WorldWideScience

Sample records for vivo test battery

  1. A core in vitro genotoxicity battery comprising the Ames test plus the in vitro micronucleus test is sufficient to detect rodent carcinogens and in vivo genotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, David; Reeve, Lesley; Gatehouse, David; Vanparys, Philippe

    2011-03-18

    In vitro genotoxicity testing needs to include tests in both bacterial and mammalian cells, and be able to detect gene mutations, chromosomal damage and aneuploidy. This may be achieved by a combination of the Ames test (detects gene mutations) and the in vitro micronucleus test (MNvit), since the latter detects both chromosomal aberrations and aneuploidy. In this paper we therefore present an analysis of an existing database of rodent carcinogens and a new database of in vivo genotoxins in terms of the in vitro genotoxicity tests needed to detect their in vivo activity. Published in vitro data from at least one test system (most were from the Ames test) were available for 557 carcinogens and 405 in vivo genotoxins. Because there are fewer publications on the MNvit than for other mammalian cell tests, and because the concordance between the MNvit and the in vitro chromosomal aberration (CAvit) test is so high for clastogenic activity, positive results in the CAvit test were taken as indicative of a positive result in the MNvit where there were no, or only inadequate data for the latter. Also, because Hprt and Tk loci both detect gene-mutation activity, a positive Hprt test was taken as indicative of a mouse-lymphoma Tk assay (MLA)-positive, where there were no data for the latter. Almost all of the 962 rodent carcinogens and in vivo genotoxins were detected by an in vitro battery comprising Ames+MNvit. An additional 11 carcinogens and six in vivo genotoxins would apparently be detected by the MLA, but many of these had not been tested in the MNvit or CAvit tests. Only four chemicals emerge as potentially being more readily detected in MLA than in Ames+MNvit--benzyl acetate, toluene, morphine and thiabendazole--and none of these are convincing cases to argue for the inclusion of the MLA in addition to Ames+MNvit. Thus, there is no convincing evidence that any genotoxic rodent carcinogens or in vivo genotoxins would remain undetected in an in vitro test battery

  2. Battery Post-Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Post-test diagnostics of aged batteries can provide additional information regarding the cause of performance degradation, which, previously, could be only inferred...

  3. Open stack thermal battery tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Kevin N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Christine C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grillet, Anne M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Headley, Alexander J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fenton, Kyle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wong, Dennis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ingersoll, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-04-17

    We present selected results from a series of Open Stack thermal battery tests performed in FY14 and FY15 and discuss our findings. These tests were meant to provide validation data for the comprehensive thermal battery simulation tools currently under development in Sierra/Aria under known conditions compared with as-manufactured batteries. We are able to satisfy this original objective in the present study for some test conditions. Measurements from each test include: nominal stack pressure (axial stress) vs. time in the cold state and during battery ignition, battery voltage vs. time against a prescribed current draw with periodic pulses, and images transverse to the battery axis from which cell displacements are computed. Six battery configurations were evaluated: 3, 5, and 10 cell stacks sandwiched between 4 layers of the materials used for axial thermal insulation, either Fiberfrax Board or MinK. In addition to the results from 3, 5, and 10 cell stacks with either in-line Fiberfrax Board or MinK insulation, a series of cell-free “control” tests were performed that show the inherent settling and stress relaxation based on the interaction between the insulation and heat pellets alone.

  4. Lithium battery discharge tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. J.

    1980-01-01

    The long term discharge of a variety of lithium cells was characterized and the susceptibility of the cells to chemical variation during the slow discharge was tested. A shunt resistor was set across the terminals to monitor the voltage as a function of time. Failures were identified by premature voltage drops.

  5. Propagation testing multi-cell batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orendorff, Christopher J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lamb, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Steele, Leigh Anna Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Spangler, Scott Wilmer [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Propagation of single point or single cell failures in multi-cell batteries is a significant concern as batteries increase in scale for a variety of civilian and military applications. This report describes the procedure for testing failure propagation along with some representative test results to highlight the potential outcomes for different battery types and designs.

  6. Strain measurement based battery testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jeff Qiang; Steiber, Joe; Wall, Craig M.; Smith, Robert; Ng, Cheuk

    2017-05-23

    A method and system for strain-based estimation of the state of health of a battery, from an initial state to an aged state, is provided. A strain gauge is applied to the battery. A first strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at a selected charge capacity of the battery and at the initial state of the battery. A second strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at the selected charge capacity of the battery and at the aged state of the battery. The capacity degradation of the battery is estimated as the difference between the first and second strain measurements divided by the first strain measurement.

  7. Testing of sealed lead-acid batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, D.M.; Sealey, J.D.; Miller, D.W.

    1984-02-01

    In early January 1981, Sandia National Laboratories began testing sealed lead-acid batteries which were being developed under Sandia contracts. The goal was to develop a totally maintenance-free sealed lead-acid battery capable of deep-discharge operation in a photovoltaic power system. Sealed lead-acid batteries and a group of conventional, flooded lead-acid batteries were exposed to a matrix test plan, with some approaching 1000 cycles. This performance was achieved with the standard National Electrical Manufacturers' Association cycle test, as well as the partial-state-of-charge cycle test. Modes of failure are being investigated.

  8. Cursor Control Device Test Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Kritina; Sandor, Aniko; Pace, John; Thompson, Shelby

    2013-01-01

    The test battery was developed to provide a standard procedure for cursor control device evaluation. The software was built in Visual Basic and consists of nine tasks and a main menu that integrates the set-up of the tasks. The tasks can be used individually, or in a series defined in the main menu. Task 1, the Unidirectional Pointing Task, tests the speed and accuracy of clicking on targets. Two rectangles with an adjustable width and adjustable center- to-center distance are presented. The task is to click back and forth between the two rectangles. Clicks outside of the rectangles are recorded as errors. Task 2, Multidirectional Pointing Task, measures speed and accuracy of clicking on targets approached from different angles. Twenty-five numbered squares of adjustable width are arranged around an adjustable diameter circle. The task is to point and click on the numbered squares (placed on opposite sides of the circle) in consecutive order. Clicks outside of the squares are recorded as errors. Task 3, Unidirectional (horizontal) Dragging Task, is similar to dragging a file into a folder on a computer desktop. Task 3 requires dragging a square of adjustable width from one rectangle and dropping it into another. The width of each rectangle is adjustable, as well as the distance between the two rectangles. Dropping the square outside of the rectangles is recorded as an error. Task 4, Unidirectional Path Following, is similar to Task 3. The task is to drag a square through a tunnel consisting of two lines. The size of the square and the width of the tunnel are adjustable. If the square touches any of the lines, it is counted as an error and the task is restarted. Task 5, Text Selection, involves clicking on a Start button, and then moving directly to the underlined portion of the displayed text and highlighting it. The pointing distance to the text is adjustable, as well as the to-be-selected font size and the underlined character length. If the selection does not

  9. PNGV Battery Performance Testing and Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motloch, Chester George; Belt, Jeffrey R; Christophersen, Jon Petter; Wright, Randy Ben; Hunt, Gary Lynn; Sutula, Raymond; Duong, T.Q.; Barnes, J.A.; Miller, Ted J.; Haskind, H. J.; Tartamella, T. J.

    2002-03-01

    In support of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has developed novel testing procedures and analytical methodologies to assess the performance of batteries for use in hybrid electric vehicles (HEV’s). Tests have been designed for both Power Assist and Dual Mode applications. They include both characterization and cycle life and/or calendar life. At periodic intervals during life testing, a series of Reference Performance Tests are executed to determine changes in the baseline performance of the batteries. Analytical procedures include a battery scaling methodology, the calculation of pulse resistance, pulse power, available energy, and differential capacity, and the modeling of calendar- and cycle-life data. PNGV goals, test procedures, analytical methodologies, and representative results are presented.

  10. [European Portuguese EARS test battery adaptation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Marisa; Ramos, Daniela; Oliveira, Graça; Alves, Helena; Anderson, Ilona; Magalhães, Isabel; Martins, Jorge H; Simões, Margarida; Ferreira, Raquel; Fonseca, Rita; Andrade, Susana; Silva, Luís; Ribeiro, Carlos; Ferreira, Pedro Lopes

    2014-01-01

    The use of adequate assessment tools in health care is crucial for the management of care. The lack of specific tools in Portugal for assessing the performance of children who use cochlear implants motivated the translation and adaptation of the EARS (Evaluation of Auditory Responses to Speech) test battery into European Portuguese. This test battery is today one of the most commonly used by (re)habilitation teams of deaf children who use cochlear implants worldwide. The goal to be achieved with the validation of EARS was to provide (re)habilitation teams an instrument that enables: (i) monitoring the progress of individual (re)habilitation, (ii) managing a (re)habilitation program according to objective results, comparable between different (re)habilitation teams, (iii) obtaining data that can be compared with the results of international teams, and (iv) improving engagement and motivation of the family and other professionals from local teams. For the test battery translation and adaptation process, the adopted procedures were the following: (i) translation of the English version into European Portuguese by a professional translator, (ii) revision of the translation performed by an expert panel, including doctors, speech-language pathologists and audiologists, (iii) adaptation of the test stimuli by the team's speechlanguage pathologist, and (iv) further review by the expert panel. For each of the tests that belong to the EARS battery, the introduced adaptations and adjustments are presented, combining the characteristics and objectives of the original tests with the linguistic and cultural specificities of the Portuguese population. The difficulties that have been encountered during the translation and adaptation process and the adopted solutions are discussed. Comparisons are made with other versions of the EARS battery. We defend that the translation and the adaptation process followed for the EARS test battery into European Portuguese was correctly conducted

  11. Battery cycling and calendar aging: year one testing results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    This report is meant to provide an update on the ongoing battery testing performed by the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute to evaluate Electric Vehicle (EV) battery durability and reliability under electric utility grid operations. Commercial EV batte...

  12. Potential use of battery packs from NCAP tested vehicles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamb, Joshua; Orendorff, Christopher J.

    2013-10-01

    Several large electric vehicle batteries available to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration are candidates for use in future safety testing programs. The batteries, from vehicles subjected to NCAP crashworthiness testing, are considered potentially damaged due to the nature of testing their associated vehicles have been subjected to. Criteria for safe shipping to Sandia is discussed, as well as condition the batteries must be in to perform testing work. Also discussed are potential tests that could be performed under a variety of conditions. The ultimate value of potential testing performed on these cells will rest on the level of access available to the battery pack, i.e. external access only, access to the on board monitoring system/CAN port or internal electrical access to the battery. Greater access to the battery than external visual and temperature monitoring would likely require input from the battery manufacturer.

  13. Development of a central auditory test battery for adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neijenhuis, C.A.M.; Stollman, M.H.P.; Snik, A.F.M.; Broek, P. van den

    2001-01-01

    There is little standardized test material in Dutch to document central auditory processing disorders (CAPDs). Therefore, a new central auditory test battery was composed and standardized for use with adult populations and older children. The test battery comprised seven tests (words in noise,

  14. Testing of sealed lead-acid batteries. Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, D.M.; Sealey, J.D.; Miller, D.W.

    1985-05-01

    In early January 1981, Sandia began testing sealed lead-acid batteries which were being developed under Sandia contracts. Goal was to develop a totally maintenance-free sealed lead-acid battery capable of deep-discharge operation in a photovoltaic power system. During contracts with Gould and Eagle-Picher, batteries were received quarterly and placed on test. Testing of these batteries has now been completed. With proper charging, battery life averaged over 800 deep cycles. This was achieved with both the standard NEMA cycle test as well as a partial state of charge test. Charging voltages above 2.50 volts per cell appeared to be detrimental to the performance of the Gould batteries.

  15. 2011 Hyundai Sonata 3539 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew Shirk; Tyler Gray; Jeffrey Wishart

    2014-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicle batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Hyundai Sonata Hybrid (VIN KMHEC4A47BA003539). Battery testing was performed by Intertek Testing Services NA. The Idaho National Laboratory and Intertek collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  16. Cell overcharge testing inside sodium metal halide battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frutschy, Kris; Chatwin, Troy; Bull, Roger

    2015-09-01

    Testing was conducted to measure electrical performance and safety of the General Electric Durathon™ E620 battery module (600 V class 20 kWh) during cell overcharge. Data gathered from this test was consistent with SAE Electric Vehicle Battery Abuse Testing specification J2464 [1]. After cell overcharge failure and 24 A current flow for additional 60 minutes, battery was then discharged at 7.5 KW average power to 12% state of charge (SOC) and recharged back to 100% SOC. This overcharging test was performed on two cells. No hydrogen chloride (HCl) gas was detected during front cell (B1) test, and small amount (6.2 ppm peak) was measured outside the battery after center cell (F13) overcharge. An additional overcharge test was performed per UL Standard 1973 - Batteries for Use in Light Electric Rail (LER) Applications and Stationary Applications[2]. With the battery at 11% SOC and 280 °C float temperature, an individual cell near the front (D1) was deliberately imbalanced by charging it to 62% SOC. The battery was then recharged to 100% SOC. In all three tests, the battery cell pack was stable and individual cell failure did not propagate to other cells. Battery discharge performance, charge performance, and electrical isolation were normal after all three tests.

  17. Development of a Valid Volleyball Skills Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jackie; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes the development of the North Carolina State University Volleyball Skills Test Battery which offers accurate measurement of three volleyball skills (serve, forearm pass, and set). When physical educators tested 313 students, the battery objectively measured their abilities, providing a gamelike means of teaching, testing, grouping, and…

  18. CONSTRUCTION AND STANDARDIZATION OF A BATTERY OF BRAILLE SKILL TESTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BOURGEAULT, STANLEY E.; WOODCOCK, RICHARD W.

    A BATTERY OF TESTS WAS DEVELOPED AND STANDARDIZED TO MEASURE MASTERY OF TWO BRAILLE CODES--THE GRADE 2 LITERARY CODE AND THE NEMETH CODE FOR MATHEMATICAL NOTATION. DESIGNATED AS THE "COLORADO BRAILLE BATTERY," THESE TESTS PROVIDED OBJECTIVE MEASUREMENT DATA REGARDING A STUDENT'S OVERALL DEVELOPMENT IN BRAILLE, AS WELL AS A MEANS OF…

  19. Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey R. Belt

    2010-09-01

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Program. It is based on technical targets established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, a revision including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures is expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices.

  20. Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey R. Belt

    2010-12-01

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Program. It is based on technical targets established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, a revision including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures is expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices.

  1. An Advanced HIL Simulation Battery Model for Battery Management System Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barreras, Jorge Varela; Fleischer, Christian; Christensen, Andreas Elkjær

    2016-01-01

    Developers and manufacturers of battery management systems (BMSs) require extensive testing of controller Hardware (HW) and Software (SW), such as analog front-end and performance of generated control code. In comparison with the tests conducted on real batteries, tests conducted on a state......-of-the-art hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulator can be more cost and time effective, easier to reproduce, and safer beyond the normal range of operation, especially at early stages in the development process or during fault insertion. In this paper, an HIL simulation battery model is developed for purposes of BMS...... testing on a commercial HIL simulator. A multicell electrothermal Li-ion battery (LIB) model is integrated in a system-level simulation. Then, the LIB system model is converted to C code and run in real time with the HIL simulator. Finally, in order to demonstrate the capabilities of the setup...

  2. Lithium Battery Fire Tests and Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-25

    hydrogen explosion) Potable Water Flooding Suppression, cooling, exposure protection Shorting, collateral damage, electrolysis (hydrogen......this objective is to rapidly submerse the battery pack in water . The severity of the initial reaction, the proximity of the adjacent cells, and the

  3. Photovoltaic System Test Platform with Integrated Battery Energy Storage Emulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Sera, Dezso; Stroe, Daniel-Ioan

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we present a hybrid simulation and a real-time test platform for developing control systems for photovoltaic (PV) inverters with integrated battery energy storage (BES). The platform consists of a dual-stage single-phase PV inverter system, DC coupled with a full-bridge grid connected...... or directly to a physical PV array. The platform enables real-time testing of PV+BES control systems, including battery (BMS) and energy management systems (EMS), for a variety of battery technologies, which can be modelled in detail and emulated by the full-bridge grid connected inverter. Such flexibility...

  4. Battery of behavioral tests in mice to study postoperative delirium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peng, Mian; Zhang, Ce; Dong, Yuanlin; Zhang, Yiying; Nakazawa, Harumasa; Kaneki, Masao; Zheng, Hui; Shen, Yuan; Marcantonio, Edward R; Xie, Zhongcong

    2016-01-01

    ...(s). We therefore set out to employ a battery of behavior tests, including natural and learned behavior, in mice to determine the effects of laparotomy under isoflurane anesthesia (Anesthesia/Surgery) on these behaviors...

  5. Construction Of A Computerised Information-Processing Test Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann M. Schepers

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of the study was to construct a computerised information-processing test battery to measure choice reaction time for up to and including six bits of information, to measure discrimination reaction time with regard to colour patterns and form patterns, to measure rate of information processing with regard to perceptual stimuli and conceptual reasoning, and to develop a suitable scoring system for the respective tests. The battery of tests was applied to 58 pilots. Opsomming Die hoofdoel van die studie was om ‘n gerekenariseerde inligtingverwerkingstoets-battery te konstrueer om keusereaksietyd tot en met ses bis inligting te meet, om diskriminasie-reaksietyd ten opsigte van kleurpatrone en vormpatrone te meet, om tempo van inligtingverwerking ten opsigte van perseptuele stimuli en konseptuele redenering te meet en om ‘n gepaste nasienstelsel vir die onderskeie toetse te ontwikkel. Die battery toetse is op 58 vlieëniers toegepas

  6. Aging evaluation of class 1E batteries: Seismic testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edson, J.L. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1990-08-01

    This report presents the results of a seismic testing program on naturally aged class 1E batteries obtained from a nuclear plant. The testing program is a Phase 2 activity resulting from a Phase 1 aging evaluation of class 1E batteries in safety systems of nuclear power plants, performed previously as a part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program and reported in NUREG/CR-4457. The primary purpose of the program was to evaluate the seismic ruggedness of naturally aged batteries to determine if aged batteries could have adequate electrical capacity, as determined by tests recommended by IEEE Standards, and yet have inadequate seismic ruggedness to provide needed electrical power during and after a safe shutdown earthquake (SSE) event. A secondary purpose of the program was to evaluate selected advanced surveillance methods to determine if they were likely to be more sensitive to the aging degradation that reduces seismic ruggedness. The program used twelve batteries naturally aged to about 14 years of age in a nuclear facility and tested them at four different seismic levels representative of the levels of possible earthquakes specified for nuclear plants in the United States. Seismic testing of the batteries did not cause any loss of electrical capacity. 19 refs., 29 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. A test battery measuring auditory capabilities of listening panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghani, Jody; Ellermeier, Wolfgang; Zimmer, Karin

    2005-01-01

    a battery of tests covering a larger range of auditory capabilities in order to assess individual listeners. The format of all tests is kept as 'objective' as possible by using a three-alternative forced-choice paradigm in which the subject must choose which of the sound samples is different, thus keeping...... the instruction to the subjects simple and common for all tests. Both basic (e.g. frequency discrimination) and complex (e.g. profile analysis) psychoacoustic tests are covered in the battery and a threshold of discrimination or detection is obtained for each test. Data were collected on 24 listeners who had been...... recruited for participation in an expert listening panel for evaluating the sound quality of hi-fi audio systems. The test battery data were related to the actual performance of the listeners when judging the degradation in quality produced by audio codecs....

  8. A differential approach to microcomputer test battery development and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, R. S.; Baltzley, D. R.; Osteen, M. K.; Turnage, J. J.

    1988-01-01

    The present microcomputer-based performance test battery emphasizes psychometric theory and utility for repeated-measures applications during extended exposure to various environmental stressors. In the menu that has been defined at the current state of this system's development, there are more than 30 'qualified' mental tests which stabilize in less than 10 min and possess test-retest reliabilities greater than 0.7 for a three-minute test/work period. The battery encompasses tests of cognition, information processing, psychomotor skill, memory, mood, etc. Several of the tests have demonstrated sensitivity to chemoradiotherapy, sleep loss, hypoxia, amphetamines, thermal stress, sensory deprivation, altitude, fatigue, and alcohol use. Recommendations are presented for 6-, 12-, and 22-min batteries.

  9. Comparative Performance of Florida Seniors on the GED Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, Howard W.

    1985-01-01

    Two studies investigated the performance of Florida high school seniors on the Tests of General Educational Development (GED Tests). The GED Test Battery, as revised in 1980, consists of 290 items in 5 subject areas (writing, social studies, science, reading, and mathematics). In the first study, the performance of 1,200 Florida students was…

  10. Test Report : GS Battery, EPC power HES RESCU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, David Martin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schenkman, Benjamin L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Borneo, Daniel R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Electricity (DOE/OE), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Base Camp Integration Lab (BCIL) partnered together to incorporate an energy storage system into a microgrid configured Forward Operating Base to reduce the fossil fuel consumption and to ultimately save lives. Energy storage vendors will be sending their systems to SNL Energy Storage Test Pad (ESTP) for functional testing and then to the BCIL for performance evaluation. The technologies that will be tested are electro-chemical energy storage systems comprising of lead acid, lithium-ion or zinc-bromide. GS Battery and EPC Power have developed an energy storage system that utilizes zinc-bromide flow batteries to save fuel on a military microgrid. This report contains the testing results and some limited analysis of performance of the GS Battery, EPC Power HES RESCU.

  11. Validating a standardised test battery for synesthesia: Does the Synesthesia Battery reliably detect synesthesia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, D A; Down, M P; Shillcock, R C; Eagleman, D M; Simner, J

    2015-05-01

    Synesthesia is a neurological condition that gives rise to unusual secondary sensations (e.g., reading letters might trigger the experience of colour). Testing the consistency of these sensations over long time intervals is the behavioural gold standard assessment for detecting synesthesia (e.g., Simner, Mulvenna et al., 2006). In 2007 however, Eagleman and colleagues presented an online 'Synesthesia Battery' of tests aimed at identifying synesthesia by assessing consistency but within a single test session. This battery has been widely used but has never been previously validated against conventional long-term retesting, and with a randomly recruited sample from the general population. We recruited 2847 participants to complete The Synesthesia Battery and found the prevalence of grapheme-colour synesthesia in the general population to be 1.2%. This prevalence was in line with previous conventional prevalence estimates based on conventional long-term testing (e.g., Simner, Mulvenna et al., 2006). This reproduction of similar prevalence rates suggests that the Synesthesia Battery is indeed a valid methodology for assessing synesthesia. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Novel Field Test Equipment for Lithium-Ion Batteries in Hybrid Electrical Vehicle Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Goran Lindbergh; Olle Gelin; Pontus Svens; Marten Behm; Johan Lindstrom

    2011-01-01

    Lifetime testing of batteries for hybrid-electrical vehicles (HEV) is usually performed in the lab, either at the cell, module or battery pack level. Complementary field tests of battery packs in vehicles are also often performed. There are, however, difficulties related to field testing of battery-packs. Some examples are cost issues and the complexity of continuously collecting battery performance data, such as capacity fade and impedance increase. In this paper, a novel field test equipmen...

  13. Battery Technology Life Verification Test Manual Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jon P. Christophersen

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this Technology Life Verification Test (TLVT) Manual is to help guide developers in their effort to successfully commercialize advanced energy storage devices such as battery and ultracapacitor technologies. The experimental design and data analysis discussed herein are focused on automotive applications based on the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) electric vehicle, hybrid electric vehicle, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (EV, HEV, and PHEV, respectively) performance targets. However, the methodology can be equally applied to other applications as well. This manual supersedes the February 2005 version of the TLVT Manual (Reference 1). It includes criteria for statistically-based life test matrix designs as well as requirements for test data analysis and reporting. Calendar life modeling and estimation techniques, including a user’s guide to the corresponding software tool is now provided in the Battery Life Estimator (BLE) Manual (Reference 2).

  14. Battery Test Manual For Electric Vehicles, Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christophersen, Jon P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office. It is based on technical targets for commercial viability established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Electric Vehicles (EV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for EVs. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, future revisions including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures are expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices. The DOE-United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) supported the development of the manual. Technical Team points of contact responsible for its development and revision are Chul Bae of Ford Motor Company and Jon P. Christophersen of the Idaho National Laboratory. The development of this manual was funded by the Unites States Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Technical direction from DOE was provided by David Howell, Energy Storage R&D Manager and Hybrid Electric Systems Team Leader. Comments and questions regarding the manual should be directed to Jon P. Christophersen at the Idaho National Laboratory (jon.christophersen@inl.gov).

  15. Safety test results of compact sodium-sulfer batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Kouji; Rachi, Hideki [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Oshima, Taku; Bito, Akihiro [NGK Insulators Ltd., Nagoya (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    Sodium-sulfur batteries have been developed to provide load-leveling and stabilize the supply of electricity for electric utilities and large customers. However, concern for safety increases with the amount of sodium and sulfur required for commercial products. The latest (and largest) product is a 50 kW, 400 kWh battery module comprised of 384 cells, designated 'T5' cells. Safety is ensured by applying multiple levels of protection during design and manufacture, and confirmed by rigorous safety tests to verify performance during accident conditions that cause electrical, mechanical, thermal and chemical hazards. These tests have proven that the T5 cell and 50 kW battery module are adequately safe during such events for use in commercial applications. (orig.)

  16. Validating a standardised test battery for synesthesia: Does the Synesthesia Battery reliably detect synesthesia?

    OpenAIRE

    Carmichael, D.A.; Down, M P; Shillcock, R.C.; Eagleman, D. M.; Simner, J

    2015-01-01

    Synesthesia is a neurological condition that gives rise to unusual secondary sensations (e.g., reading letters might trigger the experience of colour). Testing the consistency of these sensations over long time intervals is the behavioural gold standard assessment for detecting synesthesia (e.g., Simner, Mulvenna et al., 2006). In 2007 however, Eagleman and colleagues presented an online 'Synesthesia Battery' of tests aimed at identifying synesthesia by assessing consistency but within a sing...

  17. Nickel hydrogen battery cell storage matrix test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, James R.; Dodson, Gary W.

    1993-01-01

    Test were conducted to evaluate post storage performance of nickel hydrogen cells with various design variables, the most significant being nickel precharge versus hydrogen precharge. Test procedures and results are presented in outline and graphic form.

  18. Still just 1 g: Consistent results from five test batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, W.; te Nijenhuis, J.; Bouchard, T.J.Jr.

    2008-01-01

    In a recent paper, Johnson, Bouchard, Krueger,McGue, and Gottesman (2004) addressed a long-standing debate in psychology by demonstrating that the g factors derived from three test batteries administered to a single group of individuals were completely correlated. This finding provided evidence for

  19. Exploratory battery technology development and testing report for 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnani, N.J.; Diegle, R.B.; Braithwaite, J.W.; Bush, D.M.; Freese, J.M.; Akhil, A.A.; Lott, S.E.

    1990-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, has been designated as Lead Center for the Exploratory Battery Technology Development and Testing Project, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Office of Energy Storage and Distribution. In this capacity, Sandia is responsible for the engineering development of advanced rechargeable batteries for both mobile and stationary energy storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized in pursuit of the Lead Center's goals during calendar year 1989. 4 refs., 84 figs., 18 tabs.

  20. Bidirectional converter interface for a battery energy storage test bench

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut; Thomas, Stephan; Blank, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the bidirectional converter interface for a 6 kV battery energy storage test bench. The power electronic interface consists a two stage converter topology having a low voltage dc-ac grid connected converter and a new dual active bridge dc-dc converter with high transformation...... ratio. The dc-dc converter controls the battery charge/discharge current while the grid converter controls the common dc-link voltage and the grid current. The applied control structures and the hardware implementation of both converters are presented, together with their interaction. Experimental...

  1. Space Technology-5 Lithium-Ion Battery Design, Qualification and Integration and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Gopalakishna M.; Stewart, Karen; Ameen, Syed; Banfield, Peter K.

    2005-01-01

    This document is a viewgraph presentation that reviews the Lithium Ion Battery for the Space Technology-5 (ST-5) mission. Included in the document is a review of the ST-5 Mission, a review of the battery requirements, a description of the battery and the battery materials. The testing and the integration and qualification data is reviewed.

  2. Battery Test Manual For 48 Volt Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Lee Kenneth [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This manual details the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium and U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program goals, test methods, and analysis techniques for a 48 Volt Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicle system. The test methods are outlined stating with characterization tests, followed by life tests. The final section details standardized analysis techniques for 48 V systems that allow for the comparison of different programs that use this manual. An example test plan is included, along with guidance to filling in gap table numbers.

  3. Adaptation of the AAHPERD test battery for institutionalized older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia R. Bertoldo Benedetti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2014v16n1p1 The American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD test battery assesses the functional fitness of older adults in five motor fitness tests. The objective of this study was to adapt and test the AAHPERD in institutionalized older adults and to define normative values of functional fitness for this population. A pilot test was conducted on older adults living in nursing homes, which confirmed the need to adapt the flexibility and aerobic endurance tests. The first test was redesigned so that the elderly person did not have to sit on the floor. The second test was changed from a half-mile to a 6-minute walk. The tests were adapted and tested in a sample of 92 older adults from six long-term care homes. The successful application of the AAHPERD adapted for older adults living in nursing homes permitted the establishment of normative values for the five motor tests. The adapted version of the AAHPERD is an easily applied, low-cost tool of low risk since it was adapted to the physical and functional conditions of institutionalized older adults. This physical test battery will contribute to the evaluation of older adults and exercise prescription.

  4. A standardized test battery for the study of synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagleman, David M; Kagan, Arielle D; Nelson, Stephanie S; Sagaram, Deepak; Sarma, Anand K

    2007-01-15

    Synesthesia is an unusual condition in which stimulation of one modality evokes sensation or experience in another modality. Although discussed in the literature well over a century ago, synesthesia slipped out of the scientific spotlight for decades because of the difficulty in verifying and quantifying private perceptual experiences. In recent years, the study of synesthesia has enjoyed a renaissance due to the introduction of tests that demonstrate the reality of the condition, its automatic and involuntary nature, and its measurable perceptual consequences. However, while several research groups now study synesthesia, there is no single protocol for comparing, contrasting and pooling synesthetic subjects across these groups. There is no standard battery of tests, no quantifiable scoring system, and no standard phrasing of questions. Additionally, the tests that exist offer no means for data comparison. To remedy this deficit we have devised the Synesthesia Battery. This unified collection of tests is freely accessible online (http://www.synesthete.org). It consists of a questionnaire and several online software programs, and test results are immediately available for use by synesthetes and invited researchers. Performance on the tests is quantified with a standard scoring system. We introduce several novel tests here, and offer the software for running the tests. By presenting standardized procedures for testing and comparing subjects, this endeavor hopes to speed scientific progress in synesthesia research.

  5. A standardized test battery for the study of synesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagleman, David M.; Kagan, Arielle D.; Nelson, Stephanie S.; Sagaram, Deepak; Sarma, Anand K.

    2014-01-01

    Synesthesia is an unusual condition in which stimulation of one modality evokes sensation or experience in another modality. Although discussed in the literature well over a century ago, synesthesia slipped out of the scientific spotlight for decades because of the difficulty in verifying and quantifying private perceptual experiences. In recent years, the study of synesthesia has enjoyed a renaissance due to the introduction of tests that demonstrate the reality of the condition, its automatic and involuntary nature, and its measurable perceptual consequences. However, while several research groups now study synesthesia, there is no single protocol for comparing, contrasting and pooling synesthetic subjects across these groups. There is no standard battery of tests, no quantifiable scoring system, and no standard phrasing of questions. Additionally, the tests that exist offer no means for data comparison. To remedy this deficit we have devised the Synesthesia Battery. This unified collection of tests is freely accessible online (http://www.synesthete.org). It consists of a questionnaire and several online software programs, and test results are immediately available for use by synesthetes and invited researchers. Performance on the tests is quantified with a standard scoring system. We introduce several novel tests here, and offer the software for running the tests. By presenting standardized procedures for testing and comparing subjects, this endeavor hopes to speed scientific progress in synesthesia research. PMID:16919755

  6. Construction and testing of coin cells of lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayyar, Archana; Huang, Jiajia; Samiee, Mojtaba; Luo, Jian

    2012-08-02

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries have wide applications in electronics, where customers always demand more capacity and longer lifetime. Lithium ion batteries have also been considered to be used in electric and hybrid vehicles or even electrical grid stabilization systems. All these applications simulate a dramatic increase in the research and development of battery materials, including new materials, doping, nanostructuring, coatings or surface modifications and novel binders. Consequently, an increasing number of physicists, chemists and materials scientists have recently ventured into this area. Coin cells are widely used in research laboratories to test new battery materials; even for the research and development that target large-scale and high-power applications, small coin cells are often used to test the capacities and rate capabilities of new materials in the initial stage. In 2010, we started a National Science Foundation (NSF) sponsored research project to investigate the surface adsorption and disordering in battery materials (grant no. DMR-1006515). In the initial stage of this project, we have struggled to learn the techniques of assembling and testing coin cells, which cannot be achieved without numerous help of other researchers in other universities (through frequent calls, email exchanges and two site visits). Thus, we feel that it is beneficial to document, by both text and video, a protocol of assembling and testing a coin cell, which will help other new researchers in this field. This effort represents the "Broader Impact" activities of our NSF project, and it will also help to educate and inspire students. In this video article, we document a protocol to assemble a CR2032 coin cell with a LiCoO2 working electrode, a Li counter electrode, and (the mostly commonly used) polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) binder. To ensure new learners to readily repeat the protocol, we keep the protocol as specific and explicit as we can. However, it is important

  7. Electrical Vehicle Batteries Testing in a Distribution Network Using Sustainable Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forero Camacho, Oscar Mauricio; Nørgård, Per Bromand; Rao, Ningling

    2014-01-01

    of EV batteries. The aim of the tests has been to study the impact of smart charging and fast charging on the power system, on the battery state of health and degradation, and to find out the limitations of the batteries for a Smart Grid. The paper outlines the advantages and disadvantages of both tests...

  8. Development of a battery of functional tests for low vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Bradley E; Martin, Scott R; Kelly, Corey B; Jones, Lisa A; Raasch, Thomas W; Bullimore, Mark A

    2009-08-01

    We describe the development and evaluation of a battery of tests of functional visual performance of everyday tasks intended to be suitable for assessment of low vision patients. The functional test battery comprises-Reading rate: reading aloud 20 unrelated words for each of four print sizes (8, 4, 2, & 1 M); Telephone book: finding a name and reading the telephone number; Medicine bottle label: reading the name and dosing; Utility bill: reading the due date and amount due; Cooking instructions: reading cooking time on a food package; Coin sorting: making a specified amount from coins placed on a table; Playing card recognition: identifying denomination and suit; and Face recognition: identifying expressions of printed, life-size faces at 1 and 3 m. All tests were timed except face and playing card recognition. Fourteen normally sighted and 24 low vision subjects were assessed with the functional test battery. Visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and quality of life (National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire 25 [NEI-VFQ 25]) were measured and the functional tests repeated. Subsequently, 23 low vision patients participated in a pilot randomized clinical trial with half receiving low vision rehabilitation and half a delayed intervention. The functional tests were administered at enrollment and 3 months later. Normally sighted subjects could perform all tasks but the proportion of trials performed correctly by the low vision subjects ranged from 35% for face recognition at 3 m, to 95% for the playing card identification. On average, low vision subjects performed three times slower than the normally sighted subjects. Timed tasks with a visual search component showed poorer repeatability. In the pilot clinical trial, low vision rehabilitation produced the greatest improvement for the medicine bottle and cooking instruction tasks. Performance of patients on these functional tests has been assessed. Some appear responsive to low vision rehabilitation.

  9. Energy Systems Test Area (ESTA) Battery Test Operations User Test Planning Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Test process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the ESTA Battery Test Operations. The User Test Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their test engineering personnel in test planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the test process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, test article interfaces, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  10. Novel Field Test Equipment for Lithium-Ion Batteries in Hybrid Electrical Vehicle Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Lindbergh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Lifetime testing of batteries for hybrid-electrical vehicles (HEV is usually performed in the lab, either at the cell, module or battery pack level. Complementary field tests of battery packs in vehicles are also often performed. There are, however, difficulties related to field testing of battery-packs. Some examples are cost issues and the complexity of continuously collecting battery performance data, such as capacity fade and impedance increase. In this paper, a novel field test equipment designed primarily for lithium-ion battery cell testing is presented. This equipment is intended to be used on conventional vehicles, not hybrid vehicles, as a cheaper and faster field testing method for batteries, compared to full scale HEV testing. The equipment emulates an HEV environment for the tested battery cell by using real time vehicle sensor information and the existing starter battery as load and source. In addition to the emulated battery cycling, periodical capacity and pulse testing capability are implemented as well. This paper begins with presenting some background information about hybrid electrical vehicles and describing the limitations with today’s HEV battery testing. Furthermore, the functionality of the test equipment is described in detail and, finally, results from verification of the equipment are presented and discussed.

  11. Factor structure of intelligence test battery KOG9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Ljiljana B.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Authors of Cybernetic model of cognitive functioning designed a battery of tests (KOG9, based on the model in order to assess cognitive efficiency. Authors assert that scale's factor structure comprises the three factors: perceptive, serial and parallel processing. Results of the previous research as well as the logical analysis of the origin and content of the tests suggested the possibility that more parsimonious two-factor solution can explain the structure of the correlations among them equally well. KOG9 battery was administered to 1116 students of Faculty of sport and physical education and students from Department of Psychology in order to study its latent structure. In spite of the fact that factor congruence analyses suggested higher robustness (cross-sample stability of the two-factor solution, results of both EFA and CFA spoke in favor of the three-factor solution. The problem of the lack of stability of the three-factor solution was located in not particularly well targeted choice of the markers of the efficacy of perceptual processing. The suggestion is to preserve the calculation of all three group scores, with some corrections. First of all, tests CF2 and/or GT7 should be replaced by some other perceptual test/tests of lower cognitive complexity. Some of the tests tapping parallel processing should be replaced by those more in line with the logic of the model.

  12. Factorial Structure of Cognitive Activity Using a Neuropsychological Test Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ardila

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A general neuropsychological test battery was assembled and individually given to a 98-subject sample, aged 11–12 years old. The battery included some basic and common tests routinely used in the evaluation of language, memory, spatial abilities, concept formation, and praxic abilities. Twenty-five different scores were calculated. A factor analysis with varimax rotation disclosed nine different factors, accounting for about 70% of the variance. Factor I was measured by a Sequential Verbal Memory test and Verbal Fluency subtests (“verbal factor”. Factor II was measured by the Wechsler Memory Scale Visual Memory subtests (immediate and delayed reproduction, and the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (copy and immediate reproduction (“non-verbal memory and constructional factor”. Factor III was measured by the WMS Logical Memory subtests (immediate and delayed; “verbal memory factor”. Factor IV was associated with fine movements (tapping subtests, right and left hand; “fine movements factor”. Factor V was specially measured by the Information subtest of the WMS and the Boston Naming Test (“verbal knowledge”. Factor VI represented a “praxic ability factor” (ideomotor praxis tests. Delayed Associative Learning subtest measured Factor VII; and Digits measured Factor VIII. Factor IX was a “mental control factor” (Mental Control subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale. The implications of these results to theories relating to the structure of cognitive activity are discussed.

  13. 76 FR 31749 - Energy Conservation Program for Certain Consumer Appliances: Test Procedures for Battery Chargers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... world-wide to measure battery charger energy consumption--the EPA-developed procedure used for ENERGY..., DOE is inserting a new active mode energy consumption test procedure for battery chargers, which is... may not make any representation regarding battery charger or external power supply energy consumption...

  14. Development of an auditory test battery for young children: a pilot study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stollman, M.H.P.; Neijenhuis, C.A.M.; Jansen, S.; Simkens, H.M.F.; Snik, A.F.M.; Broek, P. van den

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the development and results of a pilot study with a recently developed auditory test battery for 4-6-year-old Dutch children. The test battery consisted of a sustained auditory attention (SAA) test, a dichotic words (DW) test, a binaural masking-level difference (BMLD) test,

  15. Testing Accommodations for ELL Students on an Achievement Test Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockery, Lori Lee

    2013-01-01

    How well students perform on standardized tests can affect their educational paths and the rest of their lives. In addition, students' performances on state assessments will affect their schools due to the No Child Left Behind Act. For English language learners (ELLs), the success on tests may be diminished due to their inability to completely…

  16. Testing of a sodium/nickel chloride (ZEBRA) battery for electric propulsion of ships and vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kluiters, E.C.; Schmal, D.; Veen, W.R. ter [TNO Inst. of Environmental Sciences, Energy Research and Process Innovation, Apeldoorn (Netherlands); Posthumus, K.J.C.M. [Royal Netherlands Navy, The Haag (Netherlands). Dept. of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering

    1999-07-01

    One of the promising future batteries for electric propulsion of vehicles and ships is the sodium/nickel chloride or ZEBRA (Zero Emission Battery Research Activities) battery. Despite some disadvantages with respect to the high temperature, the advantages with respect to specific energy and energy density are such that, especially in applications where the battery is used on a more or less continuous basis (e.g., in delivery vans and taxies) it is an interesting candidate battery. Another interesting application is on board of ships, like submarines or future electrical surface ships with electric propulsion. In 1995 a 2 year feasibility study, including experimental testing of a 10 kW h battery, was completed. This investigated the naval applicability of the sodium/sulphur battery, which is also a high temperature battery. Here the limited, experimentally proven, life-time of the batteries was of about 1.5 years and this made naval application almost impossible. A paper about this study was presented at the 19th International Power Sources Symposium held at Brighton, England, in April 1995. Because of the more or less comparable specifications on specific energy and the more promising results of the life-time and field tests with sodium/nickel chloride batteries, a ZEBRA battery from AEG Anglo Batteries has been tested for naval applications. This was done by simulating the charge and discharge as it occurs in practice for the applications investigated. With respect to the electrical ship application (investigated for the Royal Netherlands Navy) the power versus time taken from the battery was simulated as well as the charge procedures. The same can be done for the vehicle application: in this case typical drive cycles for a van or taxi are translated to power versus time taken from the battery. The results of the tests for application of the battery in naval ships are very promising. (orig.)

  17. A neuromuscular test battery for osteoporotic women: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerschan-Schindl, K; Uher, E; Grampp, S; Kaider, A; Ghanem, A H; Fialka-Moser, V; Preisinger, E

    2001-05-01

    To examine the efficacy of a short neuromuscular test battery in elderly women suffering from osteoporosis in accordance with the World Health Organization criteria, with and without a history of fractures. Reduced bone mass and a high likelihood of falling increase the risk of osteoporotic fractures. There is a need for neuromuscular tests to identify individuals at risk for falls and fractures. The women were assessed twice. Forty-two women, with a mean age of 70.0 +/- 5.1 (SD) yr, completed the first assessment. The number of postmenopausal fractures and the women's history with regard to agility and falls were assessed. The women performed neuromuscular tests (one-leg stance, tandem walk, and body sway); bone mineral density of the spine and femoral neck were measured. For the follow-up assessment, 13.2 +/- 1.3 mo later, 39 women were studied. The same outcome measurements were obtained at both evaluations. During the observation period, five women fell once and one woman fell twice; there were only two vertebral fractures and no nonvertebral fracture. Neuromuscular performance did not change during this observation period. The median changes in bone mineral density between the two assessments were clinically not relevant. A comparison between patients suffering from established osteoporosis and osteoporotic patients without a history of postmenopausal fractures showed that both groups of patients did not differ with respect to age, neuromuscular performance, bone mineral density, and fear of falling. This neuromuscular test battery is a feasible and practical tool because it is brief and economical to perform. However, its efficacy as a predictor of fractures must be tested in additional studies with a long-term follow-up and a larger group of subjects.

  18. A test battery for the ecotoxicological evaluation of pentachlorophenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repetto, G; Jos, A; Hazen, M J; Molero, M L; del Peso, A; Salguero, M; Castillo, P D; Rodríguez-Vicente, M C; Repetto, M

    2001-01-01

    Experimental bioassays are currently used in ecotoxicology and environmental toxicology to provide information for risk assessment evaluation of new chemicals and to investigate their effects and mechanisms of action; in addition, ecotoxicological models are used for the detection, control and monitoring of the presence of pollutants in the environment. As a single bioassay will never provide a full picture of the quality of the environment, a representative, cost-effective and quantitative test battery should be developed. The effects of pentachlorophenol were studied using a battery of ecotoxicological model systems, including immobilization of Daphnia magna, bioluminiscence inhibition in the bacterium Vibrio fischeri, growth inhibition of the alga Chlorella vulgaris, and micronuclei induction in the plant Allium cepa. The inhibition of cell proliferation and MTT reduction were investigated in Vero cells. Neutral red uptake, cell growth, MTT reduction, lactate dehydrogenase leakage and activity were studied in the salmonid fish cell line RTG-2, derived from the gonad of rainbow trout. Pentachlorophenol was very toxic for all biota and cells. The system most sensitive to pentachlorophenol, was micronuclei induction in A. cepa, followed by D. magna immobilization, bioluminescence inhibition in V. fischeri bacteria at 60 min and cell proliferation inhibition of RTG-2 cells at 72 h. Inhibition of cell proliferation and MTT reduction on Vero monkey cells showed intermediate sensitivity.

  19. 2011 Honda CR-Z 4466 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2014-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing traction batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Honda CR-Z (VIN JHMZF1C67BS004466). Battery testing was performed by Intertek Testing Services NA. The Idaho National Laboratory and Intertek collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  20. 2011 Honda CR-Z 2982 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Tyler [Intertek Testing Services NA, Phoenix, AZ (United States). Center for Evaluation of Clean Energy Technology (CECET); Wishart, Jeffrey [Intertek Testing Services NA, Phoenix, AZ (United States). Center for Evaluation of Clean Energy Technology (CECET); Shirk, Matthew [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing traction batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Honda CR-Z (VIN JHMZF1C64BS002982). Battery testing was performed by Intertek Testing Services NA. The Idaho National Laboratory and Intertek collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  1. A field-test battery for elite, young soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulse, M A; Morris, J G; Hawkins, R D; Hodson, A; Nevill, A M; Nevill, M E

    2013-04-01

    The validity and reliability of a battery of field-based performance tests was examined. The opinions of coaches, fitness professionals and players (n=170, 172 and 101 respectively) on the importance of performance testing were established using a questionnaire. On 2 occasions, separated by 7 days, 80 elite, young soccer players (mean±SD [and range]: age 13.2±2.6 [8.9-19.1] years; stature 1.59±0.18 m [1.32-1.91]; body mass 50.6±17.1 [26.5-88.7] kg) completed a battery of field-based tests comprised of heart rate response to a submaximal Multi-stage fitness test, 3 types of vertical jump, sprints over 10 and 20 m, and an agility test. Physical performance testing was considered important by coaches (97%), fitness professionals (94%) and players (83%). The systematic bias ratio and the random error components of the 95% ratio limits of agreement for the first and second tests, for the U9-U11 vs. U12-U14 vs. U15-U18 age groups, were [Systematic bias (*/÷ ratio limits)]: Heart rate (Level 5): 0.983 (*/÷ 1.044) vs. 0.969 (*/÷ 1.056) vs. 0.983 (*/÷ 1.055); Rocket jump: 0998 (*/÷ 1.112) vs. 0.999 (*/÷ 1.106) vs. 0.996 (*/÷ 1.093); 10 m sprint: 0.997 (*/÷ 1.038) vs. 0.994 (*/÷ 1.033) vs. 0.994 (*/÷ 1.038); Agility test: 1.010 (*/÷1.050) vs. 1.014 (*/÷1.050) vs. 1.002 (*/÷1.053). All tests, except heart rate recovery from the Multi-stage fitness test, were able to distinguish between different ability and age groups of players (pconstruct validity, and was shown to be a reliable and objective tool for assessing elite, young soccer players. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Development of a Test Battery to Select Navy Recruiters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Penney, Lisa M; Borman, Walter C; Bearden, Ronald M

    2007-01-01

    .... the students were administered a trial predictor battery while at the school, and performance ratings and production data were collected after participants had been assigned to recruiting duty...

  3. Battery Test Facility- Electrochemical Analysis and Diagnostics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electrochemical Analysis and Diagnostics Laboratory (EADL) provides battery developers with reliable, independent, and unbiased performance evaluations of their...

  4. Development and Testing of an UltraBattery-Equipped Honda Civic Hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sally (Xiaolei) Sun; Tyler Gray; Pattie Hovorka; Jeffrey Wishart; Donald Karner; James Francfort

    2012-08-01

    The UltraBattery Retrofit Project DP1.8 and Carbon Enriched Project C3, performed by ECOtality North America (ECOtality) and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Advanced Lead Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC), are established to demonstrate the suitability of advanced lead battery technology in hybrid electrical vehicles (HEVs). A profile, termed the “Simulated Honda Civic HEV Profile” (SHCHEVP) has been developed in Project DP1.8 in order to provide reproducible laboratory evaluations of different battery types under real-world HEV conditions. The cycle is based on the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule and Highway Fuel Economy Test cycles and simulates operation of a battery pack in a Honda Civic HEV. One pass through the SHCHEVP takes 2,140 seconds and simulates 17.7 miles of driving. A complete nickel metal hydride (NiMH) battery pack was removed from a Honda Civic HEV and operated under SHCHEVP to validate the profile. The voltage behavior and energy balance of the battery during this operation was virtually the same as that displayed by the battery when in the Honda Civic operating on the dynamometer under the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule and Highway Fuel Economy Test cycles, thus confirming the efficacy of the simulated profile. An important objective of the project has been to benchmark the performance of the UltraBatteries manufactured by both Furukawa Battery Co., Ltd., Japan (Furakawa) and East Penn Manufacturing Co., Inc. (East Penn). Accordingly, UltraBattery packs from both Furakawa and East Penn have been characterized under a range of conditions. Resistance measurements and capacity tests at various rates show that both battery types are very similar in performance. Both technologies, as well as a standard lead-acid module (included for baseline data), were evaluated under a simple HEV screening test. Both Furakawa and East Penn UltraBattery packs operated for over 32,000 HEV cycles, with minimal loss in performance; whereas the

  5. The Arizona Cognitive Test Battery for Down Syndrome: Test-Retest Reliability and Practice Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgin, Jamie O; Anand, Payal; Rosser, Tracie; Pierpont, Elizabeth I; Figueroa, Carlos; Hamilton, Debra; Huddleston, Lillie; Mason, Gina; Spanò, Goffredina; Toole, Lisa; Nguyen-Driver, Mina; Capone, George; Abbeduto, Leonard; Maslen, Cheryl; Reeves, Roger H; Sherman, Stephanie

    2017-05-01

    A multisite study investigated the test-retest reliability and practice effects of a battery of assessments to measure neurocognitive function in individuals with Down syndrome (DS). The study aimed to establish the appropriateness of these measures as potential endpoints for clinical trials. Neurocognitive tasks and parent report measures comprising the Arizona Cognitive Test Battery (ACTB) were administered to 54 young participants with DS (7-20 years of age) with mild to moderate levels of intellectual disability in an initial baseline evaluation and a follow-up assessment 3 months later. Although revisions to ACTB measures are indicated, results demonstrate adequate levels of reliability and resistance to practice effects for some measures. The ACTB offers viable options for repeated testing of memory, motor planning, behavioral regulation, and attention. Alternative measures of executive functioning are required.

  6. [ALPHA-fitness test battery: health-related field-based fitness tests assessment in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, J R; España Romero, V; Castro Piñero, J; Artero, E G; Ortega, F B; Cuenca García, M; Jiménez Pavón, D; Chillón, P; Girela Rejón, Ma J; Mora, J; Gutiérrez, A; Suni, J; Sjöstrom, M; Castillo, M J

    2011-01-01

    Hereby we summarize the work developed by the ALPHA (Assessing Levels of Physical Activity) Study and describe the tests included in the ALPHA health-related fitness test battery for children and adolescents. The evidence-based ALPHA-Fitness test battery include the following tests: 1) the 20 m shuttle run test to assess cardiorespiratory fitness; 2) the handgrip strength and 3) standing broad jump to assess musculoskeletal fitness, and 4) body mass index, 5) waist circumference; and 6) skinfold thickness (triceps and subscapular) to assess body composition. Furthermore, we include two versions: 1) the high priority ALPHA health-related fitness test battery, which comprises all the evidence-based fitness tests except the measurement of the skinfold thickness; and 2) the extended ALPHA health-related fitness tests battery for children and adolescents, which includes all the evidence-based fitness tests plus the 4 x 10 m shuttle run test to assess motor fitness.

  7. Testing of a sodium/nickel chloride (ZEBRA) battery for electric propulsion of ships and vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluiters, Edwin C.; Schmal, Dick; ter Veen, Willem R.; Posthumus, Kees J. C. M.

    One of the promising future batteries for electric propulsion of vehicles and ships is the sodium/nickel chloride or ZEBRA (Zero Emission Battery Research Activities) battery. Despite some disadvantages with respect to the high temperature, the advantages with respect to specific energy and energy density are such that, especially in applications where the battery is used on a more or less continuous basis (e.g., in delivery vans and taxies) it is an interesting candidate battery. Another interesting application is on board of ships, like submarines or future electrical surface ships with electric propulsion. In 1995 a 2 year feasibility study, including experimental testing of a 10 kW h battery, was completed. This investigated the naval applicability of the sodium/sulphur battery, which is also a high temperature battery. Here the limited, experimentally proven, life-time of the batteries of about 1.5 years and this made naval application almost impossible. A paper about this study was presented at the 19th International Power Sources Symposium held at Brighton, England, in April 1995 [R.A.A. Schillemans, C.E. Kluiters, Sodium/sulphur batteries for naval applications, in: A. Attewell, T. Keily (Eds.), Power Sources 15, International Power Sources Symposium Committee, Crowborough UK, 1995. p. 421.]. Because of the more or less comparable specifications on specific energy and the more promising results of the life-time and field tests with sodium/nickel chloride batteries, a ZEBRA battery from AEG Anglo Batteries has been tested for naval applications. This was done by simulating the charge and discharge as it occurs in practice for the applications investigated. With respect to the electrical ship application (investigated for the Royal Netherlands Navy) the power versus time taken from the battery was simulated as well as the charge procedures. The same can be done for the vehicle application: in this case typical drive cycles for a van or taxi are translated to

  8. Continuous Improvement in Battery Testing at the NASA/JSC Energy System Test Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, William; Cook, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    The Energy Systems Test Area (ESTA) at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas conducts development and qualification tests to fulfill Energy System Division responsibilities relevant to ASA programs and projects. EST A has historically called upon a variety of fluid, mechanical, electrical, environmental, and data system capabilities spread amongst five full-service facilities to test human and human supported spacecraft in the areas of propulsion systems, fluid systems, pyrotechnics, power generation, and power distribution and control systems. Improvements at ESTA are being made in full earnest of offering NASA project offices an option to choose a thorough test regime that is balanced with cost and schedule constraints. In order to continue testing of enabling power-related technologies utilized by the Energy System Division, an especially proactive effort has been made to increase the cost effectiveness and schedule responsiveness for battery testing. This paper describes the continuous improvement in battery testing at the Energy Systems Test Area being made through consolidation, streamlining, and standardization.

  9. A comparison of the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB) with "traditional" neuropsychological testing instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Patrick J; Need, Anna C; Cirulli, Elizabeth T; Chiba-Falek, Ornit; Attix, Deborah K

    2013-01-01

    The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) is frequently used in research protocols and increasingly in clinical practice. Despite the frequency of its use, important aspects of its measurement validity have yet to be established in healthy adults. Two hundred and fifty-five individuals completed the CANTAB and traditional neuropsychological tests commonly used in clinical practice, including selected subtests from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, Animal Naming, Trail Making Tests A and B, the Stroop test, and the Green Story Recall test. Results showed that CANTAB subtests were modestly correlated with traditional subtests. Correlations between CANTAB subtests and traditional subtests were less consistent when age and education were controlled for. In conclusion, the CANTAB shows modest associations with traditional neuropsychological test measures.

  10. Lead-acid batteries in micro-hybrid applications. Part II. Test proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A. O.; Albers, J.; Weirather-Koestner, D.; Kabza, H.

    In the first part of this work [1] selected key parameters for applying lead-acid (LA) batteries in micro-hybrid power systems (MHPS) were investigated. Main results are integrated in an accelerated, comprehensive test proposal presented here. The test proposal aims at a realistic representation of the pSoC operation regime, which is described in Refs. [1,6]. The test is designed to be sensitive with respect to dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) at partially discharged state (critical for regenerative braking) and the internal resistance at high-rate discharge (critical for idling stop applications). First results are presented for up-to-date valve-regulated LA batteries with absorbent glass mat (AGM) separators. The batteries are close to the limits of the first proposal of pass/fail-criteria. Also flooded batteries were tested; the first out of ten units failed already.

  11. Key results of battery performance and life tests at Argonne National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluca, W. H.; Gillie, K. R.; Kulaga, J. E.; Smaga, J. A.; Tummillo, A. F.; Webster, C. E.

    1991-12-01

    Advanced battery technology evaluations are performed under simulated electric vehicle operating conditions at Argonne National Laboratory's & Diagnostic Laboratory (ADL). The ADL provide a common basis for both performance characterization and life evaluation with unbiased application of tests and analyses. This paper summarizes the performance characterizations and life evaluations conducted in 1991 on twelve single cells and eight 3- to 360-cell modules that encompass six battery technologies (Na/S, Li/MS, Ni/MH, Zn/Br, Ni/Fe, and Pb-Acid). These evaluations were performed for the Department of Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division. The results measure progress in battery R & D programs, compare battery technologies, and provide basic data for modeling and continuing R & D to battery users, developers, and program managers.

  12. Cognitive test batteries in animal cognition research: evaluating the past, present and future of comparative psychometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Rachael C; Schmelz, Martin

    2017-11-01

    For the past two decades, behavioural ecologists have documented consistent individual differences in behavioural traits within species and found evidence for animal "personality". It is only relatively recently, however, that increasing numbers of researchers have begun to investigate individual differences in cognitive ability within species. It has been suggested that cognitive test batteries may provide an ideal tool for this growing research endeavour. In fact, cognitive test batteries have now been used to examine the causes, consequences and underlying structure of cognitive performance within and between many species. In this review, we document the existing attempts to develop cognitive test batteries for non-human animals and review the claims that these studies have made in terms of the structure and evolution of cognition. We argue that our current test battery methods could be improved on multiple fronts, from the design of tasks, to the domains targeted and the species tested. Refining and optimising test battery design will provide many benefits. In future, we envisage that well-designed cognitive test batteries may provide answers to a range of exciting questions, including giving us greater insight into the evolution and structure of cognition.

