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Sample records for vocabulary grammar pronunciation

  1. The PRO-VOC Method: Combining Pronunciation and Vocabulary Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaidis, Katerina; Mattheoudakis, Marina

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method for the combined teaching of pronunciation and vocabulary to learners of English as a foreign language (EFL). While there is commonly strong emphasis on the teaching of vocabulary, pronunciation teaching is frequently neglected in the EFL classroom. The proposed method aims to address such imbalance which may…

  2. The PRO-VOC Method: Combining Pronunciation and Vocabulary Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaidis, Katerina; Mattheoudakis, Marina

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method for the combined teaching of pronunciation and vocabulary to learners of English as a foreign language (EFL). While there is commonly strong emphasis on the teaching of vocabulary, pronunciation teaching is frequently neglected in the EFL classroom. The proposed method aims to address such imbalance which may…

  3. Pronunciation Modeling for Large Vocabulary Speech Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantor, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    The large pronunciation variability of words in conversational speech is one of the major causes of low accuracy in automatic speech recognition (ASR). Many pronunciation modeling approaches have been developed to address this problem. Some explicitly manipulate the pronunciation dictionary as well as the set of the units used to define the…

  4. Vocabulary, Grammar, Sex, and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscoso Del Prado Martín, Fermín

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the changes in our language abilities along the lifespan is a crucial step for understanding the aging process both in normal and in abnormal circumstances. Besides controlled experimental tasks, it is equally crucial to investigate language in unconstrained conversation. I present an information-theoretical analysis of a corpus of dyadic conversations investigating how the richness of the vocabulary, the word-internal structure (inflectional morphology), and the syntax of the utterances evolves as a function of the speaker's age and sex. Although vocabulary diversity increases throughout the lifetime, grammatical diversities follow a different pattern, which also differs between women and men. Women use increasingly diverse syntactic structures at least up to their late fifties, and they do not deteriorate in terms of fluency through their lifespan. However, from age 45 onward, men exhibit a decrease in the diversity of the syntactic structures they use, coupled with an increased number of speech disfluencies. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  5. Preferences of ELT Learners in the Correction of Oral Vocabulary and Pronunciation Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustaci, Hale Yayla; Ok, Selami

    2014-01-01

    Vocabulary is an essential component of language teaching and learning process, and correct pronunciation of lexical items is an ultimate goal for language instructors in ELT programs. Apart from how lexical items should be taught, the way teachers correct oral vocabulary errors as well as those of pronunciation in line with the preferences of…

  6. On the Application of Games in Junior English Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖芳萍

    2015-01-01

    <正>Vocabulary,pronunciation and grammar are the three essential components of language,vocabulary being the building material of languages.The famous linguist Wilkins said,"Without grammar,very little can be conveyed;without vocabulary,nothing can be conveyed."The importance of vocabulary is strongly manifested.Therefore,vocabulary teaching has been the focus of

  7. How to describe grammar and vocabulary in ELT

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Dilin

    2013-01-01

    Language description plays an important role in language learning/teaching because it often determines what specific language forms, features, and usages are taught and how. A good understanding of language description is vital for language teachers and material writers and should constitute an important part of their knowledge. This book provides a balanced treatment of both theory and practice. It focuses on some of the most important and challenging grammar and vocabulary usage questions. Using these questions as examples, it shows how theory can inform practice and how grammar and vocab

  8. On vocabulary size of grammar-based codes

    CERN Document Server

    Debowski, Lukasz

    2007-01-01

    We discuss inequalities holding between the vocabulary size, i.e., the number of distinct nonterminal symbols in a grammar-based compression for a string, and the excess length of the respective universal code, i.e., the code-based analog of algorithmic mutual information. The aim is to strengthen inequalities which were discussed in a weaker form in linguistics but shed some light on redundancy of efficiently computable codes. The main contribution of the paper is a construction of universal grammar-based codes for which the excess lengths can be bounded easily.

  9. Vocabulary and Grammar Differences Between Deaf and Hearing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Noboru; Isaka, Yukio; Yamamoto, Toshikazu; Nakamura, Tomoyasu

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the development of literacy skills of deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children in Japan. The three components of literacy, vocabulary, orthographic knowledge, and grammatical knowledge were assessed by using the subtests of the Adaptive Tests for Language Abilities (ATLAN), based on the item response theory developed by the authors). The participants consisted of 207 DHH children (first through twelfth grades) in Study 1, and 425 hearing children (first through sixth grades) in Study 2. The findings show that more than 80% of DHH children's vocabulary variance was explained by the other two componential skills, while the three tasks' difficulty was different. More specifically, their vocabulary and especially, their grammar lagged behind those of hearing children, whereas the difference between the two groups on kanji (one of the three orthographic systems in Japanese taught during the school years) was less. Although considerably delayed, their pattern of responses in grammar was similar to that predicted from normative data. Effective instruction for DHH children's literacy skills was generally discussed. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Validity of a parent-report measure of vocabulary and grammar for Spanish-speaking toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thal, D; Jackson-Maldonado, D; Acosta, D

    2000-10-01

    The validity of the Fundación MacArthur Inventario del Desarrollo de Habilidades Comunicativas: Palabras y Enunciados (IDHC:PE) was examined with twenty 20- and nineteen 28-month-old, typically developing, monolingual, Spanish-speaking children living in Mexico. One measure of vocabulary (number of words) and two measures of grammar (mean of the three longest utterances and grammatical complexity score) from the IDHC:PE were compared to behavioral measures of vocabulary (number of different words from a language sample and number of objects named in a confrontation naming task) and one behavioral measure of grammar (mean length of utterance from a language sample). Only vocabulary measures were assessed in the 20-month-olds because of floor effects on the grammar measures. Results indicated validity for assessing expressive vocabulary in 20-month-olds and expressive vocabulary and grammar in 28-month-olds.

  11. Automated Diagnosis of Otitis Media: Vocabulary and Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruvilla, Anupama; Hoberman, Alejandro; Kovačević, Jelena

    2013-01-01

    We propose a novel automated algorithm for classifying diagnostic categories of otitis media: acute otitis media, otitis media with effusion, and no effusion. Acute otitis media represents a bacterial superinfection of the middle ear fluid, while otitis media with effusion represents a sterile effusion that tends to subside spontaneously. Diagnosing children with acute otitis media is difficult, often leading to overprescription of antibiotics as they are beneficial only for children with acute otitis media. This underscores the need for an accurate and automated diagnostic algorithm. To that end, we design a feature set understood by both otoscopists and engineers based on the actual visual cues used by otoscopists; we term this the otitis media vocabulary. We also design a process to combine the vocabulary terms based on the decision process used by otoscopists; we term this the otitis media grammar. The algorithm achieves 89.9% classification accuracy, outperforming both clinicians who did not receive special training and state-of-the-art classifiers. PMID:23997759

  12. Automated Diagnosis of Otitis Media: Vocabulary and Grammar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama Kuruvilla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel automated algorithm for classifying diagnostic categories of otitis media: acute otitis media, otitis media with effusion, and no effusion. Acute otitis media represents a bacterial superinfection of the middle ear fluid, while otitis media with effusion represents a sterile effusion that tends to subside spontaneously. Diagnosing children with acute otitis media is difficult, often leading to overprescription of antibiotics as they are beneficial only for children with acute otitis media. This underscores the need for an accurate and automated diagnostic algorithm. To that end, we design a feature set understood by both otoscopists and engineers based on the actual visual cues used by otoscopists; we term this the otitis media vocabulary. We also design a process to combine the vocabulary terms based on the decision process used by otoscopists; we term this the otitis media grammar. The algorithm achieves 89.9% classification accuracy, outperforming both clinicians who did not receive special training and state-of-the-art classifiers.

  13. Grammar and vocabulary for First and First for schools with answers

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Barbara; Matthews, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Grammar and Vocabulary reference and practice for the revised Cambridge English: First (FCE) and Cambridge English: First (FCE) for Schools from 2015 Cambridge Grammar and Vocabulary for First and First for Schools provides complete coverage of the grammar and vocabulary needed for the Cambridge First exams, and develops listening skills at the same time. It includes the full range of First and First for Schools exam tasks from the Reading and Use of English, Writing and Listening papers, and contains helpful grammar explanations. This edition is updated for the new exam to be introduced from 2015. It is informed by the Cambridge Learner Corpus to ensure that the language tackles real learner errors. The accompanying listening material is available online for download.

  14. Effects of Glosses on Learning of L2 Grammar and Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jookyoung

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines how glossing of second language (L2) texts affects L2 learners' reading comprehension as well as their learning of L2 grammar and vocabulary. It employed a pretest, immediate posttest, and delayed posttest design with two treatment sessions. The target features were English unaccusativity and 10 pseudo-word items.…

  15. Early Vocabulary, Parental Education, and the Frequency of Shared Reading as Predictors of Toddler's Vocabulary and Grammar at Age 2;7: A Slovenian Longitudinal CDI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic-Umek, Ljubica; Fekonja-Peklaj, Urška; Socan, Gregor

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study, carried out on a sample of Slovenian-speaking toddlers, was to analyze developmental changes and stability in early vocabulary development; to establish relations between toddler's vocabulary and grammar; and to analyze the effects of parental education and the frequency of shared reading on toddlers' vocabulary…

  16. A High-accuracy Approach to Pronunciation Prediction for Out-of-vocabulary English Word

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hao; CHEN Gui-lin; XU Liang-xian

    2005-01-01

    Letter-to-Sound conversion is one of the fundamental issues in text-to-speech synthesis. In this paper, we address an approach to automatic prediction of word pronunciation. This approach combines example-based learning and dynamic-programming searching to predict sub-word pronunciation. Word pronunciation is formed by concatenating sub-word pronunciations. We conducted comparative experiments over a large-scale English dictionary. Experimental results show that this approach can achieve accuracy of 70.1%, which outperforms those published results.

  17. The Application of Contrastive Analysis to Vocabulary Teaching in Middle School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙和

    2013-01-01

    Learning a language must begin with learning pronunciation, vocabulary and grammar. Among these three factors, vo-cabulary is of great importance. By putting the method of the Contrastive Analysis theories into practice, this thesis presents the necessity and significance of Contrastive Analysis in practical teaching.

  18. The Roles of Phonological Short-Term Memory and Working Memory in L2 Grammar and Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Katherine I.; Ellis, Nick C.

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzed phonological short-term memory (PSTM) and working memory (WM) and their relationship with vocabulary and grammar learning in an artificial foreign language. Nonword repetition, nonword recognition, and listening span were used as memory measures. Participants learned the singular forms of vocabulary for an artificial foreign…

  19. A Corpus of Writing, Pronunciation, Reading, and Listening by Learners of English as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Katsunori; Yoshimi, Takehiko; Nanjo, Hiroaki; Isahara, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    In order to develop effective teaching methods and computer-assisted language teaching systems for learners of English as a foreign language who need to study the basic linguistic competences for writing, pronunciation, reading, and listening, it is necessary to first investigate which vocabulary and grammar they have or have not yet learned.…

  20. The Game Embedded CALL System to Facilitate English Vocabulary Acquisition and Pronunciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Shelley Shwu-Ching; Wang, Yi-Hsuan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to make a new attempt to explore the potential of integrating game strategies with automatic speech recognition technologies to provide learners with individual opportunities for English pronunciation learning. The study developed the Game Embedded CALL (GeCALL) system with two activities for on-line speaking practice. For…

  1. A Study of English Vocabulary Learning Methods of the Students Majoring in English of Sanda University from the Perspectives of Psychological Factors%A Study of English Vocabulary Learning Methods of the Students Majoring in English of Sanda University from the Perspectives of Psychological Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶文琦

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Language is a very important communicative tool that people all around the world can use to convey the meanings of their intention. In order to learn a language, vocabulary, the building material, is a very essential element. It is one of the three basic components of language which are called pronunciation, vocabulary and grammar, and is of utmost importance to people' s communication and language learning. Language emerges first as words, and the coining of new words never stops. Pronunciation and grammar are presented by vocabulary. The British applied linguist David Wilkins (1972) once summed up the utmost importance of vocabulary in his book Linguistics and Language Teaching: Without grammar very little can be conveyed ; but without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed. This sentence in his book clearly stands out the significance of vocabulary to language learning.

  2. Phonetic detail in German syllable pronunciation: influences of prosody and grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samlowski, Barbara; Möbius, Bernd; Wagner, Petra

    2014-01-01

    This study presents two experiments designed to disentangle various influences on syllable pronunciation. Target syllables were embedded in carrier sentences, read aloud by native German participants, and analyzed in terms of syllable and vowel duration, acoustic prominence, and spectral similarity. Both experiments revealed a complex interaction of different factors, as participants attempted to disambiguate semantically and syntactically ambiguous structures while at the same time distinguishing between important and unimportant information. The first experiment examined German verb prefixes that formed prosodic minimal pairs. Carrier sentences were formulated so as to systematically vary word stress, sentence focus, and the type of syntactic boundary following the prefix. We found clear effects of word stress on duration, prominence, and spectral similarity as well as a small influence of sentence focus on prominence levels of lexically stressed prefixes. While sentence boundaries were marked by particularly high prominence and duration values, hardly any effect was shown for word boundaries. The second experiment compared German function words which were segmentally identical but appeared in different grammatical roles. Here, definite articles were found to be shorter than relative pronouns and still shorter than demonstrative pronouns. As definite articles are also much more common than the other two lexical classes, effects of lemma frequency might also have played a role. PMID:24904509

  3. Content validity study on The Vocabulary and Grammar of the Translator Test- Level 2(English)of CATTI%Content validity study on The Vocabulary and Grammar of the Translator Test-Level 2(English)of CATTI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏扬舫; 万璐

    2015-01-01

    The launch of the China Accreditation Test for Translators and Interpreters (CATTI)is a professional qualification test for would-be translators.This paper is to do the research on the content validity of vocabulary and grammar of the translator test- Level 2(English)of CATTI from 2011 to 2012.

  4. Content validity study on The Vocabulary and Grammar of the Translator Test- Level 2(English)of CATTI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏扬舫; 万璐

    2015-01-01

    The launch of the China Accreditation Test for Translators and Interpreters(CATTI)is a professional qualification test for would-be translators.This paper is to do the research on the content validity of vocabulary and grammar of the translator test-Level 2(English)of CATTI from 2011 to 2012.

  5. Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JeanetteDecarrico; DianeLarsen-Freeman

    2004-01-01

    Previous sections have reviewed issues in describing grammar, issues that were mainly concerned with what to describe, how to describe it and how to account for differing approaches and their implications in terms of theory and pedagogy in applied linguistics. But however precise and thorough researchers may attempt to be in addressing these issues, there are certain limitations to descriptions of grammar given in isolation from all other parts of the language system

  6. Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JeanetteDeCarrico; DianeLarsen-Freeman

    2004-01-01

    When it comes to definitions of grammar,confusion abounds.One problem is that the word grammar means different things to different people.For many,the term sugges tsa list of do's and don't's,rules that tell us we should say It is I,not It is me,that we should not say ain't,or that weshould avoid ending a sentence with a preposition.For oth

  7. How do verbal short-term memory and working memory relate to the acquisition of vocabulary and grammar? A comparison between first and second language learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Josje; Leseman, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies show that verbal short-term memory (VSTM) is related to vocabulary learning, whereas verbal working memory (VWM) is related to grammar learning in children learning a second language (L2) in the classroom. In this study, we investigated whether the same relationships apply to children learning an L2 in a naturalistic setting and to monolingual children. We also investigated whether relationships with verbal memory differ depending on the type of grammar skill investigated (i.e., morphology vs. syntax). Participants were 63 Turkish children who learned Dutch as an L2 and 45 Dutch monolingual children (mean age = 5 years). Children completed a series of VSTM and VWM tasks, a Dutch vocabulary task, and a Dutch grammar task. A confirmatory factor analysis showed that VSTM and VWM represented two separate latent factors in both groups. Structural equation modeling showed that VSTM, treated as a latent factor, significantly predicted vocabulary and grammar. VWM, treated as a latent factor, predicted only grammar. Both memory factors were significantly related to the acquisition of morphology and syntax. There were no differences between the two groups. These results show that (a) VSTM and VWM are differentially associated with language learning and (b) the same memory mechanisms are employed for learning vocabulary and grammar in L1 children and in L2 children who learn their L2 naturalistically. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Vocabulary and Grammar Knowledge in Second Language Reading Comprehension: A Structural Equation Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongbo

    2012-01-01

    Using structural equation modeling analysis, this study examined the contribution of vocabulary and grammatical knowledge to second language reading comprehension among 190 advanced Chinese English as a foreign language learners. Vocabulary knowledge was measured in both breadth (Vocabulary Levels Test) and depth (Word Associates Test);…

  9. What explains the correlation between growth in vocabulary and grammar? New evidence from latent change score analyses of simultaneous bilingual development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Erika; Quinn, Jamie M; Giguere, David

    2017-02-22

    A close relationship between children's vocabulary size and the grammatical complexity of their speech is well attested but not well understood. The present study used latent change score modeling to examine the dynamic relationships between vocabulary and grammar growth within and across languages in longitudinal data from 90 simultaneous Spanish-English bilingual children who were assessed at 6-month intervals between 30 and 48 months. Slopes of vocabulary and grammar growth were strongly correlated within each language and showed moderate or nonsignificant relationships across languages. There was no evidence that vocabulary level predicted subsequent grammar growth or that the level of grammatical development predicted subsequent vocabulary growth. We propose that a common influence of properties of input on vocabulary and grammatical development is the source of their correlated but uncoupled growth. An unanticipated across-language finding was a negative relationship between level of English skill and subsequent Spanish growth. We propose that the cultural context of Spanish-English bilingualism in the US is the reason that strong English skills jeopardize Spanish language growth, while Spanish skills do not affect English growth. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: https://youtu.be/qEHSQ0yRre0.

  10. How do verbal short-term memory and working memory relate to the acquisition of vocabulary and grammar? : A comparison between first and second language learners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, Josje|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/277955882; Leseman, Paul|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070760810

    Previous studies show that verbal short-term memory (VSTM) is related to vocabulary learning, whereas verbal working memory (VWM) is related to grammar learning in children learning a second language (L2) in the classroom. In this study, we investigated whether the same relationships apply to

  11. How do verbal short-term memory and working memory relate to the acquisition of vocabulary and grammar? : A comparison between first and second language learners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, Josje; Leseman, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies show that verbal short-term memory (VSTM) is related to vocabulary learning, whereas verbal working memory (VWM) is related to grammar learning in children learning a second language (L2) in the classroom. In this study, we investigated whether the same relationships apply to childr

  12. Validity of a Parent-Report Measure of Vocabulary and Grammar for Spanish-Speaking Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thal, Donna; Jackson-Maldonado, Donna; Acosta, Dora

    2000-01-01

    The validity of the Fundacion MacArthur Inventaria de Habilidades Communicativas: Palabras y Enuciados was examined with twenty 20- and nineteen 28-month-old, typically developing, monolingual, Spanish-speaking children in Mexico. Results indicated validity for assessing expressive vocabulary in 20-month-olds and expressive vocabulary and grammar…

  13. On the Vocabulary of Grammar-Based Codes and the Logical Consistency of Texts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debowski, L.

    2008-01-01

    The article presents a new interpretation for Zipf's law in natural language which relies on two areas of information theory. We reformulate the problem of grammar-based compression and investigate properties of strongly nonergodic stationary processes. The motivation for the joint discussion is to

  14. On the Vocabulary of Grammar-Based Codes and the Logical Consistency of Texts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Debowski (Lukasz Jerzy)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe article presents a new interpretation for Zipf's law in natural language which relies on two areas of information theory. We reformulate the problem of grammar-based compression and investigate properties of strongly nonergodic stationary processes. The motivation for the joint discu

  15. What Adult ESL Learners Say about Improving Grammar and Vocabulary in Their Writing for Academic Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ally A.

    2009-01-01

    Linguistic accuracy plays an important role in the quality of written texts, yet the explicit teaching of linguistic form--particularly grammar--for the purpose of improving learners' writing has generated an ongoing debate. Furthermore, students' voices about their learning are often ignored because they are perceived as not knowing what they…

  16. REPORT OF LEARNING EXPERIENCES IN DIDACTICAL CONDITIONS FOR TEACHING GRAMMAR, VOCABULARY, AND PRONUNCIATION TO KATTY, A STUDENT WITH DYSLEXIA

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz-Ducca, Jenaro A.

    2016-01-01

    Debido a la necesidad de literatura reciente sobre la enseñanza del Inglés como Lengua Extranjera (EFL) para estudiantes con dislexia en Costa Rica, así como para determinar cuáles son las condiciones didácticas más efectivas para enseñar gramática, vocabulario y pronunciación a una estudiante con dislexia, se desarrolló un estudio de caso con enfoque cualitativo en un contexto de investigación-acción, durante un curso de nivel intermedio en un programa de venta de servicios de enseñanza para...

  17. Report of learning experiences in didactical conditions for teaching grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation to Katty, a student with dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz-Ducca, Jenaro A.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Debido a la necesidad de literatura reciente sobre la enseñanza del Inglés como Lengua Extranjera (EFL para estudiantes con dislexia en Costa Rica, así como para determinar cuáles son las condiciones didácticas más efectivas para enseñar gramática, vocabulario y pronunciación a una estudiante con dislexia, se desarrolló un estudio de caso con enfoque cualitativo en un contexto de investigación-acción, durante un curso de nivel intermedio en un programa de venta de servicios de enseñanza para personas adultas en una universidad estatal costarricense. Se consideraron las dificultades y necesidades de la estudiante para la lectura y la pronunciación, además de variables afectivas como motivación, ansiedad, y refuerzo positivo. La información se recopiló mediante entrevistas a fondo, bitácoras del profesor, y evaluaciones durante 14 semanas. Se usaron adecuaciones curriculares no significativas como reducir el número de ítemes o extender el tiempo para responderlos. Respecto a hallazgos, las condiciones didácticas más exitosas para actividades orales fueron que la estudiante se sentara cerca del profesor, trabajo en grupos, repetición de instrucciones, refuerzo positivo y tutorías con el investigador. Sin embargo, la repetición y práctica, o el uso de la lengua materna para explicar la gramática no tuvieron éxito para ejercicios escritos de gramática ni la ortografía. Aunque prácticas de fonética fueron efectivas para la pronunciación de /s/, /∫/, y /t∫/ como fonemas o en palabras aisladas, no se observó mejoría durante conversaciones. Como resultado afectivo, la autoconfianza de la estudiante se acentuó. Se concluye que el planeamiento de lecciones basado en condiciones didácticas, la persistencia, y la empatía entre estudiante y profesor son fundamentales para el aprendizaje exitoso y significativo. Además, el apoyo de la familia y la comunidad escolar benefician a estudiantes y profesores.

  18. REPORT OF LEARNING EXPERIENCES IN DIDACTICAL CONDITIONS FOR TEACHING GRAMMAR, VOCABULARY, AND PRONUNCIATION TO KATTY, A STUDENT WITH DYSLEXIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenaro A. Díaz-Ducca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Debido a la necesidad de literatura reciente sobre la enseñanza del Inglés como Lengua Extranjera (EFL para estudiantes con dislexia en Costa Rica, así como para determinar cuáles son las condiciones didácticas más efectivas para enseñar gramática, vocabulario y pronunciación a una estudiante con dislexia, se desarrolló un estudio de caso con enfoque cualitativo en un contexto de investigación-acción, durante un curso de nivel intermedio en un programa de venta de servicios de enseñanza para personas adultas en una universidad estatal costarricense. Se consideraron las dificultades y necesidades de la estudiante para la lectura y la pronunciación, además de variables afectivas como motivación, ansiedad, y refuerzo positivo. La información se recopiló mediante entrevistas a fondo, bitácoras del profesor, y evaluaciones durante 14 semanas. Se usaron adecuaciones curriculares no significativas como reducir el número de ítemes o extender el tiempo para responderlos. Respecto a hallazgos, las condiciones didácticas más exitosas para actividades orales fueron que la estudiante se sentara cerca del profesor, trabajo en grupos, repetición de instrucciones, refuerzo positivo y tutorías con el investigador. Sin embargo, la repetición y práctica, o el uso de la lengua materna para explicar la gramática no tuvieron éxito para ejercicios escritos de gramática ni la ortografía. Aunque prácticas de fonética fueron efectivas para la pronunciación de /s/, /∫/, y /t∫/ como fonemas o en palabras aisladas, no se observó mejoría durante conversaciones. Como resultado afectivo, la autoconfianza de la estudiante se acentuó. Se concluye que el planeamiento de lecciones basado en condiciones didácticas, la persistencia, y la empatía entre estudiante y profesor son fundamentales para el aprendizaje exitoso y significativo. Además, el apoyo de la familia y la comunidad escolar benefician a estudiantes y profesores.

  19. On the Vocabulary of Grammar-Based Codes and the Logical Consistency of Texts

    CERN Document Server

    Dębowski, Łukasz

    2008-01-01

    The article presents a new interpretation for Zipf's law in natural language which relies on two areas of information theory. We reformulate the problem of grammar-based compression and investigate properties of strongly nonergodic stationary processes. The motivation for the joint discussion is to prove a proposition with a simple informal statement: If an $n$-letter long text describes $n^\\beta$ independent facts in a random but consistent way then the text contains at least $n^\\beta/\\log n$ different words. In the formal statement, two specific postulates are adopted. Firstly, the words are understood as the nonterminal symbols of the shortest grammar-based encoding of the text. Secondly, the texts are assumed to be emitted by a nonergodic source, with the described facts being binary IID variables that are asymptotically predictable in a shift-invariant way. The linguistic relevance of presented modeling assumptions, theorems, definitions, and examples is discussed in parallel.

  20. Teaching Pronunciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Rod

    1983-01-01

    Discusses why mastering pronunciation in a second language is difficult and gives some errors common to students learning English as a second language. Describes some useful guidelines and techniques for pronunciation instruction. (EKN)

  1. CORPUS AND FREQUENCY GRAMMAR CORPUS VOCABULARY OF THE CHURCH SLAVONIC LANGUAGE AS PART OF THE RUSSIAN NATIONAL CORPUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Dobrushina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the current  state of  work on the Corpus of Church Slavonic within the Russian National Corpus. The Corpus is different from the collection of texts by the presence of a special markup (grammatical, structural, metatextual and  the  possibility to  search by this markup. The article considers the content, describes the main genre headings, according to which the texts included in the Corpus are distributed, describes  the principles of the metamarkup that differ from those used in other Corpuses  within the Russian National Corpus. Where necessary, the historical information,  on the basis of  which a certain decision was made, is provided. Since typing search queries on the keyboard presents certain difficulties  for Church Slavonic texts, we offer several options for simplified spelling transmission, which enable a person to enter a query with limited capabilities of a standard keyboard. Finally, the article describes the frequency grammar vocabulary created during the work on the project.

  2. Vocabulary knowledge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严爽

    2016-01-01

    Knowing a word refers to more than just a matter of knowing its form, meaning, pronunciation and spelling. It also refers to one's knowledge of the relationships the word is involved in, such as its collocations, semantic associations and so on. Words are not isolated entities. This paper focuses on vocabulary knowledge and helps us get an idea of what needs to be learned and the process of English vocabulary learning.

  3. Teaching Pronunciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John

    2013-01-01

    Murphy provides a comprehensive overview of teaching pronunciation with a focus on thought groups and prominence. Understanding thought groups, or how speakers use clusters of words to best fit the communicative situation, is essential for clearer understanding of most components of English pronunciation that are teachable in ESL/EFL classrooms.…

  4. A Pilot Study Comparing Total Physical Response Storytelling[TM] with the Grammar-Translation Teaching Strategy to Determine Their Effectiveness in Vocabulary Acquisition among English as a Second Language Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Ruben

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of Total Physical Response Storytelling (TPRS[TM]) compared to the Grammar-Translation approach for acquiring and retaining new vocabulary in an English as a Second Language (ESL) class. The subjects were adult Hispanic learners with limited literacy. An experimental design approach was used to gather…

  5. A Brief Introduction on the Vocabulary Teaching Strategies%英语诃汇教学策略浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏佳卓

    2011-01-01

    作为语言三要素(语音、词汇、语法)之一的词汇,是语言的重要组成部分。正确的词汇教学策略能够达到帮助学生有效地掌握并在实践中准确地运用词汇的目的。词汇教学要注意:灵活设定教学目标;关注高频词汇和主流词汇;注意同源词和固定搭配;避免词的交叉干扰。%Vocabulary, together with pronunciation and grammar, are three ingredients of language. Vocabulary teaching strategies play a vital role in helping students build up vocabulary, and use words in an appropriate way. When teaching vocabulary, it is highly i

  6. Pronunciation Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Talia; Harding, Luke

    2017-01-01

    After an extended period of being on the periphery, numerous advancements in the field of second language (L2) pronunciation over the past decade have led to increased activity and visibility for this subfield within applied linguistics research. These positive developments notwithstanding, the vast majority of renewed applied pronunciation…

  7. Teaching English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝丹

    2014-01-01

    Grammar provides the overall patterns, and vocabulary is the material to put in the patterns. Without grammar we can convey a little, but without vocabulary we can convey nothing. Vocabulary teaching is an indispensable part of English curriculum. Art is a kind of creation. Teaching vocabulary artistically can make teachers and students build up created consciousness in teaching and learning vocabulary activities and teachers put their experience and emotions towards beauty into teaching activities to raise general vocabulary teaching activities to appreciation of beauty and creative activities, convert bitter into happy, tense into ease. Thus the non-intellectual factors like motive, interest, emotion, self-confidence and so on can be developed naturally and they will elaborate a great part in English vocabulary teaching. At the same time, the relationship between teachers and students can get improved fundamentally furthest and it pushes vocabulary teaching powerfully in turn.

  8. THE USE OF GRAMMAR TRANSLATION METHOD IN TEACHING ENGLISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharina Elmayantie

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to describe the patterns of Grammar Translation Method (GTM and to know the reasons why the teachers used the method. Descriptive qualitative method was applied. The subjects were two English teachers at the seventh grade of SMP Negeri 1 Palangka Raya. It was used observation and questionnaires to collect the data. The data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing were applied for data analysis. The findings show nine major patterns of GTM applied: (1 The classes were taught mainly in mother tongue; (2 the vocabulary was taught in the form of lists of isolated words; (3 the grammar provided the rules for putting words together; (4 it focused on the form and inflection of words; (5 the reading difficult classical texts were begun early; (6 it was little attention to the content of the texts; (7 the drills were exercises in translating; (8 it was little attention to pronunciation; and (9 it focused on accuracy. Meanwhile, the reasons of the teachers used the method are: (1 It is suitable for the students; (2 it helps the students comprehend the text; (3 it  improves the vacabulary; and (4 by using this method teaching-learning activities work well. Keywords: English subject, grammar translation method, teaching-learning activities

  9. 论构式理论在对外汉语教材词汇注释中的运用%Using the Construction Grammar Theory in the English Translations in Vocabulary Portion in Some of TCFL Textbooks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜曾慧

    2011-01-01

    The author focus on discussing we can use the Construction Grammar Theory in the English translations in vocabulary portion in some of TCFL textbooks,so that we can set up the way of using the Theory in glossary arrangement and English translation.%本文重点讨论构式理念在对外汉语教材中的生词词汇表的编排和英语释义方面的参考价值,以树立起一种"二语教学的构式观"。

  10. The Relevance of Accent in L2 Pronunciation Instruction: A Matter of Teaching Cultures or Language Ideologies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkert, Anika

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to offer a critical discussion of the role of native and foreign accents in L2 pronunciation teaching. Several studies concluded that classroom practices of grammar instruction are strongly influenced by teaching cultures. We will examine whether this is also the case for pronunciation teaching. While the CEFR…

  11. A Study on the Relationship between Breadth Of Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵旭

    2015-01-01

    British linguist Wilkins(1972)points out,"Without grammar,little can be conveyed;without vocabulary,nothing can be conveyed."Grammar provides the overall patterns,and vocabulary is the material to put in the patterns.Zimmerman(1997)also stated the idea that vocabulary is central to language.So vocabulary is the building material

  12. Discussion on English Vocabulary and Description

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Lan; Zhang Shiying

    2013-01-01

    Compared with the study of Grammar, syntax, the description on vocabulary is comparatively slower than them. The related theories of vocabulary description have fast developed since the 1980s and 1990s have experienced a growing interest in vocabulary learning and teaching----The vocabulary size, text coverage, word list, meaning of vocabulary in context, and collocation have been discovered and described, which helped new insights in arrange of different research fields have all added to our understanding of vocabulary development. Vocabulary acquisition research, based on vocabulary description, has established itself as a central research focus for language acquisition researchers and contributed to the focus of practical teaching and learning in English.

