性分析,并计算了不同位置信号之间的相干性系数.通过时频分析进一步探讨了在α(5~15 Hz)、β(16~25 Hz)、lowγ(30~45 Hz)3个频带的不同皮层区联系随时间的变化关系.结果表明:α、β、lowγ 3个频带与所选参考信号相干性呈现出位置大致相同,相干强度和相干范围均从α到lowγ依次递减,相干性系数随时闻而变化,进而推论出相干性的变化表明对侧运动皮层存在不同的神经模式,而且这些神经模式也是随时间变化的,由此反映出不同功能区的联系在时频域的变化.

  19. THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE 5E MODEL STAGES TO BUILD STUDENTS’ VOCABULARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rochman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There are stages of human to learn something. In early ages, they will learn simplest things to the complicated ones. A learning process of human is started with and introductory and it tries to connect with their prior knowledge to the new one. Children begin to curious about what they want to know and start to make some questions about what they want to know. In the process of finding the answers of their own questions, they will interact with others and try to share the knowledge in this process. The result of this study illustrates that the implementation of the 5E model in teaching vocabulary that can enhance the students’ vocabulary achievement and successfully encourages them to actively and enthusiastically take part in the teaching-learning process of vocabulary through group task. Keywords: implementation, vocabulary, vocabulary course, and 5E model

  20. Input or Output Oriented Tasks? A Question of Teaching Vocabulary in EFL Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Gholinezhad Khameneh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed at comparing the effectiveness of Output-oriented and Input-oriented tasks on improving EFL learners’ vocabulary achievement. To reach their objective, the researchers ran a quasi-experimental pre-test posttest design with 64 Iranian EFL learners. After eliminating the initial differences among the participants, the Input-oriented group (IOG received glossing tasks followed by selected reading passages, while the Output-oriented group (OOG received gap-filling and composing/discussing tasks. Actively participating in 15 sessions of task-based vocabulary learning, both IOG and OOG performed on a vocabulary achievement test constructed and validated by the researchers (Cronbach α=.732. Despite the considerable improvement of the participants’ vocabulary knowledge, statistical findings failed to support the superiority of neither input nor output oriented tasks to make a meaningful difference in improving the Iranian EFL learners’ vocabulary achievement. Some implications and suggestions provided for further research.

  1. Suri-English basic vocabulary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.

    1993-01-01

    The Suri, also known as Surma, are agropastoralists living in the semiarid lowland area of the Kafa Administrative Region of Ethiopia. The Suri language belongs to the South-East Surmic (SES) language group within the Eastern Sudanic family of Nilo-Saharan. The Suri-English vocabulary presented here

  2. BUILDING VOCABULARY USING POP SONGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    author Rahmatika Kayyis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to find out whether there is a significant difference between the vocabulary mastery of first semester students taughtusing English pop songs and that taught without using English pop songs as a medium. This study involved 64 students of first semesterof STKIP Muhammadiyah Pringsewu Lampung in the academic year of 2012/2013 as the objects of the study. The result of the study shows there is a significant difference in the student’s vocabulary mastery between the experimental group who are taughtusing English pop songs and that taught without using English pop songs as a medium.The mean of post test score of the experimental group is 16.93 while the mean score of the control group is 14.54. The result of t-test shows that t-observed value which is higher than the t-value of the table (2.572>1.99, with a probability value of 0.008 which is lower than the significance level (0.008 < 0.05. In conclusion, the use of English pop songscould improve the students’ vocabulary mastery.Keywords: Vocabulary, English Pop Songs

  3. Interactive Approaches for Vocabulary Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Grace Hui Chin

    2009-01-01

    Vocabulary acquisition research has been paid attention these years (e.g. Beck, McKeown & McCaslin, 1983; Harley, 1996; Huckin, Haynes, & Coady, 1993; Zahar, Cobb & Spada, 2001). A serious methodologies had been reported, including applying learner dictionaries (Nesi, 1999; Tribble, 2003), using forms of visual glossing (Al-Seghayer,…

  4. Transformation of Words into Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, H. Naseema; Rajan, Premalatha

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the significance of a word and the changes it undergoes in its form when it is placed in the hierarchy of grammatical constituents thereby forming a new word termed as vocabulary. This change or transformation is the result of affixations. Transformation becomes essential as the words learnt cannot be used as such in a…

  5. Is There an "Academic Vocabulary"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Ken; Tse, Polly

    2007-01-01

    This article considers the notion of "academic vocabulary": the assumption that students of English for academic purposes (EAP) should study a core of high frequency words because they are common in an English academic register. We examine the value of the term by using Cox-head's (2000) Academic Word List (AWL) to explore the distribution of its…

  6. Gamified Vocabulary: Online Resources and Enriched Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Sandra Schamroth; Walsh, Sara

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the ways "gamification" can play a role in adolescents' development of vocabulary. Gamification involves the application of game-design thinking and play elements to non-game activities, such as routine homework or classroom lessons. Drawing upon data from in-school and after-school settings, the authors…

  7. Teaching Vocabulary in EFL Classrooms: A Tried-Out Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    A'lipour, Javad; Ketabi, Saeed

    2010-01-01

    One of the complaints made by EFL learners is that when it comes to the instruction of the linguistic sub-skills, i.e., grammar and vocabulary, the class tends to become boring. In many classes, there is as of yet no collaborative activities to facilitate the learning of these two important sub-skills. Most of EFL classes are reminiscent of the…

  8. Stopping to Squell the "Rhosus": Bringing Science Vocabulary to Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    A research study conducted in an urban district middle school setting applies cognitive science principles to science vocabulary. Within the context of a personal story told by the lead investigator, the results of the study are shared and suggest that more active, engaging strategies with complex core curriculum may improve retention and…

  9. Effect of an 8-week practice of externally triggered speech on basal ganglia activity of stuttering and fluent speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyomura, Akira; Fujii, Tetsunoshin; Kuriki, Shinya

    2015-04-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying stuttering are not well understood. It is known that stuttering appears when persons who stutter speak in a self-paced manner, but speech fluency is temporarily increased when they speak in unison with external trigger such as a metronome. This phenomenon is very similar to the behavioral improvement by external pacing in patients with Parkinson's disease. Recent imaging studies have also suggested that the basal ganglia are involved in the etiology of stuttering. In addition, previous studies have shown that the basal ganglia are involved in self-paced movement. Then, the present study focused on the basal ganglia and explored whether long-term speech-practice using external triggers can induce modification of the basal ganglia activity of stuttering speakers. Our study of functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed that stuttering speakers possessed significantly lower activity in the basal ganglia than fluent speakers before practice, especially when their speech was self-paced. After an 8-week speech practice of externally triggered speech using a metronome, the significant difference in activity between the two groups disappeared. The cerebellar vermis of stuttering speakers showed significantly decreased activity during the self-paced speech in the second compared to the first experiment. The speech fluency and naturalness of the stuttering speakers were also improved. These results suggest that stuttering is associated with defective motor control during self-paced speech, and that the basal ganglia and the cerebellum are involved in an improvement of speech fluency of stuttering by the use of external trigger. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The oral core vocabulary of typically developing English-speaking school-aged children: implications for AAC practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boenisch, Jens; Soto, Gloria

    2015-03-01

    This study analyzes the core vocabulary used by typically developing school-aged English-speaking children in the United States while participating in a variety of school activities. The language of typically developing children, some of whom spoke English as a second language was recorded, transcribed and analyzed to identify the most frequently used words across samples. An inventory of oral core vocabulary of typically developing school-aged children resulted from this analysis. This inventory can be used as a source list for vocabulary selection for school-aged children with AAC needs. Implications for vocabulary selection are discussed.

  11. Small Vocabulary with Saliency Matching for Video Copy Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Huamin; Moeslund, Thomas B.; Tang, Sheng

    2013-01-01

    of vocabulary. BoW descriptors under a small vocabulary can be both robust and efficient, while keeping high recall rate compared with large vocabulary. However, the high false positives exists in small vocabulary also limits its application. To address this problem in small vocabulary, we propose a novel...

  12. On the Application of Games in Junior English Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖芳萍

    2015-01-01

    <正>Vocabulary,pronunciation and grammar are the three essential components of language,vocabulary being the building material of languages.The famous linguist Wilkins said,"Without grammar,very little can be conveyed;without vocabulary,nothing can be conveyed."The importance of vocabulary is strongly manifested.Therefore,vocabulary teaching has been the focus of

  13. Relationship between receptive vocabulary and the neural substrates for story processing in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroka, M Claire; Vannest, Jennifer; Maloney, Thomas C; Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Byars, Anna W; Holland, Scott K

    2015-03-01

    A left-lateralized fronto-temporo-parietal language network has been well-characterized in adults; however, the neural basis of this fundamental network has hardly been explored in the preschool years, despite this being a time for rapid language development and vocabulary growth. We examined the functional imaging correlates associated with vocabulary ability and narrative comprehension in 30 preschool children ages 3 to 5. Bilateral auditory cortex and superior temporal activation as well as left angular and supramarginal gyrus activation were observed during a passive listening-to-stories task. Boys showed greater activation than girls in the right anterior cingulate and right superior frontal gyrus (SFG). Finally, children with higher vocabulary scores showed increased grey matter left-lateralization and greater activation in bilateral thalamus, hippocampus, and left angular gyrus. This study is novel in its approach to relate left-hemisphere language regions and vocabulary scores in preschool-aged children using fMRI.

  14. What Is the PE Password? Incorporating Vocabulary in Your Elementary PE Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robelee, Margaret E.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a novel program for third through fifth grade called "What is the PE Password?" that teaches vocabulary words and concepts without sacrificing activity time in order to support Common Core learning.

  15. Why and How EFL Students Learn Vocabulary in Parliamentary Debate Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice M. Aclan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Vocabulary, the backbone of any language including English, is foundational for listening, speaking, reading and writing. These four macro-skills are necessary not only in gaining knowledge as English is the language to access major information sources particularly the World Wide Web but also in the demanding globalized workplace. Vocabulary is seen to be learned better when it is contextualized thus language teachers should design communicative activities such as debate. However, debate, being more known as a competitive rather than a classroom activity worldwide, has not been explored yet for its potential to develop vocabulary among EFL/ESL students although it has been identified for its power in developing communication skills in general as well as critical thinking and other soft skills. Thus, this qualitative study was conducted to explore why and how EFL students learn vocabulary in classroom debate. The data were gathered through end-of-course evaluation and focus group interview with seven participants from the Middle East, African and ASEAN countries. The findings show that students learned vocabulary due to debate’s interactive nature requiring contextualized and meaningful language use from preparation to actual debate. EFL students described how they learned vocabulary through debate which has implications for SLA and language teaching.   Keywords: Noticing hypothesis, Comprehensible input, Incomprehensible input, Vocabulary building strategies

  16. Vocabulary, Grammar, Sex, and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscoso Del Prado Martín, Fermín

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the changes in our language abilities along the lifespan is a crucial step for understanding the aging process both in normal and in abnormal circumstances. Besides controlled experimental tasks, it is equally crucial to investigate language in unconstrained conversation. I present an information-theoretical analysis of a corpus of dyadic conversations investigating how the richness of the vocabulary, the word-internal structure (inflectional morphology), and the syntax of the utterances evolves as a function of the speaker's age and sex. Although vocabulary diversity increases throughout the lifetime, grammatical diversities follow a different pattern, which also differs between women and men. Women use increasingly diverse syntactic structures at least up to their late fifties, and they do not deteriorate in terms of fluency through their lifespan. However, from age 45 onward, men exhibit a decrease in the diversity of the syntactic structures they use, coupled with an increased number of speech disfluencies. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  17. Suri-English basic vocabulary

    OpenAIRE

    Abbink, J.

    1993-01-01

    The Suri, also known as Surma, are agropastoralists living in the semiarid lowland area of the Kafa Administrative Region of Ethiopia. The Suri language belongs to the South-East Surmic (SES) language group within the Eastern Sudanic family of Nilo-Saharan. The Suri-English vocabulary presented here was compiled during research carried out in southwestern Ethiopia, particularly in the village of Makara, between December 1991 and June 1992, and in October 1992. It incorporates two unpublished ...

  18. Desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bjork, RA; Kroll, JF

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 by the Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois. In this article we discuss the role of desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning from two perspectives, one having to do with identifying conditions of learning that impose initial challenges to the learner but then benefit later retention and transfer, and the other having to do with the role of certain difficulties that are intrinsic to language processes, are engaged during word learning, and reflect how language is underst...

  19. The Sources of the English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Shujun

    2015-01-01

    Lexicology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the study of the vocabulary of a given language. This paper begins with the question: What are the two approaches to the study of English lexicology? Then talk about the position and character of the English language in the Indo-European family. After this,the paper would on the way to explain the sources of the English vocabulary and different characters of different periods of English vocabulary.

  20. Development of an integrated energy vocabulary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niehoff, R.T.

    1976-02-01

    Vocabularies from 10 information systems were employed in this attempt to establish an integrated energy vocabulary. A broad definition of energy was formulated and used as a selection criterion. The resulting product, to be printed under separate cover, contains 30,000 terms and 55,000 cross references. It is felt that the integrated vocabulary, when printed, will aid both energy researchers and information scientists using both manual and on-line systems.

  1. The Influence of Contexts on Vocabulary Testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高春梅

    2014-01-01

    In vocabulary testing, whether to adopt context is a heat-debated topic. In the article, an experiment is designed to in⁃vestigate what is the effect of zero context and sentence context on the vocabulary testing? And how do the different kinds of context in vocabulary affect the subjects’performance? The experimental result demonstrates that sentence do play an important role in helping text-takers to figure out the correct meaning or target words.

  2. Advanced Teaching Strategies of College English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭萍

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary teaching is an important part in English teaching, which purpose is to foster students to use learned words to conduct language communication, increasing the capability of language using in daily life. This paper analyzes the present condition and exposes the problems existing in English vocabulary teaching and learning, then, puts forward some scientific, effective strategies for the education of English vocabulary. I hope these teaching strategies can help teachers improve their teaching methods and help English learners acquire knowledge easily and efficiently.

  3. The Dimensional Approach to Vocabulary Testing: What Can We ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vocabulary constitutes an important component of language and its study has ... what testing under this approach has contributed to the teaching of vocabulary. ... of vocabulary size has led to standardisation of methods, as well as insight into ...

