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Sample records for vme modem interface

  1. High speed UNIBUS-VME interface; Interface de alta velocidad VME-UNIBUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olmos, P.

    1987-07-01

    An interface between VME an the UNIBUS of PDP or VAX computer is presented. The system supports high speed parallel communication (up to 1MB/S) and is composed of two modules. One of these is a commercial DR11M board which performs DMA transfers between UNIBUS and the external word. The other is a VME module specifically developed for this application. The interface has been tested under VMS operating system in VAX and VALET-PLUS system for the VME Bus. We describe in detail the VME module and its connection with the DR11M. Software, both in WMS and VALET, is also described. (Author) 7 refs.

  2. Assessment of VME-PCI Interfaces with Linux Drivers

    CERN Document Server

    Schossmater, K; CERN. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    Abstract This report summarises the performance measurements and experiences recorded by testing three commercial VME-PCI interfaces with their Linux drivers. These interfaces are manufactured by Wiener, National Instruments and SBS Bit 3. The developed C programs are reading/writing a VME memory in different transfer modes via these interfaces. A dual processor HP Kayak XA-s workstation was used with the CERN certified Red Hat Linux 6.1 running on it.

  3. VME system monitor board

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    Much of the machinery throughout the APS will be controlled by VME based computers. In order to increase the reliability of the system, it is necessary to be able to monitor the status of each VME crate. In order to do this, a VME System Monitor was created. In addition to being able to monitor and report the status (watchdog timer, temperature, CPU (Motorola MVME 167) state (status, run, fail), and the power supply), it includes provisions to remotely reset the CPU and VME crate, digital I/O, and parts of the transition module (serial port and ethernet connector) so that the Motorla MVME 712 is not needed. The standard VME interface was modified on the System Monitor so that in conjunction with the Motorola MVME 167 a message based VXI interrupt handler could is implemented. The System Monitor is a single VME card (6U). It utilizes both the front panel and the P2 connector for I/O. The front panel contains a temperature monitor, watchdog status LED, 4 general status LEDs, input for a TTL interrupt, 8 binary inputs (24 volt, 5 volt, and dry contact sense), 4 binary outputs (dry contact, TTL, and 100 mA), serial port (electrical RS-232 or fiber optic), ethernet transceiver (10 BASE-FO or AUI), and a status link to neighbor crates. The P2 connector is used to provide the serial port and ethernet to the processor. In order to abort and read the status of the CPU, a jumper cable must be connected between the CPU and the System Monitor.

  4. VME Data Acquisition Modules for MINERvA Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldin, B.; /fermilab

    2010-01-01

    This document describes two VME modules developed for MINERvA experiment at Fermilab. The Chain ReadOut Controller (CROC) module has four serial data channels and can interface with up to 48 front-ends using standard CAT5e networking cable. The data transmission rate of each channel is 160 Mbit/s. The maximum data transmission rate via VME bus is {approx}18 MB/s. The Chain Readout Interface Module (CRIM) is designed to provide various interface functions for the CROC module. It is compatible with MINOS MTM timing module and can be used to distribute timing signals to four CROC modules. The CRIM module also has a data port compatible with the CROC serial data interface. The data port can be used for diagnostic purpose and can generate triggers from front-end events. The CRIM module is a standard D08(O) interrupter module.

  5. Protokol Interchangeable Data pada VMeS (Vessel Messaging System dan AIS (Automatic Identification System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Andhika

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available VMeS (Vessel Messaging System merupakan komunikasi berbasis radio untuk mengirimkan pesan antara VMeS terminal kapal di laut dengan VMeS gateway di darat. Dalam perkembangan sistem monitoring kapal di laut umumnya menggunakan AIS (Automatic Identification System yang telah digunakan di seluruh pelabuhan untuk memantau kondisi kapal dan mencegah tabrakan antar kapal. Dalam penelitian ini akan dirancang format data yang sesuai untuk VMeS agar bisa dilakukan proses interchangeable ke AIS sehingga bisa dibaca oleh AIS receiver yang ditujukan untuk kapal dengan ukuran dibawah 30 GT (Gross Tonnage. Format data VmeS dirancang dalam tiga jenis yaitu data posisi, data informasi kapal dan data pesan pendek yang akan dilakukan interchangeable dengan AIS tipe 1,4 dan 8. Pengujian kinerja sistem interchangeable menunjukkan bahwa dengan peningkatan periode pengiriman pesan maka lama delay total meningkat tetapi packet loss menurun. Pada pengiriman pesan setiap 5 detik dengan kecepatan 0-40 km/jam, 96,67 % data dapat diterima dengan baik. Data akan mengalami packet loss jika level daya terima dibawah -112 dBm . Jarak terjauh yang dapat dijangkau modem dengan kondisi bergerak yaitu informatika ITS dengan jarak 530 meter terhadap Laboratorium B406 dengan level daya terima -110 dBm.

  6. Throughput of ADSL modems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, H.J.; Bruin, N.; Hurink, J.L.; Meester, L.E.; Op de Beek, S.S.; Westhuis, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers the throughput of ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) modems, used for high-speed data transmission over relatively unreliable connections, e.g. copper telephone wires. The modem technique uses an error correcting code and interleaving. The settings include a grouping fact

  7. VT Cable Modem Systems 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VT Cable Modem dataset (CABLEMOD2013) includes lines depicting the extent of Vermont's cable modem broadband system as of 6/30/2013. This data...

  8. VT Cable Modem Systems 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VT Cable Modem dataset (CABLEMOD2005) includes lines depicting the extent of Vermont's cable modem broadband system as of 12/31/2005. This...

  9. Home Security System Using Gsm Modem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehek Potnis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly focuses on using wireless technology effectively for security. The system is SMS-based and uses wireless technology to revolutionize the standards of living. It uses a GSM Modem to send an SMS to the home owner in case of an intrusion. The project is realized by interfacing an infrared trans-receiver with an ATMEGA16 microcontroller and a GSM Module. As the system uses GSM technology, it provides ubiquitous access to the system for security.

  10. Distributed acquisition system using the VME KAV30 single board computer in a VAXELN environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antone, I.; Mandrioli, G.; Matteuzzi, P.; Pavesi, B.; Sanzani, G.; Marini, A.; Ronga, F.; Surdo, A.; Mancarella, G.

    1994-02-01

    An acquisition system based on a network (Ethernet/DECNET) of KAV30 VAX processors is described. KAC30 is a VME single board computer based around rt-Vax 300 and running in VAXELN, a Digital Equipment software product for the development of dedicated, real time systems for VAX processors. A central VAX running under the VAX/VMS operating system is used as file server and as an interface of the acquisition system with respect to the user's world.

  11. NOVEL "CATHODE-ON-MEMBRANE" VME PRESSURE SENSOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Shanhong; Tao Xinxin; Su Jie; Chen Shaofeng

    2001-01-01

    This article proposes a novel "cathode-on-membrane" vacuum microelectronic (VME)pressure sensor. Compared with conventional VME pressure sensors, the package process of the new structured sensor is easier to control, and therefore it enable greater potential of nass production and high productivity. The properties of the new sensor have been theoretically investigated by computer simulations; the practical structure has been designed and fabricated; and the package technique has been studied.

  12. Design,Fabrication and Test of a VME Pressure Sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAShanhong; CHENShaofeng; LIUJia

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the design,fabrication,packaging and measurement results of a vacuum microelectronic(VME)pressure sensor.A new configuration,named "cathode-on-membrane",greatly reduces the difficulties in the packaging process and enables practical VME pressure sensors to be developed.Experimental studies and results demonstrate the characteristics of the sensor output current variation with applied pressure under different working voltages.

  13. Final Report and Documentation for the PLD11 Multipurpose Programmable Logic VME Board Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, Robert L.; Pierson, Lyndon G.; Robertson, Perry J.; Tarman, Thomas D.; Witzke, Edward L.

    1999-04-01

    The PLD11 board is a 9U VME board containing 11 Altera 10K100 Programmable Logic Devices, controlled impedance clock tree, VME interface, programming inteface, 0C3 (155 Mbps) interface and serial port. The 11 Altera 10K100 Programmable Logic Devices arranged to provide four 96 bit wide buses for a total of 384 parallel digital data lines in and out of the board that can operate up to 100 Mhz for a aggrigate throughput of 38.4 Gpbs. The 14.44" X 15.75" board has over 1.1 million programmable gates that can be programmed through a serial interace. The board contains a clock reference and 50 ohm clock distribution tree that can drive each of the eleven 10K100 devices with two critically timed clock references. Five external clock references can be used to drive five additional PLD 11 boards for a total of six boards operating all from the same synchronous clock reference. A system of six boards provides just under 7 million programmable gates.

  14. Final Report and Documentation for the PLD11 Multipurpose Programmable Logic VME Board Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, Robert L.; Pierson, Lyndon G.; Robertson, Perry J.; Tarman, Thomas D.; Witzke, Edward L.

    1999-04-01

    The PLD11 board is a 9U VME board containing 11 Altera 10K100 Programmable Logic Devices, controlled impedance clock tree, VME interface, programming inteface, 0C3 (155 Mbps) interface and serial port. The 11 Altera 10K100 Programmable Logic Devices arranged to provide four 96 bit wide buses for a total of 384 parallel digital data lines in and out of the board that can operate up to 100 Mhz for a aggrigate throughput of 38.4 Gpbs. The 14.44 X 15.75 board has over 1.1 million programmable gates that can be programmed through a serial interace. The board contains a clock reference and 50 ohm clock distribution tree that can drive each of the eleven 10K100 devices with two critically timed clock references. Five external clock references can be used to drive five additional PLD 11 boards for a total of six boards operating all from the same synchronous clock reference. A system of six boards provides just under 7 million programmable gates.

  15. Method for Backplane Data Communication with the VME Rear Transition Modules Developed for the ATLAS FTK Project

    CERN Document Server

    Bogdan, M; The ATLAS collaboration; Piendibene, M; Shochet, M; Tompkins, L

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a method to achieve backplane data transfer capabilities to and from a VME Rear Transition Module (RTM), while being in full compliance with the VME64/VIPA Specification. The VMEbus is specified for data transfers only with boards plugged on the front side of the subrack. The RTMs receive power from the crate, but are not part of the actual data transfer bus. They do not plug into the J1 connector, and have no access to backplane interface logic. In this implementation, the RTM uses the feed-through pins located in the J2 connector to communicate with the corresponding front module. The front module's internal data, address, and control buses are extended to the rear. This allows the front module's interface block to control data transfers for logic devices on both sides of the same slot. All usual VME protocols to logic devices on the RTM become possible without any software adaptation. This method was implemented on several prototype modules developed for the ATLAS FTK Project. The full ...

  16. Parallel Modem Architectures for High-Data-Rate Space Modems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satorius, E.

    2014-08-01

    Existing software-defined radios (SDRs) for space are limited in data volume by several factors, including bandwidth, space-qualified analog-to-digital converter (ADC) technology, and processor throughput, e.g., the throughput of a space-qualified field-programmable gate array (FPGA). In an attempt to further improve the throughput of space-based SDRs and to fully exploit the newer and more capable space-qualified technology (ADCs, FPGAs), we are evaluating parallel transmitter/receiver architectures for space SDRs. These architectures would improve data volume for both deep-space and particularly proximity (e.g., relay) links. In this article, designs for FPGA implementation of a high-rate parallel modem are presented as well as both fixed- and floating-point simulated performance results based on a functional design that is suitable for FPGA implementation.

  17. A Modular VME Data Acquisition System for Counter Applications at the GSI Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Liakin, D A

    2003-01-01

    Particle counters perform the control of beam loss and slowly extracted currents at the heavy ion synchrotron (SIS) at GSI. A new VME/Lynx - PC/Linux based data acquisition system has been developed to combine the operating purposes beam loss measurement, spill analysis, spill structure measurement and matrix switching functionality in one single assembly. In this paper a detailed PC-side software description is presented. To achieve best system stability, the software has been divided into time critical networking and data deploying threads and low or normal priority interface tasks. Some new abilities in the fields of data computation and presentation are reported. A hardware description is presented, in detail a programmable GSI-EVENT controller, which is based on an ordinary 8 bit RISC microprocessor and which has been integrated into the system, to synchronize the data acquisition with the sophisticated “virtual accelerator” timing at GSI. First experiences gained while the commission...

  18. Recommended Practice for Securing Control System Modems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James R. Davidson; Jason L. Wright

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses an often overlooked “backdoor” into critical infrastructure control systems created by modem connections. A modem’s connection to the public telephone system is similar to a corporate network connection to the Internet. By tracing typical attack paths into the system, this paper provides the reader with an analysis of the problem and then guides the reader through methods to evaluate existing modem security. Following the analysis, a series of methods for securing modems is provided. These methods are correlated to well-known networking security methods.

  19. ATDRSS 300 MB/S modem program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Carl R.

    1992-01-01

    The 300 Mbps modem was developed for direct application to the next generation high data rate Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) communication system. This modem utilizes continuous phase modulation combined with a restricted range Reed-Solomon Codec to achieve a bandwidth efficiency of 3 bits/sec/hz. The constant envelope amplitude signal allows one to operate the power amplifier in its saturation mode without significant spectral regrowth or bit error rate degradation.

  20. VME-based remote instrument control without ground loops

    CERN Document Server

    Belleman, J; González, J L

    1997-01-01

    New electronics has been developed for the remote control of the pick-up electrodes at the CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS). Communication between VME-based control computers and remote equipment is via full duplex point-to-point digital data links. Data are sent and received in serial format over simple twisted pairs at a rate of 1 Mbit/s, for distances of up to 300 m. Coupling transformers are used to avoid ground loops. The link hardware consists of a general-purpose VME-module, the 'TRX' (transceiver), containing four FIFO-buffered communication channels, and a dedicated control card for each remote station. Remote transceiver electronics is simple enough not to require micro-controllers or processors. Currently, some sixty pick-up stations of various types, all over the PS Complex (accelerators and associated beam transfer lines) are equipped with the new system. Even though the TRX was designed primarily for communication with pick-up electronics, it could also be used for other purposes, for example to for...

  1. Soft Real-Time PID Control on a VME Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayan, Vahag; Sander, Stanley; Cageao, Richard

    2007-01-01

    microPID (uPID) is a computer program for real-time proportional + integral + derivative (PID) control of a translation stage in a Fourier-transform ultraviolet spectrometer. microPID implements a PID control loop over a position profile at sampling rate of 8 kHz (sampling period 125microseconds). The software runs in a strippeddown Linux operating system on a VersaModule Eurocard (VME) computer operating in real-time priority queue using an embedded controller, a 16-bit digital-to-analog converter (D/A) board, and a laser-positioning board (LPB). microPID consists of three main parts: (1) VME device-driver routines, (2) software that administers a custom protocol for serial communication with a control computer, and (3) a loop section that obtains the current position from an LPB-driver routine, calculates the ideal position from the profile, and calculates a new voltage command by use of an embedded PID routine all within each sampling period. The voltage command is sent to the D/A board to control the stage. microPID uses special kernel headers to obtain microsecond timing resolution. Inasmuch as microPID implements a single-threaded process and all other processes are disabled, the Linux operating system acts as a soft real-time system.

  2. A single-board VME mössbauer-spectrometry module

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blois, J.; Beunes, A. J. H.; Boellaard, E.; van der Kraan, A. M.; Osterholt, E. A.; Schipper, M. N.

    1998-06-01

    A VME module is described to interface a mössbauer spectrometer to a computer system. It is used at the IRI mössbauer spectrometry laboratory to control 12 spectrometers. Six mössbauer modules, with additional dual ported memories, are housed in a VME-rack. Features: Generation of computer composed functions and digitizing of function-related signals, multi-channel scaling, pulse height analysis, and current integration as an optional detection technique. Functions representing a desired velocity pattern are digitally stored in the function memory. They are converted to analog using a 12-bits Digital to Analog Converter (DAC). The output of the DAC is the voltage reference for a mössbauer drive unit that drives a velocity transducer carrying a gamma radiation source. Multi-Channel Scaling (MCS) is used to measure a mössbauer spectrum. Internally a function time-base and a multi-scaler time-base are generated. A Pulse Height Analyses (PHA) facility, using a 12-bits Analog to Digital Converter (ADC), is implemented to measure the gamma spectrum of the radiation source. A mössbauer transition energy can be selected in a handsome way using this feature. An additional task of the ADC is digitizing function related signals, such as the velocity-feedback signal. If this signal is digitized, the velocity reference-function could be modified by software to correct a deviation in the source movement. For measurements with very strong gamma sources the Current Integration Technique (CIT) is implemented. Instead of a voltage to frequency-converter, formerly applied for this type of experiments, the ADC can be used for signal digitizing in this mode of operation.

  3. Adaptive Signal Processing Testbed: VME-based DSP board market survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Rick E.

    1992-04-01

    The Adaptive Signal Processing Testbed (ASPT) is a real-time multiprocessor system utilizing digital signal processor technology on VMEbus based printed circuit boards installed on a Sun workstation. The ASPT has specific requirements, particularly as regards to the signal excision application, with respect to interfacing with current and planned data generation equipment, processing of the data, storage to disk of final and intermediate results, and the development tools for applications development and integration into the overall EW/COM computing environment. A prototype ASPT was implemented using three VME-C-30 boards from Applied Silicon. Experience gained during the prototype development led to the conclusions that interprocessor communications capability is the most significant contributor to overall ASPT performance. In addition, the host involvement should be minimized. Boards using different processors were evaluated with respect to the ASPT system requirements, pricing, and availability. Specific recommendations based on various priorities are made as well as recommendations concerning the integration and interaction of various tools developed during the prototype implementation.

  4. A VME MXI-II Based Setup for Testing ALICE Pixel Readout Prototypes

    CERN Document Server

    Chochula, P; CERN. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    Abstract One of the possible readout scenarios for ALICE ITS pixel layers counts on in- situ zero suppression, performed by Pilot control chip. Preprocessed event will be then serialized and sent out via about 50 m long copper cable for further processing. The VME prototypes of Pilot chip and link (called "SHORTLINK") were developed in the frames of Alice collaboration. Here we describe the VME test system, developed to test the modules.

  5. A chirp modem incorporating interference excision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbyshire, E. P.; Gott, G. F.

    1992-08-01

    The paper describes an experimental 75-baud chirp modem designed to operate at high frequency (HF), which is able to reject interference from other HF users by adaptive filtering at the receiver. It also has inherently good performance in multipath preparation and in white noise, and is thus capable of robust digital communication. The system has been tested over a 170 km point-to-point HF skywave link, in which short chirp messages (approximately 30 s duration) were alternated in time with frequency-exchange keyed (FEK) messages. The total duration of the tests was 72 hours, and included day and night operation. In these tests, the chirp system had an overall performance which was superior to that of FEK. FEK occasionally suffered from long periods (e.g., 1 hour) of severe failure, essentially due to interference, whereas the chirp modem achieved more continuous useful operation.

  6. A tailored 200 parameter VME based data acquisition system for IBA at the Lund Ion Beam Analysis Facility - Hardware and software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfman, Mikael; Ros, Linus; Kristiansson, Per; Nilsson, E. J. Charlotta; Pallon, Jan

    2016-03-01

    With the recent advances towards modern Ion Beam Analysis (IBA), going from one- or few-parameter detector systems to multi-parameter systems, it has been necessary to expand and replace the more than twenty years old CAMAC based system. A new VME multi-parameter (presently up to 200 channels) data acquisition and control system has been developed and implemented at the Lund Ion Beam Analysis Facility (LIBAF). The system is based on the VX-511 Single Board Computer (SBC), acting as master with arbiter functionality and consists of standard VME modules like Analog to Digital Converters (ADC's), Charge to Digital Converters (QDC's), Time to Digital Converters (TDC's), scaler's, IO-cards, high voltage and waveform units. The modules have been specially selected to support all of the present detector systems in the laboratory, with the option of future expansion. Typically, the detector systems consist of silicon strip detectors, silicon drift detectors and scintillator detectors, for detection of charged particles, X-rays and γ-rays. The data flow of the raw data buffers out from the VME bus to the final storage place on a 16 terabyte network attached storage disc (NAS-disc) is described. The acquisition process, remotely controlled over one of the SBCs ethernet channels, is also discussed. The user interface is written in the Kmax software package, and is used to control the acquisition process as well as for advanced online and offline data analysis through a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI). In this work the system implementation, layout and performance are presented. The user interface and possibilities for advanced offline analysis are also discussed and illustrated.

  7. A tailored 200 parameter VME based data acquisition system for IBA at the Lund Ion Beam Analysis Facility – Hardware and software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elfman, Mikael, E-mail: Mikael.Elfman@nuclear.lu.se; Ros, Linus; Kristiansson, Per; Nilsson, E.J. Charlotta; Pallon, Jan

    2016-03-15

    With the recent advances towards modern Ion Beam Analysis (IBA), going from one- or few-parameter detector systems to multi-parameter systems, it has been necessary to expand and replace the more than twenty years old CAMAC based system. A new VME multi-parameter (presently up to 200 channels) data acquisition and control system has been developed and implemented at the Lund Ion Beam Analysis Facility (LIBAF). The system is based on the VX-511 Single Board Computer (SBC), acting as master with arbiter functionality and consists of standard VME modules like Analog to Digital Converters (ADC’s), Charge to Digital Converters (QDC’s), Time to Digital Converters (TDC’s), scaler’s, IO-cards, high voltage and waveform units. The modules have been specially selected to support all of the present detector systems in the laboratory, with the option of future expansion. Typically, the detector systems consist of silicon strip detectors, silicon drift detectors and scintillator detectors, for detection of charged particles, X-rays and γ-rays. The data flow of the raw data buffers out from the VME bus to the final storage place on a 16 terabyte network attached storage disc (NAS-disc) is described. The acquisition process, remotely controlled over one of the SBCs ethernet channels, is also discussed. The user interface is written in the Kmax software package, and is used to control the acquisition process as well as for advanced online and offline data analysis through a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI). In this work the system implementation, layout and performance are presented. The user interface and possibilities for advanced offline analysis are also discussed and illustrated.

  8. Multiuser Receiver Architectures for Space Modems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, D.; Satorius, E.; Kuperman, I.; Koenig, J.

    2014-08-01

    In this article, we develop multiuser modem architectures suitable for augmentation of existing software-defined flight radios with important near-term enhancements to relay telecom services as well as support for missions requiring entry, descent, and landing (EDL). EDL support for missions like Mars Exploration Rover (MER), Phoenix, Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), and Mars 2020 obtains strong visibility within JPL and NASA headquarters. As part of an agency-wide commitment to support EDL, funding has been made available on past missions to prepare multiple Deep Space Network (DSN) ground station sites, non-DSN ground stations (Greenbank 100-m), and to prioritize in situ coverage from multiple orbiters. Multiuser operations open up new possibilities for simultaneous support of multiple surface landers that are in close proximity such that these surface elements simultaneously appear in the same coverage circle of a single relay orbiter. Simultaneous multiuser support is an important service type for many future surface mission paradigms. In this article, designs for field-programmable gate array (FPGA) implementation of multiuser modems are presented. A fixed-point model of the most promising architecture for space applications is presented as well as simulated performance results based on a fixed-point design that is suitable for FPGA implementation.

  9. Mitigating Doppler shift effect in HF multitone data modem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonlu, Yasar

    1989-09-01

    Digital communications over High Frequency (HF) radio channels are getting important in recent years. Current HF requirements are for data transmission at rates 2.4 kbps or more to accommodate computer data links and digital secure voice. HF modems which were produced to meet these speeds are, serial modems and parallel modems. On the other hand, the HF sky-wave communication medium, the ionosphere, has some propagation problems such as multipath and Doppler shift. The effect of Doppler shift in a parallel modem which employs Differential Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (DQPSK) modulation is considered and a correction method to mitigate the Doppler Shift effect is introduced.

  10. LTE modem power consumption, SAR and RF signal strength emulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musiige, Deogratius; Vincent, Laulagnet; Anton, François

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for emulating the LTE modem power consumption, emitted SAR and RF signal strength when transmitting an LTE signal. The inputs of the methodology are: modem logical/protocol commands, time advance, near-field specifier, and antenna characteristics. The power...

  11. Digital 8-DPSK Modem For Trellis-Coded Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrey, T. C.; Lay, N. E.; Rafferty, W.

    1989-01-01

    Digital real-time modem processes octuple differential-phase-shift-keyed trellis-coded modulation. Intended for use in communicating data at rate up to 4.8 kb/s in land-mobile satellite channel (Rician fading) of 5-kHz bandwidth at carrier frequency of 1 to 2 GHz. Modulator and demodulator contain digital signal processors performing modem functions. Design flexible in that functions altered via software. Modem successfully tested and evaluated in both laboratory and field experiments, including recent full-scale satellite experiment. In all cases, modem performed within 1 dB of theory. Other communication systems benefitting from this type of modem include land mobile (without satellites), paging, digitized voice, and frequency-modulation subcarrier data broadcasting.

  12. FEC combined burst-modem for business satellite communications use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, K.; Miyake, M.; Fuji, T.; Moritani, Y.; Fujino, T.

    The authors recently developed two types of FEC (forward error correction) combined modems both applicable to low-data-rate and intermediate-data-rate TDMA international satellite communications. Each FEC combined modem consists of a QPSK (quadrature phase-shift keyed) modem, a convolutional encoder, and a Viterbi decoder. Both modems are designed taking into consideration the fast acquisition of the carrier and bit timing and the low cycle slipping rate in the low-carrier-to-noise-ratio environment. Attention is paid to designing the Viterbi decoder to be operated in a situation in which successive bursts may have different coding rates according to the punctured coding scheme. The overall scheme of the FEC combined modems are presented, and some of the key technologies applied in developing them are outlined. The hardware implementation and experimentation are also discussed. The measured data are compared with results of theoretical analysis, and relatively good performances are obtained.

  13. A high performance real-time plasma control and event detection DSP based VME system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, A.P. E-mail: pinto@ci.uc.pt; Correia, Carlos; Varandas, Carlos

    2002-06-01

    This paper describes the digital signal processors module of a high performance system, specially designed for real-time plasma control and event detection on the next generation fusion experiments with long duration discharges. The system is composed of a commercial CPU board and several on-site developed intelligent modules inserted in the same VME crate.

  14. Coherent Path Beamformer Front End for High Performance Acoustic Modems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-30

    data were transmitted using a standard AUV modem towed by a boat moving in a zig - zag pattern within a 120 degrees cone, at distances from 1km to 1.5...16kHz to 32kHz, using a 32 by 32 Mills -Cross array and a single-channel acoustic modem. The intents are to measure and characterize the underwater

  15. A system level boundary scan controller board for VME applications [to CERN experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, N; Da Silva, J C

    2000-01-01

    This work is the result of a collaboration between INESC and LIP in the CMS experiment being conducted at CERN. The collaboration addresses the application of boundary scan test at system level namely the development of a VME boundary scan controller (BSC) board prototype and the corresponding software. This prototype uses the MTM bus existing in the VME64* backplane to apply the 1149.1 test vectors to a system composed of nineteen boards, called here units under test (UUTs). A top-down approach is used to describe our work. The paper begins with some insights about the experiment being conducted at CERN, proceed with system level considerations concerning our work and with some details about the BSC board. The results obtained so far and the proposed work is reviewed in the end of this contribution. (11 refs).

  16. Comparative VME Performance Tests for MEN A20 Intel-L865 and RIO-3 PPC-LynxOS platforms

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, M; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2009-01-01

    This benchmark note presents test results from reading values over VME using different methods and different sizes of data registers, running on two different platforms Intel-L865 and PPC-LynxOS. We find that the PowerPC is a factor 3 faster in accessing an array of contiguous VME memory locations. Block transfer and DMA read accesses are also tested and compared with conventional single access reads.

  17. Design and implementation of an omni-directional underwater acoustic micro-modem based on a low-power micro-controller unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Tae-Hee; Park, Sung-Joon

    2012-01-01

    For decades, underwater acoustic communication has been restricted to the point-to-point long distance applications such as deep sea probes and offshore oil fields. For this reason, previous acoustic modems were typically characterized by high data rates and long working ranges at the expense of large size and high power consumption. Recently, as the need for underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) has increased, the research and development of compact and low-power consuming communication devices has become the focus. From the consideration that the requisites of acoustic modems for UWSNs are low power consumption, omni-directional beam pattern, low cost and so on, in this paper, we design and implement an omni-directional underwater acoustic micro-modem satisfying these requirements. In order to execute fast digital domain signal processing and support flexible interfaces with other peripherals, an ARM Cortex-M3 is embedded in the micro-modem. Also, for the realization of small and omni-directional properties, a spherical transducer having a resonant frequency of 70 kHz and a diameter of 34 mm is utilized for the implementation. Physical layer frame format and symbol structure for efficient packet-based underwater communication systems are also investigated. The developed acoustic micro-modem is verified analytically and experimentally in indoor and outdoor environments in terms of functionality and performance. Since the modem satisfies the requirements for use in UWSNs, it could be deployed in a wide range of applications requiring underwater acoustic communication.

  18. Design and Implementation of an Omni-Directional Underwater Acoustic Micro-Modem Based on a Low-Power Micro-Controller Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Joon Park

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available For decades, underwater acoustic communication has been restricted to the point-to-point long distance applications such as deep sea probes and offshore oil fields. For this reason, previous acoustic modems were typically characterized by high data rates and long working ranges at the expense of large size and high power consumption. Recently, as the need for underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs has increased, the research and development of compact and low-power consuming communication devices has become the focus. From the consideration that the requisites of acoustic modems for UWSNs are low power consumption, omni-directional beam pattern, low cost and so on, in this paper, we design and implement an omni-directional underwater acoustic micro-modem satisfying these requirements. In order to execute fast digital domain signal processing and support flexible interfaces with other peripherals, an ARM Cortex-M3 is embedded in the micro-modem. Also, for the realization of small and omni-directional properties, a spherical transducer having a resonant frequency of 70 kHz and a diameter of 34 mm is utilized for the implementation. Physical layer frame format and symbol structure for efficient packet-based underwater communication systems are also investigated. The developed acoustic micro-modem is verified analytically and experimentally in indoor and outdoor environments in terms of functionality and performance. Since the modem satisfies the requirements for use in UWSNs, it could be deployed in a wide range of applications requiring underwater acoustic communication.

  19. VME-based data acquisition system for the India-based Neutrino Observatory prototype detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhuyan, M. [Department of High Energy Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Chandratre, V.B. [Electronics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Dasgupta, S. [Department of High Energy Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Datar, V.M. [Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kalmani, S.D.; Lahamge, S.M.; Mondal, N.K.; Nagaraj, P.; Pal, S.; Rao, S.K.; Redij, A. [Department of High Energy Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Samuel, D., E-mail: samuel@tifr.res.in [Department of High Energy Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Saraf, M.N.; Satyanarayana, B.; Shinde, R.R.; Upadhya, S.S. [Department of High Energy Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India)

    2012-01-01

    The India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) collaboration has proposed to build a 50 kton Iron-Calorimeter (ICAL) to study neutrino oscillations. About 28,800 Resistive Plate Chambers will be used as active detector elements in this experiment. Preliminary studies are currently underway and as a part of it, a prototype detector was developed which now serves as a cosmic-ray telescope and as a test-bench to study the indigenously built RPCs. A VME-based data acquisition system was designed for this prototype system. Modern software tools were used in the designing of the DAQ software. The design and development of this DAQ system are discussed.

  20. PC-based input/output controllers from a VME perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, J.O.

    1999-04-01

    The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) has been widely adopted in the accelerator community. Although EPICS is available on many platforms, the majority of sites have deployed VME- or VXI-based input output controllers running the vxWorks real time operating system. Recently, a hybrid approach using vxWorks on both PC and traditional platforms is being implemented at LANL. To illustrate these developments the author compares his recent experience deploying PC-based EPICS input output controllers with experience deploying similar systems based on traditional EPICS platforms.

  1. Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Computerens interface eller grænseflade har spredt sig overalt. Mobiltelefoner, spilkonsoller, pc'er og storskærme indeholder computere – men computere indbygges også i tøj og andre hverdagslige genstande, så vi konstant har adgang til digitale data. Interface retter fokus mod, hvordan den digita...

  2. Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Computerens interface eller grænseflade har spredt sig overalt. Mobiltelefoner, spilkonsoller, pc'er og storskærme indeholder computere – men computere indbygges også i tøj og andre hverdagslige genstande, så vi konstant har adgang til digitale data. Interface retter fokus mod, hvordan den digitale...... kunst og kultur skabes, spredes og opleves igennem interfaces. Forfatterne undersøger og diskuterer interfacets æstetik, ideologi og kultur – og analyserer aktuel interfacekunst på tværs af musik, kunst, litteratur og film. Bogen belyser interfacets oprindelse i den kolde krigs laboratorier og dets...

  3. Acoustic communication for Maya Autonomous Underwater Vehicle - performance evaluation of acoustic modem

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Afzulpurkar, S.; Maurya, P.; Navelkar, G.S.; Desa, E.S.; Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.; Dabholkar, N.A.; Madhan, R.; Prabhudesai, S.P.

    with good range capability and reasonably high communication bandwidth. An elaborate literature survey indicated that EvoLogics acoustic modem [4] and EvoLogics USBL with communication capability [5] would meet the requirements. Though the primary... requirement is communication, this pair was chosen keeping in mind the future requirements of underwater positioning. These modems are shown in Figure 2a and 2b respectively. Figure 2a. EvoLogics modem Figure 2b. Modem with USBL unit...

  4. DC-PLC Modem design for PV module monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Duc Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, power line communication (PLC is a very efficient technique in cost aspect because it is communication system using power line without extra communication cables. In case of DC-PLC, it send a communication signal of the high frequency band to the monitoring system through the DC power line and is widely used for DC grid or the distributed generation system using DC source. Especially, the management system which evaluates the performance and efficiency of PV module by measuring PV power through monitoring system based on the DC-PLC has been increased. In this paper, apply the DC-PLC method for low cost PV module monitoring system and constitutes a measuring device and communication modem on a MCU. For the communication performance, we use the digital filter and apply the multi-carrier communication. The proposed DC-PLC Modem is verified through simulation and experiment.

  5. Modem -repeater for narrow band technology of PLC

    OpenAIRE

    Bednář, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Bakalářská práce je zaměřená na problematiku PLC komunikace, konkrétně na PLC modem. Pro začátek je nutné se seznámit s technologií PLC jako takovu, nastudovat principy přenosu, výhody, nevýhody. V další části se blíže zaměřím na samotný modem a jeho návrh, od výběru vhodné komunikační jednotky podle daných paramtrů, externích obvodů pro úpravu signálu. Nakonec navhrnu plošný spoj, modem realizovat a ověřit si jeho funkčnost. Bachelor’s thesis is focused on PLC communications, particulary ...

  6. Programmable rate modem utilizing digital signal processing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunya, George K.; Wallace, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    The engineering development study to follow was written to address the need for a Programmable Rate Digital Satellite Modem capable of supporting both burst and continuous transmission modes with either binary phase shift keying (BPSK) or quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) modulation. The preferred implementation technique is an all digital one which utilizes as much digital signal processing (DSP) as possible. Here design tradeoffs in each portion of the modulator and demodulator subsystem are outlined, and viable circuit approaches which are easily repeatable, have low implementation losses and have low production costs are identified. The research involved for this study was divided into nine technical papers, each addressing a significant region of concern in a variable rate modem design. Trivial portions and basic support logic designs surrounding the nine major modem blocks were omitted. In brief, the nine topic areas were: (1) Transmit Data Filtering; (2) Transmit Clock Generation; (3) Carrier Synthesizer; (4) Receive AGC; (5) Receive Data Filtering; (6) RF Oscillator Phase Noise; (7) Receive Carrier Selectivity; (8) Carrier Recovery; and (9) Timing Recovery.

  7. Pemrograman Antarmuka Modem GSM dengan Pengendali Mikro AVR Menggunakan Bahasa C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kartawiguna

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cell phones are now a cheap means of wide-ranged wireless communication. One feature widely used is the short message service (SMS. The cellular communication system is more appropriate for long-distanced applications than high speed data transfer. This study aims to develop a GSM modem interface with AVR microcontroller using C programming language. The tools controlled by the microcontroller system can gain more benefit if it is linked with GSM mobile communication system. The results of this study can be applied whether in a remote monitoring system, remote control system, or communication between the microcontroller via SMS. Many additional benefits can be obtained for the tools controlled by the microcontroller when connected to a GSM system. 

  8. Development of a PLC modem for data transmission over a PWM power supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batard, Christophe; Ginot, Nicolas; Mannah, Marc Anthony; Millet, Christophe; Poitiers, Frédéric

    2014-04-01

    In variable-speed electrical drive and online conditioning monitoring, a feedback loop is required in order to transmit the sensor information from the motor to the controller close to the inverter. Additional cabling is used for signalling. This extra cabling has a significant cost and data transmission may not be reliable. Thus, the use of power line communication (PLC) technology to transmit data in motor drive application is quite interesting. The use of a PLC modem dedicated to the home network in a three-phase inverter-fed motor power cable does not work. Therefore, specific coupling interfaces are developed to transmit data through a pulse-width modulated power supply. Laboratory tests have shown that the couplers are operating properly. They ensure reliable data transmission in a motor drive application.

  9. interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipayan Sanyal

    2005-01-01

    macroscopic conservation equations with an order parameter which can account for the solid, liquid, and the mushy zones with the help of a phase function defined on the basis of the liquid fraction, the Gibbs relation, and the phase diagram with local approximations. Using the above formalism for alloy solidification, the width of the diffuse interface (mushy zone was computed rather accurately for iron-carbon and ammonium chloride-water binary alloys and validated against experimental data from literature.

  10. Using CNR to Realize the Cable Modem MAC Authentication%通过CNR实现Cable Modem MAC认证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵天元

    2005-01-01

    基于Cable Modem的认证系统的开发一直相对滞后,这也相对制约了Cable Modem高级业务的发展.介绍了笔者对Cable Modem认证的一些新的思路及尝试,通过建立Cable Modem MAC认证弥补现有认证系统的不足.

  11. Modem Handles Data At 160 Mb/s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budinger, James M.; Miller, Susan P.; Kappes, J. Mark; Layer, David; House, Gilmore

    1993-01-01

    Trellis-coded octal-phase-shift-keying modem transmits and receives continuous or bursted digital data for satellite applications. Helps satisfy increasing demands for communication of high-speed digital data from sources like high-performance computers and high-definition television transmitters, as well as multiplexed signals from slower signal sources. Increases maximum effective bit rate accommodated in standard 72-MHz-wide commercial satellite-transponder radio channel from 120 Mb/s to 160 Mb/s. Principal advantages: spectral efficiency and power efficiency.

  12. Tune measurement for the CERN proton synchrotron booster rings using DSP in VME

    CERN Document Server

    Chapman-Hatchett, A; D'Amico, T E

    1999-01-01

    The CERN PS Booster (PSB) consists of 4 superposed rings supplied with protons from a 50 MeV Linac The CERN PS Booster (PSB) consists of 4 superposed rings supplied with protons from a 50 MeV Linac. The proton beam is then accelerated to 1 GeV and sent either to the 26 GeV Proton Synchrotron (PS) or to the ISOLDE facility. This is carried out in a multi-cycle mode every 1.2 s. For high-intensity beams, the working-point in the tune diagram needs to be changed considerably during acceleration from 50 MeV to 1 GeV and the repeated measurement of the tunes throughout the cycle is an important requirement. Up to now, tune values were obtained through calculations based on quadrupole currents. However, practical experience has shown the need for a direct tune measurement system. For this purpose, a classical kick technique is used. A fixed amplitude kick of duration equal to one revolution period excites coherent betatron oscillations. For fast treatment, a Digital Signal Processing (DSP) module in a VME-standard ...

  13. GNU Radio Signal Processing Models for Dynamic Multi-User Burst Modems

    OpenAIRE

    O'Shea, Timothy J; Karra, Kiran

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a modern method for implementing burst modems in GNU Radio. Since burst modems are widely used for multi-user channel access and sharing in non-broadcast radio systems, this capability is critical to the development of numerous waveforms in GNU Radio. We focus on making such systems easy to develop and adapt to wide classes of modems and computationally efficient at runtime. We use the GNU Radio Event Stream scheduler to demonstrate concise implementations of burst PSK and...

  14. Review of Virtual Environment Interface Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Cybernet Systems Corporation Figure 84. PER-Force Handcontroller The PER-Force Handcontroller is controlled by the PER-Force Universal Robot Motion...PER-Force Universal Robot Motion Controllers, are custom-made and no general price information is available. Cybernet is currently developing an...Forcer supports various control modes and is driven by a PER-Force Universal Robot Motion Controller interfaced to a serial port on any MS-DOS, VME, or

  15. Moving Shadows, Moving Sun. Early Modem Sundials Restaging Miracles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersmann, Jasmin

    2015-01-01

    Irrespective of geo- or heliocentric presuppositions, the functioning of sundials is based on the observation of moving shadows or light spots. Even though the cast shadow was often simply used to indicate the time, it could also remind the users of the ephemerality of earthly things or function as an index of planetary movements. This article examines the various ways in which early modem sundials visually interpret the moving shadow or light spot. The instruments address the shadow in inscriptions, integrate it into their design (e.g., in cruciform dials) or even manipulate its course (as in the so-called Horologium Ahaz). Both the crucifix and the Ahaz dials not only refer to astronomical miracles but actually restage them. Even though by means of the horologium it was not possible to explain the Old Testament miracle of the shadow moving backward, adepts were able to recreate it on a terrestrial scale.

  16. VLSI IMPLEMENTATION OF AN ANALOG MULTIPLIER FOR MODEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRIVIDYA .P,

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A modem (modulator-demodulator is a device that modulates an analog carrier signal to encode digital information, and also demodulates such a carrier signal to decode the transmitted information. The goalis to produce a signal that can be transmitted easily and decoded to reproduce the original digital data. Here there is a need to mix the signals of different frequencies or signals of different types, whichemphasizes the use of mixers or multipliers for different RF applications. In this paper, A CMOS analog multiplier, with less number of transistors which can operate at high frequencies with low power and high linearity is proposed. The multiplier works on the basis of parallel connected MOS operation circuit.

  17. Implementasi Modem Akustik OFDM pada TMS320C6416

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuandhika Adhi Widhyatmaka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Desain sistem komunikasi digital menggunakan sinyal akustik untuk aplikasi bawah air adalah bidang yang sangat menantang karena sifat yang sangat kompleks dari saluran bawah air. Teknologi yang dikenal dengan sebutan underwater acoustic merupakan jawaban atas tantangan terhadap keterbatasan kemampuan pengiriman sinyal informasi pada media air. Hal ini disebabkan karena gelombang elektromagnetik dan radio tidak dapat mencapai jarak yang jauh pada medium air karena akan menghasilkan redaman yang sangat besar, sementara sinyal akustik dapat mencapai jarak yang jauh walaupun dengan kecepatan dan bandwidth yang terbatas. Tugas akhir ini bertujuan untuk merancang sistem tersebut, yang secara efektif dapat menahan efek samping saluran namun tetap memberikan laju data yang memadai. Untuk tujuan ini, sebuah studi mendalam tentang saluran komunikasi bawah air dilakukan dandianalisis. Seiring dengan kemajuan yang signifikan telah dibuat penggunaan modulasi multicarrier dalam bentuk ortogonal frekuensi division multiplexing (OFDM dengan data rate tinggi untuk komunikasi akustik bawah air. Dalam tugas akhir ini, implementasi modem akustik OFDM pada sistem single-input single-output menggunakan modul fixed-point DSP TMS320C6416 di mana inti DSP berjalan pada 1 GHz. Terdapat terdapat tiga kategori untuk mengetahui karakteristik modem akustik OFDM yang ditampilkan dalam grafik Bit Error Rate (BER terhadap Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR. Pengujian dilakukan dengan mengirimkan citra 40x64 8bit. Kinerja terbaik terdapat pada implementasi sistem mfile dengan nilai BER mencapai 0,0067 pada 32 subcarrier. Sedangkan kinerja terburuk terdapat pada implementasi sistem pada TMS320C6416 dan sistem simulink rata-rata nilai BER 0,5 dikarenakan kondisi sample rate antar perangkat yang tidak sinkron.

  18. Interfacing the septa movement (DC motors) equipment to the PS control system and the MIL1553 bus

    CERN Document Server

    Dehavay, Claude

    1995-01-01

    Continuing the rejuvenation of the PS Control system , this application replaces the Single Transceiver Hybrid used to interface the Septa Movement Fquipment by a G64 system connected to the VME crate via the MIL1553 bus. This note explains the G64 hardware interface and details the standard message as defined in the Control Protocole for Power Converter, RF and Stepping Motor equipment.

  19. Cable Modems' Transmitted RF: A Study of SNR, Error Rates, Transmit Levels, and Trouble Call Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebbetts, Jo A.

    2013-01-01

    Hypotheses were developed and tested to measure the cable modems operational metrics response to a reconfiguration of the cable modems' transmitted RF applied to the CMTS. The purpose of this experiment was to compare two groups on the use of non-federal RF spectrum to determine if configuring the cable modems' transmitted RF from 25.2…

  20. Parallel digital modem using multirate digital filter banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadr, Ramin; Vaidyanathan, P. P.; Raphaeli, Dan; Hinedi, Sami

    1994-01-01

    A new class of architectures for an all-digital modem is presented in this report. This architecture, referred to as the parallel receiver (PRX), is based on employing multirate digital filter banks (DFB's) to demodulate, track, and detect the received symbol stream. The resulting architecture is derived, and specifications are outlined for designing the DFB for the PRX. The key feature of this approach is a lower processing rate then either the Nyquist rate or the symbol rate, without any degradation in the symbol error rate. Due to the freedom in choosing the processing rate, the designer is able to arbitrarily select and use digital components, independent of the speed of the integrated circuit technology. PRX architecture is particularly suited for high data rate applications, and due to the modular structure of the parallel signal path, expansion to even higher data rates is accommodated with each. Applications of the PRX would include gigabit satellite channels, multiple spacecraft, optical links, interactive cable-TV, telemedicine, code division multiple access (CDMA) communications, and others.