  13. Pronunciation modelling and bootstrapping

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davel, MH

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available and Sepedi) and demonstrate the utility of these dictionaries by incorporating them in speech technology systems. Keywords: bootstrapping, grapheme-to-phoneme conversion, grapheme-to-phoneme alignment, letter-to-sound, pronunciation modelling... ONE INTRODUCTION 1.3 PRONUNCIATION MODELLING WITHIN A BOOTSTRAPPING FRAMEWORK A pronunciation model for a specific language describes the process of letter-to-sound conversion: given the orthography of a word, it provides a prediction...

  14. Vocabulary in SLA Theory and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    HUSTON, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1980's, vocabulary acquisition has been one of the most actively researched aspects of SLA (Lightbown & Spada, 2006). Four factors emerge in an investigation of the development of the role of L2 vocabulary learning in SLA. First, successive SLA theories marginalized vocabulary, often emphasizing the importance of grammar. Second, a growing body of empirical research showed the efficiency and effectiveness of direct vocabulary teaching. Third, overestimates of L1 vocabulary size led ...

  15. Specific Pronunciation Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Peter; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Reviews common pronunciation problems experienced by learners of English as a second language who are native speakers of Vietnamese, Cantonese, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, Polish, Greek, and Punjabi. (CB)

  16. Teaching Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Grammar is a component in all language skills: reading, writing, speaking, and listening. Teachers need to know rules of grammar (teacher knowledge) as well as techniques that help students use grammar effectively and effortlessly (teaching knowledge). Using reflective practice to help teachers become comfortable with teaching grammar, this…

  17. Teaching Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Grammar is a component in all language skills: reading, writing, speaking, and listening. Teachers need to know rules of grammar (teacher knowledge) as well as techniques that help students use grammar effectively and effortlessly (teaching knowledge). Using reflective practice to help teachers become comfortable with teaching grammar, this…

  18. The Teaching of Pronunciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCarthy, Peter

    This treatise emphasizes a pedagogical approach to second language pronunciation instruction that is based on a knowledge of the mechanics of vocal production as well as on certain psycholinguistic phenomena and the influence of orthography. A general discussion of pronunciation covers the relationship of language and speech, motives for learning…

  19. Style representation in design grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Sumbul; Chase, Scott Curland

    2012-01-01

    The concept of style is relevant for both the analysis and synthesis of designs. New styles are often formed by the adaptation of previous ones based on changes in design criteria and context. A formal characterization of style is given by shape grammars, which describe the compositional rules...... underlying a set of designs. Stylistic change can be modelled by grammar transformations, which allow the transformation of the structure and vocabulary of a grammar that is used to describe a particular style. In order for grammars to be useful beyond a single application, they should have the capability...... to be transformed according to changing design style needs. Issues of formalizing stylistic change necessitate a lucid and formal definition of style in the design language generated by a grammar. Furthermore, a significant aspect of the definition of style is the representation of aesthetic qualities attributed...

  20. CHR Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    . The formalism extends previous logic programming based grammars with a form of context-sensitive rules and the possibility to include extra-grammatical hypotheses in both head and body of grammar rules. Among the applications are straightforward implementations of Assumption Grammars and abduction under...... integrity constraints for language analysis. CHR grammars appear as a powerful tool for specification and implementation of language processors and may be proposed as a new standard for bottom-up grammars in logic programming....

  1. CHR grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2005-01-01

    . The formalism extends previous logic programming based grammars with a form of context-sensitive rules and the possibility to include extra-grammatical hypotheses in both head and body of grammar rules. Among the applications are straightforward implementations of Assumption Grammars and abduction under...... integrity constraints for language analysis. CHR grammars appear as a powerful tool for specification and implementation of language processors and may be proposed as a new standard for bottom-up grammars in logic programming....

  2. Teachers' Technology Use in Vocabulary Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilickaya, Ferit; Krajka, Jaroslaw

    2010-01-01

    It cannot be denied that vocabulary learning is central to learning a language, be it a mother tongue or the second/foreign language. According to Nunan (1991), learning vocabulary in the very early stages is more fundamental than grammar, since without vocabulary one would not be able to use the structures and functions for effective…

  3. Vocabulary Teaching Based on Semantic-Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangru, Cao

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary is an indispensable part of language and it is of vital importance for second language learners. Wilkins (1972) points out: "without grammar very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed." Vocabulary teaching has experienced several stages characterized by grammatical-translation method, audio-lingual…

  4. TOEFL IBT vocabulary flash review

    CERN Document Server

    Llc, Learning Express

    2014-01-01

    The Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) measures the English proficiency of people whose native language isn't English. This portable guide features 600 essential TOEFL vocabulary flashcards, bound in a convenient book format, with definitions, sample sentences, synonyms, and pronunciation. The cards include the most-tested vocabulary on the exam. The perfect companion to any TOEFL study plan, this book is pocket-sized for portability and great for study anywhere, anytime!

  5. Gimson's pronunciation of English

    CERN Document Server

    Cruttenden, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Since its first publication in 1962, Gimson's Pronunciation of English has been the essential reference book for anyone studying or teaching the pronunciation of English.This eighth edition has been updated to describe General British (GB) as the principal accent, rather than RP, and the accompanying transcriptions have been brought into line with recent changes in pronunciation. This latest edition also includes completely rewritten chapters on the history of the language and the emergence of a standard, alongside a justification for the change from RP to GB.

  6. Group Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article Karen Adams demonstrates how to incorporate group grammar techniques into a classroom activity. In the activity, students practice using the target grammar to do something they naturally enjoy: learning about each other.

  7. CHR grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2005-01-01

    A grammar formalism based upon CHR is proposed analogously to the way Definite Clause Grammars are defined and implemented on top of Prolog. These grammars execute as robust bottom-up parsers with an inherent treatment of ambiguity and a high flexibility to model various linguistic phenomena...

  8. CHR Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    A grammar formalism based upon CHR is proposed analogously to the way Definite Clause Grammars are defined and implemented on top of Prolog. These grammars execute as robust bottom-up parsers with an inherent treatment of ambiguity and a high flexibility to model various linguistic phenomena...

  9. The contribution of phonological short-term memory to artificial grammar learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Jackie; Baddeley, Alan

    2011-05-01

    Three experiments investigated the contribution of phonological short-term memory (STM) to grammar learning by manipulating rehearsal during study of an auditory artificial grammar made up from a vocabulary of spoken Mandarin syllables. Experiment 1 showed that concurrent, irrelevant articulation impaired grammar learning compared with a nonverbal control task. Experiment 2 replicated and extended this finding, showing that repeating the grammatical strings at study improved grammar learning compared with suppressing rehearsal or remaining silent during learning. Experiment 3 found no effects of rehearsal on grammar learning once participants had learned the component syllables. The findings suggest that phonological STM aids artificial grammar learning via effects on vocabulary learning.

  10. English Grammar Comparison:Descriptive Grammar vs. Prescriptive Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing-wen; LI Yi-an

    2015-01-01

    English grammar is thought as one of the most important parts in both language learning and teaching. While few peo⁃ple know there is more than one kind of English grammar. This essay provides the features and comparison between two com⁃monly used English grammar, namely descriptive grammar and prescriptive grammar, and assist English teachers to explore further in grammar teaching.

  11. TOWARDS MORE EFFECTIVE PRONUNCIATION TEACHING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    While pronunciation instruction is going through somerevolutionary change in the international TESL field,mostteachers in China still keep to the traditional approach,which isbelieved to give priority to the wrong aspects of pronunciation.This paper aims to help teachers update theoretical knowledgeand beliefs about pronunciation teaching and,through areasonable integration of various findings,search for ways toimprove the effectiveness of pronunciation teaching at thetertiary level in China.

  12. A Brief Introduction for Vocabulary Learning Strategy%浅谈词汇学习策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙莹

    2008-01-01

    词汇同语法语音一样,是英语作为第二语言教学过程中最重要的三个要素(Nation,1990)之一.但是,英语水平偏差的学生往往在词汇的独立学习过程中存在着各种问题.本文从介绍词汇和单词之间的关系入手,并系统地讲解了关于英语词汇学习的一些方法和策略.%Vocabulary along with grammar and pronunciation is one of the three most important elements in English as the second language learning[1]. However, beginning/low-intermediated students may encounter some difficulties when learning independently. The essay starts by explaining the relationship of vocabulary and word. And then, a number of vo-cabulary learning methods/strategies are discussed.

  13. TEACHING VOCABULARY THROUGH SENTENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    irfan tosuncuoglu

    2015-12-01

    Almost every teacher is certain about that vocabulary is an important facet of learning a second language. It may be more important than grammar, at least in so far as this concerns communication , and particularly in the early stages when learners seem to understand that amassing a basic vocabulary is very important to fluency in another language. As a rule, receptive vocabulary exceeds productive vocabulary and why listening with comprehension and speaking with comprehension are two very different things—the latter a more difficult cognitive process than the former. Furthermore, vocabulary acquisition is highly idiosyncratic and depends largely on the learner and her or his individual learning styles and cognitive abilities. No two people learn alike. In particular, as understanding and fluency increases,  individual interests and even needs will change, which then requires teacher-assisted guidance and remediation vis-à-vis the compilation of a specified and nuanced vocabulary that is tailored to the learner’s more practical linguistic needs, whatever these might be. In this case, new vocabulary items are more likely to be recalled and communicative. Essential to such an approach to teaching vocabulary acquisition, it is argued here, is exposure to authentic language, that is, reading, writing, listening, and speaking in class that both engages the visual, tactile, and aural-oral senses and imprints. In the case of texts, it is paramount that the comprehension level be such that the learner can guestimate with a nigh degree of accuracy the meaning and proper usage of new vocabulary items without a dictionary and thus from their context. And the more often these new vocabulary items appear, the more likely it is that their full meaning will be understood and committed to memory.  For that reason we wanted to make use of sentences in vocabulary teaching.

  14. Some Pronunciation Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima Junior, Marion

    The author discusses a number of common pronunciation difficulties for speakers of Brazilian Portuguese learning English. She recommends that the teacher first explain and demonstrate the correct articulation and then drill the sounds in minimal contrasting pairs. Examples of short dialogs, sentences, and rhymes are given here to illustrate their…

  15. Demystifying Pronunciation with Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Monica

    2016-01-01

    The orthographical depth of a language impacts on a learner's ability to learn a language (Katz & Frost, 1992). If it is easier for learners to read the language as it is written, it will make the learning process easier. One way to address the problem of orthographically deep or opaque languages where the pronunciation is not very easy to…

  16. Bootstrapping pronunciation models

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davel, M

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available in a way that minimizes the human intervention required during this process. We (the authors) analyse the effectiveness of such an approach when developing a medium sized (5000–10 000-word) pronunciation lexicon. We (the authors) develop...

  17. Mungbam Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovegren, Jesse Stuart James

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is an attempt to state what is known at present about the grammar of Mungbam (ISO 693-3 [mij]). Mungbam is a Niger-Congo language spoken in the Northwest Region of Cameroon. The dissertation is a descriptive grammar, covering the phonetics, phonology morphology and syntax of the language. Source data are texts and elicited data…

  18. Mungbam Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovegren, Jesse Stuart James

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is an attempt to state what is known at present about the grammar of Mungbam (ISO 693-3 [mij]). Mungbam is a Niger-Congo language spoken in the Northwest Region of Cameroon. The dissertation is a descriptive grammar, covering the phonetics, phonology morphology and syntax of the language. Source data are texts and elicited data…

  19. Teaching Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael Swan

    2008-01-01

    @@ The trouble with teaching grammar is that we are never quite sure whether it works or not:its effects are uncertain and hard to assess.Michael Swan looks at grammar teaching and the carry-over to spontaneous production by students.

  20. The Effects of Using Online Concordancers on Teaching Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkmen, Yasemin; Aydin, Selami

    2016-01-01

    Studies conducted so far have mainly focused on the effects of online concordancers on teaching vocabulary, while there is a lack of research focusing on the effects of online concordancers on teaching and learning grammar. Thus, this study aims to review the studies on the effects of online concordancers on teaching and learning grammar and how…

  1. Current Perspectives on Pronunciation. Practices Anchored in Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Joan, Ed.

    A collection of essays on pronunciation instruction theory and practice includes: "Teaching Pronunciation as Communication" (Marianne Celce-Murcia); "Learner Variables and Prepronunciation Considerations in Teaching Pronunciation" (Rita Wong); "Pronunciation and Listening Comprehension" (Judy B. Gilbert); "Pronunciation Tutorials for Nonnative…

  2. Grammar, Writing, and Technology: A Sample Technology-Supported Approach to Teaching Grammar and Improving Writing for ESL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegelheimer, Volker; Fisher, David

    2006-01-01

    English language learners are frequently unable to benefit from the prevailing process-writing approaches due to a lack of grammar and vocabulary knowledge relevant to academic writing. This paper describes how the need for explicit grammar instruction as part of preparing students to write can be addressed by using a collection of learner texts…

  3. Pronunciation Teaching: Past and Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Ketabi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pronunciation, despite being known as an important component of language learning, has not been awarded due attention within the field of language education. This article is a humble attempt to present an overview of the history of pronunciation teaching. Different approaches and methods of language teaching from the late nineteenth century into the new millennium are reviewed and discussed with regard to their stance in pronunciation instruction. Recent trends and issues of pronunciation teaching, e.g. intelligibility and Lingua Franca Core are also highlighted. Discussions like the present one might be beneficial in gaining a better understanding and evaluation of the status quo in order to improve and enhance the status of pronunciation instruction within language pedagogy. Keywords: Pronunciation instruction, Teaching methods, Intelligibility, Lingua Franca Core

  4. Integrating Pronunciation into Oral Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢鑫莹

    2013-01-01

      The usefulness of pronunciation teaching is a widely debated subject in the language teaching world. Some of the current research would suggest that teachers can make little or no difference in improving their students’pronunciation. In contrast, there is research that indicates that the teacher can make a noticeable difference if certain criteria, such as the teaching of suprasegmen⁃tals and the linking of pronunciation with oral practice, are fulfilled. This paper intends to address the practical challenges related to integrating pronunciation into oral communication. First, the central difficulty in integrating pronunciation into the speaking classroom is described. Next, all-skill principles to guide the incorporation of pronunciation into oral communication courses are suggested. Finally, possible implementation strategies that can be applied to a wide variety of instructional settings are explored.

  5. 现代汉语言语法与词汇规范的对比分析%Comparative analysis of modern Chinese language grammar and vocabulary specification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘梅

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid economic and social development, many words produce new usage in modern Chinese language, is accompanied by the grammatical use of change. In this context, it is necessary to explore the use of grammar and some of the more commonly used words. This paper selects the word"off", to analyze the using standard, and gives the corresponding suggestions for teaching.%随着经济社会的快速发展,现代汉语言的许多词汇产生了许多的新用法,伴随而来的是语法使用上的变迁。在这种背景下,有必要对一些较为常用词的语法及规范使用加以探讨。本文选取“掉”这一词,对其规范使用进行分析,并给出了相应的教学方面的建议。

  6. Current Perspectives on Pronunciation Learning and Teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Hişmanoğlu, Murat

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims at stressing current perspectives on pronunciation learning and teaching. It summarizes the background of pronunciation teaching, emphasizes the need for incorporating pronunciation into foreign language classes owing to regarding pronunciation as a key to gaining full communicative competence, and takes into account present-day views in pronunciation pedagogy like the impact of the discipline of psychology in pronunciation teaching, NLP as a perspective frequently advocated b...

  7. Discussion on English Vocabulary and Description

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈岚; 代显华

    2013-01-01

      Compared with the study of Grammar, syntax, the description on vocabulary is comparatively slower than them. The related theories of vocabulary description have fast developed since the 1980s and 1990s have experienced a growing interest in vocabulary learning and teaching----The vocabulary size, text coverage, word list, meaning of vocabulary in context, and collocation have been discovered and described, which helped new insights in arrange of different research fields have all added to our understanding of vocabulary development. Vocabulary acquisition research, based on vocabulary description, has established itself as a central research focus for language acquisition researchers and contributed to the focus of practical teaching and learning in College English.

  8. The Nature of Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王楠

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the nature of grammar as "universalness". The universal grammar indicates that all the languages in the world have identical grammar. This is discussed from three aspects, which gives insight into grammar acquisition.

  9. FUNDAMENTALS OF AMHARIC (REVISED EDITION), UNITS I-III (PRONUNCIATION AND LESSONS 1-15).

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARTON, DONALD K.; AND OTHERS

    THIS IS THE FIRST OF A THREE-VOLUME, NINE-UNIT COURSE IN BASIC AMHARIC. VOLUME ONE TOGETHER WITH VOLUME TWO (UNITS IV-VIII OR LESSONS 16-35) DEAL WITH THE PROBLEMS OF PRONUNCIATION AND THE ORAL-AURAL MASTERY OF BASIC GRAMMATICAL CONSTRUCTIONS. EACH LESSON INCLUDES A DIALOG, GRAMMATICAL NOTES, PATTERN DRILLS, EXERCISES, AND A VOCABULARY LIST. AT…

  10. Universal Grammar Theory and the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Vivian

    1989-01-01

    Explores the implications of the principles and parameters theory of Universal Grammar for language teaching. Classroom acquisition depends on the provision of appropriate syntactic evidence to trigger parameter setting, and certain aspects of vocabulary are also crucial. (33 references) (Author/VWL)

  11. Self-Assessment of Pronunciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlaska, Andrea; Krekeler, Christian

    2008-01-01

    It is generally assumed that second language (L2) learners find it difficult to self-assess their pronunciation skills. In view of the benefits of self-assessment for the language learning process and the need to monitor one's pronunciation in independent learning environments, we investigated the reliability of self-assessments of pronunciation…

  12. Analysis on the Differences of Pronunciation and Vocabulary of Guangzhou Dialects in Hongkong%香港、广州粤方言语音及词汇差异例析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐朝晖

    2015-01-01

    Hong Kong people communicate in Cantonese is mainly in pronunciation, and Guangzhou in communication in Cantonese is vulgar tone, and that Hong Kong Cantonese transliteration words is in Cantonese speech based transliteration; Cantonese transliteration words use Mandarin transliteration words, but with a Cantonese speech to read. This difference is related to the position of the two places in the two places. Cantonese in Hong Kong and the mainland and the words are synonyms, homonymy and homephone, and which are both residents in interpersonal communication caused one of the important reasons for the discrepancy and comprehension.%香港人在用粤语交流时都是以正音为主,而广州人在使用粤语交流时则正俗音并用,香港粤语的音译词是以粤语语音为基础的音译;广州粤语的音译词沿用普通话的音译词,却又用粤语语音去读. 这种差异的产生与粤语分别在两地的地位有很大关系. 香港粤语与内地的词语存在着异形同义、同形异义以及异形异义等方面的差异,而这也是两地居民在人际交流中造成歧异与理解障碍的一个重要原因.

  13. Universal Grammar Is a Universal Grammar

    OpenAIRE

    Casares, Ramón

    2014-01-01

    Is Universal Grammar a universal grammar? From Chomsky's hierarchy we deduce that for each grammar there is a Turing machine, and conversely. Following this equivalence, it is immediate to conclude that a universal Turing machine is equivalent to a universal grammar. Meanwhile, in linguistics, Universal Grammar is the human brain circuitry that implements the faculty of language. So the definitive answer is achieved only when we show that the human brain is Turing complete, and that language ...

  14. The Application Research of (Word-Grammar-Vocabulary) Cognitive Teaching Strategy in Business English Vocabulary Teaching---Based on Business English Major 2013 Grade of Yunyang Teachers' College%“点-段-面”式认知教学模式在商务英语词汇教学中的应用--以郧阳师专商务英语专业为研究对象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田薇

    2016-01-01

    “点-段-面”式认知教学模式利用认知语言学中的原型范畴、隐喻理论、象似性原则、认知模型理论从“点”(词汇理解)、“段”(词汇应用);“面”(词汇量扩大)三个阶段指导高职商务英语词汇教学。通过本校2013级商务英语专业进行实证研究,结果证明此种认知教学模式对商务英语词汇教学具有促进作用,是一种有效的教学模式,对培养学生认知能力,提升高职院校商务英语词汇教学的效果具有实践价值。%(Word-Grammar-Vocabulary) Cognitive teaching strategy employs the cognitive linguistic theories such as proto-type theory, metaphor, iconicity and ICM to guide the teaching of business English vocabulary in higher vocational schools from the three aspects ( word comprehension, word application, vocabulary enriching) . The experiment is finished in business English major 2013 grade of Yunyang Teachers ' College. It leads to a result that this cognitive teaching strategy is effective and can help the students acquire cognitive ability so that business English vocabulary teaching in higher vocational schools can be more efficient.

  15. Grammar Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Roger

    2015-01-01

    This paper looks at the continued survival of "myths" about English grammar, for example, the statement that in negative and interrogative sentences "any" should be used instead of "some". It is based on a survey of 195 Hong Kong students majoring in English, in five different cohorts, which found that such myths are…

  16. Learning English Pronunciation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷兵

    1997-01-01

    When one begins to learn a foreign language, he will find the habits of his native tongue often interfere with his learning the sounds of the new language. Chinese students,especially adults,often find it hard to pronounce some English sounds properly;teachers sometimes also find English sounds can not be casily taught by simply telling a learner what to do with his lips,teeth or tongue etc. Even some English major students find they arc misunderstood because of their incorrect use of a phoneme or an incorrect stress.In a listening test, some students fail to catch the meaning of a certain phrase or a word because they are not familiar with a word juncture or intonation. When a Chinese student learns English pronunciation, he might meet several difficulties.The following are the main factors which may affect his learning, of English.

  17. Teaching Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard-Clouston, M.

    2013-01-01

    Vocabulary is central to English language teaching. Without sufficient vocabulary, students cannot understand others or express their own ideas. Teachers who find the task of teaching English vocabulary a little daunting are not alone! This book presents important issues from recent vocabulary research and theory so that teachers may approach…

  18. Teaching Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard-Clouston, M.

    2013-01-01

    Vocabulary is central to English language teaching. Without sufficient vocabulary, students cannot understand others or express their own ideas. Teachers who find the task of teaching English vocabulary a little daunting are not alone! This book presents important issues from recent vocabulary research and theory so that teachers may approach…

  19. Forest Grammar(Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张松懋

    1994-01-01

    Forest grammar,a new type of high-dimensional grammar,is proposed in this paper,of which both the left and the right parts of every production are concatenations of tree structures.A classification of forest grammar is studied,especially,a subclass of the forest grammar,i.e.the context-sensitive forest grammar,and one of its subclasses is defined,called the weak precedence forest grammar.

  20. Lexicalization and Grammar Development

    CERN Document Server

    Srinivas, B; Doran, C F; Becker, T; Egedi, Dania; Doran, Christy; Becker, Tilman

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we present a fully lexicalized grammar formalism as a particularly attractive framework for the specification of natural language grammars. We discuss in detail Feature-based, Lexicalized Tree Adjoining Grammars (FB-LTAGs), a representative of the class of lexicalized grammars. We illustrate the advantages of lexicalized grammars in various contexts of natural language processing, ranging from wide-coverage grammar development to parsing and machine translation. We also present a method for compact and efficient representation of lexicalized trees.

  1. Evolution of Universal Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Martin A.; Komarova, Natalia L.; Niyogi, Partha

    2001-01-01

    Universal grammar specifies the mechanism of language acquisition. It determines the range of grammatical hypothesis that children entertain during language learning and the procedure they use for evaluating input sentences. How universal grammar arose is a major challenge for evolutionary biology. We present a mathematical framework for the evolutionary dynamics of grammar learning. The central result is a coherence threshold, which specifies the condition for a universal grammar to induce coherent communication within a population. We study selection of grammars within the same universal grammar and competition between different universal grammars. We calculate the condition under which natural selection favors the emergence of rule-based, generative grammars that underlie complex language.

  2. Effect of Phonetic Association on Learning Vocabulary in Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozavli, Ebubekir

    2017-01-01

    Word is one of the most important components of a natural language. Speech is meaningful because of the meanings of words. Vocabulary acquired in one's mother tongue is learned consciously in a foreign language in non-native settings. Learning vocabulary in a system based on grammar is generally neglected or learned in conventional ways. This…

  3. A Discussion on the Importance of Context in Vocabulary Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐虹

    2015-01-01

    <正>As is known to us all,vocabulary plays a very important role in English learning.The British linguist D.A.Wilkins mentioned in his book Linguistics in Language Teaching(1972)"Without grammar very little can be conveyed;without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed."This illustrates the importance of

  4. A Cognitively Grounded Measure of Pronunciation Distance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieling, M.; Nerbonne, J.; Bloem, J.; Gooskens, C.; Heeringa, W.; Baayen, R.H.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we develop pronunciation distances based on naive discriminative learning (NDL). Measures of pronunciation distance are used in several subfields of linguistics, including psycholinguistics, dialectology and typology. In contrast to the commonly used Levenshtein algorithm, NDL is groun

  5. Why Is Pronunciation So Difficult to Learn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilakjani, Abbas Pourhossein; Ahmadi, Mohammad Reza

    2011-01-01

    In many English language classrooms, teaching pronunciation is granted the least attention. When ESL teachers defend the poor pronunciation skills of their students, their arguments could either be described as a cop-out with respect to their inability to teach their students proper pronunciation or they could be regarded as taking a stand against…

  6. The Effect of Training on Pronunciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Edith H.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of pronunciation instruction on the speech of 29 adult speakers of other languages (Japanese, Arabic, Persian, Chinese, and Korean) with previous training in English as a second language was studied. Pronunciation improvement was compared in three groups: one receiving group pronunciation training, one receiving individualized…

  7. Testing Pronunciation: An Application of Generalizability Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Weeren, J.; Theunissen, T. J. J. M.

    1987-01-01

    A systematic and explicit approach to evaluation of pronunciation is proposed. Generalizability theory was applied in order to comprise all relevant factors in one psychomotor model. French and German pronunciation tests (in Appendix) were devised and evaluated. Common pronunciation problems for native Dutch speakers were incorporated. (Author/LMO)

  8. Investigating English pronunciation trends and directions

    CERN Document Server

    Mompean, Jose A

    2015-01-01

    This book updates the latest research in the field of 'English pronunciation', providing readers with a number of original contributions that represent trends in the field. Topics include sociophonetic or sound-symbolic aspects of pronunciation English pronunciation teaching and learning.

  9. What Is Most Important to Know about Vocabulary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucan, Linda

    2012-01-01

    This article makes use of Perfetti's Lexical Quality Hypothesis as a perspective for thinking about vocabulary instruction in terms of semantics (meaning), phonology (pronunciation), orthography (spelling), morphology (meaningful word parts), and syntax (how words function in sentences). Examples are presented of how these aspects of vocabulary…

  10. What Is Most Important to Know about Vocabulary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucan, Linda

    2012-01-01

    This article makes use of Perfetti's Lexical Quality Hypothesis as a perspective for thinking about vocabulary instruction in terms of semantics (meaning), phonology (pronunciation), orthography (spelling), morphology (meaningful word parts), and syntax (how words function in sentences). Examples are presented of how these aspects of vocabulary…

  11. Vocabulary Word Instruction for Students Who Read Braille

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaiano, Mackenzie E.; Compton, Donald L.; Hatton, Deborah D.; Lloyd, Blair P.

    2016-01-01

    The association made between the meaning, spelling, and pronunciation of a word has been shown to help children remember the meanings of words. The present study addressed whether the presence of a target word in Braille during instruction facilitated vocabulary learning more efficiently than an auditory-only instructional condition. The authors…

  12. The Mnemonic Value of Orthography for Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Julie; Ehri, Linnea C.

    2008-01-01

    In 2 experiments, the authors examined whether spellings improve students' memory for pronunciations and meanings of new vocabulary words. Lower socioeconomic status minority 2nd graders (M = 7 years 7 months; n = 20) and 5th graders (M = 10 years 11 months; n = 32) were taught 2 sets of unfamiliar nouns and their meanings over several learning…

  13. Constraining Multiple Grammars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, Holger

    2014-01-01

    This article offers the author's commentary on the Multiple Grammars (MG) language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in the present issue. Multiple Grammars advances the claim that optionality is a constitutive characteristic of any one grammar, with interlanguage grammars being perhaps the clearest examples of a…

  14. Constraining Multiple Grammars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, Holger

    2014-01-01

    This article offers the author's commentary on the Multiple Grammars (MG) language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in the present issue. Multiple Grammars advances the claim that optionality is a constitutive characteristic of any one grammar, with interlanguage grammars being perhaps the clearest examples of a…

  15. Grammar! A Conference Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Lid, Ed.; Boaks, Peter, Ed.

    Papers from a conference on the teaching of grammar, particularly in second language instruction, include: "Grammar: Acquisition and Use" (Richard Johnstone); "Grammar and Communication" (Brian Page); "Linguistic Progression and Increasing Independence" (Bernardette Holmes); "La grammaire? C'est du bricolage!" ("Grammar? That's Hardware!") (Barry…

  16. Grammaire francaise pour etudiants americains (French Grammar for American Students): Workbook and Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giauque, Gerald S.

    This workbook in French grammar, intended for American college students, provides instruction and practice in French morphology, syntax, vocabulary, punctuation, and language style at the intermediate level. It is also designed to increase or reinforce the students' understanding of English grammar, based on the assumption that American students…

  17. Grammar and Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘辉

    2007-01-01

    Instead of being a boring subject, grammar is in fact one of the most exciting, creative, relevant subjects. It is sometimes described as the skeleton of a language, but it is much more than bones. It is the language's heartbeat, for without grammar; there can be no meaningful or effective communication. And grammar has different definitions and categories according to different contexts. By first reviewing the past linguists, especially those grammarians and their research, the paper makes some comparisons between some categories of grammar and puts forward that there is no 'good' or 'bad' grammar but knowing grammar or knowing about grammar really has a close relationship with effective communication.

  18. Vocabulary notebooks

    OpenAIRE

    KOZETA HYSO

    2012-01-01

    Vocabulary notebooks are one way of promoting learner independence. Introducing vocabulary notebooks to provide the learners with an area of language learning where they could be given a relatively high level of independence that would build their confidence in their ability to act independently in terms of vocabulary learning. This article is focused on the effectiveness of keeping the vocabulary notebooks to empower the learner’s independence on their foreign language learning and also to e...

