The variation management framework (VMF): A unifying graphical representation of robust design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Howard, Thomas J.; Eifler, Tobias; Pedersen, Søren Nygaard
2017-01-01
In this article a framework for robust design and variation management is proposed by combining central models to Robust Design, namely, the Quality Loss Function, the Transfer Function, and the Domains of Axiomatic Design. The Variation Management Framework (VMF) shows how variation can be mapped...
Systematic errors of mapping functions which are based on the VMF1 concept
Zus, Florian; Dick, Galina; Dousa, Jan; Wickert, Jens
2014-05-01
Precise GNSS positioning requires an accurate Mapping Function (MF) to model the tropospheric delay. To date the most accurate MF is the Vienna Mapping Function 1 (VMF1). It utilizes data from a numerical weather model which is known for high predictive skill (Integrated Forecast System of the European Centre of Medium range Weather Forecast). Still, the VMF1, or any other MF which is based on the VMF1 concept, is a parameterized mapping approach and this means that it is tuned for specific elevation angles, station and orbital altitudes. In this study we analyse the systematic errors caused by such tuning on a global scale. We find that in particular the parameterization of the station altitude dependency is a major concern regarding airborne applications. For the moment we do not provide an improved parameterized mapping approach to mitigate systematic errors but instead we propose a rapid direct and therefore error-free mapping approach; the so-called Potsdam Mapping Factors (PMFs).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dransfeld, Alk
2004-03-08
As a minimal dynamic correction the 'zero-point vibration', ZPV, was included in the ab initio calculation of the isotropic magnetic shielding of {sup 13}C, {sup 19}F, {sup 29}Si, {sup 31}P, and {sup 35}Cl in some molecules including the references of NMR spectroscopy (f.i. CFCl{sub 3}, CH{sub 3}-NO{sub 2}, and TMS). In contrast to most previous works the ZPV correction is not based on gradients of internal coordinates, but uses derivatives obtained by 'vibration mode following' (VMF, the coordinates of the gradients describing the magnetic shielding hypersurface are the normal coordinates of the ground state vibration motion). The vibrational corrections obtained at the applied DFT level of theory are slightly smaller than those reported for MP2 calculations. Isotope effects computed with the ZPV/VMF correction are in reasonable agreement with experimental data. Contributions from individual vibration modes to the zero-point correction show that rotational motions have a large effect.
The Variation Management Framework (VMF) for Robust Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2014-01-01
propose a framework for robust design and variation management bycombining central models to Robust Design, namely, the Quality Loss Function, the TransferFunction and the Domains of Axiomatic Design. The framework shows how variation can bemapped from production right through to quality loss...
Friedrich, H.; Tavasszy, L.A.; Davydenko, I.
2013-01-01
Distribution structures are important elements of the freight transportation system. Goods are routed via warehouses on their way from production to consumption. This chapter discusses drivers behind these structures, logistics decisions connected to distribution structures on the micro level, and
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Klaus Marius; Damm, Christian Heide
2005-01-01
An extension of Knight (2005) that support distributed synchronous collaboration implemented using type-based publish/subscribe......An extension of Knight (2005) that support distributed synchronous collaboration implemented using type-based publish/subscribe...
Van Renesse, R
1991-01-01
This series will start with an introduction to distributed computing systems. Distributed computing paradigms will be presented followed by a discussion on how several important contemporary distributed operating systems use these paradigms. Topics will include processing paradigms, storage paradigms, scalability and robustness. Throughout the course everything will be illustrated by modern distributed systems notably the Amoeba distributed operating system of the Free University in Amsterdam and the Plan 9 operating system of AT&T Bell Laboratories. Plan 9 is partly designed and implemented by Ken Thompson, the main person behind the successful UNIX operating system.
Forbes, Catherine; Hastings, Nicholas; Peacock, Brian J.
2010-01-01
A new edition of the trusted guide on commonly used statistical distributions Fully updated to reflect the latest developments on the topic, Statistical Distributions, Fourth Edition continues to serve as an authoritative guide on the application of statistical methods to research across various disciplines. The book provides a concise presentation of popular statistical distributions along with the necessary knowledge for their successful use in data modeling and analysis. Following a basic introduction, forty popular distributions are outlined in individual chapters that are complete with re
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2004-01-01
Distribution center is a logistics link fulfill physical distribution as its main functionGenerally speaking, it's a large and hiahly automated center destined to receive goods from various plants and suppliers,take orders,fill them efficiently,and deliver goods to customers as quickly as possible.
Mail Office
2001-01-01
PLEASE NOTE: changed schedule for mail distribution on 21 December 2001 afternoon delivery will be one hour earlier than usual, delivery to LHC sites will take place late morning. Thank you for your understanding.
Janson, Svante
2011-01-01
We give some explicit calculations for stable distributions and convergence to them, mainly based on less explicit results in Feller (1971). The main purpose is to provide ourselves with easy reference to explicit formulas. (There are no new results.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borregaard, Michael Krabbe; Hendrichsen, Ditte Katrine; Nachman, Gøsta Støger
2008-01-01
Living organisms are distributed over the entire surface of the planet. The distribution of the individuals of each species is not random; on the contrary, they are strongly dependent on the biology and ecology of the species, and vary over different spatial scale. The structure of whole...... populations reflects the location and fragmentation pattern of the habitat types preferred by the species, and the complex dynamics of migration, colonization, and population growth taking place over the landscape. Within these, individuals are distributed among each other in regular or clumped patterns......, depending on the nature of intraspecific interactions between them: while the individuals of some species repel each other and partition the available area, others form groups of varying size, determined by the fitness of each group member. The spatial distribution pattern of individuals again strongly...
Trommer, Jochen
2005-01-01
In dieser Dissertation schlage ich eine Synthese (Distributed Optimality, DO) von Optimalitätstheorie und einem derivationellen, morphologischem Asatz, Distributed Morphology (DM; Halle & Marantz, 1993) vor. Durch die Integration von OT in DM wird es möglich, Phänomene, die in DM durch sprachspezifische Regeln oder Merkmale von lexikalischen Einträge erfasst werden, auf die Interaktion von verletzbaren, universellen Constraints zurückzuführen. Andererseits leistet auch DM zwei substantielle B...
Baehni, Sébastien; Barreto, Joao; Guerraoui, Rachid
2006-01-01
One of the most frequent operations in object-oriented programs is the "instanceof" test, also called the "subtyping" test or the "type inclusion" test. This test determines if a given object is an instance of some type. Surprisingly, despite a lot of research on distributed object-oriented languages and systems, almost no work has been devoted to the implementation of this test in a distributed environment. This paper presents the first algorithm to implement the "subtyping" test on an obje...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tison, R.R.; Baker, N.R.; Blazek, C.F.
1979-07-01
Distribution of fuel is considered from a supply point to the secondary conversion sites and ultimate end users. All distribution is intracity with the maximum distance between the supply point and end-use site generally considered to be 15 mi. The fuels discussed are: coal or coal-like solids, methanol, No. 2 fuel oil, No. 6 fuel oil, high-Btu gas, medium-Btu gas, and low-Btu gas. Although the fuel state, i.e., gas, liquid, etc., can have a major impact on the distribution system, the source of these fuels (e.g., naturally-occurring or coal-derived) does not. Single-source, single-termination point and single-source, multi-termination point systems for liquid, gaseous, and solid fuel distribution are considered. Transport modes and the fuels associated with each mode are: by truck - coal, methanol, No. 2 fuel oil, and No. 6 fuel oil; and by pipeline - coal, methane, No. 2 fuel oil, No. 6 oil, high-Btu gas, medium-Btu gas, and low-Btu gas. Data provided for each distribution system include component makeup and initial costs.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lützen, Marie
2001-01-01
the damage location, the damage sizes and the main particulars of the struck vessel. From the numerical simulation and the analyse of the damage statistics it is found that the current formulation from the IMO SLF 43/3/2 can be used as basis for determination of the p-, r-, and v-factors. Expressions...... and methods of calculation have been discussed. The damage distributions for the different vessels have been compared and analyses regarding relations between damage parameters and main particulars have been performed. The damage statistics collected in work package 1 have been analysed for relations between...... for the distribution of the non-dimensional damage location, the non-dimensional damage length and the non-dimensional penetrations have been derived. These distributions have been used as basis for a proposal for the p- and r-factors. Two proposals for the v-factor have been performed using the damage statistics...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Glaveanu, Vlad Petre
used within the literature and yet it has the potential to revolutionise the way we think about creativity, from how we define and measure it to what we can practically do to foster and develop creativity. Drawing on cultural psychology, ecological psychology and advances in cognitive science......This book challenges the standard view that creativity comes only from within an individual by arguing that creativity also exists ‘outside’ of the mind or more precisely, that the human mind extends through the means of action into the world. The notion of ‘distributed creativity’ is not commonly......, this book offers a basic framework for the study of distributed creativity that considers three main dimensions of creative work: sociality, materiality and temporality. Starting from the premise that creativity is distributed between people, between people and objects and across time, the book reviews...
2014-10-03
that must be woven into proofs of security statements. 03-10-2014 Memorandum Report Logic System-on-a-Chip Distributed systems 9888 ASDR&EAssistant...can be removed without damaging the logic. For all propositional letters p, E1. p ⊃ [r] p From now on, a distributed logic contains at least the...a ∈ x iff 〈h〉 ∈ x. These same definitions work for the canonical relation R for r : h y k where now a ∈ MA(k), [r] a, 〈r〉 a ∈ MA(h), x ∈ CF(h), and
Ryland, Jane N.
1988-01-01
The microcomputer revolution, in which small and large computers have gained tremendously in capability, has created a distributed computing environment. This circumstance presents administrators with the opportunities and the dilemmas of choosing appropriate computing resources for each situation. (Author/MSE)
J. Ferguson
2002-01-01
Following discussions with the mail contractor and Mail Service personnel, an agreement has been reached which permits deliveries to each distribution point to be maintained, while still achieving a large proportion of the planned budget reduction in 2002. As a result, the service will revert to its previous level throughout the Laboratory as rapidly as possible. Outgoing mail will be collected from a single collection point at the end of each corridor. Further discussions are currently in progress between ST, SPL and AS divisions on the possibility of an integrated distribution service for internal mail, stores items and small parcels, which could lead to additional savings from 2003 onwards, without affecting service levels. J. Ferguson AS Division
Quasihomogeneous distributions
von Grudzinski, O
1991-01-01
This is a systematic exposition of the basics of the theory of quasihomogeneous (in particular, homogeneous) functions and distributions (generalized functions). A major theme is the method of taking quasihomogeneous averages. It serves as the central tool for the study of the solvability of quasihomogeneous multiplication equations and of quasihomogeneous partial differential equations with constant coefficients. Necessary and sufficient conditions for solvability are given. Several examples are treated in detail, among them the heat and the Schrödinger equation. The final chapter is devoted to quasihomogeneous wave front sets and their application to the description of singularities of quasihomogeneous distributions, in particular to quasihomogeneous fundamental solutions of the heat and of the Schrödinger equation.
Dov Monderer; Moshe Tennenholtz
1997-01-01
The Internet exhibits forms of interactions which are not captured by existing models in economics, artificial intelligence and game theory. New models are needed to deal with these multi-agent interactions. In this paper we present a new model--distributed games. In such a model each players controls a number of agents which participate in asynchronous parallel multi-agent interactions (games). The agents jointly and strategically control the level of information monitoring by broadcasting m...
Toptal, Ayşegül
1999-01-01
Ankara : Department of Industrial Engineering and the Institute of Engineering and Science of Bilkent Univ., 1999. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1999. Includes bibliographical references. Distributed Scheduling (DS) is a new paradigm that enables the local decisionmakers make their own schedules by considering local objectives and constraints within the boundaries and the overall objective of the whole system. Local schedules from different parts of the system are...
Stewart, Stan
2004-01-01
Switchgear plays a fundamental role within the power supply industry. It is required to isolate faulty equipment, divide large networks into sections for repair purposes, reconfigure networks in order to restore power supplies and control other equipment.This book begins with the general principles of the Switchgear function and leads on to discuss topics such as interruption techniques, fault level calculations, switching transients and electrical insulation; making this an invaluable reference source. Solutions to practical problems associated with Distribution Switchgear are also included.
2007-01-01
Please note that starting from 1 March 2007, the mail distribution and collection times will be modified for the following buildings: 6, 8, 9, 10, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 29, 69, 40, 70, 101, 102, 109, 118, 152, 153, 154, 155, 166, 167, 169, 171, 174, 261, 354, 358, 576, 579 and 580. Complementary Information on the new times will be posted on the entry doors and left in the mail boxes of each building. TS/FM Group
Tropospheric Delay Analysis Based on Some Chinese Cities' Meteorologic Conditions
Liu, Q.; Chen, X. H.; Sun, J. Z.; Han, B. B.; Zhang, Q.
2014-03-01
With the increase of the users' precision in satellite orientation and navigation, the influence of the tropospheric delay has become increasingly vital, which needs to be corrected. The paper contrastively analyzes some main mapping functions' models of the tropospheric delay theory. It discusses the distributions of the hydrostatic/wet mapping functions of Niell Mapping Function (NMF), Vienna Mapping Function 1 (VMF1), and Global Mapping Function (GMF). And it analyzes tropospheric delay based on the meteorologic conditions in some Chinese cities. It could be concluded from the results that the hydrostatic VMF1 and GMF are in yearly periodic cosine distributions and approximately identical, whereas the hydrostatic NMF is roughly larger than the formers. The wet VMF1, which is influenced greatly by the atmosphere, displays close to cosine functions. Besides, VMF1 and GMF roughly display minimum in summer and maximum in winter, respectively. While the elevation angle is 10 degrees, the Slant Propagation Delays (SPDs) of the chosen stations are all in yearly periodic cosine distributions, and they decrease with the increase of the latitude. The SPD reaches maximum in summer and minimum in winter, and the difference is about 2 m.
Psarakis, Stelios; Panaretos, John
1990-01-01
Measurements are frequently recorder without their algebraic sign. As a consequence the underlying distribution of measurements is replaced by a distribution of absolute measurements. When the underlying distribution is t the resulting distribution is called the “folded-t distribution”. Here we study this distribution, we find the relationship between the folded-t distribution and a special case of the folded normal distribution and we derive relationships of the folded-t distribution to othe...
Product Distributions for Distributed Optimization. Chapter 1
Bieniawski, Stefan R.; Wolpert, David H.
2004-01-01
With connections to bounded rational game theory, information theory and statistical mechanics, Product Distribution (PD) theory provides a new framework for performing distributed optimization. Furthermore, PD theory extends and formalizes Collective Intelligence, thus connecting distributed optimization to distributed Reinforcement Learning (FU). This paper provides an overview of PD theory and details an algorithm for performing optimization derived from it. The approach is demonstrated on two unconstrained optimization problems, one with discrete variables and one with continuous variables. To highlight the connections between PD theory and distributed FU, the results are compared with those obtained using distributed reinforcement learning inspired optimization approaches. The inter-relationship of the techniques is discussed.
Probability distribution relationships
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yousry Abdelkader
2013-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we are interesting to show the most famous distributions and their relations to the other distributions in collected diagrams. Four diagrams are sketched as networks. The first one is concerned to the continuous distributions and their relations. The second one presents the discrete distributions. The third diagram is depicted the famous limiting distributions. Finally, the Balakrishnan skew-normal density and its relationship with the other distributions are shown in the fourth diagram.
Distributed Computing: An Overview
Md. Firoj Ali; Rafiqul Zaman Khan
2015-01-01
Decrease in hardware costs and advances in computer networking technologies have led to increased interest in the use of large-scale parallel and distributed computing systems. Distributed computing systems offer the potential for improved performance and resource sharing. In this paper we have made an overview on distributed computing. In this paper we studied the difference between parallel and distributed computing, terminologies used in distributed computing, task allocation in distribute...
The Kumaraswamy Laplace Distribution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Manal Mohamed Nassar
2016-12-01
Full Text Available A generalized Laplace distribution using the Kumaraswamy distribution is introduced. Different structural properties of this new distribution are derived, including the moments, and the moment generating function. We discuss maximum likelihood estimation of the model parameters and obtain the observed and expected information matrix. A real data set is used to compare the new model with widely known distributions.
the impact of distribut impact of distribut impact of distributed ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
eobe
Keywords: distributed generation; wind energy; integration of renewable sources and technical losses. 1. .... Against this background, the objectives of this paper .... this is the subject of further research. Also the .... biomass, geothermal etc.
Extended Poisson Exponential Distribution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anum Fatima
2015-09-01
Full Text Available A new mixture of Modified Exponential (ME and Poisson distribution has been introduced in this paper. Taking the Maximum of Modified Exponential random variable when the sample size follows a zero truncated Poisson distribution we have derived the new distribution, named as Extended Poisson Exponential distribution. This distribution possesses increasing and decreasing failure rates. The Poisson-Exponential, Modified Exponential and Exponential distributions are special cases of this distribution. We have also investigated some mathematical properties of the distribution along with Information entropies and Order statistics of the distribution. The estimation of parameters has been obtained using the Maximum Likelihood Estimation procedure. Finally we have illustrated a real data application of our distribution.
Generalized Lindley Distribution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Zakerzadeh
2009-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a three–parameter generalization of the Lindley distribution. This includes as special cases the exponential and gamma distributions. The distribution exhibits decreasing, increasing and bathtub hazard rate depending on its parameters. We study various properties of the new distribution and provide numerical examples to show the flexibility of the model. We also derive a bivariate version of the proposed distribution.
Distributed Data Management and Distributed File Systems
Girone, Maria
2015-01-01
The LHC program has been successful in part due to the globally distributed computing resources used for collecting, serving, processing, and analyzing the large LHC datasets. The introduction of distributed computing early in the LHC program spawned the development of new technologies and techniques to synchronize information and data between physically separated computing centers. Two of the most challenges services are the distributed file systems and the distributed data management systems. In this paper I will discuss how we have evolved from local site services to more globally independent services in the areas of distributed file systems and data management and how these capabilities may continue to evolve into the future. I will address the design choices, the motivations, and the future evolution of the computing systems used for High Energy Physics.
Modified Slash Lindley Distribution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jimmy Reyes
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we introduce a new distribution, called the modified slash Lindley distribution, which can be seen as an extension of the Lindley distribution. We show that this new distribution provides more flexibility in terms of kurtosis and skewness than the Lindley distribution. We derive moments and some basic properties for the new distribution. Moment estimators and maximum likelihood estimators are calculated using numerical procedures. We carry out a simulation study for the maximum likelihood estimators. A fit of the proposed model indicates good performance when compared with other less flexible models.
Hyperfinite Representation of Distributions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
J Sousa Pinto; R F Hoskins
2000-11-01
Hyperfinite representation of distributions is studied following the method introduced by Kinoshita [2, 3], although we use a different approach much in the vein of [4]. Products and Fourier transforms of representatives of distributions are also analysed.
Distributed computer control systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Suski, G.J.
1986-01-01
This book focuses on recent advances in the theory, applications and techniques for distributed computer control systems. Contents (partial): Real-time distributed computer control in a flexible manufacturing system. Semantics and implementation problems of channels in a DCCS specification. Broadcast protocols in distributed computer control systems. Design considerations of distributed control architecture for a thermal power plant. The conic toolset for building distributed systems. Network management issues in distributed control systems. Interprocessor communication system architecture in a distributed control system environment. Uni-level homogenous distributed computer control system and optimal system design. A-nets for DCCS design. A methodology for the specification and design of fault tolerant real time systems. An integrated computer control system - architecture design, engineering methodology and practical experience.
Drinking Water Distribution Systems
Learn about an overview of drinking water distribution systems, the factors that degrade water quality in the distribution system, assessments of risk, future research about these risks, and how to reduce cross-connection control risk.
Predictable return distributions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard
This paper provides detailed insights into predictability of the entire stock and bond return distribution through the use of quantile regression. This allows us to examine speci…c parts of the return distribution such as the tails or the center, and for a suf…ciently …ne grid of quantiles we can...... are predictable as a function of economic state variables. The results are, however, very different for stocks and bonds. The state variables primarily predict only location shifts in the stock return distribution, while they also predict changes in higher-order moments in the bond return distribution. Out...... trace out the entire distribution. A univariate quantile regression model is used to examine stock and bond return distributions individually, while a multivariate model is used to capture their joint distribution. An empirical analysis on US data shows that certain parts of the return distributions...
Unintegrated double parton distributions
Golec-Biernat, K
2016-01-01
We present the construction of unintegrated double parton distribution functions which include dependence on transverse momenta of partons. We extend the formulation which was used to obtain the single unintegrated parton distributions from the standard, integrated parton distribution functions. Starting from the homogeneous part of the evolution equations for the integrated double parton distributions, we construct the unintegrated double parton distributions as the convolutions of the integrated double distributions and the splitting functions, multiplied by the Sudakov form factors. We show that there exist three domains of external hard scales which require three distinct forms of the unintegrated double distributions. The additional transverse momentum dependence which arises through the Sudakov form factors leads to non-trivial correlations in the parton momenta. We also discuss the non-homogeneous contribution to the unintegrated double parton distributions, which arises due to the splitting of a singl...
Intelligent Distributed Systems
2015-10-23
AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0006 Intelligent Distributed Systems A Stephen Morse YALE UNIV NEW HAVEN CT Final Report 10/23/2015 DISTRIBUTION A...and D. Fullmer. A distributed algorithm for efficiently solving linear equations and its applications. System and Control Letters, 2015. submitted... Distribution approved for public release. AF Office Of Scientific Research (AFOSR)/ RTA2 Arlington, Virginia 22203 Air Force Research Laboratory Air Force
Leadership for Distributed Teams
De Rooij, J.P.G.
2009-01-01
The aim of this dissertation was to study the little examined, yet important issue of leadership for distributed teams. Distributed teams are defined as: “teams of which members are geographically distributed and are therefore working predominantly via mediated communication means on an
Leadership for Distributed Teams
De Rooij, J.P.G.
2009-01-01
The aim of this dissertation was to study the little examined, yet important issue of leadership for distributed teams. Distributed teams are defined as: “teams of which members are geographically distributed and are therefore working predominantly via mediated communication means on an interdepende
Probability distributions for magnetotellurics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stodt, John A.
1982-11-01
Estimates of the magnetotelluric transfer functions can be viewed as ratios of two complex random variables. It is assumed that the numerator and denominator are governed approximately by a joint complex normal distribution. Under this assumption, probability distributions are obtained for the magnitude, squared magnitude, logarithm of the squared magnitude, and the phase of the estimates. Normal approximations to the distributions are obtained by calculating mean values and variances from error propagation, and the distributions are plotted with their normal approximations for different percentage errors in the numerator and denominator of the estimates, ranging from 10% to 75%. The distribution of the phase is approximated well by a normal distribution for the range of errors considered, while the distribution of the logarithm of the squared magnitude is approximated by a normal distribution for a much larger range of errors than is the distribution of the squared magnitude. The distribution of the squared magnitude is most sensitive to the presence of noise in the denominator of the estimate, in which case the true distribution deviates significantly from normal behavior as the percentage errors exceed 10%. In contrast, the normal approximation to the distribution of the logarithm of the magnitude is useful for errors as large as 75%.
Ahsanullah, Mohammad
2016-01-01
The aim of the book is to give a through account of the basic theory of extreme value distributions. The book cover a wide range of materials available to date. The central ideas and results of extreme value distributions are presented. The book rwill be useful o applied statisticians as well statisticians interrested to work in the area of extreme value distributions.vmonograph presents the central ideas and results of extreme value distributions.The monograph gives self-contained of theory and applications of extreme value distributions.
Verification of LHS distributions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Swiler, Laura Painton
2006-04-01
This document provides verification test results for normal, lognormal, and uniform distributions that are used in Sandia's Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) software. The purpose of this testing is to verify that the sample values being generated in LHS are distributed according to the desired distribution types. The testing of distribution correctness is done by examining summary statistics, graphical comparisons using quantile-quantile plots, and format statistical tests such as the Chisquare test, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and the Anderson-Darling test. The overall results from the testing indicate that the generation of normal, lognormal, and uniform distributions in LHS is acceptable.
Distributed security in closed distributed systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hernandez, Alejandro Mario
reflected in heterogeneous security aims; the software life cycle entails evolution and this includes security expectations; the distribution is useful if the entire system is “open” to new (a priori unknown) interactions; the distribution itself poses intrinsically more complex security-related problems......, and aim at providing security to each of these individually. The approach taken is by means of access control enforcement mechanisms, providing security to the locations they are related to. We provide a framework for modelling so. All this follows techniques borrowed from the aspect-orientation community....... As this needs to be scaled up to the entire distributed system, we then focus on ways of reasoning about the resulting composition of these individual access control mechanisms. We show how, by means of relying on the semantics of our framework, we can syntactically guarantee some limited set of global security...
Leadership for Distributed Teams
De Rooij, J.P.G.
2009-01-01
The aim of this dissertation was to study the little examined, yet important issue of leadership for distributed teams. Distributed teams are defined as: “teams of which members are geographically distributed and are therefore working predominantly via mediated communication means on an interdependent task and in realizing a joint goal” (adapted from Bell & Kozlowski, 2002 and Dubé & Paré, 2004). Chapter 1 first presents the outline of the dissertation. Next, several characteristics of distri...
Distributed generation systems model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barklund, C.R.
1994-12-31
A slide presentation is given on a distributed generation systems model developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and its application to a situation within the Idaho Power Company`s service territory. The objectives of the work were to develop a screening model for distributed generation alternatives, to develop a better understanding of distributed generation as a utility resource, and to further INEL`s understanding of utility concerns in implementing technological change.
Deciding bisimilarities on distributions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Eisentraut, Christian; Hermanns, Holger; Krämer, Julia
2013-01-01
Probabilistic automata (PA) are a prominent compositional concurrency model. As a way to justify property-preserving abstractions, in the last years, bisimulation relations over probability distributions have been proposed both in the strong and the weak setting. Different to the usual bisimulati...... is known so far. This paper presents an equivalent state-based reformulation for weak distribution bisimulation, rendering it amenable for algorithmic treatment. Then, decision procedures for the probability distribution-based bisimulation relations are presented....
Mahmoud, Hosam M
2011-01-01
A cutting-edge look at the emerging distributional theory of sorting Research on distributions associated with sorting algorithms has grown dramatically over the last few decades, spawning many exact and limiting distributions of complexity measures for many sorting algorithms. Yet much of this information has been scattered in disparate and highly specialized sources throughout the literature. In Sorting: A Distribution Theory, leading authority Hosam Mahmoud compiles, consolidates, and clarifies the large volume of available research, providing a much-needed, comprehensive treatment of the
Parton Distribution Function Uncertainties
Giele, Walter T.; Kosower, David A.; Giele, Walter T.; Keller, Stephane A.; Kosower, David A.
2001-01-01
We present parton distribution functions which include a quantitative estimate of its uncertainties. The parton distribution functions are optimized with respect to deep inelastic proton data, expressing the uncertainties as a density measure over the functional space of parton distribution functions. This leads to a convenient method of propagating the parton distribution function uncertainties to new observables, now expressing the uncertainty as a density in the prediction of the observable. New measurements can easily be included in the optimized sets as added weight functions to the density measure. Using the optimized method nowhere in the analysis compromises have to be made with regard to the treatment of the uncertainties.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Melikov, Arsen Krikor
2011-01-01
The aim of total volume air distribution (TVAD) involves achieving uniform temperature and velocity in the occupied zone and environment designed for an average occupant. The supply of large amounts of clean and cool air are needed to maintain temperature and pollution concentration at acceptable....... Ventilation in hospitals is essential to decrease the risk of airborne cross-infection. At present, mixing air distribution at a minimum of 12 ach is used in infection wards. Advanced air distribution has the potential to aid in achieving healthy, comfortable and productive indoor environments at levels...... higher than what can be achieved today with the commonly used total volume air distribution principles....
Sallam, A A
2010-01-01
"Electricity distribution is the penultimate stage in the delivery of electricity to end users. The only book that deals with the key topics of interest to distribution system engineers, Electric Distribution Systems presents a comprehensive treatment of the subject with an emphasis on both the practical and academic points of view. Reviewing traditional and cutting-edge topics, the text is useful to practicing engineers working with utility companies and industry, undergraduate graduate and students, and faculty members who wish to increase their skills in distribution system automation and monitoring."--
Distributed Energy Technology Laboratory
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Distributed Energy Technologies Laboratory (DETL) is an extension of the power electronics testing capabilities of the Photovoltaic System Evaluation Laboratory...
Distributed Structure Searchable Toxicity
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Distributed Structure Searchable Toxicity (DSSTox) online resource provides high quality chemical structures and annotations in association with toxicity data....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yazhou Jiang
2016-04-01
Full Text Available The increasing importance of system reliability and resilience is changing the way distribution systems are planned and operated. To achieve a distribution system self-healing against power outages, emerging technologies and devices, such as remote-controlled switches (RCSs and smart meters, are being deployed. The higher level of automation is transforming traditional distribution systems into the smart distribution systems (SDSs of the future. The availability of data and remote control capability in SDSs provides distribution operators with an opportunity to optimize system operation and control. In this paper, the development of SDSs and resulting benefits of enhanced system capabilities are discussed. A comprehensive survey is conducted on the state-of-the-art applications of RCSs and smart meters in SDSs. Specifically, a new method, called Temporal Causal Diagram (TCD, is used to incorporate outage notifications from smart meters for enhanced outage management. To fully utilize the fast operation of RCSs, the spanning tree search algorithm is used to develop service restoration strategies. Optimal placement of RCSs and the resulting enhancement of system reliability are discussed. Distribution system resilience with respect to extreme events is presented. Test cases are used to demonstrate the benefit of SDSs. Active management of distributed generators (DGs is introduced. Future research in a smart distribution environment is proposed.
Metrics for Food Distribution.
Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.
Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of students interested in food distribution, this instructional package is one of five for the marketing and distribution cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational…
Epicentral distribution in 2007
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Pei-shan
2008-01-01
@@ For showing the epicentral distribution in and near China as well as all over the world, two epicentral maps for the earthquakes occurred last year are published annually in the 6-th issue each year. Figures 1 and 2 represent the epicentral distributions in and near China and all over the World in 2007, Respectively.
Epicentral distribution in 2004
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Pei-shan
2005-01-01
@@ For showing the epicentral distribution in and near China as well as all over the world, two epicentral maps for the earthquakes occurred last year are published annually in the 6-th issue each year. Figures 1 and 2 represent the epicentral distributions in and near China and all over the world in 2004, respectively.
Epicentral distribution in 2005
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Pei-shan
2006-01-01
@@ For showing the epicentral distribution in and near China as well as all over the world, two epicentral maps for the earthquakes occurred last year are published annually in the 6-th issue each year. Figures 1 and 2 represent the epicentral distributions in and near China and all over the world in 2005, respectively.
Epicentral distribution in 2006
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Pei-shan
2007-01-01
@@ For showing the epicentral distribution in and near China as well as all over the world, two epicentral maps for the earthquakes occurred last year are published annually in the 6-th issue each year. Figures 1 and 2 represent the epicentral distributions in and near China and all over the world in 2006, respectively.
Distribution Functions of Copulas
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Yong-hong; He Ping
2007-01-01
A general method was proposed to evaluate the distribution function of 〈C1|C2〉 . Some examples were presented to validate the application of the method. Then the sufficient and necessary condition for that the distribution function ofis uniform was proved.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schultz, Ulrik Pagh
2007-01-01
, self-reconfigurable robots, we present the concept of distributed control diffusion: distributed queries are used to identify modules that play a specific role in the robot, and behaviors that implement specific control strategies are diffused throughout the robot based on these role assignments...... perform simple obstacle avoidance in a wide range of different car-like robots constructed using ATRON modules...
Advanced Distribution Management System
Avazov, Artur R.; Sobinova, Liubov A.
2016-02-01
This article describes the advisability of using advanced distribution management systems in the electricity distribution networks area and considers premises of implementing ADMS within the Smart Grid era. Also, it gives the big picture of ADMS and discusses the ADMS advantages and functionalities.
Software distribution using xnetlib
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dongarra, J.J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (US). Dept. of Computer Science]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (US); Rowan, T.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (US); Wade, R.C. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (US). Dept. of Computer Science
1993-06-01
Xnetlib is a new tool for software distribution. Whereas its predecessor netlib uses e-mail as the user interface to its large collection of public-domain mathematical software, xnetlib uses an X Window interface and socket-based communication. Xnetlib makes it easy to search through a large distributed collection of software and to retrieve requested software in seconds.
Property insurance loss distributions
Burnecki, Krzysztof; Kukla, Grzegorz; Weron, Rafał
2000-11-01
Property claim services (PCS) provides indices for losses resulting from catastrophic events in the US. In this paper, we study these indices and take a closer look at distributions underlying insurance claims. Surprisingly, the lognormal distribution seems to give a better fit than the Paretian one. Moreover, lagged autocorrelation study reveals a mean-reverting structure of indices returns.
Distributed Energy Implementation Options
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shah, Chandralata N [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
2017-09-13
This presentation covers the options for implementing distributed energy projects. It distinguishes between options available for distributed energy that is government owned versus privately owned, with a focus on the privately owned options including Energy Savings Performance Contract Energy Sales Agreements (ESPC ESAs). The presentation covers the new ESPC ESA Toolkit and other Federal Energy Management Program resources.
Mullender, Sape J.
1987-01-01
In the past five years, distributed operating systems research has gone through a consolidation phase. On a large number of design issues there is now considerable consensus between different research groups. In this paper, an overview of recent research in distributed systems is given. In turn, th
Evaluating Distributed Timing Constraints
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristensen, C.H.; Drejer, N.
1994-01-01
In this paper we describe a solution to the problem of implementing time-optimal evaluation of timing constraints in distributed real-time systems.......In this paper we describe a solution to the problem of implementing time-optimal evaluation of timing constraints in distributed real-time systems....
Quantum dense key distribution
Degiovanni, I P; Castelletto, S; Rastello, M L; Bovino, F A; Colla, A M; Castagnoli, G C
2004-01-01
This paper proposes a new protocol for quantum dense key distribution. This protocol embeds the benefits of a quantum dense coding and a quantum key distribution and is able to generate shared secret keys four times more efficiently than BB84 one. We hereinafter prove the security of this scheme against individual eavesdropping attacks, and we present preliminary experimental results, showing its feasibility.
Electrical Distribution Program Guide.
Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.
This program guide contains the standard electrical distribution curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The curriculum encompasses the minimum competencies required for entry-level workers in the electrical distribution field, and in job skills such as construction, maintenance, and repair of overhead and underground electrical…
Groundwater and Distribution Workbook.
Ekman, John E.
Presented is a student manual designed for the Wisconsin Vocational, Technical and Adult Education Groundwater and Distribution Training Course. This program introduces waterworks operators-in-training to basic skills and knowledge required for the operation of a groundwater distribution waterworks facility. Arranged according to the general order…
1990-07-01
computers. If a distributed operating system is designed with aschrony in mind efficient usage of overall system resources can be employed through the...the complex problem of efficiently balancing CPU, disk, and communications resource usage in the distributed environment mast be solved by the...throughput (concuirent processing capability), survivability and availabilty , and finally interprocess communication. In measuning the concurrent
Pore size distribution mapping
Strange, John H.; J. Beau W. WEBBER; Schmidt, S.D.
1996-01-01
Pore size distribution mapping has been demonstrated using NMR cryoporometry\\ud in the presence of a magnetic field gradient, This novel method is extendable to 2D and 3D mapping. It offers a unique nondestructive method of obtaining full pore-size distributions in the range 3 to 100 nm at any point within a bulk sample. \\ud
Cache Oblivious Distribution Sweeping
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brodal, G.S.; Fagerberg, R.
2002-01-01
We adapt the distribution sweeping method to the cache oblivious model. Distribution sweeping is the name used for a general approach for divide-and-conquer algorithms where the combination of solved subproblems can be viewed as a merging process of streams. We demonstrate by a series of algorithms...
Distributed Robotics Education
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lund, Henrik Hautop; Pagliarini, Luigi
2011-01-01
Distributed robotics takes many forms, for instance, multirobots, modular robots, and self-reconfigurable robots. The understanding and development of such advanced robotic systems demand extensive knowledge in engineering and computer science. In this paper, we describe the concept...... of a distributed educational system as a valuable tool for introducing students to interactive parallel and distributed processing programming as the foundation for distributed robotics and human-robot interaction development. This is done by providing an educational tool that enables problem representation...... to be changed, related to multirobot control and human-robot interaction control from virtual to physical representation. The proposed system is valuable for bringing a vast number of issues into education – such as parallel programming, distribution, communication protocols, master dependency, connectivity...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Lotte Groth; Bossen, Claus
2016-01-01
different socio-technical systems (paper-based and electronic patient records). Drawing on the theory of distributed cognition and narrative theory, primarily inspired by the work done within health care by Cheryl Mattingly, we propose that the creation of overview may be conceptualised as ‘distributed plot......-making’. Distributed cognition focuses on the role of artefacts, humans and their interaction in information processing, while narrative theory focuses on how humans create narratives through the plot construction. Hence, the concept of distributed plot-making highlights the distribution of information processing...... between different social actors and artefacts, as well as the filtering, sorting and ordering of such information into a narrative that is made coherent by a plot. The analysis shows that the characteristics of paper-based and electronic patient records support or obstruct the creation of overview in both...
Fast Distributed Gradient Methods
Jakovetic, Dusan; Moura, Jose M F
2011-01-01
The paper proposes new fast distributed optimization gradient methods and proves convergence to the exact solution at rate O(\\log k/k), much faster than existing distributed optimization (sub)gradient methods with convergence O(1/\\sqrt{k}), while incurring practically no additional communication nor computation cost overhead per iteration. We achieve this for convex (with at least one strongly convex,) coercive, three times differentiable and with Lipschitz continuous first derivative (private) cost functions. Our work recovers for distributed optimization similar convergence rate gains obtained by centralized Nesterov gradient and fast iterative shrinkage-thresholding algorithm (FISTA) methods over ordinary centralized gradient methods. We also present a constant step size distributed fast gradient algorithm for composite non-differentiable costs. A simulation illustrates the effectiveness of our distributed methods.