  13. An on-site test battery to evaluate giant slalom skiing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, R E; Montgomery, D L; Turcotte, R A

    1990-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if an on-site test battery would distinguish among three levels of giant slalom skiing ability. The test battery consisted of a 20-m shuttle run test, Wingate 60s cycling test, hexagonal obstacle test, high box test, double leg jumping test and vertical jump test. These tests were selected since previous studies have identified aerobic endurance, anaerobic endurance, power and agility as important components for Alpine skiers. Both construct validity and criterion related validity of the test battery were examined using data from 11 club skiers, 14 divisional level skiers, and 9 provincial level skiers. To establish construct validity, univariate F tests examined differences among the three levels of skiers. Significant (P less than 0.05) differences were found between the club skiers and the better skiers (divisional and provincial level) for the following test variables: peak power, mean power, and post-exercise lactate for a 60s Wingate cycle ergometer test, high box test, hexagonal obstacle test, double leg jumping test, and shuttle run test. Criterion related validity was established since there were significant correlations between giant slalom performance time and the hexagonal obstacle test (r = 0.82), high box test (r = -0.80), and double leg jumping (r = -0.86). These data illustrate that an on-site test battery can be used to distinguish among giant slalom Alpine skiers.

  14. Systematic review and proposal of a field-based physical fitness-test battery in preschool children: the PREFIT battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Francisco B; Cadenas-Sánchez, Cristina; Sánchez-Delgado, Guillermo; Mora-González, José; Martínez-Téllez, Borja; Artero, Enrique G; Castro-Piñero, Jose; Labayen, Idoia; Chillón, Palma; Löf, Marie; Ruiz, Jonatan R

    2015-04-01

    Physical fitness is a powerful health marker in childhood and adolescence, and it is reasonable to think that it might be just as important in younger children, i.e. preschoolers. At the moment, researchers, clinicians and sport practitioners do not have enough information about which fitness tests are more reliable, valid and informative from the health point of view to be implemented in preschool children. Our aim was to systematically review the studies conducted in preschool children using field-based fitness tests, and examine their (1) reliability, (2) validity, and (3) relationship with health outcomes. Our ultimate goal was to propose a field-based physical fitness-test battery to be used in preschool children. PubMed and Web of Science. Studies conducted in healthy preschool children that included field-based fitness tests. When using PubMed, we included Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms to enhance the power of the search. A set of fitness-related terms were combined with 'child, preschool' [MeSH]. The same strategy and terms were used for Web of Science (except for the MeSH option). Since no previous reviews with a similar aim were identified, we searched for all articles published up to 1 April 2014 (no starting date). A total of 2,109 articles were identified, of which 22 articles were finally selected for this review. Most studies focused on reliability of the fitness tests (n = 21, 96%), while very few focused on validity (0 criterion-related validity and 4 (18%) convergent validity) or relationship with health outcomes (0 longitudinal and 1 (5%) cross-sectional study). Motor fitness, particularly balance, was the most studied fitness component, while cardiorespiratory fitness was the least studied. After analyzing the information retrieved in the current systematic review about fitness testing in preschool children, we propose the PREFIT battery, field-based FITness testing in PREschool children. The PREFIT battery is composed of the following

  15. Psychometric evaluation of a motor control test battery of the craniofacial region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Piekartz, H; Stotz, E; Both, A; Bahn, G; Armijo-Olivo, S; Ballenberger, N

    2017-12-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the structural and known-group validity as well as the inter-rater reliability of a test battery to evaluate the motor control of the craniofacial region. Seventy volunteers without TMD and 25 subjects with TMD (Axes I) per the DC/TMD were asked to execute a test battery consisting of eight tests. The tests were video-taped in the same sequence in a standardised manner. Two experienced physical therapists participated in this study as blinded assessors. We used exploratory factor analysis to identify the underlying component structure of the eight tests. Internal consistency (Cronbach's α), inter-rater reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient) and construct validity (ie, hypothesis testing-known-group validity) (receiver operating curves) were also explored for the test battery. The structural validity showed the presence of one factor underlying the construct of the test battery. The internal consistency was excellent (0.90) as well as the inter-rater reliability. All values of reliability were close to 0.9 or above indicating very high inter-rater reliability. The area under the curve (AUC) was 0.93 for rater 1 and 0.94 for rater two, respectively, indicating excellent discrimination between subjects with TMD and healthy controls. The results of the present study support the psychometric properties of test battery to measure motor control of the craniofacial region when evaluated through videotaping. This test battery could be used to differentiate between healthy subjects and subjects with musculoskeletal impairments in the cervical and oro-facial regions. In addition, this test battery could be used to assess the effectiveness of management strategies in the craniofacial region. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Functional Assessment of Battery Management System Tested on Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalogiannis, Theodoros; Stroe, Daniel-Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2017-01-01

    A Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) simulator renders possible to conduct on-line tests on Battery Management Systems (BMSs) with an emulated battery pack instead of a real one. In this case, the BMS can be repeatedly evaluated under the exact same experimental scenarios, with safety and accuracy......, or under a flexible and beyond the normal operation area range, with less cost and time efforts. For this purpose, a multi-cell Li-ion battery pack consisting of 32 cells in series has been implemented and validated based on experimental results, converted into C code and emulated through the HIL simulator....... The BMS under test is interacting in real-time with the emulated battery pack and several of its functions such as current, voltage and State of Charge (SOC) estimation are evaluated. Also, passive balancing experiments are conducted during charging in order to assess different balancing settings...

  17. 78 FR 15753 - Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... COMMISSION Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power... lead-acid storage batteries in nuclear power plants. DATES: Submit comments by May 13, 2013. Comments... Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants'' is temporarily identified by its task...

  18. A review of international abuse testing standards and regulations for lithium ion batteries in electric and hybrid electric vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    RUIZ RUIZ VANESA; PFRANG ANDREAS; KRISTON AKOS; OMAR NOSHIM; VAN DEN BOSSCHE PETER; BRETT LOIS

    2015-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries are a proven technology for automotive applications and their continued use in the future electric vehicle fleet is undeniable. In addition to battery performance and durability, battery safety is paramount to ensure confidence and widespread adoption of electromobility in our society. This comprehensive review aims at presenting the various international standards and regulations for safety testing of lithium ion batteries in automotive applications under various abusiv...

  19. Inter-and intra-tester reliability of a battery of cervical movement control dysfunction tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segarra, V; Dueñas, L; Torres, R; Falla, D; Jull, G; Lluch, E

    2015-08-01

    Apart from the cranio-cervical flexion test and the deep neck flexor endurance test, evidence related to reliability of cervical movement control dysfunction tests is lacking. This study investigated the inter- and intra-tester reliability of a battery of cervical movement control dysfunction tests and the effect of clinician experience on reliability in 15 patients with chronic neck pain and 17 non-neck pain controls. In addition, it explored whether impaired performance on this battery of tests was more frequently observed in the neck pain group. Inter and intra-tester reliability study. Participants were videotaped while performing a battery of nine active cervical movement control dysfunction tests. Two physiotherapists, with different levels of experience, independently rated all tests on two occasions two weeks apart. They were masked to participants' neck pain or non-neck pain status. Inter-tester reliability for the complete battery of tests was substantial (κ = 0.69; 95% CI: 0.62, 0.76). Intra-rater reliability values for the expert (κ = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.79, 0.92) and novice (κ = 0.76; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.68, 0.84) were overall comparable suggesting that novices can achieve good accuracy with the battery of tests if trained. The frequency of impaired performances in cervical movement control dysfunction tests was low and comparable between groups. Only two tests achieved a greater number of impaired ratings in the patient group. Although reliable, further research in larger neck pain populations is required to explore this battery of tests, in order to establish their diagnostic accuracy for identifying clinically relevant cervical movement control dysfunction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Reliability of the ALPHA health-related fitness test battery in adolescents with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejero-Gonzalez, Carlos M; Martinez-Gomez, David; Bayon-Serna, Jorge; Izquierdo-Gomez, Rocio; Castro-Piñero, Jose; Veiga, Oscar L

    2013-11-01

    The Assessing Levels of Physical Activity (ALPHA) health-related fitness test battery is a set of reliable, valid, and feasible tests to assess health-related physical fitness in children and in adolescents. The aim of this study was to examine the reliability of this battery in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). The extended ALPHA health-related fitness test battery was performed twice within 1 month in 17 apparently healthy adolescents, aged 12-18 years, with DS who had an intelligence quotient ≥ 35. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to determinate test-retest reliability, and nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare mean differences between measurements. With the exception of subscapular skinfold test, which obtained a moderate agreement (ICC = 0.64), all tests had a very high reliability: the 20-m shuttle-run test (ICC = 0.86), the right handgrip strength test (ICC = 0.86), the left handgrip strength test (ICC = 0.86), the standing broad jump test (ICC = 0.85), body mass index (ICC = 0.95), waist circumference (ICC = 0.98), triceps skinfold (ICC = 0.85), and the 4 × 10-m shuttle-run test (ICC = 0.92). There were no significant differences (all p > 0.05) in any of the tests. The ALPHA health-related fitness battery is reliable for measuring health-related components of fitness in adolescents with DS.

  1. Fireworks Assembler (Fireworks) 737.887 -- Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  2. Dentist 072.108 -- Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  3. Forester Aid (gov. ser.) 441.384--Technical Report on Development of USTES Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  4. Log Scaler (logging; paper & pulp; sawmill) 941.488--Technical Report on USES Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  5. Characteristics of the Test Components of the IELTS Battery: Australian Trial Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Patrick

    Results of the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) battery trials in Australia are reported. The IELTS tests of productive language skills use direct assessment strategies and subjective scoring according to detailed guidelines. The receptive skills tests use indirect assessment strategies and clerical scoring procedures.…

  6. Interpreting in vitro developmental toxicity test battery results: The consideration of toxicokinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosgra, S.; Westerhout, J.

    2015-01-01

    In the EU collaborative project ChemScreen an alternative, in vitro assay-based test strategy was developed to screen compounds for reproductive toxicity. A toxicokinetic modeling approach was used to allow quantitative comparison between effective concentrations in the in vitro test battery and

  7. Development of Software and Strategies for Battery Management System Testing on HIL Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleischer, Christian; Sauer, Dirk Uwe; Barreras, Jorge Varela

    2016-01-01

    . This is particularly the case of tests at early stages in the development process or during fault simulation. However, the use of a HIL battery simulator requires the development of software (SW) and strategies for testing. While the possibilities are immense, it should be noted that the greater the level...

  8. Patterns of Dysfunction in Schizophrenic Patients on an Aphasia Test Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSimoni, Frank G.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    In a study comparing schizophrenic language performance with the language performance profiles characteristic of aphasia, apraxia of speech, generalized intellectual impairment, and confused language, 27 schizophrenic patients (20 to 67 years old) were tested with an aphasia test battery. (Author/IM)

  9. Comparison of two in vivo and two ex vivo tests to assess the antibacterial activity of several antiseptics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messager, S; Goddard, P A; Dettmar, P W; Maillard, J-Y

    2004-10-01

    An ex vivo test was adapted to mimic the in vivo conditions of testing antiseptic activity on human forearms and in the European Standard Hygienic Handwash Test (BSEN 1499). The study was to validate the ex vivo protocols using 4.8% (w/v) para-chloro-meta-xylenol (PCMX, neat Dettol), 0.5% (w/v) triclosan in 70% (v/v) isopropanol, and 2% (v/v) povidone-iodine against a high bacterial inoculum (>10(8) cfu/mL) of Escherichia coli NCTC 10538. Two ex vivo tests using human skin samples, including one introducing a mechanical rubbing effect, were compared with two corresponding in vivo tests (the forearm test and the BSEN handwashing test). All antiseptics assessed in vivo (forearm and handwash tests) produced reductions in bacterial counts that were significantly greater than those for the non-medicated soft soap control. When assessed ex vivo without rubbing, only PCMX and povidone-iodine achieved reductions significantly greater than soft soap. When assessed ex vivo with mechanical rubbing, only PCMX and triclosan achieved reductions significantly greater than soft soap. Overall, the antiseptics at the concentrations tested were more active when tested in vivo than ex vivo. The addition of a mechanical effect, either in vivo by the volunteers washing their hands or ex vivo by a drill rubbing two skin samples against each other, produced a significantly greater reduction in bacterial concentrations. The ex vivo tests were easily adapted to mimic in vivo protocols. The value of such tests, particularly the one that includes a rubbing effect, may be significant as they avoid the need for human volunteers.

  10. The CERAD Neuropsychological Test Battery: norms from a Yoruba-speaking Nigerian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guruje, O; Unverzargt, F W; Osuntokun, B O; Hendrie, H C; Baiyewu, O; Ogunniyi, A; Hali, K S

    1995-01-01

    One-hundred normal, healthy, Yoruba-speaking Nigerian men and women aged 65 and above completed the Consortium to establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease-Neuropsychological Battery (CERAD-NB), a cognitive screening battery used in the evaluation of elderly patients with suspected dementia. Correlational analyses indicated pervasive education-influences on test performance. Gender-effects on the CERAD-NB were accounted for by education and there were essentially no age-effects. Education-stratified normative data are presented for all tests. Factor analysis revealed a one factor solution which accounted for 54.7% of the variance.

  11. The minimum test battery to screen for binocular vision anomalies: report 3 of the BAND study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussaindeen, Jameel Rizwana; Rakshit, Archayeeta; Singh, Neeraj Kumar; Swaminathan, Meenakshi; George, Ronnie; Kapur, Suman; Scheiman, Mitchell; Ramani, Krishna Kumar

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to report the minimum test battery needed to screen non-strabismic binocular vision anomalies (NSBVAs) in a community set-up. When large numbers are to be screened we aim to identify the most useful test battery when there is no opportunity for a more comprehensive and time-consuming clinical examination. The prevalence estimates and normative data for binocular vision parameters were estimated from the Binocular Vision Anomalies and Normative Data (BAND) study, following which cut-off estimates and receiver operating characteristic curves to identify the minimum test battery have been plotted. In the receiver operating characteristic phase of the study, children between nine and 17 years of age were screened in two schools in the rural arm using the minimum test battery, and the prevalence estimates with the minimum test battery were found. Receiver operating characteristic analyses revealed that near point of convergence with penlight and red filter (> 7.5 cm), monocular accommodative facility ( 1.25 prism dioptres) were significant factors with cut-off values for best sensitivity and specificity. This minimum test battery was applied to a cohort of 305 children. The mean (standard deviation) age of the subjects was 12.7 (two) years with 121 males and 184 females. Using the minimum battery of tests obtained through the receiver operating characteristic analyses, the prevalence of NSBVAs was found to be 26 per cent. Near point of convergence with penlight and red filter > 10 cm was found to have the highest sensitivity (80 per cent) and specificity (73 per cent) for the diagnosis of convergence insufficiency. For the diagnosis of accommodative infacility, monocular accommodative facility with a cut-off of less than seven cycles per minute was the best predictor for screening (92 per cent sensitivity and 90 per cent specificity). The minimum test battery of near point of convergence with penlight and red filter, difference between distance and near

  12. Long-term in vivo behavior of a platinum endoauricular-magnesium hybrid battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenier, G; Mourot, M; Freshard, R

    1975-01-01

    A hybrid bioelectric battery designed for pacemaker feeding was developed and implanted in 15 dogs for a period of 18 or more months. The smooth platinum cathode, set on an intra-cavitary pacing lead, is located in the bloodstream of the right auricle. The anode of pure (99.9 percent) Domal magnesium is placed in the subcutaneous tissue, which is then consumed by a uniform corrosion process. The theoretical consumption for a current output of 200 muA was evaluated according to Faraday's law at 7 g in 9 years; however, the real consumption, taking into account the corrosion phenomenon, is estimated at 14 g in 9 years. This histological tolerance to the magnesium is excellent. The fundamental characteristic of this platinum-magnesium battery is the great reproducibility of the output parameters (voltage, power) and the excellent stability with time, for any chosen platinum surface or load resistance. For an output current of 200 muA, the battery provides an available output power of 100 muW at a reproducible and stable voltage of 0.5 v. This stability is demonstrated in a long-term study on 15 beagles.

  13. Individual Differences in Male Rats in a Behavioral Test Battery: A Multivariate Statistical Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Feyissa, Daniel D.; Aher, Yogesh D.; Engidawork, Ephrem; H?ger, Harald; Lubec, Gert; Korz, Volker

    2017-01-01

    Animal models for anxiety, depressive-like and cognitive diseases or aging often involve testing of subjects in behavioral test batteries. The large number of test variables with different mean variations and within and between test correlations often constitute a significant problem in determining essential variables to assess behavioral patterns and their variation in individual animals as well as appropriate statistical treatment. Therefore, we applied a multivariate approach (principal co...

  14. Fast Charging and Smart Charging Tests for Electric Vehicles Batteries Using Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forero Camacho Oscar Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric Vehicles (EV technologies are still relatively new and under strong development. Although some standardized solutions are being promoted and becoming a new trend, there is an outstanding need for common platforms and sharing of knowledge and core technologies. This paper presents the development of a test platform, including three Li-ion batteries designed for EV applications, and three associated bi-directional power converters, for testing impacts on different advanced loadings of EV batteries. Different charging algorithms/profiles have been tested, including constant current and power, and forced and pulsed power. The aim of the tests has been to study the impact of smart charging and fast charging on the power system, on the battery state of health and degradation, and to find out the limitations of the batteries for a Smart Grid. The paper outlines the advantages and disadvantages of both tests in terms of regulation of the aggregated local power, power capacity and the power exchange with the grid. The smart charging tests performed have demonstrated that even with a simple control algorithm, without any forecasting, it is possible to provide the required charging and at the same time the power system services, reducing the peak power and the energy losses in the power connection line of the power exchange with the national grid.

  15. ANN modeling of cold cranking test for sealed lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Hassan; Karimi, Mohammad Ali; Mahdipour, Maryam

    A cold cranking test for 17 sealed lead-acid batteries with grids of lead-calcium alloy at -18 °C was performed at different discharge currents. Time-voltage behavior of the batteries during 10 s discharge, voltage values at discharge times of 30, 60 and 90 s, and time of discharge to reach a final voltage of 6 V are critical points in the cold cranking test. These were modeled by artificial neural networks in MATLAB 7 media. Nine discharge currents were used for the training set, five discharge currents for the prediction set and three discharge currents for the validation set. Maximum prediction errors in the modeling of the time-voltage behavior during a 10 s discharge (model 1), the voltage of critical points of 30, 60, 90 s (model 2) and the time to reach a final voltage of 6 V (model 3) were under 3.1%, 3.3%, and 3.5%, respectively for each model. The results obtained showed that the models can be used in the battery industry for the prediction of the cold cranking behavior of lead-acid batteries at high discharge currents based on experimental cold cranking data at low discharge currents without the use of expensive and complex instruments. A file (EXE file) based on the model obtained by WinNN 32 was prepared to enable inexpert operators in the lead-acid battery industry to use the method.

  16. Development and validation of the Arizona Cognitive Test Battery for Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgin, Jamie O; Mason, Gina M; Allman, Melissa J; Capone, George T; Deleon, Iser; Maslen, Cheryl; Reeves, Roger H; Sherman, Stephanie L; Nadel, Lynn

    2010-09-01

    Neurocognitive assessment in individuals with intellectual disabilities requires a well-validated test battery. To meet this need, the Arizona Cognitive Test Battery (ACTB) has been developed specifically to assess the cognitive phenotype in Down syndrome (DS). The ACTB includes neuropsychological assessments chosen to 1) assess a range of skills, 2) be non-verbal so as to not confound the neuropsychological assessment with language demands, 3) have distributional properties appropriate for research studies to identify genetic modifiers of variation, 4) show sensitivity to within and between sample differences, 5) have specific correlates with brain function, and 6) be applicable to a wide age range and across contexts. The ACTB includes tests of general cognitive ability and prefrontal, hippocampal and cerebellar function. These tasks were drawn from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Testing Automated Battery (CANTAB) and other established paradigms. Alongside the cognitive testing battery we administered benchmark and parent-report assessments of cognition and behavior. Individuals with DS (n=74, ages 7-38 years) and mental age (MA) matched controls (n=50, ages 3-8 years) were tested across 3 sites. A subsample of these groups were used for between-group comparisons, including 55 individuals with DS and 36 mental age matched controls. The ACTB allows for low floor performance levels and participant loss. Floor effects were greater in younger children. Individuals with DS were impaired on a number ACTB tests in comparison to a MA-matched sample, with some areas of spared ability, particularly on tests requiring extensive motor coordination. Battery measures correlated with parent report of behavior and development. The ACTB provided consistent results across contexts, including home vs. lab visits, cross-site, and among individuals with a wide range of socio-economic backgrounds and differences in ethnicity. The ACTB will be useful in a range of outcome studies

  17. Development of a standardized battery of performance tests for the assessment of noise stress effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theologus, G. C.; Wheaton, G. R.; Mirabella, A.; Brahlek, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    A set of 36 relatively independent categories of human performance were identified. These categories encompass human performance in the cognitive, perceptual, and psychomotor areas, and include diagnostic measures and sensitive performance metrics. Then a prototype standardized test battery was constructed, and research was conducted to obtain information on the sensitivity of the tests to stress, the sensitivity of selected categories of performance degradation, the time course of stress effects on each of the selected tests, and the learning curves associated with each test. A research project utilizing a three factor partially repeated analysis of covariance design was conducted in which 60 male subjects were exposed to variations in noise level and quality during performance testing. Effects of randomly intermittent noise on performance of the reaction time tests were observed, but most of the other performance tests showed consistent stability. The results of 14 analyses of covariance of the data taken from the performance of the 60 subjects on the prototype standardized test battery provided information which will enable the final development and test of a standardized test battery and the associated development of differential sensitivity metrics and diagnostic classificatory system.

  18. Development and testing of a bipolar lead-acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, S.; Saakes, M.; Kluiters, C.E.; Schmal, D.; Have, P. ten

    1998-01-01

    A 80V bipolar lead-acid battery was constructed and tested using Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) drive cycles. Drive cycles with a peak power of 6.7kW, equal to 1/5 of the total power profile required for the HEV studied, were run succesfully. Model calculations showed that the constructed 80V module,

  19. Development and testing of a bipolar lead-acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saakes, M.; Kluiters, E.; Schmal, D.; Mourad, S.; Have, P.T.J.H. ten

    1999-01-01

    An 80 V bipolar lead-acid battery was constructed and tested using hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) drive cycles. Drive cycles with a peak power of 6.7 kW, equal to 1/5 of the total power profile required for the HEV studied, were run successfully. Model calculations showed that the 80 V module

  20. Issues in Development of the Test Battery for Australian Sign Language Morphology and Syntax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schembri, Adam; Wigglesworth, Gillian; Johnston, Trevor; Leigh, Greg; Adam, Robert; Barker, Roz

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the adaptation of the Test Battery for American Sign Language Morphology and Syntax for Australian Sign Language. Data collected from a group of native signers who were deaf (n=25) demonstrate the range of variability in key grammatical features of Australian Sign Language and raise methodological issues. (Contains…

  1. Fast Charging and Smart Charging Tests for Electric Vehicles Batteries Using Renewable Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forero Camacho, Oscar Mauricio; Mihet-Popa, Lucian

    2016-01-01

    Electric Vehicles (EV) technologies are still relatively new and under strong development. Although some standardized solutions are being promoted and becoming a new trend, there is an outstanding need for common platforms and sharing of knowledge and core technologies. This paper presents......, and forced and pulsed power. The aim of the tests has been to study the impact of smart charging and fast charging on the power system, on the battery state of health and degradation, and to find out the limitations of the batteries for a Smart Grid. The paper outlines the advantages and disadvantages...

  2. 78 FR 58574 - Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... COMMISSION Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power..., Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants.'' The guide... nuclear power plants. ADDRESSES: Please refer to Docket ID NRC-2013-0048 when contacting the NRC about the...

  3. Design and Construction of a Test Bench to Characterize Efficiency and Reliability of High Voltage Battery Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blank, Tobias; Thomas, Stephan; Roggendorf, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Stationary battery energy storage systems are widely used for uninterruptible power supply systems. Furthermore, they are able to provide grid services. This yields in rising installed power and capacity. One possibility uses high voltage batteries. This results in an improvement of the overall...... was built to analyze these processes for different battery technologies. A special safety infrastructure for the test bench was developed due to the high voltage and the storable energy of approximately 120 kWh. This paper presents the layout of the test bench for analyzing high voltage batteries with about...

  4. Verification of test battery of motoric assumptions for tennis

    OpenAIRE

    Křelina, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    This thesis focuses on testing the motoric assumptions of junior category tennis players in certain sport games. The aim of this thesis is to compare the results of the motoric test regarding to three tennis players of various performance levels in chosen sport games. Thus define the substantive significance and specificity of each test towards tennis. The assumptions in the theoretical part are based on my Bachelor thesis. In said thesis I am dealing with the characteristics of tennis, the s...

  5. A test battery related to ergonomics of protective clothing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenith, G.; Heus, R.

    2004-01-01

    Specialised protective clothing, such as that worn by firefighters, is usually tested only to standards which give requirements for the materials used (e.g. EN469). However,this testing often neglects the effect the manufacturing process of the garment has on the material properties,the effects of

  6. Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Report summarizes results of test on "near-term" electrochemical batteries - (batteries approaching commercial production). Nickel/iron, nickel/zinc, and advanced lead/acid batteries included in tests and compared with conventional lead/acid batteries. Batteries operated in electric vehicles at constant speed and repetitive schedule of accerlerating, coasting, and braking.

  7. Recommendations for safety testing with the in vivo comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Marie Z

    2012-08-30

    While the in vivo comet assay increases its role in regulatory safety testing, deliberations about the interpretation of comet data continue. Concerns can arise regarding comet assay publications with limited data from non-blind testing of positive control compounds and using protocols (e.g. dose concentrations, sample times, and tissues) known to give an expected effect. There may be a tendency towards bias when the validation or interpretation of comet assay data is based on results generated by widely accepted but non-validated assays. The greatest advantages of the comet assay are its sensitivity and its ability to detect genotoxicity in tissues and at sample times that could not previously be evaluated. Guidelines for its use and interpretation in safety testing should take these factors into account. Guidelines should be derived from objective review of data generated by blind testing of unknown compounds dosed at non-toxic concentrations and evaluated in a true safety-testing environment, where the experimental design and conclusions must be defensible. However, positive in vivo comet findings with such compounds are rarely submitted to regulatory agencies and this data is typically unavailable for publication due to its proprietary nature. To enhance the development of guidelines for safety testing with the comet assay, and with the permission of several sponsors, this paper presents and discusses relevant data from multiple GLP comet studies conducted blind, with unknown pharmaceuticals and consumer products. Based on these data and the lessons we have learned through the course of conducting these studies, I suggest significant adjustments to the current conventions, and I provide recommendations for interpreting in vivo comet assay results in situations where risk must be evaluated in the absence of carcinogenicity or clinical data. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Validation of a Paper and Pencil Test Battery for the Diagnosis of Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jae Yoon; Jun, Dae Won; Bai, Daiseg; Kim, Ji Yean; Sohn, Joo Hyun; Ahn, Sang Bong; Kim, Sang Gyune; Kim, Tae Yeob; Kim, Hyoung Su; Jeong, Soung Won; Cho, Yong Kyun; Song, Do Seon; Kim, Hee Yeon; Jung, Young Kul; Yoon, Eileen L

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to validate a new paper and pencil test battery to diagnose minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) in Korea. A new paper and pencil test battery was composed of number connection test-A (NCT-A), number connection test-B (NCT-B), digit span test (DST), and symbol digit modality test (SDMT). The norm of the new test was based on 315 healthy individuals between the ages of 20 and 70 years old. Another 63 healthy subjects (n = 31) and cirrhosis patients (n = 32) were included as a validation cohort. All participants completed the new paper and pencil test, a critical flicker frequency (CFF) test and computerized cognitive function test (visual continuous performance test [CPT]). The scores on the NCT-A and NCT-B increased but those of DST and SDMT decreased according to age. Twelve of the cirrhotic patients (37.5%) were diagnosed with MHE based on the new paper and pencil test battery. The total score of the paper and pencil test battery showed good positive correlation with the CFF (r = 0.551, P battery including NCT-A, NCT-B, DST, and SDMT showed good correlation with neuropsychological tests. This new paper and pencil test battery could help to discriminate patients with impaired cognitive function in cirrhosis (registered at Clinical Research Information Service [CRIS], https://cris.nih.go.kr/cris, KCT0000955). © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  9. A Novel in vivo System to Test Bronchodilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Kenneth J; Morse, John; Robichaud, Annette; Daines, Michael O; Ledford, Julie G

    2017-03-01

    The incidence and severity of asthma continue to rise worldwide. β-agonists are the most commonly prescribed therapeutic for asthma management but have less efficacy for some subsets of asthmatic patients and there are concerns surrounding the side effects from their long-term persistent use. The demand to develop novel asthma therapeutics highlights the need for a standardized approach to effectively screen and test potential bronchoprotective compounds using relevant in vivo animal models. Here we describe a validated method of testing potential therapeutic compounds for their fast-acting efficacy during the midst of an induced bronchoconstriction in a house dust mite challenged animal model.

  10. Setup of IN VIVO Breast Cancer Models for Nanodrug Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schifter, Søren

    2013-01-01

    RNA/aptamer conjugates, or carriers such as liposome/chitosan/micelle spheres. As a first step towards testing of the efficacy of siRNA delivery in vivo via different conjugates and complexes, we aimed at developing a standardized breast cancer model system in mice. In this conception, a reporter gene is used...... for detection of the primary tumor and metastasis and the efficacy of siRNA delivery is measured by reporter gene-targeting siRNAs and in vivo imaging. The use of a uniform siRNA not affecting cellular processes would allow for standardized assessment of siRNA delivery to cancer cells without interferences via...... differential knockdown efficacies and the readout can directly be performed by quantitative imaging using a Caliper IVIS system. In one line of experiments, we engineered non-metastatic MCF-7 breast cancer cells to express the luminescent reporter firefly luciferase (Luc2) along with a pro-metastatic micro...

  11. Validation of the Navy Recruiter Selection Test Battery (RSTB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    recruiters who succeed will be happier. B. BACKGROUND From 1972 to 1976, Navy Recruiting Command (NRC) used a personality test, the 16PF -m, to screen and...that the 16PF -m, the recruiter selection method at that time, could potentially be a useful tool and further validation of it should continue. 4

  12. Reliability of a Test Battery Designed for Quickly and Safely Assessing Diverse Indices of Neuromuscular Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiering, Barry A.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Bentley, Jason, R.; Buxton, Roxanne E.; Lawrence, Emily L.; Sinka, Joseph; Guilliams, Mark E.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2010-01-01

    Spaceflight affects nearly every physiological system. Spaceflight-induced alterations in physiological function translate to decrements in functional performance. Purpose: To develop a test battery for quickly and safely assessing diverse indices of neuromuscular performance. I. Quickly: Battery of tests can be completed in approx.30-40 min. II. Safely: a) No eccentric muscle actions or impact forces. b) Tests present little challenge to postural stability. III. Diverse indices: a) Strength: Excellent reliability (ICC = 0.99) b) Central activation: Very good reliability (ICC = 0.87) c) Power: Excellent reliability (ICC = 0.99) d) Endurance: Total work has excellent reliability (ICC = 0.99) e) Force steadiness: Poor reliability (ICC = 0.20 - 0.60) National

  13. Accelerated Lifetime Testing Methodology for Lifetime Estimation of Lithium-ion Batteries used in Augmented Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stan, Ana-Irina

    2014-01-01

    The development of lifetime estimation models for Lithium-ion battery cells, which are working under highly variable mission profiles characteristic for wind power plant applications, requires a lot of expenditures and time resources. Therefore, batteries have to be tested under accelerated...... lifetime ageing conditions. This paper presents a three-stage methodology used for accelerated lifetime testing of Lithium ion batteries. The results obtained at the end of the accelerated ageing process were used for the parametrization of a performance-degradation lifetime model, which is able to predict...... both the capacity fade and the power capability decrease of the selected Lithium-ion battery cells. In the proposed methodology both calendar and cycling lifetime tests were considered since both components are influencing the lifetime of Lithium-ion batteries. Furthermore, the proposed methodology...

  14. Accelerated lifetime testing methodology for lifetime estimation of Lithium-ion batteries used in augmented wind power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stan, Ana-Irina

    2013-01-01

    The development of lifetime estimation models for Lithium-ion battery cells, which are working under highly variable mission profiles characteristic for wind power plant applications, requires a lot of expenditures and time resources. Therefore, batteries have to be tested under accelerated lifet...

  15. The Cambridge Mindreading (CAM) Face-Voice Battery: Testing Complex Emotion Recognition in Adults with and without Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golan, Ofer; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Hill, Jacqueline

    2006-01-01

    Adults with Asperger Syndrome (AS) can recognise simple emotions and pass basic theory of mind tasks, but have difficulties recognising more complex emotions and mental states. This study describes a new battery of tasks, testing recognition of 20 complex emotions and mental states from faces and voices. The battery was given to males and females…

  16. Development of USES Specific Aptitude Test Battery for Waiter/Waitress, Informal (hotel & rest.) 311.477-030.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon State Dept. of Human Resources, Salem.

    The United States Employment Service (USES) Specific Aptitude Test Battery (SATB) for Waiter/Waitress (Informal) is evaluated from three points of view: (1) technical adequacy of the research, (2) fairness to minorities, and (3) usefulness of the battery to Employment Service staff and employers in selecting individuals for training as…

  17. In vivo testing of novel vaccine prototypes against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antenucci, Fabio; Fougeroux, Cyrielle; Deeney, Alannah

    2018-01-01

    vesicles from its outer membrane (OM), accordingly defined as outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). Thanks to their antigenic similarity to the OM, OMVs have emerged as a promising tool in vaccinology. In this study we describe the in vivo testing of several vaccine prototypes for the prevention of infection...... by all known A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes. Previously identified vaccine candidates, the recombinant proteins ApfA and VacJ, administered individually or in various combinations with the OMVs, were employed as vaccination strategies. Our data show that the addition of the OMVs in the vaccine...

  18. A cost effective battery bank for I(sup 2)T testing and evaluation of electrical switchgear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reass, W. A.

    The electrical design and mechanical construction of a 50 kA step switched battery bank. Individual fuses protect each of the forty parallel isolated strings of three series (12 V) batteries. Step current waveforms of 12.5 kA, 25 kA, 37.5 kA, and 50 kA are produced by 8 sets of pneumatically driven 20 pole step switches and current limiting stainless steel trombone resistors. Inexpensive, yet conservatively designed, Group 65 Motorcraft car batteries are used to give an I(sup 2)t capability of better than 5 x 10(exp 9). The battery bank has well over 1500 shots, with testing of commercial switchgear continuing. In addition to the battery bank engineering data, results of repetitive testing of vacuum interrupters at their I(sup 2)t limit will be provided.

  19. The Munich High Ability Test Battery (MHBT): A multidimensional, multimethod approach

    OpenAIRE

    CHRISTOPH PERLETH; KURT A. HELLER

    2008-01-01

    After a brief introduction the theoretical basis of the Munich High Ability Test-Battery (MHBT) will be outlined in the first part of the article. The MHBT has been developed in the framework of the Munich longitudinal study of giftedness and talent. The MHBT includes not only cognitive predictors measuring several dimensions and types of giftedness concerning intellectual, creative or social abilities etc., but also giftedness-relevant non-cognitive personality and social moderators measurin...

  20. Intelligence, age and schooling: data from the Battery of Reasoning Tests (BRT-5)

    OpenAIRE

    Primi,Ricardo; Couto,Gleiber; Almeida,Leandro S.; Guisande,M. Adelina; Miguel,Fabiano Koich

    2012-01-01

    Intelligence is commonly divided into two distinctive areas: fluid intelligence (Gf), which is understood as the skill of reasoning or intelligence as a process, and crystallized intelligence (Gc) that involves skills that are more related to learning and experience (knowledge-based skills). The objective of the present work was to investigate the effects that schooling and age exert on fluid and crystallized intelligence measuring students' results in sub-tests of the Battery of Reasoning Te...

  1. An alcohol withdrawal test battery measuring multiple behavioral symptoms in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metten, Pamela; Schlumbohm, Jason P; Huang, Lawrence C; Greenberg, Gian D; Hack, Wyatt R; Spence, Stephanie E; Crabbe, John C

    2017-09-06

    Despite acceptance that risk for alcohol-use disorder (AUD) has a large genetic component, the identification of genes underlying various components of risk for AUD has been hampered in humans, in part by the heterogeneity of expression of the phenotype. One aspect of AUD is physical dependence. Alcohol withdrawal is a serious consequence of alcohol dependence with multiple symptoms, many of which are seen in multiple species, and can be experienced over a wide-ranging time course. In the present three studies, we developed a battery of withdrawal tests in mice, examining behavioral symptoms from multiple domains that could be measured over time. To permit eventual use of the battery in different strains of mice, we used male and female mice of a genetically heterogeneous stock developed from intercrossing eight inbred strains. Withdrawal symptoms were assessed using commonly used tests after administration of ethanol in vapor for 72 continuous hours. We found significant effects of ethanol withdrawal versus air-breathing controls on nearly all symptoms, spanning 4 days following ethanol vapor inhalation. Withdrawal produced hypothermia, greater neurohyperexcitability (seizures and tremor), anxiety-like behaviors using an apparatus (such as reduced transitions between light and dark compartments), anhedonia (reduced sucrose preference), Straub tail, backward walking, and reductions in activity; however, there were no changes in thermal pain sensitivity, hyper-reactivity to handling, or anxiety-like emergence behaviors in other apparatus. Using these data, we constructed a refined battery of withdrawal tests. Individual differences in severity of withdrawal among different tests were weakly correlated at best. This battery should be useful for identifying genetic influences on particular withdrawal behaviors, which should reflect the influences of different constellations of genes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Validation of the Cognition Test Battery for Spaceflight in a Sample of Highly Educated Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Tyler M; Basner, Mathias; Nasrini, Jad; Hermosillo, Emanuel; Kabadi, Sushila; Roalf, David R; McGuire, Sarah; Ecker, Adrian J; Ruparel, Kosha; Port, Allison M; Jackson, Chad T; Dinges, David F; Gur, Ruben C

    2017-10-01

    Neuropsychological changes that may occur due to the environmental and psychological stressors of prolonged spaceflight motivated the development of the Cognition Test Battery. The battery was designed to assess multiple domains of neurocognitive functions linked to specific brain systems. Tests included in Cognition have been validated, but not in high-performing samples comparable to astronauts, which is an essential step toward ensuring their usefulness in long-duration space missions. We administered Cognition (on laptop and iPad) and the WinSCAT, counterbalanced for order and version, in a sample of 96 subjects (50% women; ages 25-56 yr) with at least a Master's degree in science, technology, engineering, or mathematics (STEM). We assessed the associations of age, sex, and administration device with neurocognitive performance, and compared the scores on the Cognition battery with those of WinSCAT. Confirmatory factor analysis compared the structure of the iPad and laptop administration methods using Wald tests. Age was associated with longer response times (mean β = 0.12) and less accurate (mean β = -0.12) performance, women had longer response times on psychomotor (β = 0.62), emotion recognition (β = 0.30), and visuo-spatial (β = 0.48) tasks, men outperformed women on matrix reasoning (β = -0.34), and performance on an iPad was generally faster (mean β = -0.55). The WinSCAT appeared heavily loaded with tasks requiring executive control, whereas Cognition assessed a larger variety of neurocognitive domains. Overall results supported the interpretation of Cognition scores as measuring their intended constructs in high performing astronaut analog samples.Moore TM, Basner M, Nasrini J, Hermosillo E, Kabadi S, Roalf DR, McGuire S, Ecker AJ, Ruparel K, Port AM, Jackson CT, Dinges DF, Gur RC. Validation of the Cognition Test Battery for spaceflight in a sample of highly educated adults. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(10):937-946.

  3. Development and testing of a bipolar lead-acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saakes, Michel; Kluiters, Edwin; Schmal, Dick; Mourad, Salem; ten Have, Peter T. J. H.

    An 80 V bipolar lead-acid battery was constructed and tested using hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) drive cycles. Drive cycles with a peak power of 6.7 kW, equal to 1/5 of the total power profile required for the HEV studied, were run successfully. Model calculations showed that the 80 V module constructed, which is at the moment 2.5 times heavier than required for the HEV operation studied, can be optimised to meet the requirements.

  4. Experimental Testing Procedures and Dynamic Model Validation for Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Storage System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baccino, Francesco; Marinelli, Mattia; Nørgård, Per Bromand

    2013-01-01

    The paper aims at characterizing the electrochemical and thermal parameters of a 15 kW/320 kWh vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) installed in the SYSLAB test facility of the DTU Risø Campus and experimentally validating the proposed dynamic model realized in Matlab-Simulink. The adopted testing...... procedure consists of analyzing the voltage and current values during a power reference step-response and evaluating the relevant electrochemical parameters such as the internal resistance. The results of different tests are presented and used to define the electrical characteristics and the overall...

  5. Reliable Testing Battery for Assessing Physical Qualities of Elite Academy Rugby League Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbin, Nick; Hunwicks, Richard; Highton, Jamie; Twist, Craig

    2017-11-14

    Dobbin, N, Hunwicks, R, Highton, J, and Twist, C. Reliable testing battery for assessing physical qualities of elite academy rugby league players. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2017-This study assessed the interday reliability of a testing battery for the assessment of physical qualities of rugby league players. Fifty players (age 17.1 ± 1.1 years; stature 181.3 ± 6.3 cm; and body mass 89.0 ± 11.6 kg) from 3 Super League academies participated in this study. Tests of countermovement jump performance, 10- and 20-m sprint performance, change of direction, medicine ball throw, and a modified Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 (prone Yo-Yo IR1) were completed on 3 separate occasions. Between-day intraclass correlation coefficient, typical error (TE), coefficient of variation, and the smallest worthwhile change (SWC) were calculated to determine the reliability and sensitivity of each measure. Individual tests (except medicine ball throw) were not systematically different between trials (p > 0.05), with an interday variability that was <10%. In all instances, the TE was larger than the calculated SWC change, although variability was less than that typically observed after a training intervention or specific training period (i.e., preseason). Using a magnitude-based inference approach, we present the required change for all performance tests to be 75% confident and the change is beneficial. This simple and time efficient testing battery is sufficiently reliable to detect previously observed changes in a range of physical qualities of rugby league players.

  6. Seismic-fragility tests of new and accelerated-aged Class 1E battery cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonzon, L.L.; Janis, W.J.; Black, D.A.; Paulsen, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    The seismic-fragility response of naturally-aged nuclear station safety-related batteries is of interest for two reasons: (1) to determine actual failure modes and thresholds and (2) to determine the validity of using the electrical capacity of individual cells as an indicator of the potential survivability of a battery given a seismic event. Prior reports in this series discussed the seismic-fragility tests and results for three specific naturally-aged cell types: 12-year old NCX-2250, 10-year old LCU-13, and 10-year old FHC-19. This report focuses on the complementary approach, namely, the seismic-fragility response of accelerated-aged batteries. Of particular interest is the degree to which such approaches accurately reproduce the actual failure modes and thresholds. In these tests the significant aging effects observed, in terms of seismic survivability, were: embrittlement of cell cases, positive bus material and positive plate grids; and excessive sulphation of positive plate active material causing hardening and expansion of positive plates. The IEEE Standard 535 accelerated aging method successfully reproduced seismically significant aging effects in new cells but accelerated grid embrittlement an estimated five years beyond the conditional age of other components.

  7. Development and Standardization of a New Cognitive Assessment Test Battery for Chinese Aphasic Patients: A Preliminary Study.(Original Article)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Xiao-Jia; Wang, Qi; Li, Hai-Peng; Wu, Ji-Bao; Lyu, Zhi-Hong

    2017-01-01

    ... for it. To get more information on cognitive impairment of aphasic patients, this study aimed to develop a new cognitive assessment test battery for aphasic patients, the Non-language-based Cognitive Assessment (NLCA...

  8. Development and Standardization of a New Cognitive Assessment Test Battery for Chinese Aphasic Patients: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Bao Wu

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The NLCA could efficiently differentiate the cognitive impairment patients from the normal controls and is a reliable and valid cognitive assessment test battery to specially find nonlinguistic cognitive function for aphasic patients.

  9. Requirements for Defining Utility Drive Cycles: An Exploratory Analysis of Grid Frequency Regulation Data for Establishing Battery Performance Testing Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafen, Ryan P.; Vishwanathan, Vilanyur V.; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

    2011-10-19

    Battery testing procedures are important for understanding battery performance, including degradation over the life of the battery. Standards are important to provide clear rules and uniformity to an industry. The work described in this report addresses the need for standard battery testing procedures that reflect real-world applications of energy storage systems to provide regulation services to grid operators. This work was motivated by the need to develop Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) testing procedures, or V2G drive cycles. Likewise, the stationary energy storage community is equally interested in standardized testing protocols that reflect real-world grid applications for providing regulation services. As the first of several steps toward standardizing battery testing cycles, this work focused on a statistical analysis of frequency regulation signals from the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland Interconnect with the goal to identify patterns in the regulation signal that would be representative of the entire signal as a typical regulation data set. Results from an extensive time-series analysis are discussed, and the results are explained from both the statistical and the battery-testing perspectives. The results then are interpreted in the context of defining a small set of V2G drive cycles for standardization, offering some recommendations for the next steps toward standardizing testing protocols.

  10. Do the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery episodic memory measures discriminate amnestic mild cognitive impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juncos-Rabadán, Onésimo; Pereiro, Arturo X; Facal, David; Reboredo, Alba; Lojo-Seoane, Cristina

    2014-06-01

    Although visual recognition memory and visuospatial paired associates learning has been shown to be impaired in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), the sensitivity and specificity of the visual memory tests used to identify aMCI are not well defined. The current study attempted to analyze the sensitivity and specificity of three visual episodic memory tests (Pattern Recognition Memory [PRM], Delayed Matching to Sample [DMS], and Paired Associated Learning [PAL]) from the CANTAB, in differentiating aMCI patients from control healthy participants. Seventy seven aMCI patients and 85 cognitive normal controls aged over 50 years performed the PRM, DMS, and PAL tests. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to study the relationships between aMCI and visual memory measures. The three Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery measures significantly predicted aMCI. The optimal predictive model combined the total percent correct responses for PRM and DMS with the PAL total errors (six shapes adjusted), with a sensitivity of 72%, specificity of 83%, and achieved predictive accuracy of 80%. Visual episodic memory tasks such as those involved in the PRM, DMS, and PAL tests (included in the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery) may sensitively discriminate aMCI patients from normal controls. These tests may be useful for correct diagnosis of aMCI. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Between-Day Reliability and Usefulness of a Fitness Testing Battery in Youth Sport Athletes: Reference Data for Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawczuk, Thomas; Jones, Ben; Scantlebury, Sean; Weakley, Jonathan; Read, Dale; Costello, Nessan; Darrall-Jones, Joshua David; Stokes, Keith; Till, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the between-day reliability and usefulness of a fitness testing battery in a group of youth sport athletes. Fifty-nine youth sport athletes (age = 17.3 ± 0.7 years) undertook a fitness testing battery including the isometric mid-thigh pull, counter-movement jump, 5-40 m sprint splits, and the 5-0-5 change of direction…

  12. Development of the A§E test battery for assessment of pitch perception in speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeren, Willemijn; Coene, Martine; Vaerenberg, Bart; Avram, Andrei; Cardinaletti, Anna; del Bo, Luca; Pascu, Alexandru; Volpato, Francesca; Govaerts, Paul J

    2012-11-01

    The auditory speech sounds evaluation 2009 test battery for assessment of speech pitch perception is presented. It was designed to (a) assess perception of pitch in linguistic contexts without the confounds of secondary acoustic cues, (b) be usable with listeners from different language backgrounds, and (c) be suitable for use in a clinical setting. The need for this test battery arises from increased awareness of the importance of prosody in clinical practice, and the development of methods for improving pitch perception in listeners with profound hearing losses. Identification and discrimination tasks based on linguistic contexts were developed to establish listeners' just noticeable differences (JNDs) for pitch changes. Stimuli were pseudosentences and pseudowords based on speech from a female speaker, overlain with stylized pitch contours. Target pitch excursions were varied from the 200 Hz baseline to a maximum of 349 Hz. Ninety normal-hearing listeners participated in test validation that assessed goals (a)-(c), established test-retest reliability, and gathered normative data. The JNDs on non-linguistic, control tasks were lower than on linguistic ones, showing that non-linguistic tasks may overestimate pitch perception in speech. Listeners from different language backgrounds scored comparably on most linguistic tasks, and test-retest differences were non-significant. Test usability as evidenced by task duration and subject experience seemed satisfactory for clinical use.

  13. A hierarchical model of factors influencing a battery of agility tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, J; Greig, M

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the hierarchical contributions of anthropometry, strength and cognition to a battery of prescriptive and reactive agility tests. Nineteen participants (mean±S.D.; age:22.1±1.9 years; height: 182.9±5.5 cm; body mass: 77±4.9 kg) completed four agility tests: a prescriptive linear sprint, a prescriptive change-of-direction sprint, a reactive change-of-direction sprint, and a reactive linear deceleration test. Anthropometric variables included body fat percentage and thigh girth. Strength was quantified as the peak eccentric hamstring torque at 180, 300, and 60°·s-1. Mean reaction time and accuracy in the Stroop word-colour Test was used to assess perceptual and decision making factors. There was little evidence of intertest correlation with the strongest relationship observed between 10 m sprint and t-test performance (r2=0.49, Pagility, accounting for a maximum 23% (P=0.12) in the prescriptive change-of-direction test. Cognitive measures had a stronger correlation with the reactive (rather than prescriptive) agility tests, with a maximum 33% (P=0.04) of variance accounted for in the reactive change-of-direction test. Eccentric hamstring strength accounted for 62% (P=0.01) of the variance in the prescriptive change-of-direction test. Hierarchical ordering of the agility tests revealed that eccentric hamstring strength was the primary predictor in 3 of the 4 tests, with cognitive accuracy the next most common predictor. There is little evidence of inter-test correlation across a battery of agility tests. Eccentric hamstring strength and decision making accuracy are the most common predictors of agility performance.

  14. An Assessment of the Performance-Based Measurement Battery (PBMB), the Navy’s Psychomotor Supplement to the Aviation Selection Test Battery (ASTB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    AGENCY USE ONLY ( Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE December 2007 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE An...successful aptitude test in the candidate selection process. This test battery assesses an applicant’s math skills, the ability to extract meaning...one of the most important physical skills candidates should possess ( Mangos , 2005). The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) also believes that

  15. How to assess abstract conceptual knowledge: construction, standardization and validation of a new battery of semantic memory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Rosa, Pasquale Anthony; Catricalà, Eleonora; De Battisti, Silvia; Vinson, David; Vigliocco, Gabriela; Cappa, Stefano F

    2014-01-01

    The neuropsychological investigation of semantic memory has mainly focused on concrete concepts, while abstract concepts have been relatively neglected. We describe a new battery for assessing abstract concepts in brain-damaged patients. The battery includes three different tests: an association task, a multiplechoice naming-to-description task and a sentence completion task. The three tasks are based on the same 40 stimuli belonging to different categories of abstract concepts and they are tightly controlled for variables that can account for quantitative differences between abstract concepts (i.e. concreteness, imageability, context availability, familiarity, age of acquisition, mode of acquisition, emotional valence and arousal). The three tasks showed high reliability. Normative data were collected from 108 healthy Italian adults. To assess its sensitivity, the battery was administered to 13 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease who performed worse than matched controls. Significant correlations were also found between the tests and other semantic memory tests, supporting the validity of the battery.

  16. Task and Ability Analysis as a Basis for Examining Content and Construct Comparability in Two EFL Proficiency Test Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Lyle F.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    An exploratory analysis comparing two test batteries for English-as-a-Foreign-Language reading comprehension used a single framework of communicative language ability and test method facets to investigate construct validity. The framework's use in the content analysis of communicative language tests, and for the comparison of content across tests,…

  17. NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB): list sorting test to measure working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulsky, David S; Carlozzi, Noelle; Chiaravalloti, Nancy D; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Kisala, Pamela A; Mungas, Dan; Conway, Kevin; Gershon, Richard

    2014-07-01

    The List Sorting Working Memory Test was designed to assess working memory (WM) as part of the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery. List Sorting is a sequencing task requiring children and adults to sort and sequence stimuli that are presented visually and auditorily. Validation data are presented for 268 participants ages 20 to 85 years. A subset of participants (N=89) was retested 7 to 21 days later. As expected, the List Sorting Test had moderately high correlations with other measures of working memory and executive functioning (convergent validity) but a low correlation with a test of receptive vocabulary (discriminant validity). Furthermore, List Sorting demonstrates expected changes over the age span and has excellent test-retest reliability. Collectively, these results provide initial support for the construct validity of the List Sorting Working Memory Measure as a measure of working memory. However, the relationship between the List Sorting Test and general executive function has yet to be determined.

  18. Targeting as the basis for pre-test market of lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuniaristanto, Zakaria, R.; Saputri, V. H. L.; Sutopo, W.; Kadir, E. A.

    2017-11-01

    This article discusses about market segmentation and targeting as a first step in pre-test market of a new technology. The benefits of targeting towards pre-test market are pre-test market can be conducted to focus on selected target markets so there is no bias during the pre-test market. In determining the target market then do some surveys to identify the state of market in the future, so that the marketing process is not misplaced. Lithium ion battery which is commercialized through start-up companies is the case study. This start-up companies must be able to respond the changes and bring in customers as well as maintain them so that companies can survive and evolve to achieve its objectives. The research aims to determine market segments and target market effectively. Marketing strategy (segmentation and targeting) is used to make questionnaire and cluster analysis in data processing. Respondents were selected by purposive sampling and have obtained data as many as 80 samples. As the results study, there are three segments for lithium ion battery with their own distinguished characteristics and there are two segments that can be used as the target market for the company.

  19. Development and testing of a bipolar lead-acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saakes, M.; Kluiters, E.; Schmal, D. [TNO Inst. of Environmental Sciences, Energy Research and Process Innovation, Apeldoorn (Netherlands); Mourad, S. [TNO Road-Vehicles Research Inst., Delft (Netherlands); Have, P.T.J.H. ten [Centurion Accumulatoren, Venlo (Netherlands)

    1999-03-01

    An 80 V bipolar lead-acid battery was constructed and tested using hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) drive cycles. Drive cycles with a peak power of 6.7 kW, equal to 1/5 of the total power profile required for the HEV studied, were run successfully. Model calculations showed that the 80 V module constructed, which is at the moment 2.5 times heavier than required for the HEV operation studied, can be optimised to meet the requirements. (orig.)

  20. Vibration Durability Testing of Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide (NCA Lithium-Ion 18650 Battery Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Michael Hooper

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines a study undertaken to determine if the electrical performance of Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide (NCA 3.1 Ah 18650 battery cells can be degraded by road induced vibration typical of an electric vehicle (EV application. This study investigates if a particular cell orientation within the battery assembly can result in different levels of cell degradation. The 18650 cells were evaluated in accordance with Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE J2380 standard. This vibration test is synthesized to represent 100,000 miles of North American customer operation at the 90th percentile. This study identified that both the electrical performance and the mechanical properties of the NCA lithium-ion cells were relatively unaffected when exposed to vibration energy that is commensurate with a typical vehicle life. Minor changes observed in the cell’s electrical characteristics were deemed not to be statistically significant and more likely attributable to laboratory conditions during cell testing and storage. The same conclusion was found, irrespective of cell orientation during the test.

  1. Carding Machine Operator 8-27.77 -- Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  2. Candy Packer (confection) 8-05.21--Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  3. Candy-Wrapping-Machine Operator (Confection) 920.885-034 -- Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  4. Mushroom Inspector (can. & preserv.) 9-68.60--Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  5. Autoclave Operator (chem.) 4-52.711--Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  6. Printed-Napkin-Machine Operator (paper goods) 649.885 -- Technical Report on Development of USTES Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first publihed in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  7. Tomato Peeler (can. & preserv.) 529.887 -- Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  8. Forester (profess. and Kin.) 0-35.07--Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  9. Precision Lens Grinder (optical goods) 5-08.071--Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  10. Compositor (print. and pub.) I 973.381 -- Technical Report on Development of USTES Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  11. Waitress (medical ser.) 2-27.89--Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  12. Waitress (hotel & rest.) 2-27.12--Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  13. Reliability and Responsiveness of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children--Second Edition Test in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuang, Yee-Pay; Su, Jui-Hsing; Su, Chwen-Yng

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To examine the internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and responsiveness of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children--Second Edition (MABC-2) Test for children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Method: One hundred and forty-four Taiwanese children with DCD aged 6 to 12 years (87 males, 57 females) were tested on…

  14. Individual Differences in Male Rats in a Behavioral Test Battery: A Multivariate Statistical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyissa, Daniel D; Aher, Yogesh D; Engidawork, Ephrem; Höger, Harald; Lubec, Gert; Korz, Volker

    2017-01-01

    Animal models for anxiety, depressive-like and cognitive diseases or aging often involve testing of subjects in behavioral test batteries. The large number of test variables with different mean variations and within and between test correlations often constitute a significant problem in determining essential variables to assess behavioral patterns and their variation in individual animals as well as appropriate statistical treatment. Therefore, we applied a multivariate approach (principal component analysis) to analyse the behavioral data of 162 male adult Sprague-Dawley rats that underwent a behavioral test battery including commonly used tests for spatial learning and memory (holeboard) and different behavioral patterns (open field, elevated plus maze, forced swim test) as well as for motor abilities (Rota rod). The high dimensional behavioral results were reduced to fewer components associated with spatial cognition, general activity, anxiety-, and depression-like behavior and motor ability. The loading scores of individual rats on these different components allow an assessment and the distribution of individual features in a population of animals. The reduced number of components can be used also for statistical calculations like appropriate sample sizes for valid discriminations between experimental groups, which otherwise have to be done on each variable. Because the animals were intact, untreated and experimentally naïve the results reflect trait patterns of behavior and thus individuality. The distribution of animals with high or low levels of anxiety, depressive-like behavior, general activity and cognitive features in a local population provides information of the probability of their appeareance in experimental samples and thus may help to avoid biases. However, such an analysis initially requires a large cohort of animals in order to gain a valid assessment.