  1. Proposal to negotiate the renewal of a blanket purchase contract for the supply and maintenance of VME single-board computers for the LHC and its injectors

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    This document concerns the renewal of a blanket purchase contract for the supply and maintenance of VME single-board computers for the LHC and its injectors. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of the renewal of the blanket purchase contract with CREATIVE ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS (CH) for the supply and maintenance of VME single-board computers for the LHC and its injectors for an estimated total amount not exceeding 1 000 000 Swiss francs for the period 2007-2009.

  2. Broadband Wireline Provider Service: Cable Modem - Other; BBRI_cableOther12

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of Rhode Island Geospatial Extension Program — This dataset represents the availability of wireline broadband Internet access in Rhode Island via "Cable Modem - Other" technology. Broadband availability is...

  3. Broadband Wireline Provider Service: Cable Modem - DOCSIS 3.0; BBRI_cableDOCSIS12

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of Rhode Island Geospatial Extension Program — This dataset represents the availability of wireline broadband Internet access in Rhode Island via "Cable Modem - DOCSIS 3.0" technology. Broadband availability is...

  4. The Upgrade Path from Legacy VME to VXS Dual Star Connectivity for Large Scale Data Acquisition and Trigger Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuevas, C; Barbosa, F J; Dong, H; Gu, W; Jastrzembski, E; Kaneta, S R; Moffitt, B; Nganga, N; Raydo, B J; Somov, A; Taylor, W M

    2011-10-01

    New instrumentation modules have been designed by Jefferson Lab and to take advantage of the higher performance and elegant backplane connectivity of the VITA 41 VXS standard. These new modules are required to meet the 200KHz trigger rates envisioned for the 12GeV experimental program. Upgrading legacy VME designs to the high speed gigabit serial extensions that VXS offers, comes with significant challenges, including electronic engineering design, plus firmware and software development issues. This paper will detail our system design approach including the critical system requirement stages, and explain the pipeline design techniques and selection criteria for the FPGA that require embedded Gigabit serial transceivers. The entire trigger system is synchronous and operates at 250MHz clock with synchronization signals, and the global trigger signals distributed to each front end readout crate via the second switch slot in the 21 slot, dual star VXS backplane. The readout of the buffered detector signals relies on 2eSST over the standard VME64x path at >200MB/s. We have achieved 20Gb/s transfer rate of trigger information within one VXS crate and will present results using production modules in a two crate test configuration with both VXS crates fully populated. The VXS trigger modules that reside in the front end crates, will be ready for production orders by the end of the 2011 fiscal year. VXS Global trigger modules are in the design stage now, and will be complete to meet the installation schedule for the 12GeV Physics program.

  5. Technology of SDH remote maintenance based on telephone MODEM%于基电话网 MODEM 的SDH 远程维护技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周伟; 程红霞

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a remote maintenance technology of SDH network in unmanned area based on fixed telephone network and MODEM. It also introduces the application of SDH network remote maintenance based on embedded MODEM and Point-to-Point protocol in detail.%将固定电话网络(PSTN)与调制解调技术(MODEM)相结合,提出了一种解决偏远无人值守地区SDH网络的远程维护技术,详细介绍了基于嵌入式MODEM技术、点对点传输技术(PPP)实现SDH网络远程维护的设计方案。

  6. One-way data transfer for PLC to VME status reporting at the Advanced Photon Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, S. J.

    1994-12-01

    The Personnel Safety System for the experimental beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source will use a large number of Allen Bradley Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) to replace conventional relay logic. PLCs allow for the design of a very advanced safety system that can handle a large number of I/O points. Certain situations require monitoring of the safety system from various locations around the storage ring via the EPICS OPI (operator interface) consoles. This presentation covers the chosen method for transferring data from the Personnel Safety System into an EPICS database. Specifications on PLC ladder design, EPICS database design and hardware selection are also discussed.

  7. Two-Way Radio Modem Data Transfer for Newborn Hearing Screening Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matulat, Peter; Lepper, Ingo; Böttcher, Peter; Parfitt, Ross; Oswald, Hans; Am Zehnhoff-Dinnesen, Antoinette; Deuster, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    The success of a newborn hearing screening program depends on successful tracking and follow-up to ensure that children who have had positive screening results in the first few days of life receive appropriate and timely diagnostic and intervention services. The easy availability, through a suitable infrastructure, of the data necessary for the tracking, diagnosis, and care of children concerned is a major key to enhancing the quality and efficiency of newborn hearing screening programs. Two systems for the automated two-way transmission of newborn hearing screening and configuration data, based on mobile communication technology, for the screening devices MADSEN AccuScreen(®) and Natus Echo-Screen(®) were developed and tested in a field study. Radio modem connections were compared with conventional analogue modem transmissions from Natus Echo-Screen devices for duration, transmission rate, number of lost connections, and frequency of use. The average session duration was significantly lower with the MADSEN AccuScreen (12 s) and Natus Echo-Screen both with radio modem (15 s) than the Natus Echo-Screen with analogue modem (108 s). The transmission rate was significantly higher (898 and 1,758 vs. 181 bytes/s) for the devices with radio modems. Both radio modem devices had significantly lower rates of broken connections after initial connection (2.1 and 0.9 vs. 5.5%). An increase in the frequency of data transmission from the clinics with mobile radio devices was found. The use of mobile communication technology in newborn hearing screening devices offers improvements in the average session duration, transmission rate, and reliability of the connection over analogue solutions. We observed a behavioral change in clinical staff using the new technology: the data exchange with the tracking center is more often used. The requirements for on-site support were reduced. These savings outweigh the small increase in costs for the Internet service provider.

  8. Anatolia tattoo art; Tunceli exampleAnadolu dövme sanatı; Tunceli ili örneği

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Çağlayandereli

    2016-05-01

    figures are not dominant in Tunceli tattoos. (4 Tribe’s figurs also are not dominant in Tunceli tattoos. (5 According to this, Tunceli tattoos can be evaluated a kind of figur in Anatolia tattoo tradition. (6 In Sociological, interest of traditional tattoo art is decreased in Tunceli and ‘tattoo desgins’ concerning Western Culture become widespread. According to this reason, the suggest of researchers is Tunceli and Anatolia tattoo art should become brand value via scientific researches and add to global relation networks.   Özet Makalede Tunceli kültürüne ait Anadolu dövme geleneği ve sanatı incelenmiştir. Yazının ilk atası kabul edilen dövme, süsleme veya mesaj verme amacıyla, belirli kültürel figürlerin, bedene; derinin alt yüzeyine nakşedilmesidir. Dövme, tarihin eski dönemlerine dayanan ve tüm toplumlarda görülen kültürel objedir. Dövme Anadolu medeniyetinin de renkli bir unsuru olagelmiştir. Dövme “damga” olarak kimi zaman bir meslek grubunu, sosyal statüyü veya aşiret ve tarikat gibi kişinin bağlı bulunduğu topluluğu belirtmek amacıyla kullanılmıştır. Aynı zamanda Anadolu dövme motiflerinin kişiyi hastalıklardan, nazardan koruduğuna; güzellik ve yiğitlik getirdiğine inanılmaktadır. Anadolu’da dövme sanatı farklı yöresel özgüllüklerinin bileşimi olan genel bir form ortaya çıkarır. Bunlardan Tunceli yöresi, “Alevi” ve “Kürt” kimliklerin coğrafi yoğunluğu bakımından, Türkiye’nin en özgün ili konumundadır. Tunceli’de yaşayan nüfusun büyük çoğunluğu, toplumun genelinden farklılaşan aşiret düzenindeki topluluklardan oluşmaktadır. Buna göre makalede Tunceli dövme sanatını betimlemek ve Anadolu dövme sanatından benzer ve farklı özelliklerini tespit etmek istenmiştir. Burada ortaya konan bilgiler Anadolu dövme sanatı literatürüne katkı yapabilecek niteliktedir. Makalede sunulan veriler Ağustos 2010 tarihine aittir. Tunceli kent merkezinde kartopu

  9. A New Signal Processing Technique of π/4-DQPSK Modem Based on Software Radio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常疆; 张乃通

    2003-01-01

    π/4-DQPSK modem has been chosen as the modem scheme in many mobile communication systems. A new signal processing technique of π/4-DQPSK modem based on software radio is discussed in this paper. Unlike many other software radio solutions to the subject, we choose a universal digital radio baseband processor operating as the co-processor of DSP. Only the core algorithms for signal processing are implemented with DSP. Thus the computation burden on DSP is reduced significantly. Compared with the traditional ones, the technique mentioned in this paper is more promising and attractive. It is extremely compact and power-efficient, which is often required by a mobile communication system. The implementation of baseband signal processing for π/4-DQPSK modem on this platform is illustrated in detail. Special emphases are laid on the architecture of the system and the algorithms used in the baseband signal processing. Finally, some experimental results are presented and the performances of the signal processing and compensation algorithms are evaluated through computer simulations.

  10. Software-defined open-architecture modems: Historical review and the NILUS approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dol, H.S.; Casari, P.; Zwan, T. van der

    2014-01-01

    Flexible/adaptive modems that are reprogramma-ble/reconfigurable at all layers of the communication stack, either by a user or by means of autonomous decisions, are considered as an important enabler for interoperability and cognitive networking in the underwater domain. This paper reviews existing

  11. Interfacing the septa movement (DC motor) equipment to the PS control system and the MIL1553 bus

    CERN Document Server

    Dehavay, Claude

    1993-01-01

    Continuing the rejuvenation of the PS Control system , it is planned to replace the Single Transceiver Hybrid used to interface the Septa Movement Equipment by a G64 system connected to the VME crate via the MIL1553 bus. This note explains the G64 hardware interface and details the standard message as defined in the Control Protocole for Power Converter, RF and Stepping Motor equipment.

  12. Low-Power Direct-Sequence Spread-Spectrum Modem Architecture for Distributed Wireless Sensor Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien, C; Elgorriaga, I; McConaghy, C

    2001-07-03

    Emerging CMOS and MEMS technologies enable the implementation of a large number of wireless distributed microsensors that can be easily and rapidly deployed to form highly redundant, self-configuring, and ad hoc sensor networks. To facilitate ease of deployment, these sensors should operate on battery for extended periods of time. A particular challenge in maintaining extended battery lifetime lies in achieving communications with low power. This paper presents a direct-sequence spread-spectrum modem architecture that provides robust communications for wireless sensor networks while dissipating very low power. The modem architecture has been verified in an FPGA implementation that dissipates only 33 mW for both transmission and reception. The implementation can be easily mapped to an ASIC technology, with an estimated power performance of less than 1 mW.

  13. Hardware implementation of pi/4-DQPSK modem for mobile communication (Short Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.P.M. Bhat

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Spectrally efficient digital modulation schemes for land mobile voice transmission applications highlighting advantages of a 7Pi/4-DQPSK modem are briefly reviewed, A procedure to generate 7Pi/4-DQPSK signal by directly mapping pairs of input bits through dibit transformation function and analog multiplexer is described. Details of modulator hardware for a standard data rate of 48 kbps are also incorporated, A promising all-digital receiver structure which lends itself for miniaturisation, is described.

  14. KOMUNIKASI MODEM SERIAL DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN POINT TO POINT PROTOCOL PADA SISTEM OPERASI LINUX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Rostianingsih

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Linux Operating System which growing rapidly this day start to attract many people, especially academic and proffesionals in computer's world. Many things which make Linux more attractive is the open source's characterictic, which mean its application is freely available to everyone. In fact, we can get the source code easily, and the stabilize as an operating system getting admission by many society. Linux also can make a connection between modem, even internet. Linux also support the client-server system. Therefore, Local Area Network system can use only one modem as the connection for many computers to go through the internet. Point to point protocol is one of the protocols which used to do the connection to the internet or LAN, because of a lot of things its provided easily, especially the installation and the used of it. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Sistem operasi Linux yang berkembang dengan pesat akhir-akhir ini mulai menarik minat sebagian orang, terutama kalangan akademisi dan profesional yang berkecimpung di dunia komputer. Beberapa hal yang membuat Linux semakin diminati adalah sifat Linux yang open source, artinya banyak aplikasi bersifat gratis, tidak diharuskan untuk membayar. Bahkan source codenya bisa didapatkan dengan mudah, serta kestabilan Linux sebagai sistem operasi mulai diakui oleh banyak kalangan. Sistem operasi Linux juga dapat melakukan hubungan antar modem, bahkan dapat melakukan koneksi ke Internet. Sistem operasi Linux juga mendukung sistem client-server. Jadi di dalam suatu sistem Local Area Network dapat menggunakan hanya dengan satu modem saja untuk dapat koneksi ke Internet dengan menggunakan banyak komputer. Point to Point Protocol merupakan salah satu protocol yang banyak sekali dipakai untuk melakukan koneksi ke Internet maupun ke LAN, karena beberapa kemudahan yang dimiliki, terutama proses instalasi dan penggunaannya. Kata kunci: point to point protocol, linuc, client-server.

  15. Integration of an Acoustic Modem onto a Wave Glider Unmanned Surface Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    equation for the power of each wave. (4.9) 2 2 2 [W] 32wave g H T Vρ π Π = The vehicle is of course not able to use all of this power for thrust as...modem and the node. The glider portion of the vehicle tends to lead the float portion by 0.55 meters [6]. Using simple trigonometry we can

  16. Characterisation of Reticon and Hamamatsu photodiode array and the subsequent development of high performance VME-based detector systems optimised for energy dispersive EXAFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogg, D.; Dent, A.J.; Derbyshire, G.E.; Farrow, R.C.; Ramsdale, C.A.; Salvini, G. [Daresbury Lab., Warrington (United Kingdom). CCLRC

    1997-06-21

    Energy dispersive EXAFS is an established and successful technique employed at Daresbury Laboratory for the study of dynamic experiments. At the heart of this technique is an in house developed high-performance VME-based detector system using a photodiode array. This system originally used a Reticon RL1024S array but extensive investigation of three other photodiode arrays namely the Reticon 512T, 512SB and the Hamamatsu S3904 has enabled their characterisation and the subsequent development of optimised drive and signal processing electronics. This has provided two further systems which exhibit improved signal to noise, excellent linearity and increased operational speed. (orig.).

  17. Exacerbation of demyelinating syndrome after exposure to wireless modem with public hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Olle; Redmayne, Mary

    2016-01-01

    In August 2003, 48-year-old JS of Colorado, USA, a fitness therapist and sports nutritionist, contracted neuroinvasive West Nile virus which left her with disabilities due to spinal axonal damage.In August 2014, she suddenly developed symptoms very much like her acute West Nile infection 11 years ago, including focal seizures, ataxia, vertigo and headaches. Her blood count looked normal so there was no obvious infection. What struck her as odd was that when she left her apartment for any length of time, the symptoms stopped. She found out that a new type of wireless modem, enabled for both personal use and functioning as a public hotspot designed to reach up to 100 m, had been installed in the flat under hers.Her neighbor replaced the modem with a router without the hotspot feature. After that, the seizures stopped immediately, and the other symptoms faded gradually, after which she was fine and again could sleep well. Later, when another activated hotspot was installed in an adjacent flat, JS once again noticed symptoms.A possible association between electrohypersensitivity, myelin integrity and exposure to low-intensity radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) typical in the modern world has recently been proposed. Since the West Nile virus attacks both the nerve cells and the glial ones, one explanation to the above observed case effects is that the initial virus attack and the wireless modem's RF-EMF affect the nervous system through the very same, or similar, avenues, and maybe both via the oligodendrocytes.

  18. Proposal to negotiate, without competitive tendering, the renewal of a blanket purchase contract for the supply and maintenance of VME single-board computers for the LHC and its injectors

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    This document concerns the renewal of a blanket purchase contract for the supply and maintenance of VME single-board computers for the LHC and its injectors. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of the renewal of a blanket purchase contract with CREATIVE ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS (CH), without competitive tendering, for the supply and maintenance of VME single-board computers for an estimated total amount not exceeding 2 500 000 Swiss francs for the period 2004-2006. The firm has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: CH-80%, US-20%.

  19. Hardware Implementation of a 16-QAM Modem Using Waveform Switching Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.P.M. Bhat

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A new modem circuit technique is proposed for multilevel signal transmission to utilisethe transmission bandwidth efficiently in bandwidth-constrained voice-band channels. Usingthis technique, a 16-level quadrature amplitude modulated (16-QAM signal is generated as acascaded configuration of an 8-level phase-shift keying (8-PSK and a 4-level amplitude-shiftkeying ( 4-ASK using waveform mapping rules. The data detection procedure, which is basedon the determination of each symbol one-by-one by inspection of their amplitude level andabsolute phase information, is described.

  20. A High-Speed Optical Modem Communication System for CORK Seafloor Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, N.; Tivey, M.; Ware, J.; Pontbriand, C.; Pelletier, L. P.

    2014-12-01

    High-speed communications underwater is an increasing requirement for data intensive seafloor sensors. Acoustic modems provide dependable long-range communications underwater, but data rates are limited to ship with an SDSL link over the conducting wire. Other methods utilized OMs mounted to both ROV Jason and submersible Alvin. We deployed OMs at two CORKs in 2012 in the northeast pacific at sites 857D and 1025C. The CORKs were visited in 2013 by a vessel of opportunity to download data and were put into sleep mode. The CORKs were revisited in 2014, woken up and successfully interrogated for data. ALVIN retrieved the CORK-OMs for corrosion, biofouling and battery performance assessment. We also performed tests of a next generation OM using a deployed seafloor modem and AUV Sentry. A complete lambertian optical field was quantitatively mapped by Sentry and test data was successfully downloaded from 20 to 150 m slant range. The AUV modality demonstrates the capability of 'data-mule' operations to autonomously recover data from a seafloor observatory with minimal human intervention.

  1. Development and characterisation of FPGA modems using forward error correction for FSOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudge, Kerry A.; Grant, Kenneth J.; Clare, Bradley A.; Biggs, Colin L.; Cowley, William G.; Manning, Sean; Lechner, Gottfried

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we report on the performance of a free-space optical communications (FSOC) modem implemented in FPGA, with data rate variable up to 60 Mbps. To combat the effects of atmospheric scintillation, a 7/8 rate low density parity check (LDPC) forward error correction is implemented along with custom bit and frame synchronisation and a variable length interleaver. We report on the systematic performance evaluation of an optical communications link employing the FPGA modems using a laboratory test-bed to simulate the effects of atmospheric turbulence. Log-normal fading is imposed onto the transmitted free-space beam using a custom LabVIEW program and an acoustic-optic modulator. The scintillation index, transmitted optical power and the scintillation bandwidth can all be independently varied allowing testing over a wide range of optical channel conditions. In particular, bit-error-ratio (BER) performance for different interleaver lengths is investigated as a function of the scintillation bandwidth. The laboratory results are compared to field measurements over 1.5km.

  2. 现代企业情报工作的内容及方法%The Content & Method of Information Services of Modem Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹怀琼

    2002-01-01

    The article discusses the content and method of information services of modem enterprises, including competitive intelligence, defensive competitive intelligence and the formulation of competitive strategies.

  3. An Ultra-Low Power and Flexible Acoustic Modem Design to Develop Energy-Efficient Underwater Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sánchez

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the description of the physical layer of a new acoustic modem called ITACA. The modem architecture includes as a major novelty an ultra-low power asynchronous wake-up system implementation for underwater acoustic transmission that is based on a low-cost off-the-shelf RFID peripheral integrated circuit. This feature enables a reduced power dissipation of 10 µW in stand-by mode and registers very low power values during reception and transmission. The modem also incorporates clear channel assessment (CCA to support CSMA-based medium access control (MAC layer protocols. The design is part of a compact platform for a long-life short/medium range underwater wireless sensor network.

  4. An ultra-low power and flexible acoustic modem design to develop energy-efficient underwater sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Antonio; Blanc, Sara; Yuste, Pedro; Perles, Angel; Serrano, Juan José

    2012-01-01

    This paper is focused on the description of the physical layer of a new acoustic modem called ITACA. The modem architecture includes as a major novelty an ultra-low power asynchronous wake-up system implementation for underwater acoustic transmission that is based on a low-cost off-the-shelf RFID peripheral integrated circuit. This feature enables a reduced power dissipation of 10 μW in stand-by mode and registers very low power values during reception and transmission. The modem also incorporates clear channel assessment (CCA) to support CSMA-based medium access control (MAC) layer protocols. The design is part of a compact platform for a long-life short/medium range underwater wireless sensor network.

  5. An Ultra-Low Power and Flexible Acoustic Modem Design to Develop Energy-Efficient Underwater Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Antonio; Blanc, Sara; Yuste, Pedro; Perles, Angel; Serrano, Juan José

    2012-01-01

    This paper is focused on the description of the physical layer of a new acoustic modem called ITACA. The modem architecture includes as a major novelty an ultra-low power asynchronous wake-up system implementation for underwater acoustic transmission that is based on a low-cost off-the-shelf RFID peripheral integrated circuit. This feature enables a reduced power dissipation of 10 μW in stand-by mode and registers very low power values during reception and transmission. The modem also incorporates clear channel assessment (CCA) to support CSMA-based medium access control (MAC) layer protocols. The design is part of a compact platform for a long-life short/medium range underwater wireless sensor network. PMID:22969324

  6. MODEM: a multi-agent hierarchical structure to model the human motor control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emadi Andani, Mehran; Bahrami, Fariba; Jabehdar Maralani, Parviz; Ijspeert, Auke Jan

    2009-12-01

    In this study, based on behavioral and neurophysiological facts, a new hierarchical multi-agent architecture is proposed to model the human motor control system. Performance of the proposed structure is investigated by simulating the control of sit to stand movement. To develop the model, concepts of mixture of experts, modular structure, and some aspects of equilibrium point hypothesis were brought together. We have called this architecture MODularized Experts Model (MODEM). Human motor system is modeled at the joint torque level and the role of the muscles has been embedded in the function of the joint compliance characteristics. The input to the motor system, i.e., the central command, is the reciprocal command. At the lower level, there are several experts to generate the central command to control the task according to the details of the movement. The number of experts depends on the task to be performed. At the higher level, a "gate selector" block selects the suitable subordinate expert considering the context of the task. Each expert consists of a main controller and a predictor as well as several auxiliary modules. The main controller of an expert learns to control the performance of a given task by generating appropriate central commands under given conditions and/or constraints. The auxiliary modules of this expert learn to scrutinize the generated central command by the main controller. Auxiliary modules increase their intervention to correct the central command if the movement error is increased due to an external disturbance. Each auxiliary module acts autonomously and can be interpreted as an agent. Each agent is responsible for one joint and, therefore, the number of the agents of each expert is equal to the number of joints. Our results indicate that this architecture is robust against external disturbances, signal-dependent noise in sensory information, and changes in the environment. We also discuss the neurophysiological and behavioral basis of

  7. Characterization of modems and error correcting protocols using a scintillation playback system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, William S.; Mahon, Rita; Ferraro, Mike S.; Murphy, James L.; Moore, Christopher I.

    2016-03-01

    The performance of free space optical (FSO) communication systems is strongly affected by optical scintillation. Scintillation fades can cause errors when the power on a detector falls below its noise floor, while surges can overload a detector. The very long time scale of scintillation compared to a typical bit in an FSO link means that error-correcting protocols designed for fiber optic links are inappropriate for FSO links. Comparing the performance effects of different components, such as photodetectors, or protocols, such as forward error correction, in the field is difficult because conditions are constantly changing. On the other hand, laboratory-based turbulence simulators, often using hot plates and fans, do not really simulate the effects of long-range propagation through the atmosphere. We have investigated a different approach. Scintillation has been measured during field tests using FSO terminals by sending a continuous wave beam through the atmosphere. A high dynamic range photodetector was digitized at a 10 KHz rate and files of the intensity variations were saved. Many hours of scintillation data under different environmental conditions and at different sites have been combined into a library of data. A fiber-optic based scintillation playback system was then used in the laboratory to test modems and protocols with the recorded files. This allowed comparisons using the same atmospheric conditions allowing optimization of such parameters as detector dynamic range. It also allowed comparison and optimization of different error correcting protocols.

  8. Generation of multiple analog pulses with different duty cycles within VME control system for ICRH Aditya system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Ramesh; Singh, Manoj; Jadav, H M; Misra, Kishor; Kulkarni, S V, E-mail: rjoshi@ipr.res.i [Institute for plasma research, Bhat, Gandhinagar- 382428 (India)

    2010-02-01

    Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) is a promising heating method for a fusion device due to its localized power deposition profile, a direct ion heating at high density, and established technology for high RF power generation and transmission at low cost. Multiple analog pulse with different duty cycle in master of digital pulse for Data acquisition and Control system for steady state RF ICRH System(RF ICRH DAC) to be used for operating of RF Generator in Aditya to produce pre ionization and second analog pulse will produce heating. The control system software is based upon single digital pulse operation for RF source. It is planned to integrate multiple analog pulses with different duty cycle in master of digital pulse for Data acquisition and Control system for RF ICRH System(RF ICRH DAC) to be used for operating of RF Generator in Aditya tokamak. The task of RF ICRH DAC is to control and acquisition of all ICRH system operation with all control loop and acquisition for post analysis of data with java based tool. For pre ionization startup as well as heating experiments using multiple RF Power of different powers and duration. The experiment based upon the idea of using single RF generator to energize antenna inside the tokamak to radiate power twice, out of which first analog pulse will produce pre ionization and second analog pulse will produce heating. The whole system is based on standard client server technology using tcp/ip protocol. DAC Software is based on linux operating system for highly reliable, secure and stable system operation in failsafe manner. Client system is based on tcl/tk like toolkit for user interface with c/c++ like environment which is reliable programming languages widely used on stand alone system operation with server as vxWorks real time operating system like environment. The paper is focused on the Data acquisition and monitoring system software on Aditya RF ICRH System with analog pulses in slave mode with digital pulse in

  9. Generation of multiple analog pulses with different duty cycles within VME control system for ICRH Aditya system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Ramesh; Singh, Manoj; Jadav, H. M.; Misra, Kishor; Kulkarni, S. V.; ICRH-RF Group

    2010-02-01

    Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) is a promising heating method for a fusion device due to its localized power deposition profile, a direct ion heating at high density, and established technology for high RF power generation and transmission at low cost. Multiple analog pulse with different duty cycle in master of digital pulse for Data acquisition and Control system for steady state RF ICRH System(RF ICRH DAC) to be used for operating of RF Generator in Aditya to produce pre ionization and second analog pulse will produce heating. The control system software is based upon single digital pulse operation for RF source. It is planned to integrate multiple analog pulses with different duty cycle in master of digital pulse for Data acquisition and Control system for RF ICRH System(RF ICRH DAC) to be used for operating of RF Generator in Aditya tokamak. The task of RF ICRH DAC is to control and acquisition of all ICRH system operation with all control loop and acquisition for post analysis of data with java based tool. For pre ionization startup as well as heating experiments using multiple RF Power of different powers and duration. The experiment based upon the idea of using single RF generator to energize antenna inside the tokamak to radiate power twise, out of which first analog pulse will produce pre ionization and second analog pulse will produce heating. The whole system is based on standard client server technology using tcp/ip protocol. DAC Software is based on linux operating system for highly reliable, secure and stable system operation in failsafe manner. Client system is based on tcl/tk like toolkit for user interface with c/c++ like environment which is reliable programming languages widely used on stand alone system operation with server as vxWorks real time operating system like environment. The paper is focused on the Data acquisition and monitoring system software on Aditya RF ICRH System with analog pulses in slave mode with digital pulse in

  10. Rilke and Modem Chinese Poetry%里尔克与中国现代新诗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张岩泉

    2012-01-01

    里尔克是20世纪杰出的德语诗人,也是对中国现代新诗产生过重大影响的诗人。从20年代初到40年代末,中国诗人从"生疏"到"亲切"的译介过程,使里尔克在中国现代新诗史上刻下了窄而深的印记;冯至、九叶诗人学习借鉴里尔克的诗学观念、诗歌艺术与精神品格成效显著,尤其在静观物象、凝然沉思的写作中,奉献出一批新诗名篇。不过,对里尔克晚期作品与思想的有所忽略,则给中国新诗与外国诗歌的交流留下了历史缺憾,提出了新的课题。%As a distinguished 20th-century poet in the German language, Rainer Maria Rilke becomes a major influence on modern Chinese poetry. Through Chinese poets' and scholars' translation and introduction from the early 1920s till the late 1940s, Rilke and his works had left narrow but deep traces on the course of modem Chinese poetry. Feng Zhi and Jiuye poets had learnt a lot from Rilke' s poetic concepts, poetry skills and moral character, which led to a num- ber of their excellent modern poems by their watching in tranquility and writing in reflection. However, the long neglect of Rilke' s late works and ideas has left a gap in the history of poetic exchange between China and the Western world, which raises a new subject for us.

  11. Design of High-power VME Specification Power Supply System%一种大功率VME规范电源的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝彬

    2011-01-01

    Military information processor requires a high performance power supply with stable output, load protection, and data protection to adapt the severe variation in output of fore-power. We designed a high performance and high-power Versa Module Eurocard(VME) specification power supply which can work in the input voltage range of 18V~50V according to the requirement of a certain military information processor, and analyzed the polarity protection module, the power keeping module, and the power supply monitoring module. Test on the information processor illustrates that this power supply gains excellent universality and reliability, and stable performance. The one-slot power supply possesses the virtues of higher power density, less weight, higher efficiency, and intelligence.%军用信息处理机对电源要求很高,不仅要求电源的输出稳定,还要求其具有负载保护及数据保护措施,以适应初级电源的恶劣变化.本文结合雷载信息处理机的具体需求,设计了能够在18V~50V输入范围工作的军用VME规范电源,并对反接保护、功率保持及电源监控等功能模块进行了分析和原理说明.通过与信息处理机的搭载试验证明该电源有良好的通用性和可靠性,技术指标优良,在单槽空间内实现了高功率密度、低重量、高效率且智能化的高性能电源.

  12. 现代舞之"力"的探讨%Study on the Force of Modem Dance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李超

    2011-01-01

    This essay expounds the modem dance art developing in western nations from 20th century from the “force”.From four levels discussed the theory about force of world famous artists, dancers: “force to the dance” put forward by Susan Lange who is the famous America artist, the father of western modern dance named Rudolf Von Laban tried to reveal the dance “force” with the theory of “force effect”, one of the three art giants in 20th century named Marsha Graham was going about to explore the force in dance, and Doris Humphrey who is the founder of American modern dance attempt to reveal the dance force.Eventually, the author draws the conclusion that the modern dance is the most pure way to express the human nature and life experience which resort to human body.%文章从"力"的角度阐释了20世纪开始西方世界如火如荼发展的现代舞艺术,分四个层次论述了世界著名的艺术家、舞蹈家有关力的学说:美国著名符号学家苏珊-朗格对舞蹈的力的认识,西方现代舞之父冯·鲁道夫·拉班通过创立"力效理论"揭示了舞蹈的"力"的奥秘,20世纪三大艺术巨匠之一、美国现代舞奠基人玛莎·格雷姆有关"力"的探索和另一位美国现代舞蹈奠基人多丽丝·韩芙莉对舞蹈"力"的揭示.文章通过分析最终得出了结论:现代舞是以最纯粹的生命状态--"力"的方式将隐秘的人性、生命的体验诉诸于人体并加以呈现的.

  13. Kinetic Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A kinetic interface for orientation detection in a video training system is disclosed. The interface includes a balance platform instrumented with inertial motion sensors. The interface engages a participant's sense of balance in training exercises.......A kinetic interface for orientation detection in a video training system is disclosed. The interface includes a balance platform instrumented with inertial motion sensors. The interface engages a participant's sense of balance in training exercises....

  14. Caractérisation de l’état écologique des Ecosystèmes Marins Vulnérables (VME) bathyaux benthiques de Méditerranée française (Mégafaune)

    OpenAIRE

    Pedel, Laura; Fabri, Marie-Claire

    2012-01-01

    Ce document rapporte un état des lieux concernant les écosystèmes marins vulnérables (VME) du domaine bathyal dans les canyons des côtes méditerranéennes françaises. Il a été réalisé à partir d'informations disponibles à la date de sa réalisation, informations extraites de l'imagerie optique (photos et vidéos) enregistrées à partir de différents submersibles.

  15. Peak Satellite-to-Earth Data Rates Derived From Measurements of a 20 Gbps Bread-Board Modem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, David G.; Simons, Rainee N.; Wintucky, Edwin G.; Sun, Jun Y.; Winn, James S.; Laraway, Stephen A.; McIntire, William K.; Metz, John L.; Smith, Francis J.

    2011-01-01

    A prototype data link using a Ka-band space qualified, high efficiency 200 W TWT amplifier and a bread-board modem emulator were created to explore the feasibility of very high speed communications in satellite-to-earth applications. Experiments were conducted using a DVB-S2-like waveform with modifications to support up to 20 Gbps through the addition of 128-Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM). Limited by the bandwidth of the amplifier, a constant peak symbol rate of 3.2 Giga-symbols/sec was selected and the modulation order was varied to explore what peak data rate might be supported by an RF link through this amplifier. Using 128-QAM, an implementation loss of 3 dB was observed at 20 Gbps, and the loss decreased as data rate or bandwidth were reduced. Building on this measured data, realistic link budget calculations were completed. Low-Earth orbit (LEO) missions based on this TWTA with reasonable hardware assumptions and antenna sizing are found to be bandwidth-limited, rather than power-limited, making the spectral efficiency of 9/10-rate encoded 128-QAM very attractive. Assuming a bandwidth allocation of 1 GHz, these computations indicate that low-Earth orbit vehicles could achieve data rates up to 5 Gbps-an order of magnitude beyond the current state-of-practice, yet still within the processing power of a current FPGA-based software-defined modem. The measured performance results and a description of the experimental setup are presented to support these conclusions.

  16. Interface Consistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    This paper proposes that Interface Consistency is an important issue for the development of modular designs. Byproviding a precise specification of component interfaces it becomes possible to check that separately developedcomponents use a common interface in a coherent matter thus avoiding a very...... significant source of design errors. Awide range of interface specifications are possible, the simplest form is a syntactical check of parameter types.However, today it is possible to do more sophisticated forms involving semantic checks....

  17. Interface models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Anders P.; Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1994-01-01

    This paper proposes a model for specifying interfaces between concurrently executing modules of a computing system. The model does not prescribe a particular type of communication protocol and is aimed at describing interfaces between both software and hardware modules or a combination of the two....... The model describes both functional and timing properties of an interface...

  18. Developing a Hypercard-UNIX Interface for Electronic Mail Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    My thanks to Greqg for his support. Many of the comments for -- the MacTCP version are his. His code is set ,%ppart by borders. on openStacK put the...HUES-ModemVersion......- *-*-*-* STACK SCRIPTi "-*-*-* on openStack put the seconds into card fid theTime of card interface hide menubar global...34Loqin" hide fid receiving put empty into cd tia msqname of card theoessaqe end openStack on closeStack global logoutme put eqFpty into card fld text of

  19. Interface dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Joshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interface dermatitis includes diseases in which the primary pathology involves the dermo-epidermal junction. The salient histological findings include basal cell vacuolization, apoptotic keratinocytes (colloid or Civatte bodies, and obscuring of the dermo-epidermal junction by inflammatory cells. Secondary changes of the epidermis and papillary dermis along with type, distribution and density of inflammatory cells are used for the differential diagnoses of the various diseases that exhibit interface changes. Lupus erythematosus, dermatomyositis, lichen planus, graft versus host disease, erythema multiforme, fixed drug eruptions, lichen striatus, and pityriasis lichenoides are considered major interface diseases. Several other diseases (inflammatory, infective, and neoplastic may show interface changes.

  20. Interface Screenings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bodil Marie Stavning

    2015-01-01

    and memories. From a transvisual perspective, the question is whether or not these (by now realized) diagrammatic modes involving the body in ubiquitous global media can be analysed in terms of the affects and events created in concrete interfaces. The examples used are filmic as felt sensations...... of an interface are invisible and not easy to describe....

  1. Fluid Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2001-01-01

    Fluid interaction, interaction by the user with the system that causes few breakdowns, is essential to many user interfaces. We present two concrete software systems that try to support fluid interaction for different work practices. Furthermore, we present specificity, generality, and minimality...... as design goals for fluid interfaces....

  2. Interface Realisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pold, Søren

    2005-01-01

    This article argues for seeing the interface as an important representational and aesthetic form with implications for postmodern culture and digital aesthetics. The interface emphasizes realism due in part to the desire for transparency in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and partly to the devel...

  3. Testing Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim T.; Henriksen, Mogens; Nilson, Jesper K.;

    1999-01-01

    The wide use of solid insulating materials combinations in combinations has introduced problems in the interfaces between components. The most common insulating materials are cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE), silicone rubber (SIR) and ethylene-propylene rubbers (EPR). Assemblies of these materials...... have caused major failures. In the Netherlands, a major black out was caused by interface problems in 150kV cable terminations, causing a cascade of breakdowns. There is a need to investigate the reasons for this and other similar breakdowns.The major problem is expected to lie in the interface between...... two different materials. Environmental influence, surface treatment, defects in materials and interface, design, pressure and rubbing are believed to have an effect on interface degradation. These factors are believed to increase the possibility of partial discharges (PD). PD will, with time, destroy...

  4. The application of the HT2012 HART○R Modem to the HART protocol%HT2012 HART○RModem在HART协议中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡立虹; 庞彦斌

    2001-01-01

    本文介绍了SMAR公司的HT2012 HART○RModem芯片的特点与功能以及在HART协议物理层中的应用%This paper presents the features and the functions of the Smar HT2012 HART○R Modem and also describes the application of the HT2012 chip to the physical layer of the HART protocol.

  5. Simulation study of communication link for Pioneer Saturn/Uranus atmospheric entry probe. [signal acquisition by candidate modem for radio link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichs, C. A.

    1974-01-01

    A digital simulation is presented for a candidate modem in a modeled atmospheric scintillation environment with Doppler, Doppler rate, and signal attenuation typical of the radio link conditions for an outer planets atmospheric entry probe. The results indicate that the signal acquisition characteristics and the channel error rate are acceptable for the system requirements of the radio link. The simulation also outputs data for calculating other error statistics and a quantized symbol stream from which error correction decoding can be analyzed.

  6. Microprocessor interfacing

    CERN Document Server

    Vears, R E

    2014-01-01

    Microprocessor Interfacing provides the coverage of the Business and Technician Education Council level NIII unit in Microprocessor Interfacing (syllabus U86/335). Composed of seven chapters, the book explains the foundation in microprocessor interfacing techniques in hardware and software that can be used for problem identification and solving. The book focuses on the 6502, Z80, and 6800/02 microprocessor families. The technique starts with signal conditioning, filtering, and cleaning before the signal can be processed. The signal conversion, from analog to digital or vice versa, is expl

  7. Demonstration of Multi-Gbps Data Rates at Ka-Band Using Software-Defined Modem and Broadband High Power Amplifier for Space Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Wintucky, Edwin G.; Landon, David G.; Sun, Jun Y.; Winn, James S.; Laraway, Stephen; McIntire, William K.; Metz, John L.; Smith, Francis J.

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the first ever research and experimental results regarding the combination of a software-defined multi-Gbps modem and a broadband high power space amplifier when tested with an extended form of the industry standard DVB-S2 and LDPC rate 9/10 FEC codec. The modem supports waveforms including QPSK, 8-PSK, 16-APSK, 32-APSK, 64-APSK, and 128-QAM. The broadband high power amplifier is a space qualified traveling-wave tube (TWT), which has a passband greater than 3 GHz at 33 GHz, output power of 200 W and efficiency greater than 60 percent. The modem and the TWTA together enabled an unprecedented data rate at 20 Gbps with low BER of 10(exp -9). The presented results include a plot of the received waveform constellation, BER vs. E(sub b)/N(sub 0) and implementation loss for each of the modulation types tested. The above results when included in an RF link budget analysis show that NASA s payload data rate can be increased by at least an order of magnitude (greater than 10X) over current state-of-practice, limited only by the spacecraft EIRP, ground receiver G/T, range, and available spectrum or bandwidth.

  8. The Songs Phenomenon of Modem Poetry and Trends%现代新诗的歌谣化现象及其趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立群

    2011-01-01

    In the birth and development process of modern poetry, the canalization of form and style has always been one of the important issues of its own. As a mean of trying to solve this problem, "songs phenomenon" played an important role in modem poetry at all stages. Through the ups and downs of songs phenomenon in the history of modem poetry, we can see that the complex relationship between social history and modem poetry, but this time, the phenomenon of songs bring people beyond the narrow study.%在现代新诗的诞生与发展过程中,形式与风格相对古典诗歌的定型化一直是其自身的重要问题之一。“歌谣化现象”作为试图解决这一问题的途径,在现代新诗的各阶段进程中均扮演过重要的角色。透过歌谣化现象在现代新诗史上的起伏,可以看出新诗艺术与社会历史之间的复杂关系,而此时,歌谣化现象带给人们的启示已超出狭窄单一的研究视阈。

  9. 16 Kilobit Modem Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-06-01

    Hillingdon , England; Feldberg, Germany; and Coltano, Italy. The Pacific site was Pearl Harbor on Oahu, Hawaii. The three U.S. sites utilized were: Ft...off other switches were selected instead. The trans-Atlantic calls were conducted from Hillingdon , England, one of the gateway switches, to Ft. Dietrich...switches is concerned. Thus, a call ploced from Hillingdon , England to Humosa, Spain may go directly (primary routing); it may go via Langerkopfand

  10. Broadband Digital Modem

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-01

    and the ,;ne which appears to have good phase distortion characteristics is a four-pole modified linear phase filter with noise bandwidth equal to the...symbol rate. This is termed a "modified" linear phase filter , since it is not a "standard" bandpass linear phase filter . However, it is realizabie and...diagram of the baseline receiver %alectecl. The filter is nominally u 4-pole modified linear phase filter with a noise bandwidth equal to the symbol

  11. GSM- modems in spheres

    OpenAIRE

    Белецкий, Я. В.; Национальный технический университет Украины “Киевский политехнический институт”; Корнев, В. П.; Национальный технический университет Украины “Киевский политехнический институт”

    2010-01-01

    Розглянуті особливості GSM- модемов та області їх застосування, описані режими роботи GSM-модема Maestro 100 TCP/IP, спеціальні можливості та характеристики GSM-модема Maestro 100 TCP/IP, зазначені приклади кількох AT-команд широкого застосування Рассмотрены особенности GSM-модемов и области их применения, описаны режимы работы GSM-модема Maestro 100 TCP/IP, специальные возможности и характеристики GSM-модема Maestro 100 TCP/IP, приведены примеры нескольких AT-команд широкого применения ...

  12. Designing Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Tidwell, Jenifer

    2010-01-01

    Despite all of the UI toolkits available today, it's still not easy to design good application interfaces. This bestselling book is one of the few reliable sources to help you navigate through the maze of design options. By capturing UI best practices and reusable ideas as design patterns, Designing Interfaces provides solutions to common design problems that you can tailor to the situation at hand. This updated edition includes patterns for mobile apps and social media, as well as web applications and desktop software. Each pattern contains full-color examples and practical design advice th

  13. Gesture Interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkert, F.W.

    2007-01-01

    Take away mouse and keyboard. Now, how do you interact with a computer? Especially one that has a display that is the size of an entire wall. One possibility is through gesture interfaces. Remember Minority Report? Cool stuff, but that was already five years ago.. So, what is already possible now an

  14. Manufacturing Interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houten, van F.J.A.M.

    1992-01-01

    The paper identifies the changing needs and requirements with respect to the interfacing of manufacturing functions. It considers the manufacturing system, its components and their relationships from the technological and logistic point of view, against the background of concurrent engineering. Desi

  15. Testing Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim T.; Henriksen, Mogens; Nilson, Jesper K.;

    1999-01-01

    The wide use of solid insulating materials combinations in combinations has introduced problems in the interfaces between components. The most common insulating materials are cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE), silicone rubber (SIR) and ethylene-propylene rubbers (EPR). Assemblies of these materials...

  16. Interface learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorhauge, Sally

    2014-01-01

    "Interface learning - New goals for museum and upper secondary school collaboration" investigates and analyzes the learning that takes place when museums and upper secondary schools in Denmark work together in local partnerships to develop and carry out school-related, museum-based coursework...... for students. The research focuses on the learning that the students experience in the interface of the two learning environments: The formal learning environment of the upper secondary school and the informal learning environment of the museum. Focus is also on the learning that the teachers and museum...... professionals experience as a result of their collaboration. The dissertation demonstrates how a given partnership’s collaboration affects the students’ learning experiences when they are doing the coursework. The dissertation presents findings that museum-school partnerships can use in order to develop...

  17. Museets interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pold, Søren

    2007-01-01

    Søren Pold gør sig overvejelser med udgangspunkt i museumsprojekterne Kongedragter.dk og Stigombord.dk. Han argumenterer for, at udviklingen af internettets interfaces skaber nye måder at se, forstå og interagere med kulturen på. Brugerne får nye medievaner og perceptionsmønstre, der må medtænkes i...

  18. Museets interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pold, Søren

    2007-01-01

    Søren Pold gør sig overvejelser med udgangspunkt i museumsprojekterne Kongedragter.dk og Stigombord.dk. Han argumenterer for, at udviklingen af internettets interfaces skaber nye måder at se, forstå og interagere med kulturen på. Brugerne får nye medievaner og perceptionsmønstre, der må medtænkes i...