Development of distributed target
Yu Hai Jun; Li Qin; Zhou Fu Xin; Shi Jin Shui; Ma Bing; Chen Nan; Jing Xiao Bing
2002-01-01
Linear introduction accelerator is expected to generate small diameter X-ray spots with high intensity. The interaction of the electron beam with plasmas generated at the X-ray converter will make the spot on target increase with time and debase the X-ray dose and the imaging resolving power. A distributed target is developed which has about 24 pieces of thin 0.05 mm tantalum films distributed over 1 cm. due to the structure adoption, the distributed target material over a large volume decreases the energy deposition per unit volume and hence reduces the temperature of target surface, then reduces the initial plasma formalizing and its expansion velocity. The comparison and analysis with two kinds of target structures are presented using numerical calculation and experiments, the results show the X-ray dose and normalized angle distribution of the two is basically the same, while the surface of the distributed target is not destroyed like the previous block target
Fanfani, Alessandra; Sanches, Jose Afonso; Andreeva, Julia; Bagliesi, Giusepppe; Bauerdick, Lothar; Belforte, Stefano; Bittencourt Sampaio, Patricia; Bloom, Ken; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Brew, Chris; Calloni, Marco; Cesini, Daniele; Cinquilli, Mattia; Codispoti, Giuseppe; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Dong, Liang; Dongiovanni, Danilo; Donvito, Giacinto; Dykstra, David; Edelmann, Erik; Egeland, Ricky; Elmer, Peter; Eulisse, Giulio; Evans, Dave; Fanzago, Federica; Farina, Fabio; Feichtinger, Derek; Fisk, Ian; Flix, Josep; Grandi, Claudio; Guo, Yuyi; Happonen, Kalle; Hernandez, Jose M; Huang, Chih-Hao; Kang, Kejing; Karavakis, Edward; Kasemann, Matthias; Kavka, Carlos; Khan, Akram; Kim, Bockjoo; Klem, Jukka; Koivumaki, Jesper; Kress, Thomas; Kreuzer, Peter; Kurca, Tibor; Kuznetsov, Valentin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Letts, James; Linden, Tomas; Lueking, Lee; Maes, Joris; Magini, Nicolo; Maier, Gerhild; McBride, Patricia; Metson, Simon; Miccio, Vincenzo; Padhi, Sanjay; Pi, Haifeng; Riahi, Hassen; Riley, Daniel; Rossman, Paul; Saiz, Pablo; Sartirana, Andrea; Sciaba, Andrea; Sekhri, Vijay; Spiga, Daniele; Tuura, Lassi; Vaandering, Eric; Vanelderen, Lukas; Van Mulders, Petra; Vedaee, Aresh; Villella, Ilaria; Wicklund, Eric; Wildish, Tony; Wissing, Christoph; Wurthwein, Frank
2009-01-01
The CMS experiment expects to manage several Pbytes of data each year during the LHC programme, distributing them over many computing sites around the world and enabling data access at those centers for analysis. CMS has identified the distributed sites as the primary location for physics analysis to support a wide community with thousands potential users. This represents an unprecedented experimental challenge in terms of the scale of distributed computing resources and number of user. An overview of the computing architecture, the software tools and the distributed infrastructure is reported. Summaries of the experience in establishing efficient and scalable operations to get prepared for CMS distributed analysis are presented, followed by the user experience in their current analysis activities.
Distributed Propulsion Vehicles
Kim, Hyun Dae
2010-01-01
Since the introduction of large jet-powered transport aircraft, the majority of these vehicles have been designed by placing thrust-generating engines either under the wings or on the fuselage to minimize aerodynamic interactions on the vehicle operation. However, advances in computational and experimental tools along with new technologies in materials, structures, and aircraft controls, etc. are enabling a high degree of integration of the airframe and propulsion system in aircraft design. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been investigating a number of revolutionary distributed propulsion vehicle concepts to increase aircraft performance. The concept of distributed propulsion is to fully integrate a propulsion system within an airframe such that the aircraft takes full synergistic benefits of coupling of airframe aerodynamics and the propulsion thrust stream by distributing thrust using many propulsors on the airframe. Some of the concepts are based on the use of distributed jet flaps, distributed small multiple engines, gas-driven multi-fans, mechanically driven multifans, cross-flow fans, and electric fans driven by turboelectric generators. This paper describes some early concepts of the distributed propulsion vehicles and the current turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP) vehicle concepts being studied under the NASA s Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project to drastically reduce aircraft-related fuel burn, emissions, and noise by the year 2030 to 2035.
Ruin Distributions and Their Equations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
卢金余; 王汉兴; 赵飞
2005-01-01
In this paper, the ruin distributions were analyzed, Including the distribution of surplus immediately before ruin, the distribution of claim at the time of ruin, the distribution of deficit, and the distribution of surplus at the beginning of the claim period before ruin. Several Integral equations for the ruin distributions were derived and some solutions under special conditions were obtained.
Agile distributed software development
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Persson, John Stouby; Mathiassen, Lars; Aaen, Ivan
2012-01-01
While face-to-face interaction is fundamental in agile software development, distributed environments must rely extensively on mediated interactions. Practicing agile principles in distributed environments therefore poses particular control challenges related to balancing fixed vs. evolving quality...... requirements and people vs. process-based collaboration. To investigate these challenges, we conducted an in-depth case study of a successful agile distributed software project with participants from a Russian firm and a Danish firm. Applying Kirsch’s elements of control framework, we offer an analysis of how...
Marchand, Jean-Paul
2007-01-01
In a simple but mathematically coherent manner, this text examines the basis of the distribution theories devised by Schwartz and by Mikusinki. Rigorous and concise, it surveys the functional theory of distributions as well as the algebraic theory. Its easy generalizations offer applications to a wide variety of problems.The two-part treatment begins with the functional theory of distributions, exploring differentiation, formation of products, translation and regularization, convergence, Fourier transforms, and partial differential equations. The second half focuses on the algebraic theory of
Electric power distribution handbook
Short, Thomas Allen
2003-01-01
Of the ...big three... components of the electricity infrastructure, distribution typically gets the least attention, and no thorough, up-to-date treatment of the subject has been published in years. Filling that void, the Electric Power Distribution Handbook provides comprehensive information on the electrical aspects of power distribution systems. It is an unparalleled source for the background information, hard-to-find tables, graphs, methods, and statistics that power engineers need, and includes tips and solutions for problem solving and improving performance. In short, this handbook giv
Electric power distribution handbook
Short, Thomas Allen
2014-01-01
Of the ""big three"" components of electrical infrastructure, distribution typically gets the least attention. In fact, a thorough, up-to-date treatment of the subject hasn't been published in years, yet deregulation and technical changes have increased the need for better information. Filling this void, the Electric Power Distribution Handbook delivers comprehensive, cutting-edge coverage of the electrical aspects of power distribution systems. The first few chapters of this pragmatic guidebook focus on equipment-oriented information and applications such as choosing transformer connections,
On the Conditional Distribution of the Multivariate $t$ Distribution
Ding, Peng
2016-01-01
As alternatives to the normal distributions, $t$ distributions are widely applied in robust analysis for data with outliers or heavy tails. The properties of the multivariate $t$ distribution are well documented in Kotz and Nadarajah's book, which, however, states a wrong conclusion about the conditional distribution of the multivariate $t$ distribution. Previous literature has recognized that the conditional distribution of the multivariate $t$ distribution also follows the multivariate $t$ ...
Gómez-Peral, Lucía E.; Sial, Alcides N.; Arrouy, M. Julia; Richiano, Sebastián; Ferreira, Valderez P.; Kaufman, Alan J.; Poiré, Daniel G.
2017-05-01
The Sierras Bayas Group of the Tandilia System constitutes the Neoproterozoic sedimentary cover of the Río de La Plata Craton in Argentina that accumulated amid the breakup of the Rodinia supercontinent and subsequent assembly of Gondwanaland. Evidence for glaciation in the Villa Mónica Formation (VMF) at the base of the succession comes in the form of iron-rich laminated sediments containing dropstones composed predominantly of basement crystalline rocks and quartzites that, are sequentially overlain by a phosphatic mudstone and a 40 m thick stromatolitic dolomite. Subtidal facies preserve columnar forms similar to post-glacial tubestone stromatolites seen in the Neoproterozoic records. These morphologies suggest rapid growth associated with elevated seawater alkalinity and high rates of carbonate accumulation records. The VMF dolomites in our four studied sections near Olavarría-Sierras Bayas area reveal a pronounced negative-to-positive δ13C up section that is similarly to these cap carbonates and others worldwide. Our sedimentological and geochemical study of the VMF sections reveal consistent carbon and oxygen isotope trends that may be useful for detailed intra-basinal correlations. Samples of the VMF fabric-retentive dolomite preserve an unusually narrow range of non-radiogenic strontium isotopic compositions (0.7068 to 0.7070) that are consistent with Cryogenian limestone facies in the potential Namibian and Brazilian equivalents. Exceptional preservation of 87Sr/86Sr compositions suggest the possibility of primary dolomite precipitation in post-glacial seawater, and furthermore that REE patterns and distributions may yield similar insights to redox conditions in the depositional basin. In particular, the VMF dolomites reveal depleted LREE abundances, a negative Ce anomaly, positive La and Gd anomalies, and low Y/Ho values. As a whole, these observations suggest oxidizing post-glacial seawater conditions associated with significant freshwater inputs
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Community Based Distribution (CBD) is a relatively new concept. It is a service that reaches ... neration; Resupply systems; Pricing of contraceptives; Mix of services ... tion on how best to design and implement the project and the community in ...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains GIS layers that depict the known spatial distributions (i.e., ranges) of the two subspecies of bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus). It was...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains GIS layers that depict the known spatial distributions (i.e., ranges) and reported breeding areas of spotted seals (Phoca largha). It was...
ATLAS Distributed Computing Automation
Schovancova, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Borrego, C; Campana, S; Di Girolamo, A; Elmsheuser, J; Hejbal, J; Kouba, T; Legger, F; Magradze, E; Medrano Llamas, R; Negri, G; Rinaldi, L; Sciacca, G; Serfon, C; Van Der Ster, D C
2012-01-01
The ATLAS Experiment benefits from computing resources distributed worldwide at more than 100 WLCG sites. The ATLAS Grid sites provide over 100k CPU job slots, over 100 PB of storage space on disk or tape. Monitoring of status of such a complex infrastructure is essential. The ATLAS Grid infrastructure is monitored 24/7 by two teams of shifters distributed world-wide, by the ATLAS Distributed Computing experts, and by site administrators. In this paper we summarize automation efforts performed within the ATLAS Distributed Computing team in order to reduce manpower costs and improve the reliability of the system. Different aspects of the automation process are described: from the ATLAS Grid site topology provided by the ATLAS Grid Information System, via automatic site testing by the HammerCloud, to automatic exclusion from production or analysis activities.
Navigating Distributed Services
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Beute, Berco
2002-01-01
, to a situation where they are distributedacross the Internet. The second trend is the shift from a virtual environment that solelyconsists of distributed documents to a virtual environment that consists of bothdistributed documents and distributed services. The third and final trend is theincreasing diversity...... of devices used to access information on the Internet.The focal point of the thesis is an initial exploration of the effects of the trends onusers as they navigate the virtual environment of distributed documents and services.To begin the thesis uses scenarios as a heuristic device to identify and analyse...... themain effects of the trends. This is followed by an exploration of theory of navigationInformation Spaces, which is in turn followed by an overview of theories, and the stateof the art in navigating distributed services. These explorations of both theory andpractice resulted in a large number of topics...
Projected Elliptical Distributions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Winfried Stute; Uwe Werner
2005-01-01
We introduce a new parametrization of elliptically contoured densities and study the associated family of projected (circular) distributions. In particular we investigate the trigonometric moments and some convolution properties.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains GIS layers that depict the known spatial distributions (i.e., ranges) and reported breeding areas of ribbon seals (Histriophoca fasciata). It...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains GIS layers that depict the known spatial distributions (i.e., ranges) of the five subspecies of ringed seals (Phoca hispida). It was produced...
DOLIB: Distributed Object Library
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
D`Azevedo, E.F.; Romine, C.H.
1994-10-01
This report describes the use and implementation of DOLIB (Distributed Object Library), a library of routines that emulates global or virtual shared memory on Intel multiprocessor systems. Access to a distributed global array is through explicit calls to gather and scatter. Advantages of using DOLIB include: dynamic allocation and freeing of huge (gigabyte) distributed arrays, both C and FORTRAN callable interfaces, and the ability to mix shared-memory and message-passing programming models for ease of use and optimal performance. DOLIB is independent of language and compiler extensions and requires no special operating system support. DOLIB also supports automatic caching of read-only data for high performance. The virtual shared memory support provided in DOLIB is well suited for implementing Lagrangian particle tracking techniques. We have also used DOLIB to create DONIO (Distributed Object Network I/O Library), which obtains over a 10-fold improvement in disk I/O performance on the Intel Paragon.
Kepler, S O; Romero, Alejandra Daniela; Ourique, Gustavo; Pelisoli, Ingrid
2016-01-01
We present the mass distribution for all S/N > 15 pure DA white dwarfs detected in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey up to Data Release 12, fitted with Koester models for ML2/alpha=0.8, and with Teff > 10 000 K, and for DBs with S/N >10, fitted with ML2/alpha=1.25, for Teff > 16 000 K. These mass distributions are for log g > 6.5 stars, i.e., excluding the Extremely Low Mass white dwarfs. We also present the mass distributions corrected by volume with the 1/Vmax approach, for stars brighter than g=19. Both distributions have a maximum at M=0.624 Msun but very distinct shapes. From the estimated z-distances, we deduce a disk scale height of 300 pc. We also present 10 probable halo white dwarfs, from their galactic U, V, W velocities.
Seshu, Ch.
Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) uses Quantum Mechanics to guarantee secure communication. It enables two parties to produce a shared random bit string known only to them, which can be used as a key to encrypt and decrypt messages.
AUTOMATED SOFTWARE DISTRIBUTION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J.J. Strasheim
2012-01-01
Full Text Available
ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Automated distribution of computer software via electronic means in large corporate networks is growing in popularity. The relative importance of personal computer software, in financial and logistical terms, is described and the developing need for automated software distribution explained. An actual comparitive example of alternative software distribution strategies is presented and discussed proving the viability of Electronic Software Distribution.
AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Geoutomatiseerde verspreiding van rekenaarprogrammatuur met behulp van elektroniese metodes in groot korporatiewe netwerke, is toenemend populer, Die relatiewe belangrikheid van persoonlike rekenaarprogrammatuur in finansiele en logistieke terme word bespreek en die groeiende behoefte na geoutomatiseerde programmatuurverspreiding verduidelik. 'n Werklike vergelykende voorbeeld van alternatiewe programmatuurverspreidingsstrategiee word aangebied en bespreek wat die lewensvatbaarheid van Elektroniese Programmatuurverspreiding bewys.
Polygamy of distributed entanglement
Buscemi, Francesco; Gour, Gilad; Kim, Jeong San
2009-07-01
While quantum entanglement is known to be monogamous (i.e., shared entanglement is restricted in multipartite settings), here we show that distributed entanglement (or the potential for entanglement) is by nature polygamous. By establishing the concept of one-way unlocalizable entanglement (UE) and investigating its properties, we provide a polygamy inequality of distributed entanglement in tripartite quantum systems of arbitrary dimension. We also provide a polygamy inequality in multiqubit systems and several trade-offs between UE and other correlation measures.
Agile & Distributed Project Management
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pries-Heje, Jan; Pries-Heje, Lene
2011-01-01
Scrum has gained surprising momentum as an agile IS project management approach. An obvious question is why Scrum is so useful? To answer that question we carried out a longitudinal study of a distributed project using Scrum. We analyzed the data using coding and categorisation and three carefull...... and coordination mechanisms by allowing both local and global articulation of work in the project. That is why Scrum is especially useful for distributed IS project management and teamwork....
Distributed computing in bioinformatics.
Jain, Eric
2002-01-01
This paper provides an overview of methods and current applications of distributed computing in bioinformatics. Distributed computing is a strategy of dividing a large workload among multiple computers to reduce processing time, or to make use of resources such as programs and databases that are not available on all computers. Participating computers may be connected either through a local high-speed network or through the Internet.
Parton Distributions Working Group
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
de Barbaro, L.; Keller, S. A.; Kuhlmann, S.; Schellman, H.; Tung, W.-K.
2000-07-20
This report summarizes the activities of the Parton Distributions Working Group of the QCD and Weak Boson Physics workshop held in preparation for Run II at the Fermilab Tevatron. The main focus of this working group was to investigate the different issues associated with the development of quantitative tools to estimate parton distribution functions uncertainties. In the conclusion, the authors introduce a Manifesto that describes an optimal method for reporting data.
Consistency in Distributed Systems
Kemme, Bettina; Ramalingam, Ganesan; Schiper, André; Shapiro, Marc; Vaswani, Kapil
2013-01-01
International audience; In distributed systems, there exists a fundamental trade-off between data consistency, availability, and the ability to tolerate failures. This trade-off has significant implications on the design of the entire distributed computing infrastructure such as storage systems, compilers and runtimes, application development frameworks and programming languages. Unfortunately, it also has significant, and poorly understood, implications for the designers and developers of en...
Intelligent distributed computing
Thampi, Sabu
2015-01-01
This book contains a selection of refereed and revised papers of the Intelligent Distributed Computing Track originally presented at the third International Symposium on Intelligent Informatics (ISI-2014), September 24-27, 2014, Delhi, India. The papers selected for this Track cover several Distributed Computing and related topics including Peer-to-Peer Networks, Cloud Computing, Mobile Clouds, Wireless Sensor Networks, and their applications.
Agile & Distributed Project Management
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pries-Heje, Jan; Pries-Heje, Lene
2011-01-01
Scrum has gained surprising momentum as an agile IS project management approach. An obvious question is why Scrum is so useful? To answer that question we carried out a longitudinal study of a distributed project using Scrum. We analyzed the data using coding and categorisation and three carefully...... and coordination mechanisms by allowing both local and global articulation of work in the project. That is why Scrum is especially useful for distributed IS project management and teamwork....
Managing Distributed Software Projects
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Persson, John Stouby
Increasingly, software projects are becoming geographically distributed, with limited face-toface interaction between participants. These projects face particular challenges that need careful managerial attention. This PhD study reports on how we can understand and support the management of distr......Increasingly, software projects are becoming geographically distributed, with limited face-toface interaction between participants. These projects face particular challenges that need careful managerial attention. This PhD study reports on how we can understand and support the management...... of distributed software projects, based on a literature study and a case study. The main emphasis of the literature study was on how to support the management of distributed software projects, but also contributed to an understanding of these projects. The main emphasis of the case study was on how to understand...... the management of distributed software projects, but also contributed to supporting the management of these projects. The literature study integrates what we know about risks and risk-resolution techniques, into a framework for managing risks in distributed contexts. This framework was developed iteratively...
Moment Distributions of Phase Type
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bladt, Mogens; Nielsen, Bo Friis
-type distributions. We construct representations for moment distributions based on a general matrix-exponential distribution which turns out to be a generalization of the moment distributions based on exponential distributions. For moment distributions based on phase{type distributions we find an appropriate...... alternative representation in terms of sub{intensity matrices. Finally we are able to nd explicit expressions for both the Lorenz curve and the Gini index....
Distributed Tracking in Distributed Sensor Networks
1988-05-26
9.199 19252.332 109.909 S GoalStats (un, us, vn. we) :1779.225 -2511.597 -7.426 55.158 U R 4= Type NIlL nods (weight 1.999) : Rainuth and Azinuth Rate 1...9.168 9.39 E Typo NIlL node (weight 1.999) 1Sound Pressure and Rate :19175.527 295.949 S FO. 14 170 IN 190 291 216 2M 236 245 258 I IM Figure 6-5...San Diego, California 92121 (619) 587-1121 I II Distributed Sensor Program U Final ReportI by: I- Jack K. Wolf Andrew J. Viterbi -- Greg P. Heinzinger
Distribution System Pricing with Distributed Energy Resources
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hledik, Ryan [The Brattle Group, Cambridge, MA (United States); Lazar, Jim [The Regulatory Assistance Project, Montpelier, VT (United States); Schwartz, Lisa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
2017-08-16
Technological changes in the electric utility industry bring tremendous opportunities and significant challenges. Customers are installing clean sources of on-site generation such as rooftop solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. At the same time, smart appliances and control systems that can communicate with the grid are entering the retail market. Among the opportunities these changes create are a cleaner and more diverse power system, the ability to improve system reliability and system resilience, and the potential for lower total costs. Challenges include integrating these new resources in a way that maintains system reliability, provides an equitable sharing of system costs, and avoids unbalanced impacts on different groups of customers, including those who install distributed energy resources (DERs) and low-income households who may be the least able to afford the transition.
Loss optimization in distribution networks with distributed generation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pokhrel, Basanta Raj; Nainar, Karthikeyan; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte
2017-01-01
This paper presents a novel power loss minimization approach in distribution grids considering network reconfiguration, distributed generation and storage installation. Identification of optimum configuration in such scenario is one of the main challenges faced by distribution system operators...
A New Distribution-Random Limit Normal Distribution
Gong, Xiaolin; Yang, Shuzhen
2013-01-01
This paper introduces a new distribution to improve tail risk modeling. Based on the classical normal distribution, we define a new distribution by a series of heat equations. Then, we use market data to verify our model.
Distributed Radio Interferometric Calibration
Yatawatta, Sarod
2015-01-01
Increasing data volumes delivered by a new generation of radio interferometers require computationally efficient and robust calibration algorithms. In this paper, we propose distributed calibration as a way of improving both computational cost as well as robustness in calibration. We exploit the data parallelism across frequency that is inherent in radio astronomical observations that are recorded as multiple channels at different frequencies. Moreover, we also exploit the smoothness of the variation of calibration parameters across frequency. Data parallelism enables us to distribute the computing load across a network of compute agents. Smoothness in frequency enables us reformulate calibration as a consensus optimization problem. With this formulation, we enable flow of information between compute agents calibrating data at different frequencies, without actually passing the data, and thereby improving robustness. We present simulation results to show the feasibility as well as the advantages of distribute...
Superpositions of probability distributions
Jizba, Petr; Kleinert, Hagen
2008-09-01
Probability distributions which can be obtained from superpositions of Gaussian distributions of different variances v=σ2 play a favored role in quantum theory and financial markets. Such superpositions need not necessarily obey the Chapman-Kolmogorov semigroup relation for Markovian processes because they may introduce memory effects. We derive the general form of the smearing distributions in v which do not destroy the semigroup property. The smearing technique has two immediate applications. It permits simplifying the system of Kramers-Moyal equations for smeared and unsmeared conditional probabilities, and can be conveniently implemented in the path integral calculus. In many cases, the superposition of path integrals can be evaluated much easier than the initial path integral. Three simple examples are presented, and it is shown how the technique is extended to quantum mechanics.
Online Distributed Sensor Selection
Golovin, Daniel; Krause, Andreas
2010-01-01
A key problem in sensor networks is to decide which sensors to query when, in order to obtain the most useful information (e.g., for performing accurate prediction), subject to constraints (e.g., on power and bandwidth). In many applications the utility function is not known a priori, must be learned from data, and can even change over time. Furthermore for large sensor networks solving a centralized optimization problem to select sensors is not feasible, and thus we seek a fully distributed solution. In this paper, we present Distributed Online Greedy (DOG), an efficient, distributed algorithm for repeatedly selecting sensors online, only receiving feedback about the utility of the selected sensors. We prove very strong theoretical no-regret guarantees that apply whenever the (unknown) utility function satisfies a natural diminishing returns property called submodularity. Our algorithm has extremely low communication requirements, and scales well to large sensor deployments. We extend DOG to allow observatio...
Electricity Distribution Effectiveness
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Waldemar Szpyra
2015-12-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses the basic concepts of cost accounting in the power industry and selected ways of assessing the effectiveness of electricity distribution. The results of effectiveness analysis of MV/LV distribution transformer replacement are presented, and unit costs of energy transmission through various medium-voltage line types are compared. The calculation results confirm the viability of replacing transformers manufactured before 1975. Replacing transformers manufactured after 1975 – only to reduce energy losses – is not economically justified. Increasing use of a PAS type line for energy transmission in local distribution networks is reasonable. Cabling these networks under the current calculation rules of discounts for excessive power outages is not viable, even in areas particularly exposed to catastrophic wire icing.
Distributed Wind Market Applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Forsyth, T.; Baring-Gould, I.
2007-11-01
Distributed wind energy systems provide clean, renewable power for on-site use and help relieve pressure on the power grid while providing jobs and contributing to energy security for homes, farms, schools, factories, private and public facilities, distribution utilities, and remote locations. America pioneered small wind technology in the 1920s, and it is the only renewable energy industry segment that the United States still dominates in technology, manufacturing, and world market share. The series of analyses covered by this report were conducted to assess some of the most likely ways that advanced wind turbines could be utilized apart from large, central station power systems. Each chapter represents a final report on specific market segments written by leading experts in this field. As such, this document does not speak with one voice but rather a compendium of different perspectives, which are documented from a variety of people in the U.S. distributed wind field.
Distributed Web Service Repository
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Piotr Nawrocki
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The increasing availability and popularity of computer systems has resulted in a demand for new, language- and platform-independent ways of data exchange. That demand has in turn led to a significant growth in the importance of systems based on Web services. Alongside the growing number of systems accessible via Web services came the need for specialized data repositories that could offer effective means of searching of available services. The development of mobile systems and wireless data transmission technologies has allowed the use of distributed devices and computer systems on a greater scale. The accelerating growth of distributed systems might be a good reason to consider the development of distributed Web service repositories with built-in mechanisms for data migration and synchronization.
Superpositions of probability distributions.
Jizba, Petr; Kleinert, Hagen
2008-09-01
Probability distributions which can be obtained from superpositions of Gaussian distributions of different variances v=sigma;{2} play a favored role in quantum theory and financial markets. Such superpositions need not necessarily obey the Chapman-Kolmogorov semigroup relation for Markovian processes because they may introduce memory effects. We derive the general form of the smearing distributions in v which do not destroy the semigroup property. The smearing technique has two immediate applications. It permits simplifying the system of Kramers-Moyal equations for smeared and unsmeared conditional probabilities, and can be conveniently implemented in the path integral calculus. In many cases, the superposition of path integrals can be evaluated much easier than the initial path integral. Three simple examples are presented, and it is shown how the technique is extended to quantum mechanics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fairbairn, R.J.; Maunder, D.; Kenyon, P.
1999-07-01
This report summarises the findings of a study reviewing the distribution network in England, Scotland and Wales to evaluate its ability to accommodate more embedded generation from both fossil fuel and renewable energy sources. The background to the study is traced, and descriptions of the existing electricity supply system, the licence conditions relating to embedded generation, and the effects of the Review of Electricity Trading Arrangements are given. The ability of the UK distribution networks to accept embedded generation is examined, and technical benefits/drawbacks arising from embedded generation, and the potential for uptake of embedded generation technologies are considered. The distribution network capacity and the potential uptake of embedded generation are compared, and possible solutions to overcome obstacles are suggested. (UK)
Inferring the eccentricity distribution
Hogg, David W; Bovy, Jo
2010-01-01
Standard maximum-likelihood estimators for binary-star and exoplanet eccentricities are biased high, in the sense that the estimated eccentricity tends to be larger than the true eccentricity. As with most non-trivial observables, a simple histogram of estimated eccentricities is not a good estimate of the true eccentricity distribution. Here we develop and test a hierarchical probabilistic method for performing the relevant meta-analysis, that is, inferring the true eccentricity distribution, taking as input the likelihood functions for the individual-star eccentricities, or samplings of the posterior probability distributions for the eccentricities (under a given, uninformative prior). The method is a simple implementation of a hierarchical Bayesian model; it can also be seen as a kind of heteroscedastic deconvolution. It can be applied to any quantity measured with finite precision--other orbital parameters, or indeed any astronomical measurements of any kind, including magnitudes, parallaxes, or photometr...
Discrete Pearson distributions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bowman, K.O. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Shenton, L.R. [Georgia Univ., Athens, GA (United States); Kastenbaum, M.A. [Kastenbaum (M.A.), Basye, VA (United States)
1991-11-01
These distributions are generated by a first order recursive scheme which equates the ratio of successive probabilities to the ratio of two corresponding quadratics. The use of a linearized form of this model will produce equations in the unknowns matched by an appropriate set of moments (assumed to exist). Given the moments we may find valid solutions. These are two cases; (1) distributions defined on the non-negative integers (finite or infinite) and (2) distributions defined on negative integers as well. For (1), given the first four moments, it is possible to set this up as equations of finite or infinite degree in the probability of a zero occurrence, the sth component being a product of s ratios of linear forms in this probability in general. For (2) the equation for the zero probability is purely linear but may involve slowly converging series; here a particular case is the discrete normal. Regions of validity are being studied. 11 refs.
Distributed photovoltaic grid transformers
Shertukde, Hemchandra Madhusudan
2014-01-01
The demand for alternative energy sources fuels the need for electric power and controls engineers to possess a practical understanding of transformers suitable for solar energy. Meeting that need, Distributed Photovoltaic Grid Transformers begins by explaining the basic theory behind transformers in the solar power arena, and then progresses to describe the development, manufacture, and sale of distributed photovoltaic (PV) grid transformers, which help boost the electric DC voltage (generally at 30 volts) harnessed by a PV panel to a higher level (generally at 115 volts or higher) once it is
Market Sentiments Distribution Law
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jorge Reyes-Molina
2016-09-01
Full Text Available The Stock Exchange is basically ruled by the extreme market sentiments of euphoria and fear. The type of sentiment is given by the color of the candlestick (white = bullish sentiments, black = bearish sentiments, meanwhile the intensity of the sentiment is given by the size of it. In this paper you will see that the intensity of any sentiment is astonishingly distributed in a robust, systematic and universal way, according to a law of exponential decay, the conclusion of which is supported by the analysis of the Lyapunov exponent, the information entropy and the frequency distribution of candlestick size.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kulagin S. A.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We review a microscopic model of the nuclear parton distribution functions, which accounts for a number of nuclear effects including Fermi motion and nuclear binding, nuclear meson-exchange currents, off-shell corrections to bound nucleon distributions and nuclear shadowing. We also discuss applications of this model to a number of processes including lepton-nucleus deep inelastic scattering, proton-nucleus Drell-Yan lepton pair production at Fermilab, as well as W± and Z0 boson production in proton-lead collisions at the LHC.
Liquidity, welfare and distribution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Martín Gil Samuel
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This work presents a dynamic general equilibrium model where wealth distribution is endogenous. I provide channels of causality that suggest a complex relationship between financial markets and the real activity which breaks down the classical dichotomy. As a consequence, the Friedman rule does not hold. In terms of the current events taking place in the world economy, this paper provides a rationale to advert against the perils of an economy satiated with liquidity. Efficiency and distribution cannot thus be considered as separate attributes once we account for the interactions between financial markets and the economic performance.
Georgiev, Svetlin G
2015-01-01
This book explains many fundamental ideas on the theory of distributions. The theory of partial differential equations is one of the synthetic branches of analysis that combines ideas and methods from different fields of mathematics, ranging from functional analysis and harmonic analysis to differential geometry and topology. This presents specific difficulties to those studying this field. This book, which consists of 10 chapters, is suitable for upper undergraduate/graduate students and mathematicians seeking an accessible introduction to some aspects of the theory of distributions. It can also be used for one-semester course.
THERMAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM EXPERIMENT
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
KRAJEWSKI,R.F.; ANDREWS,J.W.; WEI,G.
1999-09-01
A laboratory experiment has been conducted which tests for the effects of distribution system purging on system Delivery Effectiveness (DE) as defined in ASHRAE 152P. The experiment is described in its configuration, instrumentation, and data acquisition system. Data gathered in the experiment is given and discussed. The results show that purging of the distribution system alone does not offer any improvement of the system DE. Additional supporting tests were conducted regarding experimental simulations of buffer zones and bare pipe and are also discussed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fischer, Lars; Grønager, Michael; Kleist, Josva
2008-01-01
The Tier-1 facility operated by the Nordic DataGrid Facility (NDGF) differs significantly from other Tier-1s in several aspects: firstly, it is not located at one or a few premises, but instead is distributed throughout the Nordic countries; secondly, it is not under the governance of a single...... organization but instead is a meta-center built of resources under the control of a number of different national organizations. We present some technical implications of these aspects as well as the high-level design of this distributed Tier-1. The focus will be on computing services, storage and monitoring....
Gallud, Jose A; Penichet, Victor M R
2011-01-01
The recent advances in display technologies and mobile devices is having an important effect on the way users interact with all kinds of devices (computers, mobile devices, laptops, tablets, and so on). These are opening up new possibilities for interaction, including the distribution of the UI (User Interface) amongst different devices, and implies that the UI can be split and composed, moved, copied or cloned among devices running the same or different operating systems. These new ways of manipulating the UI are considered under the emerging topic of Distributed User Interfaces (DUIs). DUIs
76 FR 42768 - Capital Distribution
2011-07-19
... Office of Thrift Supervision Capital Distribution AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury... concerning the following information collection. Title of Proposal: Capital Distribution. OMB Number: 1550..., the information provides the OTS with a mechanism for monitoring capital distributions since...
Ground Wood Fiber Length Distributions
Lauri Ilmari Salminen; Sari Liukkonen; Alava, Mikko J.
2014-01-01
This study considers ground wood fiber length distributions arising from pilot grindings. The empirical fiber length distributions appear to be independent of wood fiber length as well as feeding velocity. In terms of mathematics the fiber fragment distributions of ground wood pulp combine an exponential distribution for high-length fragments and a power-law distribution for smaller lengths. This implies that the fiber length distribution is influenced by the stone surface. A fragmentation-ba...
Legger, Federica; The ATLAS collaboration
2015-01-01
The ATLAS experiment accumulated more than 140 PB of data during the first run of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The analysis of such an amount of data for the distributed physics community is a challenging task. The Distributed Analysis (DA) system of the ATLAS experiment is an established and stable component of the ATLAS distributed computing operations. About half a million user jobs are daily running on DA resources, submitted by more than 1500 ATLAS physicists. The reliability of the DA system during the first run of the LHC and the following shutdown period has been high thanks to the continuous automatic validation of the distributed analysis sites and the user support provided by a dedicated team of expert shifters. During the LHC shutdown, the ATLAS computing model has undergone several changes to improve the analysis workflows, including the re-design of the production system, a new analysis data format and event model, and the development of common reduction and analysis frameworks. We r...
Bonsangue, M.M.; Hansen, H.H.; Kurz, A.; Rot, J.C.; Heckel, R.; Milius, S.
2013-01-01
Distributive laws of a monad over a functor F are categorical tools for specifying algebra-coalgebra interaction. They proved to be important for solving systems of corecursive equations, for the specification of well-behaved structural operational semantics and, more recently, also for enhancements
Bonsangue, M.M.; Hansen, H.H.; Kurz, A.; Rot, J.C.
2015-01-01
Distributive laws of a monad T over a functor F are categorical tools for specifying algebra-coalgebra interaction. They proved to be important for solving systems of corecursive equations, for the specication of well-behaved structural operational se- mantics and, more recently, also for enhancemen
Bonsangue, M.M.; Hansen, H.H.; Kurz, A.; Rot, J.
2015-01-01
Distributive laws of a monad T over a functor F are categorical tools for specifying algebra-coalgebra interaction. They proved to be important for solving systems of corecursive equations, for the specification of well-behaved structural operational semantics and, more recently, also for enhancemen
Parton Distributions Working Group
de Barbaro, Lucy; Brock, R.; Casey, D.; Demina, R.; Giele, W.T.; Hirosky, R.; Huston, J.; Kalk, J.; Keller, S.A.; Klasen, M.; Kosower, D.A.; Kramer, M.; Kretzer, S.; Kuhlmann, S.; Martin, R.; Olness, Fredrick I.; Plehn, T.; Pumplin, J.; Scalise, R.J.; Schellman, H.; Smith, J.; Soper, D.E.; Sterman, George F.; Stump, D.; Tung, W.K.; Varelas, N.; Vogelsang, W.; Yang, Un-Ki
2000-01-01
The main focus of this working group was to investigate the different issues associated with the development of quantitative tools to estimate parton distribution functions uncertainties. In the conclusion, we introduce a "Manifesto" that describes an optimal method for reporting data.
Spherical distributions : Schoenberg revisited
Steerneman, AGM; van Perlo-ten Kleij, F
2005-01-01
An in-dimensional random vector X is said to have a spherical distribution if and only if its characteristic function is of the form phi(parallel to t parallel to), where t is an element of R-m, parallel to.parallel to denotes the usual Euclidean norm, and phi is a characteristic function on R. A mo
Distributed debugging and tumult
Scholten, J.; Jansen, P.G.
1990-01-01
A description is given of Tumult (Twente university multicomputer) and its operating system, along with considerations about parallel debugging, examples of parallel debuggers, and the proposed debugger for Tumult. Problems related to debugging distributed systems and solutions found in other distri
Parallel and Distributed Databases
Hiemstra, Djoerd; Kemper, Alfons; Prieto, Manuel; Szalay, Alex
2009-01-01
Euro-Par Topic 5 addresses data management issues in parallel and distributed computing. Advances in data management (storage, access, querying, retrieval, mining) are inherent to current and future information systems. Today, accessing large volumes of information is a reality: Data-intensive appli
Computing compound distributions faster
P. den Iseger; M.A.J. Smith; R. Dekker (Rommert)
1997-01-01
textabstractThe use of Panjer's algorithm has meanwhile become a widespread standard technique for actuaries (Kuon et al., 1955). Panjer's recursion formula is used for the evaluation of compound distributions and can be applied to life and general insurance problems. The discrete version of Panjer'
Distributed usability evaluation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Lars; Frøkjær, Erik
2010-01-01
We present DUE (Distributed Usability Evaluation), a technique for collecting and evaluating usability data. The DUE infrastructure involves a client-server network. A client-based tool resides on the workstation of each user, providing a screen video recording, microphone input of voice commenta...
Highly interactive distributed visualization
Scarpa, M.; Belleman, R.G.; Sloot, P.M.A.; de Laat, C.T.A.M.
2006-01-01
We report on our iGrid2005 demonstration, called the "Dead Cat Demo"; an example of a highly interactive augmented reality application consisting of software services distributed over a wide-area, high-speed network. We describe our design decisions, analyse the implications of the design on applica
Factor Determining Income Distribution
J. Tinbergen (Jan)
1972-01-01
textabstractSince the phrase income distribution covers a large number of different concepts, it is necessary to define these and to indicate the choice made in this article. Income for a given recipient may cover lists of items which are not always the same. Apart from popular misunderstandings abo
A Distributed Magnetometer Network
Scoville, John; Freund, Friedemann
2014-01-01
Various possiblities for a distributed magnetometer network are considered. We discuss strategies such as croudsourcing smartphone magnetometer data, the use of trees as magnetometers, and performing interferometry using magnetometer arrays to synthesize the magnetometers into the world's largest telescope. Geophysical and other applications of such a network are discussed.