  15. Bilingualism and performance on two widely used developmental neuropsychological test batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Linda C; Soveri, Anna; Räsänen, Pekka; Kärnä, Antti; Delatte, Sonia; Lagerström, Emma; Mård, Lena; Steffansson, Mikaela; Lehtonen, Minna; Laine, Matti

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of bilingualism on the two widely used developmental neuropsychological test batteries Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment, Second Edition (NEPSY-II) in children. The sample consisted of 100 Finland-Swedish children in two age groups. About half (n = 52) of the participants were early simultaneous bilinguals, and the other half (n = 48) were monolinguals. As no Finland-Swedish versions of the tests are available at the moment, both tests were translated and adapted to suit this population. The results revealed no difference in the performance between bilingual and monolingual children. This speaks against a cognitive advantage in bilingual children and indicates that development of separate norms for monolingual and bilingual children is not needed for clinical use.

  16. Self-administered screening for mild cognitive impairment: initial validation of a computerized test battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornatore, Jane B; Hill, Emory; Laboff, Jo Anne; McGann, Mary E

    2005-01-01

    The Computer-Administered Neuropsychological Screen for Mild Cognitive Impairment (CANS-MCI), a computer administered, scored, and interpreted touch screen battery was evaluated for its ability to detect mild cognitive impairment. Subjects were three hundred ten community-dwelling elders who enrolled in an National Institute on Aging (NIA)-funded study. One-month test-retest reliability correlations were all significant (pWeschler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) LMS-II test (ptests measure the intended cognitive dimensions of memory, language/spatial fluency, and executive function/mental control. Goodness-of-fit indicators were strong (Bentler Comparative Fit Index=0.99; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation=0.055). Initial validation analyses indicate that the CANS-MCI shows promise of being a reliable, valid screening tool in determining whether more intensive testing for early cognitive impairment is warranted.

  17. Reliability of a new test battery for fitness assessment of the European Astronaut corps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Nora; Thieschäfer, Lutz; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Damann, Volker; Mester, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    To optimise health for space missions, European astronauts follow specific conditioning programs before, during and after their flights. To evaluate the effectiveness of these programs, the European Space Agency conducts an Astronaut Fitness Assessment (AFA), but the test-retest reliability of elements within it remains unexamined. The reliability study described here presents a scientific basis for implementing the AFA, but also highlights challenges faced by operational teams supporting humans in such unique environments, especially with respect to health and fitness monitoring of crew members travelling not only into space, but also across the world. The AFA tests assessed parameters known to be affected by prolonged exposure to microgravity: aerobic capacity (VO2max), muscular strength (one repetition max, 1 RM) and power (vertical jumps), core stability, flexibility and balance. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC3.1), standard error of measurement and coefficient of variation were used to assess relative and absolute test-retest reliability. Squat and bench 1 RM (ICC3.1 = 0.94-0.99), hip flexion (ICC3.1 = 0.99) and left and right handgrip strength (ICC3.1 = 0.95 and 0.97), showed the highest test-retest reliability, followed by VO2max (ICC3.1 = 0.91), core strength (ICC3.1 = 0.78-0.89), hip extension (ICC3.1 = 0.63), the countermeasure (ICC3.1 = 0.76) and squat (ICC3.1 = 0.63) jumps, and single right- and left-leg jump height (ICC3.1 = 0.51 and 0.14). For balance, relative reliability ranged from ICC3.1 = 0.78 for path length (two legs, head tilted back, eyes open) to ICC3.1 = 0.04 for average rotation velocity (one leg, eyes closed). In a small sample (n = 8) of young, healthy individuals, the AFA battery of tests demonstrated acceptable test-retest reliability for most parameters except some balance and single-leg jump tasks. These findings suggest that, for the application with astronauts, most AFA tests appear appropriate to

  18. Development and Testing of an UltraBattery-Equipped Honda Civic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald Karner

    2012-04-01

    The UltraBattery retrofit project DP1.8 and Carbon Enriched project C3, performed by ECOtality North America (ECOtality) and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Advanced Lead Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC), are to demonstrate the suitability of advanced lead battery technology in Hybrid Electrical Vehicles (HEVs).

  19. JPL's electric and hybrid vehicles project: Project activities and preliminary test results. [power conditioning and battery charge efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, T. A.

    1980-01-01

    Efforts to achieve a 100 mile urban range, to reduce petroleum usage 40% to 70%, and to commercialize battery technology are discussed with emphasis on an all plastic body, four passenger car that is flywheel assisted and battery powered, and on an all metal body, four passenger car with front wheel drive and front motor. For the near term case, a parallel hybrid in which the electric motor and the internal combustion engine may directly power the drive wheels, is preferred to a series design. A five passenger car in which the electric motor and the gasoline engine both feed into the same transmission is discussed. Upgraded demonstration vehicles were tested using advanced lead acid, nickel zinc, nickel iron, and zinc chloride batteries to determine maximum acceleration, constant speed, and battery behavior. The near term batteries demonstrated significant improvement relative to current lead acid batteries. The increase in range was due to improved energy density, and ampere hour capacity, with relatively 1 small weight and volume differences.

  20. Ecotoxicological test batteries: results of a ring test promoted by DBU; Oekotoxikologische Testbatterien: Ergebnisse eines DBU-gefoerderten Ringtests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hund-Rinke, K.; Koerdel, W. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Molekularbiologie und Angewandte Oekologie (IME), Schmallenberg (Germany); Heiden, S.; Erb, R. (eds.)

    2002-07-01

    The goal of the present integrated project was to provide an innovative and integrative instrumentarium for assessing the quality of soils and soil substrates (contaminated and decontaminated soils). In addition to physicochemical methods this instrumentarium was also to make use of ecotoxicological tests, in pursuit of the dual goal of protecting human health and ecological soil functions. An essential prerequisite for this was the provision of a validated test battery for assessing soils and soil substrates. For this purpose ecotoxicological tests on soil eluates as well as terrestial tests were validated by means of ring tests. This was necessary because before this they were only standardised with respect to the effects of specific chemicals, not for use with soils and soil substrates. [German] Ziel des Verbundvorhabens ist die Bereitstellung eines integrativen innovativen Instrumentariums zur Bewertung der Qualitaet von Boeden und Bodensubstraten (belastete und gereinigte Boeden), das sich neben den chemisch-physikalischen Methoden auch auf oekotoxikologische Tests stuetzt, um neben dem Schutz der menschlichen Gesundheit auch das Ziel des Schutzes der oekologischen Bodenfunktionen realisieren zu koennen. Dazu bildet die Bereitstellung einer validierten ''Testbatterie'' zur Beurteilung von Boeden/Bodensubstraten die Voraussetzung. Daher werden oekotoxikologische Tests mit Bodeneluaten sowie terrestrische Tests, die zwar fuer die Erfassung von Wirkungen durch Chemikalien als Norm vorliegen, jedoch fuer die Testung von Boeden und Bodensubstraten noch validiert werden muessen, Ringtests unterworfen. (orig.)

  1. In vivo testing of a novel adjustable glaucoma drainage device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamarin, Adan; Stergiopulos, Nikos; Bigler, Stéphane; Mermoud, André; Moulin, Alexandre; Roy, Sylvain

    2014-10-14

    We report on the in vivo testing of a novel noninvasively adjustable glaucoma drainage device (AGDD), which features an adjustable outflow resistance, and assess the safety and efficiency of this implant. Under general anesthesia, the AGDD was implanted on seven white New Zealand rabbits for a duration of 4 months under a scleral flap in a way analogous to the Ex-PRESS device and set in an operationally closed position. The IOP was measured on a regular basis on the operated and control eyes using a rebound tonometer. Once a month the AGDD was adjusted noninvasively from its fully closed to its fully open position and the resulting pressure drop was measured. The contralateral eye was not operated and served as control. After euthanization, the eyes were collected for histology evaluation. The mean preoperative IOP was 11.1 ± 2.4 mm Hg. The IOP was significantly lower for the operated eye (6.8 ± 2 mm Hg) compared to the nonoperated eye (13.1 ± 1.6 mm Hg) during the first 8 days after surgery. When opening the AGDD from its fully closed to fully open position, the IOP dropped significantly from 11.2 ± 2.9 to 4.8 ± 0.9 mm Hg (P < 0.05). Implanting the AGDD is a safe and uncomplicated surgical procedure. The fluidic resistance was noninvasively adjustable during the postoperative period with the AGDD between its fully closed and fully open positions. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  2. On the Static Accuracy of Charge-Discharge Units Intended for Electrical Tests of High Capacity Li-ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrah, E. A.; Lobanov, D. K.; Kopylov, E. A.; Balakirev, R. V.; Fedchenko, A. S.

    2017-10-01

    Performing of the cycle testing according to the principles of Dynamic Stress Test can significantly reduce the overall time of development and production of batteries, which in turn allows reducing the cost of designing and testing of the spacecraft power systems. Performing of Dynamic Stress Test require special charge-discharge units that allows to perform a full cycle of electrical tests of batteries, including cyclic testing. Providing the required accuracy of measurement and stabilization of certain attributes of Li-ion battery operating modes is one of the problems that arise during thedevelopment of such charge-discharge units. The following attributes are of particular interest: charge and discharge currents, discharge powers, battery voltages. Analysis of the charge-discharge unit as a control system allows evaluating the steady-state stabilization error of the required attributes of the developed device. Moreover, using a digital integrator in the control system of the charge-discharge unit allows providing specified values of steady-state stabilization error of required attributes in different test modes.

  3. Evaluation of a Test Battery to Assess Perception of Music in Children With Cochlear Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Alexis T; Scattergood-Keepper, Lindsay; Carver, Courtney; Jiradejvong, Patpong; Butler, Caty; Limb, Charles J

    2014-06-01

    A number of studies have investigated music perception in adult cochlear implant (CI) users. However, little is known about how pediatric CI users perceive and process music, in part because suitable methods for assessing music perception in this population are lacking. Therefore, we developed the Music in Children With Cochlear Implants (MCCI) battery to assess music perception in pediatric CI users younger than 9 years. To pilot test the MCCI on a group of pediatric CI users to determine its feasibility for measuring music perception and to compare performance of CI users with that of normal-hearing (NH) control participants. The pilot test was conducted in an academic tertiary care center. The MCCI evaluated rhythm, pitch, melody, harmony, and timbre perception. For each section, 10 pediatric CI users and 10 NH controls were presented with a pair of stimuli that possibly varied along a single musical element (eg, rhythm). Participants were required to indicate whether the stimuli in the pair were the same or different. Administration of the MCCI. Percentage correct on each section of the MCCI and the aggregate score of all sections by group. The MCCI provided a basic characterization of musical perceptual abilities. In the aggregate, NH controls significantly outperformed CI users in music perception (mean [SD] accuracy for CI users vs NH controls: rhythm, 73% [20%] vs 78% [20%]; pitch, 84% [12%] vs 91% [13%]; melody, 65% [16%] vs 75% [18%]; harmony, 74% [13%] vs 75% [14%]; and timbre, 80% [17%] vs 90% [12%]; repeated-measures analysis of variance, F1,17 = 9.3; P musical stimuli, although not to the extent of their NH peers. The MCCI provided an efficient and user-friendly assessment of music perception in pediatric CI users. This test battery may serve as a valuable tool to evaluate music perceptual abilities of pediatric CI users and measure the effects of interventions.

  4. Evaluation of genotoxicity through micronuclei test in workers of car and battery repair garages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Martino-Roth

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the micronuclei test (MNT was applied in exfoliated cells of buccal mucosa, in order to evaluate the genotoxic risk associated with occupational exposure of mechanics, storage battery renovation workers, and car painters. For each individual, 3000 exfoliated buccal cells were analyzed. There was a significantly higher frequency of micronucleated cells (MNC in the exposed workers than in controls. Smoking and drinking habits, age, and working time did not represent significant factors in terms of increasing the production of micronuclei (MN, when the control and the exposed groups were compared. These results allowed to conclude that the studied individuals belong to a risk group and should periodically undergo biological monitoring and proper care.

  5. Test battery for measuring the perception and recognition of facial expressions of emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Oliver; Hildebrandt, Andrea; Manske, Karsten; Schacht, Annekathrin; Sommer, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Despite the importance of perceiving and recognizing facial expressions in everyday life, there is no comprehensive test battery for the multivariate assessment of these abilities. As a first step toward such a compilation, we present 16 tasks that measure the perception and recognition of facial emotion expressions, and data illustrating each task's difficulty and reliability. The scoring of these tasks focuses on either the speed or accuracy of performance. A sample of 269 healthy young adults completed all tasks. In general, accuracy and reaction time measures for emotion-general scores showed acceptable and high estimates of internal consistency and factor reliability. Emotion-specific scores yielded lower reliabilities, yet high enough to encourage further studies with such measures. Analyses of task difficulty revealed that all tasks are suitable for measuring emotion perception and emotion recognition related abilities in normal populations. PMID:24860528

  6. Testing ESL sociopragmatics development and validation of a web-based test battery

    CERN Document Server

    Roever, Carsten; Elder, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Testing of second language pragmatics has grown as a research area but still suffers from a tension between construct coverage and practicality. In this book, the authors describe the development and validation of a web-based test of second language pragmatics for learners of English. The test has a sociopragmatic orientation and strives for a broad coverage of the construct by assessing learners'' metapragmatic judgments as well as their ability to co-construct discourse. To ensure practicality, the test is delivered online and is scored partially automatically and partially by human raters.

  7. In vivo tests of thermodynamic models of transcription repressor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tungtur, Sudheer; Skinner, Harlyn; Zhan, Hongli; Swint-Kruse, Liskin; Beckett, Dorothy

    2011-11-01

    One emphasis of the Gibbs Conference on Biothermodynamics is the value of thermodynamic measurements for understanding behaviors of biological systems. In this study, the correlation between thermodynamic measurements of in vitro DNA binding affinity with in vivo transcription repression was investigated for two transcription repressors. In the first system, which comprised an engineered LacI/GalR homolog, mutational changes altered the equilibrium constant for binding DNA. Changes correlated with altered repression, but estimates of in vivo repressor concentration suggest a ≥25-fold discrepancy with in vitro conditions. In the second system, changes in ligand binding to BirA altered dimerization and subsequent DNA occupancy. Again, these changes correlate with altered in vivo repression, but comparison with in vitro measurements reveals a ~10-fold discrepancy. Further analysis of each system suggests that the observed discrepancies between in vitro and in vivo results reflect the contributions of additional equilibria to the transcription repression process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A Comparison of the Abilities Measured by the Cambridge and Educational Testing Service EFL Test Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Lyle F.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The abilities measured by the First Certificate of English (FCE) administered by the Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate are compared with the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) administered by the Educational Testing Service. The analyses suggest that the FCE and TOEFL appear to measure the same common aspect of language…

  9. Visual Working Memory and Perception Speed of 3- to 6-Year-Old Children Tested with a Matrix Film Battery Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittorf, Martin L.; Lehmann, Wolfgang; Huckauf, Anke

    2014-01-01

    In this study the visual working memory (VWM) and perception speed of 60 children between the ages of three and six years were tested with an age-based, easy-to-handle Matrix Film Battery Test (reliability R?=?0.71). It was thereby affirmed that the VWM is age dependent (correlation coefficient r?=?0.66***) as expected. Furthermore, a significant…

  10. Decline of Executive Function in a Clinical Population: Age, Psychopathology, and Test Performance on the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, G.T.L.; Aken, L. van; Mey, H.R.A. De; Witteman, C.L.M.; Egger, J.I.M.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a cross-sectional examination of the age-related executive changes in a sample of adults with a history of psychiatric illness using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. A total of 406 patients, aged 18 to 72 years old, completed executive function tests of

  11. Technical Report on Development of USES Specific Aptitude Test Battery for Nurse Aid (Medical Ser.) 355.878.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Employment Service.

    Research which resulted in the development of the United States Employment Service Specific Aptitude Test Battery for use in selecting inexperienced and untrained individuals for training as nurse aids is described. Occupational norms were established in terms of each significant aptitude measure which when combined, predict job performance.…

  12. Development of Bengali Audio-Visual Test Battery for Assessment of Pragmatic Skills: Preliminary Normative Data Based on Educational Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Madhushree; Biswas, Atanu; Pal, Sandip; Chatterjee, Amita

    2017-01-01

    Pragmatic competence may be disrupted due to psychological and neurological causes. For appropriate remedy and rehabilitation, a precise assessment of pragmatic skills is important. However, there is no test battery in the Bengali language, and consequently, there is no published data on pragmatic ability of Bengali speakers. Due to the vast…

  13. Field-based fitness assessment in young people: the ALPHA health-related fitness test battery for children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Jonatan R; Castro-Piñero, José; España-Romero, Vanesa; Artero, Enrique G; Ortega, Francisco B; Cuenca, Magdalena M; Jimenez-Pavón, David; Chillón, Palma; Girela-Rejón, María J; Mora, Jesús; Gutiérrez, Angel; Suni, Jaana; Sjöström, Michael; Castillo, Manuel J

    2011-05-01

    The present study summarises the work developed by the ALPHA (Assessing Levels of Physical Activity) study and describes the procedures followed to select the tests included in the ALPHA health-related fitness test battery for children and adolescents. The authors reviewed physical fitness and health in youth findings from cross-sectional studies. The authors also performed three systematic reviews dealing with (1) the predictive validity of health-related fitness, (2) the criterion validity of field-based fitness tests and (3) the reliability of field-based fitness tests in youth. The authors also carried out 11-methodological studies to determine the criterion validity and the reliability of several field-based fitness tests for youth. Finally, the authors performed a study in the school setting to examine the reliability, feasibility and safety of the selected tests. The selected fitness tests were (1) the 20 m shuttle run test to assess cardiorespiratory fitness; (2) the handgrip strength and (3) standing broad jump to assess musculoskeletal fitness, and (4) body mass index, (5) skinfold thickness and (5) waist circumference to assess body composition. When there are time limits, the authors propose the high-priority ALPHA health-related fitness test battery, which comprises all the evidence-based fitness tests except the measurement of the skinfold thickness. The time required to administer this battery to a group of 20 youth by one physical education teacher is less than 2 h. In conclusion, the ALPHA fitness tests battery is valid, reliable, feasible and safe for the assessment of health-related physical fitness in children and adolescents to be used for health monitoring purposes at population level.

  14. Physical fitness and future cardiovascular risk in argentine children and adolescents: an introduction to the ALPHA test battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secchi, Jeremías David; García, Gastón César; España-Romero, Vanesa; Castro-Piñero, José

    2014-04-01

    A high level of physical fitness is associated with cardiovascular health in children and adolescents. At present, there is no systematic implementation of a test battery to assess physical fitness at schools in Argentina. The main objective of this study was to implement the ALPHA test battery to determine the physical fitness of a sample made up of Argentine children and adolescents and to establish the proportion of subjects whose aerobic capacity is indicative of future cardiovascular risk. A sample of 1867 participants (967 girls) aged 6 to 19.5 years old assessed using the ALPHA test battery. Four components of physical fitness were measured: 1) morphological component: height, body weight, and waist circumference; 2) musculoskeletal component: standing long jump test; 3) motor component: speed/agility test (4x10 m shuttle run); 4) cardiorespiratory component: course-navette 20 m, shuttle run test and estimation of maximal oxygen consumption. The 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 95th percentiles were estimated for the main tests. The mean body mass index was 20.8 kg/m2, and 7.8% of participants were classified as obese. In ddition, male participants had a better performance in all physical fitness tests when compared to girls (pfitness. Such differences increase with age. Approximately one every three participants had an aerobic capacity indicative of future cardiovascular risk.

  15. Strain-specific battery of tests for domains of mania: effects of valproate, lithium and imipramine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlomit Flaisher-Grinberg

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The lack of efficient animal models for bipolar disorder (BPD, especially for the manic pole, is a major factor hindering the research of its pathophysiology and the development of improved drug treatments. The present study was designed to identify an appropriate mouse strain for modeling some behavioral domains of mania and to evaluate the effects of drugs using this strain. The study compared the behavior of four strains: Black Swiss, C57Bl/6, CBA/J and A/J mice in a battery of tests that included spontaneous activity; sweet solution preference; light/dark box; resident-intruder; forced-swim and amphetamine-induced hyperactivity. Based on the ‘manic-like’ behavior demonstrated by the Black Swiss strain, the study evaluated the effects of the mood stabilizers valproate and lithium and of the antidepressant imipramine in the same tests using this strain. Results indicated that lithium and valproate attenuate the ‘manic-like’ behavior of Black Swiss mice whereas imipramine had no effects. These findings suggest that Black Swiss mice might be a good choice for modeling several domains of mania and distinguishing the effects of drugs on these specific domains. However, the relevance of the behavioral phenotype of Black Swiss mice to the biology of BPD is unknown at this time and future studies will investigate molecular differences between Black Swiss mice and other strains and asess the interaction between strain and mood stabilizing treatment.

  16. Post-test analysis of lithium-ion battery materials at Argonne National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bareno, Javier; Dietz-Rago, Nancy; Bloom, Ira

    2014-03-01

    Electrochemical performance is often limited by surface and interfacial reactions at the electrodes. However, routine handling of samples can alter the very surfaces that are the object of study. Our approach combines standardized testing of batteries with sample harvesting under inert atmosphere conditions. Cells of different formats are disassembled inside an Argon glove box with controlled water and oxygen concentrations below 2 ppm. Cell components are characterized in situ, guaranteeing that observed changes in physicochemical state are due to electrochemical operation, rather than sample manipulation. We employ a complementary set of spectroscopic, microscopic, electrochemical and metallographic characterization to obtain a complete picture of cell degradation mechanisms. The resulting information about observed degradation mechanisms is provided to materials developers, both academic and industrial, to suggest new strategies and speed up the Research & Development cycle of Li-ion and related technologies. This talk will describe Argonne's post-test analysis laboratory, with an emphasis on capabilities and opportunities for collaboration. Cell disassembly, sample harvesting procedures and recent results will be discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Vehicle Technologies, Hybrid and Electric Systems, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  17. Development and Standardization of a New Cognitive Assessment Test Battery for Chinese Aphasic Patients: A Preliminary Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Ji-Bao; Lyu, Zhi-Hong; Liu, Xiao-Jia; Li, Hai-Peng; Wang, Qi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Nonlinguistic cognitive impairment has become an important issue for aphasic patients, but currently there are few neuropsychological cognitive assessment tests for it. To get more information on cognitive impairment of aphasic patients, this study aimed to develop a new cognitive assessment test battery for aphasic patients, the Non-language-based Cognitive Assessment (NLCA), and evaluate its utility in Chinese-speaking patients with aphasia. Methods: The NLCA consists of five no...

  18. Development and Standardization of a New Cognitive Assessment Test Battery for Chinese Aphasic Patients: A Preliminary Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ji-Bao Wu; Zhi-Hong Lyu; Xiao-Jia Liu; Hai-Peng Li; Qi Wang

    2017-01-01

    Background: Nonlinguistic cognitive impairment has become an important issue for aphasic patients, but currently there are few neuropsychological cognitive assessment tests for it. To get more information on cognitive impairment of aphasic patients, this study aimed to develop a new cognitive assessment test battery for aphasic patients, the Non-language-based Cognitive Assessment (NLCA), and evaluate its utility in Chinese-speaking patients with aphasia. Methods: The NLCA consists of five...

  19. Using basketball test battery to monitor players with mental retardation across 2 sports seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldari, Carlo; Franciosi, Emanuele; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Reis, Victor Machado; Guidetti, Laura

    2009-11-01

    Although sport for athletes with mental retardation (MR) is achieving an important role, literature concerning basketball test and training is still poor. The aims of this study were to assess basketball ability before (PRE) and after (POST) a 6-month training in athletes with MR across 2 sports seasons (ss) and to analyze the variation of basketball abilities by subjects' MR level. Fifteen trained basketball players with MR participated (11 men and 4 women; age range 19-43 years; MR: 3 Mild, 8 Moderate, 3 Severe, and 1 Profound). Athletes were tested PRE and POST a 6-month training during 2 following sports seasons (ss1 and ss2). The tests assessed 4 ability levels, each one characterized by the analysis of 4 fundamental areas (ball handling, reception, passing, and shooting), divided into 5 specific components. The athletes' global score improved after training in both ss1 (41.5 +/- 12.0 vs. 48.6 +/- 15.4; p < 0.01) and ss2 (41.7 +/- 12.4 vs. 50.8 +/- 16.2; p < 0.01). Levels II, III, and IV showed an increase both after each ss and the 2 following ss (p < 0.01). No significant difference was found between POST-ss1 and POST-ss2 due to score decrease during the resting period between the 2 ss. In both ss, global and level scores were negatively correlated to MR level indicating that athletes with a lower MR obtained higher ability scores. In conclusion, a 6-month training caused a general improvement, especially evident in levels II and III in both ss. Global and level scores were negatively correlated to MR level (p < 0.05) indicating that athletes with a lower MR obtained higher scores. Therefore, the basketball test battery could be useful for improving and monitoring training.

  20. Modafinil and cognitive enhancement in schizophrenia and healthy volunteers: the effects of test battery in a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, J; Michalopoulou, P G; Lewis, S W; Preston, S; Bamford, C; Collier, T; Kalpakidou, A; Wykes, T; Emsley, R; Pandina, G; Kapur, S; Drake, R J

    2017-10-01

    Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia have major functional impacts. Modafinil is a cognitive enhancer whose effect in healthy volunteers is well-described, but whose effects on the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia appear to be inconsistent. Two possible reasons for this are that cognitive test batteries vary in their sensitivity, or that the phase of illness may be important, with patients early in their illness responding better. A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled single-dose crossover study of modafinil 200 mg examined this with two cognitive batteries [MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) and Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB)] in 46 participants with under 3 years' duration of DSM-IV schizophrenia, on stable antipsychotic medication. In parallel, the same design was used in 28 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy volunteers. Uncorrected p values were calculated using mixed effects models. In patients, modafinil significantly improved CANTAB Paired Associate Learning, non-significantly improved efficiency and significantly slowed performance of the CANTAB Stockings of Cambridge spatial planning task. There was no significant effect on any MCCB domain. In healthy volunteers, modafinil significantly increased CANTAB Rapid Visual Processing, Intra-Extra Dimensional Set Shifting and verbal recall accuracy, and MCCB social cognition performance. The only significant differences between groups were in MCCB visual learning. As in earlier chronic schizophrenia studies, modafinil failed to produce changes in cognition in early psychosis as measured by MCCB. CANTAB proved more sensitive to the effects of modafinil in participants with early schizophrenia and in healthy volunteers. This confirms the importance of selecting the appropriate test battery in treatment studies of cognition in schizophrenia.

  1. In vivo and in vitro testing for selenium and selenium compounds bioavailability assessment in foodstuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreda-Piñeiro, Jorge; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar

    2017-03-04

    The assessment of selenium and selenium species bioavailability in foodstuff is of special concern on the context of human nutrition. In vivo (human and animal), and in vitro tests are important approaches for estimating the bioavailability of toxic and essential compounds to humans. An overview on in vivo and in vitro bioavailability assays for releasing selenium and selenium species in foodstuffs is summarized. Se and Se species content in a foodstuff critically influence Se bioavailability and bioactivity to humans and animals. Se bioavailability is affected by foodstuff-matrix major composition and minor components. Foodstuffs processing and/or treatments could enhancement or decrease Se bioavailability. Experimental conditions such as the selection of healthy status of examined people (in in vivo humans approaches), the selection of animal model (in vivo animals approaches), or the selection of GI conditions (in in vitro tests) could determines the results. Thus, international standardized protocol for in vivo and in vitro approaches assessment is mandatory.

  2. Analisis Teoritis dan Empiris Uji Craps dari Diehard Battery of Randomness Test untuk Pengujian Pembangkit Bilangan Acaksemu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Agustini Hafman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available According to Kerchoffs (1883, the security system should only rely on cryptographic keys which is used in that system. Generally, the key sequences are generated by a Pseudo Random Number Generator (PRNG or Random Number Generator (RNG. There are three types of randomness sequences that generated by the RNG and PRNG i.e. pseudorandom sequence, cryptographically secure pseudorandom sequences, and real random sequences. Several statistical tests, including diehard battery of tests of randomness, is used to check the type of randomness sequences that generated by PRNG or RNG. Due to its purpose, the principle on taking the testing parameters and the test statistic are associated with the validity of the conclusion produced by a statistical test, then the theoretical analysis is performed by applying a variety of statistical theory to evaluate craps test, one of the test included in the diehard battery of randomness tests. Craps test, inspired by craps game, aims to examine whether a PRNG produces an independent and identically distributed (iid pseudorandom sequences. To demonstrate the process to produce a test statistics equation and to show how craps games applied on that test, will be carried out theoretical analysis by applying a variety of statistical theory. Furthermore, empirical observations will be done by applying craps test on a PRNG in order to check the test effectiveness in detecting the distribution and independency of sequences which produced by PRNG

  3. Old world monkeys compare to apes in the primate cognition test battery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Schmitt

    Full Text Available Understanding the evolution of intelligence rests on comparative analyses of brain sizes as well as the assessment of cognitive skills of different species in relation to potential selective pressures such as environmental conditions and social organization. Because of the strong interest in human cognition, much previous work has focused on the comparison of the cognitive skills of human toddlers to those of our closest living relatives, i.e. apes. Such analyses revealed that apes and children have relatively similar competencies in the physical domain, while human children excel in the socio-cognitive domain; in particular in terms of attention sharing, cooperation, and mental state attribution. To develop a full understanding of the evolutionary dynamics of primate intelligence, however, comparative data for monkeys are needed. We tested 18 Old World monkeys (long-tailed macaques and olive baboons in the so-called Primate Cognition Test Battery (PCTB (Herrmann et al. 2007, Science. Surprisingly, our tests revealed largely comparable results between Old World monkeys and the Great apes. Single comparisons showed that chimpanzees performed only better than the macaques in experiments on spatial understanding and tool use, but in none of the socio-cognitive tasks. These results question the clear-cut relationship between cognitive performance and brain size and--prima facie--support the view of an accelerated evolution of social intelligence in humans. One limitation, however, is that the initial experiments were devised to tap into human specific skills in the first place, thus potentially underestimating both true nonhuman primate competencies as well as species differences.

  4. The Munich High Ability Test Battery (MHBT: A multidimensional, multimethod approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTOPH PERLETH

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available After a brief introduction the theoretical basis of the Munich High Ability Test-Battery (MHBT will be outlined in the first part of the article. The MHBT has been developed in the framework of the Munich longitudinal study of giftedness and talent. The MHBT includes not only cognitive predictors measuring several dimensions and types of giftedness concerning intellectual, creative or social abilities etc., but also giftedness-relevant non-cognitive personality and social moderators measuring interests, motivations, learning emotions, self-concepts or family and school climate, educational style, quality of instruction, etc. The MHBT-instruments (different scales and dimensions are described in greater detail.In the second part of the article, after dealing with the objectivity, the reliability, and the validity of the MHBT, the authors discuss the standardization procedure including the development of grade-based T-norms respectively as well as several talent-profiles, e.g. of gifted achievers vs. underachievers, intellectual, creative, social talents or linguistic, math, science talent profiles etc. Finally, examples of talent search for gifted programs and case studies on the basis of MHBT should illustrate multidimensional identification procedures.The MHBT fulfills the most relevant assessment tasks belonging to the gifted educational and counseling practice. The usefulness of the MHBT in the framework of giftedness research as well as of gifted program evaluation studies has also been proven in the last decade. Hence the MHBT offers many opportunities to assessing giftedness and talent.

  5. Report of NPSAT1 Battery Thermal Contact Resistance Testing, Modeling and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    environment (sunlight and eclipse portions of the orbit, earth albedo , etc.) and duty cycling of the electronics for internal heat generation. A network of...polycarbonate sheets and stainless steel fasteners. A thermally conductive elastomeric material, Chotherm®, is used between the housing and the...polycarbonate sheets to help distribute heat among the battery cells. The Chotherm® comes in direct contact with the leads of the battery cells. A 5-Watt

  6. Vibration Durability Testing of Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide (NCA) Lithium-Ion 18650 Battery Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hooper, James Michael; Marco, James; Chouchelamane, Gael Henri; Lyness, Christopher; Taylor, James

    2016-01-01

    This paper outlines a study undertaken to determine if the electrical performance of Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide (NCA) 3.1 Ah 18650 battery cells can be degraded by road induced vibration typical of an electric vehicle (EV) application. This study investigates if a particular cell orientation within the battery assembly can result in different levels of cell degradation. The 18650 cells were evaluated in accordance with Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) J2380 standard. This vibration tes...

  7. The RAPID-II Neuropsychological Test battery for subjects aged 20 to 49 years: Norms and cognitive profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binetruy, M; Mauny, F; Lavaux, M; Meyer, A; Sylvestre, G; Puyraveau, M; Berger, E; Magnin, E; Vandel, P; Galmiche, J; Chopard, G

    2017-06-30

    Cognitive evaluation of young subjects is now widely carried out for non-traumatic diseases such as multiple sclerosis, HIV, or sleep disorders. This evaluation requires normative data based on healthy adult samples. However, most clinicians use a set of tests that were normed in an isolated manner from different samples using different cutoff criteria. Thus, the score of an individual may be considered either normal or impaired according to the norms used. It is well established that healthy adults obtained low-test scores when a battery of tests is administered. Thus, the knowledge of low base rates is required so as to minimize false diagnosis of cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was twofold (1) to provide normative data for RAPID-II battery in healthy adults, and (2) estimate the proportion of healthy adults having low scores across this battery. Norms for the 44 test scores of the RAPID-II test battery were developed using the overall sample of 335 individuals based on three categories of age (20 to 29, 30 to 39, and 40 to 49 years) and two educational levels: Baccalaureate or higher educational degree (high educational level), lower than baccalaureate (low educational level). The 5th, 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles were calculated from the six age and education subsamples and used to define norms. The frequency of low scores on the RAPID-II battery was calculated by simultaneously examining the performance of 33 primary scores. A low score was defined as less than or equal to the 5th percentile drawn from the six age and education normative subsamples. In addition, the percentages of low scores were also determined when all possible combinations of two-test scores across the RAPID-II were considered in the overall normative sample. Our data showed that 59.4% subjects of the normative sample obtained at least one or more low score. With more than 9 test scores, this percentage was equal to 0% in the normative sample. Among all combinations of two-test

  8. Interseason variability of a functional movement test, the 9+ screening battery, in professional male football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakken, A; Targett, S; Bere, T; Eirale, C; Farooq, A; Tol, J L; Whiteley, R; Witvrouw, E; Khan, K M; Bahr, R

    2017-07-01

    The Nine Plus screening battery test (9+) is a functional movement test intended to identify limitations in fundamental movement patterns predisposing athletes to injury. However, the interseason variability is unknown. To examine the variability of the 9+ test between 2 consecutive seasons in professional male football players. Asymptomatic Qatar Star League players (n=220) completed the 9+ at the beginning of the 2013 and 2014 seasons. Time-loss injuries in training and matches were obtained from the Aspetar Injury and Illness Surveillance Program. No intervention was initiated between test occasions. A significant increase in the mean total score of 1.6 points (95% CI 1.0 to 2.2, p<0.001) was found from season 1 (22.2±4.1 (SD)) to season 2 (23.8±3.3). The variability was large, as shown by an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.24 (95% CI 0.11 to 0.36) and a minimal detectable change (MDC) of 8.7 points. Of the 220 players, 136 (61.8%) suffered a time-loss injury between the 2 tests. There was an improvement in mean total scores in the injured (+2.0±0.4 (SE), p<0.001) group but not in the uninjured group (+0.9±0.5, p=0.089). The variability from season 1 to season 2 was large both in the injured (ICC 0.25, 0.09 to 0.40, MDC 8.3) and uninjured (ICC 0.24, 0.02 to 0.43, MDC 9.1) groups. The 9+ demonstrated substantial intraindividual variability in the total score between 2 consecutive seasons, irrespective of injury. A change above 8 points is necessary to represent a real change in the 9+ test between seasons. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. The concurrent validity of the technical test battery as an indicator of work performance in a telecommunications company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marelize Barnard

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the concurrent validity of the Technical Test Battery (TTB in a South African telecommunications institution. The Technical Test Battery (TTB was administered to a sample of 107 technical officers. Their test scores were compared to the scores obtained from a job performance rating scale specifically designed for this position on the basis of a thorough job analysis. The TTB demonstrated high concurrent validity as an indicator of work performance for technical posts in the telecommunications environment. These results suggest that the TTB may have a high predictive validity for performance in technical positions. The findings and implications of the study are discussed. Opsomming Die doel van hierdie studie was om die samevallende geldigheid van die “Technical Test Battery (TTB�? in ’n Suid-Afrikaanse telekommunikasie instansie te bepaal. Die TTB is op ’n steekproef van 107 tegniese personeel toegepas. Die toetstellings is in verband gebring met die tellings van ’n werksprestasiemaatstaf wat spesifiek vir die pos ontwikkel is op grond van ’n deeglike posanalise. Daar is bevind dat die TTB ’n hoë samevallende geldigheid as aanduider van werksprestasie vir tegniese poste in the telekommunikasiebedryf toon. Dié resultate dui op ’n sterk moontlikheid dat die TTB ’n goeie voorspeller van werksprestasie vir tegniese beroepe kan wees. Die bevindinge en implikasies van die studie word bespreek.

  10. Value of the in vitro or in vivo monoethylglycinexylidide test for predicting liver graft function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olinga, Peter; Maring, J.K; Groothuis, Geny; Kranenburg, K; Hof, I.H; Meijer, D.K F; Slooff, M.JH; Merema, M.T.

    1997-01-01

    Background. An adequate function test for donor livers is still lacking, The monoethylglycinexylidide (MEGX) test, performed in vivo in the donor to measure the metabolic rate of lidocaine conversion to MEGX, has been proposed as a function test for donor livers to predict postoperative organ

  11. Proliferation assays for estrogenicity testing with high predictive value for the in vivo uterotrophic effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, S.; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.; Evers, N.M.; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M.; Rietjens, I.; Bovee, T.F.H.

    2012-01-01

    Proliferation assays based on human cell lines are the most used in vitro tests to determine estrogenic properties of compounds. Our objective was to characterise to what extent these in vitro tests provide alternatives for the in vivo Allen and Doisy test, a uterotrophic assay in immature or

  12. A comparative neuropsychological test battery differentiates cognitive signatures of Fragile X and Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, C S; Boutet, I; Cornish, K; Graham, G E; Berry-Kravis, E; Drouin, A; Milgram, N W

    2009-02-01

    Standardised neuropsychological and cognitive measures present some limitations in their applicability and generalisability to individuals with intellectual disability (ID). Alternative approaches to defining the cognitive signatures of various forms of ID are needed to advance our understanding of the profiles of strengths and weaknesses as well as the affected brain areas. To evaluate the utility and feasibility of six non-verbal comparative neuropsychological (CN) tasks administered in a modified version of the Wisconsin General Test Apparatus (WGTA) to confirm and extend our knowledge of unique cognitive signatures of Fragile X syndrome (FXS) and Down syndrome (DS). A test battery of CN tasks adapted from the animal literature was administered in a modified WGTA. Tasks were selected that have established or emerging brain-behaviour relationships in the domains of visual-perceptual, visual-spatial, working memory and inhibition. Despite the fact that these tasks revealed cognitive signatures for the two ID groups, only some hypotheses were supported. Results suggest that whereas individuals with DS were relatively impaired on visual-perceptual and visual-spatial reversal learning tasks they showed strengths in egocentric spatial learning and object discrimination tasks. Individuals with FXS were relatively impaired on object discrimination learning and reversal tasks, which was attributable to side preferences. In contrast, these same individuals exhibited strengths in egocentric spatial learning and reversal tasks as well as on an object recognition memory task. Both ID groups demonstrated relatively poor performance for a visual-spatial working memory task. Performance on the modified WGTA tasks differentiated cognitive signatures between two of the most common forms of ID. Results are discussed in the context of the literature on the cognitive and neurobiological features of FXS and DS.

  13. Development of Bengali Audio-Visual Test Battery for Assessment of Pragmatic Skills: Preliminary Normative Data Based on Educational Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Madhushree; Biswas, Atanu; Pal, Sandip; Chatterjee, Amita

    2017-04-01

    Pragmatic competence may be disrupted due to psychological and neurological causes. For appropriate remedy and rehabilitation, a precise assessment of pragmatic skills is important. However, there is no test battery in the Bengali language, and consequently, there is no published data on pragmatic ability of Bengali speakers. Due to the vast diversity of the population, it becomes increasingly difficult to assess pragmatic ability of an individual without a proper knowledge of the normal variations. To address this problem we have developed a test battery in Bengali, and to begin with, we have administered it to one hundred and five (105) normal healthy persons having different levels of education. The four groups having 17 years and above, 15 to education yielded a normative score of 193, 189, 171 and 150, respectively. These normative scores will allow clinicians to make a proper assessment of patients suffering from pragmatic deficits and help avoid interpreting social differences as neurological deficits.

  14. Results from a round robin test for the ecotoxicological evaluation of construction products using two leaching tests and an aquatic test battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartiser, Stefan; Heisterkamp, Ines; Schoknecht, Ute; Burkhardt, Michael; Ratte, Monika; Ilvonen, Outi; Brauer, Frank; Brückmann, Jan; Dabrunz, André; Egeler, Philipp; Eisl, Andrea-Maria; Feiler, Ute; Fritz, Ines; König, Sabina; Lebertz, Herbert; Pandard, Pascal; Pötschke, Gabriele; Scheerbaum, Dirk; Schreiber, Frank; Soldán, Přemysl; Weiß, Roland; Weltens, Reinhilde

    2017-05-01

    A European round robin test according to ISO 5725-2 was conceptually prepared, realised, and evaluated. The aim was to determine the inter-laboratory variability of the overall process for the ecotoxicological characterization of construction products in eluates and bioassays. To this end, two construction products BAM-G1 (granulate) and HSR-2 (roof sealing sheet), both made of EPDM polymers (rubber), were selected. The granular construction product was eluted in a one stage batch test, the planar product in the Dynamic Surface Leaching test (DSLT). A total of 17 laboratories from 5 countries participated in the round robin test: Germany (12), Austria (2), Belgium (1), Czech Republic (1) and France (1). A test battery of four standardised ecotoxicity tests with algae, daphnia, luminescent bacteria and zebrafish eggs was used. As toxicity measures, EC50 and LID values were calculated. All tests, except the fish egg test, were basically able to demonstrate toxic effects and the level of toxicity. The reproducibility of test results depended on the test specimens and the test organisms. Generally, the variability of the EC50 or LID values increased with the overall level of toxicity. For the very toxic BAM-G1 eluate a relative high variability of CV = 73%-110% was observed for EC50 in all biotests, while for the less toxic HSR-2 eluate the reproducibility of EC50 varied with sensitivity: it was very good (CV = 9.3%) for the daphnia test with the lowest sensitivity, followed by the algae test (CV = 36.4%). The luminescent bacteria test, being the most sensitive bioassay for HSR-2 Eluate, showed the highest variability (CV = 74.8%). When considering the complex overall process the reproducibility of bioassays with eluates from construction products was acceptable. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. No evidence of potentiation of buprenorphine by milnacipran in healthy subjects using a nociceptive test battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okkerse, P; Alvarez-Jimenez, R; Hay, J L; Tehim, A; Kumar, R; de Kam, M L; Groeneveld, G J

    2017-03-01

    Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors inhibit the reuptake of serotonin and noradrenalin and are used in the treatment of neuropathic pain. Animal studies suggest that milnacipran co-administered with opioids may potentiate the analgesic effect of μ-opioid receptor agonists. This study hypothesized that co-administration of milnacipran and buprenorphine would have a synergistic effect in evoked pain models in healthy subjects. This was a randomized double-blinded, placebo-controlled, four-way cross-over, multiple dose clinical trial to investigate the analgesic effects of buprenorphine (placebo, 0.5, 1 and 3 μg/kg) in combination with milnacipran (placebo, 25 and 50 mg) in healthy subjects. 11 healthy men were enrolled in the study. Buprenorphine alone showed a dose-response relationship indicative of anti-nociception in the pain tests. Following milnacipran administration, no changes were seen in the pharmacodynamic measurements for pain, psychomotor function, body stability or eye movements. For the electrical tests, cold pressor test and pressure pain test, buprenorphine alone was superior when compared with buprenorphine plus milnacipran. No differences in pharmacodynamic variables, besides an increase in pupil/iris ratio, were observed after repeated administration of milnacipran 50 mg. Single and multiple doses of 25 or 50 mg milnacipran did not further potentiate the anti-nociceptive effects of buprenorphine. Buprenorphine showed dose-dependent effects consistent with its pharmacological profile. Milnacipran alone did not affect any of the pain variables. The combination of both buprenorphine and milnacipran did not potentiate or show a synergistic effect on the pain models used in this study. Buprenorphine is known to be a potent opioid agonist. Animal studies suggest that milnacipran co-administered with opioids may potentiate the analgesic effect of μ-opioid receptor agonists. Here, we found that buprenorphine showed a dose

  16. In vivo mutagenicity testing of irradiated dates in Drosophila melanogaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, U.; Wuergler, F.E.

    1982-11-01

    As part of a programme of short-term tests used to detect possible genetic toxicity in irradiated foodstuffs, larvae of Drosophila melanogaster were raised on unirradiated or irradiated whole dates or on a medium containing digests of unirradiated or irradiated dates. Germ cells of surviving male flies were tested for the presence of sex-linked recessive lethals. The results showed no evidence of mutagenic activity induced in dates by irradiation. This provides further support of the lack of genetic toxicity of irradiated foods.

  17. Button batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swallowing batteries ... These devices use button batteries: Calculators Cameras Hearing aids Penlights Watches ... If a person puts the battery up their nose and breathes it further in, ... problems Cough Pneumonia (if the battery goes unnoticed) ...

  18. Psychometric properties and convergent and predictive validity of an executive function test battery for two-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Hanna; Hoofs, Huub; Verhagen, Josje; van der Veen, Ineke; Leseman, Paul P M

    2014-01-01

    Executive function (EF) is an important predictor of numerous developmental outcomes, such as academic achievement and behavioral adjustment. Although a plethora of measurement instruments exists to assess executive function in children, only few of these are suitable for toddlers, and even fewer have undergone psychometric evaluation. The present study evaluates the psychometric properties and validity of an assessment battery for measuring EF in two-year-olds. A sample of 2437 children were administered the assessment battery at a mean age of 2;4 years (SD = 0;3 years) in a large-scale field study. Measures of both hot EF (snack and gift delay tasks) and cool EF (six boxes, memory for location, and visual search task) were included. Confirmatory Factor Analyses showed that a two-factor hot and cool EF model fitted the data better than a one-factor model. Measurement invariance was supported across groups differing in age, gender, socioeconomic status (SES), home language, and test setting. Criterion and convergent validity were evaluated by examining relationships between EF and age, gender, SES, home language, and parent and teacher reports of children's attention and inhibitory control. Predictive validity of the test battery was investigated by regressing children's pre-academic skills and behavioral problems at age three on the latent hot and cool EF factors at age 2 years. The test battery showed satisfactory psychometric quality and criterion, convergent, and predictive validity. Whereas cool EF predicted both pre-academic skills and behavior problems 1 year later, hot EF predicted behavior problems only. These results show that EF can be assessed with psychometrically sound instruments in children as young as 2 years, and that EF tasks can be reliably applied in large scale field research. The current instruments offer new opportunities for investigating EF in early childhood, and for evaluating interventions targeted at improving EF from a young age.

  19. Psychometric properties and convergent and predictive validity of an executive function test battery for two-year-olds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna eMulder

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Executive function (EF is an important predictor of numerous developmental outcomes, such as academic achievement and behavioral adjustment. Although a plethora of measurement instruments exists to assess executive function in children, only few of these are suitable for toddlers, and even fewer have undergone psychometric evaluation. The present study evaluates the psychometric properties and validity of an assessment battery for measuring EF in two-year-olds. A sample of 2437 children were administered the assessment battery at a mean age of 2;4 years (SD = 0;3 years in a large-scale field study. Measures of both hot EF (snack and gift delay tasks and cool EF (six boxes, memory for location, and visual search task were included. Confirmatory Factor Analyses showed that a two-factor hot and cool EF model fitted the data better than a one-factor model. Measurement invariance was supported across groups differing in age, gender, socioeconomic status (SES, home language, and test setting. Criterion and convergent validity were evaluated by examining relationships between EF and age, gender, SES, home language, and parent and teacher reports of children’s attention and inhibitory control. Predictive validity of the test battery was investigated by regressing children’s pre-academic skills and behavioral problems at age three on the latent hot and cool EF factors at age two years. The test battery showed satisfactory psychometric quality and criterion, convergent, and predictive validity. Whereas cool EF predicted both pre-academic skills and behavior problems one year later, hot EF predicted behavior problems only. These results show that EF can be assessed with psychometrically sound instruments in children as young as two years, and that EF tasks can be reliably applied in large scale field research. The current instruments offer new opportunities for investigating EF in early childhood, and for evaluating interventions targeted at improving

  20. Normative comparisons for large neuropsychological test batteries: User-friendly and sensitive solutions to minimize familywise false positives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizenga, Hilde M; Agelink van Rentergem, Joost A; Grasman, Raoul P P P; Muslimovic, Dino; Schmand, Ben

    2016-08-01

    In neuropsychological research and clinical practice, a large battery of tests is often administered to determine whether an individual deviates from the norm. We formulate three criteria for such large battery normative comparisons. First, familywise false-positive error rate (i.e., the complement of specificity) should be controlled at, or below, a prespecified level. Second, sensitivity to detect genuine deviations from the norm should be high. Third, the comparisons should be easy enough for routine application, not only in research, but also in clinical practice. Here we show that these criteria are satisfied for current procedures used to assess an overall deviation from the norm-that is, a deviation given all test results. However, we also show that these criteria are not satisfied for current procedures used to assess test-specific deviations, which are required, for example, to investigate dissociations in a test profile. We therefore propose several new procedures to assess such test-specific deviations. These new procedures are expected to satisfy all three criteria. In Monte Carlo simulations and in an applied example pertaining to Parkinson disease, we compare current procedures to assess test-specific deviations (uncorrected and Bonferroni normative comparisons) to new procedures (Holm, one-step resampling, and step-down resampling normative comparisons). The new procedures are shown to: (a) control familywise false-positive error rate, whereas uncorrected comparisons do not; (b) have higher sensitivity than Bonferroni corrected comparisons, where especially step-down resampling is favorable in this respect; (c) be user-friendly as they are implemented in a user-friendly normative comparisons website, and as the required normative data are provided by a database. These new normative comparisons procedures, especially step-down resampling, are valuable additional tools to assess test-specific deviations from the norm in large test batteries.

  1. Probing lithium-ion batteries' state-of-charge using ultrasonic transmission - Concept and laboratory testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Lukas; Bach, Tobias; Virsik, Wolfgang; Schmitt, Angelika; Müller, Jana; Staab, Torsten E. M.; Sextl, Gerhard

    2017-03-01

    For electrically powered applications such as consumer electronics and especially for electric vehicles a precise state-of-charge estimation for their lithium-ion batteries is desired to reduce aging, e.g. avoiding detrimental states-of-charge. Today, this estimation is performed by battery management systems that solely rely on charge bookkeeping and cell voltage measurements. In the present work we introduce a new, physical probe for the state-of-charge based on ultrasonic transmission. Within the simple experimental setup raised cosine pulses are applied to lithium-ion battery pouch cells, whose signals are sensitive to changes in porosity of the graphite anode during charging/dis-charging and, therefore, to the state-of-charge. The underlying physical principle can be related to Biot's theory about propagation of waves in fluid saturated porous media and by including scattering by boundary layers inside the cell.

  2. Development and Standardization of a New Cognitive Assessment Test Battery for Chinese Aphasic Patients: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ji-Bao; Lyu, Zhi-Hong; Liu, Xiao-Jia; Li, Hai-Peng; Wang, Qi

    2017-10-05

    Nonlinguistic cognitive impairment has become an important issue for aphasic patients, but currently there are few neuropsychological cognitive assessment tests for it. To get more information on cognitive impairment of aphasic patients, this study aimed to develop a new cognitive assessment test battery for aphasic patients, the Non-language-based Cognitive Assessment (NLCA), and evaluate its utility in Chinese-speaking patients with aphasia. The NLCA consists of five nonverbal tests, which could assess five nonlinguistic cognitive domains such as visuospatial functions, attention test, memory, reasoning, and executive functions of aphasic patients. All tests are modified from the nonverbal items of the current existed tests with some changes to the characteristics of Chinese culture. The NLCA was tested in 157 participants (including 57 aphasic patients, 50 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients, and 50 normal controls), and was compared with other well-established relative neuropsychological tests on the reliability, validity, and utility. The NLCA was fully applicable in the MCI patients and the normal controls, almost working in the aphasic patients (57/62 patients, 91.9%). The NLCA scores were 66.70 ± 6.30, 48.67 ± 15.04, and 77.58 ± 2.56 for the MCI group, the aphasic group, and the control group, respectively , and a significant difference was found among three groups (F = 118.446, P battery to specially find nonlinguistic cognitive function for aphasic patients.

  3. Genotoxicity testing of pidotimod in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, K; Allen, J A; Brooker, P C; Henderson, L; Jones, E; Proudlock, R J; Mailland, F; Coppi, G

    1994-12-01

    The mutagenic potential of pidotimod ((R)-3-[(S)-(5-oxo-2- pyrrolidinyl)carbonyl]-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid, PGT/1A, CAS 121808-62-6) was assessed in a series of five assays designed to measure gene mutation, chromosomal damage and primary DNA damage. All tests were carried out in accordance with appropriate EEC and OECD Guidelines. No indications of mutagenic potential were observed in any of the assays.

  4. Normative data for a battery of free recall, cued recall and recognition tests in the elderly Italian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coluccia, Emanuele; Gamboz, Nadia; Brandimonte, Maria A

    2011-12-01

    The present study aimed to provide normative data on a large sample of the elderly Italian population (N = 464; range of age = 49-94; range of education = 3-25) on both the word and the picture versions of a battery of free recall, cued recall, and recognition tests of memory. Results from multiple regression analyses showed that both age and education were significant predictors of performance. Therefore, norms were calculated taking into account these demographic variables. The availability of normative data based on a large sample will allow a more reliable use of the battery for clinical assessment in Italian-speaking dementia population.

  5. 75 FR 16957 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Battery Chargers and External Power Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... External Power Supplies.'' May 2009. Available at: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/appliance... 12, 2008. http://www.energy.ca.gov/appliances/2008rulemaking/2008-AAER-1B/2008-11-19_BATTERY_CHARGER... cellular telephones and portable media players that frequently receive power and data from a personal...

  6. Performance Model for High-Power Lithium Titanate Oxide Batteries based on Extended Characterization Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Ana-Irina; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Ioan

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are found nowadays not only in portable/consumer electronics but also in more power demanding applications, such as stationary renewable energy storage, automotive and back-up power supply, because of their superior characteristics in comparison to other energy...

  7. Executive functioning in three groups of pupils in D-KEFS: Selected issues in adapting the test battery for Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferjenčík Ján

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports on the adaptation of a D-KEFS test battery for Slovakia. Drawing on concrete examples, it describes and illustrates the key issues relating to the transfer of test items from one socio-cultural environment to another. The standardisation sample of the population of Slovak pupils in the fourth year of primary school included 250 children with an average age of 9.7 years. The two comparative samples of the same age range were analysed at the same time. They included pupils from classes for gifted children (n = 55 and Roma children from socially disadvantaging environments (n = 50.

  8. Genotoxicity testing of Ambelania occidentalis (Apocynaceae) leaf extract in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, L S; Perazzo, F F; Maistro, E L

    2009-04-22

    Ambelania occidentalis is routinely used in folk medicine for treating gastrointestinal disorders, even though there have been no safety trials. We evaluated the genotoxic potential of hydro-alcoholic extracts of this plant in mice; induced DNA damage was assessed in peripheral blood leukocytes and micronucleus induction was assessed in polychromatic erythrocytes from bone marrow. The extract was administered by an oral route at single doses of 1000, 1500 and 2000 mg/kg body weight. N-nitroso-N-ethylurea was used as a positive control. The comet assay was performed on peripheral blood leukocytes at 4 and 24 h after treatment, and the micronucleus test was carried out on bone marrow cells collected at 24 and 48 h after treatment. The ratio of polychromatic/normochromatic erythrocytes was scored for cytotoxicity assessment. No increase in the number of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes from bone marrow or in leukocyte DNA damage was observed. The hydro-alcoholic extracts of A. occidentalis had no mutagenic or cytotoxic effects in the mouse cells.

  9. Reliability and validity of the revised Gibson Test of Cognitive Skills, a computer-based test battery for assessing cognition across the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Amy Lawson; Miller, Terissa M

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to evaluate the validity and reliability of the revised Gibson Test of Cognitive Skills, a computer-based battery of tests measuring short-term memory, long-term memory, processing speed, logic and reasoning, visual processing, as well as auditory processing and word attack skills. This study included 2,737 participants aged 5-85 years. A series of studies was conducted to examine the validity and reliability using the test performance of the entire norming group and several subgroups. The evaluation of the technical properties of the test battery included content validation by subject matter experts, item analysis and coefficient alpha, test-retest reliability, split-half reliability, and analysis of concurrent validity with the Woodcock Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities and Tests of Achievement. Results indicated strong sources of evidence of validity and reliability for the test, including internal consistency reliability coefficients ranging from 0.87 to 0.98, test-retest reliability coefficients ranging from 0.69 to 0.91, split-half reliability coefficients ranging from 0.87 to 0.91, and concurrent validity coefficients ranging from 0.53 to 0.93. The Gibson Test of Cognitive Skills-2 is a reliable and valid tool for assessing cognition in the general population across the lifespan.

