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Sample records for vo4 polyhedra surrounding

  1. Uniform polyhedra

    CERN Document Server

    Melikhov, Sergey A

    2011-01-01

    Although topological and uniform approaches to foundations of what was then known as Analysis Situs originated in the same works by M. Frechet and F. Riesz, uniform spaces hopelessly lagged behind in development, and were never taken seriously in algebraic and geometric topology, due in part to the lack of a coherent theory of quotient spaces, and of a reasonable notion of a polyhedron in the uniform category. Yet there are painful side effects of the usual topological foundations: for instance, the non-metrizability of the cone over the real line, and the non-metrizability of RP^\\infty (as a CW-complex or as the geometric realization of a simplicial set). We show that (the topology of) quotient uniformity is, after all, far nicer than quotient topology in the context of metrizable spaces, and that (metrizable, possibly locally infinite-dimensional) uniform polyhedra do exist - and behave nicely - which appears to provide a satisfactory solution to an old open-ended problem by Isbell.

  2. Redetermination of brackebuschite, Pb2Mn3+(VO4)2(OH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente, Barbara; Downs, Robert T.

    2016-01-01

    The crystal structure of brackebuschite, ideally Pb2Mn3+(VO4)2(OH) [dilead(II) manganese(III) vanadate(V) hydroxide], was redetermined based on single-crystal X-ray diffraction data of a natural sample from the type locality Sierra de Cordoba, Argentina. Improving on previous results, anisotropic displacement parameters for all non-H atoms were refined and the H atom located, obtaining a significant improvement of accuracy and an unambiguous hydrogen-bonding scheme. Brackebuschite belongs to the brackebuschite group of minerals with general formula A 2 M(T1O4)(T2O4)(OH, H2O), with A = Pb2+, Ba, Ca, Sr; M = Cu2+, Zn, Fe2+, Fe3+, Mn3+, Al; T1 = As5+, P, V5+; and T2 = As5+, P, V5+, S6+. The crystal structure of brackebuschite is based on a cubic closest-packed array of O and Pb atoms with infinite chains of edge-sharing [Mn3+O6] octa­hedra located about inversion centres and decorated by two unique VO4 tetra­hedra (each located on a special position 2e, site symmetry m). One type of VO4 tetra­hedra is linked with the 1 ∞[MnO4/2O2/1] chain by one common vertex, alternating with H atoms along the chain, while the other type of VO4 tetra­hedra link two adjacent octa­hedra by sharing two vertices with them and thereby participating in the formation of a three-membered Mn2V ring between the central atoms. The 1 ∞[Mn3+(VO4)2OH] chains run parallel to [010] and are held together by two types of irregular [PbOx] polyhedra (x = 8, 11), both located on special position 2e (site symmetry m). The magnitude of the libration component of the O atoms of the 1 ∞[Mn3+(VO4)2OH] chain increases linearly with the distance from the centerline of the chain, indicating a significant twisting to and fro of the chain along [010]. The hy­droxy group bridges one Pb2+ cation with two Mn3+ cations and forms an almost linear hydrogen bond with a vanadate group of a neighbouring chain. The O⋯O distance of this inter­action determined from the structure refinement agrees well with

  3. Redetermination of brackebuschite, Pb2Mn(3+)(VO4)2(OH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente, Barbara; Downs, Robert T

    2016-03-01

    The crystal structure of brackebuschite, ideally Pb2Mn(3+)(VO4)2(OH) [dilead(II) manganese(III) vanadate(V) hydroxide], was redetermined based on single-crystal X-ray diffraction data of a natural sample from the type locality Sierra de Cordoba, Argentina. Improving on previous results, anisotropic displacement parameters for all non-H atoms were refined and the H atom located, obtaining a significant improvement of accuracy and an unambiguous hydrogen-bonding scheme. Brackebuschite belongs to the brackebuschite group of minerals with general formula A 2 M(T1O4)(T2O4)(OH, H2O), with A = Pb(2+), Ba, Ca, Sr; M = Cu(2+), Zn, Fe(2+), Fe(3+), Mn(3+), Al; T1 = As(5+), P, V(5+); and T2 = As(5+), P, V(5+), S(6+). The crystal structure of brackebuschite is based on a cubic closest-packed array of O and Pb atoms with infinite chains of edge-sharing [Mn(3+)O6] octa-hedra located about inversion centres and decorated by two unique VO4 tetra-hedra (each located on a special position 2e, site symmetry m). One type of VO4 tetra-hedra is linked with the (1) ∞[MnO4/2O2/1] chain by one common vertex, alternating with H atoms along the chain, while the other type of VO4 tetra-hedra link two adjacent octa-hedra by sharing two vertices with them and thereby participating in the formation of a three-membered Mn2V ring between the central atoms. The (1) ∞[Mn(3+)(VO4)2OH] chains run parallel to [010] and are held together by two types of irregular [PbO x ] polyhedra (x = 8, 11), both located on special position 2e (site symmetry m). The magnitude of the libration component of the O atoms of the (1) ∞[Mn(3+)(VO4)2OH] chain increases linearly with the distance from the centerline of the chain, indicating a significant twisting to and fro of the chain along [010]. The hy-droxy group bridges one Pb(2+) cation with two Mn(3+) cations and forms an almost linear hydrogen bond with a vanadate group of a neighbouring chain. The O⋯O distance of this inter-action determined from the

  4. Classical and Quantum Polyhedra

    CERN Document Server

    Schliemann, John

    2014-01-01

    Quantum polyhedra constructed from angular momentum operators are the building blocks of space in its quantum description as advocated by Loop Quantum Gravity. Here we extend previous results on the semiclassical properties of quantum polyhedra. Regarding tetrahedra, we compare the results from a canonical quantization of the classical system with a recent wave function based approach to the large-volume sector of the quantum system. Both methods agree in the leading order of the resulting effective operator (given by an harmonic oscillator), while minor differences occur in higher corrections. Perturbative inclusion of such corrections improves the approximation to the eigenstates. Moreover, the comparison of both methods leads also to a full wave function description of the eigenstates of the (square of the) volume operator at negative eigenvalues of large modulus. For the case of general quantum polyhedra described by discrete angular momentum quantum numbers we formulate a set of quantum operators fulfill...

  5. Selective Filter Effect Induced by Cu(2+) Adsorption on the Fluorescence of a GdVO4:Eu Nanoprobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunsub; Jeong, Heejin; Byeon, Song-Ho

    2016-06-22

    Human blood contains substantial amounts of metal ions such as Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Fe(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), Pb(2+), and Al(3+). Most biomedical applications of nanoparticles require understanding the influence of these metal ions because adsorbed metal ions can affect the function of nanoparticles to limit their sensitivity, performance, stability, and/or resolution in applications. In the present work, the adsorption of various metal ions at the surface of GdVO4:Eu nanoparticles was studied to assess their spectral filter effect on the fluorescence of GdVO4:Eu. Due to the negative surface potential, the electrostatic attraction caused an intensive adsorption reaction of GdVO4:Eu nanoparticles with metal cations. Compared to the adsorption of other common metal ions in human blood, the distinct fluorescence quenching of GdVO4:Eu was induced in the presence of Cu(2+) ions. On the basis of the UV-vis absorption spectrum of an aqueous CuCl2 solution and reflectance spectrum of Cu(OH)2, in which the surroundings of Cu(2+) ions are supposedly similar to the hydroxylated surface of GdVO4:Eu nanoparticles, it is proposed that the complementary overlap of the emission band of GdVO4:Eu with the absorption band of Cu(2+) results in the effective filter effect to quench the red emission. Because GdVO4:Eu nanoparticles are attractive candidates for applications as magnetic/fluorescent multimodal nanoprobes, it is important to recognize that the average amount of Cu(2+) ion in human blood is sufficient to interfere with or limit the fluorescence probe function of GdVO4:Eu nanoparticles.

  6. BiVO4 nanoparticles: Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkataraman Sivakumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth vanadate (BiVO4 nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple thermal decomposition method. The synthesized bismuth vanadate nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, it is found that the synthesized sample belongs to monoclinic BiVO4. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirms the formation of Bi-O bond in the sample. Ultraviolet–Visible (DRS-UV–Visible spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy reveal the optical property of the BiVO4 nanoparticles. The morphology was identified by both scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Further, the photocatalytic activity of BiVO4 nanoparticles was investigated by photodegradation of methylene blue as a model organic pollutant.

  7. Integer Quadratic Quasi-polyhedra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letchford, Adam N.

    This paper introduces two fundamental families of 'quasi-polyhedra' - polyhedra with a countably infinite number of facets - that arise in the context of integer quadratic programming. It is shown that any integer quadratic program can be reduced to the minimisation of a linear function over a quasi-polyhedron in the first family. Some fundamental properties of the quasi-polyhedra are derived, along with connections to some other well-studied convex sets. Several classes of facet-inducing inequalities are also derived. Finally, extensions to the mixed-integer case are briefly examined.

  8. Bulk and electrochemical properties of BiVO4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinke, I.C.; Diepgrond, J.; Boukamp, B.A.; Vries, de K.J.; Burggraaf, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    The mixed (oxygen ionic-electronic) conductor bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) was studied with respect to its electrochemical properties. The ionic transference numbers, measured by the concentration cell method in the temperature range of 800 to 1000 K, vary from 0.7 to 0.3. The total conductivity of this

  9. Modeling polycrystals with regular polyhedra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rangel Rios

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Polycrystalline structure is of paramount importance to materials science and engineering. It provides an important example of a space-filling irregular network structure that also occurs in foams as well as in certain biological tissues. Therefore, seeking an accurate description of the characteristics of polycrystals is of fundamental importance. Recently, one of the authors (MEG published a paper in which a method was devised of representation of irregular networks by regular polyhedra with curved faces. In Glicksman's method a whole class of irregular polyhedra with a given number of faces, N, is represented by a single symmetrical polyhedron with N curved faces. This paper briefly describes the topological and metric properties of these special polyhedra. They are then applied to two important problems of irregular networks: the dimensionless energy 'cost' of irregular networks, and the derivation of a 3D analogue of the von Neumann-Mullins equation for the growth rate of grains in a polycrystal.

  10. Hydrothermal Preparation and Characterization of TiO2 /BiVO4 Composite Catalyst and its Photolysis of Water to Produce Hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Zicong; Huang, Shaobin; Cao, Yaya; Zhang, Yongqing

    2016-05-01

    In the present work, bismuth vanadate composited photocatalysts were synthesized and characterized. X-ray diffractometry and Raman results showed that the particles were well crystallized, and formed by the complex of monoclinic BiVO4 and TiO2 . On electron microscopy, the photocatalyst exhibited high crystallization, agglutination and irregular shape, and was surrounded by numerous TiO2 particles. The study of surface areas showed that the specific surface area of 30-BiVO4 /TiO2 composited was 112 m(2) ·g(-1) , which was nearly 10 times that of pure BiVO4 . The ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectra indicated the composited photocatalyst were activated in visible light. The activity of photocatalytic water splitting was studied. The results showed that monomer BiVO4 photocatalyst was not able to produce hydrogen under any light source. BiVO4 /TiO2 composited photocatalysts, however, were capable of generating hydrogen. Under UV light irradiation for 120 min, 1 g catalyst dispersed in 50 mL deionized water produced almost 1 mL hydrogen, such that the productivity of hydrogen was higher than that of P25-TiO2 . Photocatalytic decomposition of water under visible light also confirmed that the BiVO4 /TiO2 composited photocatalyst had the ability of water splitting.

  11. Bulk and electrochemical properties of BiVO4

    OpenAIRE

    Vinke, I.C.; Diepgrond, J. (Jan); Boukamp, B.A.; De, Vries, J.A.; Burggraaf, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    The mixed (oxygen ionic-electronic) conductor bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) was studied with respect to its electrochemical properties. The ionic transference numbers, measured by the concentration cell method in the temperature range of 800 to 1000 K, vary from 0.7 to 0.3. The total conductivity of this ceramic material isone order of magnitude lower than found for cubic yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ). The activation enthalpy for the electronic conductivity is high (193 kJ/mol) compared to the ...

  12. Enhanced charge separation and oxidation kinetics of BiVO4 photoanode by double layer structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Xiong, Yuli; Dong, Hongmei; Peng, Huarong; Zhang, Yunhuai; Xiao, Peng

    2017-03-01

    Monoclinic bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) is a promising semiconductor for photoelectrochemical water splitting. Here, we developed a facile fabrication of BiVO4 double layer photoanode on the fluorine-doped tin oxide substrate by electrodeposition. The BiVO4 double layer photoanode is composed by a dense BiVO4 film as the inner layer and a nanoporous BiVO4 film as the outer layer. Compared to the BiVO4 single layer photoanode, the optimized BiVO4 double layer photoanode produced a much higher photocurrent of 1.15 mA/cm2 at 0.6 V vs. Ag/AgCl under AM 1.5G (100 mW/cm2) illumination. The results of the photoelectric conversion kinetics for different samples revealed that the charge separation and oxidation kinetics efficiencies for the BiVO4 double layer are 47.2% and 51.6% at 0.6 V vs. Ag/AgCl, while the values for BiVO4 single layer are 32.3% and 35.8%, respectively. The improved photoelectrochemical performance for BiVO4 double layer is mainly ascribed to the decrease of defect state at the interface after inserting a dense BiVO4 as an inner layer to prevent the recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs.

  13. Steinitz theorems for simple orthogonal polyhedra

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    David Eppstein

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We define a simple orthogonal polyhedron to be a three-dimensional polyhedron with the topology of a sphere in which three mutually-perpendicular edges meet at each vertex.By analogy to Steinitz's theorem characterizing the graphs of convex polyhedra, we find graph-theoretic characterizations of three classes of simple orthogonal polyhedra: corner polyhedra, which can be drawn by isometric projection in the plane with only one hidden vertex, xyz polyhedra, in which each axis-parallel line through a vertex contains exactly one other vertex, and arbitrary simple orthogonal polyhedra. In particular, the graphs of xyz polyhedra are exactly the bipartite cubic polyhedral graphs, and every bipartite cubic polyhedral graph with a 4-connected dual graph is the graph of a corner polyhedron. Based on our characterizations we find efficient algorithms for constructing orthogonal polyhedra from their graphs.

  14. WO3/W:BiVO4/BiVO4 graded photoabsorber electrode for enhanced photoelectrocatalytic solar light driven water oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Junghyun; Sudhagar, Pitchaimuthu; Kim, Joo Hyun; Kwon, Jiseok; Kim, Jeonghyun; Terashima, Chiaki; Fujishima, Akira; Song, Taeseup; Paik, Ungyu

    2017-02-08

    We demonstrate the dual advantages of graded photoabsorbers in mesoporous metal oxide-based hetero interfacial photoanodes in improving photogenerated charge carrier (e(-)/h(+)) separation for the solar light-driven water-oxidation process. The pre-deposition of sol-gel-derived, tungsten-doped bismuth vanadate (W:BiVO4) onto a primary BiVO4 water oxidation layer forms graded interfaces, which facilitate charge transfer from the primary photoabsorber to the charge transport layer, thereby superseding the thickness-controlled charge recombination at the BiVO4 water oxidation catalyst. As a result, the WO3/BiVO4 hetero photoanode containing the photoactive W:BiVO4 interfacial layer showed 130% higher photocurrent than that of the interfacial layer-free hetero photoelectrode owing to the enhanced charge separation led water oxidation process.

  15. Uniform polyhedra: old and new

    CERN Document Server

    Melikhov, Sergey A

    2011-01-01

    We develop a theory of metric polyhedra, including locally infinite dimensional ones. Motivated by algebraic topology, we focus on their uniform properties (i.e., those preserved by homeomorphisms that are uniformly continuous in both directions) but in doing so we also study their metric and Lipschitz properties. On the combinatorial side, (the face posets of) simplicial or cubical complexes do not suffice for this, and we have to rework some basic PL topology into a purely combinatorial machinery (with all homeomorphisms eliminated in favor of combinatorial isomorphisms) based on posets and their canonical subdivision (which is just the poset of all order intervals of the given poset, ordered by inclusion). Antecedents of this approach to PL topology are found in van Kampen's 1929 dissertation and in modern Topological Combinatorics. Our main results establish, in particular, close but troubled relations between uniform polyhedra and uniform ANRs, and appear to provide a satisfactory solution to an open-end...

  16. Synthesis and modification of FeVO4 as novel anode for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaolin; Cao, Yuancheng; Zheng, Hao; Chen, Xiao; Feng, Chuanqi

    2017-02-01

    FeVO4 and FeVO4/graphene nanorods were synthesized successfully by combining a facile hydrothermal and heat treatment method. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The content of graphene in FeVO4/graphene was determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TG). The electrochemical properties of the samples were also investigated by battery testing system. The results showed that the FeVO4 formed were taken on morphology of nanorods with the length between 0.5 and 1 μm and the diameter in range of 50 to 100 nm. Besides, the size of FeVO4/graphene was smaller than that of pure FeVO4. The content of graphene in composite was about 25.0% by weight. The reversible discharge capacities of FeVO4 and FeVO4/graphene were 405.2 mAh g-1 and 1046.5 mAh g-1 separately after 100 cycles at the current density of 100 mAh g-1 in the voltage range of 0.01-3 V. The reasons for the FeVO4/graphene composite to behave outstanding electrochemical properties were also discussed. The FeVO4/graphene composite can be a novel and promising anode material for lithium ion battery application.

  17. Shape controlled synthesis and tribological properties of CeVO4 nanoparticles as lubricating additive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Fengzhen; SHAO Xin; YIN Yibin; ZHAO Limin; SHAO Zhuwei; LIU Xuehua; MENG Xianhua

    2011-01-01

    Shape controlled structure of CeVO4 nanocrystals were successfully synthesized via a hydrothermal method from Na3VO4· 12H2O and Ce(NO3)3·6H2O.The resulting products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD),electron microscopy (SEM) and other techniques.On the basis of the experimental results,CeVO4 nanoparticles exhibited the crystal tetragonal structure and the pH value of solution had an important effect on the crystal structure and morphology of CeVO4 nanoparticles.Furthermore,the tribological properties of CeVO4 nanoparticles as additives in liquid paraffin were evaluated on a four-ball tester.The results indicated that the wear resistance was improved by the additive CeVO4 nanoparticles which exhibited very good antiwear and friction reduction performance in wear.

  18. Enhancement in Photoelectrochemical Efficiency by Fabrication of BiVO4@MWCNT Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An enormous enhancement in the photo-to-current conversion efficiency over the nanocomposite material composed by BiVO4 on the surface of MWCNTs, with respect to electrode of pure BiVO4, was observed. The heterojunction formed between MWCNTs and nano-BiVO4 is beneficial for the separation of photogenerated electrons and holes, resulting in more electrons that are able to transport efficiently to the surface and therefore enhance the photoefficiency.

  19. Fe2O3-Modified Porous BiVO4 Nanoplates with Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Cai; Shu-Mei Zhou; De-Kun Ma; Shen-Nan Liu; Wei Chen; Shao-Ming Huang

    2015-01-01

    As BiVO4 is one of the most popular visible-light-responding photocatalysts, it has been widely used for visible-light-driven water splitting and environmental purification. However, the typical photocatalytic activity of unmodified BiVO4 for the degradation of organic pollutants is still not impressive. To address this limitation, we studied Fe2O3-modified porous BiVO4 nanoplates. Compared with unmodified BiVO4, the Fe2O3-modified porous BiVO4 nanoplates showed significantly enhanced photocatalytic activities in decomposing both dye and colorless pollutant models, such as rhodamine B (RhB) and phenol, respectively. The pseudo-first-order reaction rate constants for the degradation of RhB and phenol on Fe2O3-modified BiVO4 porous nanoplates are 27 and 31 times larger than that of pristine BiVO4, respectively. We also found that the Fe2O3 may act as an efficient non-precious metal co-catalyst, which is responsible for the excellent photocatalytic activity of Fe2O3/BiVO4. Graphical Abstract Fe2O3, as a cheap and efficient co-catalyst, could greatly enhance the photocatalytic activity of BiVO4 porous nanoplates in decomposing organic pollutants.

  20. Selective synthesis and growth mechanism of CeVO4 nanoparticals via hydrothermal method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Fengzhen; SHAO Xin; YIN Yibin; ZHAO Limin; SUN Qiaozhen; SHAO Zhuwei; LIU Xuehua; MENG Xianhua

    2011-01-01

    Selective-controlled structure and shape of CeVO4 nanocrystals were successfully synthesized via a hydrothermal method from electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The influence of hydrothermal temperature, precursor solution concentration on the crystal and morphology of products were further studied. The results showed that the as-synthesized products exhibited pure single-crystal CeVO4 nanoparticles with tetragonal structure. The hydrothermal temperature and precursor solution concentration had important effects on the formation of CeVO4 nanoparticles. Furthermore, the growth mechanism of CeVO4 nanoparticles was explained with Ostwald ripening mechanism.

  1. Synthesis and photocatalytic properties of InVO4 sol containing nanocrystals by mild hydrothermal processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Hai-bo; XU Ming-xia; GE Lei; HE Zhi-yuan

    2006-01-01

    The precursor precipitation of InVO4 was synthesized by co-precipitation using indium trichloride (InCl3),ammonium metavanadate (NH4VO3) and ammonia (NH3-H2O) as raw materials. The InVO4 sols with orthorhombic phase were obtained by hydrothermal treatment (the precursor precipitation solution at 423 K,for 4 h). The precursor and sol of InVO4 were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD),Fourier Transform Infra-red spectra (FT-IR),scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements. The XRD patterns indicate that the InVO4 precursor is amorphous phase,InVO4 sol contains orthorhombic InVO4 nanocrystals. The results also reveal that the pH value of the reaction mixture and reaction temperature play important roles to the target phase. InVO4-TiO2 thin films on glass slides were prepared by the dip-coating method from the composite sol. The photocatalytic properties of the InVO4-TiO2 thin films were investigated by the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange solution. The results indicate that it has better photocatalytic activities than pure TiO2 thin films or pure InVO4 thin films with UV light.

  2. Nanostructured MoS2/BiVO4 Composites for Energy Storage Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Yukti; Shah, Amit P.; Battu, Shateesh; Maliakkal, Carina B.; Haram, Santosh; Bhattacharya, Arnab; Khushalani, Deepa

    2016-11-01

    We report the optimized synthesis and electrochemical characterization of a composite of few-layered nanostructured MoS2 along with an electroactive metal oxide BiVO4. In comparison to pristine BiVO4, and a composite of graphene/BiVO4, the MoS2/BiVO4 nanocomposite provides impressive values of charge storage with longer discharge times and improved cycling stability. Specific capacitance values of 610 Fg‑1 (170 mAhg‑1) at 1 Ag‑1 and 166 Fg‑1 (46 mAhg‑1) at 10 Ag‑1 were obtained for just 2.5 wt% MoS2 loaded BiVO4. The results suggest that the explicitly synthesized small lateral-dimensioned MoS2 particles provide a notable capacitive component that helps augment the specific capacitance. We discuss the optimized synthesis of monoclinic BiVO4, and few-layered nanostructured MoS2. We report the discharge capacities and cycling performance of the MoS2/BiVO4 nanocomposite using an aqueous electrolyte. The data obtained shows the MoS2/BiVO4 nanocomposite to be a promising candidate for supercapacitor energy storage applications.

  3. Adsorption-controlled growth of BiVO4 by molecular-beam epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Stoughton

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Single-phase epitaxial films of the monoclinic polymorph of BiVO4 were synthesized by reactive molecular-beam epitaxy under adsorption-controlled conditions. The BiVO4 films were grown on (001 yttria-stabilized cubic zirconia (YSZ substrates. Four-circle x-ray diffraction, scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM, and Raman spectroscopy confirm the epitaxial growth of monoclinic BiVO4 with an atomically abrupt interface and orientation relationship (001BiVO4 ∥ (001YSZ with [100]BiVO4 ∥ [100]YSZ. Spectroscopic ellipsometry, STEM electron energy loss spectroscopy (STEM-EELS, and x-ray absorption spectroscopy indicate that the films have a direct band gap of 2.5 ± 0.1 eV.

  4. Influence of Heat Treatment on Photocatalytic Performance of BiVO4 Synthesized by Hydrothermal Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yi; Wang, Xiaomin; Zuo, Guifu; Li, Fengfeng; Meng, Yanzhi

    2016-10-01

    Monoclinic BiVO4 photocatalyst was successfully synthesized by hydrothermal method under appropriate temperature. The photocatalytic performance of BiVO4 was improved by calcining at appropriate temperature. The structural and morphological properties of the synthesized BiVO4 photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. It is confirmed that the photocatalytic activity of the prepared catalysts was evaluated by the photodegradation of RhB under visible-light irradiation. BiVO4 calcined under appropriate temperature exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than uncalcined BiVO4 under visible light irradiation because calcination might effectively increases the purity of monoclinic bismuth vanadate.

  5. Efficient High Power Ho,Tm:GdVO4 Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yue-Zhu; ZHU Guo-Li; JU You-Lun; YAO Bao-Quan

    2011-01-01

    We report a 22.3 W cw diode-pumped cryogenic Ho(0.5at. %), Tm(at.5%):GdVC>4 laser at a wavelength of 2.05 fzm. It is pumped by two fiber-coupled laser diodes with a fiber core diameter of 0.4 mm, both of which provide 42 W pump power near 802 nm. A cw output power of 22.3 W was obtained at the pump power of 51.0 W, corresponding to an optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 43.7% when the ratio of the pump beam to oscillating laser beam in the crystal was ^1.33:1. The M2 factor was found to be 2.0 under an output power of 16.5 W.%@@ We report a 22.3 W ew diode-pumped cryogenic Ho(0.5at.%),Tm(at.5%):GdVO4 laser at a wavelength of 2.05μm.It is pumped by two fiber-coupled laser diodes with a fiber core diameter of 0.4 mm,both of which provide 42W pump power near 802 nm.A cw output power of 22.3 W was obtained at the pump power of 51.0W,corresponding to an optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 43.7%when the ratio of the pump beam to oscillating laser beam in the crystal was ~1.33:1.The M2 factor was found to be 2.0 under an output power of 16.5 W.

  6. Polyhedra in loop quantum gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, Eugenio; Speziale, Simone

    2010-01-01

    Interwiners are the building blocks of spin-network states. The space of intertwiners is the quantization of a classical symplectic manifold introduced by Kapovich and Millson. Here we show that a theorem by Minkowski allows us to interpret generic configurations in this space as bounded convex polyhedra in Euclidean space: a polyhedron is uniquely described by the areas and normals to its faces. We provide a reconstruction of the geometry of the polyhedron: we give formulas for the edge lengths, the volume and the adjacency of its faces. At the quantum level, this correspondence allows us to identify an intertwiner with the state of a quantum polyhedron, thus generalizing the notion of quantum tetrahedron familiar in the loop quantum gravity literature. Moreover, coherent intertwiners result to be peaked on the classical geometry of a polyhedron. We discuss the relevance of this result for loop quantum gravity. In particular, coherent spin-network states with nodes of arbitrary valence represent a collection...

  7. Ellipsoidal analysis of coordination polyhedra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumby, James; Attfield, J. Paul

    2017-02-01

    The idea of the coordination polyhedron is essential to understanding chemical structure. Simple polyhedra in crystalline compounds are often deformed due to structural complexity or electronic instabilities so distortion analysis methods are useful. Here we demonstrate that analysis of the minimum bounding ellipsoid of a coordination polyhedron provides a general method for studying distortion, yielding parameters that are sensitive to various orders in metal oxide examples. Ellipsoidal analysis leads to discovery of a general switching of polyhedral distortions at symmetry-disallowed transitions in perovskites that may evidence underlying coordination bistability, and reveals a weak off-centre `d5 effect' for Fe3+ ions that could be exploited in multiferroics. Separating electronic distortions from intrinsic deformations within the low temperature superstructure of magnetite provides new insights into the charge and trimeron orders. Ellipsoidal analysis can be useful for exploring local structure in many materials such as coordination complexes and frameworks, organometallics and organic molecules.

  8. Photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical water oxidation over metal-doped monoclinic BiVO(4) photoanodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Kanak Pal Singh; Kang, Hyun Joon; Bist, Amita; Dua, Piyush; Jang, Jum Suk; Lee, Jae Sung

    2012-10-01

    The visible-light-induced water oxidation ability of metal-ion-doped BiVO(4) was investigated and of 12 metal ion dopants tested, only W and Mo dramatically enhanced the water photo-oxidation activity of bare BiVO(4); Mo had the highest improvement by a factor of about six. Thus, BiVO(4) and W- or Mo-doped (2 atom %) BiVO(4) photoanodes about 1 μm thick were fabricated onto transparent conducting substrate by a metal-organic decomposition/spin-coating method. Under simulated one sun (air mass 1.5G, 100 mW cm(-2)) and at 1.23 V versus a reversible hydrogen electrode, the highest photocurrent density (J(PH)) of about 2.38 mA cm(-2) was achieved for Mo doping followed by W doping (J(PH) ≈ 1.98 mA cm(-2)), whereas undoped BiVO(4) gave a J(PH) value of about 0.42 mA cm(-2). The photoelectrochemical water oxidation activity of W- and Mo-doped BiVO(4) photoanodes corresponded to the incident photon to current conversion efficiency of about 35 and 40 % respectively. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Mott-Schottky analysis indicated a positive flat band shift of about 30 mV, a carrier concentration 1.6-2 times higher, and a charge-transfer resistance reduced by 3-4-fold for W- or Mo-doped BiVO(4) relative to undoped BiVO(4). Electronic structure calculations revealed that both W and Mo were shallow donors and Mo doping generated superior conductivity to W doping. The photo-oxidation activity of water on BiVO(4) photoanodes (undopedphotocatalytic and photoelectrochemical water oxidation activity of monoclinic BiVO(4) by drastically reducing its charge-transfer resistance and thereby minimizing photoexcited electron-hole pair recombination.

  9. Triclinic-monoclinic-orthorhombic (T-M-O) structural transitions in phase diagram of FeVO4-CrVO4 solid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Ganesh; Reddy, V. R.; Rambabu, P.; Mal, P.; Das, Pradip; Mohapatra, N.; Padmaja, G.; Turpu, G. R.

    2017-09-01

    Phase diagram of FeVO4-CrVO4 solid solutions pertinent with structural and magnetic phases is presented with unambiguous experimental evidences. Solid solutions Fe1-xCrxVO4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1.0) were synthesized through the standard solid state route and studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectra of X-rays, Raman spectroscopy, d.c. magnetization, and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopic studies. FeVO4 and CrVO4 were found to be in triclinic (P-1 space group) and orthorhombic structures (Cmcm space group), respectively. Cr incorporation into the FeVO4 lattice leads to the emergence of a new monoclinic phase dissimilar to the both end members of the solid solutions. In Fe1-xCrxVO4 up to x = 0.10, no discernible changes in the triclinic structure were found. A new structural monoclinic phase (C2/m space group) emerges within the triclinic phase at x = 0.125, and with the increase in Cr content, it gets stabilized with clear single phase signatures in the range of x = 0.175-0.25 as evidenced by the Rietveld analysis of the structures. Beyond x = 0.33, orthorhombic phase similar to CrVO4 (Cmcm space group) emerges and coexists with a monoclinic structure up to x = 0.85, which finally tends to stabilize in the range of x = 0.90-1.00. The Raman spectroscopic studies also confirm the structural transition. FeVO4 Raman spectra show the modes related to three nonequivalent V ions in the triclinic structure, where up to 42 Raman modes are observed in the present study. With the stabilization of structures having higher symmetry, the number of Raman modes decreases and the modes related to symmetry inequivalent sites collate into singular modes from the doublet structure. A systematic crossover from two magnetic transitions in FeVO4, at 21.5 K and 15.4 K to single magnetic transition in CrVO4, at 71 K (antiferromagnetic transition), is observed in magnetization studies. The intermediate solid solution with x = 0.15 shows two magnetic transitions

  10. Efficient solar-driven water splitting by nanocone BiVO4-perovskite tandem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yongcai; Liu, Wei; Chen, Wei; Chen, Wei; Zhou, Guangmin; Hsu, Po-Chun; Zhang, Rufan; Liang, Zheng; Fan, Shoushan; Zhang, Yuegang; Cui, Yi

    2016-06-01

    Bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) has been widely regarded as a promising photoanode material for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting because of its low cost, its high stability against photocorrosion, and its relatively narrow band gap of 2.4 eV. However, the achieved performance of the BiVO4 photoanode remains unsatisfactory to date because its short carrier diffusion length restricts the total thickness of the BiVO4 film required for sufficient light absorption. We addressed the issue by deposition of nanoporous Mo-doped BiVO4 (Mo:BiVO4) on an engineered cone-shaped nanostructure, in which the Mo:BiVO4 layer with a larger effective thickness maintains highly efficient charge separation and high light absorption capability, which can be further enhanced by multiple light scattering in the nanocone structure. As a result, the nanocone/Mo:BiVO4/Fe(Ni)OOH photoanode exhibits a high water-splitting photocurrent of 5.82 ± 0.36 mA cm(-2) at 1.23 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode under 1-sun illumination. We also demonstrate that the PEC cell in tandem with a single perovskite solar cell exhibits unassisted water splitting with a solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency of up to 6.2%.

  11. Structure and stability of monazite- and zircon-type LaVO4 under hydrostatic pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xuerui; Guo, Dongjie; Feng, Shiquan; Yang, Kun; Wang, Yongqiang; Ren, Yufen; Song, Yang

    2015-11-01

    Pure monazite (m)- and zircon (t)-type LaVO4 and LaVO4:Eu3+ were successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal method. The high pressure behavior of m- and t-LaVO4 nanoparticles has been investigated using Raman scattering techniques at room temperature. Raman measurements reveal a slight change for m-LaVO4 at 11.2 GPa because of an isostructural phase transition. However, striking changes in Raman spectra indicate a pressure-induced irreversible phase transition from the zircon to monazite structure for t-LaVO4 at around 5.9 GPa. The evolution of the luminescence spectra of t-LaVO4:Eu3+ has also been studied during the pressure-induced phase transition. It is observed that pressure has a great influence on the fluorescence intensity and the energy levels, which allows a more in-depth understanding of the nature of the pressure-induced phase transition for t-LaVO4. This result further confirms the conclusion that zircon-type RVO4 compounds with larger rare-earth cations will experience zircon to monazite phase transition.

  12. Efficient solar-driven water splitting by nanocone BiVO4-perovskite tandem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yongcai; Liu, Wei; Chen, Wei; Chen, Wei; Zhou, Guangmin; Hsu, Po-Chun; Zhang, Rufan; Liang, Zheng; Fan, Shoushan; Zhang, Yuegang; Cui, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) has been widely regarded as a promising photoanode material for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting because of its low cost, its high stability against photocorrosion, and its relatively narrow band gap of 2.4 eV. However, the achieved performance of the BiVO4 photoanode remains unsatisfactory to date because its short carrier diffusion length restricts the total thickness of the BiVO4 film required for sufficient light absorption. We addressed the issue by deposition of nanoporous Mo-doped BiVO4 (Mo:BiVO4) on an engineered cone-shaped nanostructure, in which the Mo:BiVO4 layer with a larger effective thickness maintains highly efficient charge separation and high light absorption capability, which can be further enhanced by multiple light scattering in the nanocone structure. As a result, the nanocone/Mo:BiVO4/Fe(Ni)OOH photoanode exhibits a high water-splitting photocurrent of 5.82 ± 0.36 mA cm−2 at 1.23 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode under 1-sun illumination. We also demonstrate that the PEC cell in tandem with a single perovskite solar cell exhibits unassisted water splitting with a solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency of up to 6.2%. PMID:27386565

  13. In Situ Electrical Conductivity Study of FeVO4 Catalyst%FeVO4催化剂的原位电导研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐爱菊; 照日格图; 贾美林; 林勤

    2008-01-01

    采用盐类固体研磨法制备了FeVO4催化剂,用原位电导方法测定了 FeVO4催化剂在氧气+丙烷→氧气→丙烷连续变化气氛下的电导变化,确定其导电类型.以BET、XRD、H2-TPR等技术对催化剂进行表征,研究了其对丙烷氧化脱氢制丙烯反应的催化性能.

  14. Tailoring Multilayered BiVO4 Photoanodes by Pulsed Laser Deposition for Water Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murcia-López, Sebastián; Fàbrega, Cristian; Monllor-Satoca, Damián; Hernández-Alonso, María D; Penelas-Pérez, Germán; Morata, Alex; Morante, Juan R; Andreu, Teresa

    2016-02-17

    Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is proposed as promising technique for the fabrication of multilayered BiVO4-based photoanodes. For this purpose, bare BiVO4 films and two heterojunctions, BiVO4/SnO2 and BiVO4/WO3/SnO2, have been prepared using consecutive ablation of assorted targets in a single batch. The ease, high versatility and usefulness of this technique in engineering the internal configuration of the photoanode with stoichiometric target-to-substrate transfer are demonstrated. The obtained photocurrent densities are among the highest reported values for undoped BiVO4 without oxygen evolution catalysts (OEC). A detailed analysis of the influence of SnO2 and WO3 layers on the charge transport properties because of the changes at the internal FTO/semiconductor interface is performed through transient photocurrent measurements (TPC), showing that the BiVO4/WO3/SnO2 heterostructure attains a significant decrease in the internal losses and reaches high photocurrent values. This study is expected to open the door to the fabrication of other systems based on ternary (or even more complex) metal oxides as photoanodes for water splitting, which is a promising alternative for obtaining materials able to fulfill the different requierements in the development of more efficient systems for this process.

  15. Activation of peroxymonosulfate by BiVO4 under visible light for degradation of Rhodamine B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Guo, Hongguang; Zhang, Yongli; Tang, Weihong; Cheng, Xin; Liu, Hongwei

    2016-06-01

    A photocatalytic system involving visible light and BiVO4 (Vis/BiVO4) in the presence of peroxymonosulfate (PMS) has been developed to oxidize the target pollutant Rhodamine B (RhB) in aqueous solution. It was found that PMS could enhance the photocatalytic efficiency of BiVO4 and could be activated to promote the removal of RhB with sulfate radicals, hydroxyl radicals and superoxide radicals. Critical impacting factors in the Vis/BiVO4/PMS system were investigated concerning the influence of PMS concentration, solution pH, catalyst dosage, initial concentration of RhB and the presence of anions (Cl- and CO32-). In addition, by using isopropanol, tert-butanol, 1,4-benzoquinone and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid disodium salt as probe compounds, the main active species were demonstrated including radSO4-, radOH and radO2- in the system, and a detail photocatalytic mechanism for the Vis/BiVO4/PMS system was proposed. Finally, up to 10 intermediate products of RhB were identified by GC/MS, included benzenoid organic compounds, organic acids and three nitrogenous organic compounds. This study provides a feasible way to degrade organic pollutants in wastewater using BiVO4 with PMS under visible light.

  16. Controlled Synthesis and Photocatalytic Antifouling Properties of BiVO4 with Tunable Morphologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Zhenbo; Wang, Yi; Ju, Peng; Zhang, Dun

    2017-02-01

    Monoclinic BiVO4 with different nanostructures were prepared via a facile and rapid route by adding different surfactants. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, polyvinylpyrrolidone, and sodium dodecyl sulfate surfactants were selected as morphology controlling agents. The crystal phase, morphology, and diffuse reflectance spectra of BiVO4 were characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectra techniques, respectively. The photocatalytic activities of BiVO4 were investigated by killing the typical marine fouling bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( P. aeruginosa) under visible light irradiation. BiVO4 with grape-like nanostructure exhibited the best photocatalytic bactericidal activity. The sterilization rate of P. aeruginosa could reach up to 99.9% in 120 min. The photocatalytic mechanism was studied by captive species trapping experiments. The result revealed that photogenerated hole (h+) is the main reactive specie for killing P. aeruginosa under visible light irradiation. In addition, after five recycles, BiVO4 does not exhibit significant loss of photocatalytic sterilization activity. The results confirm that the synthesized BiVO4 photocatalyst has long-time reusability and good photocatalytic stability.

  17. Synthesis and photocatalytic performances of BiVO 4 by ammonia co-precipitation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jianqiang; Zhang, Yan; Kudo, Akihiko

    2009-02-01

    This paper reports the preparation and photocatalytic performance of Bismuth vanadate (BiVO 4) by a facile and inexpensive approach. An amorphous BiVO 4 was first prepared by a co-precipitation process from aqueous solutions of Bi(NO 3) 3 and NH 4VO 3 using ammonia. Followed by heating treatment at various temperatures, the amorphous phase converted to crystalline BiVO 4 with a structure between monoclinic and tetragonal scheelite. The crystallization of BiVO 4 occurred at about 523 K, while the nanocrystalline BiVO 4 were formed with a heat-treatment of lower than 673 K. However, when the heat-treatment was carried out at 773 K, the accumulation of nanocrystals to bulk particles was observed. The photocatalytic performances of the materials were investigated by O 2 evolution under visible-light, and MB decomposition under solar simulator. The results demonstrated that the crystalline structure is still the vital factor for the activities of both reactions. However, the crystallinity of BiVO 4 gives a major influence on the activity of O 2 evolution, whereas the surface area, plays an important role for photocatalytic MB decomposition.

  18. Visible light photocatalytic activity of BiVO4 particles with different morphologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xue; Yu, Lili; Yan, Lina; Li, Hongji; Yan, Yongsheng; Liu, Chunbo; Zhai, Hongju

    2014-06-01

    Bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) particles with different morphologies were synthesized by a one-step hydrothermal process and their optical and photocatalytic properties were investigated. Their crystal structure and microstructures were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). XRD patterns demonstrate that the as-prepared samples are monoclinic cell. FESEM shows that BiVO4 crystals can be fabricated in different morphologies by simply manipulating the reaction parameters of hydrothermal process. The UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-vis DRS) reveal that the band gaps of BiVO4 photocatalysts are about 2.07-2.21 eV. The as-prepared BiVO4 photocatalysts exhibit higher photocatalytic activities in the degradation of rhodamine B (Rh B) under visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm) compared with traditional N-doped TiO2 (N-TiO2). Furthermore, wheat like BiVO4 sample reveals the highest photocatalytic activity. Up to 100% Rh B is decolorized after visible light irradiation for 180 min. The reason for the difference in the photocatalytic activities for BiVO4 samples obtained at different conditions were systematically studied based on their shape, size and the variation of local structure.

  19. BiVO4 photoanodes for water splitting with high injection efficiency, deposited by reactive magnetron co-sputtering

    OpenAIRE

    Haibo Gong; Norman Freudenberg; Man Nie; Roel van de Krol; Klaus Ellmer

    2016-01-01

    Photoactive bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) thin films were deposited by reactive co-magnetron sputtering from metallic Bi and V targets. The effects of the V-to-Bi ratio, molybdenum doping and post-annealing on the crystallographic and photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties of the BiVO4 films were investigated. Phase-pure monoclinic BiVO4 films, which are more photoactive than the tetragonal BiVO4 phase, were obtained under slightly vanadium-rich conditions. After annealing of the Mo-doped BiVO4 fil...

  20. Photocatalytic Mineralization of Organic Acids over Visible-Light-Driven Au/BiVO4 Photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanlaya Pingmuang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Au/BiVO4 visible-light-driven photocatalysts were synthesized by coprecipitation method in the presence of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS as a dispersant. Physical characterization of the obtained materials was carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS and Brunauer, and Emmett and Teller (BET specific surface area measurement. Photocatalytic performances of the as-prepared Au/BiVO4 have also been evaluated via mineralizations of oxalic acid and malonic acid under visible light irradiation. XRD and SEM results indicated that Au/BiVO4 photocatalysts were of almost spherical particles with scheelite-monoclinic phase. Photocatalytic results showed that all Au/BiVO4 samples exhibited higher oxalic acid mineralization rate than that of pure BiVO4, probably due to a decrease of BiVO4 band gap energy and the presence of surface plasmon absorption upon loading BiVO4 with Au as evidenced from UV-Vis DRS results. The nominal Au loading amount of 0.25 mol% provided the highest pseudo-first-order rate constant of 0.0487 min−1 and 0.0082 min−1 for degradations of oxalic acid (C2 and malonic acid (C3, respectively. By considering structures of the two acids, lower pseudo-first-order rate constantly obtained in the case of malonic acid degradation was likely due to an increased complexity of the degradation mechanism of the longer chain acid.

  1. 1D ZnO/BiVO4 heterojunction photoanodes for efficient photoelectrochemical water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lu; Zhao, Wei; Liu, Zhifeng

    2016-07-28

    In this paper, a novel ZnO nanorods (NRs)/BiVO4 heterojunction has been successfully prepared as a photoanode for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting. Firstly, ZnO NRs were synthesized by chemical bath deposition onto indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass. Then BiVO4 was deposited by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR). The photocurrent density of ZnO NRs and the ZnO NRs/BiVO4 heterojunction photoanode was evaluated under light irradiation. And the value was up to 1.72 mA cm(-2) at 1.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl based on the ZnO NRs/BiVO4 photoanode in the electrolyte solution, which is higher than that of the pure ZnO NRs photoanode at the same potential. It is demonstrated that the presence of BiVO4 has played an important role in expanding the spectral response region and reducing the photogenerated charge recombination rate. This present work provides a simple synthesis route to construct a heterojunction which serves as a photoanode for PEC water splitting.

  2. Photocatalytic perfermance of sandwich-like BiVO4 sheets by microwave assisted synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Suqin; Tang, Huiling; Zhou, Huan; Dai, Gaopeng; Wang, Wanqiang

    2017-01-01

    Sandwich-like BiVO4 sheets were successfully synthesized in an aqueous solution containing bismuth nitrate, ammonium metavanadate and polyethylene glycol with a molecular weight of 10,000 (PEG-10000) using a facile microwave-assisted method. The as-prepared samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, N2 adsorption-desorption, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The results show that the presence of PEG-10000 plays a critical role in the formation of BiVO4 sheets, and Ostwald ripening is the primary driving force for the formation of sandwich-like structures. The sandwich-like BiVO4 sheets exhibit a high activity for the degradation of methyl orange under visible light irradiation (λ ≥ 420 nm). The enhancement of photocatalytic activity of sandwich-like BiVO4 sheets can be attributed to its large surface area over the irregular BiVO4 particles.

  3. Preparation of BiVO4-Graphene Nanocomposites and Their Photocatalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We prepared BiVO4-graphene nanocomposites by using a facile single-step method and characterized the material by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible diffuse-reflection spectroscopy, and three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy. The results show that graphene oxide in the catalyst was thoroughly reduced. The BiVO4 is densely dispersed on the graphene sheets, which facilitates the transport of electrons photogenerated in BiVO4, thereby leading to an efficient separation of photogenerated carriers in the coupled graphene-nanocomposite system. For degradation of rhodamine B dye under visible-light irradiation, the photocatalytic activity of the synthesized nanocomposites was over ∼20% faster than for pure BiVO4 catalyst. To study the contribution of electrons and holes in the degradation reaction, silver nitrate and potassium sodium tartrate were added to the BiVO4-graphene photocatalytic reaction system as electron-trapping agent and hole-trapping agent, respectively. The results show that holes play the main role in the degradation of rhodamine B.

  4. ScVO4 under non-hydrostatic compression: a new metastable polymorph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Alka B.; Errandonea, D.; Rodríguez-Hernández, P.; Muñoz, A.

    2017-02-01

    The high-pressure (HP) behaviour of scandium vanadate (ScVO4) is investigated under non-hydrostatic compression. The compound is studied by means of synchrotron-based powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical-absorption techniques. The occurrence of a non-reversible phase transition is detected. The transition is from the zircon structure to the fergusonite-type structure and takes place around 6 GPa with nearly 10% volume discontinuity. XRD measurements on the pressure cycled sample confirm for the first time that the fergusonite-type ScVO4 can be recovered as the metastable phase at ambient conditions. Raman spectroscopic measurements verify the metastable phase to be of a fergusonite-type phase. Theoretical calculations also corroborate the experimental findings. The fergusonite phase is found to be stiffer than the ambient-pressure zircon phase, as indicated by the observed experimental and theoretical bulk moduli. The optical properties and lattice-dynamics calculation of the fergusonite ScVO4 are discussed. At ambient pressure the band gap of the zircon (fergusonite)-type ScVO4 is 2.75 eV (2.3 eV). This fact suggests that the novel metastable polymorph of ScVO4 can have applications in green technologies; for instance, it can be used as photocatalytic material for hydrogen production by water splitting.

  5. Synthesis of BiVO4 nanosheets-graphene composites toward improved visible light photoactivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qianqian Yu; Zi-Rong Tang; Yi-Jun Xua

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2-D) BiVO4 nanosheets-graphene (GR) composites with different weight addition ratios of GR have been prepared via a facile wet chemistry process. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen adsorption-desorption, transient photocurrent response and photoluminescence (PL) spectra were employed to determine the properties of the samples. It is found that BiVO4 nanosheets could pave well on the surface of graphene sheets. BiVO4 nanosheets-GR composites with a proper addition amount of GR exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than bare BiVO4 nanosheets toward liquid-phase degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) and methyl orange (MO) under visible light irradiation. The enhancement of photocatalytic activities of BiVO4 nanosheets-GR composites can be attributed to the effective separation of photoexcited electron-hole pairs. This work not only provides a simple strategy for fabricating specific 2-D semiconductor-2-D GR composites, but also opens a new window of such 2-D semiconductor-2-D GR composites as visible light photocatalysts toward an improved visible light photoactivity in purifying polluted water resources.

  6. Nanostructured WO3 /BiVO4 photoanodes for efficient photoelectrochemical water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihosh, Yuriy; Turkevych, Ivan; Mawatari, Kazuma; Asai, Tomohiro; Hisatomi, Takashi; Uemura, Jin; Tosa, Masahiro; Shimamura, Kiyoshi; Kubota, Jun; Domen, Kazunari; Kitamori, Takehiko

    2014-09-24

    Nanostructured photoanodes based on well-separated and vertically oriented WO3 nanorods capped with extremely thin BiVO4 absorber layers are fabricated by the combination of Glancing Angle Deposition and normal physical sputtering techniques. The optimized WO3 -NRs/BiVO4 photoanode modified with Co-Pi oxygen evolution co-catalyst shows remarkably stable photocurrents of 3.2 and 5.1 mA/cm(2) at 1.23 V versus a reversible hydrogen electrode in a stable Na2 SO4 electrolyte under simulated solar light at the standard 1 Sun and concentrated 2 Suns illumination, respectively. The photocurrent enhancement is attributed to the faster charge separation in the electronically thin BiVO4 layer and significantly reduced charge recombination. The enhanced light trapping in the nanostructured WO3 -NRs/BiVO4 photoanode effectively increases the optical thickness of the BiVO4 layer and results in efficient absorption of the incident light. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Growth and spectroscopic properties of Ca9Nd(VO4)7 single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demesh, M. P.; Yasukevich, A. S.; Kuleshov, N. V.; Kosmyna, M. B.; Mateychenko, P. V.; Nazarenko, B. P.; Shekhovtsov, A. N.; Kornienko, A. A.; Dunina, E. B.; Orlovich, V. A.; Khodasevich, I. A.; Paszkowicz, W.; Behrooz, A.

    2016-10-01

    Ca9Nd(VO4)7 single crystal was grown by the Czochralski method in inert atmosphere. The crystal structure and chemical composition were studied. Polarized absorption and luminescence spectra were investigated in details. It was found that the Ca9Nd(VO4)7 crystals belongs to self-activated laser materials with a weak concentration quenching of luminescence. Judd-Ofelt analysis was performed. The emission cross-sections spectra for 4F3/2 → 4I9/2, 4I11/2, 4I13/2 transitions were determined. For the first time Raman spectra of the Ca9Nd(VO4)7 single crystal were recorded and interpreted.

  8. Fabrication and photoelectrocatalytic properties of nanocrystalline monoclinic BiVO4 thin-film electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bin; Qu, Jiuhui; Zhao, Xu; Liu, Huijuan

    2011-01-01

    Monoclinic bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) thin film was fabricated on indium-tin oxide glass from an amorphous heteronuclear complex via dip-coating. After annealation at 400, 500, and 600 degrees C, the thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The BiVO4 particles on the ITO glass surface had a monoclinic structure. The UV-Visible diffuse reflection spectra showed the BiVO4 thin film had photoabsorption properties, with a band gap around 2.5 eV. In addition, the thin film showed high visible photocatalytic activities towards 2,4-dichlorophenol and Bisphenol A degradation under visible light irradiation (lambda > 420 nm). Over 90% of the two organic pollutants were removed in 5 hr. A possible degradation mechanism of 2,4-dichlorophenol were also studied.

  9. Fabrication and photoelectrocatalytic properties of nanocrystalline monoclinic BiVO4 thin-film electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Zhou; Jiuhui Qu; Xu Zhao; Huijuan Liu

    2011-01-01

    Monoclinic bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) thin film was fabricated on indium-tin oxide glass from an amorphous heteronuclear complex via dip-coating.After annealation at 400, 500, and 600℃, the thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV-Vis spectrophotometry.The BiVO4 particles on the ITO glass surface had a monoclinic structure.The UV-Visible diffuse reflection spectra showed the BiVO4 thin film had photoabsorption properties, with a band gap around 2.5 eV.In addition, the thin film showed high visible photocatalytic activities towards 2,4-dichiorophenol and Bisphenol A degradation under visible light irradiation (λ.> 420 nm).Over 90% of the two organic pollutants were removed in 5 hr.A possible degradation mechanism of 2,4-dichlorophenol were also studied.

  10. Study on VUV and UV Excitation Spectrum of GdVO4∶Eu3+

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆礼; 郑丽秋; 郭常新; 施朝淑; 魏亚光; 戚泽明

    2001-01-01

    The photoluminescence spectra and excitation spectra in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and ultraviolet (UV) spectra region of GdVO4∶Eu3+ were reported. The excitation and emission spectra indicate that GdVO4∶Eu3+ is a highly efficient phosphor for the excitation in the VUV and UV spectrum region. The excitation band in the VUV and UV spectrum region of 60~350 nm consists mainly of the absorption of host, which has obvious absorption of 4fn-15d of Eu3+ and Gd3+. In GdVO4∶Eu3+, there is the energy transfer: VO43-→Eu3+, Gd3+→Eu3+ and Gd3+→VO43-→Eu3+. Through the last two procedures, maybe the quantum cutting of Gd3+-Eu3+ occurs.

  11. Dy3+ activated LaVO4 films synthesized by precursors with different solution concentrations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Dandan; MA Yongqing; ZHANG Xian; QIAN Shibing; ZHENG Ganhong; WU Mingzai; LI Guang; SUN Zhaoqi

    2012-01-01

    Using different-solution-concentration precursors with citric acid as chelating agent and polyvinyl alcohol as dispersing media,Dy3+ activated LaVO4 films were deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates.The scanning electronic microscope (SEM) showed that the compact and crack-free LaVO4:Dy3+ film could be obtained at a suitable solution concentration.The deposited films could absorb the ultraviolet light below 400 nm and were transparent in the visible and infrared region as evidenced by the transmission spectra,and the photoluminescence spectra exhibited the characteristic emissions of Dy3+ peaking at 484 (blue) and 576 (yellow) nm due to the transitions of 4F9/2→6H15/2 and 4Fg/2→6H13/2,respectively.The potential application of LaVO4:Dy3+ film in the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) was also discussed.

  12. Efficient, resonantly pumped, room-temperature Er3+:GdVO4 laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter-Gabrielyan, N; Fromzel, V; Ryba-Romanowski, W; Lukasiewicz, T; Dubinskii, M

    2012-04-01

    We report an efficient room-temperature operation of a resonantly pumped Er3+:GdVO4 laser at 1598.5 nm. The maximum continuous wave (CW) output power of 3.5 W with slope efficiency of 56% was achieved with resonant pumping by an Er-fiber laser at 1538.6 nm. With pumping by a commercial laser diode bar stack, a quasi-CW (QCW) output of 7.7 W and maximum slope efficiency of ~53% versus absorbed pump power were obtained. This is believed to be the first resonantly (in-band) pumped, room-temperature Er3+:GdVO4 laser.

  13. High-temperature heat capacity of orthovanadates Ce1- x Bi x VO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisova, L. T.; Chumilina, L. G.; Belousova, N. V.; Denisov, V. M.

    2016-09-01

    Orthovanadates Ce1- x Bi x VO4 (1 ≥ x ≥ 0) have been produced by solid-phase synthesis from initial oxides CeO2, Bi2O3, and V2O5 upon step-by-step burning. The high-temperature heat capacity of Ce1- x Bi x VO4 has been measured by differential scanning calorimetry. The experimental data on C p = f(T) were used to calculate the thermodynamic properties (the enthalpy changes, the entropy changes, and the Gibbs energy).

  14. Enhanced photocatalytic performance of BiVO4 in aqueous AgNO3 solution under visible light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Kai; Wu, Tsunghsueh; Huang, Chang-Wei; Lai, Chi-Yung; Wu, Mei-Yao; Lin, Yang-Wei

    2017-03-01

    Monoclinic-phase bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) with a 2.468 eV band gap exhibited enhanced synergic photodegradation activity toward methylene blue (MB) when combined with silver ions (Ag+) in an aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. The mass ratio of AgNO3 to BiVO4 and the calcination temperature were discovered to considerably affect the degradation activity of BiVO4/Ag+. Superior photocatalytic performance was obtained when BiVO4 was mixed with 0.01%(w/v) AgNO3 solution, and complete degradation of MB was achieved after 25 min visible light irradiation, outperforming BiVO4 or AgNO3 solution alone. The enhanced photodegradation was investigated using systematic luminescence measurements, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and scavenger addition, after which a photocatalytic mechanism for MB degradation under visible light irradiation was identified that involved oxygen radicals and holes. This study also discovered the two dominating processes involved in enhancing the electron-hole separation efficiency and reducing their recombination rate, namely photoreduction of Ag+ and the formation of a BiVO4/Ag heterojunction. The synergic effect between BiVO4 and Ag+ was discovered to be unique. BiVO4/Ag+ was successfully used to degrade two other dyes and disinfect Escherichia Coli. A unique fluorescent technique using BiVO4 and a R6G solution to detect Ag+ ions in water was discovered.

  15. Diode Stack End-Pumped Nd:GdVO4 Continuous Wave Slab Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Heng-Li; ZHANG Huai-Jin; LI Dai-Jun; WANG Ji-Yang; SHI Peng; Haas Rüdiger; LI Hong-Xia; JIANG Min-Hua; DU Keming

    2005-01-01

    @@ We report a diode stack end-pumped Nd:GdVO4 slab laser with a near-diffraction-limited beam. The output power of 45.8 W at 1064nm is obtained under the pumping power of 147W, with the optical-optical conversion efficiency of 31.2%, and the slope efficiency is 39.6%.

  16. Fabrication and characterization of electrospun orthorhombic InVO4 nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lingjun; Liu, Suwen; Lu, Qifang; Zhao, Gang

    2012-02-01

    The novel orthorhombic InVO4 nanofibers have been successfully synthesized by annealing electrospun precursor fibers. Citric acid was used as a ligand for it could react with metal salts to get a transparent homogeneous precursor solution and homogeneous precursor sol for electrospining. Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP, K-30) was used as a binder and a structure guide reagent because it was one kind of water-soluble polymers. It is easy to gain one-dimensional materials while the viscosity of the citrate/PVP sol was suitable. The structure, morphology and photocatalytic properties of the nanofibers were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis, UV-vis spectrophotometer and fluorescence spectrophotometer. The nanofibers calcined at 700 °C were orthorhombic InVO4 with a width in the range of 30-100 nm and length in micron-grade. This one-dimensional pure orthorhombic InVO4 had the higher photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation. The photo-degradation rate of nitrobenzene aqueous solution under visible light reached 69% after 6 h. It is obvious that the orthorhombic InVO4 nanofibers have a potential application in wastewater-treatment.

  17. Growth and thermophysical properties of magneto-optical crystal TbVO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yangyang; Tu, Heng; Jia, Lisha; Yue, Yinchao; Zhao, Ying; Hu, Zhanggui

    2017-03-01

    TbVO4 single crystal with high transmittance has been successfully grown by Czochralski method under highly pure nitrogen atmosphere, which could reduce the loss of growth crucible. The structure of as-grown crystal was verified by X-ray powder diffraction. The refraction indices measurement showed the crystal was an optical uniaxial crystal with large birefringence. The absorption coefficient was calculated taking account into transmittance and reflection, and the results indicated TbVO4 crystal had a low absorption at wavelength range of 440-1100 nm. Thermal properties of TbVO4 crystal were also measured. The specific heat is 0.472 J g-1 K-1 at room temperature. The thermal conductivities at room temperature are 7.216 W m-1 k-1 and 10.305 W m-1 k-1along the a and c directions respectively. XPS spectra showed there were two states of V which demonstrated oxygen vacancies existed in as-grown crystal. But Verdet constant of the crystal is about 60 rad T-1 m-1, and the figure of merit at 1064 nm is 28.9°/dB at 1.2 T, which is about twice than that of TGG. All the results indicate TbVO4 crystal is a candidate to the commercial magneto-optical material at visible and near-infrared regions.

  18. Wave-Vector Dependence of the Jahn-Teller Interactions in TmVO4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjems, Jørgen; Hayes, W.; Smith, S. H.

    1975-01-01

    The resonant Jahn-Teller coupling of the B2g acoustic phonon and the Zeeman-split ground doublet in TmVO4 has been studied by inelastic neutron scattering. Tuning of the magnetic field provides a means for investigating the wave-vector dependence of the interactions. We find that the coupling is ...

  19. Investigation of Terahertz Emission from BiVO4 /Au Thin Film Interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, N.; Abdi, F.F.; Trzesniewski, B.; Smith, W.A.; Planken, P.C.M.; Adam, A.J.L.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate emission of terahertz pulses from a BiVO4/Au thin film interface, illuminated with femtosecond laser pulses. Based on the experimental observations, we propose that the most likely cause of the THz emission is the Photo-Dember effect caused by the standing wave intensity distribution

  20. Photocharged BiVO4 photoanodes for improved solar water splitting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trześniewski, B.J.; Smith, W.A.

    2015-01-01

    Bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) is a promising semiconductor material for the production of solar fuels via photoelectrochemical water splitting, however, it suffers from substantial recombination losses that limit its performance to well below its theoretical maximum. Here we demonstrate for the first tim

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of CeVO4 by Microwave Radiation Method and Its Photocatalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuengruethai Ekthammathat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A general microwave synthesis method was developed to synthesize cerium orthovanadate (CeVO4 nanostructures without the use of any catalysts or templates. This method is able to control the shape and size of the products by adjusting the pH of precursor solutions to be 1–10. Phase, purity, and different morphologies of the products were characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM, and TEM. They showed that the as-synthesized products exhibited pure single crystalline CeVO4 with tetragonal structure. Their morphologies developed in sequence as nanoparticles (pH = 4–10, nanorods (pH = 2, 3, and microflowers (pH = 1. UV-visible spectra were used to estimate the direct energy gaps of CeVO4 nanorods and microflowers: 3.77 and 3.65 eV, respectively. Photoluminescence (PL of CeVO4 microflowers showed strong emission intensities at 578 nm. These results were in the range of possible application for photocatalysis, investigated by studying the degradation of methylene blue.

  2. Q-switched Ho:YLF laser pumped by a Tm:GdVO4 laser.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Esser, MJD

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors have, through careful analysis of spectroscopic data, designed and demonstrated a diode-end-pumped, quasicontinuous wave Tm:GdVO4 laser operating at 1892 nm in order to pump a Q-switched Ho:YLF laser. The Ho:YLF maximum output energy...

  3. Diode-end-pumped Tm:GdVO4 laser operating at 1818 and 1915 nm

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Esser, MJD

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available High power operation at 1818 and 1915 nm has been demonstrated from a Tm:GdVO4 laser operating in quasi-continuous-wave mode with a maximum measured power of 8.7Wand a laser output energy of 175 mJ was observed in a 20 ms pulse at 1.9 µm...

  4. Combustion synthesis of Eu2+ and Dy3+ activated Sr3(VO4)2 phosphor for LEDs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Roshani Singh; S J Dhoble

    2011-06-01

    Combustion synthesis and photoluminescence (PL) characterization of Sr3(VO4)2:Eu,Dy phosphors are presented in this paper. PL emission of Sr3(VO4)2:Eu phosphor shows green broad emission band centring at 511 nm and a red sharp band at 614 nm by excitation wavelength of 342 nm. The PL emission spectrum of Sr3(VO4)2:Dy phosphor exhibits an intense blue emission peak at 479 nm, yellow broad band centring at 573 nm and red band at 644 nm by the excitation wavelength of 426 nm in near visible blue region. The excitation wavelength of Eu (342 nm) and Dy (426 nm) activated Sr3(VO4)2 phosphor are well matched with the excitation of near UV excited solid state lighting and blue chip excitation of light emitting diodes, respectively. The effect of Eu2+ and Eu3+ ions concentration on the emission intensity of Sr3(VO4)2 was also investigated. The Sr3(VO4)2:Eu is a potential green and red emitting phosphor as well as Sr3(VO4)2:Dy is blue and yellow emitting phosphor for solid state lighting i.e. white LEDs. The XRD and SEM characteristics of Sr3(VO4)2 materials was also reported in this paper.

  5. Synthesis and the enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity of BiVO4 nanocrystals coupled with Ag nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W. Z.; Meng, Shan; Tan, Miao; Jia, L. J.; Zhou, Y. X.; Wu, Shuang; Huang, X. W.; Liang, Y. J.; Shi, H. L.