  4. A Longitudinal Study of Receptive Vocabulary Breadth Knowledge Growth and Vocabulary Fluency Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian; Lu, Xiaofei

    2014-01-01

    This article reports results of a longitudinal study of vocabulary breadth knowledge growth, vocabulary fluency development, and the relationship between the two. We administered two versions of the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT; Nation 1983; Nation 1990; Schmitt et al. 2001) to 300 students at a Chinese university at three different time points…

  5. A Corpus Analysis of Vocabulary Coverage and Vocabulary Learning Opportunities within a Children's Story Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Extensive reading for second language learners have been widely documented over the past few decades. However, few studies, if any, have used a corpus analysis approach to analyze the vocabulary coverage within a single-author story series, its repetition of vocabulary, and the incidental and intentional vocabulary learning opportunities therein.…

  6. A Longitudinal Study of Receptive Vocabulary Breadth Knowledge Growth and Vocabulary Fluency Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian; Lu, Xiaofei

    2014-01-01

    This article reports results of a longitudinal study of vocabulary breadth knowledge growth, vocabulary fluency development, and the relationship between the two. We administered two versions of the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT; Nation 1983; Nation 1990; Schmitt et al. 2001) to 300 students at a Chinese university at three different time points…

  7. Assessing the Relationship between Vocabulary Learning Strategy Use and Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Feng

    2015-01-01

    This study is an attempt to explore the correlation between direct and indirect vocabulary learning strategies along with the depth and breadth of vocabulary knowledge. To this end, a sample of 145 low proficiency students who learn English as a Foreign Language (EFL) completed a questionnaire concerning vocabulary learning strategy use.…

  8. Vocabulary services to support scientific data interoperability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Simon; Mills, Katie; Tan, Florence

    2013-04-01

    Shared vocabularies are a core element in interoperable systems. Vocabularies need to be available at run-time, and where the vocabularies are shared by a distributed community this implies the use of web technology to provide vocabulary services. Given the ubiquity of vocabularies or classifiers in systems, vocabulary services are effectively the base of the interoperability stack. In contemporary knowledge organization systems, a vocabulary item is considered a concept, with the "terms" denoting it appearing as labels. The Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) formalizes this as an RDF Schema (RDFS) application, with a bridge to formal logic in Web Ontology Language (OWL). For maximum utility, a vocabulary should be made available through the following interfaces: * the vocabulary as a whole - at an ontology URI corresponding to a vocabulary document * each item in the vocabulary - at the item URI * summaries, subsets, and resources derived by transformation * through the standard RDF web API - i.e. a SPARQL endpoint * through a query form for human users. However, the vocabulary data model may be leveraged directly in a standard vocabulary API that uses the semantics provided by SKOS. SISSvoc3 [1] accomplishes this as a standard set of URI templates for a vocabulary. Any URI comforming to the template selects a vocabulary subset based on the SKOS properties, including labels (skos:prefLabel, skos:altLabel, rdfs:label) and a subset of the semantic relations (skos:broader, skos:narrower, etc). SISSvoc3 thus provides a RESTFul SKOS API to query a vocabulary, but hiding the complexity of SPARQL. It has been implemented using the Linked Data API (LDA) [2], which connects to a SPARQL endpoint. By using LDA, we also get content-negotiation, alternative views, paging, metadata and other functionality provided in a standard way. A number of vocabularies have been formalized in SKOS and deployed by CSIRO, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) and their

  9. Characteristics and Translation of Vocabulary in Business English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Song; CAO Fang; GAO Zhi-jun

    2015-01-01

    As world economy stepped into the 21st century, international business activities are going on with increasing frequen⁃cy. Business English has become an indispensable communication language tool in international economy activities. Vocabulary is the minimal independent of applied unit composing meaningful unit, so it is likely to understand sentences well and translate the language accurately and precisely only when one fully understand every word.

  10. The Impact of Gloss Types on Reading Comprehension, Vocabulary Gain and Vocabulary Retention: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Elekaei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The significance and impact of vocabulary learning in reading comprehension and L2 language learning are apparent to teachers, researchers and language learners. Moreover, glosses are found as one of the most effective strategies regarding vocabulary retention. Therefore, the present study attempted to investigate the effect of different types of glosses on reading comprehension, vocabulary gain and vocabulary retention. To this end, 140 Iranian EFL learners learning English were selected and were divided into four groups (footnote gloss group, interlinear gloss group, marginal gloss group, and glossary group. They were required to read a text and answer four reading comprehension questions. In addition, one immediate vocabulary post-test and one delayed vocabulary post-test were taken in order to investigate learners' vocabulary gain and vocabulary retention. In order to analyze the data, one one-way ANOVA and one MANOVA were run. The results of one-way ANOVA revealed that participants who received interlinear glosses significantly outperformed the other groups regarding comprehending the text. Moreover, the immediate vocabulary post-test was conducted immediately after reading test and the delayed post-test was administered after four weeks. The results of MANOVA indicated that the group which received interlinear glosses outperformed the other groups in both vocabulary gain and vocabulary retention. The present study has implications for teachers and learners. Teachers can find better methods to teach new reading passages as well as vocabulary items. Also, glosses help learners to have a better comprehension of difficult passages and they facilitate learning. Moreover, learners can enhance their vocabulary knowledge with the help of glosses. Keywords: footnote gloss, interlinear gloss, marginal gloss, glossary, Iranian EFL learners, reading comprehension, vocabulary gain, vocabulary retention

  11. WORD ORIGIN HELPS EXPAND LEARNERS’ VOCABULARY A VOCABULARY TEACHING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jing

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Word origin (motivation deals with the connection between name and sense, explaining how a word originated. With the knowledge of how words are originated, learners can grasp a word easier and thus expand their vocabulary more quickly. The introduction to word origin (motivation by teachers can also help the learners gain interest in the process of learning and learn more about the cultural and historical background of the English-speaking countries. This paper tries to clarify this method of teaching from four aspects: onomatopoeia, word formation, cultural and historical background and cognitive linguistics.

  12. Receptive vocabulary knowledge tests: Their potential importance for planning a well-balanced vocabulary component of a language program

    OpenAIRE

    Wakeling, Elliott

    2015-01-01

    iii Abstract Nation and Webb (2011) state ‘Testing is one of the major jobs of the vocabulary teacher, because without good information about our learners’ vocabulary knowledge, we cannot do the most important job of planning a well-balanced program’ (p. 219). This paper evaluated different receptive vocabulary knowledge tests and assessed their potential to help a teacher plan a well-balanced vocabulary program. The Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT) was selected to assess the vocabulary kno...

  13. Vocabulary Growth of the Advanced EFL Learner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Meral

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results of two studies on the vocabulary growth of advanced learners of English as a foreign language in an English-medium degree programme. Growth in learners' written receptive and productive vocabularies was investigated in one cross-sectional and one longitudinal study over three years. The effect of word frequency on…

  14. Vocabulary Teaching in Action-Oriented Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunday, Rifat; Atmaca, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    The words are called as basic building blocks of language. It is impossible to discuss the language system without words. It is related to the vocabulary whether a language is rich or not. It is also related to the peoples' vocabulary to understand what is said and written or to express effectively their thoughts and their feelings verbally or in…

  15. Is Form-Focused Vocabulary Instruction Worthwhile?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Beniko; Krashen, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Hearing stories can result in considerable incidental vocabulary development, for both first and second language acquisition (e.g. Elley 1992; Robbins and Ehri 1994; Senechal, LeFevre, Hudson and Lawson 1996). It has also been claimed, however, that direct instruction is more effective than incidental vocabulary acquisition and that combining both…

  16. Incidental Acquisition of Vocabulary by Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponniah, R. Joseph

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the impact of reading on vocabulary development with adult ESL students at the National Institute of Technology (Trichirappalli, India). The researcher analyzes the performance of the students who devoted their time to reading, and the students who learned consciously the meaning of words to develop their vocabulary knowledge.…

  17. Teaching Vocabulary to Senior High School Student

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆梅

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with methods of teaching vocabulary to high school students. It mainly talks about that vocabulary learning should relate to cultural background, connotative meaning, and social meaning. In order to collect dependable and reasonable result, a survey was conducted in a high school. The result of survey shows that this method is acceptable.

  18. Vocabulary Growth of the Advanced EFL Learner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Meral

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results of two studies on the vocabulary growth of advanced learners of English as a foreign language in an English-medium degree programme. Growth in learners' written receptive and productive vocabularies was investigated in one cross-sectional and one longitudinal study over three years. The effect of word frequency on…

  19. Toward the Automatic Identification of Sublanguage Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Stephanie W.; He, Shaoyi

    1993-01-01

    Describes the development of a method for the automatic identification of sublanguage vocabulary words as they occur in abstracts. Highlights include research relating to sublanguages and their vocabulary; domain terms; evaluation criteria, including recall and precision; and implications for natural language processing and information retrieval.…

  20. Review Article: Instructed Second Language Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Norbert

    2008-01-01

    This article overviews current research on second language vocabulary learning. It concludes that a large vocabulary is necessary to function in English: 8000-9000 word families for reading, and perhaps as many as 5000-7000 families for oral discourse. In addition, a number of word knowledge aspects need to be learned about each lexical item.…

  1. Building Conceptual Understanding through Vocabulary Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupley, William H.; Nichols, William Dee; Mraz, Maryann; Blair, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    Instructional design is an integral part of a balanced approach to teaching vocabulary instruction. This article presents several instructional procedures using research-based vocabulary strategies and explains how to design and adapt those strategies in order to reach desired learning outcomes. Emphasis is placed on research-based principles that…

  2. Vocabulary Strategies for a Fourth Grade Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Gina

    2012-01-01

    For this project I worked with twelve of my fourth grade students from a local school in the southwestern part of Stokes County, North Carolina on increasing their vocabulary skills through the development and implementation of seven vocabulary strategies. During the Literature Review I came across the following seven strategies: Prediction;…

  3. Vocabulary Memorizing Strategies by Chinese University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei-dong; Dai, Wei-ping

    2012-01-01

    The findings of the study indicate that students prefer to engage in the vocabulary learning strategies that would be most appealing to them and that would entail less manipulation of the language. Of the four vocabulary memorizing strategies cited in the study (rote repetition, structural associations, semantic strategies, and mnemonic keyword…

  4. Effects of Morphological Instruction on Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Peter N.; Kirby, John R.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of a 20-session intervention targeting morphological word structure on vocabulary knowledge were investigated in four Grade 4 and 5 classes, assigned randomly to treatment and control conditions. Hierarchical regression analyses controlling for initial vocabulary showed significant instructional effects on morphological analysis and…

  5. English Vocabulary Instruction for English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyak, Patrick C.; Bauer, Eurydice Bouchereau

    2009-01-01

    In this column Manyak and Bauer summarize key research addressing the English vocabulary development of English learners (ELs) and distill implications for instructional practice. First, the authors discuss several key studies that demonstrate the limitation of many ELs' English vocabulary knowledge and the negative impact of this limitation on…

  6. Discussion on University English Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关颖

    2014-01-01

    Vocabulary is the foundation of language systems and the students' vocabulary ability directly affects their ability of lis⁃tening, speaking, reading, writing and translating.However, the traditional college English teaching of vocabulary can't meet the needs of memorizing words for students. Memorizing words is a heavy burden of students.Teaching practice shows that using the etymology of auxiliary teaching in the process of teaching can improve the students' learning interest and deepen their memory,al⁃so can improve the efficiency of vocabulary memory,which isnot only help students enlarge their vocabulary, but also can strengthen the students understand the English national cultures.In this paper, we start from the importance of vocabulary teach⁃ing and the present situation of college English vocabulary teaching,we talk about the feasibility of using etymology college Eng⁃lish vocabulary teaching strategies based on the etymology related knowledgein this paper in order to improve the English skills for students.

  7. Intentional Vocabulary Learning Using Digital Flashcards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Hsiu-Ting

    2015-01-01

    As an attempt to follow through on the claims made by proponents of intentional vocabulary learning, the present study set out to examine whether and how digital flashcards can be incorporated into a university course to promote the vocabulary learning of English language learners. The overall research findings underscore the value of learning…

  8. Conceptual Metaphor and English Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐立

    2013-01-01

      We can see how metaphors exist in everyday language, even if we may not always notice. Metaphor plays an important role in vocabulary teaching. In accordance with the analysis of the fundamental theories proposed by Lakoff&Johnson (1980), this thesis provides some suggestions which help English teachers improve vocabulary teaching strategies.

  9. Vocabulary Instruction for Second Language Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, Deanna L.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, research has consistently affirmed the importance of explicit vocabulary instruction for adult learners of English as a second language (ESL). Given the significant vocabulary demands faced by adult second language readers, ESL teachers must carefully target their instruction for maximum impact and to foster meaningful…

  10. Hypermedia and Vocabulary Acquisition for Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meli, Rocio

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of multimedia as a delivery tool for enhancing vocabulary in second-language classrooms. The mixed method design focused on specific techniques to help students acquire Spanish vocabulary and communication skills. The theoretical framework for this study consisted of second language theories…

  11. Glossary of Social Studies Terms and Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Karen R., Comp.

    This glossary is a tool to help teachers better understand the language of social studies. It was not created to be a study guide for vocabulary tests, as learning social studies vocabulary is best done in context. The glossary is for use in conjunction with the social studies portion of Michigan's Clarifying Language in Michigan Benchmarks (MI…

  12. Mnemonic Vocabulary Instruction: Additional Effectiveness Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Joel R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Four experiments with 132 seventh graders, 162 eighth graders, 75 fourth graders, and 52 third graders compared the mnemonic keyword method with various other vocabulary learning strategies. Mnemonic keyword students outperformed sentence-context and free-study counterparts and generally outperformed others on tests of vocabulary usage. (SLD)

  13. The Choice of Effective Vocabulary Learning Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-fang

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to make a comparison between good and poor language learners in the use of vocabulary learning strat-egies. It will introduce some helpful vocabulary learning strategies to help those frustrated Chinese college non-English major learners.

  14. Fostering Academic Vocabulary Use in Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun-Mercer, Nicole; Zimmerman, Cheryl Boyd

    2015-01-01

    Though research has established a relationship between vocabulary knowledge and academic success and identified features to guide the L2 word learner through academic tasks (see Nation, 2013), less is known regarding student perceptions of academic vocabulary and the conscious decision-making process of these learners while they are writing. In…

  15. Vocabulary Growth of the Advanced EFL Learner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Meral

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results of two studies on the vocabulary growth of advanced learners of English as a foreign language in an English-medium degree programme. Growth in learners' written receptive and productive vocabularies was investigated in one cross-sectional and one longitudinal study over three years. The effect of word…

  16. The Acculturation in English vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严灵; 张华刚; 张凯

    2010-01-01

    The thesis is concerned with the acculturation in English words.More specifically,some consideration will be given to the why and how of learning culture.It will be demonstrated that learning a foreign language is not tantamount to giving a homily on syntactic structures or learning new vocabulary and expressions,but mainly incorporates,or should incorporate,some cultural elements,which are intertwined with language itself.The main premise of the paper is that apart from enhancing and enriching communicative competence,cultural competence can also lead to empathy and respect toward different cultures as well as promote objectivity and cultural perspicacity.

  17. Sound Symbolism in Basic Vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Wichmann

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between meanings of words and their sound shapes is to a large extent arbitrary, but it is well known that languages exhibit sound symbolism effects violating arbitrariness. Evidence for sound symbolism is typically anecdotal, however. Here we present a systematic approach. Using a selection of basic vocabulary in nearly one half of the world’s languages we find commonalities among sound shapes for words referring to same concepts. These are interpreted as due to sound symbolism. Studying the effects of sound symbolism cross-linguistically is of key importance for the understanding of language evolution.

  18. TEACHING VOCABULARY LEARNING STRATEGIES IN CLASSROOM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangWentao

    2004-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is one component of language skills such as reading and writing and enables language learners to more appropriate language use. 13ecause of the features of vocabulary learning, which is wide coverage in content and time, teaching vocabulary should base on learners previous knowledge and arouse their motivation to .further learning. Teaching language learning strategy in class can help studentsmore consciously monitor their learning, learn autonomously and become independent learner. Hence teacher should attach great importance to the instruction of voeabalary learnig strategies to students in classroom. This paper discusses theoretically the function and application of teaching learning strategy in vocabulary learning and also provides an applicable class sample to teach some vocabulary learning strategies to students.

  19. Investigating an Intervention Program Linking Writing and Vocabulary Development for Homeless Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Sinatra

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The presented study investigated the effects of a four-week academic and activity – enriched summer program on vocabulary development and writing achievement of homeless children residing in traditional shelter facilities. When compared to controls the experimental students did not reveal gains in vocabulary and spelling as measured by two norm referenced tests. They did however demonstrate highly significant gains in writing ability based on the New York State standards criteria, reflecting five qualities of writing. On two project-developed instruments designed to measure improvement in book vocabulary and tennis skills, they showed significant increases based on analyses of their pre- and posttest scores. The program closed achievement gaps, fulfilled standards criteria, and may be the first of its kind in the homeless literature whereby students’ writing development was compared to matched controls as vocabulary development occurred based on literary readings.

  20. Effects of Learning Styles on Self-directed Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vocabulary learning is an on-going and life-long process, which is greatly influenced by individual differences. It has been noted that there is inefficient self-directed FL vocabulary learning of college students in mainland China and non-individualized learning may be one of the major reasons. As one of the most significant individual differences, a student’s learning style is supposed to largely determine their selection of learning strategies and have an effect on learning outcomes. This paper focuses on categorizing diversified vocabulary learning tasks which activate various vocabulary learning strategies, and integrating them into a learning system along particular learning paths to cater for different learning styles. The system is also tested in an empirical study for the purpose of checking the effects of these learning paths.

  1. Control vocabulary software designed for CMIP6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, D.; Taylor, K. E.; Williams, D. N.; Ames, S.