  19. VOCABULARY TEACHING FOR NON—ENGLISH MAJORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    Introduction "How can we enlarge the students’ vocabulary?" This is a very essential problem in the teaching of Enslish as a foreign language for non-English majors in our college. Firstly, their English level is low, They are not only lack of linguistic patterns, grammar rules, but also vocabulary, Secondly, they have only three hours of intensive reading every week, They should pass 2-grade college English examination through two years studying of English. Thirdly, botn the teachers and students are in very passive position in English language teaching and learning. Almost every lesson begins with vocabulary, then text reading comprehension, and exercises, which based on the traditional method.

  20. Visualizing Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skophammer, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Vocabulary can become tedious and a chore if it is approached as such. By making art terms and vocabulary meaningful, students will remember and use them for years to come. In this article, the author describes two vocabulary review projects that work wonderfully and create great works of art: (1) cursive creature rubbings; and (2) bubbling bodies…

  1. Visualizing Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skophammer, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Vocabulary can become tedious and a chore if it is approached as such. By making art terms and vocabulary meaningful, students will remember and use them for years to come. In this article, the author describes two vocabulary review projects that work wonderfully and create great works of art: (1) cursive creature rubbings; and (2) bubbling bodies…

  2. A Probabilistic Approach to Pronunciation by Analogy

    CERN Document Server

    Kujala, Janne V

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between written and spoken words is convoluted in languages with a deep orthography such as English and therefore it is difficult to devise explicit rules for generating the pronunciations for unseen words. Pronunciation by analogy (PbA) is a data-driven method of constructing pronunciations for novel words from concatenated segments of known words and their pronunciations. PbA performs relatively well with English and outperforms several other proposed methods. However, the best published word accuracy of 65.5% (for the 20,000 word NETtalk corpus) suggests there is much room for improvement in it. Previous PbA algorithms have used several different scoring strategies such as the product of the frequencies of the component pronunciations of the segments, or the number of different segmentations that yield the same pronunciation, and different combinations of these methods, to evaluate the candidate pronunciations. In this article, we instead propose to use a probabilistically justified scorin...

  3. SOME VISUAL ASPECTS OF PRONUNCIATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    REICHMANN, EBERHARD

    MUCH OF THE DEFICIENCY IN PRONUNCIATION INSTRUCTION IS DUE TO EXCLUSIVE RELIANCE ON THE EAR AS A GUIDE FOR THE CORRECT RECOGNITION AND PRODUCTION OF FOREIGN SOUNDS. THE CORRECT ARTICULATION OF GERMAN DEPENDS VERY MUCH ON ANTICIPATORY ACTION OF THE LIPS AND JAWS (VOWEL ANTICIPATION), AND MUST BE IMPARTED BY VISUAL DEMONSTRATION AND IMITATION OF…

  4. Teaching English Pronunciation to Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Barbara

    This guide provides teachers of Korean children and adults with information on the problems Koreans encounter in learning to pronounce English. Principles of contrastive analysis and error analysis are used to give insight into these pronunciation problems. The first section dealing with problem sounds covers the following: (1) an explanation of…

  5. On Construction Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Kunxue

    2005-01-01

    Constructionist approach with its brand-new perspective has begun to demonstrate its dynamic power. This paper attempts to review the basic ideas, achievements and comparison with generative grammar of Construction Grammar and generalize some problems and future research prospects.

  6. Forest Grammar (Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张松懋

    1994-01-01

    The syntactic parsing algorithm of weak precedence forest grammar has been introduced and the correctness and unambiguity of this algorithm have been proved. An example is given to the syntactic parsing procedure of weak precedence forest grammar.

  7. Presenting New Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Cai-ling; WANG Xi

    2015-01-01

    More and more researchers have now agreed upon the necessity of teaching grammar, but it still remains controversial as how to teach the forms, with the central consideration of not to harm the meaning-focused communicative teaching method. In this essay, one of the issues in grammar teaching will be discussed as how to present new grammar to learners, through evaluating and modifying a particular presentation activity in a grammar-teaching textbook.

  8. Japanese Learners' Attitudes toward English Pronunciation

    OpenAIRE

    Armand, Suarez; Tanaka, Yukiko; アーマンド, スワレス; 田中, ゆき子

    2001-01-01

    In this study, junior college students' attitudes toward English pronunciation and their actual pronunciation abilities were measured with the purpose of investigating the relationship between the two. Attitudes were measured using a questionnaire the authors prepared. The results of the analysis showed that although 80% of the students recognized the importance of studying pronunciation, over 50% of them study it less than once or twice a month, and about 40% of the students reported their E...

  9. Nonterminal Separating Macro Grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogendorp, Jan Anne; Asveld, P.R.J.; Nijholt, A.; Verbeek, Leo A.M.

    1987-01-01

    We extend the concept of nonterminal separating (or NTS) context-free grammar to nonterminal separating $m$-macro grammar where the mode of derivation $m$ is equal to "unrestricted". "outside-in' or "inside-out". Then we show some (partial) characterization results for these NTS $m$-macro grammars.

  10. PROBLEM OF PRONUNCIATION SKILLS FOUNDATION WITH LINGUISTIC STUDENTS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ivanova Elena Alexandrovna

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This article focuses on pronunciation skills foundation in linguistic students which is the development, implementation, analysis and evaluation of the experience studies of pronunciation skills...

  11. Pronunciation and Articulation for Singing Chinese Works

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑菲菲

    2013-01-01

    For singing Chinese works, pronunciation and articulation are the most essential and the most crucial factors. Their beginning should be brief, middle should be melodious and long-lasting, and end should be as clear and crisp as crystal. Considering from pronunciations, Chinese works can be divided into two categories:one is comprehensive style emphasizing clear enunciation; the other is local folk song that should be sung based on corresponding local accent of the works. Besides, based on correct pronunciation and articulation, balance between pro-nunciation and articulation should be achieved, both the essence of western traditional mode of singing and Chinese traditional music should be followed and inherited.

  12. Bootstrapping pronunciation dictionaries: practical issues

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davel, MH

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available by many examples; it therefore is an experimen- tal issue to determine how useful this guideline is in practically detecting transcription errors. Different languages will differ in this regard ? a highly ?regular? language such as Spanish 3... will generally have many examples of each valid rule, whereas the idiosyncrasies of English pronunciation will produce a large number of valid special cases. As a consequence, our approach is expected to be more successful for languages such as Spanish...

  13. French grammar made easy

    CERN Document Server

    McNab, Rosi

    2014-01-01

    The Grammar Made Easy series is ideal for complete beginners as well as for those non-linguists who have some knowledge of the language but need to know the basics of grammar to progress beyond phrasebook level. The books consist of seven units that present basic grammar topics in an accessible and non-patronising manner. The interactive CD-ROM provides extensive interactive grammar practice, it contains around 220 activities (those included in the book plus extra ones) covering all the language in French Grammar Made Easy. Learners work at their own pace and move through the different sect

  14. Learn Grammar in Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟静

    2007-01-01

    Grammar learning has often been regarded as a structure based activity .Grammar games which are worth paying attention to and implementing in the classroom can help learner to learn and recall a grammar material in a pleasant, entertaining way and motivate learners,promote the communicative competence and generate the fluency. In this essay, the author compares the use of games in learning grammar with some traditional techniques for grammar presentation and revision, in order to find the advantages of using games. Also the author discusses how to choose appropriate games and when to use games.

  15. Functional and cognitive grammars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anna Siewierska

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive review of the functional approach and cognitive approach to the nature of language and its relation to other aspects of human cognition. The paper starts with a brief discussion of the origins and the core tenets of the two approaches in Section 1. Section 2 discusses the similarities and differences between the three full-fledged structural functional grammars subsumed in the functional approach: Halliday's Systemic Functional Grammar (SFG), Dik's Functional Grammar (FG), and Van Valin's Role and Reference Grammar (RRG). Section 3 deals with the major features of the three cognitive frameworks: Langacker's Cognitive Grammar (CG), Goldberg's Cognitive Construction Grammar (CCG), and Croft's Radical Construction Grammar (RCG). Section 4 compares the two approaches and attempts to provide a unified functional-cognitive grammar. In the last section, the author concludes the paper with remarks on the unidirectional shift from functional grammar to cognitive grammar that may indicate a reinterpretation of the traditional relationship between functional and cognitive models of grammar.

  16. Matrix Graph Grammars

    CERN Document Server

    Velasco, Pedro Pablo Perez

    2008-01-01

    This book objective is to develop an algebraization of graph grammars. Equivalently, we study graph dynamics. From the point of view of a computer scientist, graph grammars are a natural generalization of Chomsky grammars for which a purely algebraic approach does not exist up to now. A Chomsky (or string) grammar is, roughly speaking, a precise description of a formal language (which in essence is a set of strings). On a more discrete mathematical style, it can be said that graph grammars -- Matrix Graph Grammars in particular -- study dynamics of graphs. Ideally, this algebraization would enforce our understanding of grammars in general, providing new analysis techniques and generalizations of concepts, problems and results known so far.

  17. Spelling Pronunciations: Transforming Irregularity into Regularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landerl, Karin; Thaler, Verena; Reitsma, Pieter

    2008-01-01

    In a 10-day training, the efficacy of spelling pronunciations on German speaking 5th-graders' spelling skills for irregular words was examined. Poor spellers were less efficient in learning the spelling pronunciations than age-adequate spellers. On post-tests, 1 week after the last training day and between 5 and 12 weeks after post-test 1, poor…

  18. The Acquisition of English Pronunciation: Learners' Views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenoz, Jasone; Lecumberri, Ma Luisa Garcia

    1999-01-01

    Describes English learners' views on the acquisition of the phonetic component of English by focusing on (1) their awareness of the difficulty and importance of English pronunciation, and (2) their beliefs about influential factors in the acquisition of pronunciation and their attitudes towards English accents. Examines differences in phonetic…

  19. Advanced EFL Learners' Beliefs about Pronunciation Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghazo, Sharif M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores EFL learners' beliefs about English pronunciation teaching and aims to provide insights into current teaching practices of English pronunciation at both college and university levels. To this end, the study sought to elicit the beliefs of a group of 71 third- and fourth-year EFL learners majoring in English at a university…

  20. Improving Foreigners' Pronunciation of American English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Bertha

    Existing literature on pronunciation instruction in English as a second language is reviewed, revealing that significant attention to the improvement of American English pronunciation among foreign students has been lacking. For the teacher's benefit, an analysis of basic phonetics is presented, laying a foundation for understanding pronunciation…

  1. Pronunciation Learning Strategies: A First Look.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Susan S.

    In recent years, articles about second language learning strategies and about second language pronunciation instruction have been on the increase. Surprisingly, there appears to be no published study to date that focuses on the relationship between pronunciation and learning strategies. This exploratory study focuses solely on documenting and…

  2. English Pronunciation Lessons: A Teacher's Resource Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Catholic Migration Commission, Morong (Philippines).

    The manual for English pronunciation instruction is designed for use in intensive language courses for Southeast Asians learning English as a Second Language. An introductory section suggests classroom presentation and lesson planning techniques and gives background information on English phonology and pronunciation instruction. A variety of…

  3. Spelling Pronunciations: Transforming Irregularity into Regularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landerl, Karin; Thaler, Verena; Reitsma, Pieter

    2008-01-01

    In a 10-day training, the efficacy of spelling pronunciations on German speaking 5th-graders' spelling skills for irregular words was examined. Poor spellers were less efficient in learning the spelling pronunciations than age-adequate spellers. On post-tests, 1 week after the last training day and between 5 and 12 weeks after post-test 1, poor…

  4. Pronunciation in English Pedagogy in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马玥

    2009-01-01

    Teaching English pronunciation in SLA has been a challenge for almost every English teacher because students' local Chinese accents have been a major obstacle when they' re learning English. This article is aiming to illustrate the phenomena and solutions of the pronunciation in English pedagogy.

  5. English Pronunciation in Cameroon: Conflicts and Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobda, A. Simo

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines some of the social and pedagogical problems caused by the conflicting forms of English pronunciation found in Cameroon. American, Nigerian, and local variations compete with British Received Pronunciation. The problems can be minimized through a more adequate training of broadcasters and teachers. (21 references) (MDM)

  6. AN EXPERIMENT IN A PRONUNCIATION PROBLEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROLAND, LYN

    A GROUP OF 136 STUDENTS IN GERMAN ONE, TWO, AND THREE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA AT BERKELEY PARTICIPATED IN AN EXPERIMENT IN WHICH TESTS WERE MADE OF THEIR PRONUNCIATION OF INITIAL GERMAN "S" CLUSTERS (THOSE WHICH ARE SPELLED "S--" AND THOSE SPELLED "SCH--"). THIS PARTICULAR PRONUNCIATION PROBLEM WAS SELECTED BECAUSE THE GERMAN AND ENGLISH…

  7. Syllable Circles for Pronunciation Learning and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, John; Cullen, Charlie; Gardiner, Keith; Savage, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Syllable Circles are interactive visualizations representing prominence as a feature in short phrases or multi-syllable words. They were designed for computer-aided pronunciation teaching. This study explores whether and how interactive visualizations can affect language learners' awareness of prominence, or stress, in English pronunciation. The…

  8. Being "Neutral"? English Pronunciation among Norwegian Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindal, Ulrikke; Piercy, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the pronunciation of English among Norwegian adolescents by applying sociolinguistic methods in a second language context. Results from an auditory analysis of seven phonological variables show a blended use of linguistic features from American English and British English, with some additional pronunciations, forming a…

  9. Insights into English Pronunciation Problems of Thai Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Youfu; Zhou, Yalun

    This paper investigates problems with English pronunciation among Thai students, identifying key reasons for the pronunciation problems and recommending solutions. It begins by discussing the value of intelligible pronunciation and reviewing the relevant literature. Next, it focuses on Thai students' pronunciation problems with consonants and…

  10. French grammar in context

    CERN Document Server

    Jubb, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Instructors' edition without answer keysDiscount of 20% offered when 10 ebooks are sold- e.g. they will be sold for 263.60/ £151.90 instead of 329.50/£189.90French Grammar in Context presents a unique and exciting approach to learning grammar. Authentic texts from a rich variety of sources, literary and journalistic, are used as the starting point for the illustration and explanation of key areas of French grammar. Each point is consolidated with a wide range of written and spoken exercises. Grammar is presented not as an end in itself, but as a

  11. Deoxyribonucleic Acid and Other Words Students Avoid Speaking Aloud: Evaluating the Role of Pronunciation on Participation in Secondary School Science Classroom Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Stacie Elizabeth

    Student's verbal participation in science classrooms is an essential element in building the skills necessary for proficiency in scientific literacy and discourse. The myriad of new, multisyllabic vocabulary terms introduced in one year of secondary school biology instruction can overwhelm students and further impede the self-efficacy needed for concise constructions of scientific explanations and arguments. Factors inhibiting students' inclination to answer questions, share ideas and respond to peers in biology classrooms include confidence and self-perceived competence in appropriately speaking the language of science. Providing students with explicit, engaging instruction in methods to develop vocabulary for use in expressing conclusions is critical for expanding comprehension of science concepts. This study fused the recommended strategies for engaging vocabulary instruction with linguistic practices for teaching pronunciation to examine the relationship between a student's ability to pronounce challenging bio-terminology and their propensity to speak in teacher-led, guided classroom discussions. Interviews, surveys, and measurements quantifying and qualifying students' participation in class discussions before and after explicit instruction in pronunciation were used to evaluate the potential of this strategy as an appropriate tool for increasing students' self-efficacy and willingness to engage in biology classroom conversations. The findings of this study showed a significant increase in student verbal participation in classroom discussions after explicit instruction in pronunciation combined with vocabulary literacy strategies. This research also showed an increase in the use of vocabulary words in student comments after the intervention.

  12. Approaches to College English Pronunciation Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋拓新

    2013-01-01

    In most universities in China, pronunciation has long been overlooked in college English teaching. With the reform of college English teaching, great attention has been paid to the cultivation of the students' listening and speaking skills, that is, Eng⁃lish teaching has moved to language functions and communicative competencies, a new urgency for the teaching of pronuncia⁃tion has arisen. This paper covers the four areas of pronunciation: sounds, stress, rhythm, and intonation, with the expectation that it will provide readers with comprehensive insight into ways of teaching pronunciation.

  13. Incremental Learning of Difficult Words in Story Contexts: The Role of Spelling and Pronouncing New Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadasy, Patricia F.; Sanders, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    In this exploratory study we examine the value of exposure to the spelling and pronunciation of word forms when introducing the meanings of new and difficult vocabulary words. Kindergarten English learners were randomly assigned to one of two types of storybook reading delivered by tutors. Students in both treatments listened to short stories…

  14. Orthographic Mapping in the Acquisition of Sight Word Reading, Spelling Memory, and Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehri, Linnea C.

    2014-01-01

    Orthographic mapping (OM) involves the formation of letter-sound connections to bond the spellings, pronunciations, and meanings of specific words in memory. It explains how children learn to read words by sight, to spell words from memory, and to acquire vocabulary words from print. This development is portrayed by Ehri (2005a) as a sequence of…

  15. Teaching Vocabulary in EFL Classrooms: A Tried-Out Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    A'lipour, Javad; Ketabi, Saeed

    2010-01-01

    One of the complaints made by EFL learners is that when it comes to the instruction of the linguistic sub-skills, i.e., grammar and vocabulary, the class tends to become boring. In many classes, there is as of yet no collaborative activities to facilitate the learning of these two important sub-skills. Most of EFL classes are reminiscent of the…

  16. Impact of Using CALL on Iranian EFL Learners' Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Melor Md; Salehi, Hadi; Amini, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) integration in EFL contexts has intensified noticeably in recent years. This integration might be in different ways and for different purposes such as vocabulary acquisition, grammar learning, phonology, writing skills, etc. More explicitly, this study is an attempt to explore the effect of using CALL on…

  17. Posters, Self-Directed Learning, and L2 Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Yakup; Flamand, Lee

    2013-01-01

    Posters, either as promotions by various ELT publishing houses or prepared by ELT teachers and students, are widely used on the walls of many foreign language classrooms. Many of them consist of colourful pictures along with L2 vocabulary, grammar, and texts in order to contribute to the foreign language learning process. However, many ELT…

  18. Posters, Self-Directed Learning, and L2 Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Yakup; Flamand, Lee

    2013-01-01

    Posters, either as promotions by various ELT publishing houses or prepared by ELT teachers and students, are widely used on the walls of many foreign language classrooms. Many of them consist of colourful pictures along with L2 vocabulary, grammar, and texts in order to contribute to the foreign language learning process. However, many ELT…

  19. Grammar-translation and CLT in L2 Grammar Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪杉莎

    2013-01-01

    This paper puts forward to compare teaching method between grammar-translation and CLT in grammar teaching. Gram⁃mar leaning is a basic concept in English learning as grammar is an important element in a communicative approach to language. This paper discussed CLT method can help and encourage student to study, however, grammar-translation method is able to under⁃stand.

  20. Grammar A and Grammar B: Rhetorical Life and Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Dorothy Margaret

    In the past, writers have chosen stylistic devices within the parameters of the traditional grammar of style, "Grammar A," characterized by analyticity, coherence, and clarity. But many contemporary writers are creating a new grammar of style, "Grammar B," characterized by synchronicity, discontinuity, and ambiguity, which relies on such devices…

  1. Grammar Writing for a Grammar-reading Audience

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This paper will be concerned primarily with the problem of establishment of higher standards for grammar writing. The text includes a list of 28 points for grammar writers suggested by the Michael Noonan. About another issue, the evaluation of grammar writing within the profession and the professional support provided to grammar writers, the author makes some few comments at the end of this essay.

  2. A Grammar of Belep

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, Chelsea Leigh

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a description of the grammar of Belep [yly], an Austronesian language variety spoken by about 1600 people in and around the Belep Isles in New Caledonia. The grammar begins with a summary of the cultural and linguistic background of Belep speakers, followed by chapters on Belep phonology and phonetics, morphology and word…

  3. Role and Reference Grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Valin, Robert D., Jr.

    This paper discusses Role and Reference Grammar (RRG), which is a structuralist-formalist theory of grammar. RRG grew out of an attempt to answer two fundamental questions: (1) what would linguistic theory look like if it were based on the analysis of Lakhota, Tagalog, and Dyirbal, rather than on the analysis of English?; and (2) how can the…

  4. A Grammar of Belep

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, Chelsea Leigh

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a description of the grammar of Belep [yly], an Austronesian language variety spoken by about 1600 people in and around the Belep Isles in New Caledonia. The grammar begins with a summary of the cultural and linguistic background of Belep speakers, followed by chapters on Belep phonology and phonetics, morphology and word…

  5. Gramatica generadora (Generative Grammar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruset, Jose

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the difficulty of describing the linguistic approach to the study of language to a non-linguist. Points out certain differences between traditional grammar, structural analysis and contemporary language analysis and gives a short description of the notion of generative grammar. (Text is in Spanish.) (TL)

  6. Grammar and Teaching ESL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Glenda; Young, Barbara N.

    2005-01-01

    The variety of theories relating to teaching ESL learners leads to contradictory ideas about teaching a second language. This paper focuses on the continuing importance of grammar in teaching and the current resurgence in interest in returning to grammar as an important component in the classroom.

  7. Necessity of Grammar Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianyun

    2009-01-01

    Grammar is often misunderstood in the language teaching field. The misconception lies in the view that grammar is a collection of arbitrary rules about static structures in the language. Further questionable claims are that the structures do not have to be thought, learners will acquire them on their own, or if the structures are taught, the…

  8. GRAMMAR IN LANGUAGE TEACHING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Nongxin

    2003-01-01

    @@ 1 Definition of grammar Grammar is the science dealing with the systematic rules of a language, its forms, inflections, syntax, and the art of using them correctly. It is summarized from language use and practice, and reflects the logic of thinking in people's speech or writing.

  9. Grammar Instruction and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacina, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Much of the research literature from the past 25 years has supported the importance of teaching grammar in the context of writing instruction (Calkins, 1980; DiStefano & Killion, 1984; Weaver, 1996,1998). Unlike other content areas, practice does not make perfect when learning grammar. While isolated drill and practice of grammatical concepts may…

  10. REFLECTIONS ON GRAMMAR TEACHING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This article aims to answer three questions:(1)Why there exists a discrepancy between the learner’sgrammar knowledge and their communicative skills?(2)What problems are there with grammar tests andteaching?(3)How should grammar be taught as"away of talking"rather than"a description of rules"?

  11. Gramatica generadora (Generative Grammar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruset, Jose

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the difficulty of describing the linguistic approach to the study of language to a non-linguist. Points out certain differences between traditional grammar, structural analysis and contemporary language analysis and gives a short description of the notion of generative grammar. (Text is in Spanish.) (TL)

  12. Extracting pronunciation rules for phonemic variants

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davel, M

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available : a frequent requirement when developing multilingual speech processing systems. However, many of the learning algorithms (such as Dynamically Expanding Context or Default and Refine) experience difficulty in accommodating alternate pronunciations...

  13. Verifying pronunciation dictionaries using conflict analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davel, MH

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available ways: they perform a controlled experiment using artificially corrupted data (allowing us to measure precision and recall exactly); and then apply the technique to a real-world pronunciation dictionary, demonstrating its effectiveness in practice...

  14. Phonology without Universal Grammar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana eArchangeli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The question of identifying the properties of language that are specific human linguistic abilities, i.e. Universal Grammar, lies at the center of linguistic research. This paper argues for a largely Emergent Grammar in phonology, taking as the starting point that memory, categorization, attention to frequency, and the creation of symbolic systems are all nonlinguistic characteristics of the human mind. The articulation patterns of American English rhotics illustrate categorization and systems; the distribution of vowels in Bantu vowel harmony uses frequencies of particular sequences to argue against Universal Grammar and in favor of Emergent Grammar; prefix allomorphy in Esimbi illustrates the Emergent symbolic system integrating phonological and morphological generalizations. The Esimbi case has been treated as an example of phonological opacity in a Universal Grammar account; the Emergent analysis resolves the pattern without opacity concerns.

  15. Phonology without universal grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archangeli, Diana; Pulleyblank, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    The question of identifying the properties of language that are specific human linguistic abilities, i.e., Universal Grammar, lies at the center of linguistic research. This paper argues for a largely Emergent Grammar in phonology, taking as the starting point that memory, categorization, attention to frequency, and the creation of symbolic systems are all nonlinguistic characteristics of the human mind. The articulation patterns of American English rhotics illustrate categorization and systems; the distribution of vowels in Bantu vowel harmony uses frequencies of particular sequences to argue against Universal Grammar and in favor of Emergent Grammar; prefix allomorphy in Esimbi illustrates the Emergent symbolic system integrating phonological and morphological generalizations. The Esimbi case has been treated as an example of phonological opacity in a Universal Grammar account; the Emergent analysis resolves the pattern without opacity concerns.

  16. VOCABULARY STRATEGIES AND VOCABULARY LEARNING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This research is a comparative study of Chinese EFLgradutes′vocabulary strategies applied in their EGeneralAP(English for General Academic Purposes)and ESpecialAP(English for Special Academic Purpose)learning.Participantswere the first-year graduates of non-English major in ChinaPharmaceutical University(N=102).The present study uses ataxonomy of strategies developed by O’Malley and Chamot(1990),which was modified to more accurately reflectvocabulary strategies(altogether 31 sub-strategy variables within16 strategies).Analysis through SAS(Statistic Analysis System)on the collected date has revealed that:1)Learners apply more types of vocabulary stategies inEGeneralAP than in ESpecialAP vocabulary learning.2)Translation and Extensive Reading gain higher frequencyof application in ESpecialAP learning.3)11 vocabulary strategies strongly predict EGeneralAPvocabulary achievement and only 6 strategies strongly predictESpecialAp vocabulary achievement.At the end of the paper,some practical suggestions aremade for EFL graduate teachers to adjust their teaching targetand methods.

  17. The Influence of Texting Language on Grammar and Executive Functions in Primary School Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal N van Dijk

    Full Text Available When sending text messages on their mobile phone to friends, children often use a special type of register, which is called textese. This register allows the omission of words and the use of textisms: instances of non-standard written language such as 4ever (forever. Previous studies have shown that textese has a positive effect on children's literacy abilities. In addition, it is possible that children's grammar system is affected by textese as well, as grammar rules are often transgressed in this register. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to investigate whether the use of textese influences children's grammar performance, and whether this effect is specific to grammar or language in general. Additionally, studies have not yet investigated the influence of textese on children's cognitive abilities. Consequently, the secondary aim of this study was to find out whether textese affects children's executive functions. To investigate this, 55 children between 10 and 13 years old were tested on a receptive vocabulary and grammar performance (sentence repetition task and various tasks measuring executive functioning. In addition, text messages were elicited and the number of omissions and textisms in children's messages were calculated. Regression analyses showed that omissions were a significant predictor of children's grammar performance after various other variables were controlled for: the more words children omitted in their text messages, the better their performance on the grammar task. Although textisms correlated (marginally significantly with vocabulary, grammar and selective attention scores and omissions marginally significantly with vocabulary scores, no other significant effects were obtained for measures of textese in the regression analyses: neither for the language outcomes, nor for the executive function tasks. Hence, our results show that textese is positively related to children's grammar performance. On the other hand

  18. The Influence of Texting Language on Grammar and Executive Functions in Primary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Chantal N; van Witteloostuijn, Merel; Vasić, Nada; Avrutin, Sergey; Blom, Elma

    2016-01-01

    When sending text messages on their mobile phone to friends, children often use a special type of register, which is called textese. This register allows the omission of words and the use of textisms: instances of non-standard written language such as 4ever (forever). Previous studies have shown that textese has a positive effect on children's literacy abilities. In addition, it is possible that children's grammar system is affected by textese as well, as grammar rules are often transgressed in this register. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to investigate whether the use of textese influences children's grammar performance, and whether this effect is specific to grammar or language in general. Additionally, studies have not yet investigated the influence of textese on children's cognitive abilities. Consequently, the secondary aim of this study was to find out whether textese affects children's executive functions. To investigate this, 55 children between 10 and 13 years old were tested on a receptive vocabulary and grammar performance (sentence repetition) task and various tasks measuring executive functioning. In addition, text messages were elicited and the number of omissions and textisms in children's messages were calculated. Regression analyses showed that omissions were a significant predictor of children's grammar performance after various other variables were controlled for: the more words children omitted in their text messages, the better their performance on the grammar task. Although textisms correlated (marginally) significantly with vocabulary, grammar and selective attention scores and omissions marginally significantly with vocabulary scores, no other significant effects were obtained for measures of textese in the regression analyses: neither for the language outcomes, nor for the executive function tasks. Hence, our results show that textese is positively related to children's grammar performance. On the other hand, use of textese does

  19. Vocabulary Instruction: Software Flashcards vs. Word Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Mansouri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available When it comes to language learning, vocabulary learning is the main activity focused on. Vocabulary learning is the main problem and also the goal of new language learners. It is one of the major problems that language learners encounter during learning a new language. Krashen (1989 (cited in Tokac, 2005 points out the role of vocabulary in a language by stating that most of the meaning in a language is carried by words. This is why people visiting a foreign country prefer to take their dictionaries with them rather than grammar books. And on the other hand, nowadays everything is connected to technology and language learning and teaching is not an exception. As Stockwell (2007 cites, vocabulary has been one of the most commonly taught language areas through technology in recent years. Integration of computer and second/foreign language teaching is admired by many researchers. It is clear that technology can help enhance the degree of vocabulary learning, but the point is that which computer assisted vocabulary learning can work better and would be more efficient? In this paper we will discuss and analyze the usage of two kinds of different ways of using technology and see which of the methods will work better. A comparison between vocabulary software flashcard and word clouds (Wordle on vocabulary learning (retention will be compared by the researcher. We will see that using which method will encourage learners more and they will do better with which kind of using technology? The study is carried out in Iran on 44 English learners. The result is really surprising. Both of the groups were interested in technology, but one group did really better. Keywords: CALL, CAVL, Software flashcard, Word Clouds, Wordle, Vocabulary learning

  20. Spoken Grammar for Chinese Learners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓敏

    2013-01-01

    Currently, the concept of spoken grammar has been mentioned among Chinese teachers. However, teach-ers in China still have a vague idea of spoken grammar. Therefore this dissertation examines what spoken grammar is and argues that native speakers’ model of spoken grammar needs to be highlighted in the classroom teaching.