    2015-03-01

    BiVO4 nanocrystals coupled with Ag nanoparticles (Ag-BiVO4 heterogeneous nanostructures) have been prepared by a new strategy via combining a hydrothermal route with a polyol process, in which BiVO4 nanocrystals were first synthesized by a hydrothermal route, and then, Ag nanoparticles were grown on the surfaces of the presynthesized BiVO4 nanocrystals through a polyol process. The photocatalytic evaluations demonstrate that BiVO4 nanocrystals coupled with Ag nanoparticles exhibit the enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (RhB). The energy alignment and diffuse reflectance property of Ag-BiVO4 heterogeneous nanostructures demonstrate that Ag nanoparticles attached on the surfaces of BiVO4 nanocrystals play double roles for the enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity. First, the Ag nanoparticles grown on the surfaces of BiVO4 nanocrystals may act as electron sinks to retard the recombination of the photogenerated electrons and holes in BiVO4 so as to improve the charge separation on its surfaces. Second, the Ag nanoparticles increase the visible light absorption of the Ag-BiVO4 photocatalyst due to surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of Ag nanoparticles. These double roles of Ag nanoparticles make Ag-BiVO4 heterogeneous nanostructures to exhibit the enhanced photocatalytic activity to decompose MB and RhB under visible light irradiation, compared to the pure BiVO4 nanocrystals. The enhanced photocatalytic activity is attributed to the charge transfer from BiVO4 to the attached Ag nanoparticles as well as SPR absorption of Ag nanoparticles. The present work not only provides an efficient route to enhance visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity of BiVO4, but also offers a new strategy for fabricating metal-semiconductor heterogeneous nanostructure photocatalysts, which are expected to show considerable potential applications in solar-driven wastewater treatment and water

  6. E ectofGoldNanoparticlesonthePhotocatalytic and Photo electro chemical Performance of Au Mo dified BiVO4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingce Long; Jingjing Jiang; Yan Li; Ruqiong Cao; Liying Zhang; Weimin Cai

    2011-01-01

    An efficient visible light driven photocatalyst, gold nanoparticles (NPs) modified BiVO4 (Au/BiVO4), has been synthesized by deposition-precipitation with urea method. Au/BiVO4 exhibits enhanced pho-tocatalytic activity for phenol degradation underλ>400 nm irradiation but negligible activity underλ>535 nm, indicating that the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect is too weak for organic photodegradation. According to the photoelectrochemical results of the porous powder electrodes of BiVO4 and Au/BiVO4, the SPR effect of Au NPs has been assessed. The role of Au NPs as electron sinks or sources, which is controllable by incident photon energy and applied potentials, has been discussed.

  7. Effects of crystal orientation and ferroelastic domain structure on the photochemical reactivity of BiVO4 and related compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munprom, Ratiporn

    Bismuth vanadate, BiVO4, has been recognized for its high efficiency as a photoanode for water splitting. However, its performance is limited by photogenerated electron--hole recombination. Thus, researchers have attempted to modify BiVO4 to improve its performance. One strategy to improve charge separation is to utilize an internal field arising from surface termination differences. Previous studies concentrated on polygonal single crystals of BiVO4, providing limited information about the orientation-reactivity relationship. The current research focuses on polycrystalline BiVO4, which makes it possible to study the photochemical reactivity of all possible orientations and determine the complete orientation dependence of the photochemical reactivity of BiVO4. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  8. Synthesis of BiVO4/TiO2 composites and evaluation of their photocatalytic activity under indoor illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Giulia; Fresno, Fernando; Gross, Silvia; Štangar, Urška Lavrenčič

    2014-10-01

    BiVO4/TiO2 composites with different weight ratios have been prepared by coprecipitation-based reactions followed by either thermal or hydrothermal treatment with the aim of evaluating the TiO2 photosensitization by BiVO4. The obtained materials present in all cases the desired monoclinic phase of BiVO4 and anatase phase of TiO2. Visible light absorption increased with increasing amount of bismuth vanadate. XPS results reveal the surface enrichment of Ti with respect to the bulk composition in samples characterised by a higher content of BiVO4. The photocatalytic activity of the prepared materials was tested for the degradation of isopropanol in the gas phase under indoor illumination conditions. Although none of the composites was able to improve the activity of TiO2, the low BiVO4 containing samples appear as more suitable for further synthesis tuning.

  9. 不同晶型BiVO_4微球的制备及其对光催化性能的影响%Synthesis and photocatalytic activities of BiVO_4 microspheres with different crystalline forms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱振峰; 杜娟; 李军奇; 张艳丽; 刘佃光; 于红光

    2011-01-01

    以Bi(NO3)3、NH4VO3为原料,NaOH为pH调节剂,采用微波水热法在180℃制备了BiVO4微球,分析了不同煅烧温度对晶型、形貌的影响,并进一步探讨了BiVO4晶型与其光催化性能的关系。采用XRD、SEM和UV-Vis吸收光谱对产品进行了分析表征,并以光催化降解亚甲基蓝为模型反应研究BiVO4的光催化性能。结果表明所制备的BiVO4微球是四方相结构,球的直径在1~3μm之间,将其在500℃煅烧后发生晶型转变,600℃煅烧可得到纯单斜相BiVO4微球,且具有良好的可见光催化活性。而且,不同晶型的BiVO4影响亚甲基蓝的降解效果。%Bismuth vanadate(BiVO4) microspheres were prepared with Bi(NO3)3 and NH4VO3 as starting materials and with NaOH to adjust pH through the microwave hydrothermal method at 180℃.The effect of different calcination temperatures on the crystalline phase and morphology was investigated,and the relationship between crystalline phase of BiVO4 and its photocatalytic performance was further studied.The as-prepared BiVO4 samples were characterized by XRD,SEM and UV-Vis.The photocatalytic activity of the BiVO4 microspheres was determined by degradation of methylene blue molecules under visible light irradiation.The results indicated that the crystalline phase of as-prepared BiVO4 microspheres was tetragonal phase,and the diameter of microspheres was 1-3μm.It is found that the phase transition had undergone after being calcined at 500℃,and monoclinic scheelite BiVO4 microspheres obtained by being calcined at 600℃ had the excellent visible-light photocatalysis.Besides,BiVO4 with different crystalline forms can affect the degradation of methylene blue molecules.

  10. Mapping Photoelectrochemical Current Distribution at Nanoscale Dimensions on Morphologically Controlled BiVO4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakthranont, Pongkarn; Seitz, Linsey C; Jaramillo, Thomas F

    2015-09-17

    We develop a method that can be used to qualitatively map photocurrent on photoelectrode surfaces, and show its utility for morphologically controlled W-doped BiVO4. The method is based on the deliberate photoinduced sintering of Au NPs, a photon-driven process that indicates oxidation with nanoscale-resolution. This strategy allows us to identify the active regions on W-doped BiVO4 photoelectrodes, and we observe a strong dependence of photoactivity on the electrode morphology, controlled by varying the relative humidity during the sol-gel fabrication process. We find that photoelectrode morphologies that exhibit the most evenly distributed Au sintering are those that yield the highest photoelectrochemical (PEC) activity. Understanding the correlation between electrode morphology and PEC activity is essential for designing structured semiconductors for PEC water splitting.

  11. Variation in Surface Ionization Potentials of Pristine and Hydrated BiVO4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Otero, Rachel; Walsh, Aron

    2015-06-18

    Bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) is a promising material for photoelectrochemical water splitting and photocatalytic degradation of organic moieties. We evaluate the ionization potentials of the (010) surface termination of BiVO4 using first-principles simulations. The electron removal energy of the pristine termination (7.2 eV) validates recent experimental reports. The effect of water absorption on the ionization potentials is considered using static models as well as structures obtained from molecular dynamics simulations. Owing to the large molecular dipole of H2O, adsorption stabilizes the valence band edge (downward band bending), thereby increasing the ionization potentials. These results provide new understanding to the role of polar layers on complex oxide semiconductors, with importance for the design of efficient photoelectrodes for water splitting.

  12. Self-assembly of highly crystalline spherical BiVO 4 in aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Xia, Dingguo

    2009-10-01

    Spherical bismuth vanadate particles are self-assembled from aqueous Bi(NO 3) 3 and NH 4VO 3 solutions by adjusting pH and tuning the amount of surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) via facile hydrothermal method. The BiVO 4 samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the peaks suited well with the pure phase monoclinic scheelite BiVO 4. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed the average size of the spherical particles was 5 μm and the assembling stages in the hydrothermal synthesis process were recorded. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) revealed the nanoparticles were single crystal. FT-IR spectroscopy test results demonstrated there was no SDS left in the samples. The mechanism of the self-assembling has also been proposed.

  13. EPR Properties of Concentrated NdVO4 Single Crystal System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, S M; Fuks, H; Berkowski, M; Głowacki, M; Bojanowski, B

    Single crystals of NdVO4 were grown by the Czochralski method under ambient pressure in a nitrogen atmosphere. Obtained crystals were transparent with strong violet coloring. Temperature and angular dependences of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of the samples in the 3-103 K temperature range were analyzed applying Dyson like lineshape typically used for concentrated magnetic system. EPR-NMR program was used to find local symmetry and spin-Hamiltonian parameters of neodymium ions.

  14. Effect of Preparation Parameters on Photoactivity of BiVO4 by Hydrothermal Method

    OpenAIRE

    Qingyun Chen; Miao Zhou; Di Ma; Dengwei Jing

    2012-01-01

    Bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) was synthesized from a mixture of aqueous Bi(NO3)3 and NH4VO3 solutions by using hydrothermal method. Via conducting the orthogonal experiments and single-factor experiments, the best synthetic parameters were determined. The physical and photophysical properties of the as-obtained samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and UV-Vis diffusion reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis). Th...

  15. Diode-pumped double passively Q-switched Nd:GdVO4 laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Min; LIU Shu-shan; LI Lei; WANG Wei-wei; CHEN Fei; LIU Jie

    2008-01-01

    Through using both Cr4+:YAG and GaAs saturable absorbers, a diode-pumped double passively Q-switched Nd:GdVO4 laser is realized and compared with a single passively Q-switched laser. This laser can generate symmetric pulse temporal profiles and shorter pulses. A laser pulse width of 17 ns has been achieved with the incident pump power of 8.5 W.

  16. Experimental spectra study of Tm:GdVO4 microchip laser at room temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yufeng Li; Youlun Ju; Y. Urata; Yuezhu Wang

    2007-01-01

    A high efficient diode-pumped Tm:GdVO4 microchip laser is demonstrated. Output power of 310 mW at 1917 nm with slope efficiency of 22% is produced when pumped by 2 W of power at 802 nm. Unpolarized fluorescence spectra near 1800 nm pumped by laser diode are measured. In addition, the most important upconversion fluorescence from 1D2 to 3F4 and 3H6 levels is discussed.

  17. Preparation and characterization of fly ash cenospheres supported CuO-BiVO4 heterojunction composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Cui, Hao; Wang, Bing; Li, Chuang; Zhai, Jianping; Li, Qin

    2014-05-01

    Novel fly ash cenospheres supported CuO-BiVO4 heterojunction composites (CuO-BiVO4/FACs) were prepared by modified metalorganic decomposition and impregnation methods. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), and UV-vis diffused reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) techniques. The XPS and SEM analyses indicated that Cu was present as CuO dispersed on the surface of BiVO4. The DRS spectra revealed that the composites had improved optical adsorption in the visible light region, and the composites exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity for methylene blue (MB) degradation under visible light irradiation. It was found that the 5 wt% CuO-loaded composite showed the highest photocatalytic activity for MB dye wastewater treatment. FACs, a by-product generated in coal-firing power plants, were used as a low cost support which favored phase separation after the reaction owing to their low density.

  18. BiVO(4)/CuWO(4) heterojunction photoanodes for efficient solar driven water oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilli, Satyananda Kishore; Deutsch, Todd G; Furtak, Thomas E; Brown, Logan D; Turner, John A; Herring, Andrew M

    2013-03-07

    BiVO(4)/CuWO(4) heterojunction electrodes were prepared using spray deposition of a highly porous bismuth vanadate film onto the surface of an electrodeposited three dimensional network connected copper tungstate. Bilayer BiVO(4)/CuWO(4)/fluorine doped tin oxide glass (FTO) electrodes demonstrated higher photocurrent magnitudes than either with BiVO(4)/FTO or CuWO(4)/FTO electrodes in 1.0 M Na(2)SO(4) electrolyte buffered at pH 7. The photocurrent is enhanced by the formation of the heterojunction that aids charge carrier collection brought about by the band edge offsets. When the pH 7 buffered electrolytes contained 1.0 M bicarbonate is employed instead of 1.0 M sulfate, the charge transfer resistance was decreased. This led to nearly 1.8 times the photocurrent density at 1.0 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The photocurrent was stable over 24 hours in bicarbonate electrolyte.

  19. Effect of Preparation Parameters on Photoactivity of BiVO4 by Hydrothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingyun Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth vanadate (BiVO4 was synthesized from a mixture of aqueous Bi(NO33 and NH4VO3 solutions by using hydrothermal method. Via conducting the orthogonal experiments and single-factor experiments, the best synthetic parameters were determined. The physical and photophysical properties of the as-obtained samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and UV-Vis diffusion reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis. The result showed that the best experimental parameters of monoclinic BiVO4 were pH=7, T=195 °C, and    t=6 h. The catalytic performance of BiVO4 was evaluated by reducing carbon dioxide to methane under visible light irradiation. It was found that the methane production reached 145 μg/g-cat after 5 h irradiation with the catalyst dosage of 0.15 g in 200 mL mixed solution of 0.1 M NaOH and 0.1 M Na2SO3.

  20. Monoclinic structured BiVO4 nanosheets: hydrothermal preparation, formation mechanism, and coloristic and photocatalytic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Chen, Dairong; Jiao, Xiuling

    2006-02-16

    Bismuth vanadate (BiVO(4)) nanosheets have been hydrothermally synthesized in the presence of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) as a morphology-directing template. The nanosheets were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) equipped with an X-ray energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), IR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and high-resolution TEM (HR-TEM). The BiVO(4) nanosheets had a monoclinic structure, were ca. 10-40 nm thick, and showed a preferred (010) surface orientation. The formation mechanism and the effects of reaction temperature and time on the products were investigated. UV-visible diffuse reflection spectra indicated that the BiVO(4) nanosheets had outstanding spectral selectivity and improved color properties compared with the corresponding bulk materials. Furthermore, the nanosheets showed good visible photocatalytic activities as determined by degradation of N,N,N',N'-tetraethylated rhodamine (RB) under solar irradiation.

  1. Plasmon-enhanced nanoporous BiVO4 photoanodes for efficient photoelectrochemical water oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Jiayong; Bangalore Rajeeva, Bharath; Wu, Zilong; Penley, Daniel; Liang, Chaolun; Tong, Yexiang; Zheng, Yuebing

    2016-06-01

    Conversion of solar irradiation into chemical fuels such as hydrogen with the use of a photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell is an attractive strategy for green energy. The promising technique of incorporating metal nanoparticles (NPs) in the photoelectrodes is being explored to enhance the performance of the photoelectrodes. In this work, we developed Au-NPs-functionalized nanoporous BiVO4 photoanodes, and utilized the plasmonic effects of Au NPs to enhance the photoresponse. The plasmonic enhancement leads to an AM 1.5 photocurrent of 5.1 ± 0.1 mA cm-2 at 1.23 V versus a reverse hydrogen electrode. We observed an enhancement of five times with respect to pristine BiVO4 in the photocurrent with long-term stability and high energy-conversion efficiency. The overall performance enhancement is attributed to the synergy between the nanoporous architecture of BiVO4 and the plasmonic effects of Au NPs. Our further study reveals that the commendable photoactivity arises from the different plasmonic effects and co-catalyst effects of Au NPs.

  2. Synthesis of novel CeO2-BiVO4/FAC composites with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Wang, Bing; Li, Chuang; Cui, Hao; Zhai, Jianping; Li, Qin

    2014-09-01

    To utilize visible light more effectively in photocatalytic reactions, a fly ash cenosphere (FAC)-supported CeO2-BiVO4 (CeO2-BiVO4/FAC) composite photocatalyst was prepared by modified metalorganic decomposition and impregnation methods. The physical and photophysical properties of the composite have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-Visible diffuse reflectance spectra. The XRD patterns exhibited characteristic diffraction peaks of both BiVO4 and CeO2 crystalline phases. The XPS results showed that Ce was present as both Ce(4+) and Ce(3+) oxidation states in CeO2 and dispersed on the surface of BiVO4 to constitute a p-n heterojunction composite. The absorption threshold of the CeO2-BiVO4/FAC composite shifted to a longer wavelength in the UV-Vis absorption spectrum compared to the pure CeO2 and pure BiVO4. The composites exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity for Methylene Blue (MB) degradation under visible light irradiation. It was found that the 7.5wt.% CeO2-BiVO4/FAC composite showed the highest photocatalytic activity for MB dye wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. BiVO4 photoanodes for water splitting with high injection efficiency, deposited by reactive magnetron co-sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Haibo; Freudenberg, Norman; Nie, Man; van de Krol, Roel; Ellmer, Klaus

    2016-04-01

    Photoactive bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) thin films were deposited by reactive co-magnetron sputtering from metallic Bi and V targets. The effects of the V-to-Bi ratio, molybdenum doping and post-annealing on the crystallographic and photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties of the BiVO4 films were investigated. Phase-pure monoclinic BiVO4 films, which are more photoactive than the tetragonal BiVO4 phase, were obtained under slightly vanadium-rich conditions. After annealing of the Mo-doped BiVO4 films, the photocurrent increased 2.6 times compared to undoped films. After optimization of the BiVO4 film thickness, the photocurrent densities (without a catalyst or a blocking layer or a hole scavenger) exceeded 1.2 mA/cm2 at a potential of 1.23 VRHE under solar AM1.5 irradiation. The surprisingly high injection efficiency of holes into the electrolyte is attributed to the highly porous film morphology. This co-magnetron sputtering preparation route for photoactive BiVO4 films opens new possibilities for the fabrication of large-scale devices for water splitting.

  4. BiVO4 photoanodes for water splitting with high injection efficiency, deposited by reactive magnetron co-sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Gong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Photoactive bismuth vanadate (BiVO4 thin films were deposited by reactive co-magnetron sputtering from metallic Bi and V targets. The effects of the V-to-Bi ratio, molybdenum doping and post-annealing on the crystallographic and photoelectrochemical (PEC properties of the BiVO4 films were investigated. Phase-pure monoclinic BiVO4 films, which are more photoactive than the tetragonal BiVO4 phase, were obtained under slightly vanadium-rich conditions. After annealing of the Mo-doped BiVO4 films, the photocurrent increased 2.6 times compared to undoped films. After optimization of the BiVO4 film thickness, the photocurrent densities (without a catalyst or a blocking layer or a hole scavenger exceeded 1.2 mA/cm2 at a potential of 1.23 VRHE under solar AM1.5 irradiation. The surprisingly high injection efficiency of holes into the electrolyte is attributed to the highly porous film morphology. This co-magnetron sputtering preparation route for photoactive BiVO4 films opens new possibilities for the fabrication of large-scale devices for water splitting.

  5. Template-Free Synthesis of Monoclinic BiVO4 with Porous Structure and Its High Photocatalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengyu Dong

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Monoclinic BiVO4 photocatalysts with porous structures were synthesized by a two-step approach without assistance of any templates. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET, ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS, photocurrent responses, and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS. It is found that the as-prepared BiVO4 samples had a porous structure with aperture diameter of 50–300 nm. Moreover, the BET specific surface area of the porous BiVO4-200 °C sample reaches up to 5.69 m2/g, which is much higher than that of the sample of BiVO4 particles without porous structure. Furthermore, a possible formation mechanism of BiVO4 with porous structure was proposed. With methylene blue (MB as a model compound, the photocatalytic oxidation of organic contaminants in aqueous solution was investigated under visible light irradiation. It is found that the porous BiVO4-200 °C sample exhibits the best photocatalytic activity, and the photocatalytic rate constant is about three times of that of the sample of BiVO4 particles without porous structure. In addition, the photocurrent responses and electrochemical impedance spectra strongly support this conclusion.

  6. Preparation of a Leaf-Like BiVO4-Reduced Graphene Oxide Composite and Its Photocatalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimin Xiong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We prepared a unique leaf-like BiVO4-reduced graphene oxide (BiVO4-rGO composite with prominent adsorption performance and photocatalytic ability by a single-step method. Multiple characterization results showed that the leaf-like BiVO4 with average diameter of about 5 um was well dispersed on the reduced graphene oxide sheet, which enhanced the transportation of photogenerated electrons into BiVO4, thereby leading to efficient separation of photogenerated carriers in the coupled graphene-nanocomposite system. The characterization and experiment results also indicated that the outstanding adsorption ability of such composite was closely associated with the rough surface of the leaf-like BiVO4 and doped rGO. The surface photocurrent spectroscopy and transient photocurrent density measurement results demonstrated that the doped rGO enhanced separation efficiency and transfer rate of photogenerated charges. As a result, the BiVO4-rGO exhibited higher photocatalytic capacity toward the degradation of rhodamine B dye under visible-light irradiation compared with pure BiVO4 and P25.

  7. DEVELOPMENTS OF POLYHEDRA USING OBLIQUE COORDINATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Akiyama

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an exposition of the results in the paper entitled "Convex Development of a Regular Tetrahedron" by J. Akiyama, et. al. [1]. We fill in the detail which have been omitted in the paper. We determine all convex developments of a regular tetrahedron V using a tiling generated by V and we arrive at conditions for convex polygons to be convex develpments of V . Moreover, we identify all convex polyhedra whose convex developments can be determined by the method used for V .

  8. Novel 3DOM BiVO_{4}/TiO_{2} nanocomposites for highly enhanced photocatalytic activity

    OpenAIRE

    Zalfani, Meryam; Van der Schueren, Benoit; Hu, Zhi-Yi; Rooke, Joanna C.; Bourguiga, Ramzi; Wu,Min; Li, Yu; Tendeloo, van, G.; Su, Bao-Lian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Novel 3DOM BiVO4/TiO2 nanocomposites with intimate contact were for the first time synthesized by a hydrothermal method in order to elucidate their visible-light-driven photocatalytic performances. BiVO4 nanoparticles and 3DOM TiO2 inverse opal were fabricated respectively. These materials were characterized by XRD, XPS, SEM, TEM, N-2 adsorption-desorption and UV-vis diffuse (UV-vis) and photoluminescence spectroscopies. As references for comparison, a physical mixture of BiVO4 nano...

  9. Preparation and Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity of N-Fe Co-doped BiVO4%N-Fe共掺杂BiVO4的制备及其光催化活性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈先托; 张冲; 吴江; 周瑞兴

    2015-01-01

    采用溶胶凝胶法制备了N和Fe共掺杂的BiVO4可见光光催化剂,并用X射线衍射(XRD)、比表面积测试(BET)和紫外-可见漫反射谱(UV-Vis DRS)对其进行了表征.结果显示,N-Fe共掺杂对BiVO4晶型没有产生影响,掺杂前后均为单斜晶系,但晶粒粒径有所减小,BET比表面积相对增大.由UV-Vis可知,N-Fe共掺杂的BiVO4的吸光强度明显增强,禁带宽度变窄.以可见光降解甲基橙(MO)考察催化剂的光催化活性,N-Fe共掺杂的BiVO4对MO的降解速率明显高于纯BiVO4,证明N-Fe共掺杂产生的协同效应提高了BiVO4在可见光照射下的光催化活性.

  10. W/Mo co-doped BiVO4 for photocatalytic treatment of polymer-containing wastewater in oilfield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Li, Wei; Wan, Wenchao; Zhang, Ruiyang; Lin, Yuanhua

    2015-06-01

    Polymer flooding is an effective way to enhance oil recovery (EOR). However, the treatment of the oily wastewater becomes an urgent issue. Photocatalysis is a promising approach for this purpose. In this report, W/Mo co-doped BiVO4 particles are synthesized by hydrothermal method. W/Mo co-doping could promote an effective separation of photogenerated carriers reflecting from the 6 times higher photocurrent density compared to pure BiVO4. The photodegradation of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) over 0.5 at.% W and 1.5 at.% Mo co-doped BiVO4 is 43% under UV-vis light irradiation for 3 h, which is much higher than that of pure BiVO4 (18%).

  11. Synthesis and Optimization of Visible Light Active BiVO4 Photocatalysts for the Degradation of RhB

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rong Ran; Joanne Gamage McEvoy; Zisheng Zhang

    2015-01-01

    .... The synthesis produced pure monoclinic BiVO4 particles with multimorphological features containing flower-like, flake-ball, flake, cuboid-like, and plate-like shapes and exhibited strong absorption...

  12. Morphological effect of BiVO4 catalysts on degradation of aqueous paracetamol under visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Changying; Xu, Jie; Zhu, Yaqi; Chen, Acong; Bian, Zhaoyong; Wang, Hui

    2016-09-01

    Morphological effect of bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) on visible light-driven catalytic degradation of aqueous paracetamol was carefully investigated using four monoclinic BiVO4 catalysts. The catalysts with different morphologies were controllably prepared by a hydrothermal method without any additions. The prepared catalysts were fully characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). Under the visible light irradiation, these catalysts with different morphology were investigated to degrade aqueous paracetamol contaminant. The degradation effects were evaluated based on the catalyst morphology, solution pH, initial paracetamol concentration, and catalyst dosage. Cube-like BiVO4 powders exhibited excellent photocatalytic performance. The optimal photocatalytic performance of the cube-like BiVO4 in degrading paracetamol was achieved.

  13. Electrosprayed heterojunction WO3/BiVO4 films with nanotextured pillar structure for enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, Mukund G.; Yoon, Hyun; Kim, Min-woo; Swihart, Mark T.; Al-Deyab, Salem S.; Yoon, Sam S.

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate that the addition of a tungsten oxide (WO3) layer beneath a bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) photocatalyst layer with a nanotextured pillar morphology significantly increases the photocurrent density in photoelectrochemical water splitting. The WO3-BiVO4 bilayer films produced a photocurrent of up to 3.3 mA/cm2 under illumination at 100 mW/cm2 (AM1.5 spectrum). The bilayer film was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and photoelectrochemical methods, which confirmed the superiority of the bilayer film in terms of its morphology and charge separation and transport ability. Both WO3 and BiVO4 were deposited by electrostatic spraying under open-air conditions, which resulted in nanotextured pillars of BiVO4 atop a smooth WO3 film. The optimal coating conditions are also reported.

  14. Visible light induced bactericidal and photocatalytic activity of hydrothermally synthesized BiVO4 nano-octahedrals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rishabh; Uma; Singh, Sonal; Verma, Ajit; Khanuja, Manika

    2016-09-01

    In the present work, monoclinic bismuth vanadate (m-BiVO4) nanostructures have been synthesized via simple hydrothermal method and employed for visible light driven antimicrobial and photocatalytic activity. Morphology (octahedral) and size (200-300nm) of the m-BiVO4 are studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The crystal structure of m-BiVO4 (monoclinic scheelite structure) is confirmed by high resolution-TEM (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The band gap of m-BiVO4 was estimated to be ca. 2.42eV through Kubelka-Munk function F(R∞) using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). Antimicrobial action of m-BiVO4 is anticipated by (i) shake flask method, (ii) MTT [3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-Yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide] assay for cytotoxicity. SEM analysis has been carried on Escherichia coli (E.coli) before and after treatment with nanostructure materials to reveal the mechanism underlying the antimicrobial action. Antimicrobial activity is studied as a function of m-BiVO4 concentration viz. 20, 40, 60 and 80ppm. The bacterial growth is decreased 80% to 96%, with the increase in m-BiVO4 concentration from 20ppm to 80ppm, respectively, in 2h. Photocatalytic activity and rate kinetics of m-BiVO4 nanostructures have been studied as a function of time on methylene blue (MB) dye degradation which is one of the waste products of textile industries and responsible for water pollution.

  15. Damage properties in ion-implanted YbVO4 crystals using RBS/Channeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chuan-Lei; Wei, Zhi-Ning

    2014-03-01

    YbVO4 crystals are implanted with 3.0 MeV Ni ions and 600 keV H ions with fluences of 2.0-10.0×1014 cm-2 and 6.0×1016 cm-2, respectively. In addition, post-implantation thermal annealing is performed at selected temperatures. The disorder induced by implantation and the effect of the annealing on the recovery of the crystal lattice are investigated by RBS/Channeling measurements with the help of simulation code RUMP.

  16. GISAXS View of Induced Morphological Changes in Nanostructured CeVO4 Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy Lučić Lavčević

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured CeVO4 films, designed for applications in electrochemical cells and electrochromic devices, were obtained on glass substrates by the sol-gel process. An analysis of morphological modifications in these films, induced by ultrasonication, annealing, and introduction of lithium ions, was performed, using the grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering technique (GISAXS. The GISAXS results are discussed and related with complementary examinations of the same films in real space, performed by scanning electron microscopy on a different length scale.

  17. Growth and EPR properties of ErVO4 single crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leniec Grzegorz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of ErVO4 were grown by the Czochralski method under ambient pressure in a nitrogen atmosphere. Obtained crystals were transparent with strong pink coloring. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectra were recorded as a function of the applied magnetic field. Temperature and angular dependences of the EPR spectra of the samples in the 3–300 K temperature range were analyzed applying both Lorentzian––Gauss approximation for diluted medium and Dyson for dense magnetic medium. EPR-NMR program was done to find local symmetry and spin Hamiltonian parameters of erbium ions.

  18. Efficient Diode-Pumped Passively Q-Switched Nd:GdVO4 Lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杰; 贾玉磊; 杨济民; 杜鹃; 何京良

    2002-01-01

    An efficient diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser passively Q-switched by a Cr4+ :YAG has been developed as a saturable absorber. A KTP crystal is used for the extra-cavity second-harmonic generation and a BBO crystal for the sum frequency mixing. The green output power is 172mW at incident pump power of 8 W. The ultraviolet (UV) output power is measured to be 20mW at the same pump power. The peak power of the UV laser is 143 W with the pulse repetition rate of 14 kHz and pulse width of 10 ns.

  19. BiVO4 {010} and {110} Relative Exposure Extent: Governing Factor of Surface Charge Population and Photocatalytic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hui Ling; Wen, Xiaoming; Amal, Rose; Ng, Yun Hau

    2016-04-07

    The {010} and {110} crystal facets of monoclinic bismuth vanadate (m-BiVO4) has been demonstrated to be the active reduction and oxidation sites, respectively. Here, we show using dual-faceted m-BiVO4 with distinctly different dominant exposed facets, one which is {010}-dominant and the other {110}-dominant, contrary to prediction, the former m-BiVO4 exhibits superior photooxidation activities. The population of photogenerated electrons and holes on the surface are revealed to be proportional to the respective surface areas of {010} and {110} exposed on m-BiVO4, as evidenced by steady-state photoluminescence (PL) measurements in the presence of charge scavengers. The better photoactivity of {010}-dominant m-BiVO4 is attributed to prompt electron transfer facilitated by the presence of more photogenerated electrons on the larger {010} surface. Additionally, the greater extent of electron trapping in {110}-dominant m-BiVO4 also deteriorates its photoactivity by inducing electron-hole pair recombination.

  20. Exploring the Different Roles of Particle Size in Photoelectrochemical and Photocatalytic Water Oxidation on BiVO4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hui Ling; Amal, Rose; Ng, Yun Hau

    2016-10-11

    Water oxidation on visible-light-active bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) has commonly been demonstrated to be viable in powder suspension (PS) and particulate photoelectrochemical (PEC) systems. Here, we demonstrate that particle size reduction, which is known to be efficacious in promoting charge carrier extraction and boosting surface active sites, has an opposite effect on BiVO4's photoactivity in the two systems. With three BiVO4 samples of distinctive particle sizes, smaller BiVO4 particle size is shown to be beneficial for enhancing PEC photocurrent generation, but deleterious for photocatalytic O2 evolution on suspended BiVO4. Such contrary effect of particle size in the PEC and PS systems is revealed to be due to the different governing factors of the systems: charge transport in the former and charge separation in the latter. Smaller particle size was found to enrich the interparticle and the particle/FTO substrate contacts which improve charge transport and charge collection efficiency in BiVO4 particulate electrode. On the contrary, larger particle size is necessary for improved photocatalytic O2 evolution because of increased crystallinity and greater band bending, which are essential for charge separation.

  1. 水热法制备Eu复合BiVO4纳米片及其光催化降解性能%Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of Eu-doped BiVO4 nanosheets by hydrothermal method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪志新; 黄少斌; 费志宾; 简子聪

    2016-01-01

    水热法制备了以聚乙二醇(PEG-200)为模板剂的稀土元素Eu复合BiVO4光催化剂,并对材料进行XRD、SEM、UV-vis DRS、BET的表征和分析。以光催化降解甲基蓝(MB)效率作为光催化活性的指标,考察Eu复合对BiVO4光催化活性的影响。结果表明:Eu复合可使BiVO4的晶型发生转变,同时又抑制四方相晶体生长,使晶粒尺寸变小,比表面积增大。复合样品中,部分 Eu3+进入 BiVO4晶格内取代 Bi3+,使晶形发生畸变,有利于光催化活性的提高。当Eu的复合量为50%时,光催化降解甲基蓝的效率最高,可见光照射120min降解效率可达到90%,较纯BiVO4的光降解效率明显提高。%Eu-doped BiVO4 photocatalysts were synthesized by hydrothermal method using PEG-200 as the template. The material were characterized by XRD,SEM,UV-vis DRS and BET. The photocatalytic degradation rate of methyl blue was used to investigate the influence of the dopants for the photocatalytic activity of BiVO4. The results revealed that the dopants had a significant effect on the transition of crystal phase,prevention of the crystal growth and the increase of BET. Some Bi3+ in the BiVO4 crystal lattice were substituted by Eu3+ leading to a crystal distortion,which was beneficial for the enhancement of photocatalytic activity. For 50% Eu-doped BiVO4 nanosheets,it performed with the best photocatalytic activity. The photodegradation rate of MB was 90% after 120min visible light irradiation,which was much higher than that of pure BiVO4.

  2. Facile fabrication of BiVO4 nanofilms with controlled pore size and their photoelectrochemical performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chenchen; Jiao, Zhengbo; Li, Shaopeng; Zhang, Yan; Bi, Yingpu

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate a facile method for the rational fabrication of pore-size controlled nanoporous BiVO4 photoanodes, and confirmed that the optimum pore-size distributions could effectively absorb visible light through light diffraction and confinement functions. Furthermore, in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) reveals more efficient photoexcited electron-hole separation than conventional particle films, induced by light confinement and rapid charge transfer in the inter-crossed worm-like structures.We demonstrate a facile method for the rational fabrication of pore-size controlled nanoporous BiVO4 photoanodes, and confirmed that the optimum pore-size distributions could effectively absorb visible light through light diffraction and confinement functions. Furthermore, in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) reveals more efficient photoexcited electron-hole separation than conventional particle films, induced by light confinement and rapid charge transfer in the inter-crossed worm-like structures. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06584d

  3. Highly efficient 1063-nm continuous-wave laser emission in Nd:GdVO4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupei, V; Pavel, N; Sato, Y; Taira, T

    2003-12-01

    Highly efficient 1-microm continuous-wave laser emission in 3-mm-thick, 0.5- and 1.0-at. % Nd:GdVO4 crystals longitudinally pumped at 879 nm into the laser emitting level is reported. Under Ti:sapphire pumping, the slope efficiency in absorbed power is approximately 80% for both crystals, while the slope efficiency, the optical-to-optical efficiency (at 1700-mW pump power), and the laser threshold in incident power are 79%, 78%, and 31 mW for 0.5-at. % Nd and 80%, 77%, and 40 mW for 1.0-at. % Nd, respectively. The slope efficiency is close to the quantum defect limit, the difference being fully accounted for by the residual optical losses. Under 879-nm diode laser pumping, the slope efficiency and the optical-to-optical efficiency in absorbed power of the 0.5-at. % Nd:GdVO4 crystal are 60% and 53%, owing to poorer superposition of the pumped and the laser mode volumes.

  4. Domain structure and magnetic resonance studies of ferroelastic BiVO4 revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choh, Sung Ho; Jang, Min Su

    2016-04-01

    Bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) is a ferroelastic material undergoing a reversible second order phase transition at 528 K(T c) between the tetragonal and monoclinic structure. There have been experimental studies on the incommensurate domain wall (W‧) which reported different orientation angles. In order to clarify this we have tried to calculate it numerically in terms of lattice constants above and below T c by employing the theory of Sapriel, and obtained it to be either 35.9° or 54.1°. It also turns out that the shear strain (S 21) in the ferroelastic phase depends on the crystal growing condition. The remaining internal stress appears to be responsible for the formation of W‧ wall. The host atom nuclear magnetic resonance and the S-state impurity electron magnetic resonance are also reviewed. The nuclear electric quadrupole interaction of 51V and 209Bi in BiVO4 was evaluated in terms of the point charge model based on the crystal structure. The result of electric field gradient tensor turns out to be reasonable with experimental values. The zero-field splitting tensor of Mn2+, Fe3+ and Gd3+ are also compared, and the deduced local environment of these ions in the host are confirmed. Finally the second-order phase transition according to the Landau’s framework is found in this crystal from the temperature dependence of magnetic resonance parameters. Supported by The National Academy of Sciences, Republic of Korea (2014) through SHC.

  5. Dielectric behavior, conduction and EPR active centres in BiVO4 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Rajalingam; Velumani, Subramaniam; Tabellout, Mohamed; Errien, Nicolas; Kassiba, Abdelhadi

    2013-12-01

    Bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) nanomaterials were synthesized by mechano-chemical ball milling method and complementary investigations were devoted to their structures, nanoparticle morphologies and electronic active centres. The dielectric and conductivity behaviour were analysed systematically in wide temperature and frequency ranges to correlate such physical responses with the peculiarities of the samples. Large interfacial polarisations favoured by high specific surfaces of nanoparticles account for a drastic enhancement of the dielectric function in the quasi-static regime. Exhaustive analyses of the dielectric experiments were achieved and account for the main features of dielectric functions and their related relaxation mechanisms. The electrical conductivity is thermally activated with energies in the range 0.1-0.6 eV depending on the sample features. DC conductivity up to 10-3 S/cm was obtained in well crystallized nanoparticles. Vanadium ions reduction was revealed by EPR spectroscopy with higher concentrations of the active centres (V4+) in more agglomerated and amorphous nanopowders. The EPR spectral parameters of V4+ were determined and correlated with the local environments of reduced vanadium ions and the characteristics of their electronic configurations. An insight is also made on the role of active electronic centres (V4+) on the conduction mechanism in nanostructured BiVO4.

  6. Anisotropic Phase diagram of the Frustrated spin chain β-TeVO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weickert, F.; Jaime, M.; Harrison, N.; Scott, B. L.; Leitmae, A.; Heinmaa, L.; Stern, R.; Janson, O.; Berger, H.; Rosner, H.; Tsirlin, A. A.

    We will present experimental as well as theoretical data on β-TeVO4 a candidate for the J1-J2 chain model with ferromagnetic J1 ~-18 K and antiferrromagnetic J2 ~48 K coupling constants. The T - H magnetic phase diagram is revealed by measurements of the magnetization, specific heat, magnetostriction, and thermal expansion on oriented single crystals at temperatures between 0.5 K and 50 K and in magnetic fields up to 50 T. The high field data were taken in a capacitor bank-driven pulsed magnet at NHMFL - LANL and complemented with measurements in a superconducting magnet. Our comprehensive study allows for the first time a detailed mapping of the phase diagram in both directions, H ll ab and H ll c. We find clear evidence for 5 different phases including full polarization of the magnetic moments above 23 T that is only weakly dependent on the crystal orientation. Surprisingly, the phase boundary at the saturation field splits into two distinct lines below 5 K. The magnetic phases occurring at fields below 10 T show significant magnetic anisotropy between H ll ab and H ll c. The nature of the different phases and regions in β-TeVO4 is still far from being understood, but our results will stimulate further research on this interesting model compound.

  7. Ag/BiVO4脱氮光催化剂的制备与表征%Preparation and Characterization of Ag/BiVO4 Photocatalyst for Denitrification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄莹莹; 郑柳萍; 颜桂炀; 李玲

    2013-01-01

    Ag/BiVO4 powder photocatalysts were prepared by a hydrothermal method from bismuth nitrate,ammonium metavanadate and silver nitrate,and characterized by means of XRD,UV-Vis DRS and SEM.Their photocatalytic activity for oil denitrification under visible light was evaluated with pyridine degradation as the probe reaction.The results showed that the Ag doping did not change the typical monoclinic scheelite structure of BiVO4 but improved the visible light absorption of the catalysts.So the photocatalytic activity of Ag/BiVO4 for the degradation of pyridine under visible light was evidently higher than that of the BiVO4.The photocatalytic degradation rate of 50 μg/g pyridine(50 mL pyridine solution) could reach 86.7% under the conditions of Ag doping amount(theoretical value)5%(w),Ag/BiVO4 dosage 0.05 g and visible light irradiation for 2.5 h.%以硝酸铋为铋源、偏钒酸铵为钒源,采用水热法制备了Ag掺杂改性的粉体钒酸铋(Ag/BiVO4)催化剂,采用XRD,UV-Vis DRS,SEM等手段对其理化性能进行了表征,并以模拟含氮油品为目标降解物,在可见光下评价其光催化脱氮性能.表征结果显示,Ag掺杂不会改变BiVO4催化剂典型的单斜白钨矿结构,可提高Ag/BiVO4催化剂对可见光的吸收能力,从而使其催化性能明显优于未改性的BiVO4催化剂,对模拟油品中的吡啶表现出良好的可见光降解效果.对于50 mL吡啶含量为50 μg/g的模拟油品,当Ag掺杂量(理论计算值)为5%(w)时,催化剂最佳用量为0.05 g,在可见光下照射2.5 h,模拟油品中吡啶的降解率可达86.7%.

  8. Hollow-Cuboid Li3VO4/C as High-Performance Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changkun; Liu, Chaofeng; Nan, Xihui; Song, Huanqiao; Liu, Yaguang; Zhang, Cuiping; Cao, Guozhong

    2016-01-13

    Li3VO4 has been demonstrated to be a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries with a low, safe voltage and large capacity. However, its poor electronic conductivity hinders its practical application particularly at a high rate. This work reports that Li3VO4 coated with carbon was synthesized by a one-pot, two-step method with F127 ((PEO)100-(PPO)65-(PEO)100) as both template and carbon source, yielding a microcuboid structure. The resulting Li3VO4/C cuboid shows a stable capacity of 415 mAh g(-1) at 0.5 C and excellent capacity stability at high rates (e.g., 92% capacity retention after 1000 cycles at 10 C = 4 A g(-1)). The lithiation/delithiation process of Li3VO4/C was studied by ex situ X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy, which confirmed that Li3VO4/C underwent a reversible intercalation reaction during discharge/charge processes. The excellent electrochemical performance is attributed largely to the unique microhollow structure. The voids inside hollow structure can not only provide more space to accommodate volume change during discharge/charge processes but also allow the lithium ions insertion and extraction from both outside and inside the hollow structure with a much larger surface area or more reaction sites and shorten the lithium ions diffusion distance, which leads to smaller overpotential and faster reaction kinetics. Carbon derived from F127 through pyrolysis coats Li3VO4 conformably and thus offers good electrical conduction. The results in this work provide convincing evidence that the significant potential of hollow-cuboid Li3VO4/C for high-power batteries.

  9. Thermal Conductivity Investigation of {Ca}_{9} {RE}({VO}_{4})_{7} (RE = La, Nd, Gd) and {Ca}_{10}M(VO_{4})_{7} (M = Li, Na, K) Single Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, P. A.; Skrobov, S. A.; Matovnikov, A. V.; Kosmyna, M. B.; Puzikov, V. M.; Nazarenko, B. P.; Shekhovtsov, A. N.; Behrooz, A.; Paszkowicz, W.; Khodasevich, I. A.; Shereshovets, N. N.; Voitikov, S. V.; Orlovich, V. A.

    2017-01-01

    The {Ca}9{RE}({VO}4)7 (RE = La, Nd, Gd) and {Ca}_{10}{M}({VO}4)7 (M = Li, Na, K) single crystals have been grown by the Czochralski method. The binary vanadates are isostructural to "whitlockite" mineral (rhombohedral symmetry, R3 c space group). Their thermal conductivity has been investigated in the range 50 K-300 K parallel to the c axis. For {Ca}9{Gd}({VO}4)7 crystals, the thermal conductivity has been investigated in the range 300 K-550 K also. Additionally, for the {Ca}_{10}{M}({VO}4)7 (M = Li, Na, K) crystals the heat capacity has been studied in the temperature range 80 K-300 K. The character of the temperature dependence of thermal conductivity is close to that of glasses. The possible reasons of the observed features of the thermal conductivity have been analyzed. Raman spectra of {Ca}_{10}{M}({VO}4)7 (M = Li, Na, K) crystals have been measured and discussed. The spectral lines were broad and similar to polycrystalline or amorphous solids. These crystals are expected to be suitable for application as efficient nonlinear optic and laser materials.

  10. Synthesis and Optimization of Visible Light Active BiVO4 Photocatalysts for the Degradation of RhB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Ran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Monoclinic BiVO4 powders were synthesized via a novel route using potassium metavanadate (KVO3 prepared by calcination of K2CO3 and V2O5 as a starting material and followed by hydrothermal treatment and were investigated for the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB under visible light irradiation. The synthesized BiVO4 particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and UV-Visible (UV-Vis light diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry. The synthesis produced pure monoclinic BiVO4 particles with multimorphological features containing flower-like, flake-ball, flake, cuboid-like, and plate-like shapes and exhibited strong absorption in the visible light range. The BiVO4 prepared via KVO3 possessed excellent photocatalytic activity for the degradation of RhB under visible light. The performance of this catalyst was found to be superior to other BiVO4 photocatalysts prepared via ammonium metavanadate (NH4VO3 using coprecipitation, combustion, and calcination methods reported in literature, respectively.

  11. Persulfate-assisted photodegradation of diethylstilbestrol using monoclinic BiVO4 under visible-light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Yongli; Guo, Hongguang; Cheng, Xin; Liu, Hongwei; Tang, Weihong

    2017-02-01

    In this study, the photosynergistic performance of BiVO4 with persulfate (PS) is demonstrated under visible light irradiation for the first time. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) was selected as a reluctant compound, and factors including dosages of PS and catalyst, solution pHs, initial concertration of DES, and inorganic anions were evaluated. The morphology and chemical state of bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). It was found that the degradation of DES was promoted in either acid or alkaline solutions. The increase of PS and BiVO4 dosages was beneficial to the reactions, while incremental concentration of DES showed the inhibiting effect. By scavenging hVB(+), Cl(-) was able to make the promotion, differentiated from the exsiting HCO- 3. Moreover, the photocatalytic mechanism for the BiVO4/PS/vis-light system was proposed by using several probe compounds (isopropanol, tert-butanol, and 1,4-benzoquinone), which consists of h+ VB/e- CB generation and recombination on the surface of BiVO4 as well as free radical oxidation in the solutions. The study provides a distinctive method to treat organic contaminants using visible light in the aqueous environment.

  12. Ultrasound assisted synthesis of monoclinic structured spindle BiVO4 particles with hollow structure and its photocatalytic property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Cao, Lixin; Su, Ge; Liu, Haisong; Wang, Xiangfei; Zhang, Lan

    2010-04-01

    Bismuth vanadate (BiVO(4)) spindle particles with monoclinic scheelite structure have been successfully synthesized via a facile sonochemical method. The as-prepared BiVO(4) photocatalyst exhibited a hollow interior structure constructed from the self-assembly of cone shape primary nanocrystals. A possible oriented attachment growth mechanism has been proposed based on the results of time-dependent experiments, which indicates the formation of spindle particles is mainly attributed to the phase transformation procedure induced by ultrasound irradiation. A series of morphology evolutions of BiVO(4) from compact microspheres, to hollow microspheres, and then to spindle particles have been arrested in the process of sonochemical treatment. Optical absorption experiments revealed the BiVO(4) spindle had strong absorption in the visible light region. A much higher photocatalytic activity of these spindle particles was found in comparison with the SSR-BiVO(4) material for degradation of rhodamine-B under visible light irradiation, which may be ascribed to its special single-crystalline nanostructure.

  13. Enhanced photoelectrochemical performance of inorganic-organic hybrid consisting of BiVO4 and PEDOT:PSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzciński, K.; Szkoda, M.; Siuzdak, K.; Sawczak, M.; Lisowska-Oleksiak, A.

    2016-12-01

    The PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)) was electrodeposited on a thin layer of bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) prepared using the pulsed laser deposition technique onto FTO. The inorganic-organic junction was characterized by Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Chronoamperometry curves, recorded under simulated solar light illumination, were performed to determine generated photocurrent during water and hydroquinone oxidation at the electrode surface. Experiments were performed for three types of electrode materials: (i) FTO/BiVO4, (ii) FTO/PEDOT:PSS and (iii) FTO/BiVO4/PEDOT:PSS in aqueous electrolyte. Almost 5 times higher photocurrent in electrolyte containing hole scavenger was generated after modification of BiVO4 photoanode with electrodeposited polymer. It is noteworthy that anodic photocurrent was stable even after 4 h of illumination. Cyclic voltammetry curves of FTO/BiVO4/PEDOT:PSS recorded before and after experiments performed under electrode illumination indicated that the organic part in tested junction is photo-corrosion resistant.

  14. Li2CuVO4: A high capacity positive electrode material for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Yahia, Hamdi; Shikano, Masahiro; Yamaguchi, Yoichi

    2016-07-01

    The new compound Li2CuVO4 was synthesized by a solid state reaction route, and its crystal structure was determined from single crystal X-ray diffraction data. Li2CuVO4 was characterized by galvanometric cycling, cycle voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The structure of Li2CuVO4 is isotypic to Pmn21-Li3VO4. It can be described as a disordered wurtzite structure with rows of Li1/Cu1 atoms alternating with rows of (Li2/Cu2)-V-(Li2/Cu2) atoms along [100]. All cations are tetrahedrally coordinated. The lithium and copper atoms are statistically disordered over two crystallographic sites. The electrochemical cycling between 2.0 and 4.7 V indicates that almost two lithium atoms could be extracted and re-intercalated. This delivers a maximum discharge capacity of 257 mA h g-1 at a C/50 rate (theoretical capacity = 139 mA h g-1 for one lithium). Li2CuVO4 shows also high rate capability with a capacity of 175 mA h g-1 at 1C rate. This demonstrates that Cu-based compounds can be very interesting as electrodes for Li-ion batteries if Cu-dissolution is avoided.

  15. Photocatalytic degradation and removal mechanism of ibuprofen via monoclinic BiVO4 under simulated solar light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fuhua; Kang, Yapu; Chen, Min; Liu, Guoguang; Lv, Wenying; Yao, Kun; Chen, Ping; Huang, Haoping

    2016-05-01

    Characterized as by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra techniques, BiVO4 photocatalyst was hydrothermally synthesized. The photocatalytic degradation mechanisms of ibuprofen (IBP) were evaluated in aqueous media via BiVO4. Results demonstrated that the prepared photocatalyst corresponded to phase-pure monoclinic scheelite BiVO4. The synthesized BiVO4 showed superior photocatalytic properties under the irradiation of visible-light. The photocatalytic degradation rate of IBP decreased with an increase in the initial IBP concentration. The degradation process followed first-order kinetics model. At an IBP concentration of 10 mg L(-1), while a BiVO4 concentration of 5.0 g L(-1) with pH value of 4.5, the rate of IBP degradation was obtained as 90% after 25 min. The photocatalytic degradation of IBP was primarily accomplished via the generation of superoxide radical (O2(•-)) and hydroxyl radicals ((•)OH). During the process of degradation, part of the (•)OH was converted from the O2(•-). The direct oxidation of holes (h(+)) made a minimal contribution to the degradation of IBP.

  16. Preparation, Crystal Structure and Microwave Dielectric Properties of Rare-Earth Vanadates: ReVO4 (Re = Nd, Sm)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Fang, Liang; Sun, Yihua; Tang, Ying; Chen, Jinwu; Li, Chunchun

    2016-12-01

    Two microwave dielectric ceramics ReVO4 (Re = Nd, Sm) prepared through a conventional solid-state reaction method were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed that pure and dense NdVO4 and SmVO4 ceramics with tetragonal structure could be obtained when sintered in the temperature range 1100°C-1180°C for 4 h. The samples sintered at 1160°C exhibited the best densification with relative densities larger than 96%. NdVO4 ceramic exhibited promising microwave dielectric properties with a relative permittivity (ɛ r ) of 12.0, a quality factor (Q × f) of 36,440 GHz, and a negative temperature coefficient of resonance frequency (τ f ) of -44.3 ppm/°C. SmVO4 had a ɛ r ˜ 11.7, a Q × f ˜ 38,620 GHz and a τ f ˜ -48.4 ppm/°C.

  17. Role of the metal cation types around VO4 groups on the nonlinear optical behavior of materials: experimental and theoretical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xin; Yang, Zhihua; Han, Guopeng; Wang, Ying; Wen, Ming; Pan, Shilie

    2016-09-28

    In order to explore new NLO crystals with superior performances, it is greatly desirable to understand the intrinsic relationship between the macroscopic optical properties and microscopic structural features in crystals. A novel mechanism for nonlinear optical (NLO) effects of vanadate crystals, Li3VO4, KCd4(VO4)3 and Ca3(VO4)2 with distorted (VO4)(3-) groups, has been investigated. Experiments related to the synthesis and structures were determined. In addition, infrared and UV-Vis-NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, as well as electronic band structure calculations, were performed on the reported materials. A comprehensive analysis for the structure-property relationship is given by combining the experimental measurements, the electronic structure calculations and the SHG-weighted electron density to the linear and NLO properties. It was found that the contribution of the (VO4)(3-) anionic group to the second harmonic generation (SHG) response was the dominant anionic group, which plays a vital role to the SHG effects in Li3VO4, KCd4(VO4)3 and Ca3(VO4)2. It was also concluded that the metal cation types and coordination around VO4 groups, the distorted and parallel oriented VO4 tetrahedron decided the SHG coefficient values.

  18. Laser-diode pumped Nd:GdVO4 ultraviolet laser with LBO frequency tripling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yun; FAN Xiu-wei; PENG Qian-qian; LIU Jie; HE Jing-liang

    2005-01-01

    We have demonstrated a laser-diode pumped Nd:GdVO4 extra-cavity frequency tripling ultraviolet laser with a LBO crystal in this paper.Under the acousto-optic (A-O) Q-switched operation,we have obtained 355 nm ultraviolet laser,with pulse width of 25 ns and pulse repetition rate of 20 kHz.By using a type Ⅰ non-critical phase-matched LBO crystal,the SHG output power of 822 mW is achieved at the incident pump power of 16 W. The output power of 355nm UV laser is 260mW with a type Ⅱ phase-matched LBO crystal,and the conversion efficiency (1 064 nm-355 nm ) is 5.9 %.The power stability of 355 nm laser is 1.7% in 1 h.

  19. Electronic structure and optical properties of monoclinic clinobisvanite BiVO4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zongyan; Li, Zhaosheng; Zou, Zhigang

    2011-03-14

    Monoclinic clinobisvanite bismuth vanadate is an important material with wide applications. However, its electronic structure and optical properties are still not thoroughly understood. Density functional theory calculations were adopted in the present work, to comprehend the band structure, density of states, and projected wave function of BiVO(4). In particular, we put more emphasis upon the intrinsic relationship between its structure and properties. Based on the calculated results, its molecular-orbital bonding structure was proposed. And a significant phenomenon of optical anisotropy was observed in the visible-light region. Furthermore, it was found that its slightly distorted crystal structure enhances the lone-pair impact of Bi 6s states, leading to the special optical properties and excellent photocatalytic activities.

  20. Magnetic anisotropy in the frustrated spin-chain compound β -TeVO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weickert, F.; Harrison, N.; Scott, B. L.; Jaime, M.; Leitmäe, A.; Heinmaa, I.; Stern, R.; Janson, O.; Berger, H.; Rosner, H.; Tsirlin, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    Isotropic and anisotropic magnetic behavior of the frustrated spin-chain compound β -TeVO4 is reported. Three magnetic transitions observed in zero magnetic field are tracked in fields applied along different crystallographic directions using magnetization, heat capacity, and magnetostriction measurements. Qualitatively different temperature-field diagrams are obtained below 10 T for the field applied along a or b and along c , respectively. In contrast, a nearly isotropic high-field phase emerges above 18 T and persists up to the saturation that occurs around 22.5 T. Upon cooling in low fields, the transitions at TN 1 and TN 2 toward the spin-density-wave and stripe phases are of the second order, whereas the transition at TN 3 toward the helical state is of the first order and entails a lattice component. Our microscopic analysis identifies frustrated J1-J2 spin chains with a sizable antiferromagnetic interchain coupling in the b c plane and ferromagnetic couplings along the a direction. The competition between these ferromagnetic interchain couplings and the helical order within the chain underlies the incommensurate order along the a direction, as observed experimentally. While a helical state is triggered by the competition between J1 and J2 within the chain, the plane of the helix is not uniquely defined because of competing magnetic anisotropies. Using high-resolution synchrotron diffraction and 125Te nuclear magnetic resonance, we also demonstrate that the crystal structure of β -TeVO4 does not change down to 10 K, and the orbital state of V4 + is preserved.

  1. BiVO4/TiO2(N2) Nanotubes Heterojunction Photoanode for Highly Efficient Photoelectrocatalytic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Bai, Jing; Li, Yunpo; Zeng, Qingyi; Li, Jinhua; Zhou, Baoxue

    2017-04-01

    We report the development of a novel visible response BiVO4/TiO2(N2) nanotubes photoanode for photoelectrocatalytic applications. The nitrogen-treated TiO2 nanotube shows a high carrier concentration rate, thus resulting in a high efficient charge transportation and low electron-hole recombination in the TiO2-BiVO4. Therefore, the BiVO4/TiO2(N2) NTs photoanode enabled with a significantly enhanced photocurrent of 2.73 mA cm-2 (at 1 V vs. Ag/AgCl) and a degradation efficiency in the oxidation of dyes under visible light. Field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer, and UV-Vis absorption spectrum were conducted to characterize the photoanode and demonstrated the presence of both metal oxides as a junction composite.

  2. BiVO(4)/CeO(2) nanocomposites with high visible-light-induced photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetchakun, Natda; Chaiwichain, Saranyoo; Inceesungvorn, Burapat; Pingmuang, Kanlaya; Phanichphant, Sukon; Minett, Andrew I; Chen, Jun

    2012-07-25

    Preparation of bismuth vanadate and cerium dioxide (BiVO4/CeO2) nanocomposites as visible-light photocatalysts was successfully obtained by coupling a homogeneous precipitation method with hydrothermal techniques. The BiVO4/CeO2 nanocomposites with different mole ratios were synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Absorption range and band gap energy, which are responsible for the observed photocatalyst behavior, were investigated by UV-vis diffuse reflectance (UV-vis DR) spectroscopy. Photocatalytic activities of the prepared samples were examined by studying the degradation of model dyes Methylene Blue, Methyl Orange, and a mixture of Methylene Blue and Methyl Orange solutions under visible-light irradiation (>400 nm). Results clearly show that the BiVO4/CeO2 nanocomposite in a 0.6:0.4 mol ratio exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity in dye wastewater treatment.

  3. Fabrication of Biphase BiVO4 Particles with Enhanced Photocatalytic Performance via a Surfactant-Free Hydrothermal Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hongzhi; Lai, Min; Huang, Xiaogu; Wang, Wei; Xu, Chaoqi; Yong, Haibo; Wen, Yan; Zhou, Yingjie

    2016-04-01

    Biphase bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) particles have been synthesized using a surfactant-free hydrothermal strategy. Biphase BiVO4 were formed at pH=3, 5 and 7 with a bandgap between 2.28eV and 2.86eV, which are those of monoclinic and tetragonal phases, respectively. Photocatalytic tests on the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible-light irradiation showed that biphase BiVO4 with both monoclinic and tetragonal structures synthesized at pH=3 achieved enhanced photocatalytic performance in comparison with pure monoclinic and tetragonal phases, which was attributed to the heterostructures leading to low recombination rate of electron-hole pairs.

  4. Semiconductor Sensitized Solar Cells Based on BiVO4-Sensitized Mesoporous SnO2 Photoanodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Zhu, Jun; Chen, Shuanghong; Liu, Feng; Lv, Mei; Wei, Junfeng; Huang, Yang; Huo, Zhipeng; Hu, Linhua; Tang, Junwang; Dai, Songyuan

    2016-06-01

    Low cost, stable and visible-light-responsive bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) was used as the light absorbing material to fabricate a low bandgap oxide solar cell on mesoporous SnO2 photoanode. BiVO4 nanoparticles were grown on the mesoporous SnO2 films employing successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction process. The optimized BiVO4 solar cell shows an incident photon to current conversion efficiency of more than 60% at a wide range of visible region (350 nm-450 nm), leading to a power conversion efficiency of 0.56% at AM1.5, 100 mW x cm(-2). This result provides important insights into the low cost and robust oxide solar cells.

  5. Spectroscopic Properties and Laser Performance of Resonantly-Pumped Cryo-Cooled Er3+:GdVO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    conductivity in GdVO4, YVO4, and Y3Al5O12 measured by quasi- one-dimensional flash method ,” Opt. Express 14(22), 10528–10536 (2006). 10. J. Didierjean, E...Spectroscopy For spectroscopic characterization, we used an Er 3+ :GdVO4 crystal grown by the Czochralski technique with a doping concentration of 0.5% (NEr...σemi) of the 4 I13/2 → 4 I15/2 transitions in both polarizations, calculated using the standard Fuchtbauer-Landenburg method [14], are shown in Fig

  6. Direct Imaging of Highly Anisotropic Photogenerated Charge Separations on Different Facets of a Single BiVO4 Photocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian; Fan, Fengtao; Chen, Ruotian; An, Hongyu; Feng, Zhaochi; Li, Can

    2015-07-27

    Spatially resolved surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SRSPS) was employed to obtain direct evidence for highly anisotropic photogenerated charge separation on different facets of a single BiVO4 photocatalyst. Through the controlled synthesis of a single crystal with preferentially exposed {010} facets, highly anisotropic photogenerated hole transfer to the {011} facet of single BiVO4 crystals was observed. The surface photovoltage signal intensity on the {011} facet was 70 times stronger than that on the {010} facets. The influence of the built-in electric field in the space charge region of different facets on the anisotropic photoinduced charge transfer in a single semiconductor crystal is revealed.

  7. Synthesis and Characterization of Highly Visible-light Active Monoclinic Mesoporous BiVO4%高可见光响应型单斜介孔 BiVO4的合成与表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖奇; 高兰; 张响

    2011-01-01

    利用纳米铸造法,以立方有序介孔分子筛MCM-48为硬模板,550℃成功制备了结晶良好的纯相单斜介孔BiVO4.采用XRD、TEM、BET及UV-Vis光谱分析对样品的结构进行了表征,结果表明:与水热法制备的大颗粒样品相比,“纳米铸造”介孔BiVO4的平均孔径为16.8nm,孔体积为0.1 cm2/g,比表面积高达22.9 m2/g,有效减少了光生电子和空穴复合的几率,在可见光范围内表现出优良的可见光催化活性,90min内对乙基黄原酸钾的光催化降解率高达78%.%Ordered nanocrystalline mesoporous BiVO4 with pure phase was successfully synthesized at 550 ℃ via nanocasting using cubic MCM-48 molecular sieves as hard template. The long-range ordered mesostructure was characterized by XRD, TEM, BET as well as UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Compared with the BiVO4 synthesized by conventional hydrothermal method, the nanocasting mesoporous BiVO4 has the average pore diameter of 16.8nm, pore volume of 0.1 cmVgand specific surface area up to 22.9 m2/g. The structure decreases the recombination of optical excitation electrons and holes efficiently, so the mesoporous BiVO4 has an excellent photocatalytic activity in the visible light region. As a result, the photocatalytic efficiency of mesoporous BiVO4 for xanthate in 90min reaches 78%.

  8. La掺杂BiVO4微米球的水热合成和光催化性能%Hydrothermal synthesis and photocatalytic properties of La­doped BiVO4 microspheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国聪; 金真; 张喜斌; 李险峰; 刘鸿

    2013-01-01

    Using Bi(NO3)3∙5H2O, NaVO3 and La(NO3)3∙5H2O as raw materials, La­doped BiVO4 microspheres were characterized and analyzed by hydrothermal process with glucose as the template. The as­prepared samples were investigated by XRD, XPS, SEM, FTIR, UV­Vis, BET and photocatalysis techniques. The results reveal that uniform, well crystallized and microspherical La/BiVO4 monoclinic crystal with the diameter range of 2−9 µm, which is self­assembled by lots of nanoparticles with the size of 30−65 nm, can be obtained via a hydrothermal route assisted by 2.0 g glucose. Compared with BiVO4 irregular particles, La/BiVO4 microspheres show a little red shift in the absorption band, resulting in a narrowed band gap (<2.4 eV). For 2.0%La/BiVO4 (mass fraction) microspheres, its photodegradation rate constant k is 5.63×10−2 min−1 and the best photocatalytic activity is found with a 100% degradation of methylene blue (MB) with a concentration of 10 mg/L under visible­light irradiation for 60 min.%  以Bi(NO3)3∙5H2O、NaVO3和La(NO3)3∙5H2O为原料,以葡萄糖为结构导向剂,通过水热法制备La掺杂BiVO4微米球。采用XRD、XPS、SEM、FTIR、UV­Vis、BET、光催化技术等对产品进行了表征和分析。结果表明,采用葡萄糖(2.0 g)辅助水热法能合成结晶度高且形貌规整的单斜白钨矿La/BiVO4微米球,微米球直径范围为2~9µm,均由尺寸为30~65 nm纳米颗粒自组装而成。相比BiVO4块状颗粒,球状La/BiVO4的紫外−可见光吸收边发生了稍许红移,具有较小的能带隙(<2.4 eV),其中,2.0%La/BiVO4(质量分数)微米球表现出最高的光催化活性,其速度常数k为5.63×10−2 min−1,可见光照射10 mg/L亚甲基蓝溶液60 min时的光解率达100%。

  9. Synthesis of BiVO4@C Core-Shell Structure on Reduced Graphene Oxide with Enhanced Visible-Light Photocatalytic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhihua; Li, Chenzhe; Zhu, Shenmin; Cho, Maenghyo; Chen, Zhixin; Cho, Kyeongjae; Liao, Yongliang; Yin, Chao; Zhang, Di

    2015-08-24

    Herein, a facile strategy for the controllable synthesis of BiVO4@C core-shell nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) is reported. The BiVO4 particle size can be controlled in the process by adjusting the volume ratio of glycerol in the sol-gel solution. The glycerol layers adsorbed on BiVO4 (BiVO4@glycerol) made it possible to form hydrogen bonds between BiVO4@glycerol and graphene oxide with the assistance of ultrasound. After thermal treatment, glycerol adsorbed on the BiVO4 particles formed amorphous carbon shells to link the particles and RGO. As a result, the obtained RGO-BiVO4@C nanocomposite showed a five times higher rate in O2 evolution from water under visible-light irradiation. Also, it demonstrated a six times higher photocatalytic performance enhancement than that of pure BiVO4 in the degradation of Rhodamine B. The enhanced performance is attributed to the carbon shells that restrict the growth of BiVO4 , the reduced graphene oxide that improves the electronic conductivity of the composite, and importantly, the bonds formed between the carbon shells and RGO that reduce the recombination loss of photogenerated charges effectively. The strategy is simple, effective, and can be extended to other ternary oxides with controlled size and high performance.