  10. Proof of concept testing of a positive reference material for in vivo and in vitro skin irritation testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Yusuke; Lee, Michelle; Fukui, Chie; Watanabe, Kayo; Olsen, Daniel; Turley, Audrey; Morishita, Yuki; Kawakami, Tsuyoshi; Yuba, Toshiyasu; Fujimaki, Hideo; Inoue, Kaoru; Yoshida, Midori; Ogawa, Kumiko; Haishima, Yuji

    2017-12-11

    In vivo and in vitro irritation testing is important for evaluating the biological safety of medical devices. Here, the performance of positive reference materials for skin irritation testing was evaluated. Four reference standards, referred to as Y-series materials, were analyzed: a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) sheet spiked with 0 (Y-1), 1.0 (Y-2), 1.5 (Y-3), or 10 (Y-4) parts of Genapol X-080 per 100 parts of PVC by weight. Y-1, Y-2, and Y-3 did not induce skin irritation responses in an in vitro reconstructed human epidermis (RhE) tissue model, as measured by tissue viability or interleukin-1α release, or in an in vivo intracutaneous response test using rabbits. In contrast, Y-4 extracts prepared with saline or sesame oil at 37°C and 50°C clearly elicited positive irritation responses, including reduced viability (< 50%) and significantly higher interleukin-1α release compared with the solvent alone group, in the RhE tissue model and an intracutaneous response test, where substantial necrosis was observed by histopathology. The positive skin irritation responses induced in vitro under various extraction conditions, as well as those elicited in vivo, indicate that Y-4 is an effective extractable positive control material for in vivo and in vitro skin irritation tests of medical devices. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Development of a test battery to identify older drivers at risk for self-reported adverse driving events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marottoli, R A; Richardson, E D; Stowe, M H; Miller, E G; Brass, L M; Cooney, L M; Tinetti, M E

    1998-05-01

    The purposes of this study were (1) to develop a battery of tests that assessed a wide range of functional abilities relevant to driving yet could be performed in a clinician's office and (2) to determine which of these tests were most closely associated with self-reported adverse driving events. A cohort study. An urban community. Participants were drawn from the Project Safety cohort, a probability sample of noninstitutionalized older persons in New Haven, Connecticut, initiated in 1989. The current study included surviving, active drivers in the cohort (N=125). The test battery assessed visual, cognitive, and physical abilities potentially relevant to driving, and was administered in participants' homes by trained interviewers between October 1994 and July 1995. Outcome measures included the self-report of a crash, moving violation, or being stopped by police in any Project Safety interview since the inception of the cohort. Analyses compared performance on the elements of the test battery with participants' histories of adverse driving events. Of the 125 drivers, 50 (40%) had reported an adverse event in a mean period of 5.76 (+/-.25) years before the current interview. The elements of the test battery independently associated with a history of events, adjusting for driving frequency, included near visual acuity worse than 20/40 (adjusted odds ratio 11.90), limited neck rotation (OR 6.10), and poor performance on a test of visual attention, the number cancellation task (OR 3.00). The resulting regression equation yielded a sensitivity of 80%, a specificity of 55%, and an area under the curve of .75 by receiver operating characteristic analysis. These findings suggest it may be possible to identify individuals potentially at risk for self-reported adverse driving events using simple tests of functional ability. If validated, such an approach could be used to identify individuals who need a more detailed assessment of functional abilities to determine the

  12. Testing of a 1kW De Nora solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell in combination with a lead acid battery. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kluiters, E.E.; Veen, W.R. ter; Schmal, D.

    1998-09-01

    The development of fuel cells for traction accelerated the last years because of severe emission demands for road vehicles. Because of these rapid developments a commercial application in 5 to 10 years is feasible which means that the fuel cell can be used for the generation of electric energy on board naval ships currently being developed. In the application of fuel cells and the integration in a ship`s system, the combination with a battery is important. To get insight into the possible problems involved, TNO has carried out orientating tests with a fuel cell/battery combination. The report describes the results. The tests carried out are related to charging of the battery with the fuel cell (at various initial states of charge of the battery) and taking a continuously increasing power out of the fuel cell/battery combination. No tests with a DC/DC converter have been carried out so far, because battery and fuel cell voltage were adapted to each other and because of the orientating character of the study. The tests show that this is possible without any problems. However, in practice, DC/DC converters will generally be required for various reasons. Therefore further development and testing of this combination, including DC/DC converters, control equipment etc. is advised.

  13. A Two-Tiered-Testing Decision Tree for Assays in the USEPA-EDSP Screening Battery: Using 15 years of experience to improve screening and testing for endocrine active chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outline of the presentationEDCs – from 1991 to 1996 – Wingspread and Our Stolen Future 1996 – FQPA and SDWA mandates endocrine screening 1996-1998 – EDSTAC (the assays, debates over modes of action included) The final battery – EAT in vivo and in vit...

  14. In vivo evaluation of battery-operated light-emitting diode-based photodynamic therapy efficacy using tumor volume and biomarker expression as endpoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallidi, Srivalleesha; Mai, Zhiming; Rizvi, Imran; Hempstead, Joshua; Arnason, Stephen; Celli, Jonathan; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. In view of the increase in cancer-related mortality rates in low- to middle-income countries (LMIC), there is an urgent need to develop economical therapies that can be utilized at minimal infrastructure institutions. Photodynamic therapy (PDT), a photochemistry-based treatment modality, offers such a possibility provided that low-cost light sources and photosensitizers are available. In this proof-of-principle study, we focus on adapting the PDT light source to a low-resource setting and compare an inexpensive, portable, battery-powered light-emitting diode (LED) light source with a standard, high-cost laser source. The comparison studies were performed in vivo in a xenograft murine model of human squamous cell carcinoma subjected to 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin IX PDT. We observed virtually identical control of the tumor burden by both the LED source and the standard laser source. Further insights into the biological response were evaluated by biomarker analysis of necrosis, microvessel density, and hypoxia [carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) expression] among groups of control, LED-PDT, and laser-PDT treated mice. There is no significant difference in the percent necrotic volume and CAIX expression in tumors that were treated with the two different light sources. These encouraging preliminary results merit further investigations in orthotopic animal models of cancers prevalent in LMICs. PMID:25909707

  15. In vivo evaluation of battery-operated light-emitting diode-based photodynamic therapy efficacy using tumor volume and biomarker expression as endpoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallidi, Srivalleesha; Mai, Zhiming; Rizvi, Imran; Hempstead, Joshua; Arnason, Stephen; Celli, Jonathan; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2015-04-01

    In view of the increase in cancer-related mortality rates in low- to middle-income countries (LMIC), there is an urgent need to develop economical therapies that can be utilized at minimal infrastructure institutions. Photodynamic therapy (PDT), a photochemistry-based treatment modality, offers such a possibility provided that low-cost light sources and photosensitizers are available. In this proof-of-principle study, we focus on adapting the PDT light source to a low-resource setting and compare an inexpensive, portable, battery-powered light-emitting diode (LED) light source with a standard, high-cost laser source. The comparison studies were performed in vivo in a xenograft murine model of human squamous cell carcinoma subjected to 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin IX PDT. We observed virtually identical control of the tumor burden by both the LED source and the standard laser source. Further insights into the biological response were evaluated by biomarker analysis of necrosis, microvessel density, and hypoxia [carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) expression] among groups of control, LED-PDT, and laser-PDT treated mice. There is no significant difference in the percent necrotic volume and CAIX expression in tumors that were treated with the two different light sources. These encouraging preliminary results merit further investigations in orthotopic animal models of cancers prevalent in LMICs.

  16. COPPERHEAD battery tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruickshank, W. J.

    1983-06-01

    The development of a tester for the control section battery of the M712 Cannon-Launched Guided Projectile has fulfilled a requirement for the automatic testing of a series of batteries. The tester is a self-contained instrument that is used with a shock test system to rapidly perform complete tests after an initial setup.

  17. A study of the inter-rater reliability of a test battery for use in patients after total hip replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Lone Ramer; Mikkelsen, Søren; Søballe, Kjeld; Mechlenburg, Inger; Petersen, Annemette Krintel

    2015-02-01

    To assess the within-day inter-rater reliability of a test battery of functional performance, muscle strength and leg extension power on total hip replacement patients. A test-retest design was used. Orthopaedic department at a Regional Hospital in Denmark. Two convenience samples of 20 total hip replacement patients were included. The tests were performed three months after total hip replacement. Two raters performed test and re-test, with two hours rest in-between. The test battery included: sit-to-stand performance, 20-metre maximum walking speed, stair climb performance, isometric muscle strength (hip abduction/flexion), and leg extension power. Absolute reliability was assessed with Bland Altman plots, standard error of measurement (SEM), and minimal detectable change. Relative reliability was assessed with intra-class correlation coefficient. Systematic differences between testers were seen in tests of walking speed (0.32 seconds p = 0.03) and stair climb performance (0.18 seconds p = 0.003). In per cent of the grand mean, the standard error of measurement was 3%-10%, indicating the measurement error on a group level, and the minimal detectable change was 10%-27%, indicating the measurement error on an individual level. The intra-class correlation coefficients were above 0.80 in all tests (range 0.83-0.95). The tests showed acceptable relative and absolute inter-rater reliability on a group level, but not on an individual level (except from test of walking speed and stair climb performance). Systematic differences between testers were considered clinically irrelevant (0.3 and 0.2 seconds). © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Electric and hybrid vehicles charge efficiency tests of ESB EV-106 lead acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlette, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    Charge efficiencies were determined by measurements made under widely differing conditions of temperature, charge procedure, and battery age. The measurements were used to optimize charge procedures and to evaluate the concept of a modified, coulometric state of charge indicator. Charge efficiency determinations were made by measuring gassing rates and oxygen fractions. A novel, positive displacement gas flow meter which proved to be both simple and highly accurate is described and illustrated.

  19. The value of a non-sport-specific motor test battery in predicting performance in young female gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandorpe, Barbara; Vandendriessche, Joric B; Vaeyens, Roel; Pion, Johan; Lefevre, Johan; Philippaerts, Renaat M; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2012-01-01

    Gymnastics talent identification focuses on the identification of young gymnasts who display characteristics for potential success in the future. The aim of this study was to identify which current performance characteristics are related to performance in competition 2 years later. Twenty-three female gymnasts aged 7-8 years completed a multidimensional test battery measuring anthropometric, physical, and coordinative characteristics and were technically evaluated by expert coaches. Two years later, the all-around competition results of those gymnasts now participating in elite (n = 12) and sub-elite (n = 11) competition were obtained. None of the initial measurements significantly correlated with the results of the sub-elite gymnasts 2 years later. For the elite gymnasts, a non-sport-specific motor test battery correlated strongly with the competition result, with more than 40% of the variation in competition performance being explained by the result on that test 2 years earlier. Neither the coaches' judgement nor the anthropometric and physical characteristics were sensitive enough to predict performance. A motor coordination test might be valuable in the early identification of gymnasts, as its discriminative and predictive qualities might be sufficiently powerful for selection within a relatively homogeneous population of gymnasts exhibiting similar anthropometric and physical profiles.

  20. The sensitivity of tests to detect in vivo platelet activation induced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relative sensitivities for the various in vivo and in vitro tests for platelet activation are unknown. This was studied in a baboon model where limited and more substantial injury to the vascular endothelum was inflicted. The endothelium of a segment of the right carotid artery was removed with a balloon catheter on day ...

  1. Lead batteries. Citations from the Engineering Index data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagnaro, D. M.

    1980-07-01

    Worldwide research on lead battery components, charging, corrosion, and testing is cited. The majority of studies concern battery use in electric vehicles. Studies on lead recovery from battery scrap and air pollution at battery factories are also included.

  2. Goggle Glass Cutter (optical goods) 713.884; Lens Cutter (optical goods) 713.884--Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  3. Injection-Molding-Machine Tender (fabric-plastics prod.) 556.885--Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  4. Twister-Tender (asbestos prod; glass mfg.; synthetic fibers; textile) 681.885--Technical Report on Development of USTES Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  5. Routeman, Bakery Products (ret. tr.; whole tr.) 1-80.06--Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  6. Fourdrinier-Machine Tender (paper & pulp, wallboard) 539.782; Back Tender, Paper Machine (paper & pulp) 534.782--Technical Report on Development of USTES Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  7. Conveyor-Loader Plastic Toy Parts (toys and games) 9-13.01--Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  8. Battery Test Manual For 12 Volt Start/Stop Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belt, Jeffrey R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This manual was prepared by and for the United Stated Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) Electrochemical Energy Storage Team. It is based on the targets established for 12 Volt Start/Stop energy storage development and is similar (with some important changes) to an earlier manual for the former FreedomCAR program. The specific procedures were developed primarily to characterize the performance of energy storage devices relative to the USABC requirements. However, it is anticipated that these procedures will have some utility for characterizing 12 Volt Start/Stop hybrid energy storage device behavior in general.

  9. Comparing children with and without dyslexia on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children and the Test of Gross Motor Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getchell, Nancy; Pabreja, Priya; Neeld, Kevin; Carrio, Victor

    2007-08-01

    Dyslexia is the most commonly occurring learning disability in the United States, characterized by difficulties with word recognition, spelling, and decoding. A growing body of literature suggests that deficits in motor skill performance exist in the dyslexic population. This study compared the performance of children with and without dyslexia on different subtests of the Test of Gross Motor Development and Movement Assessment Battery for Children and assessed whether there were developmental changes in the scores of the dyslexic group. Participants included 26 dyslexic children (19 boys and 7 girls; 9.5 yr. old, SD = 1.7) and 23 age- and sex-matched typically developing (17 boys and 6 girls; 9.9 yr. old, SD = 1.3) children as a control group. Mann-Whitney U tests indicated that the dyslexic group performed significantly lower than the control group only on the Total Balance subtest of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children. Additionally, the young dyslexic group performed significantly better on the Total Balance subtest, compared to the older dyslexic group. These results suggest that cerebellar dysfunction may account for differences in performance.

  10. Recognition disorders for famous faces and voices: a review of the literature and normative data of a new test battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Davide; Piccininni, Chiara; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto; Luzzi, Simona; Marra, Camillo; Papagno, Costanza; Trojano, Luigi; Gainotti, Guido

    2016-03-01

    Several anatomo-clinical investigations have shown that familiar face recognition disorders not due to high level perceptual defects are often observed in patients with lesions of the right anterior temporal lobe (ATL). The meaning of these findings is, however, controversial, because some authors claim that these patients show pure instances of modality-specific 'associative prosopagnosia', whereas other authors maintain that in these patients voice recognition is also impaired and that these patients have a 'multimodal person recognition disorder'. To solve the problem of the nature of famous faces recognition disorders in patients affected by right ATL lesions, it is therefore very important to verify with formal tests if these patients are or are not able to recognize others by voice, but a direct comparison between the two modalities is hindered by the fact that voice recognition is more difficult than face recognition. To circumvent this difficulty, we constructed a test battery in which subjects were requested to recognize the same persons (well-known at the national level) through their faces and voices, evaluating familiarity and identification processes. The present paper describes the 'Famous People Recognition Battery' and reports the normative data necessary to clarify the nature of person recognition disorders observed in patients affected by right ATL lesions.

  11. GALEN skin test study III: Minimum battery of test inhalent allergens needed in epidemiological studies in patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, P-J; Burbach, G; Heinzerling, L M

    2009-01-01

    the allergens selection. Result: Among the 3034 patients involved, 1996 (68.2%) were sensitized to at least one allergen. Overall, eight allergens (grass pollen, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, birch pollen, cat dander, Artemisia, olive pollen, Blatella and Alternaria) allowed to identified more than 95...... or Alternaria]). According to country, up to 13 allergens were needed to identify all sensitized subjects. Conclusion: Eight to ten allergens allowed the identification of the majority of sensitized subjects. For clinical care of individual patients, the whole battery of 18 allergens is needed to appropriately...

  12. Evaluation of first generation synthetic cannabinoids on binding at non-cannabinoid receptors and in a battery of in vivo assays in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Jenny L; Lefever, Timothy W; Marusich, Julie A; Grabenauer, Megan; Moore, Katherine N; Huffman, John W; Thomas, Brian F

    2016-11-01

    Anecdotal reports suggest that abused synthetic cannabinoids produce cannabis-like "highs," but some of their effects may also differ from traditional cannabinoids such as Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). This study examined the binding affinities of first-generation indole-derived synthetic cannabinoids at cannabinoid and noncannabinoid receptors and their effects in a functional observational battery (FOB) and drug discrimination in mice. All seven compounds, except JWH-391, had favorable affinity (≤159 nM) for both cannabinoid receptors. In contrast, binding at noncannabinoid receptors was absent or weak. In the FOB, THC and the six active compounds disrupted behaviors in CNS activation and muscle tone/equilibrium domains. Unlike THC, however, synthetic cannabinoids impaired behavior across a wider dose and domain range, producing autonomic effects and signs of CNS excitability and sensorimotor reactivity. In addition, mice acquired JWH-018 discrimination, and THC and JWH-073 produced full substitution whereas the 5-HT2B antagonist mianserin did not substitute in mice trained to discriminate JWH-018 or THC. Urinary metabolite analysis showed that the compounds were extensively metabolized, with metabolites that could contribute to their in vivo effects. Together, these results show that, while first-generation synthetic cannabinoids shared some effects that were similar to those of THC, they also possessed effects that differed from traditional cannabinoids. The high nanomolar (or absent) affinities of these compounds at receptors for most major neurotransmitters suggests that these divergent effects may be related to the greater potencies and/or efficacies at CB1 receptors; however, action(s) at noncannabinoid receptors yet to be assessed or via different signaling pathways cannot be ruled out. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 10 CFR Appendix Y to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Battery Chargers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... products with non-detachable batteries, that control power to the product itself. i. Multi-port charger... simultaneously. j. Multi-voltage a la carte charger means a separate battery charger that is individually... charger is connected to the power source. Disconnect the battery from the charger and record the power (i...

  14. Using a Standardized Clinical Quantitative Sensory Testing Battery to Judge the Clinical Relevance of Sensory Differences Between Adjacent Body Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova, Violeta; Oertel, Bruno G; Lötsch, Jörn

    2017-01-01

    Skin sensitivity to sensory stimuli varies among different body areas. A standardized clinical quantitative sensory testing (QST) battery, established for the diagnosis of neuropathic pain, was used to assess whether the magnitude of differences between test sites reaches clinical significance. Ten different sensory QST measures derived from thermal and mechanical stimuli were obtained from 21 healthy volunteers (10 men) and used to create somatosensory profiles bilateral from the dorsum of the hands (the standard area for the assessment of normative values for the upper extremities as proposed by the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain) and bilateral at volar forearms as a neighboring nonstandard area. The parameters obtained were statistically compared between test sites. Three of the 10 QST parameters differed significantly with respect to the "body area," that is, warmth detection, thermal sensory limen, and mechanical pain thresholds. After z-transformation and interpretation according to the QST battery's standard instructions, 22 abnormal values were obtained at the hand. Applying the same procedure to parameters assessed at the nonstandard site forearm, that is, z-transforming them to the reference values for the hand, 24 measurements values emerged as abnormal, which was not significantly different compared with the hand (P=0.4185). Sensory differences between neighboring body areas are statistically significant, reproducing prior knowledge. This has to be considered in scientific assessments where a small variation of the tested body areas may not be an option. However, the magnitude of these differences was below the difference in sensory parameters that is judged as abnormal, indicating a robustness of the QST instrument against protocol deviations with respect to the test area when using the method of comparison with a 95 % confidence interval of a reference dataset.

  15. Reliability and validity of the revised Gibson Test of Cognitive Skills, a computer-based test battery for assessing cognition across the lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore AL

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Amy Lawson Moore, Terissa M Miller Gibson Institute of Cognitive Research, Colorado Springs, CO, USA Purpose: The purpose of the current study is to evaluate the validity and reliability of the revised Gibson Test of Cognitive Skills, a computer-based battery of tests measuring short-term memory, long-term memory, processing speed, logic and reasoning, visual processing, as well as auditory processing and word attack skills.Methods: This study included 2,737 participants aged 5–85 years. A series of studies was conducted to examine the validity and reliability using the test performance of the entire norming group and several subgroups. The evaluation of the technical properties of the test battery included content validation by subject matter experts, item analysis and coefficient alpha, test–retest reliability, split-half reliability, and analysis of concurrent validity with the Woodcock Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities and Tests of Achievement.Results: Results indicated strong sources of evidence of validity and reliability for the test, including internal consistency reliability coefficients ranging from 0.87 to 0.98, test–retest reliability coefficients ranging from 0.69 to 0.91, split-half reliability coefficients ranging from 0.87 to 0.91, and concurrent validity coefficients ranging from 0.53 to 0.93.Conclusion: The Gibson Test of Cognitive Skills-2 is a reliable and valid tool for assessing cognition in the general population across the lifespan. Keywords: testing, cognitive skills, memory, processing speed, visual processing, auditory processing

  16. Reliability and validity of neurobehavioral function on the Psychology Experimental Building Language test battery in young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Shane T.; Geerken, Alexander R.; Dixon, Kyle L.; Kroliczak, Gregory; Olsen, Reid H.J.; Miller, Jeremy K.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The Psychology Experiment Building Language (PEBL) software consists of over one-hundred computerized tests based on classic and novel cognitive neuropsychology and behavioral neurology measures. Although the PEBL tests are becoming more widely utilized, there is currently very limited information about the psychometric properties of these measures. Methods. Study I examined inter-relationships among nine PEBL tests including indices of motor-function (Pursuit Rotor and Dexterity), attention (Test of Attentional Vigilance and Time-Wall), working memory (Digit Span Forward), and executive-function (PEBL Trail Making Test, Berg/Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Iowa Gambling Test, and Mental Rotation) in a normative sample (N = 189, ages 18–22). Study II evaluated test–retest reliability with a two-week interest interval between administrations in a separate sample (N = 79, ages 18–22). Results. Moderate intra-test, but low inter-test, correlations were observed and ceiling/floor effects were uncommon. Sex differences were identified on the Pursuit Rotor (Cohen’s d = 0.89) and Mental Rotation (d = 0.31) tests. The correlation between the test and retest was high for tests of motor learning (Pursuit Rotor time on target r = .86) and attention (Test of Attentional Vigilance response time r = .79), intermediate for memory (digit span r = .63) but lower for the executive function indices (Wisconsin/Berg Card Sorting Test perseverative errors = .45, Tower of London moves = .15). Significant practice effects were identified on several indices of executive function. Conclusions. These results are broadly supportive of the reliability and validity of individual PEBL tests in this sample. These findings indicate that the freely downloadable, open-source PEBL battery (http://pebl.sourceforge.net) is a versatile research tool to study individual differences in neurocognitive performance. PMID:26713233

  17. Reliability and validity of neurobehavioral function on the Psychology Experimental Building Language test battery in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. Piper

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Psychology Experiment Building Language (PEBL software consists of over one-hundred computerized tests based on classic and novel cognitive neuropsychology and behavioral neurology measures. Although the PEBL tests are becoming more widely utilized, there is currently very limited information about the psychometric properties of these measures.Methods. Study I examined inter-relationships among nine PEBL tests including indices of motor-function (Pursuit Rotor and Dexterity, attention (Test of Attentional Vigilance and Time-Wall, working memory (Digit Span Forward, and executive-function (PEBL Trail Making Test, Berg/Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Iowa Gambling Test, and Mental Rotation in a normative sample (N = 189, ages 18–22. Study II evaluated test–retest reliability with a two-week interest interval between administrations in a separate sample (N = 79, ages 18–22.Results. Moderate intra-test, but low inter-test, correlations were observed and ceiling/floor effects were uncommon. Sex differences were identified on the Pursuit Rotor (Cohen’s d = 0.89 and Mental Rotation (d = 0.31 tests. The correlation between the test and retest was high for tests of motor learning (Pursuit Rotor time on target r = .86 and attention (Test of Attentional Vigilance response time r = .79, intermediate for memory (digit span r = .63 but lower for the executive function indices (Wisconsin/Berg Card Sorting Test perseverative errors = .45, Tower of London moves = .15. Significant practice effects were identified on several indices of executive function.Conclusions. These results are broadly supportive of the reliability and validity of individual PEBL tests in this sample. These findings indicate that the freely downloadable, open-source PEBL battery (http://pebl.sourceforge.net is a versatile research tool to study individual differences in neurocognitive performance.

  18. The in vivo rodent test systems for assessment of carcinogenic potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Laan, Jan-Willem; Spindler, Per

    2002-01-01

    mouse models, the RasH2 and Tg.AC transgenic mouse models, and the neonatal mouse model. The "ICH Guideline S1B on Testing for Carcinogenicity of Pharmaceuticals" advocates that carcinogenicity testing of pharmaceuticals, when needed, might be carried out choosing one 2-year rodent carcinogenicity study...... (rat) plus one other study that supplements the 2-year study and providing additional information that is not readily available from the 2-year study: either (1) a short- or medium-term in vivo rodent test system or (2) a 2-year carcinogenicity study in a second rodent species (mouse). Another topic...

  19. A statistically compiled test battery for feasible evaluation of knee function after rupture of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament - derived from long-term follow-up data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelin, Lina; Tengman, Eva; Ryden, Patrik; Häger, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Clinical test batteries for evaluation of knee function after injury to the Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) should be valid and feasible, while reliably capturing the outcome of rehabilitation. There is currently a lack of consensus as to which of the many available assessment tools for knee function that should be included. The present aim was to use a statistical approach to investigate the contribution of frequently used tests to avoid redundancy, and filter them down to a proposed comprehensive and yet feasible test battery for long-term evaluation after ACL injury. In total 48 outcome variables related to knee function, all potentially relevant for a long-term follow-up, were included from a cross-sectional study where 70 ACL-injured (17-28 years post injury) individuals were compared to 33 controls. Cluster analysis and logistic regression were used to group variables and identify an optimal test battery, from which a summarized estimator of knee function representing various functional aspects was derived. As expected, several variables were strongly correlated, and the variables also fell into logical clusters with higher within-correlation (max ρ = 0.61) than between clusters (max ρ = 0.19). An extracted test battery with just four variables assessing one-leg balance, isokinetic knee extension strength and hop performance (one-leg hop, side hop) were mathematically combined to an estimator of knee function, which acceptably classified ACL-injured individuals and controls. This estimator, derived from objective measures, correlated significantly with self-reported function, e.g. Lysholm score (ρ = 0.66; p<0.001). The proposed test battery, based on a solid statistical approach, includes assessments which are all clinically feasible, while also covering complementary aspects of knee function. Similar test batteries could be determined for earlier phases of ACL rehabilitation or to enable longitudinal monitoring. Such developments, established on a well

  20. Energy Management of a Hybrid AC–DC Micro-Grid Based on a Battery Testing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Long

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Energy Recovery Battery Testing Systems (ERBTS plays an important role in battery manufacture. The conventional ERBTS configuration contains a fundamental transformer, and a bidirectional Direct Current (DC–DC and Alternating Current (AC–DC converter. All ERBTS are connected in parallel, thus constituting a special and complicated AC micro-grid system. Aiming at addressing their low energy recovery efficiency, complex grid-connected control algorithm issues for islanded detection, and complicated power circuit topology issues, a hierarchical DC-link voltage hybrid AC–DC micro-grid that contains composite energy storing devices is proposed. Moreover, an energy management optimal scheme for the proposed scheme is put forward. The system configuration of the proposed scheme is described in detail. Compared to the conventional scheme, the proposed scheme has the merits of simplified power circuit topology, no need for phase synchronous control, and much higher energy recovery efficiency and reliability. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed technique is verified through numerous experimental results.

  1. Vibration Durability Testing of Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (NMC Lithium-Ion 18,650 Battery Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Michael Hooper

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicle (EV manufacturers are employing cylindrical format cells in the construction of the vehicles’ battery systems. There is evidence to suggest that both the academic and industrial communities have evaluated cell degradation due to vibration and other forms of mechanical loading. The primary motivation is often the need to satisfy the minimum requirements for safety certification. However, there is limited research that quantifies the durability of the battery and in particular, how the cells will be affected by vibration that is representative of a typical automotive service life (e.g., 100,000 miles. This paper presents a study to determine the durability of commercially available 18,650 cells and quantifies both the electrical and mechanical vibration-induced degradation through measuring changes in cell capacity, impedance and natural frequency. The impact of the cell state of charge (SOC and in-pack orientation is also evaluated. Experimental results are presented which clearly show that the performance of 18,650 cells can be affected by vibration profiles which are representative of a typical vehicle life. Consequently, it is recommended that EV manufacturers undertake vibration testing, as part of their technology selection and development activities to enhance the quality of EVs and to minimize the risk of in-service warranty claims.

  2. Reliability and responsiveness of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition Test in children with developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuang, Yee-Pay; Su, Jui-Hsing; Su, Chwen-Yng

    2012-02-01

    To examine the internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and responsiveness of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition (MABC-2) Test for children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). One hundred and forty-four Taiwanese children with DCD aged 6 to 12 years (87 males, 57 females) were tested on three separate occasions: two baseline measurements with a 20-day interval before the intervention, and a follow-up measurement after 6 months of rehabilitation. The therapists rated the performance of children in school-related physical tasks at baseline and after intervention. Internal consistency for the MABC-2 Test was α = 0.90. Test-retest reliability for the total score was excellent, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.97. A small to medium magnitude of treatment effect was captured by the MABC-2 Test. The minimal detectable change (MDC) was 0.28 points whereas the minimal important difference (MID) values were from 2.36 to 2.50. All subscales except balance showed acceptable validity in differentiating groups of children whose physical performance had improved or remained stable. The MABC-2 Test is a reliable and valid measure to assess motor competence in children with DCD. The MID and MDC scores provide the reference point for clinical decision-making in managing the individual child. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2012 Mac Keith Press.

  3. Content Validity Index and Intra- and Inter-Rater Reliability of a New Muscle Strength/Endurance Test Battery for Swedish Soldiers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Larsson

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the content validity of commonly used muscle performance tests in military personnel and to investigate the reliability of a proposed test battery. For the content validity investigation, thirty selected tests were those described in the literature and/or commonly used in the Nordic and North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO countries. Nine selected experts rated, on a four-point Likert scale, the relevance of these tests in relation to five different work tasks: lifting, carrying equipment on the body or in the hands, climbing, and digging. Thereafter, a content validity index (CVI was calculated for each work task. The result showed excellent CVI (≥0.78 for sixteen tests, which comprised of one or more of the military work tasks. Three of the tests; the functional lower-limb loading test (the Ranger test, dead-lift with kettlebells, and back extension, showed excellent content validity for four of the work tasks. For the development of a new muscle strength/endurance test battery, these three tests were further supplemented with two other tests, namely, the chins and side-bridge test. The inter-rater reliability was high (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC2,1 0.99 for all five tests. The intra-rater reliability was good to high (ICC3,1 0.82-0.96 with an acceptable standard error of mean (SEM, except for the side-bridge test (SEM%>15. Thus, the final suggested test battery for a valid and reliable evaluation of soldiers' muscle performance comprised the following four tests; the Ranger test, dead-lift with kettlebells, chins, and back extension test. The criterion-related validity of the test battery should be further evaluated for soldiers exposed to varying physical workload.

  4. Battery Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the capacity of the employed batteries. The battery lifetime determines how long one can use a device. Battery modeling can help to predict, and possibly extend this lifetime. Many different battery models have been developed over the years. However,

  5. Cellular and molecular characterization of gametogenic progression in ex vivo cultured prepuberal mouse testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoler-Alcaraz, J; Fernández-Pérez, D; Larriba, E; Del Mazo, J

    2017-10-18

    Recently, an effective testis culture method using a gas-liquid interphase, capable of differentiate male germ cells from neonatal spermatogonia to spermatozoa has been developed. Nevertheless, this methodology needs deep analyses that allow future experimental approaches in basic, pathologic and/or reprotoxicologic studies. Because of this, we characterized at cellular and molecular levels the entire in vitro spermatogenic progression, in order to understand and evaluate the characteristics that define the spermatogenic process in ex vivo cultured testes compared to the in vivo development. Testicular explants of CD1 mice aged 6 and 10 days post-partum were respectively cultured during 55 and 89 days. Cytological and molecular approaches were performed, analyzing germ cell proportion at different time culture points, meiotic markers immunodetecting synaptonemal complex protein SYCP3 by immunocytochemistry and the relative expression of different marker genes along the differentiation process by Reverse Transcription - quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction. In addition, microRNA and piwi-interactingRNA profiles were also evaluated by Next Generation Sequencing and bioinformatic approaches. The method promoted and maintained the spermatogenic process during 89 days. At a cytological level we detected spermatogenic development delays of cultured explants compared to the natural in vivo process. The expression of different spermatogenic stages gene markers correlated with the proportion of different cell types detected in the cytological preparations. In vitro progression analysis of the different spermatogenic cell types, from both 6.5 dpp and 10.5 dpp testes explants, has revealed a relative delay in relation to in vivo process. The expression of the genes studied as biomarkers correlates with the cytologically and functional detected progression and differential expression identified in vivo. After a first analysis of deep sequencing data it has been observed

  6. Magnesium alloys: predicting in vivo corrosion with in vitro immersion testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jemimah; Shadanbaz, Shaylin; Kirkland, Nicholas T; Stace, Edward; Woodfield, Tim; Staiger, Mark P; Dias, George J

    2012-05-01

    Magnesium (Mg) and its alloys have been proposed as degradable replacements to commonly used orthopedic biomaterials such as titanium alloys and stainless steel. However, the corrosion of Mg in a physiological environment remains a difficult characteristic to accurately assess with in vitro methods. The aim of this study was to identify a simple in vitro immersion test that could provide corrosion rates similar to those observed in vivo. Pure Mg and five alloys (AZ31, Mg-0.8Ca, Mg-1Zn, Mg-1Mn, Mg-1.34Ca-3Zn) were immersed in either Earle's balanced salt solution (EBSS), minimum essential medium (MEM), or MEM-containing 40 g/L bovine serum albumin (MEMp) for 7, 14, or 21 days before removal and assessment of corrosion by weight loss. This in vitro data was compared to in vivo corrosion rates of the same materials implanted in a subcutaneous environment in Lewis rats for equivalent time points. The results suggested that, for the alloys investigated, the EBSS buffered with sodium bicarbonate provides a rate of degradation comparable to those observed in vivo. In contrast, the addition of components such as (4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid) (HEPES), vitamins, amino acids, and albumin significantly increased corrosion rates. Based on these findings, it is proposed that with this in vitro protocol, immersion of Mg alloys in EBSS can be used as a predictor of in vivo corrosion. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Measuring physical fitness in children who are 5 to 12 years old with a test battery that is functional and easy to administer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjørtoft, Ingunn; Pedersen, Arve Vorland; Sigmundsson, Hermundur; Vereijken, Beatrix

    2011-07-01

    Valid and reliable measures of children's physical fitness are necessary for investigating the relationship between children's physical fitness and children's health. Objective The objective of this study was to estimate the feasibility, internal consistency, convergent construct validity, and test-retest reliability of a new, functional, and easily administered test battery for measuring children's physical fitness. The study was a cross-sectional descriptive survey applying physical fitness tests across age groups 5 to 12 years. Each of the 9 items in the test battery consists of a compound motor activity that recruits various combinations of endurance, strength (force-generating capacity), agility, balance, and motor coordination: standing broad jump, jumping a distance of 7 m on 2 feet, jumping a distance of 7 m on one foot, throwing a tennis ball with one hand, pushing a medicine ball with 2 hands, climbing wall bars, performing a 10 × 5 m shuttle run, running 20 m as fast as possible, and performing a reduced Cooper test (6 minutes). The test battery was administered to 195 children (aged 5-12 years) from 4 schools and kindergartens in Norway. Overall, the children in each age group were able to perform all of the test items, indicating the suitability of the test battery for children as young as 5 years of age. With increasing age, total scores improved linearly, indicating the adequate sensitivity of the test battery for the age range examined in this study. Furthermore, even with the modest sample size used in this study, total scores were normally distributed, thereby fulfilling the necessary assumptions of most statistical procedures. For investigating the reliability of the test battery, 24 children (mean age=8.6 years) in one class were retested 1 week later. Test-retest correlations were high, with intraclass correlation coefficients for individual test items and total score ranging from .54 to .92. Limitations The survey was limited to samples of 5

  8. Functional testing of topical skin formulations using an optimised ex vivo skin organ culture model

    OpenAIRE

    Sidgwick, G. P.; McGeorge, D.; Bayat, A.

    2016-01-01

    A number of equivalent-skin models are available for investigation of the ex vivo effect of topical application of drugs and cosmaceuticals onto skin, however many have their drawbacks. With the March 2013 ban on animal models for cosmetic testing of products or ingredients for sale in the EU, their utility for testing toxicity and effect on skin becomes more relevant. The aim of this study was to demonstrate proof of principle that altered expression of key gene and protein markers could be ...

  9. Research and development of a phosphoric acid fuel cell/battery power source integrated in a test-bed bus. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-30

    This project, the research and development of a phosphoric acid fuel cell/battery power source integrated into test-bed buses, began as a multi-phase U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project in 1989. Phase I had a goal of developing two competing half-scale (25 kW) brassboard phosphoric acid fuel cell systems. An air-cooled and a liquid-cooled fuel cell system were developed and tested to verify the concept of using a fuel cell and a battery in a hybrid configuration wherein the fuel cell supplies the average power required for operating the vehicle and a battery supplies the `surge` or excess power required for acceleration and hill-climbing. Work done in Phase I determined that the liquid-cooled system offered higher efficiency.

  10. The Harvard Beat Assessment Test (H-BAT): a battery for assessing beat perception and production and their dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Shinya; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2013-01-01

    Humans have the abilities to perceive, produce, and synchronize with a musical beat, yet there are widespread individual differences. To investigate these abilities and to determine if a dissociation between beat perception and production exists, we developed the Harvard Beat Assessment Test (H-BAT), a new battery that assesses beat perception and production abilities. H-BAT consists of four subtests: (1) music tapping test (MTT), (2) beat saliency test (BST), (3) beat interval test (BIT), and (4) beat finding and interval test (BFIT). MTT measures the degree of tapping synchronization with the beat of music, whereas BST, BIT, and BFIT measure perception and production thresholds via psychophysical adaptive stair-case methods. We administered the H-BAT on thirty individuals and investigated the performance distribution across these individuals in each subtest. There was a wide distribution in individual abilities to tap in synchrony with the beat of music during the MTT. The degree of synchronization consistency was negatively correlated with thresholds in the BST, BIT, and BFIT: a lower degree of synchronization was associated with higher perception and production thresholds. H-BAT can be a useful tool in determining an individual's ability to perceive and produce a beat within a single session.

  11. The Harvard Beat Assessment Test (H-BAT: A Battery for Assessing Beat Perception and Production and their Dissociation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya eFujii

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Humans have the abilities to perceive, produce, and synchronize with a musical beat, yet there are widespread individual differences. To investigate these abilities and to determine if a dissociation between beat perception and production exists, we developed the Harvard Beat Assessment Test (H-BAT, a new battery that assesses beat perception and production abilities. H-BAT consists of four subtests: 1 music tapping test (MTT, 2 beat saliency test (BST, 3 beat interval test (BIT, and 4 beat finding and interval test (BFIT. MTT measures the degree of tapping synchronization with the beat of music, whereas BST, BIT, and BFIT measure perception and production thresholds via psychophysical adaptive stair-case methods. We administered the H-BAT on thirty individuals and investigated the performance distribution across these individuals in each subtest. There was a wide distribution in individual abilities to tap in synchrony with the beat of music during the MTT. The degree of synchronization consistency was negatively correlated with thresholds in the BST, BIT, and BFIT: a lower degree of synchronization was associated with higher perception and production thresholds. H-BAT can be a useful tool in determining an individual’s ability to perceive and produce a beat within a single session.

  12. [Considerations on in vitro and in vivo magnetic nanoparticles hemocompatibility testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciochină, Al D; Bredeţean, O; Dimitriu, Daniela-Cristina; Iacob, Gheorghe

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to summarize few aspects and underline some difficulties that hemocompatibility testing come up. The purpose of hemocompatibility testing is to look for possible undesirable changes in the blood caused directly by a medical device, by chemicals leaching from a device or biomaterials. Undesirable effects of device materials on the blood may include alterations in coagulation parameters, thrombus formation, hemolysis, and immunological changes. For each different event the literature is rich in showing tests, not different in principle, but in testing conditions. ISO 10993-4 describes hemocompatibility tests in five different categories (thrombosis, coagulation, platelets, hematology, and immunology). Here we put together the tests that ISO 10993 and/or American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) suggest to evaluate hemocompatibility and we emphases on their utility for magnetic nanoparticules testing. The individual tests are not discussed in detail; they may be performed either in vivo or, preferably, in vitro. For each test we made few considerations with criticism. There is still some uncertainty with respect to what is actually required by the regulatory authorities for the hemocompatibility test, and there is still no harmony between ASTM and ISO 10993 regulations regarding some aspects to be standardised.

  13. An ex vivo original test using radiotracers for evaluating haemocompatibility of tubular biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janvier, G.; Caix, J.; Bordenave, L.; Revel, P.; Baquey, C.; Ducassou, D. (Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), 33 - Bordeaux (France))

    1994-02-01

    The haemocompatibility of a vascular prosthesis can be estimated as the result of its interaction with blood components. The authors describe an ex vivo canine shunt for evaluating isotopic haemocompatibility in blood-wall interactions. Methods employing radioisotopic tracers can be used to dynamically monitor the adsorption of labelled blood cells and proteins on different biomaterial surfaces. This ex vivo test should enable materials to be assessed for quality according to two thrombogenic criteria: (i) number of adhered platelets mm[sup -2] s[sup -1], (ii) quantity of adsorbed fibrinogen expressed as [mu]g mm[sup -2] s[sup -1], which would provide the basis for a scale of haemocompatibility. (author).

  14. The Facial Expressive Action Stimulus Test. A test battery for the assessment of face memory, face and object perception, configuration processing, and facial expression recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gelder, Beatrice; Huis In 't Veld, Elisabeth M J; Van den Stock, Jan

    2015-01-01

    There are many ways to assess face perception skills. In this study, we describe a novel task battery FEAST (Facial Expressive Action Stimulus Test) developed to test recognition of identity and expressions of human faces as well as stimulus control categories. The FEAST consists of a neutral and emotional face memory task, a face and shoe identity matching task, a face and house part-to-whole matching task, and a human and animal facial expression matching task. The identity and part-to-whole matching tasks contain both upright and inverted conditions. The results provide reference data of a healthy sample of controls in two age groups for future users of the FEAST.

  15. The Facial Expressive Action Stimulus Test. A test battery for the assessment of face memory, face and object perception, configuration processing, and facial expression recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gelder, Beatrice; Huis in ‘t Veld, Elisabeth M. J.; Van den Stock, Jan

    2015-01-01

    There are many ways to assess face perception skills. In this study, we describe a novel task battery FEAST (Facial Expressive Action Stimulus Test) developed to test recognition of identity and expressions of human faces as well as stimulus control categories. The FEAST consists of a neutral and emotional face memory task, a face and shoe identity matching task, a face and house part-to-whole matching task, and a human and animal facial expression matching task. The identity and part-to-whole matching tasks contain both upright and inverted conditions. The results provide reference data of a healthy sample of controls in two age groups for future users of the FEAST. PMID:26579004

  16. Joint Battery Industry Sector Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-31

    batteries for 3 wheelchairs , commercial marine, commercial general aviation aircraft (corporate and private airplanes - not commercial jetliners), and...hour battery and pilot plan production. Wheelchairs are the designated preliminary test application for this battery with the hope of being able to...and Rockwell. ARPA also has contracted with Photovoltaics regarding research on solar charging batteries. 3 8.13.6 DOE 3 DOE is conducting research on

  17. A music quality rating test battery for cochlear implant users to compare the FSP and HDCIS strategies for music appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looi, Valerie; Winter, Philip; Anderson, Ilona; Sucher, Catherine

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a music quality rating test battery (MQRTB) and pilot test it by comparing appraisal ratings from cochlear implant (CI) recipients using the fine-structure processing (FSP) and high-definition continuous interleaved sampling (HDCIS) speech processing strategies. The development of the MQRTB involved three stages: (1) Selection of test items for the MQRTB; (2) Verification of its length and complexity with normally-hearing individuals; and (3) Pilot testing with CI recipients. Part 1 involved 65 adult listeners, Part 2 involved 10 normally-hearing adults, and Part 3 involved five adult MED-EL CI recipients. The MQRTB consisted of ten songs, with ratings made on scales assessing pleasantness, naturalness, richness, fullness, sharpness, and roughness. Results of the pilot study, which compared FSP and HDCIS for music, indicated that acclimatization to a strategy had a significant effect on ratings (p < 0.05). When acclimatized to FSP, the group rated FSP as closer to 'exactly as I want it to sound' than HDCIS (p < 0.05), and that HDCIS sounded significantly sharper and rougher than FSP. However when acclimatized to HDCIS, there were no significant differences between ratings. There was no effect of song familiarity or genre on ratings. Overall the results suggest that the use of FSP as the default strategy for MED-EL recipients would have a positive effect on music appreciation, and that the MQRTB is an effective tool for assessing music sound quality.

  18. Are Score Comparisons across Language Proficiency Test Batteries Justified?: An IELTS-TOEFL Comparability Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geranpayeh, Ardeshir

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports on a study conducted to determine if comparisons between scores on the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) and the International English Language Testing Service (IELTS) are justifiable. The test scores of 216 Iranian graduate students who took the TOEFL and IELTS, as well as the Iranian Ministry of Culture and Higher…

  19. Identification of an abbreviated test battery for detection of HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment in an early-managed HIV-infected cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Moore

    Full Text Available HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND remain prevalent despite improved antiretroviral treatment (ART, and it is essential to have a sensitive and specific HAND screening tool.Participants were 200 HIV-infected US military beneficiaries, managed early in the course of HIV infection, had few comorbidities, and had open access to ART. Participants completed a comprehensive, seven-domain (16-test, neuropsychological battery (∼120 min; neurocognitive impairment (NCI was determined using a standardized score derived from demographically adjusted T-scores (global deficit score ≥0.5. Restricting the estimated administration time of the screening battery to < = 20 minutes, we examined the sensitivity and specificity of detecting NCI for all possible combinations of 2-, 3-, and 4- tests from the comprehensive battery.Participants were relatively healthy (median CD4 count: 546 cells/mm(3 with 64% receiving ART. Prevalence of NCI was low (19%. The best 2-test screener included the Stroop Color Test and the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (11 min; sensitivity = 73%; specificity = 83%; the best 3-test screener included the above measures plus the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT; 16 min; sensitivity = 86%; specificity = 75%. The addition of Action Fluency to the above three tests improved specificity (18 min; sensitivity = 86%; specificity = 87%.Combinations of widely accepted neuropsychological tests with brief implementation time demonstrated good sensitivity and specificity compared to a time intensive neuropsychological test battery. Tests of verbal learning, attention/working memory, and processing speed are particularly useful in detecting NCI. Utilizing validated, easy to administer, traditional neuropsychological tests with established normative data may represent an excellent approach to screening for NCI in HIV.

  20. From in vivo to in vitro: The medical device testing paradigm shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerecman Myers, Dayna; Goldberg, Alan M; Poth, Albrecht; Wolf, Michael F; Carraway, Joseph; McKim, James; Coleman, Kelly P; Hutchinson, Richard; Brown, Ronald; Krug, Harald F; Bahinski, Anthony; Hartung, Thomas

    2017-05-25

    Amid growing efforts to advance the replacement, reduction, and refinement of the use of animals in research, there is a growing recognition that in vitro testing of medical devices can be more effective, both in terms of cost and time, and also more reliable than in vivo testing. Although the technological landscape has evolved rapidly in support of these concepts, regulatory acceptance of alternative testing methods has not kept pace. Despite the acceptance by regulators of some in vitro tests (cytotoxicity, gene toxicity, and some hemocompatibility assays), many toxicity tests still rely on animals (irritation, sensitization, acute toxicity, reproductive/developmental toxicity), even where other industrial sectors have already abandoned them. Bringing about change will require a paradigm shift in current approaches to testing - and a concerted effort to generate better data on risks to human health from exposure to leachable chemicals from medical devices, and to boost confidence in devices and alternative testing methods. To help advance these ideas, stir debate about best practices, and coalesce around a roadmap forward, the JHU-Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT) hosted a symposium in Baltimore, Maryland, in December 2013 - believed to be the first gathering dedicated to the topic of in vitro testing of medical devices. Industry representatives, academics, and regulators in attendance presented evidence to support the unique strengths and challenges associated with the approaches currently in use as well as new methods under development, and drew next steps to push the field forward from their presentations and discussion.

  1. Advancing the vesosome, a multifunctional drug delivery platform, toward applied in vivo testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Benjamin J.

    An optimal drug delivery vehicle should circulate long enough to reach the site of illness or disease, possess a large drug loading capacity, retain its contents over the course of treatment, and be able deliver its contents at a rate appropriate for maximum therapeutic benefit at the site of interest. The vesosome, a large lipid bilayer enclosing multiple, smaller liposomes, is our solution to addressing these needs. The external lipid bilayer offers a second barrier of protection for interior components and can also serve as the anchor for active targeting components. Furthermore, internal compartmentalization permits customization of separate environments for multiple therapeutics and release triggers. Previous work established the ability of the vesosome to retain its contents in vitro an order of magnitude longer than liposomes. To be viable in vivo, the vesosome must be functionalized for biocompatibility and tracking, and its synthetic procedure must be repeatable, reliable and result in a purified product. The vesosome was functionalized by introducing biocompatible polymers, such as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), and fluorescent dyes in their lipid-bound forms into the external membrane of the vesosome. The external vesosomal membrane is formed from large, flat lipid sheets in the interdigitated (L betaI) phase which, when heated, are used to encapsulate smaller drug-containing vesicles. Through X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and freeze-fracture transmission electron microscopy (FF-TEM), we established that the molar amounts of functionalized lipid required to label the vesosome for tracking and biocompatibility (˜5--7mol% total) did not prevent the formation of the interdigitated phase. Thus, functionalization of the external vesosome membrane can be achieved through functionalization of interdigitated sheets. For in vivo testing, functionalized vesosomes must be separated from unencapsulated vesicles and purification was performed using size exclusion

  2. Paintable battery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singh, Neelam; Galande, Charudatta; Miranda, Andrea; Mathkar, Akshay; Gao, Wei; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Vlad, Alexandru; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2012-01-01

    If the components of a battery, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte and the current collectors can be designed as paints and applied sequentially to build a complete battery, on any arbitrary...

  3. Gas transport during in vitro and in vivo preclinical testing of inert gas therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Katz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available New gas therapies using inert gases such as xenon and argon are being studied, which require in vitro and in vivo preclinical experiments. Examples of the kinetics of gas transport during such experiments are analyzed in this paper. Using analytical and numerical models, we analyze an in vitro experiment for gas transport to a 96 cell well plate and an in vivo delivery to a small animal chamber, where the key processes considered are the wash-in of test gas into an apparatus dead volume, the diffusion of test gas through the liquid media in a well of a cell test plate, and the pharmacokinetics in a rat. In the case of small animals in a chamber, the key variable controlling the kinetics is the chamber wash-in time constant that is a function of the chamber volume and the gas flow rate. For cells covered by a liquid media the diffusion of gas through the liquid media is the dominant mechanism, such that liquid depth and the gas diffusion constant are the key parameters. The key message from these analyses is that the transport of gas during preclinical experiments can be important in determining the true dose as experienced at the site of action in an animal or to a cell.

  4. Testing ESL pragmatics development and validation of a web-based assessment battery

    CERN Document Server

    Roever, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Although second language learners' pragmatic competence (their ability to use language in context) is an essential part of their general communicative competence, it has not been a part of second language tests. This book helps fill this gap by describing the development and validation of a web-based test of ESL pragmalinguistics. The instrument assesses learners' knowledge of routine formulae, speech acts, and implicature in 36 multiple-choice and brief-response items. The test's quantitative and qualitative validation with 300 learners showed high reliability and provided strong evidence of

  5. GALEN skin test study III: Minimum battery of test inhalent allergens needed in epidemiological studies in patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousquet, P.-J.; Burbach, G.; Heinzerling, L. M.; Edenharter, G.; Bachert, C.; Bindslev-Jensen, C.; Bonini, S.; Bousquet-Rouanet, L.; Demoly, P.; Bresciani, M.; Bruno, A.; Gjomarkaj, M.; Canonica, G. W.; Darsow, U.; Durham, S.; Fokkens, W. J.; Giavi, S.; Gramiccioni, C.; Papadopoulos, N. G.; Haahtela, T.; Kowalski, M. L.; Magyar, P.; Muraközi, G.; Orosz, M.; Röhnelt, C.; Stingl, G.; Todo-Bom, A.; von Mutius, E.; Wiesner, A.; Wöhrl, S.; Bousquet, J.; Zuberbier, T.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The number of allergens to be tested in order to identify sensitized patients is important in order to have the most cost-effective approach in epidemiological studies. Objective: To define the minimal number and the type of skin prick test (SPT) allergens required to identify a patient

  6. Design and Control of a Multi-Functional Energy Recovery Power Accumulator Battery Pack Testing System for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Long

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, aiming at the energy loss and harmonic problems in the conventional power accumulator battery pack testing system (PABPTS, an improved multi-functional energy recovery PABPTS (ERPABPTS for electric vehicles (EVs was proposed. The improved system has the functions of harmonic detection, suppression, reactive compensation and energy recovery. The ERPABPTS, which contains a bi-directional buck-boost direct current (DC-DC converter and a bi-directional alternating current (AC-DC converter with an inductor-capacitor-inductor (LCL type filter interfacing to the AC-grid, is proposed. System configuration and operation principle of the combined system are discussed first, then, the reactive compensation and harmonic suppression controller under balanced grid-voltage condition are presented. Design of a fourth order band-pass Butterworth filter for current harmonic detection is put forward, and the reactive compensator design procedure considering the non-linear load is also illustrated. The proposed scheme is implemented in a 175-kW prototype in the laboratory. Simulation and experimental results show that the combined configuration can effectively realize energy recovery for high accuracy current test requirement, meanwhile, can effectively achieve reactive compensation and current harmonic suppression.

  7. Relations Between the Intelligibility of Speech in Noise and Psychophysical Measures of Hearing Measured in Four Languages Using the Auditory Profile Test Battery

    OpenAIRE

    Esch, T.E.M. van; Dreschler, W. A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the relations between the intelligibility of speech in noise and measures of auditory resolution, loudness recruitment, and cognitive function. The analyses were based on data published earlier as part of the presentation of the Auditory Profile, a test battery implemented in four languages. Tests of the intelligibility of speech, resolution, loudness recruitment, and lexical decision making were measured using headphones in five centers: in Germa...

  8. In vitro and in vivo tests of PLA/d-HAp nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom Nguyen, Thi; Hoang, Thai; Mao Can, Van; Son Ho, Anh; Hai Nguyen, Song; Thu Trang Nguyen, Thi; Pham, Thi Nam; Phuong Nguyen, Thu; Le Hien Nguyen, Thi; Thanh Dinh Thi, Mai

    2017-12-01

    The bioactivity of the PLA/d-HAp nanocomposite with 30 wt.% d-HAp was evaluated by in vitro tests and indicated that after 7 immersion days in SBF solution, PLA amorphous part was hydrolyzed and PLA crystal part was remained. The formation of apatite on the surface of the material was observed. The in vivo test results of PLA/d-HAp nanocomposite (70/30 wt/wt) on femur of dogs displayed that 3 months after grafting, the materials did not induce any osteitis, osteomyelitis or structural abnormalities. The histological and x-ray image demonstrated a growth of the bone into the material area, while osteitis and osteomyelitis were not observed.

  9. Evaluation of allergic vesicular reaction to patch test using in vivo confocal microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardigò, Marco; Longo, Caterina; Cristaudo, Antonio; Berardesca, Enzo; Pellacani, Giovanni

    2012-02-01

    Confocal microscopy has been successfully applied both in oncologic and inflammatory diseases. In particular, it has been proved as a useful tool for the in vivo detection of microscopical changes occurring in allergic reactions. To evaluate microscopic changes occurring in positive patch test reactions. Eight patients with history of allergic dermatitis and positive patch test reaction were analysed by means of confocal microscopy. Confocal microscopy showed the presence of spongiotic vesicle preferentially localized around the adnexal ducts that appeared to be in the middle of the spongiotic phenomena. Confocal microscopy offered for the first time new insight into vesicle formation and development, showing that adnexal ducts can play a role in allergic reaction. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Ecotoxicological assessment of organic wastes spread on land: Towards a proposal of a suitable test battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguier, Pierre; Manier, Nicolas; Chabot, Laure; Bauda, Pascale; Pandard, Pascal

    2015-03-01

    The land spreading of organic wastes in agriculture is a common practice in Europe, under the regulation of the Directive 86/278/EEC. One of the objectives of this Directive is to prevent harmful effects of organic wastes on soil, plants and animals. Despite this regulatory framework, there is still a lack of harmonized ecotoxicological test strategy to assess the environmental hazard of such wastes. The aim of this study was to provide a first step towards the a priori ecotoxicological assessment of organic wastes before their land use. For that purpose, nine different organic wastes were assessed using direct (i.e. terrestrial tests) and indirect (i.e. tests on water eluates) approaches, for a total of thirteen endpoints. Then, multivariate analyzes were used to discriminate the most relevant test strategy, among the application rates and bioassays used. From our results, a draft of test strategy was proposed, using terrestrial bioassays (i.e. earthworms and plants) and a concentration range between one and ten times the recommended application rates of organic wastes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Replacement of the in vivo neutralisation test for efficacy demonstration of tetanus vaccines ad us. vet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosskopf, Ute; Noeske, Kerstin; Werner, Esther

    2005-01-01

    The bacterium Clostridium (C.) tetani is an ubiquitous pathogen. This anaerobic, gram-positive bacterium can form spores and can be found in the whole environment. It enters the body via injuries of the skin and wounds where it releases the neurotoxin "tetanospasmin" (= tetanus toxin). The animals most susceptible to tetanus infection are horses and sheep. Only active immunisation by tetanus vaccine provides effective protection against tetanus intoxication. The marketing authorisation requirements stipulate that efficacy of tetanus vaccines ad us. vet. must be demonstrated in all target animal species via determination of neutralising tetanus serum antitoxin concentrations. The standard method used for this purpose is still the toxin neutralisation test (TNT), as it quantifies the tetanus toxin-neutralising effect of tetanus serum antibodies in vivo. In this test, tetanus toxin is added to dilutions of serum from vaccinated horse and sheep. The serum dilutions are then administered to mice or guinea pigs, which are observed for toxic symptoms. Against the background of animal protection, the goal of one project of the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut (Bundesministerium fuer Bildung und Forschung (Federal Ministry for Education and Research), 0312636) was to establish an alternative to the toxin neutralisation test, enabling the testing of efficacy of tetanus vaccines with serological in vitro methods. For this purpose, a so-called double antigen ELISA (DAE) was established which enables the testing of sera of different species in one assay. In addition, the sera were tested in an indirect ELISA for horses and sheep separately. Altogether, ten groups of horses and eight groups of sheep were immunised with ten animals per group each. The tetanus vaccines comprised almost all products authorised for the German market at the start of the project. 564 horse sera and 257 sheep sera were tested using the two ELISA methods. Some sera were also tested in vivo. The kinetics of

  12. Culture of the primary corneal epithelium as a potential component of test batteries for eye irritancy testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladowski, D; Liberek, I; Lipski, K; Ozga, T; Olkowska-Truchanowicz, J; Szaflik, J

    2005-10-01

    One of the main goals for toxicologists working on the development of in vitro tests is to replace the animal-based eye irritation test. Inflammation is one of the mechanisms which have not been covered sufficiently by the existing in vitro ocular irritancy test systems. As there are major species differences between the human and rabbit eye inflammation mechanisms, the most relevant test system is the human eye itself. The current study focused on an evaluation of the practical availability of human corneal epithelial cells for routine eye irritancy testing. Human corneal epithelium cell cultures were used to assess the effects of lipopolysaccharide on IL-1 beta release. The findings indicated that cytokine release can be augmented by the presence of the complement system, which is normally found in tears. However, the corneal cells were found to be highly resistant to the complement system, which can be attributed to the very high expression of CD59, a powerful complement regulatory protein found in the corneal epithelium. It is estimated that discarded corneas from tissue banks could provide enough material for routine testing by this method.