Distributed Treatment Systems.
Zgonc, David; Baideme, Matthew
2015-10-01
This section presents a review of the literature published in 2014 on topics relating to distributed treatment systems. This review is divided into the following sections with multiple subsections under each: constituent removal; treatment technologies; and planning and treatment system management.
Spatial distribution of overtopping
Lioutas, A.; Smith, G.M.; Verhagen, H.J.
2012-01-01
The scope of this research is to find an empirical formula to describe the distribution of wave overtopping in the region behind the crest. A physical model was set up in which irregular waves were generated. In order to find a formula which adequately describes the test observations, the influence
Income distribution: Second thoughts
J. Tinbergen (Jan)
1977-01-01
textabstractAs a follow-up of his book on income distribution the author reformulates his version on the scarcity theory of income from productive contributions. The need to introduce into an earnings theory several job characteristics, non-cognitive as well as cognitive, and the corresponding perso
A MULTIVARIATE WEIBULL DISTRIBUTION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cheng Lee
2010-07-01
Full Text Available A multivariate survival function of Weibull Distribution is developed by expanding the theorem by Lu and Bhattacharyya. From the survival function, the probability density function, the cumulative probability function, the determinant of the Jacobian Matrix, and the general moment are derived.
Abiteboul, S; Manna, M; 10.1145/1559795.1559833
2010-01-01
A distributed XML document is an XML document that spans several machines. We assume that a distribution design of the document tree is given, consisting of an XML kernel-document T[f1,...,fn] where some leaves are "docking points" for external resources providing XML subtrees (f1,...,fn, standing, e.g., for Web services or peers at remote locations). The top-down design problem consists in, given a type (a schema document that may vary from a DTD to a tree automaton) for the distributed document, "propagating" locally this type into a collection of types, that we call typing, while preserving desirable properties. We also consider the bottom-up design which consists in, given a type for each external resource, exhibiting a global type that is enforced by the local types, again with natural desirable properties. In the article, we lay out the fundamentals of a theory of distributed XML design, analyze problems concerning typing issues in this setting, and study their complexity.
Polarized parton distributions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
de Florian, D.; Epele, L.N.; Fanchiotti, H.; Garcia Canal, C.A.; Sassot, R. (Laboratorio de Fisica Teorica, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 67-1900 La Plata (Argentina))
1995-01-01
We analyze spin-dependent parton distributions consistent with the most recent measurements of the spin-dependent deep inelastic scattering structure functions and obtained in the framework of the spin dilution model. Predictions for the doubly polarized proton-proton Drell-Yan asymmetry, for the high [ital p][sub [ital T
Intelligent Distributed Control
2012-08-10
Transactions on Automatic Control , 2012. in preparation. [19] C. Yu, B. D. O. Anderson, and A. S. Morse. Gossiping periodically. IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , 2011...Adaptive Control and Signal Processing, 2011. submitted. [18] J. Liu and A. S. Morse. Distributed averaging via double linear iterations. IEEE
Aerosol distribution apparatus
Hanson, W.D.
An apparatus for uniformly distributing an aerosol to a plurality of filters mounted in a plenum, wherein the aerosol and air are forced through a manifold system by means of a jet pump and released into the plenum through orifices in the manifold. The apparatus allows for the simultaneous aerosol-testing of all the filters in the plenum.
Power distribution arrangement
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2010-01-01
An arrangement and a method for distributing power supplied by a power source to two or more of loads (e.g., electrical vehicular systems) is disclosed, where a representation of the power taken by a particular one of the loads from the source is measured. The measured representation of the amount...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Peter V.
The research on air distribution in rooms is often done as full-size investigations, scale-model investigations or by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). New activities have taken place within all three areas and this paper draws comparisons between the different methods. The outcome of the l...
Multiagent distributed watershed management
Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.; Amigoni, F.; Cai, X.
2012-04-01
Deregulation and democratization of water along with increasing environmental awareness are challenging integrated water resources planning and management worldwide. The traditional centralized approach to water management, as described in much of water resources literature, is often unfeasible in most of the modern social and institutional contexts. Thus it should be reconsidered from a more realistic and distributed perspective, in order to account for the presence of multiple and often independent Decision Makers (DMs) and many conflicting stakeholders. Game theory based approaches are often used to study these situations of conflict (Madani, 2010), but they are limited to a descriptive perspective. Multiagent systems (see Wooldridge, 2009), instead, seem to be a more suitable paradigm because they naturally allow to represent a set of self-interested agents (DMs and/or stakeholders) acting in a distributed decision process at the agent level, resulting in a promising compromise alternative between the ideal centralized solution and the actual uncoordinated practices. Casting a water management problem in a multiagent framework allows to exploit the techniques and methods that are already available in this field for solving distributed optimization problems. In particular, in Distributed Constraint Satisfaction Problems (DCSP, see Yokoo et al., 2000), each agent controls some variables according to his own utility function but has to satisfy inter-agent constraints; while in Distributed Constraint Optimization Problems (DCOP, see Modi et al., 2005), the problem is generalized by introducing a global objective function to be optimized that requires a coordination mechanism between the agents. In this work, we apply a DCSP-DCOP based approach to model a steady state hypothetical watershed management problem (Yang et al., 2009), involving several active human agents (i.e. agents who make decisions) and reactive ecological agents (i.e. agents representing
A distribution management system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jaerventausta, P.; Verho, P.; Kaerenlampi, M.; Pitkaenen, M. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland); Partanen, J. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)
1998-08-01
The development of new distribution automation applications is considerably wide nowadays. One of the most interesting areas is the development of a distribution management system (DMS) as an expansion to the traditional SCADA system. At the power transmission level such a system is called an energy management system (EMS). The idea of these expansions is to provide supporting tools for control center operators in system analysis and operation planning. Nowadays the SCADA is the main computer system (and often the only) in the control center. However, the information displayed by the SCADA is often inadequate, and several tasks cannot be solved by a conventional SCADA system. A need for new computer applications in control center arises from the insufficiency of the SCADA and some other trends. The latter means that the overall importance of the distribution networks is increasing. The slowing down of load-growth has often made network reinforcements unprofitable. Thus the existing network must be operated more efficiently. At the same time larger distribution areas are for economical reasons being monitored at one control center and the size of the operation staff is decreasing. The quality of supply requirements are also becoming stricter. The needed data for new applications is mainly available in some existing systems. Thus the computer systems of utilities must be integrated. The main data source for the new applications in the control center are the AM/FM/GIS (i.e. the network database system), the SCADA, and the customer information system (CIS). The new functions can be embedded in some existing computer system. This means a strong dependency on the vendor of the existing system. An alternative strategy is to develop an independent system which is integrated with other computer systems using well-defined interfaces. The latter approach makes it possible to use the new applications in various computer environments, having only a weak dependency on the
Summer Steelhead Distribution [ds341
California Department of Resources — Summer Steelhead Distribution October 2009 Version This dataset depicts observation-based stream-level geographic distribution of anadromous summer-run steelhead...
Pulse Distributing Manifold; Pulse Distributing Manifold
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schutting, Eberhard [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria); Sams, Theodor [AVL List GmbH, Graz (Austria); Glensvig, Michael [Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Graz (AT). Kompetenzzentrum ' ' Das virtuelle Fahrzeug' ' (VIF)
2011-07-01
The Pulse Distributing Manifold is a new charge exchange method for turbocharged diesel engines with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The method is characterized in that the EGR mass flow is not diverted from the exhaust gas mass flow continuously, but over time broken into sub-streams. The temporal interruption is achieved by two phase-shifted outlet valves which are connected via separate manifolds only with the turbocharger or only with the EGR path. The time points of valve opening are chosen such that the turbocharger and the aftertreatment process of exhaust gas is perfused by high-energy exhaust gas of the blowdown phase while cooler and less energy-rich exhaust gas of the exhaust period is used for the exhaust gas recirculation. This increases the enthalpy for the turbocharger and the temperature for the exhaust gas treatment, while the cooling efficiency at the EGR cooler is reduced. The elimination of the continuous EGR valve has a positive effect on pumping losses. The principle functioning and the potential of this system could be demonstrated by means of a concept study using one-dimensional simulations. Without disadvantages in fuel consumption for the considered commercial vehicle engine, a reduction the EGR cooler performance by 15 % and an increase in exhaust temperature of 35 K could be achieved. The presented charge exchange method was developed, evaluated and patented within the scope of the research program 'K2-mobility' of the project partners AVL (Mainz, Federal Republic of Germany) and University of Technology Graz (Austria). The research project 'K2-Mobility' is supported by the competence center 'The virtual vehicle' Forschungsgesellschaft mbH (Graz, Austria).
Distribution management system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Verho, P.; Kaerenlampi, M.; Pitkaenen, M.; Jaerventausta, P.; Partanen, J.
1997-12-31
This report comprises a general description of the results obtained in the research projects `Information system applications of a distribution control center`, `Event analysis in primary substation`, and `Distribution management system` of the EDISON research program during the years of 1993 - 1997. The different domains of the project are presented in more detail in other reports. An operational state analysis of a distribution network has been made from the control center point of view and the functions which can not be solved by a conventional SCADA system are determined. The basis for new computer applications is shown to be integration of the computer systems. The main result of the work is a distribution management system (DMS), which is an autonomous system integrated to the existing information systems, SCADA and AM/FM/GIS. The system uses a large number of modelling and computation methods and provides an extensive group of advanced functions to support the distribution network monitoring, fault management, operations planning and optimization. The development platform of the system consists of a Visual C++ programming environment, Windows NT operating system and PC. During the development the DMS has been tested in a pilot utility and it is nowadays in practical use in several Finnish utilities. The use of a DMS improves the quality and economy of power supply in many ways; the outage times can, in particular, be reduced using the system. Based on the achieved experiences some parts of the DMS reached the commercialization phase, too. Initially the commercial products were developed by a software company, Versoft Oy. At present the research results are the basis of a worldwide software product supplied by ABB Transmit Co. (orig.) EDISON Research Programme. 28 refs.
Transmuted Complementary Weibull Geometric Distribution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmed Z. A fify
2014-12-01
Full Text Available This paper provides a new generalization of the complementary Weibull geometric distribution that introduced by Tojeiro et al. (2014, using the quadratic rank transmutation map studied by Shaw and Buckley (2007. The new distribution is referred to as transmuted complementary Weibull geometric distribution (TCWGD. The TCWG distribution includes as special cases the complementary Weibull geometric distribution (CWGD, complementary exponential geometric distribution(CEGD,Weibull distribution (WD and exponential distribution (ED. Various structural properties of the new distribution including moments, quantiles, moment generating function and RØnyi entropy of the subject distribution are derived. We proposed the method of maximum likelihood for estimating the model parameters and obtain the observed information matrix. A real data set are used to compare the exibility of the transmuted version versus the complementary Weibull geometric distribution.
Distribution view: a tool to write and simulate distributions
Coelho, José; Branco, Fernando; Oliveira, Teresa
2006-01-01
In our work we present a tool to write and simulate distributions. This tool allows to write mathematical expressions which can contain not only functions and variables, but also statistical distributions, including mixtures. Each time the expression is evaluated, for all inner distributions, is generated a value according to the distribution and is used for expression value determination. The inversion method can be used in this language, allowing to generate all distributions...
Distributed Visualization Project
Craig, Douglas; Conroy, Michael; Kickbusch, Tracey; Mazone, Rebecca
2016-01-01
Distributed Visualization allows anyone, anywhere to see any simulation at any time. Development focuses on algorithms, software, data formats, data systems and processes to enable sharing simulation-based information across temporal and spatial boundaries without requiring stakeholders to possess highly-specialized and very expensive display systems. It also introduces abstraction between the native and shared data, which allows teams to share results without giving away proprietary or sensitive data. The initial implementation of this capability is the Distributed Observer Network (DON) version 3.1. DON 3.1 is available for public release in the NASA Software Store (https://software.nasa.gov/software/KSC-13775) and works with version 3.0 of the Model Process Control specification (an XML Simulation Data Representation and Communication Language) to display complex graphical information and associated Meta-Data.
Distributed Parameter Modelling Applications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2011-01-01
Here the issue of distributed parameter models is addressed. Spatial variations as well as time are considered important. Several applications for both steady state and dynamic applications are given. These relate to the processing of oil shale, the granulation of industrial fertilizers and the d......Here the issue of distributed parameter models is addressed. Spatial variations as well as time are considered important. Several applications for both steady state and dynamic applications are given. These relate to the processing of oil shale, the granulation of industrial fertilizers...... sands processing. The fertilizer granulation model considers the dynamics of MAP-DAP (mono and diammonium phosphates) production within an industrial granulator, that involves complex crystallisation, chemical reaction and particle growth, captured through population balances. A final example considers...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borch, Ole; Kirkegaard, B.; Knudsen, Morten
1998-01-01
Project work has been used for many years at Aalborg University to improve learning of theory and methods given in courses. In a closed environment where the students are forming a group in a single room, the interaction behaviour is more or less given from the natural life. Group work...... in a distributed fashion over the Internet needs more attention to the interaction protocol since the physical group room is not existing. The purpose in this paper is to develop a method for online project work by using the product: Basic Support for Cooperative Work (BSCV). An analysis of a well-proven protocol...... to be very precises and with success used on the second test group. Distributed project work is coming pretty soon and with little improvement in server tools, projects in different topics with a large and inhomogeneous profile of users are realistic....
Bounding species distribution models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thomas J. STOHLGREN, Catherine S. JARNEVICH, Wayne E. ESAIAS,Jeffrey T. MORISETTE
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for “clamping” model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART and maximum entropy (Maxent models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5: 642–647, 2011].
D'Hulst, R.; Rodgers, G. J.
2001-10-01
In a recent work, we introduced two models for the dynamics of customers trying to find the business that best corresponds to their expectation for the price of a commodity. In agreement with the empirical data, a power-law distribution for the business sizes was obtained, taking the number of customers of a business as a proxy for its size. Here, we extend one of our previous models in two different ways. First, we introduce a business aggregation rate that is fitness dependent, which allows us to reproduce a spread in empirical data from one country to another. Second, we allow the bankruptcy rate to take a different functional form, to be able to obtain a log-normal distribution with power-law tails for the size of the businesses.
Efficient Quantum Key Distribution
Ardehali, M; Chau, H F; Lo, H K
1998-01-01
We devise a simple modification that essentially doubles the efficiency of a well-known quantum key distribution scheme proposed by Bennett and Brassard (BB84). Our scheme assigns significantly different probabilities for the different polarization bases during both transmission and reception to reduce the fraction of discarded data. The actual probabilities used in the scheme are announced in public. As the number of transmitted signals increases, the efficiency of our scheme can be made to approach 100%. The security of our scheme (against single-photon eavesdropping strategies) is guaranteed by a refined analysis of accepted data which is employed to detect eavesdropping: Instead of lumping all the accepted data together to estimate a single error rate, we separate the accepted data into various subsets according to the basis employed and estimate an error rate for each subset individually. Our scheme is the first quantum key distribution with an efficiency greater than 50%. We remark that our idea is rath...
Bhole, Gaurav; Mahesh, T S
2014-01-01
Benford's Law is an empirical law which predicts the frequency of significant digits in databases corresponding to various phenomena, natural or artificial. Although counter intuitive at the first sight, it predicts a higher occurrence of digit 1, and decreasing occurrences to other larger digits. Here we report the Benford analysis of various NMR databases and draw several interesting inferences. We observe that, in general, NMR signals follow Benford distribution in time-domain as well as in frequency domain. Our survey included NMR signals of various nuclear species in a wide variety of molecules in different phases, namely liquid, liquid-crystalline, and solid. We also studied the dependence of Benford distribution on NMR parameters such as signal to noise ratio, number of scans, pulse angles, and apodization. In this process we also find that, under certain circumstances, the Benford analysis can distinguish a genuine spectrum from a visually identical simulated spectrum. Further we find that chemical-sh...
Distribution load estimation (DLE)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seppaelae, A.; Lehtonen, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)
1998-08-01
The load research has produced customer class load models to convert the customers` annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models applied from a nation-wide sample is limited in any specific network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to find improvements to the load models or, in general, improvements to the load estimates. In Distribution Load Estimation (DLE) the measurements from the network are utilized to improve the customer class load models. The results of DLE will be new load models that better correspond to the loading of the distribution network but are still close to the original load models obtained by load research. The principal data flow of DLE is presented
Light Meson Distribution Amplitudes
Arthur, R.; Brommel, D.; Donnellan, M.A.; Flynn, J.M.; Juttner, A.; de Lima, H.Pedroso; Rae, T.D.; Sachrajda, C.T.; Samways, B.
2010-01-01
We calculated the first two moments of the light-cone distribution amplitudes for the pseudoscalar mesons ($\\pi$ and $K$) and the longitudinally polarised vector mesons ($\\rho$, $K^*$ and $\\phi$) as part of the UKQCD and RBC collaborations' $N_f=2+1$ domain-wall fermion phenomenology programme. These quantities were obtained with a good precision and, in particular, the expected effects of $SU(3)$-flavour symmetry breaking were observed. Operators were renormalised non-perturbatively and extrapolations to the physical point were made, guided by leading order chiral perturbation theory. The main results presented are for two volumes, $16^3\\times 32$ and $24^3\\times 64$, with a common lattice spacing. Preliminary results for a lattice with a finer lattice spacing, $32^3\\times64$, are discussed and a first look is taken at the use of twisted boundary conditions to extract distribution amplitudes.
Introduction to Distributed Systems
Thampi, Sabu M
2009-01-01
Computing has passed through many transformations since the birth of the first computing machines. Developments in technology have resulted in the availability of fast and inexpensive processors, and progresses in communication technology have resulted in the availability of lucrative and highly proficient computer networks. Among these, the centralized networks have one component that is shared by users all the time. All resources are accessible, but there is a single point of control as well as a single point of failure. The integration of computer and networking technologies gave birth to new paradigm of computing called distributed computing in the late 1970s. Distributed computing has changed the face of computing and offered quick and precise solutions for a variety of complex problems for different fields. Nowadays, we are fully engrossed by the information age, and expending more time communicating and gathering information through the Internet. The Internet keeps on progressing along more than a few ...
Dentistry and distributive justice.
Dharamsi, Shafik; MacEntee, Michael I
2002-07-01
There is a growing concern in most countries to address the problem of inequities in health-care within the context of financial restraints on the public purse and the realities of health professions that are influenced strongly by the economic priorities of free-market economies. Dental professionals, like other health professionals, are well aware that the public expects oral health-related services that are effective, accessible, available and affordable. Yet, there is remarkably little reference in the literature to the theories of distributive justice that might offer guidance on how an equitable oral health service could be achieved. This paper considers three prominent theories of distributive justice--libertarianism, egalitarianism and contractarianism--within the controversial context of basic care and quality of life. The discussion leads towards a socially responsible, egalitarian perspective on prevention augmented by a social contract for curative care with the aim of providing maximum benefit to the least advantaged in society.
Managing Distributed Knowledge Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Brian Vejrum; Gelbuda, Modestas
2005-01-01
of integrating new people, building new units and adding activities to the existing organization. It is argued that knowledge is not a stable capacity that belongs to any actor alone, but that it is rather an ongoing social accomplishment, which is created and recreated as actors engage in mutual activities....... This paper contributes to the research on organizations as distributed knowledge systems by addressing two weaknesses of the social practice literature. Firstly, it downplays the importance of formal structure and organizational design and intervention efforts by key organizational members. Secondly, it does......The article argues that the growth of de novo knowledge-based organization depends on managing and coordinating increasingly growing and, therefore, distributed knowledge. Moreover, the growth in knowledge is often accompanied by an increasing organizational complexity, which is a result...
``Just Another Distribution Channel?''
Lemstra, Wolter; de Leeuw, Gerd-Jan; van de Kar, Els; Brand, Paul
The telecommunications-centric business model of mobile operators is under attack due to technological convergence in the communication and content industries. This has resulted in a plethora of academic contributions on the design of new business models and service platform architectures. However, a discussion of the challenges that operators are facing in adopting these models is lacking. We assess these challenges by considering the mobile network as part of the value system of the content industry. We will argue that from the perspective of a content provider the mobile network is ‘just another’ distribution channel. Strategic options available for the mobile communication operators are to deliver an excellent distribution channel for content delivery or to move upwards in the value chain by becoming a content aggregator. To become a mobile content aggregator operators will have to develop or acquire complementary resources and capabilities. Whether this strategic option is sustainable remains open.
Bounding Species Distribution Models
Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Jarnevich, Cahterine S.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Esaias, Wayne E.
2011-01-01
Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for "clamping" model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5): 642-647, 2011].
Distributional Watson transforms
Dijksma, A.; Snoo, H.S.V. de
1974-01-01
For all Watson transforms W in L2(R+) a triple of Hilbert space LG ⊂ L2(R+) ⊂ L'G is constructed such that W may be extended to L'G. These results allow the construction of a triple L ⊂ L2(R+) ⊂ L', where L is a Gelfand-Fréchet space. This leads to a theory of distributional Watson transforms.
Program Facilitates Distributed Computing
Hui, Joseph
1993-01-01
KNET computer program facilitates distribution of computing between UNIX-compatible local host computer and remote host computer, which may or may not be UNIX-compatible. Capable of automatic remote log-in. User communicates interactively with remote host computer. Data output from remote host computer directed to local screen, to local file, and/or to local process. Conversely, data input from keyboard, local file, or local process directed to remote host computer. Written in ANSI standard C language.
Theoretical Delay Time Distributions
Nelemans, Gijs; Bours, Madelon
2012-01-01
We briefly discuss the method of population synthesis to calculate theoretical delay time distributions of type Ia supernova progenitors. We also compare the results of the different research groups and conclude that although one of the main differences in the results for single degenerate progenitors is the retention efficiency with which accreted hydrogen is added to the white dwarf core, this cannot explain all the differences.
Theoretical Delay Time Distributions
Nelemans, Gijs; Toonen, Silvia; Bours, Madelon
2013-01-01
We briefly discuss the method of population synthesis to calculate theoretical delay time distributions of Type Ia supernova progenitors. We also compare the results of different research groups and conclude that, although one of the main differences in the results for single degenerate progenitors is the retention efficiency with which accreted hydrogen is added to the white dwarf core, this alone cannot explain all the differences.
Conformism and Wealth Distribution
Mino, Kazuo; Nakamoto, Yasuhiro
2014-01-01
This paper explores the role of consumption externalities in a neoclassical growth model in which households have heterogeneous preferences. We fi?nd that the degree of conformism in consumption held by each household signifi?cantly affects the speed of convergence of the aggregate economy as well as the patterns of wealth distribution in the steady state equilibrium. In particular, a higher degree of consumption conformism accelerates the convergence speed of the economy towards the steady s...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LUO Ming-Xing; CHEN Xiu-Bo; DENG Yun; Yang Yi-Xian
2013-01-01
The semiquantum techniques have been explored recently to bridge the classical communications and the quantum communications.In this paper,we present one scheme to distribute the messages from one quantum participate to one weak quantum participate who can only measure the quantum states.It is proved to be robust by combining the classical coding encryption,quantum coding and other quantum techniques.
Bilateral matrix-exponential distributions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bladt, Mogens; Esparza, Luz Judith R; Nielsen, Bo Friis
2012-01-01
In this article we define the classes of bilateral and multivariate bilateral matrix-exponential distributions. These distributions have support on the entire real space and have rational moment-generating functions. These distributions extend the class of bilateral phasetype distributions of [1]...
Multivariate Matrix-Exponential Distributions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bladt, Mogens; Nielsen, Bo Friis
2010-01-01
-exponential distributions. We prove a characterization that states that a distribution is an MVME distribution if and only if all non-negative, non-null linear combinations of the coordinates have a univariate matrix-exponential distribution. This theorem is analog to a well-known characterization theorem...
Rubin, Donald B; Carlin, John B; Iyengar, S Sitharama; Brooks, Richard R; University, Clemson
2014-01-01
An Overview, S.S. Iyengar, Ankit Tandon, and R.R. BrooksMicrosensor Applications, David ShepherdA Taxonomy of Distributed Sensor Networks, Shivakumar Sastry and S.S. IyengarContrast with Traditional Systems, R.R. BrooksDigital Signal Processing Background, Yu Hen HuImage-Processing Background Lynne Grewe and Ben ShahshahaniObject Detection and Classification, Akbar M. SayeedParameter Estimation David FriedlanderTarget Tracking with Self-Organizing Distributed Sensors R.R. Brooks, C. Griffin, D.S. Friedlander, and J.D. KochCollaborative Signal and Information Processing: AnInformation-Directed Approach Feng Zhao, Jie Liu, Juan Liu, Leonidas Guibas, and James ReichEnvironmental Effects, David C. SwansonDetecting and Counteracting Atmospheric Effects Lynne L. GreweSignal Processing and Propagation for Aeroacoustic Sensor Networks, Richard J. Kozick, Brian M. Sadler, and D. Keith WilsonDistributed Multi-Target Detection in Sensor Networks Xiaoling Wang, Hairong Qi, and Steve BeckFoundations of Data Fusion f...
A distribution management system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Verho, P.; Jaerventausta, P.; Kaerenlampi, M.; Paulasaari, H. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland); Partanen, J. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)
1996-12-31
The development of new distribution automation applications is considerably wide nowadays. One of the most interesting areas is the development of a distribution management system (DMS) as an expansion of the traditional SCADA system. At the power transmission level such a system is called an energy management system (EMS). The idea of these expansions is to provide supporting tools for control center operators in system analysis and operation planning. The needed data for new applications is mainly available in some existing systems. Thus the computer systems of utilities must be integrated. The main data source for the new applications in the control center are the AM/FM/GIS (i.e. the network database system), the SCADA, and the customer information system (CIS). The new functions can be embedded in some existing computer system. This means a strong dependency on the vendor of the existing system. An alternative strategy is to develop an independent system which is integrated with other computer systems using well-defined interfaces. The latter approach makes it possible to use the new applications in various computer environments, having only a weak dependency on the vendors of the other systems. In the research project this alternative is preferred and used in developing an independent distribution management system
Economic theory of distributism
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Đurković Miša
2015-01-01
Full Text Available this paper, the economic theory of distributism has been analyzed. In the first place, the author explains that the distributism is a social thought which emerged in the Anglo-American world as the development of social teachings in the Roman Catholic Church. Although it has not received the status the main schools in modern economic thought have, distrubutism persists as a specific direction of socio-economic thinking. The paper particularly investigates the ideas of classical distibutism. The author focuses on two basic books by Gilbert Chesterton and two most important economic books by Hilaire Belloc. These authors have insisted on the problem of society moving towards the so-called servile state in which a small number of capitalists rule over mass of proletarians who are gradually coming under slavery status, which is sanctioned by the law. For the purpose of remedying this tendency and collectivism, they proposed a series of measures for a repeated broad distribution of ownership over the means of production. Finally, there is an overview of this idea and its development throughout the twentieth century, finishing with contemporary distributists like John Medaille and Alan Carlson. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179014
Distributed Priority Synthesis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Harald Ruess
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Given a set of interacting components with non-deterministic variable update and given safety requirements, the goal of priority synthesis is to restrict, by means of priorities, the set of possible interactions in such a way as to guarantee the given safety conditions for all possible runs. In distributed priority synthesis we are interested in obtaining local sets of priorities, which are deployed in terms of local component controllers sharing intended next moves between components in local neighborhoods only. These possible communication paths between local controllers are specified by means of a communication architecture. We formally define the problem of distributed priority synthesis in terms of a multi-player safety game between players for (angelically selecting the next transition of the components and an environment for (demonically updating uncontrollable variables. We analyze the complexity of the problem, and propose several optimizations including a solution-space exploration based on a diagnosis method using a nested extension of the usual attractor computation in games together with a reduction to corresponding SAT problems. When diagnosis fails, the method proposes potential candidates to guide the exploration. These optimized algorithms for solving distributed priority synthesis problems have been integrated into the VissBIP framework. An experimental validation of this implementation is performed using a range of case studies including scheduling in multicore processors and modular robotics.
Simplified Distributed Computing
Li, G. G.
2006-05-01
The distributed computing runs from high performance parallel computing, GRID computing, to an environment where idle CPU cycles and storage space of numerous networked systems are harnessed to work together through the Internet. In this work we focus on building an easy and affordable solution for computationally intensive problems in scientific applications based on existing technology and hardware resources. This system consists of a series of controllers. When a job request is detected by a monitor or initialized by an end user, the job manager launches the specific job handler for this job. The job handler pre-processes the job, partitions the job into relative independent tasks, and distributes the tasks into the processing queue. The task handler picks up the related tasks, processes the tasks, and puts the results back into the processing queue. The job handler also monitors and examines the tasks and the results, and assembles the task results into the overall solution for the job request when all tasks are finished for each job. A resource manager configures and monitors all participating notes. A distributed agent is deployed on all participating notes to manage the software download and report the status. The processing queue is the key to the success of this distributed system. We use BEA's Weblogic JMS queue in our implementation. It guarantees the message delivery and has the message priority and re-try features so that the tasks never get lost. The entire system is built on the J2EE technology and it can be deployed on heterogeneous platforms. It can handle algorithms and applications developed in any languages on any platforms. J2EE adaptors are provided to manage and communicate the existing applications to the system so that the applications and algorithms running on Unix, Linux and Windows can all work together. This system is easy and fast to develop based on the industry's well-adopted technology. It is highly scalable and heterogeneous. It is
GASIFICATION FOR DISTRIBUTED GENERATION
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ronald C. Timpe; Michael D. Mann; Darren D. Schmidt
2000-05-01
A recent emphasis in gasification technology development has been directed toward reduced-scale gasifier systems for distributed generation at remote sites. The domestic distributed power generation market over the next decade is expected to be 5-6 gigawatts per year. The global increase is expected at 20 gigawatts over the next decade. The economics of gasification for distributed power generation are significantly improved when fuel transport is minimized. Until recently, gasification technology has been synonymous with coal conversion. Presently, however, interest centers on providing clean-burning fuel to remote sites that are not necessarily near coal supplies but have sufficient alternative carbonaceous material to feed a small gasifier. Gasifiers up to 50 MW are of current interest, with emphasis on those of 5-MW generating capacity. Internal combustion engines offer a more robust system for utilizing the fuel gas, while fuel cells and microturbines offer higher electric conversion efficiencies. The initial focus of this multiyear effort was on internal combustion engines and microturbines as more realistic near-term options for distributed generation. In this project, we studied emerging gasification technologies that can provide gas from regionally available feedstock as fuel to power generators under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification, primarily coal-fed, has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries. Commercial-scale gasification activities are under way at 113 sites in 22 countries in North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia, according to the Gasification Technologies Council. Gasification studies were carried out on alfalfa, black liquor (a high-sodium waste from the pulp industry), cow manure, and willow on the laboratory scale and on alfalfa, black liquor, and willow on the bench scale. Initial parametric tests
Integrated and Unintegrated Parton Distributions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
方洁; 阮建红
2011-01-01
We compare the twist-2 and twist-4 parton distributions both in integrated and unintegrated parton distributions. We find that when x decreases the difference between the twist-2 and twist-4 patton distributions become obvious except for the valence quark distributions. We hope the future experiments may distinguish whether the twist-4 correction is needed or not and select a reasonable unintegrated parton distribution model
Optimizing queries in distributed systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ion LUNGU
2006-01-01
Full Text Available This research presents the main elements of query optimizations in distributed systems. First, data architecture according with system level architecture in a distributed environment is presented. Then the architecture of a distributed database management system (DDBMS is described on conceptual level followed by the presentation of the distributed query execution steps on these information systems. The research ends with presentation of some aspects of distributed database query optimization and strategies used for that.
A new Markov Binomial distribution
Leda D. Minkova; Omey, Edward
2011-01-01
In this paper, we introduce a two state homogeneous Markov chain and define a geometric distribution related to this Markov chain. We define also the negative binomial distribution similar to the classical case and call it NB related to interrupted Markov chain. The new binomial distribution is related to the interrupted Markov chain. Some characterization properties of the Geometric distributions are given. Recursion formulas and probability mass functions for the NB distribution and the new...
THE DISTRIBUTIONAL DIMENSION OF FRACTALS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
In the book [1] H.Triebel introduces the distributional dimension of fractals in and distributional dimension, respectively. Thus we might say that the distributional dimension is an analytical definition for Hausdorff dimension. Therefore we can study Hausdorff dimension through the distributional dimension analytically.By discussing the distributional dimension, this paper intends to set up a criterion for estimating the upper and lower bounds of Hausdorff dimension analytically. Examples illustrating the criterion are included in the end.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Durand-Gasselin Tristan
2005-03-01
Full Text Available For a tropical plant, the oil palm commodity chain has the peculiarity of possessing a major seed production sector for reasons that are primarily genetic. This seed sector has numerous original aspects. Breeders are also propagators and usually also distribute their seeds. Oil palm seeds are semi-recalcitrant: they display pseudo-dormancy. Achieving seed germination is difficult and requires lengthy treatments and special installations. This restriction greatly influences seed distribution and the role of the different stakeholders in the commodity chain. It was only once it had been discovered how the “sh” gene functioned, which controls shell thickness, and when it became necessary to produce “tenera” seeds derived from exclusively “dura x pisifera” crosses, that a true seed market developed. In addition it is difficult to organize seed distribution to smallholders. This is partly due to difficulties that the profession, or a State-run organization, has in controlling middlemen networks, and partly to the absence of any protective systems (UPOV, plant breeder certificate, etc. that generally oblige breeders to preserve and propagate parents in their own installations. In fact there are major inequalities in the access to seeds between agroindustry and smallholders. Another peculiarity of the oil palm seed market is the virtually total absence of guarantees for buyers: the quality of the research conducted by breeders, the seed production strategies necessary for transferring genetic progress, and the technical quality of production. The only guarantee today comes from the relations of confidence established year after year between breeders/distributors and growers. In this fields, research can lead to some proposals: molecular biology offers some interesting prospects for certifying seed quality and social science develop effective communication methods.
Contracts in distributed systems
Bartoletti, Massimo; Zunino, Roberto; 10.4204/EPTCS.59.11
2011-01-01
We present a parametric calculus for contract-based computing in distributed systems. By abstracting from the actual contract language, our calculus generalises both the contracts-as-processes and contracts-as-formulae paradigms. The calculus features primitives for advertising contracts, for reaching agreements, and for querying the fulfilment of contracts. Coordination among principals happens via multi-party sessions, which are created once agreements are reached. We present two instances of our calculus, by modelling contracts as (i) processes in a variant of CCS, and (ii) as formulae in a logic. With the help of a few examples, we discuss the primitives of our calculus, as well as some possible variants.
Distributed Language and Dialogism
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Steffensen, Sune Vork
2015-01-01
addresses Linell’s critique of Distributed Language as rooted in biosemiotics and in theories of organism-environment systems. It is argued that Linell’s sense-based approach entails an individualist view of how conspecific Others acquire their status as prominent parts of the sense-maker’s environment...... that human beings are metabolic, living organisms first, and sense-making, social agents second. In the conclusion, it is discussed how the two approaches, in spite of these differences, fit together, as they both grow out of a critique of 20th century linguistics. The main difference between the two...
Density Distribution Sunflower Plots
Dupont, William D; W. Dale Plummer Jr.
2003-01-01
Density distribution sunflower plots are used to display high-density bivariate data. They are useful for data where a conventional scatter plot is difficult to read due to overstriking of the plot symbol. The x-y plane is subdivided into a lattice of regular hexagonal bins of width w specified by the user. The user also specifies the values of l, d, and k that affect the plot as follows. Individual observations are plotted when there are less than l observations per bin as in a conventio...
Distributed multiple description coding
Bai, Huihui; Zhao, Yao
2011-01-01
This book examines distributed video coding (DVC) and multiple description coding (MDC), two novel techniques designed to address the problems of conventional image and video compression coding. Covering all fundamental concepts and core technologies, the chapters can also be read as independent and self-sufficient, describing each methodology in sufficient detail to enable readers to repeat the corresponding experiments easily. Topics and features: provides a broad overview of DVC and MDC, from the basic principles to the latest research; covers sub-sampling based MDC, quantization based MDC,
On Distributed Embedded Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arvindra Sehmi
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Thinking of distributed embedded systems (DES—let alone the more general area of embedded computing—as a unified topic is difficult. Nevertheless, it is a vastly important topic and potentially represents a revolution in information technology (IT. DES is driven by the increasing capabilities and ever-declining costs of computing and communications devices, resulting in networked systems of embedded computers whose functional components are nearly invisible to end users. Systems have the potential to alter radically the way in which people interact with their environment by linking a range of devices and sensors that will allow information to be collected, shared, and processed in unprecedented ways.
Approximation of distributed delays
Lu, Hao; Eberard, Damien; Simon, Jean-Pierre
2010-01-01
We address in this paper the approximation problem of distributed delays. Such elements are convolution operators with kernel having bounded support, and appear in the control of time-delay systems. From the rich literature on this topic, we propose a general methodology to achieve such an approximation. For this, we enclose the approximation problem in the graph topology, and work with the norm defined over the convolution Banach algebra. The class of rational approximates is described, and a constructive approximation is proposed. Analysis in time and frequency domains is provided. This methodology is illustrated on the stabilization control problem, for which simulations results show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.
Distribution load estimation - DLE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seppaelae, A. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)
1996-12-31
The load research project has produced statistical information in the form of load models to convert the figures of annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models is limited to a certain network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to make improvements in the load models. Distribution load estimation (DLE) is the method developed here to improve load estimates from the load models. The method is also quite cheap to apply as it utilises information that is already available in SCADA systems
Managing Distributed Knowledge Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Brian Vejrum; Gelbuda, Modestas
2005-01-01
. This paper contributes to the research on organizations as distributed knowledge systems by addressing two weaknesses of the social practice literature. Firstly, it downplays the importance of formal structure and organizational design and intervention efforts by key organizational members. Secondly, it does...... of integrating new people, building new units and adding activities to the existing organization. It is argued that knowledge is not a stable capacity that belongs to any actor alone, but that it is rather an ongoing social accomplishment, which is created and recreated as actors engage in mutual activities...