  10. Tailored Fabrication of Thoroughly Mesoporous BiVO4 Nanofibers and Their Visible-Light Photocatalytic Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huabing; Hou, Huilin; Gao, Fengmei; Yao, Xiaohong; Yang, Weiyou

    2016-01-27

    Bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) is considered as a potentially attractive candidate for the O2 evolution and photodegradation of organic pollutants. In an effort to develop visible-light-driven photocatalysts with high activities, the thoroughly mesoporous BiVO4 nanofibers were fabricated via a foaming-assisted electrospinning strategy. It was found that the introduced foaming agent of diisopropyl azodiformate within the solutions plays a crucial role on the formation of thoroughly mesoporous BiVO4 nanofibers, making their growth tunable. The obtained mesoporous BiVO4 nanofibers possess well-defined one-dimensional mesoporous architectures with high purity in their morphology and a surface area of 22.5 m(2)/g, which is ∼4 times that of conventional solid counterparts (5.8 m(2)/g). Accordingly, they exhibit much higher efficient photocatalytic activities toward the degradation of rhodamine B under visible-light irradiation, which is 3 times that of conventional solid counterparts, suggesting their promising application as novel and efficient photocatalysts for water purification.

  11. Modeling the atomic-scale structure, stability, and morphological transformations in the tetragonal phase of LaVO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Amanda F.; Ferrer, Mateus M.; Sambrano, Júlio R.; Andrés, Juan; Longo, Elson

    2016-09-01

    In this communication, a systematic study of the surface structure, including energy management during morphological transformations of tetragonal phase of LaVO4, has been carried out. For this study, we combined experimental findings and first-principles calculations to develop a Wulff construction model. Our findings can help further understand the synthetic control of crystal shape via tuning of surface chemistry.

  12. Fabrication of Ni-doped BiVO4 semiconductors with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic performances for wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Chhabilal; Kshetri, Yuwaraj K.; Kim, Tae-Ho; Pandey, Ramesh Prasad; Ray, Schindra Kumar; Lee, Soo Wohn

    2017-08-01

    A visible-light-driven Ni-doped BiVO4 photocatalyst was synthesized using a microwave hydrothermal method. The nominal Ni doping amount of 1 wt% provided excellent photoactivity for a variety of water pollutants, such as ibuprofen (pharmaceutical), Escherichia coli (bacteria), and green tides (phytoplankton). Each Ni-doped BiVO4 sample exhibits better performance than pure BiVO4. The degradation of ibuprofen reaches 80% within 90 min, the deactivation of Escherichia coli reaches around 92% within 5 h, and the inactivation of green tide (Chlamydomonas pulsatilla) reaches 70% upon 60 min of the visible light irradiation. The first principle calculation and thermodynamic modeling revealed that Ni doping in the vanadium site gives the most stable configuration of the synthesized samples with the formation of an in-gap energy state and oxygen vacancies. The in-gap energy state and the oxygen vacancies serve as an electron-trapping center that decreases the migration time of the photogenerated carrier and increases the separation efficiency of electron-hole pairs, which are responsible for the observed efficient photocatalytic, anti-bacterial and anti-algal activity of the samples. These properties thus suggest potential applications of Ni-doped BiVO4 as a multifunctional material in the field of wastewater treatment.

  13. Synthesis and structural, magnetic, and resonance properties of the LiCuFe2(VO4)3 compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drokina, T. V.; Petrakovskii, G. A.; Bayukov, O. A.; Vorotynov, A. M.; Velikanov, D. A.; Molokeev, M. S.

    2016-10-01

    Complex studies have been performed for the structural, static magnetic, and resonance properties of a new magnet LiCuFe2(VO4)3 prepared by solid-phase synthesis. The temperature dependence of the susceptibility has an anomaly at temperature T max = 9.6 K. At high temperatures, the LiCuFe2(VO4)3 sample is in the paramagnetic state described by the Curie-Weiss law at T > 50 K and mainly determined by iron ions with effective magnetic moment μeff(exp) = 8.6μB per formula unit. At low temperatures, a long-range magnetic order is observed in the magnetic subsystem of the sample; the order is predominantly characterized by the antiferromagnetic exchange interaction and high frustration level. The exchange interaction parameters are estimated in a six-sublattice representation of the LiCuFe2(VO4)3 magnet. It is shown that the LiCuFe2(VO4)3 compound is an antiferromagnet with strong intrachain and frustrating interchain exchange interactions.

  14. Anisotropic small-polaron hopping in W:BiVO4 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettie, Alexander J. E.; Chemelewski, William D.; Lindemuth, Jeffrey; McCloy, John S.; Marshall, Luke G.; Zhou, Jianshi; Emin, David; Mullins, C. Buddie

    2015-01-01

    DC electrical conductivity, Seebeck and Hall coefficients are measured between 300 and 450 K on single crystals of monoclinic bismuth vanadate that are doped n-type with 0.3% tungsten donors (W:BiVO4). Strongly activated small-polaron hopping is implied by the activation energies of the Arrhenius conductivities (about 300 meV) greatly exceeding the energies characterizing the falls of the Seebeck coefficients' magnitudes with increasing temperature (about 50 meV). Small-polaron hopping is further evidenced by the measured Hall mobility in the ab-plane (10-1 cm2 V-1 s-1 at 300 K) being larger and much less strongly activated than the deduced drift mobility (about 5 × 10-5 cm2 V-1 s-1 at 300 K). The conductivity and n-type Seebeck coefficient is found to be anisotropic with the conductivity larger and the Seebeck coefficient's magnitude smaller and less temperature dependent for motion within the ab-plane than that in the c-direction. These anisotropies are addressed by considering highly anisotropic next-nearest-neighbor (≈5 Å) transfers in addition to the somewhat shorter (≈4 Å), nearly isotropic nearest-neighbor transfers.

  15. Photoelectrochemical performance of W-doped BiVO4 thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, S. Keith; Dutter, Melissa R.; Lawrence, David J.; Reisner, Barbara A.; DeVore, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of tungsten doping and hydrogen annealing on the photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance of bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) photoanodes for solar water splitting were studied. Thin films of BiVO were deposited on indium tin oxide-coated glass slides by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis of an aqueous solution containing bismuth nitrate and vanadium oxysulfate. Tungsten doping was achieved by adding either silicotungstic acid (STA) or ammonium metatungstate (AMT) to the precursor. The 1.7- to 2.2-μm-thick films exhibited a highly porous microstructure. Undoped films that were reduced at 375°C in 3% H exhibited the largest photocurrent densities under 0.1 W cm-2 AM1.5 illumination, where photocurrent densities of up to 1.3 mA cm-2 at 0.5 V with respect to Ag/AgCl were achieved. Films doped with 1% or 5% (atomic percent) tungsten from either STA or AMT exhibited reduced PEC performance and greater sample-to-sample performance variations. Powder x-ray diffraction data indicated that the films continue to crystallize in the monoclinic polymorph at low doping levels but crystallize in the tetragonal scheelite structure at higher doping. It is surmised that the phase and morphology differences promoted by the addition of W during the deposition process reduced the PEC performance as measured by photovoltammetry.

  16. Sonochemical assisted hydrothermal synthesis of pseudo-flower shaped Bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) and their solar-driven water splitting application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ibrahim; Ali, Shahid; Mansha, Muhammad; Qurashi, Ahsanulhaq

    2017-05-01

    Bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) is a well-known photocatalyst due to its lower bandgap (Eg) and visible electromagnetic light absorption capacity. Herein, we reported the pulse ultra-sonochemical assisted hydrothermal approach to synthesize S-BiVO4. For the comparison purpose, H-BiVO4 is also synthesized via conventional hydrothermal approach. The surface morphology of S-BiVO4 through scanning electron microscope (SEM) indicates condensed microarrays (MAs) having pseudo-flower shapes. The energy dispersive X-rays (EDX) spectrum also confirmed the elemental percent composition of Bi, V and O in BiVO4. X-rays diffraction (XRD) pattern further confirmed the monoclinic scheelite phase of S-BiVO4. Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectrum showed Bi-O and Bi-V-O vibrational bands at 1382 and 1630cm(-1), respectively. The diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) indicated absorption edge at ∼515nm, corresponds to bandgap value (Eg) of 2.41eV, which is suitable range for water splitting applications. The photocurrent density from water splitting under artificial 1 SUN visible light source found at 60 and 50μA/cm(2) for S-BiVO4 and H-BiVO4, respectively. The stability test through chronoamperometry showed that S-BiVO4 was more stable than H-BiVO4. It can be depicted from the growth mechanism that ultrasonication played a definite role in the overall synthesis of pseudo-flower shaped S-BiVO4 MAs.

  17. Nanostructured BiVO4 photocatalysts synthesized via a polymer-assisted coprecipitation method and their photocatalytic properties under visible-light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, U. M.; Sepúlveda-Guzmán, S.; Martínez-de la Cruz, A.

    2012-03-01

    Nanostructured BiVO4 photocatalysts were synthesized by a coprecipitation process in the presence of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), which acts as a steric stabilizer during the formation and growth of the BiVO4 nanoparticles. Samples with different contents of CMC were prepared in order to study the effect of the polymer on the final morphology of the oxide. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), and adsorption-desorption isotherms (BET). The presence of CMC during the first stage of BiVO4 synthesis, promoted the formation of granular particles controlling its morphology and favoring its dispersion. The BiVO4 monoclinic polymorph (m-BiVO4) was obtained free of the tetragonal crystalline form (t-BiVO4) by annealing at different temperatures, which were influenced by CMC content: 400 °C (0.5 wt %), 450 °C (3.0 wt %), and 350 °C (6.0 and 9.0 wt %). BiVO4 nanoparticles showed photocatalytic activity, as they bleached an aqueous solution of rhodamine B (rhB) under visible-light irradiation. The photocatalytic activity of the BiVO4 samples was directly correlated with the amount of CMC added during the synthesis process.

  18. Enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting and photocatalytic water oxidation of Cu2O nanocube-loaded BiVO4 nanocrystal heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenzhong; Zhang, Weiwei; Meng, Shan; Jia, Lujie; Tan, Miao; Hao, Chenchun; Liang, Yujie; Wang, Jun; Zou, Bin

    2016-10-01

    Reducing the fast recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs of semiconductor photocatalyst is very important to improve its photocatalysis. In this paper we fabricate Cu2O nanocube-decorated BiVO4 nanocrystal (denoted as BiVO4@Cu2O nanocrystal@nanocube) heterostructure photocatalyst by coupling n-type BiVO4 with p-type Cu2O. The BiVO4@Cu2O nanocrystal@nanocube photocatalysts show superior photocatalytic activities in photoelectrochemical (PEC) activity and photocatalytic water oxidation to BiVO4 photocatalysts under visible light illumination. The BiVO4@Cu2O nanocrystal@nanocube heterostructure electrode achieves the highest photocurrent density of 10 μA cm-2 at 0 V versus Ag/AgCl, 5 times higher than that of BiVO4 nanocrystal electrode ( 2 μA cm-2). The light induced evolution rate of O2 generation for BiVO4@Cu2O nanocrystal@nanocube heterostructures is as high as 150 μmol h-1100 mg cat-1, more than 3 times higher than that (48 μmol h-1100 mg cat-1) of BiVO4 nanocrystals. The enhanced photocatalysis activities of the BiVO4@Cu2O nanocrystal@nanocube photocatalysts are attributed to the efficient separation of the photoexcited electron-hole pairs caused by inner electronic field (IEF) of p-n junction. This study opens up new opportunities in designing photoactive materials with highly enhanced performance for solar energy conversion.

  19. The alluaudite-type crystal structures of Na2(Fe/Co)2Co(VO4)3 and Ag2(Fe/Co)2Co(VO4)3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadouchi, Mohammed; Assani, Abderrazzak; Saadi, Mohamed; El Ammari, Lahcen

    2016-01-01

    Single crystals of the title compounds, disodium di(cobalt/iron) cobalt tris­(orthovanadate), Na2(Fe/Co)2Co(VO4)3, and disilver di(cobalt/iron) cobalt tris­(orthovanadate), Ag2(Fe/Co)2Co(VO4)3, were grown from a melt consisting of stoichiometric mixtures of three metallic cation precursors and vanadium pentoxide. The difficulty to distinguish between cobalt and iron by using X-ray diffraction alone forced us to explore several models, assuming an oxidation state of +II for Co and +III for Fe and a partial cationic disorder in the Wyckoff site 8f containing a mixture of Co and Fe with a statistical distribution for the Na compound and an occupancy ratio of 0.4875:0.5125 (Co:Fe) for the Ag compound. The alluaudite-type structure is made up from [10-1] chains of [(Co,Fe)2O10] double octa­hedra linked by highly distorted [CoO6] octa­hedra via a common edge. The chains are linked through VO4 tetra­hedra, forming polyhedral sheets perpendicular to [010]. The stacking of the sheets defines two types of channels parallel to [001] where the Na+ cations (both with full occupancy) or Ag+ cations (one with occupancy 0.97) are located. PMID:27555954

  20. SPATIAL MODELING OF SOLID-STATE REGULAR POLYHEDRA (SOLIDS OF PLATON IN AUTOCAD SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Bezditko

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the technology of modeling regular polyhedra by graphic methods. The authors came to the conclusion that in order to create solid models of regular polyhedra the method of extrusion is best to use.

  1. Microwave absorption in the singlet paramagnet HoVO 4 in high pulsed magnetic fields up to 40 T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goiran, M.; Klingeler, R.; Kazei, Z. A.; Snegirev, V. V.

    2007-11-01

    Microwave absorption of the rare-earth (RE) oxide compound HoVO 4 (tetragonal-zircon structure) is investigated in pulsed magnetic fields up to 40 T in the low-temperature range. For a magnetic field along the tetragonal crystal axis a few resonance absorption lines are observed at the wavelengths 871, 406 and 305 μm corresponding to electron transitions from the ground and low-lying energy levels of the Ho 3+ ion. In addition, broad non-resonance absorption is observed at 871 and 406 μm in fields up to 15 T. The positions and intensities of the observed resonance lines are described quite well within the crystal field formalism with the known crystal field parameters. The effects of the small orthorhombic component of the crystal field, magnetic field misorientation out the symmetry axis and various pair interactions on the absorption spectra in HoVO 4 are analyzed and discussed.

  2. Solid-state synthesis and electrochemical properties of SmVO4 cathode materials for low temperature SOFCs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xueli; LI Song; SUN Juncai

    2006-01-01

    A new cathode material fabricated by solid state reaction method was reported. The SmVO4 powder was obtained by firing the mixture of Sm2O3 and V2O5 powders in the temperature range of 700-1200 ℃. Its structure was identified by X-ray diffraction method and the electrochemical properties of SmVO4 as cathodes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) were investigated in single unit cell at the temperature ranged from 450-550 ℃. The results of the single fuel cell unit show that the maximum current densities are 641, 797, 688 mA·cm-2 and the maximum power output are 165, 268, 303 mW·cm-2 and the open circuit voltage are 1.04,0.96,0.92Vat 450, 500 and 550 ℃, respectively.

  3. Preparation and Characterization of Downconversion Luminescent LaVO4: Tm3+ , Yb3+ and Tm3+ /Yb3+ Nanosheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zahedifar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Tm3+ , Yb3+  and Tm3+ /Yb3+  doped LaVO4 nanostructures were synthe- sized for the first time by using the hydrothermal method with the aid of La(CH3CO23 as  lanthanum source in presence of oleic acid as surfactant. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, photoluminescence (PL spectroscopy and UV– Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Besides, the effects of activator concentration and sensitizer on the emission intensity were investi- gated. The PL spectrum revealed that the emission intensity decreases with increase in the concentration of Tm3+ , while adding Yb3+ as sensi- tizer causes the emission intensity to increase. The LaVO4: Tm3+ /Yb3+   may possibly have potential application in enhancing the conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells by increasing the absorption of dyes.

  4. Numerical simulation of end-pumped CW Nd3+: GdVO4 laser at 1063 nm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zu Ning-Ning; Sun Gui-Juan; Dai Zhen-Wen

    2008-01-01

    A theoretical model to simulate an end-pumped CW Nda+:GdVO4 laser at 1063nm is presented.Its essence is to use the propagation equations to demonstrate the spatial evolutions of the pump and the laser powers in the cavity,hence it is applicable to both low and high gain lasers.The simulation results obtained by this model are in good agreement with the experimental observations reported in the literature for a Ti:sapphire-pumped Nd3+:GdVO4 laser.Moreover,some parameters,such as the reflectivity of output coupler,the spot size of laser beam and the crystal length,are discussed with a view to optimizing the laser performance.

  5. Passively Q-switched diode-pumped Cr4+:YAG/Nd3+:GdVO4 monolithic microchip laser

    CERN Document Server

    Forget, S; Balembois, F; Georges, P; Landru, N; Feve, J P; Lin, J; Weng, Z; Forget, Sebastien; Druon, Frederic; Balembois, Francois; Georges, Patrick; Landru, Nicolas; Feve, Jean Philippe; Lin, Jiali; Weng, Zhiming

    2006-01-01

    the realization of high repetition rate passively Q-switched monolithic microlaser is a challenge since a decade. To achieve this goal, we report here on the first passively Q-switched diode-pumped microchip laser based on the association of a Nd:GdVO4 crystal and a Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber. The monolithic design consists of 1 mm long 1% doped Nd:GdVO4 optically contacted on a 0.4 mm long Cr4+:YAG leading to a plano-plano cavity. A repetition rate as high as 85 kHz is achieved. The average output power is approximately 400 mW for 2.2 W of absorbed pump power and the pulse length is 1.1 ns.

  6. BiVO4 -TiO2 Composite Photocatalysts for Dye Degradation Formed Using the SILAR Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odling, Gylen; Robertson, Neil

    2016-09-19

    Composite photocatalyst films have been fabricated by depositing BiVO4 upon TiO2 via a sequential ionic layer adsorption reaction (SILAR) method. The photocatalytic materials were investigated by XRD, TEM, UV/Vis diffuse reflectance, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), XPS, photoluminescence and Mott-Schottky analyses. SILAR processing was found to deposit monoclinic-scheelite BiVO4 nanoparticles onto the surface, giving successive improvements in the films' visible light harvesting. Electrochemical and valence band XPS studies revealed that the prepared heterojunctions have a type II band structure, with the BiVO4 conduction band and valence band lying cathodically shifted from those of TiO2 . The photocatalytic activity of the films was measured by the decolourisation of the dye rhodamine 6G using λ>400 nm visible light. It was found that five SILAR cycles was optimal, with a pseudo-first-order rate constant of 0.004 min(-1) . As a reference material, the same SILAR modification has been made to an inactive wide-band-gap ZrO2 film, where the mismatch of conduction and valence band energies disallows charge separation. The photocatalytic activity of the BiVO4 -ZrO2 system was found to be significantly reduced, highlighting the importance of charge separation across the interface. The mechanism of action of the photocatalysts has also been investigated, in particular the effect of self-sensitisation by the model organic dye and the ability of the dye to inject electrons into the photocatalyst's conduction band.

  7. Optoelectronic properties of BiVO4 photoanodes: From fundamental electronic structure to defect passivation(Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Ian D.; Cooper, Jason K.

    2016-10-01

    Over the past decade, bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) has been intensely investigated as a promising photoanode material in photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting devices. However, little is known about native or impurity defects in this system, their effects on PEC performance, and possible passivation schemes. In this work, a detailed understanding of both the valence band and conduction band orbital character has been achieved using a combination of experimental and theoretical means. In particular, complimentary optical and X-ray spectroscopies, supported by density functional theory calculations, have been applied to high quality monoclinic BiVO4 thin films deposited by chemical vapor deposition, spin coating, and sputtering. The results demonstrate that the 2.5 eV bandgap is indirect with a higher lying 2.7 eV direct gap. Sub-bandgap radiative recombination is observed by temperature dependent photoluminescence measurements, which reveal the presence of a 620 meV deep trap. Annealing thin films of BiVO4 in a H2 atmosphere significantly reduces the sub-bandgap photoluminescence, which is correlated with an improvement by 100-200 meV of the onset potential for photoanodic current, an increase of the fill factor, and elimination of photocurrent losses under frontside compared to backside illumination. These results on thin films, together with XPS of the thin films and solid state 1H NMR analysis of powders, suggest important parallel roles for hydrogen in BiVO4. We find that its substitutional incorporation at oxygen vacancy sites leads to passivation of associated deep level defects. In addition, interstitial hydrogen acts as a shallow level donor and beneficially increases conductivity in functional photoanodes. These results highlight that detailed understanding and controlling of carrier trapping in metal oxides, which often exhibit complex native defect properties due to compositional non-uniformities, provide significant opportunity for increasing PEC water

  8. Ca_9R(VO_4)_7∶Eu~(3+)(R=Y, La, Gd) 发光粉的发光特性%Photoluminescence Properties of Ca_9R(VO_4)_7 (R=Y, La, Gd) Phosphors Activated with Eu~(3+) Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨平; 田莲花; 田荣

    2009-01-01

    采用高温固相法制备了Eu~(3+)离子激活的Ca_9R(VO_4)_7(R = Y, La, Gd)红色发光粉,并利用荧光光谱对发光粉的特性进行研究.激发光谱中,Ca_9Y(VO_4)_7:Eu~(3+) , Ca_9La(VO_4)_7:Eu~(3+)和Ca_9Gd(VO_4)_7:Eu~(3+)都有两个宽的VO_4~(3-)激发带和Eu~(3+)的特征激发峰.发射光谱中,在Ca_9Y(VO_4)_7:Eu~(3+) 和Ca_9La(VO_4)_7:Eu~(3+)中的350~550 nm范围内出现VO_4~(3-)的发射带,而在Ca_9Gd(VO_4)_7:Eu~(3+)中却没有观察到VO_4~(3-)的发射.在这三种发光粉中,Ca_9Gd(VO_4)_7:Eu~(3+)的发光强度远远高于其它两种,这是由于Gd~(3+)的存在有效地使能量通过Gd~(3+) →VO_4~(3-) → Eu~(3+)及Gd~(3+) → Eu~(3+)的两种方式进行能量传递,从而提高了Eu~(3+)发光效率.

  9. Optical Property of FeVO4 Crystallites Synthesized by Sonochemical Method%声化学法制备FeVO4微晶及其光学性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李阿婷; 曹丽云; 黄剑锋; 黄毅成; 吴建鹏

    2012-01-01

    采用声化学法,以偏钒酸铵(NH4VO3)和九水硝酸铁(Fe(NO3)3 ·9H2O)为原料制备了FeVO4微晶.利用X射线衍射仪(XRD),扫描电子显微镜(SEM),紫外可见吸收光谱(UV-vis)和示差扫描量热分析(DSC)分别对产物的物相、形貌和光学性能等进行了表征.结果表明:所制备的FeVO4微晶为三斜型结构,超声功率由300 W增加到500 W,微晶尺寸逐渐下降,大小更为均匀.UV-vis分析表明所制备的FeVO4微晶具有较强的吸收可见光特性,且随着超声辐射的功率的增加,粒径减小,禁带宽度由2.17 eV减小到2.08 eV.%FeVO4 crystallites were prepared by sonochemical method using NH4VO3 and Fe( NO3)3 ·9H2O as source precursors. The phase, morphology and optical properties of as-prepared samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, UV-vis absorption spectra and DSC. The results show that the synthesized FeVO4 crystallites have triclinic structure. The particle size of the crystallites decrease gradually and change more uniformity with the increase of ultrasonic irradiation power from 300 W to 500 W. UV-vis absorption spectra show that FeV04 crystallites exhibit strong absorption in visible band, the grain size decreases and the corresponding bandgaps decrease about from 2. 17 eV to 2. 08 eV with the increase of ultrasonic irradiation power.

  10. Convex-Faced Combinatorially Regular Polyhedra of Small Genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg M. Wills

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Combinatorially regular polyhedra are polyhedral realizations (embeddings in Euclidean 3-space E3 of regular maps on (orientable closed compact surfaces. They are close analogues of the Platonic solids. A surface of genus g ≥ 2 admits only finitely many regular maps, and generally only a small number of them can be realized as polyhedra with convex faces. When the genus g is small, meaning that g is in the historically motivated range 2 ≤ g ≤ 6, only eight regular maps of genus g are known to have polyhedral realizations, two discovered quite recently. These include spectacular convex-faced polyhedra realizing famous maps of Klein, Fricke, Dyck, and Coxeter. We provide supporting evidence that this list is complete; in other words, we strongly conjecture that in addition to those eight there are no other regular maps of genus g, with 2 ≤ g ≤ 6, admitting realizations as convex-faced polyhedra in E3. For all admissible maps in this range, save Gordan’s map of genus 4, and its dual, we rule out realizability by a polyhedron in E3.

  11. Facile synthesis of hierarchically structured BiVO4 oriented along (010) facets with different morphologies and their photocatalytic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guosheng; Liu, Wei; Li, Jinying; Lv, Qiuyan; Li, Wenxin; Liang, Liting

    2016-12-01

    Hierarchically structured BiVO4 oriented along (010) facets with different morphologies are synthesized by a template-free solvothermal process in glycerol (Gly)-water mixed solvent. The effects of the volume fraction of Gly aqueous solution on the crystal structure, growth degree of (010) facets, morphology and photocatalytic activity were investigated. It is found that the volume fraction of Gly aqueous solution has strong influence on the concentration of the reaction species in the self-assembly process, and consequently induces the different morphology, as well as the crystal growth of the as-prepared BiVO4 oriented along (010) facets. A possible formation mechanism is proposed on the basis of the characterization results of X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The four-leaved primrose-like BiVO4 sample exhibits the best photocatalytic activity for the photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) solution under simulated sunlight irradiation. The enhanced photocatalytic activity can be attributed to the improved separation of photogenerated electrons and holes caused by both special morphology and preferential growth of (010) facets.

  12. Nanoporous BiVO4 photoanodes with dual-layer oxygen evolution catalysts for solar water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Woo; Choi, Kyoung-Shin

    2014-02-28

    Bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) has a band structure that is well-suited for potential use as a photoanode in solar water splitting, but it suffers from poor electron-hole separation. Here, we demonstrate that a nanoporous morphology (specific surface area of 31.8 square meters per gram) effectively suppresses bulk carrier recombination without additional doping, manifesting an electron-hole separation yield of 0.90 at 1.23 volts (V) versus the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE). We enhanced the propensity for surface-reaching holes to instigate water-splitting chemistry by serially applying two different oxygen evolution catalyst (OEC) layers, FeOOH and NiOOH, which reduces interface recombination at the BiVO4/OEC junction while creating a more favorable Helmholtz layer potential drop at the OEC/electrolyte junction. The resulting BiVO4/FeOOH/NiOOH photoanode achieves a photocurrent density of 2.73 milliamps per square centimenter at a potential as low as 0.6 V versus RHE.

  13. Crystal structure and electrical properties of K 3Bi 2(VO 4) 3, a new potassium bismuth vanadate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debreuille-Gresse, M. F.; Abraham, F.

    1987-12-01

    K 3Bi 2(VO 4) 3 crystallizes in the space group {C2}/{c}, a = 13.957(4), b = 13.858(4), c = 7.095(2) Å, β = 112.80(3)°, Z = 4. The crystal structure was determined from single-crystal intensity data obtained by means of an automated four-circle diffractometer and refined to the conventional values R = 0.050 and Rw = 0.059 for 1498 observed reflections. The structure is characterized by a three-dimensional network of Bi 2O 10 units and VO 4 tetrahedra. A Bi 2O 10 unit is formed by two BiO 6 octahedra sharing an edge. K + ions occupy three different crystallographic sites. One of them has a high thermal vibration which could reflect ionic mobility. The ionic conductivity highly increases at 790 K. DSC measurements show a reversible transition at this temperature. One K atom, and only one, can be substituted by one Na atom to give NaK 2Bi 2(VO 4) 3; this substitution improves the conductivity.

  14. Highly Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Water Oxidation Efficiency Based on Triadic Quantum Dot/Layered Double Hydroxide/BiVO4 Photoanodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yanqun; Wang, Ruirui; Yang, Ye; Yan, Dongpeng; Xiang, Xu

    2016-08-03

    The water oxidation half-reaction is considered to be a bottleneck for achieving highly efficient solar-driven water splitting due to its multiproton-coupled four-electron process and sluggish kinetics. Herein, a triadic photoanode consisting of dual-sized CdTe quantum dots (QDs), Co-based layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanosheets, and BiVO4 particles, that is, QD@LDH@BiVO4, was designed. Two sets of consecutive Type-II band alignments were constructed to improve photogenerated electron-hole separation in the triadic structure. The efficient charge separation resulted in a 2-fold enhancement of the photocurrent of the QD@LDH@BiVO4 photoanode. A significantly enhanced oxidation efficiency reaching above 90% in the low bias region (i.e., E < 0.8 V vs RHE) could be critical in determining the overall performance of a complete photoelectrochemical cell. The faradaic efficiency for water oxidation was almost 90%. The conduction band energy of QDs is ∼1.0 V more negative than that of LDH, favorable for the electron injection to LDH and enabling a more efficient hole separation. The enhanced photon-to-current conversion efficiency and improved water oxidation efficiency of the triadic structure may result from the non-negligible contribution of hot electrons or holes generated in QDs. Such a band-matching and multidimensional triadic architecture could be a promising strategy for achieving high-efficiency photoanodes by sufficiently utilizing and maximizing the functionalities of QDs.

  15. Near-infrared spectral downshifting in Sr$_{(3−x)}$(VO$_4$)$_2$:${}_x$Nd$^{3+}$ phosphor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N S SAWALA; K A KOPARKAR; N S BAJAJ; S K OMANWAR

    2016-12-01

    In this study, the spectral downshifting (DS) from ultraviolet (UV) light to near-infrared (NIR) radiation in Sr$_3$(VO$_4$)$_2$:Nd$^{3+}$ phosphor is reported. The prepared materials were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction(XRD) and photoluminescence (PL) properties along with steady state luminescence time decay curves were studied, which confirmed the energy transfer (ET) from VO$_4^{3−}$ ions to Nd$^{3+}$ ions. The DS phenomenon by phosphor was observed, which involved emission of NIR photons (1075 and 1064 nm) and visible photons (506 nm) from absorbed UV photons at 349 nm. The theoretical energy transfer efficiency (ETE) was calculated with the help of steady state luminescence time decay curves and the maximum ET efficiency approached up to 41.33%. The crystalline silicon (c-Si) cell has maximum efficiency in NIR region of solar spectrum due to an energy band gap of 1.12 eV.Sr$_3$(VO$_4$)$_2$:Nd$^{3+}$ can be potentially used as a NIR DC phosphor for c-Si solar cells.

  16. Forming-free unipolar resistive switching behavior with conical conducting filaments in LaVO4 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ling; Tang, Xianwu; Luo, Xuan; Zhang, Kejun; Jin, Linhua; Lin, Gaoting; Chen, Li; Zhu, Xuebin; Song, Wenhai; Dai, Jianmin; Sun, Yuping

    2016-04-01

    LaVO4 thin films have been deposited on Pt / Ti /SiO2 /Si substrates by pulsed laser deposition in order to explore the resistive switching (RS) behavior of the Au/LaVO4/Pt devices. It is found that the as-prepared Au/LaVO4/Pt devices stay in the low resistance state (LRS) and no electroforming process (forming-free) is needed to trigger fresh devices for the subsequent RS. Furthermore, the devices show excellent switching parameters such as a reproducible switching effect, a high resistance ratio of  ˜104 between the LRS and high resistance state (HRS), good endurance and retention characteristics, and non-overlapping switching voltages. The dominant conduction mechanisms are Ohmic conduction in the LRS and the lower voltage region of the HRS, and Poole-Frenkel emission in the higher voltage region of the HRS. The combination of temperature dependence of resistance, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and model analysis suggests that the forming-free unipolar RS behavior can be explained by the formation and rupture of conical conducting filaments formed out of oxygen vacancies. These results may be important for practical application in nonvolatile resistive switching memory.

  17. Thermal properties measurement and laser operation of a new Yb: Gd0.68Lu0.32VO4 crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huaijin; Yu, Yonggui; Cheng, Yan; Wang, Jiyang; Tao, Xutang; Jiang, Minhua; Xia, Huirui

    2008-07-21

    A new series mixed vanadate crystals, Yb:Gd(x)Lu(1-x)VO(4) (x=0.2, 0.35, 0.53, 0.68 and 0.84), were grown by the Czochralski method. The thermal conductivities of these crystals were measured from room temperature to 280?C, and the thermal conductivities of Yb:Gd(0.68)Lu(0.32)VO(4) at room temperature are 6.4 and 6.9 W m(-1)K(-1) along a- and c-axis, respectively. The material constants of Yb:Gd(x)Lu(1-x)VO(4) series crystals were estimated. The properties of Yb:Gd(x)Lu(1-x)VO(4) series crystals were compared with those of Yb:LuVO(4) and Yb:GdVO(4) crystals. Laser output power of 1.25 W at 1031 nm was obtained with a slope efficiency of 26% by use of diode pumping for Yb:Gd(0.68)Lu(0.32)VO(4) crystal.

  18. Hydrothermal synthesis of graphitic carbon nitride-BiVO4 composites with enhanced visible light photocatalytic activities and the mechanism study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Feng; Shi, Weilong; Lin, Xue; Che, Guangbo

    2014-11-01

    Novel graphitic carbon nitride (C3N4) and bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) composite photocatalysts were successfully synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that an intimate interface between C3N4 and BiVO4 formed in the composites. Compared with the pure C3N4 and BiVO4, the C3N4-BiVO4 photocatalysts showed remarkably the higher photocatalytic activities in degrading rhodamine B (Rh B). The best active heterojunction proportion was 0.5C3N4-0.5BiVO4. Over this catalyst, the 100% degradation of Rh B (0.002 mmol L-1) was obtained under visible light irradiation (λ>420 nm) for 40 min. The active species in Rh B degradation were examined by adding a series of scavengers. The study on photocatalytic mechanism revealed that the electrons injected directly from the conduction band of C3N4 to that of BiVO4, resulting in the production of superoxide radical (O2•-) and hydroxyl radical (OH•) in the conduction band of BiVO4. Simultaneously, the rich holes in the valence band of g-C3N4 oxidized Rh B directly to promote the photocatalytic degradation reaction.

  19. Lanthanum and boron co-doped BiVO4 with enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity for degradation of methyl orange

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏; 车寅生; 牛超; 党明岩; 董多

    2013-01-01

    BiVO4 photocatalysts co-doped with La and B were prepared by sol-gel method using citric acid as chelate. The samples were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Bru-mauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) and the photocatalytic activity was investigated by photo-catalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO). The results showed that boron and lanthanum ions incorporated into the lattice of BiVO4, and co-doping led to more surface oxygen vacancies, high specific surface areas, small crystallite size, narrow band gap and intense light absorbance in visible region. And the doped La(III) ions could help the separation of photogenerated electrons. Com-pared with BiVO4 and B-BiVO4, the photocatalytic activity of La-B co-doped BiVO4 was remarkably improved due to the synergistic effects of the co-doped ions. The degradation rate of MO in 60 min was 98.4%when La doping content was 0.05 mol.%, which was much higher than that of pure BiVO4(20%) and B-BiVO4(37%).

  20. Electrochemical studies on surface coated LiCoVO 4 with Al 2O 3 derived from carboxylate-alumoxane for lithium-ion cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, George Ting-Kuo; Muralidharan, P.; Cho, Yung-Da

    Various wt.% of Al 2O 3 derived from methoxyethoxy-alumoxane (MEA-alumoxane) were coated by a simple mechano-thermal method on the LiCoVO 4 particles, which were synthesized by a citric acid-urea polymeric method. Powder XRD patterns confirmed that the prepared LiCoVO 4 crystalline sample had an inverse spinel structure when heated at 773 K for 5 h in air and the LiCoVO 4 materials coated with Al 2O 3 showed no evidence of secondary phase peaks. TEM images of LiCoVO 4 identified that the nanosized particles ranged ∼100-120 nm and Al 2O 3 coating had an average thickness of ∼20 nm over the fine particle of LiCoVO 4. XPS binding energy data indicated that the presence of two different types O 1s ions corresponds to alumina and core LiCoVO 4 material. The charge and discharge study indicated that the 0.5 wt.% Al 2O 3 derived from MEA-alumoxane coated material delivered an initial discharge capacity of 68 mAh g -1 at 3.0-4.5 V and the cycle stability after 20 cycles was stable without any drastic capacity fade normally exhibited by inverse spinel materials. The d Q/d V versus voltage plots revealed that the slower impedance growth for the Al 2O 3 surface coated LiCoVO 4 cathode material.

  1. New understanding of Li3VO4/C as potential anode for Li-ion batteries: Preparation, structure characterization and lithium insertion mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhiyong; Lin, Zhiping; Zhao, Yanming; Dong, Youzhong; Kuang, Quan; Lin, Xinghao; Liu, Xudong; Yan, Danlin

    2015-01-01

    The article gives a totally new understanding about lithium insertion behavior of Li3VO4 as potential anode material for Li-ion batteries. The carbon-coated Li3VO4 (Li3VO4/C) sample was synthesized firstly using simple solid-state method. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectra and Rietveld refinement results show that single-phase Li3VO4/C can be obtained even under the presence of carbon and reducing atmosphere. The final product demonstrates a favorable electronic conductivity with 6.67% residual carbon. Electrochemical testing shows that Li3VO4/C holds both much higher specific capacity and better electrochemical performance than that of carbon-free Li3VO4 sample. The Li3VO4/C electrode display a discharge capacity of 738.5 mAh g-1 and a charge (reversible) capacity of 547.1 mAh g-1 with a high initial coulombic efficiency of 78.0% in the first cycle. First-principles calculation and GITT results illustrate that the maximum embeddable Li-ion number in a single cell is 3 corresponding to the change of V5+ to V2+, and the Li-inserted sites is predicted by first-principles calculations. Furthermore, lithium insertion/de-insertion mechanism of Li3VO4/C is studied by in-situ XRD, and the results surely confirm that Li3VO4/C undergoes a reversible insertion/de-insertion mechanism during discharge/charge process.

  2. Controlled synthesis of Fe2O3 modified Ag-010BiVO4 heterostructures with enhanced photoelectrochemical activity toward the dye degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junqi; Zhou, Jian; Hao, Hongjuan; Li, Weijie

    2017-03-01

    Crystal facet dependence is an important approach for optimizing the performance of photocatalyst. In consideration that there is a close correlation between the photoelectric conversion efficiencies and crystal facet, the monoclinic bismuth vanadate (m-BiVO4) with (010) and (110) crystal facets has drawn attention. We designed the Ag nanoparticles modified the (010) facet of the BiVO4 (Ag-010BiVO4) and then the Ag-010BiVO4 heterogeneous nanostructure was modified by the Fe2O3 nanoparticles. In the Fe2O3 modified Ag-010BiVO4, the (110) facet of the BiVO4 was only modified by the Fe2O3 nano-particles to construct the n-n heterojunction structure. Simultaneously, the Z-scheme system was fabricated on the (010) facet of the BiVO4, where was modified by the Ag and Fe2O3 nano-particles. We investigated its photoelectrochemical (PEC) and photocatalytic activities by the measurement of the electrochemical performance and degradation of methyl orange (MO). The Ag species in the system is only treated as the solid state electron mediator. As was expected, the Fe2O3 modified Ag-010BiVO4 heterojunction structure exhibited the highest photocurrent density and the smallest impedance. Besides, the Fe2O3 modified Ag-010BiVO4 heterojunction structure exhibited excellent redox ability and the MO could be degraded 92% after 150 min. It is worth noting that the outstanding performance should be attributed to the synergistic effect of n-n and Z-scheme system in the different facets, which facilitated the separation of holes and electrons in the opposite direction.

  3. Deformations of polyhedra and polygons by the unitary group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livine, Etera R.

    2013-12-01

    We introduce the set of framed (convex) polyhedra with N faces as the symplectic quotient {{C}}^{2N}//SU(2). A framed polyhedron is then parametrized by N spinors living in {{C}}2 satisfying suitable closure constraints and defines a usual convex polyhedron plus extra U(1) phases attached to each face. We show that there is a natural action of the unitary group U(N) on this phase space, which changes the shape of faces and allows to map any (framed) polyhedron onto any other with the same total (boundary) area. This identifies the space of framed polyhedra to the Grassmannian space U(N)/ (SU(2)×U(N-2)). We show how to write averages of geometrical observables (polynomials in the faces' area and the angles between them) over the ensemble of polyhedra (distributed uniformly with respect to the Haar measure on U(N)) as polynomial integrals over the unitary group and we provide a few methods to compute these integrals systematically. We also use the Itzykson-Zuber formula from matrix models as the generating function for these averages and correlations. In the quantum case, a canonical quantization of the framed polyhedron phase space leads to the Hilbert space of SU(2) intertwiners (or, in other words, SU(2)-invariant states in tensor products of irreducible representations). The total boundary area as well as the individual face areas are quantized as half-integers (spins), and the Hilbert spaces for fixed total area form irreducible representations of U(N). We define semi-classical coherent intertwiner states peaked on classical framed polyhedra and transforming consistently under U(N) transformations. And we show how the U(N) character formula for unitary transformations is to be considered as an extension of the Itzykson-Zuber to the quantum level and generates the traces of all polynomial observables over the Hilbert space of intertwiners. We finally apply the same formalism to two dimensions and show that classical (convex) polygons can be described in a

  4. BiVO4/膨润土负载型光催化剂的制备及其性能%Preparation of BiVO4/bentonite loaded photocatalyst and its properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李南南; 何瑾馨

    2011-01-01

    A series of supported BiVO4/bentonite visible photocatalysts are prepared by solution combustion synthesis method at different calcining temperature, and their photocatalytic activities are investigated taking C. I. Reactive Blue 19 as the target degradation product. The crystal type, surface morphology, particle size, light absorption range of BiVO4/bentonite photocatalysts are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), specific surface area! BET) and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-vis DRS). The results indicate that BiVO4/bentonite with calcining temperature at 300 ℃ features a monoclinic structure with diameter about 30 nm, strong absorption in visible light region of 400 ~ 500 nm, and good photocatalytic activity on C. I. Reactive Blue 19 with color removal of 93.9% after exposed to visible light for2h.%采用溶液燃烧法制备了不同煅烧温度的BiVO4/膨润土负载型可见光催化剂,并以C.I.活性蓝19为目标降解物,研究其催化性能.采用X射线衍射(XRD)、场发射扫描电镜(FE-SEM)、比表面积(BET)、紫外-可见漫反射光谱(UV-vis DRS)等测试手段,对光催化剂的晶型、表面形貌、颗粒大小、光吸收范围等进行了表征.结果表明,300℃煅烧的BiV04/膨润土为单斜晶型,晶粒尺寸约为30nm,在可见光400~500 nm处有强吸收;其对活性蓝19的光催化性能较好,2h光照后的脱色率可达93.9%.

  5. A Novel, Simple and Green Way to Fabricate BiVO4 with Excellent Photocatalytic Activity and Its Methylene Blue Decomposition Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna Guo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BiVO4 photocatalysts were synthesized via a facile surfactant-free method with heat treatment. The heat treatment temperatures influenced the crystal structures and morphologies. The photocatalytic performance is associated with its crystallinity, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET specific surface area, and band gap energy. The BiVO4 photocatalyst prepared by heat treatment at 700 °C showed the highest photocatalytic activity, promoting 100% degradation of methylene blue (MB in 60 min under visible-light irradiation. Recycling experiments results indicated that the BiVO4 photocatalysts have excellent photo-stability, and a possible mechanism for the photocatalytic process was proposed by examining the effects of the active species involved in MB degradation. This work could provide new insights into the fabrication of highly efficient and stable BiVO4 photocatalysts for dye degradation.

  6. Bi(1-x)Ni(x)VO(4-y) Solid Solution with a High Visible-Light Photocatalytic Activity for Degradation Methyl Orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang Jing; Wei, Yuelin; Huang, Yunfang; Wu, Jihuai; Dong, Qiang; Yin, Shu; Sato, Tsugio

    2015-09-01

    Particulate solid solutions Bi(1-x)Ni(x)VO(4-y) were synthesized by solid-state reaction at high temperature. The samples were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and Ultraviolet-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis). The photocatalytic activity of BiVO4 for photocatalytic degradation of organic contaminants ability in visible light region could be improved by doping of Ni(2+). The high visible light photocatalytic activity of Bi(1-x)Ni(x)VO(4-y) solid solution might be due to the generation of a new band gap and expanding the range of visible light response. It was suggested that the Ni(2+) doping was beneficial to effective charge separation of Bi(1-x)Ni(x)VO(4-y) solid solution, thus improved the photocatalytic activity.

  7. Discrete extrinsic curvatures and approximation of surfaces by polar polyhedra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garanzha, V. A.

    2010-01-01

    Duality principle for approximation of geometrical objects (also known as Eu-doxus exhaustion method) was extended and perfected by Archimedes in his famous tractate “Measurement of circle”. The main idea of the approximation method by Archimedes is to construct a sequence of pairs of inscribed and circumscribed polygons (polyhedra) which approximate curvilinear convex body. This sequence allows to approximate length of curve, as well as area and volume of the bodies and to obtain error estimates for approximation. In this work it is shown that a sequence of pairs of locally polar polyhedra allows to construct piecewise-affine approximation to spherical Gauss map, to construct convergent point-wise approximations to mean and Gauss curvature, as well as to obtain natural discretizations of bending energies. The Suggested approach can be applied to nonconvex surfaces and in the case of multiple dimensions.

  8. TiO2/BiVO4复合光催化剂的微波辅助水热法合成及催化性能研究%Synthesis and photocatalytic properties of TiO2/BiVO4 photocatalyst by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭莉; 王丹军; 付峰; 强小丹; 章峰

    2012-01-01

    以硝酸铋和偏钒酸铵为原料,采用微波-辅助水热法合成了BiVO4和TiO2/BiVO4复合光催化剂,借助XRD、UV-Vis和FE-SEM等测试手段对样品进行表征.XRD分析表明,所得BiVO4粉体为单斜晶系,且与TiO2复合后,特征衍射峰宽化,强度降低;FE-SEM显示,所得样品为具有多级结构的球状纳米结构体系;UV-Vis吸收光谱表明,BiVO4粉体和TiO2/BiVO4在400 ~ 600 nm的可见光区域对光响应.根据光吸收特性,选择罗丹明B为模型污染物,考察了样品可见光催化活性.结果表明,TiO2/BiVO4相比BiVO4,具有更高的可见光催化活性.%Using Bi(NO3)3 · 5H2O and NH4VO, as starting materials, photocatalyst BiVO4 was synthesized via hydrothermal process assisted with microwave irradiation, and characterized by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) , field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and UV-Vis techniques. Rhodamine B was selected as model pollutant to investigate the photocatalytic activity of BiVO4. The XRD results indicated that the as-synthesized belonged to monoclinic crystal system BiVO4 and after compounding with TiO2 the characteristic diffraction peaks were widened while the intensity reduced. FE-SEM images showed that the as-prepared had sphere morphlogies. UV-Vis absorption spectrum indicated that BiVO4 and TiO2/BiVO4 respond to visible light at 400 ~ 600 nm region. Based on the photo-absorption properties, the photocatalytic experiment was carried out under the Xeon lamp irradiation and TiO2/BiVO4 showed a better visible-light driven photocatalytic activity than that of pure BiVO4.

  9. Solvothermal synthesis of Bi2O3/BiVO4 heterojunction with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Wu; Jing, Wang; Yunfang, Huang; Yuelin, Wei; Zhixian, Sun; Xuanqing, Zheng; Chengkun, Zhang; Ningling, Zhou; Leqing, Fan; Jihuai, Wu

    2016-08-01

    Novel, three-dimensional, flower-like Bi2O3/BiVO4 heterojunction photocatalysts have been prepared by the combination of homogeneous precipitation and two-step solvothermal method followed by thermal solution of NaOH etching process. The as-obtained samples were fully characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, and UV—vis diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy in detail. The crystallinity, microstructure, specific surface area, optical property and photocatalytic activity of samples greatly changed depending on solvothermal reaction time. The photocatalytic activities of samples were evaluated on the degradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible-light irradiation. The Bi2O3/BiVO4 exhibited much higher photocatalytic activities than pure BiVO4 and conventional TiO2 (P25). The result revealed that the three-dimensional heterojunction played a critical role in the separation of the electron and hole pairs and enhancement of the interfacial charge transfer efficiency, which was responsible for the enhanced photocatalytic activity. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61306077, 21301060), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Nos. JB-ZR1109, JB-ZR1212), the National Science Foundation of Quanzhou City (No. 2014Z108), the Promotion Program for Young and Middle-aged Teachers in Science and Technology Research of Huaqiao University (No. ZQN-PY207), Discipline Innovation Team Project of Huaqiao University (No. 201320), and the Instrumental Analysis Center Huaqiao University.

  10. 乙烯在纳米催化剂InVO4-TiO2上的可见光降解%Degradation of Ethylene on Nano-crystalline InVO4-TiO2 under Visible Light Iradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖光参; 鲁文升; 李旦振; 付贤智; 王绪绪

    2005-01-01

    The InVO4-TiO2 nano-crystalline photocatalyst was prepared by sol-gel method and characterized by DRS, FFIR, Raman and XRD. The photocatalytic activities of the prepared sample were investigated by photocatalytic degradation of ethylene in the gaseous phase under visible light irradiation (3.>450 nm). The results indicate that both of pure TiO2 and InVO4 or their simple mixture show no photocatalytic activities for degradation of ethylene under visible light irradiation. However, as-synthesized InVO4-TiO2 catalyzes the degradation of ethylene into CO2 under visible light irradiation. In addition, the interaction between InVO4 and TiO2 results in some structural distortion to all the crystal forms of TiO2 in as-synthesized catalyst InVO4-TiO2.

  11. Deformations of Polyhedra and Polygons by the Unitary Group

    CERN Document Server

    Livine, Etera R

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the set of framed convex polyhedra with N faces as the symplectic quotient C^2N//SU(2). A framed polyhedron is then parametrized by N spinors living in C^2 satisfying suitable closure constraints and defines a usual convex polyhedron plus a phase for each face. We show that there is an action of the unitary group U(N) on this phase space, which changes the shape of faces and allows to map any polyhedron onto any other with the same total area. This realizes the isomorphism of the space of framed polyhedra with the Grassmannian space U(N)/SU(2)*U(N-2). We show how to write averages and correlations of geometrical observables over the ensemble of polyhedra as polynomial integrals over U(N) and we use the Itzykson-Zuber formula from matrix models as the generating function for them. In the quantum case, a canonical quantization of the framed polyhedron phase space leads to the Hilbert space of SU(2) intertwiners. The individual face areas are quantized as half-integers (spins) and the Hilbert spaces...

  12. Diode-pumped CW Tm:GdVO4 laser at 1.9 μm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yufeng Li; Baoquan Yao; Yuezhu Wang

    2006-01-01

    @@ A high power cryogenic cooling Tm-doped (2%) GdVO4 laser double-end-pumped by fiber-coupled-diode with the center wavelength of 804.5 nm at 21 ℃ is reported. The highest continuous-wave (CW) power of 2.35 W at 1903 nm is attained at pump power of 24 W. The slope efficiency is 12.5% and the threshold is 3.2 W. Single- and double-end-pumped types are investigated.

  13. A Single-Longitudinal-Mode Dual-Wavelength cw Tm,Ho: GdVO4 Microchip Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU You-Lun; WANG Zhen-Guo; LI Yu-Feng; WANG Yue-Zhu

    2008-01-01

    A liquid nitrogen cooled dual-wavelength Tm,Ho:GdVO4 microchip laser is reported. The output dual wavelengths are at 2038.9nm and 2050.1nm. At each wavelength, the laser has a single longitudinal mode. The threshold power is nearly 20mW and the slope efficiency is 18.7%. The single longitudinal mode output power reaches 98mW, and the ratio of power is about 60% (2038.9nm) and 40% (2050.1 nm).

  14. Growth and passively self-Q-switched laser output of new Nd3+,Cr5+:GdVO4 crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin; Wang, Zhengping; Wang, Jiyang; Yu, Yonggui; Gao, Wenlan; Tao, Xutang; Jiang, Minhua

    2008-03-03

    A new passively self-Q-switched Nd, Cr:GdVO(4) laser crystal was grown by Czochralski method for the first time to our knowledge. Polarized absorption spectra were measured at room temperature. The absorption bands display polarization character and an absorption band of Cr(5+) ions at 1110 nm enables the crystal to be a self-Q-switched laser material at 1.06 mum. In the passive self-Q-switching operation, the maximum output power, shortest pulse width, and largest pulse energy were obtained to be 265 mW, 230 ns, and 1.12 microJ, respectively.

  15. Power scaling of directly dual-end-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser using grown-together composite crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, XuDong; Yu, Xin; Chen, Fei; Yan, RenPeng; Luo, Ming; Yu, JunHua; Chen, DeYing

    2010-03-29

    Power scaling of end-pumped Nd:GdVO(4) laser was realized by direct pumping, grown-together composite crystal and dual-end-pumping. A maximum CW output power of 46.0W with M(2)switch operation, peak power of 304.1kW, 58.6kW and 23.8kW, pulse width of 7.2ns, 11.3ns and 16.2ns were obtained at the repetition rates of 10kHz, 50kHz and 100kHz, respectively.

  16. Textured Nanoporous Mo:BiVO4 Photoanodes with High Charge Transport and Charge Transfer Quantum Efficiencies for Oxygen Evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, Vineet; Perkins, Craig L.; Lin, Qiyin; Law, Matt

    2016-04-01

    We have developed a simple spin coating method to make high-quality nanoporous photoelectrodes of monoclinic BiVO4 and studied the ability of these electrodes to transport photogenerated carriers to oxidize sulfite and water. Samples containing molybdenum and featuring [001] out-of-plane crystallographic texture show a photocurrent and external quantum efficiency (EQE) for sulfite oxidation as high as 3.1 mA cm-2 and 60%, respectively, at 1.23 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode. By using an optical model of the electrode stack to accurately determine the fraction of electrode absorptance due to the BiVO4 active layer, we estimate that on average 70 +/- 5% of all photogenerated carriers escape recombination. A comparison of internal quantum efficiency as a function of film processing, illumination direction, and film thickness shows that electron transport is efficient and hole transport limits the photocurrent (hole diffusion length <40 nm). We find that Mo addition primarily improves electron transport and texturing mostly improves hole transport. Mo enhances electron transport by thinning the surface depletion layer or passivating traps and recombination centers at grain boundaries and interfaces, while improved hole transport in textured films may result from more efficient lateral hole extraction due to the texturing itself or the reduced density of deep gap states observed in photoemission measurements. Photoemission data also reveal that the films have bismuth-rich, vanadium- and oxygen-deficient surface layers, while ion scattering spectroscopy indicates a Bi-V-O surface termination. Without added catalysts, the plain BiVO4 electrodes oxidized water with an initial photocurrent and peak EQE of 1.7 mA cm-2 and 30%, respectively, which equates to a hole transfer efficiency to water of >64% at 1.23 V. The electrodes quickly photocorrode during water oxidation but show good stability during sulfite oxidation and indefinite stability in the dark. By improving

  17. 1.34 µm picosecond self-mode-locked Nd:GdVO4 watt-level laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ming; Peng, Jiying; Li, Zuohan; Cao, Qiuyuan; Yuan, Ruixia

    2017-01-01

    With a simple linear configuration, a diode-pumped, self-mode-locked Nd:GdVO4 laser at 1.34 µm is experimentally demonstrated for the first time. Based on the aberrationless theory of self-focusing and thermal lensing effect, through designing and optimizing the resonator, a pulse width as short as 9.1 ps is generated at a repetition rate of 2.0 GHz and the average output power is 2.51 W. The optical conversion efficiency and the slope efficiency for the stable mode-locked operation are approximately 16.7% and 19.2%, respectively.

  18. Effects of morphology on the structural and photoluminescence properties of co-precipitation derived GdVO4:Dy3+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Puja; Manam, J.

    2016-10-01

    Herein, Dy3+ doped GdVO4 samples with various morphologies were prepared by the co-precipitation method at low temperature, and the effects of different morphologies on the structural and optical behaviors have been reported. The obtained samples were stabilized to the stable tetragonal structure. The IR and FESEM study were carried out to see the vibrational bonds position and surface morphology. At present PL, PLE, diffuse reflectance and decay curves have been discussed in detail. The morphology dependent photoluminescence studies were resulted to a suitable sample for the lighting and display applications.

  19. Plasmonic Pd Nanoparticle- and Plasmonic Pd Nanorod-Decorated BiVO4 Electrodes with Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting Efficiency Across Visible-NIR Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weiwei; Xiong, Yunjie; Zou, Liangliang; Zou, Zhiqing; Li, Dongdong; Mi, Qixi; Wang, Yanshan; Yang, Hui

    2016-12-01

    The photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting performance of BiVO4 is partially hindered by insufficient photoresponse in the spectral region with energy below the band gap. Here, we demonstrate that the PEC water splitting efficiency of BiVO4 electrodes can be effectively enhanced by decorating Pd nanoparticles (NPs) and nanorods (NRs). The results indicate that the Pd NPs and NRs with different surface plasmon resonance (SPR) features delivered an enhanced PEC water splitting performance in the visible and near-infrared (NIR) regions, respectively. Considering that there is barely no absorption overlap between Pd nanostructures and BiVO4 and the finite-difference time domain (FDTD) simulation indicating there are substantial energetic hot electrons in the vicinity of Pd nanostructures, the enhanced PEC performance of Pd NP-decorated BiVO4 and Pd NR-decorated BiVO4 could both benefit from the hot electron injection mechanism instead of the plasmon resonance energy transfer process. Moreover, a combination of Pd NPs and NRs decorated on the BiVO4 electrodes leads to a broad-band enhancement across visible-NIR region.

  20. Hydrothermal synthesis of meso/macroporous BiVO4 hierarchical particles and their photocatalytic degradation properties under visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhusudan, Puttaswamy; Kumar, Malahalli Vijaya; Ishigaki, Tadashi; Toda, Kenji; Uematsu, Kazuyoshi; Sato, Mineo

    2013-09-01

    An ordered hierarchical meso/macroporous monoclinic bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) particle was fabricated for the first time by a simple two-step melamine template hydrothermal method followed by calcination. The physiochemical parameters of as-prepared porous materials were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Raman, Barrett-Emmett-Teller, and UV-vis techniques. The nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurement and pore size distribution curve suggest that meso/macropores exist in these hierarchical microarchitectures. Further, it is found that melamine plays a significant role in the formation of porous BiVO4 particles, and when a known amount of melamine was added, the surface area and pore size of such porous BiVO4 particles were increased. The photocatalytic activities of the as-prepared hierarchical BiVO4 samples were measured for the photodegradation of Congo red aqueous dye solution under visible light irradiation. Surprisingly, the porous BiVO4 particles showed outstanding photocatalytic activities than polycrystalline BiVO4 sample. The possible enhancement of such catalytic performance has also been further discussed.

  1. Controlled synthesis of uniform BiVO4 microcolumns and advanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity for the degradation of metronidazole-contained wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chongfei; Dong, Shuying; Feng, Jinglan; Sun, Jingyu; Hu, Limin; Li, Yukun; Sun, Jianhui

    2014-02-01

    Well-defined, uniform bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) microcolumns were synthesized through a refined hydrothermal route. During the fabrication process, a detailed orthogonal design on the synthetic conditions was performed, aiming to optimize the experimental parameters to produce BiVO4 materials (BiVO4 (Opt.)) with the most prominent visible-light-driven photocatalytic efficiency, where the catalytic activities of the synthesized materials were evaluated via the decolorization of methylene blue under visible light irradiation. The BiVO4 (Opt.) were then targetedly produced according to the determined optimal conditions and well characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet and visible diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Compared with the commercial P25-TiO2 photocatalysts, the as-synthesized BiVO4 (Opt.) displayed superior visible-light-driven photocatalytic activities for the degradation of metronidazole-contained wastewater with the presence of H2O2. The degradation efficiency of metronidazole reached up to 70 % within 180 min, leading to a brief speculation on the possibly major steps of the visible-light-driven photocatalytic process. The current study provides a distinctive route to design novel shaped BiVO4 architectures with advanced photocatalytic capacities for the treatment of organic pollutants in the aqueous environment.

  2. Effective visible light-active boron and europium co-doped BiVO4 synthesized by sol-gel method for photodegradion of methyl orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Che, Yinsheng; Niu, Chao; Dang, Mingyan; Dong, Duo

    2013-11-15

    Eu-B co-doped BiVO4 visible-light-driven photocatalysts have been synthesized using the sol-gel method. The resulting materials were characterized by a series of joint techniques, including XPS, XRD, SEM, BET, and UV-vis DRS analyses. Compared with BiVO4 and B-BiVO4 photocatalysts, the Eu-B-BiVO4 photocatalysts exhibited much higher photocatalytic activity for methyl orange (MO) degradation under visible light irradiation. The optimal Eu doping content is 0.8 mol%. It was revealed that boron and europium were doped into the lattice of BiVO4 and this led to more surface oxygen vacancies, high specific surface areas, small crystallite size, a narrower band gap and intense light absorbance in the visible region. The doped Eu(III) cations can help in the separation of photogenerated electrons. The synergistic effects of boron and europium in doped BiVO4 were the main reason for improving visible light photocatalytic activity.

  3. Porous FeOx/BiVO4-deltaS0.08: highly efficient photocatalysts for the degradation of methylene blue under visible-light illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenxuan; Dai, Hongxing; Deng, Jiguang; Liu, Yuxi; Wang, Yuan; Li, Xinwei; Bai, Guangmei; Gao, Baozu; Au, Chak Tong

    2013-10-01

    Porous S-doped bismuth vanadate with an olive-like morphology and its supported iron oxide (y wt.% FeOx/BiVO4-deltaS0.08, y = 0.06, 0.76, and 1.40) photocatalysts were fabricated using the dodecylamine-assisted alcohol-hydrothermal and incipient wetness impregnation methods, respectively. It is shown that the y wt.% FeOx/BiVO4-deltaS0.08 photocatalysts contained a monoclinic scheetlite BiVO4 phase with a porous olive-like morphology, a surface area of 8.8-9.2 m2/g, and a bandgap energy of 2.38-2.42 eV. There was co-presence of surface Bi5+, Bi3+, V5+, V3+, Fe3+, and Fe2+ species in y wt.% FeOx/BiVO4-deltaS0.08. The 1.40 wt.% FeOx/BiVO4-deltaS0.08 sample performed the best for Methylene Blue degradation under visible-light illumination. The photocatalytic mechanism was also discussed. We believe that the sulfur and FeOx co-doping, higher oxygen adspecies concentration, and lower bandgap energy were responsible for the excellent visible-light-driven catalytic activity of 1.40 wt.% FeOx/BiVO4-deltaS0.08.

  4. Protecting hydrogenation-generated oxygen vacancies in BiVO4 photoanode for enhanced water oxidation with conformal ultrathin amorphous TiO2 layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Xintong; Wang, Dan; Wan, Fangxu; Liu, Yichun

    2017-05-01

    Introducing appropriate amount of oxygen vacancies by hydrogenation treatment is a simple and efficient way to improve the photoelectrochemical performance of nanostructured oxide photoanodes. However, the hydrogenation effect is often not durable due to the gradual healing of oxygen vacancies at or close to surface of photoanodes. Herein, we tackled the problem by conformal coating the hydrogenated nanoporous BiVO4 (H-BiVO4) photoanode with an ultrathin layer of amorphous TiO2. Photoelectrochemical measurements showed that a 4 nm-thick TiO2 layer could significantly improve the stability of H-BiVO4 photoanode for repeated working test, with negligible influence on the initial photocurrent compared to the uncoated one. Mott-Schottky and linear sweep voltammetry measurements showed that donor density and photocurrent density of the H-BiVO4 electrode almost decayed to the values of pristine BiVO4 electrode after 3 h test, while the amorphous TiO2-coated electrode only degraded by 6% and 5% of the initial values respectively in the same period. The investigation thus suggested that the amorphous TiO2 layer did protect the oxygen vacancies in H-BiVO4 photoanode by isolating these oxygen vacancies from environmental oxygen, while at the same time not impeding the interfacial charge transfer to water molecules due to its leaky nature.