  13. A preliminary validity study of the cambridge neuropsychological test automated battery for the assessment of executive function in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Sun; An, Yong Min; Kwon, Jun Soo; Shin, Min-Sup

    2014-10-01

    Although the executive function subtests of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) have been used to assess cognitive function in diverse psychiatric illnesses, few studies have verified the validity of this battery for Korean psychiatric patients. Therefore, this preliminary study evaluated the construct and concurrent validity of the executive function subtests of the CANTAB for Korean psychiatric patients by comparing it with subtests of the Computerized Neuropsychological Test (CNT). Three subtests of the CANTAB and three subtests of the CNT were administered to 36 patients diagnosed with either schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Subtests of the CANTAB included the Intra/Extra-Dimensional Set Shift (IED), Stockings of Cambridge (SOC), and Spatial Working Memory (SWM). Differences between groups on each subtest as well as correlations between the subtests of the CANTAB and the CNT were assessed. The schizophrenia group performed significantly more poorly on the IED and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) compared with the bipolar disorder group. Additionally, correlation analyses revealed a significant correlation between the IED and the WCST; a positive correlation between the SOC and the Trail Making Test, Part B and the Stroop test; and a significant correlation between the SWM and the Stroop test. This study verified the construct and concurrent validity of the executive function subtests of the CANTAB for Korean psychiatric patients and suggests that the subtests of this battery would be useful and appropriate for assessing deficits in executive function in Korean clinical settings.

  14. Air Force Phillips Laboratory Battery Program overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Shaun

    1992-02-01

    Battery development and testing efforts at Phillips Laboratory fall into three main categories: nickel hydrogen, sodium sulfur, and solid state batteries. Nickel hydrogen work is broken down into a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Life Test Program, a LEO Pulse Test Program, and a Hydrogen Embrittlement Investigation. Sodium sulfur work is broken down into a Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) Battery Flight Test and a Hot Launch Evaluation. Solid state polymer battery work consists of a GEO Battery Development Program, a Pulse Power Battery Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR), and an in-house evaluation of current generation laboratory cells. An overview of the program is presented.

  15. The Construction of a Motor Fitness Test Battery for Boys in the Lower Elementary Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNucci, James M.; Shore, John Roger

    In order to construct a scientifically designed evaluative instrument to assess the motor fitness of boys in the primary grades, 30 test items purported to measure muscular strength, muscular endurance, cardiovascular endurance, power, speed, agility, flexibility, and balance were administered to an incidental sample of 238 boys ages 6 to 9 years.…

  16. The MISTRA Data: Forty-Two Mental Ability Tests in Three Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wendy; Bouchard, Thomas J., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart (MISTRA) was initiated in 1979 and continued until 2000. It consisted of 139 pairs of twins who had been separated in early childhood and not re-united until adulthood, and members of their families. As part of a broader assessment, these participants completed 42 mental ability tests from three well-known…

  17. Using a Battery of Tests to Predict Suicide in a Long Term Hospital: A Clinical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kim

    1982-01-01

    Examined the Wechsler-Bellevue, Rorschah, TAT, and Word-Association tests of forty patients for clinical indications of their suicide potential. On the basis of a blind, psychoanalytically informed clinical interpretation of the protocols, the outcomes of these protocols were successfully predicted for 85 percent of the cases. (Author)

  18. The placenta in toxicology. Part IV : Battery of toxicological test systems based on human placenta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göhner, Claudia; Svensson-Arvelund, Judit; Pfarrer, Christiane; Häger, Jan-Dirk; Faas, Marijke; Ernerudh, Jan; Cline, J Mark; Dixon, Darlene; Buse, Eberhard; Markert, Udo R

    This review summarizes the potential and also some limitations of using human placentas, or placental cells and structures for toxicology testing. The placenta contains a wide spectrum of cell types and tissues, such as trophoblast cells, immune cells, fibroblasts, stem cells, endothelial cells,

  19. Dry cell battery poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  20. Development of a test battery for evaluating speech perception in complex listening environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brungart, Douglas S; Sheffield, Benjamin M; Kubli, Lina R

    2014-08-01

    In the real world, spoken communication occurs in complex environments that involve audiovisual speech cues, spatially separated sound sources, reverberant listening spaces, and other complicating factors that influence speech understanding. However, most clinical tools for assessing speech perception are based on simplified listening environments that do not reflect the complexities of real-world listening. In this study, speech materials from the QuickSIN speech-in-noise test by Killion, Niquette, Gudmundsen, Revit, and Banerjee [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 116, 2395-2405 (2004)] were modified to simulate eight listening conditions spanning the range of auditory environments listeners encounter in everyday life. The standard QuickSIN test method was used to estimate 50% speech reception thresholds (SRT50) in each condition. A method of adjustment procedure was also used to obtain subjective estimates of the lowest signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) where the listeners were able to understand 100% of the speech (SRT100) and the highest SNR where they could detect the speech but could not understand any of the words (SRT0). The results show that the modified materials maintained most of the efficiency of the QuickSIN test procedure while capturing performance differences across listening conditions comparable to those reported in previous studies that have examined the effects of audiovisual cues, binaural cues, room reverberation, and time compression on the intelligibility of speech.

  1. Effects of acute memantine administration on MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery performance in psychosis: Testing an experimental medicine strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhakta, Savita G; Chou, Hsun-Hua; Rana, Brinda; Talledo, Jo A; Balvaneda, Bryan; Gaddis, Laura; Light, Gregory A; Swerdlow, Neal R

    2016-06-01

    Pro-cognitive agents for chronic psychotic disorders (CPDs) might be detected via experimental medicine models, in which neural targets engaged by the drug predict sensitivity to the drug's pro-cognitive effects. This study aims to use an experimental medicine model to test the hypothesis that "target engagement" predicts pro-cognitive effects of the NMDA antagonist, memantine (MEM), in CPDs. MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) performance was assessed in CPD (n = 41) and healthy subjects (HS; n = 41) in a double-blind, randomized cross-over design of acute (single dose) MEM (placebo vs. 10 or 20 mg p.o.). Measures of prepulse inhibition (PPI) and mismatch negativity previously reported from this cohort substantiated target engagement. Biomarkers predicting MEM neurocognitive sensitivity were assessed. Testing confirmed MCCB deficits associated with CPD diagnosis, age, and anticholinergic exposure. MEM (20 mg p.o.) reduced MCCB performance in HS. To control for significant test order effects, an "order-corrected MEM effect" (OCME) was calculated. In CPD subjects, greater age, positive MEM effects on PPI, and SNP rs1337697 (within the ionotropic NMDA receptor gene, GRIN3A) predicted greater positive OCME with 20 mg MEM. An experimental medicine model to assess acute pro-cognitive drug effects in CPD subjects is feasible but not without challenges. A single MEM 20 mg dose had a negative impact on neurocognition among HS. In CPD patients, age, MEM effects on PPI, and rs1337697 predicted sensitivity to the neurocognitive effects of MEM. Any potential clinical utility of these predictive markers for pro-cognitive effects of MEM in subgroups of CPD patients cannot be inferred without a validating clinical trial.

  2. Haptic-2D: A new haptic test battery assessing the tactual abilities of sighted and visually impaired children and adolescents with two-dimensional raised materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazella, Anaïs; Albaret, Jean-Michel; Picard, Delphine

    2016-01-01

    To fill an important gap in the psychometric assessment of children and adolescents with impaired vision, we designed a new battery of haptic tests, called Haptic-2D, for visually impaired and sighted individuals aged five to 18 years. Unlike existing batteries, ours uses only two-dimensional raised materials that participants explore using active touch. It is composed of 11 haptic tests, measuring scanning skills, tactile discrimination skills, spatial comprehension skills, short-term tactile memory, and comprehension of tactile pictures. We administered this battery to 138 participants, half of whom were sighted (n=69), and half visually impaired (blind, n=16; low vision, n=53). Results indicated a significant main effect of age on haptic scores, but no main effect of vision or Age × Vision interaction effect. Reliability of test items was satisfactory (Cronbach's alpha, α=0.51-0.84). Convergent validity was good, as shown by a significant correlation (age partialled out) between total haptic scores and scores on the B101 test (rp=0.51, n=47). Discriminant validity was also satisfactory, as attested by a lower but still significant partial correlation between total haptic scores and the raw score on the verbal WISC (rp=0.43, n=62). Finally, test-retest reliability was good (rs=0.93, n=12; interval of one to two months). This new psychometric tool should prove useful to practitioners working with young people with impaired vision. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A touch screen-automated cognitive test battery reveals impaired attention, memory abnormalities, and increased response inhibition in the TgCRND8 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romberg, Carola; Horner, Alexa E; Bussey, Timothy J; Saksida, Lisa M

    2013-03-01

    Transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with abundant β-amyloid develop memory impairments. However, multiple nonmnemonic cognitive domains such as attention and executive control are also compromised early in AD individuals, but have not been routinely assessed in animal models. Here, we assessed the cognitive abilities of TgCRND8 mice-a widely used model of β-amyloid pathology-with a touch screen-based automated test battery. The test battery comprises highly translatable tests of multiple cognitive constructs impaired in human AD, such as memory, attention, and response control, as well as appropriate control tasks. We found that familial AD mutations affect not only memory, but also cause significant alterations of sustained attention and behavioral flexibility. Because changes in attention and response inhibition may affect performance on tests of other cognitive abilities including memory, our findings have important consequences for the assessment of disease mechanisms and therapeutics in animal models of AD. A more comprehensive phenotyping with specialized, multicomponent cognitive test batteries for mice might significantly advance translation from preclinical mouse studies to the clinic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Modeling, control and experimental testing of a supercapacitor/battery hybrid system : passive and semi-active topologies

    OpenAIRE

    Seim, Lars Hagvaag

    2012-01-01

    Supercapacitors possess unique properties that can complement other energy storage technologies in hybrid electric energy systems. Due to its performance characteristics - such as fast charge and discharge capability, high power density and high recycleability - a supercapacitor can relieve the battery of narrow and repeated transient charging and discharging, ensuring longer battery life, enabling higher system peak power performance and improve system efficiency. An equivalent super...

  5. Vibration Durability Testing of Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (NMC) Lithium-Ion 18,650 Battery Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hooper, James Michael; Marco, James; Chouchelamane, Gael H.; Lyness, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Electric vehicle (EV) manufacturers are employing cylindrical format cells in the construction of the vehicles’ battery systems. There is evidence to suggest that both the academic and industrial communities have evaluated cell degradation due to vibration and other forms of mechanical loading. The primary motivation is often the need to satisfy the minimum requirements for safety certification. However, there is limited research that quantifies the durability of the battery and in particular...

  6. A novel automated behavioral test battery assessing cognitive rigidity in two genetic mouse models of autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja ePuścian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive behaviors are a key feature of many pervasive developmental disorders, such as autism. As a heterogeneous group of symptoms, repetitive behaviors are conceptualized into two main subgroups: sensory/motor (lower-order and cognitive rigidity (higher-order. Although lower-order repetitive behaviors are measured in mouse models in several paradigms, so far there have been no high-throughput tests directly measuring cognitive rigidity. We describe a novel approach for monitoring repetitive behaviors during reversal learning in mice in the automated IntelliCage system. During the reward-motivated place preference reversal learning, designed to assess cognitive abilities of mice, visits to the previously rewarded places were recorded to measure cognitive flexibility. Thereafter, emotional flexibility was assessed by measuring conditioned fear extinction. Additionally, to look for neuronal correlates of cognitive impairments, we measured CA3-CA1 hippocampal long term potentiation (LTP. To standardize the designed tests we used C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice, representing two genetic backgrounds, for induction of autism by prenatal exposure to the sodium valproate. We found impairments of place learning related to perseveration and no LTP impairments in C57BL/6 valproate-treated mice. In contrast, BALB/c valproate-treated mice displayed severe deficits of place learning not associated with perseverative behaviors and accompanied by hippocampal LTP impairments. Alterations of cognitive flexibility observed in C57BL/6 valproate-treated mice were related to neither restricted exploration pattern nor to emotional flexibility. Altogether, we showed that the designed tests of cognitive performance and perseverative behaviors are efficient and highly replicable. Moreover, the results suggest that genetic background is crucial for the behavioral effects of prenatal valproate treatment.

  7. Recommendations for statistical designs of in vivo mutagenicity tests with regard to subsequent statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, I D; Bootman, J; Favor, J; Hook, G; Schriever-Schwemmer, G; Welzl, G; Whorton, E; Yoshimura, I; Hayashi, M

    1998-09-01

    A workshop was held on September 13 and 14, 1993, at the GSF, Neuherberg, Germany, to start a discussion of experimental design and statistical analysis issues for three in vivo mutagenicity test systems, the micronucleus test in mouse bone marrow/peripheral blood, the chromosomal aberration tests in mouse bone marrow/differentiating spermatogonia, and the mouse dominant lethal test. The discussion has now come to conclusions which we would like to make generally known. Rather than dwell upon specific statistical tests which could be used for data analysis, serious consideration was given to test design. However, the test design, its power of detecting a given increase of adverse effects and the test statistics are interrelated. Detailed analyses of historical negative control data led to important recommendations for each test system. Concerning the statistical sensitivity parameters, a type I error of 0.05 (one tailed), a type II error of 0.20 and a dose related increase of twice the background (negative control) frequencies were generally adopted. It was recommended that sufficient observations (cells, implants) be planned for each analysis unit (animal) so that at least one adverse outcome (micronucleus, aberrant cell, dead implant) would likely be observed. The treated animal was the smallest unit of analysis allowed. On the basis of these general consideration the sample size was determined for each of the three assays. A minimum of 2000 immature erythrocytes/animal should be scored for micronuclei from each of at least 4 animals in each comparison group in the micronucleus assays. A minimum of 200 cells should be scored for chromosomal aberrations from each of at least 5 animals in each comparison group in the aberration assays. In the dominant lethal test, a minimum of 400 implants (40-50 pregnant females) are required per dose group for each mating period. The analysis unit for the dominant lethal test would be the treated male unless the background

  8. Developing a Very Low Vision Orientation and Mobility Test Battery (O&M-VLV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Robert P; Ayton, Lauren N; Deverell, Lil; O'Hare, Fleur; McSweeney, Shane C; Luu, Chi D; Fenwick, Eva K; Keeffe, Jill E; Guymer, Robyn H; Bentley, Sharon A

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the feasibility of an assessment of vision-related orientation and mobility (O&M) tasks in persons with severe vision loss. These tasks may be used for future low vision rehabilitation clinical assessments or as outcome measures in vision restoration trials. Forty legally blind persons (mean visual acuity logMAR 2.3, or hand movements) with advanced retinitis pigmentosa participated in the Orientation & Mobility-Very Low Vision (O&M-VLV) subtests from the Low Vision Assessment of Daily Activities (LoVADA) protocol. Four categories of tasks were evaluated: route travel in three indoor hospital environments, a room orientation task (the "cafe"), a visual exploration task (the "gallery"), and a modified version of the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, which assesses re-orientation and route travel. Spatial cognition was assessed using the Stuart Tactile Maps test. Visual acuity and visual fields were measured. A generalized linear regression model showed that a number of measures in the O&M-VLV tasks were related to residual visual function. The percentage of preferred walking speed without an aid on three travel routes was associated with visual field (p orientation, which may be of benefit in vision restoration clinical trials.

  9. Testing for neglect in right-hemispheric stroke patients using a new assessment battery based upon standardized activities of daily living (ADL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschenbeck, Philipp; Vossel, Simone; Weiss, Peter H; Saliger, Jochen; Karbe, Hans; Fink, Gereon R

    2010-10-01

    Spatial neglect is most frequently observed after right-hemispheric stroke and is characterized by a failure to report, to respond, or to orient to stimuli presented to the contralesional side. Although many neglect patients show difficulties in accomplishing activities of daily living (ADL), to date the clinical assessment of neglect is based upon neuropsychological paper-and-pencil tests. Thus, essential information about the patient's functional status may be missed out. Accordingly, we aimed at developing a new neglect test battery that incorporates standardized ADL. Six conventional paper-and-pencil neglect tests and eight standardized ADL with newly developed neglect-specific scoring criteria and cut-off scores were administered to 68 right-hemispheric stroke patients. According to the neuropsychological tests 22 patients showed symptoms suggesting neglect, whereas 17 patients showed symptoms suggesting neglect according to the newly developed neglect test based upon ADL. Neglect-specific impairments in the neuropsychological tests were significantly associated with those in the ADL-based tests, although dissociations were observed in seven patients. Neglect severity (as reflected in the percentage of positive subtests) was comparable for both test batteries and both test instruments showed high interrater reliability. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping revealed that the severity of neglect according to the neuropsychological and ADL-based tests was significantly associated with lesions within right fronto-parietal networks. We conclude that the newly developed ADL-based neglect battery provides an economic and ecologically valid tool for the assessment of neglect. The test can be used to assess and quantify neglect in everyday activities, and thus to monitor realistically rehabilitative needs of neglect patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor related pathways tested on an endometrial ex-vivo model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Rahmati

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Recombinant human Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor (rhG-CSF supplementation seems to be a promising innovative therapy in reproductive medicine, used in case of recurrent miscarriage, embryo implantation failure or thin endometrium, although its mechanisms of action remain unknown. Our aim was to identify possible endometrial pathways influenced by rhG-CSF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hypothetical molecular interactions regulated by G-CSF were designed through a previous large scale endometrial microarray study. The variation of endometrial expression of selected target genes was confirmed in control and infertile patients. G-CSF supplementation influence on these targets was tested on an endometrial ex-vivo culture. Middle luteal phase endometrial biopsies were cultured on collagen sponge with or without rhG-CSF supplementation during 3 consecutive days. Variations of endometrial mRNA expression for the selected targets were studied by RT-PCR. RESULTS: At the highest dose of rhG-CSF stimulation, the mRNA expression of these selected target genes was significantly increased if compared with their expression without addition of rhG-CSF. The selected targets were G-CSF Receptor (G-CSFR, Integrin alpha-V/beta-3 (ITGB3 implicated in cell migration and embryo implantation, Plasminogen Activator Urokinase Receptor (PLAUR described as interacting with integrins and implicated in cell migration, Thymidine Phosphorylase (TYMP implicated in local angiogenesis, CD40 and its ligand CD40L involved in cell proliferation control. CONCLUSION: RhG-CSF seems able to influence endometrial expressions crucial for implantation process involving endometrial vascular remodelling, local immune modulation and cellular adhesion pathways. These variations observed in an ex-vivo model should be tested in-vivo. The strict indications or counter indication of rhG-CSF supplementation in reproductive field are not yet established, while the safety of its

  11. Durability and Reliability of Electric Vehicle Batteries under Electric Utility Grid Operations. Part 1: Cell-to-Cell Variations and Preliminary Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Devie

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle-to-grid (V2G and grid-to-vehicle (G2V strategies are considered to help stabilize the electric grid but their true impact on battery degradation is still unknown. The intention of this study is to test the impact of such strategies on the degradation of commercial Li-ion batteries. This first part looks into the preliminary testing performed prior to the start of degradation studies to ensure that the selected cells are compatible. Both the thermodynamic and kinetic cell-to-cell variation within the selected batch and the diagnostic-ability of the cells were investigated. The cells were found to have low cell-to-cell variations and are thus consistent. Moreover, the emulation of the full cell from the half-cell data prepared from harvested electrodes was successful and the degradation forecast showed that the main degradation modes can be differentiated.

  12. Gender differences in performance of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children - 2nd edition test in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valtr Ludvík

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Movement Assessment Battery for Children - 2nd edition (MABC-2 is used for the assessment of motor proficiency and identification of motor impairments in 3-16 year old children. Although there are some gender differences in the motor development of children, in the MABC-2 test the same tasks and norms are used for both genders. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine gender differences in performance of motor tasks involved in the MABC-2 test in adolescents aged 15 to 16. Methods: Participants (N = 121, 50 boys and 71 girls, mean age 16.0 ± 0.5 years randomly recruited from schools were assessed using the MABC-2 test. The Mann-Whitney U test and effect size r were used to analyse gender differences in performance outcome in the particular motor tasks of the MABC-2 test. Results: As compared to the boys, the girls achieved a significantly shorter time of completion of the unimanual coordination task executed with their preferred hand (p < .001, r = .33 and significantly fewer errors in the graphomotor task (p = .001, r = .29. On the other hand, the boys achieved significantly better results than the girls in the aiming and catching tasks (p ≤ .030, r = .20-.33. Performance in the dynamic balance tasks was not significantly different between genders. The girls demonstrated a significantly longer duration of static balance in one-leg standing as compared to the boys (p = .011, r = .23. For the motor tasks some statistical differences were found, however the effect size of the gender on performance was small or medium. Conclusions: The findings of the study suggest that gender could be a significant factor of performance in the motor tasks associated with object control such as aiming and catching. Other domains, such as manual dexterity and balance, seem to be influenced by gender to a small extent.

  13. A systematic review to determine reliability and usefulness of the field-based test batteries for the assessment of physical fitness in adolescents – The ASSO Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Bianco

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present review is to investigate the main field-based tests, used alone or included in sport or fitness batteries, for the assessment of health- and skill-related physical fitness components in adolescents. Different scientific databases were searched through using the selected key words related to physical fitness and its components for adolescence. The search focused on original articles and reviews/meta-analyses using valid, reproducible and feasible tests that fit within the school environment. A total of 100 scientific manuscripts were included in the qualitative synthesis. The present systematic review pointed out 5 fitness tests that well adapt to the evaluation of the components of physical fitness of adolescents within a school environment: the 20 m shuttle run test for cardio-respiratory endurance; the handgrip strength test for upper body maximal strength; the standing broad jump test for lower body maximal strength; the sit-up test to exhaustion for muscular endurance and the 4×10 m shuttle run test for speed, agility and coordination. These fitness tests have been finally selected and incorporated into the Adolescents and Surveillance System for the Obesity prevention – Fitness Test Battery (ASSO-FTB, and will be adopted within the ASSO Project for evaluation purposes. This instrument could be also provided to teachers and people working in schools in order to assess physical fitness of adolescents over time and prevent obesity and related diseases.

  14. Technical feasibility for commercialization of lithium ion battery as a substitute dry battery for motorcycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniyati, Indah; Sutopo, Wahyudi; Zakaria, Roni; Kadir, Evizal Abdul

    2017-11-01

    Dry battery on a motorcycle has a rapid rate of voltage drop, life time is not too long, and a long charging time. These are problems for users of dry battery for motorcycle. When the rate in the voltage decreases, the energy storage in the battery is reduced, then at the age of one to two years of battery will be dead and cannot be used, it makes the user should replace the battery. New technology development of a motorcycle battery is lithium ion battery. Lithium ion battery has a specification that has been tested and possible to replace dry battery. Characteristics of lithium ion battery can answer the question on the dry battery service life, the rate of decrease in voltage and charging time. This paper discusses about the technical feasibility for commercialization of lithium ion battery for motorcycle battery. Our proposed methodology of technical feasibility by using a goldsmith commercialization model of the technical feasibility and reconfirm the technical standard using the national standard of motorcycle battery. The battery has been through all the stages of the technical feasibility of the goldsmith model. Based on the results of the study, lithium ion batteries have the minimum technical requirements to be commercialized and has been confirmed in accordance with the standard motorcycle battery. This paper results that the lithium ion battery is visible to commercialized by the technical aspect.

  15. Development of a Standard Test Scenario to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Portable Fire Extinguishers on Lithium-ion Battery Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Alfredo; Harper, Susan A.; Hirsch, David B.; Carriere, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Many sources of fuel are present aboard current spacecraft, with one especially hazardous source of stored energy: lithium ion batteries. Lithium ion batteries are a very hazardous form of fuel due to their self-sustaining combustion once ignited, for example, by an external heat source. Batteries can become extremely energetic fire sources due to their high density electrochemical energy content that may, under duress, be violently converted to thermal energy and fire in the form of a thermal runaway. Currently, lithium ion batteries are the preferred types of batteries aboard international spacecraft and therefore are routinely installed, collectively forming a potentially devastating fire threat to a spacecraft and its crew. Currently NASA is developing a fine water mist portable fire extinguisher for future use on international spacecraft. As its development ensues, a need for the standard evaluation of various types of fire extinguishers against this potential threat is required to provide an unbiased means of comparing between fire extinguisher technologies and ranking them based on performance.

  16. Automotive Battery Modelling and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Hammad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of vehicle battery performance is typically addressed by testing the battery under specific operation conditions by using a model to represent the test results. Approaches for representing test results range from simple statistical models to neural networks to complex, physics-based models. Basing the model on test data could be problematical when testing becomes impractical with many years life time tests. So, real time estimation of battery performance, an important problem in automotive applications, falls into this area. In vehicles it is important to know the state of charge of the batteries in order to prevent vehicle stranding and to ensure that the full range of the vehicle operation is exploited. In this paper, several battery models have studied including analytical, electrical circuits, stochastic and electro- chemical models. Valve Regulated Lead Acid “VRLA” battery has been modelled using electric circuit technique. This model is considered in the proposed Battery Monitoring System “BMS”. The proposed BMS includes data acquisition, data analysis and prediction of battery performance under a hypothetical future loads. Based on these criteria, a microprocessor based BMS prototype had been built and tested in automotive Lab,. The tests show promising results that can be used in industrial applications

  17. A Review on Mutagenicity Testing for Hazard Classification of Chemicals at Work: Focusing on in vivo Micronucleus Test for Allyl Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Taek Rim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical mutagenicity is a major hazard that is important to workers' health. Despite the use of large amounts of allyl chloride, the available mutagenicity data for this chemical remains controversial. To clarify the mutagenicity of allyl chloride and because a micronucleus (MN test had not yet been conducted, we screened for MN induction by using male ICR mice bone marrow cells. The test results indicated that this chemical is not mutagenic under the test conditions. In this paper, the regulatory test battery and several assay combinations used to determine the genotoxic potential of chemicals in the workplace have been described. Further application of these assays may prove useful in future development strategies of hazard evaluations of industrial chemicals. This study also should help to improve the testing of this chemical by commonly used mutagenicity testing methods and investigations on the underlying mechanisms and could be applicable for workers' health.

  18. A neuropsychological assessment, using computerized battery tests (CANTAB), in children with benign rolandic epilepsy before AED therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinţan, M A; Palade, S; Cristea, A; Benga, I; Muresanu, D F

    2012-02-22

    Benign rolandic epilepsy (BRE) is a form of partial idiopathic epilepsy according to the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) syndromes classification (1989). Recent studies have identified cases of BRE that do not meet the initial definition of 'benign'; these included reports of cases with specific cognitive deficits. It is still a matter of debate, whether these deficits are due to epilepsy per se, to treatment or other associated factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate if BRE children have cognitive deficits at the onset of their seizures, prior to their participation in any anti-epileptic drug therapy (AED). We performed a neuropsychological assessment of 18 BRE children compared with a corresponding age-matched control group. We used the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). Subjects were at their first neurological evaluation, before any AED therapy. We assessed: visual memory, induction and executive functions. In our group, the BRE children performed comparably with the control children for the induction and executive functions. Substantial differences were identified for the visual memory subtests: PRM percent correct (t = -2.58, p = 0.01) and SRM percent correct (t = -2.73, p = 0.01). Age of seizure onset had a negative impact on the visual memory subtest performances (PRM mean correct latency). We found significant correlations between the different CANTAB subtests results and characteristics of the centrotemporal spikes (CTS). Our results are consistent with the findings of other similar studies. This form of epilepsy is associated with subtle neuropsychological deficits, present at seizure onset. Neuropsychological deficits identified, suggest a more diffuse brain involvement in the epileptiform process.

  19. Evaluation of Batteries for Safe Air Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Williard

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-ion batteries are shipped worldwide with many limitations implemented to ensure safety and to prevent loss of cargo. Many of the transportation guidelines focus on new batteries; however, the shipment requirements for used or degraded batteries are less clear. Current international regulations regarding the air transport of lithium-ion batteries are critically reviewed. The pre-shipping tests are outlined and evaluated to assess their ability to fully mitigate risks during battery transport. In particular, the guidelines for shipping second-use batteries are considered. Because the electrochemical state of previously used batteries is inherently different from that of new batteries, additional considerations must be made to evaluate these types of cells. Additional tests are suggested that evaluate the risks of second-use batteries, which may or may not contain incipient faults.

  20. Biomedical applications of polyhydroxyalkanoates: an overview of animal testing and in vivo responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valappil, Sabeel P; Misra, Superb K; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Roy, Ipsita

    2006-11-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) have been established as biodegradable polymers since the second half of the twentieth century. Altering monomer composition of PHAs allows the development of polymers with favorable mechanical properties, biocompatibility and desirable degradation rates, under specific physiological conditions. Hence, the medical applications of PHAs have been explored extensively in recent years. PHAs have been used to develop devices, including sutures, nerve repair devices, repair patches, slings, cardiovascular patches, orthopedic pins, adhesion barriers, stents, guided tissue repair/regeneration devices, articular cartilage repair devices, nerve guides, tendon repair devices, bone-marrow scaffolds, tissue engineered cardiovascular devices and wound dressings. So far, various tests on animal models have shown polymers, from the PHA family, to be compatible with a range of tissues. Often, pyrogenic contaminants copurified with PHAs limit their pharmacological application rather than the monomeric composition of the PHAs and thus the purity of the PHA material is critical. This review summarizes the animal testing, tissue response, in vivo molecular stability and challenges of using PHAs for medical applications. In future, PHAs may become the materials of choice for various medical applications.

  1. Functional testing of topical skin formulations using an optimised ex vivo skin organ culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidgwick, G P; McGeorge, D; Bayat, A

    2016-07-01

    A number of equivalent-skin models are available for investigation of the ex vivo effect of topical application of drugs and cosmaceuticals onto skin, however many have their drawbacks. With the March 2013 ban on animal models for cosmetic testing of products or ingredients for sale in the EU, their utility for testing toxicity and effect on skin becomes more relevant. The aim of this study was to demonstrate proof of principle that altered expression of key gene and protein markers could be quantified in an optimised whole tissue biopsy culture model. Topical formulations containing green tea catechins (GTC) were investigated in a skin biopsy culture model (n = 11). Punch biopsies were harvested at 3, 7 and 10 days, and analysed using qRT-PCR, histology and HPLC to determine gene and protein expression, and transdermal delivery of compounds of interest. Reduced gene expression of α-SMA, fibronectin, mast cell tryptase, mast cell chymase, TGF-β1, CTGF and PAI-1 was observed after 7 and 10 days compared with treated controls (p animal models in this context, prior to study in a clinical trial environment.

  2. Comparative ex vivo evaluation of two electronic percussive testing devices measuring the stability of dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geckili, Onur; Bilhan, Hakan; Cilingir, Altug; Bilmenoglu, Caglar; Ates, Gokcen; Urgun, Aliye Ceren; Bural, Canan

    2014-12-01

    A comparative ex vivo study was performed to determine electronic percussive test values (PTVs) measured by cabled and wireless electronic percussive testing (EPT) devices and to evaluate the intra- and interobserver reliability of the wireless EPT device. Forty implants were inserted into the vertebrae and forty into the pelvis of a steer, a safe distance apart. The implants were all 4.3 mm wide and 13 mm long, from the same manufacturer. PTV of each implant was measured by four different examiners, using both EPT devices, and compared. Additionally, the intra- and interobserver reliability of the wireless EPT device was evaluated. Statistically significant differences (P devices. PTVs measured by the wireless EPT device were significantly higher than the cabled EPT device (P device was evaluated as excellent for the measurements in type II bone and good-to-excellent in type IV bone; interobserver reliability was evaluated as fair-to-good in both bone types. The wireless EPT device gives PTVs higher than the cabled EPT device, indicating lower implant stability, and its inter- and intraobserver reliability is good and acceptable.

  3. Cancer therapy. Ex vivo culture of circulating breast tumor cells for individualized testing of drug susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Min; Bardia, Aditya; Aceto, Nicola; Bersani, Francesca; Madden, Marissa W; Donaldson, Maria C; Desai, Rushil; Zhu, Huili; Comaills, Valentine; Zheng, Zongli; Wittner, Ben S; Stojanov, Petar; Brachtel, Elena; Sgroi, Dennis; Kapur, Ravi; Shioda, Toshihiro; Ting, David T; Ramaswamy, Sridhar; Getz, Gad; Iafrate, A John; Benes, Cyril; Toner, Mehmet; Maheswaran, Shyamala; Haber, Daniel A

    2014-07-11

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are present at low concentrations in the peripheral blood of patients with solid tumors. It has been proposed that the isolation, ex vivo culture, and characterization of CTCs may provide an opportunity to noninvasively monitor the changing patterns of drug susceptibility in individual patients as their tumors acquire new mutations. In a proof-of-concept study, we established CTC cultures from six patients with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Three of five CTC lines tested were tumorigenic in mice. Genome sequencing of the CTC lines revealed preexisting mutations in the PIK3CA gene and newly acquired mutations in the estrogen receptor gene (ESR1), PIK3CA gene, and fibroblast growth factor receptor gene (FGFR2), among others. Drug sensitivity testing of CTC lines with multiple mutations revealed potential new therapeutic targets. With optimization of CTC culture conditions, this strategy may help identify the best therapies for individual cancer patients over the course of their disease. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. In vitro cell culture, platelet adhesion tests and in vivo implant tests of plasma-polymerized para-xylene films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Chia-Man [Department of Surgery, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan, ROC (China); National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yeh, Chou-Ming, E-mail: cmchou4301@gmail.com [Taichung Hospital, Department of Health, Executive Yuan, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chung, Chi-Jen [Department of Dental Technology and Materials Science, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan, ROC (China); He, Ju-Liang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-09-01

    Plasma-polymerized para-xylene (PPX) was developed in a previous study by adjusting the process parameters: pulse frequency of the power supply (ω{sub p}) and para-xylene monomer flow rate (f{sub p}). All the obtained PPX films exhibit an amorphous structure and present hydrophobicity (water contact angle ranging from 98.5° to 121.1°), higher film growth rate and good fibroblast cell proliferation. In this study, in vitro tests (fibroblast cell compatibility and platelet adhesion) and an in vivo animal study were performed by using PPX deposited industrial-grade silicone sheets (IGS) and compared with medical-grade silicone ones (MS), which were commonly manufactured into catheters or drainage tubes in clinical use. The results reveal that PPX deposited at high ω{sub p} or high f{sub p}, in comparison with MS, exhibit better cell proliferation and clearly shows less cell adhesion regardless of ω{sub p} and f{sub p}. PPX also exhibit a comparatively lower level of platelet adhesion than MS. In the animal study, PPX-coated IGS result in similar local tissue responses at 3, 7 and 28 days (short-term) and 84 days (long-term) after subcutaneous implantation the abdominal wall of rodents compared with respective responses to MS. These results suggest that PPX-coated industrial-grade silicone is one alternative to high cost medical-grade silicone.

  5. Test of hybrid power system for electrical vehicles using a lithium-ion battery pack and a reformed methanol fuel cell range extender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Ashworth, Leanne; Sahlin, Simon Lennart

    2014-01-01

    monoxide, the HTPEM fuel cell system can efficiently use a liquid methanol/water mixture of 60%/40% by volume, as fuel instead of compressed hydrogen, enabling potentially a higher volumetric energy density. In order to test the performance of such a system, the experimental validation conducted uses......This work presents the proof-of-concept of an electric traction power system with a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell range extender, usable for automotive class electrical vehicles. The hybrid system concept examined, consists of a power system where the primary power...... is delivered by a lithium ion battery pack. In order to increase the run time of the application connected to this battery pack, a high temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cell stack acts as an on-board charger able to charge a vehicle during operation as a series hybrid. Because of the high tolerance to carbon...

  6. Validation of Battery Safety for Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Presentation covers: (1) Safety Certification Process at NASA (2) Safety Testing for Lithium-ion Batteries (3) Limitations Observed with Li-ion Batteries in High Voltage and High Capacity Configurations.

  7. Exploration and comparison of in vitro eye irritation tests with the ISO standard in vivo rabbit test for the evaluation of the ocular irritancy of contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jun-Won; Hailian, Quan; Na, Yirang; Kang, Byeong-Cheol; Yoon, Jung-Hee; Cho, Eun-Young; Lee, Miri; Kim, Da-Eun; Bae, SeungJin; Seok, Seung Hyeok; Lim, Kyung-Min

    2016-12-01

    In an effort to explore the use of alternative methods to animal testing for the evaluation of the ocular irritancy of medical devices, we evaluated representative contact lenses with the bovine corneal opacity and permeability test (BCOP) and an in vitro eye irritation test using the three-dimensionally-reconstructed human corneal epithelium (RhCE) models, EpiOcular™ and MCTT HCE™. In addition, we compared the obtained results with the ISO standard in vivo rabbit eye irritation test (ISO10993-10). Along with the positive controls (benzalkonium chloride, BAK, 0.02, 0.2, and 1%), the extracts of 4 representative contact lenses (soft, disposable, hard, and colored lenses) and 2 reference lenses (dye-eluting and BAK-coated lenses) were tested. All the lenses, except for the BAK-coated lens, were determined non-irritants in all test methods, while the positive controls yielded relevant results. More importantly, BCOP, EpiOcular™, and MCTT HCE™ yielded a consistent decision for all the tested samples, with the exception of 0.2% BAK in BCOP, for which no prediction could be made. Overall, all the in vitro tests correlated well with the in vivo rabbit eye irritation test, and furthermore, the combination of in vitro tests as a tiered testing strategy was able to produce results similar to those seen in vivo. These observations suggest that such methods can be used as alternative assays to replace the conventional in vivo test method in the evaluation of the ocular irritancy of ophthalmic medical devices, although further study is necessary. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Recent advances in in vivo genotoxicity testing: prediction of carcinogenic potential using comet and micronucleus assay in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seung Hun; Kwon, Jee Young; Lee, Jong Kwon; Seo, Young Rok

    2013-12-01

    Genotoxic events have been known as crucial step in the initiation of cancer. To assess the risk of cancer, genotoxicity assays, including comet, micronucleus (MN), chromosomal aberration, bacterial reverse, and sister chromatid exchange assay, can be performed. Compared with in vitro genotoxicity assay, in vivo genotoxicity assay has been used to verify in vitro assay result and definitely provide biological significance for certain organs or cell types. The comet assay can detect DNA strand breaks as markers of genotoxicity. Methods of the in vivo comet assay have been established by Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM) validation studies depending on tissue and sample types. The MN can be initiated by segregation error and lagging acentric chromosome fragment. Methods of the in vivo MN assay have been established by Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) test guidelines and many studies. Combining the in vivo comet and MN assay has been regarded as useful methodology for evaluating genetic damage, and it has been used in the assessment of potential carcinogenicity by complementarily presenting two distinct endpoints of the in vivo genotoxicity individual test. Few studies have investigated the quantitative relation between in vivo genotoxicity results and carcinogenicity. Extensive studies emphasizes that positive correlation is detectable. This review summarizes the results of the in vivo comet and MN assays that have investigated the genotoxicity of carcinogens as classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) carcinogenicity database. As a result, these genotoxicity data may provide meaningful information for the assessment of potential carcinogenicity and for implementation in the prevention of cancer.

  9. Development and evaluation of an inhalation chamber for in vivo tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDUARDO R. DA SILVA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The bioavailability, toxicity, and therapeutic efficacy of a drug is directly related to its administration route. The pulmonary route can be accessed by inhalation after fumigation, vaporization or nebulization. Thus, pharmacological and toxicological evaluation accessed by an apparatus specifically designed and validated for this type of administration is extremely important. Based on pre-existing models, an inhalation chamber was developed. This presents a central structure with five animal holders. The nebulized air passes directly and continuously through these holders and subsequently to an outlet. Evaluation of its operation was performed using clove essential oil, a nebulizer, and a flow meter. The air within the chamber was collected by static headspace and analyzed by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. For this purpose, a 2.5 minutes chromatographic method was developed. The air flow in each of the five outputs was 0.92 liters per minute. During the first minute, the chamber became saturated with the nebulized material. Homogeneous and continuous operation of the chamber was observed without accumulation of volatile material inside it for 25 minutes. The inhalation chamber works satisfactorily for in vivo tests with medicines designed to be administrated by inhalation.

  10. HIL Development and Validation of Lithium-ion Battery Packs (SAE 2014-01-1863)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Battery Test Facility (BTF) has been constructed at United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to test various automotive battery packs for HEV, PHEV, and EV vehicles. Battery pack tests were performed in the BTF using a battery cycler, testing controllers, battery pa...

  11. Practical Methods in Li-ion Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barreras, Jorge Varela

    to parameterize battery models based solely on manufacturer’s datasheets • Manuscript II presents a parameterization method for battery models based on the notion of direct current resistance • Manuscript III proposes a battery electric vehicle design that combines fixed and swappable packs • Manuscript IV......This thesis presents, as a collection of papers, practical methods in Li-ion batteries for simplified modeling (Manuscript I and II), battery electric vehicle design (III), battery management system testing (IV and V) and balancing system control (VI and VII). • Manuscript I tackles methodologies...... develops a battery system model for battery management system testing on a hardware-in-the-loop simulator • Manuscript V extends the previous work, introducing theoretical principles and presenting a practical method to develop ad hoc software and strategies for testing • Manuscript VI presents...

  12. The Combined Utility of Ex vivo IFN-γ Release Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSpot Assay and In vivo Skin Testing in Patients With Antibiotic-Associated Severe Cutaneous Adverse Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubiano, Jason A; Strautins, Kaija; Redwood, Alec J; Pavlos, Rebecca; Konvinse, Katherine C; Aung, Ar Kar; Slavin, Monica A; Thursky, Karin A; Grayson, M Lindsay; Phillips, Elizabeth J

    2017-10-31

    For severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs) associated with multiple antibiotics dosed concurrently, clinical causality is challenging and diagnostic approaches are limited, leading to constricted future antibiotic choices. To examine the combined utility of in vivo and ex vivo diagnostic approaches at assigning drug causality in a cohort of patients with antibiotic-associated (AA)-SCARs. Patients with AA-SCARs were prospectively recruited between April 2015 and February 2017. In vivo testing (patch testing or delayed intradermal testing) was performed to the implicated antibiotic(s) at the highest nonirritating concentration and read at 24 hours through 1 week. Ex vivo testing used patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) stimulated with a range of pharmacologically relevant concentrations of implicated antibiotics to measure dose-dependent IFN-γ release from CD4+ and CD8+ T cells via an enzyme-linked immunoSpot assay. In 19 patients with AA-SCARs, combined in vivo and ex vivo testing assigned antibiotic causality in 15 (79%) patients. Ten patients (53%) with AA-SCARs were positive on IFN-γ release enzyme-linked immunoSpot assay, with an overall reported sensitivity of 52% (95% CI, 29-76) and specificity of 100% (95% CI, 79-100), with improved sensitivity noted in acute (within 1 day to 6 weeks after SCAR onset) testing (75%) and in patients with higher phenotypic scores (59%). There was increased use of narrow-spectrum beta-lactams and antibiotics from within the implicated class following testing in patients with a positive ex vivo or in vivo test result. We demonstrate the potential utility of combined in vivo and ex vivo testing in patients with AA-SCARs to assign drug causality with high specificity. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. In Vivo Model to Test Implanted Biosensors for Blood pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Sara B.; Somps, Chris J.; Madou, Marc; Hines, John; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Biosensors for monitoring physiologic data continuously through telemetry are available for heart rate, respiration, and temperature but not for blood pH or ions affected by hydrogen ion concentration. A telemetric biosensor for monitoring blood pH on-line could be used to identify and manage problems in fluid and electrolyte metabolism, cardiac and respiratory function during space flight and the acid-base status of patients without the need for venipuncture in patients on Earth. Critical to the development of biosensors is a method for evaluating their performance after implantation. Mature rats, prepared with jugular, cannulas for repeated blood samples, were exposed to a gas mixture containing high levels of carbon dioxide (7%) in a closed environment to induce mild respiratory acidosis. Serial blood gas and pH measurements in venous blood were compared with electrical responses from sensors implanted in the subcutaneous tissue. Animals became slightly tachypneic after exposure to excess CO2, but remained alert and active. After 5 minutes, basal blood pH decreased from 7.404 +/- 0.013 to 7.289 +/- 0.010 (p less than 0.001)and PC02 increased from 45 +/- 6 to 65 +/- 4 mm. Hg (p les than 0.001). Thereafter pH and blood gas parameters remained stable. Implanted sensors showed a decrease in millivolts (mV) which paralleled the change in pH and averaged 5-6 mV per 0.1 unit pH. Implanted sensors remained sensitive to modest changes in tissue pH for one week. A system for inducing acidosis in rats was developed to test the in vivo performance of pH biosensors. The system provides a method which is sensitive, rapid and reproducible in the same and different animals with full recovery, for testing the performance of sensors implanted in subcutaneous tissues.

  14. Characterization of vanadium flow battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindner, H.; Ekman, C.; Gehrke, O.; Isleifsson, F.

    2010-10-15

    This report summarizes the work done at Risoe DTU testing a vanadium flow battery as part of the project 'Characterisation of Vanadium Batteries' (ForskEl project 6555) with the partners PA Energy A/S and OI Electric A/S under the Danish PSO energy research program. A 15kW/120kWh vanadium battery has been installed as part of the distributed energy systems experimental facility, SYSLAB, at Risoe DTU. A test programme has been carried out to get hands-on experience with the technology, to characterize the battery from a power system point of view and to assess it with respect to integration of wind energy in the Danish power system. The battery has been in operation for 18 months. During time of operation the battery has not shown signs of degradation of performance. It has a round-trip efficiency at full load of approximately 60% (depending on temperature and SOC). The sources of the losses are power conversion in cell stacks/electrolyte, power converter, and auxiliary power consumption from pumps and controller. The response time for the battery is limited at 20kW/s by the ramp rate of the power converter. The battery can thus provide power and frequency support for the power system. Vanadium battery is a potential technology for storage based services to the power system provided investment and O and M cost are low enough and long term operation is documented. (Author)

  15. In vitro to in vivo extrapolation of effective dosimetry in developmental toxicity testing: Application of a generic PBK modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragki, Styliani; Piersma, Aldert H; Rorije, Emiel; Zeilmaker, Marco J

    2017-10-01

    Incorporation of kinetics to quantitative in vitro to in vivo extrapolations (QIVIVE) is a key step for the realization of a non-animal testing paradigm, in the sphere of regulatory toxicology. The use of Physiologically-Based Kinetic (PBK) modelling for determining systemic doses of chemicals at the target site is accepted to be an indispensable element for such purposes. Nonetheless, PBK models are usually designed for a single or a group of compounds and are considered demanding, with respect to experimental data needed for model parameterization. Alternatively, we evaluate here the use of a more generic approach, i.e. the so-called IndusChemFate model, which is based on incorporated QSAR model parametrization. The model was used to simulate the in vivo kinetics of three diverse classes of developmental toxicants: triazoles, glycol ethers' alkoxyacetic acid metabolites and phthalate primary metabolites. The model required specific input per each class of compounds. These compounds were previously tested in three alternative assays: the whole-embryo culture (WEC), the zebrafish embryo test (ZET), and the mouse embryonic stem cell test (EST). Thereafter, the PBK-simulated blood levels at toxic in vivo doses were compared to the respective in vitro effective concentrations. Comparisons pertaining to relative potency and potency ranking with integration of kinetics were similar to previously obtained comparisons. Additionally, all three in vitro systems produced quite comparable results, and hence, a combination of alternative tests is still preferable for predicting the endpoint of developmental toxicity in vivo. This approach is put forward as biologically more plausible since plasma concentrations, rather than external administered doses, constitute the most direct in vivo dose metric. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Ex Vivo Testing of Mechanical Properties of Canine Metacarpal/Metatarsal Bones after Simulated Implant Removal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srnec, R; Fedorová, P; Pěnčík, J; Vojtová, L; Sedlinská, M; Nečas, A

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY In a long-term perspective, it is better to remove implants after fracture healing. However, subsequent full or excessive loading of an extremity may result in refracture, and the bone with holes after screw removal may present a site with predilection for this. The aim of the study was to find ways of how to decrease risk factors for refracture in such a case. This involved support to the mechanical properties of a bone during its remodelling until defects following implant removal are repaired, using a material tolerated by bone tissue and easy to apply. It also included an assessment of the mechanical properties of a bone after filling the holes in it with a newly developed biodegradable polymer-composite gel ("bone paste"). The composite also has a prospect of being used to repair bony defects produced by pathological processes. MATERIAL AND METHODS Experiments were carried out on intact weight-bearing small bones in dogs. A total of 27 specimens of metacarpal/metatarsal bones were used for ex vivo testing. They were divided into three groups: K1 (n = 9) control undamaged bones; K2 (n = 9) control bones with iatrogenic damage simulating holes left after cortical screw removal; EXP (n = 9) experimental specimens in which simulated holes in bone were filled with the biodegradable self-hardening composite. The bone specimens were subjected to three-point bending in the caudocranial direction by a force acting parallel to the direction of drilling in their middiaphyses. The value of maximum load achieved (N) and the corresponding value of a vertical displacement (mm) were recorded in each specimen, then compared and statistically evaluated. RESULTS On application of a maximum load (N), all bone specimens broke in the mid-part of their diaphyses. In group K1 the average maximum force of 595.6 ± 79.5 N was needed to break the bone; in group K2 it was 347.6 ± 58.6 N; and in group EXP it was 458.3 ± 102.7 N. The groups with damaged bones, K2 and

  17. Psychometric properties and convergent and predictive validity of an executive function test battery for two-year-olds

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna eMulder; Huub eHoofs; Josje eVerhagen; Ineke evan der Veen; Paul P.M. Leseman

    2014-01-01

    Executive function (EF) is an important predictor of numerous developmental outcomes, such as academic achievement and behavioral adjustment. Although a plethora of measurement instruments exists to assess executive function in children, only few of these are suitable for toddlers, and even fewer have undergone psychometric evaluation. The present study evaluates the psychometric properties and validity of an assessment battery for measuring EF in two-year-olds. A sample of 2437 children were...

  18. Measurement Properties of a Test Battery to Assess Postural Orientation During Functional Tasks in Patients Undergoing Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nae, Jenny; Creaby, Mark W; Nilsson, Gustav; Crossley, Kay M; Ageberg, Eva

    2017-11-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional study. Background Visual rating of postural orientation during functional tasks may be a valuable tool to track rehabilitation progress following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. A valid test battery assessing postural orientation as a separate construct is lacking. Objectives To evaluate measurement properties of a test battery to assess postural orientation in patients with ACL injury. Methods The content validity of functional tasks was assessed by expert focus group discussions. Fifty-one patients (45% women) with ACL injury performed 9 functional tasks of varying difficulty. Interpretability, internal consistency, interrater reliability, and measurement error were assessed for segment-specific postural orientation errors (POEs), within-task POEs, and total POE score. Postural orientation errors were scored on video on an ordinal scale from 0 (no POEs) to 3 (major POEs). Results Stair ascent, deep squat, and crossover hop for distance were excluded in focus group discussions. Postural orientation errors in some tasks were excluded due to floor effects. The mini-squat and drop jump were excluded due to poor internal consistency (α≤.184). Interrater reliability values for segment-specific POEs and within-task POEs yielded fair to almost perfect agreement (κ = 0.429-0.875) and almost perfect agreement for total POE score (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.842), without systematic differences between raters. The smallest detectable changes were 0.7 and 5 points for groups and individuals, respectively. Conclusion The final test battery (single-leg mini-squat, stair descent, forward lunge, single-leg hop for distance) of 4 POEs (foot pronation, medial knee-to-foot position, hip joint POEs, and trunk segment POEs) demonstrated good measurement properties in people with ACL injury. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(11):863-873. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.7270.

  19. Fourteen Day In Vivo Testing of a Compliant Thoracic Artificial Lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, David J; Pohlmann, Joshua R; Demos, David S; Scipione, Christopher N; Iyengar, Amit; Schewe, Rebecca E; Suhaib, Ahmed B; Koch, Kelly L; Cook, Keith E

    The compliant thoracic artificial lung (cTAL) has been studied in acute in vivo and in vitro experiments. The cTAL's long-term function and potential use as a bridge to lung transplantation are assessed presently. The cTAL without anticoagulant coatings was attached to sheep (n = 5) via the pulmonary artery and left atrium for 14 days. Systemic heparin anticoagulation was used. Compliant thoracic artificial lung resistance, cTAL gas exchange, hematologic parameters, and organ function were recorded. Two sheep were euthanized for nondevice-related issues. The cTAL's resistance averaged 1.04 ± 0.05 mmHg/(L/min) with no statistically significant increases. The cTAL transferred 180 ± 8 ml/min of oxygen with 3.18 ± 0.05 L/min of blood flow. Except for transient surgical effects, organ function markers were largely unchanged. Necropsies revealed pulmonary edema and atelectasis but no other derangements. Hemoglobin levels dropped with device attachment but remained steady at 9.0 ± 0.1 g/dl thereafter. In a 14 day experiment, the cTAL without anticoagulant coatings exhibited minimal clot formation. Sheep physiology was largely unchanged except for device attachment-related hemodilution. This suggests that patients treated with the cTAL should not require multiple blood transfusions. Once tested with anticoagulant coatings and plasma resistant gas exchange fiber, the cTAL could serve as a bridge to transplantation.

  20. Quantifying long-term microelectrode array functionality using chronic in vivo impedance testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Abhishek; Sanchez, Justin C.

    2012-04-01

    Long-term acquisition of high-quality neural recordings is a cornerstone of neuroprosthetic system design. Mitigating the experimental variability of chronically implanted arrays has been a formidable task because the sensor recording sites can be influenced by biotic and abiotic responses. Several studies have implicated changes in electrical interface impedance as a preliminary marker to infer electrode viability. Microelectrode impedance plays an important role in the monitoring of low amplitude and high-resolution extracellular neural signals. In this work, we seek to quantify long-term microelectrode array functionality and derive an impedance-based predictor for electrode functionality that correlates the recording site electrical properties with the functional neuronal recordings in vivo. High temporal resolution metrics of this type would allow one to assess, predict, and improve electrode performance in the future. In a large cohort of animals, we performed daily impedance measurements and neural signal recordings over long periods (up to 21 weeks) of time in rats using tungsten microwire arrays implanted into the somatosensory cortex. This study revealed that there was a time-varying trend in the modulation of impedance that was related to electrode performance. Single units were best detected from electrodes at time points when the electrode entered into the 40-150 KΩ impedance range. This impedance trend was modeled across the full cohort of animals to predict future electrode performance. The model was tested on data from all animals and was able to provide predictions of electrode performance chronically. Insight from this study can be combined with knowledge of electrode materials and histological analysis to provide a more comprehensive predictive model of electrode failure in the future.

  1. Surface modification of nano-silica on the ligament advanced reinforcement system for accelerated bone formation: primary human osteoblasts testing in vitro and animal testing in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengmeng; Wang, Shiwen; Jiang, Jia; Sun, Jiashu; Li, Yuzhuo; Huang, Deyong; Long, Yun-Ze; Zheng, Wenfu; Chen, Shiyi; Jiang, Xingyu

    2015-05-07

    The Ligament Advanced Reinforcement System (LARS) has been considered as a promising graft for ligament reconstruction. To improve its biocompatibility and effectiveness on new bone formation, we modified the surface of a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) ligament with nanoscale silica using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and silica polymerization. The modified ligament is tested by both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Human osteoblast testing in vitro exhibits an ∼21% higher value in cell viability for silica-modified grafts compared with original grafts. Animal testing in vivo shows that there is new formed bone in the case of a nanoscale silica-coated ligament. These results demonstrate that our approach for nanoscale silica surface modification on LARS could be potentially applied for ligament reconstruction.

  2. Case Coverer (jewelry cases; leather prod.) 6-62.401; Liner (jewelry cases; leather prod.) 6-62.402--Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  3. Gasoline-Engine Assembler (engine & turbine) 806.781; Internal-Combustion-Engine-Assembler (engine & turbine) 806.781; Outboard-Motor Assembler (engine & turbine) 806.781--Technical Report on Development of USTES Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  4. Assessment of cognition using the Rao's Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Tests on a group of Brazilian patients with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Bruno Bidin Brooks

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To assess the cognition of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS using the Rao's Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Tests (BRB-N. METHOD: BRB-N was translated and adapted for control subjects. Subsequently, it was applied to a group of patients with relapsing-remitting (RR MS. RESULTS: The assessment on the healthy controls (n=47 showed that the correlation between tests on the same cognitive domain was high and that there was a five-factor solution that explained 90% of the total variance. Except for the Word List Generation subset of tests, the performance of patients with RRMS (n=39 was worse than that of the healthy controls. CONCLUSION: BRB-N is a relatively simple method to assess cognition of patients with MS in the daily clinic. It does not take long to apply and does not require special skills or equipment.

  5. Considerations for ex vivo thermal tissue testing exemplified using the fresh porcine longissimus muscle model for endometrial ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugett, James H.; Bennett, Haydon E.; Shrout, Joshua L.; Coad, James E.

    2017-02-01

    Expansions in minimally invasive medical devices and technologies with thermal mechanisms of action are continuing to advance the practice of medicine. These expansions have led to an increasing need for appropriate animal models to validate and quantify device performance. The planning of these studies should take into consideration a variety of parameters, including the appropriate animal model (test system - ex vivo or in vivo; species; tissue type), treatment conditions (test conditions), predicate device selection (as appropriate, control article), study timing (Day 0 acute to more than Day 90 chronic survival studies), and methods of tissue analysis (tissue dissection - staining methods). These considerations are discussed and illustrated using the fresh extirpated porcine longissimus muscle model for endometrial ablation.