DEM - distribution energy management
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seppaelae, A.; Kekkonen, V.; Koreneff, G. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)] [and others
1998-08-01
The electricity market was de-regulated in Finland at the end of 1995 and the customers can now freely choose their power suppliers. The national grid and local distribution network operators are now separated from the energy business. The network operators transmit the electric power to the customers on equal terms regardless from whom the power is purchased. The Finnish national grid is owned by one company Finnish Power Grid PLC (Fingrid). The major shareholders of Fingrid are the state of Finland, two major power companies and institutional investors. In addition there are about 100 local distribution utilities operating the local 110 kV, 20 kV and 0.4 kV networks. The distribution utilities are mostly owned by the municipalities and towns. In each network one energy supplier is always responsible for the hourly energy balance in the network (a `host`) and it also has the obligation to provide public energy prices accessible to any customer in the network`s area. The Finnish regulating authorities nominate such a supplier who has a dominant market share in the network`s area as the supplier responsible for the network`s energy balance. A regulating authority, called the Electricity Market Centre, ensures that the market is operating properly. The transmission prices and public energy prices are under the Electricity Market Centre`s control. For domestic and other small customers the cost of hourly metering (ca. 1000 US$) would be prohibitive and therefore the use of conventional energy metering and load models is under consideration by the authorities. Small customer trade with the load models (instead of the hourly energy recording) is scheduled to start in the first half of 1998. In this presentation, the problems of energy management from the standpoint of the energy trading and distributing companies in the new situation are first discussed. The topics covered are: the hourly load data management, the forecasting and estimation of hourly energy demands
Uniform distribution of sequences
Kuipers, L
2006-01-01
The theory of uniform distribution began with Hermann Weyl's celebrated paper of 1916. In later decades, the theory moved beyond its roots in diophantine approximations to provide common ground for topics as diverse as number theory, probability theory, functional analysis, and topological algebra. This book summarizes the theory's development from its beginnings to the mid-1970s, with comprehensive coverage of both methods and their underlying principles.A practical introduction for students of number theory and analysis as well as a reference for researchers in the field, this book covers un
Distributed Evolutionary Graph Partitioning
Sanders, Peter
2011-01-01
We present a novel distributed evolutionary algorithm, KaFFPaE, to solve the Graph Partitioning Problem, which makes use of KaFFPa (Karlsruhe Fast Flow Partitioner). The use of our multilevel graph partitioner KaFFPa provides new effective crossover and mutation operators. By combining these with a scalable communication protocol we obtain a system that is able to improve the best known partitioning results for many inputs in a very short amount of time. For example, in Walshaw's well known benchmark tables we are able to improve or recompute 76% of entries for the tables with 1%, 3% and 5% imbalance.
FMCG companies specific distribution channels
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ioana Barin
2009-12-01
Full Text Available Distribution includes all activities undertaken by the producer, alone or in cooperation, since the end of the final finished products or services until they are in possession of consumers. The distribution consists of the following major components: distribution channels or marketing channels, which together form a distribution network; logistics o rphysical distribution. In order to effective achieve, distribution of goods requires an amount of activities and operational processes related to transit of goods from producer to consumer, the best conditions, using existing distribution channels and logistics system. One of the essential functions of a distribution is performing acts of sale, through which, with the actual movement of goods, their change of ownership takes place, that the successive transfer of ownership from producer to consumer. This is an itinerary in the economic cycle of goods, called the distribution channel.
Modeling particle size distributions by the Weibull distribution function
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fang, Zhigang (Rogers Tool Works, Rogers, AR (United States)); Patterson, B.R.; Turner, M.E. Jr (Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States))
1993-10-01
A method is proposed for modeling two- and three-dimensional particle size distributions using the Weibull distribution function. Experimental results show that, for tungsten particles in liquid phase sintered W-14Ni-6Fe, the experimental cumulative section size distributions were well fit by the Weibull probability function, which can also be used to compute the corresponding relative frequency distributions. Modeling the two-dimensional section size distributions facilitates the use of the Saltykov or other methods for unfolding three-dimensional (3-D) size distributions with minimal irregularities. Fitting the unfolded cumulative 3-D particle size distribution with the Weibull function enables computation of the statistical distribution parameters from the parameters of the fit Weibull function.
The Operational Risk Assessment for Distribution Network with Distributed Generations
Hua, Xie; Yaqi, Wu; Yifan, Wang; Qian, Sun; Jianwei, Ma
2017-05-01
Distribution network is an important part of the power system and is connected to the consumers directly. Many distributed generations that have discontinuous output power are connected in the distribution networks, which may cause adverse impact to the distribution network. Therefore, to ensure the security and reliability of distribution network with numerous distributed generations, the risk analysis is necessary for this kind of distribution networks. After study of stochastic load flow algorithm, this paper applies it in the static security risk assessment. The wind and photovoltaic output probabilistic model are built. The voltage over-limit is chosen to calculate the risk indicators. As a case study, the IEEE 33 system is simulated for analyzing impact of distributed generations on system risk in the proposed method.
ATLAS Distributed Analysis Tools
Gonzalez de la Hoz, Santiago; Liko, Dietrich
2008-01-01
The ATLAS production system has been successfully used to run production of simulation data at an unprecedented scale. Up to 10000 jobs were processed in one day. The experiences obtained operating the system on several grid flavours was essential to perform a user analysis using grid resources. First tests of the distributed analysis system were then performed. In the preparation phase data was registered in the LHC File Catalog (LFC) and replicated in external sites. For the main test, few resources were used. All these tests are only a first step towards the validation of the computing model. The ATLAS management computing board decided to integrate the collaboration efforts in distributed analysis in only one project, GANGA. The goal is to test the reconstruction and analysis software in a large scale Data production using Grid flavors in several sites. GANGA allows trivial switching between running test jobs on a local batch system and running large-scale analyses on the Grid; it provides job splitting a...
Efficient Distributed Medium Access
Shah, Devavrat; Tetali, Prasad
2011-01-01
Consider a wireless network of n nodes represented by a graph G=(V, E) where an edge (i,j) models the fact that transmissions of i and j interfere with each other, i.e. simultaneous transmissions of i and j become unsuccessful. Hence it is required that at each time instance a set of non-interfering nodes (corresponding to an independent set in G) access the wireless medium. To utilize wireless resources efficiently, it is required to arbitrate the access of medium among interfering nodes properly. Moreover, to be of practical use, such a mechanism is required to be totally distributed as well as simple. As the main result of this paper, we provide such a medium access algorithm. It is randomized, totally distributed and simple: each node attempts to access medium at each time with probability that is a function of its local information. We establish efficiency of the algorithm by showing that the corresponding network Markov chain is positive recurrent as long as the demand imposed on the network can be supp...
Differentially Private Distributed Sensing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fink, Glenn A.
2016-12-11
The growth of the Internet of Things (IoT) creates the possibility of decentralized systems of sensing and actuation, potentially on a global scale. IoT devices connected to cloud networks can offer Sensing and Actuation as a Service (SAaaS) enabling networks of sensors to grow to a global scale. But extremely large sensor networks can violate privacy, especially in the case where IoT devices are mobile and connected directly to the behaviors of people. The thesis of this paper is that by adapting differential privacy (adding statistically appropriate noise to query results) to groups of geographically distributed sensors privacy could be maintained without ever sending all values up to a central curator and without compromising the overall accuracy of the data collected. This paper outlines such a scheme and performs an analysis of differential privacy techniques adapted to edge computing in a simulated sensor network where ground truth is known. The positive and negative outcomes of employing differential privacy in distributed networks of devices are discussed and a brief research agenda is presented.
Models of distributive justice.
Wolff, Jonathan
2007-01-01
Philosophical disagreement about justice rages over at least two questions. The most immediate is a substantial question, concerning the conditions under which particular distributive arrangements can be said to be just or unjust. The second, deeper, question concerns the nature of justice itself. What is justice? Here we can distinguish three views. First, justice as mutual advantage sees justice as essentially a matter of the outcome of a bargain. There are times when two parties can both be better off by making some sort of agreement. Justice, on this view, concerns the distribution of the benefits and burdens of the agreement. Second, justice as reciprocity takes a different approach, looking not at bargaining but at the idea of a fair return or just price, attempting to capture the idea of justice as equal exchange. Finally justice as impartiality sees justice as 'taking the other person's point of view' asking 'how would you like it if it happened to you?' Each model has significantly different consequences for the question of when issues of justice arise and how they should be settled. It is interesting to consider whether any of these models of justice could regulate behaviour between non-human animals.
Bounding species distribution models
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Thomas J. STOHLGREN; Catherine S. JARNEVICH; Wayne E. ESAIAS; Jeffrey T. MORISETTE
2011-01-01
Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern.Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development,yet there is no recommended best practice for “clamping” model extrapolations.We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches:classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models,and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations,bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors,to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States.Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding,and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models,like those presented here,should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5):642-647,2011].
PULSE AMPLITUDE DISTRIBUTION RECORDER
Cowper, G.
1958-08-12
A device is described for automatica1ly recording pulse annplitude distribution received from a counter. The novelty of the device consists of the over-all arrangement of conventional circuit elements to provide an easy to read permanent record of the pulse amplitude distribution during a certain time period. In the device a pulse analyzer separates the pulses according to annplitude into several channels. A scaler in each channel counts the pulses and operates a pen marker positioned over a drivable recorder sheet. Since the scalers in each channel have the sanne capacity, the control circuitry permits counting of the incoming pulses until one scaler reaches capacity, whereupon the input is removed and an internal oscillator supplies the necessary pulses to fill up the other scalers. Movement of the chart sheet is initiated wben the first scaler reaches capacity to thereby give a series of marks at spacings proportional to the time required to fill the remaining scalers, and accessory equipment marks calibration points on the recorder sheet to facilitate direct reading of the number of external pulses supplied to each scaler.
Distributed System Design Checklist
Hall, Brendan; Driscoll, Kevin
2014-01-01
This report describes a design checklist targeted to fault-tolerant distributed electronic systems. Many of the questions and discussions in this checklist may be generally applicable to the development of any safety-critical system. However, the primary focus of this report covers the issues relating to distributed electronic system design. The questions that comprise this design checklist were created with the intent to stimulate system designers' thought processes in a way that hopefully helps them to establish a broader perspective from which they can assess the system's dependability and fault-tolerance mechanisms. While best effort was expended to make this checklist as comprehensive as possible, it is not (and cannot be) complete. Instead, we expect that this list of questions and the associated rationale for the questions will continue to evolve as lessons are learned and further knowledge is established. In this regard, it is our intent to post the questions of this checklist on a suitable public web-forum, such as the NASA DASHLink AFCS repository. From there, we hope that it can be updated, extended, and maintained after our initial research has been completed.
Ground Wood Fiber Length Distributions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lauri Ilmari Salminen
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This study considers ground wood fiber length distributions arising from pilot grindings. The empirical fiber length distributions appear to be independent of wood fiber length as well as feeding velocity. In terms of mathematics the fiber fragment distributions of ground wood pulp combine an exponential distribution for high-length fragments and a power-law distribution for smaller lengths. This implies that the fiber length distribution is influenced by the stone surface. A fragmentation-based model is presented that allows reproduction of the empirical results.
A Polynomial Distribution Applied to Income and Wealth Distribution
Elvis Oltean; Kusmartsev, Fedor V.
2013-01-01
Income and wealth distribution affect stability of a society to a large extent and high inequality affects it negatively. Moreover, in the case of developed countries, recently has been proven that inequality is closely related to all negative phenomena affecting society. So far, Econophysics papers tried to analyse income and wealth distribution by employing distributions such as Fermi-Dirac, Bose-Einstein, Maxwell-Boltzmann, lognormal (Gibrat), and exponential. Generally, distributions desc...
Approximate controllability of distributed systems by distributed controllers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Benzion Shklyar
2005-04-01
Full Text Available Approximate controllability problem for a linear distributed control system with possibly unbounded input operator, connected in a series to another distributed system without control is investigated. An initial state of the second distributed system is considered as a control parameter. Applications to control partial equations governed by hyperbolic controller, and to control delay systems governed by hereditary controller are considered.
The exponential age distribution and the Pareto firm size distribution
Coad, Alex
2008-01-01
Recent work drawing on data for large and small firms has shown a Pareto distribution of firm size. We mix a Gibrat-type growth process among incumbents with an exponential distribution of firm’s age, to obtain the empirical Pareto distribution.
Communication Facilities for Distributed Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Barladeanu
1997-01-01
Full Text Available The design of physical networks and communication protocols in Distributed Systems can have a direct impact on system efficiency and reliability. This paper tries to identify efficient mechanisms and paradigms for communication in distributed systems.
Distributed charging of electrical assets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ghosh, Soumyadip; Phan, Dung; Sharma, Mayank; Wu, Chai Wah; Xiong, Jinjun
2016-02-16
The present disclosure relates generally to the field of distributed charging of electrical assets. In various examples, distributed charging of electrical assets may be implemented in the form of systems, methods and/or algorithms.
2016 Distributed Wind Market Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Orrell, Alice C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Foster, Nikolas F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Morris, Scott L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Horner, Juliet S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
2017-08-07
The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) annual Distributed Wind Market Report provides stakeholders with statistics and analysis of the distributed wind market, along with insight into its trends and characteristics.
Distributed Wind Energy in Idaho
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gardner, John [Boise State Univ., ID (United States); Johnson, Kathryn [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Haynes, Todd [Boise State Univ., ID (United States); Seifert, Gary [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
2009-01-31
This project is a research and development program aimed at furthering distributed wind technology. In particular, this project addresses some of the barriers to distributed wind energy utilization in Idaho.
Reliability evaluation of distribution systems containing renewable distributed generations
Alkuhayli, Abdulaziz Abddullah
Reliability evaluation of distribution networks, including islanded microgrid cases, is presented. The Monte Carlo simulation algorithm is applied to a test network. The network includes three types of distributed energy resources solar photovoltaic (PV), wind turbine (WT) and gas turbine (GT). These distributed generators contribute to supply part of the load during grid-connected mode, but supply the entire load during islanded microgrid operation. PV and WT stochastic models have been used to simulate the randomness of these resources. This study shows that the implementation of distributed generations can improve the reliability of the distribution networks.
Nuclear Parton Distribution Functions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
I. Schienbein, J.Y. Yu, C. Keppel, J.G. Morfin, F. Olness, J.F. Owens
2009-06-01
We study nuclear effects of charged current deep inelastic neutrino-iron scattering in the framework of a {chi}{sup 2} analysis of parton distribution functions (PDFs). We extract a set of iron PDFs which are used to compute x{sub Bj}-dependent and Q{sup 2}-dependent nuclear correction factors for iron structure functions which are required in global analyses of free nucleon PDFs. We compare our results with nuclear correction factors from neutrino-nucleus scattering models and correction factors for charged-lepton--iron scattering. We find that, except for very high x{sub Bj}, our correction factors differ in both shape and magnitude from the correction factors of the models and charged-lepton scattering.
Distributed Private Heavy Hitters
Hsu, Justin; Roth, Aaron
2012-01-01
In this paper, we give efficient algorithms and lower bounds for solving the heavy hitters problem while preserving differential privacy in the fully distributed local model. In this model, there are n parties, each of which possesses a single element from a universe of size N. The heavy hitters problem is to find the identity of the most common element shared amongst the n parties. In the local model, there is no trusted database administrator, and so the algorithm must interact with each of the $n$ parties separately, using a differentially private protocol. We give tight information-theoretic upper and lower bounds on the accuracy to which this problem can be solved in the local model (giving a separation between the local model and the more common centralized model of privacy), as well as computationally efficient algorithms even in the case where the data universe N may be exponentially large.
Norbeck, Edwin; Miller, Michael; Onel, Yasar
2010-11-01
For detector arrays that require 5 to 10 kV at a few microamps each for hundreds of detectors, using hundreds of HV power supplies is unreasonable. Bundles of hundreds of HV cables take up space that should be filled with detectors. A typical HV module can supply 1 ma, enough current for hundreds of detectors. It is better to use a single HV module and distribute the current as needed. We show a circuit that, for each detector, measures the current, cuts off the voltage if the current exceeds a set maximum, and allows the HV to be turned on or off from a control computer. The entire array requires a single HV cable and 2 or 3 control lines. This design provides the same voltage to all of the detectors, the voltage set by the single HV module. Some additional circuitry would allow a computer controlled voltage drop between the HV and each individual detector.
Helicity dependent parton distributions
Scopetta, Sergio; 10.4249/scholarpedia.10226
2011-01-01
The helicity dependent parton distributions describe the number density of partons with given longitudinal momentum x and given polarization in a hadron polarized longitudinally with respect to its motion. After the discovery, more than 70 years ago, that the proton is not elementary, the observation of Bjorken scaling in the late 1960s lead to the idea of hadrons containing almost pointlike constituents, the partons. Since then, Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) has played a crucial role in our understanding of hadron structure. Through DIS experiments it has been possible to link the partons to the quarks, and to unveil the presence of other pointlike constituents, the gluons, which lead into a dynamical theory of quarks and gluons - quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Polarized DIS, i.e. the collision of a longitudinally polarized lepton beam on a polarized target (either longitudinally or transversely polarized), provides a complementary information regarding the structure of the nucleon. Whereas ordinary DIS pro...
Distributed road assessment system
Beer, N. Reginald; Paglieroni, David W
2014-03-25
A system that detects damage on or below the surface of a paved structure or pavement is provided. A distributed road assessment system includes road assessment pods and a road assessment server. Each road assessment pod includes a ground-penetrating radar antenna array and a detection system that detects road damage from the return signals as the vehicle on which the pod is mounted travels down a road. Each road assessment pod transmits to the road assessment server occurrence information describing each occurrence of road damage that is newly detected on a current scan of a road. The road assessment server maintains a road damage database of occurrence information describing the previously detected occurrences of road damage. After the road assessment server receives occurrence information for newly detected occurrences of road damage for a portion of a road, the road assessment server determines which newly detected occurrences correspond to which previously detected occurrences of road damage.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borch, Ole; Kirkegaard, B.; Knudsen, Morten
1998-01-01
Project work has been used for many years at Aalborg University to improve learning of theory and methods given in courses. In a closed environment where the students are forming a group in a single room, the interaction behaviour is more or less given from the natural life. Group work...... in a distributed fashion over the Internet needs more attention to the interaction protocol since the physical group room is not existing. The purpose in this paper is to develop a method for online project work by using the product: Basic Support for Cooperative Work (BSCV). An analysis of a well-proven protocol...... for information exchange in the traditional project environment is performed. A group of teachers and a student group using small project examples test the method. The first test group used a prototype for testing and found the new activity synchronization difficult to adapt, so the method was finally adjusted...
Contracts in distributed systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Massimo Bartoletti
2011-07-01
Full Text Available We present a parametric calculus for contract-based computing in distributed systems. By abstracting from the actual contract language, our calculus generalises both the contracts-as-processes and contracts-as-formulae paradigms. The calculus features primitives for advertising contracts, for reaching agreements, and for querying the fulfilment of contracts. Coordination among principals happens via multi-party sessions, which are created once agreements are reached. We present two instances of our calculus, by modelling contracts as (i processes in a variant of CCS, and (ii as formulae in a logic. With the help of a few examples, we discuss the primitives of our calculus, as well as some possible variants.
Evaluating the Normal Distribution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
George Marsaglia
2004-07-01
Full Text Available This article provides a little table-free C function that evaluates the normal distribution with absolute error less than 8 x 10 -16 . A small extension provides relative error near the limit available in double precision: 14 to 16 digits, the limits determined mainly by the computer's ability to evaluate exp(-t for large t. Results are compared with those provided by calls to erf or erfc functions, the best of which compare favorably, others do not, and all appear to be much more complicated than need be to get either absolute accuracy less than 10-15 or relative accuracy to the exp(-limited 14 to 16 digits. Also provided: A short history of the error function erf and its intended use, as well as, in the "browse files" attachment, various erf or erfc versions used for comparison.
Distribution Free Prediction Bands
Lei, Jing
2012-01-01
We study distribution free, nonparametric prediction bands with a special focus on their finite sample behavior. First we investigate and develop different notions of finite sample coverage guarantees. Then we give a new prediction band estimator by combining the idea of "conformal prediction" (Vovk et al. 2009) with nonparametric conditional density estimation. The proposed estimator, called COPS (Conformal Optimized Prediction Set), always has finite sample guarantee in a stronger sense than the original conformal prediction estimator. Under regularity conditions the estimator converges to an oracle band at a minimax optimal rate. A fast approximation algorithm and a data driven method for selecting the bandwidth are developed. The method is illustrated first in simulated data. Then, an application shows that the proposed method gives desirable prediction intervals in an automatic way, as compared to the classical linear regression modeling.
Hail Size Distribution Mapping
2008-01-01
A 3-D weather radar visualization software program was developed and implemented as part of an experimental Launch Pad 39 Hail Monitor System. 3DRadPlot, a radar plotting program, is one of several software modules that form building blocks of the hail data processing and analysis system (the complete software processing system under development). The spatial and temporal mapping algorithms were originally developed through research at the University of Central Florida, funded by NASA s Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM), where the goal was to merge National Weather Service (NWS) Next-Generation Weather Radar (NEXRAD) volume reflectivity data with drop size distribution data acquired from a cluster of raindrop disdrometers. In this current work, we adapted these algorithms to process data from a cluster of hail disdrometers positioned around Launch Pads 39A or 39B, along with the corresponding NWS radar data. Radar data from all NWS NEXRAD sites is archived at the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). That data can be readily accessed at . 3DRadPlot plots Level III reflectivity data at four scan elevations (this software is available at Open Channel Software, ). By using spatial and temporal interpolation/extrapolation based on hydrometeor fall dynamics, we can merge the hail disdrometer array data coupled with local Weather Surveillance Radar-1988, Doppler (WSR-88D) radial velocity and reflectivity data into a 4-D (3-D space and time) picture of hail size distributions. Hail flux maps can then be generated and used for damage prediction and assessment over specific surfaces corresponding to structures within the disdrometer array volume. Immediately following a hail storm, specific damage areas and degree of damage can be identified for inspection crews.
Density Distribution Sunflower Plots
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
William D. Dupont
2003-01-01
Full Text Available Density distribution sunflower plots are used to display high-density bivariate data. They are useful for data where a conventional scatter plot is difficult to read due to overstriking of the plot symbol. The x-y plane is subdivided into a lattice of regular hexagonal bins of width w specified by the user. The user also specifies the values of l, d, and k that affect the plot as follows. Individual observations are plotted when there are less than l observations per bin as in a conventional scatter plot. Each bin with from l to d observations contains a light sunflower. Other bins contain a dark sunflower. In a light sunflower each petal represents one observation. In a dark sunflower, each petal represents k observations. (A dark sunflower with p petals represents between /2-pk k and /2+pk k observations. The user can control the sizes and colors of the sunflowers. By selecting appropriate colors and sizes for the light and dark sunflowers, plots can be obtained that give both the overall sense of the data density distribution as well as the number of data points in any given region. The use of this graphic is illustrated with data from the Framingham Heart Study. A documented Stata program, called sunflower, is available to draw these graphs. It can be downloaded from the Statistical Software Components archive at http://ideas.repec.org/c/boc/bocode/s430201.html . (Journal of Statistical Software 2003; 8 (3: 1-5. Posted at http://www.jstatsoft.org/index.php?vol=8 .
Aloisio, Giovanni; Fiore, Sandro; Negro, A.
2010-05-01
The CMCC Data Distribution Centre (DDC) is the primary entry point (web gateway) to the CMCC. It is a Data Grid Portal providing a ubiquitous and pervasive way to ease data publishing, climate metadata search, datasets discovery, metadata annotation, data access, data aggregation, sub-setting, etc. The grid portal security model includes the use of HTTPS protocol for secure communication with the client (based on X509v3 certificates that must be loaded into the browser) and secure cookies to establish and maintain user sessions. The CMCC DDC is now in a pre-production phase and it is currently used only by internal users (CMCC researchers and climate scientists). The most important component already available in the CMCC DDC is the Search Engine which allows users to perform, through web interfaces, distributed search and discovery activities by introducing one or more of the following search criteria: horizontal extent (which can be specified by interacting with a geographic map), vertical extent, temporal extent, keywords, topics, creation date, etc. By means of this page the user submits the first step of the query process on the metadata DB, then, she can choose one or more datasets retrieving and displaying the complete XML metadata description (from the browser). This way, the second step of the query process is carried out by accessing to a specific XML document of the metadata DB. Finally, through the web interface, the user can access to and download (partially or totally) the data stored on the storage device accessing to OPeNDAP servers and to other available grid storage interfaces. Requests concerning datasets stored in deep storage will be served asynchronously.
Zhengzhou Distribution Research and Countermeasures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cao Wujun
2017-01-01
Full Text Available With the acceleration of urbanization process in China, the city has become an increasingly important part of the logistics. This paper analyzes the current development in Zhengzhou logistics and distribution, and use the SWOT analysis model to analyze the Zhengzhou logistics and distribution strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges presented in Zhengzhou distribution tertiary network architecture, and finally summarized the Zhengzhou logistics countermeasures and suggestions distribution.
A Polynomial Distribution Applied to Income and Wealth Distribution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elvis Oltean
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Income and wealth distribution affect stability of a society to a large extent and high inequality affects it negatively. Moreover, in the case of developed countries, recently has been proven that inequality is closely related to all negative phenomena affecting society. So far, Econophysics papers tried to analyse income and wealth distribution by employing distributions such as Fermi-Dirac, Bose-Einstein, Maxwell-Boltzmann, lognormal (Gibrat, and exponential. Generally, distributions describe mostly income and less wealth distribution for low and middle income segment of population, which accounts about 90% of the population. Our approach is based on a totally new distribution, not used so far in the literature regarding income and wealth distribution. Using cumulative distribution method, we find that polynomial functions, regardless of their degree (first, second, or higher, can describe with very high accuracy both income and wealth distribution. Moreover, we find that polynomial functions describe income and wealth distribution for entire population including upper income segment for which traditionally Pareto distribution is used.
Distributed terascale volume visualization using distributed shared virtual memory
Beyer, Johanna
2011-10-01
Table 1 illustrates the impact of different distribution unit sizes, different screen resolutions, and numbers of GPU nodes. We use two and four GPUs (NVIDIA Quadro 5000 with 2.5 GB memory) and a mouse cortex EM dataset (see Figure 2) of resolution 21,494 x 25,790 x 1,850 = 955GB. The size of the virtual distribution units significantly influences the data distribution between nodes. Small distribution units result in a high depth complexity for compositing. Large distribution units lead to a low utilization of GPUs, because in the worst case only a single distribution unit will be in view, which is rendered by only a single node. The choice of an optimal distribution unit size depends on three major factors: the output screen resolution, the block cache size on each node, and the number of nodes. Currently, we are working on optimizing the compositing step and network communication between nodes. © 2011 IEEE.
An intermediate distribution between Gaussian and Cauchy distributions
Liu, Tong; Dai, Wu-Sheng; Xie, Mi
2012-01-01
In this paper, we construct an intermediate distribution linking the Gaussian and the Cauchy distribution. We provide the probability density function and the corresponding characteristic function of the intermediate distribution. Because many kinds of distributions have no moment, we introduce weighted moments. Specifically, we consider weighted moments under two types of weighted functions: the cut-off function and the exponential function. Through these two types of weighted functions, we can obtain weighted moments for almost all distributions. We consider an application of the probability density function of the intermediate distribution on the spectral line broadening in laser theory. Moreover, we utilize the intermediate distribution to the problem of the stock market return in quantitative finance.
Efficient Methods for Stable Distributions
2007-11-02
are used, corresponding to the common values used in digital signal processing. Five new functions for discrete/quantized stable distributions were...written. • sgendiscrete generates discrete stable random variates. It works by generating continuous stable random variables using the Chambers- Mallows ...with stable distributions. It allows engineers and scientists to analyze data and work with stable distributions within the common matlab environment
Quark Helicity and Transversity Distributions
Hwang, Dae Sung
2016-01-01
The quark transversity distribution inside nucleon is less understood than the quark unpolarized and helicity distributions inside nucleon. In particular, it is important to know clearly why the quark helicity and transversity distributions are different. We investigate the origin of their discrepancy.
The Weibull distribution a handbook
Rinne, Horst
2008-01-01
The Most Comprehensive Book on the SubjectChronicles the Development of the Weibull Distribution in Statistical Theory and Applied StatisticsExploring one of the most important distributions in statistics, The Weibull Distribution: A Handbook focuses on its origin, statistical properties, and related distributions. The book also presents various approaches to estimate the parameters of the Weibull distribution under all possible situations of sampling data as well as approaches to parameter and goodness-of-fit testing.Describes the Statistical Methods, Concepts, Theories, and Applications of T
Research on Trustworthy Distributed System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
LI Yuan
2012-06-01
Full Text Available To arrive at the goal of intensifying the trustworthiness and controllability of distributed systems, the core function of secure algorithms and chips should be fully exerted. Through building the trustworthy model between distributed system and user behaviors, constructing the architecture of trustworthiness distributed systems, intensifying the survivability of services, and strengthening the manageability of distributed systems, the secure problem of distributed systems is to be radically solved. By setting up the trustworthy computing circumstance and supplying the trustworthy validation and the active protection based on identity and behavior for trustworthy distributed system, we will reach the goal of defending the unaware viruses and inbreak. This research insists that the security, controllability, manageability, and survivability should be basic properties of a trustworthy distributed system. The key ideas and techniques involved in these properties are studied, andrecent developments and progresses are surveyed. At the same time, the technical trends and challenges are briefly discussed.
Practical quasi parton distribution functions
Ishikawa, Tomomi; Qiu, Jian-Wei; Yoshida, Shinsuke
2016-01-01
A completely new strategy to calculate parton distribution functions on the lattice has recently been proposed. In this method, lattice calculable observables, called quasi distributions, are related to normal distributions. The quasi distributions are known to contain power-law UV divergences arise from a Wilson line in the non-local operator, while the normal distributions only have logatithmic UV divergences. We propose possible method to subtract the power divegence to make the matching of the quasi with the normal distributions well-defined. We also demonstrate the matching of the quasi quark distribution between continuum and lattice implementing the power divergence subtraction. The matching calculations are carried out by one-loop perturbation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morozov, Dmitriy; Weber, Gunther
2013-01-08
Improved simulations and sensors are producing datasets whose increasing complexity exhausts our ability to visualize and comprehend them directly. To cope with this problem, we can detect and extract significant features in the data and use them as the basis for subsequent analysis. Topological methods are valuable in this context because they provide robust and general feature definitions. As the growth of serial computational power has stalled, data analysis is becoming increasingly dependent on massively parallel machines. To satisfy the computational demand created by complex datasets, algorithms need to effectively utilize these computer architectures. The main strength of topological methods, their emphasis on global information, turns into an obstacle during parallelization. We present two approaches to alleviate this problem. We develop a distributed representation of the merge tree that avoids computing the global tree on a single processor and lets us parallelize subsequent queries. To account for the increasing number of cores per processor, we develop a new data structure that lets us take advantage of multiple shared-memory cores to parallelize the work on a single node. Finally, we present experiments that illustrate the strengths of our approach as well as help identify future challenges.
Distributed Deliberative Recommender Systems
Recio-García, Juan A.; Díaz-Agudo, Belén; González-Sanz, Sergio; Sanchez, Lara Quijano
Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) is one of most successful applied AI technologies of recent years. Although many CBR systems reason locally on a previous experience base to solve new problems, in this paper we focus on distributed retrieval processes working on a network of collaborating CBR systems. In such systems, each node in a network of CBR agents collaborates, arguments and counterarguments its local results with other nodes to improve the performance of the system's global response. We describe D2ISCO: a framework to design and implement deliberative and collaborative CBR systems that is integrated as a part of jcolibritwo an established framework in the CBR community. We apply D2ISCO to one particular simplified type of CBR systems: recommender systems. We perform a first case study for a collaborative music recommender system and present the results of an experiment of the accuracy of the system results using a fuzzy version of the argumentation system AMAL and a network topology based on a social network. Besides individual recommendation we also discuss how D2ISCO can be used to improve recommendations to groups and we present a second case of study based on the movie recommendation domain with heterogeneous groups according to the group personality composition and a group topology based on a social network.
Resummation of Transverse Momentum Distributions in Distribution Space
Ebert, Markus A
2016-01-01
Differential spectra in observables that resolve additional soft or collinear QCD emissions exhibit Sudakov double logarithms in the form of logarithmic plus distributions. Important examples are the total transverse momentum $q_T$ in color-singlet production, N-jettiness (with thrust or beam thrust as special cases), but also jet mass and more complicated jet substructure observables. The all-order logarithmic structure of such distributions is often fully encoded in differential equations, so-called (renormalization group) evolution equations. We introduce a well-defined technique of distributional scale setting, which allows one to treat logarithmic plus distributions like ordinary logarithms when solving these differential equations. In particular, this allows one (through canonical scale choices) to minimize logarithmic contributions in the boundary terms of the solution, and to obtain the full distributional logarithmic structure from the solution's evolution kernel directly in distribution space. We ap...
Loss Allocation in a Distribution System with Distributed Generation Units
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lund, Torsten; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar
2007-01-01
In Denmark, a large part of the electricity is produced by wind turbines and combined heat and power plants (CHPs). Most of them are connected to the network through distribution systems. This paper presents a new algorithm for allocation of the losses in a distribution system with distributed...... generation. The algorithm is based on a reduced impedance matrix of the network and current injections from loads and production units. With the algorithm, the effect of the covariance between production and consumption can be evaluated. To verify the theoretical results, a model of the distribution system...
Resummation of transverse momentum distributions in distribution space
Ebert, Markus A.; Tackmann, Frank J.
2017-02-01
Differential spectra in observables that resolve additional soft or collinear QCD emissions exhibit Sudakov double logarithms in the form of logarithmic plus distributions. Important examples are the total transverse momentum q T in color-singlet production, N -jettiness (with thrust or beam thrust as special cases), but also jet mass and more complicated jet substructure observables. The all-order logarithmic structure of such distributions is often fully encoded in differential equations, so-called (renormalization group) evolution equations. We introduce a well-defined technique of distributional scale setting, which allows one to treat logarithmic plus distributions like ordinary logarithms when solving these differential equations. In particular, this allows one (through canonical scale choices) to minimize logarithmic contributions in the boundary terms of the solution, and to obtain the full distributional logarithmic structure from the solution's evolution kernel directly in distribution space. We apply this technique to the q T distribution, where the two-dimensional nature of convolutions leads to additional difficulties (compared to one-dimensional cases like thrust), and for which the resummation in distribution (or momentum) space has been a long-standing open question. For the first time, we show how to perform the RG evolution fully in momentum space, thereby directly resumming the logarithms [ln n ( q T 2 / Q 2)/ q T 2 ]+ appearing in the physical q T distribution. The resummation accuracy is then solely determined by the perturbative expansion of the associated anomalous dimensions.
Meat spoilage during distribution.
Nychas, George-John E; Skandamis, Panos N; Tassou, Chrysoula C; Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos P
2008-01-01
Meat spoilage during distribution can be considered as an ecological phenomenon that encompasses the changes of the available substrata (e.g., low molecular compounds), during the prevailing of a particular microbial association, the so-called specific spoilage organisms (SSO). In fact, spoilage of meat depends on an even smaller fraction of SSO, called ephemeral spoilage organisms (ESO). These ESO are the consequence of factors that dynamically persist or imposed during, e.g., processing, transportation and storage in the market. Meanwhile spoilage is a subjective judgment by the consumer, which may be influenced by cultural and economic considerations and background as well as by the sensory acuity of the individual and the intensity of the change. Indeed, when spoilage progresses, most consumers would agree that gross discoloration, strong off-odors, and the development of slime would constitute the main qualitative criteria for meat rejection. On the other hand, meat industry needs rapid analytical methods or tools for quantification of these indicators to determine the type of processing needed for their raw material and to predict remaining shelf life of their products. The need of an objective evaluation of meat spoilage is of great importance. The use of metabolomics as a potential tool for the evaluation of meat spoilage can be of great importance. The microbial association of meat should be monitored in parallel with the estimation of changes occurring in the production and/or assimilation of certain compounds would allow us to evaluate spoilage found or produced during the storage of meat under different temperatures as well as packaging conditions.
Conroy, Michael; Mazzone, Rebecca; Little, William; Elfrey, Priscilla; Mann, David; Mabie, Kevin; Cuddy, Thomas; Loundermon, Mario; Spiker, Stephen; McArthur, Frank;
2010-01-01
The Distributed Observer network (DON) is a NASA-collaborative environment that leverages game technology to bring three-dimensional simulations to conventional desktop and laptop computers in order to allow teams of engineers working on design and operations, either individually or in groups, to view and collaborate on 3D representations of data generated by authoritative tools such as Delmia Envision, Pro/Engineer, or Maya. The DON takes models and telemetry from these sources and, using commercial game engine technology, displays the simulation results in a 3D visual environment. DON has been designed to enhance accessibility and user ability to observe and analyze visual simulations in real time. A variety of NASA mission segment simulations [Synergistic Engineering Environment (SEE) data, NASA Enterprise Visualization Analysis (NEVA) ground processing simulations, the DSS simulation for lunar operations, and the Johnson Space Center (JSC) TRICK tool for guidance, navigation, and control analysis] were experimented with. Desired functionalities, [i.e. Tivo-like functions, the capability to communicate textually or via Voice-over-Internet Protocol (VoIP) among team members, and the ability to write and save notes to be accessed later] were targeted. The resulting DON application was slated for early 2008 release to support simulation use for the Constellation Program and its teams. Those using the DON connect through a client that runs on their PC or Mac. This enables them to observe and analyze the simulation data as their schedule allows, and to review it as frequently as desired. DON team members can move freely within the virtual world. Preset camera points can be established, enabling team members to jump to specific views. This improves opportunities for shared analysis of options, design reviews, tests, operations, training, and evaluations, and improves prospects for verification of requirements, issues, and approaches among dispersed teams.
Distribution of tsunami interevent times
Geist, E.L.; Parsons, T.
2008-01-01
The distribution of tsunami interevent times is analyzed using global and site-specific (Hilo, Hawaii) tsunami catalogs. An empirical probability density distribution is determined by binning the observed interevent times during a period in which the observation rate is approximately constant. The empirical distributions for both catalogs exhibit non-Poissonian behavior in which there is an abundance of short interevent times compared to an exponential distribution. Two types of statistical distributions are used to model this clustering behavior: (1) long-term clustering described by a universal scaling law, and (2) Omori law decay of aftershocks and triggered sources. The empirical and theoretical distributions all imply an increased hazard rate after a tsunami, followed by a gradual decrease with time approaching a constant hazard rate. Examination of tsunami sources suggests that many of the short interevent times are caused by triggered earthquakes, though the triggered events are not necessarily on the same fault.