  19. New Concept of PLC Modems: Multi-Carrier System for Frequency Selective Slow-Fading Channels Based on Layered SCCC Turbocodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zavrtalek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces a novel concept of a PLC modem as a complement to the existing G3 and PRIME standards for communications using medium- or high-voltage overhead or cable lines. The proposed concept is based on the fact that the levels of impulse noise and frequency selectivity are lower on high-voltage lines than on low-voltage ones. Also, the demands for “cost-effective” circuitry design are not so crucial as in the case of modems for low-voltage level. In contract to these positive conditions, however, there is the need to overcome much longer distances and to take into account low SNR on the receiving side. With respect to the listed reasons, our concept makes use of MCM, instead of OFDM. The assumption of low SNR is compensated through the use of an efficient channel coding based on a serially concatenated turbo code. In addition, MCM offers lower latency and PAPR compared to OFDM. Therefore, when using MCM, it is possible to excite the line with higher power. The proposed concept has been verified during experimental transmission of testing data over a real, 5 km long, 22kV overhead line.

  20. The ATLAS Level-1 Muon to Central Trigger Processor Interface

    CERN Document Server

    Berge, D; Farthouat, P; Haas, S; Klofver, P; Krasznahorkay, A; Messina, A; Pauly, T; Schuler, G; Spiwoks, R; Wengler, T; PH-EP

    2007-01-01

    The Muon to Central Trigger Processor Interface (MUCTPI) is part of the ATLAS Level-1 trigger system and connects the output of muon trigger system to the Central Trigger Processor (CTP). At every bunch crossing (BC), the MUCTPI receives information on muon candidates from each of the 208 muon trigger sectors and calculates the total multiplicity for each of six transverse momentum (pT) thresholds. This multiplicity value is then sent to the CTP, where it is used together with the input from the Calorimeter trigger to make the final Level-1 Accept (L1A) decision. In addition the MUCTPI provides summary information to the Level-2 trigger and to the data acquisition (DAQ) system for events selected at Level-1. This information is used to define the regions of interest (RoIs) that drive the Level-2 muontrigger processing. The MUCTPI system consists of a 9U VME chassis with a dedicated active backplane and 18 custom designed modules. The design of the modules is based on state-of-the-art FPGA devices and special ...

  1. Formation and evolution of the modem warm current system in the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea since the last deglaciation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Tiegang; NAN Qingyun; JIANG Bo; SUN Rongtao; ZHANG Deyu; LI Qing

    2009-01-01

    To reconstruct the formation and evolution process of the warm current system within the East China Sea (ECS) and the Yellow Sea (YS) since the last deglaciation, the paleoceangraphic records in core DGKS9603, core CSH1 and core YSDPI02, which were retrieved from the mainstream of the Kuroshio Current (KC), the edge of the modem Tsushima Warm Current (TWC) and muddy region under cold waters accreted with the Yellow Sea Warm Current (YSWC) respectively, were synthetically analyzed. The results indicate that the formation and evolution of the modem warm current system in the ECS and the YS has been accompanied by the development of the KC and impulse rising of the sea level since the last deglaciation. The influence of the KC on the Okinawa Trough had enhanced since 16 cal kyr BE and synchronously the modem TWC began to develop with the rising of sea level and finally formed at about 8.5 cal kyr BP. The KC had experienced two weakening process during the Heinrich event 1 and the Younger Drays event from 16 to 8.5 cal kyr BP. The period of 7-6 cal kyr BP was the strongest stage of the KC and the TWC since the last deglaciation. The YSWC has appeared at about 6.4 cal kyr BP. Thus,the warm current system of the ECS and the YS has ultimately formed. The weakness of the KC,indicated by the occurrence of Pulleniatina minimum event (PME) during the period from 5.3 to 2.8 cal kyr BE caused the main stream of the TWC to shift eastward to the Pacific Ocean around about 3 cal kyr BP. The process resulted in the intruding of continent shelf cold water mass with rich nutrients. Synchronously, the strength of the YSWC was relatively weak and the related cold water body was active at the early-mid stage of its appearance against the PME background, which resulted in the quick formation of muddy deposit system in the southeastern YS. The strength of the warm current system in the ECS and the YS has enhanced evidently, and approached to the modern condition gradually since 3 cal kyr

  2. Development of a Network Interface Card for a Digital Safety I and C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kwang-Il; Hong, Seok-Boong; Park, Heui-Youn; Koo, In-Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    Communication technology may have the most significant impact on digital safety I and C systems of any technology since the introduction of a microprocessor and digitalization. Thus a data communication network (DCN) has become an important system for transmitting the data generated by an I and C system. To apply a DCN to the safety systems in a NPP I and C system, the DCN should be designed to meet the applicable requirements such as a high safety, high reliability, independence, isolation, deterministic data communication and a status-based communication which are included in IEEE Std. 603, IEEE Std. 7-4.3.2 and NUREG/CR-6082. A network interface card (NIC), one of the most important components in a DCN, provides the safety systems with a connection point to a DCN. Therefore a NIC should meet the requirements for a DCN and a digital safety I and C system. In this paper, a NIC with a VME bus interface, an fiber optic interface, a deterministic data communication, an unidirectional communication for each input and output port, and buffering circuits, as well as a non-interruptible communication for the safety functions of the safety systems are proposed.

  3. The Documentary Account of Poetry in Modem and Its Influence%近代诗歌的纪实性及其影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁夏江

    2012-01-01

    近代诗歌与先前时代诗歌相比,纪实性更加明显。诗人“诗史”意识普遍增强,诗作更具有“诗史”品格。诗歌叙事越来越切实细致,篇制不断膨胀扩大。得益于近代传媒业和和通讯业,近代诗歌对事件的纪录更加客观、全面、快速。%Compared with the poetry in past, the documentary account of poetry in modem is more notable. The poets' consciousness of history of poetry and their works' characteristic of history of poetry is more apparent. Because of meticulous interpretation, the space of their works expanded. Profit from media and communication, record in the poetry is more objective, comprehensive and swift.

  4. EBPSK-MODEM Simulations under Finite Conversion Accuracies%转换精度有限时EBPSK-MODEM的性能仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应鹏魁; 吴金铃; 吴乐南

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at the shortage of frequency resources, spectral efficiency has become an important goal of communication research, and the EBPSK modulation is able to improve spectral efficiency. It was discussed how to use the Simulink to simulate and research an EBPSK- MODEM system, and a specific simulation model was given with which the demodulation performance under various sampling rates and quantization bits of DAC and ADC was obtained. Simulation results show that in the affeet caused by finite conversion accuracies of DAC and ADC for the demodulation performance of EBPSK-MODEM, the sampling rate is much more significant than the quantization bits. This is useful for the hardware implementation.%针对当前频率资源紧缺的现状,提高频谱利用率已成为通信技术研究的重要目标,而EBPSK调制可提高频谱利用率。讨论了如何利用Simulink进行EBPSK-MODEM系统仿真与研究,给出了具体的仿真模型,并利用该模型得到了系统在不同DAC和ADC采样率及量化位数时的解调性能。仿真结果表明,在DAC和ADC的有限数据转换精度对于EBPSK-MODEM解调性能的影响中,采样率要比量化位数明显得多。这对于硬件实现很有参考价值。

  5. Interfaces habladas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Soto Sanfiel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe y piensa al fenómeno de las Interfaces habladas (IH desde variados puntos de vista y niveles de análisis. El texto se ha concebido con los objetivos específicos de: 1.- procurar una visión panorámica de aspectos de la producción y consumo comunicativo de las IH; 2.- ofrecer recomendaciones para su creación y uso eficaz, y 3.- llamar la atención sobre su proliferación e inspirar su estudio desde la comunicación. A pesar de la creciente presencia de las IF en nues-tras vidas cotidianas, hay ausencia de textos que las caractericen y analicen por sus aspectos comunicativos. El trabajo es pertinente porque el fenómeno significa un cambio respecto a estadios comunica-tivos precedentes con consecuencias en las concepciones intelectuales y emocionales de los usuarios. La proliferación de IH nos abre a nue-vas realidades comunicativas: hablamos con máquinas.

  6. 一种基于NIOS的突发调制解调器设计及实现%Design and Implementation of Burst Modem Based on NIOS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石玉景; 胡波; 宋峥东

    2014-01-01

    Embedded CPUs,due to its low power consumption,low cost and high efficiency,are increasingly used in data process-ing and anto control platforms.Based on NIOS II soft CPU cores of Altera Corporation,by customizing FIR and Reed-Solomon cores to fit signal processing requirements,and finally improving data processing capability a modem based on NIOS is developed,which improves the system design flexibility.%嵌入式CPU由于其低功耗、低成本和处理效率高等特点,在数据处理平台及自动控制方向的应用越来越广泛。基于ALTERA公司推出的NIOS II软核,通过定制FIR滤波器和RS编解码等外部接口,适合数字信号处理需要,提高软核的数据处理能力,开发出基于NIOS处理器的调制解调器,提高了调制解调器设计的灵活性。

  7. 现代中国的民主观及其发展动态%The Democratic Outlook and its Development Tendency in Modem China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜俊儒; 刘畅

    2012-01-01

    The knowledge of "democracy" of modem Chinese people has roughly experienced a process from strangeness to familiarity. In this process, the "democracy" people understand assumes a diversified feature. Poli- ticians pay particular emphasis on the understanding of democratic practice and scholars stress on the demonstration of democratic theory. However, the key to the question is not to impose the public on the consistence of cognition about democracy, but to understand the way everyone uses it.%现代中国人对"民主"的认识,大致经历了一个从陌生到熟悉的过程,在这一过程中,人们所理解的"民主"呈现出多样性的特征,政治家们侧重民主实践上的理解,学者们侧重民主理论上的论证,但问题的关键不是强求大众对于"民主"认知的一致,而是要理解每个人使用"民主"的方式。

  8. “电力猫”在电力系统载波通信中的应用%Power System Carrier Communication in Power Modem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚魁; 韩国政

    2015-01-01

    电力调制解调器(电力猫)在近几年受到了追捧,它可以在大空间内无需多个无线路由器,即可实现网络的联通。电力猫通过电线来传输数字信号,然后将电路里的数字信号分离出来,再将分离的信号构造网络信号。本文在介绍了电力载波通信的工作原理和可靠性的基础之上,分析了电力猫的优缺点,并对未来的应用方向进行了展望。%Power modem ( power cat) were popular in recent years,it can connected to the local area network(LAN) without multiple wireless router.Power cat through wires to transmit digital signals,and then separate signals to construct network.This paper bases on introducing the working principle of electric power carrier communication and reliability, then analyze the advantages and disadvantages of power cat and the direction for the future application.

  9. Interface Simulation Distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Černý

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The classical (boolean notion of refinement for behavioral interfaces of system components is the alternating refinement preorder. In this paper, we define a distance for interfaces, called interface simulation distance. It makes the alternating refinement preorder quantitative by, intuitively, tolerating errors (while counting them in the alternating simulation game. We show that the interface simulation distance satisfies the triangle inequality, that the distance between two interfaces does not increase under parallel composition with a third interface, and that the distance between two interfaces can be bounded from above and below by distances between abstractions of the two interfaces. We illustrate the framework, and the properties of the distances under composition of interfaces, with two case studies.

  10. After Rigid Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troiano, Giovanni Maria

    Deformable and shape-changing interfaces are rapidly emerging in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI). Deformable interfaces provide users with newer input possibilities such as bending, squeezing, or stretching, which were impossible to achieve with rigid interfaces. Shape-changing inte......Deformable and shape-changing interfaces are rapidly emerging in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI). Deformable interfaces provide users with newer input possibilities such as bending, squeezing, or stretching, which were impossible to achieve with rigid interfaces. Shape...

  11. After Rigid Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troiano, Giovanni Maria

    to convey particular information (e.g., big-isurgent, loud-is-up). The second work presents a large-scale analysis of 340 Sci-Fi movies that identifies instances of shape-changing interfaces. Results from the analysis reveals emergent behavioral patterns of shape change, namely Reconfiguration......Deformable and shape-changing interfaces are rapidly emerging in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI). Deformable interfaces provide users with newer input possibilities such as bending, squeezing, or stretching, which were impossible to achieve with rigid interfaces. Shape......-changing interfaces can reconfigure their shape dynamically, providing users with new affordances and output modalities. This thesis contributes to both the field of deformable interfaces and shape-changing interfaces through empirical research. In the area of deformable interfaces, this thesis presents two studies...

  12. Interface localization near criticality

    CERN Document Server

    Delfino, Gesualdo

    2016-01-01

    The theory of interface localization in near-critical planar systems at phase coexistence is formulated from first principles. We show that mutual delocalization of two interfaces, amounting to interfacial wetting, occurs when the bulk correlation length critical exponent $\

  13. Microcomputer interfacing and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mustafa, M A

    1990-01-01

    This is the applications guide to interfacing microcomputers. It offers practical non-mathematical solutions to interfacing problems in many applications including data acquisition and control. Emphasis is given to the definition of the objectives of the interface, then comparing possible solutions and producing the best interface for every situation. Dr Mustafa A Mustafa is a senior designer of control equipment and has written many technical articles and papers on the subject of computers and their application to control engineering.

  14. 现代图书馆公共空间设计发展的新趋势%New Development Trends of Public Space Design of Modem Libraries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蔚

    2012-01-01

    图书馆公共空间是社会化的行为场所,其设计应该最大限度地满足人们的不同需求并充分体现人性化。图书馆公共空间设计的要素主要包括光环境、材质与色彩。随着社会的不断进步,现代图书馆室内公共空间设计呈现出一些新趋势:由平面空间转向立体空间;光环境与色彩设计更加人性化;绿色、生态、低碳设计日益兴起;趋向智能化,舒适度增加,保持民族化,注重科学性,加入减噪设计等。%Public space of libraries is socialization behavior place, its design should satisfy different needs through utilizing various kinds of methods to the great extend, and reflect its humanization fully. Key elements of public space design of libraries include light environment, matedal quality and color. With the advance of the society, interior public space design of modem libraries takes on some new trends: shifting plane space to plastic space; applying more humanized light environment and color design; designing more favorable green, ecological, Iow-cerbon design; tending to more intellectualization, enhancing comfort level, holding nationalization, focusing on scientificity, and integrating noise design.

  15. Complex Interfaces Under Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosbjerg, Dan

    and mechanical processes that develop within this structure. Water-related processes at the interfaces between the compartments are complex, depending both on the interface itself, and on the characteristics of the interfaced compartments. Various aspects of global change directly or indirectly impact...

  16. Water at Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björneholm, Olle; Hansen, Martin Hangaard; Hodgson, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The interfaces of neat water and aqueous solutions play a prominent role in many technological processes and in the environment. Examples of aqueous interfaces are ultrathin water films that cover most hydrophilic surfaces under ambient relative humidities, the liquid/solid interface which drives...

  17. Entanglement and topological interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Brehm, Enrico M; Jaud, Daniel; Schmidt-Colinet, Cornelius

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider entanglement entropies in two-dimensional conformal field theories in the presence of topological interfaces. Tracing over one side of the interface, the leading term of the entropy remains unchanged. The interface however adds a subleading contribution, which can be interpreted as a relative (Kullback-Leibler) entropy with respect to the situation with no defect inserted. Reinterpreting boundaries as topological interfaces of a chiral half of the full theory, we rederive the left/right entanglement entropy in analogy with the interface case. We discuss WZW models and toroidal bosonic theories as examples.

  18. Quantization of interface currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotani, Motoko [AIMR, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Schulz-Baldes, Hermann [Department Mathematik, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen (Germany); Villegas-Blas, Carlos [Instituto de Matematicas, Cuernavaca, UNAM, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    2014-12-15

    At the interface of two two-dimensional quantum systems, there may exist interface currents similar to edge currents in quantum Hall systems. It is proved that these interface currents are macroscopically quantized by an integer that is given by the difference of the Chern numbers of the two systems. It is also argued that at the interface between two time-reversal invariant systems with half-integer spin, one of which is trivial and the other non-trivial, there are dissipationless spin-polarized interface currents.

  19. Interfacing with the WEB

    CERN Document Server

    Dönszelmann, M

    1995-01-01

    Interfacing to the Web or programming interfaces for the Web is used to provide dynamic information for Web users. Using the Web as a transport system of information poses three constraints: namespace, statelessness and performance. To build interfaces on either server or client side of the Web one has to meet these constraints. Several examples, currently in use in High Energy Physics Experiments are described. They range from an interface to show where buildings are located to an interface showing active values of the On-line System of the DELPHI (CERN)..

  20. The Octant Module of the ATLAS Level-1 Muon to Central Trigger Processor Interface

    CERN Document Server

    Haas, Stefan; Berge, D; Ellis, Nick; Farthouat, P; Krasznahorkay, A; Pauly, T; Schuler, G; Spiwoks, R; Wengler, T

    2007-01-01

    The Muon to Central Trigger Processor Interface (MUCTPI) of the ATLAS Level-1 trigger receives data from the sector logic modules of the muon trigger at every bunch crossing and calculates the total multiplicity of muon candidates, which is then sent to the Central Trigger Processor where the final Level-1 decision is taken. The MUCTPI system consists of a 9U VME crate with a special backplane and 18 custom designed modules. We focus on the design and implementation of the octant module (MIOCT). Each of the 16 MIOCT modules processes the muon candidates from 13 sectors of one half-octant of the detector and forms the local muon candidate multiplicities for the trigger decision. It also resolves the overlaps between chambers in order to avoid double-counting of muon candidates that are detected in more than one sector. The handling of overlapping sectors is based on Look-Up-Tables (LUT) for maximum flexibility. The MIOCT also sends the information on the muon candidates over the custom backplane via the Readou...

  1. Design and Implementation of a Single-Frequency Mesh Network Using OpenAirInterface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaltenberger Florian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OpenAirInterface is an experimental open-source real-time hardware and software platform for experimentation in wireless communications and signal processing. With the help of OpenAirInterface, researchers can demonstrate novel ideas quickly and verify them in a realistic environment. Its current implementation provides a full open-source software modem comprising physical and link layer functionalities for cellular and mesh network topologies. The physical (PHY layer of the platform targets fourth generation wireless networks and thus uses orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA together with multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO techniques. The current hardware supports 5 MHz bandwidth and two transmit/receive antennas. The media access (MAC layer of the platform supports an abundant two-way signaling for enabling collaboration, scheduling protocols, as well as traffic and channel measurements. In this paper, we focus on the mesh topology and show how to implement a single-frequency mesh network with OpenAirInterface. The key ingredients to enable such a network are a dual-stream MIMO receiver structure and a distributed network synchronization algorithm. We show how to implement these two algorithms in real-time on the OpenAirInterface platform. Further more, we provide results from field trials and compare them to the simulation results.

  2. Refinement by interface instantiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallerstede, Stefan; Hoang, Thai Son

    2012-01-01

    be easily refined. Our first contribution hence is a proposal for a new construct called interface that encapsulates the external variables, along with a mechanism for interface instantiation. Using the new construct and mechanism, external variables can be refined consistently. Our second contribution...... is an approach for verifying the correctness of Event-B extensions using the supporting Rodin tool. We illustrate our approach by proving the correctness of interface instantiation....

  3. Popeye Project: ROV interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scates, C.R.; Hernandez, D.A.; Hickok, D.D.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the Remote Operated Vehicle (ROV) interface with the Popeye Project Subsea System. It describes the ROV-related plans, design philosophies, intervention tasks, tooling/equipment requirements, testing activities, and offshore installation experiences. Early identification and continuous consideration of the ROV interfaces significantly improved the overall efficiency of equipment designs and offshore operations. The Popeye Project helped advance the technology and standardization of ROV interfaces for deep water subsea production systems.

  4. Turbomachine Interface Sealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Chupp, Raymond E.; Lattime, Scott B.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2005-01-01

    Sealing interfaces and coatings, like lubricants, are sacrificial, giving up their integrity for the benefit of the component. Clearance control is a major issue in power systems turbomachine design and operational life. Sealing becomes the most cost-effective way to enhance system performance. Coatings, films, and combined use of both metals and ceramics play a major role in maintaining interface clearances in turbomachine sealing and component life. This paper focuses on conventional and innovative materials and design practices for sealing interfaces.

  5. Universal computer interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dheere, RFBM

    1988-01-01

    Presents a survey of the latest developments in the field of the universal computer interface, resulting from a study of the world patent literature. Illustrating the state of the art today, the book ranges from basic interface structure, through parameters and common characteristics, to the most important industrial bus realizations. Recent technical enhancements are also included, with special emphasis devoted to the universal interface adapter circuit. Comprehensively indexed.

  6. Electromagnetic Interface Testing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electromagnetic Interface Testing facilitysupports such testing asEmissions, Field Strength, Mode Stirring, EMP Pulser, 4 Probe Monitoring/Leveling System, and...

  7. Shape-changing interfaces:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegård; Pedersen, Esben Warming; Petersen, Marianne Graves;

    2015-01-01

    these shortcomings. We identify eight types of shape that are transformed in various ways to serve both functional and hedonic design purposes. Interaction with shape-changing interfaces is simple and rarely merges input and output. Three questions are discussed based on the review: (a) which design purposes may......Shape change is increasingly used in physical user interfaces, both as input and output. Yet, the progress made and the key research questions for shape-changing interfaces are rarely analyzed systematically. We review a sample of existing work on shape-changing interfaces to address...

  8. Shape-changing interfaces:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegård; Pedersen, Esben Warming; Petersen, Marianne Graves

    2015-01-01

    Shape change is increasingly used in physical user interfaces, both as input and output. Yet, the progress made and the key research questions for shape-changing interfaces are rarely analyzed systematically. We review a sample of existing work on shape-changing interfaces to address these shortc...... shape-changing interfaces be used for, (b) which parts of the design space are not well understood, and (c) why studying user experience with shape-changing interfaces is important.......Shape change is increasingly used in physical user interfaces, both as input and output. Yet, the progress made and the key research questions for shape-changing interfaces are rarely analyzed systematically. We review a sample of existing work on shape-changing interfaces to address...... these shortcomings. We identify eight types of shape that are transformed in various ways to serve both functional and hedonic design purposes. Interaction with shape-changing interfaces is simple and rarely merges input and output. Three questions are discussed based on the review: (a) which design purposes may...

  9. Interfaces Between Second Interfaces Between Second

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Henrique Soufen Tumolo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The book Interfaces Between Second Language Acquisition and Language Testing Research was edited with the concern of bringing together various researchers who have tried to overcome the separation of the two areas, SLA and LT, by raising and discussing relevant issues related to both. The book Interfaces Between Second Language Acquisition and Language Testing Research was edited with the concern of bringing together various researchers who have tried to overcome the separation of the two areas, SLA and LT, by raising and discussing relevant issues related to both.

  10. 基于GSM Modem的专业监考派发系统的设计与实现%Design and implementation of the professional distribution system based on GSM Modem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张泽; 吴开星

    2016-01-01

    The professional distribution system based on GSM Modem is a system which uses GSM Modem, JSP technology, Oracle database and modeling tools to structure.According to the demand, the system not only realizes the import of the exam lists,the automatic distribution of tasks,adjusting the examiners,the export of the exam lists,querying the examiners,and so on,but also the use of GSM modem and applications is connected together to send short messages to remind examiners the time of the exams.This system can improve the efficiency of invigilating arrangement work, save lots of duplication of work time. It can prevent the missing and wrong sort, teachers’ forgetting of the time and other circumstances. The developed system is easy to maintain and easy to use.%使用GSM modem、jsp技术、oracle数据库及建模工具构建基于GSM modem的B/S监考自动派发系统。根据需求,系统不仅实现监考任务表的导入、监考任务自动派发、监考调整、监考任务导出、监考查询等传统派监考教师功能外,还使用GSM modem和应用程序连接融合,完成自动发短信提醒监考教师考试时间的功能。此系统可提高监考安排工作的效率,节省大量重复劳动时间。防止漏排、错排、教师遗忘监考时间等情况出现。系统易于维护、使用方便。

  11. 水声传感网中的高效调制解调器的设计%A high-efficiency acoustic modem used in the underwater acoustic sensor network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斌; 朱昌平; 单鸣雷; 马济通; 谢希; 韩秋铖; 汤一彬; 高远; 韩庆邦

    2012-01-01

    The features of underwater acoustic sensor network are mainly indicated in dense nodes, large scale and long time working. To adapt these features, a kind of acoustic modem of small size, low-cost, low-power and short range is developed. The modem uses 2ASK modulation and demodulation method, and the hardware is designed by low-power scheme. The results of lake experiment show that the maximum power consumption of a complete machine is up to 90 mW, data rate is 2kbps. This kind of underwater acoustic modems can replace the expensive ones on the market, and can be widely used in underwater acoustic sensor networks.%为适应水声传感网络节点密集、规模大、工作时间长的特点,提出了一种具有小体积、低成本、低功耗等特点的水声调制解调器.采用数字幅度调制2ASK调制解调方式,硬件使用低功耗设计方案,电池供电,使用市场上量产的收发一体式小型水声换能器,使功耗和成本得到大幅度降低.经实际测试,整机最大功耗为90 mW,数据传输速率为2kbps,具备代替市场上昂贵水声调制解调器的潜力,在水声传感网技术中有良好的应用前景.

  12. Interface or Interlace?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed; Wamberg, Jacob

    2005-01-01

    Departing from an analysis of the computer's indeterminate location between medium and machine, this paper problematises the idea of a clear-cut interface in complex computing, especially Augmented Reality. The idea and pratice of the interface is derived from the medium as a representational...

  13. Verden som interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    Oversættelse af Peter Weibels tekst "The World as Interface" i Passepartout # 27. Interfacekulturens æstetik. Udgivelsesdato: 28.04.07......Oversættelse af Peter Weibels tekst "The World as Interface" i Passepartout # 27. Interfacekulturens æstetik. Udgivelsesdato: 28.04.07...

  14. Interfaces in nanoscale photovoltaics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Öner, S.Z.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis deals with material interfaces in nanoscale photovoltaics. Interface properties between the absorbing semiconductor and other employed materials are crucial for an efficient solar cell. While the optical properties are largely unaffected by a few nanometer thin layer, the electronic prop

  15. Interfaces in nanoscale photovoltaics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Öner, S.Z.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis deals with material interfaces in nanoscale photovoltaics. Interface properties between the absorbing semiconductor and other employed materials are crucial for an efficient solar cell. While the optical properties are largely unaffected by a few nanometer thin layer, the electronic prop

  16. The User Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Martha J.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The first of three articles on the design of user interfaces for information retrieval systems discusses the need to examine types of display, prompting, and input as separate entities. The second examines the use of artificial intelligence in creating natural language interfaces, and the third outlines standards for case studies in human computer…

  17. Designing the Instructional Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, L. L.

    2000-01-01

    Designing the instructional interface is a challenging endeavor requiring knowledge and skills in instructional and visual design, psychology, human-factors, ergonomic research, computer science, and editorial design. This paper describes the instructional interface, the challenges of its development, and an instructional systems approach to its…

  18. Entanglement and topological interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brehm, E.; Brunner, I.; Jaud, D.; Schmidt-Colinet, C. [Arnold Sommerfeld Center, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Theresienstrasse 37, 80333, Muenchen (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    In this paper we consider entanglement entropies in two-dimensional conformal field theories in the presence of topological interfaces. Tracing over one side of the interface, the leading term of the entropy remains unchanged. The interface however adds a subleading contribution, which can be interpreted as a relative (Kullback-Leibler) entropy with respect to the situation with no defect inserted. Reinterpreting boundaries as topological interfaces of a chiral half of the full theory, we rederive the left/right entanglement entropy in analogy with the interface case. We discuss WZW models and toroidal bosonic theories as examples. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. User Interface History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms; Myers, Brad A

    2008-01-01

    User Interfaces have been around as long as computers have existed, even well before the field of Human-Computer Interaction was established. Over the years, some papers on the history of Human-Computer Interaction and User Interfaces have appeared, primarily focusing on the graphical interface era...... and early visionaries such as Bush, Engelbart and Kay. With the User Interface being a decisive factor in the proliferation of computers in society and since it has become a cultural phenomenon, it is time to paint a more comprehensive picture of its history. This SIG will investigate the possibilities...... of  launching a concerted effort towards creating a History of User Interfaces. ...

  20. The interface effect

    CERN Document Server

    Galloway, Alexander R

    2013-01-01

    Interfaces are back, or perhaps they never left. The familiar Socratic conceit from the Phaedrus, of communication as the process of writing directly on the soul of the other, has returned to center stage in today's discussions of culture and media. Indeed Western thought has long construed media as a grand choice between two kinds of interfaces. Following the optimistic path, media seamlessly interface self and other in a transparent and immediate connection. But, following the pessimistic path, media are the obstacles to direct communion, disintegrating self and other into misunderstanding

  1. Operator interface for vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissontz, Jay E

    2015-03-10

    A control interface for drivetrain braking provided by a regenerative brake and a non-regenerative brake is implemented using a combination of switches and graphic interface elements. The control interface comprises a control system for allocating drivetrain braking effort between the regenerative brake and the non-regenerative brake, a first operator actuated control for enabling operation of the drivetrain braking, and a second operator actuated control for selecting a target braking effort for drivetrain braking. A graphic display displays to an operator the selected target braking effort and can be used to further display actual braking effort achieved by drivetrain braking.

  2. The Java Legacy Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Stephan

    2007-01-01

    The Java Legacy Interface is designed to use Java for encapsulating native legacy code on small embedded platforms. We discuss why existing technologies for encapsulating legacy code (JNI) is not sufficient for an important range of small embedded platforms, and we show how the Java Legacy...... Interface offers this previously missing functionality. We describe an implementation of the Java Legacy Interface for a particular virtual machine, and how we have used this virtual machine to integrate Java with an existing, commercial, soft real-time, C/C++ legacy platform....

  3. The Java Legacy Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Stephan

    2007-01-01

    The Java Legacy Interface is designed to use Java for encapsulating native legacy code on small embedded platforms. We discuss why existing technologies for encapsulating legacy code (JNI) is not sufficient for an important range of small embedded platforms, and we show how the Java Legacy...... Interface offers this previously missing functionality. We describe an implementation of the Java Legacy Interface for a particular virtual machine, and how we have used this virtual machine to integrate Java with an existing, commercial, soft real-time, C/C++ legacy platform....

  4. The computer graphics interface

    CERN Document Server

    Steinbrugge Chauveau, Karla; Niles Reed, Theodore; Shepherd, B

    2014-01-01

    The Computer Graphics Interface provides a concise discussion of computer graphics interface (CGI) standards. The title is comprised of seven chapters that cover the concepts of the CGI standard. Figures and examples are also included. The first chapter provides a general overview of CGI; this chapter covers graphics standards, functional specifications, and syntactic interfaces. Next, the book discusses the basic concepts of CGI, such as inquiry, profiles, and registration. The third chapter covers the CGI concepts and functions, while the fourth chapter deals with the concept of graphic obje

  5. Interface Anywhere Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To illustrate the viability of this technology, a prototype Natural User Interface (NUI) was developed as a proof-of-concept for system control.  Gesture and...

  6. Space as interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke-Olesen, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    of interactive systems through the Ph.D. project, I have identified different significant aspects in the relation between space and interface. Based on empirical work, I distill a fragment of work concerned with cameras as the interface for bridging the gap between physical and digital space. By looking across...... multiple projects spanning over fields such as tangible user interfaces, augmented reality, and mobile computing, a conceptual framework characterizing camera-based mixed interaction spaces is developed. To show the applicability of the framework, it is deployed on one of the presented cases and discussed...... to conceptualize space as more than the physical container for human activity. I do this by investigating space as interface. Based on a theory of space and place set forth by Tuan (Tuan, 1977), and informed by an explorative research approach, I make the distinction between space and place as a Euclidian space...

  7. Interface-Based Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Lecture Notes in Computer Science 1466, pages 163–178. Springer-Verlag, 1998. A. Chakrabarti, L. de Alfaro, T.A...Henzinger, M. Jurdziński, and F.Y.C. Mang. Interface compatibility checking for software modules. In Proc. Computer-Aided Verification, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2404...bidirectional component interfaces. In Proc. Computer-Aided Verification, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2404, pages 414–427.

  8. Interfaces: nanometric dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, T J [School of Informatics, University of Wales Bangor, Dean Street, Bangor, Gwynedd, LL70 9PX (United Kingdom)

    2005-01-21

    The incorporation of nanometric size particles in a matrix to form dielectric composites shows promise of materials (nanodielectrics) with new and improved properties. It is argued that the properties of the interfaces between the particles and the matrix, which will themselves be of nanometric dimensions, will have an increasingly dominant role in determining dielectric performance as the particle size decreases. The forces that determine the electrical and dielectric properties of interfaces are considered, with emphasis on the way in which they might influence composite behaviour. A number of examples are given in which interfaces at the nanometric level exercise both passive and active control over dielectric, optical and conductive properties. Electromechanical properties are also considered, and it is shown that interfaces have important electrostrictive and piezoelectric characteristics. It is demonstrated that the process of poling, namely subjecting macroscopic composite materials to electrical stress and raised temperatures to create piezoelectric materials, can be explained in terms of optimizing the collective response of the nanometric interfaces involved. If the electrical and electromechanical features are coupled to the long-established electrochemical properties, interfaces represent highly versatile active elements with considerable potential in nanotechnology.

  9. Interfaces: nanometric dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, T. J.

    2005-01-01

    The incorporation of nanometric size particles in a matrix to form dielectric composites shows promise of materials (nanodielectrics) with new and improved properties. It is argued that the properties of the interfaces between the particles and the matrix, which will themselves be of nanometric dimensions, will have an increasingly dominant role in determining dielectric performance as the particle size decreases. The forces that determine the electrical and dielectric properties of interfaces are considered, with emphasis on the way in which they might influence composite behaviour. A number of examples are given in which interfaces at the nanometric level exercise both passive and active control over dielectric, optical and conductive properties. Electromechanical properties are also considered, and it is shown that interfaces have important electrostrictive and piezoelectric characteristics. It is demonstrated that the process of poling, namely subjecting macroscopic composite materials to electrical stress and raised temperatures to create piezoelectric materials, can be explained in terms of optimizing the collective response of the nanometric interfaces involved. If the electrical and electromechanical features are coupled to the long-established electrochemical properties, interfaces represent highly versatile active elements with considerable potential in nanotechnology.

  10. Lectures on random interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Funaki, Tadahisa

    2016-01-01

    Interfaces are created to separate two distinct phases in a situation in which phase coexistence occurs. This book discusses randomly fluctuating interfaces in several different settings and from several points of view: discrete/continuum, microscopic/macroscopic, and static/dynamic theories. The following four topics in particular are dealt with in the book. Assuming that the interface is represented as a height function measured from a fixed-reference discretized hyperplane, the system is governed by the Hamiltonian of gradient of the height functions. This is a kind of effective interface model called ∇φ-interface model. The scaling limits are studied for Gaussian (or non-Gaussian) random fields with a pinning effect under a situation in which the rate functional of the corresponding large deviation principle has non-unique minimizers. Young diagrams determine decreasing interfaces, and their dynamics are introduced. The large-scale behavior of such dynamics is studied from the points of view of the hyd...

  11. High temperature interface superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gozar, A., E-mail: adrian.gozar@yale.edu [Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Bozovic, I. [Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Highlight: • This review article covers the topic of high temperature interface superconductivity. • New materials and techniques used for achieving interface superconductivity are discussed. • We emphasize the role played by the differences in structure and electronic properties at the interface with respect to the bulk of the constituents. - Abstract: High-T{sub c} superconductivity at interfaces has a history of more than a couple of decades. In this review we focus our attention on copper-oxide based heterostructures and multi-layers. We first discuss the technique, atomic layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy (ALL-MBE) engineering, that enabled High-T{sub c} Interface Superconductivity (HT-IS), and the challenges associated with the realization of high quality interfaces. Then we turn our attention to the experiments which shed light on the structure and properties of interfacial layers, allowing comparison to those of single-phase films and bulk crystals. Both ‘passive’ hetero-structures as well as surface-induced effects by external gating are discussed. We conclude by comparing HT-IS in cuprates and in other classes of materials, especially Fe-based superconductors, and by examining the grand challenges currently laying ahead for the field.

  12. 2nd interface between ecology and land development in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.; Baer-Keeley, Melanie; Fortheringham, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    The 2nd Interface Between Ecology and Land Development Conference was held in association with Earth Day 1997, five years after the first Interface Conference. Rapid population growth in California has intensified the inevitable conflict between land development and preservation of natural ecosystems. Sustainable development requires wise use of diminishing natural resources and, where possible, restoration of damaged landscapes. These Earth Week Celebrations brought together resource managers, scientists, politicians, environmental consultants, and concerned citizens in an effort to improve the communication necessary to maintain our natural biodiversity, ecosystem processes and general quality of life. As discussed by our keynote speaker, Michael Soule, the best predictor of habitat loss is population growth and nowhere is this better illustrated than in California. As urban perimeters expand, the interface between wildlands and urban areas increases. Few problems are more vexing than how to manage the fire prone ecosystems indigenous to California at this urban interface. Today resource managers face increasing challenges of dealing with this problem and the lead-off section of the proceedings considers both the theoretical basis for making decisions related to prescribed burning and the practical application. Habitat fragmentation is an inevitable consequence of development patterns with significant impacts on animal and plant populations. Managers must be increasingly resourceful in dealing with problems of fragmentation and the often inevitable consequences, including susceptibility to invasive oganisms. One approach to dealing with fragmentation problems is through careful landplanning. California is the national leader in the integration of conservation and economics. On Earth Day 1991, Governor Pete Wilson presented an environmental agenda that promised to create between land owners and environmentalists, agreements that would guarantee the protection of

  13. Workshop on Interface Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Kreuzer, Hans

    1987-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the first Workshop on Interface Phenomena, organized jointly by the surface science groups at Dalhousie University and the University of Maine. It was our intention to concentrate on just three topics related to the kinetics of interface reactions which, in our opinion, were frequently obscured unnecessarily in the literature and whose fundamental nature warranted an extensive discussion to help clarify the issues, very much in the spirit of the Discussions of the Faraday Society. Each session (day) saw two principal speakers expounding the different views; the session chairmen were asked to summarize the ensuing discussions. To understand the complexity of interface reactions, paradigms must be formulated to provide a framework for the interpretation of experimen­ tal data and for the construction of theoretical models. Phenomenological approaches have been based on a small number of rate equations for the concentrations or mole numbers of the various species involved i...

  14. User interface design considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Engedal; Jakobsen, Arne; Rasmussen, Bjarne D.

    1999-01-01

    When designing a user interface for a simulation model there are several important issues to consider: Who is the target user group, and which a priori information can be expected. What questions do the users want answers to and what questions are answered using a specific model?When developing...... the user interface of EESCoolTools these issues led to a series of simulation tools each with a specific purpose and a carefully selected set of input and output variables. To allow a more wide range of questions to be answered by the same model, the user can change between different sets of input...... and output variables. This feature requires special attention when designing the user interface and a special approach for controlling the user selection of input and output variables are developed. To obtain a consistent system description the different input variables are grouped corresponding...

  15. Portraying User Interface History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms

    2008-01-01

    in that they largely address prevailing UI techno­logies, and thirdly history from above in that they focus on the great deeds of the visionaries. The paper then compares this state-of-art in UI history to the much more mature fields history of computing and history of technology. Based hereon, some speculations......The user interface is coming of age. Papers adressing UI history have appeared in fair amounts in the last 25 years. Most of them address particular aspects such as an in­novative interface paradigm or the contribution of a visionary or a research lab. Contrasting this, papers addres­sing UI...... history at large have been sparse. However, a small spate of publications appeared recently, so a reasonable number of papers are available. Hence this work-in-progress paints a portrait of the current history of user interfaces at large. The paper first describes a theoretical framework recruited from...

  16. An Abstract Data Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, D. J.

    The Abstract Data Interface (ADI) is a system within which both abstract data models and their mappings on to file formats can be defined. The data model system is object-oriented and closely follows the Common Lisp Object System (CLOS) object model. Programming interfaces in both C and \\fortran are supplied, and are designed to be simple enough for use by users with limited software skills. The prototype system supports access to those FITS formats most commonly used in the X-ray community, as well as the Starlink NDF data format. New interfaces can be rapidly added to the system---these may communicate directly with the file system, other ADI objects or elsewhere (e.g., a network connection).

  17. Urban water interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessner, M. O.; Hinkelmann, R.; Nützmann, G.; Jekel, M.; Singer, G.; Lewandowski, J.; Nehls, T.; Barjenbruch, M.

    2014-06-01

    Urban water systems consist of large-scale technical systems and both natural and man-made water bodies. The technical systems are essential components of urban infrastructure for water collection, treatment, storage and distribution, as well as for wastewater and runoff collection and subsequent treatment. Urban aquatic ecosystems are typically subject to strong human influences, which impair the quality of surface and ground waters, often with far-reaching impacts on downstream aquatic ecosystems and water users. The various surface and subsurface water bodies in urban environments can be viewed as interconnected compartments that are also extensively intertwined with a range of technical compartments of the urban water system. As a result, urban water systems are characterized by fluxes of water, solutes, gases and energy between contrasting compartments of a technical, natural or hybrid nature. Referred to as urban water interfaces, boundaries between and within these compartments are often specific to urban water systems. Urban water interfaces are generally characterized by steep physical and biogeochemical gradients, which promote high reaction rates. We hypothesize that they act as key sites of processes and fluxes with notable effects on overall system behaviour. By their very nature, urban water interfaces are heterogeneous and dynamic. Therefore, they increase spatial heterogeneity in urban areas and are also expected to contribute notably to the temporal dynamics of urban water systems, which often involve non-linear interactions and feedback mechanisms. Processes at and fluxes across urban water interfaces are complex and less well understood than within well-defined, homogeneous compartments, requiring both empirical investigations and new modelling approaches at both the process and system level. We advocate an integrative conceptual framework of the urban water system that considers interfaces as a key component to improve our fundamental

  18. 用通信服务器和MODEM实现远程联网和远程通信的连接%REMOTE NETWORK CONNECTIONS IN USING COMMUNICATION SERVER MODEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张健; 陈文林

    2001-01-01

    The telephone line may be used for connecting remote networks and point-to-point communications by most users who need the connections from their own computers to other's,remote hosts,IN TERNET,ISDN and other kinds of networks. This paper discribes how to use communication server and modem to implement the remote networking and remote communications.%需要远程联网和远程通信的用户,多数需要利用MODEM在现有的电话公共交换网上实现。本文对如何选择、配置网络MODEM和通信服务器,以实现远程联网和远程通信的连接作了深入的讨论。

  19. Politics at the interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kannabiran, Gobinaath; Petersen, Marianne Graves

    2010-01-01

    the process of design and into how users interact with the designed product on a day-to-day basis. This paper is an attempt to call to attention the need for a new set of methods, attitudes and approaches, along with the existing, to discuss, analyze and reflect upon the politics at the interface....... By presenting a critical analysis of two design cases, we elicit the importance of such an agenda and the implications for design in doing so. We use the Foucauldian notion of power to analyze the power relationships in these two cases and to articulate the politics at the interface. We conclude by emphasizing...

  20. Semiconductor Oxide Interface States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    0C for 30 minutes. B 9 7 and B17 curves were taken before forming gas annealing and A297 and A77 were taken after annealing in forming gas... A297 and A77’ AL .show a substantial reduction of interface states and a slight increase of positive oxide charges. The reduction of the interface...states is deduced from the voltage differences between A297 and the A77 C-V curves both above and below the cross-over point which are smaller than the

  1. Optical encryption interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Deborah J. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An analog optical encryption system based on phase scrambling of two-dimensional optical images and holographic transformation for achieving large encryption keys and high encryption speed. An enciphering interface uses a spatial light modulator for converting a digital data stream into a two dimensional optical image. The optical image is further transformed into a hologram with a random phase distribution. The hologram is converted into digital form for transmission over a shared information channel. A respective deciphering interface at a receiver reverses the encrypting process by using a phase conjugate reconstruction of the phase scrambled hologram.

  2. Distributed User Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Gallud, Jose A; Penichet, Victor M R

    2011-01-01

    The recent advances in display technologies and mobile devices is having an important effect on the way users interact with all kinds of devices (computers, mobile devices, laptops, tablets, and so on). These are opening up new possibilities for interaction, including the distribution of the UI (User Interface) amongst different devices, and implies that the UI can be split and composed, moved, copied or cloned among devices running the same or different operating systems. These new ways of manipulating the UI are considered under the emerging topic of Distributed User Interfaces (DUIs). DUIs

  3. Software for Data Acquisition AMC Module with PCI Express Interface

    CERN Document Server

    Szachowalow, S; Makowski, D; Butkowski, L

    2010-01-01

    Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) and XRay Free Electron Laser (XFEL) are linear accelerators that require a complex and accurate Low Level Radio Frequency (LLRF) control system. Currently working systems are based on aged Versa Module Eurocard (VME) architecture. One of the alternatives for the VME bus is the Advanced Telecommunications and Computing Architecture (ATCA) standard. The ATCA based LLRF controller mainly consists of a few ATCA carrier boards and several Advanced Mezzanine Cards (AMC). AMC modules are available in variety of functions such as: ADC, DAC, data storage, data links and even CPU cards. This paper focuses on the software that allows user to collect and plot the data from commercially available TAMC900 board.

  4. The Liquid Vapour Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1985-01-01

    In this short review we are concerned with the density variation across the liquid-vapour interface, i.e. from the bulk density of the liquid to the essentially zero density of the vapour phase. This density variation can in principle be determined from the deviation of the reflectivity from...