  1. La Grammaire: Lectures (Grammar: Readings).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrive, Michel; Chevalier, Jean-Claude

    A historical perspective of French grammar is developed in this chronologically arranged reader. Part One includes material on French grammar from the 16th to the 19th century: (1) the "Premiere Epoque": 1530-1660, (2) the general grammar of Port-Royal, and (3) the "philosophical grammars" treating syntax, sentence structure, and discourse…

  2. A Cognitively Grounded Measure of Pronunciation Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieling, Martijn; Nerbonne, John; Bloem, Jelke; Gooskens, Charlotte; Heeringa, Wilbert; Baayen, R. Harald

    2014-01-01

    In this study we develop pronunciation distances based on naive discriminative learning (NDL). Measures of pronunciation distance are used in several subfields of linguistics, including psycholinguistics, dialectology and typology. In contrast to the commonly used Levenshtein algorithm, NDL is grounded in cognitive theory of competitive reinforcement learning and is able to generate asymmetrical pronunciation distances. In a first study, we validated the NDL-based pronunciation distances by comparing them to a large set of native-likeness ratings given by native American English speakers when presented with accented English speech. In a second study, the NDL-based pronunciation distances were validated on the basis of perceptual dialect distances of Norwegian speakers. Results indicated that the NDL-based pronunciation distances matched perceptual distances reasonably well with correlations ranging between 0.7 and 0.8. While the correlations were comparable to those obtained using the Levenshtein distance, the NDL-based approach is more flexible as it is also able to incorporate acoustic information other than sound segments. PMID:24416119

  3. A cognitively grounded measure of pronunciation distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieling, Martijn; Nerbonne, John; Bloem, Jelke; Gooskens, Charlotte; Heeringa, Wilbert; Baayen, R Harald

    2014-01-01

    In this study we develop pronunciation distances based on naive discriminative learning (NDL). Measures of pronunciation distance are used in several subfields of linguistics, including psycholinguistics, dialectology and typology. In contrast to the commonly used Levenshtein algorithm, NDL is grounded in cognitive theory of competitive reinforcement learning and is able to generate asymmetrical pronunciation distances. In a first study, we validated the NDL-based pronunciation distances by comparing them to a large set of native-likeness ratings given by native American English speakers when presented with accented English speech. In a second study, the NDL-based pronunciation distances were validated on the basis of perceptual dialect distances of Norwegian speakers. Results indicated that the NDL-based pronunciation distances matched perceptual distances reasonably well with correlations ranging between 0.7 and 0.8. While the correlations were comparable to those obtained using the Levenshtein distance, the NDL-based approach is more flexible as it is also able to incorporate acoustic information other than sound segments.

  4. A cognitively grounded measure of pronunciation distance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn Wieling

    Full Text Available In this study we develop pronunciation distances based on naive discriminative learning (NDL. Measures of pronunciation distance are used in several subfields of linguistics, including psycholinguistics, dialectology and typology. In contrast to the commonly used Levenshtein algorithm, NDL is grounded in cognitive theory of competitive reinforcement learning and is able to generate asymmetrical pronunciation distances. In a first study, we validated the NDL-based pronunciation distances by comparing them to a large set of native-likeness ratings given by native American English speakers when presented with accented English speech. In a second study, the NDL-based pronunciation distances were validated on the basis of perceptual dialect distances of Norwegian speakers. Results indicated that the NDL-based pronunciation distances matched perceptual distances reasonably well with correlations ranging between 0.7 and 0.8. While the correlations were comparable to those obtained using the Levenshtein distance, the NDL-based approach is more flexible as it is also able to incorporate acoustic information other than sound segments.

  5. A Brief Survey of Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈福生

    1984-01-01

    @@ There are two kinds of grammar, prescriptive grammar and descriptive grammar. The prescriptive grammar gives orders how a language ought to be used rather than simply describing how it is used.This type of grammar lays down a lot of rules for the student to follow but the gifted philologist Edward Sapir points out that all grammatical rules leak. This type of grammar also warns the student against what are called ‘Shall-nots', but these ‘Shall-nots' are more likely to cause the student muchconcern rather than helping him to exprese his ideas in English. On the contrary, the descriptive grammar just describes how a language is used.

  6. Vector grammars and PN machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋昌俊

    1996-01-01

    The concept of vector grammars under the string semantic is introduced.The dass of vector grammars is given,which is similar to the dass of Chomsky grammars.The regular vector grammar is divided further.The strong and weak relation between the vector grammar and scalar grammar is discussed,so the spectrum system graph of scalar and vector grammars is made.The equivalent relation between the regular vector grammar and Petri nets (also called PN machine) is pointed.The hybrid PN machine is introduced,and its language is proved equivalent to the language of the context-free vector grammar.So the perfect relation structure between vector grammars and PN machines is formed.

  7. Teaching Pronunciation with Computer Assisted Pronunciation Instruction in a Technological University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sze-Chu; Hung, Po-Yi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of computer assisted pronunciation instruction in English pronunciation for students in vocational colleges and universities in Taiwan. The participants were fifty-one first-year undergraduate students from a technological university located in central Taiwan. The participants received an…

  8. Artificial grammar learning by 1-year-olds leads to specific and abstract knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, R L; Gerken, L

    1999-03-01

    Four experiments used the head-turn preference procedure to assess whether infants could extract and remember information from auditory strings produced by a miniature artificial grammar. In all four experiments, infants generalized to new structure by discriminating new grammatical strings from ungrammatical ones after less than 2 min exposure to the grammar. Infants acquired specific information about the grammar as demonstrated by the ability to discriminate new grammatical strings from those with illegal endpoints (Experiment 1). Infants also discriminated new grammatical strings from those with string-internal pairwise violations (Experiments 2 and 3). Infants in Experiment 4 abstracted beyond specific word order as demonstrated by the ability to discriminate new strings produced by their training grammar from strings produced by another grammar despite a change in vocabulary between training and test. We discuss the implications of these findings for the study of language acquisition.

  9. The Effectiveness of Grammar Learning in Impro ving Reading Comprehension of English Majors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田晓

    2015-01-01

    The importance of grammar knowledge has al-ways been neglected in reading comprehension. To help English teachers and learners see the value of grammar analysis, this pa-per, therefore, explores the correlation between grammar and reading comprehension. Forty-four freshmen of English majors were involved in the experiment, completing two tests of grammar and reading comprehension respectively, and it was followed by a personal interview for some exceptional cases after a week. The result of data analysis shows that grammar analysis accompanying with vocabulary, emotion, as well as other factors produce an ef-fect on learners’reading comprehension to a certain degree. It is suggested that language teachers as well as learners therefore should attach importance to learning grammatical knowledge.

  10. The Place of Games in Teaching Grammar and Vocabulary Activities (Sample of 5th Grade Textbooks / Oyunların Dil Bilgisi Öğretiminde ve Kelime Serveti Etkinliklerindeki Yeri (Yenilenen İlköğretim 5. Sınıf Ders Kitapları Örneği

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehtap SOLAK SAĞLAM

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Turkish Language lesson exists at all levels of elementary curriculum. Grammar education and vocabulary enhancement activities are the most common acquisitions at elementary level. The first part of elementary level is consisted of students aged between 6–11, second part of students between 11–15. Elementary education starting at the age when students are fond of playing games continue until adolescence. These students acquire what they learn through games more easily and keep them in their memories for long. Some activities are organized to this end, and these activities draw attention of students, in turn, the learning process is faster as the attention level of students is quite high. When we study the game samples in Turkish Language textbooks, we will see that they are not adequate. The function of games in teaching grammar and vocabulary enhancement activities should be increased by having new games, so learning will be more efficient and permanent. Türkçe dersi ilköğretimin her kademesinde müfredatta yer alan bir derstir. Dilbilgisi öğretimi ve kelime serveti geliştirme çalışmaları ilköğretim aşamasında en çok karşımıza çıkan kazanımlardır. İlköğretimin birinci kademesi 6–11, ikinci kademesi ise 11–15 yaş arasındaki öğrencileri kapsamaktadır. Oyun çağında başlayan ilköğretim eğitimi gelişme dönemine kadar devam etmektedir. Bu yaş grubundaki öğrenciler, oyunla öğrendiklerini çok daha kısa sürede belleklerine yerleştirmekte ve bu kazanımları çok daha uzun süre hafızalarında tutmaktadırlar. Bu amaçla ilköğretimde bazı etkinlikler bu yönde düzenlenmektedir. Bu etkinlikler öğrencilerin dikkatini çekmekte ve öğrencilerin ilgi düzeyi yüksek olduğu için de öğrenme süreci hızlanmakta, daha kalıcı olmaktadır. Günümüzde okullarda kullanılan Türkçe ders kitaplarında bulunan oyun örnekleri incelenip değerlendirildiğinde oyunların kısıtlı kaldığı g

  11. Grammar and Grammar Teaching——A Reflective Journal of Grammar and Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周佳

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction When we talk about grammar, we will usually refer to the detailed instruction rules of grammar. In China, grammar is usually taught explicitly in formal instructions, which is different from that in some western countries. So there are some controversial questions coming out: Should there be formal instruction of grammar?

  12. French grammar for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Mazet, Veronique

    2013-01-01

    The easy way to master French grammar French Grammar For Dummies is a logical extension and complement to the successful language learning book, French For Dummies. In plain English, it teaches you the grammatical rules of the French language, including parts of speech, sentence construction, pronouns, adjectives, punctuation, stress and verb tenses, and moods. Throughout the book, you get plenty of practice opportunities to help you on your goal of mastering basic French grammar and usage. Grasp the grammatical rules of French including parts of speech, sentenc

  13. Developing Mathematical Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Eula Ewing; Orme, Michelle P.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of mathematical vocabulary, difficulties students encounter in learning this vocabulary, and some instructional strategies. Two general methods for teaching vocabulary are discussed: context and explicit vocabulary instruction. The methods are summarized as they apply to mathematical vocabulary instruction and…

  14. Error analysis of a public domain pronunciation dictionary

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Martirosian, O

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors explore pattern recognition techniques for verifying the correctness of a pronunciation lexicon, focusing on techniques that require limited human interaction. They evaluate the British English Example Pronunciation (BEEP) dictionary [1...

  15. The Impacts of Learners’ Chinese Accents on Their English Pronunciation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓莺

    2013-01-01

    This paper embarks on both positive and negative impacts the learners’ Chinese accents have on their English pronunciation and studies the example cases of students’ problematic pronunciation,aiming to find out practical and relevant solutions.

  16. Categorial Minimalist Grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Amblard, Maxime; Retoré, Christian

    2010-01-01

    We first recall some basic notions on minimalist grammars and on categorial grammars. Next we shortly introduce partially commutative linear logic, and our representation of minimalist grammars within this categorial system, the so-called categorial minimalist grammars. Thereafter we briefly present \\lambda\\mu-DRT (Discourse Representation Theory) an extension of \\lambda-DRT (compositional DRT) in the framework of \\lambda\\mu calculus: it avoids type raising and derives different readings from a single semantic representation, in a setting which follows discourse structure. We run a complete example which illustrates the various structures and rules that are needed to derive a semantic representation from the categorial view of a transformational syntactic analysis.

  17. Knowing Chinese character grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, James

    2016-02-01

    Chinese character structure has often been described as representing a kind of grammar, but the notion of character grammar has hardly been explored. Patterns in character element reduplication are particularly grammar-like, displaying discrete combinatoriality, binarity, phonology-like final prominence, and potentially the need for symbolic rules (X→XX). To test knowledge of these patterns, Chinese readers were asked to judge the acceptability of fake characters varying both in grammaticality (obeying or violating reduplication constraints) and in lexicality (of the reduplicative configurations). While lexical knowledge was important (lexicality improved acceptability and grammatical configurations were accepted more quickly when also lexical), grammatical knowledge was important as well, with grammaticality improving acceptability equally for lexical and nonlexical configurations. Acceptability was also higher for more frequent reduplicative elements, suggesting that the reduplicative configurations were decomposed. Chinese characters present an as-yet untapped resource for exploring fundamental questions about the nature of the human capacity for grammar.

  18. Priorities in English Pronunciation Teaching in EFL Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moedjito Moedjito

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the priorities in English pronunciation teaching in Indonesian EFL classrooms focusing on the English varieties, components of pronunciation, and techniques for pronunciation teaching. The results indicated that (1 international English was valued as a more appropriate variety for Indonesian learners, (2 and that while depending on a limited range of rather traditional techniques of pronunciation instruction, Indonesian EFL teachers valued segmental features more than suprasegmental features.

  19. Priorities in English Pronunciation Teaching in EFL Classrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Moedjito Moedjito

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the priorities in English pronunciation teaching in Indonesian EFL classrooms focusing on the English varieties, components of pronunciation, and techniques for pronunciation teaching. The results indicated that (1) international English was valued as a more appropriate variety for Indonesian learners, (2) and that while depending on a limited range of rather traditional techniques of pronunciation instruction, Indonesian EFL teachers valued segmental features more than sup...

  20. Palula Vocabulary

    OpenAIRE

    Liljegren, Henrik; Haider, Naseem

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this volume is to provide a complement to Towards a grammatical description of Palula (Liljegren 2008). The 1460 main entries included in the present work are limited to those lexical items that are cited or exemplified in the aforementioned work. The work is the result of linguistic research in and with the Palula community (Pakistan). It contains much of the basic vocabulary used in today's Palula, presented along with illustrative example sentences, grammatical informat...

  1. Importance of Grammar in English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵天毓

    2011-01-01

    Grammar teaching is one of the most difficult and important points in the middle school. However, there exist some problems with present grammar teaching, such as students' poor knowledge of grammar, improper teaching methods and the ignorance of grammar

  2. A Brief Study on [s] and [ θ ] in English Pronunciation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任刚

    2012-01-01

    In our English teaching, we may find students have much trouble with English pronunciation. Because of that, this essay mainly focuses on Is] and [ θ ] English pronunciation problems in English teaching, analyses the causes in English study and attempts to find some solutions to help the English learners acquire correct pronunciation.

  3. Directing Attention to Pronunciation in the Second Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counselman, David

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by predictions of the theory of Input Processing, this study adds to previous research on second language (L2) Spanish pronunciation learning by investigating the impact of two distinct types of pronunciation assignments on first language (L1) English L2 Spanish students' improvement in pronunciation of the vowels /e, o/. Two sections of…

  4. Symposium--Accentuating the Positive: Directions in Pronunciation Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derwing, Tracey M.; Munro, Murray J.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past few decades perspectives on second language (L2) pronunciation have evolved from pessimistic appraisals of the capabilities of L2 learners and doubts about the value of instruction to a view of pronunciation teaching as an effective and important part of language pedagogy. Earlier research on the teaching of pronunciation dwelt…

  5. Changing Contexts and Shifting Paradigms in Pronunciation Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levis, John M.

    2005-01-01

    The history of pronunciation in English language teaching is a study in extremes. Some approaches to teaching, such as the "reformed method" and "audiolingualism", elevated pronunciation to a pinnacle of importance, while other approaches, such as the "cognitive movement" and early "communicative language teaching," mostly ignored pronunciation.…

  6. How Well Do General-Skills ESL Textbooks Address Pronunciation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derwing, Tracey M.; Diepenbroek, Lori G.; Foote, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    Many instructors are reluctant to teach pronunciation in adult ESL classrooms, often because of lack of formal training. However, significant numbers of ESL students want pronunciation instruction. Although stand-alone pronunciation courses for second-language (L2) learners exist, many students cannot gain access to them. One approach to meeting…

  7. An Investigation of Pronunciation Learning Strategies of Advanced EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hismanoglu, Murat

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims at investigating the kinds of strategies deployed by advanced EFL learners at English Language Teaching Department to learn or improve English pronunciation and revealing whether there are any significant differences between the strategies of successful pronunciation learners and those of unsuccessful pronunciation learners. After…

  8. Podcasting: An Effective Tool for Honing Language Students' Pronunciation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducate, Lara; Lomicka, Lara

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation of podcasting as a tool for honing pronunciation skills in intermediate language learning. We examined the effects of using podcasts to improve pronunciation in second language learning and how students' attitudes changed toward pronunciation over the semester. A total of 22 students in intermediate German…

  9. An Investigation of Pronunciation Learning Strategies of Advanced EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hismanoglu, Murat

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims at investigating the kinds of strategies deployed by advanced EFL learners at English Language Teaching Department to learn or improve English pronunciation and revealing whether there are any significant differences between the strategies of successful pronunciation learners and those of unsuccessful pronunciation learners. After…

  10. Creating a Pronunciation Profile of First-Year Spanish Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Añorga, Angel; Benander, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that improving pronunciation in the foreign language classroom is challenging, and there is often little time left over in a dense curriculum for pronunciation practice. In describing a pronunciation profile for all phonemes in Spanish, this study suggests that the principal challenge for native speakers of English who…

  11. Creating a Pronunciation Profile of First-Year Spanish Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Añorga, Angel; Benander, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that improving pronunciation in the foreign language classroom is challenging, and there is often little time left over in a dense curriculum for pronunciation practice. In describing a pronunciation profile for all phonemes in Spanish, this study suggests that the principal challenge for native speakers of English who…

  12. Changing Contexts and Shifting Paradigms in Pronunciation Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levis, John M.

    2005-01-01

    The history of pronunciation in English language teaching is a study in extremes. Some approaches to teaching, such as the "reformed method" and "audiolingualism", elevated pronunciation to a pinnacle of importance, while other approaches, such as the "cognitive movement" and early "communicative language teaching," mostly ignored pronunciation.…

  13. Using Songs To Support Vocabulary Learning For Grade Four Pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Al-Azri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Over the recent years the teaching of foreign language vocabulary has been the subject of much discussion and arguments and a number of research and methodology books on such topic have emerged as it is the case for example with Nation 2001 and Schmitt 2000. For a long time grammar seemed to have attracted more attention but this renewed interest in vocabulary reflects the belief that it is becoming a major component in knowing a language and as some recent scholars would admit even more important than grammar already. In addition to the various strategies used to promote vocabulary learning in the classroom environment songs are widely being used nowadays as a powerful tool in teaching new vocabulary to early grades pupils. Throughout our teaching of young learners we have noticed that they are amazingly captured by songs and they always enjoy listening to them. This might be one of the main reasons why songs have now become one of the cornerstones in the demanding and challenging process of teaching children. The purpose of this research paper is to find out as to what extent and how the use of songs may support new vocabulary learning for grade four pupils in Oman and how much it actually helps these young learners in developing their vocabulary learning habits.

  14. MediaWiki Grammar Recovery

    CERN Document Server

    Zaytsev, Vadim

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes in detail the recovery effort of one of the official MediaWiki grammars. Over two hundred grammar transformation steps are reported and annotated, leading to delivery of a level 2 grammar, semi-automatically extracted from a community created semi-formal text using at least five different syntactic notations, several non-enforced naming conventions, multiple misspellings, obsolete parsing technology idiosyncrasies and other problems commonly encountered in grammars that were not engineered properly. Having a quality grammar will allow to test and validate it further, without alienating the community with a separately developed grammar.

  15. Pronunciation and Independent Work: Embedding Pronunciation into Academic English Skill Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonna Danchenko

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an experiment carried out at International Pacific College (IPC as part of an EAP (English for Academic Purposes paper taught in year one of the BA programme. The trial was aimed at instilling students with the motivation to self-monitor their pronunciation, attempting to raise it to an internationally acceptable level of intelligibility. In this experiment, the students were encouraged to take responsibility for progress and competency within both reading and pronunciation. A fundamental part of the process was embedding pronunciation into as many academic skills as possible, including reading, listening, and note taking.

  16. Mnemonic Value of Orthography for Vocabulary Learning in Monolinguals and Language Minority English-Speaking College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Katharine Pace; Ehri, Linnea C.; Lauterbach, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    The study examined whether exposure to spellings of new vocabulary words improved monolinguals' and language minority (LM) students' (n = 25) memory for pronunciations, meanings, and spellings of the words. College students who are native English-speaking monolinguals (n = 12) and LM students who learned English as their second language (n = 13)…

  17. El Sistema de Formas en Colores for Teaching Grammar in Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nailon, James

    2010-01-01

    Sistema de formas en colores (SFC) is a symbols-based system for teaching Spanish grammatical structures and concepts within a communicative context in the elementary school. The (ACTFL) Standards for Foreign Language Learning: Preparing for the 21st Century states that, "While grammar and vocabulary are essential tools for communication, it is…

  18. El Sistema de Formas en Colores for Teaching Grammar in Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nailon, James

    2010-01-01

    Sistema de formas en colores (SFC) is a symbols-based system for teaching Spanish grammatical structures and concepts within a communicative context in the elementary school. The (ACTFL) Standards for Foreign Language Learning: Preparing for the 21st Century states that, "While grammar and vocabulary are essential tools for communication, it is…

  19. The Effect of Chongqing Dialect on English Pronunciation Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶敏

    2015-01-01

    English pronunciation is a very important part while learning English, at the same time; it is a very difficult part. Usually, dialects have some influences on English pronunciation learning. When learners are learning English, they compare it with their mother tongues unconsciously, which wil cause that students in different areas have different dialects when they are speaking English. In order to help students understand the differences between Chongqing dialect and English pronunciation and make English pronunciation learning more effective, this paper aims at the effect of Chongqing dialect on English pronunciation leaning, then some strategies wil be given.

  20. Effective Grammar Teaching: Lessons from Confident Grammar Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraki, Eleni; Hill, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Learning the grammar of a language is an integral part of learning a second or foreign language. Studies on teacher beliefs, teacher language awareness (TLA) and grammar teaching have reported that the majority of English language teachers recognise the importance of teaching grammar (Borg, 2001; Borg & Burns, 2008). At the same time, many…

  1. Effective Grammar Teaching: Lessons from Confident Grammar Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraki, Eleni; Hill, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Learning the grammar of a language is an integral part of learning a second or foreign language. Studies on teacher beliefs, teacher language awareness (TLA) and grammar teaching have reported that the majority of English language teachers recognise the importance of teaching grammar (Borg, 2001; Borg & Burns, 2008). At the same time, many…

  2. Swahili Learners' Reference Grammar. African Language Learners' Reference Grammar Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Katrina Daly; Schleicher, Antonia Folarin

    This reference grammar is written for speakers of English who are learning Swahili. Because many language learners are not familiar with the grammatical terminology, this book explains the basic terminology and concepts of English grammar that are necessary for understanding the grammar of Swahili. It assumes no formal knowledge of English grammar…

  3. Strictness Analysis for Attribute Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    1992-01-01

    interpretation of attribute grammars. The framework is used to construct a strictness analysis for attribute grammars. Results of the analysis enable us to transform an attribute grammar such that attributes are evaluated during parsing, if possible. The analysis is proved correct by relating it to a fixpoint...... semantics for attribute grammars. An implementation of the analysis is discussed and some extensions to the analysis are mentioned....

  4. Closure properties of Watson-Crick grammars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkufli, Nurul Liyana binti Mohamad; Turaev, Sherzod; Tamrin, Mohd Izzuddin Mohd; Azeddine, Messikh

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we define Watson-Crick context-free grammars, as an extension of Watson-Crick regular grammars and Watson-Crick linear grammars with context-free grammar rules. We show the relation of Watson-Crick (regular and linear) grammars to the sticker systems, and study some of the important closure properties of the Watson-Crick grammars. We establish that the Watson-Crick regular grammars are closed under almost all of the main closure operations, while the differences between other Watson-Crick grammars with their corresponding Chomsky grammars depend on the computational power of the Watson-Crick grammars which still need to be studied.

  5. k-visit Attribute Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Skyum, S.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that any well-defined attribute grammar is k-visit for some k. Furthermore, it is shown that given a well-defined grammar G and an integer k, it is decidable whether G is k-visit. Finally it is shown that the k-visit grammars specify a proper hierarchy with respect to translations...

  6. Teaching Grammar: What Really Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Amy; Berger, Joan

    2010-01-01

    In this book, the authors share procedures for teaching grammar effectively and dynamically, in ways that appeal to students and teachers alike. Ideal for teachers just beginning their work in grammar instruction, this book includes day-by-day units and reproducibles to help them embed grammar lessons into writing instruction. Using visuals,…

  7. The Necessity of Grammar Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengjuan

    2010-01-01

    Mastering grammar is the foundation in the proficiency of a language. Grammar teaching is also an essential part of language teaching. However, with the communicative approach was introduced into China, many foreign language teachers gradually make little of grammar teaching. In terms of the theory of linguistics, this paper specifically explores…

  8. Teaching Grammar: What Really Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Amy; Berger, Joan

    2010-01-01

    In this book, the authors share procedures for teaching grammar effectively and dynamically, in ways that appeal to students and teachers alike. Ideal for teachers just beginning their work in grammar instruction, this book includes day-by-day units and reproducibles to help them embed grammar lessons into writing instruction. Using visuals,…

  9. La gramatica comunicativa (Communicative Grammar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierer, Ernesto

    This paper explains the main concepts of communicative grammar and provides a detailed view of how communicative grammar analyses language at various levels. Language is discussed in terms of communication; the central elements in the analysis are those that carry information. Communicative grammar seeks to describe the process of the linguistic…

  10. A crosslinguistic study of the relationship between grammar and lexical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devescovi, Antonella; Caselli, Maria Cristina; Marchione, Daniela; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Reilly, Judy; Bates, Elizabeth

    2005-11-01

    The relationship between grammatical and lexical development was compared in 233 English and 233 Italian children aged between 1;6 and 2;6, matched for age, gender, and vocabulary size on the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories (CDI). Four different measures of Mean Length of Utterance were applied to the three longest utterances reported by parents, and to corrected/expanded versions representing the 'target' for each utterance. Italians had longer MLUs on most measures, but the ratio of actual to target MLUs did not differ between languages. Age and vocabulary both contributed significant variance to MLU, but the contribution of vocabulary was much larger, suggesting that vocabulary size may provide a better basis for crosslinguistic comparisons of grammatical development. The relationship between MLU and vocabulary size was non-linear in English but linear in Italian, suggesting that grammar 'gets off the ground' earlier in a richly inflected language. A possible mechanism to account for this difference is discussed.

  11. Developing consistent pronunciation models for phonemic variants

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davel, M

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available from a lexicon containing variants. In this paper we (the authors) address both these issues by creating ‘pseudo-phonemes’ associated with sets of ‘generation restriction rules’ to model those pronunciations that are consistently realised as two or more...

  12. Selective Teaching of L2 Pronunciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husby, Olaf; Koreman, Jacques; Martínez-Paricio, Violeta; Abrahamsen, Jardar E.; Albertsen, Egil; Hedayatfar, Keivan; Bech, Øyvind

    2015-01-01

    The pronunciation of a second or foreign language is often very challenging for L2 learners. It is difficult to address this topic in the classroom, because learners with different native languages (L1s) can have very different challenges. We have therefore developed a Computer-Assisted Listening and Speaking Tutor (CALST), which selectively…

  13. Structuring Cooperative Learning in Teaching English Pronunciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsuan-Yu; Goswami, Jaya S.

    2011-01-01

    Classrooms incorporating Cooperative Learning (CL) structures facilitate a supportive learning environment for English Language Learners (ELLs). Accurate pronunciation by ELLs is important for communication, and also benefits academic achievement. The known benefits of CL for ELLs make it a desirable learning environment to teach pronunciation…

  14. Twitter-Based EFL Pronunciation Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mompean, José Antonio; Fouz-González, Jonás

    2016-01-01

    This paper looks at the use of "Twitter" as a language teaching/learning tool. It describes the results of a study aimed at testing "Twitter's" effectiveness for pronunciation teaching. The purpose of the study was to determine whether "Twitter" can foster online participation and whether it may have a positive effect…

  15. Survey of Foreigners' Pronunciation Problems in Swedish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannert, Robert

    This paper reports results of an analysis of pronunciation problems and error patterns in the recorded speech of 38 immigrants to Sweden. The recordings, of both spontaneous and elicited speech in Swedish, were taken from an archival collection. The native-language groups studied include British English, Spanish, Polish, Finnish, Greek, Persian,…

  16. Asian Varieties of English: Attitudes towards Pronunciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokumoto, Mina; Shibata, Miki

    2011-01-01

    According to previous studies, Japanese EFL learners who wish to acquire American or British English pronunciation are reluctant to speak their L1-accented English. In view of this tendency, the present study examined the attitudes of Asian learners toward their L1-accented English. University students from Japan, South Korea, and Malaysia…

  17. Survey of Foreigners' Pronunciation Problems in Swedish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannert, Robert

    This paper reports results of an analysis of pronunciation problems and error patterns in the recorded speech of 38 immigrants to Sweden. The recordings, of both spontaneous and elicited speech in Swedish, were taken from an archival collection. The native-language groups studied include British English, Spanish, Polish, Finnish, Greek, Persian,…

  18. A comprehensive French grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Price, Glanville

    2013-01-01

    Characterized by clear and accessible explanations, numerous examples and sample sentences, a new section on register and tone, and useful appendices covering topics including age and time, A Comprehensive French Grammar, Sixth Edition is an indispensable tool for advanced students of French language and literature.A revised edition of this established, bestselling French grammarIncludes a new section on register and medium and offers expanded treatment of French punctuationFeatures numerous examples and sample sentences, and useful appendices covering topics including age, time, and dimension

  19. English Grammar For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Ward, Lesley J

    2009-01-01

    If you're confused by commas, perplexed by pronouns, and plain terrified by tenses, English Grammar For Dummies will put your fears to rest. Packed with expert guidance, it covers everything from sentence basics to rules even your English teacher didn't know - if you want to brush up on your grammar, this is the only guide you'll ever need. Discover how to: avoid common grammatical errors; get to grips with apostrophes; structure sentences correctly; use verbs and find the right tense; and decide when to use slang or formal English.  

  20. Abductive Logic Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Dahl, Veronica

    2009-01-01

    By extending logic grammars with constraint logic, we give them the ability to create knowledge bases that represent the meaning of an input string. Semantic information is thus defined through extra-grammatical means, and a sentence's meaning logically follows as a by-product of string rewriting....... We formalize these ideas, and exemplify them both within and outside first-order logic, and for both fixed and dynamic knowledge bases. Within the latter variety, we consider the usual left-to-right derivations that are traditional in logic grammars, but also -- in a significant departure from...

  1. Optimal Recurrence Grammars

    CERN Document Server

    Graben, Peter beim; Fröhlich, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    We optimally estimate the recurrence structure of a multivariate time series by Markov chains obtained from recurrence grammars. The goodness of fit is assessed with a utility function derived from the stochastic Markov transition matrix. It assumes a local maximum for the distance threshold of the optimal recurrence grammar. We validate our approach by means of the nonlinear Lorenz system and its linearized stochastic surrogates. Finally we apply our optimization procedure to the segmentation of neurophysiological time series obtained from anesthetized animals. We propose the number of optimal recurrence domains as a statistic for classifying an animals' state of consciousness.

  2. French grammar and usage

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkins, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Long trusted as the most comprehensive, up-to-date and user-friendly grammar available, French Grammar and Usage is a complete guide to French as it is written and spoken today. It includes clear descriptions of all the main grammatical phenomena of French, and their use, illustrated by numerous examples taken from contemporary French, and distinguishes the most common forms of usage, both formal and informal.Key features include:Comprehensive content, covering all the major structures of contemporary French User-friendly organisation offering easy-to-find sections with cross-referencing and i

  3. Grammar and Grammaring: Toward Modes for English Grammar Teaching in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Chengyu

    2015-01-01

    The value of grammar instruction in foreign language learning and teaching has been a focus of debate for quite some time, which has resulted in different views on grammar and grammar teaching as well as different teaching approaches based on different perspectives or in different language learning contexts. To explore some modes for grammar…

  4. English Grammar Workbook For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Woods, Geraldine

    2011-01-01

    Get some good grammar practice-and start speaking and writing well. Good grammar is important, whether you want to advance your career, boost your GPA, or increase your SAT or ACT score. Practice is the key to improving your grammar skills, and that's what this workbook is all about. Honing speaking and writing skills through continued practice translates into everyday situations, such as writing papers, giving presentations, and communicating effectively in the workplace or classroom. In English Grammar Workbook For Dummies you'll find hundreds of fun problems to help build your grammar muscl

  5. English Vocabulary Teaching Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏

    2012-01-01

    Vocabulary is very necessary in language teaching and acquisition.If students have a certain amount of vocabulary,they will overcome many difficulties in reading.listening、 speaking and writing.In vocabulary teaching,scholars have been working hard to find better ways.This paper attempts to find how to improve students’ enthusiasm of learning vocabulary and teach vocabulary more successfully and effectively.