  5. Synthesis of monoclinic structured BiVO4 spindly microtubes in deep eutectic solvent and their application for dye degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Yu, Yaqin; Cao, Lixin; Su, Ge; Liu, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Lan; Wang, Yonggang

    2010-09-15

    Monoclinic structured spindly bismuth vanadate microtubes were fabricated on a large scale by a simple ionothermal treatment in the environment-friendly green solvent of urea/choline chloride. The as-prepared samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, IR and their photocatalytic activity was evaluated by photocatalytic decolorization of rhodamine B aqueous solution under visible-light irradiation. As-obtained BiVO(4) microtubes exhibit the spindly shape with a side length of ca. 800 nm and a wall thickness of ca. 100 nm. The opening of these microtubes presents a saw-toothed structure, which is seldom in other tube-shaped materials. The formation mechanism of the spindly microtubes is ascribed to the complex cooperation of the reaction-crystallization process controlled by BiOCl and the nucleation-growth process of nanosheets induced by solvent molecules attached on the surface of microtubes. Such spindly microtubes exhibit much higher visible-light photocatalytic activity than that of bulk BiVO(4) prepared by solid-state reaction, possibly resulting from their large surface area and improved crystallinity.

  6. Photoelectrochemical performance of W-doped BiVO4 thin-films deposited by spray pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Stephen K.; Dutter, Melissa R.; Lawrence, David J.; Reisner, Barbara A.; DeVore, Thomas C.

    2013-09-01

    The effect of tungsten doping and hydrogen annealing treatments on the photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance of bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) photoanodes for solar water splitting was studied. Thin films of BiVO4 were deposited on ITO-coated glass slides by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis of an aqueous solution containing bismuth nitrate and vanadium oxysulfate. Tungsten doping was achieved by adding either silicotungstic acid (STA) or ammonium metatungstate (AMT) in the aqueous precursor. The 1.7 μm - 2.2 μm thick films exhibited a highly porous microstructure. Undoped films that were reduced at 375 ºC in 3% H2 exhibited the largest photocurrent densities under 0.1 W cm-2 AM1.5 illumination. This performance enhancement was believed to be due to the formation of oxygen vacancies, which are shallow electron donors, in the films. Films doped with 1% or 5% tungsten from either STA or AMT exhibited reduced photoelectrochemical performance and greater sample-to-sample performance variations. Powder X-ray diffraction data of the undoped films indicated that they were comprised primarily of the monoclinic scheelite phase while unidentified phases were also present. Scanning electron microscopy showed slightly different morphology characteristics for the Wdoped films. It is surmised that the addition of W in the deposition process promoted the morphology differences and the formation of different phases, thus reducing the PEC performance of the photoanode samples. Significant PEC performance variability was also observed among films deposited using the described process.

  7. Cu2O nanoparticles decorated BiVO4 as an effective visible-light-driven p-n heterojunction photocatalyst for methylene blue degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Shixiong; Wang, Fang; Jin, Zhiliang; Xu, Jing

    2014-10-01

    Bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) is a chemically stable and nontoxic semiconductor (SC) photocatalyst that can absorb visible light to degrade most of pollutants in aqueous solution due to suitable band-gap energy (ca. 2.4 eV), but it usually shows a low activity in its pristine form owing to poor charge-separation characteristics and the weak surface adsorption properties. In this paper, we demonstrated that the photocatalytic activity of BiVO4 can be greatly enhanced by surface modification with Cu2O nanoparticles through polyol reduction method. The modified photocatalysts (Cu2O/BiVO4) with proper loading amount of Cu2O (0.75 wt%) showed the highest photocatalytic degradation activity for methylene blue (MB) degradation with the pseudo-first-order rate constant kapp and degradation efficiency two times higher than pristine BiVO4 under visible light and solar light irradiation. The characterizations of resulting photocatalysts revealed that decoration of Cu2O nanoparticles led to the formation of a p-n heterojunction at the contact interface of Cu2O and BiVO4, which narrowed the band gap of BiVO4 for extending the absorption range of visible light and promoted the charge transfer across interface for suppressing the recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs, thus improving the catalytic performance of photocatalysts. This work demonstrates that the structural integration of p-type Cu2O SC with n-type BiVO4 SC will be a new promising strategy to develop a high-efficient heterojunction photocatalyst for visible-light-driven degradation of pollutants.

  8. Integrating a Semitransparent, Fullerene-Free Organic Solar Cell in Tandem with a BiVO4 Photoanode for Unassisted Solar Water Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yuelin; Govindaraju, Gokul V; Lee, Dong Ki; Choi, Kyoung-Shin; Andrew, Trisha L

    2017-07-12

    We report an unassisted solar water splitting system powered by a diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-containing semitransparent organic solar cell. Two major merits of this fullerene-free solar cell enable its integration with a BiVO4 photoanode. First is the high open circuit voltage and high fill factor displayed by this single junction solar cell, which yields sufficient power to effect water splitting when serially connected to an appropriate electrode/catalyst. Second, the wavelength-resolved photoaction spectrum of the DPP-based solar cell has minimal overlap with that of the BiVO4 photoanode, thus ensuring that light collection across these two components can be optimized. The latter feature enables a new water splitting device configuration wherein the solar cell is placed first in the path of incident light, before the BiVO4 photoanode, although BiVO4 has a wider bandgap. This configuration is accessed by replacing the reflective top electrode of the standard DPP-based solar cell with a thin metal film and an antireflection layer, thus rendering the solar cell semitransparent. In this configuration, incident light does not travel through the aqueous electrolyte to reach the solar cell or photoanode, and therefore, photon losses due to the scattering of water are reduced. Moreover, this new configuration allows the BiVO4 photoanode to be back-illuminated, i.e., through the BiVO4/back contact interface, which leads to higher photocurrents compared to front illumination. The combination of a semitransparent single-junction solar cell and a BiVO4 photoanode coated with oxygen evolution catalysts in a new device configuration yielded an unassisted solar water splitting system with a solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency of 2.2% in water.

  9. Solvothermal synthesis of nanostructured BiVO4 with highly exposed (0 1 0) facets and enhanced sunlight-driven photocatalytic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Zhao, Guosheng; An, Maozhong; Chang, Limin

    2015-12-01

    Nanostructured monoclinic BiVO4 (m-BiVO4) sheets with highly exposed (0 1 0) facets was synthesized by a surfactant-free solvothermal route, during which glycerol aqueous solution was first used as solvent. The effects of volume fraction of glycerol aqueous solution and pH value in the solvothermal process have been studied by means of the XRD, SEM, TEM, HRTEM, EDS, BET, FTIR, and UV-vis techniques. The adoption of glycerol is shown to influence preferential crystal growth of BiVO4 along its (0 1 0) facets to further act as the directing agent, as well as the morphology and crystalline structure. Moreover, the pH value also has significant influence on the crystal growth direction and morphology of the products. The sheet-like m-BiVO4 sample with highly exposed (0 1 0) facets could be obtained by using 15% glycerol aqueous solution as solvent at pH 6, and exhibited the best sunlight-driven photocatalytic performance for methylene blue degradation. It is concluded that the excellent photocatalytic activity on m-BiVO4 can be attributed to the preferentially exposed surfaces of the (0 1 0) facets which increases the separation efficiency of photogenerated electron-hole pairs and improves the surface active sites.

  10. Ca10Li(VO4)7:Nd3+, a promising laser material: growth, structure and spectral characteristics of a Czochralski-grown single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmyna, M. B.; Nazarenko, B. P.; Puzikov, V. M.; Shekhovtsov, A. N.; Paszkowicz, W.; Behrooz, A.; Romanowski, P.; Yasukevich, A. S.; Kuleshov, N. V.; Demesh, M. P.; Wierzchowski, W.; Wieteska, K.; Paulmann, C.

    2016-07-01

    Pure and Nd-doped Ca10Li(VO4)7 single crystals were grown by the Czochralski method. The structure of Ca10Li(VO4)7 single crystal was refined starting from a model of Ca10K(VO4)7 using the powder diffraction data collected at a laboratory high-resolution diffractometer. The defect structure of the single crystal was studied with the use of both, high-resolution diffraction using a laboratory instrument and X-ray topographic techniques employing synchrotron radiation at the Hasylab laboratory (Hamburg). Polarized absorption and luminescence spectra of Nd-doped Ca10Li(VO4)7 crystal were investigated in details. The laser oscillation was obtained under flash lamp pumping and the slope efficiency of 0.87% was achieved in the free-running mode. Preliminary examination of lasing properties points that Ca10Li(VO4)7:Nd crystal can be a highly efficient solid state laser medium. Crystals of this kind are expected to be suitable for application as efficient non-linear optics materials.

  11. Ultrasonic-assisted one-pot preparation of ZnO/Ag3VO4 nanocomposites for efficiently degradation of organic pollutants under visible-light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiantazh, Fariba; Habibi-Yangjeh, Aziz

    2015-11-01

    We report a facile ultrasonic-assisted one-pot method for preparation of ZnO/Ag3VO4 nanocomposites with different mole fractions of silver vanadate. The preparation method has considerable merits such as short preparation time, large-scale, and one-pot strategy. The resultant samples were fairly characterized by means of XRD, EDX, SEM, TEM, UV-vis DRS, FT-IR, and PL techniques. Visible-light activity of the resultant samples was investigated by degradation of rhodamine B (RhB), methylene blue (MB), and methyl orange (MO). Among the prepared nanocomposites, the ZnO/Ag3VO4 nanocomposite with 0.073 mole fraction of Ag3VO4 exhibited the best activity and excessive amount of Ag3VO4 resulted in decrease of the activity. Photocatalytic activity of this nanocomposite under visible-light irradiation is about 21, 56, and 2.8-fold higher than that of the ZnO sample in degradation of RhB, MB, and MO, respectively. The highly enhanced activity of the nanocomposite was attributed to greater generation of electron-hole pairs, due to photosensitizing role of Ag3VO4 under visible-light irradiation, and efficiently separation of the photogenerated electron-hole pairs, due to formation of n-n heterojunction between the counterparts. Furthermore, it was revealed that the photocatalytic activity largely depends on ultrasonic irradiation time, calcination temperature, and scavengers of the reactive species.

  12. Template-Engaged In Situ Synthesis of Carbon-Doped Monoclinic Mesoporous BiVO4: Photocatalytic Treatment of Rhodamine B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Mingming; Gan, Lihua; Liu, Mingxian; Tripathi, Pranav K.; Liu, Yafei; Hu, Zhonghua

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, carbon-doped monoclinic scheelite mesoporous bismuth vanadate was synthesized through template-engaged in situ method. The bismuth nitrate pentahydrate and ammonia metavanadate were used as bismuth and vanadium precursors, respectively, glucose as carbon source, and mesoporous SiO2 aerogel as a hard template. Carbon-doped monoclinic mesoporous BiVO4 were obtained by heat treatment of BiVO4/glucose/template to carbonize glucose and form monoclinic crystal, followed by etching with NaOH solution to remove the SiO2 template. The samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption and desorption, UV-visible spectroscopy, Energy dispersive spectrometry, Raman spectroscopy, and Transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the sample with a carbon content of 0.5 wt.% possesses a specific surface area of 10.2 m2/g and has mesoporous structure with the most probable pore size of 13.9 nm. The band gap of carbon-doped monoclinic mesoporous BiVO4 was estimated to be 2.33 eV, indicating the superior photocatalytic activity under visible light. The photocatalytic efficiency of carbon-doped monoclinic mesoporous BiVO4 for the degradation of Rhodamine B under visible light (λ > 400 nm) in 120 min reaches 98.7%, Besides, the carbon-doped monoclinic mesoporous BiVO4 photocatalyst still showed high stability: 85% for Rhodamine B degradation after ten recycles.

  13. Enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activities of porous olive-shaped sulfur-doped BiVO4-supported cobalt oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenxuan; Dai, Hongxing; Deng, Jiguang; Liu, Yuxi; Au, Chak Tong

    2013-04-01

    Porous S-doped bismuth vanadate with an olive-like morphology and its supported cobalt oxide (y wt% CoOx/BiVO4-δS0.08, y = 0.1, 0.8, and 1.6) photocatalysts were fabricated using the dodecylamine-assisted alcohol-hydrothermal and incipient wetness impregnation methods, respectively. It is shown that the y wt% CoOx/BiVO4-δS0.08 photocatalysts were single-phase with a monoclinic scheetlite structure, a porous olive-like morphology, a surface area of 8.8-9.2 m2/g, and a bandgap energy of 2.38-2.41 eV. There was the co-presence of surface Bi5+, Bi3+, V5+, V3+, Co3+, and Co2+ species in y wt% CoOx/BiVO4-δS0.08. The 0.8 wt% CoOx/BiVO4-δS0.08 sample performed the best for methylene blue degradation under visible-light illumination. The photocatalytic mechanism was also discussed. We believe that the sulfur and CoOx co-doping, higher oxygen adspecies concentration, and lower bandgap energy were responsible for the excellent visible-light-driven catalytic activity of 0.8 wt% CoOx/BiVO4-δS0.08.

  14. Aqueous magnesium ion battery based on carbon-coated FeVO4 as anode and Mg-OMS-1 as cathode with high energy density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyu; Ye, Ke; Zhu, Kai; Cang, Ruibai; Yan, Jun; Cheng, Kui; Wang, Guiling; Cao, Dianxue

    2017-09-21

    The porous FeVO4 is prepared by hydrothermal method and further modified by coating carbon to obtain the FeVO4/C with hierarchical pore structure, which are used as anodic electrodes in aqueous rechargeable magnesium ion battery. And the FeVO4/C material can not only improve the electrical conductivity by coating a carbon layer but also increase the specific surface area by hierarchical pore structure, which is more beneficial for magnesium ion insertion/deinsertion. Therefore, the aqueous rechargeable magnesium ion full battery is successfully constructed by FeVO4/C as anode, Mg-OMS-1 as cathode and in 1.0 mol L-1 MgSO4 as electrolyte. The discharge capacity of Mg-OMS-1 // FeVO4/C aqueous battery can be obtained 58.9 mAh g-1 at the current density of 100 mA g-1 by calculating the total mass of two electrodes and the capacity retention rate of this device is 97.7% after 100 cycles with the nearly 100% coulombic efficiency, which indicates that the system owns a good electrochemical reversibility. More than that, this system can achieve a high energy density of 70.4 Wh kg-1, which provides a powerful evidence to make the aqueous magnesium ion battery possible. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Hydrogen ordering and new polymorph of layered perovskite oxyhydrides: Sr₂VO(4-x)H(x).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Joonho; Matsuishi, Satoru; Hiraka, Haruhiro; Fujisaki, Fumika; Otomo, Toshiya; Maki, Sachiko; Yamaura, Jun-ichi; Kumai, Reiji; Murakami, Youichi; Hosono, Hideo

    2014-05-21

    Compositionally tunable vanadium oxyhydrides Sr2VO(4-x)H(x) (0 ≤ x ≤ 1.01) without considerable anion vacancy were synthesized by high-pressure solid-state reaction. The crystal structures and their properties were characterized by powder neutron diffraction, synchrotron X-ray diffraction, thermal desorption spectroscopy, and first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The hydrogen anions selectively replaced equatorial oxygen sites in the VO6 layers via statistical substitution of hydrogen in the low x region (x x > 0.7. Based on the DFT calculations, the degree of oxygen/hydrogen anion ordering is strongly correlated with the bonding interaction between vanadium and the ligands.

  16. Ultrathin Li3VO4 Nanoribbon/Graphene Sandwich-Like Nanostructures with Ultrahigh Lithium ion Storage Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Pei-Jun; Liu, Jun N.; Liang, Shuquan; Liu, Jun; Wang, W. J.; Lei, Ming; Tang, Shasha; Yang, Qian

    2015-03-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) "graphene-like" inorganic materials, because of the short lithium ion diffusion path and unique 2D carrier pathways, become a new research focus of the lithium storages. Some "graphene-like" binary compounds, such as, MnO2, MoS2 and VO2 ultrathin nanosheets, have been synthesized by a peeling method, which also exhibit enhanced lithium storage performances. However, it still remains a great challenge to synthesize widely-used lithium-containing ternary oxides with "graphene-like" nanostructures, because the lithium-containing ternary oxides, unlike ternary layered double hydroxides (LDH), are very hard to be directly peeled. Herein, we successfully synthesized ultrathin Li3VO4 nanoribbons with a thickness of about 3 nm by transformation from ultrathin V2O5•xH2O nanoribbons, moreover, we achieved the preparation of ultrathin Li3VO4 nanoribbon@graphene sandwich-like nanostructures (LVO/G) through a layer-by-layer assembly method. The unique sandwich-like nanostructures shows not only a high specific reversible capacitance (up to 452.5 mA h•g-1 after 200 cycles) but also an excellent cycling performance (with more than 299.2 mA h•g-1 of the capacity at 10 C after 1000 cycles) as well as very high rate capability. Such template strategy, using "graphene-like" binary inorganic nanosheets as templates to synthesize lithium-containing ternary oxide nanosheets, may be extended to prepare other ternary oxides with "graphene-like" nanostructures

  17. Improved photoelectrochemical activity of CaFe2O4/BiVO4 heterojunction photoanode by reduced surface recombination in solar water oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Sun; Kang, Hyun Joon; Magesh, Ganesan; Kim, Jae Young; Jang, Ji-Wook; Lee, Jae Sung

    2014-10-22

    A bismuth vanadate photoanode was first fabricated by the metal-organic decomposition method and particles of calcium ferrite were electrophoretically deposited to construct a heterojunction photoanode. The characteristics of the photoanodes were investigated in photoelectrochemical water oxidation under simulated 1 sun (100 mW cm(-2)) irradiation. Relative to the pristine BiVO4 anode, the formation of the heterojunction structure of CaFe2O4/BiVO4 increased the photocurrent density by about 60%. The effect of heterojunction formation on the transfer of charge carriers was investigated using hydrogen peroxide as a hole scavenger. It was demonstrated that the heterojunction formation reduced the charge recombination on the electrode surface with little effect on bulk recombination. The modification with an oxygen evolving catalyst, cobalt phosphate (Co-Pi), was also beneficial for improving the efficiency of CaFe2O4/BiVO4 heterojunction photoanode mainly by increasing the stability.

  18. Simultaneous tri-wavelength laser operation at 916, 1086, and 1089 nm of diode-pumped Nd:LuVO4 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bingjun; Jin, Lihong; Zhang, Jiajia; Tian, Jian

    2016-09-01

    We report a diode-pumped continuous-wave tri-wavelength Nd:LuVO4 laser operating at 916, 1086, and 1089 nm. A theoretical analysis has been introduced to determine the threshold conditions for simultaneous tri-wavelength laser operation. Using a T-shaped cavity, we realized efficient tri-wavelength operation at 4F3/2  →  4I9/2 and 4F3/2  →  4I11/2 transitions for Nd:LuVO4 crystal, simultaneously. The maximum output power was 2.8 W, which included 916, 1086, and 1089 nm, and the optical conversion efficiency was 15.1%. To our knowledge, this is the first work that realizes simultaneous tri-wavelength Nd:LuVO4 laser operation.

  19. Mg3(VO4)2-MgO-ZrO2 nano-catalysts for oxidative dehydrogenation of n-butane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Kwon; Seo, Hyun; Hong, Ung Gi; Yoo, Yeonshick; Cho, Young-Jin; Lee, Jinsuk; Park, Gle; Chang, Hosik; Song, In Kyu

    2014-11-01

    A series of X-Mg3(VO4)2-MgO-ZrO2 nano-catalysts with different vanadium content (X = 3.3, 5.3, 7.0, 10.2, and 13.4) were prepared by a single-step citric acid-derived sol-gel method for use in the oxidative dehydrogenation of n-butane to n-butene and 1,3-butadiene. The effect of vanadium content of X-Mg3(VO4)2-MgO-ZrO2 nano-catalysts on their physicochemical properties and catalytic activities in the oxidative dehydrogenation of n-butane was investigated. Successful formation of X-Mg3(VO4)2-MgO-ZrO2 nano-catalysts was confirmed by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, and ICP-AES analyses. The catalytic performance of X-Mg3(VO4)2-MgO-ZrO2 nano-catalysts strongly depended on vanadium content. All the X-Mg3(VO4)2-MgO-ZrO2 nano-catalysts showed a stable catalytic performance without catalyst deactivation during the reaction. Among the catalysts tested, 7.0-Mg3(VO4)2-MgO-ZrO2 nano-catalyst showed the best catalytic performance in terms of yield for total dehydrogenation products (TDP, n-butene and 1,3-butadiene). TPRO (temperature-programmed reoxidation) experiments were carried out to measure the oxygen capacity of the catalyst. Experimental results revealed that oxygen capacity of the catalyst was closely related to the catalytic performance. Yield for TDP increased with increasing oxygen capacity of the catalyst.

  20. Photo-reduction of bromate in drinking water by metallic Ag and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) jointly modified BiVO4 under visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Yang, Qi; Zhong, Yu; An, Hongxue; Zhao, Jianwei; Xie, Ting; Xu, Qiuxiang; Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Dongbo; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-09-15

    Bromate (BrO3(-)), an oxyhalide disinfection by-product (DBP) in drinking water, has been demonstrated to be carcinogenic and genotoxic. In the current work, metallic Ag and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) co-modified BiVO4 was successfully synthesized by a stepwise chemical method coupling with a photo-deposition process and applied in the photo-reduction of BrO3(-) under visible light irradiation. In this composite, metallic Ag acted as an electron donor or mediator and RGO enhanced the BrO3(-) adsorption onto the surface of catalysts as well as an electron acceptor to restrict the recombination of photo-generated electron-hole pairs. The Ag@BiVO4@RGO composite exhibited greater photo-reduction BrO3(-) performance than pure BiVO4, Ag@BiVO4 and RGO@BiVO4 under identical experimental conditions: initial BrO3(-) concentration 150 μg/L, catalyst dosage 0.5 g/L, pH 7.0 and visible light (λ > 420 nm). The photoluminescence spectra (PL), electron-spin resonance (ESR), photocurrent density (PC) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements indicated that the modified BiVO4 enhanced the photo-generated electrons and separated the electron-hole pairs. The photocatalytic reduction efficiency for BrO3(-) removal decreased with the addition of electron quencher K2S2O8, suggesting that electrons were the primary factor in this photo-reduction process. The declining photo-reduction efficiency of BrO3(-) in tap water should attribute to the consumption of photo-generated electrons by coexisting anions and the adsorption of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on graphene surface. The overall results indicate a promising application potential for photo-reduction in the DBPs removal from drinking water.

  1. Synthesis and Electrochemical Studies on LiCoVO_4 Surface Modified with La_2O_3 for Lithium-ion Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    George; Ting-Kuo; FEY; P.Muralidharan; Yung-da; CHO

    2007-01-01

    1 Results An inverse spinel LiCoVO4 cathode material was synthesized by a citric acid-urea polymeric method, calcined at 773 K for 5 h. The synthesized LiCoVO4 sample was surface modified with various wt.% of La2O3 by a polymeric process, calcined at 873 K for 2 h. The samples were characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM, and TEM techniques. XRD patterns exposed that single-phase crystallinity occurred when they were heated at 773 K for 5 h in air. For the La2O3 coated samples, there was no evident signal corre...

  2. Research on visible light photocatalytic experiment of BiVO4 films on stainless steel mesh%不锈钢丝网负载BiVO4可见光光催化实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代辉; 赵志超; 白玉兰; 宋祖伟

    2016-01-01

    以硝酸铋和偏钒酸铵为原料、无水乙醇为溶剂,采用溶剂热法在不锈钢丝网基底上负载BiVO4薄膜。借助X射线衍射、扫描电镜对产物的晶型、组成及表面形貌进行了表征。结果表明,Bi的过量不利于得到组分单一的产物,而增加V的量则有利于制备纯的单斜相BiVO4。同时,薄膜外观颜色随着Bi与 V 摩尔比n(Bi):n(V )的增加,逐渐变深。另外,溶剂热时间是薄膜微观形貌的控制因素。可见光光催化降解亚甲基蓝实验表明,当 n(Bi):n(V)=1时,溶剂热时间为24 h时制备的BiVO4薄膜具有最高的光催化活性,且5次循环测试后,仍然具有较高的催化活性,表现出良好的循环使用性。该实验路线简单,原料易得,结果重复性高,可以便利的设计成材料类专业的综合性实验项目,利于培养学生实践动手能力。%Bismuth vanadate films were firstly prepared on the stainless steel mesh by solvothermal method in absolute alcohol solvent with the bismuth nitrate and ammonium metavanadate as the starting materials .The results of XRD ,SEM indicate that the excess of Bi is not good for forming pure product ,and the increasement of V facilitates to obtain a monoclinic phase bismuth vanadate . In the meantime , the color of the films gradually becomes deep with the increase of molar ratio of Bi to V .Moreover ,the solvothermal time is the main factor affecting the morphology of the films and their unit .The test results of photocatalytic degradation methylene blue solution show that when n(Bi):n(V) is 1 ,the bismuth vanadate films obtained under the solvothermal condition for 24 h display the optimal photocatalytic activity .And it shows the excellent cyclic stability after 5 cycles . This experiment has many advantages such as simple route , readily available raw materials ,and high reproducible results .It can be conveniently designed as a comprehensive experiment

  3. Immobilization of foreign protein into polyhedra of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing-wei XIANG; Rui YANG; Lin CHEN; Xiao-long HU; Shao-fang YU; Cui-ping CAO; Xiao-feng WU

    2012-01-01

    In the late phase of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) infection,a large amount of polyhedra appear in the infected cell nucleolus,these polyhedra being dense protein crystals protecting the incorporated virions from the harsh environment.To investigate whether the foreign protein could be immobilized into the polyhedra of BmNPV,two recombinant baculoviruses were generated by a novel BmNPV polyhedrin-plus (polh+) Bac-toBac system,designated as vBmBac(polh+)-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and vBmBac(polh+)-LacZ,which can express the polyhedrin and foreign protein simultaneously.Light microscopy analysis showed that all viruses produced polyhedra of normal appearance.Green fluorescence can be apparently detected on the surface of the vBmBac(polh+)-EGFP polyhedra,but not the BmNPV polyhedra.Fluorescence analysis and anti-desiccation testing confirmed that EGFP was embedded in the polyhedra.As expected,the vBmBac(polh+)-LacZ polyhedre contained an amount of LacZ and had a higher β-galactosidase activity.Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blotting were also performed to verify if the foreign proteins were immobilized into polyhedra.This study provides a new inspiration for efficient preservation of useful proteins and development of new pesticides with toxic proteins.

  4. Photocatalytic hydrogen production by degradation of formic acid aqueous solution over NiO doped InVO4 photocatalyst%NiO掺杂InVO4光催化降解甲酸水溶液产氢的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宇; 杨莉; 白波

    2011-01-01

    The hydrogen production and wastewater treatment can be achieved synchronously when organic pollutants as electron donor were used in the hydrogen production process. The novel NiO/InVO4 composite photocatalysts were synthesized by solid-phase reaction at high temperature. The physical and optical properties of the composite photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction ( XRD) , scanning electron microscope (SEM ) , ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy ( UV-VIS ) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller ( BET ). The photocatalytic performance of the NiO/InVO4 samples was evaluated by photocatalytic hydrogen production via degradation of formic acid aqueous solutions. The results indicate that the NiO/InVO4 photocatalysts are orthogonal phase and consist of spherical micron-sized particles. The specific surface area of samples is 1.63 m2/g. Compared with the pure InVO4 photocataysts, the composite samples show a superior absorption capacity for the visible light. Moreover, the reaction parameters of photocatalytic hydrogen production by degradation of formic acid aqueous solutions, such as formic acid volume fraction and Ph value etc, were optimized. The mechanism of hydrogen production reaction was discussed.%以有机污染物为电子供体可达到制氢与治污的双重目标.通过高温固相法制备了新型NiO/InVO4复合光催化剂.采用XRD,SEM,UV-VIS,BET等测试手段对复合光催化剂的物理和光学性质进行了表征,考察了NiO/InVO4复合光催化剂降解甲酸水溶液制氢的光催化反应.结果表明:NiO/InVO4复合光催化剂为正交晶相结构,主要由微米级的球形颗粒组成,比表面积为1.63m2/g,与纯InVO4样品相比,NiO/InVO4复合光催化剂的可见光吸收能力增强.优化了NiO/InVO4复合光催化剂降解甲酸溶液制氢反应中的甲酸体积分数、pH值等反应参数,分析了其产氢机理.

  5. Treks into intuitive geometry the world of polygons and polyhedra

    CERN Document Server

    Akiyama, Jin

    2015-01-01

    This book is written in a style that uncovers the mathematical theories buried in our everyday lives such as examples from patterns that appear in nature, art, and traditional crafts, and in mathematical mechanisms in techniques used by architects. The authors believe that through dialogues between students and mathematicians, readers may discover the processes by which the founders of the theories came to their various conclusions―their trials, errors, tribulations, and triumphs. The goal is for readers to refine their mathematical sense of how to find good questions and how to grapple with these problems. Another aim is to provide enjoyment in the process of applying mathematical rules to beautiful art and design by examples that highlight the wonders and mysteries from our daily lives. To fulfill these aims, this book deals with the latest unique and beautiful results in polygons and polyhedra and the dynamism of geometrical research history that can be found around us. The term "intuitive geometry" was ...

  6. Ag3PO4/BiVO4复合光催化剂的制备及可见光催化降解染料%Synthesis of Ag3PO4/BiVO4 Composite Photocatalyst and Its Photocatalytic Degradation of Dyes under Visible Light Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛明; 谭勉勉; 崔广华

    2014-01-01

    Silver phosphate/bismuth vanadate (Ag3PO4/BiVO4) composite photocatalysts were successful y synthesized by coupling a reflux method with an in situ precipitation route. X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy were used to characterize the as-prepared products. The XRD and FESEM results showed that Ag3PO4/BiVO4 composite photocatalysts were successful y obtained. An energy-efficient light emitting diode lamp was used as the visible light source, and the photocatalytic performances of the as-synthesized products were evaluated for dye degradation in a low-cost photocatalytic system. The Ag3PO4/BiVO4 composite with a Ag3PO4:BiVO4 molar ratio of 1:3 exhibited much higher photocatalytic activity than pure Ag3PO4 catalyst, resulting in decreased use of Ag3PO4. The Ag3PO4/BiVO4 composite photocatalyst showed the best photoactivity in neutral solution and had a higher photodegradation rate for cationic dyes than anionic dyes. The superoxide radicals (O−2•) and holes (h+) were considered to be the main active species in the Ag3PO4/BiVO4 system. The photocatalytic activity of the Ag3PO4/BiVO4 composite photocatalyst decreased to different degrees after three cycles because of the production of metal ic silver.%结合回流法和原位沉淀法成功制备磷酸银/矾酸铋(Ag3PO4/BiVO4)复合光催化剂。通过X射线衍射(XRD)、场发射扫描电子显微镜(FESEM)、能量色散X射线光谱(EDS)、紫外-可见漫反射光谱(UV-Vis DRS)及光致发光(PL)光谱对制备样品进行表征。 XRD和FESEM结果表明成功制备Ag3PO4/BiVO4复合光催化剂。采用节能发光二极管灯(LED)作为可见光光源,在低消耗光催化系统中评价制备样品可见光催化降解染料的活性。当Ag3PO4和BiVO4的组成摩尔比为1:3时,复合Ag3PO4/BiVO4光催

  7. Colloidal Nanoparticles of Ln3+-Doped LaVO4: Energy Transfer to Visible- and Near-Infrared-Emitting Lanthanide Ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stouwdam, Jan W.; Raudsepp, Mati; Veggel, van Frank C.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Colloidal, organic solvent-soluble Ln3+-doped LaVO4 nanoparticles have been synthesized by a precipitation reaction in the presence of (C18H37O)2PS2- as ligand, that coordinates to the surface of the nanoparticles. The materials are well soluble in chlorinated solvent such as chloroform. Energy tran

  8. Direct comparison of the thermal lenses of diode-end-pumped Nd:YVO4 and Nd:GdVO4 lasers using a simple evaluation technique

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Esser, MJD

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the thermal lenses generated in diode-end-pumped Nd:YVO4 and Nd:GdVO4 lasers were evaluated and compared using a simple technique based on the stability criteria of a plane-parallel laser resonator [example 1], as shown in the top...

  9. Peapod-like Li3 VO4 /N-Doped Carbon Nanowires with Pseudocapacitive Properties as Advanced Materials for High-Energy Lithium-Ion Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Laifa; Lv, Haifeng; Chen, Shuangqiang; Kopold, Peter; van Aken, Peter A; Wu, Xiaojun; Maier, Joachim; Yu, Yan

    2017-07-01

    Lithium ion capacitors are new energy storage devices combining the complementary features of both electric double-layer capacitors and lithium ion batteries. A key limitation to this technology is the kinetic imbalance between the Faradaic insertion electrode and capacitive electrode. Here, we demonstrate that the Li3 VO4 with low Li-ion insertion voltage and fast kinetics can be favorably used for lithium ion capacitors. N-doped carbon-encapsulated Li3 VO4 nanowires are synthesized through a morphology-inheritance route, displaying a low insertion voltage between 0.2 and 1.0 V, a high reversible capacity of ≈400 mAh g(-1) at 0.1 A g(-1) , excellent rate capability, and long-term cycling stability. Benefiting from the small nanoparticles, low energy diffusion barrier and highly localized charge-transfer, the Li3 VO4 /N-doped carbon nanowires exhibit a high-rate pseudocapacitive behavior. A lithium ion capacitor device based on these Li3 VO4 /N-doped carbon nanowires delivers a high energy density of 136.4 Wh kg(-1) at a power density of 532 W kg(-1) , revealing the potential for application in high-performance and long life energy storage devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Carbon-Coated Li3 VO4 Spheres as Constituents of an Advanced Anode Material for High-Rate Long-Life Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Laifa; Chen, Shuangqiang; Maier, Joachim; Yu, Yan

    2017-09-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are receiving considerable attention for large-scale energy-storage systems. However, to date the current cathode/anode system cannot satisfy safety, cost, and performance requirements for such applications. Here, a lithium-ion full battery based on the combination of a Li3 VO4 anode with a LiNi0.5 Mn1.5 O4 cathode is reported, which displays a better performance than existing systems. Carbon-coated Li3 VO4 spheres comprising nanoscale carbon-coating primary particles are synthesized by a morphology-inheritance route. The observed high capacity combined with excellent sample stability and high rate capability of carbon-coated Li3 VO4 spheres is superior to other insertion anode materials. A high-performance full lithium-ion battery is fabricated by using the carbon-coated Li3 VO4 spheres as the anode and LiNi0.5 Mn1.5 O4 spheres as the cathode; such a cell shows an estimated practical energy density of 205 W h kg(-1) with greatly improved properties such as pronounced long-term cyclability, and rapid charge and discharge. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Combined Charge Carrier Transport and Photoelectrochemical Characterization of BiVO4 Single Crystals: Intrinsic Behavior of a Complex Metal Oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rettie, Alexander J.; Lee, Heung Chan; Marshall, Luke G.; Lin, Jung-Fu; Capen, Cigdem; Lindemuth, Jeffrey; McCloy, John S.; Zhou, Jianshi; Bard, Allen J.; Mullins, C. Buddie

    2013-07-08

    ABSTRACT: Bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) is a promising photoelectrode material for the oxidation of water, but fundamental studies of this material are lacking. To address this, we report electrical and photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties of BiVO4 single crystals (undoped, 0.6% Mo and 0.3% W:BiVO4) grown using the floating zone technique. We demonstrate that a small polaron hopping conduction mechanism dominates from 250-400 K, transitioning to a variable range hopping mechanism at lower temperatures. An anisotropy ratio of ~3 was observed along the c-axis, attributed to the layered structure of BiVO4. Measurements of the AC field Hall effect yielded an electron mobility of ~0.2 cm2 V-1 s-1 for Mo and W:BiVO4 at 300 K. By application of the Gärtner model, a hole diffusion length of ~140 nm was estimated. As a result of low carrier mobility, attempts to measure the DC Hall effect were unsuccessful. Analyses of the Raman spectra showed that Mo and W substituted for V and acted as donor impurities. Mott-Schottky analysis of electrodes with the (001) face exposed yielded a flat band potential of 0.03-0.08 V vs. RHE, while incident photon conversion efficiency tests showed that the dark coloration of the doped single crystals did not result in additional photocurrent. Comparison of these intrinsic properties to other metal oxides for PEC applications gives valuable insight into this material as a photoanode.

  12. Combined charge carrier transport and photoelectrochemical characterization of BiVO4 single crystals: intrinsic behavior of a complex metal oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettie, Alexander J E; Lee, Heung Chan; Marshall, Luke G; Lin, Jung-Fu; Capan, Cigdem; Lindemuth, Jeffrey; McCloy, John S; Zhou, Jianshi; Bard, Allen J; Mullins, C Buddie

    2013-07-31

    Bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) is a promising photoelectrode material for the oxidation of water, but fundamental studies of this material are lacking. To address this, we report electrical and photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties of BiVO4 single crystals (undoped, 0.6% Mo, and 0.3% W:BiVO4) grown using the floating zone technique. We demonstrate that a small polaron hopping conduction mechanism dominates from 250 to 400 K, undergoing a transition to a variable-range hopping mechanism at lower temperatures. An anisotropy ratio of ~3 was observed along the c axis, attributed to the layered structure of BiVO4. Measurements of the ac field Hall effect yielded an electron mobility of ~0.2 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) for Mo and W:BiVO4 at 300 K. By application of the Gärtner model, a hole diffusion length of ~100 nm was estimated. As a result of low carrier mobility, attempts to measure the dc Hall effect were unsuccessful. Analyses of the Raman spectra showed that Mo and W substituted for V and acted as donor impurities. Mott-Schottky analysis of electrodes with the (001) face exposed yielded a flat band potential of 0.03-0.08 V versus the reversible H2 electrode, while incident photon conversion efficiency tests showed that the dark coloration of the doped single crystals did not result in additional photocurrent. Comparison of these intrinsic properties to those of other metal oxides for PEC applications gives valuable insight into this material as a photoanode.

  13. Partially disordered Yb:Gd xY 1-xVO 4 crystal for femtosecond lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, V. V.; Pestryakov, E. V.; Trunov, V. I.; Kirpichnikov, A. V.; Merzliakov, M. A.; Laptev, A. V.; Matrosov, V. N.; Klimin, S. A.

    2007-06-01

    The results of experimental spectroscopic and laser investigations of ytterbium-doped partially (mixed) disordered tetragonal gadolinium-yttrium vanadate crystals at 5-300 K temperature range under laser diode pumping are presented and compared with yttrium vanadate crystals. The Yb:Gd xY 1-xVO 4 (x=0.64) partially (mixed) disordered crystals demonstrate large stimulated emission cross-section compared with the values of Yb:YVO 4 crystals. Polarized absorption and fluorescence spectra in the 5-300 K temperature range are investigated and gain cross-sections are deduced at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures. The amplitudes of emission cross-sections are increased almost fourfold at liquid nitrogen temperature in comparison with the same at room temperature at wavelength near 1006 nm. The CW and ultrashort pulses generation with additional SESAM structure have been investigated in the folded resonator at 975 nm laser diode pumping at room temperature. At low temperature the estimations for different inversion population ratios show that duration of pulses are somewhat varied.

  14. Morphology-controllable growth of GdVO4:Eu3+ nano/microstructures for an optimum red luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liusai; Li, Guangshe; Zhao, Minglei; Zheng, Jing; Guan, Xiangfeng; Li, Liping

    2012-06-01

    Chemically tailoring microstructures for an optimum red luminescence is a subject at the forefront of many disciplines, which still remains a challenge due to a poor knowledge about the roles of defects in structures. In this work, GdVO4 :Eu3+ nano/microstructures of different morphologies, including tomato-like, cookie-circle-like, and ellipsoidal-like nanoparticles, and microspheroids were synthesized via a simple hydrothermal route using trisodium citrate as a capping agent. During the growth processes, the types of vanadyl ions were adjusted by varying pH value to control the morphologies and nano/microstructures with the help of trisodium citrate. The possible mechanisms for the growth processes into diverse morphologies are presented. Further, a systematic study on defect characteristics pertinent to these diverse morphologies has been explored to achieve an optimum red luminescence. The ability is clearly shown to generate different nano/microstructures of diverse morphologies and varied defect concentrations, which provides a great opportunity for morphological control in tailoring the red luminescence property for many technological applications.

  15. Synthesis and properties of Li3VO4 - Carbon composite as negative electrode for lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narumi, Kengo; Mori, Tomoya; Kumasaka, Rei; Tojo, Tomohiro; Inada, Ryoji; Sakurai, Yoji

    2017-07-01

    Lithium vanadate Li3VO4 (LVO) is known to be as one of the attractive candidates for negative electrode of lithium-ion battery (LIB) with high safety. Although theoretical capacity of LVO attains to 400 mAh g-1, the actual charge and discharge capacities are far below due to its low electrical and ionic conductivity. In this study, we synthesized carbon-coated LVO (C-LVO) via one-step solid state reaction method and examined its properties as a negative electrode for LIB. From XRD measurements and SEM observation, crystal structure of C-LVO was nearly identical with non-coated one but grain size of former was much smaller than latter with same annealing temperature, suggesting that introduction of carbon source in starting materials effectively helps to suppress LVO grain growth during annealing. TEM observation of C-LVO also shows that amorphous carbon layer with its thickness of several ten nm was formed on the surface of LVO grain. In electrochemical testing, C-LVO shows much higher charge and discharge capacities than non-coated LVO.

  16. The nature of photogenerated charge separation among different crystal facets of BiVO4 studied by density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Taifeng; Zhou, Xin; Dupuis, Michel; Li, Can

    2015-09-28

    Charge separation among different crystal facets of a semiconductor has been observed experimentally, but the underlying reasons behind this phenomenon are unknown. In this work, the activation energies of carrier hopping and the mobility of electron/hole transport along seven low-index crystal orientations of bulk BiVO4 have been calculated using a small polaron model. The calculated mobility and our previous experimental results reveal that there is a parallel relationship between the carrier mobility along the crystal axis and the carrier preferred accumulation on the corresponding crystal facets. It is proposed that the mobility of electrons (or holes) along the crystal axis [hkl] might be essentially related to the charge separation among the indices of corresponding facets (hkl); namely, the mobility of electrons (or holes) along the crystal axis [hkl] is the largest among all possible crystal axes, and the photogenerated electrons (or holes) tend to be accumulated on the indices of the corresponding facet (hkl) when the surface factors like surface band bending, surface energetic differences, etc. are not considered.

  17. Fabrication of CuO/BiVO4 Photocatalysts Under Visible-light-responsivity Through Citric Acid Complexometry%柠檬酸络合法制备可见光响应型光催化剂CuO/BiVO4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红岩; 余蓉蓉; 吴秋芳

    2011-01-01

    以Bi(NO3)3·5H2O和NH4VO3为原料,采用柠檬酸络合法制备新型可见光响应型复合光催化剂CuO/BiVO4。借助X射线衍射、全谱直读等离子体发射光谱仪、X射线光电子能谱仪、扫描电子显微镜、透射电子显微镜和紫外–可见漫反射光谱等表征粉体的结构和性能。结果表明:不同Cu摩尔掺量的复合光催化剂仍保持纯单斜晶系白钨矿结构;掺杂Cu主要以CuO形式存在,且其实际含量与理论掺量基本一致;复合光催化剂平均一次粒径约200nm,比纯BiVO4的吸收边都有不同程度地红移。以10mg/L亚甲基蓝染料溶液为目标污染物,研究纯BiVO4和CuO/BiVO4的可见光催化活性,一定量Cu掺杂的催化剂活性明显优于纯BiVO4的,当Cu掺量为0.2%、可见光照射150min后,染料脱色率可达到88%以上,比纯BiVO4的提高约20%。%Novel designed composite photocatalysts CuO/BiVO 4 under visible-light-responsivity were prepared by citric acid com- plexometry using Bi(NO3)3·5H2O and NH4VO3 as raw materials. The as-prepared nanopowders were characterized by X-ray diffrac- tion, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electro microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy. Results indicate that composite photocatalysts with different Cu dosages are still pure monoclinic structure, and that Cu exists as CuO with its practical content equal to the theoretic dosage, its average particle size is 200 nm. Compared with pure BiVO 4 , the absorption red-shift edge was obtained in different Cu-doped composite photocatalysts. Photocatalytic activity between pure BiVO 4 and CuO/BiVO4 was studied using methylene blue solution (MB) of 10 mg/L as simulation pollutants. The photocatalytic activity of CuO/BiVO 4 is obviously better than that of pure BiVO4 . When Cu-doped mole fraction is 0.2%, removal rate of MB is above 88% under 150 min visible

  18. LaVO4/TiO2光催化复合材料对芥子气模拟剂2-氯乙基乙基硫醚的降解性能%Photocatalytic degradation of sulfur mustard mimicking agent (2-CEES) on LaVO 4/TiO 2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑禾; 钟近艺; 韩世同; 陈新启; 闵崎

    2014-01-01

    Coupled with visible light absorbing semiconductor, LaVO4 composite materials were prepared and applied successfully to improve the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 . It was found that the composite of TiO2 1wt%LaVO4 had the best photocatalytic activity to degrade 70%toluene even after 24 h. The degradation rate of sulfur mustard mimicking agent (2-CEES) on LaVO4/TiO2 increased by 20% from commercial TiO2 under simulated sunlight.%通过可见光响应半导体的复合,成功提高了TiO2对芥子气模拟剂2-CEES降解的光催化活性.TiO2在掺杂1wt% LaVO4时可见光催化活性最高,LaVO4/TiO2在24 h后对甲苯的降解率仍然保持在70%以上,对0�24 g·L-12-CEES的太阳光催化降解率较商业化TiO2提高20%.

  19. Synthesis and Optical Properties of FeVO4 Nanorods%钒酸铁纳米棒的制备及光吸收性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张绍岩; 次立杰; 陆敏

    2013-01-01

    Using Fe(NO3)3·9H2O and NH4VO3 as raw materials, FeVO4 nanorods were fabricated by a direct and simple hydrothermal process. The structure and morphologies of the as-prepared FeVO4 nanorods were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) , thermogravimetric analysis ( TG) , X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy ( XPS ) , and field-emission scanning electron microscopy ( FE-SEM ). UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectrum (UV-vis DRS) shows that the as-prepared FeV04 nanorods present strong absorption in a wide range from UV to visible light and the band gap was measured to be 2. 13 eV. The photocatalytic activity of FeVO4 nanorods was characterized by degradation of methyl orange solution. The result indicates that the degradation rate reaches 93.6% after 90 min UV irradiation.%以Fe(NO3) 3·9H2O和NH4VO3为原料,采用水热法制备了FeVO4纳米棒.采用X射线衍射(XRD),热重分析(TG),X射线光电子能谱(XPS)及场发射扫描电子显微镜(FE-SEM)对样品的物相组成和微观形貌进行了表征.并采用紫外-可见漫反射测试(UV-vis DRS)测定了样品的光吸收性能,DRS结果显示FeVO4纳米棒具有较宽的紫外-可见光吸收范围,结合Tauc方程计算得出FeVO4纳米棒的光学带隙为2.13 eV.光催化降价甲基橙性能测试显示经90 min紫外灯照射,对甲基橙的降解率为93.6%.

  20. High Light Absorption and Charge Separation Efficiency at Low Applied Voltage from Sb-Doped SnO2/BiVO4 Core/Shell Nanorod-Array Photoanodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lite; Zhao, Chenqi; Giri, Binod; Allen, Patrick; Xu, Xiaowei; Joshi, Hrushikesh; Fan, Yangyang; Titova, Lyubov V; Rao, Pratap M

    2016-06-08

    BiVO4 has become the top-performing semiconductor among photoanodes for photoelectrochemical water oxidation. However, BiVO4 photoanodes are still limited to a fraction of the theoretically possible photocurrent at low applied voltages because of modest charge transport properties and a trade-off between light absorption and charge separation efficiencies. Here, we investigate photoanodes composed of thin layers of BiVO4 coated onto Sb-doped SnO2 (Sb:SnO2) nanorod-arrays (Sb:SnO2/BiVO4 NRAs) and demonstrate a high value for the product of light absorption and charge separation efficiencies (ηabs × ηsep) of ∼51% at an applied voltage of 0.6 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode, as determined by integration of the quantum efficiency over the standard AM 1.5G spectrum. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the highest ηabs × ηsep efficiencies achieved to date at this voltage for nanowire-core/BiVO4-shell photoanodes. Moreover, although WO3 has recently been extensively studied as a core nanowire material for core/shell BiVO4 photoanodes, the Sb:SnO2/BiVO4 NRAs generate larger photocurrents, especially at low applied voltages. In addition, we present control experiments on planar Sb:SnO2/BiVO4 and WO3/BiVO4 heterojunctions, which indicate that Sb:SnO2 is more favorable as a core material. These results indicate that integration of Sb:SnO2 nanorod cores with other successful strategies such as doping and coating with oxygen evolution catalysts can move the performance of BiVO4 and related semiconductors closer to their theoretical potential.

  1. Energy Landscapes for the Self-Assembly of Supramolecular Polyhedra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Emily R.; Menon, Govind

    2016-06-01

    We develop a mathematical model for the energy landscape of polyhedral supramolecular cages recently synthesized by self-assembly (Sun et al. in Science 328:1144-1147, 2010). Our model includes two essential features of the experiment: (1) geometry of the organic ligands and metallic ions; and (2) combinatorics. The molecular geometry is used to introduce an energy that favors square-planar vertices (modeling {Pd}^{2+} ions) and bent edges with one of two preferred opening angles (modeling boomerang-shaped ligands of two types). The combinatorics of the model involve two-colorings of edges of polyhedra with four-valent vertices. The set of such two-colorings, quotiented by the octahedral symmetry group, has a natural graph structure and is called the combinatorial configuration space. The energy landscape of our model is the energy of each state in the combinatorial configuration space. The challenge in the computation of the energy landscape is a combinatorial explosion in the number of two-colorings of edges. We describe sampling methods based on the symmetries of the configurations and connectivity of the configuration graph. When the two preferred opening angles encompass the geometrically ideal angle, the energy landscape exhibits a very low-energy minimum for the most symmetric configuration at equal mixing of the two angles, even when the average opening angle does not match the ideal angle.

  2. UTILIZING THE UNCERTAINTY OF POLYHEDRA FOR THE RECONSTRUCTION OF BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Meidow

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The reconstruction of urban areas suffers from the dilemma of modeling urban structures in a generic or specific way, thus being too unspecific or too restrictive. One approach is to model and to instantiate buildings as arbitrarily shaped polyhedra and to recognize comprised man-made structures in a subsequent stage by geometric reasoning. To do so, we assume the existence of boundary representations for buildings with vertical walls and horizontal ground floors. To stay generic and to avoid the use of templates for pre-defined building primitives, no further assumptions for the buildings’ outlines and the planar roof areas are made. Typically, roof areas are derived interactively or in an automatic process based on given point clouds or digital surface models. Due to the mensuration process and the assumption of planar boundaries, these planar faces are uncertain. Thus, a stochastic geometric reasoning process with statistical testing is appropriate to detected man-made structures followed by an adjustment to enforce the deduced geometric constraints. Unfortunately, city models usually do not feature information about the uncertainty of geometric entities. We present an approach to specify the uncertainty of the planes corresponding to the planar patches, i.e., polygons bounding a building, analytically. This paves the way to conduct the reasoning process with just a few assumptions. We explicate and demonstrate the approach with real data.

  3. Dual-central-wavelength passively mode-locked diffusion-bonded Nd:YVO4/Nd:GdVO4 laser with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, F. L.; Sung, C. L.; Huang, T. L.; Wu, T. W.; Cho, H. H.; Liang, H. C.; Chen, Y. F.

    2017-08-01

    A dual-central-wavelength passively mode-locked laser with full modulation in the 0.31 THz optical beating is achieved by using a diffusion-bonded Nd:YVO4/Nd:GdVO4 crystal and a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror. The output power of the dual-band emission is well balanced by tuning the focal position of the pump waist. At a pump power of 13 W, the total output power is up to 2.7 W with a repetition rate of 297.9 MHz. The autocorrelation traces clearly reveal the synchronization of the dual-band emission. Moreover, an analytical model is developed to manifest the multi-pulse structure caused by the etalon effect of the gain medium. More important, we experimentally verify that the etalon effect can be completely eliminated by using the wedge-cut diffusion-bonded Nd:YVO4/Nd:GdVO4 crystal.

  4. Comparative studies of semiconductor saturable absorber mirror mode-locking dynamics in pulsed diode-end-pumped picosecond Nd:GdVO4 and Nd:YAG lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bingyuan Zhang; Gang Li; Meng Chen; Guoju Wang; Yonggang Wang

    2006-01-01

    Ultrashort pulses were generated in passively mode-locked Nd:YAG and Nd:GdVO4 lasers pumped by a pulsed laser diode with 10-Hz repetition rate. Stable mode-locked pulse trains were produced with the pulse width of 10 ps. The evolution of the mode-locked pulse was observed in the experiment and was discussed in detail. Comparing the pulse evolutions of Nd:YAG and Nd:GdVO4 lasers, we found that the buildup time of the steady-state mode-locking with semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) was relevant to the upper-state lifetime and the emission cross-section of the gain medium.

  5. High Power Continuous-Wave Diode-End-Pumped 1.34-μm Nd:GdVO4 Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Rui; RUAN Shuang-Chen; DU Chen-Lin; YAO Jian-Quan

    2008-01-01

    @@ A high power cw all-solid-state 1.34-μm Nd:GdVO4 laser is experimentally demonstrated. With a diode-doubleend-pumped configuration and a simple plane-parallel cavity, a maximum output power of 27.9 W is obtained at incident pump power of 96 W, introducing a slope efficiency of 35.4%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest output power of diode-end-pumped 1.3-gin laser. With the experimental data, the thermal-stress-resistance figure of merit of Nd:GdVO4 crystal with 0.3at% Nd3+ doped level is calculated to be larger than 9.94 W/cm.

  6. Eco-friendly and green synthesis of BiVO4 nanoparticle using microwave irradiation as photocatalayst for the degradation of Alizarin Red S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, S. Daniel; David, S. Theodore; Bennie, R. Biju; Joel, C.; Kumar, D. Sanjay

    2016-06-01

    Bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) nanocrystals have been successfully synthesised using microwave-assisted combustion synthesis (MCS), and characterised using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectra, surface area analysis (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), diffused reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The XRD results confirmed the formation of monoclinic bismuth vanadate. The formations of BiO & VO43-vibrations were ascertained from FT-IR data. The morphology of hallow internal structural micro entities were confirmed by SEM. The optical properties were determined by DRS and PL spectra. Hence, the influence of the preparation methods on the structure, morphology and optical activities of bismuth vanadate was investigated systematically. Photocatalytic degradation (PCD) of Alizarin Red S (ARS), an effective disrupting chemical in aqueous medium was investigated using BiVO4 nanoparticles. The kinetics of PCD was found to follow pseudo first-order.

  7. Thermal lens measurement of a LD end-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with stable resonator by a slit-scanning method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Jing; ZHAO Sheng-zhi; YANG Ke-jian; LI Gui-qiu; SONG Peng

    2005-01-01

    A simply method to measure the thermal focal length of a LD end-pumped Nd:GdVO4 solid state laser with a stable resonator is presented.By scanning a slit across the field with expression of multi-mode Gaussian distribution behind the output mirror of lasers,the radius and the M2 factor describing the quality of beam can be measured.The waists of the multi-mode field and the TEM00 mode can be deduced according to the law of multi-mode Gassian beam propagation.Based on the ABCD matrix theory of a stable resonator,the thermal focal length of the active medium can be easily obtained.The thermal focal length of a LD end-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser has been measured and the experimental results agree with the theoretically analyzed values.

  8. Power scaling of Nd:YVO4 and Nd:GdVO4 disk lasers using synthetic diamond as a heat spreader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, P; Kemp, A J; Burns, D

    2009-03-15

    A newly developed low-birefringence synthetic diamond is shown to be an effective intracavity heat spreader in Nd:YVO4 and Nd:GdVO4 disk lasers. A cw output power of 25.7 W from only one double pass of the pump is reported. The diamond heat spreader is shown to increase the pump power density at which fracture occurs.

  9. Design of a Compact Diode-Pumped Intracavity-Doubled Nd:GdVO4 Laser with 820-mW Red Light

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ling; LI De-Hua; WEI Zhi-Yi; FENG Bao-Hua; FU Pan-Ming; ZHANG Zhi-Guo

    2005-01-01

    @@ We report a design of diode-pumped high power Nd:GdVO4/LBO red laser with a compact linear cavity, which can output 820-Mw red light at 670nm with an optical conversion efficiency of 9.6%. The maximum output power of the fundamental light at 1.34μm was 4 W with a slope efficiency of 45%.

  10. Widely Tunable cw Diode-Pumped 1.9-μm Tm:GdVO4 Laser at Room Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu-Feng; YAO Bao-Quan; LIU Yan-Mei; WANG Yue-Zhu; JU You-Lun

    2007-01-01

    A widely tunable cw diode-pumped room-temperature Tm:GdVO4 laser is built. Output power of 2.8 W and a slope efficiency of 22% pumped by a 18 W Fibre-coupled diode laser at 795nm have been obtained. Continuous tunability from 1820nm to 1946nm is achieved. In addition, the factors that contribute to the efficiency of oscillation are studied.

  11. Growth, Properties, and Theoretical Analysis of M2LiVO4 (M = Rb, Cs) Crystals: Two Potential Mid-Infrared Nonlinear Optical Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guopeng; Wang, Ying; Su, Xin; Yang, Zhihua; Pan, Shilie

    2017-05-15

    Mid-Infrared nonlinear optical (Mid-IR NLO) crystals with excellent performances play a particularly important role for applications in areas such as telecommunications, laser guidance, and explosives detection. However, the design and growth of high performance Mid-IR NLO crystals with large NLO efficiency and high laser-damage threshold (LDT) still face numerous fundamental challenge. In this study, two potential Mid-IR NLO materials, Rb2LiVO4 (RLVO) and Cs2LiVO4 (CLVO) with noncentrosymmetric structures (Orthorhombic, Cmc21) were synthesized by high-temperature solution method. Thermal analysis and powder X-ray diffraction demonstrate that RLVO and CLVO melt congruently. Centimeter sized crystals of CLVO have been grown by the top-seeded solution growth method. RLVO and CLVO exhibit strong second harmonic generation (SHG) effects (about 4 and 5 times that of KH2PO4, respectively) with a phase-matching behavior at 1.064 μm, and a wide transparency range (0.33-6.0 μm for CLVO). More importantly, RLVO and CLVO possess a high LDT value (~28 × AgGaS2). In addition, the density functional theory (DFT) and dipole moments studies indicate that the VO4 anionic groups have a dominant contribution to the SHG effects in RLVO and CLVO. These results suggest that the title compounds are promising NLO candidate crystals applied in the Mid-IR region.

  12. Coupled experimetal and theoretical study of photon absorption and charge transport in BiVO4 photoanodes for solar water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Yuan; Kim, Tae Woo; Galli, Giulia; Choi, Kyoung-Shin

    Bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) has been identified as one of the most promising photoanode materials for water-splitting photoelectrochemical cells. The major limitations of BiVO4 are its relatively wide bandgap (2.5 eV) and low electron mobility (0.2 cm-2V-2S-1), which limit its solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency. In this talk we will present the results of a coupled experimental and ab initio theoretical study showing that nitrogen doping together with extra oxygen vacancies lead to both a reduction of BiVO4 band gap and to an increase of the majority carrier density and mobility. In turn these improvements lead to the applied bias photon-to-current efficiency over 2%, a record for a single oxide photon absorber, to the best of our knowledge. The ``codoping'' method adopted in our work could also be applied to simultaneously enhance photon absorption and charge transport in other oxides, providing new possibilities for photocatalytic materials. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) under the NSF Center (CHE-1305124). Computer time was provided by NERSC.

  13. Novel visible-light-responding InVO4-Cu2O-TiO2 ternary nanoheterostructure:Preparation and photocatalytic characteristics%新型可见光响应的 InVO4-Cu2O-TiO2三元纳米异质结:制备及其光催化性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯海波; 李亚萍; 罗冬明; 谭功荣; 蒋剑波; 袁惠敏; 彭三军; 钱东

    2016-01-01

    A novel visible‐light‐responding InVO4‐Cu2O‐TiO2 ternary nanoheterostructure was designed on the basis of the strategy of energy gap engineering and prepared through ordinary wet chemistry methods. The as‐prepared nanoheterostructure was characterized by X‐ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high‐resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and diffuse reflectance ultraviolet‐visible spectroscopy (UV‐vis/DRS). The TEM and HRTEM images of 10%InVO4‐40%Cu2O‐50%TiO2 confirm the formation of nanoheterostructures resulting from contact of the nanosized TiO2, Cu2O and InVO4 in the size of 5–20 nm in diameter. The InVO4‐Cu2O‐TiO2 nanoheterostructure, when compared with TiO2, Cu2O, InVO4, InVO4‐TiO2 and Cu2O‐TiO2, shows significant enhancement in the photocatalytic performance for the degradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible‐light irradiation. With a 9 W energy‐saving fluorescent lamp as the visible‐light source, the MO degradation rate of 10%InVO4‐40%Cu2O‐50%TiO2 reaches close to 90%during 5 h, and the photocatalytic efficiency is maintained at over 90%after six cycles. This may be mainly ascribed to the matched bandgap configurations of TiO2, Cu2O and InVO4, and the formations of two p‐n junctions by the p‐type semiconductor Cu2O with the n‐type semiconductors TiO2 and InVO4, all of which favor spatial photogenerated charge carrier separation. The X‐ray pho‐toelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization for the used 10%InVO4‐40%Cu2O‐50%TiO2 reveals that only a small shakeup satellite peak appears for Cu(II) species, implying bearable photocorro‐sion of Cu2O. This work could provide new insight into the design and preparation of novel visi‐ble‐light‐responding semiconductor composites.%由于日益严重的环境和能源危机,可见光催化剂的开发已成为当今最具挑战和紧迫的任务之一.将 TiO2和其它窄禁带半导体复合,已被证明是

  14. 不同组分的钒酸盐混晶Ybt:YxGd1-t-xVO4光谱与激光性质的比较研究%Comparative study on the spectroscopic and laser properties of mixed vanadates Ybt:YxGd1-t-x VO4 with different compositions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘均海; 韩文娟; 张怀金; 王继扬; Xavier Mateos; Valentin Petrov

    2011-01-01

    研究了三种掺Yb钒酸盐混晶Yb0.005:Y0.298Gd0.697VO4,Yb0.007:Y0.407Gd0.586VO4和Yb0.009:Y0.575Gd0.416VO4的室温偏振吸收谱和发射谱.结果表明,最强的吸收和发射相应于π偏振,位于波长985 nm;随组分不同,最大吸收截面σabs=4.8-8.5 × 10-20cm2,吸收带宽9.5-9.9 nm;最大受激发射截面σem=5.8-10.3×10-20cm2.利用高亮度半导体激光器纵向抽运实现了室温下的连续波激光运转.研究发现,不同混晶的激光振荡行为存在很大差异:在谐振腔输出耦合透过率T=2%条件下,Yb0.005:Y0.298Gd0.697VO4和Yb0.009:Y0 575 Gd0 416VO4的激光振荡随抽运功率降低而出现σ,π偏振态的共存和转变;而Yb0.007:Y0.407Gd0.586VO4的激光振荡则保持π偏振态不变.在T=5%情形,Yb0.009:Y0.575Gd0.416VO4的激光振荡为单纯的σ偏振;而Yb0 005:Y0.298 Gd0.697 VO4所产生的激光振荡随抽运功率下降仍出现类似的偏振态变化行为.%The room-temperature polarized absorption and emission spectra of Yb doped mixed vanadates Yb0. 005: Y0.298 Gd0.697 VO4, Yb0.007: Y0.407 Gd0. 586 VO4, and Yb0.009: Y0. 575 Gd0.416 VO4 have been studied. The results show that the strongest absorption and emission, occurring at wavelength of 985 nm, correspond to the r polarization, depending on the composition the maximum absorption cross section ranges from 4. 8 to 8.5 x 10-20 cm2' with bandwidths of 9.5-9.9 nm,whereas the maximum stimulated emission cross section varies in the range of 5.8-10. 3 × 10 -20 cm2. Continuous-wave laser operation has been realized at room temperature with the mixed crystals through longitudinal pumping with a diode laser. It was found that the laser oscillation behavior differs significantly from one mixed crystal to another:in the case of T = 2% (T is the output coupling of the resonator), the coexistence and switching of of, π polarization states occur on reducing the pump power in the laser oscillation of Yb0. 005 :Y0.298 Gd0.697 VO4 and Yb0.009 :Y0.575 Gd0

  15. Giant magnetocaloric effect, magnetization plateaux and jumps of the regular Ising polyhedra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strečka, Jozef, E-mail: jozef.strecka@upjs.sk [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Science, P.J. Šafárik University, Park Angelinum 9, 040 01 Košice (Slovakia); Karľová, Katarína [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Science, P.J. Šafárik University, Park Angelinum 9, 040 01 Košice (Slovakia); Madaras, Tomáš [Institute of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, P.J. Šafárik University, Jesenná 5, 040 01 Košice (Slovakia)

    2015-06-15

    Magnetization process and adiabatic demagnetization of the antiferromagnetic Ising spin clusters with the shape of regular polyhedra (Platonic solids) are exactly examined within the framework of a simple graph-theoretical approach. While the Ising cube as the only unfrustrated (bipartite) spin cluster shows just one trivial plateau at zero magnetization, the other regular Ising polyhedra (tetrahedron, octahedron, icosahedron and dodecahedron) additionally display either one or two intermediate plateaux at fractional values of the saturation magnetization. The nature of highly degenerate ground states emergent at intermediate plateaux owing to a geometric frustration is clarified. It is evidenced that the regular Ising polyhedra exhibit a giant magnetocaloric effect in a vicinity of magnetization jumps, whereas the Ising octahedron and dodecahedron belong to the most prominent geometrically frustrated spin clusters that enable an efficient low-temperature refrigeration by the process of adiabatic demagnetization.