  5. Photochemistry at Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenthal, Kenneth B [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2015-02-24

    We have advanced our capabilities to investigate ultrafast excited state dynamics at a liquid interface using a pump to excite molecules to higher electronic states and then probe the subsequent time evolution of the interfacial molecules with femtosecond time delayed vibrational SFG.

  6. Soldier-Computer Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-27

    understandable units. (5) Immediate Feedback : Operators should always be presented with readily understandable information so that they know...operation, system response time, and special commands. d. Feedback : Operators should always be presented with readily understandable information on...considerations (handedness, physical strength, wearing of eyeglasses, and facility of spoken English). TABLE 3. SOLDIER-COMPUTER INTERFACE CRITERIA

  7. Is the interface OK?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, T.

    When a peripheral device fails, software methods can be initially resorted to before the usual hardware test procedures are used. A test program is presented here that allows various peripherals, inter-faced to a Norsk Data computer, to be tested...

  8. General purpose operator interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, S. I.

    1979-07-01

    The Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory in Richland, Washington is developing a general-purpose operator interface for controlling set-point driven processes. The interface concept is being developed around graphics display devices with touch-sensitive screens for direct interaction with the displays. Additional devices such as trackballs and keyboards are incorporated for the operator's convenience, but are not necessary for operation. The hardware and software are modular; only those capabilities needed for a particular application need to be used. The software is written in FORTRAN IV with minimal use of operating system calls to increase portability. Several ASCII files generated by the user define displays and correlate the display variables with the process parameters. It is also necessary for the user to build an interface routine which translates the internal graphics commands into device-specific commands. The interface is suited for both continuous flow processes and unit operations. An especially useful feature for controlling unit operations is the ability to generate and execute complex command sequences from ASCII files. This feature relieves operators of many repetitive tasks. 2 figures.

  9. Urban Sound Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Morten

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws on the theories of Michel de Certeau and Gaston Bachelard to discuss how media architecture, in the form of urban sound interfaces, can help us perceive the complexity of the spaces we inhabit, by exploring the history and the narratives of the places in which we live...

  10. Source interface for ALICE

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2001-01-01

    This interface is part of the ALICE detector data link (DDL), which transmits data at 100 Mbytes/sec from the detectors to a host computer. A total of 400 DDLs will be installed on ALICE. These silicon devices have been developed especially for use in the high radiation levels produced in detector environments.

  11. Workflow User Interfaces Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Vanderdonckt

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta una colección de patrones de diseño de interfaces de usuario para sistemas de información para el flujo de trabajo; la colección incluye cuarenta y tres patrones clasificados en siete categorías identificados a partir de la lógica del ciclo de vida de la tarea sobre la base de la oferta y la asignación de tareas a los responsables de realizarlas (i. e. recursos humanos durante el flujo de trabajo. Cada patrón de la interfaz de usuario de flujo de trabajo (WUIP, por sus siglas en inglés se caracteriza por las propiedades expresadas en el lenguaje PLML para expresar patrones y complementado por otros atributos y modelos que se adjuntan a dicho modelo: la interfaz de usuario abstracta y el modelo de tareas correspondiente. Estos modelos se especifican en un lenguaje de descripción de interfaces de usuario. Todos los WUIPs se almacenan en una biblioteca y se pueden recuperar a través de un editor de flujo de trabajo que vincula a cada patrón de asignación de trabajo a su WUIP correspondiente.A collection of user interface design patterns for workflow information systems is presented that contains forty three resource patterns classified in seven categories. These categories and their corresponding patterns have been logically identified from the task life cycle based on offering and allocation operations. Each Workflow User Interface Pattern (WUIP is characterized by properties expressed in the PLML markup language for expressing patterns and augmented by additional attributes and models attached to the pattern: the abstract user interface and the corresponding task model. These models are specified in a User Interface Description Language. All WUIPs are stored in a library and can be retrieved within a workflow editor that links each workflow pattern to its corresponding WUIP, thus giving rise to a user interface for each workflow pattern.

  12. Easy-to-use interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blattner, M M; Blattner, D O; Tong, Y

    1999-04-01

    Easy-to-use interfaces are a class of interfaces that fall between public access interfaces and graphical user interfaces in usability and cognitive difficulty. We describe characteristics of easy-to-use interfaces by the properties of four dimensions: selection, navigation, direct manipulation, and contextual metaphors. Another constraint we introduced was to include as little text as possible, and what text we have will be in at least four languages. Formative evaluations were conducted to identify and isolate these characteristics. Our application is a visual interface for a home automation system intended for a diverse set of users. The design will be expanded to accommodate the visually disabled in the near future.

  13. PREFACE: Water at interfaces Water at interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, P.; Rovere, M.

    2010-07-01

    This special issue is devoted to illustrating important aspects and significant results in the field of modeling and simulation of water at interfaces with solutes or with confining substrates, focusing on a range of temperatures from ambient to supercooled. Understanding the behavior of water, in contact with different substrates and/or in solutions, is of pivotal importance for a wide range of applications in physics, chemistry and biochemistry. Simulations of confined and/or interfacial water are also relevant for testing how different its behavior is with respect to bulk water. Simulations and modeling in this field are of particular importance when studying supercooled regions where water shows anomalous properties. These considerations motivated the organization of a workshop at CECAM in the summer of 2009 which aimed to bring together scientists working with computer simulations on the properties of water in various environments with different methodologies. In this special issue, we collected a variety of interesting contributions from some of the speakers of the workshop. We have roughly classified the contributions into four groups. The papers of the first group address the properties of interfacial and confined water upon supercooling in an effort to understand the relation with anomalous behavior of supercooled bulk water. The second group deals with the specific problem of solvation. The next group deals with water in different environments by considering problems of great importance in technological and biological applications. Finally, the last group deals with quantum mechanical calculations related to the role of water in chemical processes. The first group of papers is introduced by the general paper of Stanley et al. The authors discuss recent progress in understanding the anomalies of water in bulk, nanoconfined, and biological environments. They present evidence that liquid water may display 'polymorphism', a property that can be present in

  14. Embodiment and Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Andreas Lindegaard; Grodal, Torben Kragh

    2008-01-01

    in motor isomorphism when comparing the media-supported embodied actions with unmediated actions, e.g. that discrepancy between player motor actions and visual representation may hamper ownership. It also argues that the present interfaces tend to be more supportive of the player’s active agency than...... as other game system configurations. The article argues that playing video games may provide experiences of extended embodiment where players may experience ownership of both actions and virtual bodies related to the represented game world. The article shows how ownership may be related to differences...... of the player as patient, i.e. being the object of another agent’s actions.  Keywords: Video games, embodiment, interface, agency, action, control, cognition  ...

  15. Popeye Project: ROV interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scates, C.R. [Shell Oil Inc., New Orleans, LA (United States); Hickok, D.D. [Dvaerner FSSL Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Hernandez, D.A.

    1997-04-01

    The Popeye Project in the Gulf of Mexico helped advance the technology and standardization of ROV interfaces for deepwater subsea production systems. Some of the many successful ROV operations during installation and completion were {open_quotes}first-of-it`s-kind{close_quotes} activities-enabled by many technical advances. The use and reliance upon ROV systems for support of deepwater drilling and installation operations significantly increased in the past 10 years. Shell Offshore Inc.`s (SOI) confidence in this increased capability was an important factor in many of the design decisions which characterized the innovative system. Technology advancements, which depended on effective ROV intervention, were implemented with no significant difficulties. These advancements, in particular the flying leads and seabed position methods, are available to the industry for other deepwater subsea systems. In addition, several Popeye ROV interfaces have helped advance the subsea standardization initiative; e.g., hot stabs, torque-tool end effectors, and paint color.

  16. An Approach to Interface Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan; Hald, Bjarne

    1995-01-01

    may contain the re-use of existing modules). The interface synthesis approach describes the basic transformations needed to transform the server interface description into an interface description on the client side of the communication medium. The synthesis approach is illustrated through a point......Presents a novel interface synthesis approach based on a one-sided interface description. Whereas most other approaches consider interface synthesis as optimizing a channel to existing client/server modules, we consider the interface synthesis as part of the client/server module synthesis (which......-to-point communication, but is applicable to synthesis of a multiple client/server environment. The interface description is based on a formalization of communication events....

  17. SNE Industrial Fieldbus Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena, Angel; Raines, Matthew; Oostdyk, Rebecca; Mata, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) have very limited diagnostic and no prognostic capabilities, while current smart sensor designs do not have the capability to communicate over Fieldbus networks. The aim is to interface smart sensors with PLCs so that health and status information, such as failure mode identification and measurement tolerance, can be communicated via an industrial Fieldbus such as ControlNet. The SNE Industrial Fieldbus Interface (SIFI) is an embedded device that acts as a communication module in a networked smart sensor. The purpose is to enable a smart sensor to communicate health and status information to other devices, such as PLCs, via an industrial Fieldbus networking protocol. The SNE (Smart Network Element) is attached to a commercial off-the-shelf Any bus-S interface module through the SIFI. Numerous Anybus-S modules are available, each one designed to interface with a specific Fieldbus. Development of the SIFI focused on communications using the ControlNet protocol, but any of the Anybus-S modules can be used. The SIFI communicates with the Any-bus module via a data buffer and mailbox system on the Anybus module, and supplies power to the module. The Anybus module transmits and receives data on the Fieldbus using the proper protocol. The SIFI is intended to be connected to other existing SNE modules in order to monitor the health and status of a transducer. The SIFI can also monitor aspects of its own health using an onboard watchdog timer and voltage monitors. The SIFI also has the hardware to drive a touchscreen LCD (liquid crystal display) unit for manual configuration and status monitoring.

  18. At the Knowledge Interface:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Kristine; Buono, Anthony; Poulfelt, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    researchers. The paper addresses this challenge in terms of moving across this interface, developing the abilities and proficiency for co-creating research that meets the needs of academics and practitioners. The competency drivers behind strengthening research-practice impact are examined within the context......-produced research projects. Based on this analysis, the implications for research-oriented consulting and our interventions with a view to developing co-created academic- and practice-oriented impact are discussed...

  19. Microsystem Interfaces for Space

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Microsystem interfaces to the macroscopic surroundings and within the microsystems themselves are formidable challenges that this thesis makes an effort to overcome, specifically for enabling a spacecraft based entirely on microsystems. The NanoSpace-1 nanospacecraft is a full-fledged satellite design with mass below 10 kg. The high performance with respect to mass is enabled by a massive implementation of microsystem technology – the entire spacecraft structure is built from square silicon p...

  20. Noise at the Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prior, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The notion of noise occupies a contested territory, in which it is framed as pollution and detritus even as it makes its opposite a possibility - noise is always defined in opposition to something else, even if this ‘other’ is not quite clear. This paper explores noise in the context of ‘the inte...... interface’ asking what its affordances as an idea may contribute to our understanding of interface. I draw historically on information theory in particular to initiate this exploration....

  1. Standard interface file handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, A.; Huria, H.C. (Cincinnati Univ., OH (United States))

    1992-10-01

    This handbook documents many of the standard interface file formats that have been adopted by the US Department of Energy to facilitate communications between and portability of, various large reactor physics and radiation transport software packages. The emphasis is on those files needed for use of the VENTURE/PC diffusion-depletion code system. File structures, contents and some practical advice on use of the various files are provided.

  2. Virtual button interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jake S.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus and method of issuing commands to a computer by a user interfacing with a virtual reality environment. To issue a command, the user directs gaze at a virtual button within the virtual reality environment, causing a perceptible change in the virtual button, which then sends a command corresponding to the virtual button to the computer, optionally after a confirming action is performed by the user, such as depressing a thumb switch.

  3. Electrokinetics of heterogeneous interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembala, Maria

    2004-12-31

    The influence of surface heterogeneity of various types on electrokinetic parameters is reviewed. The scope of the paper covers classical electrokinetic phenomena characterized by linear dependence of electrokinetic parameters vs. related driving forces. Neither non-linear effects nor the effects of non-equilibrium electric double layer are considered. A historical description of hydrodynamic aspect of electrokinetic phenomena exploiting the slip plane idea is briefly outlined. Attempts to estimate the slip plane location by comparing the diffuse layer and zeta potential values for some model systems are presented. The surface heterogeneity was divided into three categories. Heterogeneity of the first type was related to geometrical morphology of an interfacial region characterized by a considerable surface development producing a three-dimensional interfacial region. The effects of solid roughness, hairy surface, dense polymer layers and gel-like layers are discussed here. The very high surface conductivity detected for such interfaces seems to be a good indicator of the presence of structured layers of this type. Heterogeneous interfaces of the second class cover systems exhibiting non-uniform distribution of surface charge. The non-uniform surface charge distribution can be either of a molecular (discrete charges) or of a microscale (two-dimensional micropatches or three-dimensional structures formed by polyelectrolyte multilayers). The last class of systems examined includes interfaces composed of charged substrate covered by charged bulky objects (particles). In comparison to the homogeneous surfaces, adsorbed charged particles modify both hydrodynamic flow and the electrostatic field significantly altering the electrokinetic parameters. The new description of electrokinetics of composed interfaces presented here takes into account both hydrodynamic and electric field modification and is free of the previously assumed slip plane shift caused by adsorbed

  4. PINE -- Electronic mail interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, G. R.

    The PINE mail interface is a user-friendly mail utility for Unix systems. It has been adopted by Starlink as the recommended mail utility because of its ease of use compared with the mail utilities supplied as standard with the Unix operating system. PINE is intended to be intuitive and "to be learned by exploration rather than reading manuals". Here however are a few brief notes to get you started.

  5. SOFC interface studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Torben; Bay, Lasse; West, Keld

    As previously shown the morphology of the cathode-YSZ electrolyte interface changes from a smooth surface to a roughened structure during the passage of current (\\ref{Lasse97}, \\ref{Karin01). These structural changes are probably responsible for the current induced improvement of the electrode...... in this and the corresponding anode interface investigated in more detail in part I (\\ref{Tine}) of this work. Although extrapolation to $1000^\\circ$C of the cation mobility in YSZ yields values in the order of $\\mathrm{cm^2s^{-1}}$, i.e.\\ by far to low to account for any transfer of YSZ material, the fact that these changes...... are observed points to a significant contribution from surface and grain boundary transport. The consequence of a significant tranport number for cations is a transfer of YSZ material from the anode-YSZ interface to that of the cathode. This is supported by the observation of a porous YSZ structure below...

  6. The THOSE remote interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klawon, Kevin; Gold, Josh; Bachman, Kristen

    2013-05-01

    The DIA, in conjunction with the Army Research Lab (ARL), wants to create an Unmanned Ground Sensor (UGS) controller that is (a) interoperable across all controller platforms, (b) capable of easily adding new sensors, radios, and processes and (c) backward compatible with existing UGS systems. To achieve this, a Terra Harvest controller was created that used Java JRE 1.6 and an Open Services Gateway initiative (OSGi) platform, named Terra Harvest Open Software Environment (THOSE). OSGi is an extensible framework that provides a modularized environment for deploying functionality in "bundles". These bundles can publish, discover, and share services available from other external bundles or bundles provided by the controller core. With the addition of a web GUI used for interacting with THOSE, a natural step was then to create a common remote interface that allows 3rd party real-time interaction with the controller. This paper provides an overview of the THOSE system and its components as well as a description of the architectural structure of the remote interface, highlighting the interactions occurring between the controller and the remote interface and its role in providing a positive user experience for managing UGSS functions.

  7. Assessing Electromyographic Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Armando Pires Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic apppliances are increasingly a part of our everyday lives. In particular, mobile devices, with their reduced dimensions with power rivaling desktop computers, have substantially augmented our communication abilities offering instant availability, anywhere, to everyone. These devices have become essential for human communication but also include a more comprehensive tool set to support productivity and leisure applications.However, the many applications commonly available are not adapted to people with special needs. Rather, most popular devices are targeted at teenagers or young adults with excellent eyesight and coordination. What is worse, most of the commonly used assistive control interfaces are not available in a mobile environment where user's position, accommodation and capacities can vary even widely.To try and address people with special needs new approaches and techniques are sorely needed. This paper presents a control interface to allow tetraplegic users to interact with electronic devices. Our method uses myographic information (Electromyography or EMG collected from residually controlled body areas. User evaluations validate electromyography as a daily wearable interface. In particular our results show that EMG can be used even in mobility contexts.

  8. Vibrational spectroscopy at electrified interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Wieckowski, Andrzej; Braunschweig, Björn

    2013-01-01

    Reviews the latest theory, techniques, and applications Surface vibrational spectroscopy techniques probe the structure and composition of interfaces at the molecular level. Their versatility, coupled with their non-destructive nature, enables in-situ measurements of operating devices and the monitoring of interface-controlled processes under reactive conditions. Vibrational Spectroscopy at Electrified Interfaces explores new and emerging applications of Raman, infrared, and non-linear optical spectroscopy for the study of charged interfaces. The book draws from hu

  9. Why Mineral Interfaces Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnis, Andrew; Putnis, Christine V.

    2015-04-01

    While it is obvious that reactions between a mineral and an aqueous solution take place at the mineral-fluid interface it is only relatively recently that high spatial resolution studies have demonstrated how the local structure of the mineral surface and the chemical composition of the fluid at the interface control both the short-range and the long-range consequences of mineral-fluid interaction. Long-range consequences of fluid-mineral interaction control element cycles in the earth, the formation of ore-deposits, the chemical composition of the oceans through weathering of rocks and hence climate changes. Although weathering is clearly related to mineral dissolution, to what extent do experimentally measured dissolution rates of minerals help to understand weathering, especially weathering mechanisms? This question is related to the short-range, local reactions that take place when a mineral, that is not stable in the fluid, begins to dissolve. In this case the fluid composition at the interface will become supersaturated with respect to a different phase or phases. This may be a different composition of the same mineral e.g. a Ca-rich feldspar dissolving in a Na-rich solution results in a fluid at the interface which may be supersaturated with respect to an Na-rich feldspar. Alternatively, the interfacial fluid could be supersaturated with respect to a different mineral e.g. an Na-rich zeolite, depending on the temperature. Numerous experiments have shown that the precipitation of a more stable phase at the mineral-fluid interface results in a coupling between the dissolution and the precipitation, and the replacement of one mineral by another. This process separates the short-range mechanisms which depend only on the composition of the interfacial solution, and the long-range consequences that depend on the composition of the residual fluid released from the reacting parent mineral. Typically such residual fluids may carry metal ions tens to hundreds of

  10. Single-interface Casimir torque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, Tiago A.; Silveirinha, Mário G.

    2016-10-01

    A different type of Casimir-type interaction is theoretically predicted: a single-interface torque at a junction of an anisotropic material and a vacuum or another material system. The torque acts to reorient the polarizable microscopic units of the involved materials near the interface, and thus to change the internal structure of the materials. The single-interface torque depends on the zero-point energy of the interface localized and extended modes. Our theory demonstrates that the single-interface torque is essential to understand the Casimir physics of material systems with anisotropic elements and may influence the orientation of the director of nematic liquid crystals.

  11. Conceptual Framework for Aquatic Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, J.; Krause, S.

    2015-12-01

    Aquatic interfaces are generally characterized by steep gradients of physical, chemical and biological properties due to the contrast between the two adjacent environments. Innovative measurement techniques are required to study the spatially heterogeneous and temporally variable processes. Especially the different spatial and temporal scales are a large challenge. Due to the steep biogeochemical gradients and the intensive structural and compositional heterogeneity, enhanced biogeochemical processing rates are inherent to aquatic interfaces. Nevertheless, the effective turnover depends strongly on the residence time distribution along the flow paths and in sections with particular biogeochemical milieus and reaction kinetics. Thus, identification and characterization of the highly complex flow patterns in and across aquatic interfaces are crucial to understand biogeochemical processing along exchange flow paths and to quantify transport across aquatic interfaces. Hydrodynamic and biogeochemical processes are closely coupled at aquatic interfaces. However, interface processing rates are not only enhanced compared to the adjacent compartments that they connect; also completely different reactions might occur if certain thresholds are exceeded or the biogeochemical milieu differs significantly from the adjacent environments. Single events, temporal variability and spatial heterogeneity might increase overall processing rates of aquatic interfaces and thus, should not be neglected when studying aquatic interfaces. Aquatic interfaces are key zones relevant for the ecological state of the entire ecosystem and thus, understanding interface functioning and controls is paramount for ecosystem management. The overall aim of this contribution is a general conceptual framework for aquatic interfaces that is applicable to a wide range of systems, scales and processes.

  12. Transport processes at fluidic interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Reusken, Arnold

    2017-01-01

    There are several physico-chemical processes that determine the behavior of multiphase fluid systems – e.g., the fluid dynamics in the different phases and the dynamics of the interface(s), mass transport between the fluids, adsorption effects at the interface, and transport of surfactants on the interface – and result in heterogeneous interface properties. In general, these processes are strongly coupled and local properties of the interface play a crucial role. A thorough understanding of the behavior of such complex flow problems must be based on physically sound mathematical models, which especially account for the local processes at the interface. This book presents recent findings on the rigorous derivation and mathematical analysis of such models and on the development of numerical methods for direct numerical simulations. Validation results are based on specifically designed experiments using high-resolution experimental techniques. A special feature of this book is its focus on an interdisciplina...

  13. Matched Interface and Boundary Method for Elasticity Interface Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bao; Xia, Kelin; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Elasticity theory is an important component of continuum mechanics and has had widely spread applications in science and engineering. Material interfaces are ubiquity in nature and man-made devices, and often give rise to discontinuous coefficients in the governing elasticity equations. In this work, the matched interface and boundary (MIB) method is developed to address elasticity interface problems. Linear elasticity theory for both isotropic homogeneous and inhomogeneous media is employed. In our approach, Lamé’s parameters can have jumps across the interface and are allowed to be position dependent in modeling isotropic inhomogeneous material. Both strong discontinuity, i.e., discontinuous solution, and weak discontinuity, namely, discontinuous derivatives of the solution, are considered in the present study. In the proposed method, fictitious values are utilized so that the standard central finite different schemes can be employed regardless of the interface. Interface jump conditions are enforced on the interface, which in turn, accurately determines fictitious values. We design new MIB schemes to account for complex interface geometries. In particular, the cross derivatives in the elasticity equations are difficult to handle for complex interface geometries. We propose secondary fictitious values and construct geometry based interpolation schemes to overcome this difficulty. Numerous analytical examples are used to validate the accuracy, convergence and robustness of the present MIB method for elasticity interface problems with both small and large curvatures, strong and weak discontinuities, and constant and variable coefficients. Numerical tests indicate second order accuracy in both L∞ and L2 norms. PMID:25914439

  14. Bubble and drop interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Miller

    2011-01-01

    The book aims at describing the most important experimental methods for characterizing liquid interfaces, such as drop profile analysis, bubble pressure and drop volume tensiometry, capillary pressure technique, and oscillating drops and bubbles. Besides the details of experimental set ups, also the underlying theoretical basis is presented in detail. In addition, a number of applications based on drops and bubbles is discussed, such as rising bubbles and the very complex process of flotation. Also wetting, characterized by the dynamics of advancing contact angles is discussed critically. Spec

  15. Brain-computer interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A computer-implemented method of providing an interface between a user and a processing unit, the method comprising : presenting one or more stimuli to a user, each stimulus varying at a respective stimulation frequency, each stimulation frequency being associated with a respective user......-selectable input; receiving at least one signal indicative of brain activity of the user; and determining, from the received signal, which of the one or more stimuli the user attends to and selecting the user-selectable input associated with the stimulation frequency of the determined stimuli as being a user...

  16. Interfacing with the Night

    OpenAIRE

    McLean, Alex; Parkinson, Adam

    2014-01-01

    In  this  paper,  the  authors  consider  the  interfaces  between academia and dance music. Dance music and club culture are, we argue, important to computer music and the live performance of electronic music, but there are many different difficulties encountered when trying to present electronic dance music within academic contexts. The authors draw upon their experiences as promoters, performers, researchers and audience members to discuss these difficulties and how and why we might negoti...

  17. MAN – MACHINE INTERFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Bhuvaneswari

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Agents trained by learning techniques provide a powerful approximation of state spaces in games that aretoo large for naive approaches. In the study Genetic Algorithms and Manual Interface was implementedand used to train agents for the board game LUDO. The state space of LUDO is generalized to a small setand encoded to suit the different techniques. The impact of variables and tactics applied in training aredetermined. Agents based on the techniques performed satisfactory against a baseline finite agent, and aGenetic Algorithm based agent performed satisfactory against competitors from the course. Better statespace representations will improve the success of learning based agents.

  18. An Investigation of VME-based DAQ System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGXiao-qing; CAOXiao-ping

    2003-01-01

    The aim of a nuclear physics experiment is to gather data about nuclear interactions. The data acquisition system formats and stores this information in a way which can be retrieved for later analysis.

  19. Engineering graded tissue interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jennifer E; Burns, Kellie L; Le Doux, Joseph M; Guldberg, Robert E; García, Andrés J

    2008-08-26

    Interfacial zones between tissues provide specialized, transitional junctions central to normal tissue function. Regenerative medicine strategies focused on multiple cell types and/or bi/tri-layered scaffolds do not provide continuously graded interfaces, severely limiting the integration and biological performance of engineered tissue substitutes. Inspired by the bone-soft tissue interface, we describe a biomaterial-mediated gene transfer strategy for spatially regulated genetic modification and differentiation of primary dermal fibroblasts within tissue-engineered constructs. We demonstrate that zonal organization of osteoblastic and fibroblastic cellular phenotypes can be engineered by a simple, one-step seeding of fibroblasts onto scaffolds containing a spatial distribution of retrovirus encoding the osteogenic transcription factor Runx2/Cbfa1. Gradients of immobilized retrovirus, achieved via deposition of controlled poly(L-lysine) densities, resulted in spatial patterns of transcription factor expression, osteoblastic differentiation, and mineralized matrix deposition. Notably, this graded distribution of mineral deposition and mechanical properties was maintained when implanted in vivo in an ectopic site. Development of this facile and robust strategy is significant toward the regeneration of continuous interfacial zones that mimic the cellular and microstructural characteristics of native tissue.

  20. Mercury Shopping Cart Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Robin; McMahon, Joe

    2006-01-01

    Mercury Shopping Cart Interface (MSCI) is a reusable component of the Power User Interface 5.0 (PUI) program described in another article. MSCI is a means of encapsulating the logic and information needed to describe an orderable item consistent with Mercury Shopping Cart service protocol. Designed to be used with Web-browser software, MSCI generates Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) pages on which ordering information can be entered. MSCI comprises two types of Practical Extraction and Report Language (PERL) modules: template modules and shopping-cart logic modules. Template modules generate HTML pages for entering the required ordering details and enable submission of the order via a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) post. Shopping cart modules encapsulate the logic and data needed to describe an individual orderable item to the Mercury Shopping Cart service. These modules evaluate information entered by the user to determine whether it is sufficient for the Shopping Cart service to process the order. Once an order has been passed from MSCI to a deployed Mercury Shopping Cart server, there is no further interaction with the user.

  1. Laparoscopic simulation interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Louis B.

    2006-04-04

    A method and apparatus for providing high bandwidth and low noise mechanical input and output for computer systems. A gimbal mechanism provides two revolute degrees of freedom to an object about two axes of rotation. A linear axis member is coupled to the gimbal mechanism at the intersection of the two axes of rotation. The linear axis member is capable of being translated along a third axis to provide a third degree of freedom. The user object is coupled to the linear axis member and is thus translatable along the third axis so that the object can be moved along all three degrees of freedom. Transducers associated with the provided degrees of freedom include sensors and actuators and provide an electromechanical interface between the object and a digital processing system. Capstan drive mechanisms transmit forces between the transducers and the object. The linear axis member can also be rotated about its lengthwise axis to provide a fourth degree of freedom, and, optionally, a floating gimbal mechanism is coupled to the linear axis member to provide fifth and sixth degrees of freedom to an object. Transducer sensors are associated with the fourth, fifth, and sixth degrees of freedom. The interface is well suited for simulations of medical procedures and simulations in which an object such as a stylus or a joystick is moved and manipulated by the user.

  2. Laparoscopic simulation interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Louis B.

    2006-04-04

    A method and apparatus for providing high bandwidth and low noise mechanical input and output for computer systems. A gimbal mechanism provides two revolute degrees of freedom to an object about two axes of rotation. A linear axis member is coupled to the gimbal mechanism at the intersection of the two axes of rotation. The linear axis member is capable of being translated along a third axis to provide a third degree of freedom. The user object is coupled to the linear axis member and is thus translatable along the third axis so that the object can be moved along all three degrees of freedom. Transducers associated with the provided degrees of freedom include sensors and actuators and provide an electromechanical interface between the object and a digital processing system. Capstan drive mechanisms transmit forces between the transducers and the object. The linear axis member can also be rotated about its lengthwise axis to provide a fourth degree of freedom, and, optionally, a floating gimbal mechanism is coupled to the linear axis member to provide fifth and sixth degrees of freedom to an object. Transducer sensors are associated with the fourth, fifth, and sixth degrees of freedom. The interface is well suited for simulations of medical procedures and simulations in which an object such as a stylus or a joystick is moved and manipulated by the user.

  3. Flexible DCP interface. [environmental sensor and signal conditioning interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanemasu, E. T.; Schimmelpfenning, H.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A user of an ERTS data collection system (DCS) must supply the sensors and signal-conditioning interface. The electronic interface must be compatible with the NASA-furnished data collection platform. A universal signal-conditioning system for use with a wide range of environmental sensors is described. The interface is environmentally and electronically compatible with the DCP and has operated satisfactorily for a complete winter wheat growing season in Kansas.

  4. 现代企业经营伦理:寻求企业利润与伦理“共赢共生”%Modem Enterprise Management Ethics: "Win-Win Symbiosis" between Profit and Ethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佳翔

    2012-01-01

    As a social and economic organization, modem enterprise should undertake corrensponding social responsibilities. During production and business operation process, enterprises should not only focus on profit, but also undertake social ethical responsibility with self-conscious. Furthermore, if enterprises want to make great profit in a long term, they should enforce ethics management internally and take social responsibilities externally, so as to achieve "win-win co-existence" between profit and ethics.%现代企业作为一种社会经济组织,应该承担其应尽的社会责任。即:在生产经营过程中,企业不但要顾及经营利润,还应自觉承担社会伦理责任。企业如想长期获利,就强须对内实现其伦理化管理,对外承担其社会责任,进而使企业利润与伦理达到“共赢共生”的目的。

  5. 浅析现代大学制度下我国高校内部治理结构%On the Inner Management Structure of Colleges and Universities under the Modem University System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周茜

    2012-01-01

    现代大学制度是一个复杂的系统,主要分为政府对大学的管理制度、社会在大学中的参与制度和高校内部的治理制度。目前我国高校内部治理结构存在行政权力泛化、党政不分等弊端,需从平衡学术权力与行政权力的关系、建立健全大学章程等方面入手,不断完善我国高校内部治理结构。%The modem university system is a complex system. It can be divided into three parts: the management system from government to universities, social participation in the university system and the internal management structure. There are some disadvantages of the inner management structure of Chinese universities, such as abused administrative power, lack of the distinction between the Party and the management. We should make the balance between academic power and administrative power, establish and kn- prove the university statutes, and so on to continuously promote the improvement of the internal management structure of colleges and universities in our country.

  6. Proceedings Foundations for Interface Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Legay, Axel; 10.4204/EPTCS.46

    2011-01-01

    FIT stands for Foundations of Interface Technologies. Component-based design is widely considered as a major approach to developing systems in a time and cost effective way. Central in this approach is the notion of an interface. Interfaces summarize the externally visible properties of a component and are seen as a key to achieving component interoperability and to predict global system behavior based on the component behavior. To capture the intricacy of complex software products, rich interfaces have been proposed. These interfaces do not only specify syntactic properties, such as the signatures of methods and operations, but also take into account behavioral and extra-functional properties, such as quality of service, security and dependability. Rich interfaces have been proposed for describing, e.g., the legal sequences of messages or method calls accepted by components, or the resource and timing constraints in embedded software. The development of a rigorous framework for the specification and analysis...

  7. Intelligent interface design and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitzer, Frank L.

    1988-01-01

    Intelligent interface concepts and systematic approaches to assessing their functionality are discussed. Four general features of intelligent interfaces are described: interaction efficiency, subtask automation, context sensitivity, and use of an appropriate design metaphor. Three evaluation methods are discussed: Functional Analysis, Part-Task Evaluation, and Operational Testing. Design and evaluation concepts are illustrated with examples from a prototype expert system interface for environmental control and life support systems for manned space platforms.

  8. A note on charged interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Huaqiang [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, NY 10012 (United States); Yu, M Y [Institute for Theoretical Physics I, Ruhr-University, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2006-12-15

    A condition associated with the plasma boundary or other charged interface is reviewed. It is pointed out that in comparing theories and simulations of such interfaces, in order to avoid conflicting results it should be ascertained that the systems under consideration are thermodynamically equivalent. For the plasma-wall interface in equilibrium, the rate of change of the surface-charge density with respect to the surface potential must be positive.

  9. Porphyrins at interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auwärter, Willi; Écija, David; Klappenberger, Florian; Barth, Johannes V.

    2015-02-01

    Porphyrins and other tetrapyrrole macrocycles possess an impressive variety of functional properties that have been exploited in natural and artificial systems. Different metal centres incorporated within the tetradentate ligand are key for achieving and regulating vital processes, including reversible axial ligation of adducts, electron transfer, light-harvesting and catalytic transformations. Tailored substituents optimize their performance, dictating their arrangement in specific environments and mediating the assembly of molecular nanoarchitectures. Here we review the current understanding of these species at well-defined interfaces, disclosing exquisite insights into their structural and chemical properties, and also discussing methods by which to manipulate their intramolecular and organizational features. The distinct characteristics arising from the interfacial confinement offer intriguing prospects for molecular science and advanced materials. We assess the role of surface interactions with respect to electronic and physicochemical characteristics, and describe in situ metallation pathways, molecular magnetism, rotation and switching. The engineering of nanostructures, organized layers, interfacial hybrid and bio-inspired systems is also addressed.

  10. Interface-assisted molecular spintronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raman, Karthik V. [Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2014-09-15

    Molecular spintronics, a field that utilizes the spin state of organic molecules to develop magneto-electronic devices, has shown an enormous scientific activity for more than a decade. But, in the last couple of years, new insights in understanding the fundamental phenomena of molecular interaction on magnetic surfaces, forming a hybrid interface, are presenting a new pathway for developing the subfield of interface-assisted molecular spintronics. The recent exploration of such hybrid interfaces involving carbon based aromatic molecules shows a significant excitement and promise over the previously studied single molecular magnets. In the above new scenario, hybridization of the molecular orbitals with the spin-polarized bands of the surface creates new interface states with unique electronic and magnetic character. This study opens up a molecular-genome initiative in designing new handles to functionalize the spin dependent electronic properties of the hybrid interface to construct spin-functional tailor-made devices. Through this article, we review this subject by presenting a fundamental understanding of the interface spin-chemistry and spin-physics by taking support of advanced computational and spectroscopy tools to investigate molecular spin responses with demonstration of new interface phenomena. Spin-polarized scanning tunneling spectroscopy is favorably considered to be an important tool to investigate these hybrid interfaces with intra-molecular spatial resolution. Finally, by addressing some of the recent findings, we propose novel device schemes towards building interface tailored molecular spintronic devices for applications in sensor, memory, and quantum computing.

  11. Capillary flows with forming interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Shikhmurzaev, Yulii D

    2007-01-01

    PREFACEINTRODUCTION Free-surface flows in nature and industryScope of the bookFUNDAMENTALS OF FLUID MECHANICS Main concepts Governing equations Elements of thermodynamics Classical boundary conditions Physically meaningful solutions and paradoxes of modelingMOVING CONTACT LINES: AN OVERVIEW Essence of the problem Experimental observations Molecular dynamics simulations Review of theoriesThe key to the moving contact-line problemBOUNDARY CONDITIONS ON FORMING INTERFACES Modeling of interfacesConservation lawsLiquid-gas and liquid-solid interfacesLiquid-liquid interfaces SummaryOpen questions an

  12. Playful user interfaces: interfaces that invite social and physical interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton

    2014-01-01

    This book is about user interfaces to applications that can be considered as ‘playful’. The interfaces to such applications should be ‘playful’ as well. The application should be fun, and interacting with such an application should, of course, be fun as well. Maybe more. Why not expect that the inte

  13. Exploration to Build an Effective Modem Communication System of Culture in Linyi%空中传播与现实观演并重,传统积淀与现代发展共存——临沂现代文化传播体系建设问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈为艳

    2011-01-01

    临沂要发展成为“文化名市”,就必须建设完善有效的现代文化传播体系。空中传播与现实现演并重.传统积淀与现代发展共存,精英文化与乡土文化共同繁荣,图书馆、博物馆、科技馆等场所大力发挥传播各种文化的职能;同时立足于临沂、致力于临沂文化传播的现代传媒公司的出现也是大势所趋。在这个体系建设过程中.还应注意本市市民在文化传承中的主体地位,并尊重文化发展本身的规律,避免过于迫切的经济诉求。%If Linyi wants to be a famous city in culture,the effective modem communication system is very important.In this system, we should attach importance both to traditional and modem modes of communication,both to traditional culture and modem culture,and both to elite culture and folk culture.Holding manifold culture activities,making the library,museum and science museum open to all citizens,and founding modem communication company are also tasks of top priority.At the same time, we should respect the citizens of Linyi as protagonist of culture communication, as well as the rule of culture development itself.

  14. Modeling soft interface dominated systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamorgese, A.; Mauri, R.; Sagis, L.M.C.

    2017-01-01

    The two main continuum frameworks used for modeling the dynamics of soft multiphase systems are the Gibbs dividing surface model, and the diffuse interface model. In the former the interface is modeled as a two dimensional surface, and excess properties such as a surface density, or surface energy

  15. Playful Interfaces: Introduction and History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton; Nijholt, Anton

    2014-01-01

    In this short survey we have some historical notes about human-computer interface development with an emphasis on interface technology that has allowed us to design playful interactions with applications. The applications do not necessarily have to be entertainment applications. We can have playful

  16. GRAPHIC INTERFACES FOR ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion PANA,

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Using effective the method of calculating Fitness for Service requires the achievement of graphical interfaces. This paper presents an example of such interfaces, made with Visual Basic program and used in the evaluation of pipelines in a research contract [4

  17. Interface Input/Output Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Nyman, Ulrik; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2006-01-01

    Building on the theory of interface automata by de Alfaro and Henzinger we design an interface language for Lynch’s I/O, a popular formalism used in the development of distributed asynchronous systems, not addressed by previous interface research. We introduce an explicit separation of assumptions...... from guarantees not yet seen in other behavioral interface theories. Moreover we derive the composition operator systematically and formally, guaranteeing that the resulting compositions are always the weakest in the sense of assumptions, and the strongest in the sense of guarantees. We also present...... a method for solving systems of relativized behavioral inequalities as used in our setup and draw a formal correspondence between our work and interface automata....

  18. Power User Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Robin; McMahon, Joe

    2006-01-01

    Power User Interface 5.0 (PUI) is a system of middleware, written for expert users in the Earth-science community, PUI enables expedited ordering of data granules on the basis of specific granule-identifying information that the users already know or can assemble. PUI also enables expert users to perform quick searches for orderablegranule information for use in preparing orders. PUI 5.0 is available in two versions (note: PUI 6.0 has command-line mode only): a Web-based application program and a UNIX command-line- mode client program. Both versions include modules that perform data-granule-ordering functions in conjunction with external systems. The Web-based version works with Earth Observing System Clearing House (ECHO) metadata catalog and order-entry services and with an open-source order-service broker server component, called the Mercury Shopping Cart, that is provided separately by Oak Ridge National Laboratory through the Department of Energy. The command-line version works with the ECHO metadata and order-entry process service. Both versions of PUI ultimately use ECHO to process an order to be sent to a data provider. Ordered data are provided through means outside the PUI software system.

  19. Next Generation Search Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roby, W.; Wu, X.; Ly, L.; Goldina, T.

    2015-09-01

    Astronomers are constantly looking for easier ways to access multiple data sets. While much effort is spent on VO, little thought is given to the types of User Interfaces we need to effectively search this sort of data. For instance, an astronomer might need to search Spitzer, WISE, and 2MASS catalogs and images then see the results presented together in one UI. Moving seamlessly between data sets is key to presenting integrated results. Results need to be viewed using first class, web based, integrated FITS viewers, XY Plots, and advanced table display tools. These components should be able to handle very large datasets. To make a powerful Web based UI that can manage and present multiple searches to the user requires taking advantage of many HTML5 features. AJAX is used to start searches and present results. Push notifications (Server Sent Events) monitor background jobs. Canvas is required for advanced result displays. Lesser known CSS3 technologies makes it all flow seamlessly together. At IPAC, we have been developing our Firefly toolkit for several years. We are now using it to solve this multiple data set, multiple queries, and integrated presentation problem to create a powerful research experience. Firefly was created in IRSA, the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive (http://irsa.ipac.caltech.edu). Firefly is the core for applications serving many project archives, including Spitzer, Planck, WISE, PTF, LSST and others. It is also used in IRSA's new Finder Chart and catalog and image displays.

  20. ATLAS Detector Interface Group

    CERN Multimedia

    Mapelli, L

    Originally organised as a sub-system in the DAQ/EF-1 Prototype Project, the Detector Interface Group (DIG) was an information exchange channel between the Detector systems and the Data Acquisition to provide critical detector information for prototype design and detector integration. After the reorganisation of the Trigger/DAQ Project and of Technical Coordination, the necessity to provide an adequate context for integration of detectors with the Trigger and DAQ lead to organisation of the DIG as one of the activities of Technical Coordination. Such an organisation emphasises the ATLAS wide coordination of the Trigger and DAQ exploitation aspects, which go beyond the domain of the Trigger/DAQ project itself. As part of Technical Coordination, the DIG provides the natural environment for the common work of Trigger/DAQ and detector experts. A DIG forum for a wide discussion of all the detector and Trigger/DAQ integration issues. A more restricted DIG group for the practical organisation and implementation o...

  1. Interface roughening and pinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Stéphane; Hansen, Alex

    1994-04-01

    We study a simple model for thé pinning of an interface by impurities with random strengths, and thé depinning due to thé applied pressure, in a quasi-static propagation lirait. The model is very close to thé so called "Robin Hood" model introduced by Zaitsev. It is designed to describe e.g. thé invasion of a wetting fluid (imbibition) in a heterogeneous porous medium containing a second immiscible fluid. The relation between this model and other previously proposed approaches is discussed. The front of thé invaded domain is shown to develop a self-affine structure with an increase of thé roughness as a power-law of thé injected volume. The value of thé apparent roughness exponent can be favorably compared to some experimental measurements although we argue that thé true roughness exponent is out of reach of commonly used methods. We show that thé distribution f(d, Δ t) of distances d between discrete local invasions at a time interval Δ t can be described by a scaling law f(d, Δ t) = d^{-1}\\varphi(d/sqrt{Δ t}). This form can be obtained from thé identification of a hierarchical structure of "bursts" in thé pressure signal. Those "bursts" are quahtatively similar to those observed in quasistatic drainage, (i.e. invasion percolation), although characterized by différent scaling indices. Nous étudions un modèle simple pour analyser l'accrochage d'une interface sur des impuretés et le décrochage sous l'effet d'une pression appliquée, dans une limite quasi-statique. Ce modèle est très voisin du modèle "Robin Hood" introduit par Zaitsev. Il s'applique en particulier à l'invasion d'un fluide mouillant (imbibition) dans un milieu poreux hétérogène contenant un fluide immiscible. Nous discutons les relations entre ce modèle et d'autres approches proposées pour décrire ce phénomène. Le front d'invasion acquiert une structure auto-affine, avec un développement de la rugosité selon une loi de puissance du volume injecté. La valeur de l

  2. Nanoparticle Assemblies at Fluid Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Thomas P. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States). Dept. of Polymer Science and Engineering

    2015-03-10

    A systematic study of the structure and dynamics of nanoparticles (NP) and NP-surfactants was performed. The ligands attached to both the NPs and NP-surfactants dictate the manner in which the nanoscopic materials assemble at fluid interfaces. Studies have shown that a single layer of the nanoscpic materials form at the interface to reduce the interactions between the two immiscible fluids. The shape of the NP is, also, important, where for spherical particles, a disordered, liquid-like monolayer forms, and, for nanorods, ordered domains at the interface is found and, if the monolayers are compressed, the orientation of the nanorods with respect to the interface can change. By associating end-functionalized polymers to the NPs assembled at the interface, NP-surfactants are formed that increase the energetic gain in segregating each NP at the interface which allows the NP-surfactants to jam at the interface when compressed. This has opened the possibility of structuring the two liquids by freezing in shape changes of the liquids.

  3. Playful user interfaces interfaces that invite social and physical interaction

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The book is about user interfaces to applications that have been designed for social and physical interaction. The interfaces are ‘playful’, that is, users feel challenged to engage in social and physical interaction because that will be fun. The topics that will be present in this book are interactive playgrounds, urban games using mobiles, sensor-equipped environments for playing, child-computer interaction, tangible game interfaces, interactive tabletop technology and applications, full-body interaction, exertion games, persuasion, engagement, evaluation, and user experience. Readers of the book will not only get a survey of state-of-the-art research in these areas, but the chapters in this book will also provide a vision of the future where playful interfaces will be ubiquitous, that is, present and integrated in home, office, recreational, sports and urban environments, emphasizing that in the future in these environments game elements will be integrated and welcomed.

  4. Through the Interface - a human activity approach to user interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne

    In providing a theoretical framework for understanding human- computer interaction as well as design of user interfaces, this book combines elements of anthropology, psychology, cognitive science, software engineering, and computer science. The framework examines the everyday work practices...