Sales Distribution of Consumer Electronics
Hisano, Ryohei
2010-01-01
Using the uniform most powerful unbiased test, we observed the sales distribution of consumer electronics in Japan on a daily basis and report that it follows both a lognormal distribution and a power-law distribution and depends on the state of the market. We show that these switches occur quite often. The underlying sales dynamics found between both periods nicely matched a multiplicative process. However, even though the multiplicative term in the process displays a size-dependent relationship when a steady lognormal distribution holds, it shows a size-independent relationship when the power-law distribution holds. This difference in the underlying dynamics is responsible for the difference in the two observed distributions.
Parametrization of nuclear parton distributions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
M Hirai; S Kumano; M Miyama
2001-08-01
Optimum nuclear parton distributions are obtained by analysing available experimental data on electron and muon deep inelastic scattering (DIS). The distributions are given at 2 = 1 GeV2 with a number of parameters, which are determined by a 2 analysis of the data. Valencequark distributions are relatively well determined at medium , but they are slightly dependent on the assumed parametrization form particularly at small . Although antiquark distributions are shadowed at small , their behavior is not obvious at medium from the 2 data. The gluon distributions could not be restricted well by the inclusive DIS data; however, the analysis tends to support the gluon shadowing at small . We provide analytical expressions and computer subroutines for calculating the nuclear parton distributions, so that other researchers could use them for applications to other high-energy nuclear reactions.
Distribution Principle of Bone Tissue
Fan, Yifang; Fan, Yubo; Xu, Zongxiang; Li, Zhiyu
2009-01-01
Using the analytic and experimental techniques we present an exploratory study of the mass distribution features of the high coincidence of centre of mass of heterogeneous bone tissue in vivo and its centroid of geometry position. A geometric concept of the average distribution radius of bone issue is proposed and functional relation of this geometric distribution feature between the partition density and its relative tissue average distribution radius is observed. Based upon the mass distribution feature, our results suggest a relative distance assessment index between the center of mass of cortical bone and the bone center of mass and establish a bone strength equation. Analysing the data of human foot in vivo, we notice that the mass and geometric distribution laws have expanded the connotation of Wolff's law, which implies a leap towards the quantitative description of bone strength. We finally conclude that this will not only make a positive contribution to help assess osteoporosis, but will also provide...
Morgenstern type bivariate Lindley Distribution
V S Vaidyanathan; Sharon Varghese, A
2016-01-01
In this paper, a bivariate Lindley distribution using Morgenstern approach is proposed which can be used for modeling bivariate life time data. Some characteristics of the distribution like moment generating function, joint moments, Pearson correlation coefficient, survival function, hazard rate function, mean residual life function, vitality function and stress-strength parameter R=Pr(Y
Privacy-preserving distributed clustering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Erkin, Zekeriya; Veugen, Thijs; Toft, Tomas
2013-01-01
by taking the distributed structure of the system into account and improving the efficiency in terms of computation and communication by data packing. While our construction can be easily adjusted to a centralized or a distributed computing model, we rely on a set of particular users that help the service...... provider with computations. Experimental results clearly indicate that the work we present is an efficient way of deploying a privacy-preserving clustering algorithm in a distributed manner....
Temperature distribution of single layer
Tang, Xuefei; Fan, Zhengxiu; Wang, ZhiJiang
1993-03-01
Temperature distributions of Ti02 single layer irradiated by iOns, 1. 06 m wavelength laser pulse were calculated with thermal transfer equation. Following conclusions were obtained: To improve thermal parameters of coating can reduce the peak temperature obviously; The thermal parameters of substrate have little effect on temperature response of coating; Temperature distribution of thin film depends on the electrical field distribution, The peak temperature of quarter -wavelength coatings is lower than that of half-wavelength coatings.
Distributed microservice architecture with Docker
Urra Ruiz, Imanol
2016-01-01
In a globalized world where big opportunities come through the Internet, where people is accustomed to be bombarded with a big quantity of information and they want this information to be available as quick as possible. How can an organization expand its business all over the world? How can they build an application or product to collect information and deploy it in a distributed system? A problem to solve comes out. A distributed data scraper designed under a distributed architectural style ...
Extended New Generalized Lindley Distribution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. S. Shibu
2016-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we consider an extended version of new generalized Lindley distribution (NGLD. We refer to this new generalization as the extended new generalized Lindley distribution (ENGLD. A comprehensive account of the mathematical properties of the new distribution including estimation is presented. A real life data set is considered here to illustrate the relevance of the new model and compared it with other forms of Lindley models using method of moment estimation and method of maximum likelihood estimation.
Weibel instability with nonextensive distribution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qiu, Hui-Bin; Liu, Shi-Bing [Strong-field and Ultrafast Photonics Lab, Institute of Laser Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China)
2013-10-15
Weibel instability in plasma, where the ion distribution is isotropic and the electron component of the plasma possesses the anisotropic temperature distribution, is investigated based on the kinetic theory in context of nonextensive statistics mechanics. The instability growth rate is shown to be dependent on the nonextensive parameters of both electron and ion, and in the extensive limit, the result in Maxwellian distribution plasma is recovered. The instability growth rate is found to be enhanced as the nonextensive parameter of electron increases.
Scaling of misorientation angle distributions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hughes, D.A.; Chrzan, D.C.; Liu, Q.
1998-01-01
The measurement of misorientation angle distributions following different amounts of deformation in cold-rolled aluminum and nickel and compressed stainless steel is reported. The sealing of the dislocation cell boundary misorientation angle distributions is studied. Surprisingly, the distributions...... for the small to large strain regimes for aluminum, 304L stainless steel, nickel, and copper (taken from the literature )appear to be identical. Hence the distributions may be "universal." These results have significant implications for the development of dislocation based deformation models. [S0031...
Theoretically Optimal Distributed Anomaly Detection
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A novel general framework for distributed anomaly detection with theoretical performance guarantees is proposed. Our algorithmic approach combines existing anomaly...
Distributed Energy Resources Test Facility
Federal Laboratory Consortium — NREL's Distributed Energy Resources Test Facility (DERTF) is a working laboratory for interconnection and systems integration testing. This state-of-the-art facility...
The Paradigm of Distributed Creativity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Glaveanu, Vlad Petre
This presentation aims to focus on and develop the notion of distributed creativity from a cultural psychological perspective. It will start by outlining the need for a cultural psychological paradigm of creative expression and argue that this perspective is primarily concerned with what can...... be called ‘distributed creativity’. Drawing on related literature on distributed cognition (Hutchins, 2000), I will consider here the three inter-related ways in which creative action is distributed: across people, across people and objects, and across time. This particular understanding of creativity...
Distributed Energy Resources Test Facility
Federal Laboratory Consortium — NREL's Distributed Energy Resources Test Facility (DERTF) is a working laboratory for interconnection and systems integration testing. This state-of-the-art facility...
Distribution system modeling and analysis
Kersting, William H
2002-01-01
For decades, distribution engineers did not have the sophisticated tools developed for analyzing transmission systems-often they had only their instincts. Things have changed, and we now have computer programs that allow engineers to simulate, analyze, and optimize distribution systems. Powerful as these programs are, however, without a real understanding of the operating characteristics of a distribution system, engineers using the programs can easily make serious errors in their designs and operating procedures.Distribution System Modeling and Analysis helps prevent those errors. It gives re
Capacity of Distribution Feeders for Hosting Distributed Energy Resources
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Papathanassiou, S.; Hatziargyriou, N.; Anagnostopoulos, P.
The last two decades have seen an unprecedented development of distributed energy resources (DER) all over the world. Several countries have adopted a variety of support schemes (feed-in tariffs, green certificates, direct subsidies, tax exemptions etc.) so as to promote distributed generation (DG...
Distributed coordination of energy storage with distributed generators
Yang, Tao; Wu, Di; Stoorvogel, Anton A.; Stoustrup, Jakob
2016-01-01
With a growing emphasis on energy efficiency and system flexibility, a great effort has been made recently in developing distributed energy resources (DER), including distributed generators and energy storage systems. This paper first formulates an optimal DER coordination problem considering constr
Distributed optimal coordination for distributed energy resources in power systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wu, Di; Yang, Tao; Stoorvogel, A.
2017-01-01
Driven by smart grid technologies, distributed energy resources (DERs) have been rapidly developing in recent years for improving reliability and efficiency of distribution systems. Emerging DERs require effective and efficient coordination in order to reap their potential benefits. In this paper...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cuadrado, Daniel Lázaro; Ravn, Anders Peter; Koch, Peter
2005-01-01
. Those relations are in charge of receiving the tokens and placing them at the right receiver. The same goes for the output ports. Tokens are sent over the net to the distributed processes that are expecting to receive them. The distributed-SDF domain provides certain advantages derived from its...
Distributed Leadership: Rhetoric or Reality?
Corrigan, Joe
2013-01-01
This paper provides insight into distributed leadership by contrasting the oppositional messages found in the literature, and by examining differences in the rhetoric and reality associated with its application. Specifically, the treatment of power and accountability within the distributed leadership theoretical framework is difficult to…
Distributed Leadership: Friend or Foe?
Harris, Alma
2013-01-01
Distributed leadership is now widely known and variously enacted in schools and school systems. Distributed leadership implies a fundamental re-conceptualisation of leadership as practice and challenges conventional wisdom about the relationship between formal leadership and organisational performance. There has been much debate, speculation and…
Characterizations of Graded Distributive Modules
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Qinghua Chen; Chang'an Li
2002-01-01
In this paper, we give some characterizations of graded distributive modules, prove some interesting results between graded rings (modules) and lattices under finiteness conditions, and investigate the direct sum of graded distributive modules in terms of orders of graded submodules and homomorphisms of graded factor modules.
Characterizations of univariate continuous distributions
Ahsanullah, Mohammad
2017-01-01
Provides in an organized manner characterizations of univariate probability distributions with many new results published in this area since the 1978 work of Golambos & Kotz "Characterizations of Probability Distributions" (Springer), together with applications of the theory in model fitting and predictions.
Reduplication and Distributivity in Kannada
Anderson, Janet Katherine
2012-01-01
Reduplication of numerals and pronouns in Kannada is shown to be subject to locality conditions similar to those constraining binding. This dissertation explores an account of distributivity which exploits the similarity to binding, arguing that the source of the distributive reading in Numeral Reduplication is a bound element. [The dissertation…
Genus Distributions of Moebius Ladders
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李德明
2005-01-01
The genus distribution of a graph is a polynomial whose coefficients are the partition of the number of embeddings with respect to the genera. In this paper,the genus distribution of Moebius ladders is provided which is an infinite class of 3-connected simple graphs.
RBAC Administration in Distributed Systems
Dekker, M.A.C.; Crampton, J.; Etalle, S.
2007-01-01
Despite a large body of literature on the administration of RBAC policies in centralized systems, the problem of the administration of a distributed system has hardly been addressed. We present a formal system for modelling a distributed RBAC system and its administration. We define two basic requir
Multisensor estimation: New distributed algorithms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. N. Plataniotis
1996-01-01
Full Text Available The multisensor estimation problem is considered in this paper. New distributed algorithms, which are able to locally process the information and which deliver identical results to those generated by their centralized counterparts are presented. The algorithms can be used to provide robust and computationally efficient solutions to the multisensor estimation problem. The proposed distributed algorithms are theoretically interesting and computationally attractive.
Water Treatment Technology - Distribution Systems.
Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David
One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on distribution systems provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: types of pipe for distribution systems, types…
Moment Distributions of Phase Type
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bladt, Mogens; Nielsen, Bo Friis
2011-01-01
Moment distributions of phase-type and matrix-exponential distributions are shown to remain within their respective classes. We provide a probabilistic phase-type representation for the former case and an alternative representation, with an analytically appealing form, for the latter. First order...
Water Treatment Technology - Distribution Systems.
Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David
One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on distribution systems provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: types of pipe for distribution systems, types…
Reduplication and Distributivity in Kannada
Anderson, Janet Katherine
2012-01-01
Reduplication of numerals and pronouns in Kannada is shown to be subject to locality conditions similar to those constraining binding. This dissertation explores an account of distributivity which exploits the similarity to binding, arguing that the source of the distributive reading in Numeral Reduplication is a bound element. [The dissertation…
Brine Distribution after Vacuum Saturation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hedegaard, Kathrine; Andersen, Bertel Lohmann
1999-01-01
Experiments with the vacuum saturation method for brine in plugs of chalk showed that a homogeneous distribution of brine cannot be ensured at saturations below 20% volume. Instead of a homogeneous volume distribution the brine becomes concentrated close to the surfaces of the plugs...
Easy and flexible mixture distributions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fosgerau, Mogens; Mabit, Stefan L.
2013-01-01
We propose a method to generate flexible mixture distributions that are useful for estimating models such as the mixed logit model using simulation. The method is easy to implement, yet it can approximate essentially any mixture distribution. We test it with good results in a simulation study...
Distribution-Specific Agnostic Boosting
Feldman, Vitaly
2009-01-01
We consider the problem of boosting the accuracy of weak learning algorithms in the agnostic learning framework of Haussler (1992) and Kearns et al. (1992). Known algorithms for this problem (Ben-David et al., 2001; Gavinsky, 2002; Kalai et al., 2008) follow the same strategy as boosting algorithms in the PAC model: the weak learner is executed on the same target function but over different distributions on the domain. We demonstrate boosting algorithms for the agnostic learning framework that only modify the distribution on the labels of the points (or, equivalently, modify the target function). This allows boosting a distribution-specific weak agnostic learner to a strong agnostic learner with respect to the same distribution. When applied to the weak agnostic parity learning algorithm of Goldreich and Levin (1989) our algorithm yields a simple PAC learning algorithm for DNF and an agnostic learning algorithm for decision trees over the uniform distribution using membership queries. These results substantia...
Content Distribution for Telecom Carriers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ben Falchuk
2006-08-01
Full Text Available Distribution of digital content is a key revenue opportunity for telecommunications carriers. As media content moves from analog and physical media-based distribution to digital on-line distribution, a great opportunity exists for carriers to claim their role in the media value chain and grow revenue by enhancing their broadband “all you can eat” high speed Internet access offer to incorporate delivery of a variety of paid content. By offering a distributed peer to peer content delivery capability with authentication, personalization and payment functions, carriers can gain a larger portion of the revenue paid for content both within and beyond their traditional service domains. This paper describes an approach to digital content distribution that leverages existing Intelligent Network infrastructure that many carriers already possess, as well as Web Services.
Distributed paging for general networks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Awerbuch, B.; Bartal, Y.; Fiat, A. [Tel-Aviv Univ. (Israel)
1996-12-31
Distributed paging deals with the dynamic allocation of copies of files in a distributed network as to minimize the total communication cost over a sequence of read and write requests. Most previous work deals with the file allocation problem where infinite nodal memory capacity is assumed. In contrast the distributed paging problem makes the more realistic assumption that nodal memory capacity is limited. Former work on distributed paging deals with the problem only in the case of a uniform network topology. This paper gives the first distributed paging algorithm for general networks. The algorithm is competitive in storage and communication. The competitive ratios are poly-logarithmic in the total number of network nodes and the diameter of the network.
2014 Distributed Wind Market Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Orell, A; Foster, N.
2015-08-01
The cover of the 2014 Distributed Wind Market Report.According to the 2014 Distributed Wind Market Report, distributed wind reached a cumulative capacity of almost 1 GW (906 MW) in the United States in 2014, reflecting nearly 74,000 wind turbines deployed across all 50 states, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. In total, 63.6 MW of new distributed wind capacity was added in 2014, representing nearly 1,700 units and $170 million in investment across 24 states. In 2014, America's distributed wind energy industry supported a growing domestic industrial base as exports from United States-based small wind turbine manufacturers accounted for nearly 80% of United States-based manufacturers' sales.
Dose distributions around selectron applicators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pla, C.; Evans, M.D.; Podgorsak, E.B.
1987-11-01
Measured and calculated dose distributions around selectron applicators, loaded with /sup 60/Co high dose rate pellets, are presented. The effect of the stopping screw, spacers, pellets themselves and the applicator wall on the dose distribution is discussed. The measured dose distribution is in almost perfect agreement with the calculated distribution in planes perpendicular to the applicator axis and containing a source. On the applicator axis directly below the applicator the measured dose amounts to about 75% of the calculated value, when only the stopping screw attenuates the beam from a pellet. When the beam is attenuated by spacers in addition to the stopping screw, the discrepancy between the calculated and measured dose may exceed 50%. Clinically relevant source geometries are also discussed. It is shown that for most regions around the applicator the method of a simple addition of dose contributions from individual point sources is an acceptable approximation for the calculation of dose distributions around the selectron applicators.
Evolution of broadcast content distribution
Beutler, Roland
2017-01-01
This book discusses opportunities for broadcasters that arise with the advent of broadband networks, both fixed and mobile. It discusses how the traditional way of distributing audio-visual content over broadcasting networks has been complemented by the usage of broadband networks. The author shows how this also gives the possibility to offer new types of interactive or so-called nonlinear services. The book illustrates how change in distribution technology is accelerating the need for broadcasters around the world to adapt their content distribution strategy and how it will impact the portfolios of content they offer. Outlines the shift in broadcast content distribution paradigms and related strategic issues Provides an overview of the new broadcasting ecosystem encompassing new types of content, user habits, expectations, and devices Discusses complementary usage of different distribution technologies and platforms.
Capacity of Distribution Feeders for Hosting Distributed Energy Resources
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Papathanassiou, S.; Hatziargyriou, N.; Anagnostopoulos, P.
The last two decades have seen an unprecedented development of distributed energy resources (DER) all over the world. Several countries have adopted a variety of support schemes (feed-in tariffs, green certificates, direct subsidies, tax exemptions etc.) so as to promote distributed generation (DG...... standards of the networks. To address this need in a timely and effective manner, simplified methodologies and practical rules of thumbs are often applied to assess the DER hosting capacity of existing distribution networks, avoiding thus detailed and time consuming analytical studies. The scope...
Review on Islanding Operation of Distribution System with Distributed Generation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mahat, Pukar; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte
2011-01-01
The growing environmental concern and various benefits of distributed generation (DG) have resulted in significant penetration of DG in many distribution systems worldwide. One of the major expected benefits of DG is the improvement in the reliability of power supply by supplying load during power...... outage by operating in an island mode. However, there are many challenges to overcome before islanding operation of a distribution system with DG can become a viable solution in future. This paper reviews some of the major challenges with islanding operation and explores some possible solutions...
Applying Distributed Object Technology to Distributed Embedded Control Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard; Dalgaard, Lars
2012-01-01
In this paper, we describe our Java RMI inspired Object Request Broker architecture MicroRMI for use with networked embedded devices. MicroRMI relieves the software developer from the tedious and error-prone job of writing communication protocols for interacting with such embedded devices. MicroR...... in developing control systems for distributed embedded platforms possessing severe resource restrictions.......RMI supports easy integration of high-level application specific control logic with low-level device specific control logic. Our experience from applying MicroRMI in the context of a distributed robotics control application, clearly demonstrates that it is feasible to use distributed object technology...
Control and operation of distributed generation in distribution systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mahat, Pukar; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte
2011-01-01
Many distribution systems nowadays have significant penetration of distributed generation (DG)and thus, islanding operation of these distribution systems is becoming a viable option for economical and technical reasons. The DG should operate optimally during both grid-connected and island...... algorithm, which uses average rate of change off requency (Af5) and real power shift RPS), in the islanded mode. RPS will increase or decrease the power set point of the generator with increasing or decreasing system frequency, respectively. Simulation results show that the proposed method can operate...
Velocity Distributions in Inelastic Granular Gases with Continuous Size Distributions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Rui; ZHANG Duan-Ming; LI Zhi-Hao
2011-01-01
We study by numerical simulation the property of velocity distributions of granular gases with a power-law size distribution, driven by uniform heating and boundary heating. It is found that the form of velocity distribution is primarily controlled by the restitution coefficient -q and q, the ratio between the average number of heatings and the average number of collisions in the system. Furthermore, we show that uniform and boundary heating can be understood as different limits of q, with q ? 1 and q >1 and q≤1,respectively.
Natural Gas Distribution Regulation Natural Gas Distribution Regulation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fernando Salas
1995-03-01
Full Text Available This document discusses the economic content of a set of Ruling affecting the provision of natural gas distribution services in Mexico. As such, it describes the mechanisms proposed in order to ensure economic efficiency in the undertaking of such activity, i.e., competition policies, rate regulation, delimination of licensed geographic regions and design of auction procedures for the granting of distribution franchises. This document discusses the economic content of a set of Ruling affecting the provision of natural gas distribution services in Mexico. As such, it describes the mechanisms proposed in order to ensure economic efficiency in the undertaking of such activity, i.e., competition policies, rate regulation, delimination of licensed geographic regions and design of auction procedures for the granting of distribution franchises.
Protection of Distribution Systems with Distributed Energy Resources
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Browne, Matthew; Calone, Roberto
of 17 months of work of the Joint Working Group B5/C6.26/CIRED “Protection of Distribution Systems with Distributed Energy Resources”. The working group used the CIGRE report TB421 “The impact of Renewable Energy Sources and Distributed Generation on Substation Protection and Automation”, published...... concepts and future trends accordingly. The report is structured as follows: After this preface (chapter 1), the scope of the technical brochure according to the Terms of Reference (TOR) is stated (chapter 2). Then, in the glossary, symbols and abbreviations used throughout the technical brochure...... are listed (chapter 3). The first main part of the report starts with a summary of the backgrounds on DER and current practices in protection at the distribution level (chapter 4). This chapter contains an analysis of CIGRE TB421, protection relevant characteristics of DER, a review of current practices...
From Asymetrical Growth Rate Distributions to Multiple Normal Distributions
Žekić, A. A.; Mitrović, M. M.
2007-04-01
Growth rate dispersion (GRD) represents the variations in the growth rates of different crystals of the same material, grown under the same conditions. Mostly, these dispersions are decribed by asymetrical distributions with one maximum, and skeved to the right (log-normal and gamma). Recently, it was shown that the GRD of a crystals can be described by distributions with more maxima (multiple normal distribution). The analysis of the number and the height of the growth rate dispersions maxima has been performed. This analysis is shown the first or the second maximum has the maximal height, which results in asymetry of the distributions. This is the reason for the right GRD skeveness for the small number of crystal growth rates analysed. The results are discussed in accordance with crystal growth theories.
Distributed Cognition and Distributed Morality: Agency, Artifacts and Systems.
Heersmink, Richard
2017-04-01
There are various philosophical approaches and theories describing the intimate relation people have to artifacts. In this paper, I explore the relation between two such theories, namely distributed cognition and distributed morality theory. I point out a number of similarities and differences in these views regarding the ontological status they attribute to artifacts and the larger systems they are part of. Having evaluated and compared these views, I continue by focussing on the way cognitive artifacts are used in moral practice. I specifically conceptualise how such artifacts (a) scaffold and extend moral reasoning and decision-making processes, (b) have a certain moral status which is contingent on their cognitive status, and (c) whether responsibility can be attributed to distributed systems. This paper is primarily written for those interested in the intersection of cognitive and moral theory as it relates to artifacts, but also for those independently interested in philosophical debates in extended and distributed cognition and ethics of (cognitive) technology.
Distribution-Agnostic Stochastic Optimal Power Flow for Distribution Grids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baker, Kyri; Dall' Anese, Emiliano; Summers, Tyler
2016-11-21
This paper outlines a data-driven, distributionally robust approach to solve chance-constrained AC optimal power flow problems in distribution networks. Uncertain forecasts for loads and power generated by photovoltaic (PV) systems are considered, with the goal of minimizing PV curtailment while meeting power flow and voltage regulation constraints. A data- driven approach is utilized to develop a distributionally robust conservative convex approximation of the chance-constraints; particularly, the mean and covariance matrix of the forecast errors are updated online, and leveraged to enforce voltage regulation with predetermined probability via Chebyshev-based bounds. By combining an accurate linear approximation of the AC power flow equations with the distributionally robust chance constraint reformulation, the resulting optimization problem becomes convex and computationally tractable.
The Distributed Wind Cost Taxonomy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Forsyth, Trudy; Jimenez, Tony [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Preus, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tegan, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Baring-Gould, Ian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
2017-03-28
To date, there has been no standard method or tool to analyze the installed and operational costs for distributed wind turbine systems. This report describes the development of a classification system, or taxonomy, for distributed wind turbine project costs. The taxonomy establishes a framework to help collect, sort, and compare distributed wind cost data that mirrors how the industry categorizes information. The taxonomy organizes costs so they can be aggregated from installers, developers, vendors, and other sources without losing cost details. Developing a peer-reviewed taxonomy is valuable to industry stakeholders because a common understanding the details of distributed wind turbine costs and balance of station costs is a first step to identifying potential high-value cost reduction opportunities. Addressing cost reduction potential can help increase distributed wind's competitiveness and propel the U.S. distributed wind industry forward. The taxonomy can also be used to perform cost comparisons between technologies and track trends for distributed wind industry costs in the future. As an initial application and piloting of the taxonomy, preliminary cost data were collected for projects of different sizes and from different regions across the contiguous United States. Following the methods described in this report, these data are placed into the established cost categories.
Quasispecies distribution of Eigen model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chen Jia; Li Sheng; Ma Hong-Ru
2007-01-01
We have studied sharp peak landscapes of the Eigen model from a new perspective about how the quasispecies are distributed in the sequence space. To analyse the distribution more carefully, we bring in two tools. One tool is the variance of Hamming distance of the sequences at a given generation. It not only offers us a different avenue for accurately locating the error threshold and illustrates how the configuration of the distribution varies with copying fidelity q in the sequence space, but also divides the copying fidelity into three distinct regimes. The other tool is the similarity network of a certain Hamming distance do, by which we can gain a visual and in-depth result about how the sequences are distributed. We find that there are several local similarity optima around the centre (global similarity optimum) in the distribution of the sequences reproduced near the threshold. Furthermore, it is interesting that the distribution of clustering coefficient C(k) follows lognormal distribution and the curve of clustering coefficient C of the network versus d0 appears to be linear near the threshold.
Quasispecies distribution of Eigen model
Chen, Jia; Li, Sheng; Ma, Hong-Ru
2007-09-01
We have studied sharp peak landscapes of the Eigen model from a new perspective about how the quasispecies are distributed in the sequence space. To analyse the distribution more carefully, we bring in two tools. One tool is the variance of Hamming distance of the sequences at a given generation. It not only offers us a different avenue for accurately locating the error threshold and illustrates how the configuration of the distribution varies with copying fidelity q in the sequence space, but also divides the copying fidelity into three distinct regimes. The other tool is the similarity network of a certain Hamming distance d0, by which we can gain a visual and in-depth result about how the sequences are distributed. We find that there are several local similarity optima around the centre (global similarity optimum) in the distribution of the sequences reproduced near the threshold. Furthermore, it is interesting that the distribution of clustering coefficient C(k) follows lognormal distribution and the curve of clustering coefficient C of the network versus d0 appears to be linear near the threshold.
Islanding Operation of Distribution System with Distributed Generations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mahat, Pukar; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte
2010-01-01
The growing interest in distributed generations (DGs) due to environmental concern and various other reasons have resulted in significant penetration of DGs in many distribution system worldwide. DGs come with many benefits. One of the benefits is improved reliability by supplying load during power...... outage by operating in island mode. However, there are many challenges to overcome before islanding can become a viable solution in future. This paper point outs some of the major challenges with island operation and suggests some possible solutions....
Distribution planning with reliability options for distributed generation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Trebolle, David [Union Fenosa Distribucion, C/Antonio Lopez, 19, 28026 Madrid (Spain); Gomez, Tomas; Cossent, Rafael; Frias, Pablo [Instituto de Investigacion Tecnologica, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria, Universidad Pontificia Comillas, C/Quintana 21, 28008 Madrid (Spain)
2010-02-15
The promotion of electricity generation from renewable energy sources (RES) and combined heat and power (CHP) has resulted in increasing penetration levels of distributed generation (DG). However, large-scale connection of DG involves profound changes in the operation and planning of electricity distribution networks. Distribution System Operators (DSOs) play a key role since these agents have to provide flexibility to their networks in order to integrate DG. Article 14.7 of EU Electricity Directive states that DSOs should consider DG as an alternative to new network investments. This is a challenging task, particularly under the current regulatory framework where DSOs must be legally and functionally unbundled from other activities in the electricity sector. This paper proposes a market mechanism, referred to as reliability options for distributed generation (RODG), which provides DSOs with an alternative to the investment in new distribution facilities. The mechanism proposed allocates the firm capacity required to DG embedded in the distribution network through a competitive auction. Additionally, RODG make DG partly responsible for reliability and provide DG with incentives for a more efficient operation taking into account the network conditions. (author)
Interactive Parallel and Distributed Processing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lund, Henrik Hautop; Pagliarini, Luigi
2010-01-01
We present the concept of interactive parallel and distributed processing, and the challenges that programmers face in designing interactive parallel and distributed systems. Specifically, we introduce the challenges that are met and the decisions that need to be taken with respect...... to distributedness, master dependency, software behavioural models, adaptive interactivity, feedback, connectivity, topology, island modeling, and user interaction. We introduce the system of modular interactive tiles as a tool for easy, fast, and flexible exploration of these issues, and through examples show how...... to implement interactive parallel and distributed processing with different software behavioural models such as open loop, randomness based, rule based, user interaction based, AI and ALife based software....
Fundamental Research of Distributed Database
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Swati Gupta
2011-08-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present an introduction toDistributed Databases which are becoming very popularnow a days. Today’s business environment has anincreasing need for distributed database and Client/server applications as the desire for reliable, scalable and accessible information is Steadily rising. Distributed database systems provide an improvement on communication and data processing due to its datadistribution throughout different network sites. Not Only isdata access faster, but a single-point of failure is less likelyto occur, and it provides local control of data for users.
Designing Distributed Generation in Mexico
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Linvill, Carl [Regulatory Assistance Project, Montepelier, VT (United States); Brutkoski, Donna [Regulatory Assistance Project, Montepelier, VT (United States)
2017-05-15
Mexico's energy reform will have far-reaching effects on how people produce and consume electricity in the country. Market liberalization will open the door to an increasing number of options for Mexican residential, commercial, and industrial consumers, and distributed generation (DG), which for Mexico includes generators of less than 500 kilowatts (kW) of capacity connected to the distribution network. Distributed generation is an option for consumers who want to produce their own electricity and provide electricity services to others. This report seeks to provide guidance to Mexican officials on designing DG economic and regulatory policies.
Distributed-memory matrix computations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Balle, Susanne Mølleskov
1995-01-01
in these algorithms is that many scientific applications rely heavily on the performance of the involved dense linear algebra building blocks. Even though we consider the distributed-memory as well as the shared-memory programming paradigm, the major part of the thesis is dedicated to distributed-memory architectures....... We emphasize distributed-memory massively parallel computers - such as the Connection Machines model CM-200 and model CM-5/CM-5E - available to us at UNI-C and at Thinking Machines Corporation. The CM-200 was at the time this project started one of the few existing massively parallel computers...
The alignment-distribution graph
Chatterjee, Siddhartha; Gilbert, John R.; Schreiber, Robert
1993-01-01
Implementing a data-parallel language such as Fortran 90 on a distributed-memory parallel computer requires distributing aggregate data objects (such as arrays) among the memory modules attached to the processors. The mapping of objects to the machine determines the amount of residual communication needed to bring operands of parallel operations into alignment with each other. We present a program representation called the alignment distribution graph that makes these communication requirements explicit. We describe the details of the representation, show how to model communication cost in this framework, and outline several algorithms for determining object mappings that approximately minimize residual communication.
Privacy Preserving Distributed Data Mining
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Distributed data mining from privacy-sensitive multi-party data is likely to play an important role in the next generation of integrated vehicle health monitoring...
Fiber Bragg distributed chemical sensor
Boersma, A.; Cheng, L.K.; Jansen, T.H.
2010-01-01
A distributed chemical sensor is developed by coating multiple Bragg gratings in a fibre with chemical selective responsive coatings. The optical response of the coated grating is optimised and the recoat process is very reproducible.
Distributed leadership in health care
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Günzel-Jensen, Franziska; Jain, Ajay K.; Kjeldsen, Anne Mette
2016-01-01
Management and health care literature is increasingly preoccupied with leadership as a collective social process, and related leadership concepts such as distributed leadership have therefore recently gained momentum. This paper investigates how formal, i.e. transformational, transactional...... and empowering, leadership styles affect employees’ perceived agency in distributed leadership, and whether these associations are mediated by employees’ perceived organizational efficacy. Based on large-scale survey data from a study at one of Scandinavia’s largest public hospitals (N = 1,147), our results show...... that all leadership styles had a significant positive impact on employees’ perceived agency in distributed leadership. Further, organizational efficacy related negatively to employees’ perceived agency in distributed leadership; however a mediatory impact of this on the formal leadership styles...
ASYMPTOTIC QUANTIZATION OF PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Klaus P(o)tzelberger
2003-01-01
We give a brief introduction to results on the asymptotics of quantization errors.The topics discussed include the quantization dimension,asymptotic distributions of sets of prototypes,asymptotically optimal quantizations,approximations and random quantizations.
2013 Distributed Wind Market Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Orrell, Alice C.; Rhoads-Weaver, H. E.; Flowers, Larry T.; Gagne, Matthew N.; Pro, Boyd H.; Foster, Nikolas AF
2014-08-20
The purpose of this report is to quantify and summarize the 2013 U.S. distributed wind market to help plan and guide future investments and decisions by industry stakeholders, utilities, state and federal agencies, and other interested parties.
Benford's Distribution in Complex Networks.
Morzy, Mikołaj; Kajdanowicz, Tomasz; Szymański, Bolesław K
2016-10-17
Many collections of numbers do not have a uniform distribution of the leading digit, but conform to a very particular pattern known as Benford's distribution. This distribution has been found in numerous areas such as accounting data, voting registers, census data, and even in natural phenomena. Recently it has been reported that Benford's law applies to online social networks. Here we introduce a set of rigorous tests for adherence to Benford's law and apply it to verification of this claim, extending the scope of the experiment to various complex networks and to artificial networks created by several popular generative models. Our findings are that neither for real nor for artificial networks there is sufficient evidence for common conformity of network structural properties with Benford's distribution. We find very weak evidence suggesting that three measures, degree centrality, betweenness centrality and local clustering coefficient, could adhere to Benford's law for scalefree networks but only for very narrow range of their parameters.
Compressed sensing for distributed systems
Coluccia, Giulio; Magli, Enrico
2015-01-01
This book presents a survey of the state-of-the art in the exciting and timely topic of compressed sensing for distributed systems. It has to be noted that, while compressed sensing has been studied for some time now, its distributed applications are relatively new. Remarkably, such applications are ideally suited to exploit all the benefits that compressed sensing can provide. The objective of this book is to provide the reader with a comprehensive survey of this topic, from the basic concepts to different classes of centralized and distributed reconstruction algorithms, as well as a comparison of these techniques. This book collects different contributions on these aspects. It presents the underlying theory in a complete and unified way for the first time, presenting various signal models and their use cases. It contains a theoretical part collecting latest results in rate-distortion analysis of distributed compressed sensing, as well as practical implementations of algorithms obtaining performance close to...
Distributed Information Services in Physics
Hilf, E; Severiens, T; Zimmermann, K
2001-01-01
The concept of distributed information services maintained by a distributed work force for scientific information is described. Realizations and experiences for Physics (since 1995), Marine Sciences, and dissertation theses in physics are presented. Technically the information is gathered from the local web servers of the worldwide distributed research institutes and departments, by distributed Harvest-gatherers, under the control of national learned societies or regional other institutions. Queries are answered by a network of mirrors of Harvest-brokers. For PhysNet, a Charter sets the rules to assure a noncommercial, free full-text access service, under the control of the set of national national learned societies involved, but unbiased to any single one.
Distributed Video Coding: Iterative Improvements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Luong, Huynh Van
Nowadays, emerging applications such as wireless visual sensor networks and wireless video surveillance are requiring lightweight video encoding with high coding efficiency and error-resilience. Distributed Video Coding (DVC) is a new coding paradigm which exploits the source statistics...
Security of Quantum Key Distribution
Renner, R
2005-01-01
We propose various new techniques in quantum information theory, including a de Finetti style representation theorem for finite symmetric quantum states. As an application, we give a proof for the security of quantum key distribution which applies to arbitrary protocols.
Coordination control of distributed systems
Villa, Tiziano
2015-01-01
This book describes how control of distributed systems can be advanced by an integration of control, communication, and computation. The global control objectives are met by judicious combinations of local and nonlocal observations taking advantage of various forms of communication exchanges between distributed controllers. Control architectures are considered according to increasing degrees of cooperation of local controllers: fully distributed or decentralized control, control with communication between controllers, coordination control, and multilevel control. The book covers also topics bridging computer science, communication, and control, like communication for control of networks, average consensus for distributed systems, and modeling and verification of discrete and of hybrid systems. Examples and case studies are introduced in the first part of the text and developed throughout the book. They include: control of underwater vehicles, automated-guided vehicles on a container terminal, contro...
Fetal-maternal erythrocyte distribution
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003407.htm Fetal-maternal erythrocyte distribution To use the sharing features ... unborn baby is leaking into the mother's blood circulation. The more of the baby's cells there are, ...
Exploring Trajectories of Distributed Development
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Slepniov, Dmitrij; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Niang, Mohamed
2014-01-01
of practices used by the companies in order to achieve control and coordination of distributed development activities. Three propositions are developed to advance our understanding of the continual search for an optimal organizational form for managing distributed development.......While some firms have successfully turned their global operations into a formidable source of competitive advantage, others have failed to do so. A lot depends on which activities are globally distributed and how they are configured and coordinated. Emerging body of literature and practice suggest...... firms as they globally disperse their development activities. The study employs qualitative methodology and on the basis of two case studies of Danish firms it highlights the challenges of distributed development as well as how these challenges can be dealt with. The chapter outlines a variety...
The Binomial Distribution in Shooting
Chalikias, Miltiadis S.
2009-01-01
The binomial distribution is used to predict the winner of the 49th International Shooting Sport Federation World Championship in double trap shooting held in 2006 in Zagreb, Croatia. The outcome of the competition was definitely unexpected.
Multiple complementary gas distribution assemblies
Ng, Tuoh-Bin; Melnik, Yuriy; Pang, Lily L; Tuncel, Eda; Nguyen, Son T; Chen, Lu
2016-04-05
In one embodiment, an apparatus includes a first gas distribution assembly that includes a first gas passage for introducing a first process gas into a second gas passage that introduces the first process gas into a processing chamber and a second gas distribution assembly that includes a third gas passage for introducing a second process gas into a fourth gas passage that introduces the second process gas into the processing chamber. The first and second gas distribution assemblies are each adapted to be coupled to at least one chamber wall of the processing chamber. The first gas passage is shaped as a first ring positioned within the processing chamber above the second gas passage that is shaped as a second ring positioned within the processing chamber. The gas distribution assemblies may be designed to have complementary characteristic radial film growth rate profiles.