  16. Polyhedra self-assembled from DNA tripods and characterized with 3D DNA-PAINT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iinuma, Ryosuke; Ke, Yonggang; Jungmann, Ralf; Schlichthaerle, Thomas; Woehrstein, Johannes B; Yin, Peng

    2014-04-01

    DNA self-assembly has produced diverse synthetic three-dimensional polyhedra. These structures typically have a molecular weight no greater than 5 megadaltons. We report a simple, general strategy for one-step self-assembly of wireframe DNA polyhedra that are more massive than most previous structures. A stiff three-arm-junction DNA origami tile motif with precisely controlled angles and arm lengths was used for hierarchical assembly of polyhedra. We experimentally constructed a tetrahedron (20 megadaltons), a triangular prism (30 megadaltons), a cube (40 megadaltons), a pentagonal prism (50 megadaltons), and a hexagonal prism (60 megadaltons) with edge widths of 100 nanometers. The structures were visualized by means of transmission electron microscopy and three-dimensional DNA-PAINT super-resolution fluorescent microscopy of single molecules in solution.

  17. Assembled molecular face-rotating polyhedra to transfer chirality from two to three dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinchang; Wang, Yu; Yang, Huayan; Fang, Hongxun; Chen, Ruixue; Sun, Yibin; Zheng, Nanfeng; Tan, Kai; Lu, Xin; Tian, Zhongqun; Cao, Xiaoyu

    2016-08-24

    In nature, protein subunits on the capsids of many icosahedral viruses form rotational patterns, and mathematicians also incorporate asymmetric patterns into faces of polyhedra. Chemists have constructed molecular polyhedra with vacant or highly symmetric faces, but very little is known about constructing polyhedra with asymmetric faces. Here we report a strategy to embellish a C3h truxene unit with rotational patterns into the faces of an octahedron, forming chiral octahedra that exhibit the largest molar ellipticity ever reported, to the best of our knowledge. The directionalities of the facial rotations can be controlled by vertices to achieve identical rotational directionality on each face, resembling the homo-directionality of virus capsids. Investigations of the kinetics and mechanism reveal that non-covalent interaction among the faces is essential to the facial homo-directionality.

  18. Quasi Regular Polyhedra and Their Duals with Coxeter Symmetries Represented by Quaternions II

    CERN Document Server

    Koca, Mehmet; Shidhani, Saleh Al-

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we construct the quasi regular polyhedra and their duals which are the generalizations of the Archimedean and Catalan solids respectively. This work is an extension of two previous papers of ours which were based on the Archimedean and Catalan solids obtained as the orbits of the Coxeter groups . When these groups act on an arbitrary vector in 3D Euclidean space they generate the orbits corresponding to the quasi regular polyhedra. Special choices of the vectors lead to the platonic and Archimedean solids. In general, the faces of the quasi regular polyhedra consist of the equilateral triangles, squares, regular pentagons as well as rectangles, isogonal hexagons, isogonal octagons, and isogonal decagons depending on the choice of the Coxeter groups of interest. We follow the quaternionic representation of the group elements of the Coxeter groups which necessarily leads to the quaternionic representation of the vertices. We note the fact that the molecule can best be represented by a truncated ic...

  19. A compact dual-wavelength Nd:LuVO4 laser with adjustable power-ratio between 1064 nm and 1342 nm lines by controlling polarization dependent loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yaoyao; Yu, Haijuan; Zhang, Jingyuan; Zhang, Ling; He, Chaojian; Lin, Xuechun

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate a compact dual-wavelength operation of Nd:LuVO4 laser with a power-ratio adjustable between 1064 nm and 1342 nm lines in a compound cavity configuration. The output power at two wavelengths of the laser indicates that it depends not only on pumping-power and but also on the controllable polarization loss in the cavity. Also, the power-ratio, defined as ratio between the output power at 1064 nm and that at 1342 nm, can be adjusted from 0 to 8 or higher accurately by rotating a quarter-wave plate (QWP) in the cavity.

  20. 溶胶-凝胶法制备N掺杂FeVO4及其光催化性能研究%Photocatalytic property of N-doped FeVO4 photocatalyst prepared via the sol-gel method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏; 栾海燕; 车寅生; 牛超

    2013-01-01

    N-doped FeVO4 photocatalysts were successfully prepared via sol-gel method with the corn stem as template.The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD),scanning electron microscope(SEM), specific surface area(BET),X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy(UV-Vis).The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO)solution under visible light.The results showed that all the FVO or N/FVO photocatalysts were consisted of triclinic phase.The enhanced photocatalytic activity was ascribed to a synergic effect of impurity energy levels due to the substitutional N-doping forming the N-Fe-O bonding structures and defect energy levels resulted from the formation of oxygen vacancies,which result in the band gap narrowing and red-shift of optical absorption band. The appropriate amount of N doping can signifcantly increase the photocatalytic activity and the highest photo-catalytic degradation rate can be about 56% in 100 min when then doping amount was 15%,which was 40% or so than that of pure FeVO4 under visible light irradiation.%以玉米秸秆为模板,采用溶胶-凝胶法制备N掺杂FeVO4光催化剂,采用 X射线衍射(XRD)、扫描电镜(SEM)、比表面积分析(BET)、X射线光电子能谱(XPS)、紫外-可见吸收光谱(UV-Vis)等测试、分析手段,对样品进行表征。在可见光照射下,通过光催化降解甲基橙溶液评价N 掺杂对 FeVO4光催化剂活性的影响。结果表明,掺杂 N 前后 FeVO4均为三斜型, N取代了 FeVO4晶格中 O 形成了 N-Fe-O 键,产生了杂质能级,N掺杂导致FeVO4表面形成了大量束缚单电子的氧空位,产生缺陷能级,二者共同作用致使带隙窄化,光吸收带红移。光催化降解结果表明,N 掺杂能有效提高 FeVO4的可见光催化活性。当掺杂 N为15%(摩尔分数)时,样品活性最高,光照100 min对甲基橙的脱色率达56%左右,远高于未掺杂的脱色率(16.7%)。

  1. Isolation of a baculovirus variant that exhibits enhanced polyhedra production stability during serial passage in cell culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Slavicek; Melissa J. Mercer; Mary Ellen Kelly; Nancy. Hayes-Plazolles

    1996-01-01

    The formation of few polyhedra mutants during serial propagation of baculoviruses in cell culture encumbers commercial scale production in this system. A Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdMNPV) variant (isolate A21-MPV) has been isolated and the traits of budded virus (BV) production, synthesis of polyhedra, the...

  2. A Highly Efficient UV-Vis-NIR Active Ln(3+)-Doped BiPO4/BiVO4 Nanocomposite for Photocatalysis Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, Sagar; Hazra, Chanchal; Chatti, Manjunath; Samanta, Tuhin; Mahalingam, Venkataramanan

    2016-01-12

    In this Article, we report the synthesis of Ln(3+) (Yb(3+), Tm(3+))-doped BiPO4/BiVO4 nanocomposite photocatalyst that shows efficient photocatalytic activity under UV-visible-near-infrared (UV-vis-NIR) illumination. Incorporation of upconverting Ln(3+) ion pairs in BiPO4 nanocrystals resulted in strong emission in the visible region upon excitation with a NIR laser (980 nm). A composite of BiPO4 nanocrystals and vanadate was prepared by the addition of vanadate source to BiPO4 nanocrystals. In the nanocomposite, the strong blue emission from Tm(3+) ions via upconversion is nonradiatively transferred to BiVO4, resulting in the production of excitons. This in turn generates reactive oxygen species and efficiently degrades methylene blue dye in aqueous medium. The nanocomposite also shows high photocatalytic activity both under the visible region (0.010 min(-1)) and under the full solar spectrum (0.047 min(-1)). The results suggest that the photocatalytic activity of the nanocomposite under both NIR as well as full solar irradiation is better compared to other reported nanocomposite photocatalysts. The choice of BiPO4 as the matrix for Ln(3+) ions has been discussed in detail, as it plays an important role in the superior NIR photocatalytic activity of the nanocomposite photocatalyst.

  3. Rare-earth free self-luminescent Ca2KZn2(VO4)3 phosphors for intense white light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharat, L. Krishna; Jeon, Soo-Kun; Krishna, Kurugundla Gopi; Yu, Jae Su

    2017-02-01

    The commercially available white-light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) are made with a combination of blue LEDs and yellow phosphors. These types of WLEDs lack certain properties which make them meagerly applicable for general illumination and flat panel displays. The solution for such problem is to use near-ultraviolet (NUV) chips as an excitation source because of their high excitation efficiency and good spectral distribution. Therefore, there is an active search for new phosphor materials which can be effectively excited within the NUV wavelength range (350–420 nm). In this work, novel rare-earth free self-luminescent Ca2KZn2(VO4)3 phosphors were synthesized by a citrate assisted sol-gel method at low calcination temperatures. Optical properties, internal quantum efficiency and thermal stability as well as morphology and crystal structure of Ca2KZn2(VO4)3 phosphors for their application to NUV-based WLEDs were studied. The crystal structure and phase formation were confirmed with XRD patterns and Rietveld refinement. The optical properties of these phosphor materials which can change the NUV excitation into visible yellow-green emissions were studied. The synthesized phosphors were then coated onto the surface of a NUV chip along with a blue phosphor (LiCaPO4:Eu2+) to get brighter WLEDs with a color rendering index of 94.8 and a correlated color temperature of 8549 K.

  4. Growth and spectral properties of a promising laser crystal Yb3+/Er3+:Ca9La(VO4)7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Sun, Shijia; Zhang, Lizhen; Yuan, Feifei; Huang, Yisheng; Lin, Zhoubin

    2016-10-01

    A new crystal of Er3+/Yb3+:Ca9La(VO4)7 was grown successfully by the Czochralski method. Its spectral properties were investigated in detail. The crystal has a strong absorption band near 980 nm with a full-width at half-maximum of 33 nm, which means that it is very suitable for InGaAs laser diode pumping. Based on the Judd-Ofelt theory, the intensity parameters and radiative lifetime were obtained. The fluorescence lifetime of the 4I13/2 level of the Er3+ ion is 4.28 ms. The emission cross sections of the Er3+ ion at 1533 nm calculated by the Füchtbauer-Ladenburg method are 0.86 × 10-20 cm2 and 1.08 × 10-20 cm2 for σ- and π- polarization, respectively. The results indicate that Er3+/Yb3+:Ca9La(VO4)7 crystal is a potential 1.5-1.6 μm laser material.

  5. Molecular modeling of hydrotalcite structure intercalated with transition metal oxide anions: CrO4(2-) and VO4(3-).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Vinuthaa; Smith, Howard D; Zhang, Hong; Smith, Sean C

    2011-11-24

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to study the interlayer structure, hydrogen bonding, and energetics of hydration of Mg/Al (2:1 and 4:1) layered double hydroxide (LDH) or hydrotalcite (HT) intercalated with oxymetal anions, CrO(4)(2-), and VO(4)(3-). The ab initio forcefield COMPASS is employed for the simulations. The charge on the oxymetal anions is determined by quantum mechanical density functional theory. The structural behavior of the oxymetal anions in LDH directly relates to the energetic relationships, with electrostatic and H-bonding interactions between the anions, hydroxide sites of the metal hydroxide layers, and the interlayer water molecules. Distinct minima in the hydration energy indicate the presence of energetically well-defined structural states with specific water content. The experimentally identified variability in the retention of the CrO(4)(2-) and VO(4)(3-) is well reflected in the calculations and self-diffusion coefficients obtained from the simulations give insight into the mobility of the intercalated species.

  6. Performance evaluation of ZnGeP2 optical parametric oscillator pumped by a Q-switched Tm,Ho:GdVO4 laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baoquan Yao; Youlun Ju; Yuezhu Wang; Wanjun He

    2008-01-01

    A doubly resonant ZnGeP2 (ZGP) optical parametric oscillator (OPO) pumped by a novel Tm,Ho:GdVO4 laser was demonstrated. Cryogenic Tm(5 at.-%), Ho(0.5 at.-%):GdVO4 laser with high pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of 10 kHz at 2.05 μm was employed as pumping source of ZGP OPO. The 15-mm-long ZGP crystal, 55° cut for I-type phase-matching with low absorption coefficient less than 0.05 cm-1 at 2-μm, was placed in a plano-plano cavity with resonator length of 30 mm. The ZGP OPO generated a total combined output power of 1.2 W at 3.75 and 4.52 μm under pumping power of 5.3 W, corresponding to slope efficiency of 40% from incident 2-μm laser power to mid-infrared (Mid-IR) output. A widely tunable range from 3.0 to 6.5 μm was achieved by changing the crystal angle only 3.5 .

  7. Study of passive Q-switching for flash-lamp-pumped 1.34-μm Nd:GdVO4 laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Li; Yufei Li; Yuming Sun; Xueyuan Hou; Huaijin Zhang; Jiyang Wang

    2006-01-01

    The static laser performance of a-growth Nd:GdVO4 crystal (a-cut, 4 × 4 × 25 (mm)) at 1.34μm pumped by flash-lamp is investigated with different transmissions of output couplers. With the output coupler transmission of T = 30%, the static output energy of 148 mJ is obtained when the pump energy is 35.2 J,and the corresponding electric-optical conversion efficiency is 0.42%. The Q-switched output of lasers with the output wavelength ranging from 1.3 to 1.6 μm can be realized by using Co2+ :LaMgAl11O19 (Co:LMA)as saturable absorber. A flash-lamp-pumped, passively Q-switched Nd:GdVO4 laser with Co:LMA as saturable absorber is demonstrated in plano-concave laser cavity. With the cavity length of 16.3 cm and pump energy of 19.8 J, the single-pulse output energy, pulse width, and peak power are obtained to be 4m J, 80 ns, and 5 × 104 W, respectively.

  8. Synthesis of BiVO4-g-C3N4 Composite Photocatalyst with Improved Visible Light-induced Photocatalytic Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ming; JIN Xiaoqi

    2015-01-01

    The novel visible light-induced carbon nitride (g-C3N4) and BiVO4 composite photocatalysts were obtained through a simple mixing-calcination method. The physical and photophysical properties of the BiVO4-g-C3N4 composites were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), photoluminescent (PL) spectroscopy, and BET surface area measurements. Photocatalytic oxidation ability of the prepared samples was examined by studying the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) as a target pollutant under visible-light irradiation. The composite photocatalysts exhibited an enhanced photocatalytic performance in degrading RhB. The optimal g-C3N4 content of the composite photocatalysts was determined for the photodegradation activity. The improved photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared composite photocatalyst may be attributed to the enhancement of photo-generated electron-hole separation at the interface.

  9. Unbiased photoelectrochemical water splitting in Z-scheme device using W/Mo-doped BiVO4 and Zn(x)Cd(1-x)Se.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun S; Lee, Heung Chan; Leonard, Kevin C; Liu, Guanjie; Bard, Allen J

    2013-07-22

    Photoelectrochemical water splitting to generate H2 and O2 using only photon energy (with no added electrical energy) has been demonstrated with dual n-type-semiconductor (or Z-scheme) systems. Here we investigated two different Z-scheme systems; one is comprised of two cells with the same metal-oxide semiconductor (W- and Mo-doped bismuth vanadate), that is, Pt-W/Mo-BiVO4, and the other is comprised of the metal oxide and a chalcogenide semiconductor, that is, Pt-W/Mo-BiVO4 and Zn(0.2)Cd(0.8)Se. The redox couples utilized in these Z-scheme configurations were I(-)/IO3(-) or S(2-)/S(n)(2-), respectively. An electrochemical analysis of the system in terms of cell components is shown to illustrate the behavior of the complete photoelectrochemical Z-scheme water-splitting system. H2 gas from the unbiased photolysis of water was detected using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and using a membrane-electrode assembly. The electrode configuration to achieve the maximum conversion efficiency from solar energy to chemical energy with the given materials and the Z-scheme is discussed. Here, the possibilities and challenges of Z-scheme unbiased photoelectrochemical water-splitting devices and the materials to achieve practical solar-fuel generation are discussed.

  10. Rare-earth free self-luminescent Ca2KZn2(VO4)3 phosphors for intense white light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharat, L. Krishna; Jeon, Soo-Kun; Krishna, Kurugundla Gopi; Yu, Jae Su

    2017-01-01

    The commercially available white-light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) are made with a combination of blue LEDs and yellow phosphors. These types of WLEDs lack certain properties which make them meagerly applicable for general illumination and flat panel displays. The solution for such problem is to use near-ultraviolet (NUV) chips as an excitation source because of their high excitation efficiency and good spectral distribution. Therefore, there is an active search for new phosphor materials which can be effectively excited within the NUV wavelength range (350–420 nm). In this work, novel rare-earth free self-luminescent Ca2KZn2(VO4)3 phosphors were synthesized by a citrate assisted sol-gel method at low calcination temperatures. Optical properties, internal quantum efficiency and thermal stability as well as morphology and crystal structure of Ca2KZn2(VO4)3 phosphors for their application to NUV-based WLEDs were studied. The crystal structure and phase formation were confirmed with XRD patterns and Rietveld refinement. The optical properties of these phosphor materials which can change the NUV excitation into visible yellow-green emissions were studied. The synthesized phosphors were then coated onto the surface of a NUV chip along with a blue phosphor (LiCaPO4:Eu2+) to get brighter WLEDs with a color rendering index of 94.8 and a correlated color temperature of 8549 K. PMID:28181549

  11. Utilization of visible to NIR light energy by Yb+3, Er+3 and Tm+3 doped BiVO4 for the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Chhabilal; Kshetri, Yuwaraj K.; Ray, Schindra Kumar; Pandey, Ramesh Prasad; Lee, Soo Wohn

    2017-01-01

    Lanthanide-doped BiVO4 semiconductors with efficient photocatalytic activities over a broad range of the solar light spectrum have been synthesized by the microwave hydrothermal method using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). The structural, morphological, and optical properties of the as-synthesized samples were evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). The chemical compositions were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The toxicity of the samples was measured using Mus musculus skin melanoma cells (B16-F10 (ATCC CRL-6475™)) and were found to be nontoxic for human cells. The photocatalytic efficiency of the prepared samples was evaluated by methylene blue (MB) degradation. The best photocatalytic activity was shown by BiVO4 with 6:3:3 mol percentage of Yb+3:Er+3:Tm+3 in all solar light spectrum. The synthesized samples possess low band gap energy and a hollow structure suitable for the better photocatalytic activity. The observed NIR photoactivity supports that the upconversion mechanism is involved in the overall photocatalytic process. Therefore, this approach provides a better alternative upconversion material for integral solar light absorption.

  12. Significantly improved charge collection and interface injection in 3D BiVO4 based multilayered core-shell nanowire photocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zemin; Li, Yunxia; Jiang, Xiao; Han, Weihua; Xie, Mingzheng; Wang, Fangcong; Xie, Erqing

    2017-09-11

    It is challenging to design a photocatalyst with high-efficiency light absorption, charge separation and even high-efficiency charge transfer. Here, we report a demonstration by utilizing a three-dimensional multilayered core-shell nanowire array (rGO-ITO@BiVO4) as the composite photocatalyst. The core-shell structure can shorten the length of charge transfer and enhance light absorption through multireflection. RGO with defects can work as the charge transfer medium to improve the hole injection from semiconductor to electrolyte. Associated with the above effects, the Co-pi electrocatalyst modified rGO-ITO@BiVO4 photocatalyst yields a photocurrent of about 6.0 mA cm(-2) at 0.6 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Transient-state surface photovoltage measurement shows that the rGO layer can prolong the lifetime of the photogenerated holes through π-π interactions, so that more holes can participate in the water oxidation reaction.

  13. Visible light activity of pulsed layer deposited BiVO4/MnO2 films decorated with gold nanoparticles: The evidence for hydroxyl radicals formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzciński, Konrad; Szkoda, Mariusz; Sawczak, Mirosław; Karczewski, Jakub; Lisowska-Oleksiak, Anna

    2016-11-01

    Thin films containing BiVO4 and MnO2 deposited on FTO and modified by Au nanoparticles were studied towards their photoelectrochemical and photocatalytical activities in an aqueous electrolyte. Electrodes were prepared by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method. The surfactant-free ablation process was used for preparation of the gold nanoparticles (GNP) water suspension. Obtained layers of varied thicknesses (27-115 nm) were characterized using Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Electrochemical methods such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, linear voltammetry and chronoamperometry under visible light illumination and in the dark were applied to characterize layers as photoanodes. Simple modification of the BiVO4 + MnO2 layer by drop-casting of small amount of colloidal gold (1.5 × 10-14 mol of GNP on 1 cm2) leads to enhancement of the generated photocurrent recorded at E = 0.5 V vs. Ag/AgCl (0.1 M KCl) from 63 μA/cm2 to 280 μA/cm2. Photocatalytical studies were also exploited towards decomposition of methylene blue (MB). A possible mechanism of MB photodegradation was proposed. The formation of hydroxyl radicals was detected by photoluminescence spectra using terephthalic acid as the probe molecule.

  14. Structural and magnetic characterization of the one-dimensional S = 5/2 antiferromagnetic chain system SrMn(VO4)(OH)

    CERN Document Server

    Sanjeewa, Liurukara D; McGuire, Michael A; McMillen, Colin D; Cao, Huibo; Kolis, Joseph W

    2016-01-01

    The descloizite-type compound, SrMn(VO4)(OH), was synthesized as large single crystals using a high-temperature high-pressure hydrothermal technique. X-ray single crystal structure analysis reveals that the material crystallizes in the acentric orthorhombic space group of P212121. The structure exhibits a one-dimensional feature, with MnO4 chains propagating along the a-axis which are interconnected by VO4 tetrahedra. Raman and infrared spectra were obtained to identify the fundamental vanadate and hydroxide vibrational modes. Magnetization data reveal a broad maximum at approximately 80 K, arising from one-dimensional magnetic correlations with intrachain exchange constant of J/kB = 9.97(3) K between nearest Mn neighbors and a canted antiferromagnetic behavior below TN = 30 K. Single crystal neutron diffraction at 4 K yielded a magnetic structure solution in the lower symmetry of the magnetic space group P21 with two unique chains displaying antiferromagnetically ordered Mn moments oriented nearly perpendicu...

  15. Synthesize and characterize of Ag3VO4/TiO2 nanorods photocatalysts and its photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xuejun; Dong, Yuying; Zhang, Xiaodong; Cui, Yubo

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, in order to expand the light response range of TiO2, Ag3VO4/TiO2 nanorods photocatalysts were fabricated by a simple sol-gel method with microwave and hydrothermal method. The as-prepared samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, DRS, XPS and N2 adsorption-desorption. Meanwhile, their photocatalytic properties were investigated by the degradation of toluene under visible light irradiation. The degradation conversation of toluene had gotten to about 70% in 1% Ag3VO4/TiO2 nanorods after reaction 4 h. The predominant photocatalytic activity can be attributed to its strong absorption in visible light region and excellent charge separation characteristics. By using in situ FTIR, benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde species could be observed during the reaction and the formed intermediates would be partially oxidized into CO2 and H2O. Electron spin resonance confirmed that OHrad and O2rad - were involved in the photocatalytic degradation of toluene.

  16. A Brief Historical Introduction to Euler's Formula for Polyhedra, Topology, Graph Theory and Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Lokenath

    2010-01-01

    This article is essentially devoted to a brief historical introduction to Euler's formula for polyhedra, topology, theory of graphs and networks with many examples from the real-world. Celebrated Konigsberg seven-bridge problem and some of the basic properties of graphs and networks for some understanding of the macroscopic behaviour of real…

  17. How baculovirus polyhedra fit square pegs into round holes to robustly package viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaoyun; Sutton, Geoff; Evans, Gwyndaf; Axford, Danny; Owen, Robin; Stuart, David I

    2010-01-20

    Natural protein crystals (polyhedra) armour certain viruses, allowing them to survive for years under hostile conditions. We have determined the structure of polyhedra of the baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), revealing a highly symmetrical covalently cross-braced robust lattice, the subunits of which possess a flexible adaptor enabling this supra-molecular assembly to specifically entrap massive baculoviruses. Inter-subunit chemical switches modulate the controlled release of virus particles in the unusual high pH environment of the target insect's gut. Surprisingly, the polyhedrin subunits are more similar to picornavirus coat proteins than to the polyhedrin of cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (CPV). It is, therefore, remarkable that both AcMNPV and CPV polyhedra possess identical crystal lattices and crystal symmetry. This crystalline arrangement must be particularly well suited to the functional requirements of the polyhedra and has been either preserved or re-selected during evolution. The use of flexible adaptors to generate a powerful system for packaging irregular particles is characteristic of the AcMNPV polyhedrin and may provide a vehicle to sequester a wide range of objects such as biological nano-particles.

  18. 6.2-W deep blue light generation by intracavity frequency-doubled Nd:GdVO4 using BiBO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanfei Lü; Xihe Zhang; Zhihai Yao; Fengdong Zhang

    2007-01-01

    @@ Efficient continuous-wave (CW) intracavity frequency doubling of a diode-end-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser operating on 4F3/2 - 4I9/2 transitions at 912 nm has been demonstrated. A symmetrical cavity with two laser rods is designed, which divides the pump power between the two laser rods, allowing for greater power scalability. An 18-mm-long BiBO crystal, cut for critical type Ⅰ phase matching, is used for the intracavity frequency-doubled laser. A maximum output power of 6.2 W in the blue spectral range at 456 nm has been achieved with the pump power of 36 W. The beam quality M2 value is 2.5 in both horizontal and vertical directions. The ellipticity of the deep blue laser is 0.98, and the power stability is better than 3.2% at the maximum output power.

  19. Intracavity optical parametric oscillator at 1.5-7-μm wavelength pumped by passive Q-switched Nd:GdVO4 laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingwei Gao; Chunqing Gao; Kun Tang; Zhifeng Lin; Xiuyong Zhang

    2008-01-01

    A high-repetition-rate eye-safe optical parametric oscillator(OPO),using a non-critically phase-matched KTP crystal intracavity pumped by a passively Q-switched Nd:GdVO4/Cr4+:YAG laser,is experimentally demonstrated.The conversion efficiency for the average power is 7% from pump diode input to OPO signal output and the slope efficiency is up to 10.3%.With an incident pump power of 7.3 W.the compact intracavity OPO(IOPO)cavity,operating at 15 kHz,produces an average power of 0.57 W at 1570 nm with a pulse width as short as 6 ns.The peak power at 1570 nm is higher than 6.3 kW.

  20. Fabrication of narrow pulse passively Q-switched self-stimulated Raman laser with c-cut Nd:GdVO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Gao; Li, Zuo-han; Han, Ming

    2016-11-01

    Combining the self-stimulated Raman scattering technology and saturable absorber of Cr4+:YAG, a 1.17 μm c-cut Nd:GdVO4 picosecond Q-switched laser is demonstrated in this paper. With an incident pump power of 10 W, the Q-switched laser with average power of 430 mW for 1.17 μm, pulse width of 270 ps, repetition rate of 13 kHz and the first order Stokes conversion efficiency of 4.3% is obtained. The Q-switched pulse width can be the narrowest in our research. In addition, the yellow laser at 0.58 μm is also achieved by using the LiB3O5 frequency doubling crystal.

  1. As-grown uniform MoS2/mica saturable absorber for passively Q-switched mode-locked Nd:GdVO4 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuanyuan; Yang, Cheng; Ge, Pengguang; Liu, Jie; Jiang, Shouzhen; Li, Chun; Man, Baoyuan

    2016-08-01

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has recently attracted growing attention due to its distinctive properties and potential applications in optoelectronics and electronics. Here, large-area and high-quality MoS2 film with uniform thickness was obtained by thermally decomposing ammonium thiomolybdate. Besides, it is firstly demonstrated that the as-grown MoS2/mica can be directly inserted into Nd:GdVO4 laser cavity as saturable absorber for the output of diode-pumped passively Q-switched mode-locked pulse trains. Using the MoS2 saturable absorbers, the stable Q-switched mode-locked pulse trains with high modulation depth were realized, suggesting that the broadband MoS2 SA could potentially be employed in mode-locking laser system

  2. Preparation and Characterization of Bismuth Vanadate by Chemical Precipitation Process%化学沉淀法制备BiVO4及其表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张萍; 王焕英; 许保恩; 次立杰; 刘树彬; 张星辰

    2008-01-01

    以Bi(NO3)3·5H2O和NH4VO3为原料,利用化学沉淀法制备了BiVO4,并系统地研究了不同反应条件如:反应物初始浓度、溶液pH值、反应温度、反应时间等对粒径的影响.采用Malvem粒度分布仪、扫描电子显微镜和X射线衍射仪等对产品进行了表征,并得出结论:化学沉淀法制备的钒酸铋,所得粒子粒度较小,均匀性好.

  3. Passively Q-switched Single-longitudinal-mode c-cut Nd:GdVO4 laser with a twisted-mode cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Haifeng; Xu, Shixiang; Zeng, Heping

    2005-04-04

    Single-longitudinal-mode operation is achieved in a twisted-mode-cavity c-cut Nd:GdVO4 laser. With a semiconductor saturable absorption mirror as an intracavity saturable absorber to launch passive Q-switching, no mode-locked spikes are observed on the temporal envelopes of the Q-switched output pulses due to the complete elimination of spatial hole burning in the gain medium to suppress longitudinal multi-modes. The maximal average output power is 1.24 W with the repetition rate of 76.3 kHz, and the single pulse energy is 16.0 microJ. The pulse width and polarization ratio of the output laser beam are measured about 150 ns and 53:1, respectively.

  4. CoTiO3/Ag3VO4 composite: A study on the role of CoTiO3 and the active species in the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangkawong, Kanlayawat; Phanichphant, Sukon; Tantraviwat, Doldet; Inceesungvorn, Burapat

    2015-09-15

    The role of CoTiO3 and the possible active species in the methylene blue (MB) degradation over the visible-light-driven CoTiO3/Ag3VO4 catalyst have firstly been investigated in this work. CoTiO3 is found to play important roles in enhancing the visible light-harvesting ability of the composite and increasing electron-hole separation efficiency due to the hybrid effect between Ag3VO4 and CoTiO3. The indirect probe experiments reveal that CoTiO3/Ag3VO4 heterostructure provides large amount of active species, therefore a high photocatalytic activity could be obtained. The results clearly suggest that the photocatalytic MB degradation over this hybrid catalyst is mainly governed by direct hole oxidation.

  5. Experimental study of 880 nm laser-diode end-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with hybrid resonator at 1.34 μm%880 nm LD 泵浦 Nd:GdVO4混合腔激光器1.34μm 实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔丽; 胡文华; 张恒利; 王燕辛; 张亦卓; 李忠建

    2014-01-01

    将880 nm 上能级直接泵浦与部分端面泵浦混合腔结构结合,对 Nd:GdVO4晶体的1342 nm激光输出特性进行了实验研究。采用正支离轴混合谐振腔,4-bar 中心波长为880 nm 的激光二极管列阵作为泵浦源,在泵浦功率为178 W 时,激光输出功率为26.3 W,斜效率和光-光转换效率分别为27%和14.8%。在20 W 输出功率时非稳腔和稳腔方向的 M2因子均为1.3。结果表明:由于采用了上能级直接泵浦与部分端面泵浦混合腔结构,相对于目前同等输出功率级别的端面泵浦 Nd:GdVO4激光器,光束质量得到很大提高。%The 880 nm LD directly pumping into the emitting level with LD partially end-pumped structure was combined, some experiment was done to study the output characteristic of Nd:GdVO4 laser at 1 342 nm. An off-axis positive confocal unstable resonator was built up, and a 4-bar laser diode stack which central wavelength was 880 nm as pump source was used. 26.3 W continuous-wave laser power output was gotten under the pump power of 178 W, and the slope efficiency and optical-to-optical efficiency were 27% and nearly 14.8% , respectively. At the output power of 20 W, beam quality M2 factors were both 1.3 in the unstable direction and stable direction. The result showed that by combining 880 nm LD directly pumping into the emitting level with LD partially end-pumped structure, beam quality has been greatly improved compared with the same output power level end-pumped Nd: GdVO4 laser.

  6. Study on the preparation of boron and erbium co-doped BiVO4 photocatalyst and the photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B%硼和铒共掺杂BiVO4光催化降解罗丹明B的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董多; 宋恩军; 车寅生; 杨长秀; 王敏; 高兴莹

    2015-01-01

    通过柠檬酸络合法合成硼和铒共掺杂BiVO4,并对其进行XRD、UV-Vis的表征以分析合成材料的物相、形貌。同时考察溶液的初始浓度、pH、催化剂投加量以及光照强度等因素在可见光的照射下对罗丹明B光催化降解的影响。实验结果表明:在50 mL罗丹明B水溶液中,初始质量浓度为10 mg/L,pH=3,催化剂投加量为0.015 g,光照距离14 cm,B-Er共掺杂BiVO4对罗丹明B有较好的光催化活性,反应50 min后,降解率可达90%以上。%Boron and erbium co-doped BiVO4 visible-light-driven photocatalysts have been synthesized by citric acid complex method. The phase,and morphology of the synthetic material are characterized by XRD and UV-Vis. Mean-while,the effects of the factors,such as solution initial concentration,pH,dosage of catalyst,and illumination inten-sity,on the degradation of Rhodamine B under visible light irradiation are investigated. The experimental results show that boron and erbium co-doped BiVO4 has better photocatalytic activity on Rhodamine B degradation under the following conditions:initial Rhodamine B concentration is 10 mg/L,the volume of solution 50 mL,pH 3 of the hydrothermal reaction, dosage of catalyst 0.015 g and light distance 14 cm. After reacted for 50 min,the degradation rate of Rhodamine B can be more than 90%.

  7. Heuristics of the Platonic Polyhedra for the high Restrictions Reality Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Díaz Caballero

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, are exposed concepts, principles and procedures that make up a theory for theheuristical geometrical interpretation of high restrictions reality, based on a thesis where the PlatonicPolyhedra are carriers of a content with a high heuristic potential for the theoretical interpretation ofreality, particularly the high restriction systems , for example the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements,the System of Notes and Tempered Musical Scales and the Universal Genetic Code.

  8. Chemical Applications of Topology and Group Theory. 20. Eight-Vertex Polyhedra and Their Rearrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-14

    Geometriae Dedicata 1975, 3, 469. *(6) Lipscomb, W. N. Science 1966, 153, 373. (7) King, R. B. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1969, 91, 7211. * (8) Hoard, J. L...polyhedra given in Table 1 of Federico, P.J. Geometriae Dedicata 1975, 3, 469. The vertex index v7 v6v5 v4 v3 and the symmetry point group are given in

  9. Growth units model of anion coordination-polyhedra and its application to crystal growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xuehua; LUO Haosu; ZHONG Weizhuo

    2004-01-01

    Growth units model of anion coordination-polyhedra ACP model emphasizes the influence of intrinsic structure of crstal upon the crystal growth and the importance of the external conditions on which crystals grow. The ACP model is used to analyze some problems in crystal growth, such as the formation of dendrite in the crystal structure,growth habit of polar crystal, and formation of allomerism and polymorphism.

  10. CONSIDERATIONS CONCERNING THE REPRESENTATION OF THE INTERSECTIONS OF POLYHEDRA IN VARIOUS SYSTEMS OF REPRESENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARBINTA Dorin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the intersection between two polyhedra in various systems of representation: the orthogonal projection on two planes of projection, the axonometric projection and the projection with elevations. A comparative analysis of the advantages and disadvantages produced by the representation in the three mentioned systems of representation is also performed. Then, suggestions as to the selection of one or another system of representation are also made, in view of finding a clearer spatial visual perception of the unit.

  11. Assembly of metal-organic polyhedra into highly porous frameworks for ethene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeck, Ulrich; Senkovska, Irena; Bon, Volodymyr; Krause, Simon; Kaskel, Stefan

    2015-01-21

    Two new mesoporous metal-organic frameworks (DUT-75 and DUT-76) with exceptional ethene uptake were obtained using carbazole dicarboxylate based metal-organic polyhedra as supermolecular building blocks. The compounds have a total pore volume of 1.84 and 3.25 cm(3) g(-1) and a specific BET surface area of 4081 and 6344 m(2) g(-1), respectively, and high gas uptake at room temperature and high pressure.

  12. Intersecting dilated convex polyhedra method for modeling complex particles in discrete element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Ben; Kulchitsky, Anton V; Johnson, Jerome B

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a new method for representing concave polyhedral particles in a discrete element method as unions of convex dilated polyhedra. This method offers an efficient way to simulate systems with a large number of (generally concave) polyhedral particles. The method also allows spheres, capsules, and dilated triangles to be combined with polyhedra using the same approach. The computational efficiency of the method is tested in two different simulation setups using different efficiency metrics for seven particle types: spheres, clusters of three spheres, clusters of four spheres, tetrahedra, cubes, unions of two octahedra (concave), and a model of a computer tomography scan of a lunar simulant GRC-3 particle. It is shown that the computational efficiency of the simulations degrades much slower than the increase in complexity of the particles in the system. The efficiency of the method is based on the time coherence of the system, and an efficient and robust distance computation method between polyhedra as particles never intersect for dilated particles. PMID:26300584

  13. Near-infrared photocatalysts of BiVO4/CaF2:Er3+, Tm3+, Yb3+ with enhanced upconversion properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shouqiang; Zhu, Nanwen; Lou, Ziyang; Gu, Lin; Miao, Chen; Yuan, Haiping; Shan, Aidang

    2014-01-01

    Upconversion photocatalysts have the potential to absorb the near-infrared (NIR) light in solar energy and improve the photocatalytic performance. A hierarchical upconversion photocatalyst of BiVO4 (BVO)/CaF2:Er3+, Tm3+, Yb3+ (CF) combined with the narrow-band semiconductor of BVO and the luminescence agent of CF to enhance upconversion properties was synthesized via the hydrothermal method. The CF particles were deposited homogeneously on the surface of the BVO/CF composite with regular dendritic structure, which led to efficient upconversion emissions. The upconversion emission intensity of the BVO/CF composite was 8 times higher than that of pure CF, through tailoring the crystal symmetry of lanthanide ions by Bi3+ ions. The upconverted ultraviolet (361 and 379 nm), violet (408 nm), and blue (485 nm) light was able to excite BVO for photocatalysis in BVO/CF under NIR irradiation, which improved the degradation rate of methyl orange (MO).Upconversion photocatalysts have the potential to absorb the near-infrared (NIR) light in solar energy and improve the photocatalytic performance. A hierarchical upconversion photocatalyst of BiVO4 (BVO)/CaF2:Er3+, Tm3+, Yb3+ (CF) combined with the narrow-band semiconductor of BVO and the luminescence agent of CF to enhance upconversion properties was synthesized via the hydrothermal method. The CF particles were deposited homogeneously on the surface of the BVO/CF composite with regular dendritic structure, which led to efficient upconversion emissions. The upconversion emission intensity of the BVO/CF composite was 8 times higher than that of pure CF, through tailoring the crystal symmetry of lanthanide ions by Bi3+ ions. The upconverted ultraviolet (361 and 379 nm), violet (408 nm), and blue (485 nm) light was able to excite BVO for photocatalysis in BVO/CF under NIR irradiation, which improved the degradation rate of methyl orange (MO). Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional tables and figures. See

  14. Spin-frustration in a new spin-1/2 oxyfluoride system (Cu13(VO4)4(OH)10F4) constructed by alternatively distorted kagome-like and triangular lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Zhang, Su-Yun; Guo, Wen-Bin; Tang, Ying-Ying; He, Zhang-Zhen

    2015-09-21

    A novel copper compound, Cu13(VO4)4(OH)10F4, featuring two types of two-dimensional extended kagome-like and triangular lattices, exhibits long-range antiferromagnetic ordering at ∼3 K, a strong spin-frustration effect with f = 21 and a spin-flop transition at 5 T.

  15. Electrochemical performance and 7Li NMR studies on an inverse spinel LiNi 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3VO 4 for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, George Ting-Kuo; Muralidharan, P.; Cho, Yung-Da; Chang, Pai-Ching; Kao, Hsien-Ming

    A new inverse spinel LiNi 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3VO 4 cathode material was synthesized through a citric acid assisted polyethylene glycol (CA:PEG; 3:1, 3:0.5 and 3:0) polymeric method, followed by calcination at 723 K for 5 h in air. The synthesized compound was characterized by TG/DTGA, XRD, FTIR, TEM, and 7Li NMR techniques. TG/DTGA curves showed that the formation of LiNi 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3VO 4 occurred between 523 and 673 K and the phase pure crystalline formed at 723 K, as also confirmed by XRD analysis which showed that the crystalline phase peaks formed when heated at 723 K for 5 h in air. TEM images revealed that nanosized particles ranged ∼170-190 nm. FTIR spectra showed that all organic residues were removed and LiNi 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3VO 4 formed. The 7Li MAS NMR spectrum of the LiNi 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3VO 4 sample revealed that the paramagnetic effect is small and small side band manifolds were observed. The galvanostatic cycling study suggests that the cycle stability and capacity retention were enhanced for LiNi 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3VO 4 prepared with a CA:PEG molar ratio of 3:1 when it was cycled between 2.8 and 4.9 V (versus Li) at a 0.15 C rate. The electrochemical impedance behavior suggested that a passive layer was formed on the surface of the cathode materials during continuous cycling.

  16. Visible-light photoactive Ag-AgBr/α-Ag3VO4 nanostructures prepared in a water-soluble ionic liquid for degradation of wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padervand, Mohsen

    2016-11-01

    Ag-AgBr/α-Ag3VO4 photocatalysts, prepared by an ionic liquid-assisted precipitation method, were used as an efficient visible light-driven photocatalytic system for removal of wastewater and pathogenic bacteria from the aqueous medium. X-ray diffraction powder, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscopy, and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm (BET) analysis methods were used to characterize the nanostructures. Photodegradation mechanism was investigated and the results showed that the prepared samples were too efficient for the degradation of Acid Blue 92 (AB92) azo dye, and E. coli cells under visible light. The photogenerated electron-hole pairs reacted with the species in the solution and produced super active radicals such as {{O}}{{{H}}^ \\cdot }, {{H}}{{{O}}^ \\cdot }_{{2}}, and {{{O}}^{ \\cdot - }}_{{2}} which are responsible for the degradation of the environmental pollutions. TEM images were used to clarify the antibacterial activity of the products. Finally, as a practical application of the prepared photocatalysts, their ability evaluated for degradation of a real wastewater sample which was provided from the textile industries.

  17. Continuous-wave simultaneous dual-wavelength and power-ratio-tunable operation at 1064 and 1342 nm in an Nd:LuVO4 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, C.-C.; Wu, S.-S.; Chou, C.-C.; Wei, M.-D.

    2011-11-01

    This study demonstrates continuous-wave simultaneous dual-wavelength emission at 1064 and 1342 nm in an Nd:LuVO4 laser by using a T-type cavity configuration. The output powers indicating a function of pump power had two evolutions depending on the strength of the completion of two wavelength emissions. One is that the output power increased linearly with the pump power in weak competition, and the output power and slope efficiency of 1064 and 1342 nm were 1.17 W and 13%, and 0.213 W and 2.8%, respectively. The other is that the extracting-energy capabilities of two wavelength emissions were close, and the evolution was not linear and the variations demonstrated multiple stages depending on the pump power. Moreover, the ratio of output power, defined as the output power at 1064 nm divided by that at 1342 nm, is tuned from 0 to 5.5 by varying the 1064 nm cavity, and equal output powers of 1064 and 1342 nm can be obtained at each pump power.

  18. Visible-light photoactive Ag-AgBr/α-Ag3VO4 nanostructures prepared in a water-soluble ionic liquid for degradation of wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padervand, Mohsen

    2016-03-01

    Ag-AgBr/α-Ag3VO4 photocatalysts, prepared by an ionic liquid-assisted precipitation method, were used as an efficient visible light-driven photocatalytic system for removal of wastewater and pathogenic bacteria from the aqueous medium. X-ray diffraction powder, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscopy, and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm (BET) analysis methods were used to characterize the nanostructures. Photodegradation mechanism was investigated and the results showed that the prepared samples were too efficient for the degradation of Acid Blue 92 (AB92) azo dye, and E. coli cells under visible light. The photogenerated electron-hole pairs reacted with the species in the solution and produced super active radicals such as {{O}}{{{H}}^ \\cdot } , {{H}}{{{O}}^ \\cdot }_{{2}} , and {{{O}}^{ \\cdot - }}_{{2}} which are responsible for the degradation of the environmental pollutions. TEM images were used to clarify the antibacterial activity of the products. Finally, as a practical application of the prepared photocatalysts, their ability evaluated for degradation of a real wastewater sample which was provided from the textile industries.

  19. A hole inversion layer at the BiVO4/Bi4V2O11 interface produces a high tunable photovoltage for water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Wayler S.; Rodriguez, Mariandry; Afonso, André S.; Mesquita, João P.; Nascimento, Lucas L.; Patrocínio, Antônio O. T.; Silva, Adilson C.; Oliveira, Luiz C. A.; Fabris, José D.; Pereira, Márcio C.

    2016-01-01

    The conversion of solar energy into hydrogen fuel by splitting water into photoelectrochemical cells (PEC) is an appealing strategy to store energy and minimize the extensive use of fossil fuels. The key requirement for efficient water splitting is producing a large band bending (photovoltage) at the semiconductor to improve the separation of the photogenerated charge carriers. Therefore, an attractive method consists in creating internal electrical fields inside the PEC to render more favorable band bending for water splitting. Coupling ferroelectric materials exhibiting spontaneous polarization with visible light photoactive semiconductors can be a likely approach to getting higher photovoltage outputs. The spontaneous electric polarization tends to promote the desirable separation of photogenerated electron- hole pairs and can produce photovoltages higher than that obtained from a conventional p-n heterojunction. Herein, we demonstrate that a hole inversion layer induced by a ferroelectric Bi4V2O11 perovskite at the n-type BiVO4 interface creates a virtual p-n junction with high photovoltage, which is suitable for water splitting. The photovoltage output can be boosted by changing the polarization by doping the ferroelectric material with tungsten in order to produce the relatively large photovoltage of 1.39 V, decreasing the surface recombination and enhancing the photocurrent as much as 180%. PMID:27503274

  20. A hole inversion layer at the BiVO4/Bi4V2O11 interface produces a high tunable photovoltage for water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Wayler S.; Rodriguez, Mariandry; Afonso, André S.; Mesquita, João P.; Nascimento, Lucas L.; Patrocínio, Antônio O. T.; Silva, Adilson C.; Oliveira, Luiz C. A.; Fabris, José D.; Pereira, Márcio C.

    2016-08-01

    The conversion of solar energy into hydrogen fuel by splitting water into photoelectrochemical cells (PEC) is an appealing strategy to store energy and minimize the extensive use of fossil fuels. The key requirement for efficient water splitting is producing a large band bending (photovoltage) at the semiconductor to improve the separation of the photogenerated charge carriers. Therefore, an attractive method consists in creating internal electrical fields inside the PEC to render more favorable band bending for water splitting. Coupling ferroelectric materials exhibiting spontaneous polarization with visible light photoactive semiconductors can be a likely approach to getting higher photovoltage outputs. The spontaneous electric polarization tends to promote the desirable separation of photogenerated electron- hole pairs and can produce photovoltages higher than that obtained from a conventional p-n heterojunction. Herein, we demonstrate that a hole inversion layer induced by a ferroelectric Bi4V2O11 perovskite at the n-type BiVO4 interface creates a virtual p-n junction with high photovoltage, which is suitable for water splitting. The photovoltage output can be boosted by changing the polarization by doping the ferroelectric material with tungsten in order to produce the relatively large photovoltage of 1.39 V, decreasing the surface recombination and enhancing the photocurrent as much as 180%.

  1. A hole inversion layer at the BiVO4/Bi4V2O11 interface produces a high tunable photovoltage for water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Wayler S; Rodriguez, Mariandry; Afonso, André S; Mesquita, João P; Nascimento, Lucas L; Patrocínio, Antônio O T; Silva, Adilson C; Oliveira, Luiz C A; Fabris, José D; Pereira, Márcio C

    2016-08-09

    The conversion of solar energy into hydrogen fuel by splitting water into photoelectrochemical cells (PEC) is an appealing strategy to store energy and minimize the extensive use of fossil fuels. The key requirement for efficient water splitting is producing a large band bending (photovoltage) at the semiconductor to improve the separation of the photogenerated charge carriers. Therefore, an attractive method consists in creating internal electrical fields inside the PEC to render more favorable band bending for water splitting. Coupling ferroelectric materials exhibiting spontaneous polarization with visible light photoactive semiconductors can be a likely approach to getting higher photovoltage outputs. The spontaneous electric polarization tends to promote the desirable separation of photogenerated electron- hole pairs and can produce photovoltages higher than that obtained from a conventional p-n heterojunction. Herein, we demonstrate that a hole inversion layer induced by a ferroelectric Bi4V2O11 perovskite at the n-type BiVO4 interface creates a virtual p-n junction with high photovoltage, which is suitable for water splitting. The photovoltage output can be boosted by changing the polarization by doping the ferroelectric material with tungsten in order to produce the relatively large photovoltage of 1.39 V, decreasing the surface recombination and enhancing the photocurrent as much as 180%.

  2. Enhanced photovoltaic effect in BiVO4 semiconductor by incorporation with an ultrathin BiFeO3 ferroelectric layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wen; Guo, Yiping; Guo, Bing; Li, Hua; Liu, Hezhou; Joel, Thia Weikang

    2013-08-14

    The photovoltaic effect of BiVO4 semiconductor was investigated by incorporating an ultrathin BiFeO3 ferroelectric layer. It is found that the ultrathin ferroelectric layer with strong self-polarization and high carrier density is desirable to enhance the photovoltaic effect and to manipulate the photovoltaic polarity of the semiconductors. The photovoltage increases by 5-fold to 1 V, and the photocurrent density increases by 2-fold to 140 μA/cm(2), in which the photovoltage is the highest compared with the reported values in polycrystalline and epitaxial ferroelectric thin film solar cells. The mechanism for the observed effect is discussed on the basis of a polarization-induced Schottky-like barrier at the BiFeO3/fluorine doped tin oxide interface. Our work provides good guidance for fabrication of cost-effective semiconductor photovoltaic devices with high performance, and this kind of ultrathin ferroelectric film may also have promising applications in copper indium gallium selenide solar cell, dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cell, lighting emitting diode, and other photoelectron related devices.

  3. Unusually Flexible Indium(III) Metal-Organic Polyhedra Materials for Detecting Trace Amounts of Water in Organic Solvents and High Proton Conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xi; Fan, Ruiqing; Qiang, Liangsheng; Song, Yang; Xing, Kai; Chen, Wei; Wang, Ping; Yang, Yulin

    2017-03-20

    Humidity-induced single-crystal transformation was observed in the indium metal-organic polyhedra [In2(TCPB)2]·2H2O (In1), where H3TCPB is 1,3,5-tri(4-carboxyphenoxy)benzene. When the humidity is above 58% relative humidity (RH) at room temperature, the neutral compound In1 could be successfully converted into the positively charged compound In1-H along with the color change from yellow to deep red, which also undergoes a reversible transformation into In1 driven by thermal dehydration. Notably, the color of In1 takes only 5 min to change under 58% RH at room temperature, which is much quicker than common desiccant bluestone. As the water content is increased from 0.0% to 0.2% in acetonitrile solvent, compound In1 exhibits rapid detection of trace amounts of water through turn-off luminescence sensing mechanism with a low detection limit of 2.95 × 10(-4)%. Because of the formation of extensive hydrogen-bonding network between the metal-organic polyhedra (MOPs) and surrounding guest OH(-) ions, compound In1-H, along with isostructural Ga1-H, displays excellent proton conductivity up to 2.84 × 10(-4) and 2.26 × 10(-4) S cm(-1) at 298 K and 98% RH, respectively. Furthermore, the activation energies are found to be 0.28 eV for In1-H and 0.34 eV for Ga1-H. This method of incorporation of OH(-) ions to obtain high proton conductivity MOPs with low activation energy demonstrates the advantage of OH(-) ion conduction in the solid-state materials.

  4. Self-assembly of tetravalent Goldberg polyhedra from 144 small components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Daishi; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Sato, Sota; Mizuno, Nobuhiro; Kumasaka, Takashi; Fujita, Makoto

    2016-12-01

    Rational control of the self-assembly of large structures is one of the key challenges in chemistry, and is believed to become increasingly difficult and ultimately impossible as the number of components involved increases. So far, it has not been possible to design a self-assembled discrete molecule made up of more than 100 components. Such molecules—for example, spherical virus capsids—are prevalent in nature, which suggests that the difficulty in designing these very large self-assembled molecules is due to a lack of understanding of the underlying design principles. For example, the targeted assembly of a series of large spherical structures containing up to 30 palladium ions coordinated by up to 60 bent organic ligands was achieved by considering their topologies. Here we report the self-assembly of a spherical structure that also contains 30 palladium ions and 60 bent ligands, but belongs to a shape family that has not previously been observed experimentally. The new structure consists of a combination of 8 triangles and 24 squares, and has the symmetry of a tetravalent Goldberg polyhedron. Platonic and Archimedean solids have previously been prepared through self-assembly, as have trivalent Goldberg polyhedra, which occur naturally in the form of virus capsids and fullerenes. But tetravalent Goldberg polyhedra have not previously been reported at the molecular level, although their topologies have been predicted using graph theory. We use graph theory to predict the self-assembly of even larger tetravalent Goldberg polyhedra, which should be more stable, enabling another member of this polyhedron family to be assembled from 144 components: 48 palladium ions and 96 bent ligands.

  5. Poly(isophthalic acid)(ethylene oxide) as a Macromolecular Modulator for Metal-Organic Polyhedra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Teng-Hao; Wang, Le; Trueblood, Jonathan V; Grassian, Vicki H; Cohen, Seth M

    2016-08-03

    A new strategy was developed by using a polymer ligand, poly(isophthalic acid)(ethylene oxide), to modulate the growth of metal-organic polyhedra (MOP) crystals. This macromolecular modulator can effectively control the crystal habit of several different Cu24L24 (L = isophthalic acid derivatives) MOPs. The polymer also directed the formation of MOP structures under reaction conditions that only produce metal-organic frameworks in the absence of modulator. Moreover, the polymer also enabled the deposition of MOP crystals on glass surfaces. This macromolecular modulator strategy provides an innovative approach to control the morphology and assembly of MOP particles.

  6. Lanthanide complexes of macrocyclic polyoxovanadates by VO4 units: synthesis, characterization, and structure elucidation by X-ray crystallography and EXAFS spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Masaki; Inami, Shinnosuke; Katayama, Misaki; Ozutsumi, Kazuhiko; Hayashi, Yoshihito

    2012-01-16

    Reactions of a tetravanadate anion, [V(4)O(12)](4-), with a series of lanthanide(III) salts yield three types of lanthanide complexes of macrocyclic polyoxovanadates: (Et(4)N)(6)[Ln(III)V(9)O(27)] [Ln = Nd (1), Sm (2), Eu (3), Gd (4), Tb (5), Dy (6)], (Et(4)N)(5)[(H(2)O)Ho(III)(V(4)O(12))(2)] (7), and (Et(4)N)(7)[Ln(III)V(10)O(30)] [Ln = Er (8), Tm (9), Yb (10), Lu (11)]. Lanthanide complexes 1-11 are isolated and characterized by IR, elemental analysis, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). Lanthanide complexes 1-6 are composed of a square-antiprism eight-coordinated Ln(III) center with a macrocyclic polyoxovanadate that is constructed from nine VO(4) tetrahedra through vertex sharing. The structure of 7 is composed of a seven-coordinated Ho(III) center, which exhibits a capped trigonal-prism coordination environment by the sandwiching of two cyclic tetravanadates with a capping H(2)O ligand. Lanthanide complexes 8-11 have a six-coordinated Ln(III) center with a 10-membered vanadate ligand. The structural trend to adopt a larger coordination number for a larger lanthanide ion among the three types of structures is accompanied by a change in the vanadate ring sizes. These lanthanide complexes are examined by EXAFS spectroscopies on lanthanide L(III) absorption edges, and the EXAFS oscillations of each of the samples in the solid state and in acetonitrile are identical. The Ln-O and Ln···V bond lengths obtained from fits of the EXAFS data are consistent with the data from the single-crystal X-ray studies, reflecting retention of the structures in acetonitrile.

  7. Anomaly and Sign problem in $\\mathcal{N}=(2,2)$ SYM on Polyhedra : Numerical Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kamata, Syo; Misumi, Tatsuhiro; Ohta, Kazutoshi

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the two-dimensional $\\mathcal{N}=(2,2)$ supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory on the discretized curved space (polyhedra). We first revisit that the number of supersymmetries of the continuum $\\mathcal{N}=(2,2)$ SYM theory on any curved manifold can be enhanced at least to two by introducing an appropriate $U(1)$ gauge background associated with the $U(1)_{V}$ symmetry. We then show that the generalized Sugino model on the discretized curved space, which was proposed in our previous work, can be identified to the discretization of this SUSY enhanced theory, where one of the supersymmetries remains and the other is broken but restored in the continuum limit. We find that the $U(1)_{A}$ anomaly exists also in the discretized theory as a result of an unbalance of the number of the fermions proportional to the Euler characteristics of the polyhedra. We then study this model by using the numerical Monte-Carlo simulation. We propose a novel phase-quench method called "anomaly-phase-quenched approxim...

  8. Investigation of the incommensurate and commensurate magnetic superstructures of LiCuVO4 and CuO on the basis of the isotropic spin exchange and classical spin approximations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, D; Koo, H-J; Whangbo, M-H

    2004-06-28

    The spin lattices of magnetic oxides LiCuVO(4) and CuO are made up of CuO(2) ribbon chains. The incommensurate and commensurate magnetic superstructures of these oxides were examined by calculating the total spin exchange interaction energies of their long-range order spin arrangements on the basis of the isotropic spin exchange and classical spin approximations. The incommensurate superstructure (0, 0.532, 0) of LiCuVO(4) was analyzed to find that the next-nearest-neighbor spin exchange interaction J(nnn) is more strongly antiferromagnetic than the nearest-neighbor spin exchange interaction J(nn) in the CuO(2) chains. With this finding, we reassessed the relative strengths of the spin exchange interactions of LiCuVO(4) and CuO and then analyzed the relative energies of their long-range order spin arrangements. The incommensurate superstructure (0, 0.532, 0) of LiCuVO(4) is explained when the J(nn)/J(nnn) ratio is -0.40. Both the incommensurate superstructure (0.506, 0, -0.483) and the commensurate superstructure (0.5, 0, -0.5) of CuO, which occur at 231 and 212.5 K, respectively, are well explained in terms of the calculated total spin exchange interaction energies. The incommensurate superstructure of CuO becomes commensurate by a slight change in one interchain spin exchange interaction, which is due probably to a slight structure change brought about by the temperature lowering.

  9. [La(UO2)V2O7][(UO2)(VO4)] the first lanthanum uranyl-vanadate with structure built from two types of sheets based upon the uranophane anion-topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mer, A.; Obbade, S.; Rivenet, M.; Renard, C.; Abraham, F.

    2012-01-01

    The new lanthanum uranyl vanadate divanadate, [La(UO2)V2O7][(UO2)(VO4)] was obtained by reaction at 800 °C between lanthanum chloride, uranium oxide (U3O8) and vanadium oxide (V2O5) and the structure was determined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. This compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic system with space group P212121 and unit-cell parameters a=6.9470(2) Å, b=7.0934(2) Å, c=25.7464(6) Å, V=1268.73(5) Å3, Z=4. A full matrix least-squares refinement yielded R1=0.0219 for 5493 independent reflections. The crystal structure is characterized by the stacking of uranophane-type sheets [(UO2)(VO4)]-∞2 and double layers [La(UO2)(V2O7)]+∞2 connected through La-O bonds involving the uranyl oxygen of the uranyl-vanadate sheets. The double layers result from the connection of two [La(UO2)(VO4)2]-∞2 sheets derived from the uranophane anion-topology by replacing half of the uranyl ions by lanthanum atoms and connected through the formation of divanadate entities.

  10. Stable mode-locked operation of a low repetition rate diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser by combining quadratic polarisation switching and a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard, Christoph; Druon, Frédéric; Georges, Patrick; Couderc, Vincent; Leproux, Philippe

    2006-08-07

    In this paper, we present the mode-locked operation of an ultra-robustly stabilised Nd:GdVO(4) laser with low repetition rate by combining quadratic polarisation switching and a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM). In addition, similar experiment was also done with Nd:YVO(4). For Nd:GdVO(4), 16-ps pulses at 1063 nm with a repetition rate of 3.95 MHz have been obtained for a laser average output power of 1.4 W. For Nd:YVO(4), the performance was 2.5 W of average power for 15-ps pulses at 1064 nm. Moreover, we demonstrate experimentally the advantage of combining these two passive mode locking techniques in terms of stability ranges. We show how the dual mode-locking technique is crucial to obtain a stable and long-term mode-locked regime in our case of a diode-pumped Nd:GdVO(4) laser operating at low repetition rate and more generally how this dual mode-locking technique improves the stability range of the mode-locked operation giving more flexibility on different parameters.

  11. Ultrasonic-assisted preparation of novel ternary ZnO/Ag3VO4/Ag2CrO4 nanocomposites and their enhanced visible-light activities in degradation of different pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirhashemi, Mahsa; Habibi-Yangjeh, Aziz

    2016-05-01

    Novel ternary ZnO/Ag3VO4/Ag2CrO4 nanocomposites were successfully fabricated via preparation of ZnO/Ag3VO4 followed by coupling of it with Ag2CrO4 through facile ultrasonic-assisted method. The resultant samples were carefully characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive analysis of X-rays, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, and photoluminescence techniques. Photocatalytic activity for degradation of organic dyes, including rhodamine B, methylene blue, and methyl orange was examined under visible-light irradiation. Among the prepared samples, the ternary nanocomposite with 20% of Ag2CrO4 demonstrated the superior activity. This nanocomposite showed 10.6, 2.9, and 3.0-folds greater activity compared to ZnO, ZnO/Ag2CrO4, and ZnO/Ag3VO4, respectively. The enhanced activity was attributed to more harvesting of the visible-light irradiation and efficiently separation of the photogenerated charge carriers in the ternary nanocomposites. To understand efficiently separation of the charge carriers, a plausible diagram was proposed based on formation of tandem n-n heterojunctions.

  12. Cobalt diselenide nanoparticles embedded within porous carbon polyhedra as advanced electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Renbing; Xue, Yanhong; Liu, Bo; Zhou, Kun; Wei, Jun; Chan, Siew Hwa

    2016-10-01

    Highly efficient and cost-effective electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is crucial for a variety of renewable energy applications. Herein, strongly coupled hybrid composites composed of cobalt diselenide (CoSe2) nanoparticles embedded within graphitic carbon polyhedra (GCP) as high-performance ORR catalyst have been rationally designed and synthesized. The catalyst is fabricated by a convenient method, which involves the simultaneous pyrolysis and selenization of preformed Co-based zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-67). Benefiting from the unique structural features, the resulting CoSe2/GCP hybrid catalyst shows high stability and excellent electrocatalytic activity towards ORR (the onset and half-wave potentials are 0.935 and 0.806 V vs. RHE, respectively), which is superior to the state-of-the-art commercial Pt/C catalyst (0.912 and 0.781 V vs. RHE, respectively).

  13. Golden Root Geometry Structuring the Polyhedra and Other Forms Via Plato’s Triangles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Chr. Stefanides

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Under Golden Root Geometry Structuring the Polyhedra and other Forms Via Plato’s Triangles, we refer to the basic geometric configurations which, as this theory contemplates, are necessary for the progressive mode of formation of the five polyhedral and the geometries involved in their sections and related circles and further to logarithms, via lines, areas and volumes. Basis of all these structures is a very special Scalene Orthogonal Triangle “Plato’s Most Beautiful” [F25], together with his Orthogonal Isosceles one. Structural Forms are identified bearing in common these triangular identities. The particular angle of the Scalene Orthogonal is that whose ArcTan[Θ]=Τ and T = SQR ((SQR. (5 + 1/2.

  14. Self-Exfoliated Metal-Organic Nanosheets through Hydrolytic Unfolding of Metal-Organic Polyhedra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garai, Bikash; Mallick, Arijit; Das, Anuja; Mukherjee, Rabibrata; Banerjee, Rahul

    2017-05-29

    Few-layers thick metal-organic nanosheets have been synthesized using water-assisted solid-state transformation through a combined top-down and bottom-up approach. The metal-organic polyhedra (MOPs) convert into metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) which subsequently self-exfoliate into few-layered metal-organic nanosheets. These MOP crystals experience a hydrophobicity gradient with the inner surface during contact with water because of the existence of hydrophobic spikes on their outer surface. When the amount of water available for interaction is higher, the resultant layers are not stacked to form bulk materials; instead few-layered nanosheets with high uniformity were obtained in high yield. The phenomenon has resulted high yield production of uniformly distributed layered metal-organic nanosheets from three different MOPs, showing its general adaptability. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Chromium(II) Metal-Organic Polyhedra as Highly Porous Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinhee; Perry, Zachary; Chen, Ying-Pin; Bae, Jaeyeon; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2017-08-23

    Herein we report for the first time the synthesis of Cr(II)-based metal-organic polyhedra (MOPs) and the characterization of their porosities. Unlike the isostructural Cu(II)- or Mo(II)-based MOPs, Cr(II)-based MOPs show unusually high gas uptakes and surface areas. The combination of comparatively robust dichromium paddlewheel units (Cr2 units), cage symmetries, and packing motifs enable these materials to achieve Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface areas of up to 1000 m(2)/g. Reducing the aggregation of the Cr(II)-based MOPs upon activation makes their pores more accessible than their Cu(II) or Mo(II) counterparts. Further comparisons of surface areas on a molar (m(2)/mol cage) rather than gravimetric (m(2)/g) basis is proposed as a rational method of comparing members of a family of related molecular materials.