    2016-12-01

    The Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) coordinates a number of intercomparison activities and includes many more experiments than its predecessor, CMIP5. In order to organize and facilitate use of the complex collection of expected CMIP6 model output, a standard set of descriptive information has been defined, which must be stored along with the data. This standard information enables automated machine interpretation of the contents of all model output files. The standard metadata is stored in compliance with the Climate and Forecast (CF) standard, which ensures that it can be interpreted and visualized by many standard software packages. Additional attributes (not standardized by CF) are required by CMIP6 to enhance identification of models and experiments, and to provide additional information critical for interpreting the model results. To ensure that CMIP6 data complies with the standards, a python program called "PrePARE" (Pre-Publication Attribute Reviewer for the ESGF) has been developed to check the model output prior to its publication and release for analysis. If, for example, a required attribute is missing or incorrect (e.g., not included in the reference CMIP6 controlled vocabularies), then PrePare will prevent publication. In some circumstances, missing attributes can be created or incorrect attributes can be replaced automatically by PrePARE, and the program will warn users about the changes that have been made. PrePARE provides a final check on model output assuring adherence to a baseline conformity across the output from all CMIP6 models which will facilitate analysis by climate scientists. PrePARE is flexible and can be easily modified for use by similar projects that have a well-defined set of metadata and controlled vocabularies.

  2. Documenting the Vocabulary of Astronomy Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Scott; Parrish, M.; Gay, P. L.

    2008-05-01

    Learning astronomy can be a life-long process, with the seeds of knowledge planted in K-12 classes blossoming in elective college courses to create adults who actively acquire astronomy content. One of the goals of many astronomy 101 courses is to prepare students to be intelligent consumers of mainstream astronomy content, including magazine articles, popular books, and online news. To meet this goal, astronomy educators need to understand what content is being presented in the media and what level vocabulary is being used. The most simplistic way to address this problem is to examine the topics covered and vocabulary used in mainstream astronomy blogs and news feeds. In this study we looked at a selection of prominent blogs and news feeds and we present a statistical study of the frequency different scientific terms are used and topics are addressed. To make this study possible, software to read in RSS feeds was created. This software had to meet the following design specifications: runs in a reasonable amount of time, removes all XML and HTML code from text, sees words with different capitalizations as the same word, ignores end of sentence or phrase punctuation without ignoring hyphens, and has an editable list of "common English words.” This code will be available after the conference at http://www.starstryder.com. Results of this study find that many of the primary topics of Astronomy 101 classes, such as the HR Diagram, are rarely mentioned in blogs and online news, while often de-emphasized topics, such as extra solar planets, cosmology, and high energy astrophysics, show up regularly.

  3. Desirable Difficulties in Vocabulary Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjork, Robert A; Kroll, Judith F

    2015-01-01

    In this article we discuss the role of desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning from two perspectives, one having to do with identifying conditions of learning that impose initial challenges to the learner but then benefit later retention and transfer, and the other having to do with the role of certain difficulties that are intrinsic to language processes, are engaged during word learning, and reflect how language is understood and produced. From each perspective we discuss evidence that supports the notion that difficulties in learning and imposed costs to language processing may produce benefits because they are likely to increase conceptual understanding. We then consider the consequences of these processes for actual second-language learning and suggest that some of the domain-general cognitive advantages that have been reported for proficient bilinguals may reflect difficulties imposed by the learning process, and by the requirement to negotiate cross-language competition, that are broadly desirable. As Alice Healy and her collaborators were perhaps the first to demonstrate, research on desirable difficulties in vocabulary and language learning holds the promise of bringing together research traditions on memory and language that have much to offer each other.

  4. Vocabulary Development of Junior Teens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Nikonova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the communicative competence formation of young adolescents in the secondary school at the Russian language lessons. The author maintains that the key element of the above problem is the vocabulary development guaranteeing both comprehension and verbal expression formation – oral and written. The theoretical part of the research explores different word functions: nominal, communicative, text generating and semantic. The correlation between the mental development level and lexical semantic system formation is emphasized. The age specific features of junior teens are listed: rising interest to various life spheres and activi- ties, capability of formulating opinions and judgments, self-awareness, formation of values. The relationship complexity stimulates vocabulary development of 10 to 12 year-old children; however, the process requires peda- gogical facilitation.The monitoring of speech development proves the necessity of commutative competence formation of the fifth- and sixth-year pupils. The paper presents the model of communicative competence development and its approbation results received for the junior adolescents. 

  5. Vocabulary Development of Junior Teens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Nikonova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the communicative competence formation of young adolescents in the secondary school at the Russian language lessons. The author maintains that the key element of the above problem is the vocabulary development guaranteeing both comprehension and verbal expression formation – oral and written. The theoretical part of the research explores different word functions: nominal, communicative, text generating and semantic. The correlation between the mental development level and lexical semantic system formation is emphasized. The age specific features of junior teens are listed: rising interest to various life spheres and activi- ties, capability of formulating opinions and judgments, self-awareness, formation of values. The relationship complexity stimulates vocabulary development of 10 to 12 year-old children; however, the process requires peda- gogical facilitation.The monitoring of speech development proves the necessity of commutative competence formation of the fifth- and sixth-year pupils. The paper presents the model of communicative competence development and its approbation results received for the junior adolescents. 

  6. Learning vocabulary through a serious game in Primary Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heitink, Maaike Christine; Fisser, Petra; Voogt, Joke; McBride, Ron; Searson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the effect of a serious game on the vocabulary of students in primary education. 206 students and 10 teachers used the game during vocabulary lessons in three conditions: (a)online game and vocabulary instruction, (b)online game only, and (c)paper game and vocabulary instruction.

  7. Teaching Vocabulary to Preschool Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Emily; Douglas, W. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Despite poor vocabulary outcomes for children with hearing loss, few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of specific vocabulary teaching methods on vocabulary learning for this group. The authors compared three vocabulary instruction conditions with preschool children with hearing loss: (a) explicit, direct instruction; (b) follow-in…

  8. Measuring Second Language Vocabulary Knowledge Using a Temporal Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The present study addressed the role of speed as a factor in tests of second language (L2) vocabulary knowledge, presupposing that speed of performance is important in actual language use. Research questions were: (a) Do learners with a larger vocabulary size answer faster on an L2 vocabulary breadth test than smaller vocabulary sized learners?;…

  9. Effects of Individualized Word Retrieval in Kindergarten Vocabulary Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damhuis, Carmen M. P.; Segers, Eliane; Scheltinga, Femke; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of adaptive word retrieval intervention on a classroom vocabulary program on children's vocabulary acquisition in kindergarten. In the experimental condition, word retrieval was provided in a classroom vocabulary program, combining implicit and explicit vocabulary instructions. Children performed extra word retrieval…

  10. Teaching Vocabulary to Preschool Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Emily; Douglas, W. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Despite poor vocabulary outcomes for children with hearing loss, few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of specific vocabulary teaching methods on vocabulary learning for this group. The authors compared three vocabulary instruction conditions with preschool children with hearing loss: (a) explicit, direct instruction; (b) follow-in…

  11. Vocabulary Is Important for Some, but Not All Reading Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Jessie; Nation, Kate; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2007-01-01

    Although there is evidence for a close link between the development of oral vocabulary and reading comprehension, less clear is whether oral vocabulary skills relate to the development of word-level reading skills. This study investigated vocabulary and literacy in 81 children aged 8 to 10 years. In regression analyses, vocabulary accounted for…

  12. A Research on Vocabulary Teaching Strategies and Students’ Mastery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available By means of questionnaire and quantitative research, this article aims at investigating the effects on students’ mastery of vocabulary by studying teachers’ adoption of seven kinds of common vocabulary teaching strategies and the usage of analyzing strategies in intensive English in order to improve vocabulary teaching strategies and to help enlarge students’ vocabulary.

  13. A RESEARCH ON VOCABULARY TEACHING STRATEGIES AND STUDENTS’ MASTERY

    OpenAIRE

    Tian Yuan; Liu Bingbing

    2013-01-01

    By means of questionnaire and quantitative research, this article aims at investigating the effects on students’ mastery of vocabulary by studying teachers’ adoption of seven kinds of common vocabulary teaching strategies and the usage of analyzing strategies in intensive English in order to improve vocabulary teaching strategies and to help enlarge students’ vocabulary.

  14. Mobile English Vocabulary Learning Based on Concept-Mapping Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pei-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Numerous researchers in education recognize that vocabulary is essential in foreign language learning. However, students often encounter vocabulary that is difficult to remember. Providing effective vocabulary learning strategies is therefore more valuable than teaching students a large amount of vocabulary. The purpose of this study was to…

  15. The Ways Metaphor is Brought into Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuYan; ShenXiang jing

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of vocabulary teaching in English is to enlarge breadth and depth of vocabulary and From the point of cognitive metaphor, meaning extension of vocabulary contributes a lot to the vocabulary teaching. The paper tries to sum up ways metaphor is brought into teaching as a means of improving English teaching.

  16. The Ways Metaphor is Brought into Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuYan; ShenXiang; jing

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of vocabulary teaching in English is to enlarge breadth and depth of vocabulary and From the point of cognitive metaphor,meaning extension of vocabulary contributes a lot to the vocabulary teaching.The paper tries to sum up ways metaphor is brought into teaching as a means of improving English teaching.

  17. Strategies on teaching English vocabulary of Non-English majors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辉

    2014-01-01

    As we know that mastery of vocabulary is an essential component of foreign language acquisition, and learners cannot learn a language without vocabulary. Based on the vocabulary leaning problems of Non-English majors, this article makes analysis of the main factors for the problems and tries to provide some vocabulary teaching strategies to solve the problems.

  18. Increasing Middle School Students’ Vocabulary through Extensive Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何小庆

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses how to increase middle school English learners’ vocabulary through reading.Vocabulary is a core component of language proficiency and provides much of the basis of how well learners speak,listen,read,and write.Without an extensive vocabulary and strategies for acquiring new vocabulary,middle school students often feel discouraged during their study.They will lose their interests in English day by day.So it’s very important for middle school English learners to develop their vocabulary efficiently.There are many ways to enlarge vocabulary.In this article we will focus on improving middle school English learners’ vocabulary by extensive reading.

  19. e-Vocabulary and e-Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-María Fernández-Pampillón

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A vocabulary is a linguistic resource that helps manage, query and retrieve information and/or knowledge via words. If vocabularies are built and used in electronic format, they are referred as e-vocabularies. E-vocabularies have been used in Education to help teachers and students to, amongst many issues, (1 comprehend and relate the concepts and the objects of a given knowledge domain; (2 understand and learn languages, be they specialized or not; and (3 identify, describe and query knowledge and digital educational resources. Despite its utility, it is in this field where vocabularies seem to be less systematically developed, known, studied, analyzed, compared and/or linked. For this reason, we thought it was an opportunity to edit a dedicated volume with real experiences concerning the construction, use and evaluation of electronic vocabularies relating to education, and their application to the Internet and e-learning. The result is, finally, this Special Issue with five papers that represent part of the current state-of-the-art in the construction and use of e-vocabularies and education.

  20. What Is Going on During Vocabulary Lessons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Mott

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been 9 years since the Congressionally appointed National Reading Panel made recommendations for literacy instruction that comprise a five-component framework of phonological awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. Vocabulary, a critical pillar of literacy, has reciprocal and correlational relationships with reading achievement. The researchers piloted an observational instrument to determine the methods and materials K-3 teachers use to teach vocabulary in today’s classrooms. This brief evaluates a vocabulary observation tool the researchers developed to gather information from early childhood classroom settings in the midsouth region of the United States. Understanding materials utilized in various contexts will enable practitioners and researchers to address the significant disparity between vocabulary “haves and have-nots.” An examination of the instrument was conducted (n = 18 raters at 3 ratings apiece for 45 trials to determine reliability and validity of observations. Reliability was addressed via training with discussion and resolution of ratings from video of vocabulary instruction. Validity was analyzed via multidimensional scaling (MDS to visually portray ratings along the dimensions of student or teacher control. From this data, we were able to determine the number of possible senses (auditory, visual, kinesthetic, smell, and taste students used. Results indicated observer ratings (n = 45 clustered or separated material-type consistently indicating variance along both dimensions. The researchers are currently applying this piloted instrument in a large-scale study to depict teachers’ vocabulary material use. Understanding vocabulary materials and contexts of their use may lead to more effective vocabulary curriculum, instruction, and assessment.

  1. Stimulating Multiple-Demand Cortex Enhances Vocabulary Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwinska, Magdalena W; Violante, Inês R; Wise, Richard J S; Leech, Robert; Devlin, Joseph T; Geranmayeh, Fatemeh; Hampshire, Adam

    2017-08-09

    It is well established that networks within multiple-demand cortex (MDC) become active when diverse skills and behaviors are being learnt. However, their causal role in learning remains to be established. In the present study, we first performed functional magnetic resonance imaging on healthy female and male human participants to confirm that MDC was most active in the initial stages of learning a novel vocabulary, consisting of pronounceable nonwords (pseudowords), each associated with a picture of a real object. We then examined, in healthy female and male human participants, whether repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of a frontal midline node of the cingulo-opercular MDC affected learning rates specifically during the initial stages of learning. We report that stimulation of this node, but not a control brain region, substantially improved both accuracy and response times during the earliest stage of learning pseudoword-object associations. This stimulation had no effect on the processing of established vocabulary, tested by the accuracy and response times when participants decided whether a real word was accurately paired with a picture of an object. These results provide evidence that noninvasive stimulation to MDC nodes can enhance learning rates, thereby demonstrating their causal role in the learning process. We propose that this causal role makes MDC candidate target for experimental therapeutics; for example, in stroke patients with aphasia attempting to reacquire a vocabulary.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Learning a task involves the brain system within which that specific task becomes established. Therefore, successfully learning a new vocabulary establishes the novel words in the language system. However, there is evidence that in the early stages of learning, networks within multiple-demand cortex (MDC), which control higher cognitive functions, such as working memory, attention, and monitoring of performance, become active. This activity declines

  2. Enhancing students’ vocabulary knowledge using the Facebook environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kamarul Kabilan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effectiveness of using Facebook in enhancing vocabulary knowledge among Community College students. Thirty-three (33 Community College students are exposed to the use of Facebook as an environment of learning and enhancing their English vocabulary. They are given a pre-test and a post-test and the findings indicate that students perform significantly better in the post-test compared to the pre-test. It appears that Facebook could be considered as a supplementary learning environment or learning platform or a learning tool; with meaningful and engaging activities that require students to collaborate, network and functions as a community of practice, particularly for introverted students with low proficiency levels and have low self-esteem.

  3. VOCABULARY TEACHING FOR NON—ENGLISH MAJORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    Introduction "How can we enlarge the students’ vocabulary?" This is a very essential problem in the teaching of Enslish as a foreign language for non-English majors in our college. Firstly, their English level is low, They are not only lack of linguistic patterns, grammar rules, but also vocabulary, Secondly, they have only three hours of intensive reading every week, They should pass 2-grade college English examination through two years studying of English. Thirdly, botn the teachers and students are in very passive position in English language teaching and learning. Almost every lesson begins with vocabulary, then text reading comprehension, and exercises, which based on the traditional method.

  4. Attempt to improve Vocabulary Teaching for Higher Vocational College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵春香

    2012-01-01

      Vocabulary is the building material of language, and vocabulary study is therefore one of the most important aspects in any language learning. It is a key point to improve English learning through paying more attention to vocabulary acquisition. However, vocabulary teaching is one aspect of language teaching that has not been given enough attention in China. Therefore, some issues in vocabulary teaching and learning in higher vocational colleges are being addressed at present, which are worthy of our further consideration.