Networked and Distributed Predictive Control
Christofides, Panagiotis D; De La Pena, David Munoz
2011-01-01
"Networked and Distributed Predictive Control" presents rigorous, yet practical, methods for the design of networked and distributed predictive control systems - the first book to do so. The design of model predictive control systems using Lyapunov-based techniques accounting for the influence of asynchronous and delayed measurements is followed by a treatment of networked control architecture development. This shows how networked control can augment dedicated control systems in a natural way and takes advantage of additional, potentially asynchronous and delayed measurements to main
Distributions of Dirac Operator Eigenvalues
Akemann, G
2004-01-01
The distribution of individual Dirac eigenvalues is derived by relating them to the density and higher eigenvalue correlation functions. The relations are general and hold for any gauge theory coupled to fermions under certain conditions which are stated. As a special case, we give examples of the lowest-lying eigenvalue distributions for QCD-like gauge theories without making use of earlier results based on the relation to Random Matrix Theory.
Accommodating Uncertainty in Prior Distributions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Picard, Richard Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vander Wiel, Scott Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2017-01-19
A fundamental premise of Bayesian methodology is that a priori information is accurately summarized by a single, precisely de ned prior distribution. In many cases, especially involving informative priors, this premise is false, and the (mis)application of Bayes methods produces posterior quantities whose apparent precisions are highly misleading. We examine the implications of uncertainty in prior distributions, and present graphical methods for dealing with them.
Tools for Distributed Systems Monitoring
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kufel Łukasz
2016-11-01
Full Text Available The management of distributed systems infrastructure requires dedicated set of tools. The one tool that helps visualize current operational state of all systems and notify when failure occurs is available within monitoring solution. This paper provides an overview of monitoring approaches for gathering data from distributed systems and what are the major factors to consider when choosing a monitoring solution. Finally we discuss the tools currently available on the market.
Protection of electricity distribution networks
Gers, Juan M
2004-01-01
Written by two practicing electrical engineers, this second edition of the bestselling Protection of Electricity Distribution Networks offers both practical and theoretical coverage of the technologies, from the classical electromechanical relays to the new numerical types, which protect equipment on networks and in electrical plants. A properly coordinated protection system is vital to ensure that an electricity distribution network can operate within preset requirements for safety for individual items of equipment, staff and public, and the network overall. Suitable and reliable equipment sh
2015 Distributed Wind Market Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Orrell, Alice C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Foster, Nikolas A.F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Homer, Juliet S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Morris, Scott L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
2016-08-17
The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) annual Distributed Wind Market Report provides stakeholders with statistics and analysis of the market along with insights into its trends and characteristics. By providing a comprehensive overview of the distributed wind market, this report can help plan and guide future investments and decisions by industry, utilities, federal and state agencies, and other interested parties.
A New Distributed Routing Protocol.
1984-01-01
Kindm ’[t., BMnclh CntMU Consider a attuatJion in %, Adhd them am n n es0 ndh lidkd to at least ne &her node sudh that all moe a wwmwted. either...distributed Itn r that is cpable, of failsafe distributed routing. 37 ~L MANHATAN %SQ.ARE GP :,!: NETWORK, - CONNECTTVY S . .. . I ip p- t 0 4 Figure 4-3
Structure functions and parton distributions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martin, A.D.; Stirling, W.J. [Univ. of Durham (United Kingdom); Roberts, R.G. [Rutherford Appleton Lab., Chilton, Didcot (United Kingdom)
1995-07-01
The MRS parton distribution analysis is described. The latest sets are shown to give an excellent description of a wide range of deep-inelastic and other hard scattering data. Two important theoretical issues-the behavior of the distributions at small x and the flavor structure of the quark sea-are discussed in detail. A comparison with the new structure function data from HERA is made, and the outlook for the future is discussed.
Modelling the nuclear parton distributions
Kulagin, S A
2016-01-01
We review a semi-microscopic model of nuclear parton distributions, which takes into account a number of nuclear effects including Fermi motion and nuclear binding, nuclear meson-exchange currents and off-shell corrections to bound nucleon distributions as well as nuclear shadowing effect. We also discuss applications of the model to the lepton-nuclear deep-inelastic scattering, Drell-Yan process and neutrino total cross sections.
Distributed Queuing in Dynamic Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gokarna Sharma
2013-10-01
Full Text Available We consider the problem of forming a distributed queue in the adversarial dynamic network model of Kuhn, Lynch, and Oshman (STOC 2010 in which the network topology changes from round to round but the network stays connected. This is a synchronous model in which network nodes are assumed to be fixed, the communication links for each round are chosen by an adversary, and nodes do not know who their neighbors are for the current round before they broadcast their messages. Queue requests may arrive over rounds at arbitrary nodes and the goal is to eventually enqueue them in a distributed queue. We present two algorithms that give a total distributed ordering of queue requests in this model. We measure the performance of our algorithms through round complexity, which is the total number of rounds needed to solve the distributed queuing problem. We show that in 1-interval connected graphs, where the communication links change arbitrarily between every round, it is possible to solve the distributed queueing problem in O(nk rounds using O(log n size messages, where n is the number of nodes in the network and k 0 is the concurrency level parameter that captures the minimum number of active queue requests in the system in any round. These results hold in any arbitrary (sequential, one-shot concurrent, or dynamic arrival of k queue requests in the system. Moreover, our algorithms ensure correctness in the sense that each queue request is eventually enqueued in the distributed queue after it is issued and each queue request is enqueued exactly once. We also provide an impossibility result for this distributed queuing problem in this model. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first solutions to the distributed queuing problem in adversarial dynamic networks.
Modeled ground water age distributions
Woolfenden, Linda R.; Ginn, Timothy R.
2009-01-01
The age of ground water in any given sample is a distributed quantity representing distributed provenance (in space and time) of the water. Conventional analysis of tracers such as unstable isotopes or anthropogenic chemical species gives discrete or binary measures of the presence of water of a given age. Modeled ground water age distributions provide a continuous measure of contributions from different recharge sources to aquifers. A numerical solution of the ground water age equation of Ginn (1999) was tested both on a hypothetical simplified one-dimensional flow system and under real world conditions. Results from these simulations yield the first continuous distributions of ground water age using this model. Complete age distributions as a function of one and two space dimensions were obtained from both numerical experiments. Simulations in the test problem produced mean ages that were consistent with the expected value at the end of the model domain for all dispersivity values tested, although the mean ages for the two highest dispersivity values deviated slightly from the expected value. Mean ages in the dispersionless case also were consistent with the expected mean ages throughout the physical model domain. Simulations under real world conditions for three dispersivity values resulted in decreasing mean age with increasing dispersivity. This likely is a consequence of an edge effect. However, simulations for all three dispersivity values tested were mass balanced and stable demonstrating that the solution of the ground water age equation can provide estimates of water mass density distributions over age under real world conditions.
Distributed Coordination of Energy Storage with Distributed Generators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Tao; Wu, Di; Stoorvogel, Antonie A.; Stoustrup, Jakob
2016-07-18
With a growing emphasis on energy efficiency and system flexibility, a great effort has been made recently in developing distributed energy resources (DER), including distributed generators and energy storage systems. This paper first formulates an optimal coordination problem considering constraints at both system and device levels, including power balance constraint, generator output limits, storage energy and power capacity and charging/discharging efficiencies. An algorithm is then proposed to dynamically and automatically coordinate DERs in a distributed manner. With the proposed algorithm, the agent at each DER only maintains a local incremental cost and updates it through information exchange with a few neighbors, without relying on any central decision maker. Simulation results are used to illustrate and validate the proposed algorithm.
Optimal Distributed Voltage Regulation in Power Distribution Networks
Lam, Albert Y S; Dominguez-Garcia, Alejandro; Tse, David
2012-01-01
In this paper, we address the problem of voltage regulation in power distribution networks with deep-penetration of distributed energy resources (DERs), e.g., renewable-based generation, and storage-capable loads such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. We cast the problem as an optimization program, where the objective is to minimize the losses in the network subject to constraints on bus voltage magnitudes, limits on active and reactive power injections, transmission line thermal limits and losses. We provide sufficient conditions under which the optimization problem can be solved via its convex relaxation. Using data from existing networks, we show that the conditions are expected to be satisfied by most networks. We also provide an efficient distributed algorithm to solve the problem. The algorithm is asynchronous, with a communication topology that is the same as the electrical network topology. We illustrate the algorithm's performance in the IEEE 34-bus and the 123-bus feeder test systems.
Physical Effects of Distributed PV Generation on California's Distribution System
Cohen, Michael A
2015-01-01
Deployment of high-penetration photovoltaic (PV) power is expected to have a range of effects -- both positive and negative -- on the distribution grid. The magnitude of these effects may vary greatly depending upon feeder topology, climate, PV penetration level, and other factors. In this paper we present a simulation study of eight representative distribution feeders in three California climates at PV penetration levels up to 100\\%, supported by a unique database of distributed PV generation data that enables us to capture the impact of PV variability on feeder voltage and voltage regulating equipment. When comparing the influence of feeder location (i.e. climate) versus feeder type on outcomes, we find that location more strongly influences the incidence of reverse power flow, reductions in peak loading and the presence of voltage excursions. On the other hand, we find that feeder characteristics more strongly influence the magnitude of loss reduction and changes in voltage regulator operations. We find th...
Distributed Adaptive Droop Control for DC Distribution Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nasirian, Vahidreza; Davoudi, Ali; Lewis, Frank
2014-01-01
A distributed-adaptive droop mechanism is proposed for secondary/primary control of dc Microgrids. The conventional secondary control, that adjusts the voltage set point for the local droop mechanism, is replaced by a voltage regulator. A current regulator is then added to fine-tune the droop...... controller precisely accounts for the transmission/distribution line impedances. The controller on each converter exchanges data with only its neighbor converters on a sparse communication graph spanned across the Microgrid. Global dynamic model of the Microgrid is derived, with the proposed controller...
Distributed adaptive droop control for DC distribution systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nasirian, Vahidreza; Davoudi, Ali; Lewis, Frank
2016-01-01
Summary form only given: A distributed-adaptive droop mechanism is proposed for secondary/primary control of dc microgrids. The conventional secondary control that adjusts the voltage set point for the local droop mechanism is replaced by a voltage regulator. A current regulator is also added...... sharing. The proposed controller precisely accounts for the transmission/distribution line impedances. The controller on each converter exchanges data with only its neighbor converters on a sparse communication graph spanned across the microgrid. Global dynamic model of the microgrid is derived...
Exploring trajectories of distributed development
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Slepniov, Dmitrij; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Niang, Mohamed
2013-01-01
Some firms have turned their global operations into a formidable source of competitive advantage, whereas others hindered their agility. A lot depends on which activities are globally distributed, how they are configured and coordinated. Emerging body of literature and practice suggest that not o...... by the companies in order to achieve control and coordination of distributed development activities. Three propositions are developed to advance the understanding of the continual search for an optimal organisational form to manage distributed development.......Some firms have turned their global operations into a formidable source of competitive advantage, whereas others hindered their agility. A lot depends on which activities are globally distributed, how they are configured and coordinated. Emerging body of literature and practice suggest...... as they globally disperse their development activities. The study employs qualitative methodology and on the basis of two case studies of Danish firms it highlights the challenges of distributed development as well as how these challenges can be dealt with. The paper outlines a variety of practices used...
Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
None
2011-12-01
Power through Policy: 'Best Practices' for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project to identify distributed wind technology policy best practices and to help policymakers, utilities, advocates, and consumers examine their effectiveness using a pro forma model. Incorporating a customized feed from the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE), the Web-based Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool (Policy Tool) is designed to assist state, local, and utility officials in understanding the financial impacts of different policy options to help reduce the cost of distributed wind technologies. The Policy Tool can be used to evaluate the ways that a variety of federal and state policies and incentives impact the economics of distributed wind (and subsequently its expected market growth). It also allows policymakers to determine the impact of policy options, addressing market challenges identified in the U.S. DOE’s '20% Wind Energy by 2030' report and helping to meet COE targets.
Distribution of Triplet Separators in Bacterial Genomes
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HU Rui; ZHENG Wei-Mou
2001-01-01
Distributions of triplet separator lengths for two bacterial complete genomes are analyzed. The theoretical distributions for the independent random sequence and the first-order Markov chain are derived and compared with the distributions of the bacterial genomes. A prominent double band structure, which does not exist in the theoretical distributions, is observed in the bacterial distributions for most triplets.``
Islanded operation of distributed networks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2005-07-01
This report summarises the findings of a study to investigate the regulatory, commercial and technical risks and benefits associated with the operation of distributed generation to power an islanded section of distributed network. A review of published literature was carried out, and UK generators were identified who could operate as part of an island network under the existing technical, regulatory, and safety framework. Agreement on case studies for consideration with distributed network operators (DNOs) is discussed as well as the quantification of the risks, benefits and costs of islanding, and the production of a case implementation plan for each case study. Technical issues associated with operating sections of network in islanded mode are described, and impacts of islanding on trading and settlement, and technical and commercial modelling are explored.
Kinetic narrowing of size distribution
Dubrovskii, V. G.
2016-05-01
We present a model that reveals an interesting possibility for narrowing the size distribution of nanostructures when the deterministic growth rate changes its sign from positive to negative at a certain stationary size. Such a behavior occurs in self-catalyzed one-dimensional III-V nanowires and more generally whenever a negative "adsorption-desorption" term in the growth rate is compensated by a positive "diffusion flux." By asymptotically solving the Fokker-Planck equation, we derive an explicit representation for the size distribution that describes either Poissonian broadening or self-regulated narrowing depending on the parameters. We show how the fluctuation-induced spreading of the size distribution can be completely suppressed in systems with size self-stabilization. These results can be used for obtaining size-uniform ensembles of different nanostructures.
Distributed Decision Making and Control
Rantzer, Anders
2012-01-01
Distributed Decision Making and Control is a mathematical treatment of relevant problems in distributed control, decision and multiagent systems, The research reported was prompted by the recent rapid development in large-scale networked and embedded systems and communications. One of the main reasons for the growing complexity in such systems is the dynamics introduced by computation and communication delays. Reliability, predictability, and efficient utilization of processing power and network resources are central issues and the new theory and design methods presented here are needed to analyze and optimize the complex interactions that arise between controllers, plants and networks. The text also helps to meet requirements arising from industrial practice for a more systematic approach to the design of distributed control structures and corresponding information interfaces Theory for coordination of many different control units is closely related to economics and game theory network uses being dictated by...
Diurnal distribution of sunshine probability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aydinli, S.
1982-01-01
The diurnal distribution of the sunshine probability is essential for the predetermination of average irradiances and illuminances by solar radiation on sloping surfaces. The most meteorological stations have only monthly average values of the sunshine duration available. It is, therefore, necessary to compute the diurnal distribution of sunshine probability starting from the average monthly values. It is shown how the symmetric component of the distribution of the sunshine probability which is a consequence of a ''sidescene effect'' of the clouds can be calculated. The asymmetric components of the sunshine probability depending on the location and the seasons and their influence on the predetermination of the global radiation are investigated and discussed.
Distributed-memory matrix computations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Balle, Susanne Mølleskov
1995-01-01
in these algorithms is that many scientific applications rely heavily on the performance of the involved dense linear algebra building blocks. Even though we consider the distributed-memory as well as the shared-memory programming paradigm, the major part of the thesis is dedicated to distributed-memory architectures....... We emphasize distributed-memory massively parallel computers - such as the Connection Machines model CM-200 and model CM-5/CM-5E - available to us at UNI-C and at Thinking Machines Corporation. The CM-200 was at the time this project started one of the few existing massively parallel computers...... performance can we expect to achieve? Why? 2.Solving systems of linear equations using a Strassen-type matrix-inversion algorithm. A good way to solve systems of linear equations on massively parallel computers? 3.Aspects of computing the singular value decomposition on the Connec-tion Machine CM-5/CM-5E...
Distributed source coding of video
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Forchhammer, Søren; Van Luong, Huynh
2015-01-01
A foundation for distributed source coding was established in the classic papers of Slepian-Wolf (SW) [1] and Wyner-Ziv (WZ) [2]. This has provided a starting point for work on Distributed Video Coding (DVC), which exploits the source statistics at the decoder side offering shifting processing...... steps, conventionally performed at the video encoder side, to the decoder side. Emerging applications such as wireless visual sensor networks and wireless video surveillance all require lightweight video encoding with high coding efficiency and error-resilience. The video data of DVC schemes differ from...... the assumptions of SW and WZ distributed coding, e.g. by being correlated in time and nonstationary. Improving the efficiency of DVC coding is challenging. This paper presents some selected techniques to address the DVC challenges. Focus is put on pin-pointing how the decoder steps are modified to provide...
Distributed Enforcement of Service Choreographies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marco Autili
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Modern service-oriented systems are often built by reusing, and composing together, existing services distributed over the Internet. Service choreography is a possible form of service composition whose goal is to specify the interactions among participant services from a global perspective. In this paper, we formalize a method for the distributed and automated enforcement of service choreographies, and prove its correctness with respect to the realization of the specified choreography. The formalized method is implemented as part of a model-based tool chain released to support the development of choreography-based systems within the EU CHOReOS project. We illustrate our method at work on a distributed social proximity network scenario.
Distributed source coding of video
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Forchhammer, Søren; Van Luong, Huynh
2015-01-01
steps, conventionally performed at the video encoder side, to the decoder side. Emerging applications such as wireless visual sensor networks and wireless video surveillance all require lightweight video encoding with high coding efficiency and error-resilience. The video data of DVC schemes differ from......A foundation for distributed source coding was established in the classic papers of Slepian-Wolf (SW) [1] and Wyner-Ziv (WZ) [2]. This has provided a starting point for work on Distributed Video Coding (DVC), which exploits the source statistics at the decoder side offering shifting processing...... the assumptions of SW and WZ distributed coding, e.g. by being correlated in time and nonstationary. Improving the efficiency of DVC coding is challenging. This paper presents some selected techniques to address the DVC challenges. Focus is put on pin-pointing how the decoder steps are modified to provide...
Safe Distribution of Declarative Processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hildebrandt, Thomas; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao; Slaats, Tijs
2011-01-01
process model generalizing labelled prime event structures to a systems model able to finitely represent ω-regular languages. An operational semantics given as a transition semantics between markings of the graph allows DCR Graphs to be conveniently used as both specification and execution model....... The technique for distribution is based on a new general notion of projection of DCR Graphs relative to a subset of labels and events identifying the set of external events that must be communicated from the other processes in the network in order for the distribution to be safe.We prove that for any vector...... of projections that covers a DCR Graph that the network of synchronously communicating DCR Graphs given by the projections is bisimilar to the original global process graph. We exemplify the distribution technique on a process identified in a case study of an cross-organizational case management system carried...
CEBAF Distributed Data Acquisition System
Allison, Trent
2005-01-01
There are thousands of signals distributed throughout Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) that are useful for troubleshooting and identifying instabilities. Many of these signals are only available locally or monitored by systems with small bandwidths that cannot identify fast transients. The Distributed Data Acquisition (Dist DAQ) system will sample and record these signals simultaneously at rates up to 40 Msps. Its primary function will be to provide waveform records from signals throughout CEBAF to the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). The waveforms will be collected after the occurrence of an event trigger. These triggers will be derived from signals such as periodic timers or accelerator faults. The waveform data can then be processed to quickly identify beam transport issues, thus reducing down time and increasing CEBAF performance. The Dist DAQ system will be comprised of multiple standalone chassis distributed throughout CEBAF. They will be i...
Wavelength-multiplexed entanglement distribution
Lim, Han Chuen; Yoshizawa, Akio; Tsuchida, Hidemi; Kikuchi, Kazuro
2010-08-01
The realization of an entanglement distribution optical fiber network connecting multiple parties would permit implementation of many information security applications such as entanglement-based quantum key distribution and quantum secret sharing. However, due to material absorption and scattering in optical fiber, photons that are the carriers of quantum entanglement experience loss during propagation and the overall photon arrival rate can be very low in such a network. One way to increase photon arrival rate is to make full use of the available transmission bandwidth of optical fiber and this is achievable via wavelength-multiplexing. We review our recent work on wavelength-multiplexed entanglement distribution and discuss system design considerations from a telecommunication engineering perspective.
Statistics of the galaxy distribution
Martinez, Vicent J
2001-01-01
Over the last decade, statisticians have developed new statistical tools in the field of spatial point processes. At the same time, observational efforts have yielded a huge amount of new cosmological data to analyze. Although the main tools in astronomy for comparing theoretical results with observation are statistical, in recent years, cosmologists have not been generally aware of the developments in statistics and vice versa.Statistics of the Galaxy Distribution describes both the available observational data on the distribution of galaxies and the applications of spatial statistics in cosmology. It gives a detailed derivation of the statistical methods used to study the galaxy distribution and the cosmological physics needed to formulate the statistical models. Because the prevalent approach in cosmological statistics has been frequentist, the authors focus on the most widely used of these methods, but they also explore Bayesian techniques that have become popular in large-scale structure studies.Describi...
TH*: Scalable Distributed Trie Hashing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aridj Mohamed
2010-11-01
Full Text Available In today's world of computers, dealing with huge amounts of data is not unusual. The need to distribute this data in order to increase its availability and increase the performance of accessing it is more urgent than ever. For these reasons it is necessary to develop scalable distributed data structures. In this paper we propose a TH* distributed variant of the Trie Hashing data structure. First we propose Thsw new version of TH without node Nil in digital tree (trie, then this version will be adapted to multicomputer environment. The simulation results reveal that TH* is scalable in the sense that it grows gracefully, one bucket at a time, to a large number of servers, also TH* offers a good storage space utilization and high query efficiency special for ordering operations.
Distributed k-Core Decomposition
Montresor, Alberto; Miorandi, Daniele
2011-01-01
Among the novel metrics used to study the relative importance of nodes in complex networks, k-core decomposition has found a number of applications in areas as diverse as sociology, proteinomics, graph visualization, and distributed system analysis and design. This paper proposes new distributed algorithms for the computation of the k-core decomposition of a network, with the purpose of (i) enabling the run-time computation of k-cores in "live" distributed systems and (ii) allowing the decomposition, over a set of connected machines, of very large graphs, that cannot be hosted in a single machine. Lower bounds on the algorithms complexity are given, and an exhaustive experimental analysis on real-world graphs is provided.
Distributed Assessment of Network Centrality
Wehmuth, Klaus
2011-01-01
We propose a method for the Distributed Assessment of Network CEntrality (DANCE) in complex networks. DANCE attributes to each node a volume-based centrality computed using only localized information, thus not requiring knowledge of the full network topology. We show DANCE is simple, yet efficient, in assessing node centrality in a distributed way. Our proposal also provides a way for locating the most central nodes, again using only the localized information at each node. We also show that the node rankings based on DANCE's centrality and the traditional closeness centrality correlate very well. This is quite useful given the vast potential applicability of closeness centrality, which is however limited by its high computational costs. We experimentally evaluate DANCE against a state-of-the-art proposal to distributively assess network centrality. Results attest that DANCE achieves similar effectiveness in assessing network centrality, but with a significant reduction in the associated costs for practical ap...
Maintaining consistency in distributed systems
Birman, Kenneth P.
1991-01-01
In systems designed as assemblies of independently developed components, concurrent access to data or data structures normally arises within individual programs, and is controlled using mutual exclusion constructs, such as semaphores and monitors. Where data is persistent and/or sets of operation are related to one another, transactions or linearizability may be more appropriate. Systems that incorporate cooperative styles of distributed execution often replicate or distribute data within groups of components. In these cases, group oriented consistency properties must be maintained, and tools based on the virtual synchrony execution model greatly simplify the task confronting an application developer. All three styles of distributed computing are likely to be seen in future systems - often, within the same application. This leads us to propose an integrated approach that permits applications that use virtual synchrony with concurrent objects that respect a linearizability constraint, and vice versa. Transactional subsystems are treated as a special case of linearizability.
Entanglement Distribution in Optical Networks
Ciurana, Alex; Martinez-Mateo, Jesus; Schrenk, Bernhard; Peev, Momtchil; Poppe, Andreas
2014-01-01
The ability to generate entangled photon-pairs over a broad wavelength range opens the door to the simultaneous distribution of entanglement to multiple users in a network by using centralized sources and flexible wavelength-division multiplexing schemes. Here we show the design of a metropolitan optical network consisting of tree-type access networks whereby entangled photon-pairs are distributed to any pair of users, independent of their location. The network is constructed employing commercial off-the-shelf components and uses the existing infrastructure, which allows for moderate deployment costs. We further develop a channel plan and a network-architecture design to provide a direct optical path between any pair of users, thus allowing classical and one-way quantum communication as well as entanglement distribution. This allows the simultaneous operation of multiple quantum information technologies. Finally, we present a more flexible backbone architecture that pushes away the load limitations of the ori...
Integrated Transmission and Distribution Control
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kalsi, Karanjit; Fuller, Jason C.; Tuffner, Francis K.; Lian, Jianming; Zhang, Wei; Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Fisher, Andrew R.; Chassin, Forrest S.; Hauer, Matthew L.
2013-01-16
Distributed, generation, demand response, distributed storage, smart appliances, electric vehicles and renewable energy resources are expected to play a key part in the transformation of the American power system. Control, coordination and compensation of these smart grid assets are inherently interlinked. Advanced control strategies to warrant large-scale penetration of distributed smart grid assets do not currently exist. While many of the smart grid technologies proposed involve assets being deployed at the distribution level, most of the significant benefits accrue at the transmission level. The development of advanced smart grid simulation tools, such as GridLAB-D, has led to a dramatic improvement in the models of smart grid assets available for design and evaluation of smart grid technology. However, one of the main challenges to quantifying the benefits of smart grid assets at the transmission level is the lack of tools and framework for integrating transmission and distribution technologies into a single simulation environment. Furthermore, given the size and complexity of the distribution system, it is crucial to be able to represent the behavior of distributed smart grid assets using reduced-order controllable models and to analyze their impacts on the bulk power system in terms of stability and reliability. The objectives of the project were to: • Develop a simulation environment for integrating transmission and distribution control, • Construct reduced-order controllable models for smart grid assets at the distribution level, • Design and validate closed-loop control strategies for distributed smart grid assets, and • Demonstrate impact of integrating thousands of smart grid assets under closed-loop control demand response strategies on the transmission system. More specifically, GridLAB-D, a distribution system tool, and PowerWorld, a transmission planning tool, are integrated into a single simulation environment. The integrated environment
Shape of Pion Distribution Amplitude
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Radyushkin, Anatoly
2009-11-01
A scenario is investigated in which the leading-twist pion distribution amplitude $\\varphi_\\pi (x)$ is approximated by the pion decay constant $f_\\pi$ for all essential values of the light-cone fraction $x$. A model for the light-front wave function $\\Psi (x, k_\\perp)$ is proposed that produces such a distribution amplitude and has a rapidly decreasing (exponential for definiteness) dependence on the light-front energy combination $ k_\\perp^2/x(1-x)$. It is shown that this model easily reproduces the fit of recent large-$Q^2$ BaBar data on the photon-pion transition form factor. Some aspects of scenario with flat pion distribution amplitude are discussed.
Hydronic distribution system computer model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andrews, J.W.; Strasser, J.J.
1994-10-01
A computer model of a hot-water boiler and its associated hydronic thermal distribution loop has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). It is intended to be incorporated as a submodel in a comprehensive model of residential-scale thermal distribution systems developed at Lawrence Berkeley. This will give the combined model the capability of modeling forced-air and hydronic distribution systems in the same house using the same supporting software. This report describes the development of the BNL hydronics model, initial results and internal consistency checks, and its intended relationship to the LBL model. A method of interacting with the LBL model that does not require physical integration of the two codes is described. This will provide capability now, with reduced up-front cost, as long as the number of runs required is not large.
Optimal placement of distributed generation in distribution networks
African Journals Online (AJOL)
user
size of distribution system in term of load (MW) will play important role is selecting the size of DG. .... This modification can be represented by the concept of velocity. Velocity of each ..... and control, digital design and verification. Received ...
Optimal power flow for distribution networks with distributed generation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Radosavljević Jordan
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a genetic algorithm (GA based approach for the solution of the optimal power flow (OPF in distribution networks with distributed generation (DG units, including fuel cells, micro turbines, diesel generators, photovoltaic systems and wind turbines. The OPF is formulated as a nonlinear multi-objective optimization problem with equality and inequality constraints. Due to the stochastic nature of energy produced from renewable sources, i.e. wind turbines and photovoltaic systems, as well as load uncertainties, a probabilisticalgorithm is introduced in the OPF analysis. The Weibull and normal distributions are employed to model the input random variables, namely the wind speed, solar irradiance and load power. The 2m+1 point estimate method and the Gram Charlier expansion theory are used to obtain the statistical moments and the probability density functions (PDFs of the OPF results. The proposed approach is examined and tested on a modified IEEE 34 node test feeder with integrated five different DG units. The obtained results prove the efficiency of the proposed approach to solve both deterministic and probabilistic OPF problems for different forms of the multi-objective function. As such, it can serve as a useful decision-making supporting tool for distribution network operators. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR33046
Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.
The conference featured more than 40 presentations representing existing and planned innovative programs in all levels of distributive marketing education in six States. In addition to the presentations (not reproduced in their entirety in the report), there were sessions and workshops for secondary, post secondary, and adult levels and for city…
Transient stability analysis of a distribution network with distributed generators
Xyngi, I.; Ishchenko, A.; Popov, M.; Van der Sluis, L.
2009-01-01
This letter describes the transient stability analysis of a 10-kV distribution network with wind generators, microturbines, and CHP plants. The network being modeled in Matlab/Simulink takes into account detailed dynamic models of the generators. Fault simulations at various locations are investigat
Distribution System Planning With Distributed Generations Considering Benefits and Costs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saeid Soudi
2013-10-01
Full Text Available One of the methods used in the design and utilization of distribution systems to improve power quality and reliability of load power supply of consumers, is the application of distributed generation (DG sources. In this paper, a new method is proposed for the design and utilization of distribution networks with DG resources application by finding the optimal sitting and sizing of generated power of DG with the aim of maximization of its benefits to costs. The benefits for DG are considered as system losses reduction, system reliability improvement and benefits from the sale electricity or from lack of purchase of electricity from the main system. The costs of DG are considered as initial capital, maintenance and operation cost and investment cost. In this paper to solve the optimal sitting and sizing problem a Modified particle swarm optimization (PSO is applied. Simulations are presented on a 69-bus test distribution system to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. Results showed that the proposed high-power method to find the optimal points of problem is faster and application of DG resources reduced the losses, costs and improved the system voltage profile.
Trading Strategies for Distribution Company with Stochastic Distributed Energy Resources
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Chunyu; Wang, Qi; Wang, Jianhui
2016-01-01
This paper proposes a methodology to address the trading strategies of a proactive distribution company (PDISCO) engaged in the transmission-level (TL) markets. A one-leader multi-follower bilevel model is presented to formulate the gaming framework between the PDISCO and markets. The lower...
Distributed chaos and isotropic turbulence
Bershadskii, A
2015-01-01
Power spectrum of the distributed chaos can be represented by a weighted superposition of the exponential functions which is converged to a stretched exponential $\\exp-(k/k_{\\beta})^{\\beta }$. An asymptotic theory has been developed in order to estimate the value of $\\beta$ for the isotropic turbulence. This value has been found to be $\\beta =3/4$. Excellent agreement has been established between this theory and the data of direct numerical simulations not only for the velocity field but also for the passive scalar and energy dissipation fields. One can conclude that the isotropic turbulence emerges from the distributed chaos.
Integration of Distributed Energy Resources
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pushpendra Singh
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This Study proposes the feasibility of proposed restructured power system for the integration of distributed energy resources. Once the proposed power system network takes place, it will be able to provide opportunities for sustained economic growth. Main objectives of the proposed network are maximization of Distributed Generation (DGs penetration and decarbonization of electric utility. IEEE-14 bus test system with proposed configuration has been undertaken for MATLAB® Simulations, results shows that proposed power system configuration allows the operation of conventional energy generation and green energy generation efficiently. The results obtained from MATLAB ® simulations are compared with genetic algorithm based optimization approach.
Solar wind thermal electron distributions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Phillips, J.L.; Gosling, J.T.
1991-01-01
Solar wind thermal electron distributions exhibit distinctive trends which suggest Coulomb collisions and geometric expansion in the interplanetary magnetic field play keys roles in electron transport. We introduce a simple numerical model incorporating these mechanisms, discuss the ramifications of model results, and assess the validity of the model in terms of ISEE-3 and Ulysses observations. Although the model duplicates the shape of the electron distributions, and explains certain other observational features, observed gradients in total electron temperature indicate the importance of additional heating mechanisms. 5 refs., 7 figs.
Solar wind thermal electron distributions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Phillips, J.L.; Gosling, J.T.
1991-12-01
Solar wind thermal electron distributions exhibit distinctive trends which suggest Coulomb collisions and geometric expansion in the interplanetary magnetic field play keys roles in electron transport. We introduce a simple numerical model incorporating these mechanisms, discuss the ramifications of model results, and assess the validity of the model in terms of ISEE-3 and Ulysses observations. Although the model duplicates the shape of the electron distributions, and explains certain other observational features, observed gradients in total electron temperature indicate the importance of additional heating mechanisms. 5 refs., 7 figs.
Statistical distribution of Chinese names
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Guo Jin-Zhong; Chen Qing-Hua; Wang You-Gui
2011-01-01
This paper studies the statistical characteristics of Chinese surnames,first names and full names based on a credible sample.The distribution of Chinese surnames,unlike that in any other countries,shows an exponential pattern in the top part and a power-law pattern in the tail part.The distributions of Chinese first names and full names have the characteristics of a power law with different exponents.Finally,the interrelation of the first name and the surname is demonstrated by using a computer simulation and an exhibition of the name network.Chinese people take the surname into account when they choose a first name for somebody.
Energy efficient distributed computing systems
Lee, Young-Choon
2012-01-01
The energy consumption issue in distributed computing systems raises various monetary, environmental and system performance concerns. Electricity consumption in the US doubled from 2000 to 2005. From a financial and environmental standpoint, reducing the consumption of electricity is important, yet these reforms must not lead to performance degradation of the computing systems. These contradicting constraints create a suite of complex problems that need to be resolved in order to lead to 'greener' distributed computing systems. This book brings together a group of outsta
Distributed Dynamic Condition Response Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hildebrandt, Thomas; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao
We present distributed dynamic condition response structures as a declarative process model inspired by the workflow language employed by our industrial partner and conservatively generalizing labelled event structures. The model adds to event structures the possibility to 1) finitely specify...... repeated, possibly infinite behavior, 2) finitely specify fine-grained acceptance conditions for (possibly infinite) runs based on the notion of responses and 3) distribute events via roles. We give a graphical notation inspired by related work by van der Aalst et al and formalize the execution semantics...
Local distribution and franchising rights
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Penick, V. [McInnes, Cooper and Robertson, Halifax, NS (Canada); Grant, R.; McKelvey, S. [Stirling Scales, NB (Canada); Cramm, K. [Maritimes NRG, Halifax, NS (Canada)
1998-12-31
A summary of local distribution and franchising rights in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick is presented. The Gas Distribution Act calls for two distinct sets of regulations : broad regulations to be made by the provinces, and more technical procedural regulations to be made by the Utility and Review Board. The focus of this paper is on how municipalities will be affected by the regulations and how franchising within a local area will work. The overall objective is to ensure free competition in gas sales.
Distributional preferences and competitive behavior.
Balafoutas, Loukas; Kerschbamer, Rudolf; Sutter, Matthias
2012-06-01
We study experimentally the relationship between distributional preferences and competitive behavior. We find that spiteful subjects react strongest to competitive pressure and win in a tournament significantly more often than efficiency-minded and inequality averse subjects. However, when given the choice between a tournament and a piece rate scheme, efficiency-minded subjects choose the tournament most often, while spiteful and inequality averse subjects avoid it. When controlling for distributional preferences, risk attitudes and past performance, the gender gap in the willingness to compete is no longer significant, indicating that gender-related variables explain why twice as many men as women self-select into competition.
Value Distribution of Meromorphic Functions
Zheng, Jianhua
2011-01-01
"Value Distribution of Meromorphic Functions" focuses on functions meromorphic in an angle or on the complex plane, T directions, deficient values, singular values, potential theory in value distribution and the proof of the celebrated Nevanlinna conjecture. The book introduces various characteristics of meromorphic functions and their connections, several aspects of new singular directions, new results on estimates of the number of deficient values, new results on singular values and behaviours of subharmonic functions which are the foundation for further discussion on the proof of
Evaluating Kolmogorov\\'s Distribution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
George Marsaglia
2003-11-01
Full Text Available Kolmogorov's goodness-of-fit measure, Dn , for a sample CDF has consistently been set aside for methods such as the D+n or D-n of Smirnov, primarily, it seems, because of the difficulty of computing the distribution of Dn . As far as we know, no easy way to compute that distribution has ever been provided in the 70+ years since Kolmogorov's fundamental paper. We provide one here, a C procedure that provides Pr(Dn .999 with n's of several thousand, we provide a quick approximation that gives accuracy to the 7th digit for such cases.
The THUDSOS Distributed Operating System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
廖先Zhi; 刘旭峰; 等
1991-01-01
The THUDSOS is a distributed operating system modeled as an abstract machine which provides decentralized control,transparency,availability,and reliability,as welol as a good degree of autonomy at each node,that makes our distributed system usable.Our operating system supports transparent access to data through network wide filesystem.The simultaneous access to any device is discussed for the case when the peripherals are treated as files.This operating system allows spawning of parallel application programs to solve problems in the fields,such as numerical analysis and artificial intelligence.