  6. Podcasting: An Effective Tool for Honing Language Students’ Pronunciation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Ducate

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an investigation of podcasting as a tool for honing pronunciation skills in intermediate language learning. We examined the effects of using podcasts to improve pronunciation in second language learning and how students’ attitudes changed toward pronunciation over the semester. A total of 22 students in intermediate German and French courses made five scripted pronunciation recordings throughout the semester. After the pronunciation recordings, students produced three extemporaneous podcasts. Students also completed a pre- and post-survey based on Elliott’s (1995 Pronunciation Attitude Inventory to assess their perspectives regarding pronunciation. Students’ pronunciation, extemporaneous recordings, and surveys were analyzed to explore changes over the semester. Data analysis revealed that students’ pronunciation did not significantly improve in regard to accentedness or comprehensibility, perhaps because the16-week long treatment was too short to foster significant improvement and there was no in-class pronunciation practice. The podcast project, however, was perceived positively by students, and they appreciated the feedback given for each scripted recording and enjoyed opportunities for creativity during extemporaneous podcasts. Future studies might seek to delineate more specific guidelines or examine how teacher involvement might be adapted to the use of podcasts as a companion to classroom instruction.

  7. SERIOUS GRAMMAR CAN BE FUN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    IntroductionToday many Chinese students think of English grammar as an unpopular and difficult part of theirEnglish lessons Even more worryingly,that attitude is one they have usually picked up from theirteachers.Namely,grammar seems to be hard work for EFL teachers and students.So should grammarteaching be abolishedWhy do many teachers and students take a negative attitude toward grammarInthis paper,first,I will attempt to discuss the place of grammar in EFL teaching.Next,I will outline thetraditional methods of grammar teaching and the results of this kind of grammar teaching.Finally,I willput forward some suggestions on how to make grammar teaching more interesting in Chinese classrooms.

  8. A GUJARATI REFERENCE GRAMMAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CARDONA, GEORGE

    THIS REFERENCE GRAMMAR WAS WRITTEN TO FILL THE NEED FOR AN UP-TO-DATE ANALYSIS OF THE MODERN LANGUAGE SUITABLE FOR LANGUAGE LEARNERS AS WELL AS LINGUISTS. THE AUTHOR LISTS IN THE INTRODUCTION THOSE STUDIES PREVIOUS TO THIS ONE WHICH MAY BE OF INTEREST TO THE READER. INCLUDED IN HIS ANALYSIS OF THE LANGUAGE ARE MAJOR CHAPTERS ON--(1) PHONOLOGY, (2)…

  9. Multiple Grammars and MOGUL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truscott, John

    2014-01-01

    Optionality is a central phenomenon in second language acquisition (SLA), for which any adequate theory must account. Amaral and Roeper (this issue; henceforth A&R) offer an appealing approach to it, using Roeper's Multiple Grammars Theory, which was created with first language in mind but which extends very naturally to SLA. They include…

  10. An Amharic Reference Grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslau, Wolf

    This reference grammar presents a structural description of the orthography, phonology, morphology, and syntax of Amharic, the national language of Ethiopia. The Amharic material in this work, designed to prepare the student for speaking and reading the language, appears in both Amharic script and phonetic transcription. See ED 012 044-5 for the…

  11. Negotiated Grammar Transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaytsev, V.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study controlled adaptability of metamodel transformations. We consider one of the most rigid metamodel transformation formalisms — automated grammar transformation with operator suites, where a transformation script is built in such a way that it is essentially meant to be applica

  12. Grammars as contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, M. de; Visser, E.; Visser, J.M.W.

    2001-01-01

    Component-based development of language tools stands in need of meta-tool support. This support can be offered by generation of code -- libraries or full-fledged components -- from syntax definitions. We develop a comprehensive architecture for such syntax-driven meta-tooling in which grammars serve

  13. Teaching Grammar in Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, David

    1998-01-01

    Argues for an alternative to the conventional linear model of language acquisition in the learning of second-language grammar, proposing a more organic approach. The two approaches are contrasted, drawing on research in second-language learning and discourse analysis that supports the organic view. Some pedagogical implications of this approach…

  14. Teaching Grammar in Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, David

    1998-01-01

    Argues for an alternative to the conventional linear model of language acquisition in the learning of second-language grammar, proposing a more organic approach. The two approaches are contrasted, drawing on research in second-language learning and discourse analysis that supports the organic view. Some pedagogical implications of this approach…

  15. Revisiting Universal Grammar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEISEL Jürgen M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper sketches various specific scenarios within the Principles and Parameter Theory under which the question of whether Universal Grammar remains accessible to second language learners should be addressed. It also discusses some implications of several approaches to this issue and offers some speculation as to how the question is to be reformulated in the context of the Minimalist Program.

  16. Grammar and discourse prominence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Marie Herget; Kristensen, Line Burholt; Boye, Kasper

    in Danish, the lexicon-grammar contrast is a more important cue to discourse prominence (foreground vs. background status) than focalization (by means of focus particles). BOYE, K. & HARDER, P. 2012. A usage-based theory of grammatical status and grammaticalization. Language, 88, 1-44. RENSINK, R. A., O...

  17. Literature and Grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claremont, Francesca

    1993-01-01

    This reprint of a lecture published in 1976 examines the uses of history and literary stories for instructing children in grammar, creative dramatics, natural history, and prehistory, as well as literary analysis. Provides a starting point for thinking about the power of literature as an integrating medium in the Montessori elementary classroom.…

  18. Challenges in Teaching Pronunciation at Tertiary Level in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanzina Tahereen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Teaching pronunciation is one the most challenging parts of ELT in Bangladesh. Very few research and least attention on pronunciation teaching has instigated those challenges more. Moreover, setting an ambitious target to achieve native like pronunciation and teaching without considering the Bangladeshi context are more specific reasons for creating those problems. Therefore, this paper concentrates on the discussion of the existing condition of teaching pronunciation in Bangladesh. Consequently, it starts with presenting existing circumstances of pronunciation teaching in Bangladesh, and showing what the achievable and realistic goal should be for this situation. Then, it talks about the challenges that the teachers face while teaching pronunciation in ELT classroom. This discussion provides deep insight into those challenges which are only applicable to Bangladeshi students. Finally, the paper suggests some contextual and practical solutions to those specific problems.

  19. Improving English Pronunciation: An Automated Instructional Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugata Mitra

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an experiment in which groups of children attempted to improve their English pronunciation using an English-language learning software, some English films, and a speech-to-text software engine. The experiment was designed to examine two hypotheses. The first is that speech-to-text software, trained in an appropriate voice, can act as an evaluator of accent and clarity of speech as well as help learners acquire a standard way of speaking. The second is that groups of children can operate a computer and improve their pronunciation and clarity of speech, on their own, with no intervention from teachers. The results of the experiment are positive and point to a possible new pedagogy.

  20. A multisensory, multicognitive approach to teaching pronunciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Y. Odisho

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Multisensory, Multicognitive Approach (MMA introduced in this paper is premised on the belief that the seat of language is in the brain prior to its physical manifestation in the form of speech being in the mouth. Hence, in teaching pronunciation, the identity of speech as a cognitive entity prior to being a physical one should be seriously considered in relevant language learning and teaching situations – more so in L2 situations than in L1. The traditional assumption that the ideal and the exclusive sensory modality of teaching pronunciation is the auditory modality is no longer acceptable because a holistic view of speech – in production, transmission and perception – manifests itself not only via the auditory sensory modality, but also equally significantly via the visual and tactile-kinesthetic sensory modalities. It is due to this fact that MMA is described as multisensory, a fact that determines the diversified auditory, visual and tactile-kinesthetic implementational techniques needed for effective and efficient teaching of pronunciation especially to adults. Equally importantly, the multicognitive nature of MMA requires the manipulation of diversified cognitive processes in the form of thinking, associating, analyzing, synthesizing, comparing, contrasting etc… for implementation. According to MMA, the teaching of pronunciation becomes more of a multifaceted educational process than a mere repeat-after-me mechanical parroting of speech sounds. Such an approach requires more effort on the part of the instructor and learner and a stronger collaboration between them through the diversification of teaching and learning styles, respectively. Certainly, MMA requires more time to implement in classroom situations, but the time spent is worth it. MMA is no longer a single technique or drill that tackles one sound at a time; instead, it is a joint selection of cognitive and sensory techniques that are applied concurrently to

  1. War’s Second Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    such as the difference between policy and politics; the first is the sausage , the second is everything that goes into making it. Put differently...grammar cannot cover how to strike deals and make bargains, as these require finesse unique to specific cultures; but it can underscore the...first or second grammar. In the face of imperceptible logic, we will make a choice. In other words, war’s second grammar gives those responsible for

  2. 高校英语专业语音教学导师制探析%On Tutorial System for English Major's Pronunciation Teaching in Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金云

    2012-01-01

    当前我国很多高校的英语专业发展迅速,但语音教学却始终是个难点。语音教学是英语专业教学的基础,语音不仅是听力、口语、词汇、翻译等所有专业学科的基础,而且是学生求职是否成功的关键因素。语音教学导师制较好地实现了语音教学的目标,它将学生分为若干小组,并指定相应的语音教师担任导师,导师在集中授课的基础上,分别对每个学生加以指导,并为每人制定相应的训练计划。语音教学导师制是当前提高英语专业学生语音能力的一个有效的教学模式。%The English major in many universities is developing fast at present,but pronunciation teaching is always a difficulty.Pronunciation teaching is not only the foundation of other courses including listening,oral English,vocabulary,translation etc.,but also a key factor in students' future job search.Pronunciation teaching tutorial system is a better way to realize the pronunciation teaching targets,under which students are divided into several groups,and each group has a tutor who makes different study plan for each group member.Pronunciation teaching tutorial system is currently a useful teaching model to improving students' pronunciation.

  3. A communicative grammar of English

    CERN Document Server

    Leech, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    A Communicative Grammar of English has long been established as a grammar innovative in approach, reliable in coverage, and clear in its explanations. This fully revised and redesigned third edition provides up-to-date and accessible help to teachers, advanced learners and undergraduate students of English. Part One looks at the way English grammar varies in different types of English, such as 'formal' and 'informal', 'spoken' and 'written'; Part Two focuses on the uses of grammar rather than on grammatical structure and Part Three provides a handy alphabetically arranged guide to

  4. The Teaching of English Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祖凤霞

    2009-01-01

    Acquiring the grammar system is vital in the foreign language learning, and there has always been the debate on how learners can best acquire the English grammar. Inthis paper, two methods for teaching grammar will be presented--traditional practice and consciousness-raising. Both thetwo methods have their ad-vantages and disadvantages. But in practice, it is a better idea to combine different methods to make grammar teaching more effective. In addition, the consideration of different individual learners is also very important.

  5. Story Parsing Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张松懋

    1994-01-01

    Story understanding is one of the important branches of natural language understanding research in AI techniques.A new approach to story understanding is proposed in this paper.The so-called Story Parsing Grammar (SPG) is used to represent the story abstracting processes with different degrees in story understanding,and the story understanding process is converted to the storyn recognizing process done by the syntactic parser of SPG.This kind of story understanding is called story parsing.In this paper,firstly,a survey of story understanding research is given.Secondly,by the classification of various kinds of story structures,the so-called Case Frame Forest (CFF) is proposed to represent the superficial meaning of story.Based on CFF,a high-dimen-sional grammar,called Forest Grammar (FG),is defined.Furthermore,SPG is defined as a subclass of context-sensitive FG.Considering the context-sensitivity of story content,a type of context-sensitive derivation is defined in the definition of SPG.Lastly,data about runtime efficiency of the syntactic parsing algorithm of weak precedence SPG,a subclass of SPG,are given and analysed.

  6. On the Application of Corpus of Contemporary American English in Vocabulary Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusu, Xu

    2014-01-01

    The development of corpus linguistics has laid theoretical foundation and provided technical support for breaking the bottleneck in traditional vocabulary instruction in China. Corpora allow access to authentic data and show frequency patterns of words and grammar construction. Such patterns can be used to improve language materials or to directly…

  7. A Vocabulary Learning Tool for L2 Undergraduates Reading Science and Technology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chihcheng; Ou Yang, Fang-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    Students of English as a second language who major in science and technology use English-language textbooks to ensure that they can read English materials upon graduation. Research indicates that teachers spend little time helping these students on the linguistic complexity of such textbooks. Vocabulary, grammar, and article structure are elements…

  8. Rote Memorization of Vocabulary and Vocabulary Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weidong; Dai, Weiping

    2011-01-01

    Rote memorization of vocabulary has long been a common way for Chinese students to learn lexical items. Cultural, educational background and traditional teaching practice in China are identified to be the factors that contribute to many students' heavy reliance on memorization as their sole approach to vocabulary learning. In addition to rote…

  9. On Vocabulary Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑洁

    2013-01-01

    An efficient vocabulary learning strategy can supply students with exact meanings and usage of words. There are many differences between Chinese and English,so the result of memorizing vocabulary by rote is always not good. The paper holds the Incidental Vocabulary Learning to improve the English ability.

  10. Two modes of transfer in artificial grammar learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunney, R J; Altmann, G T

    2001-05-01

    Participants can transfer grammatical knowledge acquired implicitly in 1 vocabulary to new sequences instantiated in both the same and a novel vocabulary. Two principal theories have been advanced to account for these effects. One suggests that sequential dependencies form the basis for cross-domain transfer (e.g., Z. Dienes, G. T. M. Altmann, & S. J. Gao, 1999). Another argues that a form of episodic memory known as abstract analogy is sufficient (e.g., L. R. Brooks & J. R. Vokey, 1991). Three experiments reveal the contributions of the 2. In Experiment 1 sequential dependencies form the only basis for transfer. Experiment 2 demonstrates that this process is impaired by a change in the distributional properties of the language. Experiment 3 demonstrates that abstract analogy of repetition structure is relatively immune to such a change. These findings inform theories of artificial grammar learning and the transfer of grammatical knowledge.

  11. Difficiles rencontres des sciences du langage et de la didactique (Difficult Encounters of the Sciences of Language and Didactics).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautier-Castaing, Elisabeth

    1984-01-01

    Two issues in the sometimes divergent disciplines of linguistic theory and language instruction are discussed: the split between communicative methods and the implementation of teaching, and the disappearance of specific curriculum content such as vocabulary, pronunciation, and grammar. (MSE)

  12. Measuring Vocabulary: An overview of four types of vocabulary tests

    OpenAIRE

    Helga Hilmarsdóttir 1985

    2010-01-01

    In this essay four types of vocabulary tests are examined and the focus is on the variety in vocabulary tests. The main incentive with writing this essay was to make an overview of vocabulary measurement tools and to examine whether there existed a standardized vocabulary test. In the first chapter an attempt is made to answer the question of what vocabulary knowledge is. Receptive and productive knowledge of vocabulary is discussed as well as the distinction of vocabulary into breadth and...

  13. Grammar Dilemma: Teaching Grammar as a Resource for Making Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liamkina, Olga; Ryshina-Pankova, Marianna

    2012-01-01

    Adopting a functional perspective that views grammar as a rich resource for making contextualized meanings in a culture- and language-specific way, the article reconsiders the role of explicit grammar instruction in developing communicative abilities of second language learners. It draws on two distinct but complementary research frameworks,…

  14. Grammar Dilemma: Teaching Grammar as a Resource for Making Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liamkina, Olga; Ryshina-Pankova, Marianna

    2012-01-01

    Adopting a functional perspective that views grammar as a rich resource for making contextualized meanings in a culture- and language-specific way, the article reconsiders the role of explicit grammar instruction in developing communicative abilities of second language learners. It draws on two distinct but complementary research frameworks,…

  15. Which Features of Spanish Learners' Pronunciation Most Impact Listener Evaluations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Kara

    2015-01-01

    This study explores which features of Spanish as a foreign language (SFL) pronunciation most impact raters' evaluations. Native Spanish speakers (NSSs) from regions with different pronunciation norms were polled: 147 evaluators from northern Mexico and 99 evaluators from central Argentina. These evaluations were contrasted with ratings from…

  16. Improving Adult ESL Learners' Pronunciation Skills. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florez, MaryAnn Cunningham

    This digest reviews the current status of pronunciation instruction in adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) classes. The current focus on communicative approaches to ESL instruction and the concern for building teamwork and communication skills in an increasingly diverse workplace are renewing interest in the role that pronunciation plays in…

  17. Research into Practice: How Research Appears in Pronunciation Teaching Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levis, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Research into pronunciation has often disregarded its potential to inform pedagogy. This is due partly to the historical development of pronunciation teaching and research, but its effect is that there is often a mismatch between research and teaching. This paper looks at four areas in which the (mis)match is imperfect but in which a greater…

  18. Manual de pronunciacion del espanol (Manual of Spanish Pronunciation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nine Curt, Carmen Judith

    This manual, intended for elementary and advanced learners of Spanish who still have pronunciation problems, contains 18 lessons dealing with the pronunciation of vowels, consonants and diphthongs, stress and intonation. Each of the lessons begins with an explanation, in Spanish, of the sound and the way it is pronounced, and includes a variety of…

  19. Research into Practice: How Research Appears in Pronunciation Teaching Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levis, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Research into pronunciation has often disregarded its potential to inform pedagogy. This is due partly to the historical development of pronunciation teaching and research, but its effect is that there is often a mismatch between research and teaching. This paper looks at four areas in which the (mis)match is imperfect but in which a greater…

  20. Beyond Repeat after Me: Teaching Pronunciation to English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Marla Tritch

    2016-01-01

    This engaging text clearly presents essential concepts that teachers need to guide their students toward clearly intelligible pronunciation and more effective communication skills. Based on a sound theoretical background, the book presents practical, imaginative ways to teach and practice pronunciation that go beyond simple "Repeat after…

  1. Teaching Pronunciation to Adult English Language Learners. CAELA Network Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaetzel, Kirsten; Low, Ee Ling

    2009-01-01

    Adult English language learners in the United States approach the learning of English pronunciation from a wide variety of native language backgrounds. They may speak languages with sound systems that vary a great deal from that of English. The pronunciation goals and needs of adult English language learners are diverse. These goals and needs…

  2. A Literature Review on Strategies for Teaching Pronunciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Michael

    2006-01-01

    English pronunciation is still neglected in EFL/ESL classrooms throughout the world including Asia today. One of the reasons that it is neglected or ignored is because not many English pronunciation teaching strategies or techniques are available to teachers in the classroom. The purpose of this study is to review articles on strategies for…

  3. Teaching English Pronunciation to Large Groups of Students: Some Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, Veronika

    Problems in teaching English pronunciation to large groups of university students in Japan are discussed, and some solutions are offered. Pronunciation instruction requires close individual interaction between teacher and student, difficult if not impossible to achieve in a typical Japanese university classroom. However, it is possible to get…

  4. ESL Learners' Perceptions of Their Pronunciation Needs and Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derwing, Tracey M.; Rossiter, Marian J.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the perceptions of 100 adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) learners from a variety of first language backgrounds with regard to their pronunciation difficulties and the strategies they employ when faced with communication breakdown. Findings are discussed with reference to pronunciation instruction and commercially available…

  5. Comparing different approaches for automatic pronunciation error detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strik, Helmer; Truong, Khiet Phuong; de Wet, Febe; Cucchiarini, Catia

    2009-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges in designing computer assisted language learning (CALL) applications that provide automatic feedback on pronunciation errors consists in reliably detecting the pronunciation errors at such a detailed level that the information provided can be useful to learners. In our

  6. ESL Learners' Perceptions of Their Pronunciation Needs and Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derwing, Tracey M.; Rossiter, Marian J.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the perceptions of 100 adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) learners from a variety of first language backgrounds with regard to their pronunciation difficulties and the strategies they employ when faced with communication breakdown. Findings are discussed with reference to pronunciation instruction and commercially available…

  7. Comparing different approaches for automatic pronunciation error detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strik, Helmer; Truong, Khiet; Wet, de Febe; Cucchiarini, Catia

    2009-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges in designing computer assisted language learning (CALL) applications that provide automatic feedback on pronunciation errors consists in reliably detecting the pronunciation errors at such a detailed level that the information provided can be useful to learners. In our

  8. Metacognition in EFL Pronunciation Learning among Chinese Tertiary Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lei

    2011-01-01

    This study explores Chinese learners' metacognition in EFL pronunciation learning as well as the effectiveness of helping the learners to improve their English pronunciation by metacognitive instructions. By means of preliminary interviews and a questionnaire survey carried out in seven universities across mainland China, six factors of…

  9. An Analysis of Successful Pronunciation Learners: In Search of Effective Factors in Pronunciation Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Yuko

    2009-01-01

    In order to discover some clues to and make suggestions for better teaching English pronunciation to learners in English as a Foreign Language (henceforth abbreviated as EFL) settings, the paper attempts to analyze Successful Foreign Language Learners (SFLL), focusing on their study history. The subjects were 24 junior high school students, who…

  10. Role of Iranian EFL Teachers about Using "Pronunciation Power Software" in the Instruction of English Pronunciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilakjani, Abbas Pourhosein; Sabouri, Narjes Banou

    2014-01-01

    Many studies are related to the use of computer technology in learning and teaching but less work has been done to understand how computer technology users feel about them and how this technology helps in developing teachers' teaching methods. "Pronunciation Power" software is one of the computer technologies for teaching English…

  11. My Pronunciation Coach: Improving English Pronunciation with an Automatic Coach That Listens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchiarini, Catia; Nejjari, Warda; Strik, Helmer

    2012-01-01

    Individualized tutoring and feedback by trained language instructors are known to be optimal for language learning. Providing them is time-consuming and costly, however, and therefore not feasible for the majority of language learners. This applies particularly to pronunciation, where corrective feedback should ideally be synchronous, which makes…

  12. My Pronunciation Coach: Improving English Pronunciation with an Automatic Coach That Listens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchiarini, Catia; Nejjari, Warda; Strik, Helmer

    2012-01-01

    Individualized tutoring and feedback by trained language instructors are known to be optimal for language learning. Providing them is time-consuming and costly, however, and therefore not feasible for the majority of language learners. This applies particularly to pronunciation, where corrective feedback should ideally be synchronous, which makes…

  13. The influence of pronunciation learning strategies on mastering English vowels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Rokoszewska

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on the role of strategies in learning the pronunciation of the target language. First, an outline of various general classifications of language learning strategies is provided. Next, pronunciation learning strategies are defined and their various taxonomies are presented. This is followed by the description of the study which investigated the influence of pronunciation learning strategies on the perception and production of English pure vowels and diphthongs by first-year students of an English department. The results of the study indicate that students of English, who on average use pronunciation learning strategies rather occasionally, should receive some strategy-based instruction as there exists a significant relationship between the investigated phenomena, especially between the use of pronunciation learning strategies and the production of English monophthongs and diphthongs.

  14. Creative Grammar and Art Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunliffe, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    The grammar of creative practices is described by George Steiner as the "articulate organisation of perception, reflection and experience, the nerve structure of consciousness when it communicates with itself and with others." Steiner's description of creative grammar is consistent with Lev Vygotsky's comment that "art is the social within us, and…

  15. Creative Grammar and Art Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunliffe, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    The grammar of creative practices is described by George Steiner as the "articulate organisation of perception, reflection and experience, the nerve structure of consciousness when it communicates with itself and with others." Steiner's description of creative grammar is consistent with Lev Vygotsky's comment that "art is the social within us, and…

  16. Teachers' Perceptions about Grammar Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thu, Tran Hoang

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates English as a second language (ESL) teachers' beliefs in grammar teaching. A 32-item questionnaire was administered to 11 ESL teachers in a language school in California. The results show that the participants generally believe that the formal study of grammar is essential to the eventual mastery of a foreign or second…

  17. Strictness Analysis for Attribute Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    1992-01-01

    Attribute grammars may be seen as a (rather specialised) lazy or demand-driven programming language. The ``programs'' in this language take text or parse trees as input and return values of the synthesised attributes to the root as output. From this observation we establish a framework for abstract...... interpretation of attribute grammars. The framework is used to construct a strictness analysis for attribute grammars. Results of the analysis enable us to transform an attribute grammar such that attributes are evaluated during parsing, if possible. The analysis is proved correct by relating it to a fixpoint...... semantics for attribute grammars. An implementation of the analysis is discussed and some extensions to the analysis are mentioned....

  18. The Teaching of English Pronunciation: Perceptions of Indonesian School Teachers and University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moedjito

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore teachers' and students' perception of pronunciation teaching in Indonesian EFL classrooms, particularly on (1) the difficulty of English pronunciation, (2) the reasons for the difficulty, (3) the inclusion of pronunciation in EFL classrooms, (4) the goal of pronunciation teaching, (5) priorities in pronunciation…

  19. Study on Correlation of English Pronunciation Self-Concept to English Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xin; Zhang, Shengqi; Li, Yucong; Zhao, Miqiang

    2013-01-01

    English pronunciation self-concept is formed in the process of pronunciation learning, which refers to the learners' self-conception and assessment of one's English pronunciation proficiency and pronunciation (Gimson, A. C. 1980). This paper reports an investigation on 237 non-English major college students into the relationship between English…

  20. Modern French Grammar Workbook

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    An innovative new workbook of exercises and language tasks for intermediate and advanced learners of French. This Workbook can be used independently or alongside Modern French Grammar.This Workbook provides exercises in:* Essential grammatical structures* Everyday functions such as agreeing and disagreeing* Role-plays set in a wide range of different contextsIt is suitable for group or pair work and for private study.A comprehensive answer key at the back of the Workbook enables you to check on your progress.This Workbook is ideal for all learners who have a basic knowledge of French, includin

  1. eLearning Mobile App for Android and Ios "English Grammar Learn & Test"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca-Georgiana FODOR

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is aiming to present the architecture and few elements from the developing cycle of "English Grammar Learn & Test" app. This is an e-learning tool for people who want to improve their English Grammar and Vocabulary. The app was approved by Google Play and Apple Store and it is available for free on both platforms as following: Android: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.labsterzz.english_tests iOS: https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/english-grammar-learn-test/id1126468980 The app already reached350.000 users, it is rated at 4.43out of maximum 5.0 in Google Play Store. Since mid-June 2016, we launched the app also in the Apple Store iOS devices.

  2. Mandarin Pronunciation Modeling Based on CASS Corpus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑方; 宋战江; Pascale Fung; William Byrne

    2002-01-01

    The pronunciation variability is an important issue that must be faced with when developing practical automatic spontaneous speech recognition systems. In this paper, the factors that may affect the recognition performance are analyzed, including those specific to the Chinese language. By studying the INITIAL/FINAL (IF) characteristics of Chinese language and developing the Bayesian equation, the concepts of generalized INITIAL/FINAL (GIF) and generalized syllable (GS), the GIF modeling and the IF-GIF modeling, as well as the contextdependent pronunciation weighting, are proposed based on a well phonetically transcribed seed database. By using these methods, the Chinese syllable error rate (SER) is reduced by 6.3%and 4.2% compared with the GIF modeling and IF modeling respectively when the language model, such as syllable or word N-gram, is not used. The effectiveness of these methods is also proved when more data without the phonetic transcription are used to refine the acoustic model using the proposed iterative forced-alignment based transcribing (IFABT) method, achieving a 5.7% SER reduction.

  3. Classroom Grammar Teaching for Adult Learners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石怡

    2014-01-01

    As Wight (1999, p.33) pointed out to“know a language was to know the grammar of it”, hence grammar teaching is usually the main approach in second or foreign language teaching. This paper presents an analysis from three aspects to il-lustrate why classroom grammar teaching benefits adult learners. However, if grammar is overstated, some negative results will occur. Therefore a balance between grammar teaching and communicative skill teaching is need, as is a balance between accuracy and fluency.

  4. Foreign language anxiety and self-perceived English pronunciation competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Szyszka

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In foreign language learning a negative correlation has been reported be-tween language anxiety and both oral performance (Liu, 2006; Stephenson Wilson, 2006; Woodrow 2006 and self-perceived levels of speaking ability (Kitano, 2001; MacIntyre, Noels, & Clement, 1997; Piechurska-Kuciel, 2008. However, little is known about the relationship between language anxiety and the way students perceive their own competence regarding one of the integral components of oral performance – pronunciation. The present study is an attempt to investigate the link between foreign language anxiety and the self-perceived levels of pronunciation of 48 teacher training college students, who study English as a foreign language. A negative correlation, r = -.54 (p < .05, was found between the level of their language anxiety and self-perceived English pronunciation competence, indicating that more apprehensive teacher trainees perceived their pronunciation as poor, whereas those with lower levels of anxiety declared higher pronunciation competence. Moreover, statistically significant negative correlations were noted between the levels of anxiety and self-perceived competences of several suprasegmental aspects of pronunciation, such as word pronunciation, stress, weak forms, rhythm, linking, and assimilation. The teacher trainees who rated their competence of these suprasegmentals more highly experienced lower levels of foreign language anxiety. The perception of segmentals, however, appeared to be unconnected with the participants’ anxiety.

  5. Vocabulary Learning Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Craven, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    The prominent role of vocabulary knowledge in second or foreign language learning has been recently recognized by theorists and researchers in the field. This article aims to provide a digest of recent research on vocabulary learning strategies specifically in the English as a foreign language context in Japan. In Japan where there is minimal exposure to English in daily life and where word knowledge is often tested, teachers should be informing learners about vocabulary learning strategies a...

  6. Tagging vs. Controlled Vocabulary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Toine; Petras, Vivien

    2015-01-01

    elements like core bibliographic data, controlled vocabulary terms, reviews, and tags to the retrieval performance. Our comparison is done using a test collection of over 2 million book records with information elements from Amazon, the British Library, the Library of Congress, and LibraryThing. We find...... that tags and controlled vocabulary terms do not actually outperform each other consistently, but seem to provide complementary contributions: some information needs are best addressed using controlled vocabulary terms whereas other are best addressed using tags....

  7. NASA thesaurus aeronautics vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The controlled vocabulary used by the NASA Scientific and Technical Information effort to index documents in the area of aeronautics is presented. The terms comprise a subset of the 1988 edition of the NASA Thesaurus and its supplements issued through the end of 1990. The Aeronautics Vocabulary contains over 4700 terms presented in a hierarchical display format. In addition to aeronautics per se, the vocabulary covers supporting terminology from areas such as fluid dynamics, propulsion engineering, and test facilities and instrumentation.

