WorldWideScience

Sample records for vivo genotoxicity testing

  1. The use of ex vivo human skin tissue for genotoxicity testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reus, Astrid A.; Usta, Mustafa [TNO Triskelion BV, Utrechtseweg 48, 3704 HE, Zeist (Netherlands); Krul, Cyrille A.M., E-mail: cyrille.krul@tno.nl [TNO, Utrechtseweg 48, 3704 HE Zeist (Netherlands)

    2012-06-01

    As a result of the chemical legislation concerning the registration, evaluation, authorization and restriction of chemicals (REACH), and the Seventh Amendment to the Cosmetics Directive, which prohibits animal testing in Europe for cosmetics, alternative methods for safety evaluation of chemicals are urgently needed. Current in vitro genotoxicity assays are not sufficiently predictive for the in vivo situation, resulting in an unacceptably high number of misleading positives. For many chemicals and ingredients of personal care products the skin is the first site of contact, but there are no in vitro genotoxicity assays available in the skin for additional evaluation of positive or equivocal responses observed in regulatory in vitro genotoxicity assays. In the present study ex vivo human skin tissue obtained from surgery was used for genotoxicity evaluation of chemicals by using the comet assay. Fresh ex vivo human skin tissue was cultured in an air–liquid interface and topically exposed to 20 chemicals, including true positive, misleading positive and true negative genotoxins. Based on the results obtained in the present study, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the ex vivo skin comet assay to predict in vivo genotoxicity were 89%, 90% and 89%, respectively. Donor and experimental variability were mainly reflected in the magnitude of the response and not the difference between the presence and absence of a genotoxic response. The present study indicates that human skin obtained from surgery is a promising and robust model for safety evaluation of chemicals that are in direct contact with the skin. -- Highlights: ► We use human skin obtained from surgery for genotoxicity evaluation of chemicals. ► We use the comet assay as parameter for genotoxicity in ex vivo human skin. ► Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy to predict in vivo genotoxins are determined. ► Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy are 89%, 90% and 90%, respectively. ► The method

  2. The use of ex vivo human skin tissue for genotoxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reus, Astrid A.; Usta, Mustafa; Krul, Cyrille A.M.

    2012-01-01

    As a result of the chemical legislation concerning the registration, evaluation, authorization and restriction of chemicals (REACH), and the Seventh Amendment to the Cosmetics Directive, which prohibits animal testing in Europe for cosmetics, alternative methods for safety evaluation of chemicals are urgently needed. Current in vitro genotoxicity assays are not sufficiently predictive for the in vivo situation, resulting in an unacceptably high number of misleading positives. For many chemicals and ingredients of personal care products the skin is the first site of contact, but there are no in vitro genotoxicity assays available in the skin for additional evaluation of positive or equivocal responses observed in regulatory in vitro genotoxicity assays. In the present study ex vivo human skin tissue obtained from surgery was used for genotoxicity evaluation of chemicals by using the comet assay. Fresh ex vivo human skin tissue was cultured in an air–liquid interface and topically exposed to 20 chemicals, including true positive, misleading positive and true negative genotoxins. Based on the results obtained in the present study, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the ex vivo skin comet assay to predict in vivo genotoxicity were 89%, 90% and 89%, respectively. Donor and experimental variability were mainly reflected in the magnitude of the response and not the difference between the presence and absence of a genotoxic response. The present study indicates that human skin obtained from surgery is a promising and robust model for safety evaluation of chemicals that are in direct contact with the skin. -- Highlights: ► We use human skin obtained from surgery for genotoxicity evaluation of chemicals. ► We use the comet assay as parameter for genotoxicity in ex vivo human skin. ► Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy to predict in vivo genotoxins are determined. ► Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy are 89%, 90% and 90%, respectively. ► The method

  3. High-throughput in vivo genotoxicity testing: an automated readout system for the somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Lombardot