  6. Assessing Specific Cognitive Deficits Associated with Dementia in Older Adults with Down Syndrome: Use and Validity of the Arizona Cognitive Test Battery (ACTB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinai, Amanda; Hassiotis, Angela; Rantell, Khadija; Strydom, Andre

    2016-01-01

    Background Down syndrome is associated with specific cognitive deficits. Alongside this, older adults with Down syndrome are a high risk group for dementia. The Arizona Cognitive Test Battery (ACTB), a cognitive assessment battery specifically developed for use with individuals with Down syndrome, has been proposed for use as outcome measures for clinical trials in this population. It has not been validated in older adults with Down syndrome. This study aims to assess the use and validity of the ACTB in older adults with Down syndrome. Methods Participants with Down syndrome aged 45 and over were assessed using the ACTB, standard tabletop tests and informant ratings. Results Assessment outcomes of 49 participants were analysed. Of these, 19 (39%) had a diagnosis of dementia or possible dementia. Most participants were able to attempt most of the tasks, although some tasks had high floor effects (including CANTAB Intra-Extra Dimensional shift stages completed and Modified Dots Task). Of the ACTB tasks, statistically significant differences were observed between the dementia and no dementia groups on CANTAB Simple Reaction Time median latency, NEPSY Visuomotor Precision—Car and Motorbike and CANTAB Paired Associates Learning stages completed. No significant differences were observed for CANTAB Intra-Extra Dimensional Shift, Modified Dots Task, Finger Sequencing, NEPSY Visuomotor precision—Train and Car and CANTAB Paired Associates Learning first trial memory score. Several of the tasks in the ACTB can be used in older adults with Down syndrome and have mild to moderate concurrent validity when compared to tabletop tests and informant ratings, although this varies on a test by test basis. Conclusions Overall, scores for a number of tests in the ACTB were similar when comparing dementia and no dementia groups of older adults with Down syndrome, suggesting that it would not be an appropriate outcome measure of cognitive function for clinical trials of dementia

  7. In vivo testing of crosslinked polyethers .1. Tissue reactions and biodegradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, BJM; vanWachem, PB; vanLuyn, MJA; vanderDoes, L; Bantjes, A

    1996-01-01

    The in vivo biocompatibility and biodegradation of crosslinked (co)polyethers with and without tertiary hydrogen atoms in the main chain and differing in hydrophilicity were studied by means of subcutaneous implantation in rats. After 4 days, 1 month, and 3 months postimplantation, the tissue

  8. In vivo testing of crosslinked polyethers. I. Tissue reactions and biodegradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, B.J.M.; Pol, B.J.M.; van Wachem, P.B.; van Luyn, M.J.A.; van der Does, L.; Bantjes, A.; Bantjes, A.

    1996-01-01

    The in vivo biocompatibility and biodegradation of crosslinked (co)polyethers with and without tertiary hydrogen atoms in the main chain and differing in hydrophilicity were studied by means of subcutaneous implantation in rats. After 4 days, 1 month, and 3 months postimplantation, the tissue

  9. Isotope-labelled urea to test colon drug delivery devices in vivo : principles, calculations and interpretations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maurer, Marina; Schellekens, Reinout C. A.; Wutzke, Klaus D.; Stellaard, Frans

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes various methodological aspects that were encountered during the development of a system to monitor the in vivo behaviour of a newly developed colon delivery device that enables oral drug treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. [C-13]urea was chosen as the marker substance.

  10. Aerospace Battery Activities at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Gopalakrishna M.

    2006-01-01

    Goddard Space Flight Center has "pioneered" rechargeable secondary battery design, test, infusion and in-orbit battery management among NASA installations. Nickel cadmium batteries of various designs and sizes have been infused for LEO, GEO and Libration Point spacecraft. Nickel-Hydrogen batteries have currently been baselined for the majority of our missions. Li-Ion batteries from ABSL, JSB, SaFT and Lithion have been designed and tested for aerospace application.

  11. Evaluation methods and assistance in the interpreting complex toxicity data using an ecotoxicological battery of tests; Toxizitaetsdaten aus einer oekotoxikologischen Testbatterie. Auswertemethode und Interpretationshilfe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann-Hensel, H. [Dr. Fintelmann und Dr. Meyer Handels- und Umweltschutzlaboratorien, Hamburg (Germany); Pudenz, S. [Criterion - Bewertung und Informationsmanagement, Berlin (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The influence of industrial chemicals in the environment is strongly determined by the condition of the soil. Considering the complex interrelationships of soil condition and the specific parameters of the material as influential to bioavailability and decompositional reactions, it is necessary to reproduce various situations via a selected battery of ecotoxicological tests. The use of such batteries has already proved to be suitable for the examination of sediments. In order to make statements about the dangerous potential of chemicals in the soil, samples of natural soil were exposed to industrial chemicals (surfactants, mineral oil hydrocarbons, an antibiotic and a pesticide), and examined regularly in test batteries over a period of four weeks. This microcosm works as a degradation test of environmental relevance, monitoring the effects and reactions of industrial chemicals in natural soil. All test results collected over this period of time come to a very complex and multi-dimensional compilation of data which needs to be considered in full before an assessment is possible. The main goal in analysing the data is to extract the maximum possible information from the matrix. Aside from the graphic presentation, mathematic graphs of the data will be introduced. This method aims to provide a structural and logical relationship to the data, in order to build up a classification system and an order of precedence, which should make it possible to estimate potential risk. (orig.) [German] Das Verhalten von Industriechemikalien in der Umwelt wird durch das Kompartiment Boden stark beeinflusst. Vor dem Hintergrund der komplexen Verflechtung der Bodeneigenschaften und der stoffspezifischen Parameter als Einflussgroesse der Bioverfuegbarkeit und des Abbauverhaltens ist es erforderlich, verschiedene Expostionssituationen mit Hilfe von ausgewaehlten oekotoxikologischen Tests abzubilden. Dazu wurde eine Testkombination eingesetzt, die sich bereits zur Untersuchung von

  12. Electrothermal impedance spectroscopy measurement on high power LiMO2/Li4Ti5O12 battery cell with low bandwidth test setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Stanciu, Tiberiu

    2015-01-01

    Modern lithium-ion batteries, like LiMO2/Li4Ti5O12 chemistry, are having very high power capability, which drives the need for precise thermal modelling of the battery. Battery thermal models are required to avoid possible safety issues (thermal runaways, high-temperature gradients) but also...

  13. Study of the genotoxicity of organic extracts from wastewater-irrigated vegetables using in vitro and in vivo biological tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hongxia; Cao, Yanhua; Liu, Yingli; Liu, Nan; Guan, Weijun

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore genotoxicity due to organic pollutants in wastewater-irrigated vegetables using biological and chemical analyses. Chinese cabbages from wastewater-irrigated farmland were taken as the research object. For the in vitro test, DNA damage was characterized in rat hepatocytes exposed to organic extracts from the cabbages using the comet assay. For the in vivo tests, mice were exposed to organic extracts from the cabbages. DNA damage was assessed in mouse peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs), and chromosome damage was assessed in bone marrow cells using the comet assay and micronucleus test, respectively. For the chemical analysis, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to analyze the organic compounds in the organic vegetable extracts. The in vitro test results showed that the comet tail lengths of the DNA in rat hepatocytes were significantly increased in the group dosed with 0.36 g/ml (P organic content in the organic vegetable extracts from the wastewater-irrigated area (1.355 mg/kg) was significantly higher than the content in the cabbage samples from the clean-water-irrigated area (0.089 mg/kg). This finding indicated that wastewater irrigation can cause organic pollution with genetic toxicity in vegetables. This study also showed that in vivo and in vitro biological tests can reflect the joint toxicity of organic pollutants, and the test results were in accordance with the chemical analysis of the organic pollutant compositions.

  14. Aging investigations of a lithium-ion battery electrolyte from a field-tested hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grützke, Martin; Kraft, Vadim; Hoffmann, Björn; Klamor, Sebastian; Diekmann, Jan; Kwade, Arno; Winter, Martin; Nowak, Sascha

    2015-01-01

    The electrolyte of a used lithium-ion battery from a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) was investigated. The liquid electrolyte was collected through the pressure valve of these 5 Ah cells. It consists of (29.8 ± 0.2) wt.% dimethyl carbonate (DMC), (21.7 ± 0.1) wt.% ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), (30.3 ± 0.3) wt.% ethylene carbonate (EC) and (2.2 ± 0.1) wt.% cyclohexyl benzene (CHB) which were identified with GC-MS and quantified with GC-FID. Li+ (1.29 ± 0.04) mol L-1 and PF6- were determined with IC as the main ionic species in the solution. Furthermore, BF4- was clearly identified with IC-ESI-MS, IC-ICP-MS and 11B NMR and quantified to a concentration of (120.8 ± 8.3) mg L-1 with ICP-OES. The presence of POF3 (detected with GC-MS), F-, PO2F2-, HPO3F- and H2PO4- (determined with IC-ESI-MS) can be attributed to the reaction of the conducting salt LiPF6 via PF5 with traces of water. HPO3F- and H2PO4- could only be observed in cells which were opened in a laboratory hood under exposure of air humidity. This experiment was done to simulate escaping electrolyte from an HEV battery pack. Furthermore, several alkyl phosphates (identified with GC-MS and IC-ESI-MS) are present in the solution due to further reaction of the different fluorinated phosphates with organic carbonates.

  15. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as

  16. Validação da bateria "Beck" de testes de habilidades para atletas brasileiros de "rugby" em cadeira de rodas Validation of beck battery of skills tests to Brazilian players of wheelchair rugby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Irineu Gorla

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O "Rugby" em Cadeira de Rodas é uma modalidade praticada por sujeitos com tetraplegia ou tetra-equivalência, desde 2005 no Brasil, onde existem aproximadamente 10 equipes em atividade. A avaliação motora é um dos meios de controle do treinamento que possibilita conquistar avanços no planejamento. A bateria "Beck" de testes de habilidades (manejo de bola, precisão de passes, bloqueio, velocidade e passes de longa distância para atletas da modalidade foi desenvolvida nos EUA por Yilla e Sherrill (1998. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar os critérios de autenticidade científica da bateria para a população de atletas brasileiros. Os resultados de duas avaliações com a bateria (teste e re-teste realizadas com 11 atletas (média de idade 27,59 ± 5,37 anos, tempo de lesão 8,19 ± 3,83 anos, foram registrados por três avaliadores, o que possibilitou a análise de objetividade, fidedignidade e consistência interna. Foram utilizadas as ferramentas ANOVA para análise de objetividade e, coeficiente de correlação intraclasse e teste t para análise de fidedignidade e consistência. Não foram encontradas diferenças entre os resultados dos diferentes avaliadores (valores de p variando de 0,45 a 1,00 e os valores de correlação intraclasse encontrados (variação de r de 0,78 a 0,99 permitem concluir que a bateria é consistente e fidedigna. Os resultados encontrados neste estudo são evidências de que os critérios de autenticidade científica para a bateria são satisfeitos e a bateria pode ser considerada um instrumento válido para avaliação motora de atletas brasileiros de "rugby" em cadeira de rodas.The Wheelchair Rugby is a sport practiced by subjects with tetraplegia or tetra-equivalence, since 2005 in Brazil, where there are approximately 10 teams in business. The motricity evaluation is a means of training control that allows achieve real progress in planning. The BECK battery of skills tests (ball handling, precision

  17. Population normative data for the 10/66 Dementia Research Group cognitive test battery from Latin America, India and China: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Ana Luisa; Albanese, Emiliano; Prince, Martin; Acosta, Daisy; Ferri, Cleusa P; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, K S; de Rodriguez, Juan Llibre; Salas, Aquiles; Yang, Fang; Gaona, Ciro; Joteeshwaran, At; Rodriguez, Guillermina; de la Torre, Gabriela Rojas; Williams, Joseph D; Stewart, Robert

    2009-08-26

    1) To report site-specific normative values by age, sex and educational level for four components of the 10/66 Dementia Research Group cognitive test battery; 2) to estimate the main and interactive effects of age, sex, and educational level by site; and 3) to investigate the effect of site by region and by rural or urban location. Population-based cross-sectional one phase catchment area surveys were conducted in Cuba, Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Peru, Mexico, China and India. The protocol included the administration of the Community Screening Instrument for Dementia (CSI 'D', generating the COGSCORE measure of global function), and the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) verbal fluency (VF), word list memory (WLM, immediate recall) and recall (WLR, delayed recall) tests. Only those free of dementia were included in the analysis. Older people, and those with less education performed worse on all four tests. The effect of sex was much smaller and less consistent. There was a considerable effect of site after accounting for compositional differences in age, education and sex. Much of this was accounted for by the effect of region with Chinese participants performing better, and Indian participants worse, than those from Latin America. The effect of region was more prominent for VF and WLM than for COGSCORE and WLR. Cognitive assessment is a basic element for dementia diagnosis. Age- and education-specific norms are required for this purpose, while the effect of gender can probably be ignored. The basis of cultural effects is poorly understood, but our findings serve to emphasise that normative data may not be safely generalised from one population to another with quite different characteristics. The minimal effects of region on COGSCORE and WLR are reassuring with respect to the cross-cultural validity of the 10/66 dementia diagnosis, which uses only these elements of the 10/66 battery.

  18. Development of a Physical Employment Testing Battery for Infantry Soldiers: 11B Infantryman and 11C Infantryman-Indirect Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    each MOS were proposed to fit a range of needs of the Army (i.e., cost and space requirements). Potential predictor tests included medicine ball put...of tests that capture five different aspects of fitness . The medicine ball put tests upper body power; squat lift tests lower body strength; beep...Notably, this model consists of tests that capture multiple aspects of fitness . The medicine ball put tests upper body power; squat lift tests lower

  19. Bioabsorbable bypass grafts biofunctionalised with RGD have enhanced biophysical properties and endothelialisation tested in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa V Antonova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Small diameter arterial bypass grafts are considered as unmet clinical need since the current grafts have poor patency of 25% within 5 years. We have developed a 3D scaffold manufactured from natural and synthetic biodegradable polymers, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV and poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL, respectively. Further to improve the biophysical properties as well as endothelialisation, the grafts were covalently conjugated with arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD bioactive peptides. The biophysical properties as well as endothelialisation of PHBV/PCL and PCL 2 mm diameter bypass grafts were assessed with and without biofunctionalisation with RGD peptides in vitro and in vivo. Morphology of the grafts was assessed by scanning electron microscopy, whereas physico-mechanical properties were evaluated using a physiological circulating system equipped with a state of art ultrasound vascular wall tracking system. Endothelialisation of the grafts in vitro and in vivo were assessed using a cell viability assay and rat abdominal aorta replacement model, respectively. The biofunctionalisation with RGD bioactive peptides decreased mean fiber diameter and mean pore area in PHBV/PCL grafts; however, this was not the case for PCL grafts. Both PHBV/PCL and PCL grafts with RGD peptides had lower durability compared to those without; these durability values were similar to those of internal mammary artery. Modification of PHBV/PCL and PCL grafts with RGD peptides increased endothelial cell viability in vitro by a factor of 8 and enhanced the formation of an endothelial cell monolayer in vivo one month postimplantation. In conclusion, PHBV/PCL small-caliber graft can be a suitable 3D scaffold for the development of a tissue engineering arterial bypass graft.

  20. Woodcock-Johnson-III, Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT), Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (KABC), and Differential Ability Scales (DAS) support Carroll but not Cattell-Horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucina, Jeffrey M; Howardson, Garett N

    2017-08-01

    Recently emerging evidence suggests that the dominant structural model of mental abilities-the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) model-may not adequately account for observed scores for mental abilities batteries, leading scholars to call into question the model's validity. Establishing the robustness of these findings is important since CHC is the foundation for several contemporary mental abilities test batteries, such as the Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ-III). Using confirmatory factor analysis, we investigated CHC's robustness across 4 archival samples of mental abilities test battery data, including the WJ-III, the Kaufman Adolescent & Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT), the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (KABC), and the Differential Ability Scales (DAS). We computed omega hierarchical (ωH) and omega subscale (ωS) coefficients for g and the broad factors, which estimated the relationship of composite scores to g and the broad factors, respectively. Across all 4 samples, we found strong evidence for a general ability, g. We additionally found evidence for 3 to 9 residualized, orthogonal broad abilities existing independently of g, many of which also explained reliable variance in test battery scores that cannot be accounted for by g alone. The reliabilities of these broad factors, however, were less than desirable (i.e., <.80) and achieving desirable reliabilities would be practically infeasible (e.g., requiring excessively large numbers of subtests). Our results, and those of CHC critics, are wholly consistent with Carroll's model. Essentially, both g and orthogonal broad abilities are required to explain variance in mental abilities test battery scores, which is consistent with Carroll but not Cattell-Horn. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. International Space Station Lithium-Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Penni J.; Schwanbeck, Eugene; North, Tim; Balcer, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) primary Electric Power System (EPS) currently uses Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries to store electrical energy. The electricity for the space station is generated by its solar arrays, which charge batteries during insolation for subsequent discharge during eclipse. The Ni-H2 batteries are designed to operate at a 35 depth of discharge (DOD) maximum during normal operation in a Low Earth Orbit. Since the oldest of the 48 Ni-H2 battery Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) has been cycling since September 2006, these batteries are now approaching their end of useful life. In 2010, the ISS Program began the development of Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) batteries to replace the Ni-H2 batteries and concurrently funded a Li-Ion ORU and cell life testing project. When deployed, they will be the largest Li-Ion batteries ever utilized for a human-rated spacecraft. This paper will include an overview of the ISS Li-Ion battery system architecture, the Li-Ion battery design and development, controls to limit potential hazards from the batteries, and the status of the Li-Ion cell and ORU life cycle testing.

  2. Energy Systems Test Area (ESTA). Power Systems Test Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Situ, Cindy H.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides a detailed description of the Johnson Space Center's Power Systems Facility located in the Energy Systems Test Area (ESTA). Facilities and the resources used to support power and battery systems testing are also shown. The contents include: 1) Power Testing; 2) Power Test Equipment Capabilities Summary; 3) Source/Load; 4) Battery Facilities; 5) Battery Test Equipment Capabilities Summary; 6) Battery Testing; 7) Performance Test Equipment; 8) Battery Test Environments; 9) Battery Abuse Chambers; 10) Battery Abuse Capabilities; and 11) Battery Test Area Resources.

  3. Battery model for electrical power system energy balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafen, D. P.

    1983-01-01

    A model to simulate nickel-cadmium battery performance and response in a spacecraft electrical power system energy balance calculation was developed. The voltage of the battery is given as a function of temperature, operating depth-of-charge (DOD), and battery state-of-charge. Also accounted for is charge inefficiency. A battery is modeled by analysis of the results of a multiparameter battery cycling test at various temperatures and DOD's.

  4. Battery Grouping with Time Series Clustering Based on Affinity Propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei He

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Battery grouping is a technology widely used to improve the performance of battery packs. In this paper, we propose a time series clustering based battery grouping method. The proposed method utilizes the whole battery charge/discharge sequence for battery grouping. The time sequences are first denoised with a wavelet denoising technique. The similarity matrix is then computed with the dynamic time warping distance, and finally the time series are clustered with the affinity propagation algorithm according to the calculated similarity matrices. The silhouette index is utilized for assessing the performance of the proposed battery grouping method. Test results show that the proposed battery grouping method is effective.

  5. Assessment Of Suspected Skin Lesion Depth By Multispectral Digital Dermatoscopy: In-Vivo Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalise, L.; Munaretto, R.; Serresi, S.; Tomasini, E. P.

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the present study is to demonstrate the possibility to assess the depth of suspected skin lesion in-vivo, using multispectral digital dermatoscopy (MDD); being malignant lesion depth an important factor related to survival rate. The system realised in this work is based on a special multi-wavelength LED illuminator (700 nm, 940 nm and 950 nm) and an high quality CCD camera which allows to acquire a detailed image of the suspected skin lesion. A statistically significant correlation between contrast of the area of the lesion at single wavelength and the depth of the lesions in vivo (as determined by histopathology survey) has been found using 39 samples. Interesting results, have been especially obtained using illuminating wavelength at 940 nm and 950 nm. Using a linear fitting of our data the maximum depth of melanoma has been overestimation of 0.43 ± 0.26 mm. The present study shows a possible use of our MDD system as in the assessment of maximum depth of suspected skin lesions.

  6. Comparison of three-dimensional helical axes of the cervical spine between in vitro and in vivo testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, René; Demmelmaier, Robert; Hacker, Steffen P; Wilke, Hans-Joachim

    2017-10-23

    The range of motion is a well-accepted parameter for the assessment and evaluation of cervical motion. However, more qualitative data of the kinematics of the cervical spine are needed for the development and success of cervical disc arthroplasty. The aim of this study was to provide basic information about helical axes of human cervical spine under in vitro conditions. Furthermore, it should clarify whether the three-dimensional helical axes of cervical motion gained from in vitro experiments are in agreement with those gained from in vivo experiments, and therefore to prove its reliability. An in vitro test with pure moments and mono-segmental specimens was designed to investigate and compare the helical axes of the cervical spine. Six human cadaveric specimens (three male and three female) with an average age of 47.5 years (range: 34-58 years) were carefully selected. Each specimen was divided into three motion segments: C2-C3, C4-C5, and C6-C7. We performed 3.5 full cycles of rotation about all axes, flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation, by applying pure moments of 1.5 Nm without any preload. Following the in vitro tests, the three-dimensional helical axes were calculated and projected into the x-ray images. Rotation analysis of all three directions revealed similar results for all six specimens. All calculated helical axes were similar to the published in vivo data. Furthermore, the instantaneous centers of rotation were in agreement with in vivo data. The data gained from this study verify cervical kinematics during in vitro testing using pure moments. It can be assumed that other soft tissue such as muscles are not necessarily needed to simulate cervical kinematics in vitro. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Development and validation of a short battery of tests for the assessment of aphasia: 'bedside assessment of language'. Its use in a rehabilitation centre].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabe, L; Courtis, M J; Saavedra, M M; Prodan, V; de Luján-Calcagno, M; Melián, S

    A formal and complete language assessment requires too much time and also tires the patient out during the first recovery stages after brain injury. The aim of this paper is to introduce a bedside screening, short and sensitive to diagnose aphasias in patients with brain injury. The results of the Bedside Assessment of Language (BAL) was studied in 121 aphasic patients and in 77 dysarthric patients after brain injury. The five linguistic areas assessed in this short battery are: spontaneous language, comprehension, repetition, writing and reading. Each area has a maximum of 5 points, and the test has a total score of 25. Statistics tests used were: median test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Fisher's exact test, receiver operating characteristics curves and correlation coefficient. The BAL showed an excellent internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha coefficient: 0.9419); sensitivity was of 79.3% and specificity of 84.4%. These results indicate that the BAL has been a potentially useful tool for the diagnose of the type of aphasia and it has been sensitive to evolutionary changes in sub-acute stages of language disorders.

  8. Short physical performance battery for middle-aged and older adult cardiovascular disease patients: implication for strength tests and lower extremity morphological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Tomohiro; Fukumura, Kazuya; Nakajima, Toshiaki

    2017-04-01

    [Purpose] To examine if the SPPB is higher with healthy subjects than outpatients, which was higher than inpatients and if the SPPB can be validated assessment tool for strength tests and lower extremity morphological evaluation in cardiovascular disease patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four middle aged and older adults with cardiovascular disease were recruited from inpatient and outpatient facilities and assigned to separate experimental groups. Twelve age-matched healthy volunteers were assigned to a control group. SPPB test was used to assess balance and functional motilities. The test outcomes were compared with level of care (inpatient vs. outpatient), physical characteristics, strength and lower extremity morphology. [Results] Total SPPB scores, strength tests (knee extensor muscle strength), and lower extremity morphological evaluation (muscle thickness of anterior and posterior mid-thigh and posterior lower-leg) were greater in healthy subjects and outpatients groups compared with inpatients. To predict total Short Physical Performance Battery scores, the predicted knee extension and anterior mid-thigh muscle thickness were calculated. [Conclusion] The SPPB is an effective tool as the strength tests and lower extremity morphological evaluation for middle-aged and older adult cardiovascular disease patients. Notably, high knee extensor muscle strength and quadriceps femoris muscle thickness are positively associated with high SPPB scores.

  9. Antimutagenic evaluation of vitamins B1, B6 and B12 in vitro and in vivo, with the Ames test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaga-Alba, Myriam; Ruiz-Pérez, Nancy Janett; Sánchez-Navarrete, Jaime; de Angel, Beatriz López; Flores-Lozada, Jorge; Blasco, José Luis

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate vitamins B antimutagenic effect against alkylatings methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), ethyl-N-nitro-N'- nitrosoguanidine (ENNG), frameshift mutagens 2-aminoanthracene (2AA) and 2-acetyl-amino-fluorene (2AF) and ROS-generating antibiotics norfloxacin (NOR) and nalidixic acid (NLX), using the in vitro Ames test. In vivo antimutagenesis studies were performed against urinary mutagens induced by NOR (70 mg/kg) or NLX (100 mg/kg) in CD1 mice. Vitamin B1 was antimutagenic against alkylatings MNNG (P<0.05) or ENNG (P<0.001). In fact as per the results observed during the current study, none of the vitamins reduced mutagenesis caused by frameshift mutagens. All of them reduced mutagenesis of NOR or NLX (P<0.001). In vivo studies showed that vitamins B1 and B6 (10 or 100 mg/kg) reduced urinary mutagens from NOR (P<0.001) or NLX (P<0.02) either free or β-glucoronidase-conjugates. None of the studied samples were toxic for the employed antimutagenic system. Vitamin B12 (4 mg/kg) reduced urinary mutagens of NOR or NLX (P<0.02). Vitamins B inhibited DNA mutations induced by ROS generated by NLX or NOR, both in vitro and in vivo. Vitamin B1is antimutagenic against mutations induced by the alkylating MNNG or ENNG. Based on the observations, employment of vitamins B in vivo can be a promising alternative to reduce genotoxic risk exposure to ROS. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Battery Safety Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Batteries commonly used in flashlights and other household devices produce hydrogen gas as a product of zinc electrode corrosion. The amount of gas produced is affected by the batteries' design and charge rate. Dangerous levels of hydrogen gas can be released if battery types are mixed, batteries are damaged, batteries are of different ages, or…

  11. Anthelminthic efficacy of banana crop residues on gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep: in vitro and in vivo tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Flávia Aparecida; Oliveira, Lincoln Nunes; da Silva, Rayana Brito; Nery, Patrícia Silva; Virgínio, Gercino Ferreira; Geraseev, Luciana Castro; Duarte, Eduardo Robson

    2012-07-01

    Resistance to anthelminthics is common due to intensive and incorrect use. In searching for alternatives, extracts of banana plant were evaluated for egg hatching inhibition and fecal egg count reduction of sheep nematodes. Aqueous extracts of the leaf, pseudostem, and heart of the banana plant cv. Prata anã were tested at concentrations of 0.31, 0.62, 1.25, 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 mg ml(-1) in egg hatching inhibition tests. For in vivo analysis, aqueous extracts were evaluated at dosages calculated according to the 10% lethal dose derived from acute toxicity testing in mice. Efficacy was evaluated at two time periods following oral administration. For the banana extracts at 2.5 mg ml(-1), egg hatching was significantly fewer than the negative control, with an LC(50) and LC(90) of 0.19 and 0.84 mg ml(-1), respectively. In vivo analysis for weeks 1 and 2 following a single treatment with aqueous leaf extract showed 33.1% and 32.5% anthelminthic efficacy, respectively. Further research on higher dosages with more frequent administration is needed to evaluate the potential for utilizing banana plant residues in gastrointestinal nematode control.

  12. A Novel Lithium Ion Battery Autonomous Strategy Improvement Based on SVM-DTC for Urban Electric Vehicle under Several Speeds Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Nasri Abdelfatah; Gasbaoui Brahim

    2011-01-01

    One of the main challenges in the modern commercialized electric vehicle (EV) is the battery management system. In this paper a novel strategy of EV power management is presented based on direct torque space vector modulation. We used the battery state of charge (SOC) which is the percent of residual capacity by nominal capacity. The proper estimation of SOC of Lithium-ion battery provides an energy management system in EV. The proposed controller provides a good torque control and speed stab...

  13. Age and education effects and norms on a cognitive test battery from a population-based cohort: the Monongahela-Youghiogheny Healthy Aging Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, Mary; Snitz, Beth E; Lee, Ching-Wen; Vanderbilt, Joni; Saxton, Judith A; Chang, Chung-Chou H

    2010-01-01

    Performance on cognitive tests can be affected by age, education, and also selection bias. We examined the distribution of scores on several cognitive screening tests by age and educational levels in a population-based cohort. An age-stratified random sample of individuals aged 65+ years was drawn from the electoral rolls of an urban US community. Those obtaining age and education-corrected scores > or = 21/30 on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were designated as cognitively normal or only mildly impaired, and underwent a full assessment including a battery of neuropsychological tests. Participants were also rated on the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale. The distribution of neuropsychological test scores within demographic strata, among those receiving a CDR of 0 (no dementia), are reported here as cognitive test norms. After combining individual test scores into cognitive domain composite scores, multiple linear regression models were used to examine associations of cognitive test performance with age and education. In this cognitively normal sample of older adults, younger age and higher education were associated with better performance in all cognitive domains. Age and education together explained 22% of the variation of memory, and less of executive function, language, attention, and visuospatial function. Older age and lesser education are differentially associated with worse neuropsychological test performance in cognitively normal older adult representatives of the community at large. The distribution of scores in these participants can serve as population-based norms for these tests, and can be especially useful to clinicians and researchers assessing older adults outside specialty clinic settings.

  14. Advanced Battery Manufacturing (VA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratton, Jeremy

    2012-09-30

    LiFeBATT has concentrated its recent testing and evaluation on the safety of its batteries. There appears to be a good margin of safety with respect to overheating of the cells and the cases being utilized for the batteries are specifically designed to dissipate any heat built up during charging. This aspect of LiFeBATT’s products will be even more fully investigated, and assuming ongoing positive results, it will become a major component of marketing efforts for the batteries. LiFeBATT has continued to receive prismatic 20 Amp hour cells from Taiwan. Further testing continues to indicate significant advantages over the previously available 15 Ah cells. Battery packs are being assembled with battery management systems in the Danville facility. Comprehensive tests are underway at Sandia National Laboratory to provide further documentation of the advantages of these 20 Ah cells. The company is pursuing its work with Hybrid Vehicles of Danville to critically evaluate the 20 Ah cells in a hybrid, armored vehicle being developed for military and security applications. Results have been even more encouraging than they were initially. LiFeBATT is expanding its work with several OEM customers to build a worldwide distribution network. These customers include a major automotive consulting group in the U.K., an Australian maker of luxury off-road campers, and a number of makers of E-bikes and scooters. LiFeBATT continues to explore the possibility of working with nations that are woefully short of infrastructure. Negotiations are underway with Siemens to jointly develop a system for using photovoltaic generation and battery storage to supply electricity to communities that are not currently served adequately. The IDA has continued to monitor the progress of LiFeBATT’s work to ensure that all funds are being expended wisely and that matching funds will be generated as promised. The company has also remained current on all obligations for repayment of an IDA loan and lease

  15. FY2016 Advanced Batteries R&D Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-08-31

    The Advanced Batteries research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for projects focusing on batteries for plug-in electric vehicles. Program targets focus on overcoming technical barriers to enable market success including: (1) significantly reducing battery cost, (2) increasing battery performance (power, energy, durability), (3) reducing battery weight & volume, and (4) increasing battery tolerance to abusive conditions such as short circuit, overcharge, and crush. This report describes the progress made on the research and development projects funded by the Battery subprogram in 2016. This section covers the Vehicle Technologies Office overview; the Battery subprogram R&D overview; Advanced Battery Development project summaries; and Battery Testing, Analysis, and Design project summaries. It also includes the cover and table of contents.

  16. Clinical relevance of the modified physical performance test versus the short physical performance battery for detecting mobility impairments in older men with peripheral arterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Odessa; Kundi, Rishi; Ryan, Alice S; Goldberg, Andrew P; Patel, Richa; Lal, Brajesh K; Prior, Steven J

    2017-08-23

    The study is to compare the Modified Physical Performance Test (MPPT) and Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) as metrics of mobility and function in older men with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). A total of 51 men (55-87 years) with PAD underwent functional testing including the SPPB, MPPT, Walking Impairment Questionnaire (WIQ), stair ascent, and 6-min walk distance. Individuals were grouped according to SPPB and MPPT scores as not limited on either, limited only on the MPPT, or limited on both. The MPPT identified a higher proportion of patients as being functionally limited than the SPPB (p < 0.001). Men identified as limited only by the MPPT, and not the SPPB, were subsequently confirmed to have lower function on all measures compared to those not identified as limited by either the SPPB or the MPPT (p < 0.02). These findings suggest the MPPT is an appropriate measure to identify early declines in men with PAD and may identify global disability better than SPPB. Implications for rehabilitation Individuals with peripheral arterial disease have low activity levels and are at risk for a loss of independence and global disability. Early detection of decline in mobility and global function would allow for interventions before large changes in ambulatory ability or a loss of functional independence occur. This study shows the Modified Physical Performance Test may be an appropriate test to identify early decline in function in men with peripheral arterial disease.

  17. The Extension of the German CERAD Neuropsychological Assessment Battery with Tests Assessing Subcortical, Executive and Frontal Functions Improves Accuracy in Dementia Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole S. Schmid

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Alzheimer's disease (AD is the most common form of dementia. Neuropsychological assessment of individuals with AD primarily focuses on tests of cortical functioning. However, in clinical practice, the underlying pathologies of dementia are unknown, and a focus on cortical functioning may neglect other domains of cognition, including subcortical and executive functioning. The current study aimed to improve the diagnostic discrimination ability of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease - Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (CERAD-NAB by adding three tests of executive functioning and mental speed (Trail Making Tests A and B, S-Words. Methods: Logistic regression analyses of 594 normal controls (NC, 326 patients with mild AD and 224 patients with other types of dementia (OD were carried out, and the area under the curve values were compared to those of CERAD-NAB alone. Results: All comparisons except AD-OD (65.5% showed excellent classification rates (NC-AD: 92.7%; NC-OD: 89.0%; NC-all patients: 91.0% and a superior diagnostic accuracy of the extended version. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that these three tests provide a sensible addition to the CERAD-NAB and can improve neuropsychological diagnosis of dementia.

  18. The new adhesion prophylaxis membrane A-part--from in vitro testing to first in vivo results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenigen, Bernd Martin; Weis, Christine; Odermatt, Erich Kurt; Hopt, Ulrich Theodor; Obermaier, Robert

    2009-05-01

    Formation of postoperative intra-abdominal adhesions is a severe problem in surgery. Apart from standard surgical procedures, a variety of different substances is available to prevent adhesions, but no universal method has been developed so far. A membrane consisting of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) has been demonstrated to be antiadhesive. Here, the in vitro testing and first in vivo results in a rabbit sidewall model are reported. A-part membrane contains a PVA/CMC mixture in a thickness of 40 microm. The composition, dissolution, tensile strength, and elasticity were examined to characterize the membrane in vitro. Experiments in vivo were carried out using a 'rabbit sidewall model' in which a standardized peritoneal trauma was covered with a 5 x 6 cm A-part membrane. Adhesion formation in A-part-treated animals was compared with that in Adept (15 mL/kg body weight) and untreated controls. An 80/20 PVA/CMC mixture forms a stable, elastic, transparent membrane, which can easily be placed intraoperatively. The dissolution shows a half-life of about 2 weeks [day 15: (45.1 +/- 4.9)% SD], which affords good adhesion protection during the initial critical phase of adhesion formation. In wet conditions, the membrane follows abdominal movements without tearing (tensile strength 5.0 +/- 4.2 N/cm SD; elasticity 29.5%). In a rabbit sidewall model, A-part membrane significantly reduced adhesion development by (83.1 +/- 31.5)% SD compared with the control and the Adept group (p membrane suggest that it may be useful as an antiadhesive in surgery. A-part is effective in in vivo testing as determined in a rabbit sidewall model. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Validation of Social Cognition Rating Tools in Indian Setting (SOCRATIS): A new test-battery to assess social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Urvakhsh M; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Naveen Kumar, C; Mahadevaiah, Mahesh; Rao, Kiran; Subbakrishna, Doddaballapura K; Gangadhar, Bangalore N; Keshavan, Matcheri S

    2011-09-01

    Social cognition is a cognitive domain that is under substantial cultural influence. There are no culturally appropriate standardized tools in India to comprehensively test social cognition. This study describes validation of tools for three social cognition constructs: theory of mind, social perception and attributional bias. Theory of mind tests included adaptations of, (a) two first order tasks [Sally-Anne and Smarties task], (b) two second order tasks [Ice cream van and Missing cookies story], (c) two metaphor-irony tasks and (d) the faux pas recognition test. Internal, Personal, and Situational Attributions Questionnaire (IPSAQ) and Social Cue Recognition Test were adapted to assess attributional bias and social perception, respectively. These tests were first modified to suit the Indian cultural context without changing the constructs to be tested. A panel of experts then rated the tests on likert scales as to (1) whether the modified tasks tested the same construct as in the original and (2) whether they were culturally appropriate. The modified tests were then administered to groups of actively symptomatic and remitted schizophrenia patients as well as healthy comparison subjects. All tests of the Social Cognition Rating Tools in Indian Setting had good content validity and known groups validity. In addition, the social cure recognition test in Indian setting had good internal consistency and concurrent validity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Hippocampal insulin microinjection and in vivo microdialysis during spatial memory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNay, Ewan C; Sandusky, Leslie A; Pearson-Leary, Jiah

    2013-01-11

    Glucose metabolism is a useful marker for local neural activity, forming the basis of methods such as 2-deoxyglucose and functional magnetic resonance imaging. However, use of such methods in animal models requires anesthesia and hence both alters the brain state and prevents behavioral measures. An alternative method is the use of in vivo microdialysis to take continuous measurement of brain extracellular fluid concentrations of glucose, lactate, and related metabolites in awake, unrestrained animals. This technique is especially useful when combined with tasks designed to rely on specific brain regions and/or acute pharmacological manipulation; for example, hippocampal measurements during a spatial working memory task (spontaneous alternation) show a dip in extracellular glucose and rise in lactate that are suggestive of enhanced glycolysis, and intrahippocampal insulin administration both improves memory and increases hippocampal glycolysis. Substances such as insulin can be delivered to the hippocampus via the same microdialysis probe used to measure metabolites. The use of spontaneous alternation as a measure of hippocampal function is designed to avoid any confound from stressful motivators (e.g. footshock), restraint, or rewards (e.g. food), all of which can alter both task performance and metabolism; this task also provides a measure of motor activity that permits control for nonspecific effects of treatment. Combined, these methods permit direct measurement of the neurochemical and metabolic variables regulating behavior.

  1. Amyloid Imaging in Aging and Dementia: Testing the Amyloid Hypothesis In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Rabinovici

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyloid imaging represents a major advance in neuroscience, enabling the detection and quantification of pathologic protein aggregations in the brain. In this review we survey current amyloid imaging techniques, focusing on positron emission tomography (PET with ^{11}carbon-labelled Pittsburgh Compound-B (11C-PIB, the most extensively studied and best validated tracer. PIB binds specifically to fibrillar beta-amyloid (Aβ deposits, and is a sensitive marker for Aβ pathology in cognitively normal older individuals and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI and Alzheimer’s disease (AD. PIB-PET provides us with a powerful tool to examine in vivo the relationship between amyloid deposition, clinical symptoms, and structural and functional brain changes in the continuum between normal aging and AD. Amyloid imaging studies support a model in which amyloid deposition is an early event on the path to dementia, beginning insidiously in cognitively normal individuals, and accompanied by subtle cognitive decline and functional and structural brain changes suggestive of incipient AD. As patients progress to dementia, clinical decline and neurodegeneration accelerate and proceed independently of amyloid accumulation. In the future, amyloid imaging is likely to supplement clinical evaluation in selecting patients for anti-amyloid therapies, while MRI and FDG-PET may be more appropriate markers of clinical progression.

  2. In Vivo Cosmetic Product Efficacy Testing by Analyzing Epidermal Proteins Extracted from Tape Strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Westman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this in vivo pilot study was to investigate whether differential biomarker analysis from skin tape strips could be used, not only to evaluate the difference between treated and untreated skin, but also to evaluate the effect of different product treatments. Ten volunteers were included in the study, applying two different basic formulations on their forearms. After four weeks of product application, and also after one week of treatment remission, tape strips were collected from the different treatment sites, as well as from untreated skin. The biomarkers investigated were selected to cover different aspects of epidermal differentiation and in connection with moisturization and barrier function. Levels of Involucrin were increased in both treatments, compared to untreated skin, whereas the levels of Keratin-6 were decreased for both treatments. In addition, a pattern for increased levels of Hornerin and Claudin-1 was also detected. There were no significant differences between the two treatments, only for treatment compared to untreated, but there were tendencies for different effect on some of the biomarkers investigated, differences that may reach significance with increased sample size. The major differences between the two treatments in this study were seen after one week of product remission, although due to too small sample size these differences were not significant.

  3. In Vivo Testing of MicroRNA-Mediated Gene Knockdown in Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivone Un San Leong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The zebrafish (Danio rerio has become an attractive model for human disease modeling as there are a large number of orthologous genes that encode similar proteins to those found in humans. The number of tools available to manipulate the zebrafish genome is limited and many currently used techniques are only effective during early development (such as morpholino-based antisense technology or it is phenotypically driven and does not offer targeted gene knockdown (such as chemical mutagenesis. The use of RNA interference has been met with controversy as off-target effects can make interpreting phenotypic outcomes difficult; however, this has been resolved by creating zebrafish lines that contain stably integrated miRNA constructs that target the desired gene of interest. In this study, we show that a commercially available miRNA vector system with a mouse-derived miRNA backbone is functional in zebrafish and is effective in causing eGFP knockdown in a transient in vivo eGFP sensor assay system. We chose to apply this system to the knockdown of transcripts that are implicated in the human cardiac disorder, Long QT syndrome.

  4. Preclinical Development of an In Vivo BCG Challenge Model for Testing Candidate TB Vaccine Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minassian, Angela M.; Ronan, Edward O.; Poyntz, Hazel; Hill, Adrian V. S.; McShane, Helen

    2011-01-01

    There is an urgent need for an immunological correlate of protection against tuberculosis (TB) with which to evaluate candidate TB vaccines in clinical trials. Development of a human challenge model of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) could facilitate the detection of such correlate(s). Here we propose a novel in vivo Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) challenge model using BCG immunization as a surrogate for M.tb infection. Culture and quantitative PCR methods have been developed to quantify BCG in the skin, using the mouse ear as a surrogate for human skin. Candidate TB vaccines have been evaluated for their ability to protect against a BCG skin challenge, using this model, and the results indicate that protection against a BCG skin challenge is predictive of BCG vaccine efficacy against aerosol M.tb challenge. Translation of these findings to a human BCG challenge model could enable more rapid assessment and down selection of candidate TB vaccines and ultimately the identification of an immune correlate of protection. PMID:21629699

  5. Testing biochemistry revisited: how in vivo metabolism can be understood from in vitro enzyme kinetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen van Eunen

    Full Text Available A decade ago, a team of biochemists including two of us, modeled yeast glycolysis and showed that one of the most studied biochemical pathways could not be quite understood in terms of the kinetic properties of the constituent enzymes as measured in cell extract. Moreover, when the same model was later applied to different experimental steady-state conditions, it often exhibited unrestrained metabolite accumulation.Here we resolve this issue by showing that the results of such ab initio modeling are improved substantially by (i including appropriate allosteric regulation and (ii measuring the enzyme kinetic parameters under conditions that resemble the intracellular environment. The following modifications proved crucial: (i implementation of allosteric regulation of hexokinase and pyruvate kinase, (ii implementation of V(max values measured under conditions that resembled the yeast cytosol, and (iii redetermination of the kinetic parameters of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase under physiological conditions.Model predictions and experiments were compared under five different conditions of yeast growth and starvation. When either the original model was used (which lacked important allosteric regulation, or the enzyme parameters were measured under conditions that were, as usual, optimal for high enzyme activity, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and some other glycolytic intermediates tended to accumulate to unrealistically high concentrations. Combining all adjustments yielded an accurate correspondence between model and experiments for all five steady-state and dynamic conditions. This enhances our understanding of in vivo metabolism in terms of in vitro biochemistry.

  6. Testing Biochemistry Revisited: How In Vivo Metabolism Can Be Understood from In Vitro Enzyme Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eunen, Karen; Kiewiet, José A. L.; Westerhoff, Hans V.; Bakker, Barbara M.

    2012-01-01

    A decade ago, a team of biochemists including two of us, modeled yeast glycolysis and showed that one of the most studied biochemical pathways could not be quite understood in terms of the kinetic properties of the constituent enzymes as measured in cell extract. Moreover, when the same model was later applied to different experimental steady-state conditions, it often exhibited unrestrained metabolite accumulation. Here we resolve this issue by showing that the results of such ab initio modeling are improved substantially by (i) including appropriate allosteric regulation and (ii) measuring the enzyme kinetic parameters under conditions that resemble the intracellular environment. The following modifications proved crucial: (i) implementation of allosteric regulation of hexokinase and pyruvate kinase, (ii) implementation of Vmax values measured under conditions that resembled the yeast cytosol, and (iii) redetermination of the kinetic parameters of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase under physiological conditions. Model predictions and experiments were compared under five different conditions of yeast growth and starvation. When either the original model was used (which lacked important allosteric regulation), or the enzyme parameters were measured under conditions that were, as usual, optimal for high enzyme activity, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and some other glycolytic intermediates tended to accumulate to unrealistically high concentrations. Combining all adjustments yielded an accurate correspondence between model and experiments for all five steady-state and dynamic conditions. This enhances our understanding of in vivo metabolism in terms of in vitro biochemistry. PMID:22570597

  7. Relations Between the Intelligibility of Speech in Noise and Psychophysical Measures of Hearing Measured in Four Languages Using the Auditory Profile Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Esch, T E M; Dreschler, W A

    2015-12-08

    The aim of the present study was to determine the relations between the intelligibility of speech in noise and measures of auditory resolution, loudness recruitment, and cognitive function. The analyses were based on data published earlier as part of the presentation of the Auditory Profile, a test battery implemented in four languages. Tests of the intelligibility of speech, resolution, loudness recruitment, and lexical decision making were measured using headphones in five centers: in Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Correlations and stepwise linear regression models were calculated. In sum, 72 hearing-impaired listeners aged 22 to 91 years with a broad range of hearing losses were included in the study. Several significant correlations were found with the intelligibility of speech in noise. Stepwise linear regression analyses showed that pure-tone average, age, spectral and temporal resolution, and loudness recruitment were significant predictors of the intelligibility of speech in fluctuating noise. Complex interrelationships between auditory factors and the intelligibility of speech in noise were revealed using the Auditory Profile data set in four languages. After taking into account the effects of pure-tone average and age, spectral and temporal resolution and loudness recruitment had an added value in the prediction of variation among listeners with respect to the intelligibility of speech in noise. The results of the lexical decision making test were not related to the intelligibility of speech in noise, in the population studied. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Relations Between the Intelligibility of Speech in Noise and Psychophysical Measures of Hearing Measured in Four Languages Using the Auditory Profile Test Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. M. Van Esch

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the relations between the intelligibility of speech in noise and measures of auditory resolution, loudness recruitment, and cognitive function. The analyses were based on data published earlier as part of the presentation of the Auditory Profile, a test battery implemented in four languages. Tests of the intelligibility of speech, resolution, loudness recruitment, and lexical decision making were measured using headphones in five centers: in Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Correlations and stepwise linear regression models were calculated. In sum, 72 hearing-impaired listeners aged 22 to 91 years with a broad range of hearing losses were included in the study. Several significant correlations were found with the intelligibility of speech in noise. Stepwise linear regression analyses showed that pure-tone average, age, spectral and temporal resolution, and loudness recruitment were significant predictors of the intelligibility of speech in fluctuating noise. Complex interrelationships between auditory factors and the intelligibility of speech in noise were revealed using the Auditory Profile data set in four languages. After taking into account the effects of pure-tone average and age, spectral and temporal resolution and loudness recruitment had an added value in the prediction of variation among listeners with respect to the intelligibility of speech in noise. The results of the lexical decision making test were not related to the intelligibility of speech in noise, in the population studied.

  9. Household batteries: Evaluation of collection methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeberger, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    While it is difficult to prove that a specific material is causing contamination in a landfill, tests have been conducted at waste-to-energy facilities that indicate that household batteries contribute significant amounts of heavy metals to both air emissions and ash residue. Hennepin County, MN, used a dual approach for developing and implementing a special household battery collection. Alternative collection methods were examined; test collections were conducted. The second phase examined operating and disposal policy issues. This report describes the results of the grant project, moving from a broad examination of the construction and content of batteries, to a description of the pilot collection programs, and ending with a discussion of variables affecting the cost and operation of a comprehensive battery collection program. Three out-of-state companies (PA, NY) were found that accept spent batteries; difficulties in reclaiming household batteries are discussed.

  10. Household batteries: Evaluation of collection methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeberger, D.A.

    1992-12-31

    While it is difficult to prove that a specific material is causing contamination in a landfill, tests have been conducted at waste-to-energy facilities that indicate that household batteries contribute significant amounts of heavy metals to both air emissions and ash residue. Hennepin County, MN, used a dual approach for developing and implementing a special household battery collection. Alternative collection methods were examined; test collections were conducted. The second phase examined operating and disposal policy issues. This report describes the results of the grant project, moving from a broad examination of the construction and content of batteries, to a description of the pilot collection programs, and ending with a discussion of variables affecting the cost and operation of a comprehensive battery collection program. Three out-of-state companies (PA, NY) were found that accept spent batteries; difficulties in reclaiming household batteries are discussed.

  11. Quality assessment in in vivo NMR spectroscopy: III. Clinical test objects: design, construction, and solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leach, M.O.; Collins, D.J.; Keevil, S

    1995-01-01

    Based on the requirements of test protocols developed to evaluate clinical MRS single slice and volume localisation sequences, two clinical test objects, STO1 and STO2 have been developed. The properties of a range of potential construction materials have been assessed, demonstrating that the water....../Perspex interface produced minimum susceptibility effects. The design of the objects has been evaluated in trials on different magnetic resonance instruments, with size and loading being adjusted to allow use on currently available equipment. Appropriate test solutions for 31P and 1H measurements have been...

  12. An averaging battery model for a lead-acid battery operating in an electric car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozek, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    A battery model is developed based on time averaging the current or power, and is shown to be an effective means of predicting the performance of a lead acid battery. The effectiveness of this battery model was tested on battery discharge profiles expected during the operation of an electric vehicle following the various SAE J227a driving schedules. The averaging model predicts the performance of a battery that is periodically charged (regenerated) if the regeneration energy is assumed to be converted to retrievable electrochemical energy on a one-to-one basis.

  13. 40 CFR 798.5395 - In vivo mammalian bone marrow cytogenetics tests: Micronucleus assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in bone marrow of treated animals. (b) Definition... detected in other test systems: (A) Tissue culture. (B) Plants. (C) Blood smears. (D) Fetal tissues. (E...

  14. Reversible dyscognition in patients with a unilateral, middle fossa arachnoid cyst revealed by using a laptop based neuropsychological test battery (CANTAB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgersen, Johan; Helland, Christian; Flaatten, Hans; Wester, Knut

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and validate the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) in a Norwegian group of patients undergoing surgery for middle fossa arachnoid cysts (AC). We also wanted to assess health related quality of life (HRQOL) in these patients to see if it could be improved by decompression of the AC. Adult patients (>18 years) with unilateral middle fossa AC and no previous history of neurological disease, head injury, or a psychiatric disorder were eligible for inclusion. We used four tests from CANTAB to assess the level of neuropsychological performance: paired associate learning (PAL) and delayed matching to sample (DMS) assessed temporal lobe functions, while Stockings of Cambridge (SOC) and intra-extra dimensional (IED) shift focused on frontal lobe functions. Patients with postoperative cerebral complications were reported, but excluded from neuropsychological follow-up. In addition to the CANTAB data, pre- and postoperative clinical and radiological data were collected. HRQOL was assessed using Short Form 36 (SF-36) pre- and postoperatively. We found significant improvement in the two temporal tests assessing memory, but no improvement in the two frontal tests assessing executive function. HRQOL was significantly reduced preoperatively in two of eight SF-36 domains and improved significantly in four domains postoperatively. CANTAB facilitates detection of cognitive improvements after decompression of the cyst in patients with AC in the middle fossa. The improvements were detected on the tests sensitive to temporal lobe problems only, not on the tests more sensitive to frontal lobe affection. This establishes construct validity for CANTAB for the first time in this population.

  15. A Comparison of Four Computerized Neurocognitive Assessment Tools to a Traditional Neuropsychological Test Battery in Service Members with and without Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Wesley R; Arrieux, Jacques P; Ivins, Brian J; Schwab, Karen A; Qashu, Felicia M

    2018-02-01

    Computerized neurocognitive assessment tools (NCATS) are often used as a screening tool to identify cognitive deficits after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). However, differing methodology across studies renders it difficult to identify a consensus regarding the validity of NCATs. Thus, studies where multiple NCATs are administered in the same sample using the same methodology are warranted. We investigated the validity of four NCATs: the ANAM4, CNS-VS, CogState, and ImPACT. Two NCATs were randomly assigned and a battery of traditional neuropsychological (NP) tests administered to healthy control active duty service members (n = 272) and to service members within 7 days of an mTBI (n = 231). Analyses included correlations between NCAT and the NP test scores to investigate convergent and discriminant validity, and regression analyses to identify the unique variance in NCAT and NP scores attributed to group status. Effect sizes (Cohen's f2) were calculated to guide interpretation of data. Only 37 (0.6%) of the 5,655 correlations calculated between NCATs and NP tests are large (i.e. r ≥ 0.50). The majority of correlations are small (i.e. 0.30 > r ≥ 0.10), with no clear patterns suggestive of convergent or discriminant validity between the NCATs and NP tests. Though there are statistically significant group differences across most NCAT and NP test scores, the unique variance accounted for by group status is minimal (i.e. semipartial R2 ≤ 0.033, 0.024, 0.062, and 0.011 for ANAM4, CNS-VS, CogState, and ImPACT, respectively), with effect sizes indicating small to no meaningful effect. Though the results are not overly promising for the validity of the four NCATs we investigated, traditional methods of investigating psychometric properties may not be appropriate for computerized tests. We offer several conceptual and methodological considerations for future studies regarding the validity of NCATs.

  16. ESA Simulation Language (ESL) battery model upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, J. L.; Owen, J. R.

    1988-03-01

    An ESL nickel-cadmium battery model was extended to match the battery manufacturer's steady state cycling characteristics, and to increase the temperature range over which the model is valid. The model was validated by comparisons with test results in the ambient temperature range 0 to 20 C. Less confidence must be attached to results produced by the model outside the 0 to 20 C range, there being no battery cycling data outside this range with which to judge model performance.

  17. Adaptation of The Western Aphasia Battery in Bangla

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nirnay Kumar Keshree; Suman Kumar; Shriya Basu; Madhushree Chakrabarty; Thomas Kishore

    2013-01-01

    .... Of all the tools available for aphasia diagnosis, the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB; Kertesz, 1982) has proved to be one of the most comprehensive test batteries for describing the aphasia symptom complex...

  18. Recharge unit provides for optimum recharging of battery cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, D.; Ford, F. E.

    1968-01-01

    Percent recharge unit permits each cell of a rechargeable battery to be charged to a preset capacity of the cell. The unit automatically monitors and controls a rechargeable battery subjected to charge-discharge cycling tests.

  19. The Paleobiosphere: a novel device for the in vivo testing of hydrocarbon producing-utilizing microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, Gary; Booth, Eric; Schaible, George; Mends, Morgan Tess; Sears, Joe; Geary, Brad

    2013-04-01

    The construction and testing of a unique instrument, the Paleobiosphere, which mimics some of the conditions of the ancient earth, is described. The instrument provides an experimental testing system for determining if certain microbes, when provided an adequate environment, can degrade biological materials to produce fuel-like hydrocarbons in a relatively short time frame that become trapped by the shale. The conditions selected for testing included a particulate Montana shale (serving as the "Trap Shale"), plant materials (leaves and stems of three extant species whose origins are in the late Cretaceous), a water-circulating system, sterile air, and a specially designed Carbotrap through which all air was passed as exhaust and volatile were hydrocarbons trapped. The fungus for initial testing was Annulohypoxylon sp., isolated as an endophyte of Citrus aurantifolia. It produces, in solid and liquid media, a series of hydrocarbon-like molecules. Some of these including 1,8-cineole, 2-butanone, propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester, benzene (1-methylethyl)-, phenylethyl alcohol, benzophenone and azulene, 1,2,3,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydro-1,4-dimethyl-7-(1-methylethenyl), [1S-(1α,7α,8aβ)]. These were the key signature compounds used in an initial Paleobiosphere test. After 3 weeks, incubation, the volatiles associated with the harvested "Trap Shale" included each of the signature substances as well as other fungal-associated products: some indanes, benzene derivatives, some cyclohexanes, 3-octanone, naphthalenes and others. The fungus thus produced a series of "Trap Shale" products that were representative of each of the major classes of hydrocarbons in diesel fuel (Mycodiesel). Initial tests with the Paleobiosphere offer some evidence for a possible origin of hydrocarbons trapped in bentonite shale. Thus, with modifications, numerous other tests can also be designed for utilization in the Paleobiosphere.

  20. Stand Alone Battery Thermal Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodie, Brad [Denso International America, Incorporated, Southfield, MI (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The objective of this project is research, development and demonstration of innovative thermal management concepts that reduce the cell or battery weight, complexity (component count) and/or cost by at least 20%. The project addresses two issues that are common problems with current state of the art lithium ion battery packs used in vehicles; low power at cold temperatures and reduced battery life when exposed to high temperatures. Typically, battery packs are “oversized” to satisfy the two issues mentioned above. The first phase of the project was spent making a battery pack simulation model using AMEsim software. The battery pack used as a benchmark was from the Fiat 500EV. FCA and NREL provided vehicle data and cell data that allowed an accurate model to be created that matched the electrical and thermal characteristics of the actual battery pack. The second phase involved using the battery model from the first phase and evaluate different thermal management concepts. In the end, a gas injection heat pump system was chosen as the dedicated thermal system to both heat and cool the battery pack. Based on the simulation model. The heat pump system could use 50% less energy to heat the battery pack in -20°C ambient conditions, and by keeping the battery cooler at hot climates, the battery pack size could be reduced by 5% and still meet the warranty requirements. During the final phase, the actual battery pack and heat pump system were installed in a test bench at DENSO to validate the simulation results. Also during this phase, the system was moved to NREL where testing was also done to validate the results. In conclusion, the heat pump system can improve “fuel economy” (for electric vehicle) by 12% average in cold climates. Also, the battery pack size, or capacity, could be reduced 5%, or if pack size is kept constant, the pack life could be increased by two years. Finally, the total battery pack and thermal system cost could be reduced 5% only if the

  1. In vivo testing of a 3D bifurcating microchannel scaffold inducing separation of regenerating axon bundles in peripheral nerves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanova, Irina I.; van Wezel, Richard J. A.; Rutten, Wim L. C.