  5. Superconducting interfaces between insulating oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyren, N; Thiel, S; Caviglia, A D; Kourkoutis, L Fitting; Hammerl, G; Richter, C; Schneider, C W; Kopp, T; Rüetschi, A-S; Jaccard, D; Gabay, M; Muller, D A; Triscone, J-M; Mannhart, J

    2007-08-31

    At interfaces between complex oxides, electronic systems with unusual electronic properties can be generated. We report on superconductivity in the electron gas formed at the interface between two insulating dielectric perovskite oxides, LaAlO3 and SrTiO3. The behavior of the electron gas is that of a two-dimensional superconductor, confined to a thin sheet at the interface. The superconducting transition temperature of congruent with 200 millikelvin provides a strict upper limit to the thickness of the superconducting layer of congruent with 10 nanometers.

  6. Practical speech user interface design

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, James R

    2010-01-01

    Although speech is the most natural form of communication between humans, most people find using speech to communicate with machines anything but natural. Drawing from psychology, human-computer interaction, linguistics, and communication theory, Practical Speech User Interface Design provides a comprehensive yet concise survey of practical speech user interface (SUI) design. It offers practice-based and research-based guidance on how to design effective, efficient, and pleasant speech applications that people can really use. Focusing on the design of speech user interfaces for IVR application

  7. The molecule-metal interface

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, Norbert; Wee, Andrew Thye Shen

    2013-01-01

    Reviewing recent progress in the fundamental understanding of the molecule-metal interface, this useful addition to the literature focuses on experimental studies and introduces the latest analytical techniques as applied to this interface.The first part covers basic theory and initial principle studies, while the second part introduces readers to photoemission, STM, and synchrotron techniques to examine the atomic structure of the interfaces. The third part presents photoelectron spectroscopy, high-resolution UV photoelectron spectroscopy and electron spin resonance to study the electroni

  8. Interface gateways: defining the solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R; Zobian, M

    1994-02-01

    In summary, an interface gateway is able to quickly create and support relationships. In the healthcare environment of the 1990s, organization executives will be faced with an exponential increase in the number of provider, payor and employer alliances, affiliations and acquisitions. One of the recurring requirements in this scenario is the need to share information. Most of the data standards in existence today do not address the vast interface requirements of these organizations. However, the capabilities, flexibility and capacity of interface gateways can allow these relationships to be created and supported in a fraction of the time that conventional methods require.

  9. Designing end-user interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Heaton, N

    1988-01-01

    Designing End-User Interfaces: State of the Art Report focuses on the field of human/computer interaction (HCI) that reviews the design of end-user interfaces.This compilation is divided into two parts. Part I examines specific aspects of the problem in HCI that range from basic definitions of the problem, evaluation of how to look at the problem domain, and fundamental work aimed at introducing human factors into all aspects of the design cycle. Part II consists of six main topics-definition of the problem, psychological and social factors, principles of interface design, computer intelligenc

  10. Search-User Interface Design

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Max

    2011-01-01

    Search User Interfaces (SUIs) represent the gateway between people who have a task to complete, and the repositories of information and data stored around the world. Not surprisingly, therefore, there are many communities who have a vested interest in the way SUIs are designed. There are people who study how humans search for information, and people who study how humans use computers. There are people who study good user interface design, and people who design aesthetically pleasing user interfaces. There are also people who curate and manage valuable information resources, and people who desi

  11. 无线Modem SPM2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安培

    2004-01-01

    电子设备之间用导线相联的RS232接口是当今最广泛的数据传输方式之一。随着无线电数据传递技术的发展,连接两个RS232口的导线可被无线联接组件取代,从而实现无线RS232传输及接收,示意图如图1所示。

  12. Dispersive transport across interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Brian; Adler, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    Experiments demonstrating asymmetrical dispersive transport of a conservative tracer across interfaces between different porous materials have recently been performed. Here, this phenomenon is studied numerically on the pore scale. The flow field is derived by solving the Stokes equation. The dispersive transport is simulated by a large number of particles undergoing random walks under the simultaneous action of convection and diffusion. Two main two-dimensional configurations are studied; each consists of two segments (called coarse and fine) with the same structure, porosity, and length along the main flow, but different characteristic solid/pore sizes. One structure consists of two channels containing cavities of different sizes, and the second of square "grains" of different sizes. At time t=0, a large number of particles is injected (as a pulse) around a given cross-section. The corresponding breakthrough curves (BTCs) are registered as functions of time at six different cross sections. Calculations are made twice; in the first case (CtoF), particles are injected in the coarse side and are transported towards the fine one; in the second one (FtoC), the opposite case is studied. These calculations are performed for various Péclet numbers (Pe). Comparison of the resulting BTCs shows features that are similar to experimental observations, but with qualitative and quantitative differences. The influences of the medium, of the injection and observation planes, and of Pe are detailed and discussed. A BTC for pulse injection can be characterized by its maximum M(t_M) and the time tM at which it occurs. The observed differences for channels bounded by cavities are very small. However for the granular structures, M(t_M) is always larger for FtoC than for CtoF ; tM depends on all the parameters, namely Pe, the size ratio between the large and small grains, the injection and the observation planes. The numerical results are systematically compared with solutions of one

  13. The Simple Publishing Interface (SPI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ternier, Stefaan; Massart, David; Totschnig, Michael; Klerkx, Joris; Duval, Erik

    2010-01-01

    Ternier, S., Massart, D., Totschnig, M., Klerkx, J., & Duval, E. (2010). The Simple Publishing Interface (SPI). D-Lib Magazine, September/October 2010, Volume 16 Number 9/10, doi:10.1045/september2010-ternier

  14. Mathematics for 2d Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Bardos, Claude

    2010-01-01

    We present here a survey of recent results concerning the mathematical analysis of instabilities of the interface between two incompressible, non viscous, fluids of constant density and vorticity concentrated on the interface. This configuration includes the so-called Kelvin-Helmholtz (the two densities are equal), Rayleigh-Taylor (two different, nonzero, densities) and the water waves (one of the densities is zero) problems. After a brief review of results concerning strong and weak solutions of the Euler equation, we derive interface equations (such as the Birkhoff-Rott equation) that describe the motion of the interface. A linear analysis allows us to exhibit the main features of these equations (such as ellipticity properties); the consequences for the full, non linear, equations are then described. In particular, the solutions of the Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor problems are necessarily analytic if they are above a certain threshold of regularity (a consequence is the illposedness of the initial ...

  15. The Simple Publishing Interface (SPI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ternier, Stefaan; Massart, David; Totschnig, Michael; Klerkx, Joris; Duval, Erik

    2010-01-01

    Ternier, S., Massart, D., Totschnig, M., Klerkx, J., & Duval, E. (2010). The Simple Publishing Interface (SPI). D-Lib Magazine, September/October 2010, Volume 16 Number 9/10, doi:10.1045/september2010-ternier

  16. Interface engineering in organic transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong Don Park

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent technological advances in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs have triggered intensive research into the molecular and mesoscale structures of organic semiconductor films that determine their charge-transport characteristics. Since the molecular structure and morphology of an organic semiconductor are largely determined by the properties of the interface between the organic film and the insulator, a great deal of research has focused on interface engineering. We review recent progress in interface engineering for the fabrication of high-performance OFETs and, in particular, engineering of the interfaces between semiconductors and insulators. The effects of interfacial characteristics on the molecular and mesoscale structures of π-conjugated molecules and the performance of OFET devices are discussed.

  17. The Ni-YSZ interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karin Vels

    The anode/electrolyte interface in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) is known to cause electrical losses. Geometrically simple Ni/yttria-stabilised zirconia (YSZ) interfaces were examined to gain information on the structural and chemical changes occurring during experiments at 1000°C in an atmosphere...... content (99.8% Ni and 99.995% Ni) were used to examine the impact of impurities on the polarisation resistance and contact area morphology. The electropolished nickel wires were pressed against a polished 8 mol% YSZ surface. Extensive structural changes from a flat interface to a hill and valley structure...... between polarised and non-polarised samples. With pure nickel wires, however, the microstructures depended on the polarisation/non-polarisation conditions. At non-polarised conditions a hill and valley type structure was found. Anodic polarisation produced an up to 1 μm thick interface layer consisting...

  18. Det æstetiske interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik

    2006-01-01

    Afhandlingen undersøger computerspillet historisk, teoretisk og analytisk i relation til en interfaceproblematik. Computerspil ses som et fremtrædende eksempel på det æstetiske interface – et interface baseret på sanseoplevelse i stedet for pragmatisk anvendelse. Afhandlingen består af to indbyrdes...... forbundne dele – en kulturhistorisk, diakron undersøgelse af computerspillet og en teoretisk, synkron analyse af det æstetiske interface i computerspillet. Med afsæt i bl.a. en overvejelse af forholdet mellem medie-teknologi og sansning – byggende på Walter Benjamin – og en analyse af computerspillet...... interfacets performative egenskaber. Gennem analyser af spilinter-facet og det pragmatiske interface i deres anvendelsessituation og inddragelse af bl.a. den franske lingvist Émile Benveniste, redegøres der for præcist, hvordan computerspilinterfacet, gennem at lade spilleren udforske computerens fungeren...

  19. Paper Interfaces for Learning Geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnard, Quentin; Verma, Himanshu; Kaplan, Frédéric; Dillenbourg, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Paper interfaces offer tremendous possibilities for geometry education in primary schools. Existing computer interfaces designed to learn geometry do not consider the integration of conventional school tools, which form the part of the curriculum. Moreover, most of computer tools are designed specifically for individual learning, some propose group activities, but most disregard classroom-level learning, thus impeding their adoption. We present an augmented reality based tabletop system with ...

  20. Interface states at semiconductor junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margaritondo, G. [Institut de Physique Appliquee, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1999-05-01

    The experimental and theoretical progress in understanding the electronic structure and the related parameters of Schottky interfaces and heterojunctions is reviewed. Particular emphasis is devoted to the solution of several historical controversial points, to the impact of novel ab initio theoretical approaches, to new experimental techniques based on synchrotron light and free electron lasers, to the efforts towards controlled modifications of interface parameters and to the foreseeable future developments of this vigorously progressing and technologically crucial field. (author)

  1. User interface for personal accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Femec, Vasilij

    2008-01-01

    This diploma work describes a method for user interface development for an application Bilanca that is intended for a review of personal financial flows. It is a simple application that subtracts outcome from income and shows the current financial state. The work begins with a detailed analysis of the best possible user interface options that give the most comfortable user experience. This is followed by the implementation in a Delphi environment. The results show that even a simple applicati...

  2. Optoelectronics Interfaces for Power Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Neamtu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The most important issue interface is galvanicseparation between the signal part and the power board.Standards in the field have increased continuouslyelectro-security requirements on the rigidity of thedielectric and insulation resistance. Recommendations forclassical solutions require the use of galvanic separationoptoelectronics devices. Interfacing with a PC or DSP -controller is a target of interposition optical signals viathe power hardware commands.

  3. Interfacing with an EVA Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Amy

    2011-01-01

    A NASA spacesuit under the EVA Technology Domain consists of a suit system; a PLSS; and a Power, Avionics, and Software (PAS) system. Ross described the basic functions, components, and interfaces of the PLSS, which consists of oxygen, ventilation, and thermal control subsystems; electronics; and interfaces. Design challenges were reviewed from a packaging perspective. Ross also discussed the development of the PLSS over the last two decades.

  4. Active matter clusters at interfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine eCopenhagen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Collective and directed motility or swarming is an emergent phenomenon displayed by many self-organized assemblies of active biological matter such as clusters of embryonic cells during tissue development, cancerous cells during tumor formation and metastasis, colonies of bacteria in a biofilm, or even flocks of birds and schools of fish at the macro-scale. Such clusters typically encounter very heterogeneous environments. What happens when a cluster encounters an interface between two different environments has implications for its function and fate. Here we study this problem by using a mathematical model of a cluster that treats it as a single cohesive unit that moves in two dimensions by exerting a force/torque per unit area whose magnitude depends on the nature of the local environment. We find that low speed (overdamped clusters encountering an interface with a moderate difference in properties can lead to refraction or even total internal reflection of the cluster. For large speeds (underdamped, where inertia dominates, the clusters show more complex behaviors crossing the interface multiple times and deviating from the predictable refraction and reflection for the low velocity clusters. We then present an extreme limit of the model in the absence of rotational damping where clusters can become stuck spiraling along the interface or move in large circular trajectories after leaving the interface. Our results show a wide range of behaviors that occur when collectively moving active biological matter moves across interfaces and these insights can be used to control motion by patterning environments.

  5. Active matter clusters at interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copenhagen, Katherine; Gopinathan, Ajay

    2016-03-01

    Collective and directed motility or swarming is an emergent phenomenon displayed by many self-organized assemblies of active biological matter such as clusters of embryonic cells during tissue development, cancerous cells during tumor formation and metastasis, colonies of bacteria in a biofilm, or even flocks of birds and schools of fish at the macro-scale. Such clusters typically encounter very heterogeneous environments. What happens when a cluster encounters an interface between two different environments has implications for its function and fate. Here we study this problem by using a mathematical model of a cluster that treats it as a single cohesive unit that moves in two dimensions by exerting a force/torque per unit area whose magnitude depends on the nature of the local environment. We find that low speed (overdamped) clusters encountering an interface with a moderate difference in properties can lead to refraction or even total internal reflection of the cluster. For large speeds (underdamped), where inertia dominates, the clusters show more complex behaviors crossing the interface multiple times and deviating from the predictable refraction and reflection for the low velocity clusters. We then present an extreme limit of the model in the absence of rotational damping where clusters can become stuck spiraling along the interface or move in large circular trajectories after leaving the interface. Our results show a wide range of behaviors that occur when collectively moving active biological matter moves across interfaces and these insights can be used to control motion by patterning environments.

  6. Hydrophobic effect at aqueous interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Conceptual basis for hydrophobic effects in bulk water and at aqueous interfaces have similar conceptual basis but often manifests itself differently. Using a wide range of computer simulations as the basis, I will review different forms of hydrophobic effects at a variety of interfaces starting from simple liquid-vapor and water-oil interfaces and progressing to water-membrane interfaces. I will start with discussing how water is organized at different interfaces, stressing both similarities and differences. The main thread is that, as in the bulk liquid, hydrophobic effects have profound influence on conformational equilibria and organization of both small molecules and macromolecules, but the result of this influence is quite different. Specifically, it will be shown that many small, but not necessarily amphiphilic molecules tend to accumulate at the interface and, and this tendency will be explained. Furthermore, I will show that many short peptides that are disordered in water spontaneously fold into well-defined structures in the interfacial environment. Biological implications of this self-organizing effect will be discussed.

  7. Spoken Dialogue Interfaces: Integrating Usability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiliotopoulos, Dimitris; Stavropoulou, Pepi; Kouroupetroglou, Georgios

    Usability is a fundamental requirement for natural language interfaces. Usability evaluation reflects the impact of the interface and the acceptance from the users. This work examines the potential of usability evaluation in terms of issues and methodologies for spoken dialogue interfaces along with the appropriate designer-needs analysis. It unfolds the perspective to the usability integration in the spoken language interface design lifecycle and provides a framework description for creating and testing usable content and applications for conversational interfaces. Main concerns include the problem identification of design issues for usability design and evaluation, the use of customer experience for the design of voice interfaces and dialogue, and the problems that arise from real-life deployment. Moreover it presents a real-life paradigm of a hands-on approach for applying usability methodologies in a spoken dialogue application environment to compare against a DTMF approach. Finally, the scope and interpretation of results from both the designer and the user standpoint of usability evaluation are discussed.

  8. Magnetosheath-cusp interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Savin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We advance the achievements of Interball-1 and other contemporary missions in exploration of the magnetosheath-cusp interface. Extensive discussion of published results is accompanied by presentation of new data from a case study and a comparison of those data within the broader context of three-year magnetopause (MP crossings by Interball-1. Multi-spacecraft boundary layer studies reveal that in ∼80% of the cases the interaction of the magnetosheath (MSH flow with the high latitude MP produces a layer containing strong nonlinear turbulence, called the turbulent boundary layer (TBL. The TBL contains wave trains with flows at approximately the Alfvén speed along field lines and "diamagnetic bubbles" with small magnetic fields inside. A comparison of the multi-point measurements obtained on 29 May 1996 with a global MHD model indicates that three types of populating processes should be operative:

    • large-scale (∼few RE anti-parallel merging at sites remote from the cusp;
    • medium-scale (few thousandkm local TBL-merging of fields that are anti-parallel on average;
    • small-scale (few hundredkm bursty reconnection of fluctuating magnetic fields, representing a continuous mechanism for MSH plasma inflow into the magnetosphere, which could dominate in quasi-steady cases.

    The lowest frequency (∼1–2mHz TBL fluctuations are traced throughout the magnetosheath from the post-bow shock region up to the inner magnetopause border. The resonance of these fluctuations with dayside flux tubes might provide an effective correlative link for the entire dayside region of the solar wind interaction with the magnetopause and cusp ionosphere. The TBL disturbances are characterized by kinked, double-sloped wave power spectra and, most probably, three-wave cascading. Both elliptical polarization and nearly Alfvénic phase velocities with characteristic dispersion indicate the

  9. Interface groups and financial transfer architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Bergstra, Jan A

    2007-01-01

    Analytic execution architectures have been proposed by the same authors as a means to conceptualize the cooperation between heterogeneous collectives of components such as programs, threads, states and services. Interface groups have been proposed as a means to formalize interface information concerning analytic execution architectures. These concepts are adapted to organization architectures with a focus on financial transfers. Interface groups (and monoids) now provide a technique to combine interface elements into interfaces with the flexibility to distinguish between directions of flow dependent on entity naming. The main principle exploiting interface groups is that when composing a closed system of a collection of interacting components, the sum of their interfaces must vanish in the interface group modulo reflection. This certainly matters for financial transfer interfaces. As an example of this, we specify an interface group and within it some specific interfaces concerning the financial transfer arch...

  10. The Shifts of Japanese Autonyms --Centered on Japanese Modem Literary Works%日语自称词的切换——以日本近代文艺作品为中心

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁福鼎; 王猛

    2012-01-01

    Japanese speakers choose different autonyms when they are facing different listeners. Some factors are taken into account, such as the social status of the speaker, the age and gender of the speaker, the specific context of the conversation and the relationship between the speaker and the listener, etc. However, previous studies have rarely touched on the fact that different autonyms can be adopted by the speaker even when he/she is talking to the same listener. This paper makes a thorough examination of the autonyms in modem literary works. In this paper, the shifts of autonyms are divided into the choices of autonyms (for different listeners) and the shifts of the autonyms (for the same listener). This paper also reveals the cause of the shifts of autonyms from following aspects: the context of the conversation, the content of the conversation, the relations between the speakers, and the qualities of the autonyms. It is the first endeavor in this field and the research methodology and conclusions can be adopted in not only autonyms research but also in anti-addressing words research. Meanwhile, this paper is also an asset in the teaching of Japanese autonyms.%在日语中说话人经常根据听话人的不同而选择不同的自称词。其原因主要取决于说话人自身的身份、性别、年龄、说话的场面以及与听话人的关系等方面。然而,对于同一听话人采用不同的自称词这一现象,迄今为止的研究中则很少涉及。本文以日本近代文艺作品为调查资料,对作品中的自称词进行全数调查。将自称词的切换现象分为自称词的选择(不同听话人)和自称词的交替(同一听话人),并从人际关系、说话场面、话题的内容、自称词的性质等方面揭示了自称词切换的原因。

  11. XML Translator for Interface Descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroson, Elizabeth R.

    2009-01-01

    A computer program defines an XML schema for specifying the interface to a generic FPGA from the perspective of software that will interact with the device. This XML interface description is then translated into header files for C, Verilog, and VHDL. User interface definition input is checked via both the provided XML schema and the translator module to ensure consistency and accuracy. Currently, programming used on both sides of an interface is inconsistent. This makes it hard to find and fix errors. By using a common schema, both sides are forced to use the same structure by using the same framework and toolset. This makes for easy identification of problems, which leads to the ability to formulate a solution. The toolset contains constants that allow a programmer to use each register, and to access each field in the register. Once programming is complete, the translator is run as part of the make process, which ensures that whenever an interface is changed, all of the code that uses the header files describing it is recompiled.

  12. DIRAC: Secure web user interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casajus Ramo, A [University of Barcelona, Diagonal 647, ES-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Sapunov, M, E-mail: sapunov@in2p3.f [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, 163 Av de Luminy Case 902 13288 Marseille (France)

    2010-04-01

    Traditionally the interaction between users and the Grid is done with command line tools. However, these tools are difficult to use by non-expert users providing minimal help and generating outputs not always easy to understand especially in case of errors. Graphical User Interfaces are typically limited to providing access to the monitoring or accounting information and concentrate on some particular aspects failing to cover the full spectrum of grid control tasks. To make the Grid more user friendly more complete graphical interfaces are needed. Within the DIRAC project we have attempted to construct a Web based User Interface that provides means not only for monitoring the system behavior but also allows to steer the main user activities on the grid. Using DIRAC's web interface a user can easily track jobs and data. It provides access to job information and allows performing actions on jobs such as killing or deleting. Data managers can define and monitor file transfer activity as well as check requests set by jobs. Production managers can define and follow large data productions and react if necessary by stopping or starting them. The Web Portal is build following all the grid security standards and using modern Web 2.0 technologies which allow to achieve the user experience similar to the desktop applications. Details of the DIRAC Web Portal architecture and User Interface will be presented and discussed.

  13. The Evaluation of Interface Design on CDROMs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Jennifer; Slack, Frances

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the literature on the design and evaluation of user interfaces on CD-ROM. Defines interfaces, dialogs and interaction and explores diversity in, and issues associated with, standardization in interface design for CD-ROMs. Reviews current criteria and guidelines for the evaluation of CD-ROM interfaces and proposes alternative guidelines.…

  14. Design of Interfaces for Information Seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchionini, Gary; Komlodi, Anita

    1998-01-01

    Examines the current state of user interface design for information seeking. Topics include technology push and interdisciplinarity; research and development; literature trends; user-centered interface design; information seeking in electronic environments; online information retrieval system interfaces; online public access catalog interfaces;…

  15. EFFECTS OF INTERFACES ON GAMMA SHIELDING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford, C.E.

    1963-06-15

    A survey is presented of studies of interface effects in gamma shielding problems. These studies are grouped into three types of approaches, viz.: sources at the interface; radiation backscattered from the interface; and radiation transmitted through the interface. A bibliography of 54 references is included. Limitations on the applicability of the results are discussed. (T.F.H.)

  16. Computational Approaches to Interface Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corker; Lebacqz, J. Victor (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Tools which make use of computational processes - mathematical, algorithmic and/or knowledge-based - to perform portions of the design, evaluation and/or construction of interfaces have become increasingly available and powerful. Nevertheless, there is little agreement as to the appropriate role for a computational tool to play in the interface design process. Current tools fall into broad classes depending on which portions, and how much, of the design process they automate. The purpose of this panel is to review and generalize about computational approaches developed to date, discuss the tasks which for which they are suited, and suggest methods to enhance their utility and acceptance. Panel participants represent a wide diversity of application domains and methodologies. This should provide for lively discussion about implementation approaches, accuracy of design decisions, acceptability of representational tradeoffs and the optimal role for a computational tool to play in the interface design process.

  17. Physics of Surfaces and Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Ibach, Harald

    2006-01-01

    This graduate-level textbook covers the major developments in surface sciences of recent decades, from experimental tricks and basic techniques to the latest experimental methods and theoretical understanding. It is unique in its attempt to treat the physics of surfaces, thin films and interfaces, surface chemistry, thermodynamics, statistical physics and the physics of the solid/electrolyte interface in an integral manner, rather than in separate compartments. The Physics of Surfaces and Interfaces is designed as a handbook for the researcher as well as a study-text for graduate students in physics or chemistry with special interest in the surface sciences, material science, or the nanosciences. The experienced researcher, professional or academic teacher will appreciate the opportunity to share many insights and ideas that have grown out of the author's long experience. Readers will likewise appreciate the wide range of topics treated, each supported by extensive references. Graduate students will benefit f...

  18. PinBus Interface Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Adgerson, Jewel D.; Sastry, Chellury; Pratt, Richard M.; Pratt, Robert G.

    2009-12-30

    On behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, PNNL has explored and expanded upon a simple control interface that might have merit for the inexpensive communication of smart grid operational objectives (demand response, for example) to small electric end-use devices and appliances. The approach relies on bi-directional communication via the electrical voltage states of from one to eight shared interconnection pins. The name PinBus has been suggested and adopted for the proposed interface protocol. The protocol is defined through the presentation of state diagrams and the pins’ functional definitions. Both simulations and laboratory demonstrations are being conducted to demonstrate the elegance and power of the suggested approach. PinBus supports a very high degree of interoperability across its interfaces, allowing innumerable pairings of devices and communication protocols and supporting the practice of practically any smart grid use case.

  19. Multi-robot control interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Walton, Miles C [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-12-06

    Methods and systems for controlling a plurality of robots through a single user interface include at least one robot display window for each of the plurality of robots with the at least one robot display window illustrating one or more conditions of a respective one of the plurality of robots. The user interface further includes at least one robot control window for each of the plurality of robots with the at least one robot control window configured to receive one or more commands for sending to the respective one of the plurality of robots. The user interface further includes a multi-robot common window comprised of information received from each of the plurality of robots.

  20. Interfacing with the computational brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Andrew; Fetz, Eberhard E

    2011-10-01

    Neuroscience is just beginning to understand the neural computations that underlie our remarkable capacity to learn new motor tasks. Studies of natural movements have emphasized the importance of concepts such as dimensionality reduction within hierarchical levels of redundancy, optimization of behavior in the presence of sensorimotor noise and internal models for predictive control. These concepts also provide a framework for understanding the improvements in performance seen in myoelectric-controlled interface and brain-machine interface paradigms. Recent experiments reveal how volitional activity in the motor system combines with sensory feedback to shape neural representations and drives adaptation of behavior. By elucidating these mechanisms, a new generation of intelligent interfaces can be designed to exploit neural plasticity and restore function after neurological injury.

  1. Coordinating user interfaces for consistency

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Jakob

    2001-01-01

    In the years since Jakob Nielsen's classic collection on interface consistency first appeared, much has changed, and much has stayed the same. On the one hand, there's been exponential growth in the opportunities for following or disregarding the principles of interface consistency-more computers, more applications, more users, and of course the vast expanse of the Web. On the other, there are the principles themselves, as persistent and as valuable as ever. In these contributed chapters, you'll find details on many methods for seeking and enforcing consistency, along with bottom-line analys

  2. Artful interfaces within biological materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W.C. Dunlop

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological materials have a wide range of mechanical properties matching their biological function. This is achieved via complex structural hierarchies, spanning many length scales, arising from the assembly of different sized building blocks during growth. The interfaces between these building blocks can increase resistance to fracture, join materials of different character, make them deform more easily and provide motility. While they represent only a tiny fraction of the overall volume, interfaces are essential for the integrity and function of the overall tissue. Understanding their construction principles, often based on specialized molecular assemblies, may change our current thinking about composite materials.

  3. Immersed interface methods. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeVeque, R.J.; Adams, L.M.; Bube, K.P.

    1996-11-01

    Cartesian grid methods encompass a wide variety of techniques used to solve partial differential equations in more than one space dimension on uniform Cartesian grids even when the underlying geometry is complex and not aligned with the grid. The authors` groups work on Immersed Interface Methods (IIM) was originally motivated by the desire to understand and improve the ``Immersed Boundary Method``, developed by Charles Peskin to solve incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in complicated geometries with moving elastic boundaries. This report briefly discusses the development of the Immersed Interface Methods and gives examples of application of the method in solving several partial differential equations.

  4. DHMI: dynamic holographic microscopy interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuefei; Zheng, Yujie; Lee, Woei Ming

    2016-12-01

    Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) is a powerful in-vitro biological imaging tool. In this paper, we report a fully automated off-axis digital holographic microscopy system completed with a graphical user interface in the Matlab environment. The interface primarily includes Fourier domain processing, phase reconstruction, aberration compensation and autofocusing. A variety of imaging operations such as region of interest selection, de-noising mode (filtering and averaging), low frame rate imaging for immediate reconstruction and high frame rate imaging routine ( 27 fps) are implemented to facilitate ease of use.

  5. The interface at the skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed

    2011-01-01

    experimental dresses made by Philips within the field of wearable computing subscribe to the concept of ‘ideal communication’. In her article, she explains how this particular type of communication is linked to the paranormal phenomena of mind reading and telepathy, and argues that sensor-based wearable......In the development of and discourses around interfaces there has always been a strong urge to bypass representation and ‘jack’ directly in to the human brain, consciousness, perceptions and feelings. In her article ”The interface at the skin” Lone Koefoed Hansen looks at how two contemporary...

  6. Inhomogeneous interface laser mirror coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledger, A M

    1979-09-01

    Methods of improving the durability of thin-film laser mirror coatings for 10.6 microm using thorium fluoride, zinc selenide, and zinc sulfide materials have been investigated. The largest improvement in film durability was obtained by using inhomogeneous interface fabrication for all the dielectric-dielectric interfaces and by incorporating cerium fluoride protective overcoating material into the film design. Experimental results are given for enhanced reflectors, polarization-selective coatings, and buried-grating aperture-sharing coatings designed for high-power laser applications.

  7. Chemical reactions at aqueous interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecitis, Chad David

    2009-12-01

    Interfaces or phase boundaries are a unique chemical environment relative to individual gas, liquid, or solid phases. Interfacial reaction mechanisms and kinetics are often at variance with homogeneous chemistry due to mass transfer, molecular orientation, and catalytic effects. Aqueous interfaces are a common subject of environmental science and engineering research, and three environmentally relevant aqueous interfaces are investigated in this thesis: 1) fluorochemical sonochemistry (bubble-water), 2) aqueous aerosol ozonation (gas-water droplet), and 3) electrolytic hydrogen production and simultaneous organic oxidation (water-metal/semiconductor). Direct interfacial analysis under environmentally relevant conditions is difficult, since most surface-specific techniques require relatively `extreme' conditions. Thus, the experimental investigations here focus on the development of chemical reactors and analytical techniques for the completion of time/concentration-dependent measurements of reactants and their products. Kinetic modeling, estimations, and/or correlations were used to extract information on interfacially relevant processes. We found that interfacial chemistry was determined to be the rate-limiting step to a subsequent series of relatively fast homogeneous reactions, for example: 1) Pyrolytic cleavage of the ionic headgroup of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) adsorbed to cavitating bubble-water interfaces during sonolysis was the rate-determining step in transformation to their inorganic constituents carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and fluoride; 2) ozone oxidation of aqueous iodide to hypoiodous acid at the aerosol-gas interface is the rate-determining step in the oxidation of bromide and chloride to dihalogens; 3) Electrolytic oxidation of anodic titanol surface groups is rate-limiting for the overall oxidation of organics by the dichloride radical. We also found chemistry unique to the interface, for example: 1

  8. Performance Metrics for Haptic Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Samur, Evren

    2012-01-01

    Haptics technology is being used more and more in different applications, such as in computer games for increased immersion, in surgical simulators to create a realistic environment for training of surgeons, in surgical robotics due to safety issues and in mobile phones to provide feedback from user action. The existence of these applications highlights a clear need to understand performance metrics for haptic interfaces and their implications on device design, use and application. Performance Metrics for Haptic Interfaces aims at meeting this need by establishing standard practices for the ev

  9. A database for TMT interface control documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Kim; Roberts, Scott; Brighton, Allan; Rogers, John

    2016-08-01

    The TMT Software System consists of software components that interact with one another through a software infrastructure called TMT Common Software (CSW). CSW consists of software services and library code that is used by developers to create the subsystems and components that participate in the software system. CSW also defines the types of components that can be constructed and their roles. The use of common component types and shared middleware services allows standardized software interfaces for the components. A software system called the TMT Interface Database System was constructed to support the documentation of the interfaces for components based on CSW. The programmer describes a subsystem and each of its components using JSON-style text files. A command interface file describes each command a component can receive and any commands a component sends. The event interface files describe status, alarms, and events a component publishes and status and events subscribed to by a component. A web application was created to provide a user interface for the required features. Files are ingested into the software system's database. The user interface allows browsing subsystem interfaces, publishing versions of subsystem interfaces, and constructing and publishing interface control documents that consist of the intersection of two subsystem interfaces. All published subsystem interfaces and interface control documents are versioned for configuration control and follow the standard TMT change control processes. Subsystem interfaces and interface control documents can be visualized in the browser or exported as PDF files.

  10. BASIN: Beowulf Analysis Symbolic INterface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesperini, Enrico; Goldberg, David M.; McMillan, Stephen L. W.; Dura, James; Jones, Douglas

    2013-08-01

    BASIN (Beowulf Analysis Symbolic INterface) is a flexible, integrated suite of tools for multiuser parallel data analysis and visualization that allows researchers to harness the power of Beowulf PC clusters and multi-processor machines without necessarily being experts in parallel programming. It also includes general tools for data distribution and parallel operations on distributed data for developing libraries for specific tasks.

  11. Miniaturized neural interfaces and implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieglitz, Thomas; Boretius, Tim; Ordonez, Juan; Hassler, Christina; Henle, Christian; Meier, Wolfgang; Plachta, Dennis T. T.; Schuettler, Martin

    2012-03-01

    Neural prostheses are technical systems that interface nerves to treat the symptoms of neurological diseases and to restore sensory of motor functions of the body. Success stories have been written with the cochlear implant to restore hearing, with spinal cord stimulators to treat chronic pain as well as urge incontinence, and with deep brain stimulators in patients suffering from Parkinson's disease. Highly complex neural implants for novel medical applications can be miniaturized either by means of precision mechanics technologies using known and established materials for electrodes, cables, and hermetic packages or by applying microsystems technologies. Examples for both approaches will be introduced and discussed. Electrode arrays for recording of electrocorticograms during presurgical epilepsy diagnosis have been manufactured using approved materials and a marking laser to achieve an integration density that is adequate in the context of brain machine interfaces, e.g. on the motor cortex. Microtechnologies have to be used for further miniaturization to develop polymer-based flexible and light weighted electrode arrays to interface the peripheral and central nervous system. Polyimide as substrate and insulation material will be discussed as well as several application examples for nerve interfaces like cuffs, filament like electrodes and large arrays for subdural implantation.

  12. Interface design for digital courses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabbers, Huib; Kester, Liesbeth; Hummel, Hans; Nadolski, Rob

    2005-01-01

    This text should be referred to as: Tabbers, H., Kester, L., Hummel, H. G. K., & Nadolski, R. J. (2003). Interface design for digital courses. In W. Jochems, J. van Merriënboer, & R. Koper (Eds). Integrated e-learning: implications for pedagogy, technology & organisation (pp. 100-111). London: Routl

  13. Interface design for digital courses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabbers, H.; Kester, L.; Hummel, H.; Nadolski, R.; Jochems, W.; Merriënboer, J.; Koper, R.

    2003-01-01

    An important question in web-based education is how to deal with the design of the interface. What will the actual screen look like? Two main issues that are especially relevant for educational purposes are discussed, both from a Human-Computer Interaction and an Educational Psychology perspective.

  14. Interface design for digital courses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabbers, Huib; Kester, Liesbeth; Hummel, Hans; Nadolski, Rob

    2005-01-01

    This text should be referred to as: Tabbers, H., Kester, L., Hummel, H. G. K., & Nadolski, R. J. (2003). Interface design for digital courses. In W. Jochems, J. van Merriënboer, & R. Koper (Eds). Integrated e-learning: implications for pedagogy, technology & organisation (pp. 100-111). London: Routl

  15. The steel–concrete interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angst, Ueli M.; Geiker, Mette Rica; Michel, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Although the steel–concrete interface (SCI) is widely recognized to influence the durability of reinforced concrete, a systematic overview and detailed documentation of the various aspects of the SCI are lacking. In this paper, we compiled a comprehensive list of possible local characteristics...

  16. Surface Waves on Metamaterials Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takayama, Osamu; Shkondin, Evgeniy; Panah, Mohammad Esmail Aryaee

    2016-01-01

    We analyze surface electromagnetic waves supported at the interface between isotropic medium and effective anisotropic material that can be realized by alternating conductive and dielectrics layers. This configuration can host various types of surface waves and therefore can serve as a rich platf...

  17. Interfacing DNA nanodevices with biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Mathias; Kjems, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    in biology and biomedicine acting as a molecular ‘nanorobot’ or smart drug interacting with the cellular machinery. In this review, we will explore and examine the perspective of DNA nanotechnology for such use. We summarize which requirements DNA nanostructures must fulfil to function in cellular...... environments and inside living organisms. In addition, we highlight recent advances in interfacing DNA nanostructures with biology....

  18. Tactile melodies in user interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, H.A.H.C. van; Erp, J.B.F. van

    2003-01-01

    The application of dynamic vibrotactile displays in user interfaces is still a rare situation. There are, however, several important advantages of using the sense of touch as an information channel, especially in relation to overloaded or unavailable visual and auditory channels. We propose here to

  19. Human-computer interface design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowser, S.E.

    1995-04-01

    Modern military forces assume that computer-based information is reliable, timely, available, usable, and shared. The importance of computer-based information is based on the assumption that {open_quotes}shared situation awareness, coupled with the ability to conduct continuous operations, will allow information age armies to observe, decide, and act faster, more correctly and more precisely than their enemies.{close_quotes} (Sullivan and Dubik 1994). Human-Computer Interface (HCI) design standardization is critical to the realization of the previously stated assumptions. Given that a key factor of a high-performance, high-reliability system is an easy-to-use, effective design of the interface between the hardware, software, and the user, it follows logically that the interface between the computer and the military user is critical to the success of the information-age military. The proliferation of computer technology has resulted in the development of an extensive variety of computer-based systems and the implementation of varying HCI styles on these systems. To accommodate the continued growth in computer-based systems, minimize HCI diversity, and improve system performance and reliability, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) is continuing to adopt interface standards for developing computer-based systems.

  20. Robust brain-computer interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuderink, Boris

    2011-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) enables direct communication from the brain to devices, bypassing the traditional pathway of peripheral nerves and muscles. Current BCIs aimed at patients require that the user invests weeks, or even months, to learn the skill to intentionally modify their brain sign

  1. Surface Waves on Metamaterials Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takayama, Osamu; Shkondin, Evgeniy; Panah, Mohammad Esmail Aryaee;

    2016-01-01

    We analyze surface electromagnetic waves supported at the interface between isotropic medium and effective anisotropic material that can be realized by alternating conductive and dielectrics layers. This configuration can host various types of surface waves and therefore can serve as a rich platf...

  2. Gluing Soft Interfaces by Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhen; Dobrynin, Andrey

    Using a combination of the molecular dynamics simulations and scaling analysis we studied reinforcement of interface between two soft gel-like materials by spherical nanoparticles. Analysis of the simulations shows that the depth of penetration of a nanoparticle into a gel is determined by a balance of the elastic energy of the gel and nanoparticle deformations and the surface energy of nanoparticle/gel interface. In order to evaluate work of adhesion of the reinforced interface, the potential of mean force for separation of two gels was calculated. These simulations showed that the gel separation proceeds through formation of necks connecting nanoparticle with two gels. The shapes of the necks are controlled by a fine interplay between nanoparticle/gel surface energies and elastic energy of the neck deformation. Our simulations showed that by introducing nanoparticles at soft interfaces, the work required for separation of two gels could be 10-100 times larger than the work of adhesion between two gels without nanoparticle reinforcement. These results provide insight in understanding the mechanism of gluing soft gels and biological tissues by nano- and micro-sized particles. NSF DMR-1409710.

  3. Embodied agents in de interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, M.J.; Nijholt, A.

    2001-01-01

    Steeds meer zien we het gebruik van mensachtige, geanimeerde figuren in interfaces en andere software applicaties, niet alleen in onderzoeksprojecten maar ook in commerciële software. Een voorbeeld dat bijna iedereen wel kent (en waar velen wel wat op aan te merken hebben) is de ‘office assistant’ i

  4. Spray algorithm without interface construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kadhem Majhool, Ahmed Abed; Watkins, A. P.

    2012-05-01

    This research is aimed to create a new and robust family of convective schemes to capture the interface between the dispersed and the carrier phases in a spray without the need to build up the interface boundary. The selection of the Weighted Average Flux (WAF) scheme is due to this scheme being designed to deal with random flux scheme which is second-order accurate in space and time. The convective flux in each cell face utilizes the WAF scheme blended with Switching Technique for Advection and Capturing of Surfaces (STACS) scheme for high resolution flux limiters. In the next step, the high resolution scheme is blended with the WAF scheme to provide the sharpness and boundedness of the interface by using switching strategy. In this work, the Eulerian-Eulerian framework of non-reactive turbulent spray is set in terms of theoretical proposed methodology namely spray moments of drop size distribution, presented by Beck and Watkins [1]. The computational spray model avoids the need to segregate the local droplet number distribution into parcels of identical droplets. The proposed scheme is tested on capturing the spray edges in modelling hollow cone sprays without need to reconstruct two-phase interface. A test is made on simple comparison between TVD scheme and WAF scheme using the same flux limiter on convective flow hollow cone spray. Results show the WAF scheme gives a better prediction than TVD scheme. The only way to check the accuracy of the presented models is by evaluating the spray sheet thickness.

  5. Brush/Fin Thermal Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Timothy R.; Seaman, Christopher L.; Ellman, Brett M.

    2004-01-01

    Brush/fin thermal interfaces are being developed to increase heat-transfer efficiency and thereby enhance the thermal management of orbital replaceable units (ORUs) of electronic and other equipment aboard the International Space Station. Brush/fin thermal interfaces could also be used to increase heat-transfer efficiency in terrestrial electronic and power systems. In a typical application according to conventional practice, a replaceable heat-generating unit includes a mounting surface with black-anodized metal fins that mesh with the matching fins of a heat sink or radiator on which the unit is mounted. The fins do not contact each other, but transfer heat via radiation exchange. A brush/fin interface also includes intermeshing fins, the difference being that the gaps between the fins are filled with brushes made of carbon or other fibers. The fibers span the gap between intermeshed fins, allowing heat transfer by conduction through the fibers. The fibers are attached to the metal surfaces as velvet-like coats in the manner of the carbon fiber brush heat exchangers described in the preceding article. The fiber brushes provide both mechanical compliance and thermal contact, thereby ensuring low contact thermal resistance. A certain amount of force is required to intermesh the fins due to sliding friction of the brush s fiber tips against the fins. This force increases linearly with penetration distance, reaching 1 psi (6.9 kPa) for full 2-in. (5.1 cm) penetration for the conventional radiant fin interface. Removal forces can be greater due to fiber buckling upon reversing the sliding direction. This buckling force can be greatly reduced by biasing the fibers at an angle perpendicularly to the sliding direction. Means of containing potentially harmful carbon fiber debris, which is electrically conductive, have been developed. Small prototype brush/fin thermal interfaces have been tested and found to exhibit temperature drops about onesixth of that of conventional

  6. Design and implementation of AUV underwater acoustic frequency hopping communication modem%AUV 水声跳频通信调制解调器的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范巍巍; 张殿伦; 董继刚; 张友文

    2014-01-01

    estimation, linear interpola-tion method for high-efficiency Doppler compensation, and the use of combining high-precision clock onboard of communication nodes and the design of acoustic-link synchronization mechanism to effectively solve establishment of bidirectional communication link and data transmission between the AUV and surface control boat.Based on the OMAP-L138 dual-core processor platform, the FH-FSK prototype of underwater acoustic modem was designed and implemented.The lake-test results showed that the proposed transmission control protocol can guarantee random connection or disconnection of the communication link between the communication nodes, which proved that the prototype is stable and reliable.

  7. Don't Forget the Social Responsibility to Explore Modem Transformation of the Zoo%毋忘社会责任探索动物园现代转型之路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兴金

    2012-01-01

    It's an important proposition in Chinese zoos that how to change from traditional to modem, which is the inevitable requirement of Chinese economic development, and brings new opportunities and challenges for Chinese zoos. Fun with animals is the main objective in the traditional zoo, but nature conservation and conservation education is an important mission in the modern zoo. In the modern zoo, the presentation is the pursuit of the nature and ecology, to show the main features of animal habitats to focus on animal welfare, which reflects the respect for life; to carry out scientific research for the zoo and wild animal protection to provide technical support; zoo should be the forerunner of environmental protection in planning, construction and operations. A modern zoo shows the relationship between animals and nature to make the public aware of the importance of protecting nature, it serves as the nature protector and educator. Guangzhou Zoo never forgets its social responsibility, and has initially got social, ecological, and economic benefits from the modernization transformation of the zoo.%从传统动物园向现代动物园转变已经成为我国动物园建设的重要命题,既是中国经济社会发展的必然要求,也为中国动物园的发展带来了新的机遇和挑战。传统动物园的主要特征是以动物为取乐的对象,而现代动物园则把自然保护和保护教育作为重要使命。现代动物园的特征有:动物展示方式追求自然和生态化,展示动物栖息地的主要特征;注重动物福利从而体现对生命的尊重;开展科学研究为动物园及野外动物保护提供技术支持;动物园在规划、建设、运营中应成为环境保护的先行者。通过这些,使公众感受到保护自然的重要性,自觉充当自然保护和教育者的角色。广州动物园不忘社会职责,在探索动物园现代转型中初步实现了社会效益、生态效益和经济效益的同步增长。

  8. Technique for converting non-conforming hexahedral-to-hexahedral interfaces into conforming interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staten, Matthew L.; Shepherd, Jason F.; Ledoux, Frank; Shimada, Kenji; Merkley, Karl G.; Carbonera, Carlos

    2013-03-05

    A technique for conforming an interface between a first mesh and a second mesh is disclosed. A first interface surface in the first mesh and a second interface surface in the second mesh residing along the interface are identified. The first and second interface surfaces are initially non-conforming along the interface. Chords within the first and second interface surfaces that fall within a threshold separation distance of each other are paired. Sheets having chords that reside within the first or second interface surfaces are recursively inserted into or extracted from one or both of the first and second meshes until all remaining chords within the first interface surface are paired with corresponding chords in the second interface surface and all remaining chords within the second interface surface are paired with corresponding chords in the first interface surface.