  8. Practising French grammar a workbook

    CERN Document Server

    Dr Roger Hawkins; Towell, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This new edition of Practising French Grammar offers a set of varied and accessible exercises for developing a practical awareness of French as it is spoken and written today. The lively examples and authentic texts and cartoons have been updated to reflect current usage. A new companion website provides a wealth of additional interactive exercises to help consolidate challenging grammar points. Practising French Grammar provides concise summaries of key grammatical points at the beginning of each exercise, as well as model answers to the exercises and translations of difficult words, making i

  9. English grammar a university course

    CERN Document Server

    Downing, Angela

    2014-01-01

    This best-selling comprehensive descriptive grammar forms a complete course, ideal for all students studying English Language ,whether on a course or for self-study. Broadly based on Hallidayan systemic-functional grammar but also drawing on cognitive linguistics and discourse analysis, English Grammar is accessible, avoiding overly theoretical or technical explanations.Divided into 12 self-contained chapters based around language functions, each chapter is divided into units of class-length material. Key features include:Numerous authentic texts from a wide range of sources, both spoken and w

  10. Grammars for Language and Genes

    CERN Document Server

    Chiang, David

    2012-01-01

    Grammars are gaining importance in natural language processing and computational biology as a means of encoding theories and structuring algorithms. But one serious obstacle to applications of grammars is that formal language theory traditionally classifies grammars according to their weak generative capacity (what sets of strings they generate) and tends to ignore strong generative capacity (what sets of structural descriptions they generate) even though the latter is more relevant to applications. This book develops and demonstrates a framework for carrying out rigorous comparisons of gramma

  11. Analyzing the Grammar of English

    CERN Document Server

    Teschner, Richard V

    2007-01-01

    Analyzing the Grammar of English offers a descriptive analysis of the indispensable elements of English grammar. Designed to be covered in one semester, this textbook starts from scratch and takes nothing for granted beyond a reading and speaking knowledge of English. Extensively revised to function better in skills-building classes, it includes more interspersed exercises that promptly test what is taught, simplified and clarified explanations, greatly expanded and more diverse activities, and a new glossary of over 200 technical terms.Analyzing the Grammar of English is the only English gram

  12. English Grammar Workbook For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    O'Sullivan, Nuala

    2010-01-01

    English Grammar Workbook For Dummies, UK Edition is grammar First Aid for anyone wanting to perfect their English and develop the practical skills needed to write and speak correctly. Each chapter focuses on key grammatical principles, with easy-to-follow theory and examples as well as practice questions and explanations. From verbs, prepositions and tenses, to style, expressions and tricky word traps, this hands-on workbook is essential for both beginners looking to learn and practise the basics of English grammar, and those who want to brush up skills they already have - quickly, easily, and

  13. Food and Feed Commodity Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food and Feed Vocabulary was developed to consolidate all the major OPP Commodity Vocabularies into one standardized vocabulary. The EPA-preferred term is the only term that can be used in setting tolerances.

  14. Neural Processes Associated with Vocabulary and Vowel-Length Differences in a Dialect: An ERP Study in Pre-literate Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühler, Jessica C; Waßmann, Franziska; Buser, Daniela; Zumberi, Flutra; Maurer, Urs

    2017-04-17

    Although familiarity with a language impacts how phonology and semantics are processed at the neural level, little is known how these processes are affected by familiarity with a dialect. By measuring event-related potentials (ERPs) in kindergarten children we investigated neural processing related to familiarity with dialect-specific pronunciation and lexicality of spoken words before literacy acquisition in school. Children speaking one of two German dialects were presented with spoken word-picture pairings, in which congruity (or the lack thereof) was defined by dialect familiarity with pronunciation or vocabulary. In a dialect-independent control contrast, congruity was defined by audio-visual semantic (mis)match. Congruity effects and congruity-by-dialect group interactions in the ERPs were tested by data-driven topographic analyses of variance (TANOVA) and theory-driven focal analyses. Converging results revealed similar congruity effects in the N400 and late-positive-complex (LPC) in the control contrast for both dialect groups. In the dialect-specific vocabulary contrast, topographies of the N400- and LPC-effects were reversed depending on familiarity with the presented dialect words. In the dialect-specific pronunciation contrast, again a topography reversal was found depending on dialect familiarity, however, only for the LPC. Our data suggest that neural processing of unfamiliar words, but not pronunciation variants, is characterized by semantic processing (increased N400-effect). However, both unfamiliar words and pronunciation variants seem to engage congruity judgment, as indicated by the LPC-effect. Thus, semantic processing of pronunciation in dialect words seems to be rather robust against slight alterations in pronunciation, like changes in vowel duration, while such alterations may still trigger subsequent control processes.

  15. A tutoring package to teach pronunciation of Mandarin Chinese characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hang; Miller, L Keith

    2007-01-01

    We examined the effects of a tutoring package (verbal modeling, prompts, and contingent praise/ Chinese conversations with the tutor) on the performance of a college student's Mandarin Chinese pronunciation. The effects of the tutoring package were analyzed using a multiple baseline design across two sets of 50 Chinese characters. The tutoring package produced improvement in the student's correct pronunciation of Chinese characters from 48% (pretutoring) to 90% (posttutoring). Results suggested that the tutoring package produced mastery pronunciation of targeted Mandarin Chinese vocalizations by a nonnative speaker.

  16. GRAMMAR(S, SCHOOLING AND “LINGUISTIC ADEQUACY”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugênia Lammoglia Duarte

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses some concepts of grammar, in an attempt to show that there are only two meanings and that they are not in complementary distribution as some linguistic publications addressed to students usually suggest. Once reviewed the meaning of grammar as the knowledge every speaker has of his language, we will turn our attention to what has been called “linguistic adequacy”, showing the misunderstanding that underlies this concept, which leads to the opposition “informality” / “formality”. As we will see, such opposition is related to rules that belong to different grammars and only speakers with longer exposure to the “grammar of school” can “change their grammar”, particularly in writing. A brief analysis of Portuguese and Brazilian raps and funks, very popular musical genders, will bring empirical evidence to our statements, showing what is “informality” and what is “grammar”. Our final remarks will concentrate on the importance of teaching the “grammar of writing” based on contemporary descriptions, without ignoring this will mean a big step for students and they must be aware of that. Recent proposals of “pedagogical intervention” with the purpose to teach new rules which are not part of the students’ performance seem fair and necessary, but it is important to value the students’ grammar in order not to deepen linguistic prejudice.

  17. Pronunciation and Independent Work: Embedding Pronunciation into Academic English Skill Classes

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an experiment carried out at International Pacific College (IPC) as part of an EAP (English for Academic Purposes) paper taught in year one of the BA programme. The trial was aimed at instilling students with the motivation to self-monitor their pronunciation, attempting to raise it to an internationally acceptable level of intelligibility. In this experiment, the students were encouraged to take responsibility for progress and competency within both reading and pronuncia...

  18. Mathematical grammar of biology

    CERN Document Server

    Yamagishi, Michel Eduardo Beleza

    2017-01-01

    This seminal, multidisciplinary book shows how mathematics can be used to study the first principles of DNA. Most importantly, it enriches the so-called “Chargaff’s grammar of biology” by providing the conceptual theoretical framework necessary to generalize Chargaff’s rules. Starting with a simple example of DNA mathematical modeling where human nucleotide frequencies are associated to the Fibonacci sequence and the Golden Ratio through an optimization problem, its breakthrough is showing that the reverse, complement and reverse-complement operators defined over oligonucleotides induce a natural set partition of DNA words of fixed-size. These equivalence classes, when organized into a matrix form, reveal hidden patterns within the DNA sequence of every living organism. Intended for undergraduate and graduate students both in mathematics and in life sciences, it is also a valuable resource for researchers interested in studying invariant genomic properties.

  19. Teaching Grammar Using Pictures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henny Uswatun Hasanah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Teaching is a process of communication. It has to be created through the way ofteaching and exchanging the message or information by every teacher and student. The message can be knowledge, skills, ideas, experiences, and manyothers. Through the process of communication, the people can receive the message or information. To avoid misunderstanding in the process ofcommunication, media are needed in the process of teaching. Using pictures can make exercises and activities more interesting and more interactive. We canconstantly improve our activities by looking at what went well and what fell flat. These 5 unique ways to practice grammar using pictures are a jumping offpoint, and can be expanded in lots of interesting ways. 

  20. Learning Unification-Based Natural Language Grammars

    CERN Document Server

    Osborne, M

    1999-01-01

    When parsing unrestricted language, wide-covering grammars often undergenerate. Undergeneration can be tackled either by sentence correction, or by grammar correction. This thesis concentrates upon automatic grammar correction (or machine learning of grammar) as a solution to the problem of undergeneration. Broadly speaking, grammar correction approaches can be classified as being either {\\it data-driven}, or {\\it model-based}. Data-driven learners use data-intensive methods to acquire grammar. They typically use grammar formalisms unsuited to the needs of practical text processing and cannot guarantee that the resulting grammar is adequate for subsequent semantic interpretation. That is, data-driven learners acquire grammars that generate strings that humans would judge to be grammatically ill-formed (they {\\it overgenerate}) and fail to assign linguistically plausible parses. Model-based learners are knowledge-intensive and are reliant for success upon the completeness of a {\\it model of grammaticality}. Bu...

  1. LexGram - a practical categorial grammar formalism -

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    We present the LexGram system, an amalgam of (Lambek) categorial grammar and Head Driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG), and show that the grammar formalism it implements is a well-structured and useful tool for actual grammar development.

  2. Constraint-Based Categorial Grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Bouma, G; Bouma, Gosse; Noord, Gertjan van

    1994-01-01

    We propose a generalization of Categorial Grammar in which lexical categories are defined by means of recursive constraints. In particular, the introduction of relational constraints allows one to capture the effects of (recursive) lexical rules in a computationally attractive manner. We illustrate the linguistic merits of the new approach by showing how it accounts for the syntax of Dutch cross-serial dependencies and the position and scope of adjuncts in such constructions. Delayed evaluation is used to process grammars containing recursive constraints.

  3. Pronunciation analysis for children with speech sound disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudy, Shiran; Asgari, Meysam; Kain, Alexander

    2015-08-01

    Phonological disorders affect 10% of preschool and school-age children, adversely affecting their communication, academic performance, and interaction level. Effective pronunciation training requires prolonged supervised practice and interaction. Unfortunately, many children do not have access or only limited access to a speech-language pathologist. Computer-assisted pronunciation training has the potential for being a highly effective teaching aid; however, to-date such systems remain incapable of identifying pronunciation errors with sufficient accuracy. In this paper, we propose to improve accuracy by (1) learning acoustic models from a large children's speech database, (2) using an explicit model of typical pronunciation errors of children in the target age range, and (3) explicit modeling of the acoustics of distorted phonemes.

  4. Textphonetik und Aussprachekorrektur (Textual Phonetics and Pronunciation Correction)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurow, Joachim

    1977-01-01

    The specific problems involved in teaching pronunciation cannot be solved by the techniques of phonemic analysis alone. What is needed is an extension of these techniques to include the principles of textual phonetics. (CFM)

  5. Efficient generation of pronunciation dictionaries: human factors factors during bootstrapping

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davel, MH

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Bootstrapping techniques have significant potential for the efficient generation of linguistic resources such as electronic pronunciation dictionaries. The authors describe a system and an approach to bootstrapping for the development...

  6. The Teaching of Pronunciation: A Hands-on Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ataide Melo, Cecil L.

    1989-01-01

    Reexamines the instructional contributions of different approaches to teaching pronunciation, such as Audiolingualism and the Silent Way,and proposes a new student-centered technique for dealing with the teaching of segmental features of Brazilian Portuguese. (Author/CB)

  7. Changing pronunciation but stable social evaluation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Jacob; Pharao, Nicolai

    2013-01-01

    The study of phonetic variation and change in sociolinguistics predominantly focuses on ‘the vernacular’ or at least on speech occurring in spontaneous conversations. While such studies are obviously vital to understand the patterns of change in a speech community, it is also desirable to underst......The study of phonetic variation and change in sociolinguistics predominantly focuses on ‘the vernacular’ or at least on speech occurring in spontaneous conversations. While such studies are obviously vital to understand the patterns of change in a speech community, it is also desirable...... to neighboring vowels as well as relating these results to the realization of (a) and (æ:) as observed in sociolinguistic interviews. These variables are of particular interest because they have been discussed as emblematic of substandard pronunciation for generations, and because the social evaluation...

  8. Changing pronunciation but stable social evaluation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Jacob; Pharao, Nicolai

    2013-01-01

    vowels in the news broadcasts of the national Danish radio, DR, arguably the model for the ‘best’ language to the majority of speakers of Danish. The study focuses on changes in the production of two vowel variables, the short (a) and long (æ:), by studying their position in the vowel space relative...... to understand how patterns of variation and change develop in a ‘prestige’ standard language which may function as a model for normative language. In order to study on-going sound change in standard spoken Danish and their socio-linguistic consequences, the paper investigates the production of a series of front...... to neighboring vowels as well as relating these results to the realization of (a) and (æ:) as observed in sociolinguistic interviews. These variables are of particular interest because they have been discussed as emblematic of substandard pronunciation for generations, and because the social evaluation...

  9. Functional pronunciation units in English words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, R S; D'Autrechy, C L; Reggia, J A

    1994-07-01

    Two distinct factors limit the orthographic regularity of English words: (a) Most characters can correspond to several different sounds and (b) characters can either stand alone or be combined in various ways for pronunciation as a single phoneme. This study addresses the second of these issues through the analysis of a large corpus of English words. Data are presented describing the frequency that each character (or character cluster) functioned in the corpus as a correspondent of a single phoneme rather than being combined with other characters (or decomposed). Examples are provided regarding potential applications of these data in the construction of stimulus materials for cognitive studies, in neuropsychological investigations of dyslexia, and in computational models of word naming.

  10. Discussion about English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenxia Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Vocabulary becomes more and more crucial in English learning.The article depicts six main domains about the mastery and enlargement of vocabulary,and they are motivation and aim,major fields,word,ways,radiation,and concrete execution respectively.

  11. Building Mathematics Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovarik, Madeline

    2010-01-01

    Although mathematics is visual language of symbols and numbers it is also expressed and explained through written and spoken words. For students to excel in mathematics, they must recognize, comprehend and apply the requisite vocabulary. Thus, vocabulary instruction is as critical in content areas as it is in language arts. It is especially…

  12. The Superlearning of Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillmer, H. Thompson

    1983-01-01

    Describes the use of Georgi Lozanov's technique using rhythm, breathing, music, and meditation to bring about hypermnesia, or supermemory, to teach vocabulary to 15 university students. Reviews students' vocabulary gains, as seen in pre- and post-test scores, and describes how some students implemented superlearning techniques with their own…

  13. Vocabularies in the VO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, A. J. G.; Gray, N.; Ounis, I.

    2009-09-01

    There are multiple vocabularies and thesauri within astronomy, of which the best known are the 1993 IAU Thesaurus and the keyword list maintained by A&A, ApJ and MNRAS. The IVOA has agreed on a standard for publishing vocabularies, based on the W3C skos standard, to allow greater automated interaction with them, in particular on the Web. This allows links with the Semantic Web and looks forward to richer applications using the technologies of that domain. Vocabulary-aware applications can benefit from improvements in both precision and recall when searching for bibliographic or science data, and lightweight intelligent filtering for services such as VOEvent streams. In this paper we present two applications, the Vocabulary Explorer and its companion the Mapping Editor, which have been developed to support the use of vocabularies in the Virtual Observatory. These combine Semantic Web and Information Retrieval technologies to illustrate the way in which formal vocabularies might be used in a practical application, provide an online service which will allow astronomers to explore and relate existing vocabularies, and provide a service which translates free text user queries into vocabulary terms.

  14. Content Area Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Students' vocabulary knowledge is a significant predictor of their overall comprehension. The Common Core State Standards are raising the expectations for word learning and there are now 4 distinct standards related to vocabulary as well as expectations in other standards, including content areas. To address these expectations, teachers need…

  15. Au Courant: Teaching French Vocabulary and Culture Using the Mass Media. Language in Education: Theory and Practice 65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwald, Jean-Pierre

    This volume outlines potential uses of many of the topics associated with daily newspapers, music, film, theater, and sports for vocabulary development and grammar review in French language instruction. The emphasis is on the advantage of using authentic, current materials prepared for the general public but somewhat familiar to students. The…

  16. The Situation of the Nowadays Pronunciation Teaching and Some Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    门月圆

    2013-01-01

    Pronunciation teaching is the foundation of learning English. But for now, phonetics teaching has been a weak point in English teaching, and there are many problems, for example, Phonetics teaching has not received full attention, British and American sounds crisscross, teaching material layout is not reasonable, etc. Aiming at these problems, we should find out the cor-responding solutions timely to correct and perfect our pronunciation teaching.

  17. IMPROVING ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION AND INTONATION TEACHING IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In terms of creativity, variety, and success in a pronunciation and intonation practice class are concerned, this paper has laid great emphasis on the creation of a relaxed classroom atmosphere based on friendly and cooperative relationships. Based on a few of the ideas that result from second language acquisition research and that have implications for pronunciation and intonation practice class, this paper has suggested some communicative classroom techniques which contribute to desired learning outcomes.

  18. Effects of Hierarchy Vocabulary Exercises on English Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Ying; Hsu, Wei Shu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the effectiveness of hierarchy vocabulary exercises and copying vocabulary exercises on EFL students' vocabulary acquisition and reading comprehension. Two specific factors were probed: (a) vocabulary gains and retention from different exercises; (b) reading comprehension performance through different…

  19. Teaching vocabulary through collocations in EFL Classes: The case of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çakır, Abdülkadir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When vocabulary teaching is taken into account in EFL classes in Turkish state primary schools, teachers generally prefer to use classical techniques. The purpose of this study is to find out the effect of a relatively new vocabulary teaching technique; teaching vocabulary through collocations. Pre-test/Post-test Control Group Design was employed in this study. Fifty-nine (59 seventh (7th grade students from two classrooms in a lower-middle class, suburban state primary school in Konya, Turkey participated in this study. The experimental group was taught new words using collocation technique; the control group was taught new words using classical techniques such as synonym, antonym, definition and mother tongue translation as it was in the previous reading classes before the study. The statistical analysis revealed that teaching vocabulary through collocations results in a better learning of the words than presenting them using classical techniques and enhances retention of new vocabulary items. Teaching vocabulary through collocations can be an effective factor in helping students remember and use the new words easily in primary school EFL classes. Therefore, teachers of English could be encouraged to attach more importance to vocabulary teaching rather than the acquisition of grammar and the use of current vocabulary teaching strategies in their classes.

  20. Grammar-translation” method, a linguistic historic err or of perspective: origins, dynamics and inconsistencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Andrés Bonilla Carvajal

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Grammar-Translation method is frequently referred to as the traditional ineffective approach par excellence. Such view is often justified by the claim that before the Audiolingual method oral performance in foreign language was not reached, and language classes were reduced to memorizing grammar rules and lists of vocabulary. Nevertheless, this opinion is derived from unproved claims, mainly made by misinformed authors for they offer no compelling empirical evidence to validate their restrictive descriptions where translation is shown as an invalid metacognitive strategy. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that Grammar-Translation is merely an arbitrary historic label, developed by methodologists and theoreticians to encompass the history of language teaching from 1790 through 1950. References to Grammar-Translation are critically reviewed to make evident they are biased inferences based on partial evidence to account for the existence of any such methodology. The assumption that Grammar-Translation did exist, and that it is the negative model of teaching practices that should be better avoided at all costs, might reflect an unconstructive and unfounded ideological interest of mainstream theoreticians and unsuspecting teachers.

  1. Non-Native Pre-Service English Teachers’ Narratives about Their Pronunciation Learning and Implications for Pronunciation Training

    OpenAIRE

    Chin Wen Chien

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes 58 non-native pre-service elementary school English teachers’ narratives about their pronunciation learning and teaching. Two important findings emerge in this study.  First, participants did not have the same attitude toward their roles as non-native English speakers regarding pronunciation learning and teaching. Second, regardless of their attitude or roles as non-native English speakers, participants claimed that when they become language teachers in the future, they wi...

  2. Tools for the Classroom: A Suggestion for Teaching and Testing Grammar at the Advanced Level and a Card Game for Introductory German Classes ("Habt ihr den Kaffee?").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Chauncey J.; Vines, Elizabeth L.

    1988-01-01

    Describes an error-correction teaching and testing technique suitable for German grammar instruction at the intermediate and advanced level. Also, a card game which enables beginning German students to practice interrogative and imperative statements and to drill proper word placement and review vocabulary in context is described. (Author/CB)

  3. Interactive College English Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨敏

    2013-01-01

    Vocabulary learning is the foundation of language learning and the security to realize the language communication. However, vocabulary learning for many students is a difficulty which is hard to pass across. This paper attempts to explore the present vocabulary teaching reform, which aims to establish a teaching method that is to help students develop vocabulary learn-ing interest with the game.

  4. Supplements to Traditional Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    布亚男

    2012-01-01

      In a word, Vocabulary plays an indispensable part in language proficiency and provides much of the basis of how wel learns language, so it cannot be ignored. I discussed Schools’ viewpoints on the vocabulary teaching ,Reason for forgetting, Traditional approach to vocabulary teaching, supplements to vocabulary teaching,the author hope the above content can offer some hints for language learners.

  5. A Learning Algorithm for Multimodal Grammar Inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ulizia, A; Ferri, F; Grifoni, P

    2011-12-01

    The high costs of development and maintenance of multimodal grammars in integrating and understanding input in multimodal interfaces lead to the investigation of novel algorithmic solutions in automating grammar generation and in updating processes. Many algorithms for context-free grammar inference have been developed in the natural language processing literature. An extension of these algorithms toward the inference of multimodal grammars is necessary for multimodal input processing. In this paper, we propose a novel grammar inference mechanism that allows us to learn a multimodal grammar from its positive samples of multimodal sentences. The algorithm first generates the multimodal grammar that is able to parse the positive samples of sentences and, afterward, makes use of two learning operators and the minimum description length metrics in improving the grammar description and in avoiding the over-generalization problem. The experimental results highlight the acceptable performances of the algorithm proposed in this paper since it has a very high probability of parsing valid sentences.

  6. A Vocabulary Learning Tool for L2 Undergraduates Reading Science and Technology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chihcheng; Yang, Fang-Chuan Ou

    2013-05-01

    Students of English as a second language who major in science and technology use English-language textbooks to ensure that they can read English materials upon graduation. Research indicates that teachers spend little time helping these students on the linguistic complexity of such textbooks. Vocabulary, grammar, and article structure are elements of this complexity, but to many students, these elements can be akin to locked doors. This study presents MyVLS-Reader, which focuses on unlocking the first of these doors-vocabulary-while assisting in reading. With explicit vocabulary learning, students learn and memorize individual vocabulary, but the context is lost if the depth of learning discards context. In implicit vocabulary learning, students acquire vocabulary through repeated exposure to contexts, but repeated encounters with new words are required. Few e-learning systems combine both vocabulary-learning approaches. MyVLS-Reader achieves such synergy by (1) using a keyword setting to provide context-matched vocabulary explanation while reading and (2) embedding multiple learning choices, such as keyword setting, the review and memorization of explicit vocabulary, and the option to ask instructors. This study includes two rounds of evaluations: (1) an evaluation of the learning achievements of control and treatment groups and (2) a quantitative and qualitative investigation of perceptions regarding the use of MyVLS-Reader. The evaluation results indicate that the treatment group developed a better vocabulary than the control group in significantly less time. The use of MyVLS-Reader also slightly improved higher-order thinking skills. This result suggests that MyVLS-Reader can effective assist students in building their vocabulary while reading.

  7. Linking open vocabularies

    CERN Document Server

    Greifender, Elke; Seadle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Linked Data (LD), Linked Open Data (LOD) and generating a web of data, present the new knowledge sharing frontier. In a philosophical context, LD is an evolving environment that reflects humankinds' desire to understand the world by drawing on the latest technologies and capabilities of the time. LD, while seemingly a new phenomenon did not emerge overnight; rather it represents the natural progression by which knowledge structures are developed, used, and shared. Linked Open Vocabularies is a significant trajectory of LD. Linked Open Vocabularies targets vocabularies that have traditionally b

  8. Some Key Principles for Developing Grammar Skills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张威

    2008-01-01

    Grammar is sometimes defined aft"the way words are put together to make correct sentences"(Ur,2004,P.75).The aim of teaching grammar is to raise the rates of the correctness of language use and help the students transfer the isolated language points to apply language.In this essay,the author introduces two kinds of Conlnlon methods in English grammar class. And there are some key principles in grammar teaching.

  9. Generic Graph Grammar: A Simple Grammar for Generic Procedural Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Asger Nyman; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2012-01-01

    in a directed cyclic graph. Furthermore, the basic productions are chosen such that Generic Graph Grammar seamlessly combines the capabilities of L-systems to imitate biological growth (to model trees, animals, etc.) and those of split grammars to design structured objects (chairs, houses, etc.). This results......Methods for procedural modelling tend to be designed either for organic objects, which are described well by skeletal structures, or for man-made objects, which are described well by surface primitives. Procedural methods, which allow for modelling of both kinds of objects, are few and usually...

  10. Teaching the Topography of Gretel Ehrlich's Grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessell, Donna A.

    When writing, few students have any concept that word placement affects the content of their writing. They seldom rework their papers at the sentence level in order to assure that their grammar reflects and enhances their content. Recognizing the relationship of grammar to meaning, composition researchers are reasserting the place of grammar in…

  11. Reframing the English Grammar Schools Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Rebecca; Perry, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In October 2015 the Department for Education (DfE) permitted a grammar school in Tonbridge, Kent, to open up an annexe in Sevenoaks, 10 miles away. Amidst claims that the annexe was essentially a new grammar school, the decision reignited an old debate about the value of academically-selective "grammar" schools in England. The intensity…

  12. The design and implementation of Object Grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storm, T. van der; Cook, W.R.; Loh, A.

    2014-01-01

    An Object Grammar is a variation on traditional BNF grammars, where the notation is extended to support declarative bidirectional mappings between text and object graphs. The two directions for interpreting Object Grammars are parsing and formatting. Parsing transforms text into an object graph by r

  13. French grammar you really need to know

    CERN Document Server

    Adamson, Robin

    2012-01-01

    Comprehensive and clear explanations of key grammar patterns and structures are reinforced and contextualized through authentic materials. You will not only learn how to construct grammar correctly, but when and where to use it so you sound natural and appropriate. French Grammar You Really Need to Know will help you gain the intuition you need to become a confident communicator in your new language.

  14. Integrating Grammar in Adult TESOL Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Simon; Burns, Anne

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the beliefs and practices about the integration of grammar and skills teaching reported by 176 English language teachers from 18 countries. Teachers completed a questionnaire which elicited beliefs about grammar teaching generally as well as specific beliefs and reported practices about the integration of grammar and skills…

  15. Teaching Grammar as a Liberating Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The idea of grammar as a "liberating force" comes from a paper by Henry Widdowson (1990) in which grammar is depicted as a resource which liberates the language user from an over-dependency on lexis and context for the expression of meaning. In this paper, I consider the implications for second language teaching of the notion of grammar as a…

  16. Drama Grammar: Towards a Performative Postmethod Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the original concept of drama grammar, the synthesis of grammar instruction and drama pedagogy, which integrates both structural and communicative paradigms through a dialectic combination of acting and linguistic analysis. Based on the principles of drama pedagogy, drama grammar makes use of techniques from the performing…

  17. The Philosophical Significance of Universal Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinzen, Wolfram

    2012-01-01

    Throughout its long history, the project of a science of grammar has always been an inherently philosophical one, in which the study of grammar was taken to have special epistemological significance. I ask why 20th and 21st century inquiry into Universal Grammar (UG) has largely lost this dimension, a fact that I argue is partially responsible for…

  18. Analyzing Ambiguity of Context-Free Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Giegerich, Robert; Møller, Anders

    2010-01-01

    It has been known since 1962 that the ambiguity problem for context-free grammars is undecidable. Ambiguity in context-free grammars is a recurring problem in language design and parser generation, as well as in applications where grammars are used as models of real-world physical structures. We ...

  19. Analyzing Ambiguity of Context-Free Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Giegerich, Robert; Møller, Anders

    2007-01-01

    It has been known since 1962 that the ambiguity problem for context-free grammars is undecidable. Ambiguity in context-free grammars is a recurring problem in language design and parser generation, as well as in applications where grammars are used as models of real-world physical structures. We ...

  20. Welcoming Grammar Back into the Writing Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devet, Bonnie

    2002-01-01

    Describes three approaches with which grammar may be welcomed back into the composition classroom. Considers how the teaching of grammar is making a comeback, with scholars acknowledging that the objections raised by process theories were valid but also investigating how to use grammar in writing classrooms, how to answer old process objections,…

  1. A Construction Grammar for the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Randal

    2010-01-01

    Construction grammars (Lakoff, Women, fire and dangerous things: What categories reveal about the Mind, University of Chicago Press, 1987; Langacker, Foundations of cognitive grammar: Theoretical pre-requisites, Stanford University Press, 1987; Croft, Radical construction grammar: Syntactic theory in typological perspective, Oxford University…

  2. An Evaluation of the Grammar Teaching Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张可科

    2013-01-01

      Of the many issues surrounding grammar, perhaps the hottest debate is whether to teach it or not. We review briefly argu⁃ments against and in support of grammar teaching before examining current grammar approaches in second language teaching.

  3. Drama Grammar: Towards a Performative Postmethod Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the original concept of drama grammar, the synthesis of grammar instruction and drama pedagogy, which integrates both structural and communicative paradigms through a dialectic combination of acting and linguistic analysis. Based on the principles of drama pedagogy, drama grammar makes use of techniques from the performing…

  4. Teaching Grammar as a Liberating Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The idea of grammar as a "liberating force" comes from a paper by Henry Widdowson (1990) in which grammar is depicted as a resource which liberates the language user from an over-dependency on lexis and context for the expression of meaning. In this paper, I consider the implications for second language teaching of the notion of grammar as a…

  5. A Construction Grammar for the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Randal

    2010-01-01

    Construction grammars (Lakoff, Women, fire and dangerous things: What categories reveal about the Mind, University of Chicago Press, 1987; Langacker, Foundations of cognitive grammar: Theoretical pre-requisites, Stanford University Press, 1987; Croft, Radical construction grammar: Syntactic theory in typological perspective, Oxford University…

  6. Marine Navigational Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王惠灵

    2014-01-01

    Every industry has its professional terms or particular use of common words. The marine industry is no exception. This paper attempts to give a brief introduction to the elementary vocabularies related to marine industry from six aspects: types of ships;ship’s structure and equipment, manning, logbook, safety and organizations concerned. The corresponding Chinese terms is given simultaneously. It concludes that a good master of these vocabularies is useful and necessary for Chinese seafarers whose native language is not English.

  7. Vocabulary teaching strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐桂荣

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary has always been one of the significant issues related both with teachers and learners of foreign languages. How to teach vocabulary efficiency? Teachers should choose proper ways to instruct words. Many teachers often write new words they want to teach on the blackboard and then explain them one by one. It makes students feel bored. This paper will summarize some teaching approaches that are better on teaching English words.

  8. A Study on the Inclusion of Pronunciation Instruction in the Foreign Language Classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Walter, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Research on instruction of pronunciation in a foreign language setting has seen an increase in recent decades, but often this research focuses specifically on the acquisition of English pronunciation. This paper aims to investigate the direction that research based on the acquisition of pronunciation has taken up to this point. Further, this paper aims to specifically explore whether the vast progress made in research for English pronunciation acquisition can be utilized in a non-English fore...

  9. Grammar Specialization through Entropy Thresholds

    CERN Document Server

    Samuelsson, C

    1994-01-01

    Explanation-based generalization is used to extract a specialized grammar from the original one using a training corpus of parse trees. This allows very much faster parsing and gives a lower error rate, at the price of a small loss in coverage. Previously, it has been necessary to specify the tree-cutting criteria (or operationality criteria) manually; here they are derived automatically from the training set and the desired coverage of the specialized grammar. This is done by assigning an entropy value to each node in the parse trees and cutting in the nodes with sufficiently high entropy values.