    2013-12-01

    Artificial nerve guidance channels enhance the regenerative effectiveness in an injured peripheral nerve but the existing design so far has been limited to basic straight tubes simply guiding the growth to bridge the gap. Hence, one of the goals in development of more effective neuroprostheses is to create bidirectional highly selective neuro-electronic interface between a prosthetic device and the severed nerve. A step towards improving selectivity for both recording and stimulation have been made with some recent in vitro studies which showed that three-dimensional (3D) bifurcating microchannels can separate neurites growing on a planar surface and bring them into contact with individual electrodes. Since the growing axons in vivo have the innate tendency to group in bundles surrounded by connective tissue, one of the big challenges in neuro-prosthetic interface design is how to overcome it. Therefore, we performed experiments with 3D bifurcating guidance scaffolds implanted in the sciatic nerve of rats to test if this new channel architecture could trigger separation pattern of ingrowth also in vivo. Our results showed that this new method enabled the re-growth of neurites into channels with gradually diminished width (80, 40 and 20 µm) and facilitated the separation of the axonal bundles with 91% success. It seems that the 3D bifurcating scaffold might contribute towards conveying detailed neural control and sensory feedback to users of prosthetic devices, and thus could improve the quality of their daily life.

  2. Feasibility of the runt cow for in vivo testing of a spinal interbody prosthesis with preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttermann, Glenn R; Mendenhall, H Vincent

    2012-04-01

    The optimal lumbar spinal disc prosthesis has yet to be developed. Failures of clinical device studies may be minimized by appropriate large animal preclinical studies. The lumbar spine of the mature "runt" cow, Corrientes breed, has been shown to have a number of desirable characteristics to the human. This study assessed the feasibility of the "runt" cow for in vivo testing of human-sized lumbar interbody implants and the ability to perform common analyses of explants. Eight cows (four experimental and four controls) were compared. The experimental animals had transosseous implantation of the disc prosthesis at L4-L5, and their spines were harvested at four or six months. They were evaluated for the ease of surgical access and healing, motion segment mobility, ability to remove the implant nondestructively, and microradiography and histomorphology. All animals had successful implantation. All explantations were performed without alteration to the devices. All animals had surgical healing and intended device motion, and histology found device stability by demonstrating bone ingrowth into the device's porous plates. There was a significant 46% increase in the amount of trabecular bone adjacent to the implants. The mature runt cow allows for implantation of human-sized interbody and intrabody spinal prostheses. This animal model allowed for macro- and histological analysis of the implant and surrounding tissues. In vivo stability was demonstrated for the disc prosthesis while also allowing for evaluation of intended mobility. Additionally, this is the first study to suggest increased bone density supporting an interbody prosthesis.

  3. Screening of toxic potential of graphene family nanomaterials using in vitro and alternative in vivo toxicity testing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Nivedita; Yang, Ji Su; Park, Kwangsik; Oh, Seung Min; Park, Jeonggue; Choi, Jinhee

    2015-01-01

    The widely promising applications of graphene nanomaterials raise considerable concerns regarding their environmental and human health risk assessment. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the toxicity profiling of graphene family nananomaterials (GFNs) in alternative in vitro and in vivo toxicity testing models. The GFNs used in this study are graphene nanoplatelets ([GNPs]-pristine, carboxylate [COOH] and amide [NH2]) and graphene oxides (single layer [SLGO] and few layers [FLGO]). The human bronchial epithelial cells (Beas2B cells) as in vitro system and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as in vivo system were used to profile the toxicity response of GFNs. Cytotoxicity assays, colony formation assay for cellular toxicity and reproduction potentiality in C. elegans were used as end points to evaluate the GFNs' toxicity. In general, GNPs exhibited higher toxicity than GOs in Beas2B cells, and among the GNPs the order of toxicity was pristine>NH2>COOH. Although the order of toxicity of the GNPs was maintained in C. elegans reproductive toxicity, but GOs were found to be more toxic in the worms than GNPs. In both systems, SLGO exhibited profoundly greater dose dependency than FLGO. The possible reason of their differential toxicity lay in their distinctive physicochemical characteristics and agglomeration behavior in the exposure media. The present study revealed that the toxicity of GFNs is dependent on the graphene nanomaterial's physical forms, surface functionalizations, number of layers, dose, time of exposure and obviously, on the alternative model systems used for toxicity assessment.

  4. Hand-drawn&written pen-on-paper electrochemiluminescence immunodevice powered by rechargeable battery for low-cost point-of-care testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongmei; Kong, Qingkun; Wang, Shaowei; Xu, Jinmeng; Bian, Zhaoquan; Zheng, Xiaoxiao; Ma, Chao; Ge, Shenguang; Yu, Jinghua

    2014-11-15

    In this paper, a pen-on-paper electrochemiluminescence (PoP-ECL) device was entirely hand drawn and written in commercially available crayon and pencil in turn for the first time, and a constant potential-triggered sandwich-type immunosensor was introduced into the PoP-ECL device to form a low-cost ECL immunodevice proof. Each PoP-ECL device contained a hydrophilic paper channel and two PoP electrodes, and the PoP-ECL device was produced as follows: crayon was firstly used to draw hydrophobic regions on pure cellulose paper to create the hydrophilic paper channels followed with a baking treatment, and then a 6B-type black pencil with low resistivity was applied for precision writing, as the PoP electrodes, across the hydrophilic paper channel. For further point-of-care testing, a portable, low-cost rechargeable battery was employed as the power source to provide constant potential to the PoP electrodes to trigger the ECL. Using Carbohydrate antigen 199 as model analyte, this PoP-ECL immunodevice showed a good linear response range from 0.01-200 U mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.0055 U mL(-1), a high sensitivity and stability. The proposed PoP-ECL immunodevice could be used in point-of-care testing of other tumor markers for remote regions and developing countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Optimal Switching Table-Based Sliding Mode Control of an Energy Recovery Li-Ion Power Accumulator Battery Pack Testing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kil To Chong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present work is to apply a sliding mode controller (SMC to medium voltage and high power output energy recovery Li-ion power accumulator battery pack testing systems (ERLPABTSs, which are composed of a three-level neutral-point-clamped (NPC three-phase voltage source inverter (VSI and a two-level buck-boost converter without an isolating transformer. An inner current decoupled control scheme for the aforementioned system is proposed and two sliding mode planes for active and reactive current control are designed based on the control scheme. An optimized switching table for current convergence is used according to the error sign of the equivalent input voltage and feedback voltage. The proposed ERLPABTS could be used to integrate discharging energy into the power grid when performing high accuracy current testing. The active and reactive power references for the grid-connected inverter are determined based on the discharging energy from the DC-DC converter. Simulations and experiments on a laboratory hardware platform using a 175 kW insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT-based ERLPABTS have been implemented and verified, and the performance is found satisfactory and superior to conventional ERLPABPTS.

  6. Development and characterisation of an in vitro photomicronucleus test using ex vivo human skin tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reus, A.A.; Meeuwen, R.N.C. van; Vogel, N. de; Maas, W.J.M.; Krul, C.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Photosafety testing is of concern for the evaluation of personal care products and pharmaceuticals. Current regulatory guidance state that photosafety should be evaluated for compounds that absorb radiation between 290 and 700 nm with relevant exposure in the skin or eyes. However, oversensitivity

  7. An in vivo assay of the mutagenic potential of imidacloprid using sperm head abnormality test and dominant lethal test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagri, Preeti; Kumar, Vinod; Sikka, Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    To assess the mutagenic effects of imidacloprid in germ cells of Swiss albino male mice by sperm head abnormality (SHA) assay and dominant lethal test (DLT). Swiss albino mice were exposed to imidacloprid (22, 11 and 5.5 mg/kg/day) along with 3% gum acacia as vehicle control through oral route for 7, 14 and 28 days for SHA assay and for 28 days for DLT. The epididymal sperm smear in 1% eosin stain was analyzed for SHAs. In DLT, male mice were allowed to mate with females after 1, 3 and 6 weeks of end of pesticide treatment. The uterine contents of the sacrificed females were observed for live and dead implants. The analysis of test and control groups data was done by one way ANOVA at p imidacloprid (22, 11 and 5.5 mg/kg/day) for seven days did not induce significant SHAs while they induced significant SHAs compared with the control group following exposure for 14 and 28 days. The analysis of uterine content revealed a significant increase in the number of dead implants/female compared with the vehicle control in only those females which were mated with male mice after six weeks of treatment of highest dose level of imidacloprid. The dominant lethal mutations were observed only at spermatogonial stage. Long-term exposure of pesticide generated SHAs even at lowest dose level (5.5 mg/kg/day for 14 days) and mutagenic effects at spermatogonial stage at highest dose level (22 mg/kg/day for 28 days).

  8. Battery Calendar Life Estimator Manual Modeling and Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jon P. Christophersen; Ira Bloom; Ed Thomas; Vince Battaglia

    2012-10-01

    The Battery Life Estimator (BLE) Manual has been prepared to assist developers in their efforts to estimate the calendar life of advanced batteries for automotive applications. Testing requirements and procedures are defined by the various manuals previously published under the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC). The purpose of this manual is to describe and standardize a method for estimating calendar life based on statistical models and degradation data acquired from typical USABC battery testing.

  9. Electrical characterization of the Magellan batteries after storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deligiannis, Frank; Perrone, D.; Distefano, Sal; Timmerman, Paul

    1993-01-01

    Two 22 cell batteries designed by Martin Marietta were tested. The batteries were rated at 26.5 Amp-Hr. The battery design is characterized by the following: Gates Aerospace 42B030AB15, 11 pos/12 neg, Pellon 2536 separator, passivated pos/teflonated neg. The tests can be summarized as follows: (1) no noticeable capacity loss after storage period; and (2) batteries exhibited larger non-uniformity of cell voltages during constant current charge.

  10. Characterization of vanadium flow battery. Revised

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindner, H.; Ekman, C.; Gehrke, O.; Isleifsson, F.

    2011-02-15

    This report summarizes the work done at Risoe-DTU testing a vanadium flow battery as part of the project ''Characterisation of Vanadium Batteries'' (ForskEl project 6555) with the partners PA Energy A/S and OI Electric A/S under the Danish PSO energy research program. A 15kW/120kWh vanadium battery has been installed as part of the distributed energy systems experimental facility, SYSLAB, at Risoe DTU. A test programme has been carried out to get hands-on experience with the technology, to characterize the battery from a power system point of view and to assess it with respect to integration of wind energy in the Danish power system. The battery has been in operation for 18 months. During time of operation the battery has not shown signs of degradation of performance. It has a round-trip efficiency at full load of approximately 60% (depending on temperature and SOC). The sources of the losses are power conversion in cell stacks/electrolyte, power converter, and auxiliary power consumption from pumps and controller. The efficiency was not influenced by the cycling of the battery. The response time for the battery is limited at 20kW/s by the ramp rate of the power converter. The battery can thus provide power and frequency support for the power system. The battery was operated together with a 11kW stall-regulated Gaia wind turbine to smooth the output of the wind turbine and during the tests the battery proved capable of firming the output of the wind turbine. Vanadium battery is a potential technology for storage based services to the power system provided investment and O and M cost are low enough and long term operation is documented. (Author)

  11. Can we trust ex vivo mechanical testing of fresh--frozen cadaveric specimens? The effect of postfreezing delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartner, Jacob L; Hartsell, Zane M; Ricci, William M; Tornetta, Paul

    2011-08-01

    Because embalming has been demonstrated to decrease the mechanical integrity of bone, most investigators favor fresh-frozen specimens for biomechanical evaluation. However, little is known about how the integrity of fresh--frozen specimens may change during biomechanical testing or may be affected by standard practices in testing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how the time after removal from a freezer may affect the mechanical properties of fresh--frozen diaphyseal bone. Matched pairs of nonosteoporotic fresh--frozen human cadaveric femora were thawed before instrumentation with bicortical screws. Matched femora were reserved for either control or delayed use. Each specimen received standard diaphyseal bicortical screws (six or more in each group). At specified time points, screws were axially pulled out following the guidelines of ASTM F543-07. Test groups were stored in air (21 ± 0.5°C) for 16, 50, or 90 hours. In the control group, screws were pulled out at 16 hours, which corresponds to the minimum elapsed time for specimen thawing, instrumentation, potting, and biomechanical test initiation. This represents the baseline mechanical properties of the fresh--frozen bone at the inception of any biomechanical test. The 90-hour group corresponds to the time needed to cycle a construct 300,000 times at a physiological test frequency of 1 Hz. This corresponds approximately to 2 to 4 months of in vivo loading. A midpoint of 50 hours was also tested, representing approximately 180,000 cycles. Failure for all specimens occurred as a result of bone failure at the screw-to-bone interface. There was a decrease in screw pullout strength as exposure time in air increased. The 50-hour test group showed a 9% decrease in screw pullout strength as compared with the 16-hour control group (P = 0.81). However, the 90-hour test group showed a 30% decrease in screw pullout strength as compared with the 16-hour control group (P = 0.04). This study indicates that when

  12. A High Throughput In Vivo Model for Testing Delivery and Antiviral Effects of siRNAs in Vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schyth, Brian Dall; Lorenzen, Niels; Pedersen, Finn Skou

    2007-01-01

    Despite the promise of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in antiviral therapy, few in vivo studies of them as inhibitors of viral replication and disease have been published, a lack that is most probably due to problems with obtaining successful delivery. Here we introduce a novel in vivomodel...... composed of small juvenile rainbow trout and a fish pathogenic virus to analyze the delivery and antiviral effects of formulated siRNAs. Intraperitoneally (IP) injected siRNAs formulated in polycationic liposomes, and to a lesser degree naked siRNAs, primarily entered free IP cells, including macrophage......-like cells. Uptake in these cells correlated with antiviral activity, seen as reduced mortality of virus-challenged fish. However, protection at the disease level was not dependent upon which of three tested siRNAs was used, and protection correlated with up-regulation of an interferon (IFN)-related gene...

  13. In vivo testing confirms a blunting of the human cell-mediated immune mechanism during space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. R.; Janney, R. P.

    1992-01-01

    The cell-mediated immune (CMI) mechanism was evaluated in 10 space shuttle astronauts by measuring their delayed-type hypersensitivity response to seven common recall antigens. The Multitest CMI test system was used to administer antigens of tetanus, diphtheria, Streptococcus, Proteus, old tuberculin, Candida, and Trichophyton to the forearm 46 h before nominal mission termination; readings were conducted 2 h after landing. The mean number of reactions was reduced from 4.5 preflight to 3.0 inflight, and the mean reaction score was reduced from 21.4 to 13.7 mm inflight. The data presented suggest that the CMI system is still being degraded by space flight conditions on day 4 and that between day 5 and day 10, the depression maximizes and the system begins to adjust to the new conditions. The relation of these in vivo findings to previously reported in vitro results is discussed.

  14. Computer Aided Battery Engineering Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-07

    A multi-national lab collaborative team was assembled that includes experts from academia and industry to enhance recently developed Computer-Aided Battery Engineering for Electric Drive Vehicles (CAEBAT)-II battery crush modeling tools and to develop microstructure models for electrode design - both computationally efficient. Task 1. The new Multi-Scale Multi-Domain model framework (GH-MSMD) provides 100x to 1,000x computation speed-up in battery electrochemical/thermal simulation while retaining modularity of particles and electrode-, cell-, and pack-level domains. The increased speed enables direct use of the full model in parameter identification. Task 2. Mechanical-electrochemical-thermal (MECT) models for mechanical abuse simulation were simultaneously coupled, enabling simultaneous modeling of electrochemical reactions during the short circuit, when necessary. The interactions between mechanical failure and battery cell performance were studied, and the flexibility of the model for various batteries structures and loading conditions was improved. Model validation is ongoing to compare with test data from Sandia National Laboratories. The ABDT tool was established in ANSYS. Task 3. Microstructural modeling was conducted to enhance next-generation electrode designs. This 3- year project will validate models for a variety of electrodes, complementing Advanced Battery Research programs. Prototype tools have been developed for electrochemical simulation and geometric reconstruction.

  15. Genotoxic and Antigenotoxic Assessment of Chios Mastic Oil by the In Vitro Micronucleus Test on Human Lymphocytes and the In Vivo Wing Somatic Test on Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlastos, Dimitris; Drosopoulou, Elena; Efthimiou, Ioanna; Gavriilidis, Maximos; Panagaki, Dimitra; Mpatziou, Krystalenia; Kalamara, Paraskevi; Mademtzoglou, Despoina; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope

    2015-01-01

    Chios mastic oil (CMO), the essential oil derived from Pistacia lentiscus (L.) var. chia (Duham), has generated considerable interest because of its antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant and other beneficial properties. In the present study, the potential genotoxic activity of CMO as well as its antigenotoxic properties against the mutagenic agent mitomycin-C (MMC) were evaluated by employing the in vitro Cytokinesis Block MicroNucleus (CBMN) assay and the in vivo Somatic Mutation And Recombination Test (SMART). In the in vitro experiments, lymphocytes were treated with 0.01, 0.05 and 0.10% (v/v) of CMO with or without 0.05 μg/ml MMC, while in the in vivo assay Drosophila larvae were fed with 0.05, 0.10, 0.50 and 1.00% (v/v) of CMO with or without 2.50 μg/ml MMC. CMO did not significantly increase the frequency of micronuclei (MN) or total wing spots, indicating lack of mutagenic or recombinogenic activity. However, the in vitro analysis suggested cytotoxic activity of CMO. The simultaneous administration of MMC with CMO did not alter considerably the frequencies of MMC-induced MN and wing spots showing that CMO doesn't exert antigenotoxic or antirecombinogenic action. Therefore, CMO could be considered as a safe product in terms of genotoxic potential. Even though it could not afford any protection against DNA damage, at least under our experimental conditions, its cytotoxic potential could be of interest.

  16. Genotoxic and Antigenotoxic Assessment of Chios Mastic Oil by the In Vitro Micronucleus Test on Human Lymphocytes and the In Vivo Wing Somatic Test on Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Vlastos

    Full Text Available Chios mastic oil (CMO, the essential oil derived from Pistacia lentiscus (L. var. chia (Duham, has generated considerable interest because of its antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant and other beneficial properties. In the present study, the potential genotoxic activity of CMO as well as its antigenotoxic properties against the mutagenic agent mitomycin-C (MMC were evaluated by employing the in vitro Cytokinesis Block MicroNucleus (CBMN assay and the in vivo Somatic Mutation And Recombination Test (SMART. In the in vitro experiments, lymphocytes were treated with 0.01, 0.05 and 0.10% (v/v of CMO with or without 0.05 μg/ml MMC, while in the in vivo assay Drosophila larvae were fed with 0.05, 0.10, 0.50 and 1.00% (v/v of CMO with or without 2.50 μg/ml MMC. CMO did not significantly increase the frequency of micronuclei (MN or total wing spots, indicating lack of mutagenic or recombinogenic activity. However, the in vitro analysis suggested cytotoxic activity of CMO. The simultaneous administration of MMC with CMO did not alter considerably the frequencies of MMC-induced MN and wing spots showing that CMO doesn't exert antigenotoxic or antirecombinogenic action. Therefore, CMO could be considered as a safe product in terms of genotoxic potential. Even though it could not afford any protection against DNA damage, at least under our experimental conditions, its cytotoxic potential could be of interest.

  17. In vivo genotoxicity testing of the amnesic shellfish poison (domoic acid) in piscine erythrocytes using the micronucleus test and the comet assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavas, Tolga [Mersin University, Faculty of Sciences and Letters, Department of Biology, 33343 Mersin (Turkey)], E-mail: tcavas@mersin.edu.tr; Koenen, Serpil [Mersin University, Faculty of Sciences and Letters, Department of Biology, 33343 Mersin (Turkey)

    2008-11-11

    Domoic acid (DA) is a neurotoxic amino acid naturally produced in the marine environment by some diatom species belonging to the genus Pseudo-nitzschia. Although the neurotoxic properties of DA have been demonstrated, very little is known about in vivo genotoxicity of DA on aquatic organisms. In the present paper, an in vivo study on the genotoxic effects of domoic acid was carried out on a fish, Oreochromis niloticus, using the micronucleus test and the comet assay. The fish were exposed to three doses of domoic acid (1, 5 and 10 {mu}g/g body weight) by intracoelomic injections. Ethyl methane sulphonate at a single dose of 5 mg/l was used as positive control. Analysis of micronuclei, nuclear abnormalities and DNA damage were carried out on peripheral erythrocytes sampled 24, 48 and 72 h post-treatment. Our results revealed significant increases in the frequencies of micronuclei, nuclear abnormalities as well as DNA strand breaks and thus demonstrated the genotoxic potential of DA on fish.

  18. Genotoxic and Antigenotoxic Assessment of Chios Mastic Oil by the In Vitro Micronucleus Test on Human Lymphocytes and the In Vivo Wing Somatic Test on Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlastos, Dimitris; Drosopoulou, Elena; Efthimiou, Ioanna; Gavriilidis, Maximos; Panagaki, Dimitra; Mpatziou, Krystalenia; Kalamara, Paraskevi; Mademtzoglou, Despoina; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope

    2015-01-01

    Chios mastic oil (CMO), the essential oil derived from Pistacia lentiscus (L.) var. chia (Duham), has generated considerable interest because of its antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant and other beneficial properties. In the present study, the potential genotoxic activity of CMO as well as its antigenotoxic properties against the mutagenic agent mitomycin-C (MMC) were evaluated by employing the in vitro Cytokinesis Block MicroNucleus (CBMN) assay and the in vivo Somatic Mutation And Recombination Test (SMART). In the in vitro experiments, lymphocytes were treated with 0.01, 0.05 and 0.10% (v/v) of CMO with or without 0.05 μg/ml MMC, while in the in vivo assay Drosophila larvae were fed with 0.05, 0.10, 0.50 and 1.00% (v/v) of CMO with or without 2.50 μg/ml MMC. CMO did not significantly increase the frequency of micronuclei (MN) or total wing spots, indicating lack of mutagenic or recombinogenic activity. However, the in vitro analysis suggested cytotoxic activity of CMO. The simultaneous administration of MMC with CMO did not alter considerably the frequencies of MMC-induced MN and wing spots showing that CMO doesn’t exert antigenotoxic or antirecombinogenic action. Therefore, CMO could be considered as a safe product in terms of genotoxic potential. Even though it could not afford any protection against DNA damage, at least under our experimental conditions, its cytotoxic potential could be of interest. PMID:26110900

  19. Determination of the In Vitro and In Vivo Activity of Compounds Tested Against Punta Toro Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-29

    cells were grown in minimum essential medium (MEM; GIBCO Labs, Grand Island, NY) containing 5% fetal bovine serum (FBS; HyClone Labs, Logan, UT) and 0.1... bovine serum (FBS, HyClone Labs, Logan, UT) and 0.1% NaHCO3 without antibiotics. All were determined to be mycoplasma-free. Test Compounds: All...influenza, parainfluenza , rhino, vesicular stomatitis, bluetongue, reo and rota viruses (3-6). The compound was only slightly effective vs PTV in vitro (VR

  20. Executive Function Deficits in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) Measured Using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Tests Automated Battery (CANTAB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, C. R.; Mihic, A. M.; Nikkel, S. M.; Stade, B. C.; Rasmussen, C.; Munoz, D. P.; Reynolds, J. N.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Chronic prenatal alcohol exposure causes a spectrum of deleterious effects in offspring, collectively termed fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), and deficits in executive function are prevalent in FASD. The goal of this research was to test the hypothesis that children with FASD exhibit performance deficits in tasks that assess…

  1. Multidimensional Aptitude Battery-Second Edition Intelligence Testing of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Training Candidates Compared with Manned Airframe Training Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder , and autism spectrum disorders ) and not on very high functioning populations such as aviators...whether such persons are aeromedically suitable to pursue such a challenging and high-risk occupation. Our current understanding of the psychological ...Retzlaff P, Barto E, Ree MJ, Teachout MS. Standard cognitive psychological tests predict military pilot training outcomes. Aviat Psychol Appl Hum Factors

  2. On some Issues in the Accelerated CAT-ASVAB (Computerized Adaptive Testing-Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-01

    considered, but as long as seeded items are to be administered 20 at a time, -3- none of them appears satisfactory [5]. One can return to the earlier plan...34Recommended Time Limits for ASVAB 8a Power Tests," by Martin F. Wiskoff, 14 Dec 1979 -15- [13] Sympson, James Bradford and Better, Rebecca Danon

  3. Performance Assessment of High and Low Income Families through "Online RAW Achievement Battery Test" of Primary Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Tamim; Hanif, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This study is intended to investigate student's achievement capability among two families i.e. Low and High income families and designed for primary level learners. A Reading, Arithmetic and Writing (RAW) Achievement test that was developed as a part of another research study (Tamim Ahmed Khan, 2015) was adopted for this study. Both English medium…

  4. Assessment of Grape, Plum and Orange Synthetic Food Flavourings Using in vivo Acute Toxicity Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ila Monize Sousa Sales

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the acute toxicity of synthetic grape, plum and orange flavourings in root meristem cells of Allium cepa at the doses of 3.5, 7.0 and 14.0 mL/kg and exposure times of 24 and 48 h, and in bone marrow erythrocytes of mice treated orally for seven days with 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mL/kg of flavouring. The results of the plant test showed that grape, plum and orange flavourings, at both exposure times, inhibited cell division and promoted the formation of a significant number of micronuclei and mitotic spindle changes. These alterations were observed in at least one exposure time analysed, demonstrating a significant cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic activity. In mouse bioassay, animals treated with 2.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mL/kg of flavouring died before the seventh day of treatment. The amounts of 0.5 and 1.0 mL/kg of the three additives were cytotoxic to erythrocytes, and treatment with the grape flavouring significantly induced the formation of micronucleated cells in the bone marrow of animals. Therefore, under the study conditions, the grape, plum and orange flavouring additives promoted significant toxicity to cells of the test systems used.

  5. Effects of Achyrocline satureioides Inflorescence Extracts against Pathogenic Intestinal Bacteria: Chemical Characterization, In Vitro Tests, and In Vivo Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Suzana Moresco

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Three Achyrocline satureioides (AS inflorescences extracts were characterized: (i a freeze-dried extract prepared from the aqueous extractive solution and (ii a freeze-dried and (iii a spray-dried extract prepared from hydroethanol extractive solution (80% ethanol. The chemical profile, antioxidant potential, and antimicrobial activity against intestinal pathogenic bacteria of AS extracts were evaluated. In vitro antioxidant activity was determined by the total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP assay. In vivo analysis and characterization of intestinal microbiota were performed in male Wistar rats (saline versus treated animals with AS dried extracts by high-throughput sequencing analysis: metabarcoding. Antimicrobial activity was tested in vitro by the disc diffusion tests. Moisture content of the extracts ranged from 10 to 15% and 5.7 to 17 mg kg−1 of fluorine. AS exhibited antioxidant activity, especially in its freeze-dried form which also exhibited a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity against intestinal pathogenic bacteria greater than those observed by the antibiotic, amoxicillin, when tested against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of AS extracts seemed to be positively correlated with the present amount of flavonoids. These findings suggest a potential use of AS as a coadjuvant agent for treating bacterial-induced intestinal diseases with high rates of antibiotic resistance.

  6. The ToxBank Data Warehouse: Supporting the Replacement of In Vivo Repeated Dose Systemic Toxicity Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohonen, Pekka; Benfenati, Emilio; Bower, David; Ceder, Rebecca; Crump, Michael; Cross, Kevin; Grafström, Roland C; Healy, Lyn; Helma, Christoph; Jeliazkova, Nina; Jeliazkov, Vedrin; Maggioni, Silvia; Miller, Scott; Myatt, Glenn; Rautenberg, Michael; Stacey, Glyn; Willighagen, Egon; Wiseman, Jeff; Hardy, Barry

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the SEURAT-1 (Safety Evaluation Ultimately Replacing Animal Testing-1) research cluster, comprised of seven EU FP7 Health projects co-financed by Cosmetics Europe, is to generate a proof-of-concept to show how the latest technologies, systems toxicology and toxicogenomics can be combined to deliver a test replacement for repeated dose systemic toxicity testing on animals. The SEURAT-1 strategy is to adopt a mode-of-action framework to describe repeated dose toxicity, combining in vitro and in silico methods to derive predictions of in vivo toxicity responses. ToxBank is the cross-cluster infrastructure project whose activities include the development of a data warehouse to provide a web-accessible shared repository of research data and protocols, a physical compounds repository, reference or "gold compounds" for use across the cluster (available via wiki.toxbank.net), and a reference resource for biomaterials. Core technologies used in the data warehouse include the ISA-Tab universal data exchange format, REpresentational State Transfer (REST) web services, the W3C Resource Description Framework (RDF) and the OpenTox standards. We describe the design of the data warehouse based on cluster requirements, the implementation based on open standards, and finally the underlying concepts and initial results of a data analysis utilizing public data related to the gold compounds. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Reference control data obtained from an in vivo comet-micronucleus combination assay using Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasamoto, Sawako; Masumori, Shoji; Tanaka, Jin; Ueda, Maya; Fukumuro, Masahito; Nagai, Miho; Yamate, Jyoji; Hayashi, Makoto

    2017-04-04

    According to the International Conference on Harmonization Guidance on Genotoxicity Testing and Data Interpretation for Pharmaceuticals Intended for Human Use (ICH S2(R1)), a positive response in any in vitro assay necessitates additional in vivo test(s) (other tissue/endpoint) in addition to the erythrocyte micronucleus test when Option 1 of the test battery is selected. When Option 2 of the test battery is selected, a bacterial gene mutation test and two in vivo tests with different tissues/endpoint are required. The in vivo alkaline comet assay is recommended as the second in vivo test because it can detect a broad spectrum of DNA damage in any tissue and can be combined with the erythrocyte micronucleus test. Considering animal welfare, a combination assay is preferable to an individual assay. Thus, we validated the protocol for the in vivo comet-micronucleus combination assay in rats with three daily administrations and determined the dose of the positive control (ethyl methanesulfonate; EMS, 200mg/kg/day). We also collected the negative control (vehicle) and positive control (EMS) data from the comet (liver, stomach, and kidney) and micronucleus (bone marrow) combination assay using male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. The negative control data were comparable to our historical control data obtained from stand-alone assays. The positive control data showed clear and consistent positive responses in both endpoints. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of a Physical Employment Testing Battery for Infantry Soldiers: 11B Infantryman and 11C Infantryman - Indirect Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    have reached a squatting position, thrust your hips forward, extend your knees and trunk, flex your shoulders, while in one motion, throw the ball...command, the Soldier pushed down by extending the knees and pulled up by extending the hips to exert maximum force on the handle. The peak force...of fitness relevant to the selected criterion tasks for these MOSs. Sit-up testing primarily assesses muscular endurance of the abdominals and hip

  9. Baseline Field Testing of BB-2590 Lithium-Ion Batteries using an iRobot FasTac 510 Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    The second is the existence of the regulator itself, the function of which is to filter large transients and spikes from the rest of the system. The...where the robot was manually turned around, it was consuming energy which should not be included in the analysis. A threshold was used to filter these...plastic jug with a handle works very well as the test weight. This jug is filled with gravel or rocks to the desired weight. Small holes frequently

  10. Cornea stress test--evaluation of corneal endothelial function in vivo by contact lens induced stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saini Jagjit

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable and valid assessment of corneal endothelial function is a critical input for diagnosing, prognosticating and monitoring progression of disorders affecting corneal endothelium. In 123 eyes, corneal endothelial function was assessed employing data from the corneal hydration recovery dynamics. Serial pachometric readings were recorded on Haag-Striet pachometer with Mishima-Hedbys modification before and after two hours of thick soft contact lens wear. Percentage Recovery Per Hour (PRPH was derived from raw data as an index of endothelial function. Assessed PRPH in pseudophakic corneal oedema and Fuchs′ endothelial dystrophy eyes (35.9 +/- 9.8% was significantly lower than normal controls (61.9 +/- 10.5%. On employing receiver operation characteristics curve analysis the tested results demonstrated high sensitivity (87% and specificity (92% for detection of low endothelial function at PRPH cut off of 47.5%. Using this PRPH cut off, 80% of Fuchs′ endothelial dystrophy and 93.3% of pseudophakic corneal oedema eyes could be demonstrated to have low endothelial function. A total of 66.7% of diabetic eyes also demonstrated PRPH of lower than 47.5%. Clear corneal grafts demonstrated PRPH values of 24.6% to 73.0%. Of 6 corneal grafts that demonstrated initial PRPH of lower than 47.5%, 4 failed within 4 to 6 months. Our data demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity of this corneal stress test. PRPH index was useful in quantifying endothelial function in clinical disorders including diabetes mellitus. The index PRPH was demonstrated to be useful in monitoring and prognosticating outcome of corneal grafts.

  11. A test battery approach for ecotoxicological characterization of Mar Piccolo sediments in Taranto (Ionian Sea, Southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narracci, M; Cavallo, R A; Acquaviva, M I; Prato, E; Biandolino, F

    2009-01-01

    The eco-toxicological approach is based on the determination of the toxic effects on organisms pertaining to various ecosystems and supplies information about the contaminants mixture bioavailability, in complex matrices as sediments. The use of a single species for a correct evaluation of the toxicity levels can be reductive, concerning the complexity of the ecosystem. In this work we have used species with various evolutionary levels and habitats; in particular, three different organisms: two amphipods species (Corophium insidiosum and Gammarus aequicauda) and one bacterium Vibrio fischeri. We have compared these organisms for the evaluation of sediments toxicity in four sites along the Ionian coast (Taranto, Italy); in particular, three sites in Mar Piccolo and one site in Mar Grande. The toxicity of sediments measured using Vibrio fischeri (Microtox Solid Phase Test protocol) has been compared with the mortality of the two amphipods. Both in polluted (Mar Piccolo sites) and in non-polluted environments (Mar Grande), the results of the three biological tests carried out converge into the evaluation of sediments quality monitored. In conclusion, these preliminary results show the potential use of Corophium insidiosum and Gammarus aequicauda as test species for a correct evaluation of sediments quality, together with Vibrio fischeri.

  12. Field tests experience from 1.6MW/400kWh Li-ion battery energy storage system providing primary frequency regulation service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Stan, Ana-Irina

    2013-01-01

    Lithium-ion battery energy storage systems (BESSs) represent suitable alternatives to conventional generating units for providing primary frequency regulation on the Danish market. This paper presents aspects concerning the operation of the BESSs in the Danish energy market while providing upwards...... on the BESS demonstrator located in Western Denmark and initial results are introduced and discussed. These measurements can be used to validate models for battery ageing during realistic operation or to develop the diagnostic tools for the BESS....

  13. Incorporation of gypsum waste in ceramic block production: Proposal for a minimal battery of tests to evaluate technical and environmental viability of this recycling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho-Castro, Alcione P; Testolin, Renan C; Janke, Leandro; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2012-01-01

    Civil engineering-related construction and demolition debris is an important source of waste disposed of in municipal solid waste landfills. After clay materials, gypsum waste is the second largest contributor to the residential construction waste stream. As demand for sustainable building practices grows, interest in recovering gypsum waste from construction and demolition debris is increasing, but there is a lack of standardized tests to evaluate the technical and environmental viability of this solid waste recycling process. By recycling gypsum waste, natural deposits of gypsum might be conserved and high amounts of the waste by-product could be reused in the civil construction industry. In this context, this paper investigates a physical property (i.e., resistance to axial compression), the chemical composition and the ecotoxicological potential of ceramic blocks constructed with different proportions of clay, cement and gypsum waste, and assesses the feasibility of using a minimal battery of tests to evaluate the viability of this recycling process. Consideration of the results for the resistance to axial compression tests together with production costs revealed that the best formulation was 35% of plastic clay, 35% of non-plastic clay, 10% of Portland cement and 20% of gypsum waste, which showed a mean resistance of 4.64MPa. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry showed calcium and sulfur to be the main elements, while quartz, gypsum, ettringite and nacrite were the main crystalline compounds found in this formulation. Ecotoxicity tests showed that leachate from this formulation is weakly toxic toward daphnids and bacteria (EC(20%)=69.0 and 75.0, respectively), while for algae and fish the leachate samples were not toxic at the EC(50%) level. Overall, these results show that the addition of 20% of gypsum waste to the ceramic blocks could provide a viable substitute for clay in the ceramics industry and the tests applied in this study proved to be a useful tool

  14. P2-29: Comparing the Other-Race-Effect and Congenital Prosopagnosia Using a Three-Experiment Test Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Esins

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Congenital prosopagnosia, an innate impairment in recognizing faces, as well as the other-race-effect, the disadvantage in recognizing faces of foreign races, both influence face recognition abilities. Here we compared both phenomena by testing three groups: German congenital prosopagnosics (cPs, unimpaired German, and unimpaired South Korean participants (n = 23 per group, on three tests with Caucasian faces. First we ran the Cambridge Face Memory Test (Duchaine & Nakayama, 2006 Neuropsychologia 44 576–585. Participants had to recognize Caucasian target faces in a 3AFC task. German controls performed better than Koreans (p = .009 who performed better than prosopagnosics (p = .0001. Variation of the individual performances was larger for cPs than for Koreans (p = .028. In the second experiment, participants rated the similarity of Caucasian faces (in-house 3D face-database which differed parametrically in features or second order relations (configuration. We found differences between sensitivities to change type (featural or configural, p = 0 and between groups (p = .005 and an interaction between both factors (p = .019. During the third experiment, participants had to learn exemplars of artificial objects (greebles, natural objects (shells, and faces and recognize them among distractors. The results showed an interaction (p = .005 between stimulus type and participant group: cPs where better for non-face stimuli and worse for face stimuli than the other groups. Our results suggest that congenital prosopagnosia and the other-race-effect affect face perception in different ways. The broad range in performance for the cPs directs the focus of our future research towards looking for different forms of congenital prosopagnosia.

  15. Assessment of the ex vivo biomechanical properties of porcine cornea with inflation test for corneal xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, F; Jiang, L; Wang, X; Zhang, D; Wang, Q; Zeng, Y

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to obtain the biomechanical properties of porcine cornea so as to provide necessary biomechanical experimental basis for pig-to-human corneal xenotransplantation. Seventeen fresh porcine corneal specimens obtained from pigs aged 4-6 months were examined under inflation conditions to determine the constitutive relationships of the material through dynamic loading conditions (pressure range: 1.47-42.66 mmHg). The forward deflection of porcine anterior corneal apex was measured by the laser displacement sensor. The pressure deformation results were analysed on the basis of shell theory to estimate Young's modulus of the cornea and derive its relationship with intraocular pressure (IOP). The porcine corneas showed a nonlinear corneal forward displacement/IOP and stress/strain relationship with an initial low stiffness stage and a later high stiffness stage. In spite of the nonlinearity between the internal pressure and apex forward deflection, the relationship between the Young's modulus and the IOP was almost linear. Compared with human corneas, porcine corneas exhibited a similar nonlinear behaviour but lower stiffness values. The biomechanical parameters of porcine cornea obtained from this test could be applied to numerical simulations of refractive surgery procedures and lay a foundation for pig-to-human corneal xenotransplantation. Copyright © 2012 Informa UK, Ltd.

  16. Development of a Test Battery to Assess Mental Flexibility Based on Sternberg’s Theory of Successful Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    which the investigators would give them a choice of titles, such as "Beyond the Edge" or "The Octopus’s Sneakers ." In art, the participants were asked...test, participants are presented first with an analogy to observe at their own pace. When the participant chooses , he or she selects the next screen...two shapes (see Figure 5c) will complete the analogy correctly . 14 88 ; 22 100 * 125 75 50 25 a) . Be 22 I PARENT FATHER GRANDMA OLD b) 88 * 22 Ni

  17. Characterization of Vanadium Flow Battery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindner, Henrik W.; Krog Ekman, Claus; Gehrke, Oliver

    This report summarizes the work done at Risø-DTU testing a vanadium flow battery as part of the project “Characterisation of Vanadium Batteries” (ForskEl project 6555) with the partners PA Energy A/S and OI Electric A/S under the Danish PSO energy research program. A 15kW/120kWh vanadium battery...... has been installed as part of the distributed energy systems experimental facility, SYSLAB, at Risø DTU. A test programme has been carried out to get hands-on experience with the technology, to characterize the battery from a power system point of view and to assess it with respect to integration...... of wind energy in the Danish power system. The battery has been in operation for 18 months. During time of operation the battery has not shown signs of degradation of performance. It has a round-trip efficiency at full load of approximately 60% (depending on temperature and SOC). The sources of the losses...

  18. Can in vitro mammalian cell genotoxicity test results be used to complement positive results in the Ames test and help predict carcinogenic or in vivo genotoxic activity? I. Reports of individual databases presented at an EURL ECVAM Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, David; Zeiger, Errol; Madia, Federica; Gooderham, Nigel; Kasper, Peter; Lynch, Anthony; Morita, Takeshi; Ouedraogo, Gladys; Parra Morte, Juan Manuel; Pfuhler, Stefan; Rogiers, Vera; Schulz, Markus; Thybaud, Veronique; van Benthem, Jan; Vanparys, Philippe; Worth, Andrew; Corvi, Raffaella

    2014-12-01

    Positive results in the Ames test correlate well with carcinogenic potential in rodents. This correlation is not perfect because mutations are only one of many stages in tumour development. Also, situations can be envisaged where the mutagenic response may be specific to the bacteria or the test protocol, e.g., bacterial-specific metabolism, exceeding a detoxification threshold, or the induction of oxidative damage to which bacteria may be more sensitive than mammalian cells in vitro or tissues in vivo. Since most chemicals are also tested for genotoxicity in mammalian cells, the pattern of mammalian cell results may help identify whether Ames-positive results predict carcinogenic or in vivo mutagenic activity. A workshop was therefore organised and sponsored by the EU Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing (EURL ECVAM) to investigate this further. Participants presented results from other genotoxicity tests with Ames-positive compounds. Data came from published, regulatory agency, and industry sources. The question was posed whether negative results in mammalian cell tests were associated with absence of carcinogenic or in vivo genotoxic activity despite a positive Ames test. In the limited time available, the presented data were combined and an initial analysis suggested that the association of negative in vitro mammalian cell test results with lack of in vivo genotoxic or carcinogenic activity could have some significance. Possible reasons why a positive Ames test may not be associated with in vivo activity and what additional investigations/tests might contribute to a more robust evaluation were discussed. Because a considerable overlap was identified among the different databases presented, it was recommended that a consolidated database be built, with overlapping chemicals removed, so that a more robust analysis of the predictive capacity for potential carcinogenic and in vivo genotoxic activity could be derived from the patterns of mammalian

  19. A new digitized method of the compulsive gnawing test revealed dopaminergic activity of salvinorin A in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Stephen M; Butterweck, Veronika

    2010-09-01

    The compulsive gnawing (CG) test has been used for numerous years as an assay to determine the dopaminergic activity of various compounds. We developed a new method of quantification via a digitization step which allowed a more precise measurement of the gnawing activity. It was the aim of the present study to explore possible dopaminergic effects of salvinorin A (SA), the major active compound of Salvia divinorum, using the new digitized CG test. A group of experiments using male C57BL/6 mice were performed to validate the new method of quantification showing only significant increases of gnawing when the dopamine reuptake inhibitors buproprion (20 mg/kg, p.0.) and nomifensine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) were given concomitantly with apomorphine (10 mg/kg, i.p.). Different concentrations of the SA (1.0, 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg, i.p.) were tested with positive dopaminergic activity when administered with apomorphine which differed from the semisynthetic counterpart U-69593. Furthermore, the activity observed with SA was unsuccessfully antagonized by the κ-opioid receptor antagonist norbinaltorphimine (NorBNI; 10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.), while the dopamine antagonist haloperidol did successfully block (0.06 mg/kg, i.p.) the gnawing activity seen with SA. Our data further strengthen the argument that salvinorin A is not a selective κ-opioid receptor agonist and is the first in vivo study that veers from salvinorin A acting solely like its synthetic counterparts. Furthermore, the digitized CG test system used in this study provides a new computational method to accurately detect behavior associated with dopaminergic neurotransmission. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart-New York.

  20. Construct Validity of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition Test in Preschool Children with Respect to Age and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Kokštejn

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe Movement Assessment Battery for Children-second edition (MABC-2 Age Band 1 is widely used to identify preschoolers with motor difficulties. Despite unsatisfactory construct validity of the original three-factor model, MABC-2 (manual dexterity, aiming and catching, and balance, previous research has not considered possible age and gender differences throughout the entire preschool period.AimThe aim of this study was to verify the construct validity of the MABC-2 Age Band 1 in a population of Czech preschoolers with respect to age and gender.MethodsUsing data from 510 Czech preschoolers (3–6 years; 4.9 ± 1.1 years, confirmatory factor analyses (CFA were used for each age category and gender.ResultsThe goodness-of-fit indices of CFA supported the original three-factor model of the MABC-2 only in 3- and 4-year-old children, and in boys (3–6 years. Low factor loadings and ceiling effects of several test items (Drawing Trail, Walking Heels Raised, and Jumping on Mats seem to be a probable cause of weak fit indices in 5- and 6-year-old children and in girls (3–6 years.ConclusionThese results suggest that the MABC-2 can be a valid tool for assessing motor development and identifying motor difficulties among 3- to 4-year olds, and generally fits better for preschool boys in the Czech Republic. However, in 5- to 6-year olds, ceiling effects and a low power of discrimination was found for the Drawing Trail, Walking Heels Raised, and Jumping on Mats tests. Therefore, the three-factor model is not appropriate for all preschoolers, and separate norms should be established for each age and gender.

  1. Patch test study of 90 patients with tattoo reactions: negative outcome of allergy patch test to baseline batteries and culprit inks suggests allergen(s) are generated in the skin through haptenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serup, Jørgen; Hutton Carlsen, Katrina

    2014-11-01

    Tattoo reactions, especially in red tattoos, are often suggested as allergic in nature, however, systematic evaluation by patch testing has not performed in the past. To report the results of patch testing in 90 patients with non-infectious chronic tattoo reactions. From 2009 to 2013 at the 'Tattoo Clinic', Department of Dermatology, Bispebjerg University Hospital, 90 patients were patch tested with batteries of baseline allergens, disperse dyes/textile allergens, and a selection of tattoo ink stock products, which, according to case observations, were problematic, supplemented with individual culprit inks when accessible. Patients with reactions to the tattoo colour red, the most predominant colour associated with skin reactions, showed negative patch test results with common allergens. Outcomes were also negative in patients who had experienced concomitant reactions in another hitherto tolerated tattoo of the same colour as the problematic tattoo. The allergen or allergens responsible for tattoo reactions are not present directly in tattoo ink stock products. This is despite the fact that clinical histories suggest that the vast majority of clinical reactions, especially reactions to red and red nuances, are likely to be allergic events caused by the injected inks. We suggest that the responsible allergen results from a complicated and slow process of haptenization, which may even include photochemical cleavage of red azo pigment. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Ni-cd Battery Life Expectancy in Geosynchronous Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    The feasibility of using nickel cadmium batteries as an alternate if flight qualified NiH2 batteries are not available is explored. Battery life expectancy data being a key element of power system design, an attempt is made to review the literature, life test data and in orbit performance data to develop an up to date estimate of life expectancy for NiCd batteries in a geosynchronous orbit.

  3. An Investigation of Possible Test Floor Effects By Comparing Score Distributions for Students Tested With Two Different Levels of a Test Battery at Four Different Times Over a Two-Year Interval. Iowa Testing Programs Occasional Papers. Number 24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Scott A.

    When a program evaluation is conducted on the basis of gains made in standardized achievement test scores between a pretest and a posttest, serious bias can result where a floor effect exists on one or both of the test levels. Based upon the expanded standard scores on the Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills from three successive regular spring…

  4. Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery in assessment of cognitive parameters in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus in relation to autoantibody profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaczewicz, Anna; Sobow, Tomasz; Kowalski, Jan; Ząbek, Jakub; Woźniacka, Anna; Bogaczewicz, Jaroslaw

    2015-01-01

    To relate the cognitive parameters of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients in remission to their profile of autoantibodies. The study included 32 patients with SLE in remission, with mild disease activity as indicated by SELENA-SLEDAI Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) was applied, using motor screening (MOT), big little circle (BLC), paired associated learning (PAL), stockings of Cambridge (SOC), and graded naming tests (GNT). Detection of autoantibodies against dsDNA, nucleosome (aNuc), Sm, and anticardiolipin (aCL: IgG and IgM) was performed with immunoassays. The SLE patients demonstrated standard scores below norms, matched according to age and gender, in the following tests: GNT (-0.87 ±0.85), SOC PSMM (-0.47 ±0.97), PAL (-1.88 ±3.58), and BLC (-0.31 ±1.90). GNT scores under -0.5 were found significantly more frequently in SLE patients, seen in roughly 66% of test subjects. Values for PAL and mean subsequent thinking time of stockings of Cambridge (SOC MSTT) were found to be lower than -0.5 in approximately half of the patients. Mean error of motor screening (MOT ME) was found to negatively correlate with mean latency of motor screening (MOT ML) (r = -0.55). PAL significantly correlated with SOC MSTT (r = 0.38) and with GNT (r = 0.36). Anti-dsDNA antibody level correlated negatively with MOT ME (r = -0.46). Anti-Nuc antibodies correlated with MOT ML (r = 0.41) but negatively correlated with MOT ME (r = -0.58). The levels of anti-Sm, anti-CL IgM and IgG did not correlate significantly with the outcomes of CANTAB. The age of the patients correlated negatively with MOT ME (r = -0.36), positively with BLC (r = 0.53) and negatively with SOC MSTT (r = -0.43). The level of anti-Nuc antibodies correlated with anti-dsDNA level (r = 0.62) and of anti-CL IgM with anti-Sm (r = 0.39) and anti-CL IgG (r = 0.87). CANTAB reveals a decrease in selected cognitive functions in patients with SLE. ACL IgG and anti-dsDNA antibodies indicated

  5. An Innovative Method for Testing Children's Achievement-Related Reactions: Recording Feelings of Helplessness by Means of an Intelligence Test-Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titscher, Anna; Kubinger, Klaus D.

    2008-01-01

    The present study, based on the work of Dweck (2000) and her description of helpless and mastery-orientated children, was designed to find a new, simple and economic way of assessing helplessness while testing a child's intelligence. Two hundred and thirty-two Austrian grammar-school children, previously classified as either helpless or…

  6. A terracotta bio-battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Folusho F; Weigele, Peter R

    2012-07-01

    Terracotta pots were converted into simple, single chamber, air-cathode bio-batteries. This bio-battery design used a graphite-felt anode and a conductive graphite coating without added catalyst on the exterior as a cathode. Bacteria enriched from river sediment served as the anode catalyst. These batteries gave an average OCV of 0.56 V ± 0.02, a Coulombic efficiency of 21 ± 5%, and a peak power of 1.06 mW ± 0.01(33.13 mW/m(2)). Stable current was also produced when the batteries were operated with hay extract in salt solution. The bacterial community on the anode of the batteries was tested for air tolerance and desiccation resistance over a period ranging from 2 days to 2 weeks. The results showed that the anode community could survive complete drying of the electrolyte for several days. These data support the further development of this technology as a potential power source for LED-based lighting in off-grid, rural communities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects and possible mechanism of tea tree oil against Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum in vitro and in vivo test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yonghua; Shao, Xingfeng; Xu, Jiayu; Wei, Yingying; Xu, Feng; Wang, Hongfei

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the antifungal activities and possible mechanisms of tea tree oil (TTO) against Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum in vitro and in vivo. The results show that TTO exhibits dose-dependent antifungal activity against both pathogens, but P. expansum is less sensitive than B. cinerea to TTO not only in the in vitro test but also in artificially inoculated cherry fruits. TTO vapor treatment reduced the decay caused by these pathogens in inoculated cherry fruits, but the effect on P. expansum was less than that on B. cinerea. While the total lipid and ergosterol contents of the cell membrane are greater in P. expansum than in B. cinerea, TTO treatment lowers the total lipid content in the membranes of both species by well over 50%, and ergosterol content is reduced to a greater extent in B. cinerea than in P. expansum. In both pathogens, TTO alters mycelial morphology and cellular ultrastructure. Oxygen consumption measurements show that TTO inhibits respiratory metabolism via the tricarboxylic acid cycle pathway in both pathogens, though more severely in B. cinerea than in P. expansum. The relatively decreased sensitivity of P. expansum to TTO may be due to the fact that TTO causes less disruption of the cell membrane in this organism, and higher inhibition the respiratory metabolism to the extent observed in B. cinerea.

  8. Use of grape polyphenols against carcinogenesis: putative molecular mechanisms of action using in vitro and in vivo test systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollucke, Andrea P B; Aguiar, Odair; Barbisan, Luis Fernando; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2013-03-01

    Polyphenols are present in foods and beverages and are related to sensorial qualities such as color, bitterness, and astringency, which are relevant in wine, tea, grape juice, and other products. These compounds occur naturally in forms varying from simple phenolic acids to complex polymerized tannins. Thus, it is reasonable to expect that grape-derived products elaborated in the presence of skins and seeds, such as wine and grape juice, are natural sources of flavonoids in the diet. Carcinogenesis is a multistep process that is characterized by genetic, epigenetic, and phenotypic changes. With increasing knowledge of these mechanisms, and the conclusion that most cases of cancer are preventable, efforts have focused on identifying the agents with potential anticancer properties. The use of grape polyphenols against the carcinogenesis process seems to be a suitable alternative for either prevention and/or therapeutic purposes. The aim of this article is to show the molecular data generated from the use of grape polyphenols against carcinogenesis using in vivo and in vitro test systems.

  9. Can in vitro mammalian cell genotoxicity test results be used to complement positive results in the Ames test and help predict carcinogenic or in vivo genotoxic activity? II. Construction and analysis of a consolidated database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, David; Zeiger, Errol; Madia, Federica; Corvi, Raffaella

    2014-12-01

    A Workshop sponsored by EURL ECVAM was held in Ispra, Italy in 2013 to consider whether the in vitro mammalian cell genotoxicity test results could complement and mitigate the implications of a positive Ames test response for the prediction of in vivo genotoxicity and carcinogenicity, and if patterns of results could be identified. Databases of Ames-positive chemicals that were tested for in vivo genotoxicity and/or carcinogenicity were collected from different sources and analysed individually (Kirkland et al., in this issue). Because there were overlaps and inconsistent test results among chemicals in the different databases, a combined database which eliminated the overlaps and evaluated the inconsistencies was considered preferable for addressing the above question. A database of >700 Ames-positive chemicals also tested in vivo was compiled, and the results in in vitro mammalian cell tests were analysed. Because the database was limited to Ames-positive chemicals, the majority (>85%) of carcinogens (103/119) and in vivo genotoxins (83/88) were positive when tested in both in vitro gene mutation and aneugenicity/clastogenicity tests. However, about half (>45%) of chemicals that were not carcinogenic (19/28) or genotoxic in vivo (33/73) also gave the same patterns of positive mammalian cell results. Although the different frequencies were statistically significant, positive results in 2 in vitro mammalian cell tests did not, per se, add to the predictivity of the positive Ames test. By contrast, negative results for both in vitro mammalian cell endpoints were rare for Ames-positive carcinogens (3/119) and in vivo genotoxins (2/88) but, were significantly more frequent for Ames-positive chemicals that are not carcinogenic (4/28) or genotoxic in vivo (14/73). Thus, in the case of an Ames-positive chemical, negative results in 2 in vitro mammalian cell tests covering both mutation and clastogenicity/aneugenicity endpoints should be considered as indicative of

  10. Cytogenotoxicity screening of source water, wastewater and treated water of drinking water treatment plants using two in vivo test systems: Allium cepa root based and Nile tilapia erythrocyte based tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemachandra, Chamini K; Pathiratne, Asoka

    2017-01-01

    Biological effect directed in vivo tests with model organisms are useful in assessing potential health risks associated with chemical contaminations in surface waters. This study examined the applicability of two in vivo test systems viz. plant, Allium cepa root based tests and fish, Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based tests for screening cytogenotoxic potential of raw source water, water treatment waste (effluents) and treated water of drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) using two DWTPs associated with a major river in Sri Lanka. Measured physico-chemical parameters of the raw water, effluents and treated water samples complied with the respective Sri Lankan standards. In the in vivo tests, raw water induced statistically significant root growth retardation, mitodepression and chromosomal abnormalities in the root meristem of the plant and micronuclei/nuclear buds evolution and genetic damage (as reflected by comet scores) in the erythrocytes of the fish compared to the aged tap water controls signifying greater genotoxicity of the source water especially in the dry period. The effluents provoked relatively high cytogenotoxic effects on both test systems but the toxicity in most cases was considerably reduced to the raw water level with the effluent dilution (1:8). In vivo tests indicated reduction of cytogenotoxic potential in the tested drinking water samples. The results support the potential applications of practically feasible in vivo biological test systems such as A. cepa root based tests and the fish erythrocyte based tests as complementary tools for screening cytogenotoxicity potential of the source water and water treatment waste reaching downstream of aquatic ecosystems and for evaluating cytogenotoxicity eliminating efficacy of the DWTPs in different seasons in view of human and ecological safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Protective coatings for intraocular wirelessly controlled microrobots for implantation: Corrosion, cell culture, and in vivo animal tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokki, Juho; Ergeneman, Olgaç; Chatzipirpiridis, George; Lühmann, Tessa; Sort, Jordi; Pellicer, Eva; Pot, Simon A; Spiess, Bernhard M; Pané, Salvador; Nelson, Bradley J

    2017-05-01

    Diseases in the ocular posterior segment are a leading cause of blindness. The surgical skills required to treat them are at the limits of human manipulation ability, and involve the risk of permanent retinal damage. Instrument tethering and design limit accessibility within the eye. Wireless microrobots suturelessly injected into the posterior segment, steered using magnetic manipulation are proposed for procedures involving implantation. Biocompatibility is a prerequisite for these procedures. This article investigates the use of polypyrrole- and gold-coated cobalt-nickel microrobots. While gold has been used in ocular implants, no ocular implantation involving polypyrrole is reported, despite its well-established biocompatibility properties. Coated and uncoated microrobots were investigated for their corrosion properties, and solutions that had contained coated and uncoated microrobots for one week were tested for cytotoxicity by monitoring NIH3T3 cell viability. None of the microrobots showed significant corrosion currents and corrosion potentials were as expected in relation to the intrinsic nobility of the materials. NIH3T3 cell viability was not affected by the release medium, in which coated/uncoated microrobots were stored. In vivo tests inside rabbit eyes were performed using coated microrobots. There were no significant inflammatory responses during the first week after injection. An inflammatory response detected after 2 weeks was likely due to a lack of longer-duration biocompatibility. The results provide valuable information for those who work on implant technology and biocompatibility. Coated microrobots have the potential to facilitate a new generation of surgical treatments, diagnostics and drug-delivery techniques, when implantation in the ocular posterior segment will be possible. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 836-845, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Micro Calorimeter for Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhanagopalan, Shriram [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-01

    As battery technology forges ahead and consumer demand for safer, more affordable, high-performance batteries grows, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has added a patented Micro Calorimeter to its existing family of R&D 100 Award-winning Isothermal Battery Calorimeters (IBCs). The Micro Calorimeter examines the thermal signature of battery chemistries early on in the design cycle using popular coin cell and small pouch cell designs, which are simple to fabricate and study.