Advanced Distribution Network Modelling with Distributed Energy Resources
O'Connell, Alison
The addition of new distributed energy resources, such as electric vehicles, photovoltaics, and storage, to low voltage distribution networks means that these networks will undergo major changes in the future. Traditionally, distribution systems would have been a passive part of the wider power system, delivering electricity to the customer and not needing much control or management. However, the introduction of these new technologies may cause unforeseen issues for distribution networks, due to the fact that they were not considered when the networks were originally designed. This thesis examines different types of technologies that may begin to emerge on distribution systems, as well as the resulting challenges that they may impose. Three-phase models of distribution networks are developed and subsequently utilised as test cases. Various management strategies are devised for the purposes of controlling distributed resources from a distribution network perspective. The aim of the management strategies is to mitigate those issues that distributed resources may cause, while also keeping customers' preferences in mind. A rolling optimisation formulation is proposed as an operational tool which can manage distributed resources, while also accounting for the uncertainties that these resources may present. Network sensitivities for a particular feeder are extracted from a three-phase load flow methodology and incorporated into an optimisation. Electric vehicles are the focus of the work, although the method could be applied to other types of resources. The aim is to minimise the cost of electric vehicle charging over a 24-hour time horizon by controlling the charge rates and timings of the vehicles. The results demonstrate the advantage that controlled EV charging can have over an uncontrolled case, as well as the benefits provided by the rolling formulation and updated inputs in terms of cost and energy delivered to customers. Building upon the rolling optimisation, a
Local search in physical distribution management
G.A.P. Kindervater (Gerard); M.W.P. Savelsbergh (Martin)
1992-01-01
textabstractPhysical distribution management presents a variety of decision making problems at three levels of strategic, tactical and operational planning. The importance of effective and efficient distribution management is evident from its associated costs. Physical distribution management at the
Energy Efficiency in Grocery Distribution in Denmark
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Kaj
1997-01-01
Evaluation of the development of the energy efficiency of grocery distribution from 1960 to the present in Denmark, covering both the distribution to the shops and the shopping transport (distribution from shops to individual homes)......Evaluation of the development of the energy efficiency of grocery distribution from 1960 to the present in Denmark, covering both the distribution to the shops and the shopping transport (distribution from shops to individual homes)...
Multivariate normal-Laplace distribution and processes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kanichukattu Korakutty Jose
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The normal-Laplace distribution is considered and its properties are discussed. A multivariate normal-Laplace distribution is introduced and its properties are studied. First order autoregressive processes with these stationary marginal distributions are developed and studied. A generalized multivariate normal-Laplace distribution is introduced. Multivariate geometric normal-Laplace distribution and multivariate geometric generalized normal-Laplace distributions are introduced and their properties are studied. Estimation of parameters and some applications are also discussed.
Electric power distribution, automation, protection, and control
Momoh, James A
2007-01-01
* Each Chapter Provides an Introduction, Illustrative Examples, and a SummaryIntroduction to Distribution Automation Systems Historical Background Distribution System Topology and Structure Distribution Automation (DA) and Control Computational Techniques for Distribution Systems Complex Power Concepts Balanced Voltage to Neutral-Connected System Power Relationship for f Y-?-Connected System Per-Unit System Calculation of Power Losses Voltage Regulation Techniques Voltage-Sag Analysis and Calculation Equipment Modeling Components Modeling Distribution System Line Model Distribution Power Flo
Fiber Bragg distributed chemical sensor
Boersma, A.; Saalmink, M.; Lucassen, T.; Wiegersma, S.; Jansen, T.H.; Jansen, R.; Cheng, L.K.
2011-01-01
A distributed chemical sensor is developed by coating multiple Bragg gratings in a single glass fiber with chemical responsive coatings. The composition of the coating is tuned to the target chemicals to be measured and the optical response of the coated grating is optimized by changing the coating
Distributed Systems: The Hard Problems
CERN. Geneva
2015-01-01
**Nicholas Bellerophon** works as a client services engineer at Basho Technologies, helping customers setup and run distributed systems at scale in the wild. He has also worked in massively multiplayer games, and recently completed a live scalable simulation engine. He is an avid TED-watcher with interests in many areas of the arts, science, and engineering, including of course high-energy physics.
High Pressure Hydraulic Distribution System
1991-05-20
to 500 0 F. 5 cycles. 5000 F room temperature to 50001F; 45 ______________ Icycles The tesis planned for the distribution system demonstrator were...American Society for Testing and Materials ASTM D412 - Tension Testing of Vulcanized Rubber ASTM D571 - Testing Automotive Hydraulic Brake Hose Society of
STATISTICAL INFERENCE FOR CONTAMINATION DISTRIBUTION*
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WU Shanshan; MIAO Baiqi
2001-01-01
For the contamination distribution model F (x) - (1 - α) F1 (x) + cF2 (x), theestimators of c and F1 (x) are studied when F2 (x) is known, and the strong consistencyof the two estimators is proved. Then the rate of consistency of estimator ^α and a testingproblem are discussed.
The distributed wireless gathering problem
Bonifaci, V.; Korteweg, P.; Spaccamela, A. Marchetti; Stougie, L.
2011-01-01
We address the problem of data gathering in a wireless network using multi-hop communication; our main goal is the analysis of simple algorithms suitable for implementation in realistic scenarios. We study the performance of distributed algorithms, which do not use any form of local coordination,
Distributed chaos in turbulent wakes
Bershadskii, A
2016-01-01
Soft and hard spontaneous breaking of space translational symmetry (homogeneity) have been studied in turbulent wakes by means of distributed chaos. In the case of the soft translational symmetry breaking the vorticity correlation integral $\\int_{V} \\langle {\\boldsymbol \\omega} ({\\bf x},t) \\cdot {\\boldsymbol \\omega} ({\\bf x} + {\\bf r},t) \\rangle_{V} d{\\bf r}$ dominates the distributed chaos and the chaotic spectra $\\exp-(k/k_{\\beta})^{\\beta }$ have $\\beta =1/2$. In the case of the hard translational symmetry breaking, control on the distributed chaos is switched from one type of fundamental symmetry to another (in this case to Lagrangian relabeling symmetry). Due to the Noether's theorem the relabeling symmetry results in the inviscid helicity conservation and helicity correlation integral $I=\\int \\langle h({\\bf x},t)~h({\\bf x}+{\\bf r}, t)\\rangle d{\\bf r}$ (Levich-Tsinober invariant) dominates the distributed chaos with $\\beta =1/3$. Good agreement with the experimatal data has been established for turbulent ...
Age distribution of anginose mononucleosis.
Spirer, Z; Holtzman, M; Melamed, I; Shalit, I
1987-01-01
The age distribution of anginose infectious mononucleosis in children was analysed retrospectively for the years 1966-85. During that period the disease became significantly more common in children of a young age and less common in older children. This shift could not be attributed either to socioeconomic conditions or to the diagnostic methods used. PMID:3619480
Distributed Knowledge Management in Extranets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Mogens Kühn; Larsen, Michael Holm
1999-01-01
Knowledge management exchange schemes based on symmetric incentives are rarely found in the literature. The distributed knowledge model relies upon a double loop knowledge conversion decision support system with symmetric incentives in an extranet. The model merges specific knowledge with knowledge...
Distributed data analysis in LHCb
Paterson, S K
2008-01-01
The LHCb distributed data analysis system consists of the Ganga job submission front-end and the DIRAC Workload and Data Management System (WMS). Ganga is jointly developed with ATLAS and allows LHCb users to submit jobs on several backends including: several batch systems, LCG and DIRAC. The DIRAC API provides a transparent and secure way for users to run jobs to the Grid and is the default mode of submission for the LHCb Virtual Organisation (VO). This is exploited by Ganga to perform distributed user analysis for LHCb. This system provides LHCb with a consistent, efficient and simple user experience in a variety of heterogeneous environments and facilitates the incremental development of user analysis from local test jobs to the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid. With a steadily increasing number of users, the LHCb distributed analysis system has been tuned and enhanced over the past two years. This paper will describe the recent developments to support distributed data analysis for the LHCb experiment on WLCG.
The ATLAS Distributed Analysis System
Legger, F; The ATLAS collaboration
2014-01-01
In the LHC operations era, analysis of the multi-petabyte ATLAS data sample by globally distributed physicists is a challenging task. To attain the required scale the ATLAS Computing Model was designed around the concept of grid computing, realized in the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG), the largest distributed computational resource existing in the sciences. The ATLAS experiment currently stores over 140 PB of data and runs about 140,000 concurrent jobs continuously at WLCG sites. During the first run of the LHC, the ATLAS Distributed Analysis (DA) service has operated stably and scaled as planned. More than 1600 users submitted jobs in 2012, with 2 million or more analysis jobs per week, peaking at about a million jobs per day. The system dynamically distributes popular data to expedite processing and maximally utilize resources. The reliability of the DA service is high but steadily improving; grid sites are continually validated against a set of standard tests, and a dedicated team of expert shifters ...
The ATLAS Distributed Analysis System
Legger, F; The ATLAS collaboration; Pacheco Pages, A; Stradling, A
2013-01-01
In the LHC operations era, analysis of the multi-petabyte ATLAS data sample by globally distributed physicists is a challenging task. To attain the required scale the ATLAS Computing Model was designed around the concept of grid computing, realized in the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG), the largest distributed computational resource existing in the sciences. The ATLAS experiment currently stores over 140 PB of data and runs about 140,000 concurrent jobs continuously at WLCG sites. During the first run of the LHC, the ATLAS Distributed Analysis (DA) service has operated stably and scaled as planned. More than 1600 users submitted jobs in 2012, with 2 million or more analysis jobs per week, peaking at about a million jobs per day. The system dynamically distributes popular data to expedite processing and maximally utilize resources. The reliability of the DA service is high but steadily improving; grid sites are continually validated against a set of standard tests, and a dedicated team of expert shifters ...
Interconnection of Distributed Energy Resources
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reiter, Emerson [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
2017-04-19
This is a presentation on interconnection of distributed energy resources, including the relationships between different aspects of interconnection, best practices and lessons learned from different areas of the U.S., and an update on technical advances and standards for interconnection.
Jing, Yindi
2014-01-01
Distributed Space-Time Coding (DSTC) is a cooperative relaying scheme that enables high reliability in wireless networks. This brief presents the basic concept of DSTC, its achievable performance, generalizations, code design, and differential use. Recent results on training design and channel estimation for DSTC and the performance of training-based DSTC are also discussed.
Lossless and dissipative distributed systems
Pillai, HK; Willems, JC
2002-01-01
This paper deals with linear shift-invariant distributed systems. By this we mean systems described by constant coefficient linear partial differential equations. e de ne dissipativity with respect to a quadratic differential form, i.e., a quadratic functional in the system variables and their
Educational Micropolitics and Distributed Leadership
Flessa, Joseph
2009-01-01
This article critically reviews two bodies of literature that potentially share common concerns, yet rarely overlap: distributed leadership and educational micropolitics. Alternative explanations for the split between these two analytical approaches to school organization are explored in sections on problem framing, methodology, and the…
Career Information: Marketing and Distribution.
American Vocational Association, Inc., Washington, DC.
The publication is a bibliography prepared in an attempt to assist guidance and distributive education personnel in their task of securing relevant published career information. Depending on overall adequacy, three categories of the National Vocational Guidance Association (NVGA)--highly recommended, recommended, and useful--were used in rating…
Estimation of Bridge Reliability Distributions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thoft-Christensen, Palle
In this paper it is shown how the so-called reliability distributions can be estimated using crude Monte Carlo simulation. The main purpose is to demonstrate the methodology. Therefor very exact data concerning reliability and deterioration are not needed. However, it is intended in the paper to ...
Translation of STO charge distributions.
Fernández Rico, J; López, R; Ema, I; Ramírez, G
2005-06-01
Barnett and Coulson's zeta-function method (M. P. Barnett and C. A. Coulson, Philos. Trans. R. Soc., Lond. A 1951, 243, 221) is one of the main sources of algorithms for the solution of multicenter integrals with Slater-type orbitals. This method is extended here from single functions to two-center charge distributions, which are expanded at a third center in terms of spherical harmonics times analytical radial factors. For s-s distributions, the radial factors are given by a series of factors corresponding to the translation of s-type orbitals. For distributions with higher quantum numbers, they are obtained from those of the s-s distributions by recurrence. After analyzing the convergence of the series, a computational algorithm is proposed and its practical efficiency is tested in three-center (AB/CC) repulsion integrals. In cases of large basis sets, the procedure yields about 12 correct significant figures with a computational cost of a few microseconds per integral.
Distributional dominance with dirty data
2001-01-01
Distributional dominance criteria are commonly applied to draw welfare in- ferences about comparisons, but conclusions drawn from empirical imple- mentations of dominance criteria may be inßuenced by data contamination. We examine a non-parametric approach to reÞning Lorenz-type comparisons and apply the technique to two important examples from the LIS data-base.
Distributed Leadership in Educational Institutions
Göksoy, Süleyman
2015-01-01
In recent years, many studies are conducted about shared leadership process. Distributed leadership (DL) approach addresses leadership along with teams, groups and organizational characteristics. In practice, this approach objects the supposition that an individual should take the lead in order to ensure change. Proponents of this idea claim that…
On Bimodal Offset Cauchy Distribution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Girija S.V.S.
2013-05-01
Full Text Available The bivariate Cauchy distribution has received applications in many areas, including biological analyses, clinical trials, stochastic modeling of decreasing failure rate life components, study of labour turnover, queuing theory and reliability (Nayak (1987 and Lee and Gross (1991. In the study of biological analyses, clinical trials and reliability circular distributions will yield suitable results. Circular data arises in a number of different areas such as geological, meteorological, biological and industrial sciences. It is not suggestive to use standard statistical techniques to model circular data, due to the circular geometry of the sample space (p.2 Jammalamadaka and Sen Gupta (2001. It is possible to construct a circular model by transforming a bivariate linear random variate to just its directional component and the resultant model is called ‘offset distribution’. In the literature most of the available circular models were constructed by wrapping a linear model. In recent years some wrapped models were constructed by Dattatreya Rao et al (2007. Here an attempt is made to exploit method of offsetting on Bivariate Cauchy distribution to construct a circular model named by us “OFFSET CAUCHY DISTRIBUTION (OC”. The characteristic function of the Offset Cauchy model is derived and its characteristics are discussed.
Parallel and Distributed Databases: Introduction
Hiemstra, Djoerd; Kemper, Alfons; Prieto, Manuel; Szalay, Alex
2009-01-01
Euro-Par Topic 5 addresses data management issues in parallel and distributed computing. Advances in data management (storage, access, querying, retrieval, mining) are inherent to current and future information systems. Today, accessing large volumes of information is a reality: Data-intensive appli
POINTWISE FOURIER INVERSION OF DISTRIBUTIONS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
F.J.González Vieli
2008-01-01
We show that,given a tempered distribution T whose Fourier transform is a function of polynomial growth and a point x in Rn at which T has the value τ(in the sense of Lojasiewicz),the Fourier integral of T at x is summable in Bochner-Riesz means to τ.
MHD turbulence and distributed chaos
Bershadskii, A
2016-01-01
It is shown, using results of recent direct numerical simulations, that spectral properties of distributed chaos in MHD turbulence with zero mean magnetic field are similar to those of hydrodynamic turbulence. An exception is MHD spontaneous breaking of space translational symmetry, when the stretched exponential spectrum $\\exp(-k/k_{\\beta})^{\\beta}$ has $\\beta=4/7$.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2016-01-01
Der er udbredte forestillinger om, at udfordringerne for ledelse gennem ressourcepersoner tilsyneladende kan håndteres umiddelbart som en distribution af ledelse, men det er reelt uklart, hvad der ligger i diskursen om det distribuerede. Kapitlet argumenterer analytisk for, at begrebssporet...
The Multivariate Gaussian Probability Distribution
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ahrendt, Peter
2005-01-01
This technical report intends to gather information about the multivariate gaussian distribution, that was previously not (at least to my knowledge) to be found in one place and written as a reference manual. Additionally, some useful tips and tricks are collected that may be useful in practical...
The Paradigm of Distributed Creativity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Glaveanu, Vlad Petre
This presentation aims to focus on and develop the notion of distributed creativity from a cultural psychological perspective. It will start by outlining the need for a cultural psychological paradigm of creative expression and argue that this perspective is primarily concerned with what can...
A Checklist of Aid Distribution
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
Getting the mountains of earthquake relief supplies from the point of arrival at Shuangliu Airport,a major distribution hub for domestic and international aid provision in Chengdu, capital of quake-hit Sichuan Province,to the far reaches of the devastated countryside is no mean feat.It is a systematic process that
Weakly distributive domains(Ⅱ)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JIANG Ying; ZHANG Guo-Qiang
2007-01-01
In our previous work(Inform.and Comput.,2005,202:87-103),we have shown that for any ω-algebraic meet-cpo D,if all higher-order stable function spaces built from D are ω-algebraic,then D is finitary.This accomplishes the first of a possible,two-step process in solving the problem raised(LNCS,1991,530:16-33;Domainsand lambda-calculi,Cambridge Univ.Press,1998)whetherthe category of stable bifinite domains of Amadio-Droste-G(o)bel(LNCS,1991,530:16-33;Theor.Comput.Sci.,1993,111:89-101)is the largest cartesian closed full subcategory within the category of ω-algebraic meet-cpos with stable functions.This paper presents the results of the second step,which is to show that for any ω-algebraic meet-cpo D satisfying axioms M and I to be contained in a cartesian closed full sub-category using ω-algebraic meet-cpos with stable functions,it must not violate M I∞.We introduce a new class of domains called weakly distributive domains and show that for these domains to be in a cartesian closed category using ω-algebraic meet-cpos,property M I must not be violated.Further,we demonstrate that principally distributive domains(those for which each principle ideal is distributive)form a proper subclass of weakly distributive domains,and Birkhoff's M3 and N5(Introduction to Lattices and order,Cambridge Univ.Press,2002)are weakly distributive(but non-distributive).Then,we establish characterization results for weakly distributive domains.We also introduce the notion of meet-generators in constructing stable functions and show that if an ω-algebraic meet-cpo D contains an infinite number of meet-generators,then[D→D]fails I.However,the original problem of Amadio and Curien remains open.
Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution
Lo, Hoi-Kwong
2005-10-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) allows two parties to communicate in absolute security based on the fundamental laws of physics. Up till now, it is widely believed that unconditionally secure QKD based on standard Bennett-Brassard (BB84) protocol is limited in both key generation rate and distance because of imperfect devices. Here, we solve these two problems directly by presenting new protocols that are feasible with only current technology. Surprisingly, our new protocols can make fiber-based QKD unconditionally secure at distances over 100km (for some experiments, such as GYS) and increase the key generation rate from O(η2) in prior art to O(η) where η is the overall transmittance. Our method is to develop the decoy state idea (first proposed by W.-Y. Hwang in "Quantum Key Distribution with High Loss: Toward Global Secure Communication", Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003)) and consider simple extensions of the BB84 protocol. This part of work is published in "Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution", . We present a general theory of the decoy state protocol and propose a decoy method based on only one signal state and two decoy states. We perform optimization on the choice of intensities of the signal state and the two decoy states. Our result shows that a decoy state protocol with only two types of decoy states--a vacuum and a weak decoy state--asymptotically approaches the theoretical limit of the most general type of decoy state protocols (with an infinite number of decoy states). We also present a one-decoy-state protocol as a special case of Vacuum+Weak decoy method. Moreover, we provide estimations on the effects of statistical fluctuations and suggest that, even for long distance (larger than 100km) QKD, our two-decoy-state protocol can be implemented with only a few hours of experimental data. In conclusion, decoy state quantum key distribution is highly practical. This part of work is published in "Practical Decoy State for Quantum Key Distribution
Random distributed feedback fibre lasers
Turitsyn, Sergei K.; Babin, Sergey A.; Churkin, Dmitry V.; Vatnik, Ilya D.; Nikulin, Maxim; Podivilov, Evgenii V.
2014-09-01
The concept of random lasers exploiting multiple scattering of photons in an amplifying disordered medium in order to generate coherent light without a traditional laser resonator has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years. This research area lies at the interface of the fundamental theory of disordered systems and laser science. The idea was originally proposed in the context of astrophysics in the 1960s by V.S. Letokhov, who studied scattering with “negative absorption” of the interstellar molecular clouds. Research on random lasers has since developed into a mature experimental and theoretical field. A simple design of such lasers would be promising for potential applications. However, in traditional random lasers the properties of the output radiation are typically characterized by complex features in the spatial, spectral and time domains, making them less attractive than standard laser systems in terms of practical applications. Recently, an interesting and novel type of one-dimensional random laser that operates in a conventional telecommunication fibre without any pre-designed resonator mirrors-random distributed feedback fibre laser-was demonstrated. The positive feedback required for laser generation in random fibre lasers is provided by the Rayleigh scattering from the inhomogeneities of the refractive index that are naturally present in silica glass. In the proposed laser concept, the randomly backscattered light is amplified through the Raman effect, providing distributed gain over distances up to 100 km. Although an effective reflection due to the Rayleigh scattering is extremely small (˜0.1%), the lasing threshold may be exceeded when a sufficiently large distributed Raman gain is provided. Such a random distributed feedback fibre laser has a number of interesting and attractive features. The fibre waveguide geometry provides transverse confinement, and effectively one-dimensional random distributed feedback leads to the generation
Random distributed feedback fibre lasers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Turitsyn, Sergei K., E-mail: s.k.turitsyn@aston.ac.uk [Aston Institute of Photonic Technologies, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom); Novosibirsk State University, 2 Pirogova str., 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Babin, Sergey A. [Novosibirsk State University, 2 Pirogova str., 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Automation and Electrometry SB RAS, 1 Ac. Koptug. ave., 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Churkin, Dmitry V. [Aston Institute of Photonic Technologies, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom); Novosibirsk State University, 2 Pirogova str., 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Automation and Electrometry SB RAS, 1 Ac. Koptug. ave., 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Vatnik, Ilya D.; Nikulin, Maxim [Institute of Automation and Electrometry SB RAS, 1 Ac. Koptug. ave., 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Podivilov, Evgenii V. [Novosibirsk State University, 2 Pirogova str., 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Automation and Electrometry SB RAS, 1 Ac. Koptug. ave., 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)
2014-09-10
The concept of random lasers exploiting multiple scattering of photons in an amplifying disordered medium in order to generate coherent light without a traditional laser resonator has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years. This research area lies at the interface of the fundamental theory of disordered systems and laser science. The idea was originally proposed in the context of astrophysics in the 1960s by V.S. Letokhov, who studied scattering with “negative absorption” of the interstellar molecular clouds. Research on random lasers has since developed into a mature experimental and theoretical field. A simple design of such lasers would be promising for potential applications. However, in traditional random lasers the properties of the output radiation are typically characterized by complex features in the spatial, spectral and time domains, making them less attractive than standard laser systems in terms of practical applications. Recently, an interesting and novel type of one-dimensional random laser that operates in a conventional telecommunication fibre without any pre-designed resonator mirrors–random distributed feedback fibre laser–was demonstrated. The positive feedback required for laser generation in random fibre lasers is provided by the Rayleigh scattering from the inhomogeneities of the refractive index that are naturally present in silica glass. In the proposed laser concept, the randomly backscattered light is amplified through the Raman effect, providing distributed gain over distances up to 100 km. Although an effective reflection due to the Rayleigh scattering is extremely small (∼0.1%), the lasing threshold may be exceeded when a sufficiently large distributed Raman gain is provided. Such a random distributed feedback fibre laser has a number of interesting and attractive features. The fibre waveguide geometry provides transverse confinement, and effectively one-dimensional random distributed feedback leads to the
Distributional training of speech sounds can be done with continuous distributions
Wanrooij, K.; Boersma, P.
2013-01-01
In previous research on distributional training of non-native speech sounds, distributions were always discontinuous: typically, each of only eight different stimuli was repeated multiple times. The current study examines distributional training with continuous distributions, in which all presented
Centaur size distribution with DECam
Fuentes, Cesar; Trilling, David E.; Schlichting, Hilke
2014-11-01
We present the results of the 2014 centaur search campaign on the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) in Tololo, Chile. This is the largest debiased Centaur survey to date, measuring for the first time the size distribution of small Centaurs (1-10km) and the first time the sizes of planetesimals from which the entire Solar System formed are directly detected.The theoretical model for the coagulation and collisional evolution of the outer solar system proposed in Schlichting et al. 2013 predicts a steep rise in the size distribution of TNOs smaller than 10km. These objects are below the detection limit of current TNO surveys but feasible for the Centaur population. By constraining the number of Centaurs and this feature in their size distribution we can confirm the collisional evolution of the Solar System and estimate the rate at which material is being transferred from the outer to the inner Solar System. If the shallow power law behavior from the TNO size distribution at ~40km can be extrapolated to 1km, the size of the Jupiter Family of Comets (JFC), there would not be enough small TNOs to supply the JFC population (Volk & Malhotra, 2008), debunking the link between TNOs and JFCs.We also obtain the colors of small Centaurs and TNOs, providing a signature of collisional evolution by measuring if there is in fact a relationship between color and size. If objects smaller than the break in the TNO size distribution are being ground down by collisions then their surfaces should be fresh, and then appear bluer in the optical than larger TNOs that are not experiencing collisions.
Hadron tomography studies by generalized parton distributions and distribution amplitudes
Kumano, S
2016-01-01
We discuss hadron-tomography studies for the nucleon and exotic hadrons by high-energy hadron reactions. First, the constituent-counting rule is explained for determining internal quark configurations of exotic-hadron candidates by scaling properties of high-energy exclusive cross sections. Next, possibilities are discussed for investigating the generalized parton distributions (GPDs) of the nucleon and exotic hadrons at J-PARC. In particular, we study hadronic $2 \\to 3$ process $p+p \\to N+\\pi+B$, exclusive Drell-Yan process, and exotic-hadron GPDs. For determining three-dimensional structure of unstable exotic hadrons, we consider $s$-$t$ crossed quantities of the GPDs called generalized distribution amplitudes (GDAs), which can be investigated at KEKB. We explain possible studies of the GDAs by two-photon processes.
Information distribution in distributed microprocessor based flight control systems
Montgomery, R. C.; Lee, P. S.
1977-01-01
This paper presents an optimal control theory that accounts for variable time intervals in the information distribution to control effectors in a distributed microprocessor based flight control system. The theory is developed using a linear process model for the aircraft dynamics and the information distribution process is modeled as a variable time increment process where, at the time that information is supplied to the control effectors, the control effectors know the time of the next information update only in a stochastic sense. An optimal control problem is formulated and solved that provides the control law that minimizes the expected value of a quadratic cost function. An example is presented where the theory is applied to the control of the longitudinal motions of the F8-DFBW aircraft. Theoretical and simulation results indicate that, for the example problem, the optimal cost obtained using a variable time increment Markov information update process where the control effectors know only the past information update intervals and the Markov transition mechanism is almost identical to that obtained using a known uniform information update interval.
Island partition of the distribution system with distributed generation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
In this paper, a novel optimum island partition model based on Tree Knapsack Problem (TKP) is presented for the distribution system integrated with distributed generation (DG), and a Depth-first Dynamic Programming Algorithm (DPA) is used to solve this model. With the considerations of the load priority, controlled/uncontrolled loads, and the constraints of power balance, voltage and equipment capacity, the model can meet the practical engineering requirements very well. The island partition problem of the distribution system integrated with multiple DGs is first decomposed into multiple TKPs, each of which is solved by DPA respectively. Then, the initial optimum island partition scheme is gained through an island combination procedure, and the final island partition scheme is obtained after feasibility checking and adjustment. Since the algorithm proposed owns the advantages of strong theoretical foundation and low computational complexity, it can find the approximate optimal solution within a limited time. The results of examples demonstrate the validity of the new model and algorithm.
Statistical distribution of nonlinear random wave height
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HOU; Yijun; GUO; Peifang; SONG; Guiting; SONG; Jinbao; YIN; Baoshu; ZHAO; Xixi
2006-01-01
A statistical model of random wave is developed using Stokes wave theory of water wave dynamics. A new nonlinear probability distribution function of wave height is presented. The results indicate that wave steepness not only could be a parameter of the distribution function of wave height but also could reflect the degree of wave height distribution deviation from the Rayleigh distribution. The new wave height distribution overcomes the problem of Rayleigh distribution that the prediction of big wave is overestimated and the general wave is underestimated. The prediction of small probability wave height value of new distribution is also smaller than that of Rayleigh distribution. Wave height data taken from East China Normal University are used to verify the new distribution. The results indicate that the new distribution fits the measurements much better than the Rayleigh distribution.
26 CFR 1.643(a)-0 - Distributable net income; deduction for distributions; in general.
2010-04-01
... § 1.643(a)-0 Distributable net income; deduction for distributions; in general. The term distributable... character of distributions to the beneficiaries. Distributable net income means for any taxable year, the... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distributable net income; deduction...
Distribution Integrity Management Plant (DIMP)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gonzales, Jerome F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2012-05-07
This document is the distribution integrity management plan (Plan) for the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Natural Gas Distribution System. This Plan meets the requirements of 49 CFR Part 192, Subpart P Distribution Integrity Management Programs (DIMP) for the LANL Natural Gas Distribution System. This Plan was developed by reviewing records and interviewing LANL personnel. The records consist of the design, construction, operation and maintenance for the LANL Natural Gas Distribution System. The records system for the LANL Natural Gas Distribution System is limited, so the majority of information is based on the judgment of LANL employees; the maintenance crew, the Corrosion Specialist and the Utilities and Infrastructure (UI) Civil Team Leader. The records used in this report are: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) 7100.1-1, Report of Main and Service Line Inspection, Natural Gas Leak Survey, Gas Leak Response Report, Gas Leak and Repair Report, and Pipe-to-Soil Recordings. The specific elements of knowledge of the infrastructure used to evaluate each threat and prioritize risks are listed in Sections 6 and 7, Threat Evaluation and Risk Prioritization respectively. This Plan addresses additional information needed and a method for gaining that data over time through normal activities. The processes used for the initial assessment of Threat Evaluation and Risk Prioritization are the methods found in the Simple, Handy Risk-based Integrity Management Plan (SHRIMP{trademark}) software package developed by the American Pipeline and Gas Agency (APGA) Security and Integrity Foundation (SIF). SHRIMP{trademark} uses an index model developed by the consultants and advisors of the SIF. Threat assessment is performed using questions developed by the Gas Piping Technology Company (GPTC) as modified and added to by the SHRIMP{trademark} advisors. This Plan is required to be reviewed every 5 years to be continually refined and improved. Records
Energy Distribution and Economic Growth
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Strulik, Holger
2011-01-01
This research examines the physical constraints on the growth process. In order to run, maintain and build capital energy is required to be distributed to geographically dispersed sites where investments are deemed profitable. We capture this aspect of physical reality by a network theory...... from the Solow growth model. Using data for the 50 US states 1960–2000, we examine the determination of growth in electricity consumption per capita and test the model structurally. The model fits the data well. The exponent in the power law connecting capital and electricity is 2/3....... of electricity distribution. The model leads to a supply relation according to which feasible electricity consumption per capita rises with the size of the economy, as measured by capital per capita. Specifically, the relation is a simple power law with an exponent assigned to capital that is bounded between 1...
Hazards Data Distribution System (HDDS)
Jones, Brenda; Lamb, Rynn M.
2015-07-09
When emergencies occur, first responders and disaster response teams often need rapid access to aerial photography and satellite imagery that is acquired before and after the event. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Hazards Data Distribution System (HDDS) provides quick and easy access to pre- and post-event imagery and geospatial datasets that support emergency response and recovery operations. The HDDS provides a single, consolidated point-of-entry and distribution system for USGS-hosted remotely sensed imagery and other geospatial datasets related to an event response. The data delivery services are provided through an interactive map-based interface that allows emergency response personnel to rapidly select and download pre-event ("baseline") and post-event emergency response imagery.
Chemical elements distribution in cells
Ortega, R.
2005-04-01
Analysing, imaging and understanding the cellular chemistry, from macromolecules to monoatomic elements, is probably a major challenge for the scientific community after the conclusion of the genome project. In order to probe the distribution of elements in cells, especially the so-called inorganic elements, it is necessary to apply microanalytical techniques with sub-micrometer resolution and high chemical sensitivity. This paper presents the current status of chemical element imaging inside cells, and a comparison of the different analytical techniques available: nuclear microprobe, electron microprobe and electron energy loss spectroscopy, synchrotron radiation microprobe, secondary ion mass spectrometry and fluorescence microscopy methods. Examples of intracellular chemical elements distributions relevant to cancer pharmacology, medical imaging, metal carcinogenesis and neuropathology studies obtained by nuclear microprobe and other microanalytical techniques are presented.
Vertical distribution of sediment concentration
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Sai-hua HUANG; Zhi-lin SUN; Dan XU; Shan-shan XIA
2008-01-01
A simple formula is proposed to predict the vertical distribution of a suspended load concentration in a 2D steady turbulent flow.The proposed formula significantly improves the well-known Rouse formula where sediment concentration has an infinitely large value at the channel bottom and a zero value at the water surface.Based on this formula and the logarithmic ve-locity profile,a theoretical elementary function for the transport rate of a suspended load is developed.This equation improves the Einstein equation in which the unit-width suspended sediment discharge must be solved by numerical integration and a contra-diction between the lower limit of the integral and that of velocity distribution exists.
Enhanced distributed energy resource system
Atcitty, Stanley; Clark, Nancy H.; Boyes, John D.; Ranade, Satishkumar J.
2007-07-03
A power transmission system including a direct current power source electrically connected to a conversion device for converting direct current into alternating current, a conversion device connected to a power distribution system through a junction, an energy storage device capable of producing direct current connected to a converter, where the converter, such as an insulated gate bipolar transistor, converts direct current from an energy storage device into alternating current and supplies the current to the junction and subsequently to the power distribution system. A microprocessor controller, connected to a sampling and feedback module and the converter, determines when the current load is higher than a set threshold value, requiring triggering of the converter to supply supplemental current to the power transmission system.
Distributed computing for global health
CERN. Geneva; Schwede, Torsten; Moore, Celia; Smith, Thomas E; Williams, Brian; Grey, François
2005-01-01
Distributed computing harnesses the power of thousands of computers within organisations or over the Internet. In order to tackle global health problems, several groups of researchers have begun to use this approach to exceed by far the computing power of a single lab. This event illustrates how companies, research institutes and the general public are contributing their computing power to these efforts, and what impact this may have on a range of world health issues. Grids for neglected diseases Vincent Breton, CNRS/EGEE This talk introduces the topic of distributed computing, explaining the similarities and differences between Grid computing, volunteer computing and supercomputing, and outlines the potential of Grid computing for tackling neglected diseases where there is little economic incentive for private R&D efforts. Recent results on malaria drug design using the Grid infrastructure of the EU-funded EGEE project, which is coordinated by CERN and involves 70 partners in Europe, the US and Russi...
Electromagnetic force distribution inside matter
Mansuripur, Masud; Wright, Ewan M
2013-01-01
Using the Finite Difference Time Domain method, we solve Maxwell's equations numerically and compute the distribution of electromagnetic fields and forces inside material media. The media are generally specified by their dielectric permittivity epsilon(w) and magnetic permeability mu(w), representing small, transparent dielectric and magnetic objects such as platelets and micro-beads. Using two formulations of the electromagnetic force-density, one due to H. A. Lorentz [Collected Papers 2, 164 (1892)], the other due to A. Einstein and J. Laub [Ann, Phys. 331, 541 (1908)], we show that the force-density distribution inside a given object can differ substantially between the two formulations. This is remarkable, considering that the total force experienced by the object is always the same, irrespective of whether the Lorentz or the Einstein-Laub formula is employed. The differences between the two formulations should be accessible to measurement in deformable objects.
Analysis of irregularly distributed points
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hartelius, Karsten
1996-01-01
The present thesis is on the analysis of irregularly distributed points. The main part of the thesis is concerned with enterpolating and restoration of irregularly distribyted points. The least squares methods of kriging and Kalman filtering and the Bayesian restoration method of iterated...... is described as a robust estimator which may be appled straightfor- wardly to a wide range of point patterns and processes when the correlation structure is known. We give a qualitative and quantitative comparison of kriging, Kalman filter and iterated conditional modes. The Kalman filter have in a case study...... and represents an interesting contextuel classifier. Extended Kalman filtering on the other hand seems to be well suited for interpolation in gradually changing environments. Bayesian restoration is applied to a point matching problem, which consists of matching a grid to an image of (irregularly) distributed...
Angular distributions as lifetime probes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dror, Jeff Asaf; Grossman, Yuval [Department of Physics, LEPP, Cornell University,Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)
2014-06-27
If new TeV scale particles are discovered, it will be important to determine their width. There is, however, a problematic region, where the width is too small to be determined directly, and too large to generate a secondary vertex. For a collection of colored, spin polarized particles, hadronization depolarizes the particles prior to their decay. The amount of depolarization can be used to probe the lifetime in the problematic region. In this paper we apply this method to a realistic scenario of a top-like particle that can be produced at the LHC. We study how depolarization affects the angular distributions of the decay products and derive an equation for the distributions that is sensitive to the lifetime.
Ising model for distribution networks
Hooyberghs, H; Giuraniuc, C; Van Schaeybroeck, B; Indekeu, J O
2012-01-01
An elementary Ising spin model is proposed for demonstrating cascading failures (break-downs, blackouts, collapses, avalanches, ...) that can occur in realistic networks for distribution and delivery by suppliers to consumers. A ferromagnetic Hamiltonian with quenched random fields results from policies that maximize the gap between demand and delivery. Such policies can arise in a competitive market where firms artificially create new demand, or in a solidary environment where too high a demand cannot reasonably be met. Network failure in the context of a policy of solidarity is possible when an initially active state becomes metastable and decays to a stable inactive state. We explore the characteristics of the demand and delivery, as well as the topological properties, which make the distribution network susceptible of failure. An effective temperature is defined, which governs the strength of the activity fluctuations which can induce a collapse. Numerical results, obtained by Monte Carlo simulations of t...
Distributed Object Medical Imaging Model
Noor, Ahmad Shukri Mohd
2009-01-01
Digital medical informatics and images are commonly used in hospitals today,. Because of the interrelatedness of the radiology department and other departments, especially the intensive care unit and emergency department, the transmission and sharing of medical images has become a critical issue. Our research group has developed a Java-based Distributed Object Medical Imaging Model(DOMIM) to facilitate the rapid development and deployment of medical imaging applications in a distributed environment that can be shared and used by related departments and mobile physiciansDOMIM is a unique suite of multimedia telemedicine applications developed for the use by medical related organizations. The applications support realtime patients' data, image files, audio and video diagnosis annotation exchanges. The DOMIM enables joint collaboration between radiologists and physicians while they are at distant geographical locations. The DOMIM environment consists of heterogeneous, autonomous, and legacy resources. The Common...
Probability distributions for multimeric systems.
Albert, Jaroslav; Rooman, Marianne
2016-01-01
We propose a fast and accurate method of obtaining the equilibrium mono-modal joint probability distributions for multimeric systems. The method necessitates only two assumptions: the copy number of all species of molecule may be treated as continuous; and, the probability density functions (pdf) are well-approximated by multivariate skew normal distributions (MSND). Starting from the master equation, we convert the problem into a set of equations for the statistical moments which are then expressed in terms of the parameters intrinsic to the MSND. Using an optimization package on Mathematica, we minimize a Euclidian distance function comprising of a sum of the squared difference between the left and the right hand sides of these equations. Comparison of results obtained via our method with those rendered by the Gillespie algorithm demonstrates our method to be highly accurate as well as efficient.