  16. Catalytic properties of manganese oxide polyhedra with hollow and solid morphologies in toluene removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yinnian; Zhang, Xuan; Peng, Ruosi; Zhao, Mengqi; Ye, Daiqi

    2017-05-01

    In order to develop an efficient and active catalyst to degrade the toxic volatile organic compounds, manganese oxide polyhedra with hollow and solid morphologies were synthesized by a convenient hydrothermal route without any surfactants or templates. The catalytic performances of the two manganese oxides were assessed in the oxidation reaction of toluene. Compared with the solid polyhedral manganese oxide, an excellent catalytic activity of the hollow one has been found, resulting from its cavity nature, the high content of active oxygen and the high manganese oxidation state of hollow MnOx. Meanwhile, the probable reaction pathway for toluene oxidation over the hollow polyhedral manganese oxide was initially discussed by means of in situ FTIR.

  17. Two-sided bounds for the volume of right-angled hyperbolic polyhedra

    CERN Document Server

    Repovš, Dušan

    2011-01-01

    For a compact right-angled polyhedron $R$ in $\\mathbb H^3$ denote by $\\operatorname{vol} (R)$ the volume and by $\\operatorname{vert} (R)$ the number of vertices. Upper and lower bounds for $\\operatorname{vol} (R)$ in terms of $\\operatorname{vert} (R)$ were obtained in \\cite{A09}. Constructing a 2-parameter family of polyhedra, we show that the asymptotic upper bound $5 v_3 / 8$, where $v_3$ is the volume of the ideal regular tetrahedron in $\\mathbb H^3$, is a double limit point for ratios $\\operatorname{vol} (R) / \\operatorname{vert} (R)$. Moreover, we improve the lower bound in the case $\\operatorname{vert} (R) \\leqslant 56$.

  18. Chromium(II) Metal–Organic Polyhedra as Highly Porous Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jinhee; Perry, Zachary; Chen, Ying-Pin; Bae, Jaeyeon; Zhou, Hong-Cai (DGIST); (TAM)

    2017-08-10

    Herein we report for the first time the synthesis of Cr(II)-based metal–organic polyhedra (MOPs) and the characterization of their porosities. Unlike the isostructural Cu(II)- or Mo(II)-based MOPs, Cr(II)-based MOPs show unusually high gas uptakes and surface areas. The combination of comparatively robust dichromium paddlewheel units (Cr2 units), cage symmetries, and packing motifs enable these materials to achieve Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface areas of up to 1000 m2/g. Reducing the aggregation of the Cr(II)-based MOPs upon activation makes their pores more accessible than their Cu(II) or Mo(II) counterparts. Further comparisons of surface areas on a molar (m2/mol cage) rather than gravimetric (m2/g) basis is proposed as a rational method of comparing members of a family of related molecular materials.

  19. Practices Surrounding Event Photos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vyas, Dhaval; Nijholt, Antinus; van der Veer, Gerrit C.; Kotzé, P.; Marsden, G.; Lindgaard, G.; Wesson, J.; Winckler, M.

    Sharing photos through mobile devices has a great potential for creating shared experiences of social events between co-located as well as remote participants. In order to design novel event sharing tools, we need to develop indepth understanding of current practices surrounding these so called

  20. Influence of Er3+/Yb3+ concentration ratio on the down-conversion and up-conversion luminescence and lifetime in GdVO4:Er3+/Yb3+ microcrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilović T.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we studied the effects of Er3+/Yb3+ concentration ratio on structural, morphological and luminescence properties of GdVO4:Er3+/Yb3+ green phosphors prepared by a high-temperature solid state method. The samples with different concentrations (between 0.5 to 2 mol% of dopant Er3+ emitting ions and different concentrations (between 5 to 20 mol% of sensitizer ions (Yb3+ were studied. The phosphors were characterized by the X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and photoluminescence spectroscopy. For all samples, XRD diffraction patterns confirmed a formation of a pure GdVO4 phase, while the SEM showed that the materials are comprised of chunks of deformed particles with an average diameter ranging from approximately 2 μm to 8 μm. Both, down-conversion and up-conversion emission spectra of GdVO4:Er3+/Yb3+ samples, under near UV and IR excitations, exhibit two strong emission bands in the green spectral region at 525 nm and 552 nm wavelengths corresponding to 2H11/2 →4I15/2 and 4S3/2 → 4I15/2 electronic transitions of Er3+ ions. The intensity of the green emission was changed by changing the Er3+/Yb3+ concentration ratio. This dual-mode luminescence makes these materials ideal as green phosphors for a wide variety of applications in the fields of bioanalysis and biomedical. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 45020 i br. 172056

  1. Preparation of BiVO4 and photocatalytic degradation of RhB under visible light%钒酸铋的制备及可见光降解罗丹明B的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘利; 王亚飞; 崔文权; 梁英华; 王萌

    2013-01-01

    BiVO4 was synthesized via hydrothermal method,with Bi(NO3)3 and NH4VO3 as raw materials and with NaOH to adjust pH of the system.Crystal structure and optical absorption properties of the as-prepared material were characterized by XRD and UV-Vis.Taking rhodamine B as degradation objective,halogen lamp(λ >400 nm)as light source,the influences of hydrothermal temperature and time on the visible photocatalytic activity of BiVO4 were investigated.Results showed that the best preparation conditions were 200 ℃ and 8 h.Influences ofpH of rhodamine B solution and dosage of catalyst on degradation rate of rhodamine B were also investigated,and results showed that when pH was 3 and catalyst's dosage was 0.4 g(per 60 mL solution),the photocatalytic effect was the best,and the photocatalytic degradation rate could reach 97% after reaction for 2h.%以偏钒酸铵和碳酸铋为原料,用NaOH调节体系pH,水热法合成钒酸铋(BiVO4)光催化剂.利用XRD和UV-Vis漫反射对样品的晶型结构和光吸收特性进行表征分析.以罗丹明B为目标降解物,卤素灯(λ>400 nm)为光源,探讨水热温度、水热时间对合成BiVO4催化剂的可见光催化活性影响.结果表明,在水热温度为200℃、水热时间为8h的条件下合成的钒酸铋光解效率最高.实验还研究了罗丹明B水溶液pH、催化剂投加量对光催化罗丹明B降解率的影响.结果表明,在罗丹明B水溶液pH为3、初始质量浓度为10 mg/L、每60 mL溶液催化剂投加量为0.4 g时能达到较好的光催化效果,反应2h后降解率可达97%.

  2. 水热法制备钒酸铋及可见光催化降解亚甲基蓝溶液研究%Preparation of BiVO4 Catalyst and Its Photocatalytic Activity for Degradation of Methylene Blue under Visible Light Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张进

    2012-01-01

    The BiVO4 catalyst was prepared by hydrothermal method and was characterized by X-ray diffxaction (XRD), scanning electro microscopy (SEM), and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The photocatalytic activity of the catalyst toward degradation methylene blue (MB) was studied under visible-light irradiation. The degradation rate of MB with BiVO4 was 64 % after being treated for 6h under 500 W visible-light irradiation using 0.6 g/L BiVO4 as the photocatalyst.%利用水热法制备了BiVO4粉体,并通过X射线衍射(XRD)、扫描电镜(SEM)、紫外-可见漫反射光谱(DRs)等对催化剂进行了表征。以制备的BiVO4为催化剂,考察了可见光照射下其对亚甲基蓝的降解效果。研究结果表明对初始质量浓度为10mg/L的弧甲基蓝溶液50mL,BiVO4加入量为0.6g/L,经500W氙灯(可见光)照射6h后,亚甲基蓝的脱色率可达64%。

  3. Enhanced magnetocaloric effect in the proximity of magnetization steps and jumps of spin-1/2 XXZ Heisenberg regular polyhedra

    Science.gov (United States)

    KarǏová, Katarína; Strečka, Jozef; Richter, Johannes

    2017-03-01

    The magnetization process and adiabatic demagnetization of antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 XXZ Heisenberg clusters in the shape of regular polyhedra (tetrahedron, octahedron, cube, icosahedron and dodecahedron) are examined using the exact diagonalization method. It is demonstrated that a quantum (xy) part of the XXZ exchange interaction is a primary cause for the presence of additional intermediate magnetization plateaux and steps, which are totally absent in the limiting Ising case. The only exception to this rule is the spin-1/2 XXZ Heisenberg tetrahedron, which shows just a quantitative shift of the level-crossing fields related to two magnetization steps. It is shown that spin-1/2 XXZ Heisenberg regular polyhedra exhibit an enhanced magnetocaloric effect in the proximity of magnetization steps and jumps, which are accompanied with a rapid drop (rise) of temperature just above (below) the level-crossing field when the magnetic field is removed adiabatically.

  4. Electrospun carbon nanofibers reinforced 3D porous carbon polyhedra network derived from metal-organic frameworks for capacitive deionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Ma, Jiaqi; Lu, Ting; Pan, Likun

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers reinforced 3D porous carbon polyhedra network (e-CNF-PCP) was prepared through electrospinning and subsequent thermal treatment. The morphology, structure and electrochemical performance of the e-CNF-PCP were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectra, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and their electrosorption performance in NaCl solution was studied. The results show that the e-CNF-PCP exhibits a high electrosorption capacity of 16.98 mg g−1 at 1.2 V in 500 mg l−1 NaCl solution, which shows great improvement compared with those of electrospun carbon nanofibers and porous carbon polyhedra. The e-CNF-PCP should be a very promising candidate as electrode material for CDI applications. PMID:27608826

  5. Metal-Organic Polyhedra-Coated Si Nanowires for the Sensitive Detection of Trace Explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Anping; Zhu, Wei; Shang, Jin; Klootwijk, Johan H; Sudhölter, Ernst J R; Huskens, Jurriaan; de Smet, Louis C P M

    2017-01-11

    Surface-modified silicon nanowire-based field-effect transistors (SiNW-FETs) have proven to be a promising platform for molecular recognition in miniature sensors. In this work, we present a novel nanoFET device for the sensitive and selective detection of explosives based on affinity layers of metal-organic polyhedra (MOPs). The judicious selection of the geometric and electronic characteristics of the assembly units (organic ligands and unsaturated metal site) embedded within the MOP cage allowed for the formation of multiple charge-transfer (CT) interactions to facilitate the selective explosive inclusion. Meanwhile, the host-stabilized CT complex inside the cage acted as an effective molecular gating element to strongly modulate the electrical conductance of the silicon nanowires. By grafting the MOP cages onto a SiNW-FET device, the resulting sensor showed a good electrical sensing capability to various explosives, especially 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), with a detection limit below the nanomolar level. Importantly, coupling MOPs-which have tunable structures and properties-to SiNW-based devices may open up new avenues for a wide range of sensing applications, addressing various target analytes.

  6. A brief historical introduction to Euler's formula for polyhedra, topology, graph theory and networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Lokenath

    2010-09-01

    This article is essentially devoted to a brief historical introduction to Euler's formula for polyhedra, topology, theory of graphs and networks with many examples from the real-world. Celebrated Königsberg seven-bridge problem and some of the basic properties of graphs and networks for some understanding of the macroscopic behaviour of real physical systems are included. We also mention some important and modern applications of graph theory or network problems from transportation to telecommunications. Graphs or networks are effectively used as powerful tools in industrial, electrical and civil engineering, communication networks in the planning of business and industry. Graph theory and combinatorics can be used to understand the changes that occur in many large and complex scientific, technical and medical systems. With the advent of fast large computers and the ubiquitous Internet consisting of a very large network of computers, large-scale complex optimization problems can be modelled in terms of graphs or networks and then solved by algorithms available in graph theory. Many large and more complex combinatorial problems dealing with the possible arrangements of situations of various kinds, and computing the number and properties of such arrangements can be formulated in terms of networks. The Knight's tour problem, Hamilton's tour problem, problem of magic squares, the Euler Graeco-Latin squares problem and their modern developments in the twentieth century are also included.

  7. Alkali-metal-supported bismuth polyhedra-principles and theoretical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monakhov, Kirill Yu; Linti, Gerald; Wolters, Lando P; Bickelhaupt, F Matthias

    2011-06-20

    We have quantum chemically investigated the structure, stability, and bonding mechanism in highly aggregated alkali-metal salts of bismuthanediide anions [RBi](2-) using relativistic density functional theory (DFT, at ZORA-BP86/TZ2P) in combination with a quantitative energy decomposition analysis (EDA). Our model systems are alkali-metal-supported bismuth polyhedra [(RBi)(n)M(2n-4)](4-) with unique interpenetrating shells of a bismuth polyhedron and an alkali-metal superpolyhedron. Furthermore, we have analyzed the trianionic inclusion complexes [M'@{(RBi)(n)M(2n-4)}](3-) involving an additional endohedral alkali-metal ion M'. The main objective is to assist the further development of synthetic approaches toward this class of compounds. Our analyses led to electron-counting rules relating, for example, the number of bonding orbitals (N(bond)) of the cage molecules [(RBi)(n)M(2n+Q)](Q) to the number of bismuth atoms (n(Bi)), alkali-metal atoms (n(M)), and net charge Q as N(bond) = n(Bi) + n(M) - Q (R = one-electron donor ligand; M = alkali metal; n = 4-12; Q = -4, -6, -8). Finally, on the basis of our findings, we predict the next members in the 5-fold symmetrical row of alkali-metallobismaspheres with a macroicosahedral arrangement.

  8. Substitution reactions in metal-organic frameworks and metal-organic polyhedra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yi; Li, Jian-Rong; Xie, Yabo; Guo, Guangsheng

    2014-08-21

    Substitution reaction, as one of the most powerful and efficient chemical reactions, has been widely used in various syntheses, including those for the design and preparation of functional molecules or materials. In the past decade, a class of newly developed inorganic-organic hybrid materials, namely metal-organic materials (MOMs), has experienced a rapid development. MOMs are composed of metal-containing nodes connected by organic linkers through strong chemical bonds, and can be divided into metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and metal-organic polygons/polyhedra (MOPs) with infinite and discrete structural features, respectively. Recent research has shown that the substitution reaction can be used as a new strategy in the synthesis and modification of MOFs and MOPs, particularly for pre-designed ones with desired structures and functions, which are usually difficult to access by a direct one-pot self-assembly synthetic approach. This review highlights the implementation of the substitution reaction in MOFs and MOPs. Examples of substitution reactions at metal ions, organic ligands, and free guest molecules of MOFs and MOPs are listed and analyzed. The changes or modifications in the structures and/or properties of these materials induced by the substitutions, as well as the nature of the associated reaction, are discussed, with the conclusion that the substitution reaction is really feasible and powerful in synthesizing and tailoring MOMs.

  9. Fabrication and efficient visible light photocatalytic properties of novel zinc indium sulfide (ZnIn2S4) - graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4)/bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) nanorod-based ternary nanocomposites with enhanced charge separation via Z-scheme transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Wan-Kuen; Natarajan, Thillai Sivakumar

    2016-11-15

    Novel ZnIn2S4-g-C3N4/BiVO4 nanorod-based ternary nanocomposite photocatalysts with enhanced visible light absorption were synthesized and systematically characterized to confirm the formation of ZnIn2S4 marigold flowers, the layered structure of the g-C3N4, BiVO4 nanorods, and the formation of binary and ternary nanocomposites. The visible light absorption of BiVO4 was significantly improved after coupling with g-C3N4 and ZnIn2S4, which was confirmed by UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopic analysis. Ternary ZnIn2S4-g-C3N4/BiVO4 nanocomposites exhibited excellent visible light photocatalytic decomposition efficiency (VL-PDE) when used for the degradation of congo red (CR) dye and metronidazole (MTZ) pharmaceutical, as well as excellent stability and reusability. The ternary 5%ZnIn2S4-50%-g-C3N4/BiVO4 nanocomposite showed higher VL-PDE for CR (81.5%) and MTZ (59%) degradation than the binary composites, g-C3N4 and BiVO4. Radical quenching experiments showed that h(+), OH, and O2(-) were the reactive radicals, validating that the Z-scheme charge carrier transfer mechanism was responsible for the enhanced VL-PDE of the ternary ZnIn2S4-g-C3N4/BiVO4 nanocomposites, which was further confirmed by photoluminescence analysis. Furthermore, kinetic studies showed that the degradation followed pseudo-first-order kinetics, and that the ternary photocatalysts could be reused up to three times with good stability. The enhanced visible light absorption, high surface area, high adsorption capacity, Z-scheme charge carrier transfer, and increased lifetime of photo-produced electron-hole pairs were responsible for the increased visible light photocatalytic decomposition efficiency.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of new fluoride-containing manganese vanadates A2Mn2V2O7F2 (A=Rb, Cs) and Mn2VO4F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjeewa, Liurukara D.; McGuire, Michael A.; Smith Pellizzeri, Tiffany M.; McMillen, Colin D.; Ovidiu Garlea, V.; Willett, Daniel; Chumanov, George; Kolis, Joseph W.

    2016-09-01

    Large single crystals of A2Mn2V2O7F2 (A=Rb, Cs) and Mn2VO4F were grown using a high-temperature (~600 °C) hydrothermal technique. Single crystal X-ray diffraction and powder X-ray diffraction were utilized to characterize the structures, which both possess MnO4F2 building blocks. The A2Mn2V2O7F2 series crystallizes as a new structure type in space group Pbcn (No. 60), Z=4 (Rb2Mn2V2O7F2: a=7.4389(17) Å, b=11.574(3) Å, c=10.914(2) Å; Cs2Mn2V2O7F2: a=7.5615(15) Å, b=11.745(2) Å, c=11.127(2) Å). The structure is composed of zigzag chains of edge-sharing MnO4F2 units running along the a-axis, and interconnected through V2O7 pyrovanadate groups. Temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility measurements on this interesting one-dimensional structural feature based on Mn2+ indicated that Cs2Mn2V2O7F2 is antiferromagnetic with a Neél temperature, TN=~3 K and a Weiss constant, θ, of -11.7(1) K. Raman and infrared spectra were also analyzed to identify the fundamental V-O vibrational modes in Cs2Mn2V2O7F2. Mn2(VO4)F crystalizes in the monoclinic space group of C2/c (no. 15), Z=8 with unit cell parameters of a=13.559(2) Å, b=6.8036(7) Å, c=10.1408(13) Å and β=116.16(3)°. The structure is associated with those of triplite and wagnerite. Dynamic fluorine disorder gives rise to complex alternating chains of five-and six-coordinate Mn2+. These interpenetrating chains are additionally connected through isolated VO4 tetrahedra to form the condensed structure.

  11. Preparation and Composition-Structure-Thermal Stability Relation of a Novel Open-framework Vanadium Phosphate (H3NCH2CH2NH3)3[(VO)4(PO4)2(HPO4)4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A novel open-framework vanadium(Ⅳ) phosphate (H3NCH2CH2NH3)3[(VO)4(PO4)2(HPO4)4] (short for V2P3-en) has been prepared. It is synthesized hydrothermally in the presence of ethylenediamine (en) at 170℃ for 5 days by self-assembly from structurally simple precursors V2O5, H3PO4 and H2O. The compound is characterized by means of Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), X-ray powder diffraction analysis (XRD) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, the composition-structure-thermal stability relation of V2P3-en is explored in terms of crystal chemistry, and the potential approach to the enhancement of its thermal stability is proposed.

  12. Availability of new Yb:YV0 4 and Yb:Gd xY 1-xVO 4 laser crystals for femtosecond laser systems at low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestryakov, E. V.; Petrov, V. V.; Trunov, V. I.; Kirpichnikov, A. V.; Merzliakov, M. A.; Laptev, A. V.; Matrosov, V. N.

    2005-12-01

    New Yb:YVO 4 and Yb:Gd xY 1-xVO 4 (x=0.6) laser crystals were grown by the Czochralski methods. The experimental spectroscopic properties of trivalent ytterbium ions in tetragonal vanadates have been performed. Polarized absorption and fluorescence spectra were investigated and stimulated emission cross sections were estimated for both crystals at room (RT) and liquid nitrogen (LN) temperatures. On the absorption and fluorescence data, excited states lifetimes the energy of electronic levels of ytterbium in crystalline hosts were calculated and the lasing parameters of broadband transitions of doped ions were studied. The investigation shows these crystals are perspective for femtosecond pulses generation in NIR region near 1000 nm under laser diode pumping.

  13. Spontaneous generation of vortex and coherent vector beams from a thin-slice c-cut Nd:GdVO4 laser with wide-aperture laser-diode end pumping: application to highly sensitive rotational and translational Doppler velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Kenju; Chu, Shu-Chun

    2017-07-01

    Selective excitation of Laguerre-Gauss modes (optical vortices: helical LG0,2 and LG0,1), reflecting their weak transverse cross-saturation of population inversions against a preceding higher-order Ince-Gauss (IG0,2) or Hermite-Gauss (HG2,1) mode, was observed in a thin-slice c-cut Nd:GdVO4 laser with wide-aperture laser-diode end pumping. Single-frequency coherent vector beams were generated through the transverse mode locking of a pair of orthogonally polarized IG2,0 and LG0,2 or HG2,1 and LG0,1 modes. Highly sensitive self-mixing rotational and translational Doppler velocimetry is demonstrated by using vortex and coherent vector beams.

  14. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Structure of [{Mo8V4O36 (VO4) (VO)2 }n]7n-Bi-capped α-Keggin Fragments Linked to a Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The title compound, (H2en) 3H3O { MosV4O36 (VO4) (VO) 2 } · 4H2O, was hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized by means of IR, ESR spectrum and single crystal X-ray diffraction. It crystallized in a monoclinic system with space group P21/c, a= 1. 980 4(4)nm, b=2. 063 4(4) nm, c=1. 192 0(2) nm, β=94. 76(3)°and deep black colour. The compound contains V-centered bi-capped a-Keggin fragments { MosV7O42 } that are linked together by edge-shared units V ⅣO5 via V-O-V bonds, forming a chain.

  15. 7.5W Nd:GdV04环形腔单频激光器%7.5 W Nd: GdVO4 Single-Frequency Ring Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵伟芳; 侯玮; 郭林; 林学春; 李晋闽

    2011-01-01

    A Nd.: GdVO4 crystal is end-pumped by a fiber-coupled laser diode (FCLD), and high power of singlefrequency laser output is achieved. The four-mirror bow-tie ring cavity with a Faraday rotator and a half wave plate is applied to eliminate the spatial hole-burning effect. A solid etalon is inserted into the cavity to obtain single-frequency 1063 nm output of the narrow line width. The maximum output is 7.57 W and the optical-optical conversionefficiency is 41.8% with 18.10 W of the incident power.%采用光纤耦合输出激光二极管(FCLD)单端端面抽运Nd:GdVO4晶体的方式,获得高功率单频激光的输出.在实验中,采用四镜折叠环形腔,考虑了晶体的热透镜效应后,优化了环行腔腔型.通过在腔内插入法拉第旋光器和半波片实现激光的单向运转从而抑制空间烧孔效应,在腔内插入标准具后,压缩了单频激光的线宽,获得了连续单频1063 nm激光输出.在18.10 W抽运功率时,获得了7.57 W的单频激光,光-光转换效率为4L 8%,光束质量因子M2≈1.2.

  16. A Spatial Discretization Scheme for Solving the Transport Equation on Unstructured Grids of Polyhedra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Kelly Glen [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2000-11-01

    In this work, we develop a new spatial discretization scheme that may be used to numerically solve the neutron transport equation. This new discretization extends the family of corner balance spatial discretizations to include spatial grids of arbitrary polyhedra. This scheme enforces balance on subcell volumes called corners. It produces a lower triangular matrix for sweeping, is algebraically linear, is non-negative in a source-free absorber, and produces a robust and accurate solution in thick diffusive regions. Using an asymptotic analysis, we design the scheme so that in thick diffusive regions it will attain the same solution as an accurate polyhedral diffusion discretization. We then refine the approximations in the scheme to reduce numerical diffusion in vacuums, and we attempt to capture a second order truncation error. After we develop this Upstream Corner Balance Linear (UCBL) discretization we analyze its characteristics in several limits. We complete a full diffusion limit analysis showing that we capture the desired diffusion discretization in optically thick and highly scattering media. We review the upstream and linear properties of our discretization and then demonstrate that our scheme captures strictly non-negative solutions in source-free purely absorbing media. We then demonstrate the minimization of numerical diffusion of a beam and then demonstrate that the scheme is, in general, first order accurate. We also note that for slab-like problems our method actually behaves like a second-order method over a range of cell thicknesses that are of practical interest. We also discuss why our scheme is first order accurate for truly 3D problems and suggest changes in the algorithm that should make it a second-order accurate scheme. Finally, we demonstrate 3D UCBL's performance on several very different test problems. We show good performance in diffusive and streaming problems. We analyze truncation error in a 3D problem and demonstrate robustness

  17. Clinical Application of Surrounding Puncture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yao-jie; HAN Chou-ping

    2003-01-01

    Surrounding puncture can stop pathogenic qi from spreading, consolidate the connection between local meridians and enrich local qi and blood, which can eventually supplement anti-pathogenic qi and remove pathogenic qi, and consequently remedy diseases. The author of this article summrized and analyzed the clinical application of surrounding puncture for the purpose of studying this technique and improving the therapeutic effect.

  18. Removal of transposon target sites from the Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus fp25k gene delays, but does not prevent, accumulation of the few polyhedra phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Lopamudra; Li, Huarang; Sandgren, David; Feiss, Michael G; Roller, Richard; Bonning, Bryony C; Murhammer, David W

    2010-12-01

    Low-cost, large-scale production of the baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) using continuous insect cell culture is seriously hindered by the accumulation of AcMNPV mutants. Specifically, few-polyhedra (FP) mutants, with a reduced yield of occluded virus (polyhedra) and decreased infectivity, usually accumulate upon passaging in cell culture. FP mutations result from transposon insertions in the baculovirus fp25k gene, leading to significantly reduced levels of FP25K protein synthesis. This study evaluated the effects of removing the transposon insertion sites from the wild-type baculovirus fp25k gene; the mutated virus was denoted Ac-FPm. Specifically, this study involved a detailed comparison of wild-type (WT) AcMNPV and Ac-FPm with regard to the proportion of cells having polyhedra, number of polyhedra per cell, the fraction of empty polyhedra, number of occlusion-derived viruses per polyhedron, number of nucleocapsids in the nuclei, FP25K protein synthesis and genetic analysis of the fp25k gene. Removal of TTAA transposon insertion sites from the fp25k gene stabilized FP25K protein synthesis and delayed the appearance of the FP phenotype from passage 5 to passage 10. Electron micrographs revealed that more virus particles were found inside the nuclei of cells infected with Ac-FPm than in the nuclei of cells infected with WT AcMNPV (at passage 10). Abnormalities, however, were observed in envelopment of nucleocapsids and virus particle occlusion within Ac-FPm polyhedra. Thus, the FP phenotype appeared in spite of continued FP25K protein synthesis, suggesting that mechanisms other than fp25k gene disruption can lead to the FP phenotype.

  19. Visual surround suppression in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Samuel Tibber

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Compared to unaffected observers patients with schizophrenia show characteristic differences in visual perception, including a reduced susceptibility to the influence of context on judgements of contrast - a manifestation of weaker surround suppression. To examine the generality of this phenomenon we measured the ability of 24 individuals with schizophrenia to judge the luminance, contrast, orientation and size of targets embedded in contextual surrounds that would typically influence the target’s appearance. Individuals with schizophrenia demonstrated weaker surround suppression compared to matched controls for stimuli defined by contrast or size, but not for those defined by luminance or orientation. As perceived luminance is thought to be regulated at the earliest stages of visual processing our findings are consistent with a suppression deficit that is predominantly cortical in origin. In addition, we propose that preserved orientation surround suppression in schizophrenia may reflect the sparing of broadly tuned mechanisms of suppression. We attempt to reconcile these data with findings from previous studies.

  20. Educational Success and Surrounding Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Garrison

    2016-01-01

    The curriculum, instruction, and services we provide in schools, colleges, and universities matter a lot, but if we continue to ignore our students' "surrounding culture," progress toward a more educated nation will continue to be disappointing.

  1. Educational Success and Surrounding Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Garrison

    2016-01-01

    The curriculum, instruction, and services we provide in schools, colleges, and universities matter a lot, but if we continue to ignore our students' "surrounding culture," progress toward a more educated nation will continue to be disappointing.

  2. Multichannel spatial surround sound system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAO Dan; XIE Bosun

    2004-01-01

    Based on the consideration of being compatible with 5.1 channel horizontal surround sound system, a spatial surround sound system is proposed. Theoretical and experimental results show that the system has a wide listening area. It can not only recreate stable image in the front and rear direction, but also eliminate the defect of poor lateral image of 5.1 channel system. The system can be used to reproduce special 3D sound effect and the spaciousness of hall.

  3. Enhancing photocatalytic activity for hydrogen production and pollutant degradation by modifying tetragonal ZrO2 with monolayers slab surface of BiVO4, Ag3PO4, SrTiO3 and WO3: A first-principles study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Opoku, F

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Semiconductor-based photocatalysis has received increasing attention in energy storage and environmental remediation process due to the abundant solar energy. For this purpose, heterostructures of ZrO2 coupled with BiVO4, Ag3PO4, SrTiO3 and WO3...

  4. Decoration of the Truncated Tetrahedron—An Archimedean Polyhedron—To Produce a New Class of Convex Equilateral Polyhedra with Tetrahedral Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stan Schein

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Goldberg construction of symmetric cages involves pasting a patch cut out of a regular tiling onto the faces of a Platonic host polyhedron, resulting in a cage with the same symmetry as the host. For example, cutting equilateral triangular patches from a 6.6.6 tiling of hexagons and pasting them onto the full triangular faces of an icosahedron produces icosahedral fullerene cages. Here we show that pasting cutouts from a 6.6.6 tiling onto the full hexagonal and triangular faces of an Archimedean host polyhedron, the truncated tetrahedron, produces two series of tetrahedral (Td fullerene cages. Cages in the first series have 28n2 vertices (n ≥ 1. Cages in the second (leapfrog series have 3 × 28n2. We can transform all of the cages of the first series and the smallest cage of the second series into geometrically convex equilateral polyhedra. With tetrahedral (Td symmetry, these new polyhedra constitute a new class of “convex equilateral polyhedra with polyhedral symmetry”. We also show that none of the other Archimedean polyhedra, six with octahedral symmetry and six with icosahedral, can host full-face cutouts from regular tilings to produce cages with the host’s polyhedral symmetry.

  5. Determination of Propionaldehyde In Air Utilizing Cataluminescence on BiVO4 Material%钒酸铋催化发光法测定空气中丙醛的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    双海军; 张琰图; 甄延忠; 刘欢; 宋馥馨

    2016-01-01

    Under the low working temperature,we deVeloped a direct gas sensor for monitoring trace of propionalde-hyde in air based on the strong cataluminescence( CTL)reaction of propionaldehyde on Bismuth Vanadate( Bi-VO4 ). The linear range of CTL intensity Versus concentration of propionaldehyde Vapor was 70~1660 mg/m3( R=0. 9965),with a detection limit of 19 mg/m3(S/N= 3),the relatiVe standard deViation for 280 mg/m3 propionalde-hyde and sample blank experiment was 1 . 9%( n=11 ),which the optimized conditions were as follows:the waVe-length was 440 nm,the heated temperature was at 202℃,and the air flow rate was 380 mL/min. In addition,anoth-er fourteen Volatile organic compounds were detected by this sensor and after a continuous determination of 280 mg/m3 propionaldehyde for more than 90 h,the CTL signals remained stable,which showed that the sensor was good se-lectiVity,longeVity and steady performance. The sensor was applied to determine propionaldehyde in artificial sam-ples which the recoVeries were from 97. 5% to 103. 0%. Meanwhile,the possible mechanism was inVestigated.%基于在较低工作温度下,丙醛可以在钒酸铋( BiVO4)材料上产生强烈的催化发光( CTL)现象设计了一种检测空气中痕量丙醛的新型催化发光传感器。在检测波长620 nm,反应温度202℃,载气流速为380 mL/min下测定丙醛的线性范围70~1660 mg/m3( R=0.9965),检出限为19 mg/m3(S/N=3),对于280 mg/m3的丙醛及空白连续11次平行测定,相对标准偏差为1.9%。考察了14种相同浓度的常见挥发性有机物的干扰情况,连续90 h通过280 mg/m3的丙醛气体,发光强度无明显降低,表明该传感器具有良好的选择性和较长的使用寿命且性能稳定。该传感器可用于人工合成样品的测定,回收率为97.5%~103.0%。并对可能的发光机理进行了探讨。

  6. Visual Surround Suppression in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibber, Marc S.; Anderson, Elaine J.; Bobin, Tracy; Antonova, Elena; Seabright, Alice; Wright, Bernice; Carlin, Patricia; Shergill, Sukhwinder S.; Dakin, Steven C.

    2013-01-01

    Compared to unaffected observers patients with schizophrenia (SZ) show characteristic differences in visual perception, including a reduced susceptibility to the influence of context on judgments of contrast – a manifestation of weaker surround suppression (SS). To examine the generality of this phenomenon we measured the ability of 24 individuals with SZ to judge the luminance, contrast, orientation, and size of targets embedded in contextual surrounds that would typically influence the target’s appearance. Individuals with SZ demonstrated weaker SS compared to matched controls for stimuli defined by contrast or size, but not for those defined by luminance or orientation. As perceived luminance is thought to be regulated at the earliest stages of visual processing our findings are consistent with a suppression deficit that is predominantly cortical in origin. In addition, we propose that preserved orientation SS in SZ may reflect the sparing of broadly tuned mechanisms of suppression. We attempt to reconcile these data with findings from previous studies. PMID:23450069

  7. Self-assembled silver polyhedra with embedded acetylide dianion stabilized by perfluorocarboxylate and 4-hydroxyquinoline ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-Li; Wang, Quan-Ming; Mak, Thomas C W

    2003-12-01

    Four new silver(I) double salts (L(2)H)(4)[Ag(10)(C(2))(CF(3)CO(2))(12)(L)(2)].5H(2)O (1), [Ag(8)(C(2))(CF(3)CO(2))(6)(L)(6)] (2), [(Ag(2)C(2))(AgC(2)F(5)CO(2))(6)(L)(3)(H(2)O)].H(2)O (3), and (L.H(3)O)(2)[Ag(11)(C(2))(2)(C(2)F(5)CO(2))(9)(H(2)O)(2)].H(2)O (4) incorporating the hitherto unexplored ligand 4-hydroxyquinoline (L) have been synthesized by the hydrothermal method. Compound 1 features an unprecedented bicapped square-antiprismatic Ag(10) silver cage with an embedded C(2)(2-) moiety, whereas the discrete supermolecule 2 bears a rhombohedral Ag(8) core similar to that previously found in Ag(2)C(2).6AgNO(3). Compound 3 contains a discrete supramolecular complex whose core is a (C(2))(2)@Ag(16) double cage constructed from the edge-sharing of two monocapped square antiprisms, which is completely surrounded by 12 pentafluoropropionate, 6 4-hydroxyquinoline, and 2 aqua ligands. The layer structure in 4 is constructed from a sinuous anionic silver column composed of fused irregular monocapped trigonal antiprisms each encapsulating a C(2)(2-) dianion, with L.H(3)O(+) species serving as hydrogen-bond connectors to adjacent columns.

  8. Binaural Rendering in MPEG Surround

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristofer Kjörling

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes novel methods for evoking a multichannel audio experience over stereo headphones. In contrast to the conventional convolution-based approach where, for example, five input channels are filtered using ten head-related transfer functions, the current approach is based on a parametric representation of the multichannel signal, along with either a parametric representation of the head-related transfer functions or a reduced set of head-related transfer functions. An audio scene with multiple virtual sound sources is represented by a mono or a stereo downmix signal of all sound source signals, accompanied by certain statistical (spatial properties. These statistical properties of the sound sources are either combined with statistical properties of head-related transfer functions to estimate “binaural parameters” that represent the perceptually relevant aspects of the auditory scene or used to create a limited set of combined head-related transfer functions that can be applied directly on the downmix signal. Subsequently, a binaural rendering stage reinstates the statistical properties of the sound sources by applying the estimated binaural parameters or the reduced set of combined head-related transfer functions directly on the downmix. If combined with parametric multichannel audio coders such as MPEG Surround, the proposed methods are advantageous over conventional methods in terms of perceived quality and computational complexity.

  9. Reduced surround inhibition in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hae-Won; Kang, Suk Y; Hallett, Mark; Sohn, Young H

    2012-06-01

    To investigate whether surround inhibition (SI) in the motor system is altered in professional musicians, we performed a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) study in 10 professional musicians and 15 age-matched healthy non-musicians. TMS was set to be triggered by self-initiated flexion of the index finger at different intervals ranging from 3 to 1,000 ms. Average motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes obtained from self-triggered TMS were normalized to average MEPs of the control TMS at rest and expressed as a percentage. Normalized MEP amplitudes of the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscles were compared between the musicians and non-musicians with the primary analysis being the intervals between 3 and 80 ms (during the movement). A mixed-design ANOVA revealed a significant difference in normalized ADM MEPs during the index finger flexion between groups, with less SI in the musicians. This study demonstrated that the functional operation of SI is less strong in musicians than non-musicians, perhaps due to practice of movement synergies involving both muscles. Reduced SI, however, could lead susceptible musicians to be prone to develop task-specific dystonia.

  10. Binaural Rendering in MPEG Surround

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breebaart, Jeroen; Villemoes, Lars; Kjörling, Kristofer

    2008-12-01

    This paper describes novel methods for evoking a multichannel audio experience over stereo headphones. In contrast to the conventional convolution-based approach where, for example, five input channels are filtered using ten head-related transfer functions, the current approach is based on a parametric representation of the multichannel signal, along with either a parametric representation of the head-related transfer functions or a reduced set of head-related transfer functions. An audio scene with multiple virtual sound sources is represented by a mono or a stereo downmix signal of all sound source signals, accompanied by certain statistical (spatial) properties. These statistical properties of the sound sources are either combined with statistical properties of head-related transfer functions to estimate "binaural parameters" that represent the perceptually relevant aspects of the auditory scene or used to create a limited set of combined head-related transfer functions that can be applied directly on the downmix signal. Subsequently, a binaural rendering stage reinstates the statistical properties of the sound sources by applying the estimated binaural parameters or the reduced set of combined head-related transfer functions directly on the downmix. If combined with parametric multichannel audio coders such as MPEG Surround, the proposed methods are advantageous over conventional methods in terms of perceived quality and computational complexity.

  11. 基于Minkowski和的多面体快速碰撞检测算法%Fast Collision Detection Algorithm of Polyhedra Based on the Minkowski Sum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于勇; 罗思标; 郭希娟; 张晓彩

    2012-01-01

    为了进一步提高碰撞检测的实时性,提出一种基于Minkowski和的多面体快速碰撞检测算法.该算法以Minkowski和为工具,无需精确计算两个多面体之间的最短距离,首先通过构造两个多面体的Minkowski和,将多面体碰撞检测问题转化为判断原点是否在该Minkowski和内,然后运用射线和求交计算将三维空间问题转化为二维平面问题,再通过判断原点是否在平面多边形内来检测多面体是否发生碰撞,进而提高了碰撞检测的实时性和可靠性.在Visual C#环境下,利用OpenGL图形库搭建一个路径规划仿真系统.实验结果表明,该算法平均检测效率明显高于传统算法,并且有效降低了存储空间和时间复杂度.%In order to further improve the immediacy of collision detection, a fast collision detection algorithm of polyhedra is proposed based on the Minkowski sum. The algorithm does not need to accurately measured the shortest distance between two polyhedra. Firstly, the collision detection problem is converted to inspecting whether the origin is in the Minkowski sum by structuring the Minkowski sum of two polyhedra. Secondly, the three-dimensional problem is converted to the two-dimensional problem by ray and the intersection calculation. Then, the polyhedra collision is detected by estimating whether the origin is in the planar polygon, and the real-time and reliability of collision detection are improved. To test the presented algorithm, a motion planning control system is studied with OpenGL graphics library in Visual C# environment. Experimental results indicate that its average detection efficiency is markedly superior to traditional algorithms and it reduces the storage space and time complexity effectively.

  12. Contour detection by surround suppression of texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petkov, Nicolai; Tavares, JMRS; Jorge, RMN

    2007-01-01

    Based on a keynote lecture at Complmage 2006, Coimbra, Oct. 20-21, 2006, an overview is given of our activities in modelling and using surround inhibition for contour detection. The effect of suppression of a line or edge stimulus by similar surrounding stimuli is known from visual perception studie

  13. Crystal growth and characterization studies of novel luminescent 2D coordination polymer of lead-benzilate possessing edge sharing PbO6 polyhedra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumya Mol, U. S.; Drisya, R.; Satheesh Chandran, P. R.; Sudarsanakumar, M. R.; Suma, S.; Sudhadevi Antharjanam, P. K.

    2016-12-01

    Single crystals of a new coordination polymer of lead-benzilate, C28H21O6Pb·C2H5OH have been successfully grown by gel diffusion technique at room temperature. The colourless single crystals were obtained within a week. The crystal structure was elucidated using single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The compound possesses a polymeric structure constructed from edge sharing PbO6 polyhedra. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the compound crystallizes in triclinic space group P-1. The grown crystals were further characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, UV-Visible and thermogravimetric analysis. The photoluminescent properties of the complex and the ligand were also investigated.

  14. Characterization of the vertices and extreme directions of the negative cycle polyhedron and harness of generating vertices of $0/1$-polyhedra

    CERN Document Server

    Boros, Endre; Gurvich, Vladimir; Tiwary, Hans Raj

    2008-01-01

    Given a graph $G=(V,E)$ and a weight function on the edges $w:E\\mapsto\\RR$, we consider the polyhedron $P(G,w)$ of negative-weight flows on $G$, and get a complete characterization of the vertices and extreme directions of $P(G,w)$. As a corollary, we show that, unless $P=NP$, there no output polynomial-time algorithm to generate all the vertices of a $0/1$-polyhedron. This strengthens the NP-hardness result of Khachiyan et al. (2006) for non $0/1$ polyhedra, and comes in contrast with the polynomiality of vertex enumeration for $0/1$-polytopes [Bussieck and L\\"ubbecke (1998)].

  15. Agroforestry practice in villages surrounding Nyamure former ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cntaganda

    Key words: Agroforestry, fuel wood, tree products, woodlot, forest plantation. INTRODUCTION ... The study area included three administrative cells in the surroundings of Nyamure ..... Table 6: Distance and time spent on firewood collection.

  16. Explaining preferences for home surroundings and locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Skifter Andersen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on a survey carried out in Denmark that asked a random sample of the population about their preferences for home surroundings and locations. It shows that the characteristics of social surroundings are very important and can be divided into three independent dimensions: avoiding social nuisances, preferring social homogeneity and living close to one’s social network and place of origin. The study shows that most people have many detailed preferences, whereas some have very few. This confirms an earlier theory that some people are very connected to certain places with given characteristics and thus do not have priorities regarding home surroundings and locations. For others, mostly young people and singles, home is just a place to sleep and relax, whereas life is lived elsewhere. For this group, there are only preferences for location and there are few specific preferences for surroundings.

  17. Surround-Masking Affects Visual Estimation Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzebski, Nicola R.; Hugrass, Laila E.; Crewther, Sheila G.; Crewther, David P.

    2017-01-01

    Visual estimation of numerosity involves the discrimination of magnitude between two distributions or perceptual sets that vary in number of elements. How performance on such estimation depends on peripheral sensory stimulation is unclear, even in typically developing adults. Here, we varied the central and surround contrast of stimuli that comprised a visual estimation task in order to determine whether mechanisms involved with the removal of unessential visual input functionally contributes toward number acuity. The visual estimation judgments of typically developed adults were significantly impaired for high but not low contrast surround stimulus conditions. The center and surround contrasts of the stimuli also differentially affected the accuracy of numerosity estimation depending on whether fewer or more dots were presented. Remarkably, observers demonstrated the highest mean percentage accuracy across stimulus conditions in the discrimination of more elements when the surround contrast was low and the background luminance of the central region containing the elements was dark (black center). Conversely, accuracy was severely impaired during the discrimination of fewer elements when the surround contrast was high and the background luminance of the central region was mid level (gray center). These findings suggest that estimation ability is functionally related to the quality of low-order filtration of unessential visual information. These surround masking results may help understanding of the poor visual estimation ability commonly observed in developmental dyscalculia.

  18. Optical spectra of Dy3+-doped GdVO4 and Ca3Sc2Ge3O12 crystals and evaluation of the Ω2/Ω6 ratio as a quality factor for the classification of Dy3+-activated crystalline hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalli, Enrico

    2016-11-01

    The room temperature absorption spectra of Dy3+-doped GdVO4 and Ca3Sc2Ge3O12 crystals have been measured and analysed in the framework of the Judd-Ofelt Theory. The calculated intensity parameters have then been correlated with the intensities of the emission bands in the yellow and blue region. The analysis has then been extended to a number of host lattices using literature data, and a general empirical model has been proposed, correlating the Ω2/Ω6 and the yellow to blue (Y/B) ratio in order to define a criterion for predicting the visible luminescence properties of the Dy-activated crystalline materials.

  19. Crystal structure of (Na0.70)(Na0.70,Mn0.30)(Fe3+,Fe2+)2Fe2+(VO4)3, a sodium-, iron- and manganese-based vanadate with the alluaudite-type structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhsina, Elhassan; Assani, Abderrazzak; Saadi, Mohamed; El Ammari, Lahcen

    2016-01-01

    The title compound, sodium (sodium,manganese) triiron(II,III) tris[vana­date(V)], (Na0.70)(Na0.70,Mn0.30)(Fe3+,Fe2+)2Fe2+(VO4)3, was prepared by solid-state reactions. It crystallizes in an alluaudite-like structure, characterized by a partial cationic disorder. In the structure, four of the 12 sites in the asymmetric unit are located on special positions, three on a twofold rotation axis (Wyckoff position 4e) and one on an inversion centre (4b). Two sites on the twofold rotation axis are entirely filled by Fe2+ and V5+, whereas the third site has a partial occupancy of 70% by Na+. The site on the inversion centre is occupied by Na+ and Mn2+ cations in a 0.7:0.3 ratio. The remaining Fe2+ and Fe3+ atoms are statistically distributed on a general position. The three-dimensional framework of this structure is made up of kinked chains of edge-sharing [FeO6] octa­hedra stacked parallel to [10-1]. These chains are held together by VO4 tetra­hedral groups, forming polyhedral sheets perpendicular to [010]. Within this framework, two types of channels extending along [001] are present. One is occupied by (Na+/Mn2+) while the second is partially occupied by Na+. The mixed site containing (Na+/Mn2+) has an octa­hedral coordination sphere, while the Na+ cations in the second channel are coordinated by eight O atoms. PMID:26958392

  20. Smart Chips for Smart Surroundings - 4S

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuler, Eberhard; König, Ralf; Becker, Jürgen; Rauwerda, Gerard; Burgwal, van de Marcel; Smit, Gerard J.M.; Cardoso, João M.P.; Hübner, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The overall mission of the 4S project (Smart Chips for Smart Surroundings) was to define and develop efficient flexible, reconfigurable core building blocks, including the supporting tools, for future Ambient System Devices. Reconfigurability offers the needed flexibility and adaptability, it provid

  1. The Interstellar Cloud Surrounding the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, P. C.

    Ultraviolet spectral data of nearby stars indicate that the cloud surrounding the solar system has an average neutral density n(HI)~0.1 cm-3, temperature ~6800 K, and turbulence ~1.7 km/s. Comparisons between the anomalous cosmic ray data and ultraviolet data suggest that the electron density is in the range n(e-)~0.22 to 0.44 cm-3. This cloud is flowing past the Sun from a position centered in the Norma-Lupis region. The cloud properties are consistent with interstellar gas which originated as material evaporated from the surfaces of embedded clouds in the Scorpius-Centaurus Association, and which was then displaced towards the Sun by a supernova event about 4 Myrs ago. The Sun and surrounding cloud velocities are nearly perpendicular in space, and this cloud is sweeping past the Sun. The morphology of this cloud can be reconstructed by assuming that the cloud moves in a direction parallel to the surface normal. With this assumption, the Sun entered the surrounding cloud 2000 to 8000 years ago, and is now about 0.05 to 0.16 pc from the cloud surface. Prior to its recent entry into the surrounding cloud complex, the Sun was embedded in a region of space with average density lower than 0.0002 cm-3. If a denser cloud velocity component seen towards alpha Cen A,B is real, it will encounter the solar system within 50,000 yr. The nearby magnetic field seen upwind has a spatial orientation that is parallel to the cloud surface. The nearby star Sirius is viewed through the wake of the solar system, but this direction also samples the hypothetical cloud interface. Comparisons of anomalous cosmic ray and interstellar absorption line data suggest that trace elements in the surrounding cloud are in ionization equilibrium. Data towards nearby white dwarfs indicate partial helium ionization, N(N(HI)(/N(HeI)>~13.7, which is consistent with pickup ion data within the solar system if less than 40% hydrogen ionization occurs in the heliopause region. However, the white dwarfs may

  2. Persistent Confusion and Controversy Surrounding Gene Patents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrini, Christi J.; Majumder, Mary A.; McGuire, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    There is persistent confusion and controversy surrounding basic issues of patent law relevant to the genomics industry. Uncertainty and conflict can lead to the adoption of inefficient practices and exposure to liability. The development of patent-specific educational resources for industry members, as well as the prompt resolution of patentability rules unsettled by recent U.S. Supreme Court decisions, are therefore urgently needed. PMID:26849516

  3. Identification of -SiC surrounded by relatable surrounding diamond medium using weak Raman surface phonons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohan Kumar Kuntumalla; Harish Ojha; Vadali Venkata Satya Siva Srikanth

    2013-11-01

    It is difficult to detect -SiC using micro-Raman scattering, if it is surrounded by carbon medium. Here, -SiC is identified in the presence of a relatable surrounding diamond medium using subtle, but discernible Raman surface phonons. In this study, diamond/-SiC nanocomposite thin film system is considered in which nanosized -SiC crystallites are surrounded by a relatable nanodiamond medium that leads to the appearance of a weak Raman surface phonon band at about 855 cm-1. Change in the nature of the surrounding material structure and its volume content when relatable, will affect the resultant Raman response of -SiC phase as seen in the present case of diamond/-SiC nanocomposite thin films.

  4. Explaining preferences for home surroundings and locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    2011-01-01

    : avoiding social nuisances, preferring social homogeneity and living close to one’s social network and place of origin. The study shows that most people have many detailed preferences, whereas some have very few. This confirms an earlier theory that some people are very connected to certain places...... with given characteristics and thus do not have priorities regarding home surroundings and locations. For others, mostly young people and singles, home is just a place to sleep and relax, whereas life is lived elsewhere. For this group, there are only preferences for location and there are few specific...

  5. Soft acoustic mode in ferroelastic BiVO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyuan, Gu; Copic, M.; Cummins, H. Z.

    1981-10-01

    Brillouin scattering spectroscopy of bismuth vanadate has revealed a soft acoustic mode which is characteristic of a proper ferroelastic phase transition. Raman scattering has revealed an optic mode which is doubly degenerate Eg in the paraelastic phase and splits into two Bg modes in the ferroelastic phase. The temperature dependence of the splitting is also consistent with a proper ferroelastic transition.

  6. Characterizing the Microenvironment Surrounding Phosphorylated Protein Sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Cai Fan; Xue-Gong Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation plays an important role in various cellular processes. Due to its high complexity, the mechanism needs to be further studied. In the last few years, many methods have been contributed to this field, but almost all of them investigated the mechanism based on protein sequences around protein sites. In this study, we implement an exploration by characterizing the microenvironment surrounding phosphorylated protein sites with a modified shell model, and obtain some significant properties by the rank-sum test, such as the lack of some classes of residues, atoms, and secondary structures. Furthermore, we find that the depletion of some properties affects protein phosphorylation remarkably. Our results suggest that it is a meaningful direction to explore the mechanism of protein phosphorylation from microenvironment and we expect further findings along with the increasing size of phosphorylation and protein structure data.

  7. Opportunity's Surroundings After Sol 1820 Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,820th to 1,822nd Martian days, or sols, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 7 to 9, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. The rover had driven 20.6 meters toward the northwest on Sol 1820 before beginning to take the frames in this view. Tracks from that drive recede southwestward. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and small exposures of lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  8. Exploiting Surrounding Text for Retrieving Web Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Noah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Web documents contain useful textual information that can be exploited for describing images. Research had been focused on representing images by means of its content (low level description such as color, shape and texture, little research had been directed to exploiting such textual information. The aim of this research was to systematically exploit the textual content of HTML documents for automatically indexing and ranking of images embedded in web documents. A heuristic approach for locating and assigning weight surrounding web images and a modified tf.idf weighting scheme was proposed. Precision-recall measures of evaluation had been conducted for ten queries and promising results had been achieved. The proposed approach showed slightly better precision measure as compared to a popular search engine with an average of 0.63 and 0.55 relative precision measures respectively.

  9. A dual-loss-modulated intra-cavity frequency-doubled Q-switched and mode-locked Nd:Lu0.15Y0.85VO4/KTP green laser with a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber and an acousto-optic modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gang; Zhao, Shengzhi; Yang, Kejian; Li, Guiqiu; Li, Dechun; Cheng, Kang; Han, Chao; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Yonggang

    2011-09-01

    By using both a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber (SWCNT-SA) and an acousto-optic (AO) modulator, a dual-loss-modulated intra-cavity frequency-doubled Q-switched and mode-locked (QML) Nd:Lu0.15Y0.85VO4/KTP (KTiOPO4) green laser was demonstrated for the first time. The QML green laser characteristics such as the pulse width and single-pulse energy have been measured for different modulation frequencies of the AO modulator (fp). In particular, in comparison with the solely passively QML green laser with an SWCNT-SA, the dual-loss-modulated QML green laser can generate a more stable pulse train, a shorter pulse width of the Q-switched envelope, a greater pulse energy and a higher average peak power. For the dual-loss-modulated QML green laser, at a pump power of 7.9 W and a repetition rate of 10 kHz, the pulse width and the pulse energy of the Q-switch envelope and the average peak power of the QML green laser are 50 ns, 20.34 µJ and 15.5 kW, respectively, corresponding to a pulse width compression of 77%, a pulse energy improvement factor of six times and a QML peak power increase factor of 16 times when compared with those for the solely passively QML green laser. The experimental results show that the dual-loss modulation is an efficient method for the generation of a stable QML green laser with an SWCNT-SA.

  10. The lithosphere-asthenosphere Italy and surroundings

    CERN Document Server

    Panza, G F; Chimera, G; Pontevivo, A; Raykova, R

    2003-01-01

    The velocity-depth distribution of the lithosphere-asthenosphere in the Italian region and surroundings is imaged, with a lateral resolution of about 100 km, by surface wave velocity tomography and non-linear inversion. Maps of the Moho depth, of the thickness of the lithosphere and of the shear-wave velocities, down to depths of 200 km and more, are constructed. A mantle wedge, identified in the uppermost mantle along the Apennines and the Calabrian Arc, underlies the principal recent volcanoes, and partial melting can be relevant in this part of the uppermost mantle. In Calabria a lithospheric doubling is seen, in connection with the subduction of the Ionian lithosphere. The asthenosphere is shallow in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. High velocity bodies, cutting the asthenosphere, outline the Adria-lonian subduction in the Tyrrhenian Sea and the deep-reaching lithospheric root in the Western Alps. Less deep lithospheric roots are seen in the Central Apennines. The lithosphere-asthenosphere properties delineat...

  11. The lithosphere-asthenosphere: Italy and surroundings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GiulianoF.Panza; AntonellaPontevivo; GiordanoChimera; RenetaRaykova; AbdelkrimAoudia

    2003-01-01

    The velocity-depth distribution of the lithosphere-asthenosphere in the Italian region and surroundings is imaged, with a lateral resolution of about 100 km, by sur-face wave velocity tomography and non-linear inversion.Maps of the Moho depth, of the thickness of the lithos-phere and of the shear-wave velocities, down to depths of 200 km and more, are constructed. A mantle wedge, iden-tified in the uppermost mantle along the Apennines and the Calabrian Arc, underlies the prmctpat recent votca-noes, and partial melting can be relevant in this part of the uppermost mantle. In Calabria, a lithospheric dou-bling is seen, in connection with the subduction of the Ionian lithosphere. The asthenosphere is shallow in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. High velocity bodies, cutting the asthenosphere, outline the Adria-lonian subduction in the Tyrrhenian Sea and the deep-reaching lithospheric root in the Western Alps. Less deep lithospheric roots are seen in the Central Apennines. The lithosphere-asthenos-phere properties delineate a differentiation between the northern and the southern sectors of the Adriatic Sea,likely attesting the fragmentation of Adria.

  12. Preliminary design of surrounding heliostat fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collado, Francisco J. [Zaragoza University, Dpto. de Ingenieria Mecanica, CPS-B, Maria de Luna 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2009-05-15

    Recently, the author has shown elsewhere a simplified model that allows quick evaluations of the annual overall energy collected by a surrounding heliostat field. This model is the combination of an analytical flux density function produced by a heliostat, developed by the own author, and an optimized mirror density distribution developed by University of Houston for the Solar One Project. As main conclusion of this previous work, it was recognized that such pseudo-continuous simplified model should not substitute much more accurate discrete evaluations, which manage thousands of individual heliostat coordinates. Here in this work, the difficulty of generating a preliminary discrete layout of a large number of heliostats is addressed. The main novelty is the direct definition of thousands of heliostat coordinates through basically two parameters i.e. a simplified blocking factor and an additional security distance. Such procedure, which was formerly theoretically suggested by the author, is put into practice here, showing examples and commenting their problems and advantages. Getting a previous set of thousands of heliostat coordinates would be a major first step in the complex process of designing solar power tower (SPT). (author)

  13. Glassy dynamics of convex polyhedra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tasios, Nikos; Gantapara, Anjan Prasad; Dijkstra, Marjolein

    2014-01-01

    Self-assembly of polyhedral-shaped particles has attracted huge interest with the advent of new synthesis methods that realize these faceted particles in the lab. Recent studies have shown that polyhedral-shaped particles exhibit a rich phase behavior by excluded volume interactions alone; some of t

  14. Periodic billiard trajectories in polyhedra

    CERN Document Server

    Bedaride, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    We consider the billiard map inside a polyhedron. We give a condition for the stability of the periodic trajectories. We apply this result to the case of the tetrahedron. We deduce the existence of an open set of tetrahedra which have a periodic orbit of length four (generalization of Fagnano's orbit for triangles), moreover we can study completly the orbit of points along this coding.

  15. Impacts of Artificial Reefs on Surrounding Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoukian, Sarine

    Artificial reefs are becoming a popular biological and management component in shallow water environments characterized by soft seabed, representing both important marine habitats and tools to manage coastal fisheries and resources. An artificial reef in the marine environment acts as an open system with exchange of material and energy, altering the physical and biological characteristics of the surrounding area. Reef stability will depend on the balance of scour, settlement, and burial resulting from ocean conditions over time. Because of the unstable nature of sediments, they require a detailed and systematic investigation. Acoustic systems like high-frequency multibeam sonar are efficient tools in monitoring the environmental evolution around artificial reefs, whereas water turbidity can limit visual dive and ROV inspections. A high-frequency multibeam echo sounder offers the potential of detecting fine-scale distribution of reef units, providing an unprecedented level of resolution, coverage, and spatial definition. How do artificial reefs change over time in relation to the coastal processes? How accurately does multibeam technology map different typologies of artificial modules of known size and shape? How do artificial reefs affect fish school behavior? What are the limitations of multibeam technology for investigating fish school distribution as well as spatial and temporal changes? This study addresses the above questions and presents results of a new approach for artificial reef seafloor mapping over time, based upon an integrated analysis of multibeam swath bathymetry data and geoscientific information (backscatter data analysis, SCUBA observations, physical oceanographic data, and previous findings on the geology and sedimentation processes, integrated with unpublished data) from Senigallia artificial reef, northwestern Adriatic Sea (Italy) and St. Petersburg Beach Reef, west-central Florida continental shelf. A new approach for observation of fish

  16. Efficient suppression of back electron/hole recombination in cobalt phosphate surface-modified undoped bismuth vanadate photoanodes† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: XRD characterization and SEM images of CoPi-modified and unmodified BiVO4, continuous illumination J–V curves, transient absorption fit results, and transient absorption decays measured as a function of excitation intensities. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ta05826k Click here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yimeng; Le Formal, Florian; Kafizas, Andreas; Pendlebury, Stephanie R.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we compared for the first time the dynamics of photogenerated holes in BiVO4 photoanodes with and without CoPi surface modification, employing transient absorption and photocurrent measurements on microsecond to second timescales. CoPi surface modification is known to cathodically shift the water oxidation onset potential; however, the reason for this improvement has not until now been fully understood. The transient absorption and photocurrent data were analyzed using a simple kinetic model, which allows quantification of the competition between electron/hole recombination and water oxidation. The results of this model are shown to be in excellent agreement with the measured photocurrent data. We demonstrate that the origin of the improvement of photocurrent onset resulting from CoPi treatment is primarily due to retardation of back electron/hole recombination across the space charge layer; no evidence of catalytic water oxidation via CoPi was observed. PMID:27358733

  17. THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE SURROUNDINGS OF COAL MINING ROADWAYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹喜正; 侯朝炯; 李华祥

    1996-01-01

    This introduces the calculation of opaper the deformationg .the Surroundings of coaowaysand the divisi of surroundings into 5 levels by means or !fuzzy integral assess mairrx, wnlcnserves-asthe scientific basis for selecting supporting pattern of roadways and determining the, pa-rameters of support.

  18. Black hole solutions surrounded by perfect fluid in Rastall theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydarzade, Y.; Darabi, F.

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we obtain uncharged∖charged Kiselev-like black holes as a new class of black hole solutions surrounded by perfect fluid in the context of Rastall theory. Then, we study the specific cases of the uncharged∖charged black holes surrounded by regular matter like dust and radiation, or exotic matter like quintessence, cosmological constant and phantom fields. By comparing the Kiselev-like black hole solutions in Rastall theory with the Kiselev black hole solutions in GR, we find an effective perfect fluid behavior for the black hole's surrounding field. It is shown that the corresponding effective perfect fluid has interesting characteristic features depending on the different ranges of the parameters in Rastall theory. For instance, Kiselev-like black holes surrounded by regular matter in Rastall theory may be considered as Kiselev black holes surrounded by exotic matter in GR, or Kiselev-like black holes surrounded by exotic matter in Rastall theory may be considered as Kiselev black holes surrounded by regular matter in GR.

  19. Surround suppression and sparse coding in visual and barrel cortices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert N S Sachdev

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available During natural vision the entire retina is stimulated. Likewise, during natural tactile behaviors, spatially extensive regions of the somatosensory surface are co-activated. The large spatial extent of naturalistic stimulation means that surround suppression, a phenomenon whose neural mechanisms remain a matter of debate, must arise during natural behavior. To identify common neural motifs that might instantiate surround suppression across modalities, we review models of surround suppression and compare the evidence supporting the competing ideas that surround suppression has either cortical or sub-cortical origins in visual and barrel cortex. In the visual system there is general agreement lateral inhibitory mechanisms contribute to surround suppression, but little direct experimental evidence that intracortical inhibition plays a major role. Two intracellular recording studies of V1, one using naturalistic stimuli (Haider et al., 2010, the other sinusoidal gratings (Ozeki et al., 2009, sought to identify the causes of reduced activity in V1 with increasing stimulus size, a hallmark of surround suppression. The former attributed this effect to increased inhibition, the latter to largely balanced withdrawal of excitation and inhibition. In rodent primary somatosensory barrel cortex, multi-whisker responses are generally weaker than single whisker responses, suggesting multi-whisker stimulation engages similar surround suppressive mechanisms. The origins of suppression in S1 remain elusive: studies have implicated brainstem lateral/internuclear interactions and both thalamic and cortical inhibition. Although the anatomical organization and instantiation of surround suppression in the visual and somatosensory systems differ, we consider the idea that one common function of surround suppression, in both modalities, is to remove the statistical redundancies associated with natural stimuli by increasing the sparseness or selectivity of sensory

  20. Surrounding Moving Obstacle Detection for Autonomous Driving Using Stereo Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Sun

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Detection and tracking surrounding moving obstacles such as vehicles and pedestrians are crucial for the safety of mobile robotics and autonomous vehicles. This is especially the case in urban driving scenarios. This paper presents a novel framework for surrounding moving obstacles detection using binocular stereo vision. The contributions of our work are threefold. Firstly, a multiview feature matching scheme is presented for simultaneous stereo correspondence and motion correspondence searching. Secondly, the multiview geometry constraint derived from the relative camera positions in pairs of consecutive stereo views is exploited for surrounding moving obstacles detection. Thirdly, an adaptive particle filter is proposed for tracking of multiple moving obstacles in surrounding areas. Experimental results from real‐world driving sequences demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed framework.

  1. Surrounding Moving Obstacle Detection for Autonomous Driving Using Stereo Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Sun

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Detection and tracking surrounding moving obstacles such as vehicles and pedestrians are crucial for the safety of mobile robotics and autonomous vehicles. This is especially the case in urban driving scenarios. This paper presents a novel framework for surrounding moving obstacles detection using binocular stereo vision. The contributions of our work are threefold. Firstly, a multiview feature matching scheme is presented for simultaneous stereo correspondence and motion correspondence searching. Secondly, the multiview geometry constraint derived from the relative camera positions in pairs of consecutive stereo views is exploited for surrounding moving obstacles detection. Thirdly, an adaptive particle filter is proposed for tracking of multiple moving obstacles in surrounding areas. Experimental results from real-world driving sequences demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed framework.