  13. Battery systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rahn, Christopher D

    2012-01-01

    A complete all-in-one reference on the important interdisciplinary topic of Battery Systems Engineering Focusing on the interdisciplinary area of battery systems engineering, this book provides the background, models, solution techniques, and systems theory that are necessary for the development of advanced battery management systems. It covers the topic from the perspective of basic electrochemistry as well as systems engineering topics and provides a basis for battery modeling for system engineering of electric and hybrid electric vehicle platforms. This original

  14. Handbook of Battery Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besenhard, J. O.

    1999-04-01

    Batteries find their applications in an increasing range of every-day products: discmen, mobile phones and electric cars need very different battery types. This handbook gives a concise survey about the materials used in modern battery technology. The physico-chemical fundamentals are as well treated as are the environmental and recycling aspects. It will be a profound reference source for anyone working in the research and development of new battery systems, regardless if chemist, physicist or engineer.

  15. Rechargeable batteries applications handbook

    CERN Document Server

    1998-01-01

    Represents the first widely available compendium of the information needed by those design professionals responsible for using rechargeable batteries. This handbook introduces the most common forms of rechargeable batteries, including their history, the basic chemistry that governs their operation, and common design approaches. The introduction also exposes reader to common battery design terms and concepts.Two sections of the handbook provide performance information on two principal types of rechargeable batteries commonly found in consumer and industrial products: sealed nickel-cad

  16. Battery Aging and the Kinetic Battery Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Batteries are omnipresent, and with the uprise of the electrical vehicles will their use will grow even more. However, the batteries can deliver their required power for a limited time span. They slowly degrade with every charge-discharge cycle. This degradation needs to be taken into account when

  17. Battery Aging and the Kinetic Battery Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    Batteries are omnipresent, and with the uprise of the electrical vehicles will their use will grow even more. However, the batteries can deliver their required power for a limited time span. They slowly degrade with every charge-discharge cycle. This degradation needs to be taken into account when

  18. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  19. Lithium batteries. Lithiumbatterien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahner, D.; Ludwig, G.; Bischoff, H.; Hauke, I.; Machill, S.; Siury, K.; Wiesener, K. (TU Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie und Elektrochemie)

    1992-01-01

    General rules on the method of operation of lithium batteries are worked out from the many commercially available lithium batteries or the systems examined by research, and some trends in development are indicated. It is shown from some selected research results that the the development of rechargeable lithium batteries is a demanding task for basic electrochemical research. (orig.).

  20. New batteries, fuel cells energize electric aviation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Philip Butterworth-Hayes

    2010-01-01

    .... Over the next few months, the team will test new battery management systems to see how they can be integrated with other electrical components in ways that keep them at optimal temperatures during all phases of flight...

  1. Results of electric-vehicle propulsion system performance on three lead-acid battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewashinka, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Three types of state of the art 6 V lead acid batteries were tested. The cycle life of lead acid batteries as a function of the electric vehicle propulsion system design was determined. Cycle life, degradation rate and failure modes with different battery types (baseline versus state of the art tubular and thin plate batteries) were compared. The effects of testing strings of three versus six series connected batteries on overall performance were investigated. All three types do not seem to have an economically feasible battery system for the propulsion systems. The tubular plate batteries on the load leveled profile attained 235 cycles with no signs of degradation and minimal capacity loss.

  2. Reexamination of BT-PABA test (PFD)--on the substrate specificity for pancreatic chymotrypsin in vivo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Semba, D; Ishihara, Y; Morioka, Y

    1994-01-01

    .... In order to reevaluate the specificity of BT-PABA for chymotrypsin, we investigated the intestinal influence on this substrate in in vivo and in vitro studies using mongrel dogs under the conditions...

  3. Electrochemical accumulators batteries; Accumulateurs electrochimiques batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansart, F.; Castillo, S.; Laberty- Robert, C.; Pellizon-Birelli, M. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Lab. de Chimie des Materiaux Inorganiques et Energetiques, CIRIMAT, UMR CNRS 5085, 31 - Toulouse (France)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    It is necessary to storage the electric power in batteries to join the production and the utilization. In this domain progresses are done every days in the technics and also in the available materials. These technical days present the state of the art in this domain. Many papers were presented during these two days giving the research programs and recent results on the following subjects: the lithium batteries, the electrolytes performances and behaviour, lead accumulators, economic analysis of the electrochemical storage market, the batteries applied to the transportation sector and the telephones. (A.L.B.)

  4. Mechanical behavior and failure analysis of prosthetic retaining screws after long-term use in vivo. Part 3: Preload and tensile fracture load testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Jabbari, Youssef S; Fournelle, Raymond; Ziebert, Gerald; Toth, Jeffrey; Iacopino, Anthony M

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the preload and tensile fracture load values of prosthetic retaining screws after long-term use in vivo compared to unused screws (controls). Additionally, the investigation addressed whether the preload and fracture load values of prosthetic retaining screws reported by the manufacturer become altered after long-term use in vivo. For preload testing, 10 new screws (controls) from Nobel Biocare (NB) and 73 used retaining screws [58 from NB and 15 from Sterngold (SG)] were subjected to preload testing. For tensile testing, eight controls from NB and 58 used retaining screws (46 from NB and 12 from SG) were subjected to tensile testing. Used screws for both tests were in service for 18-120 months. A custom load frame, load cell, and torque wrench setup were used for preload testing. All 83 prosthetic screws were torqued once to 10 Ncm, and the produced preload value was recorded (N) using an X-Y plotter. Tensile testing was performed on a universal testing machine and the resulting tensile fracture load value was recorded (N). Preload and tensile fracture load values were analyzed with 2-way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc tests. There was a significant difference between preload values for screws from NB and screws from SG (p time. The reduction of the fracture load value may be related to the increase of in-service time; however, the actual determination of this relationship is not possible from this study alone.

  5. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Program: Generic Safety, Handling and Qualification Guidelines for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries; Availability of Source Materials for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries; Maintaining Technical Communications Related to Aerospace Batteries (NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop). Volume 1, Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Brewer, Jeffrey C.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Darcy, Eric C.; Jeevarajan, Judith A.; McKissock, Barbara I.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    This NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group was chartered within the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). The Battery Working Group was tasked to complete tasks and to propose proactive work to address battery related, agency-wide issues on an annual basis. In its first year of operation, this proactive program addressed various aspects of the validation and verification of aerospace battery systems for NASA missions. Studies were performed, issues were discussed and in many cases, test programs were executed to generate recommendations and guidelines to reduce risk associated with various aspects of implementing battery technology in the aerospace industry. This document contains Part 1 - Volume I: Generic Safety, Handling and Qualification Guidelines for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries, Availability of Source Materials for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries, and Maintaining Technical Communications Related to Aerospace Batteries (NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop).

  6. Better batteries wanted. The large-scale field test on the isle of Ruegen having been a flop, electric cars are facing a bleak future; Bessere Batterien muessen her. Die Zukunft des Elektroautos ist nach dem enttaeuschenden Grossversuch auf Ruegen ungewisser denn je

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterbak, R.

    1997-07-01

    The contribution discusses the results of the large-scale field test with electric cars carried out on the isle of Ruegen which has consumed 60 million Deutschmarks. Broken down to one kilometer on the mileage indicator, the electric-powered cars puffed out more carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide than conventional petrol or diesel fuelled cars, considering the emissions of the power plants as the cars` actual source of energy. A comparative evaluation of the primary energy consumption of the two vehicle systems, passenger car with combustion engine and passenger car with electric battery, shows that the electric cars are rather bad in performance. The major problem with the electric cars is their electricity source, the battery. Batteries still have a poor storage capacity, and they are too expensive. Hopes are now pinned on the sodium/nickel chloride battery (zebra battery) and, for the near future, on the lithium ion battery. (MM) [Deutsch] Berichtet wird ueber die Ergebnisse des 60 Millionen Mark teuren Grossversuchs mit Elektrofahrzeugen auf der Insel Ruegen. Pro gefahrenem Kilometer erzeugten die mit Strom betriebenen Fahrzeuge - auf dem Umweg ueber die stromproduzierenden Kraftwerke - mehr Kohlendioxid und Schwefeldioxid als herkoemmliche Benzin- oder Dieselfahrzeuge. Beim Vergleich des Primaerenergieverbrauchs der beiden Fahrzeugssysteme Verbrennungsmotor-Kfz und Elektro-Kfz schnitten die Elektroautos unter dem Strich schlechter ab als Otto- und Dieselfahrzeuge mit vergleichbarer Leistung. Das Hauptproblem der Elektroautos ist der ``Stromtank``, die Batterie. Ihre Speicherfaehigkeit ist zu gering und ausserdem zu teuer. Hoffnungen setzt man auf die Natrium/Nickelchlorid-Batterie (Zebra-Batterie) und in naher Zukunft auf die Lithium-Ionen-Batterie. (MM) (MM)

  7. Sealed lead-acid batteries for solar applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, D.; Sealey, D.

    1984-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is involved in the development of sealed lead-acid batteries capable of deep-discharge operation. This effort is an extension of existing technology employing an immobilized, starved electrolyte system with internal recombination of oxygen. Since watering is not required and there is no acid mist to cause external corrosion, the battery is maintenance-free. During contracts with Gould and Eagle-Picher, batteries were received quarterly and placed on test. With few exceptions, testing of these batteries has been completed. With proper charging, battery life averaged over 800 deep cycles. This was achieved with both the standard NEMA cycle test as well as a partial state of charge test. Charging voltages above 2.50 volts per cell appeared to be detrimental to the performance of the Gould batteries.

  8. Sealed lead-acid batteries for solar applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, D.; Sealey, D.

    1984-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is involved in the development of sealed lead-acid batteries capable of deep-discharge operation. This effort is an extension of existing technology employing an immobilized, starved electrolyte system with internal recombination of oxygen. Since watering is not required and there is no acid mist to cause external corrosion, the battery is maintenance-free. During contracts with Gould and Eagle-Picher, batteries were received quarterly and placed on test. With few exceptions, testing of these batteries has been completed. With proper charging, battery life averaged over 800 deep cycles. This was achieved with both the standard NEMA cycle test as well as a partial state of charge test. Charging voltages above 2.50 volts per cell appeared to be detrimental to the performance of the Gould batteries.

  9. Data on in vivo phenotypes of GFRα1-positive spermatogonia stimulated by interstitial GDNF signals in mouse testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Aya; Kanai, Yoshiakira

    2016-09-01

    This article contains the data related to the research article "in vivo dynamics of GFRα1-positive spermatogonia stimulated by GDNF signals using a bead transplantation assay" (Uchida et al., 2016) [1]. A novel transplantation assay of growth factor-soaked beads into the mammalian testicular interstitium was developed, in order to examine the effects of various soluble factors on in vivo dynamics of the spermatogonia including spermatogonial stem cells (SSC). Here we provide the image data of GFRα1-positive stem/progenitor spermatogonia in mouse seminiferous tubules near the beads soaked in GDNF (glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor), one of the SSC niche factors. The data provide various phenotypes of GFRα1-positive spermatogonia induced by bead-derived GDNF signals, which are useful to understand the active state of GFRα1-positive stem/progenitor spermatogonia in vivo.

  10. Lifetime improvement by battery scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of its battery. For devices that have multiple batteries or that have the option to connect an extra battery, battery scheduling, thereby exploiting the recovery properties of the batteries, can help to extend the system lifetime. Due to the

  11. Lifetime Improvement by Battery Scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Schmitt, Jens B.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of their batteries. For devices that have multiple batteries or that have the option to connect an extra battery, battery scheduling, thereby exploiting the recovery properties of the batteries, can help to extend the system lifetime. Due to

  12. Third International Conference on Batteries for Utility Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-03-18

    This is a collection of essays presented at the above-named conference held at Kobe, Japan, from March 18 through 22, 1991. At the utility energy storage session, a power research program plan, operational and economic benefits of BESP (battery energy storage plant), the Moonlight Project, etc., were presented, respectively, by EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute) of the U.S., BEWAG Corporation of Germany, and NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) of Japan, etc. At the improved lead-acid batteries session, the characteristics of improved lead-acid batteries, load levelling and life cycle, problems in BESP, comparisons and tests, etc., were presented by Japan, Italy, the U.S., etc. At the advanced batteries session, presentations were made about the sodium-sulfur battery, zinc-bromine battery, redox battery, etc. Furthermore, there were sessions on consumer energy systems, control and power conditioning technology, and commercialization and economic studies. A total 53 presentations were made. (NEDO)

  13. Potassium Secondary Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, Ali; Jian, Zelang; Ji, Xiulei

    2017-02-08

    Potassium may exhibit advantages over lithium or sodium as a charge carrier in rechargeable batteries. Analogues of Prussian blue can provide millions of cyclic voltammetric cycles in aqueous electrolyte. Potassium intercalation chemistry has recently been demonstrated compatible with both graphite and nongraphitic carbons. In addition to potassium-ion batteries, potassium-O2 (or -air) and potassium-sulfur batteries are emerging. Additionally, aqueous potassium-ion batteries also exhibit high reversibility and long cycling life. Because of potentially low cost, availability of basic materials, and intriguing electrochemical behaviors, this new class of secondary batteries is attracting much attention. This mini-review summarizes the current status, opportunities, and future challenges of potassium secondary batteries.

  14. A Desalination Battery

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro

    2012-02-08

    Water desalination is an important approach to provide fresh water around the world, although its high energy consumption, and thus high cost, call for new, efficient technology. Here, we demonstrate the novel concept of a "desalination battery", which operates by performing cycles in reverse on our previously reported mixing entropy battery. Rather than generating electricity from salinity differences, as in mixing entropy batteries, desalination batteries use an electrical energy input to extract sodium and chloride ions from seawater and to generate fresh water. The desalination battery is comprised by a Na 2-xMn 5O 10 nanorod positive electrode and Ag/AgCl negative electrode. Here, we demonstrate an energy consumption of 0.29 Wh l -1 for the removal of 25% salt using this novel desalination battery, which is promising when compared to reverse osmosis (∼ 0.2 Wh l -1), the most efficient technique presently available. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  15. Development of a discriminative biphasic in vitro dissolution test and correlation with in vivo pharmacokinetic studies for differently formulated racecadotril granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jia; Staufenbiel, Sven; Hao, Shilei; Wang, Bochu; Dashevskiy, Andriy; Bodmeier, Roland

    2017-06-10

    The purpose of this study was to discriminate the release behavior from three differently formulated racecadotril (BCS II) granules and to establish an in vitro-in vivo correlation. Three granule formulations of the lipophilic drug were prepared with equivalent composition but prepared with different manufacturing processes (dry granulation, wet granulation with or without binder). In vitro release of the three granules was investigated using a biphasic dissolution system (phosphate buffer pH6.8 and octanol) and compared to the conventional single phase USP II dissolution test performed under sink and non-sink conditions. In vivo studies with each granule formulation were performed in rats. Interestingly, the granule formulations exhibited pronouncedly different behavior in the different dissolution systems depending on different wetting and dissolution conditions. Single phase USP II dissolution tests lacked discrimination. In contrast, remarkable discrimination between the granule formulations was observed in the octanol phase of biphasic dissolution system with a rank order of release from granules prepared by wet granulation with binder>wet granulation without binder>dry granulation. This release order correlated well with the wettability of these granules. An excellent correlation was also established between in vitro release in the octanol phase of the biphasic test and in vivo data (R(2)=0.999). Compared to conventional dissolution methods, the biphasic method provides great potential to discriminate between only minor formulation and process changes within the same dosage form for poorly soluble drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. In vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Bruce A; Lenning, Jacob; Khetarpal, Nikita; Tran, Catherine; Wu, Johnny Y; Berri, Ali M; Dernay, Kristin; Haacke, E Mark; Shafie-Khorassani, Fatema; Podolsky, Robert H; Gant, John C; Maimaiti, Shaniya; Thibault, Olivier; Murphy, Geoffrey G; Bennett, Brian M; Roberts, Robin

    2017-09-01

    Hippocampus oxidative stress is considered pathogenic in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer disease (AD), and in neurodevelopmental disorders, such as Angelman syndrome (AS). Yet clinical benefits of antioxidant treatment for these diseases remain unclear because conventional imaging methods are unable to guide management of therapies in specific hippocampus subfields in vivo that underlie abnormal behavior. Excessive production of paramagnetic free radicals in nonhippocampus brain tissue can be measured in vivo as a greater-than-normal 1/ T 1 that is quenchable with antioxidant as measured by quench-assisted (Quest) MRI. Here, we further test this approach in phantoms, and we present proof-of-concept data in models of AD-like and AS hippocampus oxidative stress that also exhibit impaired spatial learning and memory. AD-like models showed an abnormal gradient along the CA1 dorsal-ventral axis of excessive free radical production as measured by Quest MRI, and redox-sensitive calcium dysregulation as measured by manganese-enhanced MRI and electrophysiology. In the AS model, abnormally high free radical levels were observed in dorsal and ventral CA1. Quest MRI is a promising in vivo paradigm for bridging brain subfield oxidative stress and behavior in animal models and in human patients to better manage antioxidant therapy in devastating neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental diseases.-Berkowitz, B. A., Lenning, J., Khetarpal, N., Tran, C., Wu, J. Y., Berri, A. M., Dernay, K., Haacke, E. M., Shafie-Khorassani, F., Podolsky, R. H., Gant, J. C., Maimaiti, S., Thibault, O., Murphy, G. G., Bennett, B. M., Roberts, R. In vivo imaging of prodromal hippocampus CA1 subfield oxidative stress in models of Alzheimer disease and Angelman syndrome. © FASEB.

  17. Lithium battery management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Thomas J [Waukesha, WI

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  18. Printed battery power management

    OpenAIRE

    Josefsson, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Printed electronics and low power radio has evolved significantly in recent years. This has made it possible to implement electronic worn on the body or clothing. Printed batteries internal resistance is much higher compared to regular batteries. Unless a battery power management circuit is used, the radio peak current makes that the terminal voltage may drop to a level below the specified supply voltage for the radio, causing operation failure. A large capacitor solves this but a large surfa...

  19. Flow Battery System Design for Manufacturability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoya, Tracy Louise; Meacham, Paul Gregory; Perry, David; Broyles, Robin S.; Hickey, Steven; Hernandez, Jacquelynne

    2014-10-01

    Flow battery energy storage systems can support renewable energy generation and increase energy efficiency. But, presently, the costs of flow battery energy storage systems can be a significant barrier for large-scale market penetration. For cost- effective systems to be produced, it is critical to optimize the selection of materials and components simultaneously with the adherence to requirements and manufacturing processes to allow these batteries and their manufacturers to succeed in the market by reducing costs to consumers. This report analyzes performance, safety, and testing requirements derived from applicable regulations as well as commercial and military standards that would apply to a flow battery energy storage system. System components of a zinc-bromine flow battery energy storage system, including the batteries, inverters, and control and monitoring system, are discussed relative to manufacturing. The issues addressed include costs and component availability and lead times. A service and support model including setup, maintenance and transportation is outlined, along with a description of the safety-related features of the example flow battery energy storage system to promote regulatory and environmental, safety, and health compliance in anticipation of scale manufacturing.

  20. Lifetime modelling of lead acid batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindner, H.; Cronin, T.; Lundsager, P.

    2005-04-01

    The performance and lifetime of energy storage in batteries are an important part of many renewable based energy systems. Not only do batteries impact on the system performance but they are also a significant expenditure when considering the whole life cycle costs. Poor prediction of lifetime can, therefore, lead to uncertainty in the viability of the system in the long term. This report details the work undertaken to investigate and develop two different battery life prediction methodologies with specific reference to their use in hybrid renewable energy systems. Alongside this, results from battery tests designed to exercise batteries in similar modes to those that they experience in hybrid systems have also been analysed. These have yielded battery specific parameters for use in the prediction software and the first results in the validation process of the software are also given. This work has been part of the European Union Benchmarking research project (ENK6-CT-2001-80576), funded by the European Union, the United States and Australian governments together with other European states and other public and private financing bodies. The project has concentrated on lead acid batteries as this technology is the most commonly used. Through this work the project partner institutions have intended to provide useful tools to improve the design capabilities of organizations, private and public, in remote power systems. (au)

  1. Battery System Modeling for a Military Electric Propulsion Vehicle with a Fault Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeongcheol Lee

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development process and results of a battery system model with a fault simulation for electric propulsion vehicles. The developed battery system model can be used to verify control and fault diagnosis strategies of the supervisory controller in an electric propulsion vehicle. To develop this battery system model, three sub-models, including a battery model, a relay assembly model, and a battery management system (BMS model, are connected together like in the target real battery system. Comparison results between the real battery system hardware and the battery system model show a similar tendency and values. Furthermore, the fault injection test of the model shows that the proposed battery system model can simulate a failure situation consistent with a real system. It is possible for the model to emulate the battery characteristics and fault situation if it is used in the development process of a BMS or for supervisory control strategies for electric propulsion systems.

  2. Data-driven battery product development: Turn battery performance into a competitive advantage.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholklapper, Tal [Voltaiq, Inc.

    2016-04-19

    Poor battery performance is a primary source of user dissatisfaction across a broad range of applications, and is a key bottleneck hindering the growth of mobile technology, wearables, electric vehicles, and grid energy storage. Engineering battery systems is difficult, requiring extensive testing for vendor selection, BMS programming, and application-specific lifetime testing. This work also generates huge quantities of data. This presentation will explain how to leverage this data to help ship quality products faster using fewer resources while ensuring safety and reliability in the field, ultimately turning battery performance into a competitive advantage.

  3. Battery Thermal Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyser, Matthew A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-08

    The operating temperature is critical in achieving the right balance between performance, cost, and life for both Li-ion batteries and ultracapacitors. The chemistries of advanced energy-storage devices - such as lithium-based batteries - are very sensitive to operating temperature. High temperatures degrade batteries faster while low temperatures decrease their power and capacity, affecting vehicle range, performance, and cost. Understanding heat generation in battery systems - from the individual cells within a module, to the inter-connects between the cells, and across the entire battery system - is imperative for designing effective thermal-management systems and battery packs. At NREL, we have developed unique capabilities to measure the thermal properties of cells and evaluate thermal performance of battery packs (air or liquid cooled). We also use our electro-thermal finite element models to analyze the thermal performance of battery systems in order to aid battery developers with improved thermal designs. NREL's tools are used to meet the weight, life, cost, and volume goals set by the U.S. Department of Energy for electric drive vehicles.

  4. Ballistic negatron battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, M.S.R. [Koneru Lakshmiah Univ.. Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Green fields, Vaddeswaram (India)

    2012-07-01

    If we consider the Statistics there is drastic increase in dependence of batteries from year to year, due to necessity of power storage equipment at homes, power generating off grid and on grid Wind, PV systems, etc.. Where wind power is leading in renewable sector, there is a need to look at its development. Considering the scenario in India, most of the wind resource areas are far away from grid and the remaining areas which are near to grid are of low wind currents which is of no use connecting these equipment directly to grid. So, there is a need for a power storage utility to be integrated, such as the BNB (Ballistic Negatron Battery). In this situation a country like India need a battery which should be reliable, cheap and which can be industrialized. So this paper presents the concept of working, design, operation, adaptability of a Ballistic Negatron Battery. Unlike present batteries with low energy density, huge size, more weight, more charging time and low resistant to wear level, this Ballistic Negatron Battery comes with, 1) High energy storage capability (many multiples more than the present most advanced battery). 2) Very compact in size. 3) Almost negligible in weight compared to present batteries. 4) Charges with in very less time. 5) Never exhibits a wear level greater than zero. Seems like inconceivable but adoptable with simple physics. This paper will explains in detail the principle, model, design, construction and practical considerations considered in making this battery. (Author)

  5. In vivo testing of the protection provided by non-latex gloves against a 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-containing acetone-based dentin-bonding product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, T; Bruze, M; Gruvberger, B; Björkner, B

    2000-01-01

    In dentistry, allergic contact dermatitis to acrylates and allergic contact urticaria to latex are important occupational hazards. There is a need to identify non-latex gloves which are suitable for dental work but at the same time provide adequate protection against acrylate monomers. In a previous study, a new open-chamber system was used for testing the in vivo protection of 6 different gloves against an acrylate-containing ethanol-based dental adhesive. A nitrile glove gave the best protection among the gloves suitable for dental work. In the present study, the test model was used to investigate the in vivo protection of 7 non-latex gloves against a dental bonding product containing 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA) in an acetone/water vehicle. Eight 2-HEMA-allergic patients participated. Two neoprene gloves gave the best protection. The protection of the poorest glove was comparable to that of the positive control (no glove). The study produced in vivo data useful in the implementation of individual preventative measures against contact allergy to acrylates.

  6. International Space Station Lithium-Ion Battery Start-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Penni J.; North, Tim; Bowens, Ebony; Balcer, Sonia

    2017-01-01

    International Space Station Lithium-Ion Battery Start-Up.The International Space Station (ISS) primary Electric Power System (EPS) was originally designed to use Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries to store electrical energy. The electricity for the space station is generated by its solar arrays, which charge batteries during insolation for subsequent discharge during eclipse. The Ni-H2 batteries are designed to operate at a 35 depth of discharge (DOD) maximum during normal operation in a Low Earth Orbit. As the oldest of the 48 Ni-H2 battery Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) has been cycling since September 2006, these batteries are now approaching their end of useful life. In 2010, the ISS Program began the development of Lithium-Ion (Li-ion) batteries to replace the Ni-H2 batteries and concurrently funded a Li-Ion ORU and cell life testing project. The first set of 6 Li-ion battery replacements were launched in December 2016 and deployed in January 2017. This paper will discuss the Li-ion battery on-orbit start-up and the status of the Li-Ion cell and ORU life cycle testing.

  7. Sodium sulfur batteries for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degruson, James A.

    1992-02-01

    In 1986, Eagle-Picher Industries was selected by the Air Force to develop sodium sulfur cells for satellite applications. Specifically, the development program was geared toward low earth orbit goals requiring high charge and/or discharge rates. A number of improvements have been made on the cell level and a transition to a complete space battery was initiated at Eagle-Picher. The results of six months of testing a 250 watt/hour sodium sulfur space battery look very promising. With over 1000 LEO cycles conducted on this first battery, the next generation battery is being designed. This next design will focus on achieving greater energy densities associated with the sodium sulfur chemistry.

  8. A Novel Electric Bicycle Battery Monitoring System Based on Android Client

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanxue Song

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The battery monitoring system (BMS plays a crucial role in maintaining the safe operation of the lithium battery electric bicycle and prolonging the life of the battery pack. This paper designed a set of new battery monitoring systems based on the Android system and ARM single-chip microcomputer to enable direct management of the lithium battery pack and convenient monitoring of the state of the battery pack. The BMS realizes the goal of monitoring the voltage, current, and ambient temperature of lithium batteries, estimating the state of charge (SOC and state of health (SOH, protecting the battery from abuse during charging or discharging, and ensuring the consistency of the batteries by integrating the passive equalization circuit. The BMS was proven effective and feasible through several tests, including charging/discharging, estimation accuracy, and communication tests. The results indicated that the BMS could be used in the design and application of the electric bicycle.

  9. Critical issues with the in vivo comet assay: A report of the comet assay working group in the 6th International Workshop on Genotoxicity Testing (IWGT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speit, Günter; Kojima, Hajime; Burlinson, Brian; Collins, Andrew R; Kasper, Peter; Plappert-Helbig, Ulla; Uno, Yoshifumi; Vasquez, Marie; Beevers, Carol; De Boeck, Marlies; Escobar, Patricia A; Kitamoto, Sachiko; Pant, Kamala; Pfuhler, Stefan; Tanaka, Jin; Levy, Dan D

    2015-05-01

    As a part of the 6th IWGT, an expert working group on the comet assay evaluated critical topics related to the use of the in vivo comet assay in regulatory genotoxicity testing. The areas covered were: identification of the domain of applicability and regulatory acceptance, identification of critical parameters of the protocol and attempts to standardize the assay, experience with combination and integration with other in vivo studies, demonstration of laboratory proficiency, sensitivity and power of the protocol used, use of different tissues, freezing of samples, and choice of appropriate measures of cytotoxicity. The standard protocol detects various types of DNA lesions but it does not detect all types of DNA damage. Modifications of the standard protocol may be used to detect additional types of specific DNA damage (e.g., cross-links, bulky adducts, oxidized bases). In addition, the working group identified critical parameters that should be carefully controlled and described in detail in every published study protocol. In vivo comet assay results are more reliable if they were obtained in laboratories that have demonstrated proficiency. This includes demonstration of adequate response to vehicle controls and an adequate response to a positive control for each tissue being examined. There was a general agreement that freezing of samples is an option but more data are needed in order to establish generally accepted protocols. With regard to tissue toxicity, the working group concluded that cytotoxicity could be a confounder of comet results. It is recommended to look at multiple parameters such as histopathological observations, organ-specific clinical chemistry as well as indicators of tissue inflammation to decide whether compound-specific toxicity might influence the result. The expert working group concluded that the alkaline in vivo comet assay is a mature test for the evaluation of genotoxicity and can be recommended to regulatory agencies for use

  10. Computing Battery Lifetime Distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cloth, L.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Jongerden, M.R.

    The usage of mobile devices like cell phones, navigation systems, or laptop computers, is limited by the lifetime of the included batteries. This lifetime depends naturally on the rate at which energy is consumed, however, it also depends on the usage pattern of the battery. Continuous drawing of a

  11. Battery energy storage system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, C.S.P.; Evenblij, B.H.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to store electrical energy adds several interesting features to a ships distribution network, as silent power, peak shaving and a ride through in case of generator failure. Modern intrinsically safe Li-ion batteries bring these within reach. For this modern lithium battery applications

  12. Batteries for terrestrial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulin, T.M.

    1998-07-01

    Extensive research has been conducted in the design and manufacture of very long life vented and sealed maintenance free nickel-cadmium aircraft batteries. These batteries have also been used in a number of terrestrial applications with good success. This study presents an overview of the Ni-Cd chemistry and technology as well as detailed analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the Ni-Cd couple for terrestrial applications. The performance characteristics of both sealed and vented Ni-Cd's are presented. Various charge algorithms are examined and evaluated for effectiveness and ease of implementation. Hardware requirements for charging are also presented and evaluated. The discharge characteristics of vented and sealed Ni-Cd's are presented and compared to other battery chemistries. The performance of Ni-Cd's under extreme environmental conditions is also compared to other battery chemistries. The history of various terrestrial applications is reviewed and some of the lessons learned are presented. Applications discussed include the NASA Middeck Payload Battery, Raytheon Aegis Missile System Battery, THAAD Launcher battery, and the Titan IV battery. The suitability of the Ni-Cd chemistry for other terrestrial applications such as electric vehicles and Uninterruptible Power Supply is discussed.

  13. The zinc bromine battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonshagen, B. [ZBB (Australia) Ltd., West Perth, WA (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    The Zinc Bromine Battery electrolyte is essentially zinc bromide salt dissolved in water. Unlike the lead acid and most other batteries, the Zinc Bromine Battery uses electrodes that cannot and do not take part in the reactions but merely serve as substrates for the reactions. There is therefore no loss of performance, as in most re-chargeable batteries, from repeated cycling which causes electrode material deterioration. When the Zinc Bromine Battery is completely discharged all the metal zinc plated on the negative electrodes is dissolved in the electrolyte and again produced the next time the batter is charged. In the discharged state the battery can be shorted and left that way indefinitely. This paper presents an overview of large scale Zinc Bromine battery systems that are currently being commercialized as an economically attractive alternative to utility upgrades. Also outlined is how the battery can improve the viability of renewable energy and reduce diesel use in isolated grids and remote power installations. (author). 11 figs., 2 refs.

  14. Lithium Battery Diaper Ulceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maridet, Claire; Taïeb, Alain

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of lithium battery diaper ulceration in a 16-month-old girl. Gastrointestinal and ear, nose, and throat lesions after lithium battery ingestion have been reported, but skin involvement has not been reported to our knowledge. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A review of nickel hydrogen battery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithrick, John J.; Odonnell, Patricia M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper on nickel hydrogen batteries is an overview of the various nickel hydrogen battery design options, technical accomplishments, validation test results and trends. There is more than one nickel hydrogen battery design, each having its advantage for specific applications. The major battery designs are individual pressure vessel (IPV), common pressure vessel (CPV), bipolar and low pressure metal hydride. State-of-the-art (SOA) nickel hydrogen batteries are replacing nickel cadmium batteries in almost all geosynchronous orbit (GEO) applications requiring power above 1 kW. However, for the more severe low earth orbit (LEO) applications (greater than 30,000 cycles), the current cycle life of 4000 to 10,000 cycles at 60 percent DOD should be improved. A NASA Lewis Research Center innovative advanced design IPV nickel hydrogen cell led to a breakthrough in cycle life enabling LEO applications at deep depths of discharge (DOD). A trend for some future satellites is to increase the power level to greater than 6 kW. Another trend is to decrease the power to less than 1 kW for small low cost satellites. Hence, the challenge is to reduce battery mass, volume and cost. A key is to develop a light weight nickel electrode and alternate battery designs. A common pressure vessel (CPV) nickel hydrogen battery is emerging as a viable alternative to the IPV design. It has the advantage of reduced mass, volume and manufacturing costs. A 10 Ah CPV battery has successfully provided power on the relatively short lived Clementine Spacecraft. A bipolar nickel hydrogen battery design has been demonstrated (15,000 LEO cycles, 40 percent DOD). The advantage is also a significant reduction in volume, a modest reduction in mass, and like most bipolar designs, features a high pulse power capability. A low pressure aerospace nickel metal hydride battery cell has been developed and is on the market. It is a prismatic design which has the advantage of a significant reduction in volume and a

  16. Battery Pack Thermal Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-14

    This presentation describes the thermal design of battery packs at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. A battery thermal management system essential for xEVs for both normal operation during daily driving (achieving life and performance) and off-normal operation during abuse conditions (achieving safety). The battery thermal management system needs to be optimized with the right tools for the lowest cost. Experimental tools such as NREL's isothermal battery calorimeter, thermal imaging, and heat transfer setups are needed. Thermal models and computer-aided engineering tools are useful for robust designs. During abuse conditions, designs should prevent cell-to-cell propagation in a module/pack (i.e., keep the fire small and manageable). NREL's battery ISC device can be used for evaluating the robustness of a module/pack to cell-to-cell propagation.

  17. Utility battery storage systems program report for FY 94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, P.C.

    1995-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. The goal of this program is to assist industry in developing cost-effective battery systems as a utility resource option by 2000. Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of rechargeable batteries and systems for utility energy storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1994.

  18. Thermally-related safety issues associated with thermal batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidotti, Ronald Armand

    2006-06-01

    Thermal batteries can experience thermal runaway under certain usage conditions. This can lead to safety issues for personnel and cause damage to associated test equipment if the battery thermally self destructs. This report discusses a number of thermal and design related issues that can lead to catastrophic destruction of thermal batteries under certain conditions. Contributing factors are identified and mitigating actions are presented to minimize or prevent undesirable thermal runaway.

  19. Photoacoustic spectroscopy to evaluate the potentiality of bee-propolis as UV protector: In vivo test in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehn, E.; Silva, K. C.; Bento, A. C.; Baesso, M. L.; Franco, S. L.

    2005-06-01

    In this work, the Photoacoustic Spectroscopy was employed to evaluate the potentiality of bee-propolis as UV protector. The experiments were performed to obtain the creams optical absorption spectra in the UV spectral region and also to evaluate in vivo the penetration rate of the obtained product in humans. The results showed the spectral response of the developed bee-propolis creams, and also revealed that two hours after the application about 40 % of the cream signal was still detected on the skin surface.

  20. A novel approach of battery pack state of health estimation using artificial intelligence optimization algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Wang, Yujie; Liu, Chang; Chen, Zonghai

    2018-02-01

    An accurate battery pack state of health (SOH) estimation is important to characterize the dynamic responses of battery pack and ensure the battery work with safety and reliability. However, the different performances in battery discharge/charge characteristics and working conditions in battery pack make the battery pack SOH estimation difficult. In this paper, the battery pack SOH is defined as the change of battery pack maximum energy storage. It contains all the cells' information including battery capacity, the relationship between state of charge (SOC) and open circuit voltage (OCV), and battery inconsistency. To predict the battery pack SOH, the method of particle swarm optimization-genetic algorithm is applied in battery pack model parameters identification. Based on the results, a particle filter is employed in battery SOC and OCV estimation to avoid the noise influence occurring in battery terminal voltage measurement and current drift. Moreover, a recursive least square method is used to update cells' capacity. Finally, the proposed method is verified by the profiles of New European Driving Cycle and dynamic test profiles. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method can estimate the battery states with high accuracy for actual operation. In addition, the factors affecting the change of SOH is analyzed.

  1. 29 CFR 1926.441 - Batteries and battery charging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batteries and battery charging. 1926.441 Section 1926.441..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Electrical Safety Requirements for Special Equipment § 1926.441 Batteries and battery charging. (a) General requirements—(1...

  2. In vivo experimental testing of the FW axial blood pump for left ventricular support in Fu Wai Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Hu, Sheng-Shou; Zhou, Jian-Ye; Sun, Han-Song; Tang, Yue; Zhang, Hao; Zheng, Zhe; Li, Guo-Rong; Zhu, Xiao-Dong; Gui, Xin-Min

    2009-01-01

    A fully implantable, axial flow blood pump has been developed in Fu Wai Hospital aiming for clinical use. This ventricular assist device (VAD), which was developed after numerous CFD analyses for the flow characteristics of the pump, is 58.5-mm long, 30-mm wide (including DC motor), and weighs 240 g. The pump can deliver 5 L/min for pressures of 100 mm Hg over 8,000 rpm. In this study, short-term hemocompatibility effects of the axial left ventricular assist device (LVAD) (FW blood pump) were evaluated in four healthy sheep. The device was implanted into the left ventricular apex of beating hearts. The outflow graft of each device was anastomosed to the descending aorta. The hemolysis, which was evaluated in vivo by free hemoglobin value, was below 30 mg/dL. Evaluation of serum biochemical data showed that implantation of the FW blood pump in sheep with normal hearts did not impair end organ function. Gross and microscopic sections of kidney, liver, and lung revealed no evidence of microemboli. Performance of the pump in vivo was considered sufficient for a LVAD, although further design improvement is necessary in terms of hemolysis and antithrombosis to improve biocompatibility of the pump.

  3. Serological diagnosis of bovine neosporosis: a Bayesian evaluation of two antibody ELISA tests for in vivo diagnosis in purchased and abortion cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelandt, S; Van der Stede, Y; Czaplicki, G; Van Loo, H; Van Driessche, E; Dewulf, J; Hooyberghs, J; Faes, C

    2015-06-06

    Currently, there are no perfect reference tests for the in vivo detection of Neospora caninum infection. Two commercial N caninum ELISA tests are currently used in Belgium for bovine sera (TEST A and TEST B). The goal of this study is to evaluate these tests used at their current cut-offs, with a no gold standard approach, for the test purpose of (1) demonstration of freedom of infection at purchase and (2) diagnosis in aborting cattle. Sera of two study populations, Abortion population (n=196) and Purchase population (n=514), were selected and tested with both ELISA's. Test results were entered in a Bayesian model with informative priors on population prevalences only (Scenario 1). As sensitivity analysis, two more models were used: one with informative priors on test diagnostic accuracy (Scenario 2) and one with all priors uninformative (Scenario 3). The accuracy parameters were estimated from the first model: diagnostic sensitivity (Test A: 93.54 per cent-Test B: 86.99 per cent) and specificity (Test A: 90.22 per cent-Test B: 90.15 per cent) were high and comparable (Bayesian P values >0.05). Based on predictive values in the two study populations, both tests were fit for purpose, despite an expected false negative fraction of ±0.5 per cent in the Purchase population and ±5 per cent in the Abortion population. In addition, a false positive fraction of ±3 per cent in the overall Purchase population and ±4 per cent in the overall Abortion population was found. British Veterinary Association.

  4. Primary zinc-air batteries for space power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Bobby J.; Bourland, Deborah S.; Merry, Glenn; Putt, Ron

    1992-01-01

    Prismatic HR and LC cells and batteries were built and tested, and they performed well with respect to the program goals of high capacity and high rate capability at specific energies. The HR batteries suffered reduced utilizations owing to dryout at the 2 and 3 A rates for the 50 C tests owing to the requirement for forced convection. The LC batteries suffered reduced utilizations under all conditions owing to the chimney effect at 1 G, although this effect would not occur at 0 G. An empirical model was developed which accurately predicted utilizations and average voltages for single cells, although thermal effects encountered during battery testing caused significant deviations, both positive and negative, from the model. Based on the encouraging results of the test program, we believe that the zinc-air primary battery of a flat, stackable configuration can serve as a high performance and safe power source for a range of space applications.

  5. In vivo testing of the protection of gloves against acrylates in dentin-bonding systems on patients with known contact allergy to acrylates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, T; Bruze, M; Björkner, B

    1999-11-01

    Occupational contact allergies to dental acrylates are increasing. Commonly used gloves protect poorly against acrylates. The protective efficacy in vivo of other, newer glove materials is not fully known. In this study, an open chamber system was used for testing the protection in vivo of 6 different gloves (1 vinyl glove, 2 latex gloves, 2 nitrile gloves and the 4H glove) against a commonly used dental adhesive, Scotchbond 1, containing 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA) and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TREGDMA). 8 patients with known contact allergy to 2-HEMA participated. Provocation with 50 microl of the adhesive for 7.5, 15 and 30 min was performed for each glove. The test demonstrated clear differences in the protective efficacy between the gloves. The 4H glove gave by far the best protection, followed by one of the nitrile gloves. One of the latex gloves and the vinyl glove gave a very poor protection against the adhesive. A dose-response relationship was observed between different application times of the acrylate product. The test model promises to be a useful clinical complement to in vitro methods in individual preventive measures against contact sensitization to acrylates.

  6. Linearly chirped fiber Bragg grating response to thermal gradient: from bench tests to the real-time assessment during in vivo laser ablations of biological tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccomandi, Paola; Varalda, Ambra; Gassino, Riccardo; Tosi, Daniele; Massaroni, Carlo; Caponero, Michele A.; Pop, Raoul; Korganbayev, Sanzhar; Perrone, Guido; Diana, Michele; Vallan, Alberto; Costamagna, Guido; Marescaux, Jacques; Schena, Emiliano

    2017-09-01

    The response of a fiber optic sensor [linearly chirped fiber Bragg grating (LCFBG)] to a linear thermal gradient applied on its sensing length (i.e., 1.5 cm) has been investigated. After these bench tests, we assessed their feasibility for temperature monitoring during thermal tumor treatment. In particular, we performed experiments during ex vivo laser ablation (LA) in pig liver and in vivo thermal ablation in animal models (pigs). We investigated the following: (i) the relationship between the full width at half maximum of the LCFBG spectrum and the temperature difference among the extremities of the LCFBG and (ii) the relationship between the mean spectrum wavelength and the mean temperature acting on the LCFBG sensing area. These relationships showed a linear trend during both bench tests and LA in animal models. Thermal sensitivity was significant although different values were found with regards to bench tests and animal experiments. The linear trend and significant sensitivity allow hypothesizing a future use of this kind of sensor to monitor both temperature gradient and mean temperature within a tissue undergoing thermal treatment.

  7. Genotoxicity assessment of particulate matter emitted from heavy-duty diesel-powered vehicles using the in vivo Vicia faba L. micronucleus test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Albertina X R; Cotelle, Sylvie; Millet, Maurice; Somensi, Cleder A; Wagner, Theodoro M; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2016-05-01

    Diesel exhaust particulate matter (PM) can have an impact on the environment due to its chemical constitution. A large number of substances such as organic compounds, sulfates, nitrogen derivatives and metals are adsorbed to the particles and desorption of these contaminants could promote genotoxic effects. The objective of this study was to assess the in vivo genotoxicity profile of diesel exhaust PM from heavy-duty engines. Extracts were obtained through leaching with pure water and chemical extraction using three organic solvents (dichloromethane, hexane, and acetone). The in vivo Vicia faba micronucleus test (ISO 29200 protocol) was used to assess the environmental impact of the samples collected from diesel exhaust PM. The solid diesel PM (soot) dissolved in water, and the different extracts, showed positive results for micronucleus formation. After the addition of EDTA, the aqueous extracts did not show a genotoxic effect. The absence of metals in the organic solvent extract indicated that organic compounds also had a genotoxic effect, which was not observed for a similar sample cleaned in a C18 column. Thus, considering the ecological importance of higher plants in relation to ecosystems (in contrast to Salmonella spp., which are commonly used in mutagenicity studies), the Vicia micronucleus test was demonstrated to be appropriate for complementing prokaryotic or in vitro tests on diesel exhaust particulate matter included in risk assessments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. High Capacity Battery Cell Flight Qualified

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKissock, Barbara I.

    1997-01-01

    The High Capacity Battery Cell project is an effort equally funded by the NASA Lewis Research Center and Hughes Space and Communications Company (a unit of Hughes Aircraft Company) to develop and flight qualify a higher capacity nickel hydrogen battery for continuing use on commercial spacecraft. The larger diameter, individual pressure vessel cell will provide approximately twice the power, while occupying the same volume, as the current state-of-the-art nickel hydrogen cell. These cells are also anticipated to reduce battery cost by 20 percent. The battery is currently booked for use on 26 spacecraft, with the first flight scheduled in 1997. A strong requirement for batteries with higher power levels (6 to 12 kW), long life, and reduced cost was identified in studies of the needs of commercial communications spacecraft. With the design developed in this effort, the higher power level was accommodated without having to modify the rest of the existing spacecraft bus. This design scaled-up the existing state-of-the-art nickel hydrogen battery cell from a 3.5-in., 50-Ahr cell to a 5.5-in., 350-Ahr cell. An improvement in cycle life was also achieved by the use of the 26-percent KOH electrolyte design developed by NASA Lewis. The cell design was completed, and flight batteries were built and flight qualified by Hughes Space and Communications Company with input from NASA Lewis. Two batteries were shipped in September 1996 to undergo life cycle testing under the purview of NASA Lewis.

  9. A Battery Certification Testbed for Small Satellite Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Zachary; Kulkarni, Chetan S.; Luna, Ali Guarneros; Goebel, Kai; Poll, Scott

    2015-01-01

    A battery pack consisting of standard cylindrical 18650 lithium-ion cells has been chosen for small satellite missions based on previous flight heritage and compliance with NASA battery safety requirements. However, for batteries that transit through the International Space Station (ISS), additional certification tests are required for individual cells as well as the battery packs. In this manuscript, we discuss the development of generalized testbeds for testing and certifying different types of batteries critical to small satellite missions. Test procedures developed and executed for this certification effort include: a detailed physical inspection before and after experiments; electrical cycling characterization at the cell and pack levels; battery-pack overcharge, over-discharge, external short testing; battery-pack vacuum leak and vibration testing. The overall goals of these certification procedures are to conform to requirements set forth by the agency and identify unique safety hazards. The testbeds, procedures, and experimental results are discussed for batteries chosen for small satellite missions to be launched from the ISS.

  10. Electrically Rechargeable Zinc-Air Batteries: Progress, Challenges, and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jing; Cano, Zachary Paul; Park, Moon Gyu; Yu, Aiping; Fowler, Michael; Chen, Zhongwei

    2017-02-01

    Zinc-air batteries have attracted much attention and received revived research efforts recently due to their high energy density, which makes them a promising candidate for emerging mobile and electronic applications. Besides their high energy density, they also demonstrate other desirable characteristics, such as abundant raw materials, environmental friendliness, safety, and low cost. Here, the reaction mechanism of electrically rechargeable zinc-air batteries is discussed, different battery configurations are compared, and an in depth discussion is offered of the major issues that affect individual cellular components, along with respective strategies to alleviate these issues to enhance battery performance. Additionally, a section dedicated to battery-testing techniques and corresponding recommendations for best practices are included. Finally, a general perspective on the current limitations, recent application-targeted developments, and recommended future research directions to prolong the lifespan of electrically rechargeable zinc-air batteries is provided. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Extraction of battery parameters of the equivalent circuit model using a multi-objective genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Jonathan; Zhang, Zheming; Agarwal, Ramesh K.

    2014-02-01

    A simple but reasonably accurate battery model is required for simulating the performance of electrical systems that employ a battery for example an electric vehicle, as well as for investigating their potential as an energy storage device. In this paper, a relatively simple equivalent circuit based model is employed for modeling the performance of a battery. A computer code utilizing a multi-objective genetic algorithm is developed for the purpose of extracting the battery performance parameters. The code is applied to several existing industrial batteries as well as to two recently proposed high performance batteries which are currently in early research and development stage. The results demonstrate that with the optimally extracted performance parameters, the equivalent circuit based battery model can accurately predict the performance of various batteries of different sizes, capacities, and materials. Several test cases demonstrate that the multi-objective genetic algorithm can serve as a robust and reliable tool for extracting the battery performance parameters.

  12. Thermal management of batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbard, H. F.; Chen, C.-C.

    Control of the internal temperature during high rate discharge or charge can be a major design problem for large, high energy density battery systems. A systematic approach to the thermal management of such systems is described for different load profiles based on: thermodynamic calculations of internal heat generation; calorimetric measurements of heat flux; analytical and finite difference calculations of the internal temperature distribution; appropriate system designs for heat removal and temperature control. Examples are presented of thermal studies on large lead-acid batteries for electrical utility load levelling and nickel-zinc and lithium-iron sulphide batteries for electric vehicle propulsion.

  13. Batteries 2020 – Lithium - ion battery first and second life ageing, validated battery models, lifetime modelling and ageing assessment of thermal parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermans, Jean-Marc; Nikolian, Alexandros; De Hoog, Joris

    2016-01-01

    The European Project “Batteries 2020” unites nine partners jointly working on research and the development of competitive European automotive batteries. The project aims at increasing both the energy density and lifetime of large format pouch lithium-ion batteries towards the goals targeted...... for automotive batteries (250 Wh/kg at cell level, over 4000 cycles at 80% depth of discharge). Three parallel strategies are followed in order to achieve those targets: (i) Highly focused materials development; two improved generations of NMC cathode materials allows to improve the performance, stability...... and cyclability of state of the art battery cells. (ii) Better understanding of the ageing phenomena; a robust and realistic testing methodology has been developed and was carried out. Combined accelerated, real driving cycle tests, real field data, post - mortem analysis, modelling and validation with real...

  14. Antibacterial efficiency of vermiculite/chlorhexidine nanocomposites and results of the in vivo test of harmlessness of vermiculite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holešová, Sylva, E-mail: sylva.holesova@vsb.cz [Nanotechnology Centre, VŠB — Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15/2172, CZ-708 33 Ostrava, Poruba (Czech Republic); IT4Innovations Centre of Excellence, VŠB — Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15/2172, CZ-708 00 Ostrava, Poruba (Czech Republic); Štembírek, Jan [Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Ostrava, 17. listopadu 1790/5, CZ-708 00 Ostrava, Poruba (Czech Republic); Bartošová, Ladislava [Department of Human Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno, Palackého 1/3, CZ-612 42 Brno (Czech Republic); Pražanová, Gabriela [Department of Pathology, Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, Žlutý kopec 7, CZ-65653 Brno (Czech Republic); Valášková, Marta; Samlíková, Magda [Nanotechnology Centre, VŠB — Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15/2172, CZ-708 33 Ostrava, Poruba (Czech Republic); IT4Innovations Centre of Excellence, VŠB — Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15/2172, CZ-708 00 Ostrava, Poruba (Czech Republic); Pazdziora, Erich [Institute of Public Health Ostrava, Centre of Clinical Laboratories, Partyzánské náměstí 7, CZ-702 00 Ostrava (Czech Republic)

    2014-09-01

    Clay minerals have been proposed as very useful materials for modulating drug delivery. These are the commonly used materials in pharmaceutical production both as inorganic carriers or active agents. We focused on the development of suitable long-acting material for local treatment of oral infection where clay minerals act as inorganic drug carriers. Organovermiculites with antibacterial activity were prepared by ion exchange reactions using different concentrations of chlorhexidine diacetate. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermal analysis (TGA). The antibacterial activity was evaluated by finding the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). All studied organoclays possessed good antibacterial activity after 24 h exposure against Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and particularly against Staphylococcus aureus. Pseudomonas aeruginosa however proved very resistant as only the sample with the highest concentration of CA that successfully inhibited bacterial growth. Furthermore, clay mineral vermiculite was subjected to in vivo toxicological analysis and its influence on gastrointestinal tract during its oral application was investigated. Tissue samples from buccal mucosa, tongue, esophagus, stomach, terminal duodenum, small intestine, caecum, distal colon and liver were subjected to histological examination, both macroscopically and microscopically. Neither systemic nor local reactions were observed. Therefore the toxicity of vermiculite to a mammal model organism can be excluded. - Highlights: • Antibacterial chlorhexidine diacetate/vermiculite nanocomposites were prepared. • Samples were characterized by XRD, FTIR and TGA. • Efficiency against S. aureus, E. faecalis, E. coli and P. aeruginosa was evaluated. • Influence of Ver on gastrointestinal tract during oral application was investigated. • In vivo toxicological analysis excluded neither systemic nor local reactions.

  15. Critically appraised topic on adverse food reactions of companion animals (4): can we diagnose adverse food reactions in dogs and cats with in vivo or in vitro tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Ralf S; Olivry, Thierry

    2017-08-30

    The gold standard to diagnose adverse food reactions (AFRs) in the dog and cat is currently an elimination diet with subsequent provocation trials. However, those trials are inconvenient and client compliance can be low. Our objective was to systematically review the literature to evaluate in vivo and in vitro tests used to diagnose AFR in small animals. We searched three databases (CAB Abstracts, MEDLINE and Web of Science) for pertinent references on September 16, 2016. Among 71, 544 and 41 articles found in the CAB Abstract, MEDLINE and Web of Science databases, respectively, we selected 22 articles and abstracts from conference proceedings that reported data usable for evaluation of tests for AFR. Serum tests for food-specific IgE and IgG, intradermal testing with food antigens, lymphocyte proliferation tests, fecal food-specific IgE, patch, gastroscopic, and colonoscopic testing were evaluated. Testing for serum food-specific IgE and IgG showed low repeatability and, in dogs, a highly variable accuracy. In cats, the accuracy of testing for food-specific IgE was low. Lymphocyte proliferation tests were more frequently positive and more accurate in animals with AFR, but, as they are more difficult to perform, they remain currently a research tool. All other reported tests were only evaluated by individual studies with small numbers of animals. Negative patch test reactions have a very high negative predictability in dogs and could enable a choice of ingredients for the elimination diet in selected patients. Gastroscopic and colonoscopic testing as well as food-specific fecal IgE or food-specific serum IgG measurements appear less useful. Currently, the best diagnostic procedure to identify AFRs in small animals remains an elimination diet with subsequent provocation trials.

  16. Direct Comparison of the Histidine-rich Protein-2 Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (HRP-2 ELISA) and Malaria SYBR Green I Fluorescence (MSF) Drug Sensitivity Tests in Plasmodium falciparum Reference Clones and Fresh ex vivo Field Isolates from Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    fluorescence (MSF) drug sensitivity tests in Plasmodium falciparum reference clones and fresh ex vivo field isolates from Cambodia Suwanna...assay (HRP-2 ELISA) and malaria SYBR Green I fluorescence (MSF) drug sensitivity tests were directly compared using Plasmodium falciparum reference... Plasmodium falciparum reference clones and fresh ex vivo field isolates from Cambodia Suwanna Chaorattanakawee 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  17. Battery Technology Stores Clean Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Headquartered in Fremont, California, Deeya Energy Inc. is now bringing its flow batteries to commercial customers around the world after working with former Marshall Space Flight Center scientist, Lawrence Thaller. Deeya's liquid-cell batteries have higher power capability than Thaller's original design, are less expensive than lead-acid batteries, are a clean energy alternative, and are 10 to 20 times less expensive than nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and fuel cell options.

  18. Laboratory study on the leaching potential of spent alkaline batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Xará, Susana M.; Delgado, Julanda N.; Almeida, Manuel F.; Carlos A. Costa

    2009-01-01

    Four different leaching tests were carried out with spent alkaline batteries as an attempt to quantify the environmental potential burdens associated with landfilling. The tests were performed in columns filled up with batteries either entire or cross-cut, using either deionized water or nitric acid solution as leachant. In a first set of tests, the NEN 7343 standard procedure was followed, with leachant circulating in open circuit from bottom to top through columns. These tests w...

  19. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkor, Mati

    1981-01-01

    This disclosure is directed to an improvement in a sodium sulfur battery construction in which a seal between various battery compartments is made by a structure in which a soft metal seal member is held in a sealing position by holding structure. A pressure applying structure is used to apply pressure on the soft metal seal member when it is being held in sealing relationship to a surface of a container member of the sodium sulfur battery by the holding structure. The improvement comprises including a thin, well-adhered, soft metal layer on the surface of the container member of the sodium sulfur battery to which the soft metal seal member is to be bonded.

  20. Thermal battery degradation mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missert, Nancy A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brunke, Lyle Brent [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Diffuse reflectance IR spectroscopy (DRIFTS) was used to investigate the effect of accelerated aging on LiSi based anodes in simulated MC3816 batteries. DRIFTS spectra showed that the oxygen, carbonate, hydroxide and sulfur content of the anodes changes with aging times and temperatures, but not in a monotonic fashion that could be correlated to phase evolution. Bands associated with sulfur species were only observed in anodes taken from batteries aged in wet environments, providing further evidence for a reaction pathway facilitated by H2S transport from the cathode, through the separator, to the anode. Loss of battery capacity with accelerated aging in wet environments was correlated to loss of FeS2 in the catholyte pellets, suggesting that the major contribution to battery performance degradation results from loss of active cathode material.