  5. THE VOCABULARY LEARNING STRATEGIES USED BY UUM STUDENTS IN RELATION TO THEIR PROFICIENCY LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noraziah Mohd Amin

    2013-04-01

    Abstract  This thesis is concerned with the vocabulary learning strategies used by Band 1 and Band 4 undergraduate students of Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM.  The objectives of this descriptive study were to survey the vocabulary learning strategies used by the respondents and to determine to what extent their use of the strategies was influenced by their proficiency level. The instrument employed in the study was a questionnaire developed by Lachini (2007 based on Cottrell’s classification of learning strategies. It consists of five categories of vocabulary learning strategies: creative, reflective, effective, active and motivated. The responses of 100 Band 1 and 100 Band 4 students to the questionnaire were examined on the frequency of their use of the vocabulary learning strategies. The results indicated that there was no significant difference in terms of the frequency of use between Band 1 and Band 4 participants as  the majority of both groups employed most of the strategies either ‘a little’ or ‘often’. The findings of the study perhaps could help instructors to facilitate the learning of English vocabulary by UUM students and other students at large.    Keywords: The vocabulary learning strategies, proficiency levels

  6. Impact of Training Deep Vocabulary Learning Strategies on Vocabulary Retention of Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Javad Es-hagi Sardroud

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the overall tendency of foreign language learners to use mechanical strategies of rote rehearsal in vocabulary learning and their resistance towards use of 'deep' vocabulary learning strategies, namely contextual guessing, Keyword Method, metacognitive strategy, and semantic mapping, this study intended (a to explore what impact the instruction of these deep strategies, on vocabulary retention of 32 post-intermediate adult EFL Iranian learners, (b to determine how the variable of gender influences the vocabulary retention of students after receiving training in these strategies. To this end, on the basis of a strategy-based model of instruction–CALLA (Chamot & O'Malley, 1994, the experimental group received training in using 'deep' vocabulary learning strategies while the control group received only the common method of vocabulary teaching. After the treatment, following factorial design, the performance of the participants in the teacher-made vocabulary test as posttest was analyzed statistically.  The results indicated higher vocabulary retention for the experimental group, and it was revealed that female students were more receptive to strategy training. This study provides evidence for confirmation of 'depth of processing' hypothesis and the emerging theory about the impact of gender on effective strategy teaching and use, and it recommends incorporation of teaching these 'deep' strategies of vocabulary learning into EFL classrooms.

  7. The Effect of Vocabulary Flooding Technique on Iranian EFL Elementary Learners’ Vocabulary Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touran Ahour

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to find out the effect of using vocabulary flooding technique on Iranian EFL elementary learners’ vocabulary learning at the recognition level. A pretest-posttest control group design was used in this quasi-experimental research. The study was conducted at a secondary school in Sahand, a city located in the East-Azerbaijan province in Iran. Four intact grade-three classes were considered for the study. A KET test was administered and based on its results, two classes were selected as the homogenous ones, which were randomly assigned into the vocabulary flooding (experimental and no vocabulary flooding (control groups, each with 30 students. After the vocabulary recognition pretest, supplementary vocabulary teaching was used as the treatment in both groups. In the Experimental group, the target words were presented and practiced in flooding form, that is, in six or more sentences, while in the Control group, students were taught and practiced in only one sentence. After the treatment, two posttests (immediate and delayed were conducted in both groups. The results of the One-way within-subjects and between-subjects Repeated-Measures ANOVA revealed that there were statistically significant differences within and between the experimental and control groups in the three vocabulary recognition tests. It was found that the participants’ receptive vocabulary knowledge was improved in the experimental group as a result of using vocabulary flooding technique. The implications are provided for the syllabus designers, textbook writers and EFL teachers.

  8. PDS4 Training: Key Concepts and Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, M. K.; Guinness, E. A.; Neakrase, L. D. V.; Padams, J.; Raugh, A. C.

    2017-06-01

    Those planning to attend the PDS4 training session are strongly encouraged to review this poster prior to the training session. This poster briefly describes new vocabulary and a number of key concepts introduced with PDS4.

  9. Enhanced Context Recognition by Sensitivity Pruned Vocabularies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Rasmus Elsborg; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    Language independent `bag-of-words' representations are surprisingly effective for text classification. The generic BOW approach is based on a high-dimensional vocabulary which may reduce the generalization performance of subsequent classifiers, e.g., based on ill-posed principal component...... transformations. In this communication our aim is to study the effect of sensitivity based pruning of the bag-of-words representation. We consider neural network based sensitivity maps for determination of term relevancy, when pruning the vocabularies. With reduced vocabularies documents are classified using...... a latent semantic indexing representation and a probabilistic neural network classifier. Pruning the vocabularies to approximately 20% of the original size, we find consistent context recognition enhancement for two mid size data-sets for a range of training set sizes. We also study the applicability...

  10. Controlled Vocabulary Standards for Anthropological Datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Emmelhainz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to outline the use of controlled vocabulary standards for qualitative datasets in cultural anthropology, which are increasingly held in researcher-accessible government repositories and online digital libraries. As a humanistic science that can address almost any aspect of life with meaning to humans, cultural anthropology has proven difficult for librarians and archivists to effectively organize. Yet as anthropology moves onto the web, the challenge of organizing and curating information within the field only grows. In considering the subject classification of digital information in anthropology, I ask how we might best use controlled vocabularies for indexing digital anthropological data. After a brief discussion of likely concerns, I outline thesauri which may potentially be used for vocabulary control in metadata fields for language, location, culture, researcher, and subject. The article concludes with recommendations for those existing thesauri most suitable to provide a controlled vocabulary for describing digital objects in the anthropological world.

  11. Vocabulary Learning: The Use of Grids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, P. D.

    1983-01-01

    A system of grids to organize related vocabulary words and their associations developed for teacher trainees is illustrated, and other possible uses of the categorizing system, by students, teachers, and translators, are discussed. (MSE)

  12. Towards a Southern African English Defining Vocabulary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    In my experience, defining vocabularies compiled for English dictionaries for a British or .... Oxford 3000, which contains 3 540 entries, and is available on the Internet. ... One thing that became apparent was a lack of consistency within lexical.

  13. How to Enlarge Our English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨淑秀

    2010-01-01

    Mastering abundant vocabulary is the base for us to learn English well. Therefore we should do regular intensive reading and extensive reading. We should use the dictionary effectively; We should also have a good command of Lexicology.

  14. Ontology Based Vocabulary Matching for Oceanographic Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Shepherd, Adam; Chandler, Cyndy; Arko, Robert; Leadbetter, Adam

    2014-05-01

    Data integration act as the preliminary entry point as we enter the era of big data in many scientific domains. However the reusefulness of various dataset has met the hurdle due to different initial of interests of different parties, therefore different vocabularies in describing similar or semantically related concepts. In this scenario it is vital to devise an automatic or semi-supervised algorithm to facilitate the convergence of different vocabularies. The Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP) seeks to increase data sharing across scientific domains and international boundaries by providing a forum to harmonize diverse regional data systems. ODIP participants from the US include the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program, whose mission is to capture, catalog, and describe the underway/environmental sensor data from US oceanographic research vessels and submit the data to public long-term archives. In an attempt to harmonize these regional data systems, especially vocabularies, R2R recognizes the value of the SeaDataNet vocabularies served by the NERC Vocabulary Server (NVS) hosted at the British Oceanographic Data Centre as a trusted, authoritative source for describing many oceanographic research concepts such as instrumentation. In this work, we make use of the semantic relations in the vocabularies served by NVS to build a Bayesian network and take advantage of the idea of entropy in evaluating the correlation between different concepts and keywords. The performance of the model is evaluated against matching instruments from R2R against the SeaDataNet instrument vocabularies based on calculated confidence scores in the instrument pairings. These pairings with their scores can then be analyzed for assertion growing the interoperability of the R2R vocabulary through its links to the SeaDataNet entities.

  15. NASA thesaurus. Volume 2: Access vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The access vocabulary, which is essentially a permuted index, provides access to any word or number in authorized postable and nonpostable terms. Additional entries include postable and nonpostable terms, other word entries and pseudo-multiword terms that are permutations of words that contain words within words. The access vocabulary contains almost 42,000 entries that give increased access to the hierarchies in Volume 1 - Hierarchical Listing.

  16. A Vocabulary Analysis of the Restaurant Menus

    OpenAIRE

    MIHUT Silvia

    2010-01-01

    The present paper explores the genre of restaurant menus by analyzing existing online lists of breakfast, lunch and dinner options. It shows that a menu is a reflection of the restaurant itself and its vocabulary, whether formal, casual or playful, matches the restaurant concept, location or theme. In addition to providing the food and drink items, menus can also be used to offer other information to the customers. The restaurant menu vocabulary describes the owner/chef's philosophy about foo...

  17. Student Approaches to Learning Chinese Vocabulary

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, I-Ping P.

    2005-01-01

    This research focuses on the strategies that native English speakers use as they learn to speak and write Chinese vocabulary words in the first year of an elementary Chinese class. The main research question was: what strategies do native English-speaking beginning learners of Chinese use to learn Chinese vocabulary words in their speaking and writing? The study was conducted at a medium-sized comprehensive university in the Southeastern U.S. The study drew from concepts and theories in s...

  18. Fundamental Vocabulary Selection Based on Word Familiarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Kasahara, Kaname; Kanasugi, Tomoko; Amano, Shigeaki

    This paper proposes a new method for selecting fundamental vocabulary. We are presently constructing the Fundamental Vocabulary Knowledge-base of Japanese that contains integrated information on syntax, semantics and pragmatics, for the purposes of advanced natural language processing. This database mainly consists of a lexicon and a treebank: Lexeed (a Japanese Semantic Lexicon) and the Hinoki Treebank. Fundamental vocabulary selection is the first step in the construction of Lexeed. The vocabulary should include sufficient words to describe general concepts for self-expandability, and should not be prohibitively large to construct and maintain. There are two conventional methods for selecting fundamental vocabulary. The first is intuition-based selection by experts. This is the traditional method for making dictionaries. A weak point of this method is that the selection strongly depends on personal intuition. The second is corpus-based selection. This method is superior in objectivity to intuition-based selection, however, it is difficult to compile a sufficiently balanced corpora. We propose a psychologically-motivated selection method that adopts word familiarity as the selection criterion. Word familiarity is a rating that represents the familiarity of a word as a real number ranging from 1 (least familiar) to 7 (most familiar). We determined the word familiarity ratings statistically based on psychological experiments over 32 subjects. We selected about 30,000 words as the fundamental vocabulary, based on a minimum word familiarity threshold of 5. We also evaluated the vocabulary by comparing its word coverage with conventional intuition-based and corpus-based selection over dictionary definition sentences and novels, and demonstrated the superior coverage of our lexicon. Based on this, we conclude that the proposed method is superior to conventional methods for fundamental vocabulary selection.

  19. Vocabulary Length Experiments for Binary Image Classification Using BOV Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P.Vimal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bag-of-Visual-words (BoV approach to image classif ication is popular among computer vision scientists . The visual words come from the visual vocabulary wh ich is constructed using the key points extracted f rom the image database. Unlike the natural language, th e length of such vocabulary for image classificatio n is task dependent. The visual words capture the local invariant features of the image. The region of imag e over which a visual word is constrained forms the s patial content for the visual word. Spatial pyramid representation of images is an approach to handle s patial information. In this paper, we study the rol e of vocabulary lengths for the levels of a simple two l evel spatial pyramid to perform binary classificati ons. Two binary classification problems namely to detect the presence of persons and cars are studied. Rele vant images from PASCAL dataset are being used for the l earning activities involved in this work

  20. The Impact of Vocabulary Knowledge Level on EFL Reading Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Kameli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the impact of vocabulary knowledge level on reading comprehension performance among EFL language learners. The ultimate intention was to determine the association between levels of vocabulary knowledge and to clarify the relationship among vocabulary knowledge on reading comprehension performance of EFL Iranian students on subtest of VLT and IELTS. Quantitative data were collected from 220 EFL Iranian adult students at the beginning of second semester of 2011 in private English language institute (BAHAR, Shiraz, Iran. The Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT and Reading Comprehension Test (IELTS were performed in one session as research instruments. The findings indicated that there were positive relationships among different levels of vocabulary test and also test scores on vocabulary size/breadth of vocabulary knowledge, and reading comprehension. Keywords: vocabulary level, vocabulary size/breadth, reading comprehension

  1. Relationships of Teachers' Language and Explicit Vocabulary Instruction to Students' Vocabulary Growth in Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowne, Jocelyn Bonnes; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Snow, Catherine E.

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates the relationships between aspects of Chilean teachers' explicit vocabulary instruction and students' vocabulary development in kindergarten. Classroom videotapes of whole-class instruction gathered during a randomized experimental evaluation of a coaching-based professional development program were analyzed. The amount of…

  2. A Reassessment of Frequency and Vocabulary Size in L2 Vocabulary Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Norbert; Schmitt, Diane

    2014-01-01

    The high-frequency vocabulary of English has traditionally been thought to consist of the 2,000 most frequent word families, and low-frequency vocabulary as that beyond the 10,000 frequency level. This paper argues that these boundaries should be reassessed on pedagogic grounds. Based on a number of perspectives (including frequency and…

  3. The Effects of Techniques of Vocabulary Portfolio on L2 Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Abbas Ali; Baftani, Fahimeh Nasiri

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of different techniques of vocabulary portfolio including word map, word wizard, concept wheel, visual thesaurus, and word rose on L2 vocabulary comprehension and production, a sample of 75 female EFL learners of Kish Day Language Institute in Karaj, Iran were selected. They were in five groups and each group received…

  4. An Investigation of the Effectiveness of Vocabulary Learning Strategies on Iranian EFL Learners' Vocabulary Test Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimy, Ramin; Shams, Kiana

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of vocabulary learning strategies on Iranian EFL learners' vocabulary test score. To achieve this aim, fifty Intermediate level students from Kish English Institute were randomly selected from among fifteen classes after administering the Oxford Placement Test (OPT). Then, an intermediate level…

  5. EFL Learners' Vocabulary Consolidation Strategy Use and Corresponding Performance on Vocabulary Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ying-Chun

    2016-01-01

    This study describes English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners' use of vocabulary consolidation strategies and explores the connection between strategy use and vocabulary learning outcomes. This study included 218 participants who were students from five freshman English classes at a university in Taiwan. Students' self-reports on their use of…

  6. The Relationship between Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Vocabulary Proficiency of English Language Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Filiz Yalçın Tılfarlıoğlu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study was carried out to examine L2 learners’ VLS use habits and the relationship of VLS with their vocabulary proficiency levels. In addition, language learners’ beliefs about VLS in terms of usefulness were also studied to understand L2 learners’ VLS use habits more deeply. To examine these matters, a descriptive research design was employed. The participants included 252 preparatory students from different proficiency groups (Upper-Intermediate, Intermediate, Pre-Intermediate, Beginner at Gaziantep University Higher School of Foreign Languages. To collect the related data, they were given “Vocabulary Learning Strategies Questionnaire” and “Vocabulary Levels Test”. The data analyses were conducted by descriptive and inferential statistics. The results of the study showed that the participants used a wide range of VLS, and there was an overlap between their beliefs about VLS in terms of usefulness and how often they used them to a large extent. Secondly, Memory Strategies correlated positively with the participants’ academic and general vocabulary proficiency levels. However, there were also some differences among the proficiency groups about which specific VLS are correlated with their vocabulary proficiency levels. As to the regression analysis results, none of the VLS predicted participants’ vocabulary proficiency levels. Keywords: Vocabulary learning strategies, vocabulary proficiency, learner beliefs

  7. The Effect of Vocabulary Cluster on Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners' Vocabulary Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud KhaliliSabet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study intended to inspect the possible effects of vocabulary cluster on Iranian Intermediate EFL learners' vocabulary achievement. It was based on the comparison between semantically and thematically –related sets to find out which type of vocabulary learning cluster was more effective on learners vocabulary learning. Sixty intermediate EFL learners were selected based on their performance on OPT test and then were randomly assigned into three groups each containing 20 subjects (one control and two experimental groups. Quasi-experimental design was used in which Pre-test and post-test were administered to collect data. The researcher employed Nations word level test as the pre-test to examine the participants' initial knowledge of common words. The experimental group (A worked on thematic clustering, while experimental group (B received instruction on semantic clustering and the control group received placebo. Next, all participants took part in vocabulary size test to evaluate the vocabulary achievement of the participants. The scores obtained from pre-test and post-test were analyzed through running paired sample t-test, and one-way ANOVA. The results indicated that the experimental group (B which received semantically related sets outperformed the control group & the experimental group (A which received thematically related sets. This may have significant implications for language instructors, syllabus designers, and learners to make more advancement in vocabulary learning process through employing vocabulary cluster.