Quantum coherence: Reciprocity and distribution
Kumar, Asutosh
2017-03-01
Quantum coherence is the outcome of the superposition principle. Recently, it has been theorized as a quantum resource, and is the premise of quantum correlations in multipartite systems. It is therefore interesting to study the coherence content and its distribution in a multipartite quantum system. In this work, we show analytically as well as numerically the reciprocity between coherence and mixedness of a quantum state. We find that this trade-off is a general feature in the sense that it is true for large spectra of measures of coherence and of mixedness. We also study the distribution of coherence in multipartite systems by looking at monogamy-type relation-which we refer to as additivity relation-between coherences of different parts of the system. We show that for the Dicke states, while the normalized measures of coherence violate the additivity relation, the unnormalized ones satisfy the same.
Angular Distributions as Lifetime Probes
Dror, Jeff Asaf
2013-01-01
If new TeV scale particles are discovered, it will be important to determine their width. There is, however, a problematic region, where the width is too small to be determined directly, and too large to generate a secondary vertex. For a collection of colored, spin polarized particles, hadronization depolarizes the particles prior to their decay. The amount of depolarization can be used to probe the lifetime in the problematic region. In this paper we apply this method to a realistic scenario of a top-like particle that can be produced at the LHC. We study how depolarization affects the angular distributions of the decay products and derive an equation for the distributions that is sensitive to the lifetime.
Antenna structure with distributed strip
Rodenbeck, Christopher T.
2008-03-18
An antenna comprises electrical conductors arranged to form a radiating element including a folded line configuration and a distributed strip configuration, where the radiating element is in proximity to a ground conductor. The folded line and the distributed strip can be electrically interconnected and substantially coplanar. The ground conductor can be spaced from, and coplanar to, the radiating element, or can alternatively lie in a plane set at an angle to the radiating element. Embodiments of the antenna include conductor patterns formed on a printed wiring board, having a ground plane, spacedly adjacent to and coplanar with the radiating element. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise a ground plane and radiating element on opposed sides of a printed wiring board. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise conductors that can be arranged as free standing "foils". Other embodiments include antennas that are encapsulated into a package containing the antenna.
Arachneum: Blockchain meets Distributed Web
Lee, Donghyeon
2016-01-01
Appearance of Bitcoin raise up evolution in currency. Blockchain database also raise up possibilities to share important data between untrusted peers. In this paper, we propose Arachneum, a decentralized, distributed, and model-view-controller-based web service using blockchain and new privileges model. Therefore, we can enjoy the freedom against censorship of government or organizations, keep transparency of our web services, fork our web services, and create/read/update/delete(CRUD) all mod...
Islanded operation of distribution networks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2005-07-01
This report summarises the results of a study assessing the benefits and risks to distribution network of generator islanding and examining the technical, commercial and regulatory changes required to facilitate the operation of islanding. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of a literature review, the technical criteria for operating sections of the network in islanding mode, and the impact of islanding on trading. Case studies and a detailed implementation plan, data acquisition, and commercial incentives are discussed.
Nonparametric estimation for contamination distribution
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HUI Jun; MIAO Bai-qi; NING Jing; PENG Heng
2008-01-01
In the paper, for the contamination distribution model F(x)=(1-α)F1(x)+αF2(x), the estimates of α and F1(x) are studied using two different ways when F2(x) is known and the strong consistency of the two estimates is proved. At the same time the consistency rate of estimate α is also given.
Organisational intelligence and distributed AI
Kirn, Stefan
1995-01-01
The analysis of this chapter starts from organisational theory, and from this it draws conclusions for the design, and possible organisational applications, of Distributed AI systems. We first review how the concept of organisations has emerged from non-organised black-box entities to so-called computerised organisations. Within this context, organisational researchers have started to redesign their models of intelligent organisations with respect to the availability of advanced computing tec...
Heterogeneous Agents, Distribution and Growth
Paquin, Lloyd
1999-01-01
We modify the Uzawa-Lucas representative agent model of endogenous economic growth to allow for a variety of differences among households: differences in their tastes, in their human capital production technologies, and in their initial endowments. Some differences are incompatible with the existence of a steady- state equilibrium, while others have no effect upon the steady-state growth rate. However, a variety of differences give rise to inequalities in the distribution of income and to var...
Distributed and Parallel Component Library
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XU Zheng-quan; XU Yang; YAN Ai-ping
2005-01-01
Software component library is the essential part of reuse-based software development. It is shown that making use of a single component library to store all kinds of components and from which components are searched is very inefficient. We construct multi-libraries to support software reuse and use PVM as development environments to imitate largescale computer, which is expected to fulfill distributed storage and parallel search of components efficiently and improve software reuse.
Urban aerosol number size distributions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Hussein
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Aerosol number size distributions have been measured since 5 May 1997 in Helsinki, Finland. The presented aerosol data represents size distributions within the particle diameter size range 8-400nm during the period from May 1997 to March 2003. The daily, monthly and annual patterns of the aerosol particle number concentrations were investigated. The temporal variation of the particle number concentration showed close correlations with traffic activities. The highest total number concentrations were observed during workdays; especially on Fridays, and the lowest concentrations occurred during weekends; especially Sundays. Seasonally, the highest total number concentrations were observed during winter and spring and lower concentrations were observed during June and July. More than 80% of the number size distributions had three modes: nucleation mode (30nm, Aitken mode (20-100nm and accumulation mode (}$'>90nm. Less than 20% of the number size distributions had either two modes or consisted of more than three modes. Two different measurement sites were used; in the first (Siltavuori, 5.5.1997-5.3.2001, the arithmetic means of the particle number concentrations were 7000cm, 6500cm, and 1000cm respectively for nucleation, Aitken, and accumulation modes. In the second site (Kumpula, 6.3.2001-28.2.2003 they were 5500cm, 4000cm, and 1000cm. The total number concentration in nucleation and Aitken modes were usually significantly higher during workdays than during weekends. The temporal variations in the accumulation mode were less pronounced. The lower concentrations at Kumpula were mainly due to building construction and also the slight overall decreasing trend during these years. During the site changing a period of simultaneous measurements over two weeks were performed showing nice correlation at both sites.
Cooperative Distributed Sequential Spectrum Sensing
S, Jithin K; Gopalarathnam, Raghav
2010-01-01
We consider cooperative spectrum sensing for cognitive radios. We develop an energy efficient detector with low detection delay using sequential hypothesis testing. Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT) is used at both the local nodes and the fusion center. We also analyse the performance of this algorithm and compare with the simulations. Modelling uncertainties in the distribution parameters are considered. Slow fading with and without perfect channel state information at the cognitive radios is taken into account.
SAMICS marketing and distribution model
1978-01-01
A SAMICS (Solar Array Manufacturing Industry Costing Standards) was formulated as a computer simulation model. Given a proper description of the manufacturing technology as input, this model computes the manufacturing price of solar arrays for a broad range of production levels. This report presents a model for computing these marketing and distribution costs, the end point of the model being the loading dock of the final manufacturer.
The strange-quark distribution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barone, V. [Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Teorica; Genovese, M. [Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Teorica]|[European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Theory Div.; Nikolaev, N.N. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik]|[L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Predazzi, E. [Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Teorica; Zakharov, B.G. [L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)
1996-03-01
We discuss the latest CCFR determination of the strange sea density of the proton. We comment on the differences with a previous, leading-order, result and point out the relevance of quark mass effects and current non-conservation effects. By taking them into account it is possible to solve the residual discrepancy with another determination of the strange-quark distribution. Two important sources of uncertainties are also analysed. (orig.). With 4 figs.
Transmission and distribution electrical engineering
Bayliss, Colin
2003-01-01
This comprehensive treatment of the theory and practice encountered in the installation and design of transmission and distribution systems for electrical power has been updated and revised to provide the project engineer with all the latest, relevant information to design and specify the correct system for a particular application.Thoroughly updated and revised to include latest developmentsLearn from and Author with extensive experience in managing international projectsFind out the reasoning and implicatons behind the different specifications and methods
Distributed Computing in Universities and Colleges.
Sircar, Sumit
1979-01-01
Analyzes the implications of distributed computing in institutions of higher education. Discusses (1) the extent to which the quality of computing might be enhanced by adopting a distributed computing approach, (2) variations in distributed systems design and the cost of adoption, and (3) administration of distributed systems. (Author/CMV)
Nonparametric Bayes inference for concave distribution functions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Martin Bøgsted; Lauritzen, Steffen Lilholt
2002-01-01
Bayesian inference for concave distribution functions is investigated. This is made by transforming a mixture of Dirichlet processes on the space of distribution functions to the space of concave distribution functions. We give a method for sampling from the posterior distribution using a Pólya urn...
World-wide distribution automation systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Devaney, T.M.
1994-12-31
A worldwide power distribution automation system is outlined. Distribution automation is defined and the status of utility automation is discussed. Other topics discussed include a distribution management system, substation feeder, and customer functions, potential benefits, automation costs, planning and engineering considerations, automation trends, databases, system operation, computer modeling of system, and distribution management systems.
Comparative Distributions of Hazard Modeling Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rana Abdul Wajid
2006-07-01
Full Text Available In this paper we present the comparison among the distributions used in hazard analysis. Simulation technique has been used to study the behavior of hazard distribution modules. The fundamentals of Hazard issues are discussed using failure criteria. We present the flexibility of the hazard modeling distribution that approaches to different distributions.
Theoretical derivation of heliostat tracking errors distribution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Badescu, Viorel [Candida Oancea Institute of Solar Energy, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Polytechnic University of Bucharest, Spl. Independentei 313, Bucharest 060042 (Romania)
2008-12-15
The tracking error probability distribution is derived on a pure theoretical basis. Methods of integral geometry and geometrical probabilities are used to this purpose. The distribution performs reasonably well when compared with measurements from a small database. The performance of the theoretical distribution is compared with that of other (empirical) probability distributions. The practical relevance of using the present approach is also explained. (author)
21 CFR 820.160 - Distribution.
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distribution. 820.160 Section 820.160 Food and... QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Handling, Storage, Distribution, and Installation § 820.160 Distribution. (a) Each manufacturer shall establish and maintain procedures for control and distribution of...
14 CFR 29.1355 - Distribution system.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distribution system. 29.1355 Section 29.1355 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Distribution system. (a) The distribution system includes the distribution busses, their associated...
40 CFR 152.132 - Supplemental distribution.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental distribution. 152.132... Supplemental distribution. The registrant may distribute or sell his registered product under another person's name and address instead of (or in addition to) his own. Such distribution and sale is...
30 CFR 57.12006 - Distribution boxes.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distribution boxes. 57.12006 Section 57.12006... and Underground § 57.12006 Distribution boxes. Distribution boxes shall be provided with a... deenergized, and the distribution box shall be labeled to show which circuit each device controls....
14 CFR 25.1355 - Distribution system.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distribution system. 25.1355 Section 25.1355 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Distribution system. (a) The distribution system includes the distribution busses, their associated...
30 CFR 56.12006 - Distribution boxes.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distribution boxes. 56.12006 Section 56.12006... Distribution boxes. Distribution boxes shall be provided with a disconnecting device for each branch circuit... visual observation when such a device is open and that the circuit is deenergized, the distribution...
21 CFR 211.196 - Distribution records.
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distribution records. 211.196 Section 211.196 Food... Distribution records. Distribution records shall contain the name and strength of the product and description... number of the drug product. For compressed medical gas products, distribution records are not required...
Eccentricity distribution of wide binaries
Tokovinin, Andrei
2015-01-01
A sample of 477 solar-type binaries within 67pc with projected separations larger than 50AU is studied by a new statistical method. Speed and direction of the relative motion are determined from the short observed arcs or known orbits, and their joint distribution is compared to the numerical simulations. By inverting the observed distribution with the help of simulations, we find that average eccentricity of wide binaries is 0.59+-0.02 and the eccentricity distribution can be modeled as f(e) ~= 1.2 e + 0.4. However, wide binaries containing inner subsystems, i.e. triple or higher-order multiples, have significantly smaller eccentricities with the average e = 0.52+-0.05 and the peak at e ~ 0.5. We find that the catalog of visual orbits is strongly biased against large eccentricities. A marginal evidence of eccentricity increasing with separation (or period) is found for this sample. Comparison with spectroscopic binaries proves the reality of the controversial period-eccentricity relation. The average eccentr...
Preliminary Iron Distribution on Vesta
Mittlefehldt, David W.; Mittlefehldt, David W.
2013-01-01
The distribution of iron on the surface of the asteroid Vesta was investigated using Dawn's Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND) [1,2]. Iron varies predictably with rock type for the howardite, eucrite, and diogenite (HED) meteorites, thought to be representative of Vesta. The abundance of Fe in howardites ranges from about 12 to 15 wt.%. Basaltic eucrites have the highest abundance, whereas, lower crustal and upper mantle materials (cumulate eucrites and diogenites) have the lowest, and howardites are intermediate [3]. We have completed a mapping study of 7.6 MeV gamma rays produced by neutron capture by Fe as measured by the bismuth germanate (BGO) detector of GRaND [1]. The procedures to determine Fe counting rates are presented in detail here, along with a preliminary distribution map, constituting the necessary initial step to quantification of Fe abundances. We find that the global distribution of Fe counting rates is generally consistent with independent mineralogical and compositional inferences obtained by other instruments on Dawn such as measurements of pyroxene absorption bands by the Visual and Infrared Spectrometer (VIR) [4] and Framing Camera (FC) [5] and neutron absorption measurements by GRaND [6].
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Feng TAN; Heman FU
2014-01-01
Let (X, f ) be a topological dynamical system, where X is a nonempty compact and metrizable space with the metric d and f :X →X is a continuous map. For any integer n≥2, denote the product space by X(n)=X × · · · × X| {z }n times . We say a system (X, f ) is generally distributionally n-chaotic if there exists a residual set D ⊂X(n) such that for any point x=(x1, · · · , xn)∈D, lim inf k→∞#({i:0≤i≤k-1, min{d(fi(xj), fi(xl)):1≤j 6=l≤n}0 and lim sup k→∞#({i:0≤i≤k-1, max{d(fi(xj), fi(xl)):1≤j 6=l≤n} 0, where #(·) means the cardinality of a set. In this paper, we show that for each integer n ≥ 2, there exists a system (X,σ) which satisfies the following conditions: (1) (X,σ) is transitive;(2) (X,σ) is generally distributionally n-chaotic, but has no distributionally (n+1)-tuples;(3) the topological entropy of (X,σ) is zero and it has an IT-tuple.
Topographic controls on moraine distribution
Barr, Iestyn; Lovell, Harold
2014-05-01
Ice-marginal moraines are a foundation of our understanding of the extent and fluctuations of palaeoglaciers, and are often used as indirect proxies for palaeoclimate; this link is based on the assumption that moraine distribution is palaeoclimatically-controlled. Here, we use a dataset of ~8,500 ice-marginal moraines to assess the role played by topography in regulating their distribution, and challenge the assumption that moraines can be readily used as indirect proxies for palaeoclimate. We find evidence that topography plays an important role in moraine formation, preservation and ease of identification. At a global scale, this is reflected by 'erosional feedback', which leads to the gradual reduction in ice extent over successive glacial cycles, and the preservation of detailed moraine records. At a regional scale (e.g. the scale of individual mountain massifs), erosional feedback remains important, but other factors, such as the propensity for moraines to form at topographic 'pinning points', are also significant. At a local scale (e.g. for cirque-type glaciers), erosional feedback is less significant, but factors such as physical barriers to ice flow are important. We conclude by suggesting that: (i) palaeoclimatic significance should not automatically be attached to moraine positions; (ii) chronologically grouping (or correlating) moraines on the basis of their geospatial distribution should be undertaken with caution; (iii) where possible, topographic factors should be taken into consideration when using moraines to reconstruct the dimensions of palaeoglaciers, particularly when making links to palaeoclimate.
CEBAF Distributed Data Acquisition System
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Trent Allison; Thomas Powers
2005-05-01
There are thousands of signals distributed throughout Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) that are useful for troubleshooting and identifying instabilities. Many of these signals are only available locally or monitored by systems with small bandwidths that cannot identify fast transients. The Distributed Data Acquisition (Dist DAQ) system will sample and record these signals simultaneously at rates up to 40 Msps. Its primary function will be to provide waveform records from signals throughout CEBAF to the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). The waveforms will be collected after the occurrence of an event trigger. These triggers will be derived from signals such as periodic timers or accelerator faults. The waveform data can then be processed to quickly identify beam transport issues, thus reducing down time and increasing CEBAF performance. The Dist DAQ system will be comprised of multiple standalone chassis distributed throughout CEBAF. They will be interconnected via a fiber optic network to facilitate the global triggering of events. All of the chassis will also be connected directly to the CEBAF Ethernet and run EPICS locally. This allows for more flexibility than the typical configuration of a single board computer and other custom printed circuit boards (PCB) installed in a card cage.
Parton distributions with LHC data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ball, R.D.; Deans, C.S.; Del Debbio, L.;
2013-01-01
We present the first determination of parton distributions of the nucleon at NLO and NNLO based on a global data set which includes LHC data: NNPDF2.3. Our data set includes, besides the deep inelastic, Drell-Yan, gauge boson production and jet data already used in previous global PDF determinati......We present the first determination of parton distributions of the nucleon at NLO and NNLO based on a global data set which includes LHC data: NNPDF2.3. Our data set includes, besides the deep inelastic, Drell-Yan, gauge boson production and jet data already used in previous global PDF...... determinations, all the relevant LHC data for which experimental systematic uncertainties are currently available: ATLAS and LHCb W and Z rapidity distributions from the 2010 run, CMS W electron asymmetry data from the 2011 run, and ATLAS inclusive jet cross-sections from the 2010 run. We introduce an improved...... implementation of the FastKernel method which allows us to fit to this extended data set, and also to adopt a more effective minimization methodology. We present the NNPDF2.3 PDF sets, and compare them to the NNPDF2.1 sets to assess the impact of the LHC data. We find that all the LHC data are broadly consistent...
Energy conservation in electric distribution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Chong-Jin
1994-12-31
This paper discusses the potential for energy and power savings that exist in electric power delivery systems. These savings translate into significant financial and environmental benefits for electricity producers and consumers as well as for society in general. AlliedSignal`s knowledge and perspectives on this topic are the result of discussions with hundreds of utility executives, government officials and other industry experts over the past decade in conjunction with marketing our Amorphous Metal technology for electric distribution transformers. Amorphous metal is a technology developed by AlliedSignal that significantly reduces the energy lost in electric distribution transformers at an incremental cost of just a few cents per kilo-Watt-hour. The purpose of this paper is to discuss: Amorphous Metal Alloy Technology; Energy Savings Opportunity; The Industrial Barriers and Remedies; Worldwide Demand; and A Low Risk Strategy. I wish this presentation will help KEPCO achieve their stated aims of ensuring sound development of the national economy and enhancement of public life through the economic and stable supply of electric power. AlliedSignal Korea Ltd. in conjunction with AlliedSignal Amorphous Metals in the U.S. are here to work with KEPCO, transformer manufacturers, industry, and government agencies to achieve greater efficiency in power distribution.
Distributed Object Medical Imaging Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmad Shukri Mohd Noor
2009-09-01
Full Text Available Digital medical informatics and images are commonly used in hospitals today. Because of the interrelatedness of the radiology department and other departments, especially the intensive care unit and emergency department, the transmission and sharing of medical images has become a critical issue. Our research group has developed a Java-based Distributed Object Medical Imaging Model(DOMIM to facilitate the rapid development and deployment of medical imaging applications in a distributed environment that can be shared and used by related departments and mobile physiciansDOMIM is a unique suite of multimedia telemedicine applications developed for the use by medical related organizations. The applications support realtime patients' data, image files, audio and video diagnosis annotation exchanges. The DOMIM enables joint collaboration between radiologists and physicians while they are at distant geographical locations. The DOMIM environment consists of heterogeneous, autonomous, and legacy resources. The Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA, Java Database Connectivity (JDBC, and Java language provide the capability to combine the DOMIM resources into an integrated, interoperable, and scalable system. The underneath technology, including IDL ORB, Event Service, IIOP JDBC/ODBC, legacy system wrapping and Java implementation are explored. This paper explores a distributed collaborative CORBA/JDBC based framework that will enhance medical information management requirements and development. It encompasses a new paradigm for the delivery of health services that requires process reengineering, cultural changes, as well as organizational changes.
Infrastructure for distributed enterprise simulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johnson, M.M.; Yoshimura, A.S.; Goldsby, M.E. [and others
1998-01-01
Traditional discrete-event simulations employ an inherently sequential algorithm and are run on a single computer. However, the demands of many real-world problems exceed the capabilities of sequential simulation systems. Often the capacity of a computer`s primary memory limits the size of the models that can be handled, and in some cases parallel execution on multiple processors could significantly reduce the simulation time. This paper describes the development of an Infrastructure for Distributed Enterprise Simulation (IDES) - a large-scale portable parallel simulation framework developed to support Sandia National Laboratories` mission in stockpile stewardship. IDES is based on the Breathing-Time-Buckets synchronization protocol, and maps a message-based model of distributed computing onto an object-oriented programming model. IDES is portable across heterogeneous computing architectures, including single-processor systems, networks of workstations and multi-processor computers with shared or distributed memory. The system provides a simple and sufficient application programming interface that can be used by scientists to quickly model large-scale, complex enterprise systems. In the background and without involving the user, IDES is capable of making dynamic use of idle processing power available throughout the enterprise network. 16 refs., 14 figs.
Temperature Distribution in Ethylene Pyrolyzer
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
蓝兴英; 高金森; 徐春明
2003-01-01
Abstract A good understanding of the detailed temperature distribution in the furnace plays an important role in the implementation of operation optimization and design improvement of ethylene pyrolyzer. Numerical simulation of the turbulent flow, combustion and heat transfer was carried out to investigate the temperature distribution in industrial furnace. Inhomogeneities of the flue-gas temperature distribution were observed in X, Y, and Z direction of the furnace from the simulated results. Along the height of the furnace, the average flue-gas temperature increased initially and decreased afterward, and reached its peak at the height of 5m. The reactor tube skin temperature varied not only along the height of the furnace, but also around the circumference of the tube. The heat flux profiles from the furnace towards the reactor tubes followed the shape of the average flue-gas temperature profile. The heat flux of the inlet tubes was constantly higher than that of the outlet tubes at the same height in the furnace.
Electromembrane extraction: distribution or electrophoresis?
Seip, Knut Fredrik; Jensen, Henrik; Sønsteby, Marit Hovde; Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig
2013-03-01
This paper presents for the first time a phenomenological theoretical model for the time dependent distribution of analytes during electromembrane extraction (EME). The model was verified experimentally for a range of model drugs and peptides. Analytes were extracted from an acidified aqueous sample solution, through an organic supported liquid membrane (SLM), and into an acidified aqueous acceptor solution. Mass transfer was governed by an applied electric field across the SLM. A rapid depletion was seen in the sample during extractions, with a steady increase in the amount accumulated in the acceptor solution. This was in good accordance with the theoretical model. A deviation from the modeled behavior was seen for some of the peptides where trapping of analyte in the SLM was high. The results demonstrated for the first time that EME behaved like a distribution system, with voltage dependent distribution coefficients. In addition, electrokinetic migration was observed across the SLM, which added an electrophoretic component to the mass transfer. This improved theoretical understanding will be highly beneficial for future optimization and development of applications using EME.
Vanadium distribution following decavanadate administration.
Soares, S S; Martins, H; Aureliano, M
2006-01-01
An acute exposure of two vanadate solutions-metavanadate and decavanadate-containing different vanadate oligomers, induces different patterns of subcellular vanadium distribution in blood plasma, red blood cells (RBC), and cardiac muscle subcellular fractions of the fish Sparus aurata (gilthead seabream). The highest amount of vanadium was found in blood plasma 1 h after (5 mM) intravenous vanadate administration (295 +/- 64 and 383 +/- 104 microg V/g dry tissue, for metavanadate and decavanadate solutions, respectively), being 80-fold higher than in RBC. After 12 h of administration, the amount of vanadium in plasma, as well as in cardiac cytosol, decreased about 50%, for both vanadate solutions. During the period between 1 and 12 h, the ratio of vanadium in plasma/vanadium in RBC increased from 27 to 128 for metavanadate, whereas it remains constant (77) for decavanadate. Both vanadium solutions were primarily accumulated in the mitochondrial fraction (138 +/- 0 and 195 +/- 34 ng V/g dry tissue for metavanadate and decavanadate solutions, respectively, after 12 h exposure), rather than in cytosol. The amount of vanadium in cardiac mitochondria was twofold higher than in cytosol, earlier for metavanadate (6 h) than for decavanadate (12 h). It is concluded that, in fish cardiac muscle, the vanadium distribution is dependent on the administration of decameric vanadate, with vanadium being mainly distributed in plasma, before being accumulated into the mitochondrial fraction.
Advanced algorithms for distributed fusion
Gelfand, A.; Smith, C.; Colony, M.; Bowman, C.; Pei, R.; Huynh, T.; Brown, C.
2008-03-01
The US Military has been undergoing a radical transition from a traditional "platform-centric" force to one capable of performing in a "Network-Centric" environment. This transformation will place all of the data needed to efficiently meet tactical and strategic goals at the warfighter's fingertips. With access to this information, the challenge of fusing data from across the batttlespace into an operational picture for real-time Situational Awareness emerges. In such an environment, centralized fusion approaches will have limited application due to the constraints of real-time communications networks and computational resources. To overcome these limitations, we are developing a formalized architecture for fusion and track adjudication that allows the distribution of fusion processes over a dynamically created and managed information network. This network will support the incorporation and utilization of low level tracking information within the Army Distributed Common Ground System (DCGS-A) or Future Combat System (FCS). The framework is based on Bowman's Dual Node Network (DNN) architecture that utilizes a distributed network of interlaced fusion and track adjudication nodes to build and maintain a globally consistent picture across all assets.
Distributed architecture and distributed processing mode in urban sewage treatment
Zhou, Ruipeng; Yang, Yuanming
2017-05-01
Decentralized rural sewage treatment facility over the broad area, a larger operation and management difficult, based on the analysis of rural sewage treatment model based on the response to these challenges, we describe the principle, structure and function in networking technology and network communications technology as the core of distributed remote monitoring system, through the application of case analysis to explore remote monitoring system features in a decentralized rural sewage treatment facilities in the daily operation and management. Practice shows that the remote monitoring system to provide technical support for the long-term operation and effective supervision of the facilities, and reduced operating, maintenance and supervision costs for development.
BAYESIAN ESTIMATION OF ERLANG DISTRIBUTION UNDER DIFFERENT PRIOR DISTRIBUTIONS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdul Haq
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of Bayesian estimation of the parameters of Erlangdistribution under squared error loss function by assuming different independent informativepriors as well as joint priors for both shape and scale parameters. The motivation is to explore themost appropriate prior for Erlang distribution among different priors. A comparison of the Bayesestimates and their risks for different choices of the values of the hyperparameters is alsopresented. Finally, we illustrate the results using a simulation study as well as by doing real dataanalysis.
Distributive lattice orderings and Priestley duality
Krebs, Michel
2007-01-01
The ordering relation of a bounded distributive lattice L is a (distributive) (0, 1)-sublattice of L \\times L. This construction gives rise to a functor \\Phi from the category of bounded distributive lattices to itself. We examine the interaction of \\Phi with Priestley duality and characterise those bounded distributive lattices L such that there is a bounded distributive lattice K such that \\Phi(K) is (isomorphic to) L.
A family of bivariate Pareto distributions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. G. Sankaran
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Pareto distributions have been extensively used in literature for modelling and analysis of income and lifetime data. In the present paper, we introduce a family of bivariate Pareto distributions using a generalized version of dullness property. Some important bivariate Pareto distributions are derived as special cases. Distributional properties of the family are studied. The dependency structure of the family is investigated. Finally, the family of distributions is applied to two real life data situation
Equilibrium distribution from distributed computing (simulations of protein folding).
Scalco, Riccardo; Caflisch, Amedeo
2011-05-19
Multiple independent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are often carried out starting from a single protein structure or a set of conformations that do not correspond to a thermodynamic ensemble. Therefore, a significant statistical bias is usually present in the Markov state model generated by simply combining the whole MD sampling into a network whose nodes and links are clusters of snapshots and transitions between them, respectively. Here, we introduce a depth-first search algorithm to extract from the whole conformation space network the largest ergodic component, i.e., the subset of nodes of the network whose transition matrix corresponds to an ergodic Markov chain. For multiple short MD simulations of a globular protein (as in distributed computing), the steady state, i.e., stationary distribution determined using the largest ergodic component, yields more accurate free energy profiles and mean first passage times than the original network or the ergodic network obtained by imposing detailed balance by means of symmetrization of the transition counts.
A Distributed Process Infrastructure for a Distributed Data Structure
Rodriguez, Marko A
2008-01-01
The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is continuing to grow outside the bounds of its initial function as a metadata framework and into the domain of general-purpose data modeling. This expansion has been facilitated by the continued increase in the capacity and speed of RDF database repositories known as triple-stores. High-end RDF triple-stores can hold and process on the order of 10 billion triples. In an effort to provide a seamless integration of the data contained in RDF repositories, the Linked Data community is providing specifications for linking RDF data sets into a universal distributed graph that can be traversed by both man and machine. While the seamless integration of RDF data sets is important, at the scale of the data sets that currently exist and will ultimately grow to become, the "download and index" philosophy of the World Wide Web will not so easily map over to the Semantic Web. This essay discusses the importance of adding a distributed RDF process infrastructure to the current distr...
A DISTRIBUTED RING ALGORITHM FOR COORDINATOR ELECTION IN DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shaik Naseera
2016-09-01
Full Text Available In distributed systems, nodes are connected at different geographical locations. As a part of effective resource utilization, the data and resources are shared among these nodes. A leader or pioneer is necessary to take care of this resource sharing process by eliminating conflicting among the nodes. The shared resources are to be accessed in a fair and optimal manner among all the nodes in the network. This makes the importance of electing a leader which can coordinate with all the nodes and make fair use of resources among the nodes. As nodes are distributed in different geographical locations and factors influencing its operation make it inevitable that a leader may go down temporarily or permanently. In such case a new leader has to be elected for coordination. The time taken to elect a new leader is one of the crucial factors in improving the performance of the system. In this paper, we propose a new approach for leader election to optimize the time taken for the nodes to elect the leader.
Data Recovery of Distributed Hash Table with Distributed-to-Distributed Data Copy
Doi, Yusuke; Wakayama, Shirou; Ozaki, Satoshi
To realize huge-scale information services, many Distributed Hash Table (DHT) based systems have been proposed. For example, there are some proposals to manage item-level product traceability information with DHTs. In such an application, each entry of a huge number of item-level IDs need to be available on a DHT. To ensure data availability, the soft-state approach has been employed in previous works. However, this does not scale well against the number of entries on a DHT. As we expect 1010 products in the traceability case, the soft-state approach is unacceptable. In this paper, we propose Distributed-to-Distributed Data Copy (D3C). With D3C, users can reconstruct the data as they detect data loss, or even migrate to another DHT system. We show why it scales well against the number of entries on a DHT. We have confirmed our approach with a prototype. Evaluation shows our approach fits well on a DHT with a low rate of failure and a huge number of data entries.
Urban aerosol number size distributions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Hussein
2003-10-01
Full Text Available Aerosol number size distributions were measured continuously in Helsinki, Finland from 5 May 1997 to 28 February 2003. The daily, monthly and annual patterns were investigated. The temporal variation of the particle number concentration was seen to follow the traffic density. The highest total particle number concentrations were usually observed during workdays; especially on Fridays, and the lower concentrations occurred during weekends; especially Sundays. Seasonally, the highest total number concentrations were usually observed during winter and spring and the lowest during June and July. More than 80\\% of the particle number size distributions were tri-modal: nucleation mode (Dp < 30 nm, Aitken mode (20–100 nm and accumulation mode (Dp > 90 nm. Less than 20% of the particle number size distributions have either two modes or consisted of more than three modes. Two different measurement sites are used; in the first place (Siltavuori, 5 May 1997–5 March 2001, the overall means of the integrated particle number concentrations were 7100 cm^{−3}, 6320 cm^{−3}, and 960 cm^{−3}, respectively, for nucleation, Aitken, and accumulation modes. In the second site (Kumpula, 6 March 2001–28 February 2003 they were 5670 cm^{−3}, 4050 cm^{−3}, and 900 cm^{−3}. The total number concentration in nucleation and Aitken modes were usually significantly higher during weekdays than during weekends. The variations in accumulation mode were less pronounced. The smaller concentrations in Kumpula were mainly due to building construction and also slight overall decreasing trend during these years. During the site changing a period of simultaneous measurements over two weeks were performed showing nice correlation in both sites.
NCI's Distributed Geospatial Data Server
Larraondo, P. R.; Evans, B. J. K.; Antony, J.
2016-12-01
Earth systems, environmental and geophysics datasets are an extremely valuable source of information about the state and evolution of the Earth. However, different disciplines and applications require this data to be post-processed in different ways before it can be used. For researchers experimenting with algorithms across large datasets or combining multiple data sets, the traditional approach to batch data processing and storing all the output for later analysis rapidly becomes unfeasible, and often requires additional work to publish for others to use. Recent developments on distributed computing using interactive access to significant cloud infrastructure opens the door for new ways of processing data on demand, hence alleviating the need for storage space for each individual copy of each product. The Australian National Computational Infrastructure (NCI) has developed a highly distributed geospatial data server which supports interactive processing of large geospatial data products, including satellite Earth Observation data and global model data, using flexible user-defined functions. This system dynamically and efficiently distributes the required computations among cloud nodes and thus provides a scalable analysis capability. In many cases this completely alleviates the need to preprocess and store the data as products. This system presents a standards-compliant interface, allowing ready accessibility for users of the data. Typical data wrangling problems such as handling different file formats and data types, or harmonising the coordinate projections or temporal and spatial resolutions, can now be handled automatically by this service. The geospatial data server exposes functionality for specifying how the data should be aggregated and transformed. The resulting products can be served using several standards such as the Open Geospatial Consortium's (OGC) Web Map Service (WMS) or Web Feature Service (WFS), Open Street Map tiles, or raw binary arrays under
Adaptive reconfigurable distributed sensor architecture
Akey, Mark L.
1997-07-01
The infancy of unattended ground based sensors is quickly coming to an end with the arrival of on-board GPS, networking, and multiple sensing capabilities. Unfortunately, their use is only first-order at best: GPS assists with sensor report registration; networks push sensor reports back to the warfighter and forwards control information to the sensors; multispectral sensing is a preset, pre-deployment consideration; and the scalability of large sensor networks is questionable. Current architectures provide little synergy among or within the sensors either before or after deployment, and do not map well to the tactical user's organizational structures and constraints. A new distributed sensor architecture is defined which moves well beyond single sensor, single task architectures. Advantages include: (1) automatic mapping of tactical direction to multiple sensors' tasks; (2) decentralized, distributed management of sensor resources and tasks; (3) software reconfiguration of deployed sensors; (4) network scalability and flexibility to meet the constraints of tactical deployments, and traditional combat organizations and hierarchies; and (5) adaptability to new battlefield communication paradigms such as BADD (Battlefield Analysis and Data Dissemination). The architecture is supported in two areas: a recursive, structural definition of resource configuration and management via loose associations; and a hybridization of intelligent software agents with tele- programming capabilities. The distributed sensor architecture is examined within the context of air-deployed ground sensors with acoustic, communication direction finding, and infra-red capabilities. Advantages and disadvantages of the architecture are examined. Consideration is given to extended sensor life (up to 6 months), post-deployment sensor reconfiguration, limited on- board sensor resources (processor and memory), and bandwidth. It is shown that technical tasking of the sensor suite can be automatically
Majorization of quantum polarization distributions
Luis, Alfredo
2016-01-01
Majorization provides a rather powerful partial-order classification of probability distributions depending only on the spread of the statistics, and not on the actual numerical values of the variable being described. We propose to apply majorization as a meta-measure of quantum polarization fluctuations, this is to say of the degree of polarization. We compare the polarization fluctuations of the most relevant classes of quantum and classical-like states. In particular we test the Lieb's conjecture regarding classical-like states as the most polarized and a complementary conjecture that the most unpolarized pure states are the most nonclassical.
Ubiquitous distributed objects with CORBA.
Achard, F; Barillot, E
1997-01-01
Database interoperation is becoming a bottleneck for the research community in biology. In this paper, we first discuss the question of interoperability and give a brief overview of CORBA. Then, an example is explained in some detail: a simple but realistic data bank of STSs is implemented. The Object Request Broker is the media for communication between an object server (the data bank) and a client (possibly a genome center). Since CORBA enables easy development of networked applications, we meant this paper to provide an incentive for the bioinformatics community to develop distributed objects.
Impossibility results for distributed computing
Attiya, Hagit
2014-01-01
To understand the power of distributed systems, it is necessary to understand their inherent limitations: what problems cannot be solved in particular systems, or without sufficient resources (such as time or space). This book presents key techniques for proving such impossibility results and applies them to a variety of different problems in a variety of different system models. Insights gained from these results are highlighted, aspects of a problem that make it difficult are isolated, features of an architecture that make it inadequate for solving certain problems efficiently are identified
Overall optimization of distribution networks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘莉; 陈学允; 郭志忠
2001-01-01
Network reconfiguration and capacitor switching are important measures to reduce power loss and im prove security and economy in automation of distribution. A new method based on parallel genetic algorithm is proposed to search the whole problem space for better solution. Multiple populations evolve independently and communicate periodically, which simulates parallel computing process to save computing time. The results show that the method is robust and has better benefit than the alterafive iteration method. In addition, the effect of overall optimization is better than optimization alone. Power loss can be reduced and the level of voltage can begreatly improved.
The Distributed Astronomical Preprint Service
Huizinga, J. E.; Hanisch, Robert J.; Payne, H. E.; Williamson, R. L.
We have developed a prototype distributed preprint service. The system is hierarchical, with identical software at each node. Site maintenance tools written in Java allow information providers to enter new preprint metadata and to update them when preprints are published. A web site at each node is built on-the-fly from the metadata, allowing both browsing and searching. Parent servers can gather metadata from child servers, allowing the central server to index everything, and to notice new entries. Queries return preprint identifiers (``prepcodes'') which resolve to on-line journals in the case of published preprints.