  2. Traditional Indian custOInS surrounding birth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    traditional custOIns surrounding birth in Indian culture. ... conception, pregnancy, birth and the early months ofparenthood. .... house attended by a traditional birth attendant of a ..... Spiritual components play a dominant role in traditional.

  3. Glow phenomenon surrounding the vertical stabilizer and OMS pods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This 35mm frame, photographed as the Space Shuttle Columbia was orbiting Earth during a 'night' pass, documents the glow phenomenon surrounding the vertical stabilizer and the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) pods of the spacecraft.

  4. Surrounding Moving Obstacle Detection for Autonomous Driving Using Stereo Vision

    OpenAIRE

    Hao Sun; Huanxin Zou; Shilin Zhou; Cheng Wang; Naser El-Sheimy

    2013-01-01

    Detection and tracking surrounding moving obstacles such as vehicles and pedestrians are crucial for the safety of mobile robotics and autonomous vehicles. This is especially the case in urban driving scenarios. This paper presents a novel framework for surrounding moving obstacles detection using binocular stereo vision. The contributions of our work are threefold. Firstly, a multiview feature matching scheme is presented for simultaneous stereo correspondence and motion correspondence searc...

  5. "Tilt" in color space: Hue changes induced by chromatic surrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Susanne; Wachtler, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The perceived color of a chromatic stimulus is influenced by the chromaticity of its surround. To investigate these influences along the dimension of hue, we measured hue changes induced in stimuli of different hues by isoluminant chromatic surrounds. Generally, induced hue changes were directed in color space away from the hue of the inducing surround and depended on the magnitude on the hue difference between stimulus and surround. With increasing difference in hue between stimulus and surround, induced hue changes increased up to a maximum and then decreased for larger differences. This qualitative pattern was similar for different inducers, but quantitatively, induction was weaker along some directions in cone-opponent color space than along other directions. The strongest induction effects were found along an oblique, blue-yellow axis that corresponds to the daylight axis. The overall pattern of the induction effect shows similarities to the well-known tilt effect, where shifts in perceived angle of oriented stimuli are induced by oriented surrounds. This suggests analogous neural representations and similar mechanisms of contextual processing for different visual features such as orientation and color.

  6. Control of Formation of Lithological Reservoirs by Surrounding Mudstone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Taking the Jiyang depression as an example, this paper discusses the control of the formation of lithological reservoir by surrounding rocks by integrated application of geological analysis, physical simulation, and the analysis of oil & gas accumulation mechanism. Geological statistical shows that the major burial depth and interval of lithological reservoirs in the Jiyang depression are related to the hydrocarbon generation in and expulsion from the Lower Tertiary source rocks and the time of the formation of most lithological reservoirs coincides with the peak of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion. The lithological traps located in the center of effective source rocks are propitious to high oil saturation than those located on the margin of effective source rocks. The hydrocarbon charge degree of the lithological reservoir has a positive correlation with the intensity of hydrocarbon expulsion from surrounding source rocks.Geological analyses and NMR experiments also show that the oil saturation of surrounding source rocks control the hydrocarbon potential of lithological traps, and a critical value for oil saturation of surrounding mudstone is required, that is, when the oil saturation of surrounding mudstone is lower than this critical value, no oil and gas accumulate in the lithological trap. The control of surrounding mudstone on the oil-bearing properties of lithological reservoirs is also analyzed by the mechanisms of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion as well as accumulation.

  7. Forest Fragments Surrounded by Sugar Cane Are More Inhospitable to Terrestrial Amphibian Abundance Than Fragments Surrounded by Pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Eveline Ribeiro D’Anunciação

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been increasing interest in matrix-type influence on forest fragments. Terrestrial amphibians are good bioindicators for this kind of research because of low vagility and high philopatry. This study compared richness, abundance, and species composition of terrestrial amphibians through pitfall traps in two sets of semideciduous seasonal forest fragments in southeastern Brazil, according to the predominant surrounding matrix (sugar cane and pasture. There were no differences in richness, but fragments surrounded by sugar cane had the lowest abundance of amphibians, whereas fragments surrounded by pastures had greater abundance. The most abundant species, Rhinella ornata, showed no biometric differences between fragment groups but like many other amphibians sampled showed very low numbers of individuals in fragments dominated by sugar cane fields. Our data indicate that the sugar cane matrix negatively influences the community of amphibians present in fragments surrounded by this type of land use.

  8. Migraine increases centre-surround suppression for drifting visual stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine Battista

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of migraine is incompletely understood, but evidence points to hyper-responsivity of cortical neurons being a key feature. The basis of hyper-responsiveness is not clear, with an excitability imbalance potentially arising from either reduced inhibition or increased excitation. In this study, we measure centre-surround contrast suppression in people with migraine as a perceptual analogue of the interplay between inhibition and excitation in cortical areas responsible for vision. We predicted that reduced inhibitory function in migraine would reduce perceptual surround suppression. Recent models of neuronal surround suppression incorporate excitatory feedback that drives surround inhibition. Consequently, an increase in excitation predicts an increase in perceptual surround suppression. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Twenty-six people with migraine and twenty approximately age- and gender-matched non-headache controls participated. The perceived contrast of a central sinusoidal grating patch (4 c/deg stationary grating, or 2 c/deg drifting at 2 deg/sec, 40% contrast was measured in the presence and absence of a 95% contrast annular grating (same orientation, spatial frequency, and drift rate. For the static grating, similar surround suppression strength was present in control and migraine groups with the presence of the surround resulting in the central patch appearing to be 72% and 65% of its true contrast for control and migraine groups respectively (t(44 = 0.81, p = 0.42. For the drifting stimulus, the migraine group showed significantly increased surround suppression (t(44 = 2.86, p<0.01, with perceived contrast being on average 53% of actual contrast for the migraine group and 68% for non-headache controls. CONCLUSIONS: In between migraines, when asymptomatic, visual surround suppression for drifting stimuli is greater in individuals with migraine than in controls. The data provides evidence for a

  9. 6.1 channel general planar surround sound system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Bosun

    2001-01-01

    A new 6.1 channel surround sound system and its two signal mixing methods are proposed. Theoretical and experimental results show that the system is able to recreate 360°sound image in horizontal plane. Especially, compared with current 5.1 channel system, lateral and rear image of the new system is improved obviously. Therefore it is suitable to be used as a general surround sound system. It is also proved that, the new system is fully compatible with 5.1 channel system, and current methods are available to record 6.1 channel signals.

  10. Linking disadvantaged housing areas to the surrounding city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie

    Several disadvantaged social housing areas in Denmark are currently undergo-ing thorough physical refurbishments, aiming to integrate them better with the surrounding city. The ambition is to attract new users and residents by opening up the borders of the area and establish attractive, new...... that especially eve-ryday-route strategies adding new public functions within the area can pave the way for integration with the surroundings. The applicability of such strategies is however highly dependent on the context, location and existing image of the ar-ea. Social distance may sustain though physical...

  11. Ecological mechanisms linking protected areas to surrounding lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Andrew J; DeFries, Ruth

    2007-06-01

    Land use is expanding and intensifying in the unprotected lands surrounding many of the world's protected areas. The influence of this land use change on ecological processes is poorly understood. The goal of this paper is to draw on ecological theory to provide a synthetic framework for understanding how land use change around protected areas may alter ecological processes and biodiversity within protected areas and to provide a basis for identifying scientifically based management alternatives. We first present a conceptual model of protected areas embedded within larger ecosystems that often include surrounding human land use. Drawing on case studies in this Invited Feature, we then explore a comprehensive set of ecological mechanisms by which land use on surrounding lands may influence ecological processes and biodiversity within reserves. These mechanisms involve changes in ecosystem size, with implications for minimum dynamic area, species-area effect, and trophic structure; altered flows of materials and disturbances into and out of reserves; effects on crucial habitats for seasonal and migration movements and population source/sink dynamics; and exposure to humans through hunting, poaching, exotics species, and disease. These ecological mechanisms provide a basis for assessing the vulnerability of protected areas to land use. They also suggest criteria for designing regional management to sustain protected areas in the context of surrounding human land use. These design criteria include maximizing the area of functional habitats, identifying and maintaining ecological process zones, maintaining key migration and source habitats, and managing human proximity and edge effects.

  12. Metrizamide demonstration of the subarachnoid space surrounding the Gasserian ganglion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christmann, D.; Babin, E.

    1980-05-01

    The chance opacification of the subarachnoid space surrounding the Gasserian ganglion, observed during metrizamide basal cisternography, is reported. This is compared to similar demonstrations of the optic subarachnoid space. Such infrequently observed images should be known because they may be related to the occurrence of trigeminal neuralgia.

  13. Orientation-tuned surround suppression in mouse visual cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Self, Matthew W; Lorteije, Jeannette A M; Vangeneugden, Joris; van Beest, Enny H; Grigore, Mihaela E; Levelt, Christiaan N; Heimel, J.A.; Roelfsema, Pieter R

    2014-01-01

    The firing rates of neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) are suppressed by large stimuli, an effect known as surround suppression. In cats and monkeys, the strength of suppression is sensitive to orientation; responses to regions containing uniform orientations are more suppressed than those contai

  14. Challenges Surrounding the Education of Children with Chronic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Maria, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    While governing bodies have mandated that all students have the right to an education, with disabled students treated to the same rights and opportunities as non-disabled students, policymakers do not always agree on what all-inclusive education should look like. "Challenges Surrounding the Education of Children with Chronic Diseases"…

  15. Military installation sequestered more carbon than surrounding areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, S.; Liu, S.; Li, Z.; Sohl, T.

    2008-12-01

    Land use activities greatly affect the temporal trends and spatial patterns of regional land-atmospheric exchange of carbon. Military installations generally have drastically different land management strategies from surrounding areas, and the carbon consequences have never been quantified and assessed. Here, we used the General Ensemble Biogeochemical Modeling System (GEMS) to simulate and compare ecosystem carbon dynamics between Fort Benning and surrounding areas from 1992 to 2050. GEMS was driven by unique combinations of spatial and temporal dynamics of major driving forces, such as climate, soil properties, nitrogen deposition, and land use and land cover changes (predicted by FOREcasting SCEnarios of land cover change (FORE-SCE)). Our results indicated that the military installation sequestered more carbon than surrounding areas (0.77 vs. 0.16 Mg C ha-1 y-1 averaged from 1992 to 2007). Differences in land use activities were the primary cause behind the difference in carbon sequestration rates. From 1992 to 2007, no urban/residential expansion occurred at the installation, and transitional barren (primarily caused by forest harvesting) slightly increased from 0 to 0.2%. In contrast, urban land increased from 5.6 to 7.6% and transitional barren increased from 0.1 to 0.7% in the surrounding areas. Live biomass accumulation accounted for most of the carbon sink in both Fort Benning and surrounding areas (0.75 vs. 0.15 Mg C ha-1 y-1), while soil organic carbon accumulation was small (0.02 vs. 0.01 Mg C ha- 1 y-1), suggesting biomass removal caused by urbanization and harvesting resulted in much less carbon sequestration in surrounding areas. Fort Benning is likely to sequester more carbon in the future, although the rate of carbon sequestered per year will gradually reduce. The future carbon source/sink strength in the surrounding areas varied greatly, from a small sink to a strong source, depending on the path of land use change (e.g., increase of clear

  16. Dynamics of two-component membranes surrounded by viscoelastic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komura, Shigeyuki; Yasuda, Kento; Okamoto, Ryuichi

    2015-11-01

    We discuss the dynamics of two-component fluid membranes which are surrounded by viscoelastic media. We assume that membrane-embedded proteins can diffuse laterally and induce a local membrane curvature. The mean squared displacement of a tagged membrane segment is obtained as a generalized Einstein relation. When the elasticity of the surrounding media obeys a power-law behavior in frequency, an anomalous diffusion of the membrane segment is predicted. We also consider the situation where the proteins generate active non-equilibrium forces. The generalized Einstein relation is further modified by an effective temperature that depends on the force dipole energy. The obtained generalized Einstein relations are useful for membrane microrheology experiments.

  17. Study on Temperature Fieldof Surrounding Rock with BEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The authors analyzed the characteristic of surrounding rock temperature field around a drifting face, setup its mathematic model, and got its numerical result with the boundary element method(BEM). To calculate in-tra-domain integral, it was transformed into boundary integration with the DRM method. Using the similitude the-ory, the dimensionless differential equation was educed. Finally, the authors calculated two drifting faces of San-hejian Coal Mine using the computer software developed by authors based on the above principium, and got the dis-tribution characteristic of surrounding rock temperature field around a drifting face and the periodic variation intemperature with its periodic moving forward. Comparing the calculated heat dissipating-capacity of surroundingrock with the measured data shows that the computer software is proper.

  18. Experimental Study of Deformation of Surrounding Rock with Infrared Radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong-jun; AN Li-qian; REN Run-hou; FAN Shi-min; MA Nian-jie; LI Jian-hui; JI Yuan-ming

    2005-01-01

    According to the practical conditions of coal roadway in Changcun Coal Mine of Lu'an Mining Group, the deformation of rock surrounding roadway was experimentally studied by means of thermal infrared (TIR) imaging system in the process of confined compressions. It is found that the model surface TIR temperature (TIRT) changes with the increase of load. Furthermore, TIRT changes non-synchronously in different ranges such as the roof, floor, wall, corners and bolted ranges. The TIRT is higher in the location of stress concentration and bolted ranges than that in the location of stress relaxation and broken ranges. The interaction ranges of bolt and rock are determined preliminarily according to the corresponding relationship of TIRT fields and the strain fields of the surrounding rock. The new method of TIR image processing has been proved to be effective for the study of bolt support and observation of roadway stability under mine pressure.

  19. High resolution bathymetry of China seas and their surroundings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the oceanic lithospheric flexure and the worldwide bathymetric data ETOPO5, the high resolu tion bathymetry of the China seas and their surroundings is computed from altimeter derived gravity anomalies. The new bathymetry obtained by this study is higher resolution and accuracy than the widely used ETOPO5 data, mean while it shows clearly the seafioor, the tectonic characteristics and the geodynamical processes in the China seas.

  20. Thermodynamic stability of black holes surrounded by quintessence

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Meng-Sen; Zhao, Ren; Ma, Ya-Qin

    2016-01-01

    We study the thermodynamic stabilities of uncharged and charged black holes surrounded by quintessence (BHQ) by means of effective thermodynamic quantities. When the state parameter of quintessence $\\omega_q$ is appropriately chosen, the structures of BHQ are something like that of black holes in de Sitter space. Constructing the effective first law of thermodynamics in two different ways, we can derive the effective thermodynamic quantities of BHQ. Especially, these effective thermodynamic q...

  1. Hidden History: A Mobile Application for Discovering Surrounding Landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This thesis work describes the design, development and evaluation of a mobile application called Hidden History. This application lets users discover and explore three types of landscapes (Historic, Scenic and Cultural) using three different modes of discovery (Route, Explore and Tour). Before designing Hidden History, the feature set of other applications that help users explore surrounding landscapes were identified and analyzed. Hidden History was then designed to implement the best fea...

  2. Treatment of Postherpetic Neuralgia by Surround Needling with Electric Stimulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Jin; YANG Qin-hua

    2005-01-01

    运用电针围刺法治疗带状疱疹后遗神经痛29例,获得较好疗效,总有效率为93.1%.%Twenty-nine cases of postherpetic neuralgia of herpes zoster were treated by the surround needling with electric stimulation, and the better therapeutic effect was obtained, the total effective rate was 93.1%.

  3. Belief and Attitudes surrounding Childhood Autism in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Autism is a life-long invisible impairment with an unknown etiology. Current literature shows an increase in the diagnosis of autism worldwide. This qualitative study explores the attitudes and beliefs which surround childhood autism in Ghana. In-depth interviews were conducted with four (4) parents whose children have autism and three (3) key informants; a Religious Leader, a Health Worker and an Administrator of a Special school in Accra, Ghana. A semi-structured interview guide was used fo...

  4. A permeability barrier surrounds taste buds in lingual epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Robin; Pereira, Elizabeth; Kurian, Mani; Barro-Soria, Rene; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Roper, Stephen D

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial tissues are characterized by specialized cell-cell junctions, typically localized to the apical regions of cells. These junctions are formed by interacting membrane proteins and by cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix components. Within the lingual epithelium, tight junctions join the apical tips of the gustatory sensory cells in taste buds. These junctions constitute a selective barrier that limits penetration of chemosensory stimuli into taste buds (Michlig et al. J Comp Neurol 502: 1003-1011, 2007). We tested the ability of chemical compounds to permeate into sensory end organs in the lingual epithelium. Our findings reveal a robust barrier that surrounds the entire body of taste buds, not limited to the apical tight junctions. This barrier prevents penetration of many, but not all, compounds, whether they are applied topically, injected into the parenchyma of the tongue, or circulating in the blood supply, into taste buds. Enzymatic treatments indicate that this barrier likely includes glycosaminoglycans, as it was disrupted by chondroitinase but, less effectively, by proteases. The barrier surrounding taste buds could also be disrupted by brief treatment of lingual tissue samples with DMSO. Brief exposure of lingual slices to DMSO did not affect the ability of taste buds within the slice to respond to chemical stimulation. The existence of a highly impermeable barrier surrounding taste buds and methods to break through this barrier may be relevant to basic research and to clinical treatments of taste.

  5. THE DESIGN OF DYNAMIC SIMULATION SYSTEM ON EARTHQUAKE SURROUNDINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈毅力; 杨云; 李天石

    2003-01-01

    Objective To design a system that can simulate earthquake surroundings. In the surroundings, people can be familiar with the omen, strong shock and aftershock of earthquake, thus make right choices and get away when the disaster occurs. Methods The system consists of an electro-hydraulic servo system, a whole-information sound system and some lighting device; By using the adaptive inverse control method and LMS algorithms, the inverse model (I.e. The controller) is convergent rapidly; The software based on LabVIEW makes the parameters can be modified easily; There is a double closed-loop structure in the system: an analog closed-loop and a digital closed-loop, and their parameters can be inspected in real time. Results The system is of very high reliability, and the desired vibration signal can be tracked exactly by output. Conclusion Earthquake surroundings is simulated vividly. Through the system, people can be familiar with earthquake phenomena, and know lots of knowledge of earthquake.

  6. Tissue reaction surrounding miniscrews for orthodontic anchorage: An animal experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Shih-Hsuan Chen

    2012-03-01

    Results and conclusions: (1 Tissue surrounding roots damaged by a miniscrew showed a significant inflammatory response. (2 Root resorption was occasionally observed after 3 weeks following insertion of a miniscrew even if the miniscrew was not in direct contact with the root. (3 Root repair was noted with a cementoblast lining along the resorption surface at as early as 3 weeks after miniscrew insertion. Alveolar bone filled in the lesion when the root damage was large so that the contour of the alveolar bone followed that of the damaged root, with the width of the periodontal ligament space being maintained. (4 Stable miniscrews were mainly those which did not contact adjacent roots, and for which the surrounding tissue showed only a small inflammatory response with some extent of direct bone contact around the miniscrew. On the contrary, most of the failed miniscrews were those which had direct contact with adjacent roots, and which exhibited severe tissue inflammation and were covered by thick layers of soft tissue. Failure was detected 3 weeks after insertion. Surprisingly, the epithelial lining surrounding the miniscrews might not have spontaneously resolved 6 weeks after screw removal. Persistent infection in the sinus tract was noted, and this would require attention.

  7. INTERACTIONS OF THE INFRARED BUBBLE N4 WITH ITS SURROUNDINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hong-Li; Li, Jin-Zeng; Yuan, Jing-Hua; Huang, Maohai; Huang, Ya-Fang; Zhang, Si-Ju [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Wu, Yuefang [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China); Liu, Tie [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Dubner, G.; Paron, S.; Ortega, M. E. [1Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), CC 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Molinari, Sergio [Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali—IAPS, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica—INAF, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Zavagno, Annie; Samal, Manash R., E-mail: hlliu@nao.cas.cn [Aix Marseille Universit, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388, Marseille (France)

    2016-02-10

    The physical mechanisms that induce the transformation of a certain mass of gas in new stars are far from being well understood. Infrared bubbles associated with H ii regions have been considered to be good samples for investigating triggered star formation. In this paper we report on the investigation of the dust properties of the infrared bubble N4 around the H ii region G11.898+0.747, analyzing its interaction with its surroundings and star formation histories therein, with the aim of determining the possibility of star formation triggered by the expansion of the bubble. Using Herschel PACS and SPIRE images with a wide wavelength coverage, we reveal the dust properties over the entire bubble. Meanwhile, we are able to identify six dust clumps surrounding the bubble, with a mean size of 0.50 pc, temperature of about 22 K, mean column density of 1.7 × 10{sup 22} cm{sup −2}, mean volume density of about 4.4 × 10{sup 4} cm{sup −3}, and a mean mass of 320 M{sub ⊙}. In addition, from PAH emission seen at 8 μm, free–free emission detected at 20 cm, and a probability density function in special regions, we could identify clear signatures of the influence of the H ii region on the surroundings. There are hints of star formation, though further investigation is required to demonstrate that N4 is the triggering source.

  8. On the environment surrounding close-in exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidotto, A. A.; Fares, R.; Jardine, M.; Moutou, C.; Donati, J.-F.

    2015-06-01

    Exoplanets in extremely close-in orbits are immersed in a local interplanetary medium (i.e. the stellar wind) much denser than the local conditions encountered around the Solar system planets. The environment surrounding these exoplanets also differs in terms of dynamics (slower stellar winds, but higher Keplerian velocities) and ambient magnetic fields (likely higher for host stars more active than the Sun). Here, we quantitatively investigate the nature of the interplanetary media surrounding the hot Jupiters HD 46375b, HD 73256b, HD 102195b, HD 130322b and HD 179949b. We simulate the three-dimensional winds of their host stars, in which we directly incorporate their observed surface magnetic fields. With that, we derive mass-loss rates (1.9-8.0 × 10-13 M⊙ yr-1) and the wind properties at the position of the hot Jupiters' orbits (temperature, velocity, magnetic field intensity and pressure). We show that these exoplanets' orbits are supermagnetosonic, indicating that bow shocks are formed surrounding these planets. Assuming planetary magnetic fields similar to Jupiter's, we estimate planetary magnetospheric sizes of 4.1-5.6 planetary radii. We also derive the exoplanetary radio emission released in the dissipation of the stellar wind energy. We find radio fluxes ranging from 0.02 to 0.13 mJy, which are challenging to be observed with present-day technology, but could be detectable with future higher sensitivity arrays (e.g. Square Kilometre Array). Radio emission from systems having closer hot Jupiters, such as from τ Boo b or HD 189733b, or from nearby planetary systems orbiting young stars, are likely to have higher radio fluxes, presenting better prospects for detecting exoplanetary radio emission.

  9. Issues surrounding record keeping in district nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, E E

    2000-07-01

    This article examines some aspects of nursing documentation following the publication of the document 'Guidelines for Records and Record Keeping' (UKCC, 1998). The importance of nursing documentation in patient care, in guiding practice and in providing information for members of the interprofessional healthcare team is highlighted. Record keeping forms an important part of the clinical governance initiative in terms of quality improvement and risk management. The issues surrounding the legal requirements of record keeping in district nursing practice are discussed. Suggestions are made for assessing the quality of nursing documentation by audit and research, in order to establish the suitability of using the present systems in the community setting.

  10. Induced radioactivity in a 4 MW target and its surroundings

    CERN Document Server

    Agosteo, Stefano; Otto, Thomas; Silari, Marco

    2003-01-01

    An important aspect of a future CERN Neutrino Factory is the material activation arising from a 2.2 GeV, 4 MW proton beam striking a mercury target. An estimation of the hadronic inelastic interactions and the production of residual nuclei in the target, the magnetic horn, the decay tunnel, the surrounding rock and a downstream dump was performed by the Monte Carlo hadronic cascade code FLUKA. The aim was both to assess the dose equivalent rate to be expected during maintenance work and to evaluate the amount of residual radioactivity, which will have to be disposed of after the facility has ceased operation.

  11. Mutual seismic interaction between tunnels and the surrounding granular soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ahmed Abdel-Motaal

    2014-12-01

    Study results show that the maximum exerted straining actions in tunnel lining are directly proportional to the relative stiffness between tunnel and surrounding soil (lining thickness and soil shear modulus. Moreover, it is highly affected by the peak ground acceleration and the tunnel location (embedment depth. A comprehensive study is performed to show the effect of tunnel thickness and tunnel diameter on both the induced bending moment and lining deformation. In general, it is concluded that seismic analysis should be considered in regions subjected to peak ground acceleration greater than 0.15g.

  12. Problems Surrounding Probation In The South African Public Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Baloyi

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate problems surrounding probation periods in the South African Public Service. A qualitative study was conducted to determine the views of both probationers and supervisors managing the probation process. Data was gathered by means of focus groups and individual interviews. Nine key areas were identified as being problematic, viz. clarity regarding the purpose of probation, lack of proper guidelines, the duration of probation, rotation during probation, lack of training, poor management of probation, performance management, anxiety and stress, power and authority. Recommendations are made concerning possible interventions.

  13. Interactions of the Infrared bubble N4 with the surroundings

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Hong-Li; Wu, Yuefang; Yuan, Jing-Hua; Liu, Tie; Dubner, G; Paron, S; Ortega, M E; Molinari, Sergio; Huang, Maohai; Zavagno, Annie; Samal, Manash R; Huang, Ya-Fang; Zhang, Si-Ju

    2016-01-01

    The physical mechanisms that induce the transformation of a certain mass of gas in new stars are far from being well understood. Infrared bubbles associated with HII regions have been considered to be a good sample to investigate triggered star formation. In this paper we report on the investigation of the dust properties of the infrared bubble N4 around the HII region G11.898+0.747, analyzing its interaction with the surroundings and star formation histories therein, aiming at determining the possibility of star formation triggered by the expansion of the bubble. Using Herschel PACS and SPIRE images with a wide wavelength coverage, we reveal the dust properties over the entire bubble. Meanwhile, we are able to identify six dust clumps surrounding the bubble, with a mean size of 0.50 pc, temperature of about 22 K, mean column density of 1.7 $\\times10^{22}$ cm$^{-2}$, mean volume density of about 4.4 $\\times10^{4}$ cm$^{-3}$, and a mean mass of 320 $M_{\\odot}$. In addition, from PAH emission seen at 8 $\\mu$m, ...

  14. Radio observations of Supernova Remnants and the surrounding molecular gas

    CERN Document Server

    Dubner, G

    2011-01-01

    Supernova Remnants (SNRs) are believed to be the main source of Galactic cosmic rays (CR). The strong SNR shocks provide ideal acceleration sites for particles of at least 10^14 eV/nucleon. Radio continuum studies of SNRs carried out with good sensitivity and high angular resolution convey information about three main aspects of the SNRs: morphology, polarization and spectrum. Based on this information it is possible to localize sites of higher compression and particle acceleration as well as the orientation and degree of order of the magnetic fields, and in some cases even its intensity. All this information, when complemented with the study of the distribution and kinematics of the surrounding interstellar gas, results in a very useful dataset to investigate the role of SNRs as cosmic ray accelerators. In this presentation, I analyze the radio observations of SNRs and surrounding molecular clouds, showing the contribution of these studies to the understanding of the role of SNRs as factories of CRs.

  15. Triggered Star Formation Surrounding Wolf-Rayet Star HD 211853

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tie; Wu, Yuefang; Zhang, Huawei; Qin, Sheng-Li

    2012-05-01

    The environment surrounding Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star HD 211853 is studied in molecular, infrared, as well as radio, and H I emission. The molecular ring consists of well-separated cores, which have a volume density of 103 cm-3 and kinematic temperature ~20 K. Most of the cores are under gravitational collapse due to external pressure from the surrounding ionized gas. From the spectral energy distribution modeling toward the young stellar objects, the sequential star formation is revealed on a large scale in space spreading from the W-R star to the molecular ring. A small-scale sequential star formation is revealed toward core "A," which harbors a very young star cluster. Triggered star formations are thus suggested. The presence of the photodissociation region, the fragmentation of the molecular ring, the collapse of the cores, and the large-scale sequential star formation indicate that the "collect and collapse" process functions in this region. The star-forming activities in core "A" seem to be affected by the "radiation-driven implosion" process.

  16. On the environment surrounding close-in exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Vidotto, A A; Jardine, M; Moutou, C; Donati, J -F

    2015-01-01

    Exoplanets in extremely close-in orbits are immersed in a local interplanetary medium (i.e., the stellar wind) much denser than the local conditions encountered around the solar system planets. The environment surrounding these exoplanets also differs in terms of dynamics (slower stellar winds, but higher Keplerian velocities) and ambient magnetic fields (likely higher for host stars more active than the Sun). Here, we quantitatively investigate the nature of the interplanetary media surrounding the hot Jupiters HD46375b, HD73256b, HD102195b, HD130322b, HD179949b. We simulate the three-dimensional winds of their host stars, in which we directly incorporate their observed surface magnetic fields. With that, we derive mass-loss rates (1.9 to 8.0 $\\times 10^{-13} M_{\\odot}$/yr) and the wind properties at the position of the hot-Jupiters' orbits (temperature, velocity, magnetic field intensity and pressure). We show that these exoplanets' orbits are super-magnetosonic, indicating that bow shocks are formed surrou...

  17. Triggered star formation surrounding Wolf-Rayet star HD 211853

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Tie; Zhang, Huawei; Qin, Sheng-Li

    2012-01-01

    The environment surrounding Wolf-Rayet star HD 211853 is studied in molecular emission, infrared emission, as well as radio and HI emission. The molecular ring consists of well-separated cores, which have a volume density of 10$^{3}$ cm$^{-3}$ and kinematic temperature $\\sim$20 K. Most of the cores are under gravitational collapse due to external pressure from the surrounding ionized gas. From SED modeling towards the young stellar objects (YSOs), sequential star formation is revealed on a large scale in space spreading from the Wolf-Rayet star to the molecular ring. A small scale sequential star formation is revealed towards core A, which harbors a very young star cluster. Triggered star formations is thus suggested. The presence of PDR, the fragmentation of the molecular ring, the collapse of the cores, the large scale sequential star formation indicate the "Collect and Collapse" process functions in this region. The star forming activities in core A seem to be affected by the "Radiation-Driven Implosion" (...

  18. TRIGGERED STAR FORMATION SURROUNDING WOLF-RAYET STAR HD 211853

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Tie; Wu Yuefang; Zhang Huawei [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China); Qin Shengli, E-mail: liutiepku@gmail.com [I. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany)

    2012-05-20

    The environment surrounding Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star HD 211853 is studied in molecular, infrared, as well as radio, and H I emission. The molecular ring consists of well-separated cores, which have a volume density of 10{sup 3} cm{sup -3} and kinematic temperature {approx}20 K. Most of the cores are under gravitational collapse due to external pressure from the surrounding ionized gas. From the spectral energy distribution modeling toward the young stellar objects, the sequential star formation is revealed on a large scale in space spreading from the W-R star to the molecular ring. A small-scale sequential star formation is revealed toward core 'A', which harbors a very young star cluster. Triggered star formations are thus suggested. The presence of the photodissociation region, the fragmentation of the molecular ring, the collapse of the cores, and the large-scale sequential star formation indicate that the 'collect and collapse' process functions in this region. The star-forming activities in core 'A' seem to be affected by the 'radiation-driven implosion' process.

  19. An analysis of amino acid sequences surrounding archaeal glycoprotein sequons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Qarn, Mehtap; Eichler, Jerry

    2007-05-01

    Despite having provided the first example of a prokaryal glycoprotein, little is known of the rules governing the N-glycosylation process in Archaea. As in Eukarya and Bacteria, archaeal N-glycosylation takes place at the Asn residues of Asn-X-Ser/Thr sequons. Since not all sequons are utilized, it is clear that other factors, including the context in which a sequon exists, affect glycosylation efficiency. As yet, the contribution to N-glycosylation made by sequon-bordering residues and other related factors in Archaea remains unaddressed. In the following, the surroundings of Asn residues confirmed by experiment as modified were analyzed in an attempt to define sequence rules and requirements for archaeal N-glycosylation.

  20. An analysis of amino acid sequences surrounding archaeal glycoprotein sequons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehtap Abu-Qarn

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite having provided the first example of a prokaryal glycoprotein, little is known of the rules governing the N-glycosylation process in Archaea. As in Eukarya and Bacteria, archaeal N-glycosylation takes place at the Asn residues of Asn-X-Ser/Thr sequons. Since not all sequons are utilized, it is clear that other factors, including the context in which a sequon exists, affect glycosylation efficiency. As yet, the contribution to N-glycosylation made by sequon-bordering residues and other related factors in Archaea remains unaddressed. In the following, the surroundings of Asn residues confirmed by experiment as modified were analyzed in an attempt to define sequence rules and requirements for archaeal N-glycosylation.

  1. Wave rectification in plasma sheaths surrounding electric field antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, M. H.; Carlson, C. W.; Mcfadden, J. P.; Clemmons, J. H.; Ergun, R. E.; Mozer, F. S.

    1994-01-01

    Combined measurements of Langmuir or broadband whistler wave intensity and lower-frequency electric field waveforms, all at 10-microsecond time resolution, were made on several recent sounding rockets in the auroral ionosphere. It is found that Langmuir and whistler waves are partically rectified in the plasma sheaths surrounding the payload and the spheres used as antennas. This sheath rectification occurs whenever the high frequency (HF) potential across the sheath becomes of the same order as the electron temperature or higher, for wave frequencies near or above the ion plasma frequency. This rectification can introduce false low-frequency waves into measurements of electric field spectra when strong high-frequency waves are present. Second harmonic signals are also generated, although at much lower levels. The effect occurs in many different plasma conditions, primarily producing false waves at frequencies that are low enough for the antenna coupling to the plasma to be resistive.

  2. The nature of plerions surrounding soft gamma-ray repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Harding, A K

    1995-01-01

    Compact steady sources of X-ray emission have been detected at the positions of at least two soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs). These sources have been interpreted as synchrotron nebulae powered by the neutron star that is causing the bursts. We explore a plerion model for the sources surrounding SGRs where the steady observed emission is powered by the SGR bursts rather than by the spin-down of a pulsar. In this case there is no limit on the neutron star magnetic field. We find that the synchrotron lifetime of the particles injected into the plerion around SGR1806-20 is long enough to smear out nebular emission from individual bursts. Transient nebular emission would therefore not be detected following an SGR burst. The combined radio emission from multiple burst injections is expected to have a steeper spectrum than that of a typical plerion.

  3. Casimir Effect in the Kerr Spacetime Surrounded by Quintessence

    CERN Document Server

    Bezerra, V B; Freitas, L F F; Muniz, C R

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the Casimir energy of a massless scalar field in a cavity formed by nearby parallel plates orbiting a rotating spherical body surrounded by quintessence, investigating the influence of the gravitational field on that energy, at zero temperature. This influence includes the effects due to the spacetime dragging caused by the source rotation as well as those ones due to the quintessence. We show that the energy depends on all the involved parameters, as source mass, angular momentum and quintessence state parameter, for any radial coordinate and polar angle. We show that at the north pole the Casimir energy is not influenced by the quintessential matter. At the equatorial plane, when the quintessence is canceled, the result obtained in the literature is recovered. Finally, constraints in the quintessence parameters are obtained from the uncertainty in the current measurements of Casimir effect.

  4. Ozone bioindication in Barcelona and surrounding area of Catalonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribas, A.; Penuelas, J. [Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain). Ecophysiology Unit of CSIC

    2002-07-01

    A field study was conducted from July to September 2000 to assess ozone (O{sub 3}) phytotoxicity in Barcelona and surrounding areas of Catalonia (NE Spain) by using tobacco plants Bel-W3 and Populus nigra 'Brandaris' as bioindicators. The study was conducted simultaneously at eight sites where ozone concentrations and meteorological variables were continuously monitored. The ozone levels correlated well with ozone injury on the Bel-W3 cultivar, especially at stations established in the urban area of Barcelona, and in the first months of summer. In the second half of summer plants showed a decreasing efficiency in its biomonitoring capacity. The behaviour of Populus as bioindicator or biomonitor was less satisfactory. For both species it is necessary to improve cultivation conditions since water deficits seem to play an important role in bioindication in the Mediterranean region. (orig.)

  5. Physical Coupling of Kazarian Galaxies with Surrounding Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazarian, M. A.; Martirosian, J. R.

    2003-04-01

    Results from a statistical study of Kazarian galaxies and the objects surrounding them are presented. It is shown that: (1) the sample of Kazarian galaxies up to 16m.0 is complete. (2) Roughly 35.7% of the Kazarian galaxies are members of clusters, 14.0% of groups, and 13.6% of binary systems, while 36.7% are single galaxies. (3) Of the 580 Kazarian galaxies, roughly 61.2% are infrared, 8.8% radio, and 2.8% x-ray sources. (4) The relative numbers of Kazarian galaxies for complete samples of I, R, and X in the different groups are systematically higher than the corresponding numbers for samples of all Kazarian galaxies.

  6. On radial oscillations in viscous accretion discs surrounding neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingming; Taam, Ronald E.

    1992-01-01

    Radial oscillations resulting from axisymmetric perturbations in viscous accretion disks surrounding neutron stars in X-ray binary systems have been investigated. Within the framework of the alpha-viscosity model a series of hydrodynamic calculations demonstrates that the oscillations are global for alpha of about 1. On the other hand, for alpha of 0.4 or less, the oscillations are local and confined to the disk boundaries. If viscous stresses acting in the radial direction are included, however, it is found that the disk can be stabilized. The application of such instabilities in accretion disks, without reference to the boundary layer region between the neutron star (or magnetosphere) and the inner edge of the disk, to the phenomenology of quasi-periodic oscillations is brought into question.

  7. Natural convection between a vertical cylinder and a surrounding array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEligot, D.M.; O`Brien, J.E.; Stoots, C.M.; Larson, T.K.; Christenson, W.A.; Mecham, D.C.; Lussie, W.G.

    1992-09-01

    The generic situation considered is natural convection between a single heated, vertical cylinder and a surrounding array of cooler vertical cylinders in a triangular pattern. The ratio of the test section temperature to the cooling tube temperature was varied up to 2.6 by adjusting the electrical power. The Rayleigh number, based on test section diameter and air properties evaluated at cooling tube temperature, ranged from 2.9 x 10{sup 4} to 4.6 x 10{sup 5}. Results indicate that the convective heat transfer data could be approximated as Nu{sub D} (T{sub ts}/T{sub ct}){sup 0.14} = 0.156 Ra{sub D}{sup 1/3} in the apparent turbulent region for Ra{sub L} > 1.2 x 10{sup 11.}

  8. Natural convection between a vertical cylinder and a surrounding array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEligot, D.M.; O' Brien, J.E.; Stoots, C.M.; Larson, T.K.; Christenson, W.A.; Mecham, D.C.; Lussie, W.G.

    1992-01-01

    The generic situation considered is natural convection between a single heated, vertical cylinder and a surrounding array of cooler vertical cylinders in a triangular pattern. The ratio of the test section temperature to the cooling tube temperature was varied up to 2.6 by adjusting the electrical power. The Rayleigh number, based on test section diameter and air properties evaluated at cooling tube temperature, ranged from 2.9 x 10{sup 4} to 4.6 x 10{sup 5}. Results indicate that the convective heat transfer data could be approximated as Nu{sub D} (T{sub ts}/T{sub ct}){sup 0.14} = 0.156 Ra{sub D}{sup 1/3} in the apparent turbulent region for Ra{sub L} > 1.2 x 10{sup 11.}

  9. Rotation of the Warm Molecular Gas Surrounding Ultracompact HII Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Klaassen, P D; Keto, E R; Zhang, Q

    2009-01-01

    We present molecular line and 1.4 mm continuum observations towards five massive star forming regions at arcsecond resolution using the Submillimeter Array (SMA). We find that the warm molecular gas surrounding each HII region (as traced by SO_2 and OCS) appears to be undergoing bulk rotation. From the molecular line emission and thermal component of the continuum emission, we independently derived gas masses for each region which are consistent with each other. From the free-free component of the continuum emission we estimate the minimum stellar mass required to power the HII region and find that this mass, when added to the derived gas mass, is a significant fraction of the dynamical mass for that region.

  10. A 500 Parsec Halo Surrounding the Galactic Globular NGC 1851

    CERN Document Server

    Olszewski, Edward W; Knezek, Patricia; Subramaniam, Annapurni; de Boer, Thomas; Seitzer, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Using imaging that shows four magnitudes of main sequence stars, we have discovered that the Galactic globular cluster NGC 1851 is surrounded by a halo that is visible from the tidal radius of 700 arcsec (41 pc) to more than 4500 arcsec (>250 pc). This halo is symmetric and falls in density as a power law of $r^{-1.24}$. It contains approximately 0.1% of the dynamical mass of NGC 1851. There is no evidence for tidal tails. Current models of globular cluster evolution do not explain this feature, although simulations of tidal influences on dwarf spheroidal galaxies qualitatively mimic these results. Given the state of published models it is not possible to decide between creation of this halo from isolated cluster evaporation, or from tidal or disk shocking, or from destruction of a dwarf galaxy in which this object may have once been embedded.

  11. Thermodynamic stability of black holes surrounded by quintessence

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Meng-Sen; Ma, Ya-Qin

    2016-01-01

    We study the thermodynamic stabilities of uncharged and charged black holes surrounded by quintessence (BHQ) by means of effective thermodynamic quantities. When the state parameter of quintessence $\\omega_q$ is appropriately chosen, the structures of BHQ are something like that of black holes in de Sitter space. Constructing the effective first law of thermodynamics in two different ways, we can derive the effective thermodynamic quantities of BHQ. Especially, these effective thermodynamic quantities also satisfy Smarr-like formulae. It is found that the uncharged BHQ is always thermodynamically unstable due to negative heat capacity, while for the charged BHQ there are phase transitions of the second order. We also show that there is a great deal of difference on the thermodynamic properties and critical behaviors of BHQ between the two ways we employed.

  12. Thermodynamic stability of black holes surrounded by quintessence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Meng-Sen; Zhao, Ren; Ma, Ya-Qin

    2017-06-01

    We study the thermodynamic stabilities of uncharged and charged black holes surrounded by quintessence (BHQ) by means of effective thermodynamic quantities. When the state parameter of quintessence ω _q is appropriately chosen, the structures of BHQ are something like that of black holes in de Sitter space. Constructing the effective first law of thermodynamics in two different ways, we can derive the effective thermodynamic quantities of BHQ. Especially, these effective thermodynamic quantities also satisfy Smarr-like formulae. It is found that the uncharged BHQ is always thermodynamically unstable due to negative heat capacity, while for the charged BHQ there are phase transitions of the second order. We also show that there are several differences on the thermodynamic properties and critical behaviors of BHQ between the two ways we employed.

  13. Impact-Generated Dust Clouds Surrounding the Galilean Moons

    CERN Document Server

    Krüger, H; Grün, E; Kr\\"uger, Harald~; Krivov, Alexander V.; Gr\\"un, Eberhard

    2003-01-01

    Tenuous dust clouds of Jupiter's Galilean moons Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto have been detected with the in-situ dust detector on board the Galileo spacecraft. The majority of the dust particles have been sensed at altitudes below five radii of these lunar-sized satellites. We identify the particles in the dust clouds surrounding the moons by their impact direction, impact velocity, and mass distribution. Average particle sizes are 0.5 to $\\rm 1 \\mu m$, just above the detector threshold, indicating a size distribution with decreasing numbers towards bigger particles. Our results imply that the particles have been kicked up by hypervelocity impacts of micrometeoroids onto the satellites' surfaces. The measured radial dust density profiles are consistent with predictions by dynamical modeling for satellite ejecta produced by interplanetary impactors (Krivov et al., PSS, 2003, 51, 251--269), assuming yield, mass and velocity distributions of the ejecta from laboratory measurements. The dust clouds of the th...

  14. Width Distributions for Convex Regular Polyhedra

    CERN Document Server

    Finch, Steven R

    2011-01-01

    The mean width is a measure on three-dimensional convex bodies that enjoys equal status with volume and surface area [Rota]. As the phrase suggests, it is the mean of a probability density f. We verify formulas for mean widths of the regular tetrahedron and the cube. Higher-order moments of f_tetra and f_cube have not been examined until now. Assume that each polyhedron has edges of unit length. We deduce that the mean square width of the regular tetrahedron is 1/3+(3+sqrt(3))/(3*pi) and the mean square width of the cube is 1+4/pi.

  15. Tomography images of the Alpine roots and surrounding upper mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomerova, Jaroslava; Babuska, Vladislav

    2017-04-01

    Teleseismic body-wave tomography represents powerful tool to study regional velocity structure of the upper mantle and to image velocity anomalies, such as subducted lithosphere plates in collisional zones. In this contribution, we recapitulate 3D models of the upper mantle beneath the Alps, which developed at a collision zone of the Eurasian and African plates. Seismic tomography studies indicate a leading role of the rigid mantle lithosphere that functioned as a major stress guide during the plate collisions. Interactions of the European lithosphere with several micro-plates in the south resulted in an arcuate shape of this mountain range on the surface and in a complicated geometry of the Alpine subductions in the mantle. Early models with one bended lithosphere root have been replaced with more advanced models showing two separate lithosphere roots beneath the Western and Eastern Alps (Babuska et al., Tectonophysics 1990; Lippitsch et al., JGR 2003). The standard isotropic velocity tomography, based on pre-AlpArray data (the currently performed passive seismic experiment in the Alps and surroundings) images the south-eastward dipping curved slab of the Eurasian lithosphere in the Western Alps. On the contrary, beneath the Eastern Alps the results indicate a very steep northward dipping root that resulted from the collision of the European plate with the Adriatic microplate. Dando et al. (2011) interpret high-velocity heterogeneities at the bottom of their regional tomographic model as a graveyard of old subducted lithospheres. High density of stations, large amount of rays and dense ray-coverage of the volume studied are not the only essential pre-requisites for reliable tomography results. A compromise between the amount of pre-processed data and the high-quality of the tomography input (travel-time residuals) is of the high importance as well. For the first time, the existence of two separate roots beneath the Alps has been revealed from carefully pre

  16. The water exchange between Chinchorro Bank and its surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Julio; Ochoa, Jose Luis; Sheinbaum, Julio; Lopez, Manuel; Cornado, Cesar

    2015-04-01

    Chinchorro Bank is a relatively large (~500 km^ 2) atoll situated 33 km in front of the Yucatan Peninsula in the Caribbean coast of Mexico. Two years of continuous measurements of the subsurface pressure field inside and around Chinchorro Bank, along with currents and waves observed outside, suggest four major processes governing the water exchange of the Bank with its surroundings: 1) surface wave pumping of water into the Bank through its eastern edge, 2) the large scale circulation in the region that drives the sea level changes through geostrophy, 3) the tidal pumping with imposed cyclic flows into and out of the Bank and 4) the imposed drift by the wind. Waves impinging all along the eastern barrier reef induce water inflows (from overtopping the reef) and generate a pressure gradient that drives a drift from east to west throughout the Bank. This western drift can normally replenish the water over the Bank with a time scale of ~10 days. However, extreme wave events, lasting around 24 hours, can replenish the whole Bank's water in the order of day. The region's large scale circulation is dominated by the zonal Cayman Current impinging on the Yucatan Peninsula becoming the Yucatan Current as it turns northward. Variability in the strength and impacting latitude of this current causes sea level gradients within the Bank, i.e., a Yucatan Current increase of 1 m/s, over a period of a couple of weeks, sets up a zonal sea level gradient within that can replenish the whole Bank's water in a time scale of ~14 days. At such times, the large scale current around the Bank is at a maximum thus ensuring an effective removal and dispersal of the exported waters. The Bank has a micro-tidal regime with a semidiurnal amplitude of ~12 cm during spring tides and a diurnal of ~2 cm, these imply that the Bank is exchanging ~10% of its waters with its surroundings daily. However small, this tidal pumping is effective for the ventilation of the Banks' waters in ~10 days due to the

  17. The structural feature surrounding glycated lysine residues in human hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shigenori; Nakahari, Takashi; Yamamoto, Daisuke

    2011-06-01

    Complications derived from diabetes mellitus are caused by nonenzymatic protein glycation at the specific sites. LC/MS/MS was performed for the identification of the tryptic peptides of glycated hemoglobins using glyceraldehyde. After the identification of the glycation or non-glycation site, computer analysis of the structure surrounding the sites was carried out using PDB data (1BZ0). Five glycated lysine residues (Lys-16(α), -56(α), -8(β), -82(β), and -144(β)) and four non-glycated lysine residues (Lys-7(α), -40(α), -99(α), and -132(β)) were identified. The non-glycated lysine residues, Lys-7(α), -40(α), and -132(β), are most likely to form electrostatic interactions with the β carboxyl group of Asp-74(α), C-terminal His-146(β), and Glu-7(β) by virtue of their proximity, which is 2.67-2.91 Å (N-O). Additionally, there are histidine residues within 4.55-7.38 Å (N-N) around eight sites except for Lys-7(α). We conclude that the following factors seem to be necessary for glycation of lysine residues: (i) the apparent absence of aspartate or glutamate residues to inhibit the glycation reaction by forming an electrostatic interaction, (ii) the presence of histidine residues for acid-base catalysis of the Amadori rearrangement, and (iii) the presence of an amino acid residue capable of stabilizing a phosphate during proton transfer.

  18. Dilemmas surrounding passive euthanasia--a Malaysian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talib, Norchaya

    2005-09-01

    In western societies where the principle of autonomy is jealously guarded, perhaps active euthanasia is more often the focus of public concern and debates rather than any other forms of euthanasia. However due to the advance in technology and its corresponding ability in prolonging life, in Malaysia passive euthanasia presents more of a dilemma. For those concerned and involved with end of life decision-making, it is generally agreed that this is an area fraught with not only medical but legal and ethical issues. In Malaysia where the society is not homogenous but is multi-cultural and multi-religious, in addition to medical, legal and ethical issues, religious principles and cultural norms further impact and play significant roles in end of life decision-making. This paper seeks to identify the issues surrounding the practice of passive euthanasia in Malaysia. It will be shown that despite applicable legal provisions, current practice of the medical profession combined with religious and cultural values together affect decision-making which involves the withholding and/or withdrawing of life-saving treatment.

  19. Mercury's interior, surface, and surrounding environment latest discoveries

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Pamela Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    This SpringerBrief details the MESSENGER Mission, the findings of which present challenges to widely held conventional views and remaining mysteries surrounding the planet. The work answers the question of why Mercury is so dense, and the implications from geochemical data on its planetary formation. It summarizes imaging and compositional data from the terrestrial planet surface processes and explains the geologic history of Mercury.  It also discusses the lack of southern hemisphere coverage. Our understanding of the planet Mercury has been in a transitional phase over the decades since Mariner 10. The influx of new data from the NASA MESSENGER Mission since it was inserted into the orbit of Mercury in March of 2011 has greatly accelerated that shift. The combined compositional data of relatively high volatiles (S, K), relatively low refractories (Al, Ca), and low crustal iron, combined with an active, partially molten iron rich core, has major implications for Mercury and Solar System formation. From a s...

  20. Zonal disintegration phenomenon in rock mass surrounding deep tunnels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hao; FANG Qin; GUO Zhi-kun

    2008-01-01

    Zonal disintegration is a typical static phenomenon of deep rock masses. It has been defined as alternating regions of fractured and relatively intact rock mass that appear around or in front of the working stope during excavation of a deep tunnel. Zonal disintegration phenomenon was successfully demonstrated in the laboratory with 3D tests on analogous gypsum models, two circular cracked zones were observed in the test. The linear Mohr-Coulomb yield criterion was used with a constitutive model that showed linear softening and ideal residual plastic to analyze the elasto-plastic field of the enclosing rock mass around a deep tunnel. The results show that tunneling causes a maximum stress zone to appear between an elastic and plastic zone in the surrounding rock. The zonal disintegration phenomenon is analyzed by considering the stress-strain state of the rock mass in the vicinity of the maximum stress zone. Creep instability failure of the rock due to the development of the plastic zone, and transfer of the maximum stress zone into the rock mass, are the cause of zonal disintegration. An analytical criterion for the critical depth at which zonal disintegration can occur is derived. This depth depends mainly on the character and stress concentration coefficient of the rock mass.

  1. Beliefs and practices surrounding postpartum period among Myanmar women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sein, Kyi Kyi

    2013-11-01

    to examine the postpartum beliefs and practices among young women (15-24 years) both quantitative and qualitative approaches were used: a cross-sectional comparative study using a semi-structured questionnaire and focus group discussions (FGDs). Kyimyindaing Township in the western district of Yangon, Myanmar. young women (15-24 years) who had experience of at least one live birth were included. A total of 196 women for a quantitative survey and 31 women for FGDs were recruited. postpartum beliefs and practices at the last childbirth were explored by a pretested semi-structured questionnaire and four FGDs (two in urban and two in rural areas). The survey questionnaire covered socio-demographic data, food and behavioural restrictions and observances during the last postpartum period and underlying reasons for those practices. Majority of participants followed the traditional postpartum practices regardless of the area of residence and education level. Notion of 'dirty lochia' was identified. traditional beliefs and practices surrounding post partum were highly prevalent among young women. Variation in degree and duration of adherence to postpartum taboos was noted. These beliefs and practices were imparted and perpetuated by women's close social network. the findings point out the importance of awareness of postpartum beliefs and practices among health staff for providing culturally sensitive health care and gaining better co-operation and mutual understanding in giving health care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Unilateral lung agenesis--detrimental roles of surrounding vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, An-Kou; Huang, Shu-Chien; Chen, Shyh-Jye; Huang, Pei-Ming; Wang, Jou-Kou; Wu, Mei-Hwan; Chen, Yih-Sharng; Chang, Chung-I; Chiu, Ing-Sh; Wu, En-Ting

    2007-03-01

    Unilateral lung agenesis is a rare congenital defect and could be associated with multiple abnormalities. The patients usually have poor long-term outcomes especially in those with right lung agenesis. We reviewed the 10-year experience in our hospital to describe special clinical features and try to delineate the causes of poor outcomes. From 1995 to 2005, 14 patients less than 18 years of age with unilateral lung agenesis (4 with left agenesis, 10 with right agenesis) were enrolled. Medical records reviewed included diagnosis, presentation, chromosome anomalies, cardiovascular anomalies and interventions, outcomes. We found that the mechanisms of severe airway disease in right lung agenesis included (1) trachea compression by the aortic arch, (2) the presence of "pseudo-ring-sling complex," (3) distended pulmonary artery due to left to right shunt which impinged the only bronchus, and finally (4) the persistent LSVC that restricts the growth of trachea. The etiologies of airway complication in left lung agenesis included anomalous aortic arch compression on trachea and the coexisting heart disease with significant left to right shunt, which impinged on the bronchus. In conclusion, unilateral lung agenesis has frequently associated airway problems due to its surrounding vessels. Satisfactory airway intervention remains challenging. This disease still requires great effort to improve patient outcomes.

  3. The interstellar cloud surrounding the Sun -- a new perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Gry, Cecile

    2014-01-01

    Aims: We offer a new, simpler picture of the local interstellar medium around the Sun (LISM) made of a single continuous cloud enveloping the Sun. This new outlook enables the description of a diffuse cloud from within and brings to light some unexpected properties. Methods: We re-examine the kinematics and abundances of the local interstellar medium, as revealed by the published results for the ultraviolet absorption lines of MgII, FeII and HI. Results: In contrast to previous representations, our new picture of the LISM consists of a single, monolithic cloud that surrounds the Sun in all directions and accounts for most of the matter present in the first 50 parsecs around the Sun. The cloud fills the space around us out to about 9 pc in most directions, although its boundary is very irregular with possibly a few extensions up to 20 pc. The cloud does not behave like a rigid body: gas within the cloud is being differentially decelerated in the direction of motion, and the cloud is expanding in directions per...

  4. Dense Ionized and Neutral Gas Surrounding Sgr A*

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, Hemant; Scoville, N Z

    2004-01-01

    We present high resolution H41a hydrogen recombination line observations of the 1.2' (3 pc) region surrounding Sgr A* at 92 GHz using the OVRO Millimeter Array with an angular resolution of 7" x 3" and velocity resolution of 13 km/s. New observations of H31a, H35a, H41a, and H44a lines were obtained using the NRAO 12-m telescope, and their relative line strengths are interpreted in terms of various emission mechanisms. These are the most extensive and most sensitive observations of recombination line to date. Observations of HCO+ (1 - 0) transition at 89 GHz are also obtained simultaneously with a 40% improved angular resolution and 4-15 times improved sensitivity over previous observations, and the distribution and kinematics of the dense molecular gas in the circumnuclear disk (CND) are mapped and compared with those of the ionized gas. The line brightness ratios of the hydrogen recombination lines are consistent with purely spontaneous emission from 7000 K gas with n_e = 20,000 cm$^{-3}$ near LTE condition...

  5. Instability of Magnetized Ionization Fronts Surrounding H II Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jeong-Gyu

    2014-01-01

    An ionization front (IF) surrounding an H II region is a sharp interface where a cold neutral gas makes transition to a warm ionized phase by absorbing UV photons from central stars. We investigate the instability of a plane-parallel D-type IF threaded by parallel magnetic fields, by neglecting the effects of recombination within the ionized gas. We find that weak D-type IFs always have the post-IF magnetosonic Mach number $\\mathcal{M}_{\\rm M2} \\leq 1$. For such fronts, magnetic fields increase the maximum propagation speed of the IFs, while reducing the expansion factor $\\alpha$ by a factor of $1+1/(2\\beta_1)$ compared to the unmagnetized case, with $\\beta_1$ denoting the plasma beta in the pre-IF region. IFs become unstable to distortional perturbations due to gas expansion across the fronts, exactly analogous to the Darrieus-Landau instability of ablation fronts in terrestrial flames. The growth rate of the IF instability is proportional linearly to the perturbation wavenumber as well as the upstream flow ...

  6. An insight in the surroundings of HR4796

    CERN Document Server

    Lagrange, A -M; Boccaletti, A; Lacour, S; Thebault, P; Chauvin, G; Mouillet, D; Augereau, J C; Bonnefoy, M; Ehrenreich, D; Kral, Q

    2012-01-01

    HR4796 is a young, early A-type star harbouring a well structured debris disk, shaped as a ring with sharp inner edges. It forms with the M-type star HR4796B a binary system, with a proj. sep. ~560 AU. Our aim is to explore the surroundings of HR4796A and B, both in terms of extended or point-like structures. Adaptive optics images at L'-band were obtained with NaCo in Angular Differential Mode and with Sparse Aperture Masking (SAM). We analyse the data as well as the artefacts that can be produced by ADI reduction on an extended structure with a shape similar to that of HR4796A dust ring. We determine constraints on the presence of companions using SAM and ADI on HR4796A, and ADI on HR4796B. We also performed dynamical simulations of a disk of planetesimals and dust produced by collisions, perturbed by a planet located close to the disk outer edge. The disk ring around HR4796A is well resolved. We highlight the potential effects of ADI reduction of the observed disk shape and surface brightness distribution,...

  7. Dead discs, unstable discs and the stars they surround

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Angelo Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Strong stellar magnetic fields significantly alter the behaviour of surrounding accretion discs. Recent work has demonstrated that at low accretion rates a large amount of mass can remain confined in the disc, contrary to the standard assumption that the magnetic field will expel the disc in an outflow (the “propeller regime”. These “dead discs” often become unstable, causing cycles of accretion onto the central star. Here I present the main predictions of this model, and argue that it provides a good explanation for the peculiar behaviour seen in several accreting sources with strong magnetic fields. I will focus in particular on three accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars: SAX J1808.4-3658, NGC 6440 X-2 and IGR J00291+5934. These sources all show low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations consistent with a variable accretion rate, as well as unusual outburst patterns that suggest gas is confined in the inner disc regions during quiescence.

  8. Preliminary Analysis of Slope Stability in Kuok and Surrounding Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewandra Bagus Eka Putra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of slope influenced by the condition of the rocks beneath the surface. On high level of slopes, amount of surface runoff and water transport energy is also enlarged. This caused by greater gravity, in line with the surface tilt from the horizontal plane. In other words, topsoil eroded more and more. When the slope becomes twice as steep, then the amount of erosion per unit area be 2.0 - 2.5 times more. Kuok and surrounding area is the road access between the West Sumatra and Riau which plays an important role economies of both provinces. The purpose of this study is to map the locations that have fairly steep slopes and potential mode of landslides. Based on SRTM data obtained,  the roads in Kuok area has a minimum elevation of + 33 m and a maximum  + 217.329 m. Rugged road conditions with slope ranging from 24.08 ° to 44.68 ° causing this area having frequent landslides. The result of slope stability analysis in a slope near the Water Power Plant Koto Panjang, indicated that mode of active failure is toppling failure or rock fall and the potential zone of failure is in the center part of the slope.

  9. Expression of zebrafish nos2b surrounds oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Kar-Lai; Richardson, Michael; Korzh, Vladimir

    2008-06-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) catalyzes the production of nitric oxide (NO), and is one of the factors establishing innate immunity. In zebrafish, Nos2 is represented by nos2a and nos2b. Here, we report the cloning and expression pattern of the zebrafish nos2b gene, which does not seem to participate in induced immune response. nos2b was mapped to zebrafish linkage group 15. The spatial and temporal expression pattern of nos2b in embryonic zebrafish was analyzed by whole-mount in situ hybridization. nos2b is expressed constitutively in two primordia located along the ventral midline. The first group of cells contributes to the neurohypophysis. Initially at the level of the ventral hindbrain, the second group of cells migrates closely with the thyroid primordium to its final position at the basihyal by 3 dpf. Thus, the analysis of expression pattern of nos2b reveals complex morphogenetic movements resulting in its expression surrounding the oral cavity.

  10. Thermoelectric Performance Enhancement by Surrounding Crystalline Semiconductors with Metallic Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jung; King, Glen C.; Park, Yeonjoon; Lee, Kunik; Choi, Sang H.

    2011-01-01

    Direct conversion of thermal energy to electricity by thermoelectric (TE) devices may play a key role in future energy production and utilization. However, relatively poor performance of current TE materials has slowed development of new energy conversion applications. Recent reports have shown that the dimensionless Figure of Merit, ZT, for TE devices can be increased beyond the state-of-the-art level by nanoscale structuring of materials to reduce their thermal conductivity. New morphologically designed TE materials have been fabricated at the NASA Langley Research Center, and their characterization is underway. These newly designed materials are based on semiconductor crystal grains whose surfaces are surrounded by metallic nanoparticles. The nanoscale particles are used to tailor the thermal and electrical conduction properties for TE applications by altering the phonon and electron transport pathways. A sample of bismuth telluride decorated with metallic nanoparticles showed less thermal conductivity and twice the electrical conductivity at room temperature as compared to pure Bi2Te3. Apparently, electrons cross easily between semiconductor crystal grains via the intervening metallic nanoparticle bridges, but phonons are scattered at the interfacing gaps. Hence, if the interfacing gap is larger than the mean free path of the phonon, thermal energy transmission from one grain to others is reduced. Here we describe the design and analysis of these new materials that offer substantial improvements in thermoelectric performance.

  11. Democratizing rendering for multiple viewers in surround VR systems

    KAUST Repository

    Schulze, Jürgen P.

    2012-03-01

    We present a new approach for how multiple users\\' views can be rendered in a surround virtual environment without using special multi-view hardware. It is based on the idea that different parts of the screen are often viewed by different users, so that they can be rendered from their own view point, or at least from a point closer to their view point than traditionally expected. The vast majority of 3D virtual reality systems are designed for one head-tracked user, and a number of passive viewers. Only the head tracked user gets to see the correct view of the scene, everybody else sees a distorted image. We reduce this problem by algorithmically democratizing the rendering view point among all tracked users. Researchers have proposed solutions for multiple tracked users, but most of them require major changes to the display hardware of the VR system, such as additional projectors or custom VR glasses. Our approach does not require additional hardware, except the ability to track each participating user. We propose three versions of our multi-viewer algorithm. Each of them balances image distortion and frame rate in different ways, making them more or less suitable for certain application scenarios. Our most sophisticated algorithm renders each pixel from its own, optimized camera perspective, which depends on all tracked users\\' head positions and orientations. © 2012 IEEE.

  12. Representing the egocentric auditory space: relationships of surrounding region concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Marcella C; Hermann, Thomas; Schack, Thomas; Bläsing, Bettina

    2013-03-01

    We investigated the representation of azimuthal directions of sound sources under two different conditions. In the first experiment, we examined the participants' mental representation of sound source directions via similarity judgments. Auditory stimuli originating from sixteen loudspeakers positioned equidistantly around the participant were presented in pairs, with the first stimulus serving as the anchor, and thereby providing the context for the second stimulus. For each pair of stimuli, participants had to rate the sound source directions as either similar or dissimilar. In the second experiment, the same participants categorized single sound source directions using verbal direction labels (front, back, left, right, and combinations of any two of these). In both experiments, the directions within the front and back regions were more distinctively categorized than those on the sides, and the sides' categories included more directions than those of the front or back. Furthermore, we found evidence that the left-right decision comprises the basic differentiation of the surrounding regions. These findings illustrate what seem to be central features of the representation of directions in auditory space.