  8. The Effects of English/Language Arts Academic Vocabulary Alignment on Elementary Student Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Stacey Michelle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide professional development in vocabulary instructional practices and analyze the impact on student achievement. This quasi-experimental study utilized the PLC to curriculum map English/Language Arts state academic vocabulary words in K-4 into each of the four nine-weeks. The first through fourth grade…

  9. Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Vocabulary Size of ELT Students at EMU in Northern Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalajahi, Seyed Ali Rezvani; Pourshahian, Bahar

    2012-01-01

    This research study aimed at exploring the relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary size of 125 undergraduate English Language Teaching students at Eastern Mediterranean University. This research study was a correlational survey study of descriptive nature. The major findings of this study were as follows. First, the…

  10. A Reassessment of Frequency and Vocabulary Size in L2 Vocabulary Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Norbert; Schmitt, Diane

    2014-01-01

    The high-frequency vocabulary of English has traditionally been thought to consist of the 2,000 most frequent word families, and low-frequency vocabulary as that beyond the 10,000 frequency level. This paper argues that these boundaries should be reassessed on pedagogic grounds. Based on a number of perspectives (including frequency and…

  11. Using the Vocabulary Self-Collection Strategy plus to Develop University EFL Students' Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodary, Manal Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    This study was carried out to examine the effectiveness of using the Vocabulary Self-Collection Strategy Plus (VSSPlus) on developing university EFL students' vocabulary learning. It adopted the quasi experimental design which included two groups design. The participants were first level students at Languages and Translation Department, Arar…

  12. Improving Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Attitudes in 4th Grade Students Through Direct Vocabulary Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Deborah J.

    A program was designed and implemented to improve vocabulary knowledge and attitudes toward reading by focusing on direct vocabulary instruction. The targeted population consisted of 23 fourth grade students in a middle-class suburb north of Chicago. The community is very multicultural, so many of the students speak English as a second language.…

  13. Bridging the Vocabulary Gap: What the Research Tells Us about Vocabulary Instruction in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Tanya; Wang, X. Christine

    2010-01-01

    It is important for children to develop knowledge of words' meanings from a young age because vocabulary development has an impact on their reading comprehension and academic success as they get older. Some children come to school knowing far fewer words than others. Hart and Risley studied young children's vocabulary development and found that…

  14. Vocabulary Notebook: A Digital Solution to General and Specific Vocabulary Learning Problems in a CLIL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazo, Plácido; Rodríguez, Romén; Fumero, Dácil

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we will introduce an innovative software platform that can be especially useful in a Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) context. This tool is called Vocabulary Notebook, and has been developed to solve all the problems that traditional (paper) vocabulary notebooks have. This tool keeps focus on the personalisation of…

  15. The Effect of Using Vocabulary Flash Card on Iranian Pre-University Students' Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komachali, Maryam Eslahcar; Khodareza, Mohammadreza

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of using vocabulary flash card on Iranian pre-university students' vocabulary knowledge. The participants of the study comprised 50 female learners. They were randomly assigned into two homogeneous groups each consisting of 25 learners. The control group received the traditional treatment…

  16. A Study on English Vocabulary Teaching Strategies of Middle School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付宗菊

    2014-01-01

    Vocabulary is an ele mentary component of a language, which is essential to communication and plays an important role in language learning. Therefore, how to strengthen and improve the vocabulary teaching has become one of important fields in English teaching. To some degree, whether or not the vocabulary teaching is successful will have direct effect on the quality of English teaching. In retrospect, foreign language researchers and educators have probed into vocabulary teaching theoretically and practically on the second language acquisition, linguistics, psychology, pedagogy and have obtained great accomplishment. The present paper incorporates five parts: 1) introduction, 2) English vocabulary learning strategies, 3) English vocabulary teaching principles and strategies and 4) conclusion.

  17. Vocabulary learning in Head Start: Nature and extent of classroom instruction and its contributions to children's learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindman, Annemarie H; Wasik, Barbara A

    2013-06-01

    In the current study, we employed the 2006 cohort of the large-scale, nationally representative, Head Start Family and Child Experiences (FACES) dataset to construct a snapshot of vocabulary instruction and learning in high-poverty preschools. Specifically, we examined Head Start teachers' reports of the frequency of vocabulary instruction in their classrooms as well as the overall quality of their classroom instruction. We also explored the teacher- and center-level factors that predicted these dual aspects of instruction, and the role of that instruction in children's vocabulary development over the preschool year. Participants included 293 teachers in 116 Head Start centers, as well as 2501 children in their classrooms. Results showed that, whereas there was notable variation, most teachers reported providing a variety of vocabulary-focused instructional activities nearly every day. The quality of their classroom instruction was generally modest. Classroom instructional quality was predictive of children's vocabulary learning, with stronger relations apparent for children with lower initial skills and for classrooms with higher quality instruction. The frequency of instruction in vocabulary was not related to children's word learning. Results provide new descriptive data about the state of vocabulary instruction in Head Start preschools and highlight both areas of success and opportunities for additional support.

  18. Linked Vocabulary API for the Earth Sciences Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zednik, S.; Fox, P. A.; Fu, L.; West, P.; Ma, X.

    2014-12-01

    The Linked Vocabulary API is a specification for publishing RESTful APIs of vocabularies represented in the Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) as Linked Data on the web. This work began as part of the Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning Vocabularies (CMSPV) project in response to the need for a standard manner for agencies to publish and consume hierarchical vocabularies on the web. The RESTful architecture of the API provides a simple mechanism for consumption of full vocabularies, single vocabulary terms, related terms, and searches on terms. The Linked Data nature of the API promotes interoperability by exposing vocabulary resources as resolvable URIs that may be referenced from other vocabularies or sources of Linked Data and by allowing the published vocabulary to contain references as links to terms from other vocabularies. The Linked Vocabulary API is formally defined in a Linked Data API specification and may be deployed using standard implementations of the Linked Data API such as the Epimorphics Linked Data API (ELDA). Recent presentations of work done with the Linked Vocabulary API as part of the CMSPV project have resulted in the API receiving growing interest from the broader scientific community. In this contribution we present the Linked Vocabulary API design and deployment process.

  19. A Model of Communicative Teaching and Learning of English Vocabulary Through Interactive Actin vities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahraini Sahraini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Teaching English vocabulary is very important, and it is more than just presenting and introducing new vocabulary to the students. Knowing words is not only memorizing them, but the students need to understand the meaning of the word in context and how the words are used. This can be achieved through correct vocabulary instruction which should involve vocabulary selection, word knowledge, and techniques. The needs of prospective teachers in mastering English both spoken and written, and the ability to teach using English as the language of instruction in the teaching and learning process in the classroom is very important. They also need the skills to teach English effectively and enjoyable to make the students have confident to use English communicatively. Deciding an interesting method for students is also an English teachers’ job to do. In this paper the writer tries to design a model of teaching and learning of English vocabulary through interactive activities. By using a lot of interactive activities, hopefully the students are able to practice to communicate by using English in oral and written.

  20. Incidental Vocabulary Learning Through Information-Loaded and Negotiation-Oriented Tasks

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    Roya Khoii

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the effects of implementing two innovative speaking tasks, namely, information-loaded and negotiation-oriented tasks, on the incidental vocabulary acquisition of advanced Iranian EFL learners. To this end, an experimental research was conducted in an English language institute with 30 homogeneous advanced EFL learners randomly divided into two experimental groups. Experimental group I performed some information-loaded tasks using thirty five texts as speaking aids for implementing multicultural experiences, and experimental group II performed some negotiation-oriented tasks utilizing seven argumentative sentences for each topic to promote divergent thinking processes. At the end of the treatment, a vocabulary post-test and a questionnaire were administered to measure the effects of the treatments on the students’ incidental vocabulary knowledge and attitude to the performed tasks in each group. The statistical analysis of the data revealed that the information-loaded tasks group had significantly outperformed the negotiation-oriented tasks group on the vocabulary post-test and had a significantly more positive attitude to the tasks they performed in their class. This study offers some implications for the development of a sizable and profound knowledge of vocabulary in an effortless and pleasant manner. It also fulfils the need of EFL teachers and material developers in their search for some effective activities and techniques that can help to improve EFL learners’ incidental vocabulary knowledge. Keywords: Incidental vocabulary learning; Information-gap tasks; Information-loaded tasks; Negotiation-oriented tasks; Opinion-gap tasks

  1. BUSINESS ENGLISH WORD GAMES – A WELCOMED VOCABULARY TEACHING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Claudia Horea

    2015-03-01

    -versa technique won grounds, inciting, stirring the emulative spirit and inducing a natural assimilation of vocabulary by engaging in entertaining activities.

  2. In search of the best technique for vocabulary acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohseni-Far

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Teade plagiaadi kohta / Report of an Act of Plagiarism (6. mai 2012 / 6 May, 2012ERÜ aastaraamatus 4 (2008 lk 121–138 ilmunud Mohammad Mohseni-Far'i artikli "In Search of the Best Technique for Vocabulary Acquisition" näol on tegemist iseenda plagiaadiga. Sama artikkel on 2008. a ilmunud lisaks ERÜ aastaraamatule veel KAKS KORDA ligilähedases sõnastuses ning ligilähedase pealkirjaga. Kuna autor on tegelnud sõnastuse muutmisega, siis järelikult on tegemist teadliku plagiaadiga. Vt ka Check for Plagiarism On the Web.We are sorry to inform that Mohammad Mohseni-Far, the author of 'In Search of the Best Technique for Vocabulary Acquisition' published in ERÜ aastaraamat / EAAL yearbook, Vol. 4 (2008 pp. 121–138, has published the same article TWICE in another journal just by changing the title and a few wordings. The plagiarism is verified, using the Check for Plagiarism On the Web.A Cognitively-oriented Encapsulation of Strategies Utilized for Lexical Development: In search of a flexible and highly interactive curriculum. – Porta Linguarum 9 (2008, 35–42. Techniques and Strategies Utilized for Vocabulary Acquisition: the necessity to design a multifaceted framework with an instructionally wise equilibrium. – Porta Linguarum 8 (2007, 137–152.ERÜ aastaraamatu toimetus / Editors of the EAAL yearbook***The present study is intended to critically examine vocabulary learning/acquisition techniques within second/foreign language context. Accordingly, the purpose of this survey is to concentrate particularly on the variables connected with lexical knowledge and establish a fairly all-inclusive framework which comprises and expounds on the most significant strategies and relevant factors within the vocabulary acquisition context. At the outset, the study introduces four salient variables; learner, task and strategy serve as a general structure of inquiry (Flavell’s cognitive model, 1992. Besides, the variable of context

  3. The Shakespeare in All of Us: A Monumental, Multitudinous, Premeditated Approach to Vocabulary Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Jennifer Ann

    2011-01-01

    Shakespeare, who worked actively with words through punning, playing, and inventing, serves as the model for students to experience a deepening knowledge of vocabulary and love of words. Through instructional activities aimed at increasing word play, word exposure, and word consciousness, students gain the verbal capacity needed to understand…

  4. The Shakespeare in All of Us: A Monumental, Multitudinous, Premeditated Approach to Vocabulary Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Jennifer Ann

    2011-01-01

    Shakespeare, who worked actively with words through punning, playing, and inventing, serves as the model for students to experience a deepening knowledge of vocabulary and love of words. Through instructional activities aimed at increasing word play, word exposure, and word consciousness, students gain the verbal capacity needed to understand…

  5. Vocabulary Learning Strategies in an ESP Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Jurkovič

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on vocabulary learning strategies as a subcategory of language learning strategies and their instruction within the ESP context at the Faculty of Maritime Studies and Transport in Portorož. Vocabulary strategy instruction will be implemented at our faculty as part of a broader PhD research into the effect of language learning strategy instruction on strategy use and subject-specific and general language acquisition. Additional variables that will be taken into consideration are language proficiency, motivation and learning styles of the students. The introductory section in which the situation that triggered my PhD research is presented is followed by a theoretical introduction to the concept of language and vocabulary learning strategies. The aspects that the paper focuses on are the central role of lexis within ESP, vocabulary learning strategy taxonomies, and the presentation of research studies made in the examined field to date. The final section presents the explicit vocabulary learning strategy instruction model. In the conclusion, some implications for teaching can be found.

  6. LEARNING VOCABULARY THROUGH COLOURFUL PUZZLE GAME

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    Risca Dwiaryanti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Vocabulary plays an important role because it links to the four skills of listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Those aspects should be integrated in teaching and learning process of English. However, the students must be able to know the meaning of each word or vocabulary of English in order to master the four skills. It is as a mean to create a sentence in daily communication to show someone’s feeling, opinion, idea, desire, etc. So that, both speakers understand what the other speaker mean. However, English as a second language in Indonesia seems very hard for the students to master vocabulary of English. It makes them not easy to be understood directly and speak fluently. The students, sometimes, get difficulties in understanding, memorizing the meaning of the vocabulary, and getting confused in using the new words. There must be an effective strategy to attract students’ interest, break the boredom, and make the class more lively. Based on the writer experience, Colourful Puzzle Game is able to make the students learn vocabulary quickly. It needs teacher’s creativity to create the materials of this game based on the class condition. The teacher just need a game board made from colourful papers, write any command and prohibition words on it. A dice is a tool to decide where the player should stop based on the number. Some pins as counter as sign of each player.

  7. Vocabulary Growth and Reading Development across the Elementary School Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van; Vermeer, A.R.

    2011-01-01

    The associations between vocabulary growth and reading development were examined longitudinally for a representative sample of Dutch children throughout the elementary school period. Data on basic and advanced vocabulary, word decoding, and reading comprehension were collected across the different

  8. English Vocabulary Teaching Based on learners’Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱文会

    2013-01-01

    Vocabulary is very important in language study, but it is not easy for students to learn efficiently. This essay first has a deep insight into the acquisition by learners, and then gives some ideas about teaching vocabulary in ELT classroom.

  9. Vocabulary Growth and Reading Development across the Elementary School Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van; Vermeer, A.R.

    2011-01-01

    The associations between vocabulary growth and reading development were examined longitudinally for a representative sample of Dutch children throughout the elementary school period. Data on basic and advanced vocabulary, word decoding, and reading comprehension were collected across the different g

  10. Elementary Preservice Teachers' Science Vocabulary: Knowledge and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Sarah J.

    2013-03-01

    Science vocabulary knowledge plays a role in understanding science concepts, and science knowledge is measured in part by correct use of science vocabulary (Lee et al. in J Res Sci Teach 32(8):797-816, 1995). Elementary school students have growing vocabularies and many are learning English as a secondary language or depend on schools to learn academic English. Teachers must have a clear understanding of science vocabulary in order to communicate and evaluate these understandings with students. The present study measured preservice teachers' vocabulary knowledge during a science methods course and documented their use of science vocabulary during peer teaching. The data indicate that the course positively impacted the preservice teachers' knowledge of select elementary science vocabulary; however, use of science terms was inconsistent in microteaching lessons. Recommendations include providing multiple vocabulary instruction strategies in teacher preparation.

  11. Is There a Core Vocabulary? Some Implications for Language Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Ronald

    1987-01-01

    Describes a set of criteria for selection of core vocabulary, with examples given from English. Suggests applications for such a vocabulary in grading reading materials and analyzing stylistics. (LMO)

  12. The Students’ Interest on the Use of Vocabulary Self-Collection Strategy in Learning English Vocabulary

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    Syayyidina Ali

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The learning should be supported by an interesting strategy to make students enjoyable and interested in learning, as well as in learning English Vocabulary. The aim of this research is to investigate and describe the students’ perceptions on the use of vocabulary self-collection strategy in Learning English vocabulary. This study was a descriptive model consisting of 37 subject-students. The data were collected with a questionnaire, it was rating scale which distributed after 8 meetings of treatments, and it covered 15 positive and closed statements about the use of vocabulary self-collection strategy in learning vocabulary classroom. The questionnaire was analyzed based on the percentage of each answer. To calculate questionnaire data into percentage, the researcher used the formula where the number of frequency is multiplied to 100% then divided to the number of the total respondents. The result of the students’ perceptions indicated that vocabulary self-collection strategy is interesting strategy used in learning vocabulary classroom. The highest rank of the mean score is 56.6% of agree students, 35.5% of strongly agree students, 6.7% of undecided students, 0.7% of disagree students, and 0.2% of strongly disagree to the statements on the questionnaire.