    Full Text Available Genotoxicity testing is an important component of toxicity assessment. As illustrated by the European registration, evaluation, authorization, and restriction of chemicals (REACH directive, it concerns all the chemicals used in industry. The commonly used in vivo mammalian tests appear to be ill adapted to tackle the large compound sets involved, due to throughput, cost, and ethical issues. The somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART represents a more scalable alternative, since it uses Drosophila, which develops faster and requires less infrastructure. Despite these advantages, the manual scoring of the hairs on Drosophila wings required for the SMART limits its usage. To overcome this limitation, we have developed an automated SMART readout. It consists of automated imaging, followed by an image analysis pipeline that measures individual wing genotoxicity scores. Finally, we have developed a wing score-based dose-dependency approach that can provide genotoxicity profiles. We have validated our method using 6 compounds, obtaining profiles almost identical to those obtained from manual measures, even for low-genotoxicity compounds such as urethane. The automated SMART, with its faster and more reliable readout, fulfills the need for a high-throughput in vivo test. The flexible imaging strategy we describe and the analysis tools we provide should facilitate the optimization and dissemination of our methods.

  4. The current limitations of in vitro genotoxicity testing and their relevance to the in vivo situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesslany, Fabrice

    2017-08-01

    The standard regulatory core battery of genotoxicity tests generally includes 2 or 3 validated tests with at least one in vitro test in bacteria and one in vitro test on cell cultures. However, limitations in in vitro genotoxicity testing may exist at many levels. The knowledge of the underlying mechanisms of genotoxicity is particularly useful to assess the level of relevance for the in vivo situation. In order to avoid wrong conclusions regarding the actual genotoxicity status of any test substance, it appears very important to be aware of the various origins of related bias leading to 'false positives and negatives' by using in vitro methods. Among these, mention may be made on the metabolic activation system, experimental (extreme) conditions, specificities of the test systems implemented, cell type used etc. The knowledge of the actual 'limits' of the in vitro test systems used is clearly an advantage and may contribute to avoid some pitfalls in order to better assess the level of relevance for the in vivo situation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Evaluation of genotoxicity of nitrile fragrance ingredients using in vitro and in vivo assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, S P; Politano, V T; Api, A M

    2013-09-01

    Genotoxicity studies were conducted on a group of 8 fragrance ingredients that belong to the nitrile family. These nitriles are widely used in consumer products however there is very limited data in the literature regarding the genotoxicity of these nitriles. The 8 nitriles were assessed for genotoxicity using an Ames test, in vitro chromosome aberration test or in vitro micronucleus test. The positive results observed in the in vitro tests were further investigated using an in vivo micronucleus test. The results from these different tests were compared and these 8 nitriles are not considered to be genotoxic. Dodecanitrile and 2,2,3-trimethylcyclopent-3-enylacetonitrile were negative in the in vitro chromosome aberration test and in vitro micronucleus test, respectively. While citronellyl nitrile, 3-methyl-5-phenylpentanenitrile, cinnamyl nitrile, and 3-methyl-5-phenylpent-2-enenitrile revealed positive results in the in vitro tests, but confirmatory in vivo tests determined these nitriles to be negative in the in vivo micronucleus assay. The remaining two nitriles (benzonitrile and α-cyclohexylidene benzeneacetonitrile) were negative in the in vivo micronucleus test. This study aims to evaluate the genotoxicity potential of these nitriles as well as enrich the literature with genotoxicity data on fragrance ingredients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. In vitro and in vivo genotoxic evaluation of Bothrops moojeni snake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak Zobiole, Nathalia; Caon, Thiago; Wildgrube Bertol, Jéssica; Pereira, Cintia Alves de Souza; Okubo, Brunna Mary; Moreno, Susana Elisa; Cardozo, Francielle Tramontini Gomes de Sousa

    2015-06-01

    Bothrops moojeni Hoge (Viperidae) venom is a complex mixture of compounds with therapeutic potential that has been included in the research and development of new drugs. Along with the biological activity, the pharmaceutical applicability of this venom depends on its toxicological profile. This study evaluates the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of the Bothrops moojeni venom (BMV). The in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of a pooled sample of BMV was assessed by the MTT and Comet assay, respectively. Genotoxicity was also evaluated in vivo through the micronucleus assay. BMV displayed a 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) on Vero cells of 4.09 µg/mL. Vero cells treated with 4 µg/mL for 90 min and 6 h presented significant (p < 0.05, ANOVA/Newman-Keuls test) higher DNA damage than the negative control in the Comet assay. The lower DNA damage found after 6 h compared with the 90 min treatment suggests a DNA repair effect. Mice intraperitoneally treated with BMV at 10, 30, or 80 µg/animal presented significant genotoxicity (p < 0.05, ANOVA/Newman-Keuls test) in relation to the negative control after 24 h of treatment. Contrary to the in vitro results, no DNA repair seemed to occur in vivo up to 96 h post-venom inoculation at a dose of 30 µg/animal. The results show that BMV presents cyto- and genotoxicity depending on the concentration/dose used. These findings emphasize the importance of toxicological studies, including assessment of genotoxicity, in the biological activity research of BMV and/or in the development of BMV-derived products.