  9. Application of the Scalable Coherent Interface to Data Acquisition at LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    RD24 : The RD24 activities in 1996 were dominated by test and integration of PCI-SCI bridges for VME-bus and for PC's for the 1996 milestones. In spite of the dispersion of RD24 membership into the ATLAS, ALICE and the proposed LHC-B experiments, collaboration and sharing of resources of SCI laboratories and equipment continued with excellent results and several doctoral theses. The availability of cheap PCI-SCI adapters has allowed construction of VME multicrate testbenches based on a variety of VME processors and work-stations. Transparent memory-to-memory accesses between remote PCI buses over SCI have been established under the Linux, Lynx-OS and Windows-NT operating systems as a proof that scalable multicrate systems are ready to be implemented with off-the-shelf products. Commercial SCI-PCI adapters are based on a PCI-SCI ASIC from Dolphin. The FPGA based PCI-SCI adapter, designed by CERN and LBL for data acquisition at LHC and STAR allows addition of DAQ functions. The step from multicrate systems towa...

  10. MIB Galerkin method for elliptic interface problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Kelin; Zhan, Meng; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Summary Material interfaces are omnipresent in the real-world structures and devices. Mathematical modeling of material interfaces often leads to elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs) with discontinuous coefficients and singular sources, which are commonly called elliptic interface problems. The development of high-order numerical schemes for elliptic interface problems has become a well defined field in applied and computational mathematics and attracted much attention in the past decades. Despite of significant advances, challenges remain in the construction of high-order schemes for nonsmooth interfaces, i.e., interfaces with geometric singularities, such as tips, cusps and sharp edges. The challenge of geometric singularities is amplified when they are associated with low solution regularities, e.g., tip-geometry effects in many fields. The present work introduces a matched interface and boundary (MIB) Galerkin method for solving two-dimensional (2D) elliptic PDEs with complex interfaces, geometric singularities and low solution regularities. The Cartesian grid based triangular elements are employed to avoid the time consuming mesh generation procedure. Consequently, the interface cuts through elements. To ensure the continuity of classic basis functions across the interface, two sets of overlapping elements, called MIB elements, are defined near the interface. As a result, differentiation can be computed near the interface as if there is no interface. Interpolation functions are constructed on MIB element spaces to smoothly extend function values across the interface. A set of lowest order interface jump conditions is enforced on the interface, which in turn, determines the interpolation functions. The performance of the proposed MIB Galerkin finite element method is validated by numerical experiments with a wide range of interface geometries, geometric singularities, low regularity solutions and grid resolutions. Extensive numerical studies confirm

  11. MIB Galerkin method for elliptic interface problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Kelin; Zhan, Meng; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2014-12-15

    Material interfaces are omnipresent in the real-world structures and devices. Mathematical modeling of material interfaces often leads to elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs) with discontinuous coefficients and singular sources, which are commonly called elliptic interface problems. The development of high-order numerical schemes for elliptic interface problems has become a well defined field in applied and computational mathematics and attracted much attention in the past decades. Despite of significant advances, challenges remain in the construction of high-order schemes for nonsmooth interfaces, i.e., interfaces with geometric singularities, such as tips, cusps and sharp edges. The challenge of geometric singularities is amplified when they are associated with low solution regularities, e.g., tip-geometry effects in many fields. The present work introduces a matched interface and boundary (MIB) Galerkin method for solving two-dimensional (2D) elliptic PDEs with complex interfaces, geometric singularities and low solution regularities. The Cartesian grid based triangular elements are employed to avoid the time consuming mesh generation procedure. Consequently, the interface cuts through elements. To ensure the continuity of classic basis functions across the interface, two sets of overlapping elements, called MIB elements, are defined near the interface. As a result, differentiation can be computed near the interface as if there is no interface. Interpolation functions are constructed on MIB element spaces to smoothly extend function values across the interface. A set of lowest order interface jump conditions is enforced on the interface, which in turn, determines the interpolation functions. The performance of the proposed MIB Galerkin finite element method is validated by numerical experiments with a wide range of interface geometries, geometric singularities, low regularity solutions and grid resolutions. Extensive numerical studies confirm the

  12. Ionic Structure at Dielectric Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yufei

    The behavior of ions in liquids confined between macromolecules determines the outcome of many nanoscale assembly processes in synthetic and biological materials such as colloidal dispersions, emulsions, hydrogels, DNA, cell membranes, and proteins. Theoretically, the macromolecule-liquid boundary is often modeled as a dielectric interface and an important quantity of interest is the ionic structure in a liquid confined between two such interfaces. The knowledge gleaned from the study of ionic structure in such models can be useful in several industrial applications, such as biosensors, lithium-ion batteries double-layer supercapacitors for energy storage and seawater desalination. Electrostatics plays a critical role in the development of such functional materials. Many of the functions of these materials, result from charge and composition heterogeneities. There are great challenges in solving electrostatics problems in heterogeneous media with arbitrary shapes because electrostatic interactions remains unknown but depend on the particular density of charge distributions. Charged molecules in heterogeneous media affect the media's dielectric response and hence the interaction between the charges is unknown since it depends on the media and on the geometrical properties of the interfaces. To determine the properties of heterogeneous systems including crucial effects neglected in classical mean field models such as the hard core of the ions, the dielectric mismatch and interfaces with arbitrary shapes. The effect of hard core interactions accounts properly for short range interactions and the effect of local dielectric heterogeneities in the presence of ions and/or charged molecules for long-range interactions are both analyzed via an energy variational principle that enables to update charges and the medium's response in the same simulation time step. In particular, we compute the ionic structure in a model system of electrolyte confined by two planar dielectric

  13. UNIVERSAL INTERFACE TO MULTIPLE OPERATIONS SYSTEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    1986-01-01

    Alternative ways to provide access to operations systems that maintain, test, and configure complex telephone networks are being explored. It is suggested that a universal interface that provides simultaneous access to multiple operations systems that execute in different hardware and software...... environments, can be provided by an architecture that is based on the separation of presentation issues from application issues and on a modular interface management system that consists of a virtual user interface, physical user interface, and interface agent. The interface functionality that is needed...

  14. UNIVERSAL INTERFACE TO MULTIPLE OPERATIONS SYSTEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    1986-01-01

    Alternative ways to provide access to operations systems that maintain, test, and configure complex telephone networks are being explored. It is suggested that a universal interface that provides simultaneous access to multiple operations systems that execute in different hardware and software...... environments, can be provided by an architecture that is based on the separation of presentation issues from application issues and on a modular interface management system that consists of a virtual user interface, physical user interface, and interface agent. The interface functionality that is needed...

  15. Human Computer Interface Design Criteria. Volume 1. User Interface Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    2 entitled Human Computer Interface ( HCI )Design Criteria Volume 1: User Interlace Requirements which contains the following major changes from...MISSILE SYSTEMS CENTER Air Force Space Command 483 N. Aviation Blvd. El Segundo, CA 90245 4. This standard has been approved for use on all Space and...and efficient model of how the system works and can generalize this knowledge to other systems. According to Mayhew in Principles and Guidelines in

  16. ACPYPE - AnteChamber PYthon Parser interfacE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa da Silva Alan W

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ACPYPE (or AnteChamber PYthon Parser interfacE is a wrapper script around the ANTECHAMBER software that simplifies the generation of small molecule topologies and parameters for a variety of molecular dynamics programmes like GROMACS, CHARMM and CNS. It is written in the Python programming language and was developed as a tool for interfacing with other Python based applications such as the CCPN software suite (for NMR data analysis and ARIA (for structure calculations from NMR data. ACPYPE is open source code, under GNU GPL v3, and is available as a stand-alone application at http://www.ccpn.ac.uk/acpype and as a web portal application at http://webapps.ccpn.ac.uk/acpype. Findings We verified the topologies generated by ACPYPE in three ways: by comparing with default AMBER topologies for standard amino acids; by generating and verifying topologies for a large set of ligands from the PDB; and by recalculating the structures for 5 protein–ligand complexes from the PDB. Conclusions ACPYPE is a tool that simplifies the automatic generation of topology and parameters in different formats for different molecular mechanics programmes, including calculation of partial charges, while being object oriented for integration with other applications.

  17. Interface dynamos in supernova progenitors

    CERN Document Server

    Blackman, E G; Thomas, J H; Blackman, Eric G.; Nordhaus, Jason T.; Thomas, John H.

    2004-01-01

    Observational evidence for anisotropy in supernovae (SN) and their phenomenological connection to jetted sources such as gamma-ray bursts^Mhave revived considerations of the role magnetohydrodynamic outflows might play therein. Understanding the types of dynamos that might operate in supernova progenitors is therefore relevant. In contrast to previous work, here we study an ``interface dynamo'' for the conditions of a rapidly rotating neutron star surrounded by a convective envelope. Such dynamos have been studied for the Sun, naked white dwarfs,and post-AGB stars, where analogous configurations of strong shear layers surrounded by convective envelopes are present. The interface dynamo provides estimates of large-scale poloidal and toroidal fields, whose product enters the Poynting flux. Because the poloidal field is much weaker than the toroidal magnetic field, the actual average Poynting flux is lower than rough estimates which invoke the only the magnitude of the total magnetic energy. The lower value is s...

  18. IVOA Recommendation: IVOA Support Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Matthew; Grid,

    2011-01-01

    This document describes the minimum interface that a (SOAP- or REST-based) web service requires to participate in the IVOA. Note that this is not required of standard VO services developed prior to this specification, although uptake is strongly encouraged on any subsequent revision. All new standard VO services, however, must feature a VOSI-compliant interface. This document has been produced by the Grid and Web Services Working Group. It has been reviewed by IVOA Members and other interested parties, and has been endorsed by the IVOA Executive Committee as an IVOA Recommendation. It is a stable document and may be used as reference material or cited as a normative reference from another document. IVOA's role in making the Recommendation is to draw attention to the specification and to promote its widespread deployment. This enhances the functionality and interoperability inside the Astronomical Community.

  19. Soft matter at aqueous interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    This book covers the science of interfaces between an aqueous phase and a solid, another liquid or a gaseous phase, starting from the basic physical chemistry all the way to state-of-the-art research developments. Both experimental and theoretical methods are treated thanks to the contributions of a distinguished list of authors who are all active researchers in their respective fields. The properties of these interfaces are crucial for a wide variety of processes, products and biological systems and functions, such as the formulation of personal care and food products, paints and coatings, microfluidic and lab-on-a-chip applications, cell membranes, and lung surfactants. Accordingly, research and expertise on the subject are spread over a broad range of academic disciplines and industrial laboratories. This book brings together knowledge from these different places with the aim of fostering education, collaborations and research progress.

  20. Low latency asynchronous interface circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadowski, Greg

    2017-06-20

    In one form, a logic circuit includes an asynchronous logic circuit, a synchronous logic circuit, and an interface circuit coupled between the asynchronous logic circuit and the synchronous logic circuit. The asynchronous logic circuit has a plurality of asynchronous outputs for providing a corresponding plurality of asynchronous signals. The synchronous logic circuit has a plurality of synchronous inputs corresponding to the plurality of asynchronous outputs, a stretch input for receiving a stretch signal, and a clock output for providing a clock signal. The synchronous logic circuit provides the clock signal as a periodic signal but prolongs a predetermined state of the clock signal while the stretch signal is active. The asynchronous interface detects whether metastability could occur when latching any of the plurality of the asynchronous outputs of the asynchronous logic circuit using said clock signal, and activates the stretch signal while the metastability could occur.

  1. Active matter clusters at interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Copenhagen, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Collective and directed motility or swarming is an emergent phenomenon displayed by many self-organized assemblies of active biological matter such as clusters of embryonic cells during tissue development, cancerous cells during tumor formation and metastasis, colonies of bacteria in a biofilm, or even flocks of birds and schools of fish at the macro-scale. Such clusters typically encounter very heterogeneous environments. What happens when a cluster encounters an interface between two different environments has implications for its function and fate. Here we study this problem by using a mathematical model of a cluster that treats it as a single cohesive unit that moves in two dimensions by exerting a force/torque per unit area whose magnitude depends on the nature of the local environment. We find that low speed (overdamped) clusters encountering an interface with a moderate difference in properties can lead to refraction or even total internal reflection of the cluster. For large speeds (underdamped), wher...

  2. Responsive cell-material interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhowre, Hala S; Rajput, Sunil; Russell, Noah A; Zelzer, Mischa

    2015-01-01

    Major design aspects for novel biomaterials are driven by the desire to mimic more varied and complex properties of a natural cellular environment with man-made materials. The development of stimulus responsive materials makes considerable contributions to the effort to incorporate dynamic and reversible elements into a biomaterial. This is particularly challenging for cell-material interactions that occur at an interface (biointerfaces); however, the design of responsive biointerfaces also presents opportunities in a variety of applications in biomedical research and regenerative medicine. This review will identify the requirements imposed on a responsive biointerface and use recent examples to demonstrate how some of these requirements have been met. Finally, the next steps in the development of more complex biomaterial interfaces, including multiple stimuli-responsive surfaces, surfaces of 3D objects and interactive biointerfaces will be discussed.

  3. Nonlinear rheological models for structured interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagis, L.M.C.

    2010-01-01

    The GENERIC formalism is a formulation of nonequilibrium thermodynamics ideally suited to develop nonlinear constitutive equations for the stress–deformation behavior of complex interfaces. Here we develop a GENERIC model for multiphase systems with interfaces displaying nonlinear viscoelastic stres

  4. Adapting Information Through Tangible Augmented Reality Interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Sinclair, Patrick; Martinez, Kirk

    2004-01-01

    Tangible augmented reality interfaces offer a hands on approach for examining objects and exploring the associated information. We describe two tangible augmented reality interfaces that can expose the adaptation of information presented to users about objects in augmented reality environments.

  5. Electronic Properties of Semiconductor Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    AD-A130 745 ELECTRONIC PROPERTIES OF SEMICONDUCTOR INTERFACES(U) /; UNIVERSIDAD AUfONOMA DE MADRID (SPAIN) DEPT DE FISICA DEL ESTADO SOLIDO F FLORES...J.Sfinchez-Dehesa 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS Departamento de Fisica del...resistance (Esaki and Chang 1974). A SL which has received a great deal of attention is GaAs- AlxGa Ix as grown by molecular -beam-epitaxy. Several

  6. Vibrational spectroscopy of water interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Quan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The second order nonlinear optical processes of second harmonic generation and sum frequency generation are powerful and versatile tools for studying all kinds of surfaces. They possess unusual surface sensitivity due to the symmetry properties of the second order nonlinear susceptibility. The technique of infrared-visible sum frequency generation (SFG) is particularly attractive because it offers a viable way to do vibrational spectroscopy on any surfaces accessible to light with submonolayer sensitivity. In this thesis, the author applies SFG to study a number of important water interfaces. At the air/water interface, hydrophobic solid/water and liquid/water interfaces, it was found that approximately 25% of surface water molecules have one of their hydrogen pointing away from the liquid water. The large number of unsatisfied hydrogen bonds contributes significantly to the large interfacial energy of the hydrophobic surfaces. At the hydrophilic fused quartz/water interface and a fatty acid monolayer covered water surface, the structure and orientation of surface water molecules are controlled by the hydrogen bonding of water molecules with the surface OH groups and the electrostatic interaction with the surface field from the ionization of surface groups. A change of pH value in the bulk water can significantly change the relative importance of the two interactions and cause a drastic change in orientation of the surface water molecules. SFG has also been applied to study the tribological response of some model lubricant films. Monolayers of Langmuir-Blodgett films were found to disorder orientationaly under mildly high pressure and recover promptly upon removal of the applied pressure.

  7. Tire/runway friction interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is given of NASA Langley's tire/runway pavement interface studies. The National Tire Modeling Program, evaluation of new tire and landing gear designs, tire wear and friction tests, and tire hydroplaning studies are examined. The Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility is described along with some ground friction measuring vehicles. The major goals and scope of several joint FAA/NASA programs are identified together with current status and plans.

  8. Interface between Context and Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Cong; Wang, Daojuan; Zhang, Bin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we explores how to consider contextual factors in the development of paradigm theory by focusing on the application and development of agency theory in a cross context. Specifically, the interface between agency theory and context is established from two aspects. On one hand...... and PPC, which shows that the two forms of conflict co-exist in the Chinese context and that the primary or secondary status of either conflict is sensitive to the context....

  9. The Interface Theory of Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Donald D; Singh, Manish; Prakash, Chetan

    2015-12-01

    Perception is a product of evolution. Our perceptual systems, like our limbs and livers, have been shaped by natural selection. The effects of selection on perception can be studied using evolutionary games and genetic algorithms. To this end, we define and classify perceptual strategies and allow them to compete in evolutionary games in a variety of worlds with a variety of fitness functions. We find that veridical perceptions--strategies tuned to the true structure of the world--are routinely dominated by nonveridical strategies tuned to fitness. Veridical perceptions escape extinction only if fitness varies monotonically with truth. Thus, a perceptual strategy favored by selection is best thought of not as a window on truth but as akin to a windows interface of a PC. Just as the color and shape of an icon for a text file do not entail that the text file itself has a color or shape, so also our perceptions of space-time and objects do not entail (by the Invention of Space-Time Theorem) that objective reality has the structure of space-time and objects. An interface serves to guide useful actions, not to resemble truth. Indeed, an interface hides the truth; for someone editing a paper or photo, seeing transistors and firmware is an irrelevant hindrance. For the perceptions of H. sapiens, space-time is the desktop and physical objects are the icons. Our perceptions of space-time and objects have been shaped by natural selection to hide the truth and guide adaptive behaviors. Perception is an adaptive interface.

  10. Interface high-temperature superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Ma, Xucun; Xue, Qi-Kun

    2016-12-01

    Cuprate high-temperature superconductors consist of two quasi-two-dimensional (2D) substructures: CuO2 superconducting layers and charge reservoir layers. The superconductivity is realized by charge transfer from the charge reservoir layers into the superconducting layers without chemical dopants and defects being introduced into the latter, similar to modulation-doping in the semiconductor superlattices of AlGaAs/GaAs. Inspired by this scheme, we have been searching for high-temperature superconductivity in ultra-thin films of superconductors epitaxially grown on semiconductor/oxide substrates since 2008. We have observed interface-enhanced superconductivity in both conventional and unconventional superconducting films, including single atomic layer films of Pb and In on Si substrates and single unit cell (UC) films of FeSe on SrTiO3 (STO) substrates. The discovery of high-temperature superconductivity with a superconducting gap of ∼20 meV in 1UC-FeSe/STO has stimulated tremendous interest in the superconductivity community, for it opens a new avenue for both raising superconducting transition temperature and understanding the pairing mechanism of unconventional high-temperature superconductivity. Here, we review mainly the experimental progress on interface-enhanced superconductivity in the three systems mentioned above with emphasis on 1UC-FeSe/STO, studied by scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and transport experiments. We discuss the roles of interfaces and a possible pairing mechanism inferred from these studies.

  11. User acquaintance with mobile interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrler, Frederic; Walesa, Magali; Sarrey, Evelyne; Wipfli, Rolf; Lovis, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Handheld technology finds slowly its place in the healthcare world. Some clinicians already use intensively dedicated mobile applications to consult clinical references. However, handheld technology hasn't still broadly embraced to the core of the healthcare business, the hospitals. The weak penetration of handheld technology in the hospitals can be partly explained by the caution of stakeholders that must be convinced about the efficiency of these tools before going forward. In a domain where temporal constraints are increasingly strong, caregivers cannot loose time on playing with gadgets. All users are not comfortable with tactile manipulations and the lack of dedicated peripheral complicates entering data for novices. Stakeholders must be convinced that caregivers will be able to master handheld devices. In this paper, we make the assumption that the proper design of an interface may influence users' performances to record information. We are also interested to find out whether users increase their efficiency when using handheld tools repeatedly. To answer these questions, we have set up a field study to compare users' performances on three different user interfaces while recording vital signs. Some user interfaces were familiar to users, and others were totally innovative. Results showed that users' familiarity with smartphone influences their performances and that users improve their performances by repeating a task.

  12. Atomistic modeling of dislocation-interface interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Valone, Steven M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Beyerlein, Irene J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Misra, Amit [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Germann, T. C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-31

    Using atomic scale models and interface defect theory, we first classify interface structures into a few types with respect to geometrical factors, then study the interfacial shear response and further simulate the dislocation-interface interactions using molecular dynamics. The results show that the atomic scale structural characteristics of both heterophases and homophases interfaces play a crucial role in (i) their mechanical responses and (ii) the ability of incoming lattice dislocations to transmit across them.

  13. Nonlinear Spectroscopu of Nanoparticle/Aqueous Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    experiments at air/water interfaces have measured:polarity at a polystyrene sulfonate /water interface,acid-base equilibria at polystyrene nanoparticle...water interface. 2009, Abstracts, 238th ACS National Meeting, Washington, D.C. Polarity of polystyrene colloid/aqueous interface with second harmonic...electrostatic potential, the pH, and the acid-base equilibrium of the carboxyl (-COOH) functional group fixed at the surface of polystyrene carboxyl

  14. Programmable atom-photon quantum interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Christoph; Eich, Pascal; Schug, Michael; Müller, Philipp; Eschner, Jürgen

    2016-06-01

    We present the implementation of a programmable atom-photon quantum interface, employing a single trapped +40Ca ion and single photons. Depending on its mode of operation, the interface serves as a bidirectional atom-photon quantum-state converter, as a source of entangled atom-photon states, or as a quantum frequency converter of single photons. The interface lends itself particularly to interfacing ions with spontaneous parametric down-conversion-based single-photon or entangled-photon-pair sources.

  15. Interface after explosion welding: Fractal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, B. A.; Ivanov, M. A.; Pushkin, M. S.; Patselov, A. M.; Volkova, A. Yu.; Inozemtsev, A. V.

    2015-10-01

    The interfaces (plain, wavy) in the welding joints formed by explosion welding are investigated. Various types of fractals, namely, islands, multifractals, and a coastline, are found. The fractal dimensions of islands in the case of a plain interface and a coastline in the case of a wavy interface are calculated.

  16. Refactoring Fat Interfaces Using a Genetic Algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romano, D.; Raemaekers, S.; Pinzger, M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the violation of the Interface Segregation Principle (ISP) is critical for maintaining and evolving software systems. Fat interfaces (i.e., interfaces violating the ISP) change more frequently and degrade the quality of the components coupled to them. According to the

  17. An Automation Interface for Kappa PC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Susanne C

    1999-01-01

    The reports documents an automation interface for Kappa PC. The automation interface can be used to embed Kappa applications in 32-bit Windowsapplications.The interface includes functions for initialising Kappa, for loading an application, for settingvalues, for getting values, and for stopping...

  18. An Automation Interface for Kappa PC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Susanne C

    1999-01-01

    The reports documents an automation interface for Kappa PC. The automation interface can be used to embed Kappa applications in 32-bit Windowsapplications.The interface includes functions for initialising Kappa, for loading an application, for settingvalues, for getting values, and for stopping...

  19. Interface energies in ising spin glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspelmeier, T; Moore, M A; Young, A P

    2003-03-28

    The replica method has been used to calculate the interface free energy associated with the change from periodic to antiperiodic boundary conditions in finite-dimensional spin glasses. At mean-field level the interface free energy vanishes, but after allowing for fluctuation effects, a nonzero interface free energy is obtained which is significantly different from numerical expectations.

  20. Refactoring Fat Interfaces Using a Genetic Algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romano, D.; Raemaekers, S.; Pinzger, M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the violation of the Interface Segregation Principle (ISP) is critical for maintaining and evolving software systems. Fat interfaces (i.e., interfaces violating the ISP) change more frequently and degrade the quality of the components coupled to them. According to the

  1. Interfaces for instructional use of simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoog, de Robert; Jong, de Ton; Vries, de Frits

    1991-01-01

    The learner interface is the component of an instructional system that mediates between a learner and the system. Two fundamentally different approaches for interfaces can be distinguished: conversational methapor and direct manipulation metaphor. Interfaces in both metaphors can be scaled on a dime

  2. Metal/Ceramic Interfaces: Relationships between Structures, Chemistry and Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-15

    Tech Art.Q-R.TA- Rsdl Strs CrR 7/17/89.10:01 AM.10/18/90I I I ABSTRACTI Metal/ceramic bonds subject to residual stress caused by thermal expansioa I...aalloy > (A120 3 made with alloys having < 67 at.% Ta at 11000C) crack predominantly within the sapphire, I KJM-Evans-16,Tech ArtoQ-RTA- Rsdl Sirs...interface paths: within the reaction product KJM.Evans-16Tech Art.Q-RTA- Rsdl Strs Crk 7/17/89.10:01 AM.10/1890 5 g I I layer, along the reaction

  3. User Interface Development Based on Ontologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A; S; Kleshchev; M; Y; Chernyakhovskaya; V; V; Gribova

    2002-01-01

    The user interface is a central component of any mo de rn application program. It determines how well end users accept, learn, and effi ciently work with the application program. The user interface is very difficult to design, to implement, to modify. It takes approximately 70% of the time requ ired for designing an application program. All the existing tools for user interface design can be divided into two basic c ategories-Interface Builders and Model-based Interface development tools, whic h trace t...

  4. Nonlinear optical spectroscopy of soft matter interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roke, Sylvie

    2009-07-13

    Soft matter consists of complex molecules that can undergo drastic structural transformations under mild changes of chemical and physical conditions. Since a wide variety of chemical, physical and biological processes occur at soft matter interfaces, they can exhibit complex behavior. This is even more so for interfaces of colloidal soft matter since the relative amount of interface material increases by orders of magnitude. Herein, we focus on new developments that enable us to obtain detailed molecular structural changes in the topmost molecular layers of soft matter interfaces composed of complex bio-molecules. In particular, the possibilities to probe interfaces of colloidal soft matter systems are discussed.

  5. Surface and interface effects in VLSI

    CERN Document Server

    Einspruch, Norman G

    1985-01-01

    VLSI Electronics Microstructure Science, Volume 10: Surface and Interface Effects in VLSI provides the advances made in the science of semiconductor surface and interface as they relate to electronics. This volume aims to provide a better understanding and control of surface and interface related properties. The book begins with an introductory chapter on the intimate link between interfaces and devices. The book is then divided into two parts. The first part covers the chemical and geometric structures of prototypical VLSI interfaces. Subjects detailed include, the technologically most import

  6. Interface Characteristics of Wood-hybrid Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUEFenglian; ZHAOGuangjie

    2005-01-01

    In order to understand the current interface characteristics of wood-hybrid composites, this paper starts off from the concept of composite interface and general theory of interface form, then the inner-surface and microstructure of wood and the interface characteristics of composites, such as wood- inorganic, wood-plastic and wood- metal made by electroless plating technique, are concluded and discussed in detail. Meanwhile,on the basis of that, some points of view about how to develop the wood-hybrid composites interface research in the future are also proposed.

  7. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Interface Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachlechner, Martina E.; Cao, Deng; Leonard, Robert H.; Owens, Eli T.; Swan, Wm. Trevor, III; Ducatman, Samuel C.

    2007-03-01

    The mechanical integrity of silicon/silicon nitride interfaces is of great importance in their applications in micro electronics and solar cells. Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations are an excellent tool to study mechanical and structural failure of interfaces subjected to externally applied stresses and strains. When pulling the system parallel to the interface, cracks in silicon nitride and slip and pit formation in silicon are typical failure mechanisms. Hypervelocity impact perpendicular to the interface plane leads to structural transformation and delamination at the interface. Influence of system temperature, strain rate, impact velocity, and system size on type and characteristics of failure will be discussed.

  8. Experiments showing dynamics of materials interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin, R.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Dynamic Experimentation Div.

    1997-02-01

    The discipline of materials science and engineering often involves understanding and controlling properties of interfaces. The authors address the challenge of educating students about properties of interfaces, particularly dynamic properties and effects of unstable interfaces. A series of simple, inexpensive, hands-on activities about fluid interfaces provides students with a testbed to develop intuition about interface dynamics. The experiments highlight the essential role of initial interfacial perturbations in determining the dynamic response of the interface. The experiments produce dramatic, unexpected effects when initial perturbations are controlled and inhibited. These activities help students to develop insight about unstable interfaces that can be applied to analogous problems in materials science and engineering. The lessons examine ``Rayleigh-Taylor instability,`` an interfacial instability that occurs when a higher-density fluid is above a lower-density fluid.

  9. The conversational interface talking to smart devices

    CERN Document Server

    McTear, Michael; Griol, David

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the conversational interface, which is becoming the main mode of interaction with virtual personal assistants, smart devices, various types of wearables, and social robots. The book consists of four parts: Part I presents the background to conversational interfaces, examining past and present work on spoken language interaction with computers; Part II covers the various technologies that are required to build a conversational interface along with practical chapters and exercises using open source tools; Part III looks at interactions with smart devices, wearables, and robots, and then goes on to discusses the role of emotion and personality in the conversational interface; Part IV examines methods for evaluating conversational interfaces and discusses future directions. · Presents a comprehensive overview of the various technologies that underlie conversational user interfaces; · Combines descriptions of conversational user interface technologies with a gui...

  10. Tailoring thermal interfaces with nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadri, Indira

    Thermal interfaces are key to ensure the reliable performance of many semiconductor, energy and electronic systems. High thermal conductivity (k), low elastic modulus (E) interface materials are required to dissipate heat and relieve thermo-mechanical stresses. The aim of this thesis is to develop compliant, high k nanocomposite materials for thermal interface applications utilizing nanostructured networks. Realizing high k nanocomposites is a challenge because of difficulties in incorporating high fractions of uniformly dispersed nanofillers and countering low filler-matrix interfacial conductance, while retaining a low elastic modulus. In this thesis, it is demonstrated that these issues are obviated by using thesis reveals a critical correlation between the rheological behavior of a high k gold-nanowire-filled polydimethylsiloxane nanocomposite and its thermal contact conductance with copper. At a critical filler fraction, an abrupt increase in the nanocomposite k is accompanied by a liquid-solid transition and a multifold decrease in Gc. These concurrent changes are attributed to nanowire percolation network formation and pre-cure polymer gelation that inhibits the formation of conformal void-free interfaces. These findings will be important for designing processing sequences to realize heterointerfaces with nanowire filled high k nanocomposite materials. Another important finding of this thesis is that nanowire networks can result in mechanical softening of polymer matrices. It is demonstrated that silver nanowire fillers result in a three-fold decrease in viscoelastic storage modulus of polydimethylsiloxane composites above a low critical filler fraction of ~0.5%, contrary to theoretical predictions presaging a modulus increase. Similar fractions of silver nanocube fillers result in no such observable effects. Rheology measurements and calorimetric kinetics analyses reveal that high surface area nanowire filler percolation networks curtail macromolecular

  11. Surface rheology and interface stability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaklin, Melissa A.; Cote, Raymond O.; Moffat, Harry K.; Grillet, Anne Mary; Walker, Lynn; Koehler, Timothy P.; Reichert, Matthew D. (Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA); Castaneda, Jaime N.; Mondy, Lisa Ann; Brooks, Carlton, F.

    2010-11-01

    We have developed a mature laboratory at Sandia to measure interfacial rheology, using a combination of home-built, commercially available, and customized commercial tools. An Interfacial Shear Rheometer (KSV ISR-400) was modified and the software improved to increase sensitivity and reliability. Another shear rheometer, a TA Instruments AR-G2, was equipped with a du Nouey ring, bicone geometry, and a double wall ring. These interfacial attachments were compared to each other and to the ISR. The best results with the AR-G2 were obtained with the du Nouey ring. A Micro-Interfacial Rheometer (MIR) was developed in house to obtain the much higher sensitivity given by a smaller probe. However, it was found to be difficult to apply this technique for highly elastic surfaces. Interfaces also exhibit dilatational rheology when the interface changes area, such as occurs when bubbles grow or shrink. To measure this rheological response we developed a Surface Dilatational Rheometer (SDR), in which changes in surface tension with surface area are measured during the oscillation of the volume of a pendant drop or bubble. All instruments were tested with various surfactant solutions to determine the limitations of each. In addition, foaming capability and foam stability were tested and compared with the rheology data. It was found that there was no clear correlation of surface rheology with foaming/defoaming with different types of surfactants, but, within a family of surfactants, rheology could predict the foam stability. Diffusion of surfactants to the interface and the behavior of polyelectrolytes were two subjects studied with the new equipment. Finally, surface rheological terms were added to a finite element Navier-Stokes solver and preliminary testing of the code completed. Recommendations for improved implementation were given. When completed we plan to use the computations to better interpret the experimental data and account for the effects of the underlying bulk

  12. Physics and Chemistry of Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Butt, Hans-Jurgen; Kappl, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Serving as a general introduction to surface and interface science, this book focuses on essential concepts rather than specific details, on intuitive understanding rather than learning facts. The text reflects the fact that the physics and chemistry of surfaces is a diverse field of research and shows this in its Interdisciplinary conceptual design. Once the most important techniques and methods have been introduced, readers will be able to apply simple models to their own scientific problems. Furthermore, manifold high-end technological applications from surface technology, biotechnology, or

  13. EXPRESS Pallet Payload Interface Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Alan C.

    2004-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing the EXPRESS Pallet Space Station payload interface requirements is shown. The topics include: 1) External Payload Sites; 2) EXPRESS Pallet with Six Payload Envelopes; 3) EXPRESS Pallet in Payload Bay Representative Layout; 4) EXPRESS Pallet Installation SSRMS positions pallet for PAS mating on S3 truss; 5) EXPRESS Pallet Major Components; 6) EXPRESS Pallet Adapter; 7) EXPRESS Pallet Center Location Payload Envelope; 8) Envelope Restriction for EXPRESS Pallet Corner Payload Locations; 9) EXPRESS Pallet-PAS Truss Configuration; and 10) EXPRESS Pallet Payload Services and Specifications.

  14. Metawidgets in the multimodal interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blattner, M.M. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States) Anderson (M.D.) Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)); Glinert, E.P.; Jorge, J.A.; Ormsby, G.R. (Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-01-01

    We analyze two intertwined and fundamental issues concerning computer-to-human communication in the multimodal interfaces: the interplay between sound and graphics, and the role of object persistence. Our observations lead us to introduce metawidgets as abstract entities capable of manifesting themselves to users as image, as sound, or as various combinations and/or sequences of the two media. We show examples of metawidgets in action, and discuss mechanisms for choosing among alternative media for metawidget instantiation. Finally, we describe a couple of experimental microworlds we have implemented to test out some of our ideas. 17 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Gloved Human-Machine Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Richard (Inventor); Olowin, Aaron (Inventor); Hannaford, Blake (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Certain exemplary embodiments can provide a system, machine, device, manufacture, circuit, composition of matter, and/or user interface adapted for and/or resulting from, and/or a method and/or machine-readable medium comprising machine-implementable instructions for, activities that can comprise and/or relate to: tracking movement of a gloved hand of a human; interpreting a gloved finger movement of the human; and/or in response to interpreting the gloved finger movement, providing feedback to the human.

  16. Verified OS Interface Code Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6. AUTHOR(S) Gerwin Klein, Toby Murray 5d.  PROJECT NUMBER 5e.  TASK NUMBER 5f.  WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING...llisapi.dll Verified OS Interface Code Synthesis Final Report for AFOSR AOARD Grant FA2386-14-1-4093 Gerwin Klein, Ramana Kumar, Toby Murray gerwin.klein... Murray t +61 2 8306 0550 e gerwin.klein@data61.csiro.au w trustworthy.systems DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited.

  17. User interface design and evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Stone, Debbie; Woodroffe, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Whether you are a professional new to the user-centered design field, or an experienced designer who needs to learn the fundamentals of user interface design and evaluation, this book can lead the way.What will you get from this book? Based on a course from the Open University, UK which has been taught to over a thousand professionals and students, this book presents an overview of the field. It illustrates the benefits of a user-centered approach to the design of software, computer systems, and web sites, and provides a clear and practical discussion of requirements gathering; develop

  18. Reengenharia de interfaces utilizando Wrapping.

    OpenAIRE

    Frank José Affonso

    2003-01-01

    Com a evolução tecnológica e com a crescente utilização da Internet, empresas e instituições governamentais desejam migrar seus sistemas desenvolvidos com recursos computacionais antigos (legados) para mais modernos. No entanto, essa é uma tarefa que requer investimentos elevados, podendo o processo de reengenharia ser utilizado nesses casos. Uma forma de modificar esses sistemas é por meio da reengenharia da sua interface, através do empacotamento de sua lógica (wrapping). Essa técnica prese...

  19. INTERFACE REACTION IN MAGNETIC MULTILAYERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.H. Yu; M.H. Li; F.W. Zhu; X.F. Cui; J.L. Jin

    2001-01-01

    Ta/NiO/NiFe/Ta multilayers were prepared by rf reactive and dc magnetron sputter-ing. The exchange coupling field (Hex) between NiO and NiFe reached 120Oe. Thecomposition and chemical states at the interface region of NiO/NiFe were studied us-ing the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and peak decomposition technique. Theresults show that there are two thermodynamically favorable reactions at NiO/NiFeinterface: NiO+Fe = Ni+FeO and 3NiO+2Fe 3Ni+Fe2 O3. The thickness of thechemical reaction as estimated by angle-resolved XPS was about 1-1.5nm. These in-terrace reaction products are magnetic defects, and we believe that the Hex and thecoereivity (He) of NiO/NiFe ave affected by these defects. Moreover, the results alsoshow that there is an "intermixing layer" at the Ta/NiO (and NiO/Ta) interface dueto a thermodynamically favorable reaction: 2Ta+5NiO=5Ni+Ta2O5. This interfacereaction has an effect on the exchange coupling as well. The thickness of the "inter-mixing layer" as estimated by XPS depth-profiles was about 8-10nm.

  20. Brain Computer Interfaces, a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas-Alonso, Luis Fernando; Gomez-Gil, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) is a hardware and software communications system that permits cerebral activity alone to control computers or external devices. The immediate goal of BCI research is to provide communications capabilities to severely disabled people who are totally paralyzed or ‘locked in’ by neurological neuromuscular disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, brain stem stroke, or spinal cord injury. Here, we review the state-of-the-art of BCIs, looking at the different steps that form a standard BCI: signal acquisition, preprocessing or signal enhancement, feature extraction, classification and the control interface. We discuss their advantages, drawbacks, and latest advances, and we survey the numerous technologies reported in the scientific literature to design each step of a BCI. First, the review examines the neuroimaging modalities used in the signal acquisition step, each of which monitors a different functional brain activity such as electrical, magnetic or metabolic activity. Second, the review discusses different electrophysiological control signals that determine user intentions, which can be detected in brain activity. Third, the review includes some techniques used in the signal enhancement step to deal with the artifacts in the control signals and improve the performance. Fourth, the review studies some mathematic algorithms used in the feature extraction and classification steps which translate the information in the control signals into commands that operate a computer or other device. Finally, the review provides an overview of various BCI applications that control a range of devices. PMID:22438708

  1. Interface-based software integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Ahmad Rais

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise architecture frameworks define the goals of enterprise architecture in order to make business processes and IT operations more effective, and to reduce the risk of future investments. These enterprise architecture frameworks offer different architecture development methods that help in building enterprise architecture. In practice, the larger organizations become, the larger their enterprise architecture and IT become. This leads to an increasingly complex system of enterprise architecture development and maintenance. Application software architecture is one type of architecture that, along with business architecture, data architecture and technology architecture, composes enterprise architecture. From the perspective of integration, enterprise architecture can be considered a system of interaction between multiple examples of application software. Therefore, effective software integration is a very important basis for the future success of the enterprise architecture in question. This article will provide interface-based integration practice in order to help simplify the process of building such a software integration system. The main goal of interface-based software integration is to solve problems that may arise with software integration requirements and developing software integration architecture.

  2. Interface-based software testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Ahmad Rais

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Software quality is determined by assessing the characteristics that specify how it should work, which are verified through testing. If it were possible to touch, see, or measure software, it would be easier to analyze and prove its quality. Unfortunately, software is an intangible asset, which makes testing complex. This is especially true when software quality is not a question of particular functions that can be tested through a graphical user interface. The primary objective of software architecture is to design quality of software through modeling and visualization. There are many methods and standards that define how to control and manage quality. However, many IT software development projects still fail due to the difficulties involved in measuring, controlling, and managing software quality. Software quality failure factors are numerous. Examples include beginning to test software too late in the development process, or failing properly to understand, or design, the software architecture and the software component structure. The goal of this article is to provide an interface-based software testing technique that better measures software quality, automates software quality testing, encourages early testing, and increases the software’s overall testability

  3. Brain computer interfaces, a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas-Alonso, Luis Fernando; Gomez-Gil, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) is a hardware and software communications system that permits cerebral activity alone to control computers or external devices. The immediate goal of BCI research is to provide communications capabilities to severely disabled people who are totally paralyzed or 'locked in' by neurological neuromuscular disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, brain stem stroke, or spinal cord injury. Here, we review the state-of-the-art of BCIs, looking at the different steps that form a standard BCI: signal acquisition, preprocessing or signal enhancement, feature extraction, classification and the control interface. We discuss their advantages, drawbacks, and latest advances, and we survey the numerous technologies reported in the scientific literature to design each step of a BCI. First, the review examines the neuroimaging modalities used in the signal acquisition step, each of which monitors a different functional brain activity such as electrical, magnetic or metabolic activity. Second, the review discusses different electrophysiological control signals that determine user intentions, which can be detected in brain activity. Third, the review includes some techniques used in the signal enhancement step to deal with the artifacts in the control signals and improve the performance. Fourth, the review studies some mathematic algorithms used in the feature extraction and classification steps which translate the information in the control signals into commands that operate a computer or other device. Finally, the review provides an overview of various BCI applications that control a range of devices.

  4. Brain Computer Interfaces, a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Nicolas-Alonso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A brain-computer interface (BCI is a hardware and software communications system that permits cerebral activity alone to control computers or external devices. The immediate goal of BCI research is to provide communications capabilities to severely disabled people who are totally paralyzed or ‘locked in’ by neurological neuromuscular disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, brain stem stroke, or spinal cord injury. Here, we review the state-of-the-art of BCIs, looking at the different steps that form a standard BCI: signal acquisition, preprocessing or signal enhancement, feature extraction, classification and the control interface. We discuss their advantages, drawbacks, and latest advances, and we survey the numerous technologies reported in the scientific literature to design each step of a BCI. First, the review examines the neuroimaging modalities used in the signal acquisition step, each of which monitors a different functional brain activity such as electrical, magnetic or metabolic activity. Second, the review discusses different electrophysiological control signals that determine user intentions, which can be detected in brain activity. Third, the review includes some techniques used in the signal enhancement step to deal with the artifacts in the control signals and improve the performance. Fourth, the review studies some mathematic algorithms used in the feature extraction and classification steps which translate the information in the control signals into commands that operate a computer or other device. Finally, the review provides an overview of various BCI applications that control a range of devices.

  5. Research on dynamic relationships between China's modem logistics efficiency, economic growth and import and export trade by VAR model%基于VAR模型的现代物流效率、经济增长和我国进出口贸易的动态关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兆密; 刘满芝

    2012-01-01

    本文利用我国1991-2010年的现代物流效率、经济增长和进出口贸易的对数差分序列建立VAR模型研究三者间的动态关系。分析认为,进出口与国民经济增长是现代物流效率提升的格兰杰原因,进出口和国民经济增长互为因果关系。长期内进出口和国民经济之间的互相拉动作用比较明显,物流效率的提升也得益于二者的发展。短期内物流效率的提升有助于国民经济的发展并在长期内促进进出口的发展。最后,给出结论并对三者的和谐发展提出建议。%Building on China's 1991-2010 modem logistics efficiency, economic development and import and export trade logarithm difference sequence we develop the VAR model to explore dynamic relationships be- tween the three ones. Analysis shows that import and export and economic growth are Granger causes of modem logistics efficiency. Import, export and national economic growth are mutually reinforcing. In long term, import and export and national economy mutually drawing function is obvious and the twos development will accelerate logistics efflcieney promotion. Ascension of logistics efficiency in short run is advantageous in the national econo- my development and import and export development in the long run. Finally, we draw the conclusion and give some practical suggestions for the three ones harmonious development.

  6. A human activity approach to User Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne

    1989-01-01

    How can we understand why a bank teller has different needs for a user interface than those of casual users of a machine teller, or why a graphic designer needs a different user interface than a secretary? This article presents a framework for the design of user interfaces that originates from...... the work situations in which computer-based artifacts are used: The framework deals with the role of the user interface in purposeful human work. Human activity theory is used in this analysis. The purpose of this article is to make the reader curious and hopefully open his or her eyes to a somewhat...... different way of thinking about the user interface. The article applies examples of real-life interfaces to support this process, but it does not include a systematic presentation of empirical results. I focus on the role of the computer application in use. Thus, it is necessary to consider human...