  13. Motivating Students to Learn Biology Vocabulary with Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boriana Marintcheva

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Timely learning of specialized science vocabulary is critical for building a solid knowledge base in any scientific discipline. To motivate students to dedicate time and effort mastering biology vocabulary, I have designed a vocabulary exercise utilizing the popular web encyclopedia Wikipedia. The exercise creates an opportunity for students to connect the challenge of vocabulary learning to a prior positive experience of self-guided learning using a content source they are familiar and comfortable with.

  14. Water Quality Vocabulary Development and Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, B. A.; Yu, J.; Cox, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    Semantic descriptions of observed properties and associated units of measure are fundamental to understanding of environmental observations, including groundwater, surface water and marine water quality. Semantic descriptions can be captured in machine-readable ontologies and vocabularies, thus providing support for the annotation of observation values from the disparate data sources with appropriate and accurate metadata, which is critical for achieving semantic interoperability. However, current stand-alone water quality vocabularies provide limited support for cross-system comparisons or data fusion. To enhance semantic interoperability, the alignment of water-quality properties with definitions of chemical entities and units of measure in existing widely-used vocabularies is required. Modern ontologies and vocabularies are expressed, organized and deployed using Semantic Web technologies. We developed an ontology for observed properties (i.e. a model for expressing appropriate controlled vocabularies) which extends the NASA/TopQuadrant QUDT ontology for Unit and QuantityKind with two additional classes and two properties (see accompanying paper by Cox, Simons and Yu). We use our ontology to populate the Water Quality vocabulary with a set of individuals of each of the four key classes (and their subclasses), and add appropriate relationships between these individuals. This ontology is aligned with other relevant stand-alone Water Quality vocabularies and domain ontologies. Developing the Water Quality vocabulary involved two main steps. First, the Water Quality vocabulary was populated with individuals of the ObservedProperty class, which was determined from a census of existing datasets and services. Each ObservedProperty individual relates to other individuals of Unit and QuantityKind (taken from QUDT where possible), and to IdentifiedObject individuals. As a large fraction of observed water quality data are classified by the chemical substance involved, the

  15. Vocabulary development and intervention for English learners in the early grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Doris Luft; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Ortiz, Miriam; Correa, Vivian; Cole, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to describe the vocabulary development and promising, evidence-based vocabulary interventions for English learners (ELs) from preschool through second grade. To achieve this purpose, we have taken six steps. First, we describe the elements of language development in the native language (L1) and a second language (L2) and how these elements relate to three phases of reading development (i.e., the prereading phase, the learning to read phase, and the reading to learn phase). We contend that in order for ELs to succeed in school, they need a strong language foundation prior to entering kindergarten. This language foundation needs to continue developing during the "learning to read" and "reading to learn" phases. Second, we describe the limitations of current practice in preschool for ELs related to vocabulary instruction and to family involvement to support children's language development. Third, we report curricular challenges faced by ELs in early elementary school, and we relate these challenges to the increase in reading and language demands outlined in the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Specific language activities that can help meet some of the demands are provided in a table. Fourth, we synthesize the research on evidence-based vocabulary instruction and intervention and discuss implications for practice with ELs. Fifth, we describe two intervention projects under development that have the potential to improve EL vocabulary and language proficiency in the early grades. We conclude with a summary of the chapter and provide additional resources on the topic.

  16. Anglicisms in the Romanian business and technology vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todea, L.; Demarcsek, R.

    2016-08-01

    Multinational companies in Romania have imposed the use of the predominant language, in most cases - English, in professional communication. In contexts related to workplace communication, the main motivation for foreign borrowings is the need to denote concepts and activities. The article focuses on the English language as a wide source for a great number of innovations both at the lexical and the morphological level in the Romanian vocabulary related to business and technology. The aim of the paper is to demonstrate that Romanian language displays a natural disposition towards adopting and adapting foreign words, especially borrowed English terms, in the field of computer science and business without endangering its identity.

  17. Vocabulary Knowledge of Deaf and Hearing Postsecondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarchet, Thomastine; Marschark, Marc; Borgna, Georgianna; Convertino, Carol; Sapere, Patricia; Dirmyer, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Deaf children generally are found to have smaller English vocabularies than hearing peers, although studies involving children with cochlear implants have suggested that the gap may decrease or disappear with age. Less is known about the vocabularies of deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) postsecondary students or how their vocabulary knowledge relates…

  18. An Analysis of Output on English Vocabulary Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾娅妮

    2014-01-01

    Output Hypothesis was proposed by Swain in 1985, her Output Hypothesis is regarded as the most important and in-fluential one. However, few studies research and analyze the effect of output on vocabulary acquisition. The findings of this study suggest the importance of output in vocabulary acquisition. Furthermore, in the interactive mode output can help learners acquire vocabulary.

  19. Information and documentation - Thesauri and interoperability with other vocabularies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Marianne; Dalbin, Sylvie; Smedt, Johan De

    ISO 25964-2:2013 is applicable to thesauri and other types of vocabulary that are commonly used for information retrieval. It describes, compares and contrasts the elements and features of these vocabularies that are implicated when interoperability is needed. It gives recommendations...... for the establishment and maintenance of mappings between multiple thesauri, or between thesauri and other types of vocabularies....

  20. The Effects of Vocabulary Breadth and Depth on English Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miao; Kirby, John R.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between two dimensions of vocabulary knowledge, that is, breadth of vocabulary (the number of words known) and depth of vocabulary (the richness of word knowledge), and their effects on different aspects of English reading in Chinese high school students learning English as a second language. Two hundred and…

  1. What's This New Emphasis on Vocabulary All about?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanklin, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    Many teachers, especially novice teachers, believe that teaching vocabulary is among their easier duties, but Shanklin makes a convincing argument that high-quality vocabulary teaching requires thoughtful preparation. Here she offers several sound techniques for engaging students with vocabulary in meaningful ways.

  2. Using Lemony Snicket to Bring Smiles to Your Vocabulary Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arter, Lisa Maxwell; Nilsen, Alleen Pace

    2009-01-01

    Vocabulary instruction is addressed on two levels in this article: 1) the importance of direct teaching and 2) using the books of a popular children's series as examples to support these vocabulary lessons. Also addressed are specific methods of turning classrooms into places where vocabulary instruction is effective and enjoyable. Elements of…

  3. Online Independent Vocabulary Learning Experience of Hong Kong University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Eunice; Chung, Edsoulla; Li, Eddy; Yeung, Steven

    2016-01-01

    In response to the limited vocabulary size of its undergraduates, an independent vocabulary learning platform, VLearn was designed and launched in a university in Hong Kong. As an e-learning environment that supports self-directed vocabulary learning of Chinese learners, the primary aim of VLearn is to equip users with appropriate knowledge and…

  4. Processing Academic Language through Four Corners Vocabulary Chart Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sarah; Sanchez, Claudia; Betty, Sharon; Davis, Shiloh

    2016-01-01

    4 Corners Vocabulary Charts (FCVCs) are explored as a multipurpose vehicle for processing academic language in a 5th-grade classroom. FCVCs typically display a vocabulary word, an illustration of the word, synonyms associated with the word, a sentence using a given vocabulary word, and a definition of the term in students' words. The use of…

  5. The Effects of Vocabulary Breadth and Depth on English Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miao; Kirby, John R.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between two dimensions of vocabulary knowledge, that is, breadth of vocabulary (the number of words known) and depth of vocabulary (the richness of word knowledge), and their effects on different aspects of English reading in Chinese high school students learning English as a second language. Two hundred and…

  6. Using PDA for Undergraduate Student Incidental Vocabulary Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yanjie; Fox, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have explored English vocabulary learning in environments where students used mobile technologies for prescribed vocabulary learning tasks, or tested designed personalized learning systems to enhance student vocabulary learning for short periods of time in language related courses. Dictionary use via mobile devices has mostly been…

  7. The Influence of Electronic Dictionaries on Vocabulary Knowledge Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Mojtaba; Davoudi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary learning needs special strategies in language learning process. The use of dictionaries is a great help in vocabulary learning and nowadays the emergence of electronic dictionaries has added a new and valuable resource for vocabulary learning. The present study aims to explore the influence of Electronic Dictionaries (ED) Vs. Paper…

  8. The Impact of Attrition on Vocabulary Knowledge among Saudi Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharthi, Thamer

    2014-01-01

    This two-year longitudinal study tracks the extent of vocabulary attrition among Arabic-speaking English graduate teachers. Data were collected through pre-post tests of receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge. The results showed drastic attrition in vocabulary knowledge soon after the end of formal instruction followed by slight gain,…

  9. Implicit and Explicit Cognitive Processes in Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ender, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Studies on vocabulary acquisition in second language learning have revealed that a large amount of vocabulary is learned without an overt intention, in other words, incidentally. This article investigates the relevance of different lexical processing strategies for vocabulary acquisition when reading a text for comprehension among 24 advanced…

  10. ELL Preschoolers' English Vocabulary Acquisition from Storybook Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Molly F.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of rich explanation, baseline vocabulary, and home reading practices on English language learning (ELL) preschoolers' sophisticated vocabulary learning from storybook reading. Eighty typically developing preschoolers were pretested in L1 (Portuguese) and L2 (English) receptive vocabulary and were assigned to…

  11. Discussion on English Vocabulary Teaching in Higher Vocational College

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈蓉

    2012-01-01

    Mastering vocabulary is one of the key factors for learning a language. Therefore, how to teach and help students acquire vocabulary is worth researching for every English teacher. This paper mainly provides some effective ways of teaching vocabulary and discusses how to implement these methods in higher vocational English teaching.

  12. Elementary Preservice Teachers' Science Vocabulary: Knowledge and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Sarah J.

    2013-01-01

    Science vocabulary knowledge plays a role in understanding science concepts, and science knowledge is measured in part by correct use of science vocabulary (Lee et al. in "J Res Sci Teach" 32(8):797-816, 1995). Elementary school students have growing vocabularies and many are learning English as a secondary language or depend on schools to learn…

  13. Application of Error Analysis in English Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Qing-jie

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary is an indispensable part of language and is of vital importance for second language learners. Students make form, collocation and ambiguous errors in English vocabulary acquisition. This thesis attempts to analyze errors in students ’Eng⁃lish vocabulary acquisition based on error analysis, give the reasons and further put up some teaching approaches to lessen or avoid errors.

  14. Vocabulary Mining for Information Retrieval: Rough Sets and Fuzzy Sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Padmini; Ruiz, Miguel E.; Kraft, Donald H.; Chen, Jianhua

    2001-01-01

    Explains vocabulary mining in information retrieval and describes a framework for vocabulary mining that allows the use of rough set-based approximations even when documents and queries are described using weighted, or fuzzy, representations. Examines coordination between multiple vocabulary views and applies the framework to the Unified Medical…

  15. The Creation and Validation of a Listening Vocabulary Levels Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Stuart; Kramer, Brandon; Beglar, David

    2015-01-01

    An important gap in the field of second language vocabulary assessment concerns the lack of validated tests measuring aural vocabulary knowledge. The primary purpose of this study is to introduce and provide preliminary validity evidence for the Listening Vocabulary Levels Test (LVLT), which has been designed as a diagnostic tool to measure…

  16. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Vocabulary and Reading Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Richard K.; Keenan, Janice M.; Byrne, Brian; Samuelsson, Stefan; Coventry, William L.; Corley, Robin; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Willcutt, Erik G.; DeFries, John C.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Hulslander, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    Genetic and environmental relations between vocabulary and reading skills were explored longitudinally from preschool through Grades 2 and 4. At preschool there were strong shared-environment and weak genetic influences on both vocabulary and print knowledge but substantial differences in their source. Separation of etiology for vocabulary and…

  17. The Role of Vocabulary in ESP Teaching and Leafing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wujiangwen; WangBinbin

    2004-01-01

    It's known to most second language learners that the acquisition of vocabulary is a fundamental and important component in the course of their learning. A good mastery of vocabulary is essential for ESL/EFL learners, especially for those who learn for specific purposes or expect to operate at an advanced level in English. 'It is wise to direct vocabulary

  18. Vocabulary and Health Care Information Technology: State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, James J.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews the controlled medical vocabularies available today and some of the reasons why they have failed to meet the needs of application developers. Topics include standard vocabularies, including International Classification of Diseases and Medical Subject Headings; uses of vocabularies in medical computing; current research; and remaining…

  19. In Search of Introductory Psychology's Classic Core Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Richard A.; Mitchell, Montserrat C.

    2002-01-01

    Examines whether there was a common vocabulary present within introductory psychology textbooks during the 1950s and if a classic core vocabulary exists. Reports that no common core existed in the textbooks during the 1950s, but there is a set of 100 classic vocabulary terms. (CMK)

  20. The Effectiveness of a Supplemental Pre-Kindergarten Vocabulary Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Na Young

    2013-01-01

    Oral vocabulary is a strong predictor of young children's later reading development. Many children enter kindergarten with weak vocabulary knowledge and could benefit from an extra level or higher tier of intentional instruction in vocabulary that supplements the Tier 1 core curriculum in language. Recent findings from research developing a…

  1. Standard controlled vocabulary for climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moine, Marie-Pierre; Pascoe, Charlotte; Guilyardi, Eric; Ford, Rupert

    2010-05-01

    The scope of climate modeling has grown tremendously in the last 10 years, resulting in a large variety of climate models, increasing complexity with more physical or chemical components and huge volumes of data sets (simulation outputs). While significant efforts to standardise the associated metadata (i.e. data describing data and models) have already been made in recent projects (e.g. CF standard names for CMIP3), detailed standards documentation of the models and experiments that created this data is still lacking. The EU METAFOR Project (http://metaforclimate.eu) is specifically addressing this issue by creating new metadata schemas in cooperation with existing standards in Earth System Modeling (Curator, GridSpec, CF convention, NumSim, etc.). Descriptions of climate simulations, of the data they produce, and of the numerical models used to perform these simulations are all within the scope of METAFOR and these descriptions are assembled in a common information model (the CIM). Of particular note is the metadata for numerical models that is found in the CIM. This paper presents the controlled vocabulary (CV) that has been collected by METAFOR to describe (in a common manner) the components of the numerical models developed by the different modeling centres. This vocabulary is used in the model part of the web-based questionnaire that METAFOR has developed in support of the upcoming IPCC exercise (the CMIP5 questionnaire). The methods to (1) establish standards for this vocabulary via interactions with climate scientists, (2) utilise the vocabulary in the web-based questionnaire and (3) process the vocabulary for ingestion in the Earth System Grid (ESG) portal, are described. Governance aspects of this new controlled vocabulary are also addressed.

  2. Vocabulary of interconnections. Vocabulaire des interconnexions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    A French vocabulary of terms used in the field of interconnection of electric power systems, is provided in order to standardize terminology at Hydro-Quebec. The vocabulary encompasses many subfields directly or indirectly related to interconnections, such as overhead lines, load forecasting, network operation, and interconnection contracts and conventions. International French terminology is adopted throughout, except for specifically North American realities for which new terms have been proposed. English equivalents of terms are provided for informative purposes and are not standardized. An index of the English terms is included. 128 refs.

  3. Vocabulary learning : A study of students’ and teachers' attitudes towards English vocabulary learning in lower secondary school

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Therese

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate student and teacher attitudes towards English vocabulary learning and teaching. Secondary aims were to find out how a number of students learn new vocabulary and whether teachers prefer explicit or implicit teaching methods. The investigation was conducted by letting 75 students in two lower secondary schools and 24 teachers of English from different schools answer questionnaires about vocabulary learning and vocabulary teaching. The results show that ...

  4. Effect of Technology Enhanced Language Learning on Vocabulary Acquisition of EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imtiaz Hassan Taj

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to investigate the impact of a model, created with the help of computer and mobile phone, on the EFL vocabulary learning of the students at a public university on a Preparatory Year Program. The study used a quasi-experimental pretest posttest control group design. The participants were 122 students in their first year at a public university. Half of them (N = 61 were male and half were female (N = 61. Six weeks treatment period involved vocabulary learning activities presented through PCs in the language laboratory and receiving multi-glossed vocabulary cards on the mobile phones through a social networking mobile phone application WhatsApp. Findings suggested that performance of treatment group was significantly better than that of control group on achievement posttest. The impact of treatment was found gender neutral as male and female participants benefitted from it alike.