  7. In vitro and in vivo genotoxicity assessment of HI-6 dimethanesulfonate/oxime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakab, Lauren; Bardot, Isabelle; Bardot, Sébastien; Simar, Sophie; Marzin, Daniel; Nesslany, Fabrice

    2014-03-01

    Organophosphate compounds, which induce organophosphate poisoning, were originally used as pesticides. But this type of product has also been used as warfare nerve agent like sarin, soman, Russian VX, or tabun. HI-6-dimethanesulfonate is a salt of the oxime HI-6 used in the treatment of nerve-agent poisoning. It is known to be the best re-activator component of inactivated acetyl cholinesterase. HI-6-dimethanesulfonate has shown a higher level of solubility with similar potency to reactivate acetyl cholinesterase and a similar pharmacokinetics profile compared with HI-6 dichloride. HI-6 dimethanesulfonate was tested for its mutagenic and genotoxic potential by use of the standard ICH S2R (1) battery for the evaluation of pharmaceuticals. HI-6-dimethanesulfonate was mutagenic in the Ames test only in the presence of metabolic activation. In the mutation assay at the Tk locus in L5178Y mouse-lymphoma cells, HI-6-dimethanesulfonate showed mutagenic activity both with and without metabolic activation, with a significant increase in small colonies. The effects were in favour of a clastogenic activity. It was concluded that the compound was mutagenic and possibly clastogenic in vitro. In contrast, the in vivo micronucleus test in rat bone-marrow did not demonstrate any genotoxic activity and the Comet assay performed in rat liver did not show any statistically or biologically significant increases in DNA strand-breaks. The results of both in vivo studies performed on two different organs with two endpoints are sufficient to conclude the absence of a genotoxic hazard in vivo and to consider that there is no genotoxic concern in humans for HI-6-dimethanesulfonate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. In vivo genotoxicity evaluation of an artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) aqueous extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zan, Meriele A; Ferraz, Alexandre B F; Richter, Marc F; Picada, Jaqueline N; de Andrade, Heloisa H R; Lehmann, Mauricio; Dihl, Rafael R; Nunes, Emilene; Semedo, Juliane; Da Silva, Juliana

    2013-02-01

    The Cynara scolymus (artichoke) is widely consumed as tea or food and shows important therapeutic properties. However, few studies have assessed the possible toxic effects of artichoke extracts. This study evaluates genotoxic and mutagenic activities of artichoke leaf aqueous extract in mice using the comet assay and the micronucleus test. Leaf extracts were given by gavage (500 mg/kg, 1000 mg/kg, and 2000 mg/kg) for 3 consecutive days. Extract composition was investigated using phytochemical screening and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In addition, antioxidant capacity was analyzed through the diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and xanthine oxidase assay. Phytochemical screening detected the presence of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and saponins. HPLC analyses indicated the presence of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, isoquercetrin, and rutin. Extracts showed a dose-dependent free radical scavenging effect of DPPH and an inhibitory effect of xanthine oxidase. The genotoxic results showed that leaf extracts did not increase micronuclei in peripheral blood cells. Compared to the control group, a significant increase in comet assay values was observed only in bone marrow of group treated with 2000 mg/kg, the highest dose tested, indicating that artichoke tea should be consumed with moderation. This is the first report of in vivo mutagenic and genotoxic evaluation with C. scolymus. The present study revealed leaf aqueous extract from artichoke shows lack of mutagenicity in vivo, and low genotoxicity and antioxidant activity; indicating that artichoke tea should be consumed with moderation. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Evaluation of genotoxic effect of silver nanoparticles (Ag-Nps) in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Priscila; Balbinot, Fernanda; Martins de Oliveira, Hugo; Elibio Fagundes, Gabriela; Venâncio, Mireli; Vieira Ronconi, João Vitor; Merlini, Aline; Streck, Emílio L.; Marques da Silva, Paula; Moraes de Andrade, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are the most prominent nanoproducts. Due to their antimicrobial activity, they have been incorporated in different materials, such as catheters, clothes, electric home appliance, and many others. The genotoxicity of Ag-NPs (5–45 nm), in different concentrations and times of exposure, was evaluated by the comet assay in in vitro and in vivo conditions, respectively, using human peripheral blood and Swiss mice. The results showed the genotoxic effect of Ag-NPs in vitro, in all the doses tested in the initial hour of exposure, possibly through the reactive oxygen species generation. Nevertheless, the values for this damage decrease with time, indicating that the DNA may have been restored by the repair system. In the in vivo conditions, we found no genotoxicity of Ag-NPs in any hour of exposure and any dose investigated, which can be attributed to the activation of a cellular antioxidant network and the hydrophobic nature of Ag-NPs. Now, it is absolutely necessary to investigate the role of Ag-NPs in different cell lines in vivo.