  7. Interactive displays natural human-interface technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Bhowmik, Achintya K

    2014-01-01

    One of the first books to provide an in-depth discussion of the technologies, applications and trends in the rapidly emerging field of interactive displays (touch, gesture & voice) The book will cover the technologies, applications and trends in the field of interactive displays, namely interfaces based on touch, gesture and voice and those using a combination of these technologies. The book will be split into 4 main parts with each being dedicated to a specific user interface. Part 1 ''Touch Interfaces'' will provide a review of the currently deployed touch-screen technologies and applications. It will also cover the recent developments towards achieving thinner, lightweight and cost-reduced touch screen panels in the future via integration of touch functionalities. Part 2 ''Gesture Interfaces'' will examine techniques and applications in stereoscopic 3D computer vision, structured-light 3D computer vision and time-of-flight 3D computer vision in gesture interfaces. Part 3 ''Voice Interfaces'' will revie...

  8. Interface stress in Au/Ni multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweitz, K.O.; Böttiger, J.; Chevallier, J.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of intermixing on the apparent interface stress is studied in -textured dc-magnetron sputtered Au/Ni multilayers by use of two methods commonly used for determining interface stress. The method using profilometry and in-plane x-ray diffraction does not take intermixing...... into account and yields an apparent interface stress of -8.46 +/- 0.99 J m(-2). However, observed discrepancies between model calculations and measured high-angle x-ray diffractograms indicate intermixing, and by use of the profilometry and sin(2) psi method the real interface stress value of -2.69 +/- 0.43 J...... to be inapplicable to interface stress determinations in systems exhibiting a modulation period-dependent stress-free lattice parameter. Finally, a deviation of the interface stress in the Au/Ni sample with the smallest modulation period as compared to specimens with larger bilayer lengths is observed...

  9. Engineering gestures for multimodal user interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Echtler, Florian; Kammer, Dietrich; Vanacken, Davy; Hoste, Lode; Signer, Beat

    2014-01-01

    Despite increased presence of gestural and multimodal user interfaces in research as well as daily life, development of such systems still mostly relies on programming concepts which have emerged from classic WIMP user interfaces. This workshop proposes to explore the gap between attempts to formalize and structure development for multimodal interfaces in the research community on the one hand and the lack of adoption of these formal languages and frameworks by practitioners and other researc...

  10. Flexible feature interface for multimedia sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffland, Douglas R [Livermore, CA

    2009-06-09

    A flexible feature interface for multimedia sources system that includes a single interface for the addition of features and functions to multimedia sources and for accessing those features and functions from remote hosts. The interface utilizes the export statement: export "C" D11Export void FunctionName(int argc, char ** argv,char * result, SecureSession *ctrl) or the binary equivalent of the export statement.

  11. Surfaces and interfaces of electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Brillson, Leonard J

    2012-01-01

    An advanced level textbook covering geometric, chemical, and electronic structure of electronic materials, and their applications to devices based on semiconductor surfaces, metal-semiconductor interfaces, and semiconductor heterojunctions. Starting with the fundamentals of electrical measurements on semiconductor interfaces, it then describes the importance of controlling macroscopic electrical properties by atomic-scale techniques. Subsequent chapters present the wide range of surface and interface techniques available to characterize electronic, optical, chemical, and structural propertie

  12. XML Interfaces to the Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Pemberton, Steven

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractThe internet of things is predicated on tiny, cheap, lower power computers being embedded in devices everywhere. However such tiny devices by definition have very little memory and computing power available to support user interfaces or extended servers, and so the user interface needs to be distributed over the network. This paper describes techniques using standard technologies based on XML for creating remote user interfaces for the Internet of Things

  13. SQL Generation for Natural Language Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Kovács

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A hot issue in the area of database management is to provide a high level interface for nontechnical users. An important research direction is the application of natural language interface. The paperpresents an interface module that converts user’s query given in natural language into a corresponding SQL command. After clustering the input sentence, a pushdown automaton is used to verify the syntax. The corresponding SQL code is generated by a semantic matcher module.

  14. XML Interfaces to the Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Pemberton, Steven; Foster, C.

    2015-01-01

    The internet of things is predicated on tiny, cheap, lower power computers being embedded in devices everywhere. However such tiny devices by definition have very little memory and computing power available to support user interfaces or extended servers, and so the user interface needs to be distributed over the network. This paper describes techniques using standard technologies based on XML for creating remote user interfaces for the Internet of Things

  15. Interface area transport of monodispersed spherical particulates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chong H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-05

    We present an interface area transport model required in tracking of mass, momentum, and energy exchange between dispersed and background materials. The basic transport equation has been rigorously derived from the volume fraction evolution equation. Interface area changes due to mass transport and local compression/expansion are included. The model is then simplified for the case in which the dispersed phase is composed of spheres of locally uniform size. A procedure for calculating advective flux with interface reconstruction has been suggested.

  16. Recent work on material interface reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosso, S.J.; Swartz, B.K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    For the last 15 years, many Eulerian codes have relied on a series of piecewise linear interface reconstruction algorithms developed by David Youngs. In a typical Youngs` method, the material interfaces were reconstructed based upon nearly cell values of volume fractions of each material. The interfaces were locally represented by linear segments in two dimensions and by pieces of planes in three dimensions. The first step in such reconstruction was to locally approximate an interface normal. In Youngs` 3D method, a local gradient of a cell-volume-fraction function was estimated and taken to be the local interface normal. A linear interface was moved perpendicular to the now known normal until the mass behind it matched the material volume fraction for the cell in question. But for distorted or nonorthogonal meshes, the gradient normal estimate didn`t accurately match that of linear material interfaces. Moreover, curved material interfaces were also poorly represented. The authors will present some recent work in the computation of more accurate interface normals, without necessarily increasing stencil size. Their estimate of the normal is made using an iterative process that, given mass fractions for nearby cells of known but arbitrary variable density, converges in 3 or 4 passes in practice (and quadratically--like Newton`s method--in principle). The method reproduces a linear interface in both orthogonal and nonorthogonal meshes. The local linear approximation is generally 2nd-order accurate, with a 1st-order accurate normal for curved interfaces in both two and three dimensional polyhedral meshes. Recent work demonstrating the interface reconstruction for curved surfaces will /be discussed.

  17. Swimming near a deformable interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Marcelo; Powers, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    It is a known fact that swimmers behave differently near deformable soft tissues than when near a rigid surface. Motivated by this class of problems, we investigate swimming microorganisms near flexible walls. We calculate the speed of a n infinitely long swimmer near an interface between two viscous fluids. Part of the calculation of the speed is the calculation of the shape of the free boundary. The swimming speed is controlled by the competition between surface and viscous effects, where two limits are observed. When the surface tension vanishes, we get Taylor's result for a swimmer with no walls. When the surface tension is infinite, the problem is like that of a swimmer near a rigid wall.

  18. [Pathology of the vitreomacular interface].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Monica; Gheorghe, Alina

    2014-01-01

    Vitreous role in the pathophysiology of retinal diseases has increased importantly over the recent years. This was possible using Optical Coherence Tomography which reviewed the way the vitreoretinal interface should be looked at and defined and classified new pathologies such as Vitreoretinal Traction Syndrome. Vitreous is not an empty space but an important anatomical structure with role in ocular physiology. With age biochemical changes occur so that vitreous starts to liquefy. Once the vitreous is liquefied (sinchisis) it collapses and passes in the retrohialoid space (sineresis). In complete PVD besides sinchisis there is a weakness of the adherence between the posterior cortex and ILM with total detachment of posterior cortex. Abnormal adhesions are associated with incomplete PVD. The definition and understanting of vitreoretinal pathology is an active and continuous process, PVD being the trigger of a lot of retinal pathologies: epiretinal membrane, macular hole, tractional macular oedema, VMTS, myopic traction maculopathy, exacerbations of exudative ARMD.

  19. Cooperative strings and glassy interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salez, Thomas; Salez, Justin; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari; Raphaël, Elie; Forrest, James A

    2015-07-07

    We introduce a minimal theory of glass formation based on the ideas of molecular crowding and resultant string-like cooperative rearrangement, and address the effects of free interfaces. In the bulk case, we obtain a scaling expression for the number of particles taking part in cooperative strings, and we recover the Adam-Gibbs description of glassy dynamics. Then, by including thermal dilatation, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann relation is derived. Moreover, the random and string-like characters of the cooperative rearrangement allow us to predict a temperature-dependent expression for the cooperative length ξ of bulk relaxation. Finally, we explore the influence of sample boundaries when the system size becomes comparable to ξ. The theory is in agreement with measurements of the glass-transition temperature of thin polymer films, and allows quantification of the temperature-dependent thickness hm of the interfacial mobile layer.

  20. Electronic Interfacing with Living Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, James T.

    The direct interfacing of living cells with inorganic electronic materials, components or systems has led to the development of two broad categories of devices that can (1) transduce biochemical signals generated by biological components into electrical signals and (2) transduce electronically generated signals into biochemical signals. The first category of devices permits the monitoring of living cells, the second, enables control of cellular processes. This review will survey this exciting area with emphasis on the fundamental issues and obstacles faced by researchers. Devices and applications that use both prokaryotic (microbial) and eukaryotic (mammalian) cells will be covered. Individual devices described include microbial biofuel cells that produce electricity, bioelectrical reactors that enable electronic control of cellular metabolism, living cell biosensors for the detection of chemicals and devices that permit monitoring and control of mammalian physiology.

  1. Nanofluidics, from bulk to interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocquet, Lydéric; Charlaix, Elisabeth

    2010-03-01

    Nanofluidics has emerged recently in the footsteps of microfluidics, following the quest for scale reduction inherent to nanotechnologies. By definition, nanofluidics explores transport phenomena of fluids at nanometer scales. Why is the nanometer scale specific? What fluid properties are probed at nanometric scales? In other words, why does 'nanofluidics' deserve its own brand name? In this critical review, we will explore the vast manifold of length scales emerging for fluid behavior at the nanoscale, as well as the associated mechanisms and corresponding applications. We will in particular explore the interplay between bulk and interface phenomena. The limit of validity of the continuum approaches will be discussed, as well as the numerous surface induced effects occurring at these scales, from hydrodynamic slippage to the various electro-kinetic phenomena originating from the couplings between hydrodynamics and electrostatics. An enlightening analogy between ion transport in nanochannels and transport in doped semi-conductors will be discussed (156 references).

  2. On Building a Search Interface Discovery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shestakov, Denis

    A huge portion of the Web known as the deep Web is accessible via search interfaces to myriads of databases on the Web. While relatively good approaches for querying the contents of web databases have been recently proposed, one cannot fully utilize them having most search interfaces unlocated. Thus, the automatic recognition of search interfaces to online databases is crucial for any application accessing the deep Web. This paper describes the architecture of the I-Crawler, a system for finding and classifying search interfaces. The I-Crawler is intentionally designed to be used in the deep web characterization surveys and for constructing directories of deep web resources.

  3. A Theoretical Framework for Ecological Interface Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicente, Kim J.; Rasmussen, Jens

    1988-01-01

    A theoretical framework for designing interfaces for complex systems is de-scribed. The framework, called ecological interface design (EID), suggests a set of principles for designing interfaces in a way that supports the funda-mental properties of human cognition. The basis of EID is the skills...... of the task require. The EID approach extends the concept of direct manipulation inter-faces by taking into account the added complications introduced by complex systems. In this paper, we describe the development of the framework, its theoretical foundations, and examples of its application to various work...

  4. Polymer surfaces, interfaces and thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamm, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Polymerforschung, Mainz (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Neutron reflectometry can be used in various ways to investigate surfaces, interfaces and thin films of polymers. Its potential comes mostly from the possibilities offered by selective deuteration, where a particular component can be made visible with respect to its activity at the interface. In addition the depth resolution is much better than with most other direct techniques, and details of the profiles may be resolved. Several examples will be discussed including the segment diffusion at the interface between two polymer films, the determination of the narrow interfaces between incompatible polymer blends and the development of order in thin diblock copolymer films. (author) 10 figs., 2 tabs., 38 refs.

  5. Interfaces usuario máquina

    OpenAIRE

    Cervelló González, Rosa; Martínez García, Domènec; Ramírez Ramey, David; Virgili Llop, Joaquim

    2009-01-01

    Esta guía nos habla de las interfaces, que son los dispositivos de contacto entre un usuario y una máquina. El diseño de las interfaces incide activamente en el proceso de comunicación interactiva; así, es necesario profundizar en los aspectos cognitivos del ser humano, para definir modelos de interfaces adaptadas a las necesidades individuales y sociales, y al mismo tiempo, preparar a la sociedad para la adaptación a las nuevas interfaces que formarán parte de su entorno. En la era de la soc...

  6. Digital interface for high-resolution displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, David J.; Gorenflo, Ronald L.

    1999-08-01

    Commercial display interfaces are currently transitioning from analog to digital. Although this transition is in the very early stages, the military needs to begin planning their own transition to digital. There are many problems with the analog interface in high-resolution display systems that are solved by changing to a digital interface. Also, display system cost can be lower with a digital interface to a high resolution display. Battelle is under contract with DARPA to develop an advanced Display Interface (ADI) to replace the analog RGB interfaces currently used in high definition workstation displays. The goal is to create a standard digital display interface for military applications that is based on emerging commercial standards. Support for military application- specific functionality is addressed, including display test and control. The main challenges to implementing a digital display interface are described, along with approaches to address the problems. Conceptual ADI architectures are described and contrasted. The current and emerging commercial standards for digital display interfaces are reviewed in detail. Finally, the tasks required to complete the ADI effort are outlined and described.

  7. NUMERICAL SIMULATION ON MULTI-FLUID INTERFACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Enhancement of two-fluid mixing was numericallystudied by tracking the multi-fluid interfaces. Level set equations were used to capture the interfaces, and flow field was obtained by upwind TVD scheme to solve 2D Eulerian equations. The boundary conditions at interface of two fluids are determined by Ghost fluid method (GFM). The distributions of fluid parameters, such as pressure and density, were got at different time steps.The results show that the method presented in this paper can track the density discontinuity perfectly. Superior to previous results, the density discontinuity remains sharper. Also, the mixing of fluids can be greatly enhanced by setting disturbances along the initial fluid interfaces.``

  8. Behavior of compacted clay-concrete interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.R. SHAKIR; Jungao ZHU

    2009-01-01

    Tests of interface between compacted clay and concrete were conducted systematically using interface simple shear test apparatus. The samples, having same dry density with different water content ratio, were prepared.Two types of concrete with different surface roughness, i.e., relatively smooth and relatively rough surface rough-ness, were also prepared. The main objectives of this paper are to show the effect of water content, normal stress and rough surface on the shear stress-shear displacement relationship of clay-concrete interface. The following were concluded in this study: 1) the interface shear sliding dominates the interface shear displacement behavior for both cases of relatively rough and smooth concrete surface except when the clay water content is greater than 16% for the case of rough concrete surface where the shear failure occurs in the body of the clay sample; 2) the results of interface shear strength obtained by direct shear test were different from that of simple shear test for the case of rough concrete surface; 3) two types of interface failure mechanism may change each other with different water content ratio; 4) the interface shear strength increases with increasing water content ratio especially for the case of clay-rough concrete surface interface.

  9. Formulations of a hydromechanical interface element

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-Zhi Fu; Si-Hong Liu

    2011-01-01

    A hydromechanical interface element is proposed for the consideration of the hydraulic-mechanical coupling effect along the interface.The fully coupled governing equations and the relevant finite element formulations are derived in detail for the interface element.All the involved matrices are of the same form as those of a solid element,which makes the incorporation of the model into a finite element program straightforward.Three examples are then numerically simulated using the interface element.Reasonable results confirm the correctness of the proposed model and motivate its application in hydromechanical contact problems in the future.

  10. An interface energy density-based theory considering the coherent interface effect in nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yin; Chen, Shaohua; Fang, Daining

    2017-02-01

    To characterize the coherent interface effect conveniently and feasibly in nanomaterials, a continuum theory is proposed that is based on the concept of the interface free energy density, which is a dominant factor affecting the mechanical properties of the coherent interface in materials of all scales. The effect of the residual strain caused by self-relaxation and the lattice misfit of nanomaterials, as well as that due to the interface deformation induced by an external load on the interface free energy density is considered. In contrast to the existing theories, the stress discontinuity at the interface is characterized by the interface free energy density through an interface-induced traction. As a result, the interface elastic constant introduced in previous theories, which is not easy to determine precisely, is avoided in the present theory. Only the surface energy density of the bulk materials forming the interface, the relaxation parameter induced by surface relaxation, and the mismatch parameter for forming a coherent interface between the two surfaces are involved. All the related parameters are far easier to determine than the interface elastic constants. The effective bulk and shear moduli of a nanoparticle-reinforced nanocomposite are predicted using the proposed theory. Closed-form solutions are achieved, demonstrating the feasibility and convenience of the proposed model for predicting the interface effect in nanomaterials.

  11. Interface Everywhere: Further Development of a Gesture and Voice Commanding Interface Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Natural User Interface (NUI) is a term used to describe a number of technologies such as speech recognition, multi-touch, and kinetic interfaces. Gesture and voice...

  12. Particles dispersion on fluid-liquid interfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sathish Gurupatham; Bhavin Dalal; Md. Shahadat Hossain; Ian S. Fischer; Pushpendra Singh; Daniel D. Joseph

    2011-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the dispersion of particles on the fluid-liquid interface. In a previous study we have shown that when small particles,e.g.,flour,pollen,glass beads,etc.,contact an air-liquid interface,they disperse rapidly as ifthey were in an explosion. The rapid dispersion is due to the fact that the capillary force pulls particles into the interface causing them to accelerate to a large velocity. In this paper we show that motion of particles normal to the interface is inertia dominated: they oscillate vertically about their equilibrium position before coming to rest under viscous drag. This vertical motion of a particle causes a radially-outward lateral (secondary) flow on the interface that causes nearby particles to move away. The dispersion on a liquid-liquid interface,which is the primary focus of this study,was relatively weaker than on an air-liquid interface,and occurred over a longer period of time. When falling through an upper liquid the particles have a slower velocity than when falling through air because the liquid has a greater viscosity. Another difference for the liquid-liquid interface is that the separation of particles begins in the upper liquid before the particles reach the interface. The rate of dispersion depended on the size of the particles,the densities of the particle and liquids,the viscosities of the liquids involved,and the contact angle. For small particles,partial pinning and hysteresis of the three-phase contact line on the surface of the particle during adsorption on liquid-liquid interfaces was also important. The frequency of oscillation of particles about their floating equilibrium increased with decreasing particle size on both air-water and liquid-liquid interfaces,and the time to reach equilibrium decreased with decreasing particle size. These results are in agreement with our analysis.

  13. INTERFACE STRUCTURE AND SCHOTTKY BARRIERS AT EPITAXIAL SI(111)/PB INTERFACES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WEITERING, HH; HIBMA, T; HESLINGA, DR; KLAPWIJK, TM

    1991-01-01

    Two different epitaxial Si(111)/Pb interfaces can be prepared, i.e. a metastable interface with a (7 x 7) and a stable interface with an incommensurate but close to (square-root 3 x square-root 3)R30-degrees surface unit cell. Schottky barrier heights of diodes made by depositing thick Pb layers on

  14. Modeling the electrified solid-liquid interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossmeisl, Jan; Skulason, Egill; Björketun, Mårten;

    2008-01-01

    A detailed atomistic model based on density functional theory calculations is presented of the charged solid-electrolyte interface. Having protons solvated in a water bilayer outside a Pt(111) slab with excess electrons, we show how the interface capacitance is well described and how the work...

  15. X-ray scattering from liquid interfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation X-ray scattering is a useful tool for structural characterization of liquid interfaces.Specular refiectivity provides precise measurement of the interfacial widths and of the ordering of surfactants adsorbed to these interfaces. Diffuse scattering gives information on phase transitions and domain formation in surfactant monolayers and on interfacial fluctuations confined by and coupled across fluidic films.

  16. Electrochemistry at Liquid-Lidid Interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Gulaboski, Rubin

    2012-01-01

    Liquid-liquid interface is a natural border separating two solutions with different features. In this lecture, the phenomena of ion transfer at the Liquid-Liquid interfaces are elaborated, while hints are given to determine the themrodynamic and kinetic parameters relevant to the ion transfer processes.

  17. IVOA Support Interfaces Version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Matthew; Rixon, Guy; Grid andWeb Services Working Group; Graham, Matthew; Rixon, Guy

    2011-05-01

    This document describes the minimum interface that a (SOAP- or REST-based) web service requires to participate in the IVOA. Note that this is not required of standard VO services developed prior to this specification, although uptake is strongly encouraged on any subsequent revision. All new standard VO services, however, must feature a VOSI-compliant interface.

  18. Advanced Stellar Compass, CHAMP, Interface Control Document

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Buch; Jørgensen, John Leif; Betto, Maurizio;

    1999-01-01

    The German government research establishment "GeoForschungsZentrum" developed under a contract to the German government a microsatellite named "Champ". The Space Instrumentation Group has made a Interface Control Document for the CHAMP, witch describes the Star Imager, the electrical interface, t...

  19. A Smart Material Interfaces Learning Experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minuto, A.; Pittarello, Fabio; Nijholt, Antinus

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a learning experience held with a class of primary school children who were introduced to a novel class of resources, named smart materials, and the interfaces built with them (Smart Material Interfaces). The pupils were guided along a multidisciplinary educational path in which

  20. Graphics-System Color-Code Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulppo, J. S.

    1982-01-01

    Circuit originally developed for a flight simulator interfaces a computer graphics system with color monitor. Subsystem is intended for particular display computer (AGT-130, ADAGE Graphics Terminal) and specific color monitor (beam penetration tube--Penetron). Store-and-transmit channel is one of five in graphics/color-monitor interface. Adding 5-bit color code to existing graphics programs requires minimal programing effort.

  1. Utilizing Bayesian Techniques for User Interface Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-12-01

    rea - soning and knowledge) have placed little or no emphasis on the expert system user interface. These developers spend most resources perfecting the...1994). 24. Cesta, Amedeo and Daniela DAloisi. "Building Interfaces as Personal Assis- tants," SIGCHI Bulletin, 28(3):108-113 (1996). 25. Chappel, H

  2. Gender Interest Differences with Multimedia Learning Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passig, David; Levin, Haya

    1999-01-01

    This study of 90 kindergarten children examined gender differences in learning interest from different designs of multimedia interfaces. Results indicate a significant difference between boys and girls in the influence of the design of interactive multimedia stories on time on task and on level of satisfaction with the interfaces. (Author/LRW)

  3. User Interface Design For Dynamic Geometry Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Kortenkamp

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we describe long-standing user interface issues with Dynamic Geometry Software and common approaches to address them. We describe first prototypes of multi-touch-capable DGS. We also give some hints on the educational benefits of proper user interface design.

  4. Study of Behavior of Sterols at Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, P. D.; Knight, J. C.; Szczepanik, P. A.

    1968-01-01

    Behavior of sterols and sterol acetates on various types of interfaces indicates that the function of a sterol depends upon a surface orientation and surface energy of the interface. Column-chromatographic techniques determine the retention volume of various sterols under standard conditions.

  5. A Systems Design Course Emphasizing Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental course where students develop a (small) system focusing on the interfaces between different components of the system. The components are developed independently of each other using web based documentation and focusing on techniques for modeling and analysis...... of interfaces. These techniques are supported by prototype tools...

  6. User Interface Design for Dynamic Geometry Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortenkamp, Ulrich; Dohrmann, Christian

    2010-01-01

    In this article we describe long-standing user interface issues with Dynamic Geometry Software and common approaches to address them. We describe first prototypes of multi-touch-capable DGS. We also give some hints on the educational benefits of proper user interface design.

  7. Bubble Formation in Silicon-Quartz Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Kakimoto, K.; EGUCHI, M.; Ozoe, H.

    1997-01-01

    Bubble formation at an interface between silicon melt and a quartz crucible was studied by thermodynamical calculation and visualization of bubble formation using X-ray radiography. A phase diagram of silicon-oxygen (Si-O) system is also calculated from the reported thermodynamical data. Critical temperature and radius of bubble formation at the interface was discussed.

  8. Model driven development of user interface prototypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2010-01-01

    Many approaches to interface development apply only to isolated aspects of the development of user interfaces (UIs), e.g., exploration during the early phases, design of visual appearance, or implementation in some technology. In this paper we explore an _integrated_ approach to incorporate the w...

  9. Hypertext Interface Design and Structural Knowledge Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneman, Philip A.; Jonassen, David H.

    Hypertext is well-suited for educational applications where open learning and knowledge exploration is desired. In such applications, principles of good hypertext interface design should be employed to avoid navigational problems so as to maximize learning. Interface design, however, may also directly enhance acquisition of a particular knowledge…

  10. Colloids at liquid interfaces: dynamics and organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ershov, D.S.

    2014-01-01

      This thesis deals with spherical microparticles trapped at liquid interfaces. It focuses on two aspects of their behavior: firstly, the effect of the curvature of a liquid interface on interparticle interactions and their organization; secondly, the mobility of particles at visco-elastic int

  11. An Architectural Experience for Interface Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Susan P.

    2016-01-01

    The problem of human-computer interface design was brought to the foreground with the emergence of the personal computer, the increasing complexity of electronic systems, and the need to accommodate the human operator in these systems. With each new technological generation discovering the interface design problems of its own technologies, initial…

  12. XML Interfaces to the Internet of Things

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Pemberton (Steven)

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractThe internet of things is predicated on tiny, cheap, lower power computers being embedded in devices everywhere. However such tiny devices by definition have very little memory and computing power available to support user interfaces or extended servers, and so the user interface needs t

  13. Interfacing superconducting qubits and single optical photons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Sumanta; Faez, Sanli; Sørensen, Anders S.

    2016-01-01

    We propose an efficient light-matter interface at optical frequencies between a superconducting qubit and a single photon. The desired interface is based on a hybrid architecture composed of an organic molecule embedded inside an optical waveguide and electrically coupled to a superconducting qubit

  14. Gestures in an Intelligent User Interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkert, F.W.; van der Vet, P.E.; Nijholt, Antinus; Shao, Ling; Shan, Caifeng; Luo, Jiebo; Etoh, Minoru

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter we investigated which hand gestures are intuitive to control a large display multimedia interface from a user’s perspective. Over the course of two sequential user evaluations we defined a simple gesture set that allows users to fully control a large display multimedia interface,

  15. Core-shell particles at fluid interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchcic, C.

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of particles as stabilizers for foams and emulsions. Applying hard particles for stabilization of fluid interface is referred to as Pickering stabilization. By using hard particles instead of surfactants and polymers, fluid interfaces can be effectively stabili

  16. XML Interfaces to the Internet of Things

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Pemberton (Steven); C Foster

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractThe internet of things is predicated on tiny, cheap, lower power computers being embedded in devices everywhere. However such tiny devices by definition have very little memory and computing power available to support user interfaces or extended servers, and so the user interface

  17. XML Interfaces to the Internet of Things

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pemberton, S.; Foster, C

    2015-01-01

    The internet of things is predicated on tiny, cheap, lower power computers being embedded in devices everywhere. However such tiny devices by definition have very little memory and computing power available to support user interfaces or extended servers, and so the user interface needs to be distrib

  18. Graphic Interface for LCP2 Optimization Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolae, Taropa Laurentiu; Gaunholt, Hans

    1998-01-01

    This report provides information about the software interface that is programmed for the Optimization Program LCP2. The first part is about the general description of the program followed by a guide for using the interface. The last chapters contain a discussion about problems or futute extension...

  19. Energy-Efficient Capacitive-Sensor Interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Z.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes the theory, design and realization of energy-efficient capacitive-sensor interfaces that are dedicated to energy-constrained applications. The goal of this work is to explore energy-efficient capacitive-sensor interface design techniques both at the system and the circuit level

  20. A diffuse interface model with immiscibility preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, Arpit, E-mail: atiwari2@illinois.edu [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Freund, Jonathan B., E-mail: jbfreund@illinois.edu [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Pantano, Carlos [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    A new, simple, and computationally efficient interface capturing scheme based on a diffuse interface approach is presented for simulation of compressible multiphase flows. Multi-fluid interfaces are represented using field variables (interface functions) with associated transport equations that are augmented, with respect to an established formulation, to enforce a selected interface thickness. The resulting interface region can be set just thick enough to be resolved by the underlying mesh and numerical method, yet thin enough to provide an efficient model for dynamics of well-resolved scales. A key advance in the present method is that the interface regularization is asymptotically compatible with the thermodynamic mixture laws of the mixture model upon which it is constructed. It incorporates first-order pressure and velocity non-equilibrium effects while preserving interface conditions for equilibrium flows, even within the thin diffused mixture region. We first quantify the improved convergence of this formulation in some widely used one-dimensional configurations, then show that it enables fundamentally better simulations of bubble dynamics. Demonstrations include both a spherical-bubble collapse, which is shown to maintain excellent symmetry despite the Cartesian mesh, and a jetting bubble collapse adjacent a wall. Comparisons show that without the new formulation the jet is suppressed by numerical diffusion leading to qualitatively incorrect results.

  1. Core-shell particles at fluid interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchcic, C.

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of particles as stabilizers for foams and emulsions. Applying hard particles for stabilization of fluid interface is referred to as Pickering stabilization. By using hard particles instead of surfactants and polymers, fluid interfaces can be effectively

  2. Interface discrete light bullets in waveguide arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalache, Dumitru; Mazilu, Dumitru; Lederer, Falk; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2007-08-01

    We analyze spatiotemporal light localization at the interface separating two different periodic photonic lattices. We demonstrate the existence of a novel class of continuous-discrete spatiotemporal solitons propagating along the interface, including hybrid staggered-unstaggered discrete light bullets with tails belonging to spectral gaps of different types.

  3. Physical chemistry of semiconductor-liquid interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozik, A.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Memming, R. [Institut fuer Solarenergie-forschung GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    1996-08-01

    The science describing semiconductor-liquid interfaces is highly interdisciplinary, broad in scope, interesting, and of importance to various emerging technologies. We present a review of the basic physicochemical principles of semiconductor-liquid interfaces, including their historical development, and describe the major technological applications that are based on these scientific principles. 205 refs., 27 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Interface failure by cavity growth to coalescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2000-01-01

    For a thin metal layer between ceramics ductile failure by the growth of voids along one of the interfaces is studied numerically. An axisymmetric cell model is used to represent an array of uniformly distributed hemispherical interface voids. The bonding to the ceramics gives rise to highly...

  5. Coded Schemes for Asymmetric Wireless Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreira, André; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2015-01-01

    system with full duplex interfaces. Our second goal is to understand the practical implications of these results by designing a protocol for file transmissions, implement it in Android smart phones, and measure its performance when combining various interfaces, including, Bluetooth, WiFi, and 3G cellular...

  6. An Architectural Experience for Interface Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Susan P.

    2016-01-01

    The problem of human-computer interface design was brought to the foreground with the emergence of the personal computer, the increasing complexity of electronic systems, and the need to accommodate the human operator in these systems. With each new technological generation discovering the interface design problems of its own technologies, initial…

  7. The Green Bank Telescope: User Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddalena, R. J.; Fisher, J. R.

    1999-12-01

    The NRAO-Green Bank Telescope is composed of a unique, versatile, and complex suite of instrumentation. Observers and staff members will require intuitive user interfaces that can exploit the full capabilities of the instrument. The object-oriented monitor and control system which underlies all of the GBT user interfaces provides a uniform software interface to each GBT device, from receivers to detectors. The control system allows the creation of high-level user interfaces in a wide range of programming languages with less effort than normally encountered in the creation of such interfaces. We will present at least two of the graphical user interfaces astronomers will encounter when observing with the GBT. One interface, written in Glish/Tk, is designed for astronomers and used for specifying observations. A demonstration will be given of another interface, written in Tcl/Tk, designed for the monitoring and debugging of telescope component and which will be used predominantly by telescope operators, engineers, and other staff members. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  8. Gestures in an Intelligent User Interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkert, Wim; Vet, van der Paul; Nijholt, Anton; Shao, Ling; Shan, Caifeng; Luo, Jiebo; Etoh, Minoru

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter we investigated which hand gestures are intuitive to control a large display multimedia interface from a user’s perspective. Over the course of two sequential user evaluations we defined a simple gesture set that allows users to fully control a large display multimedia interface, int

  9. Interfaces - Weak Links, Yet Great Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Dimofte, Florin; Chupp, Raymond E.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2011-01-01

    Inadequate turbomachine interface design can rapidly degrade system performance, yet provide great opportunity for improvements. Engineered coatings of seals and bearing interfaces are major issues in the operational life of power systems. Coatings, films, and combined use of both metals and ceramics play a major role in maintaining component life. Interface coatings, like lubricants, are sacrificial for the benefit of the component. Bearing and sealing surfaces are routinely protected by tribologically paired coatings such as silicon diamond like coatings (SiDLC) in combination with an oil lubricated wave bearing that prolongs bearing operational life. Likewise, of several methods used or researched for detecting interface failures, dopants within coatings show failures in functionally graded ceramic coatings. The Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith (BFS) materials models and quantum mechanical tools, employed in interface design, are discussed.

  10. Defining Interactions and Interfaces in Engineering Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parslov, Jakob Filippson

    This PhD thesis focuses on the understanding and definition of interactions and interfaces during the architectural decomposition of complex, multi-technological products. The Interaction and Interface Framework developed in this PhD project contribute to the field of engineering design research......’ across any engineering discipline for describing and communicating about interactions and interfaces in engineering design. The framework contains classifications of three key terms; interaction, interaction mechanism, and interface. Due to the first principles, physics-­based approach to deriving...... of a product. The framework further proposes an 8-­step architecting approach explicitly articulating how to systematically apply the framework top-­‐down thus enabling complete and unambiguous descriptions of interactions and interfaces throughout the system. A tool called an Interaction Specification Wheel...

  11. Integrating interface slicing into software engineering processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jon

    1993-01-01

    Interface slicing is a tool which was developed to facilitate software engineering. As previously presented, it was described in terms of its techniques and mechanisms. The integration of interface slicing into specific software engineering activities is considered by discussing a number of potential applications of interface slicing. The applications discussed specifically address the problems, issues, or concerns raised in a previous project. Because a complete interface slicer is still under development, these applications must be phrased in future tenses. Nonetheless, the interface slicing techniques which were presented can be implemented using current compiler and static analysis technology. Whether implemented as a standalone tool or as a module in an integrated development or reverse engineering environment, they require analysis no more complex than that required for current system development environments. By contrast, conventional slicing is a methodology which, while showing much promise and intuitive appeal, has yet to be fully implemented in a production language environment despite 12 years of development.

  12. [Interfaces in outpatient and inpatient rheumatological treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, E

    2014-08-01

    In healthcare the term interface describes the communication and the sharing of responsibilities between different aspects of medical care und the different professional groups in medicine. It enables cooperation without conflicts and can contribute to an improvement of healthcare and reduce healthcare costs. The postgraduate professional education, medical guidelines and therapy recommendations are an important basis for the definition of interfaces. The definition of such an interface between different healthcare groups is essential for the implementation of selective contracts with health insurance companies. An appropriate health care interface between general practitioners and rheumatologists has been defined as well as between hospital and ambulant rheumatology treatment. The division of responsibilities between orthopedists and rheumatologists is still under discussion. A proposal for such an interface from the point of view of rheumatology is presented.

  13. Molecular dynamics of interface rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koplik, Joel; Banavar, Jayanth R.

    1993-01-01

    Several situations have been studied in which a fluid-vapor or fluid-fluid interface ruptures, using molecular dynamics simulations of 3000 to 20,000 Lennard-Jones molecules in three dimensions. The cases studied are the Rayleigh instability of a liquid thread, the burst of a liquid drop immersed in a second liquid undergoing shear, and the rupture of a liquid sheet in an extensional flow. The late stages of the rupture process involve the gradual withdrawal of molecules from a thinning neck, or the appearance and growth of holes in a sheet. In all cases, it is found that despite the small size of the systems studied, tens of angstroms, the dynamics is in at least qualitative accord with the behavior expected from continuum calculations, and in some cases the agreement is to within tens of percent. Remarkably, this agreement occurs even though the Eulerian velocity and stress fields are essentially unmeasurable - dominated by thermal noise. The limitations and prospects for such molecular simulation techniques are assessed.

  14. Ferroelectric Graphene-Perovskite Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volonakis, George; Giustino, Feliciano

    2015-07-02

    Owing to their record-breaking energy conversion efficiencies, hybrid organometallic perovskites have emerged as the most promising light absorbers and ambipolar carrier transporters for solution-processable solar cells. Simultaneously, due to its exceptional electron mobility, graphene represents a prominent candidate for replacing transparent conducting oxides. Thus, it is possible that combining these wonder materials may propel the efficiency toward the Schokley-Queisser limit. Here, using first-principles calculations on graphene-CH3NH3PbI3 interfaces, we find that graphene suppresses the octahedral tilt in the very first perovskite monolayer, leading to a nanoscale ferroelectric distortion with a permanent polarization of 3 mC/m(2). This interfacial ferroelectricity drives electron extraction from the perovskite and hinders electron-hole recombination by keeping the electrons and holes separated. The interfacial ferroelectricity identified here simply results from the interplay between graphene's planar structure and CH3NH3PbI3's octahedral connectivity; therefore, this mechanism may be effective in a much broader class of perovskites, with potential applications in photovoltaics and photocatalysis.

  15. Chapter 21: Programmatic Interfaces - STILTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, M. J.

    STILTS is the Starlink Tables Infrastructure Library Tool Set developed by Mark Taylor of the former Starlink Project. STILTS is a command-line tool (see the NVOSS_HOME/bin/stilts command) providing access to the same functionality driving the TOPCAT application and can be run using either the STILTS-specific jar file, or the more general TOPCAT jar file (both are available in the NVOSS_HOME/java/lib directory and are included in the default software environment classpath). The heart of both STILTS and TOPCAT is the STIL Java library. STIL is designed to efficiently handle the input, output and processing of very large tabular datasets and the STILTS task interface makes it an ideal tool for the scripting environment. Multiple formats are supported (including FITS Binary Tables, VOTable, CSV, SQL databases and ASCII, amongst others) and while some tools will generically handle all supported formats, others are specific to the VOTable format. Converting a VOTable to a more script-friendly format is the first thing most users will encounter, but there are many other useful tools as well.

  16. Molecular dynamics of interface rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koplik, Joel; Banavar, Jayanth R.

    1993-01-01

    Several situations have been studied in which a fluid-vapor or fluid-fluid interface ruptures, using molecular dynamics simulations of 3000 to 20,000 Lennard-Jones molecules in three dimensions. The cases studied are the Rayleigh instability of a liquid thread, the burst of a liquid drop immersed in a second liquid undergoing shear, and the rupture of a liquid sheet in an extensional flow. The late stages of the rupture process involve the gradual withdrawal of molecules from a thinning neck, or the appearance and growth of holes in a sheet. In all cases, it is found that despite the small size of the systems studied, tens of angstroms, the dynamics is in at least qualitative accord with the behavior expected from continuum calculations, and in some cases the agreement is to within tens of percent. Remarkably, this agreement occurs even though the Eulerian velocity and stress fields are essentially unmeasurable - dominated by thermal noise. The limitations and prospects for such molecular simulation techniques are assessed.

  17. Thermal coupling at aqueous and biomolecular interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenogina, Natalia B.

    Heat flow in the materials with nanoscopic features is dominated by thermal properties of the interfaces. While thermal properties of the solid-solid and solid-liquid interfaces are well studied, research of the thermal transport properties across soft (liquid-liquid) interfaces is very limited. Such interfaces are, however, plentiful in biological systems. In such systems the temperature control is of a great importance, because biochemical reactions, conformation of biomolecules as well as processes in biological cells and membranes have strong temperature sensitivity. The critical ingredient to temperature control in biological systems is the understanding of heat flow and thermal coupling across soft interfaces. To investigate heat transfer across biological and aqueous interfaces we chose to study a number of soft interfacial systems by means of molecular dynamic simulations. One of the interfaces under our investigation is the interface between protein (specifically green fluorescent protein) and water. Using this model we concentrated on the importance of vibrational frequency on coupling between water and proteins, and on significant differences between the roles of low and high frequency vibrations. Our thermal interfacial analysis allowed us to shed new light on to the issue of protein to water slaving, i.e., the concept of water controlling protein dynamics. Considering that the surface of the protein is composed of a complicated mixture of the hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains, to systematically explore the role of interfacial interactions we studied less complicated models with homogenous interfaces whith interfacial chemistry that could be changed in a controlled manner. We demonstrated that thermal transport measurements can be used to probe interfacial environments and to quantify interfacial bonding strength. Such ability provides a unique opportunity to characterize a variety of interfaces, which can be difficult to achieve with more direct

  18. Thermal transport across metal silicide-silicon interfaces: An experimental comparison between epitaxial and nonepitaxial interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ning; Feser, Joseph P.; Sadasivam, Sridhar; Fisher, Timothy S.; Wang, Tianshi; Ni, Chaoying; Janotti, Anderson

    2017-02-01

    Silicides are used extensively in nano- and microdevices due to their low electrical resistivity, low contact resistance to silicon, and their process compatibility. In this work, the thermal interface conductance of TiSi2, CoSi2, NiSi, and PtSi are studied using time-domain thermoreflectance. Exploiting the fact that most silicides formed on Si(111) substrates grow epitaxially, while most silicides on Si(100) do not, we study the effect of epitaxy, and show that for a wide variety of interfaces there is no dependence of interface conductance on the detailed structure of the interface. In particular, there is no difference in the thermal interface conductance between epitaxial and nonepitaxial silicide/silicon interfaces, nor between epitaxial interfaces with different interface orientations. While these silicide-based interfaces yield the highest reported interface conductances of any known interface with silicon, none of the interfaces studied are found to operate close to the phonon radiation limit, indicating that phonon transmission coefficients are nonunity in all cases and yet remain insensitive to interfacial structure. In the case of CoSi2, a comparison is made with detailed computational models using (1) full-dispersion diffuse mismatch modeling (DMM) including the effect of near-interfacial strain, and (2) an atomistic Green' function (AGF) approach that integrates near-interface changes in the interatomic force constants obtained through density functional perturbation theory. Above 100 K, the AGF approach significantly underpredicts interface conductance suggesting that energy transport does not occur purely by coherent transmission of phonons, even for epitaxial interfaces. The full-dispersion DMM closely predicts the experimentally observed interface conductances for CoSi2, NiSi, and TiSi2 interfaces, while it remains an open question whether inelastic scattering, cross-interfacial electron-phonon coupling, or other mechanisms could also account for

  19. Emergent Phenomena at Oxide Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, H.Y.

    2012-02-16

    spin operator changes sign with T-operation. (iii) Gauge symmetry (G), which is associated with a change in the phase of the wave-function as {Psi} {yields} e{sup i{theta}}{Psi}. Gauge symmetry is connected to the law of charge conservation, and broken G-symmetry corresponds to superconductivity/superfluidity. To summarize, the interplay among these electronic degrees of freedom produces various forms of symmetry breaking patterns of I, T, and G, leading to novel emergent phenomena, which can appear only by the collective behavior of electrons and cannot be expected from individual electrons. Figure 1 shows this schematically by means of several representative phenomena. From this viewpoint, the interfaces of TMOs offer a unique and important laboratory because I is already broken by the structure itself, and the detailed form of broken I-symmetry can often be designed. Also, two-dimensionality usually enhances the effects of electron correlations by reducing their kinetic energy. These two features of oxide interfaces produce many novel effects and functions that cannot be attained in bulk form. Given that the electromagnetic responses are a major source of the physical properties of solids, and new gauge structures often appear in correlated electronic systems, we put 'emergent electromagnetism' at the center of Fig. 1.

  20. Apple cuticle: the perfect interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Eric; Arey, Bruce

    2010-06-01

    The domestic apple might well be called an 'extreme' fruit. In the arid Northwest United States, the fruit often tolerates surface temperatures ranging from -2 °C in the early spring to 50 °C in the heat of summer, and again to -2 °C during controlled postharvest storage for up to 12 months. During its 18-month existence, the apple maintains a cuticle that is dynamic and environmentally responsive to protect against 1) cellular water loss during desiccation stress and 2) excessive uptake of standing surface moisture. Physiological disorders of the peel such as russeting, cracking, splitting, flecking and lenticel marking, develop as epidermal cells respond to rapid changes in ambient conditions at specific developmental stages during the growing season. Resultant market losses underlie research investigating the nature of apple cuticle growth and development. Ultrastructural analysis of the pro-cuticle using scanning electron microscopy indicates an overlapping network of lipid-based distally-elongating microtubules--produced by and connected to epidermal cells--which co-polymerize to form an organic solvent-insoluble semi-permeable cutin matrix. Microtubule elongation, aggregation, and polymerization function together as long as the fruit continues to enlarge. The nature of lipid transport from the epidermal cells through the cell wall to become part of the cuticular matrix was explored using an FEI Helios NanoLabTM DualBeamTM focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope on chemically- and cryo-fixed peel tissue from mature or freshly harvested apples. Based on microtubule dimensions, regular projections found at the cell/cuticle interface suggest an array of microtubule-like structures associated with the epidermal cell.