  10. Oxford dictionary of English grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Chalker, Sylvia

    1994-01-01

    English grammar has changed a great deal since the beginning of the Twentieth Century, and it is a subject that can provide a complex minefield of uncertainties within the language. This accessible and comprehensive dictionary comes to the aid of both the general reader and the student or teacher, offering straightforward and immediate A-Z access to 1,000 grammatical terms and their meanings. All the currently accepted terms of grammar are included, as well as older, traditional names, controversial new coinages, and items from the study of other languages. Concise definitions of the wider sub

  11. A glossary of English grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Leech, Geoffrey

    2006-01-01

    A Glossary of English Grammar presents a wide range of terms used to describe the way the English language is structured. Grammatical terms can be a problem for students, especially when there are alternative names for the same thing (for example, 'past tense' and 'preterite'). This book therefore provides a basic and accessible guide, focusing on the English language. Definitions of grammatical terms are given in simple language, with clear examples, many from authentic texts and spoken sources, showing how they are used. The terms used in the Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language are

  12. Beyond Fossilization: A Course in Strategies and Techniques in Pronunciation for Advanced Adult Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricard, Ellen

    1986-01-01

    The phonology/pronunciation course of the Canadian government's advanced language training program emphasizes activities which generate student motivation and optimism in overcoming "fossilized" pronunciation (pronunciation highly resistant to change). Activities include: oral reading, feedback, recording of reading, and self-directed…

  13. Improving English Pronunciation through Computer-Assisted Programs in Jordanian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qudah, Fatima Zaki Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of using computer- assisted programs for teaching English pronunciation on students' performance in English Language pronunciation in Jordanian universities. To achieve the purpose of the study, a pre/post-test was constructed to measure students' level in English pronunciation. The sample…

  14. What Is Needed for Correct Pronunciation: A Model or a Concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayaoglu, M. Naci; Çaylak, Nuray

    2013-01-01

    Problem Statement: Although the debate on adopting native-like pronunciation or a universal pronunciation is a change that can save nonnatives from embarrassment appears to have recently lost its merit, the challenge of teaching accurate and proper pronunciation is still a concern for teachers that needs to be remedied. Purpose of Study: The main…

  15. A Post-method Condition Pronunciation Teaching Approach in an EFL Classroom in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shu-Hsiu

    2009-01-01

    "Wowo's Adventure," a story made up of 24 consonants and 17 vowels employs a culture-related and mnemonics-based pronunciation teaching approach with an aim of infusing it into Taiwanese pronunciation instruction to help resolve how pronunciation is taught in Taiwan. The first part of this paper introduces a story with the use of vivid…

  16. Teaching Pronunciation: Focus on English Rhythm and Intonation. Language in Education: Theory and Practice, No. 68.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Rita

    A discussion of pronunciation instruction in English as a second language begins with comments on preparing for pronunciation work in the classroom and goes on to examine the rhythm of English and the characteristics of intonation. The chapter on preparing for pronunciation work focuses on: accounting for learner variables, motivating learning,…

  17. The Effects of Pronunciation Instruction on the Accuracy, Fluency, and Complexity of L2 Accented Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derwing, Tracey M.; Rossiter, Marian J.

    2003-01-01

    Identified changes in 48 nonnative speakers' (NNSs) pronunciation over a period of 12 weeks as a result of the type of instruction they received--global, segmental, and no specific pronunciation instruction. Implications for pronunciation instruction are drawn from the results. (Author/VWL)

  18. An Investigation of the Effectiveness of Teaching Pronunciation to Malaysian TESL Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajadurai, Joanne

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the pronunciation training component of a Teaching English as a Second Language program. Focuses on teaching pronunciation in a specific context in Malaysia but raises issues of interest to English-as-a-Second-Language practitioners in other contexts. Describes the pronunciation training and, based on students' responses to a…

  19. Selecting Segmental Errors in Non-Native Dutch for Optimal Pronunciation Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Ambra; Cucchiarini, Catia; Strik, Helmer

    2006-01-01

    The current emphasis in second language teaching lies in the achievement of communicative effectiveness. In line with this approach, pronunciation training is nowadays geared towards helping learners avoid serious pronunciation errors, rather than eradicating the finest traces of foreign accent. However, to devise optimal pronunciation training…

  20. English Pronunciation Exercises for Speakers of Vietnamese. Adult Education Series No. 7. Indochinese Refugee Education Guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Applied Linguistics, Arlington, VA.

    The sound systems of Vietnamese and English have very little in common and therefore the Vietnamese learner of English will have great difficulty with pronunciation. This guide points out the specific problem areas and gives pronunciation exercises to deal with each problem. Twenty-eight pronunciation lessons are included, preceded by two…

  1. Procedure Of Teaching Grammar Using Memory Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herri Susanto

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Teaching grammar has been regarded as a process of understanding from the context. It means a teacher teaches the pupils contextually more than just the rules. However, I have my own experience that teaching grammar methods must depend on the purposes of learning grammar. Some people learn grammar as a means to fulfill the syllabus needs for schools but other people learn grammar for special purposes out of school syllabus, such as for entrance test. For these reasons, the methods of teaching grammar should be different. The students who learn grammar based on the school syllabus probably needs longer procedure of learning that usually uses contextual teaching through listening, speaking, writing, and reading. Nevertheless, students who learn grammar for test need shorter procedure of learning such as memorizing. Therefore, I propose giving a workshop of teaching grammar using memory enhancement as another alternative teaching grammar method. This workshop would show the class that grammar can be learnt through memory enhancement process, i.e.; mind map, music, memory technique and drill to boost up students understanding for test preparation.

  2. The evolutionary dynamics of grammar acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarova, N L; Niyogi, P; Nowak, M A

    2001-03-07

    Grammar is the computational system of language. It is a set of rules that specifies how to construct sentences out of words. Grammar is the basis of the unlimited expressibility of human language. Children acquire the grammar of their native language without formal education simply by hearing a number of sample sentences. Children could not solve this learning task if they did not have some pre-formed expectations. In other words, children have to evaluate the sample sentences and choose one grammar out of a limited set of candidate grammars. The restricted search space and the mechanism which allows to evaluate the sample sentences is called universal grammar. Universal grammar cannot be learned; it must be in place when the learning process starts. In this paper, we design a mathematical theory that places the problem of language acquisition into an evolutionary context. We formulate equations for the population dynamics of communication and grammar learning. We ask how accurate children have to learn the grammar of their parents' language for a population of individuals to evolve and maintain a coherent grammatical system. It turns out that there is a maximum error tolerance for which a predominant grammar is stable. We calculate the maximum size of the search space that is compatible with coherent communication in a population. Thus, we specify the conditions for the evolution of universal grammar.

  3. A Russian Keyword Spotting System Based on Large Vocabulary Continuous Speech Recognition and Linguistic Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Smirnov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the key concepts of a word spotting system for Russian based on large vocabulary continuous speech recognition. Key algorithms and system settings are described, including the pronunciation variation algorithm, and the experimental results on the real-life telecom data are provided. The description of system architecture and the user interface is provided. The system is based on CMU Sphinx open-source speech recognition platform and on the linguistic models and algorithms developed by Speech Drive LLC. The effective combination of baseline statistic methods, real-world training data, and the intensive use of linguistic knowledge led to a quality result applicable to industrial use.

  4. THE TEACHING OF PRONUNCIATION TO CHINESE LEARNERS OF ENGLISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    English pronunciation is being unduly neglected or even ignored in some of our colleges anduniversities.Its role and necessity are not yet generally realized,and English phonetic courses areusually left to chance or given no place in our teaching or learning.The result is as Baker(1982,pl)states:‘advanced students find that they can improve all aspects of their proficiency in English excepttheir pronunciation,and mistakes which have been repeated for years are impossible to eradicate.’The long-term solution to this problem,I would suggest,is to have a compulsory phonetic coursebccause an active command of pronunciation will help promote the entire learning process.

  5. Modularity in inductively-learned word pronunciation systems

    CERN Document Server

    Van den Bosch, A; Daelemans, W; Bosch, Antal van den; Weijters, Ton; Daelemans, Walter

    1999-01-01

    In leading morpho-phonological theories and state-of-the-art text-to-speech systems it is assumed that word pronunciation cannot be learned or performed without in-between analyses at several abstraction levels (e.g., morphological, graphemic, phonemic, syllabic, and stress levels). We challenge this assumption for the case of English word pronunciation. Using IGTree, an inductive-learning decision-tree algorithms, we train and test three word-pronunciation systems in which the number of abstraction levels (implemented as sequenced modules) is reduced from five, via three, to one. The latter system, classifying letter strings directly as mapping to phonemes with stress markers, yields significantly better generalisation accuracies than the two multi-module systems. Analyses of empirical results indicate that positive utility effects of sequencing modules are outweighed by cascading errors passed on between modules.

  6. The Pronunciation of Hebrew in the Western Sephardic Settlements (16th-20th Centuries. Second Part: The Pronunciation of the Consonant ‘Ayin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    di Leone Leoni, Aron

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to ascertain when the Italian Jewish communities and the Western Portuguese “Nations” adopted the nasal-guttural pronunciation of the ‘ayin, variously represented as gn, ng, ngh, hg. In 16th century Ferrara and Venice, the phonetic value of this consonant was zero or close to zero. Only at the very end of the 16th century, some authors in Italy graphically represented it as ng. In the same period, an Amsterdam author introduced new graphemes and expressed the ‘ayin as gh or hg, while a Hamburg scholar published a grammar-book where he gave the name of this consonant as Hgain. The new graphemes were not adopted by the majority of authors, who continued to represent it by a simple h, or left it without notation. Both in Italy and in Northern Europe, the h > gn shift was rather discontinuous.Estudio de la adopción de la pronunciación naso-gutural de la consonante ‘ayin y de su variada representación gráfica entre los judíos de Italia y de las «Naciones» judías hispano-portuguesas. Durante el siglo XVI, el valor fonético de esa consonante era o tendía a cero. A fines de ese siglo y a comienzos del XVII, algunos autores en Italia la representan como ng. Un autor coetáneo en Amsterdam introduce nuevos grafemas, tales como gh o hg, mientras que otro autor de Hamburgo publicaba una gramática en la que denomina Hgain esta consonante. Los nuevos grafemas no fueron adoptados por la mayoría de autores que continuaron representando dicha consonante por una h. Tanto en Italia como en el norte de Europa el cambio h > gn fue discontinuo.

  7. Casebook in functional discourse grammar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mackenzie, J.L.; Olbertz, H.

    2013-01-01

    This book provides ten case studies in Functional Discourse Grammar (FDG), a typologically-oriented theory of the organization of natural languages that has risen to prominence in recent years. The authors, all committed practitioners of FDG, include Kees Hengeveld, the intellectual father of the th

  8. Kent Sakoda Discusses Pidgin Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakoda, Kent; Tamura, Eileen H.

    2008-01-01

    For a number of years, Kent Sakoda has been teaching at the University of Hawai'i at Manoa in the Department of Second Language Studies. His course, "Pidgin and Creole English in Hawai'i," is popular among students on campus. He has also taught at Hawai'i Pacific University. Because of his expertise on the grammar of Pidgin (Hawai'i…

  9. Indexed Languages and Unification Grammars

    CERN Document Server

    Burheim, T

    1995-01-01

    Indexed languages are interesting in computational linguistics because they are the least class of languages in the Chomsky hierarchy that has not been shown not to be adequate to describe the string set of natural language sentences. We here define a class of unification grammars that exactly describe the class of indexed languages.

  10. Grammar Rules as Computer Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieber, Lloyd

    1992-01-01

    One college writing teacher engaged his class in the revision of a computer program to check grammar, focusing on improvement of the algorithms for identifying inappropriate uses of the passive voice. Process and problems of constructing new algorithms, effects on student writing, and other algorithm applications are discussed. (MSE)

  11. A Lifetime of Grammar Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Rod

    2012-01-01

    The author has worked as a language teacher, teacher educator, and second language acquisition (SLA) researcher for over forty years. During this time grammar has figured largely in his thinking, in part because it has traditionally been so central to language pedagogy and in part because he became fascinated with how the human mind grapples with…

  12. Notation-Parametric Grammar Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaytsev, V.; Sloane, A.M.; Andova, S.

    2012-01-01

    Automation of grammar recovery is an important research area that received attention over the last decade and a half. Given the abundance of available documentation for software languages that is only going to keep increasing in the future, there is need for reliable extraction techniques that allow

  13. Narrative Comprehension and Story Grammar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehwish Zahoor

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Every text has an underlying structure which has a vital contribution in making it a meaningful whole. Awareness of a text’s structure therefore is significant in developing an overall sense of the text. Story grammar offers a simple and effective framework to analyze a coherent structure in narrative texts, hence is assumed to facilitate the comprehension of narratives. The research has been designed to be a descriptive study, with the objective to explain and illustrate how story grammar functions in constructing and decoding meanings in a narrative text, and, to highlight its scope in pedagogy. A short story text has been randomly selected from the short story collection in the English text book by Punjab text book board for Intermediate level. A three stepped comprehensive analysis of the sample text has been done by implementing the selected story grammar model. It has been found that story grammar helped in deriving coherent structure and meanings from the selected short story text; hence it has pedagogical implications in developing narrative comprehension.

  14. Readings in Applied Transformational Grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Mark, Ed.

    This volume contains nineteen essays, dealing with various aspects of transformational grammar, by scholars such as Noam Chomsky, Eric H. Lenneberg, and Leon Jakobovits. These essays have been reprinted from sources such as "College English" and "Language Learning" and are intended for the most part for a nontechnical audience. The anthology is…

  15. Transformational Grammar and Cognitive Psycholinguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Mark

    1973-01-01

    An overview of Noam Chomsky's theories about transformational grammar and phonology is given. Since Chomsky was interested in characterizing what it is to know a language, the ways in which we demonstrate knowledge of our native language are discussed in detail. Particular emphasis is placed on describing how the transformational approach actually…

  16. Readings in Applied Transformational Grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Mark, Ed.

    This volume contains nineteen essays, dealing with various aspects of transformational grammar, by scholars such as Noam Chomsky, Eric H. Lenneberg, and Leon Jakobovits. These essays have been reprinted from sources such as "College English" and "Language Learning" and are intended for the most part for a nontechnical audience. The anthology is…

  17. Ternate Malay : grammar and texts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Litamahuputty, Bathseba Helena Johanna

    2012-01-01

    This book is the first grammar on Ternate Malay, a local variety of Malay spoken on the island of Ternate, North-Moluccas, Indonesia. It is a language with words flexible in function and meaning, which do not bear overtly expressed features to indicate grammatical functions. Linguistic tools traditi

  18. Micmac Teaching Grammar. Preliminary Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, Gilles L.; Metallic, Manny L.

    This teaching grammar is designed primarily for university-level students, but may also be used for adult courses, high school classes, and in junior colleges. The text takes the transformational-generative approach to language, in which the notions of system, derivation, and relation are emphasized rather than categorization and classification.…

  19. Notation-Parametric Grammar Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Zaytsev (Vadim); A.M. Sloane; S. Andova

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractAutomation of grammar recovery is an important research area that received attention over the last decade and a half. Given the abundance of available documentation for software languages that is only going to keep increasing in the future, there is need for reliable extraction

  20. Abstract Interpretation Using Attribute Grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    1990-01-01

    This paper deals with the correctness proofs of attribute grammars using methods from abstract interpretation. The technique will be described by defining a live-variable analysis for a small flow-chart language and proving it correct with respect to a continuation style semantics. The proof...

  1. Micmac Teaching Grammar. Preliminary Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, Gilles L.; Metallic, Manny L.

    This teaching grammar is designed primarily for university-level students, but may also be used for adult courses, high school classes, and in junior colleges. The text takes the transformational-generative approach to language, in which the notions of system, derivation, and relation are emphasized rather than categorization and classification.…

  2. E-LEARNING TURKISH LANGUAGE AND GRAMMAR: Analyzing Learners' Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis GEORGALAS

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the behavior and the preferences of the Greek learners of Turkish language, who use a particular e-learning website in parallel with their studies, namely: http://turkish.pgeorgalas.gr. The website offers free online material in Greek and English language for learning the Turkish language and grammar. The traffic of several modules of the website has been measured, examined and analyzed. The research was carried out between the years 2010- 2011 and included the analysis of several million clicks. The results show particular attitudes, habits and preferences throughout the e-learning process. There is a preference of users to exercises against theory. Fast cross-link exercises are preferred to slower “fill in” ones. During the weekends, visitors tend to use less e-learning facilities and select more light activities than the rest days of the week. Society trends and fashions like TV serials have a serious impact to the number of people who decide to learn a new foreign language, in particular Turkish. There is a strong preference of the audience to use online TV against online radio facilities for language practice. The subjects that Greek learners of Turkish language spend more time are verbs conjugation and vocabulary learning. They focus on elementary grammar subjects like the Alphabet, the numbers and the formation of plural. Finally, they try to learn the syntax of Turkish language through sentence structure puzzles and give priority to special grammar issues like noun compounds that are not present in Greek language.

  3. Grammar Predicts Procedural Learning and Consolidation Deficits in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedenius, Martina; Persson, Jonas; Tremblay, Antoine; Adi-Japha, Esther; Veríssimo, João; Dye, Cristina D.; Alm, Per; Jennische, Margareta; Tomblin, J. Bruce; Ullman, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    The Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH) posits that Specific Language Impairment (SLI) can be largely explained by abnormalities of brain structures that subserve procedural memory. The PDH predicts impairments of procedural memory itself, and that such impairments underlie the grammatical deficits observed in the disorder. Previous studies have indeed reported procedural learning impairments in SLI, and have found that these are associated with grammatical difficulties. The present study extends this research by examining the consolidation and longer-term procedural sequence learning in children with SLI. The Alternating Serial Reaction Time (ASRT) task was given to children with SLI and typically-developing (TD) children in an initial learning session and an average of three days later to test for consolidation and longer-term learning. Although both groups showed evidence of initial sequence learning, only the TD children showed clear signs of consolidation, even though the two groups did not differ in longer-term learning. When the children were re-categorized on the basis of grammar deficits rather than broader language deficits, a clearer pattern emerged. Whereas both the grammar impaired and normal grammar groups showed evidence of initial sequence learning, only those with normal grammar showed consolidation and longer-term learning. Indeed, the grammar-impaired group appeared to lose any sequence knowledge gained during the initial testing session. These findings held even when controlling for vocabulary or a broad non-grammatical language measure, neither of which were associated with procedural memory. When grammar was examined as a continuous variable over all children, the same relationships between procedural memory and grammar, but not vocabulary or the broader language measure, were observed. Overall, the findings support and further specify the PDH. They suggest that consolidation and longer-term procedural learning are impaired in SLI, but that

  4. Grammar predicts procedural learning and consolidation deficits in children with Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedenius, Martina; Persson, Jonas; Tremblay, Antoine; Adi-Japha, Esther; Veríssimo, João; Dye, Cristina D; Alm, Per; Jennische, Margareta; Bruce Tomblin, J; Ullman, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    The Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH) posits that Specific Language Impairment (SLI) can be largely explained by abnormalities of brain structures that subserve procedural memory. The PDH predicts impairments of procedural memory itself, and that such impairments underlie the grammatical deficits observed in the disorder. Previous studies have indeed reported procedural learning impairments in SLI, and have found that these are associated with grammatical difficulties. The present study extends this research by examining consolidation and longer-term procedural sequence learning in children with SLI. The Alternating Serial Reaction Time (ASRT) task was given to children with SLI and typically developing (TD) children in an initial learning session and an average of three days later to test for consolidation and longer-term learning. Although both groups showed evidence of initial sequence learning, only the TD children showed clear signs of consolidation, even though the two groups did not differ in longer-term learning. When the children were re-categorized on the basis of grammar deficits rather than broader language deficits, a clearer pattern emerged. Whereas both the grammar impaired and normal grammar groups showed evidence of initial sequence learning, only those with normal grammar showed consolidation and longer-term learning. Indeed, the grammar-impaired group appeared to lose any sequence knowledge gained during the initial testing session. These findings held even when controlling for vocabulary or a broad non-grammatical language measure, neither of which were associated with procedural memory. When grammar was examined as a continuous variable over all children, the same relationships between procedural memory and grammar, but not vocabulary or the broader language measure, were observed. Overall, the findings support and further specify the PDH. They suggest that consolidation and longer-term procedural learning are impaired in SLI, but that these

  5. A Single-case Analysis for English Pronunciation Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ran

    2014-01-01

    It is an effective and efficient way that teachers can design their teaching plans or exercises according to situation that individual students are in. Thus, single-case designs will be helpful in this field. A read aloud audio recording was made by a Chi-nese advanced or at least upper intermediate English learner. Four pronunciation features of this learner were analysed according to Standard British English. The three suprasegmental features influence speaker ’s intelligibility more than the segmental feature. In English as the second or foreign language classes, more teachers tend to adopt the intelligibility principle in English pronuncia-tion teaching.

  6. The Shaanxi dialect has influence on the students’ pronunciation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁颖

    2013-01-01

    The oral English becomes more important in our daily life,but some people can’t pronounce correctly.The improper accent can make us confused in communication,so we should pay more attention to pronunciation.According to the SLA,the phonological experience can influence the development of children’s second language,including the students in junior high school.Because of the limited environment,most students speak Chinese/dialect after class.So their mother tone has obvious influence on their English pronunciation.

  7. The Shaanxi dialect has influence on the students’pronunciation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁颖

    2013-01-01

    The oral English becomes more important in our daily life,but some people can’t pronounce correctly.The improper accent can make us confused in communication,so we should pay more attention to pronunciation.According to the SLA,the phonological experience can influence the development of children’s second language,including the students in junior high school.Because of the limited environment,most students speak Chinese /dialect after class.So their mother tone has obvious influence on their English pronunciation.

  8. Pronunciation in EFL instruction a research-based approach

    CERN Document Server

    Szpyra-Kozlowska, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    In view of recent debates on the global spread of English and its international lingua franca role, what pronunciation models are appropriate for millions of EFL learners? Which aspects of English phonetics should be taught to foreign students and which can be neglected with little loss to successful communication? How can English pronunciation be taught in an interesting and effective way which is both learner- and teacher-friendly, in accordance with the latest scholarly and technological achievements? This research-based book addresses these and many other fundamental issues that are curren

  9. Pronunciation and phonetics a practical guide for English language teachers

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Adam

    2014-01-01

    This engaging, succinct text is an introduction to both phonetics and phonology as applied to the teaching of pronunciation to English language learners. Section 1 selectively covers the main areas of phonetics and phonology, without going into any area in more depth than the average English language teacher requires or that the average English language teacher trainee can handle. Section 2 focuses on practical issues related to learners and how they learn languages, and what represents good practice in terms of classroom activities for pronunciation—including aspects such as targets, motiva

  10. Research on the Mistakes Made by College English Teachers in Pronunciation of/n/&/l

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘斌; 桂严捷

    2014-01-01

    As an old saying goes that“once you open mouth, you are decided”. Thus, there is no doubt about the fact that Eng-lish pronunciation is of great importance, especially for English teachers whose pronunciation exerts far-reaching and direct influ-ences on that of students. Some of College English teachers, however, have poor pronunciation;most of them cannot distinguish/n/from/l/. Therefore, it is of huge practical value to commit to the research on the mistakes made by College English teachers in pronunciation of/n/&/l/and analyze the underlying causes in the hope of helping teachers to improve their poor pronuncia-tion.

  11. Vocabulary Knowledge and Vocabulary Use in Second Language Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark D.; Acevedo, Anthony; Mercado, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Research has consistently shown diversity of vocabulary to be an important indicator of second language (L2) writing development as well as L2 writing performance. These studies underscore the importance of vocabulary to L2 writing. However, they provide little to indicate what kind of vocabulary learners of English may need to know in order to…

  12. Vocabulary Knowledge and Vocabulary Use in Second Language Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark D.; Acevedo, Anthony; Mercado, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Research has consistently shown diversity of vocabulary to be an important indicator of second language (L2) writing development as well as L2 writing performance. These studies underscore the importance of vocabulary to L2 writing. However, they provide little to indicate what kind of vocabulary learners of English may need to know in order to…

  13. Talking about Cultural Elements in Vocabulary and English Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jinjing

    2015-01-01

    By illustrating the significance of cultural elements in vocabulary and current situations in English vocabulary teaching,the author hope that English teachers can pay more attention to cultural elements behind the conceptual meanings of English words and change their method of teaching to motivate students' interest in vocabulary learning.

  14. Talking about Cultural Elements in Vocabulary and English Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang; Jinjing

    2015-01-01

    By illustrating the significance of cultural elements in vocabulary and current situations in English vocabulary teaching,the author hope that English teachers can pay more attention to cultural elements behind the conceptual meanings of English words and change their method of teaching to motivate students’ interest in vocabulary learning.

  15. Vocabulary Plus: Comprehensive Vocabulary Instruction for English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkin, Rhoda

    2010-01-01

    "Vocabulary Plus" is an interactive strategy which links vocabulary development with content area learning for English learners. This strategy uses interactive read-alouds of thematically- connected informational text matched to the grade-appropriate state standards and content of core subjects. When using "Vocabulary Plus",…

  16. Evaluating Approaches to Teaching and Learning Chinese Vocabulary from the Learning Theories Perspective: An Experimental Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja SIMONČIČ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With Chinese language gaining more and more popularity among Slovenian students and with the growing numbers of learners of Chinese as a foreign language in Slovenia and elsewhere it is crucial to find an approach that will lead to high quality and long-term knowledge of Chinese and that will motivate learners to continue learning. We can speak of two basic approaches to teaching Chinese vocabulary: the approach that first introduces pronunciation and the approach that simultaneously introduces pronunciation and character. The key question that arises is which of the two approaches leads to high quality and long-term knowledge? To answer the question an experimental case study was carried out at Ljubljana’s Faculty of Arts in the academic year 2011/2012. The case study showed that the approach that simultaneously introduces pronunciation and character and is based on the key principles of constructivist learning theory had beneficial effects on the students in terms of motivation and quality of knowledge of Chinese vocabulary.

  17. Syllable and rime patterns for teaching reading: Analysis of a frequency-based vocabulary of 17,602 words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanback, M L

    1992-12-01

    A frequency-based vocabulary of 17,602 words was compiled and analyzed in order to group words with recurring syllable and rime patterns for teaching reading. The role of the rime unit (e.g.,ite inkite andinvite) in determining vowel pronunciation was central to the analysis because of the difficulty that the ambiguity of English vowel spelling presents to children who do not learn to read words easily. Vowel pronunciation in each orthographic rime was examined, both for its consistency in all words in which the rime occurs and for regularity, defined as conformity to the most frequent pronunciation for each vowel spelling in each of six orthographic syllable types.Of the 824 different orthographic rimes, 616 occur in rime families as the building blocks of almost all the 43,041 syllables of the words. These rimes account for a striking amount of patterning in the orthography: 436 are both regular and consistent in pronunciation (except where a single exception word occurs); another 55 are consistent but not regular. Of the remaining 125, only 86 have less than a 90 percent level of consistency. The high order of congruence of orthographic and phonological rimes suggests their usefulness as units for teaching reading.

  18. General Reviews of Vocabulary Retention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yuan

    2013-01-01

    This paper will try to review two important theories (repletion and retrieval) which are crucial for vocabulary retention. These two methods are well connected and each of them cannot lead to successful vocabulary retention without sensible utilization of the other.

  19. Grammar Teaching Revisited: EFL Teachers between Grammar Abstinence and Formal Grammar Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Ahmad; Allahyar, Negah

    2012-01-01

    The study of English language teachers' cognitions and its relationship to teachers' classroom practices have recently been the focus of language teaching and teacher education (Borg, 2006 & 2010). However, rarely have the studies delved into teachers' knowledge about grammar (reviewed by Borg, 2001) or investigated the relationships between…

  20. 影响英语发音的因素研究--以贵州为例%A Study On Factors of Influencing English phonetics--Taking an example of Guizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常迪; 罗佑茹

    2015-01-01

    While learning English, learners tend to focus on the usage of grammar and vocabulary in the exam, but speech language learning is ignored. In practice, many students are impacted in the local dialect in pronouncing. Some pronunciation habits, can lead them to have great deviation in English pronunciation. This study is to find out the characteristics and the causes of pronunciation in Guizhou province , to offer English learners and teachers a better mutual learning way.

  1. How to Enlarge Productive Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘菁

    2015-01-01

    Haycraft defined receptive vocabulary as "words that the student recognizes and understands when they occur in a text, but which he cannot produce correctly", while productive vocabulary is "words which the student understands can pronounce correctly and use constructively in speaking and writing" (1978:44).In English language teaching practice, students' productive vocabulary size lags far behind there ceptive vocabulary size. Based on the SLA theories, many reasons caused this problem and some solutions will be discussed.

  2. Semantics boosts syntax in artificial grammar learning tasks with recursion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedor, Anna; Varga, Máté; Szathmáry, Eörs

    2012-05-01

    Center-embedded recursion (CER) in natural language is exemplified by sentences such as "The malt that the rat ate lay in the house." Parsing center-embedded structures is in the focus of attention because this could be one of the cognitive capacities that make humans distinct from all other animals. The ability to parse CER is usually tested by means of artificial grammar learning (AGL) tasks, during which participants have to infer the rule from a set of artificial sentences. One of the surprising results of previous AGL experiments is that learning CER is not as easy as had been thought. We hypothesized that because artificial sentences lack semantic content, semantics could help humans learn the syntax of center-embedded sentences. To test this, we composed sentences from 4 vocabularies of different degrees of semantic content due to 3 factors (familiarity, meaning of words, and semantic relationship between words). According to our results, these factors have no effect one by one but they make learning significantly faster when combined. This leads to the assumption that there were different mechanisms at work when CER was parsed in natural and in artificial languages. This finding questions the suitability of AGL tasks with artificial vocabularies for studying the learning and processing of linguistic CER.

  3. Teaching Vocabulary across the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bintz, William P.

    2011-01-01

    Learning vocabulary is an important instructional aim for teachers in all content areas in middle grades schools. Recent research, however, indicates that vocabulary instruction may be problematic because many teachers are not "confident about best practice in vocabulary instruction and at times don't know where to begin to form an instructional…

  4. THE INFLUENCE OF VOCABULARY JOURNAL IN TEACHING STUDENTS’ VOCABULARY MASTERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Rakhmawati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research is to find out the influence of vocabulary journal as media in teaching student vocabulary at the eighth grade students of SMP Al-Fajar. The quantitative method was conducted and this research is a population research, because all the member of population is taken as sample, which consisted of 30 students of eighth grade. To collect the data, the writer used pre-test and post-test, then the vocabulary test was used as the research instrument. To know whether there is an influence, the writer analyzed the data by using paired-sample T-test.The result shows that there is significant influence of vocabulary journal in teaching students’ vocabulary mastery.Keywords: Influence, vocabulary journal, students’ vocabulary mastery

  5. Teacher beliefs and practices of grammar teaching: focusing on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    refuses any direct instruction on grammar, explicit error correction, or even .... teachers in general believe that grammar is central to language learning and students ... grammar teaching and to explore the possible factors behind their common ...