  10. Evaluation of genotoxic effect of silver nanoparticles (Ag-Nps) in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, Priscila; Balbinot, Fernanda; Martins de Oliveira, Hugo; Elibio Fagundes, Gabriela [PPGCS, Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Laboratorio de Biologia Celular e Molecular (Brazil); Venancio, Mireli; Vieira Ronconi, Joao Vitor; Merlini, Aline [Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Laboratorio de Sintese de Complexos Multifuncionais (Brazil); Streck, Emilio L. [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Unidade Academica de Ciencias da Saude, Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Laboratorio de Fisiopatologia Experimental (Brazil); Marques da Silva, Paula [Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Laboratorio de Sintese de Complexos Multifuncionais (Brazil); Moraes de Andrade, Vanessa, E-mail: vmoraesdeandrade@yahoo.com.br [PPGCS, Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Laboratorio de Biologia Celular e Molecular (Brazil)

    2012-03-15

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are the most prominent nanoproducts. Due to their antimicrobial activity, they have been incorporated in different materials, such as catheters, clothes, electric home appliance, and many others. The genotoxicity of Ag-NPs (5-45 nm), in different concentrations and times of exposure, was evaluated by the comet assay in in vitro and in vivo conditions, respectively, using human peripheral blood and Swiss mice. The results showed the genotoxic effect of Ag-NPs in vitro, in all the doses tested in the initial hour of exposure, possibly through the reactive oxygen species generation. Nevertheless, the values for this damage decrease with time, indicating that the DNA may have been restored by the repair system. In the in vivo conditions, we found no genotoxicity of Ag-NPs in any hour of exposure and any dose investigated, which can be attributed to the activation of a cellular antioxidant network and the hydrophobic nature of Ag-NPs. Now, it is absolutely necessary to investigate the role of Ag-NPs in different cell lines in vivo.

  11. Use of a standardized JaCVAM in vivo rat comet assay protocol to assess the genotoxicity of three coded test compounds; ampicillin trihydrate, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride, and N-nitrosodimethylamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamee, J P; Bellier, P V

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay (comet assay), our laboratory examined ampicillin trihydrate (AMP), 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH), and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDA) using a standard comet assay validation protocol (v14.2) developed by the JaCVAM validation management team (VMT). Coded samples were received by our laboratory along with basic MSDS information. Solubility analysis and range-finding experiments of the coded test compounds were conducted for dose selection. Animal dosing schedules, the comet assay processing and analysis, and statistical analysis were conducted in accordance with the standard protocol. Based upon our blinded evaluation, AMP was not found to exhibit evidence of genotoxicity in either the rat liver or stomach. However, both NDA and DMH were observed to cause a significant increase in % tail DNA in the rat liver at all dose levels tested. While acute hepatoxicity was observed for these compounds in the high dose group, in the investigators opinion there were a sufficient number of consistently damaged/measurable cells at the medium and low dose groups to judge these compounds as genotoxic. There was no evidence of genotoxicity from either NDA or DMH in the rat stomach. In conclusion, our laboratory observed increased DNA damage from two blinded test compounds in rat liver (later identified as genotoxic carcinogens), while no evidence of genotoxicity was observed for the third blinded test compound (later identified as a non-genotoxic, non-carcinogen). This data supports the use of a standardized protocol of the in vivo comet assay as a cost-effective alternative genotoxicity assay for regulatory testing purposes. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. In vitro and in vivo genotoxic effects of somatic cell nuclear transfer cloned cattle meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nam-Jin; Yang, Byoung-Chul; Jung, Yu-Ri; Lee, Jung-Won; Im, Gi-Sun; Seong, Hwan-Hoo; Park, Jin-Ki; Kang, Jong-Koo; Hwang, Seongsoo