  5. The Role of Primary Caregiver Vocabulary Knowledge in the Development of Bilingual Children's Vocabulary Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buac, Milijana; Gross, Megan; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The present study examined the impact of environmental factors (socioeconomic status [SES], the percent of language exposure to English and to Spanish, and primary caregivers' vocabulary knowledge) on bilingual children's vocabulary skills. Method: Vocabulary skills were measured in 58 bilingual children between the ages of 5…

  6. The Effect of Vocabulary Self-Selection Strategy and Input Enhancement Strategy on the Vocabulary Knowledge of Iranian EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoudi, Golfam

    2017-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate empirically the effect of Vocabulary Self-Selection strategy and Input Enhancement strategy on the vocabulary knowledge of Iranian EFL Learners. After taking a diagnostic pretest, both experimental groups enrolled in two classes. Learners who practiced Vocabulary Self-Selection were allowed to…

  7. The Effect of Teaching Vocabulary through Semantic Mapping on EFL Learners' Awareness of the Affective Dimensions of Deep Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilforoushan, Somayeh

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the effect of teaching vocabulary through semantic mapping on the awareness of two affective dimensions, evaluation and potency dimensions of deep vocabulary knowledge as well as the general vocabulary knowledge of EFL students. Sixty intermediate EFL female adult learners participated in this study; they were chosen among 90…

  8. Research on English vocabulary teaching based on frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Shi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The key to accurately grasp the semantics in the context is to grasp the vocabularies. Only mastering a lot of vocabularies, many methods will be available in the process of English vocabulary learning and memory, of which English vocabulary teaching based on frequency gradually becomes an English vocabulary learning method recognized by everyone. In English teaching process, this paper makes the current English learning form a more systematic and comprehensive context theory through the questionnaires and application for English context and frequency method in English teaching process, thus proposing a feasible teaching method for the overall grasp of English language.

  9. Multi-perspective Approaches of Vocabulary Teaching and Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欣

    2016-01-01

    It is universally acknowledged that vocabulary is an essential component in language system. Nevertheless, in English teaching practice, imparting grammatical knowledge is highly emphasized but the vocabulary teaching is given little attention. In second language acquisition, proper application of vocabulary in communication is one of the important and difficult points for students. The paper aims to discuss the current problems in vocabulary teaching and learning, advocate a multi-perspective approach in teaching vocabulary so as to enhance the accuracy and fluency of language output, promote students’pragmatic and cross-cultural communicative competence and lay a solid foundation for their life-long learning.

  10. Children's Vocabulary Development : The role of parental input, vocabulary composition and early communicative skills

    OpenAIRE

    Cox Eriksson, Christine

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to examine the early vocabulary development of a sample of Swedish children in relation to parental input and early communicative skills. Three studies are situated in an overall description of early language development in children. The data analyzed in the thesis was collected within a larger project at Stockholm University (SPRINT- “Effects of enhanced parental input on young children’s vocabulary development and subsequent literacy development” [VR 2008-5094]). D...

  11. he Use of Association in the Vocabulary Teaching in Middle School%he Use of Association in the Vocabulary Teaching in Middle School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹文亭

    2011-01-01

    Vocabulary is very important in the process of learning English. The gift of vocabulary will directly affect one' s gifts of listening, speaking, reading, writing and translating. How to teach vocabulary? There are many methods to teach vocabulary in Midd

  12. A Study of Polysemy in English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊飞

    2016-01-01

    Polysemy is very common in English vocabulary. It is essential to analyze the structure, features and language context of polysemy for language learner. For the four different reasons:shift of application in different fields;mutual transformation between common words and specialized words;ellipsis in language use and the reason explained in cognitive theory, polysemy comes into being.

  13. Children's Productive Use of Academic Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shufeng; Zhang, Jie; Anderson, Richard C.; Morris, Joshua; Nguyen-Jahiel, Kim Thi; Miller, Brian; Jadallah, May; Sun, Jingjing; Lin, Tzu-Jung; Scott, Theresa; Hsu, Yu-Li; Zhang, Xin; Latawiec, Beata; Grabow, Kay

    2017-01-01

    Instructional influences on productive use of academic vocabulary were investigated among 460 mostly African American and Latina/o fifth graders from 36 classrooms in eight public schools serving low-income families. Students received a 6-week unit on wolf management involving collaborative group work (CG) or direct instruction (DI). The big…

  14. Vocabulary of CPH Theory and Modern Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Hossein; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Daei Kasmaei, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Wherefore CPH theory was presented? There are various theories in physics, but nature is unique. This is not nature's problem that we have various theories; nature obeys simple and unique law. So, we should improve our understanding of physical phenomena and unify theories. There is a compare bri...... of CPH Theory (Creative Particles of Higgs Theory) and modern physics in this vocabulary....

  15. Tagging behaviour with support from controlled vocabulary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Marianne; Høj, Anne Lyhne; Madsen, Line Nørgaard

    2011-01-01

    The paper investigates how knowledge structures from a controlled vocabulary affect tagging. The study is a comparative analysis of tags assigned in two tagging systems, a simple tagging system (control system) that provides suggestions from two tag clouds (all users tags and my tags) and an enha......The paper investigates how knowledge structures from a controlled vocabulary affect tagging. The study is a comparative analysis of tags assigned in two tagging systems, a simple tagging system (control system) that provides suggestions from two tag clouds (all users tags and my tags...... vocabulary might help taggers in being more specific in their tagging, allowing more precise information searching based on user tags. In addition, the results indicate that structured controlled suggestions might encourage taggers to add synonym variations enhancing the variety and number of access points....... Furthermore, controlled vocabularies might be useful for automatic spell checking. Future study should explore in what direction the different kinds of suggestions lead the tagger and whether it is possible to identify scope or patterns between related tags from the two systems....

  16. Standardizing "HyperVocabulary": A Proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Der-Thanq

    Vocabulary used to describe things that are "hyper" is very confusing. This paper discusses four factor which contribute to the confusion: the same idea is often described using different terms; even though people sometimes use the same terms, quite often they are referring to different ideas; people tend to confuse "hyperdocuments" with…

  17. Deepening Kindergarteners' Science Vocabulary: A Design Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Allison Ward; Bryant, Camille Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Early, effective instruction to introduce both science vocabulary and general academic language may help children build a strong conceptual and linguistic foundation for later instruction. In this study, a design research intervention was employed to expose children to a variety of interrelated science content words to increase both the breadth…

  18. Learning Vocabulary in Group Work in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Le Pham Hoai

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated learning vocabulary in group work at university in Vietnam. The students were studied in two kinds of group settings, "unassisted" and "assisted", the first consisting of five students from the same class level and the second of four from the same class and a student from a higher class. Differences were…

  19. Tagging behaviour with support from controlled vocabulary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Marianne; Høj, Anne Lyhne; Madsen, Line Nørgaard

    2011-01-01

    The paper investigates how knowledge structures from a controlled vocabulary affect tagging. The study is a comparative analysis of tags assigned in two tagging systems, a simple tagging system (control system) that provides suggestions from two tag clouds (all users tags and my tags) and an enha...

  20. Learning Vocabulary in Group Work in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Le Pham Hoai

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated learning vocabulary in group work at university in Vietnam. The students were studied in two kinds of group settings, "unassisted" and "assisted", the first consisting of five students from the same class level and the second of four from the same class and a student from a higher class. Differences were observed in both…

  1. Ways to Win at Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Amanda P.; Cho, Sun-Joo; Nichols, Sally

    2016-01-01

    This teaching tip identifies ways to "WIN" at vocabulary learning. Specifically, the approach conveys three morphological strategies in the mnemonic "WIN." These three strategies remind students to find smaller units of meaning within bigger words, look for those units in other words that they know, and notice the context. Each…

  2. Vocabulary of CPH Theory and Modern Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Hossein; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Daei Kasmaei, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Wherefore CPH theory was presented? There are various theories in physics, but nature is unique. This is not nature's problem that we have various theories; nature obeys simple and unique law. So, we should improve our understanding of physical phenomena and unify theories. There is a compare brief...... of CPH Theory (Creative Particles of Higgs Theory) and modern physics in this vocabulary....

  3. Robust Vocabulary Instruction in a Readers' Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feezell, Greg

    2012-01-01

    This article presents strategies for integrating explicit vocabulary instruction within a reading workshop. The author begins by describing a process for involving students in word selection. The author then provides a weeklong instructional sequence using student-selected words. Finally, the author briefly examines the role of vocabulary…

  4. Personalization of Reading Passages Improves Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilman, Michael; Collins-Thompson, Kevyn; Callan, Jamie; Eskenazi, Maxine; Juffs, Alan; Wilson, Lois

    2010-01-01

    The REAP tutoring system provides individualized and adaptive English as a Second Language vocabulary practice. REAP can automatically personalize instruction by providing practice readings about topics that match interests as well as domain-based, cognitive objectives. While most previous research on motivation in intelligent tutoring…

  5. Effectiveness of Structural Method of Teaching Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behlol, Malik; Dad, Hukam

    2010-01-01

    The study was conducted to find out the effectiveness of structural method of teaching vocabulary in English subject at secondary level. The population of the study was the students of secondary classes studying in Federal Government schools of Islamabad District. Purposive and random sampling techniques were applied to select the school, teachers…

  6. How Do Raters Judge Spoken Vocabulary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how raters come to their decisions when judging spoken vocabulary. Segmental rating was introduced to quantify raters' decision-making process. It is hoped that this simulated study brings fresh insight to future methodological considerations with spoken data. Twenty trainee raters assessed five Chinese…

  7. Teaching Vocabulary and Morphology in Intermediate Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Anthony; Kramer-Vida, Louisa; Hunt, Carolyn V.

    2015-01-01

    Direct vocabulary instruction of Tier 2 and Tier 3 words in intermediate-grade curricula is an important tool of literacy instruction because English is a language grafted from many roots and has not developed a one-to-one phoneme-grapheme correspondence. In addition to knowing graphemes and phonemes, students must formally learn words that cross…

  8. A Computer-Adaptive Vocabulary Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Maria Teresa Lopez-Mezquita

    2009-01-01

    Lexical competence is considered to be an essential step in the development and consolidation of a student's linguistic ability, and thus the reliable assessment of such competence turns out to be a fundamental aspect in this process. The design and construction of vocabulary tests has become an area of special interest, as it may provide teachers…

  9. Word Lists for Vocabulary Learning and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard-Clouston, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Within the communicative approach, often the assumption has been that with the right exposure, students will simply "pick up" the vocabulary required for learning and using English, and thus there is no need to focus on or teach it. Yet, as many teachers can attest, this is frequently not the case, and there have been recent efforts to…

  10. Cultural Connotation in English Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangJiying

    2004-01-01

    As an English language teacher with years of teaching experience, I have gradually recognized this fact that foreign language instruction and its vocabulary learn/rig should be closely combined with learning the knowledge of cultural contents of target language. Unfortunately, only a small number of teachers realize that teaching culture is very

  11. The Importance of Vocabulary for Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Marisa T.

    2012-01-01

    A major component of literacy is "vocabulary," or the words employed by a language or in a field of knowledge. Understanding novel words and concepts is important for young students as they are confronted with a great deal of new terminology in the passages they read, especially in content areas such as science. Science is a discipline that relies…

  12. A Computer-Adaptive Vocabulary Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Maria Teresa Lopez-Mezquita

    2009-01-01

    Lexical competence is considered to be an essential step in the development and consolidation of a student's linguistic ability, and thus the reliable assessment of such competence turns out to be a fundamental aspect in this process. The design and construction of vocabulary tests has become an area of special interest, as it may provide teachers…

  13. Metaphor and Vocabulary Teaching in ESP Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charteris-Black, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    A case is made for basing vocabulary teaching to English for special purposes economics students on lexis that reflects important underlying metaphors of the subject. These are identified with reference to high frequency lexis in "The Economist" magazine, and an explanation is offered of their metaphorical basis. (Author/VWL)

  14. Check your English vocabulary for IELTS all you need to pass your exams

    CERN Document Server

    Wyatt, Rawdon

    2009-01-01

    This workbook is an helpful self-study aid for anyone preparing for the IELTS (International English Language Testing System) exam. It includes a range of activities to help students build and improve their English vocabulary, and is suitable for both self-study and the classroom.

  15. L2 Vocabulary Teaching with Student- and Teacher-Generated Gestures: A Classroom Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jordan; Trofimovich, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    This action research project explored the use of gestures for teaching and learning French vocabulary in an upper-beginner adult classroom with 21 students from various language backgrounds. Over the course of 4 weeks, the teacher developed and used 4 sets of themed activities using both teacher- and student-generated gestures to introduce new…

  16. ESL Vocabulary Learning in a TOEFL Preparation Class: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard-Clouston, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Building on the prior work of Sanaoui (1995), this article reports on the results of administering a self-report questionnaire to students of English as a Second Language to discover the vocabulary learning activities that learners engaged in outside class. Discusses why a structured learning approach did not predict either greater vocabulary…

  17. Scripts and the Recognition of Unfamiliar Vocabulary: Enhancing Second Language Reading Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Shirley J.

    1982-01-01

    Presents study designed to investigate effects of statements designed to activate scripts on measures of unfamiliar vocabulary with American college students reading in French and in English. Study revealed importance of preparing readers for what they are about to read. Teachers should keep background and present knowledge of students in mind…

  18. Learning L2 Vocabulary with American TV Drama "From the Learner's Perspective"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Chia

    2012-01-01

    Following the trend of computer assisted language learning (CALL), in Taiwan, most language classes now have equivalent media support for language teachers and learners. Implementing videos into classroom activities is one of the choices. The current study explores the process of implementing American TV drama in L2 vocabulary learning from…

  19. Inter-textual Vocabulary Growth Patterns for Marine Engineering English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JINGJIE LI; ZHIWEI FENG

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores two fundamental issues concerning the inter-textual vocabulary growth patterns for Marine Engineering English, viz. vocabulary growth models and newly occurring vocabulary distributions in cumulative texts. On the basis of the DMMEE (Dalian Maritime University Marine Engineering English) corpus, four mathematical models (Brunet's, Guiraud's, Tuldava's, and Herdan's models) are tested against the empirical vocabulary growth curve for Marine Engineering English. A new growth model based on the logarithmic function and the power law is presented. The theoretical mean vocabulary size and the 95% upper and lower bound values are calculated and plotted as functions of the sample size. Being significant in explicit EFL teaching and learning, the new growth model can make accurate estimates not only on the vocabulary size and its intervals for a given textbook but also on the volume of texts that are needed to produce a particular vocabulary size.

  20. Online Independent Vocabulary Learning Experience of Hong Kong University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Tang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In response to the limited vocabulary size of its undergraduates, an independent vocabulary learning platform, VLearn was designed and launched in a university in Hong Kong. As an elearning environment that supports self-directed vocabulary learning of Chinese learners, the primary aim of VLearn is to equip users with appropriate knowledge and skills for vocabulary expansion. This paper introduces the contents of VLearn, and the theoretical underpinnings of its design. It also reports on the vocabulary learning experience of its users during an eight week evaluation study. Suggestions are made on how independent vocabulary building at higher education, as well as comprehensive vocabulary instruction at early years could be supported by means of technology.

  1. Specifying the Construct of Academic Vocabulary: Functional and Discursive Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Damián Perales Escudero

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Models of academic vocabulary use need to address discursive and functional linguistics perspectives in order to enhance construct validity and authenticity in academic vocabulary assessment, particularly with regard to the testing of word families.Purpose of Study: To provide a clearer picture of academic vocabulary use that can inform the design of academic vocabulary testing by enhancing construct validity and authenticity.Method: A survey of the literature on academic vocabulary has been conducted to present various perspectives and their shortcoming. Then, findings from the functional linguistics and discourse analysis traditions with regard to vocabulary use are discussed. An example of a testing item incorporating functional perspectives on the use of derivatives within a lemma is presented.Conclusion: Incorporating functional and discursive findings related to the discourse-structuring functions of multiple derivatives of a single lemma may lead to more valid and authentic academic vocabulary tests and teaching practices.