  13. GIANT Hα NEBULA SURROUNDING THE STARBURST MERGER NGC 6240

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Michitoshi [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Yagi, Masafumi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Kashikawa, Nobunari [Optical and Infrared Astronomy Division, National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Ohyama, Youichi [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, 11F of Astronomy-Mathematics Building, AS/NTU No.1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, R.O.C. (China); Tanaka, Hisashi [Department of Physical Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Okamura, Sadanori, E-mail: yoshidam@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Advanced Sciences, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Hosei University, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8584 (Japan)

    2016-03-20

    We revealed the detailed structure of a vastly extended Hα-emitting nebula (“Hα nebula”) surrounding the starburst/merging galaxy NGC 6240 by deep narrow-band imaging observations with the Subaru Suprime-Cam. The extent of the nebula is ∼90 kpc in diameter and the total Hα luminosity amounts to L{sub Hα} ≈ 1.6 × 10{sup 42} erg s{sup −1}. The volume filling factor and the mass of the warm ionized gas are ∼10{sup −4}–10{sup −5} and ∼5 × 10{sup 8} M{sub ⊙}, respectively. The nebula has a complicated structure, which includes numerous filaments, loops, bubbles, and knots. We found that there is a tight spatial correlation between the Hα nebula and the extended soft-X-ray-emitting gas, both in large and small scales. The overall morphology of the nebula is dominated by filamentary structures radially extending from the center of the galaxy. A large-scale bipolar bubble extends along the minor axis of the main stellar disk. The morphology strongly suggests that the nebula was formed by intense outflows—superwinds—driven by starbursts. We also found three bright knots embedded in a looped filament of ionized gas that show head-tail morphologies in both emission-line and continuum, suggesting close interactions between the outflows and star-forming regions. Based on the morphology and surface brightness distribution of the Hα nebula, we propose the scenario that three major episodes of starburst/superwind activities, which were initiated ∼10{sup 2} Myr ago, formed the extended ionized gas nebula of NGC 6240.

  14. IRIS Observation of a Sunspot and the Surrounding Plage Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    TIAN, H.; DeLuca, E. E.; Mcintosh, S. W.; Reeves, K. K.; McKillop, S.; Weber, M.; Saar, S.; Golub, L.; Testa, P.

    2013-12-01

    NASA's IRIS mission is providing high-cadence and high-resolution observations of the solar transition region and chromosphere. We present preliminary results from IRIS observation of a sunspot and the surrounding plage region. The major findings in this observation can be summarized as following: (1) The slit jaw images in the filters of 1400Å and 1330Å reveal the presence of many rapidly evolving fibril-like structures in the transition region for the first time. These thin and long structures mainly reside in the plage region. They could be strands of low-lying cool transition region loops or the transition region counterpart of chromospheric spicules. (2) The C II and Mg II line profiles are almost Gaussian in the sunspot umbra and clearly exhibit a deep reversal at the line center in the plage region, suggesting a greatly reduced opacity in the sunspot atmosphere. (3) Bidirectional jets are frequently occurring mainly in the plage region immediately outside the sunspot throughout the observation. Triple or double Gaussian fit to the line profiles of Si IV suggests a velocity as high as 100 km/s. These velocity values are of the same order of the Alfven speed in the transition region. (4)Three-minute oscillation is clearly present in the sunspot umbra. The oscillation is identified in not only the slit jaw images of 2796Å, 1400Å and 1330Å, but also in spectra of the bright Mg II, C II and Si IV lines. Strong non-linearity is clearly seen in the intensity and Doppler shift oscillations. Interestingly, the obvious increase of the line width only occurs at the times of largest blue shift. The correlated change of the intensity and Doppler shift suggests an upward propagating magneto-acoustic shock wave.

  15. Isoperimetric inequalities in surround system and space science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JiaJin Wen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract By means of the algebraic, analysis, convex geometry, computer, and inequality theories we establish the following isoperimetric inequality in the centered 2-surround system S ( 2 { P , Γ , l } $S^{(2} \\{P,\\varGamma ,l \\}$ : ( 1 | Γ | ∮ Γ r ¯ P p 1 / p ⩽ | Γ | 4 π sin l π | Γ | [ csc l π | Γ | + cot 2 l π | Γ | ln ( tan l π | Γ | + sec l π | Γ | ] , ∀ p ⩽ − 2 . $$\\begin{aligned}& \\biggl(\\frac{1}{|\\varGamma |} \\oint_{\\varGamma }\\bar{r}_{P}^{p} \\biggr^{1/p}\\leqslant\\frac{|\\varGamma |}{4\\pi}\\sin\\frac{l\\pi}{|\\varGamma |} \\biggl[ \\csc \\frac{l\\pi}{|\\varGamma |}+\\cot^{2} \\frac{l\\pi}{|\\varGamma |} \\ln \\biggl(\\tan \\frac{l\\pi}{|\\varGamma |}+\\sec\\frac{l\\pi}{|\\varGamma |} \\biggr \\biggr], \\\\& \\quad \\forall p\\leqslant -2. \\end{aligned}$$ As an application of the inequality in space science, we obtain the best lower bounds of the mean λ-gravity norm ∥ F λ ( Γ , P ∥ ‾ $\\overline{\\Vert {\\mathbf{F}}_{\\lambda} ( \\varGamma ,P \\Vert }$ as follows: ∥ F λ ( Γ , P ∥ ‾ ≜ 1 | Γ | ∮ Γ 1 ∥ A − P ∥ λ ⩾ ( 2 π | Γ | λ , ∀ λ ⩾ 2 . $$\\overline{\\bigl\\Vert {\\mathbf{F}}_{\\lambda} ( \\varGamma ,P \\bigr\\Vert } \\triangleq\\frac{1}{|\\varGamma |} \\oint_{\\varGamma }\\frac{1}{\\|A-P\\|^{\\lambda }}\\geqslant \\biggl(\\frac{2\\pi}{|\\varGamma |} \\biggr^{\\lambda},\\quad \\forall \\lambda\\geqslant2. $$

  16. The interstellar cloud surrounding the Sun: a new perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gry, Cécile; Jenkins, Edward B.

    2014-07-01

    Aims: We offer a new, simpler picture of the local interstellar medium, made of a single continuous cloud enveloping the Sun. This new outlook enables the description of a diffuse cloud from within and brings to light some unexpected properties. Methods: We re-examine the kinematics and abundances of the local interstellar gas, as revealed by the published results for the ultraviolet absorption lines of Mg II, Fe II, and H I. Results: In contrast to previous representations, our new picture of the local interstellar medium consists of a single, monolithic cloud that surrounds the Sun in all directions and accounts for most of the matter present in the first 50 parsecs around the Sun. The cloud fills the space around us out to about 9 pc in most directions, although its boundary is very irregular with possibly a few extensions up to 20 pc. The cloud does not behave like a rigid body: gas within the cloud is being differentially decelerated in the direction of motion, and the cloud is expanding in directions perpendicular to this flow, much like a squashed balloon. Average H I volume densities inside the cloud vary between 0.03 and 0.1 cm-3 over different directions. Metals appear to be significantly depleted onto grains, and there is a steady increase in depletion from the rear of the cloud to the apex of motion. There is no evidence that changes in the ionizing radiation influence the apparent abundances. Secondary absorption components are detected in 60% of the sight lines. Almost all of them appear to be interior to the volume occupied by the main cloud. Half of the sight lines exhibit a secondary component moving at about -7.2 km s-1 with respect to the main component, which may be the signature of a shock propagating toward the cloud's interior.

  17. DEFORMATION OF MOISTURE FLUX CIRCULATION SURROUNDING THE LANDFALL TYPHOON "BILIS"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAN Ling-kun; YANG Wen-xia; HONG Yan-chao

    2009-01-01

    The deformation parameter (DP), which is defined as the product of shear deformation and stretching deformation of moisture flux circulation, is introduced. The tendency equation of DP is derived in pressure coordinates. Furthermore, DP is used to diagnose the deformation character of moisture flux circulation in the periphery of Bilis. The analysis showed that before Bilis landed, DP presented eight abnormal areas, which distributed alternately and closely encircled the low-pressure center. This indicated that the moisture flux circulation in the periphery of Bilis rotated counterclockwise and stretched longitudinally and latitudinally to deform. After Bilis landed, DP weakened gradually and its regular pattern of horizontal distribution loosened. The shear and stretching deformations of moisture flux circulation surrounding Bilis weakened after the typhoon landed. The deformation of moisture flux circulation in the periphery of Bilis mainly appeared in the middle-lower troposphere. There existed 1/2 phase difference between the shear and stretching deformations in the vertical-latitudinal cross section and a π/4 phase difference between them on the horizontal plane. As Bilis landed and further moved inland of China, the intensities of DP, shear and stretching deformations decreased, meanwhile their vertical and horizontal structures became irregular. The chief dynamic factors responsible for the deformation of moisture flux circulation in the periphery of Bilis were the three terms associated with the three-dimensional advection transportation of DP, square difference between shear and stretching deformations coupling with Coriolis parameter, and horizontal gradient of geopotential height before Bilis landed. The last two dynamic factors impacted jointly on the deformation of moisture flux circulation after Bilis landed.

  18. Rain Simulation for the Test of Automotive Surround Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasirlioglu, Sinan; Riener, Andreas; Doric, Igor

    2017-04-01

    The WHO Global Health Observatory data indicates that over 1.25 million people die in traffic accidents annually. To save lives, car manufacturers spend lot of efforts on the development of novel safety systems aiming to avoid or mitigate accidents and provide maximum protection for vehicle occupants as well as vulnerable road users. All the safety features mainly rely on data from surround sensors such as radar, lidar and camera and intelligent vehicles today use these environmental data for instant decision making and vehicle control. As already small errors in sensor data measurements could lead to catastrophes like major injuries or road traffic fatalities, it is of utmost importance to ensure high reliability and accuracy of sensors and safety systems. This work focuses on the influence of environmental factors such as rain conditions, as it is known that rain drops scatter the electromagnetic waves. The result is incorrect measurements with a direct negative impact on environment detection. To identify potential problems of sensors under varying environmental conditions, systems are today tested in real-world settings with two main problems: First, tests are time-consuming and second, environmental conditions are not reproducible. Our approach to test the influence of weather on automotive sensors is to use an indoor rain simulator. Our artificial rain maker, installed at CARISSMA (Center of Automotive Research on Integrated Safety Systems and Measurement Area), is parametrized with rain characteristics measured in the field using a standard disdrometer. System behavior on artificial rain is compared and validated with natural rainfall. With this simulator it is finally possible to test environmental influence at various levels and under reproducible conditions. This saves lot of efforts required for the test process itself and furthermore has a positive impact on the reliability of sensor systems due to the fact that test driven development is enabled.

  19. Circumstances surrounding dying in the paediatric intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plötz Frans B

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Death is inevitable in the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU. We aimed to describe the circumstances surrounding dying in a PICU. Method The chart records of all patients less than 18 years of age who died at the PICU between January first 2000 and July first 2005 were retrospectively analyzed. Information regarding sex, age, length of stay, admission, diagnosis, and the way a patient died was registered. Post mortem information regarding natural versus unnatural death, autopsy and donation was obtained. Non-survivors were allocated in five groups: do-not-resuscitate (DNR, withholding and/or withdrawal of therapy (W/W, failed cardiopulmonary resuscitation (failed CPR, brain death (BD, and terminal organ failure (TOF. Results During the study period 87 (4.4% of the 1995 admitted patients died. Non-survivors were more often admitted during the day (54% and the week (68%. W/W was found in 27.6%, TOF in 26.4%, BD in 23.0%, failed CPR in 18.4%, and DNR in 4.6%. Forty-three percent died in the first two days, of which BD (40.5% and failed CPR (37.8% were most common. Seventy-five children (86% died due to a natural cause. Autopsy permission was obtained in 19 of 54 patients (35%. The autopsies confirmed the clinical diagnosis in 11 patients, revealed new information in 5 patients, and in 3 patients the autopsy did not provide additional information. Nine patients were medically suitable for organ donation and 24 patients for tissue donation, whereas consent was only obtained in 2 cases in both groups. Conclusion We observed that 43% of the patients died within the first two days of admission due to BD and failed CPR, whereas after 4 days most patients died after W/W. Autopsy remains an useful tool to confirm clinical diagnoses or to provide new information. Only a small percentage of the deceased children is suitable for organ donation.

  20. Highly Enriched Uranium Metal Cylinders Surrounded by Various Reflector Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard Jones; J. Blair Briggs; Leland Monteirth

    2007-05-01

    A series of experiments was performed at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory in 1958 to determine critical masses of cylinders of Oralloy (Oy) reflected by a number of materials. The experiments were all performed on the Comet Universal Critical Assembly Machine, and consisted of discs of highly enriched uranium (93.3 wt.% 235U) reflected by half-inch and one-inch-thick cylindrical shells of various reflector materials. The experiments were performed by members of Group N-2, particularly K. W. Gallup, G. E. Hansen, H. C. Paxton, and R. H. White. This experiment was intended to ascertain critical masses for criticality safety purposes, as well as to compare neutron transport cross sections to those obtained from danger coefficient measurements with the Topsy Oralloy-Tuballoy reflected and Godiva unreflected critical assemblies. The reflector materials examined in this series of experiments are as follows: magnesium, titanium, aluminum, graphite, mild steel, nickel, copper, cobalt, molybdenum, natural uranium, tungsten, beryllium, aluminum oxide, molybdenum carbide, and polythene (polyethylene). Also included are two special configurations of composite beryllium and iron reflectors. Analyses were performed in which uncertainty associated with six different parameters was evaluated; namely, extrapolation to the uranium critical mass, uranium density, 235U enrichment, reflector density, reflector thickness, and reflector impurities. In addition to the idealizations made by the experimenters (removal of the platen and diaphragm), two simplifications were also made to the benchmark models that resulted in a small bias and additional uncertainty. First of all, since impurities in core and reflector materials are only estimated, they are not included in the benchmark models. Secondly, the room, support structure, and other possible surrounding equipment were not included in the model. Bias values that result from these two simplifications were determined and associated

  1. Behavioural aspects surrounding medicine purchases from pharmacies in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmerton L

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to produce current data regarding behavioural aspects of non-prescription (over-the-counter medicine purchases, in light of changes in the pharmaceutical market and increasing provision of professional services in pharmacies.Methods: Data were collected in 15 community pharmacies in South-East Queensland, Australia, over 540 hours in five days in August, 2006. The method, previously validated, involved documentation of both observational and interview data. Fifteen trained researchers were stationed in a selected pharmacy each to unobtrusively observe all eligible sales of non-prescription medicines, and, where possible, interview the purchasers post-sale. Non-response was supplemented by observational data and recall by the salesperson. The data included details of the purchase and purchasing behaviour, while new questions addressed issues of topical importance, including customers’ privacy concerns. A selection of the analyses is reported here.Results: In total, 3470 purchases were documented (135-479 per pharmacy, with customers of 67.5% of purchases (74.7% excluding an outlier pharmacy participating in the survey. Customers averaged 1.2 non-prescription medicines per transaction. Two-thirds (67.2% of customers were female, and 38.8% of the customers were aged 31-45 years. Analgesics and respiratory medicines accounted for two-thirds of the sales data (33.4% and 32.4%, respectively. Intended-brand purchases comprised 71% of purchases (2004/2824; in-store substitution then occurred in 8.8% of these cases, mainly following recommendations by pharmacy staff. Medicines intended for self-use comprised 62.9% of purchases (1752/2785. First-time purchases (30.8%, 799/2594 were more commonly influenced by pharmacy staff than by advertising.Conclusions: This study used validated methods adapted to a changing marketplace, thus providing data that both confirm and add to knowledge surrounding medicine purchases. Despite the

  2. Reliability analysis of tunnel surrounding rock stability by Monte-Carlo method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XI Jia-mi; YANG Geng-she

    2008-01-01

    Discussed advantages of improved Monte-Carlo method and feasibility aboutproposed approach applying in reliability analysis for tunnel surrounding rock stability. Onthe basis of deterministic parsing for tunnel surrounding rock, reliability computing methodof surrounding rock stability was derived from improved Monte-Carlo method. The com-puting method considered random of related parameters, and therefore satisfies relativityamong parameters. The proposed method can reasonably determine reliability of sur-rounding rock stability. Calculation results show that this method is a scientific method indiscriminating and checking surrounding rock stability.

  3. Clinical Observation of Vascular Dementia Treated by Surrounding-acupuncture of the CT-located Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUN Xin; FENG Bi-fang; RONG Li; YANG Wen-hui

    2003-01-01

    Purpose To observe the clinical effect of "Surrounding Needling Technigue through CT Location" in treating vascular dementia. Method Fifty cases of vascular dementia were randomly divided into surrounding Needling Technigue through CT location and routine acupuncture groups, 25 cases in each group,and were given surrounding Needling Technigue through CT location and routine acupuncture respectively. Results The effective rates in surrounding Needling Technigue through CT location and routine acupuncture groups were 88% and 60% respectively, and there was significant difference between the two groups, P < 0.01.Conclusion Therapeutic effect of surrounding Needling Technigue through CT location in treating vascular dementia was satisfactory, and better than that of routine acupuncture.

  4. LaVo4: Eu Phosphor Films with Enhanced Eu Solubility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Harold

    2011-08-11

    Eu doped rare-earth orthovanadates are known to be good red phosphor materials. In particular, LaVO{sub 4}:Eu is a promising candidate due to the low Eu-site point symmetry, and thus high dipole transition probability within Judd-Ofelt theory. However, the low solubility limit (< 3 mol %) of Eu in LaVO{sub 4} prevents its efficient use as a phosphor. We present optical evidence of enhanced Eu solubility as high as 10 mol % in LaVO{sub 4}:Eu thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition and postannealing. The photoluminescent intensity exceeded that of YVO{sub 4}:Eu thin films when excited below the host bandgap, indicating stronger direct emission of Eu in LaVO{sub 4}.

  5. Inhibition of the dorsal premotor cortex does not repair surround inhibition in writer's cramp patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veugen, Lidwien C; Hoffland, Britt S; Stegeman, Dick F; van de Warrenburg, Bart P

    2013-03-01

    Writer's cramp is a task-specific form of focal dystonia, characterized by abnormal movements and postures of the hand and arm during writing. Two consistent abnormalities in its pathophysiology are a loss of surround inhibition and overactivity of the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd). This study aimed to assess a possible link between these two phenomena by investigating whether PMd inhibition leads to an improvement of surround inhibition, in parallel with previously demonstrated writing improvement. Fifteen writer's cramp patients and ten controls performed a simple motor hand task during which surround inhibition was measured using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Motor cortical excitability was measured of the active and surround muscles at three phases of the task. Surround inhibition and writing performance were assessed before and after PMd inhibitory continuous theta burst stimulation. In contrast to healthy controls, patients did not show inhibition of the abductor digiti minimi muscle during movement initiation of the first dorsal interosseus muscle, confirming the loss of surround inhibition. PMd inhibition led to an improvement of writing speed in writer's cramp patients. However, in both groups, no changes in surround inhibition were observed. The results confirm a role for the PMd in the pathophysiology of writer's cramp. We show that PMd inhibition does not lead to restoration of the surround inhibition defect in writer's cramp, despite the improvement in writing. This questions the involvement of the PMd in the loss of surround inhibition, and perhaps also the direct link between surround inhibition and dystonia.

  6. Numerical analysis of tunnel reinforcing influences on failure process of surrounding rock under explosive stress waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Yu-jun; TANG Chun-an; ZHU Wan-cheng; LI Di-yuan; LI Shu-cai

    2008-01-01

    Based on mesoscopic damage mechanics, numerical code RFPA2D (dynamic edition) was developed to analyze the influence of tunnel reinforcing on failure process of surrounding rock under explosive stress waves. The results show that the propagation phenomenon of stress wave in the surrounding rock of tunnel and the failure process of surrounding rock under explosive stress waves are reproduced realistically by using numerical code RFPAED; from the failure process of surrounding rock,the place at which surrounding rock fractures is transferred because of tunnel reinforcing, and the rockfall and collapse caused by failure of surrounding rock are restrained by tunnel reinforcing; furthermore, the absolute values of peak values of major principal stress, and the minimal principal stress and shear stress at center point of tunnel roof are reduced because of tunnel reinforcing, and the displacement at center point of tunnel roof is reduced as well, consequently the stability of tunnel increases.

  7. The cross-correlation of signals and spatial impression in surround sound reproduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between the cross-correlation coefficients of feeding signals and auditory spatial impression(ASI) which are created by the left,right,left surround and right surround loudspeakers in 5.1 channel surround sound system is investigated by psychoacoustic experiments.The results show that for reproducing by the front left-right or left-right surround loudspeakers pair,the auditory source width(ASW) can be broadened by controlling the crosscorrelation coefficients of feeding signals to some e...

  8. Comparison of Socioeconomic Factors between Surrounding and Non-Surrounding Areas of the Qinghai–Tibet Railway before and after Its Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shicheng Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available As the world’s highest railway, and the longest highland railway, the Qinghai–Tibet Railway (QTR has been paid considerable attention by researchers. However, most attention has been paid to the ecological and environmental issues affecting it, and sustainable ecological, social, and economic development-related studies of the QTR are rare. In this study, by analyzing the passenger traffic, freight traffic, passenger-kilometers, and freight-kilometers of the QTR for the period 1982–2013 and the transport structure of the Tibetan Plateau (TP for 1990–2013, the evolutionary process of the transport system in the TP following the construction of the QTR has been revealed. Subsequently, by comparing Gross Domestic Product (GDP, population, industrial structure, and urbanization level at the county and 1 km scales between surrounding and non-surrounding areas of the QTR, the differences in socioeconomic performance before and after its construction were detected. The results show that (1 in the TP, the highway-dominated transport system will break up and an integrated and sustainable transport system will form; (2 at the county scale, the annual growth rates of GDP of counties surrounding the QTR were greater than those of non-surrounding counties for the period 2000–2010. At the 1 km scale, following the opening of the completed line, the GDP of surrounding areas had a greater growth rate than before; (3 analysis at the county and 1 km scales indicated that population was not aggregated into the surrounding areas of the QTR in the period 2000–2010; (4 in terms of industrial structure, the proportion of primary industry decreased continuously, while the proportion of secondary and tertiary industries increased overall in the period 1984–2012. The QTR had no obvious impact on changes in the urbanization level of its surrounding areas.

  9. An oxygen-rich dust disk surrounding an evolved star in the Red Rectangle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waters, LBFM; Waelkens, C; van Winckel, H; Molster, FJ; Tielens, AGGM; van Loon, JT; Morris, PW; Cami, J; Bouwman, J; de Koter, A; de Jong, T; de Graauw, T

    1998-01-01

    The Red Rectangle(1) is the prototype of a class of carbon-rich reflection nebulae surrounding low-mass stars in the final stages of evolution. The central star of this nebula has ejected most of its layers (during the red-giant phase), which now form the surrounding cloud, and is rapidly evolving t

  10. The Space of an Object: Object Attention Alters the Spatial Gradient in the Surround

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravitz, Dwight Jacob; Behrmann, Marlene

    2008-01-01

    Although object-based attention enhances perceptual processing of information appearing within the boundaries of a selected object, little is known about the consequences for information in the object's surround. The authors show that distance from an attended object's center of mass determines reaction time (RT) to targets in the surround. Of 2…

  11. Different surrounding landscapes may result in different fish assemblages in East African seagrass beds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorenbosch, M.; Grol, M.G.G.; Nagelkerken, I.; Velde, G. van der

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have considered how seagrass fish assemblages are influenced by surrounding habitats. This information is needed for a better understanding of the connectivity between tropical coastal ecosystems. To study the effects of surrounding habitats on the composition, diversity and densities of

  12. Surround modulation characteristics of local field potential and spiking activity in primary visual cortex of cat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhang

    Full Text Available In primary visual cortex, spiking activity that evoked by stimulus confined in receptive field can be modulated by surround stimulus. This center-surround interaction is hypothesized to be the basis of visual feature integration and segregation. Spiking output has been extensively reported to be surround suppressive. However, less is known about the modulation properties of the local field potential (LFP, which generally reflects synaptic inputs. We simultaneously recorded spiking activity and LFP in the area 17 of anesthetized cats to examine and compare their modulation characteristics. When the stimulus went beyond the classical receptive field, LFP exhibited decreased power along the gamma band (30-100 Hz in most of our recording sites. Further investigation revealed that suppression of the LFP gamma mean power (gLFP depended on the angle between the center and surround orientations. The strongest suppression was induced when center and surround orientations were parallel. Moreover, the surround influence of the gLFP exhibited an asymmetric spatial organization. These results demonstrate that the gLFP has similar but not identical surround modulation properties, as compared to the spiking activity. The spatiotemporal integration of LFP implies that the oscillation and synchronization of local synaptic inputs may have important functions in surround modulation.

  13. Effects of surrounding elements on city image in the sample of Erzurum city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ozer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Structural elements which are the parts of city identities are shaped as the result of social and cultural characteristics and natural factors. In order to increase visual quality of cities and make cities more liveable landscape architects use not only living materials such as plants but also nonliving materials. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of surrounding elements which are vertical elements in landscape designs, on functional and city aesthetics. With this aim, materials used in surrounding elements around houses in Erzurum, houses surrounded by these elements and their harmony with their surroundings, aesthetics and functional effects were investigated and their contributions to city image were determined. While surrounding elements are mainly adequate in functions, they are lower quality in aesthetics. Some suggestions were offered for the city images that local councils should be careful on and due to Universiade in 2011.

  14. Catastrophe mechanism and disaster countermeasure for soft rock roadway surrounding rock in Meihe mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Yang⇑; Zhu Caikun; Chong Deyu; Liu Yang; Li Sichao

    2015-01-01

    The soft rock’s heterogeneity and nonlinear mechanical behavior cause extremely difficult maintenance on the soft rock roadway. Aiming at the asymmetric deformation and destruction phenomenon appearing after excavating and supporting the 7101 air return way in Meihe mine, this paper comprehensively adopted a variety of methods to analyze the roadway surrounding rock deformation rule, obtaining the roadway surrounding rock stress and plastic zone distribution rule under no supporting condition and the roadway surrounding rock deformation features under original symmetric supporting condition. Furthermore, this paper revealed the catastrophe mechanism, and proposed the concept of‘weak struc-ture’ and the disaster countermeasure of‘overall stabilizing the roadway and strengthening the support of weak structure’ . The industrial test shows that the disaster control technology can realize the coordination deformation of the supporting structure and roadway surrounding rock, thus significantly controlling the deformation of roadway surrounding rock.

  15. Effect of longwall length on mechanical characteristics of surrounding rock stress shell in mining face

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guang-Xiang Xie; Lei Wang [Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan (China)

    2008-12-15

    The mechanical characteristics of surrounding rock stress shell in longwall mining face were studied, based on the results of in-situ measurement combined with numerical simulation, and the effect of longwall length on mechanical characteristics of surrounding rock stress shell was discovered. The results show that the mechanical characteristics of surrounding rock stress shell are influenced by the length of the face. With an increase of mining face length, the level of concentration of shell stress located in the front face and surrounding rock of roadway is amplified and the three- dimensional stress is focused in the working face. The damage lies in the head entry corner of face and the vertical displacement is reduced but horizontal displacement is enlarged. The dynamic balance of surrounding rock stress shell is improved with rational adjustment of face length. It is effective in protecting the working face and controlling strata behavior. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Stability classification model of mine-lane surrounding rock based on distance discriminant analysis method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei; LI Xi-bing; GONG Feng-qiang

    2008-01-01

    Based on the principle of Mahalanobis distance discriminant analysis (DDA) theory, a stability classification model for mine-lane surrounding rock was established, including six indexes of discriminant factors that reflect the engineering quality of surrounding rock: lane depth below surface, span of lane, ratio of directly top layer thickness to coal thickness, uniaxial comprehensive strength of surrounding rock, development degree coefficient of surrounding rock joint and range of broken surrounding rock zone. A DDA model was obtained through training 15 practical measuring samples. The re-substitution method was introduced to verify the stability of DDA model and the ratio of mis-discrimination is zero. The DDA model was used to discriminate3 new samples and the results are identical with actual rock kind. Compared with the artificial neural network method and support vector mechanic method, the results show that this model has high prediction accuracy and can be used in practical engineering.

  17. Varieties of Quest and the Religious Openness Hypothesis within Religious Fundamentalist and Biblical Foundationalist Ideological Surrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Watson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the Religious Openness Hypothesis, the religious and psychological openness of American Christians is obscured by a defensive ghettoization of thought associated with a Religious Fundamentalist Ideological Surround and can be discovered instead within a Biblical Foundationalist Ideological Surround. A test of this claim examined Religious Fundamentalism, Biblical Foundationalism, Quest, and Multidimensional Quest Scales in 432 undergraduates. Christian Religious Reflection, Religious Schema, and Religious Orientation measures clarified these two ideological surrounds. Partial correlations controlling for Biblical Foundationalism described a Religious Fundamentalist Ideological Surround that more strongly rejected Quest and that more generally displayed a failure to integrate faith with intellect. Partial correlations controlling for Religious Fundamentalism revealed a Biblical Foundationalist Ideological Surround that was more open to Quest and that offered numerous demonstrations of an ability to unite faith with intellect. These data supplemented previous investigations in demonstrating that Christianity and other traditional religions have ideological resources for promoting a faithful intellect.

  18. Cholinergic enhancement reduces orientation-specific surround suppression but not visual crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosovicheva, Anna A; Sheremata, Summer L; Rokem, Ariel; Landau, Ayelet N; Silver, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) reduces the spatial spread of excitatory fMRI responses in early visual cortex and receptive field size of V1 neurons. We investigated the perceptual consequences of these physiological effects of ACh with surround suppression and crowding, two phenomena that involve spatial interactions between visual field locations. Surround suppression refers to the reduction in perceived stimulus contrast by a high-contrast surround stimulus. For grating stimuli, surround suppression is selective for the relative orientations of the center and surround, suggesting that it results from inhibitory interactions in early visual cortex. Crowding refers to impaired identification of a peripheral stimulus in the presence of flankers and is thought to result from excessive integration of visual features. We increased synaptic ACh levels by administering the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil to healthy human subjects in a placebo-controlled, double-blind design. In Experiment 1, we measured surround suppression of a central grating using a contrast discrimination task with three conditions: (1) surround grating with the same orientation as the center (parallel), (2) surround orthogonal to the center, or (3) no surround. Contrast discrimination thresholds were higher in the parallel than in the orthogonal condition, demonstrating orientation-specific surround suppression (OSSS). Cholinergic enhancement decreased thresholds only in the parallel condition, thereby reducing OSSS. In Experiment 2, subjects performed a crowding task in which they reported the identity of a peripheral letter flanked by letters on either side. We measured the critical spacing between the targets and flanking letters that allowed reliable identification. Cholinergic enhancement with donepezil had no effect on critical spacing. Our findings suggest that ACh reduces spatial interactions in tasks involving segmentation of visual field locations but that these effects may be limited to early

  19. Cholinergic enhancement reduces orientation-specific surround suppression but not visual crowding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A. Kosovicheva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine (ACh reduces the spatial spread of excitatory fMRI responses in early visual cortex and the receptive field sizes of V1 neurons. We investigated the perceptual consequences of these physiological effects of ACh with surround suppression and crowding, two tasks that involve spatial interactions between visual field locations. Surround suppression refers to the reduction in perceived stimulus contrast by a high-contrast surround stimulus. For grating stimuli, surround suppression is selective for the relative orientations of the center and surround, suggesting that it results from inhibitory interactions in early visual cortex. Crowding refers to impaired identification of a peripheral stimulus in the presence of flankers and is thought to result from excessive integration of visual features. We increased synaptic ACh levels by administering the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil to healthy human subjects in a placebo-controlled, double-blind design. In Exp. 1, we measured surround suppression of a central grating using a contrast discrimination task with three conditions: 1 surround grating with the same orientation as the center (parallel, 2 surround orthogonal to the center, or 3 no surround. Contrast discrimination thresholds were higher in the parallel than in the orthogonal condition, demonstrating orientation-specific surround suppression (OSSS. Cholinergic enhancement reduced thresholds only in the parallel condition, thereby reducing OSSS. In Exp. 2, subjects performed a crowding task in which they reported the identity of a peripheral letter flanked by letters on either side. We measured the critical spacing between the target and flanking letters that allowed reliable identification. Cholinergic enhancement had no effect on critical spacing. Our findings suggest that ACh reduces spatial interactions in tasks involving segmentation of visual field locations but that these effects may be limited to early visual cortical

  20. Neural mechanisms of surround attenuation and distractor competition in visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehler, Carsten N; Tsotsos, John K; Schoenfeld, Mircea A; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Hopf, Jens-Max

    2011-04-06

    Visual attention biases relevant processing in the visual system by amplifying relevant or attenuating irrelevant sensory input. A potential signature of the latter operation, referred to as surround attenuation, has recently been identified in the electromagnetic brain response of human observers performing visual search. It was found that a zone of attenuated cortical excitability surrounds the target when the search required increased spatial resolution for item discrimination. Here we address the obvious hypothesis that surround attenuation serves distractor suppression in the vicinity of the target where interference from irrelevant search items is maximal. To test this hypothesis, surround attenuation was assessed under conditions when the target was presented in isolation versus when it was surrounded by distractors. Surprisingly, substantial and indistinguishable surround attenuation was seen under both conditions, indicating that it reflects an attentional operation independent of the presence of distractors. Adding distractors in the target's surround, however, increased the amplitude of the N2pc--an evoked response known to index distractor competition in visual search. Moreover, adding distractors led to a topographical change of source activity underlying the N2pc toward earlier extrastriate areas. In contrast, the topography of reduced source activity due to surround attenuation remained unaltered with and without distractors in the target's surround. We conclude that surround attenuation is not a direct consequence of the attenuation of distractors in visual search and that it dissociates from attentional operations reflected by the N2pc. A theoretical framework is proposed that links both operations in a common model of top-down attentional selection in visual cortex.

  1. Numerical Analysis of Advanced Displacement in Construction Progress of Tunnel Excavation with Weak Surrounding Rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of advanced displacement in construction progress of tunnel excavation with weak surrounding rock is carried out by numerical method and comparison of model test result. In allusion to the problems of regional landslides and extruded large-deformation seriously impacting the stability of rock mass in construction process of large-section tunnel with weak surrounding rock, the elastic-plastic numerical simulation relying on Liangshui tunnel of Lan-Yu railroad is conducted on mechanical behaviors and deformation steric effect of tunnel construction and the calculation results are compared with the modeling data. The research results show that: the steric effect of excavation face is the dominant factor in the incidence of working face and the stress of surrounding rocks gradually releases from excavation face; the range of 0.5~1 times the cave diameter around rock mass in front of working face is the disturbance range and the key area of stabilization and reinforcement for wake surrounding rock. According to the analysis and construction practice, the supporting structure of large-section tunnel with weak surrounding rock should be established as soon as possible to control the displacement change of surrounding rock in the range of load-bearing ring, reduce disturbance and improve the self-bearing capability of surrounding rock. Because of the distinct excavation steric effect of weak surrounding rock, the secondary lining structure must be established in time to bear the later pressure and restrict the large displacement of surrounding rock. The research results can provide reliable basis for engineering stability control of analogous tunnels.

  2. Surrounding Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogens Steffensen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Research in insurance and finance was always intersecting although they were originally and generally viewed as separate disciplines. Insurance is about transferring risks between parties such that the burdens of risks are borne by those who can. This makes insurance transactions a beneficial activity for the society. It calls on detection, modelling, valuation, and controlling of risks. One of the main sources of control is diversification of risks and in that respect it becomes an issue in itself to clarify diversifiability of risks. However, many diversifiable risks are not, by nature or by contract design, separable from non-diversifiable risks that are, on the other hand, sometimes traded in financial markets and sometimes not. A key observation is that the economic risk came before the insurance contract: Mother earth destroys and kills incidentally and mercilessly, but the uncertainty of economic consequences can be more or less cleverly distributed by the introduction of an insurance market.

  3. Analytical Modeling of Electric Field Distribution in Dual Material Junctionless Surrounding Gate MOSFETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Suveetha Dhanaselvam

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, electric field distribution of the junctionless dual material surrounding gate MOSFETs (JLDMSG is developed. Junctionless is a device that has similar characteristics like junction based devices, but junctionless has a positive flatband voltage with zero electric field. In Surrounding gate MOSFETs gate material surrounds the channel in all direction , therefore it can overcome the short channel effects effectively than other devices. In this paper, surface potential and electric field distribution is modelled. The proposed surface potential model is compared with the existing central potential model. It is observed that the short channel effects (SCE is reduced and the performance is better than the existing method.

  4. Stresses and Shear Fracture Zone of Jinshazhou Tunnel Surrounding Rock in Rich Water Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Jun-jie; LOU Xiao-ming

    2008-01-01

    Field evidence has shown that large-scale and unstable discontinuous planes in the rock mass surrounding tunnels in rich water region are probably generated after excavation. The tunnel surrounding rock was divided into three zones, including elastic zone, plastic damage zone and shear fracture zone fof assessing the stability of the tunnel surrounding rock. By local hydrogeology, the stresses of surrounding rock of Jinshazhou circular tunnel was analyzed and the stress solutions on the elastic and plastic damage zones were obtained by applying the theories of fluid-solid coupling and elasto-plastic damage mechanics. The shear fracture zone generated by joints was studied and its range was determined by using Mohr-Coulomb strength criterion. Finally, the correctness of the theoretical results was validated by comparing the scopes of shear fracture zones calculated in this paper with those from literature.

  5. Analysis of nonlinear dynamic character in the surrounding rock system for deep buried underground engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yu; PENG Hai-you

    2010-01-01

    Combining the field monitoring results of a deep-buried tunnel in Chongqing,the dynamic characteristics of the surrounding rock system under high in situ stress was analyzed by phase space reconstruction, calculating correlation dimension, Kolmogorov entropy and largest Lyapunov exponents. Both the Kolmogorov entropy and largest Lyapunov exponents show that the surrounding rock system is a chaotic one. Based on this, a local model was applied to predict surrounding rock displacement, and a nonlinear dynamic model was derived to forecast the interaction of the surrounding rock and support structure. The local method was found to have an extremely small total error. Also, the nonlinear dynamic model forecasting curves agree with the monitoring ones very well. It is proved that the nonlinear dynamic characteristic study is very important in analyzing rock stability and predicting the evolution of rock systems.

  6. The relation between residential property and its surroundings and day- and night-time residential burglary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montoya, Lorena; Junger, Marianne; Ongena, Yfke

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how residential property and its surroundings influence day- and night-time residential burglary. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) principles of territoriality, surveillance, access control, target hardening, image maintenance, and activity support underpin

  7. Effect of surface contamination on osseointegration of dental implants surrounded by circumferential bone defects.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mohamed, Seif

    2010-05-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of surface contamination on osseointegration of dental implants surrounded by a circumferential bone defect and to compare osseointegration around Osseotite with that around Nanotite implants.

  8. Particulate capture efficiency of a vegetative environmental buffer surrounding an animal feeding operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate matter emitted from tunnel-ventilated animal feeding operations (AFOs) is known to transport malodorous compounds. As a mitigation strategy, vegetative environmental buffers (VEBs) are often installed surrounding AFOs to capture particulates and induce lofting and dispersion. Currently, ...

  9. Hurricane Gustav Aerial Photography: Rapid ResponseImagery of the Surrounding Regions After Landfall

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of the surrounding regionsafter Hurricane Gustav made landfall. The aerial photography missions wereconducted by the NOAA Remote...

  10. Hurricane Dennis Aerial Photography: Draft Image Mosaics of the Florida Panhandle and Surrounding Regions After Landfall

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of the Florida panhandle and surrounding regions after Hurricane Dennis made landfall. The regions photographed range from...

  11. Review of roadway control in soft surrounding rock under dynamic pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯朝炯

    2003-01-01

    The basic characteristics of the soft rock roadway under the dynamic pressure are analyzed. At the same time, the three fundamental approaches for controlling the surrounding rock are proposed, which are improving the surrounding rock strength, lowering the rock mass stress and selecting the reasonable supporting technology. The research results are elucidated, including the distribution of the surrounding rock plastic zone, the movement and damage of the surrounding rock under the dynamic pressure, controlling the floor heave through reinforcing the roadway walls and corners, the new route to develop the roadway metal supporting technique, the key theory and technique for the bolt supporting in the coal roadway, the performance and prospect of the ZKD high-water-content quick-setting material, and so on. Finally, some personally views are put forward about the roadway metal supporting, bolt supporting, new material and the stress-relief under the high stress condition.

  12. Targeting Alzheimer's disease by investigating previously unexplored chemical space surrounding the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Greunen, DG

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of twenty seven acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, as potential agents for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, were designed and synthesised based upon previously unexplored chemical space surrounding the molecular skeleton of the drug...

  13. Divergence in cis-regulatory sequences surrounding the opsin gene arrays of African cichlid fishes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Quin, Kelly E; Smith, Daniel; Naseer, Zan; Schulte, Jane; Engel, Samuel D; Loh, Yong-Hwee E; Streelman, J Todd; Boore, Jeffrey L; Carleton, Karen L

    2011-01-01

    .... We use phylogenetic footprinting and shadowing to examine divergence in conserved non-coding elements, promoter sequences, and 3'-UTRs surrounding each opsin in search of candidate cis-regulatory...

  14. Hurricane Ike Aerial Photography: Rapid ResponseImagery of the Surrounding Regions After Landfall

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of the surrounding regionsafter Hurricane Ike made landfall. The aerial photography missions wereconducted by the NOAA Remote...

  15. Modelling of the effect of discontinuities on the extent of the fracture zone surrounding deep tunnels

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sellers, EJ

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of physical and numerical model tests were performed to investigate the behaviour of the rock surrounding circular excavations under high confining pressures. The aim was to provide information on the formation of fractures around deep...

  16. Site Cleanup of Radioactive Isotope Container Rinsing Pool and Surrounding Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive isotope container rinsing pool and surrounding environmental site was a place of fabrication of container, and package, transportation and storage of radioactive isotopes. A heavy contamination existed in this area for burying of some radioactive wastes.

  17. Reduced visual surround suppression in schizophrenia shown by measuring contrast detection thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Pedraza, Ignacio; Romero-Ferreiro, Verónica; Read, Jenny C. A.; Diéguez-Risco, Teresa; Bagney, Alexandra; Caballero-González, Montserrat; Rodríguez-Torresano, Javier; Rodriguez-Jimenez, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Visual perception in schizophrenia is attracting a broad interest given the deep knowledge that we have about the visual system in healthy populations. One example is the class of effects known collectively as visual surround suppression. For example, the visibility of a grating located in the visual periphery is impaired by the presence of a surrounding grating of the same spatial frequency and orientation. Previous studies have suggested abnormal visual surround suppression in patients with schizophrenia. Given that schizophrenia patients have cortical alterations including hypofunction of NMDA receptors and reduced concentration of GABA neurotransmitter, which affect lateral inhibitory connections, then they should be relatively better than controls at detecting visual stimuli that are usually suppressed. We tested this hypothesis by measuring contrast detection thresholds using a new stimulus configuration. We tested two groups: 21 schizophrenia patients and 24 healthy subjects. Thresholds were obtained using Bayesian staircases in a four-alternative forced-choice detection task where the target was a grating within a 3∘ Butterworth window that appeared in one of four possible positions at 5∘ eccentricity. We compared three conditions, (a) target with no-surround, (b) target embedded within a surrounding grating of 20∘ diameter and 25% contrast with same spatial frequency and orthogonal orientation, and (c) target embedded within a surrounding grating with parallel (same) orientation. Previous results with healthy populations have shown that contrast thresholds are lower for orthogonal and no-surround (NS) conditions than for parallel surround (PS). The log-ratios between parallel and NS thresholds are used as an index quantifying visual surround suppression. Patients performed poorly compared to controls in the NS and orthogonal-surround conditions. However, they performed as well as controls when the surround was parallel, resulting in significantly

  18. Camouflaging in a Complex Environment—Octopuses Use Specific Features of Their Surroundings for Background Matching

    OpenAIRE

    Noam Josef; Piero Amodio; Graziano Fiorito; Nadav Shashar

    2012-01-01

    Living under intense predation pressure, octopuses evolved an effective and impressive camouflaging ability that exploits features of their surroundings to enable them to "blend in." To achieve such background matching, an animal may use general resemblance and reproduce characteristics of its entire surroundings, or it may imitate a specific object in its immediate environment. Using image analysis algorithms, we examined correlations between octopuses and their backgrounds. Field experiment...

  19. Low-energy neutron flux measurement using a resonance absorption filter surrounding a lithium glass scintillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghal-Eh, N.; Koohi-Fayegh, R.; Hamidi, S.

    2007-06-01

    The resonance absorption filter technique has been used to determine the thermal/epithermal neutron flux. The main idea in this technique is to use an element with a high and essentially singular resonance in the neutron absorption cross section as a filter surrounding a miniature-type lithium glass scintillator. The count with and without the filter surrounding the detector gives the number of resonance-energy neutrons. Some preliminary results and a comparison with the MCNP code are shown.

  20. P1-13: Color Induction from Surround Color under Interocular Suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Kuriki

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of surround colors on color appearance is known to subserve color constancy in humans, but how multiple mechanisms in the visual system are involved in this effect is controversial. We used an interocular-suppression technique to examine how the effect occurs at the level higher than the interaction of binocular information. A test color chip (1.7 × 1.7 deg visual angle was presented in a static surround either with continuous-flash suppression in the dominant eye (CFS condition to make the surround inperceptible or without the suppression (no-CFS condition. The surround stimulus was either a Mondrian or a uniform field of the same mean chromaticity. Stimuli were simulated OSA color chips under red, white (D65, or green illuminant color and were presented on a CRT display. Unique yellows were measured by asking the subjects to judge whether the test stimulus appeared reddish or greenish. Two sizes of the surround stimuli (widths of 1 deg and 4 deg were used. Results showed significant shifts in unique yellow even under the CFS conditions, except for the 1 deg uniform-surround condition. Under the no-CFS condition, the shifts showed remarkable difference between subjects, except for the 4 deg Mondrian-surround condition. Interestingly, trends of the shifts showed high consistency within each subject, across conditions. These results indicate that mechanisms at both higher and lower levels than the neuronal site of interocular suppression are involved, and that the color shifts follow each subject's strategy in the higher-order mechanisms when only insufficient clues are available in the surround to estimate illuminant color.

  1. Deformation characteristics of surrounding rock of broken and soft rock roadway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin-xi Wang; Ming-yue Lin; Duan-xin Tian; Cun-liang Zhao [Hebei University of Engineering, Handan (China)

    2009-03-15

    A similar material model and a numerical simulation were constructed and are described. The deformation and failure of surrounding rock of broken and soft roadway are studied by using these models. The deformation of the roof and floor, the relative deformation of the two sides and the deformation of the deep surrounding rock are predicted using the model. Measurements in a working mine are compared to the results of the models. The results show that the surrounding rock shows clear rheological features under high stress conditions. Deformation is unequally distributed across the whole section. The surrounding rock exhibited three deformation stages: displacement caused by stress concentration, rheological displacement after the digging effects had stabilized and displacement caused by supporting pressure of the roadway. Floor heave was serious, accounting for 65% of the total deformation of the roof and floor. Floor heave is the main reason for failure of the surrounding rock. The reasons for deformation of the surrounding rock are discussed based on the similar material and numerical simulations. 12 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Preictal and ictal neurovascular and metabolic coupling surrounding a seizure focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mingrui; Nguyen, John; Ma, Hongtao; Nishimura, Nozomi; Schaffer, Chris B; Schwartz, Theodore H

    2011-09-14

    Epileptic events initiate a large focal increase in metabolism and cerebral blood flow (CBF) to the ictal focus. In contrast, decreases in CBF have been demonstrated surrounding the focus, the etiology of which is unknown (i.e., arising either from active shunting of blood or passive steal). The relationship between these events and neuronal activity and metabolism are also unknown. We investigated neurovascular and neurometabolic coupling in the ictal surround using optical imaging of light scattering and cerebral blood volume, autofluorescence flavoprotein imaging (AFI), direct measurements of the cortical metabolic rate of oxygen and two-photon imaging of blood vessel diameter in a rat model of ictal events elicited with focal injection of 4-aminopyridine. We discovered a novel phenomenon, in which ictal events are preceded by preictal vasoconstriction of blood vessels in the surround, occurring 1-5 s before seizure onset, which may serve to actively shunt oxygenated blood to the imminently hypermetabolic focus or may be due to small local decreases in metabolism in the surround. Early ictal hypometabolism, transient decreases in cell swelling and cerebral blood volume in the surround are consistent with early ictal surround inhibition as a precipitating event in seizure onset as well as shaping the evolving propagating ictal wavefront, although the exact mechanism of these cerebrovascular and metabolic changes is currently unknown. AFI was extremely sensitive to the ictal onset zone and may be a useful mapping technique with clinical applications.

  3. Fovea-periphery axis symmetry of surround modulation in the human visual system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauri Nurminen

    Full Text Available A visual stimulus activates different sized cortical area depending on eccentricity of the stimulus. Here, our aim is to understand whether the visual field size of a stimulus or cortical size of the corresponding representation determines how strongly it interacts with other stimuli. We measured surround modulation of blood-oxygenation-level-dependent signal and perceived contrast with surrounds that extended either towards the periphery or the fovea from a center stimulus, centered at 6° eccentricity. This design compares the effects of two surrounds which are identical in visual field size, but differ in the sizes of their cortical representations. The surrounds produced equally strong suppression, which suggests that visual field size of the surround determines suppression strength. A modeled population of neuronal responses, in which all the parameters were experimentally fixed, captured the pattern of results both in psychophysics and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Although the fovea-periphery anisotropy affects nearly all aspects of spatial vision, our results suggest that in surround modulation the visual system compensates for it.

  4. Impact of surrounding tissue on conductance measurement of coronary and peripheral lumen area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won Choi, Hyo; Jansen, Benjamin; Zhang, Zhen-Du; Kassab, Ghassan S

    2012-11-07

    Parallel conductance (electric current flow through surrounding tissue) is an important determinant of accurate measurements of arterial lumen diameter, using the conductance method. The present study is focused on the role of non-uniform geometrical/electrical configurations of surrounding tissue, which are a primary source of electric current leakage. Computational models were constructed to simulate the conductance catheter measurement with two different excitation electrodes spacings (i.e. 12 and 20 mm for coronary and peripheral sizing, respectively) for different vessel-tissue configurations: (i) blood vessel fully embedded in muscle tissue, (ii) blood vessel superficially embedded in muscle tissue, and (iii) blood vessel superficially embedded in muscle tissue with fat covering half of the arterial vessel (anterior portion). The simulations suggest that the parallel conductance and accuracy of measurement is dependent on the inhomogeneous/anisotropic configuration of surrounding tissue, including the asymmetric dimension and anisotropy in electrical conductivity of surrounding tissue. Specifically, the measurement was shown to be accurate as long as the vessel was superficial, regardless of the considerable total surrounding tissue dimension for coronary or peripheral arteries. Moreover, it was shown that the unfavourable impact of parallel conductance on the accuracy of conductance catheter measurement is decreased by the combination of a lower transverse electrical conductivity of surrounding muscle tissue, a smaller electrode spacing and a larger lumen diameter. The present findings confirm that the conductance catheter technique provides an accurate platform for sizing of clinically relevant (i.e. superficial and diseased) arteries.

  5. Influence of Surrounding Acupuncture by Cranial MRI Location on Blood Rheology in Apoplectic Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Gang-hui; LI Yan-hui; ZHUANG Zi-qi; HUANG Yong; LI Jian-ping; HUANG Guo-qi

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To study the function of surrounding acupuncture located by cranial MRI on apoplexy. Method: Forty cases of the patients diagnosed as cerebral infarction were divided into the group of surrounding acupuncture by MRI location and the group of traditional scalp acupuncture, 20 cases in each group,and were treated respectively with surrounding acupunc -ture by MRI location and traditional scalp acupuncture,to determine the indexes of blood rheology before and after treatments. Results: There was significant diffe -fence (P<0.01) in comparison of various indexes in blood rheology between the apoplectic patients and healthy adults of same age. In comparison before and after the treatments in the group of surrounding acupunc -ture by MRI location there was significant difference (P<0.01) in various indexes of blood rheology, except ESR and ESR equation K value. In comparison before and after the treatments in the group of traditional scalp acupuncture, there was significant difference (P<0.05) in various indexes of blood rheology, except ESR, sclerosis index and ESR equation K value. Conclusion: The findings indicate that blood becomes thick and flows slowly and resistance increases in blood flow in the apoplectic patients. The two kinds of the needling techniques have an improving function in various indexes of blood rheology in the apoplectic patients and surrounding acupuncture by MRI location was better than traditional scalp acupuncture in improving blood rheology.

  6. Response suppression in v1 agrees with psychophysics of surround masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenger-Landolt, Barbara; Heeger, David J

    2003-07-30

    When a target stimulus is embedded in a high contrast surround, the target appears reduced in contrast and is harder to detect, and neural responses in visual cortex are suppressed. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and psychophysics to quantitatively compare these physiological and perceptual effects. Observers performed a contrast discrimination task on a contrast-reversing sinusoidal target grating. The target was either presented in isolation or embedded in a high-contrast surround. While observers performed the task, we also measured fMRI responses as a function of target contrast, both with and without a surround. We found that the surround substantially increased the psychophysical thresholds while reducing fMRI responses. The two data sets were compared, on the basis of the assumption that a fixed response difference is required for correct discrimination, and we found that the psychophysics accounted for 96.5% of the variance in the measured V1 responses. The suppression in visual areas V2 and V3 was stronger, too strong to agree with psychophysics. The good quantitative agreement between psychophysical thresholds and V1 responses suggests V1 as a plausible candidate for mediating surround masking.

  7. Enhancing area surrounding breast carcinoma on MR mammography: comparison with pathological examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goethem, M. van; Verslegers, I.; Biltjes, I.; Schepper, A. de [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Antwerp, Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650, Edegem (Belgium); Schelfout, K.; Colpaert, C. [Department of Pathology, University Hospital Antwerp, Antwerpen (Belgium); Kersschot, E. [Department of Radiology, OLV Hospital, Aalst (Belgium); Tjalma, W.A. [Department of Gynaecology and Gynaecological Oncology, University Hospital Antwerp, Antwerpen (Belgium); Weyler, J. [Department of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, University Antwerp, Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2004-08-01

    The enhancing area surrounding breast carcinoma on MR mammography is correlated with findings from pathological examination. We studied 194 patients with breast cancer who underwent preoperative MR mammography. Of all malignant lesions presenting with an enhancing surrounding area on MR mammography, morphologic features including long spicules, a ductal pattern, diffuse enhancement or nodules were evaluated and compared with histopathological examination. A double breast coil was used; we performed a 3D FLASH sequence with contiguous coronal slices of 2 mm, before and after injection of 0.2 mmol/kg GD-DTPA, and subtraction images were obtained. In total, 297 malignant lesions were detected at MR mammography and 101 of them had one or more types of enhancing surrounding area. In 49 of the 53 cancers with long spicules and in 49 of the 55 cancers with surrounding ductal pattern of enhancement, pathological examination showed in situ and/or invasive carcinoma. Multiple nodules adjacent to the carcinoma were seen in 20 patients and corresponded with six cases of invasive and ten cases of ductal in situ carcinoma. A diffuse enhancing area next to a mass was seen in ten patients and consisted of carcinoma in all cases: seven in situ and three invasive carcinomas. Enhancing areas including long spicules, a ductal pattern, noduli, or diffuse enhancement surrounding a carcinoma corresponded with in situ or invasive extension of the carcinoma in 92.5, 89, 80 and 100% of cases, respectively. (orig.)

  8. Stress and deformation analysis on deep surrounding rock at different time stages and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ming; Mao Xianbiao; Yu Yuanlin; Li Kai; Ma Chao; Peng Yan

    2012-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of the deep circular tunnel,the surrounding rock was divided into three regions:the cracked region,the plastic region and the viscoelastic region.The process of rock stress deformation and change was divided into three stages after the roadway excavation.By using the elastic-plastic mechanics theory,the analytical solutions of the surrounding stress and displacement at different stages and the radii of cracked and plastic regions were formulated.We additionally explained the surrounding rock stress and displacement which appeared in practical project.Simultaneously,based on the problem which emerged from a mine in Xuzhou during the excavating process of rock roadway's transport,we got the theoretical solutions for the stress and displacement in the process of rock roadway's excavation and considered that the broken area of rock roadway was largely loosing circle.The results indicate that according to the rheological characteristics of surrounding rock,in the primeval excavation of rock roadway,we should increase the length of anchor bolt and cooperate it with anchor nets cable-U steel supporting frame.In addition,when the deformation rate of the surrounding rock is descending after the 15 days' excavation,we should use the "three anchor" supporting method (anchor bolt spray,anchor note and anchor rope) and set aside about 20 cm as the reserved deformation layer.

  9. Cooperatively surrounding control for multiple Euler-Lagrange systems subjected to uncertain dynamics and input constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-Ming; Lv, Yue-Yong; Li, Chuan-Jiang; Ma, Guang-Fu

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate cooperatively surrounding control (CSC) of multi-agent systems modeled by Euler-Lagrange (EL) equations under a directed graph. With the consideration of the uncertain dynamics in an EL system, a backstepping CSC algorithm combined with neural-networks is proposed first such that the agents can move cooperatively to surround the stationary target. Then, a command filtered backstepping CSC algorithm is further proposed to deal with the constraints on control input and the absence of neighbors’ velocity information. Numerical examples of eight satellites surrounding one space target illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB720000) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61304005 and 61403103).

  10. Macro mechanical parameters' size effect of surrounding rock of Shuibuya project's underground power station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Zhi-hua; ZHOU Chuang-bing; ZHOU Huo-ming; SHENG Qian; LENG Xian-lun

    2005-01-01

    Scale effect is one of the important aspects in the macro mechanical parameters' research of rock mass, from a new point of view, by means of lab and field rock mechanics test, establishment of E~Vp relation, classification of engineering rock mass, numerical simulation test and back analysis based on surrounding rock's displacement monitoring results of Shuibuya Project's underground power station, rock mass deformation module's size effect of surrounding rock of Shuibuya Project's undegroud power station was studied. It's shown that rock mass deformation module's scale effect of surrounding rock of Shuibuya Project's undeground power station is obvious, the rock mass deformation module to tranquilization is 20% of intact rock's. Finally the relation between rock mass deformation modules and the scale of research was established.

  11. Idea of tourist management of the Radojewo palace park and surrounding areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Mikołajczak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to create a proper tourist trails in the palace park in Radojewo and surrounding areas, according to protected areas requirements, local space management plan, as well as with harmony with natural and landscape values. The ecotourism was found as the only possible kind of tourism in this area. The present areas management is not sufficient, hence the proposition of supplementation presented here, such as information tables and small architecture elements. Radojewo and its surroundings are a high tourism potential areas. The new bicycle trail is proposed in the neighbourhood of the park. It is meant to create a better communication with surrounding areas. Two kinds of pedestrian trails are suggested on the park area together with proper tourist infrastructure. There is also a necessity to assign the palace as a historical object.

  12. ANALYSIS ON INCREMENTAL COHESION OF SURROUNDING ROCK DUE TO PRESTRESSED CABLE ANCHOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏建中; 闫莫明; 滕年保; 李方政

    1998-01-01

    A new method for determining the incremental cohesion △Cm of surrounding rock due toprestressed cable anchor is presented, and the formulas for △Cm are deduced and ACredistributions also are discussed, based on the two anchorage effects, one is the effect with theprestressed value △Q3 of cable anchor improving the stress state of surrounding rock andincreasing the surrounding rock strength, the other is the fully encapsulated effect. Thedetermined incremental cohesion △Cm is subjected to the model test and field measurement in thereferences, and coincides well with those tested results. The formulas for △Cm can be used indesigning supoport parameters and related numerical analyses of prestressed cable anchor.

  13. Confronting, Confirming, and Dispelling Myths Surrounding ERP-in-the-Cloud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beaulieu, Tanya; C. Martin, Todd; Sarker, Saonee

    2015-01-01

    on the topic, there is substantial uncertainty surrounding the benefits and challenges of ERP cloud computing. Consequently, as often is the case with new technologies, popular myths surrounding the technology are used to make adoption and implementation decisions. As a first step toward providing an informed...... with stakeholders related to an ERP cloud-based solution. Our results dispel some of the myths, while supporting others, and highlight how ERP vendors work around the different types of challenges surrounding this technology. Our study also helps understand the benefits of ERP cloud computing, and informs about how...... cloud-based ERP systems will free organizations from the information system “iron cage” and lead to agile organizations....

  14. Context-Adaptive Arithmetic Coding Scheme for Lossless Bit Rate Reduction of MPEG Surround in USAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sungyong; Pang, Hee-Suk; Sung, Koeng-Mo

    We propose a new coding scheme for lossless bit rate reduction of the MPEG Surround module in unified speech and audio coding (USAC). The proposed scheme is based on context-adaptive arithmetic coding for efficient bit stream composition of spatial parameters. Experiments show that it achieves the significant lossless bit reduction of 9.93% to 12.14% for spatial parameters and 8.64% to 8.96% for the overall MPEG Surround bit streams compared to the original scheme. The proposed scheme, which is not currently included in USAC, can be used for the improved coding efficiency of MPEG Surround in USAC, where the saved bits can be utilized by the other modules in USAC.

  15. Motion detection, noise reduction, texture suppression, and contour enhancement by spatiotemporal Gabor filters with surround inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkov, Nicolai; Subramanian, Easwar

    2007-12-01

    We study the orientation and speed tuning properties of spatiotemporal three-dimensional (3D) Gabor and motion energy filters as models of time-dependent receptive fields of simple and complex cells in the primary visual cortex (V1). We augment the motion energy operator with surround suppression to model the inhibitory effect of stimuli outside the classical receptive field. We show that spatiotemporal integration and surround suppression lead to substantial noise reduction. We propose an effective and straightforward motion detection computation that uses the population code of a set of motion energy filters tuned to different velocities. We also show that surround inhibition leads to suppression of texture and thus improves the visibility of object contours and facilitates figure/ground segregation and the detection and recognition of objects.

  16. Effects of Surrounding Information and Line Length on Text Comprehension from the Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jess McMullin

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The World Wide Web (Web is becoming a popular medium for transmission of information and online learning. We need to understand how people comprehend information from the Web to design Web sites that maximize the acquisition of information. We examined two features of Web page design that are easily modified by developers, namely line length and the amount of surrounding information, or whitespace. Undergraduate university student participants read text and answered comprehension questions on the Web. Comprehension was affected by whitespace; participants had better comprehension for information surrounded by whitespace than for information surrounded by meaningless information. Participants were not affected by line length. These findings demonstrate that reading from the Web is not the same as reading print and have implications for instructional Web design.

  17. Research on the stability analysis and design of soil tunnel surrounding rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Yingren; Qiu Chenyu; Xiao Qiang

    2010-01-01

    The paper first analyzes the failure mechanism and mode of tunnel according to model experiments and mechanical calculation and then discusses the deficiency of taking the limit value of displacement around the tunnel and the size of the plastic zone of surrounding rock as the criterion of stability.So the writers put forward the idea that the safety factor of surrounding rock calculated through strength reduction FEM(finit element method)should be regarded as the criterion of stability,which has strict mechanical basis and unified standard and would not be influenced by other factors.The paper also studies the safety factors of tunnel surrounding rock(safety factors of shear and tension failure)and lining and some methods of designing and calculating tunnels.At last,the writers take the loess tunnel for instance and show the design and calculation results of two-lane railway tunnel.

  18. Molecular gas and triggered star formation surrounding Wolf-Rayet stars

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Tie; Zhang, Huawei

    2012-01-01

    The environments surrounding nine Wolf-Rayet stars were studied in molecular emission. Expanding shells were detected surrounding these WR stars (see left panels of Figure 1). The average masses and radii of the molecular cores surrounding these WR stars anti-correlate with the WR stellar wind velocities (middle panels of Figure 1), indicating the WR stars has great impact on their environments. The number density of Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) is enhanced in the molecular shells at $\\sim$5 arcmin from the central WR star (lower-right panel of Figure 1). Through detailed studies of the molecular shells and YSOs, we find strong evidences of triggered star formation in the fragmented molecular shells (\\cite[Liu et al. 2010]{liu_etal12}

  19. Damage Characteristics of Surrounding Rock Subjected to VCR Mining Blasting Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For limiting the damage range caused by explosive shock loads in vertical crater retreat (VCR mining, the blasting damage characteristics of surrounding rock were studied by two methods: numerical simulation and ultrasonic testing. Combined with the mining blasting in Dongguashan Copper Mine of China, the VCR blasting shock characteristics under different conditions are obtained by using LSDYNA. Based on statistical fracture mechanics and damage mechanics theories, a damage constitutive model for rock mass subjected to blasting shock load was established. Then by using the fast Lagrange analysis codes (FLAC3D, the blasting damage characteristics of surrounding rock were analyzed by applying the blasting shock loads obtained from the VCR mining and the damage zone is obtained. At last, the relationship between the amount of explosives and the radius of damaged surrounding rock mass was discussed, and its formula was also derived. The research provides a theoretical basis for rationally controlling stope boundaries and optimizing mining blasting parameters.

  20. Settlement behavior of coal mine waste in different surrounding rock conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Chun-de; LI Xi-bing; HU Bing-nan; CHEN Feng; XU Ji-cheng; LI Di-yuan

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of complex conditions of in-situ surrounding rocks on the settlement behavior of nubbly coal mine waste subjected to high gravity pressure, four kinds of loading chambers made of different similar materials with different elastic moduli in experiments were used to simulate the deformation features of in-site rocks, including soft, moderate hardness, hard and extra-hard rocks. The results show that all the settlement-axial load (or axial strain-stress) curves obtained under four different surrounding rock conditions present power-exponential function feature. The final settlement of coal mine waste under the same axial load is closely related to the lumpiness gradations and the deformation behavior of chamber materials used to simulate behaviors of different in-situ surrounding rocks. In the same surrounding rock condition, the final settlement under the same maximum axial load decreases with the decrease of the proportion of larger gradation of coal mine waste. While for the same lumpiness gradation case, the settlement increases with the decrease of elastic modulus of simulated surrounding rocks and the lateral pressure induced by axial load increases with the increase of elastic modulus of loading chambers that are used to simulate different surrounding rocks. The test results also reveal that both the compaction curve and lateral pressure curve show a three-stage behavior, and the duration of each stage, which is closely related to gradations and the deformation feature of loading chamber materials, decreases with the increase of the proportion of the small size of coal mine waste and elastic modulus of the simulated rock materials.