  1. High Integrity Can Design Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaber, E.L.

    1998-08-01

    The National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program is chartered with facilitating the disposition of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel to allow disposal at a geologic repository. This is done through coordination with the repository program and by assisting DOE Site owners of SNF with needed information, standardized requirements, packaging approaches, etc. The High Integrity Can (HIC) will be manufactured to provide a substitute or barrier enhancement for normal fuel geometry and cladding. The can would be nested inside the DOE standardized canister which is designed to interface with the repository waste package. The HIC approach may provide the following benefits over typical canning approaches for DOE SNF. (a) It allows ready calculation and management of criticality issues for miscellaneous. (b) It segments and further isolates damaged or otherwise problem materials from normal SNF in the repository package. (c) It provides a very long term corrosion barrier. (d) It provides an extra internal pressure barrier for particulates, gaseous fission products, hydrogen, and water vapor. (e) It delays any potential release of fission products to the repository environment. (f) It maintains an additional level of fuel geometry control during design basis accidents, rock-fall, and seismic events. (g) When seal welded, it could provide the additional containment required for shipments involving plutonium content in excess of 20 Ci. (10 CFR 71.63.b) if integrated with an appropriate cask design. Long term corrosion protection is central to the HIC concept. The material selected for the HIC (Hastelloy C-22) has undergone extensive testing for repository service. The most severe theoretical interactions between iron, repository water containing chlorides and other repository construction materials have been tested. These expected chemical species have not been shown capable of corroding the selected HIC material. Therefore, the HIC should provide a significant barrier to DOE SNF dispersal

  2. Innovative interfaces for Serious Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marco

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The tangible interaction approach has, in recent years, become a promising alternative to tactile interaction for very young children. Children playing with Tangible User Interfaces (TUI are motivated by the novel and digital environment and benefit from the same values as conventional physical playing. Young children build their mental image of the world through action and motor responses and, with physical handling, they become conscious of reality. Within TUIs, digitally augmented surfaces (interactive blackboards and tabletops are becoming popular in educative environments. Tabletop devices are horizontal surfaces capable of supporting interaction and image feedback on their surface, and are especially interesting for reinforcing face-to-face social relations and group activities. However, most of current children-oriented applications for tabletops are based on tactile interaction, thus losing the benefits of physical playing. The paper describes our experiences building tangible tabletops, and designing tangible games and toys. In particular, we present NIKVision, a tabletop device intended to give leisure and fun while reinforcing physical manipulation and colocated gaming for 3-6 year old children. Several hybrid (physical/digital games based on the manipulation of passive and active toys have been developed for NIKVision. From our experience several useful lessons can be extracted. Among them, the necessity of bridging the gap between designers and developers making it easier the prototyping of tabletop games stands out. To tackle this difficulty a toolkit for the prototyping of tabletop games called ToyVision has been created. The toolkit supports designers to fully explore the physical feasibilities of the manipulation of physical playing pieces, while minimizing the technical difficulties of implementing tabletop games based on physical manipulation. This way, NIKVision and ToyVision are becoming powerful tools to develop innovative

  3. Invasive Intraneural Interfaces: Foreign Body Reaction Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorenza Lotti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Intraneural interfaces are stimulation/registration devices designed to couple the peripheral nervous system (PNS with the environment. Over the last years, their use has increased in a wide range of applications, such as the control of a new generation of neural-interfaced prostheses. At present, the success of this technology is limited by an electrical impedance increase, due to an inflammatory response called foreign body reaction (FBR, which leads to the formation of a fibrotic tissue around the interface, eventually causing an inefficient transduction of the electrical signal. Based on recent developments in biomaterials and inflammatory/fibrotic pathologies, we explore and select the biological solutions that might be adopted in the neural interfaces FBR context: modifications of the interface surface, such as organic and synthetic coatings; the use of specific drugs or molecular biology tools to target the microenvironment around the interface; the development of bio-engineered-scaffold to reduce immune response and promote interface-tissue integration. By linking what we believe are the major crucial steps of the FBR process with related solutions, we point out the main issues that future research has to focus on: biocompatibility without losing signal conduction properties, good reproducible in vitro/in vivo models, drugs exhaustion and undesired side effects. The underlined pros and cons of proposed solutions show clearly the importance of a better understanding of all the molecular and cellular pathways involved and the need of a multi-target action based on a bio-engineered combination approach.

  4. Colloid and interface chemistry for nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Kralchevsky, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Colloid and interface science dealt with nanoscale objects for nearly a century before the term nanotechnology was coined. An interdisciplinary field, it bridges the macroscopic world and the small world of atoms and molecules. Colloid and Interface Chemistry for Nanotechnology is a collection of manuscripts reflecting the activities of research teams that have been involved in the networking project Colloid and Interface Chemistry for Nanotechnology (2006-2011), Action D43, the European Science Foundation. The project was a part of the intergovernmental framework for Cooperation in Science an

  5. Nanopore-CMOS Interfaces for DNA Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magierowski, Sebastian; Huang, Yiyun; Wang, Chengjie; Ghafar-Zadeh, Ebrahim

    2016-08-06

    DNA sequencers based on nanopore sensors present an opportunity for a significant break from the template-based incumbents of the last forty years. Key advantages ushered by nanopore technology include a simplified chemistry and the ability to interface to CMOS technology. The latter opportunity offers substantial promise for improvement in sequencing speed, size and cost. This paper reviews existing and emerging means of interfacing nanopores to CMOS technology with an emphasis on massively-arrayed structures. It presents this in the context of incumbent DNA sequencing techniques, reviews and quantifies nanopore characteristics and models and presents CMOS circuit methods for the amplification of low-current nanopore signals in such interfaces.

  6. iPhone User Interface Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Banga, Cameron

    2011-01-01

    Written in a cookbook style, this book offers solutions using a recipe based approach. Each recipe contains step-by-step instructions followed by an analysis of what was done in each task and other useful information. The cookbook approach means you can dive into whatever recipes you want in no particular order. The iPhone Interface Cookbook is written from the ground up for people who are new to iOS or application interface design in general. Each chapter discusses the reasoning and design strategy behind critical interface components, as well as how to best integrate each into any iPhone or

  7. Ludic interfaces. Driver and product of gamification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Fuchs

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The recent success of non-standard and playful interface devices like Wii Remote, Move, and Kinect is an indicator of a process that demonstrates that ludic interfaces might be the core driver for a transformation in the sector of video games cultures and beyond. Yet, ludic interfaces are drivers—as well as driven by social developments known as the ludification (Raessens, 2006; Fuchs & Strouhal, 2008, or the gamification of society (Schell, 2010; Bogost, 2010; Ionifides, 2011; Deterding, Khaled, Nacke, & Dixon, 2011.

  8. Dynamical transitions of a driven Ising interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Manish K; Sengupta, Surajit

    2008-03-01

    We study the structure of an interface in a three-dimensional Ising system created by an external nonuniform field H(r,t) . H changes sign over a two-dimensional plane of arbitrary orientation. When the field is pulled with velocity v(e) , [i.e., H(r,t)=H(r-v(e)t) ], the interface undergoes several dynamical transitions. For low velocities it is pinned by the field profile and moves along with it, the distribution of local slopes undergoing a series of commensurate-incommensurate transitions. For large v(e) the interface depins and grows with Kardar-Parisi-Zhang exponents.

  9. LTE-advanced air interface technology

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xincheng

    2012-01-01

    Opportunities are at hand for professionals eager to learn and apply the latest theories and practices in air interface technologies. Written by experienced researchers and professionals, LTE-Advanced Air Interface Technology thoroughly covers the performance targets and technology components studied by 3GPP for LTE-Advanced. Besides being an explanatory text about LTE-Advanced air interface technology, this book exploits the technical details in the 3GPP specification, and explains the motivation and implication behind the specifications.After a general description of wireless cellular techno

  10. Interface structure between tetraglyme and graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minato, Taketoshi; Araki, Yuki; Umeda, Kenichi; Yamanaka, Toshiro; Okazaki, Ken-ichi; Onishi, Hiroshi; Abe, Takeshi; Ogumi, Zempachi

    2017-09-01

    Clarification of the details of the interface structure between liquids and solids is crucial for understanding the fundamental processes of physical functions. Herein, we investigate the structure of the interface between tetraglyme and graphite and propose a model for the interface structure based on the observation of frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy in liquids. The ordering and distorted adsorption of tetraglyme on graphite were observed. It is found that tetraglyme stably adsorbs on graphite. Density functional theory calculations supported the adsorption structure. In the liquid phase, there is a layered structure of the molecular distribution with an average distance of 0.60 nm between layers.

  11. Concept of software interface for BCI systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svejda, Jaromir; Zak, Roman; Jasek, Roman

    2016-06-01

    Brain Computer Interface (BCI) technology is intended to control external system by brain activity. One of main part of such system is software interface, which carries about clear communication between brain and either computer or additional devices connected to computer. This paper is organized as follows. Firstly, current knowledge about human brain is briefly summarized to points out its complexity. Secondly, there is described a concept of BCI system, which is then used to build an architecture of proposed software interface. Finally, there are mentioned disadvantages of sensing technology discovered during sensing part of our research.

  12. Generic Interfaces for Managing Web Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Burlaca

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a generic user interface for managing web data that is incorporated in a content management system. The interface is created at run-time from a set of XML documents stored in database. We accentuate the importance of content analysis phase that leads to a well formed data model. Another important aspect is the use of context in the interface and the hierarchical model to represent multiple relationships between hierarchy items. The proposed event model acts like a glue between data management and application logic.

  13. Design of an Audio Interface for Patmos

    OpenAIRE

    Ausin, Daniel Sanz; Goerge, Fabian

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of an audio interface for the Patmos processor, which runs on an Altera DE2-115 FPGA board. This board has an audio codec included, the WM8731. The interface described in this work allows to receive and send audio from and to the WM8731, and to synthesize, store or manipulate audio signals writing C programs for Patmos. The audio interface described in this paper is intended to be used with the Patmos processor. Patmos is an open source RISC ...

  14. ooi: OpenStack OCCI interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro López García

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this document we present an implementation of the Open Grid Forum’s Open Cloud Computing Interface (OCCI for OpenStack, namely ooi (Openstack occi interface, 2015  [1]. OCCI is an open standard for management tasks over cloud resources, focused on interoperability, portability and integration. ooi aims to implement this open interface for the OpenStack cloud middleware, promoting interoperability with other OCCI-enabled cloud management frameworks and infrastructures. ooi focuses on being non-invasive with a vanilla OpenStack installation, not tied to a particular OpenStack release version.

  15. ooi: OpenStack OCCI interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    López García, Álvaro; Fernández del Castillo, Enol; Orviz Fernández, Pablo

    In this document we present an implementation of the Open Grid Forum's Open Cloud Computing Interface (OCCI) for OpenStack, namely ooi (Openstack occi interface, 2015) [1]. OCCI is an open standard for management tasks over cloud resources, focused on interoperability, portability and integration. ooi aims to implement this open interface for the OpenStack cloud middleware, promoting interoperability with other OCCI-enabled cloud management frameworks and infrastructures. ooi focuses on being non-invasive with a vanilla OpenStack installation, not tied to a particular OpenStack release version.

  16. Diffuse-Interface Methods in Fluid Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. M.; McFadden, G. B.; Wheeler, A. A.

    1997-01-01

    The authors review the development of diffuse-interface models of hydrodynamics and their application to a wide variety of interfacial phenomena. The authors discuss the issues involved in formulating diffuse-interface models for single-component and binary fluids. Recent applications and computations using these models are discussed in each case. Further, the authors address issues including sharp-interface analyses that relate these models to the classical free-boundary problem, related computational approaches to describe interfacial phenomena, and related approaches describing fully-miscible fluids.

  17. Synchronization Interfaces for Improving Moodle Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GM Arya Sasmita

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Many universities have applied e-learning on more than one LMS (Learning Management System platforms such as Wordpress and Moodle. In addition, difficulties implementations in developing countries have occurred. Those are mainly caused by limitations and expensive of Internet infrastructure. Therefore to increase Moodle application as an e-learning system, the paper proposed two synchronization interfaces. The first interface is for Moodle and Wordpress. This assists teachers to migrate their learning material in their blog in Wordpress into Moodle. Second interface is for Moodle portable performing offline LMS and Moodle performing online LMS. Moodle portable was installed in teachers and students notebooks. Moodle itself was installed and run in e-learning server. The aim is to improve Moodle utilization in the class. The results showed satisfied outcomes. Students and teachers could employ the interfaces easily and secure as they have to login using student/teacher ID, course ID, username and password.

  18. Dynamically Generated Interfaces in XML Based Architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Minit

    2009-01-01

    Providing on-line services on the Internet will require the definition of flexible interfaces that are capable of adapting to the user's characteristics. This is all the more important in the context of medical applications like home monitoring, where no two patients have the same medical profile. Still, the problem is not limited to the capacity of defining generic interfaces, as has been made possible by UIML, but also to define the underlying information structures from which these may be generated. The DIATELIC project deals with the tele-monitoring of patients under peritoneal dialysis. By means of XML abstractions, termed as "medical components", to represent the patient's profile, the application configures the customizable properties of the patient's interface and generates a UIML document dynamically. The interface allows the patient to feed the data manually or use a device which allows "automatic data acquisition". The acquired medical data is transferred to an expert system, which analyses the dat...

  19. Navigation with a passive brain based interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Werkhoven, P.J.; Thurlings, M.E.; Brouwer, A.-M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a Brain Computer Interface (BCI) for navigation. The system is based on detecting brain signals that are elicited by tactile stimulation on the torso indicating the desired direction.

  20. Dynamics of swimming bacteria at complex interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez, Diego

    2014-01-01

    Flagellated bacteria exploiting helical propulsion are known to swim along circular trajectories near surfaces. Fluid dynamics predicts this circular motion to be clockwise (CW) above a rigid surface (when viewed from inside the fluid) and counter-clockwise (CCW) below a free surface. Recent experimental investigations showed that complex physicochemical processes at the nearby surface could lead to a change in the direction of rotation, both at solid surfaces absorbing slip-inducing polymers and interfaces covered with surfactants. Motivated by these results, we use a far-field hydrodynamic model to predict the kinematics of swimming near three types of interfaces: clean fluid-fluid interface, slipping rigid wall, and a fluid interface covered by incompressible surfactants. Representing the helical swimmer by a superposition of hydrodynamic singularities, we first show that in all cases the surfaces reorient the swimmer parallel to the surface and attract it, both of which are a consequence of the Stokes dip...

  1. Tengi Interfaces for Tracing between Heterogeneous Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeiffer, Rolf-Helge; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    for the definition of software components containing heterogeneous artifacts. Tengi interfaces link components containing different textual and visual software development artifacts ranging from high-level specification documents to low-level implementation documents. We formally define and implement Tengi...

  2. A Natural Language Interface to Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, D. R.

    1990-01-01

    The development of a Natural Language Interface (NLI) is presented which is semantic-based and uses Conceptual Dependency representation. The system was developed using Lisp and currently runs on a Symbolics Lisp machine.

  3. Theory of Spin Loss at Metallic Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belashchenko, K. D.; Kovalev, Alexey A.; van Schilfgaarde, M.

    2016-11-01

    Interfacial spin-flip scattering plays an important role in magnetoelectronic devices. Spin loss at metallic interfaces is usually quantified by matching the magnetoresistance data for multilayers to the Valet-Fert model, while treating each interface as a fictitious bulk layer whose thickness is δ times the spin-diffusion length. By employing the properly generalized circuit theory and the scattering matrix approaches, we derive the relation of the parameter δ to the spin-flip transmission and reflection probabilities at an individual interface. It is found that δ is proportional to the square root of the probability of spin-flip scattering. We calculate the spin-flip scattering probabilities for flat and rough Cu /Pd interfaces using the Landauer-Büttiker method based on the first-principles electronic structure and find δ to be in reasonable agreement with experiment.

  4. Applying Cognitive Psychology to User Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrani, Sabeen; Durrani, Qaiser S.

    This paper explores some key aspects of cognitive psychology that may be mapped onto user interfaces. Major focus in existing user interface guidelines is on consistency, simplicity, feedback, system messages, display issues, navigation, colors, graphics, visibility and error prevention [8-10]. These guidelines are effective indesigning user interfaces. However, these guidelines do not handle the issues that may arise due to the innate structure of human brain and human limitations. For example, where to place graphics on the screen so that user can easily process them and what kind of background should be given on the screen according to the limitation of human motor system. In this paper we have collected some available guidelines from the area of cognitive psychology [1, 5, 7]. In addition, we have extracted few guidelines from theories and studies of cognitive psychology [3, 11] which may be mapped to user interfaces.

  5. Mode III effects on interface delamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo; Hutchinson, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    mode III has an effect. Subsequently, the focus is on crack growth along an interface between an elastic-plastic solid and an elastic substrate. The analyses are carried out for conditions of small-scale yielding, with the fracture process at the interface represented by a cohesive zone model. Due......For crack growth along an interface between dissimilar materials the effect of combined modes I, II and III at the crack-tip is investigated. First, in order to highlight situations where crack growth is affected by a mode III contribution, examples of material configurations are discussed where...... to the mismatch of elastic properties across the interface the corresponding elastic solution has an oscillating stress singularity, and this solution is applied as boundary conditions on the outer edge of the region analyzed. For several combinations of modes I, II and III crack growth resistance curves...

  6. Topology Optimization using an Explicit Interface Representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Asger Nyman; Nobel-Jørgensen, Morten; Bærentzen, J. Andreas;

    Current methods for topology optimization primarily represent the interface between solid and void implicitly on fixed grids. In contrast, shape optimization methods represent the interface explicitly, but do not allow for any topological changes to the structure. Using an explicit interface...... to handle topology changes. It does so by discretizing the entire design domain into an irregular adaptive triangle mesh and thereby explicitly representing both the structure and the embedding space. In other words, the entire design domain is divided into triangles, where the interface is represented...... the final design. The status of the work is that the method has been developed and is showing promising results. For instance, the cantilever beam problem has been solved to a high precision using a fine discretization by evaluating the objective function approximately 500 times. This took around 100...

  7. Interface of magnetoresistive converter of active power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Vytiaganets

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The vehicle and programmatic interfaces of magnetoresistive converter of active power are considered, the results of statistical treatment of the multiple measuring of active-power are analysed.

  8. Client Interfaces to the Virtual Observatory Registry

    CERN Document Server

    Demleitner, Markus; Taylor, Mark; Normand, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The Virtual Observatory Registry is a distributed directory of information systems and other resources relevant to astronomy. To make it useful, facilities to query that directory must be provided to humans and machines alike. This article reviews the development and status of such facilities, also considering the lessons learnt from about a decade of experience with Registry interfaces. After a brief outline of the history of the standards development, it describes the use of Registry interfaces in some popular clients as well as dedicated UIs for interrogating the Registry. It continues with a thorough discussion of the design of the two most recent Registry interface standards, RegTAP on the one hand and a full-text-based interface on the other hand. The article finally lays out some of the less obvious conventions that emerged in the interaction between providers of registry records and Registry users as well as remaining challenges and current developments.

  9. Navigation with a passive brain based interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Werkhoven, P.J.; Thurlings, M.E.; Brouwer, A.-M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a Brain Computer Interface (BCI) for navigation. The system is based on detecting brain signals that are elicited by tactile stimulation on the torso indicating the desired direction.

  10. Client interfaces to the Virtual Observatory Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demleitner, M.; Harrison, P.; Taylor, M.; Normand, J.

    2015-04-01

    The Virtual Observatory Registry is a distributed directory of information systems and other resources relevant to astronomy. To make it useful, facilities to query that directory must be provided to humans and machines alike. This article reviews the development and status of such facilities, also considering the lessons learnt from about a decade of experience with Registry interfaces. After a brief outline of the history of the standards development, it describes the use of Registry interfaces in some popular clients as well as dedicated UIs for interrogating the Registry. It continues with a thorough discussion of the design of the two most recent Registry interface standards, RegTAP on the one hand and a full-text-based interface on the other hand. The article finally lays out some of the less obvious conventions that emerged in the interaction between providers of registry records and Registry users as well as remaining challenges and current developments.

  11. The dynamics of foams with mobile interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratton, Michael B.; Davis, Stephen H.

    2011-11-01

    Using a novel technique for resolving nearly singular integrals, we investigate the dynamics of two-dimensional foams with mobile interfaces and an incompressible, inviscid gas phase by a boundary integral method. For foams with small liquid fractions (CMMI-0826703.

  12. Ultrasonic Characterization of Interfaces in Composite Bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N.; Lobkis, O. I.; Rokhlin, S. I.; Cantrell, J. H.

    2010-01-01

    The inverse determination of imperfect interfaces from reflection spectra of normal and oblique incident ultrasonic waves in adhesive bonds of multidirectional composites is investigated. The oblique measurements are complicated by the highly dispersed nature of oblique wave spectra at frequencies above 3MHz. Different strategies for bond property reconstruction, including a modulation method, are discussed. The relation of measured interfacial spring density to the physico-chemical model of a composite interface described by polymer molecular bonds to emulate loss of molecular strength on an adhesive composite interface is discussed. This potentially relates the interfacial (adhesion) strength (number of bonds at the adhesive substrate interface) to the spring constant (stiffness) area density (flux), which is an ultrasonically measurable parameter.

  13. Solid Surfaces, Interfaces and Thin Films

    CERN Document Server

    Lüth, Hans

    2010-01-01

    This book emphasises both experimental and theoretical aspects of surface, interface and thin film physics. As in previous editions the preparation of surfaces and thin films, their atomic and morphological, their vibronic and electronic properties as well as fundamentals of adsorption are treated. Because of their importance in modern information technology and nanostructure physics particular emphasis is paid to electronic surface and interface states, semiconductor space charge layers and heterostructures as well as to superconductor/semiconductor interfaces and magnetic thin films. The latter topic was significantly extended in this new edition by more details about the giant magnetoresistance and a section about the spin-transfer torque mechanism including one new problem as exercise. Two new panels about Kerr-effect and spin-polarized scanning tunnelling microscopy were added, too. Furthermore, the meanwhile important group III-nitride surfaces and high-k oxide/semiconductor interfaces are shortly discu...

  14. The reliable multicast protocol application programming interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery , Todd; Whetten, Brian

    1995-01-01

    The Application Programming Interface for the Berkeley/WVU implementation of the Reliable Multicast Protocol is described. This transport layer protocol is implemented as a user library that applications and software buses link against.

  15. Self-diffusion in liquid interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herth, Simone; Ye, Feng; Eggersmann, Martin; Gutfleisch, Oliver; Würschum, Roland

    2004-03-05

    For studying self-diffusion in liquid interfaces, 59Fe tracer diffusion was measured on ultrafine-grained Nd2Fe14B which undergoes an intergranular melting transition for low Nd excess. The diffusion coefficient in the intergranular liquid layers is found to be lower than in bulk melts indicating a hampered atomic mobility due to confinement. Well above the intergranular melting transition, the diffusivity in the liquid interfaces approaches a value characteristic for bulk melts.

  16. Web services interface to EPICS channel access

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Lei; SHEN Liren

    2008-01-01

    Web services is used in Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). Combined with EPICS Channel Access protocol, Web services' high usability, platform independence and language independence can be used to design a fully transparent and uniform software interface layer, which helps us complete channel data acquisition, modification and monitoring functions. This software interface layer, a cross-platform of cross-language,has good interopcrability and reusability.

  17. Designing Gestural Interfaces Touchscreens and Interactive Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Saffer, Dan

    2008-01-01

    If you want to get started in new era of interaction design, this is the reference you need. Packed with informative illustrations and photos, Designing Gestural Interfaces provides you with essential information about kinesiology, sensors, ergonomics, physical computing, touchscreen technology, and new interface patterns -- information you need to augment your existing skills in traditional" websites, software, or product development. This book will help you enter this new world of possibilities."

  18. Distributed user interfaces usability and collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    Lozano, María D; Tesoriero, Ricardo; Penichet, Victor MR

    2013-01-01

    Written by international researchers in the field of Distributed User Interfaces (DUIs), this book brings together important contributions regarding collaboration and usability in Distributed User Interface settings. Throughout the thirteen chapters authors address key questions concerning how collaboration can be improved by using DUIs, including: in which situations a DUI is suitable to ease the collaboration among users; how usability standards can be used to evaluate the usability of systems based on DUIs; and accurately describe case studies and prototypes implementing these concerns

  19. The LOLITA User-Definable Template Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Košmelj, Katarina

    2001-01-01

    The development of user-definable templates interfaces which allow the user to design new templates definitions in a user-friendly way is a new issue in the field of information extraction. The LOLITA user-definable templates interface allows the user to define new templates using sentences in natural language text with a few restrictions and formal elements. This approach is rather different from previous approaches to information extraction which require developers to code the template defi...

  20. Communications interface for wireless communications headset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Marc A. (Inventor); Culotta, Jr., Anthony Joseph (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A universal interface adapter circuit interfaces, for example, a wireless communications headset with any type of communications system, including those that require push-to-talk (PTT) signaling. The interface adapter is comprised of several main components, including an RF signaling receiver, a microcontroller and associated circuitry for decoding and processing the received signals, and programmable impedance matching and line interfacing circuitry for interfacing a wireless communications headset system base to a communications system. A signaling transmitter, which is preferably portable (e.g., handheld), is employed by the wireless headset user to send signals to the signaling receiver. In an embodiment of the invention directed specifically to push-to-talk (PTT) signaling, the wireless headset user presses a button on the signaling transmitter when they wish to speak. This sends a signal to the microcontroller which decodes the signal and recognizes the signal as being a PTT request. In response, the microcontroller generates a control signal that closes a switch to complete a voice connection between the headset system base and the communications system so that the user can communicate with the communications system. With this arrangement, the wireless headset can be interfaced to any communications system that requires PTT signaling, without modification of the headset device. In addition, the interface adapter can also be configured to respond to or deliver any other types of signals, such as dual-tone-multiple-frequency (DTMF) tones, and on/off hook signals. The present invention is also scalable, and permits multiple wireless users to operate independently in the same environment through use of a plurality of the interface adapters.

  1. System Integration and Interface Transition Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-04-01

    Continue onl reverse side It necesay and identify by block number) System Interfaces Program Objectives System-Level Issues Digitization Strategy DCS... DIGITIZATION STRATEGY IV-1 1. Digitization Considerations IV-l a. Commercial IV-1 b. Current DCS Digitization IV-2 c. DCS Transition IV-2 2. Overseas...Subsystems and Elements 3. AUTOSEVOCOM Il/Digital Transmission Interface VIII-I 4. Transmission Digitization Strategy - PCM Vs. DM VIII-2 5. DCS Encryption

  2. SIMS: Single Interface to Multiple Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-01

    on the interface design [ CARL 79]. The separation advantage works in the other direction as well. If the interface needs to be changed (e.g...Execution Monitoring. Proceedings of the Sixth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, pages 190-195, (1987). [ CARL 79] E. Carlson and W. Metz. A...4, (1987). [NEBE 87] Bernhard Nebel . Computational Complexity of Terminological Reasoning in BACK. S Technical Report Number 43, Technische

  3. Moessbauer spectroscopy study of interfaces for spintronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantovan, R., E-mail: roberto.mantovan@mdm.infm.it; Wiemer, C.; Lamperti, A.; Georgieva, M.; Fanciulli, M. [Laboratorio Nazionale MDM CNR-INFM (Italy); Goikhman, A.; Barantsev, N.; Lebedinskii, Yu.; Zenkevich, A. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2009-06-15

    The submonolayer sensitivity and element-specificity of conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy, combined with the use of {sup 57}Fe enriched tracer layers, enable to carefully investigate thin films and interfaces at the atomic-scale. This paper reports on the main achievements we obtained so far in the study of structural, chemical, and magnetic properties of a variety of interfaces between oxides and Fe-based films having potential interest in the field of spintronics.

  4. Web Interfacing for Task Supervision and Specification

    OpenAIRE

    Tomatis, N.; Moreau, B.

    2001-01-01

    The Autonomous Systems Lab at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne (EPFL) is engaged in mobile robotics research. The lab’s research focuses mainly on indoor localization and map building, outdoor locomotion and navigation, and micro mobile robotics. In the framework of a research project on mobile robot localization, a graphical web interface for our indoor robots has been developed. The purpose of this interface is twofold: it serves as a tool for task supervision for the rese...

  5. THE INTERFACE OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND STATISTICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computer science and statistics have each been separately documented by many books as well as numerous papers. However, the interface of computer ...prerequisites to the computer and mathematical prerequisites to computer science and of the foundations for probability and statistics. Development of statistics prior to 1900 then is reviewed. (Author)... science and statistics, the area of their interaction, has been documented only in part. The paper begins characterization of the entire interface by

  6. Numerical simulation of droplet impact on interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahouadji, Lyes; Che, Zhizhao; Matar, Omar; Shin, Seungwon; Chergui, Jalel; Juric, Damir

    2015-11-01

    Simulations of three-dimensional droplet impact on interfaces are carried out using BLUE, a massively-parallel code based on a hybrid Front-Tracking/Level-Set algorithm for Lagrangian tracking of arbitrarily deformable phase interfaces. High resolution numerical results show fine details and features of droplet ejection, crown formation and rim instability observed under similar experimental conditions. EPSRC Programme Grant, MEMPHIS, EP/K0039761/1.

  7. Thermal transfer in graphene-interfaced materials: contact resistance and interface engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanxiong; Gong, Jixuan; Pei, Yongmao; Xu, Zhiping

    2013-04-10

    We investigate here heat transfer across interfaces consisting of single- and few-layer graphene sheets between silicon carbides by performing nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The interfacial thermal conducitivity κI is calculated by considering graphene layers as an interfacial phase. The results indicate that κI decreases with its thickness and heat flux but increases with the environmental temperature. Interface engineering of κI is explored by intercalating molecules between graphene layers. These guest molecules decouple electronic states across the interface, but tune κI slightly, leading to a thermally transparent but electronically insulating interface. These results provide a fundamental understanding in thermal transport across weakly bound interfaces, and design recipes for multifunctional thermal interface materials, composites and thermal management in graphene-based devices.

  8. Fermi level pinning effects at gate-dielectric interfaces influenced by interface state densities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪文婷; 韩伟华; 吕奇峰; 王昊; 杨富华

    2015-01-01

    The dependences of Fermi-level pinning on interface state densities for the metal–dielectric, ploycrystalline silicon–dielectric, and metal silicide–dielectric interfaces are investigated by calculating their effective work functions and their pinning factors. The Fermi-level pinning factors and effective work functions of the metal–dielectric interface are observed to be more susceptible to the increasing interface state densities, differing significantly from that of the ploycrystalline silicon–dielectric interface and the metal silicide–dielectric interface. The calculation results indicate that metal silicide gates with high-temperature resistance and low resistivity are a more promising choice for the design of gate materials in metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) technology.

  9. Hard-Soft Tissue Interface Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, Oliver E; Oyen, Michelle L

    2015-01-01

    The musculoskeletal system is comprised of three distinct tissue categories: structural mineralized tissues, actuating muscular soft tissues, and connective tissues. Where connective tissues - ligament, tendon and cartilage - meet with bones, a graded interface in mechanical properties occurs that allows the transmission of load without creating stress concentrations that would cause tissue damage. This interface typically occurs over less than 1 mm and contains a three order of magnitude difference in elastic stiffness, in addition to changes in cell type and growth factor concentrations among others. Like all engineered tissues, the replication of these interfaces requires the production of scaffolds that will provide chemical and mechanical cues, resulting in biologically accurate cellular differentiation. For interface tissues however, the scaffold must provide spatially graded chemical and mechanical cues over sub millimetre length scales. Naturally, this complicates the manufacture of the scaffolds and every stage of their subsequent cell seeding and growth, as each region has different optimal conditions. Given the higher degree of difficulty associated with replicating interface tissues compared to surrounding homogeneous tissues, it is likely that the development of complex musculoskeletal tissue systems will continue to be limited by the engineering of connective tissues interfaces with bone.

  10. The net charge at interfaces between insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristowe, N. C.; Littlewood, P. B.; Artacho, Emilio

    2011-03-01

    The issue of the net charge at insulating oxide interfaces is briefly reviewed with the ambition of dispelling myths of such charges being affected by covalency and related charge density effects. For electrostatic analysis purposes, the net charge at such interfaces is defined by the counting of discrete electrons and core ion charges, and by the definition of the reference polarization of the separate, unperturbed bulk materials. The arguments are illustrated for the case of a thin film of LaAlO3 over SrTiO3 in the absence of free carriers, for which the net charge is exactly 0.5e per interface formula unit, if the polarization response in both materials is referred to zero bulk values. Further consequences of the argument are extracted for structural and chemical alterations of such interfaces, in which internal rearrangements are distinguished from extrinsic alterations (changes of stoichiometry, redox processes), only the latter affecting the interfacial net charge. The arguments are reviewed alongside the proposal of Stengel and Vanderbilt (2009 Phys. Rev. B 80 241103) of using formal polarization values instead of net interfacial charges, based on the interface theorem of Vanderbilt and King-Smith (1993 Phys. Rev. B 48 4442-55). Implications for non-centrosymmetric materials are discussed, as well as for interfaces for which the charge mismatch is an integer number of polarization quanta.

  11. An electronic structure perspective of graphene interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Brian J.; Dennis, Robert V.; Lee, Vincent; Banerjee, Sarbajit

    2014-03-01

    The unusual electronic structure of graphene characterized by linear energy dispersion of bands adjacent to the Fermi level underpins its remarkable transport properties. However, for practical device integration, graphene will need to be interfaced with other materials: 2D layered structures, metals (as ad-atoms, nanoparticles, extended surfaces, and patterned metamaterial geometries), dielectrics, organics, or hybrid structures that in turn are constituted from various inorganic or organic components. The structural complexity at these nanoscale interfaces holds much promise for manifestation of novel emergent phenomena and provides a means to modulate the electronic structure of graphene. In this feature article, we review the modifications to the electronic structure of graphene induced upon interfacing with disparate types of materials with an emphasis on iterative learnings from theoretical calculations and electronic spectroscopy (X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy, scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD)). We discuss approaches for engineering and modulating a bandgap in graphene through interfacial hybridization, outline experimental methods for examining electronic structure at interfaces, and overview device implications of engineered interfaces. A unified view of how geometric and electronic structure are correlated at interfaces will provide a rational means for designing heterostructures exhibiting emergent physical phenomena with implications for plasmonics, photonics, spintronics, and engineered polymer and metal matrix composites.

  12. Simulation of Magnetic Phenomena at Realistic Interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Grytsyuk, Sergiy

    2016-02-04

    In modern technology exciting developments are related to the ability to understand and control interfaces. Particularly, magnetic interfaces revealing spindependent electron transport are of great interest for modern spintronic devices, such as random access memories and logic devices. From the technological point of view, spintronic devices based on magnetic interfaces enable manipulation of the magnetism via an electric field. Such ability is a result of the different quantum effects arising from the magnetic interfaces (for example, spin transfer torque or spin-orbit torque) and it can reduce the energy consumption as compared to the traditional semiconductor electronic devices. Despite many appealing characteristics of these materials, fundamental understanding of their microscopic properties and related phenomena needs to be established by thorough investigation. In this work we implement first principles calculations in order to study the structural, electric, and magnetic properties as well as related phenomena of two types of interfaces with large potential in spintronic applications: 1) interfaces between antiferromagnetic 3d-metal-oxides and ferromagnetic 3d-metals and 2) interfaces between non-magnetic 5d(4d)- and ferromagnetic 3d-metals. A major difficulty in studying such interfaces theoretically is the typically large lattice mismatch. By employing supercells with Moir e patterns, we eliminate the artificial strain that leads to doubtful results and are able to describe the dependence of the atomic density at the interfaces on the component materials and their thicknesses. After establishing understanding about the interface structures, we investigate the electronic and magnetic properties. A Moir e supercell with transition layer is found to reproduce the main experimental findings and thus turns out to be the appropriate model for simulating magnetic misfit interfaces. In addition, we systematically study the magnetic anisotropy and Rashba band

  13. Disappointment and Anxiety --Compare Tang poetry "chuzhou xi jian" and Modem Poetry "qi fu" in Symbol%失望与焦虑——比较唐诗《滁州西涧》和现代诗《弃妇》的“象征”运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王四四

    2012-01-01

    "象征"是中国和欧洲都有的诗歌手法。唐诗《滁州西涧》和1920年代模仿法国象征派的新诗《弃妇》均采用"象征"来传达一种失望与焦虑之情绪。《滁州西涧》意象相接自然,因而意境浑圆,虽传达失望之情绪复又归于和谐。《弃妇》过度追求意象奇特,联结古怪,脱离了民族审美心理,诗里诗外都阴霾不散。%The symbol of Tang poetry "chuzhou xi jian" and modem poetry "qi fu" convey a disappointment and anxiety emotions. The "chuzhou xi jian "connect natural images, and artistic conception and round, although convey emotion to the complex and disappoint- ment ,finally harmonious. "qi fu" is image strange,so,Away from the national aesthetie psychology.

  14. Regenerative Electrode Interfaces for Neural Prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Cort H; Zoratti, Marissa J; Langhals, Nicholas B; Purcell, Erin K

    2016-04-01

    Neural prostheses are electrode arrays implanted in the nervous system that record or stimulate electrical activity in neurons. Rapid growth in the use of neural prostheses in research and clinical applications has occurred in recent years, but instability and poor patency in the tissue-electrode interface undermines the longevity and performance of these devices. The application of tissue engineering strategies to the device interface is a promising approach to improve connectivity and communication between implanted electrodes and local neurons, and several research groups have developed new and innovative modifications to neural prostheses with the goal of seamless device-tissue integration. These approaches can be broadly categorized based on the strategy used to maintain and regenerate neurons at the device interface: (1) redesign of the prosthesis architecture to include finer-scale geometries and/or provide topographical cues to guide regenerating neural outgrowth, (2) incorporation of material coatings and bioactive molecules on the prosthesis to improve neuronal growth, viability, and adhesion, and (3) inclusion of cellular grafts to replenish the local neuron population or provide a target site for reinnervation (biohybrid devices). In addition to stabilizing the contact between neurons and electrodes, the potential to selectively interface specific subpopulations of neurons with individual electrode sites is a key advantage of regenerative interfaces. In this study, we review the development of regenerative interfaces for applications in both the peripheral and central nervous system. Current and future development of regenerative interfaces has the potential to improve the stability and selectivity of neural prostheses, improving the patency and resolution of information transfer between neurons and implanted electrodes.

  15. Understanding and Design of Polymer Device Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahn, Antoine [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2015-10-26

    The research performed under grant DE-FG02-04ER46165 between May 2008 and April 2011 focused on the understanding and control of interfaces of organic semiconductors in general, and polymer interfaces more specifically. This work was a joined effort by three experimentalists and a theoretician. Emphasis was placed on the determination of the electronic structure of these interfaces, i.e. the relative energy position of molecular levels across these interfaces. From these electronic structures depend the injection, extraction and transport of charge carriers into, from and across, respectively, all (opto)electronic devices made of these semiconductors. A significant fraction of our work focused on ways to modify and optimize interfaces, for example via chemical doping of the semiconductors to reduce interface energy barriers or via deposition of ultra-thin work function-reducing polymer or self-assembled monolayers of dipolar molecules. Another significant fraction of our work was devoted to exploring alternate and unconventional interface formation methods, in particular the soft-contact lamination of both metal contacts and polymer overlayers on top of polymer films. These methods allowed us to better understand the impact of hot metal atom evaporation on a soft organic surface, as well as the key mechanisms that control the energetics of polymer/polymer heterojunctions. Finally, a significant fraction of the research was directed to understanding the electronic structure of buried polymer heterojunctions, in particular within donor/acceptor blends of interest in organic photovoltaic applications. The work supported by this grant resulted in 17 publications in some of the best peer-reviewed journals of the field, as well as numerous presentations at US and international conferences.

  16. User Interface Technology for Formal Specification Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Michael; Philpot, Andrew; Pressburger, Thomas; Underwood, Ian; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Formal specification development and modification are an essential component of the knowledge-based software life cycle. User interface technology is needed to empower end-users to create their own formal specifications. This paper describes the advanced user interface for AMPHION1 a knowledge-based software engineering system that targets scientific subroutine libraries. AMPHION is a generic, domain-independent architecture that is specialized to an application domain through a declarative domain theory. Formal specification development and reuse is made accessible to end-users through an intuitive graphical interface that provides semantic guidance in creating diagrams denoting formal specifications in an application domain. The diagrams also serve to document the specifications. Automatic deductive program synthesis ensures that end-user specifications are correctly implemented. The tables that drive AMPHION's user interface are automatically compiled from a domain theory; portions of the interface can be customized by the end-user. The user interface facilitates formal specification development by hiding syntactic details, such as logical notation. It also turns some of the barriers for end-user specification development associated with strongly typed formal languages into active sources of guidance, without restricting advanced users. The interface is especially suited for specification modification. AMPHION has been applied to the domain of solar system kinematics through the development of a declarative domain theory. Testing over six months with planetary scientists indicates that AMPHION's interactive specification acquisition paradigm enables users to develop, modify, and reuse specifications at least an order of magnitude more rapidly than manual program development.

  17. An interface tracking model for droplet electrocoalescence.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, Lindsay Crowl

    2013-09-01

    This report describes an Early Career Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to develop an interface tracking model for droplet electrocoalescence. Many fluid-based technologies rely on electrical fields to control the motion of droplets, e.g. microfluidic devices for high-speed droplet sorting, solution separation for chemical detectors, and purification of biodiesel fuel. Precise control over droplets is crucial to these applications. However, electric fields can induce complex and unpredictable fluid dynamics. Recent experiments (Ristenpart et al. 2009) have demonstrated that oppositely charged droplets bounce rather than coalesce in the presence of strong electric fields. A transient aqueous bridge forms between approaching drops prior to pinch-off. This observation applies to many types of fluids, but neither theory nor experiments have been able to offer a satisfactory explanation. Analytic hydrodynamic approximations for interfaces become invalid near coalescence, and therefore detailed numerical simulations are necessary. This is a computationally challenging problem that involves tracking a moving interface and solving complex multi-physics and multi-scale dynamics, which are beyond the capabilities of most state-of-the-art simulations. An interface-tracking model for electro-coalescence can provide a new perspective to a variety of applications in which interfacial physics are coupled with electrodynamics, including electro-osmosis, fabrication of microelectronics, fuel atomization, oil dehydration, nuclear waste reprocessing and solution separation for chemical detectors. We present a conformal decomposition finite element (CDFEM) interface-tracking method for the electrohydrodynamics of two-phase flow to demonstrate electro-coalescence. CDFEM is a sharp interface method that decomposes elements along fluid-fluid boundaries and uses a level set function to represent the interface.

  18. Language workbench user interfaces for data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Victoria M.

    2015-01-01

    Biological data analysis is frequently performed with command line software. While this practice provides considerable flexibility for computationally savy individuals, such as investigators trained in bioinformatics, this also creates a barrier to the widespread use of data analysis software by investigators trained as biologists and/or clinicians. Workflow systems such as Galaxy and Taverna have been developed to try and provide generic user interfaces that can wrap command line analysis software. These solutions are useful for problems that can be solved with workflows, and that do not require specialized user interfaces. However, some types of analyses can benefit from custom user interfaces. For instance, developing biomarker models from high-throughput data is a type of analysis that can be expressed more succinctly with specialized user interfaces. Here, we show how Language Workbench (LW) technology can be used to model the biomarker development and validation process. We developed a language that models the concepts of Dataset, Endpoint, Feature Selection Method and Classifier. These high-level language concepts map directly to abstractions that analysts who develop biomarker models are familiar with. We found that user interfaces developed in the Meta-Programming System (MPS) LW provide convenient means to configure a biomarker development project, to train models and view the validation statistics. We discuss several advantages of developing user interfaces for data analysis with a LW, including increased interface consistency, portability and extension by language composition. The language developed during this experiment is distributed as an MPS plugin (available at http://campagnelab.org/software/bdval-for-mps/). PMID:25755929

  19. Language workbench user interfaces for data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria M. Benson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Biological data analysis is frequently performed with command line software. While this practice provides considerable flexibility for computationally savy individuals, such as investigators trained in bioinformatics, this also creates a barrier to the widespread use of data analysis software by investigators trained as biologists and/or clinicians. Workflow systems such as Galaxy and Taverna have been developed to try and provide generic user interfaces that can wrap command line analysis software. These solutions are useful for problems that can be solved with workflows, and that do not require specialized user interfaces. However, some types of analyses can benefit from custom user interfaces. For instance, developing biomarker models from high-throughput data is a type of analysis that can be expressed more succinctly with specialized user interfaces. Here, we show how Language Workbench (LW technology can be used to model the biomarker development and validation process. We developed a language that models the concepts of Dataset, Endpoint, Feature Selection Method and Classifier. These high-level language concepts map directly to abstractions that analysts who develop biomarker models are familiar with. We found that user interfaces developed in the Meta-Programming System (MPS LW provide convenient means to configure a biomarker development project, to train models and view the validation statistics. We discuss several advantages of developing user interfaces for data analysis with a LW, including increased interface consistency, portability and extension by language composition. The language developed during this experiment is distributed as an MPS plugin (available at http://campagnelab.org/software/bdval-for-mps/.

  20. Interface Metaphors for Interactive Machine Learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasper, Robert J.; Blaha, Leslie M.

    2017-07-14

    To promote more interactive and dynamic machine learn- ing, we revisit the notion of user-interface metaphors. User-interface metaphors provide intuitive constructs for supporting user needs through interface design elements. A user-interface metaphor provides a visual or action pattern that leverages a user’s knowledge of another domain. Metaphors suggest both the visual representations that should be used in a display as well as the interactions that should be afforded to the user. We argue that user-interface metaphors can also offer a method of extracting interaction-based user feedback for use in machine learning. Metaphors offer indirect, context-based information that can be used in addition to explicit user inputs, such as user-provided labels. Implicit information from user interactions with metaphors can augment explicit user input for active learning paradigms. Or it might be leveraged in systems where explicit user inputs are more challenging to obtain. Each interaction with the metaphor provides an opportunity to gather data and learn. We argue this approach is especially important in streaming applications, where we desire machine learning systems that can adapt to dynamic, changing data.