  2. Moving Controlled Vocabularies into the Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R.; Lowry, R. K.; Kokkinaki, A.

    2015-12-01

    One of the issues with legacy oceanographic data formats is that the only tool available for describing what a measurement is and how it was made is a single metadata tag known as the parameter code. The British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC) has been supporting the international oceanographic community gain maximum benefit from this through a controlled vocabulary known as the BODC Parameter Usage Vocabulary (PUV). Over time this has grown to over 34,000 entries some of which have preferred labels with over 400 bytes of descriptive information detailing what was measured and how. A decade ago the BODC pioneered making this information available in a more useful form with the implementation of a prototype vocabulary server (NVS) that referenced each 'parameter code' as a URL. This developed into the current server (NVS V2) in which the parameter URL resolves into an RDF document based on the SKOS data model which includes a list of resource URLs mapped to the 'parameter'. For example the parameter code for a contaminant in biota, such as 'cadmium in Mytilus edulis', carries RDF triples leading to the entry for Mytilus edulis in the WoRMS and for cadmium in the ChEBI ontologies. By providing links into these external ontologies the information captured in a 1980s parameter code now conforms to the Linked Data paradigm of the Semantic Web, vastly increasing the descriptive information accessible to a user. This presentation will describe the next steps along the road to the Semantic Web with the development of a SPARQL end point1 to expose the PUV plus the 190 other controlled vocabularies held in NVS. Whilst this is ideal for those fluent in SPARQL, most users require something a little more user-friendly and so the NVS browser2 was developed over the end point to allow less technical users to query the vocabularies and navigate the NVS ontology. This tool integrates into an editor that allows vocabulary content to be manipulated by authorised users outside BODC

  3. Boosting Vocabulary Learning by Verbal Cueing During Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Thomas; Rasch, Björn

    2015-11-01

    Reactivating memories during sleep by re-exposure to associated memory cues (e.g., odors or sounds) improves memory consolidation. Here, we tested for the first time whether verbal cueing during sleep can improve vocabulary learning. We cued prior learned Dutch words either during non-rapid eye movement sleep (NonREM) or during active or passive waking. Re-exposure to Dutch words during sleep improved later memory for the German translation of the cued words when compared with uncued words. Recall of uncued words was similar to an additional group receiving no verbal cues during sleep. Furthermore, verbal cueing failed to improve memory during active and passive waking. High-density electroencephalographic recordings revealed that successful verbal cueing during NonREM sleep is associated with a pronounced frontal negativity in event-related potentials, a higher frequency of frontal slow waves as well as a cueing-related increase in right frontal and left parietal oscillatory theta power. Our results indicate that verbal cues presented during NonREM sleep reactivate associated memories, and facilitate later recall of foreign vocabulary without impairing ongoing consolidation processes. Likewise, our oscillatory analysis suggests that both sleep-specific slow waves as well as theta oscillations (typically associated with successful memory encoding during wakefulness) might be involved in strengthening memories by cueing during sleep.

  4. Documentation Report, Self-Paced Physics, Classification of Learning Objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD.

    The purpose of this study was to develop a taxonomy which would categorize high level physics problem-solving behaviors, and to examine the usefulness of such a classification system. This classification of learning objectives is based on complexity, a nonarbitrary measure which does not rely upon comparison between students but rather is based on…

  5. Radon Measurement in Schools: Self-Paced Training Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute for Disability Research and Training, Inc., Silver Spring, MD.

    This workbook is designed to educate school personnel in randon detection. The workbook is intended for an audience of school officials, including administrators, business officers, facility managers, and maintenance and operations staff. It is meant to provide trainees with experience in planning a radon test, interpreting test results,…

  6. Dynamic Assessment of Incidental Vocabularies: A Case of Iranian ESP Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Hanifi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic assessment (DA, stemmed from both Vygotsky’s (1978 learning theory and Feuerstein’s (1979 theory of mediated learning experiences, is an alternative to static assessment. It focuses on both instruction and assessment aiming at promoting learning through mediation.  DA has been widely researched in different linguistic areas, but there is paucity of research on its practice in ESP contexts. Accordingly, this study investigated the effectiveness of DA on incidental vocabularies emerging in technical reading textbooks, written for electronic engineering students. The study employed a quasi-experimental research design. Due to sample selection problems, an intact group of 25 BA electronic students were selected from the University of Zanjan. A pre-test was administered to check whether they had previous knowledge of the target words, incidentally acquired during the reading activity. As for the instrument stage, DA procedures were utilized in order to individualize participants’ assessment. Following DA implementation, a post-test similar in content to pre-test, was administered to the same participants. The significance of DA for the enhancement of incidental vocabularies was to make participants aware of the strategies of identifying, evaluating and monitoring vocabularies (Nassaji, 2003 through mediation process.  The results indicated that participants' incidental vocabulary learning promoted dramatically using DA, which employed structured hints for the mediation process.  The results of this study can inform both teachers and learners to provide a step by step procedure to promote both teaching and assessment of ESP learners' vocabulary.Keywords: Dynamic Assessment, Incidental Vocabulary Learning, ESP Learners, ZPD, mediation 

  7. Check This Word Out! Exploring the Factors That Affect Students’ Vocabulary Learning Using Smartphones via Partial Least Squares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Madallh Alhabahba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A rigorous understanding of the use of Smartphones for foreign language vocabulary acquisition is crucial. Employing the technology acceptance model, this study aims to investigate students’ behavioural factors affecting Saudi students’ attitudes towards employing Smartphones for foreign vocabulary acquisition. Two hundred and seventy-three students studying in a preparatory year programme were surveyed. SmartPLS was employed to analyse the data obtained from the study’s sample. The results revealed that perceived usefulness and attitude proved to be significantly and positively related to vocabulary development. In addition, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use proved to be significant predictors of students’ attitudes towards the use of Smartphone for vocabulary learning. However, the study showed that the relationship between perceived ease of use and vocabulary development is not significant. Thus, publishers of dictionaries may find it necessary to take into account the important role played by the design of dictionaries interfaces in facilitating the use of dictionaries in Smartphones. Furthermore, teachers and educators are encouraged to employ creative activities (e.g., word guessing games that invest students’ use of Smartphones to learn vocabularies. Using Smartphones in learning improves interaction among students and teachers. Discussion and conclusions are also provided.

  8. The effect of aided language stimulation on vocabulary acquisition in children with little or no functional speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dada, Shakila; Alant, Erna

    2009-02-01

    To describe the nature and frequency of the aided language stimulation program and determine the effects of a 3-week-long aided language stimulation program on the vocabulary acquisition skills of children with little or no functional speech (LNFS). Four children participated in this single-subject, multiple-probe study across activities. The aided language stimulation program comprised 3 activities: arts and crafts, food preparation, and story time activity. Each activity was repeated over the duration of 5 subsequent sessions. Eight target vocabulary items were taught within each activity. The acquisition of all 24 target items was probed throughout the duration of the 3-week intervention period. The frequency and nature of the aided language stimulation provided met the criterion of being used 70% of the time and providing aided language stimulation with an 80:20 ratio of statements to questions. The results indicated that all 4 participants acquired the target vocabulary items. There were, however, variations in the rate of acquisition. This study explores the impact of aided language stimulation on vocabulary acquisition in children. The most important clinical implication of this study is that a 3-week intervention program in aided language stimulation was sufficient to facilitate the comprehension of at least 24 vocabulary items in 4 children with LNFS.

  9. The usage of network vocabulary among college students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MlAO Xi-song; CHEN Tong

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To understand that college students how to use vocabulary on the network, the practicability of network vocabulary among college students, as well as the factors affecting the network vocabulary used. Methods: This study extracted 2500 college students of several universities in Yunnan Province as experimental subjects. Using non-experimental research methods to study the awareness,usage and practicability of the network vocabulary. Results: The number of the results of this study based on the analysis of 2500 college students ,the basic vocabulary to identify the network has 2426, accounting for 97.04% of the total number, which has 33.44 percent of the students fully understand the vocabulary of the network. While only 2.96 percent of the students do not understand the network vocabulary. Conclusion: The network vocabulary is vivid, straightforward, humorous, and fashionable. Thus it is popular among students. Students have strong awareness of network vocabulary. Besides the usage of network vocabulary is higher and it’s practical among college students.

  10. The Use of Vocabulary Learning Strategies in Teaching Turkish as a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Sami; Iscan, Adem; Karagoz, Beytullah; Birol, Gülnur

    2017-01-01

    Vocabulary learning is the basis of the language learning process in teaching Turkish as a second language. Vocabulary learning strategies need to be used in order for vocabulary learning to take place effectively. The use of vocabulary learning strategies facilitates vocabulary learning and increases student achievement. Each student uses a…

  11. Vocabularies of motive for illicit steroid use among bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Lee F

    2002-09-01

    Illicit steroid use, for purposes of performance and physique enhancement, is widely deemed unnecessary, wrong and dangerous. Such activity would appear especially foolhardy when engaged in by non-professional athletes who otherwise adhere to 'healthy' exercise regimens. Here a gap exists between many illicit steroid users' actions and societal expectations. Using qualitative data generated in South Wales, this paper explores bodybuilders' vocabularies of motive for illicit steroid use. These accounts which justified, rather than excused, steroid use were predominant during question situations between the participant observer and the researched. In supporting the fundamental tenets of their drug subculture, and as part of the underlying negotiation of self-identity, respondents espoused three main justifications for their own and/or other bodybuilders' illicit steroid use; namely: self-fulfilment accounts, condemnation of condemners and a denial of injury. Here steroid use was rationalised as a legitimate means to an end, observers passing negative judgements were rejected and it was claimed steroids do not (seriously) harm the user's health or threaten society more generally. These vocabularies of motive, acquired and honoured within bodybuilding settings, comprise a complex of subjective meanings which seem to the actor to be an adequate ground for the conduct in question. Similar to other sociological studies, this paper states that it is imperative to explore the social meanings which illicit drug users attach to their 'risk' practices. Without these understandings, researchers and health promoters may struggle to appreciate fully why illicit drug users behave as they do.

  12. Legal English Vocabulary and Its Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Kuang-zheng

    2016-01-01

    There are differences between legal English and general English. Legal English relates to the legal profession. Law needs to maintain the impression of seriousness, standardization, accuracy and objectiveness, and as a result, legal English also has these characteristics. Compared to general everyday English, the application of legal English vocabulary requires consider-ation of these characteristics. In the translation of legal content, attention is also needed to be paid to the characteristics of foren-sic linguistics. Standardized legal terms are used in the translation of legal regulations and other content to keep the characteris-tics of faithfulness, accuracy, smoothness and consistency. In this paper, legal English vocabulary is discussed based on its char-acteristics, as well as the method of translation of legal content. For practical translation of legal English, translation methods in-clude literal translation, free translation and addition and omission. These methods are briefly discussed in this paper.

  13. Learning the Structural Vocabulary of a Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navlakha, Saket

    2017-02-01

    Networks have become instrumental in deciphering how information is processed and transferred within systems in almost every scientific field today. Nearly all network analyses, however, have relied on humans to devise structural features of networks believed to be most discriminative for an application. We present a framework for comparing and classifying networks without human-crafted features using deep learning. After training, autoencoders contain hidden units that encode a robust structural vocabulary for succinctly describing graphs. We use this feature vocabulary to tackle several network mining problems and find improved predictive performance versus many popular features used today. These problems include uncovering growth mechanisms driving the evolution of networks, predicting protein network fragility, and identifying environmental niches for metabolic networks. Deep learning offers a principled approach for mining complex networks and tackling graph-theoretic problems.

  14. Vocabulary for Virtual Observatories and Data Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourcle, J. A.; King, T. A.

    2010-12-01

    Virtual Observatories and other unifying data systems have been forming in nearly every science discipline. As is common in any field, language evolves to discuss the concepts, but it may evolve differently when commnities don't intercommunicate. In order to discuss our organizations and data systems across disciplines, we must have a clear language to be able to communicate information about our systems and the content within our systems. We present common terms and definitions used in earth and space informatics when discussing science archives, search systems, services and other data system components. One benefit of a common vocabulary is to help those who implement science data systems to easily recognize other efforts with a common purpose. A common vocabulary is also useful in identifying analogous terms in other related fields such as computer science and information science. We also solicit input on problematic terms that people have encountered, particularly where there is lack of agreement on the definition between various disciplines.

  15. Legal English Vocabulary and Its Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Kuang zheng

    2016-01-01

    There are differences between legal English and general English. Legal English relates to the legal profession. Law needs to maintain the impression of seriousness, standardization, accuracy and objectiveness, and as a result, legal English also has these characteristics. Compared to general everyday English, the application of legal English vocabulary requires consideration of these characteristics. In the translation of legal content, attention is also needed to be paid to the characteristics of forensic linguistics. Standardized legal terms are used in the translation of legal regulations and other content to keep the characteristics of faithfulness, accuracy, smoothness and consistency. In this paper, legal English vocabulary is discussed based on its characteristics, as well as the method of translation of legal content. For practical translation of legal English, translation methods include literal translation, free translation and addition and omission. These methods are briefly discussed in this paper.

  16. [Anglicisms in the German medical vocabulary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleyer, F

    1985-01-01

    In view of an ever-increasing infiltration of the German medical vocabulary by Britishisms and Americanisms, a linguistic attempt was made to categorize this phraseology as follows: more or less incorporated terminology, "internationalized" terms, identical translations, unnecessary use of English expressions instead of German synonyms, borrowing from the English with an alteration of the original meaning, and German neologisms on the basis of English vocabular material. Specimens from all these categories are enumerated.

  17. Multilingual Vocabularies in Automatic Speech Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-01

    monolingual (a few thousands) is an obstacle to a full generalization of the inventories, then moved to the multilingual case. In the approach towards the...language. of multilingual models than the monolingual models, and it was specifically observed in the test with Spanish utterances. In fact...UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP010389 TITLE: Multilingual Vocabularies in Automatic Speech Recognition

  18. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PICTURE CHART MEDIA ON STUDENTS’ ENGLISH VOCABULARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novanie Sulastri

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The study is aimed at investigating the effectiveness of using picture chart media on students’ English vocabulary. The study belonged to pre-experimental study by applying counterbalance procedure to collect the data. The study was conducted at the class VII-5 at the SMPN 1 Palangka Raya. The number of the sample was 40 students. This study was restricted to focus on teaching vocabulary especially in classification of vocabulary. To answer the research problem, the t test for correlated was applied. The research findings showed that teaching vocabulary by using picture chart media gives effect toward the seventh grade students’ English vocabulary. The mean score of posttest reached higher score than the mean score of pretest (X=57.105 t table =2.021. Keywords: picture chart media, effectiveness, English vocabulary

  19. On Vocabulary Teaching%关于词汇教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建卿

    2005-01-01

    Vocabulary is a very important part of language teaching and learning. This article discusses vocabulary teaching from the aspects of "aspects of vocabulary teaching, pattern of vocabulary teaching, memory and teaching techniques of vocabulary and strategies-based instruction on vocabulary teaching".%词汇是语言教学的一个很重要的方面.文章讨论了以下方面:词汇教学的方面,词汇教学的模式、记忆和词汇数学技艺以及在词汇数学中应对学生进行词汇学习策略指导.

  20. Incidental Vocabulary Learning in Second Language Acquisition: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falcon Dario Restrepo Ramos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This literature review aims to analyze previous studies that address the incidental learning of vocabulary in second language acquisition. The articles included in this literature review look into the understanding of vocabulary learning through incidental means, the relationship of reading and incidental vocabulary learning, and the strategies and tasks that promote the incidental learning of vocabulary. The findings show that L2 learners develop much of their vocabulary by incidental means through exposure to words in informative contexts. Moreover, this exposure is promoted by reading, and enhanced through multimodal glosses. Further research may focus on listening for higher lexical retention rates, the circumstances that allow incidental learning of multi-word phrases and collocations, and the use of technology-based methods for incidental vocabulary acquisition.