  6. Defense et illustration de la grammaire philologique (An Example and a Defense of Philological Grammar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Louis

    1972-01-01

    Author cites philological grammar" as one of three ways of treating language. The other two approaches to language are traditional grammar and linguistic grammar or transformational generative grammar. Philological grammar stresses the art of reading. (DS)

  7. Synchronous-Voice Computer-Mediated Communication: Effects on Pronunciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno Alastuey, Maria Camino

    2010-01-01

    Communicative competence is the ultimate goal of most learners of a second language and intelligible pronunciation a fundamental part of it. Unfortunately, learners often lack the opportunity to explore how intelligible their speech is for different audiences. Our research investigates whether synchronous-voice computer-mediated communication…

  8. Tongue Control and Its Implication in Pronunciation Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouni, Slim

    2014-01-01

    Pronunciation training based on speech production techniques illustrating tongue movements is gaining popularity. However, there is not sufficient evidence that learners can imitate some tongue animation. In this paper, we argue that although controlling tongue movement related to speech is not such an easy task, training with visual feedback…

  9. Knowledge Base of Pronunciation Teaching: Staking out the Territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Amanda; Murphy, John

    2011-01-01

    Despite decades of advocacy for greater investigative attention, research into pronunciation instruction in the teaching of English as a second language (ESL) and English as a foreign language (EFL) continues to be limited. This limitation is particularly evident in explorations of teacher cognition (e.g., teachers' knowledge, beliefs, and…

  10. Pronunciation Teaching Practices in Communicative Second Language Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Jennifer Ann; Trofimovich, Pavel; Collins, Laura; Urzúa, Fernanda Soler

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research was to provide longitudinal, corpus-based evidence of actual teacher behaviour with respect to the teaching of second language (L2) pronunciation in a communicative language learning context. The data involved 40 hours of videotaped lessons from three experienced teachers recorded four times at 100-hour increments…

  11. Beliefs and Practices of Brazilian EFL Teachers Regarding Pronunciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Larissa

    2016-01-01

    Interest in pronunciation learning and teaching has increased significantly in the past few years. Studies and resources in the area have proliferated, but it is important to know whether they have influenced teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL) and English as a second language (ESL). The purpose of this study was to investigate the…

  12. Automatic Speech Recognition: Reliability and Pedagogical Implications for Teaching Pronunciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Seok

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the reliability of automatic speech recognition (ASR) software used to teach English pronunciation, focusing on one particular piece of software, "FluSpeak, as a typical example." Thirty-six Korean English as a Foreign Language (EFL) college students participated in an experiment in which they listened to 15 sentences…

  13. The Teaching of L2 Pronunciation through Processing Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales-Bueno, Manuela; Quintana-Lara, Marcela

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study is to pilot test whether the instructional approach known as Processing Instruction could be adapted to the teaching of second language (L2) pronunciation. The target sounds selected were the Spanish tap and trill. Three groups of high school students of Spanish as a foreign language participated in the study. One group…

  14. The Foundations of Accent and Intelligibility in Pronunciation Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Murray J.; Derwing, Tracey M.

    2011-01-01

    Our goal in developing this timeline was to trace the empirical bases of current approaches to L2 pronunciation teaching, with particular attention to the concepts of "accent" and "intelligibility". The process of identifying suitable works for inclusion challenged us in several ways. First, the number of empirical studies of pronunciation…

  15. The Effectiveness of L2 Pronunciation Instruction: A Narrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Ron I.; Derwing, Tracey M.

    2015-01-01

    Research on the efficacy of second language (L2) pronunciation instruction has produced mixed results, despite reports of significant improvement in many studies. Possible explanations for divergent outcomes include learner individual differences, goals and foci of instruction, type and duration of instructional input, and assessment procedures.…

  16. The Role of Formal Rules in Pronunciation Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Wayne B.

    Both aural-oral practice with the sounds of English and formal rules are important in pronunciation instruction, and have a role to play in interlanguage development. Formal rules provide self-evaluation for purposes of self-correction, a process which allows learners to judge or self-correct their own utterances against rule-generated predictions…

  17. Evidence in Favor of a Broad Framework for Pronunciation Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derwing, Tracey; Munro, Murray J.; Wiebe, Grace

    1998-01-01

    Native English-speaking (NS) listeners evaluated effects of three types of instruction (segmental accuracy; general speaking habits and prosodic factors; and no specific pronunciation instruction) on speech of three groups of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) learners. Sentences were recorded and extemporaneously produced narratives at beginning…

  18. Teaching Pronunciation in the Learner-Centered Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsiang-Pao; And Others

    Specific tools and techniques to help students of English as a Second Language overcome pronunciation problems are presented. The selection of problems addressed is based on the frequency and seriousness of errors that many native Chinese-speaking learners produce. Ways to resolve various problems (e.g., missing final consonants, misplaced stress…

  19. An Empirical Study of Pronunciation Errors in French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Joel

    1980-01-01

    Presents results of a study that sought to test the pronunciation problems of a large number of American students in a beginning college-level French course. Learner difficulties over a 15-week period were used to create a hierarchy of minimal contrasts representing major, secondary, and minor problems for the students in learning French sounds.…

  20. Turkish EFL Pre-Service Teachers' Pronunciation Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardakçi, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    This classroom research deals with pronunciation problems that Turkish EFL teacher candidates would encounter. The participants were 22 EFL pre-service teachers with B2 level of proficiency in English. The presentations which were carried out by these participants were analyzed both by the participants themselves and the researcher. The results…

  1. Language Awareness and Second Language Pronunciation: A Classroom Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Sara; Trofimovich, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    We examined the relationship between the quality of second language (L2) learners' language awareness (as shown through dialogue journal entries) and the quality of their L2 pronunciation (as assessed through listener-based ratings of accentedness, comprehensibility, and fluency). The participants were 10 students enrolled in a 13-week…

  2. The ‘vivid sociolinguistic profiling’ of Received Pronunciation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Anne

    2006-01-01

    The present paper contributes to an ongoing debate on the sociolinguistic situation of modern Received Pronunciation (hereafter RP) , the social elite accent of England (Milroy 2001; Mugglestone 2003). It reports on an attitudinal study which elicited openended as well as scaled responses...

  3. Pronunciation modelling of foreign words for Sepedi ASR

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Modipa, T

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available , specifically: (1) using language-specific letter-to-sound rules to predict the pronunciation of each word (based on the language of the word) and mapping foreign phonemes to Sepedi phonemes using linguistically motivated mappings, (2) experimenting with data...

  4. Speechant: A Vowel Notation System to Teach English Pronunciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Reis, Jorge; Hazan, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a new vowel notation system aimed at aiding the teaching of English pronunciation. This notation system, designed as an enhancement to orthographic text, was designed to use concepts borrowed from the representation of musical notes and is also linked to the acoustic characteristics of vowel sounds. Vowel timbre is…

  5. Integrating Form and Meaning in L2 Pronunciation Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Talia

    2009-01-01

    One of the central challenges of ESL teaching is striking the right balance between form and meaning. In pronunciation pedagogy, this challenge is compounded because repetitive practice, which has been shown to enhance phonological acquisition and promote fluency, is widely viewed as being incompatible with communicative principles. This article…

  6. Effects of Word Class Differences on L2 Pronunciation Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeni-Komshian, Grace H.; Robbins, Medina; Flege, James E.

    2001-01-01

    Examined effect of word class (nouns vs. verbs) on second language pronunciation accuracy of Korean-English adult bilinguals whose age of arrival in the United States ranged from 6 to 23 years. Transcriptions of their productions of English indicated they were more accurate in pronouncing verbs than nouns and were more accurate in detecting…

  7. Speechant: A Vowel Notation System to Teach English Pronunciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Reis, Jorge; Hazan, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a new vowel notation system aimed at aiding the teaching of English pronunciation. This notation system, designed as an enhancement to orthographic text, was designed to use concepts borrowed from the representation of musical notes and is also linked to the acoustic characteristics of vowel sounds. Vowel timbre is…

  8. English Pronunciation Errors: A Case Study of Amhara and Oromia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unique firstlady

    attributed to the earlier teachers of English in Ethiopia and the influence of the sound system ..... Psalm /sa:m/ psychology /saIklI/ psychic /saIkIk/. Pseudo /sju:d/ corps /k/ ... Let the students know aspects of their pronunciation that result in other ...

  9. Factors Interfering Chinese Students’ English Pronunciation and Its Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王茜

    2011-01-01

    In English learning, undesirable pronunciation of vowels and intonation that plagues Chinese students in many ways is caused by the interference of mother tongue, accents and system of examination. In order to correct the errors, teachers, students and the system need to adjust themselves accordingly.

  10. Vocabulary Teaching Strategies in College

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱荣

    2009-01-01

    We all focus on the students' abilities of listening, speaking, wading, writing and translating in college teaching. But actually, it is nothing without vocabulary. Thus, vocabulary teaching is an essential part in English teaching. However, seme traditional teaching takes vocabuhury out from the context, which costs a lot of time and energy, but students are involved in the dull circle of memorizing to forgetting to memorizing again. Finally, they lose their patience on English learning and maybe give it up. In this paper, we discuss some vocabulary teaching strategies, so as to help the memorizing of vocabulary and enhance the efficiency of vocabulary teaching and learning.

  11. Grammar Games: A Case for Instructionist Game Models to Enhance Grammar Awareness and Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftery, Brian; Santos, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Based on our own experiences teaching grammar in developmental writing classes and classes not dedicated to writing instruction, along with a history of scholarship that indicates a need for grammar pedagogies (e.g., Dougherty, 2012), instructor-designed grammar games can likely help facilitate learning about these mechanics of writing while…

  12. The Value of Grammar m English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小艳

    2011-01-01

    Few students know that grammar is acquired naturally; it need not be taught. Grammar is often misunderstood in the language teaching. There are some students thinking it a waste of time to memorize the rules. They even claim that if the structures are taught, the lessons will be boring. This paper will help to realize how helpful and useful as well as beneficial learning English grammar well will be, not only for students, but also for teachers.

  13. The Grammar of Linguistic Semiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durst-Andersen, Per

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a new typology of linguistic signs primarily based on Peirce’s sign conception. It is demonstrated that the fundamental simple sign, the symbolic nominal lexeme, has an arbitrary relationship to its object in order to make it omnipotent, that is, open to various possible......) 'it cannot by itself refer, but must have a vehicle, a grammar. There is an obligatory choice between three types of grammar corresponding to the three ways in which a state of affairs exists in a communication situation: (1) the situation as such in a real or in an imagined world being common...... it is impossible to find a matching experience in the hearer’s store of experiences. In other words, the static linguistic symbol needs an index that needs an icon (or the lack of an icon) in order for it to be properly decoded by the hearer. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that in addition to the level of naming...

  14. Ternate Malay: grammar and texts

    OpenAIRE

    Litamahuputty, Bathseba Helena Johanna

    2012-01-01

    This book is the first grammar on Ternate Malay, a local variety of Malay spoken on the island of Ternate, North-Moluccas, Indonesia. It is a language with words flexible in function and meaning, which do not bear overtly expressed features to indicate grammatical functions. Linguistic tools traditionally used to distinguish between word classes do not work satisfactorily for this language. Certain lexical items and their position in a string of words serve as indicators of relationships betw...

  15. Writing Study and Grammar Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马青

    2013-01-01

    This study is undertaken to describe,classify and analyze the problems in Chinese college students’ writing of CET-4 through contrastive analysis,statistical analysis and error analysis.The main problems appearing in CET-4 writing are the wrong usage of words,sentence structures and the lack of coherence.Meanwhile it proves grammar study plays an important and basic role in CET-4 writing.

  16. Don't just repeat after me: retrieval practice is better than imitation for foreign vocabulary learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sean H K; Gollan, Tamar H; Pashler, Harold

    2013-12-01

    Second language (L2) instruction programs often ask learners to repeat aloud words spoken by a native speaker. However, recent research on retrieval practice has suggested that imitating native pronunciation might be less effective than drill instruction, wherein the learner is required to produce the L2 words from memory (and given feedback). We contrasted the effectiveness of imitation and retrieval practice drills on learning L2 spoken vocabulary. Learners viewed pictures of objects and heard their names; in the imitation condition, they heard and then repeated aloud each name, whereas in the retrieval practice condition, they tried to produce the name before hearing it. On a final test administered either immediately after training (Exp. 1) or after a 2-day delay (Exp. 2), retrieval practice produced better comprehension of the L2 words, better ability to produce the L2 words, and no loss of pronunciation quality.

  17. Evaluation of a Grammar of French Determiners

    CERN Document Server

    Laporte, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Existing syntactic grammars of natural languages, even with a far from complete coverage, are complex objects. Assessments of the quality of parts of such grammars are useful for the validation of their construction. We evaluated the quality of a grammar of French determiners that takes the form of a recursive transition network. The result of the application of this local grammar gives deeper syntactic information than chunking or information available in treebanks. We performed the evaluation by comparison with a corpus independently annotated with information on determiners. We obtained 86% precision and 92% recall on text not tagged for parts of speech.

  18. Analyzing Ambiguity of Context-Free Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Giegerich, Robert; Møller, Anders

    2010-01-01

    It has been known since 1962 that the ambiguity problem for context-free grammars is undecidable. Ambiguity in context-free grammars is a recurring problem in language design and parser generation, as well as in applications where grammars are used as models of real-world physical structures. We...... observe that there is a simple linguistic characterization of the grammar ambiguity problem, and we show how to exploit this by presenting an ambiguity analysis framework based on conservative language approximations. As a concrete example, we propose a technique based on local regular approximations...

  19. English Traditional Grammars An international perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Leitner, Gerhard

    1991-01-01

    Until recently grammars of English have received surprisingly little scholarly attention, while a lot of research is done on dictionaries. It appears, however, that learners of English shy away from modern grammars and prefer to consult dictionaries or traditional reference grammars instead. This raises questions as to the relationship between theoretical linguistics and grammar writing and calls for more research into this area, especially for the period from 1800 onwards, which was crucial for the development of grammatical thinking and its acceptance (or rejection) at all educational levels

  20. Product Grammars for Alignment and Folding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höner Zu Siederdissen, Christian; Hofacker, Ivo L; Stadler, Peter F

    2015-01-01

    We develop a theory of algebraic operations over linear and context-free grammars that makes it possible to combine simple "atomic" grammars operating on single sequences into complex, multi-dimensional grammars. We demonstrate the utility of this framework by constructing the search spaces of complex alignment problems on multiple input sequences explicitly as algebraic expressions of very simple one-dimensional grammars. In particular, we provide a fully worked frameshift-aware, semiglobal DNA-protein alignment algorithm whose grammar is composed of products of small, atomic grammars. The compiler accompanying our theory makes it easy to experiment with the combination of multiple grammars and different operations. Composite grammars can be written out in L(A)T(E)X for documentation and as a guide to implementation of dynamic programming algorithms. An embedding in Haskell as a domain-specific language makes the theory directly accessible to writing and using grammar products without the detour of an external compiler. Software and supplemental files available here: http://www.bioinf. uni-leipzig.de/Software/gramprod/.

  1. A Brief Study on the Grammar Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李爱华

    2013-01-01

    Grammar has been an important part of school teaching, language study and applying, and the word grammar has vari-ous definitions. During the development of linguistics, lots of grammatical schools emerge, and different schools have different opinions on grammar. This article first of all presents some different definitions and theories of different grammatical schools. It then analyses some main grammatical theories of those schools. Finally, it airs the present writer ’s view about the nature of gram-mar by analyzing specifically the opinions of those different grammatical schools.

  2. Grammar and Its Teaching: Challenging the Myths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Diane Larsen-Freeman

    2008-01-01

    @@ Grammar is often misunderstood in the language teaching field.The misconception lies in the view that grammar is a collection of arbitrary rules about static structures in the language.Further questionable claims are that the structures do not have to be taught,learners will acquire them on their own,or if the structures are taught,the lessons that ensue will he boring.Consequently,communicative and proficiency-based teaching approaches sometimes unduly limit grammar instruction.Of the many claims about grammar that deserve to be called myths,this digest will challenge ten.

  3. Modelling Vocabulary Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meara, Paul

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes some simple simulation models of vocabulary attrition. The attrition process is modelled using a random autonomous Boolean network model, and some parallels with real attrition data are drawn. The paper argues that applying a complex systems approach to attrition can provide some important insights, which suggest that real…

  4. Building Your Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ScottThornbury

    2004-01-01

    “I'm not 100% convinced that memorizing the dictionary is the best way of improving your vocabulary,” says the character played by Hugh Grant in Woody Allen's film Small Time Crooks.Yet why not?Ifyou could memorize the dictionary-or even

  5. Reading vocabulary knowledge and deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, P

    1996-01-01

    With respect to reading vocabulary knowledge and deafness, this article addresses two broad questions: (1) Why is vocabulary knowledge related to reading comprehension ability? (2) How is reading vocabulary (i.e., word meanings) acquired? The article argues that the answers to these questions are best addressed by a vocabulary acquisition model labeled the knowledge model. In essence, this model asserts that both breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge are critical. It is necessary to teach vocabulary, especially to poor readers, who are not likely to derive many word meanings from the use of context during natural or deliberate reading situations. On the basis of theoretical and research syntheses, the article offers implications for vocabulary instruction for deaf children and adolescents.

  6. The minimalist grammar of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastra, Katerina; Aloimonos, Yiannis

    2012-01-12

    Language and action have been found to share a common neural basis and in particular a common 'syntax', an analogous hierarchical and compositional organization. While language structure analysis has led to the formulation of different grammatical formalisms and associated discriminative or generative computational models, the structure of action is still elusive and so are the related computational models. However, structuring action has important implications on action learning and generalization, in both human cognition research and computation. In this study, we present a biologically inspired generative grammar of action, which employs the structure-building operations and principles of Chomsky's Minimalist Programme as a reference model. In this grammar, action terminals combine hierarchically into temporal sequences of actions of increasing complexity; the actions are bound with the involved tools and affected objects and are governed by certain goals. We show, how the tool role and the affected-object role of an entity within an action drives the derivation of the action syntax in this grammar and controls recursion, merge and move, the latter being mechanisms that manifest themselves not only in human language, but in human action too.

  7. Change of Iranian EFL Teachers' Traditional Pedagogical Methods through Using "Pronunciation Power" Software in the Instruction of English Pronunciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilakjani, Abbas Pourhosein; Sabouri, Narjes Banou

    2014-01-01

    The use of computer technology in learning and teaching has been studied by many studies but less research has been conducted for understanding users' feeling toward it and how this technology helps teachers develop their teaching methods. One of the computer technologies for the instruction of English pronunciation is "Pronunciation…

  8. Native-speaker and English as a lingua franca pronunciation norms: English majors’ views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Wach

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Within the communicative approach to English as a foreign language (EFL teaching, the aims of instruction are primarily to enable learners to communicate; hence, functional and communicative intelligibility has become the goal of pronunciation training. On the other hand, contemporary approaches to EFL teaching leave sufficient room for accommodating the individual learner and contextual factors which largely influence the choice of the target pronunciation models. Moreover, in a globalized world, where English has become a contemporary lingua franca for intercultural communication, the pronunciation norms of English as a Lingua Franca (ELF appear to meet the needs and expectations of learners of English in international settings, coexisting with or replacing native-speaker pronunciation models as the target of instruction. The ELF approach and the Lingua Franca Core elaborated by Jenkins (2000, 2002 have aroused controversy among both researchers and EFL teachers. The paper presents the findings of a questionnaire study involving 234 Polish students, English majors, which aimed to determine their preferences and opinions concerning native-speaker and ELF norms as pronunciation instruction targets. The findings revealed a strong preference for native-like pronunciation models in the subjects’ own language development and a less strong preference for such models in pronunciation teaching at all levels of proficiency. Moreover, the results pointed to the significant role played by the intensity of pronunciation training and the level of awareness of native-speaker pronunciation models in shaping the subjects’ attitudes toward native-like and ELF pronunciation norms.

  9. Notions Catalog. Polish Functional Grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woytak, Lidia

    The Polish notions catalog systematizes a variety of informational codes used in Polish, resulting in lists of notions, each presented from a structural perspective. Where applicable, they are accompanied by a morphological component, structural chart, semantic description, frequentative expressions, and related vocabulary items. The notions…

  10. SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION: GRAMMAR CONSTRUCTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    same general cognitive problem-solving mechanisms that are involved in the acquisition of .... teaching. 3. Structural differences between Afrikaans, English and French ..... emphasis was on vocabulary, reading and writing, and English was frequently ... in a story-telling task and a question task based on a picture sequence.

  11. Missed periods and other grammar scares how to avoid unplanned and unwanted grammar errors

    CERN Document Server

    Baranick, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    Grammar has finally let its hair down! Unlike uptight grammar books that overwhelm us with every single grammar rule, Missed Periods and Other Grammar Scares is like a bikini: it's fun, flirty, and covers only the most important bits. Its lessons, which are 100 percent free of complicated grammar jargon, have been carefully selected to include today's most common, noticeable errors-the ones that confuse our readers or make them wonder if we are, in fact, smarter than a fifth grader. What is the proper use of an apostrophe? When should an ellipsis be used instead of an em dash? Why do we capita

  12. The Language of Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldfield, Christine

    1996-01-01

    Describes aspects of learning the language of mathematics including vocabulary and grammar, the origins of the vocabulary, the pronunciation problem, and translation of English phrases and sentences into mathematical language accompanied by conceptual understanding of the process being described. Gives suggestions for teachers in class and…

  13. The pace of vocabulary growth helps predict later vocabulary skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Meredith L; Raudenbush, Stephen W; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Children vary widely in the rate at which they acquire words--some start slow and speed up, others start fast and continue at a steady pace. Do early developmental variations of this sort help predict vocabulary skill just prior to kindergarten entry? This longitudinal study starts by examining important predictors (socioeconomic status [SES], parent input, child gesture) of vocabulary growth between 14 and 46 months (n = 62) and then uses growth estimates to predict children's vocabulary at 54 months. Velocity and acceleration in vocabulary development at 30 months predicted later vocabulary, particularly for children from low-SES backgrounds. Understanding the pace of early vocabulary growth thus improves our ability to predict school readiness and may help identify children at risk for starting behind.

  14. The effect of vocabulary notebooks on vocabulary acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Bozkurt, Neval

    2007-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Teaching English as a Foreign Language, Bilkent University, 2007. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2007. Includes bibliographical references leaves 82-87 This study investigated the effectiveness of vocabulary notebooks on vocabulary acquisition, and the attitudes of teachers and learners towards keeping vocabulary notebooks. The study was conducted with the participation of 60 pre-intermediate level students, divided into one treatment ...

  15. IV. NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (CB): measuring language (vocabulary comprehension and reading decoding).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, Richard C; Slotkin, Jerry; Manly, Jennifer J; Blitz, David L; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Schnipke, Deborah; Wallner-Allen, Kathleen; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Gleason, Jean Berko; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Adams, Marilyn Jager; Weintraub, Sandra

    2013-08-01

    Mastery of language skills is an important predictor of daily functioning and health. Vocabulary comprehension and reading decoding are relatively quick and easy to measure and correlate highly with overall cognitive functioning, as well as with success in school and work. New measures of vocabulary comprehension and reading decoding (in both English and Spanish) were developed for the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (CB). In the Toolbox Picture Vocabulary Test (TPVT), participants hear a spoken word while viewing four pictures, and then must choose the picture that best represents the word. This approach tests receptive vocabulary knowledge without the need to read or write, removing the literacy load for children who are developing literacy and for adults who struggle with reading and writing. In the Toolbox Oral Reading Recognition Test (TORRT), participants see a letter or word onscreen and must pronounce or identify it. The examiner determines whether it was pronounced correctly by comparing the response to the pronunciation guide on a separate computer screen. In this chapter, we discuss the importance of language during childhood and the relation of language and brain function. We also review the development of the TPVT and TORRT, including information about the item calibration process and results from a validation study. Finally, the strengths and weaknesses of the measures are discussed.

  16. What Is Grammar, Who Is She?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heafford, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Attempts to clarify the role of grammar in second-language instruction. It is suggested that changes in language teaching have encouraged the view that grammar is one of several dimensions along which learners need to progress to achieve greater proficiency but that it should not be dominant. (22 references) (CK)

  17. Reading and Grammar Learning through Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shudong; Smith, Simon

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an ongoing language-learning project, three years into its development. We examine both the feasibility and the limitations of developing English reading and grammar skills through the interface of mobile phones. Throughout the project, reading and grammar materials were regularly sent to students' mobile phones. Students read…

  18. The Role of Output in Grammar Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹莉; 段薇; 谢璐

    2014-01-01

    In China, English teachers tend to emphasize a lot on the importance of grammar learning because knowledge of gram⁃mar is the base of the competence of communication. This thesis just focuses on how output affects students ’grammar learning by analyzing the role of output in learning of English and the strategies of English learning.

  19. Making a Case for Rhetorical Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micciche, Laura R.

    2004-01-01

    Rhetorical grammar analysis encourages students to view writing as a material social practice in which meaning is actively made, rather than passively relayed or effortlessly produced. The study of rhetorical grammar can demonstrate to students that language does purposeful, consequential work in the world--work that can be learned and applied.

  20. Reading and Grammar Learning through Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shudong; Smith, Simon

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an ongoing language-learning project, three years into its development. We examine both the feasibility and the limitations of developing English reading and grammar skills through the interface of mobile phones. Throughout the project, reading and grammar materials were regularly sent to students' mobile phones. Students…

  1. From Attribute Grammars to Constraint Handling Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serrano Mena, A.; Hage, J.

    2016-01-01

    Attribute grammars provide a framework to de ne compu- tations over trees, by decorating those trees with attributes. Attribute grammars have been successfully applied in many areas, including compiler construction and natural language processing. In this paper we present a translation of attribute

  2. Grammar-Based Teaching: A Practitioner's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azar, Betty

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses the role of grammar in second language instruction from the point of view of a longtime practitioner. It outlines the basic methods and assumptions underlying Grammar-Based Teaching (GBT), which the author sees as an effective, ever-evolving, and widespread pedagogical practice. The article discusses the importance of…

  3. Student Teacher Beliefs on Grammar Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graus, Johan; Coppen, Peter-Arno

    2016-01-01

    The role of grammar teaching in foreign language education is a controversial one both in second language acquisition (SLA) research and language pedagogy and, as a result, a potential source of confusion to student teachers. The objective of this study was to gain insight into the beliefs on grammar teaching of student teachers of English as a…

  4. Probe into Methods of Teaching English Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春华

    2011-01-01

    @@ 1 Definition of grammar People sometlmes descibe grammaras the "rules" of a language, to be accurate,grammar is the science dealing with thesystematic rules of a language,its forms,inflections,syntax,and the rules of usingthem correctly.It is summarized from lan-guage use and practice,and reflects thelogic of thinking in people's speech orwriting.

  5. Second Language Acquisition and Universal Grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lydia

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the motivation for Universal Grammar (UG), as assumed in the principles and parameters framework of generative grammar (Chomsky, 1981), focusing on the logical problem of first-language acquisition and the potential role of UG in second-language acquisition. Recent experimental research regarding the second-language status of the…

  6. Towards a Framework for Teaching Spoken Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmis, Ivor

    2005-01-01

    Since the advent of spoken corpora, descriptions of native speaker spoken grammar have become far more detailed and comprehensive. These insights, however, have been relatively slow to filter through to ELT practice. The aim of this article is to outline an approach to the teaching of native-speaker spoken grammar which is not only pedagogically…

  7. Grammar and Usage: History and Myth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Ken

    2010-01-01

    The paper first traces the history of thinking about language from the Greek writers of the fifth century BC to the development of the first Greek grammar in about 100 BC. Since the glories of Ancient Greek literature predate the development of grammar, there is every reason to doubt the received wisdom that one must have an explicit knowledge of…

  8. Grammar-Guided Writing for AAC Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunnicutt, Sheri; Magnuson, Tina

    2007-01-01

    A method of grammar-guided writing has been devised to guide graphic sign users through the construction of text messages for use in e-mail and other applications with a remote receiver. The purpose is to promote morphologically and syntactically correct sentences. The available grammatical structures in grammar-guided writing are the highest…

  9. Parsing with Structure-Preserving Categorial Grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capelletti, M.

    2007-01-01

    This book is a study of the logical and computational properties of structure-preserving categorial grammars. The first part of the book presents chart-parsers for non-associative categorial grammars in the style of Ajdukiewicz and Bar-Hillel. These are proposed in Chapter 3 as deductive parsers, th

  10. Research into Practice: Grammar Learning and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    2015-01-01

    This selective review of the second language acquisition and applied linguistics research literature on grammar learning and teaching falls into three categories: where research has had little impact (the non-interface position), modest impact (form-focused instruction), and where it potentially can have a large impact (reconceiving grammar).…

  11. Reading and Grammar Learning through Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shudong; Smith, Simon

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an ongoing language-learning project, three years into its development. We examine both the feasibility and the limitations of developing English reading and grammar skills through the interface of mobile phones. Throughout the project, reading and grammar materials were regularly sent to students' mobile phones. Students read…

  12. Video Game Based Learning in English Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singaravelu, G.

    2008-01-01

    The study enlightens the effectiveness of Video Game Based Learning in English Grammar at standard VI. A Video Game package was prepared and it consisted of self-learning activities in play way manner which attracted the minds of the young learners. Chief objective: Find out the effectiveness of Video-Game based learning in English grammar.…

  13. Albanian Basic Course: Exercises in Grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This volume of exercises in grammar has been designed by the Defense Language Institute as a supplement to volumes 2-6 to reinforce and overlearn grammar patterns, with emphasis on case structure through specially developed sentences. Contents include exercises on: (1) interrogative pronouns, (2) declension of nouns, (3) demonstrative adjectives,…

  14. Exploring Dyslexics' Phonological Deficit II: Phonological Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szenkovits, Gayaneh; Darma, Quynliaan; Darcy, Isabelle; Ramus, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Language learners have to acquire the phonological grammar of their native language, and different levels of representations on which the grammar operates. Developmental dyslexia is associated with a phonological deficit, which is commonly assumed to stem from degraded phonological representations. The present study investigates one aspect of the…

  15. Towards a Pedagogy of Grammar Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jack C.; Reppen, Randi

    2014-01-01

    Grammar can be viewed both as knowledge and as ability. When viewed as knowledge, the focus is on rules for sentence formation. When viewed as ability, the focus is on how grammar is used as a resource in the creation of spoken and written texts. Twelve principles are proposed as the basis for a pedagogy that focusses on acquiring learning to use…

  16. Flexible Processing and the Design of Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sag, Ivan A.; Wasow, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We explore the consequences of letting the incremental and integrative nature of language processing inform the design of competence grammar. What emerges is a view of grammar as a system of local monotonic constraints that provide a direct characterization of the signs (the form-meaning correspondences) of a given language. This…

  17. Studying Grammar in the Technological Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    2012-01-01

    When being a student in grade school as well as in high school (1934-1946), grammar was heavily emphasized in English/language arts classes, particularly in grades four through the senior year in high school. Evidently, teachers and school administrators then saw a theoretical way to assist pupils in writing achievement. Grammar and writing were…

  18. Research into Practice: Grammar Learning and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    2015-01-01

    This selective review of the second language acquisition and applied linguistics research literature on grammar learning and teaching falls into three categories: where research has had little impact (the non-interface position), modest impact (form-focused instruction), and where it potentially can have a large impact (reconceiving grammar).…

  19. Pratiquer une grammaire textuelle (Practicing Textual Grammar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdet, Jean-Francois

    1992-01-01

    A discussion of textual, as contrasted with traditional, grammar for French second-language instruction argues that textual grammar is essential for acquisition of communicative competence because it identifies grammatical facts relevant to everyday communication and allows the student to experience the construction of meaning through them. (MSE)

  20. VOCABULARY AND LANGUAGE TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrudan Cristiana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have looked at the difference between teaching language structure and teaching vocabulary. We have discussed how counts of frequency alone are not enough to determine what words should be taught. We have seen that knowing a word means more than just knowing its meaning. Even that is problematical since meaning includes sense relations and context, for example. To know a word we also need to know about its use, how it is formed and what grammatical behavior it provokes. Above all, in this paper, we have approached the idea of how vocabulary teaching and learning need to be emphasized in order for students to be competent language users.