    2011-09-01

    Although the nutritional composition and health status after consumption of the meat and milk derived from both conventionally bred (normal) and somatic cell nuclear transferred (cloned) animals and their progeny are not different, little is known about their food safeties like genetic toxicity. This study is performed to examine both in vitro (bacterial mutation and chromosome aberration) and in vivo (micronucleus) genotoxicity studies of cloned cattle meat. The concentrations of both normal and cloned cattle meat extracts (0-10×) were tested to five strains of bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium: TA98, TA100, TA1535, and TA1537; Escherichia coli: WP2uvrA) for bacterial mutation and to Chinese hamster lung (CHL/IU) cells for chromosome aberration, respectively. For micronucleus test, ICR mice were divided into five dietary groups: commercial pellets (control), pellets containing 5% (N-5) and 10% (N-10) normal cattle meat, and pellets containing 5% (C-5) and 10% (C-10) cloned cattle meat. No test substance-related genotoxicity was noted in the five bacterial strains, CHL/IU cells, or mouse bone marrow cells, suggesting that the cloned cattle meat potentially may be safe in terms of mutagenic hazards. Thus, it can be postulated that the cloned cattle meat do not induce any harmful genotoxic effects in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity of single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Sik; Song, Kyung Seuk; Yu, Il Je

    2015-08-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have extensive potential industrial applications due to their unique physical and chemical properties; yet this also increases the chance of human and environment exposure to SWCNTs. Due to the current lack of hazardous effect information on SWNCTs, a standardized genotoxicity battery test was conducted to clarify the genetic toxicity potential of SWCNTs (diameter: 1-1.2 nm, length: ∼20 μm) according to Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development test guidelines 471 (bacterial reverse mutation test), 473 (in vitro chromosome aberration test), and 474 (in vivo micronuclei test) with a good laboratory practice system. The test results showed that the SWCNTs did not induce significant bacterial reverse mutations at 31.3-500 μg/plate in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA100, TA1535, and TA1537 or in Escherichia coli strain WP2uvrA, with and without a metabolic activation system. Furthermore, the in vitro chromosome aberration test showed no significant increase in structural or numerical chromosome aberration frequencies at SWCNT dose levels of 12.5-50 μg/ml in the presence and absence of metabolic activation. However, dose-dependent cell growth inhibition was found at all the SWCNT dose levels and statistically significant cytotoxic effects observed at certain concentrations in the presence and absence of metabolic activation. Finally, the SWCNTs did not evoke significant in vivo micronuclei frequencies in the polychromatic erythrocytes of an imprinting control region mice at 25-100 mg/kg. Thus, according to the results of the present study, the SWCNTs were not found to have a genotoxic effect on the in vitro and in vivo test systems. © The Author(s) 2013.

  14. Lack of genotoxicity in vivo for food color additive Tartrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastaki, Maria; Farrell, Thomas; Bhusari, Sachin; Pant, Kamala; Kulkarni, Rohan

    2017-07-01

    Tartrazine is approved as a food color additive internationally with INS number 102, in the United States as food color subject to batch certification "Food, Drug, and Cosmetic" (FD&C) Yellow No. 5, and in Europe as food color additive with E number 102. In their evaluation of the color (2013), the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) expressed concerns of potential genotoxicity, based primarily on one genotoxicity study that was not conducted according to Guidelines. The present in vivo genotoxicity study was conducted according to OECD Guidelines in response to EFSA's request for additional data. The animal species and strain, and the tissues examined were selected specifically to address the previously reported findings. The results of this study show clear absence of genotoxic activity for Tartrazine, in the bone marrow micronucleus assay and the Comet assay in the liver, stomach, and colon. These data addressed EFSA's concerns for genotoxicity. The Joint WHO/FAO Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) (2016) also reviewed these data and concluded that there is no genotoxicity concern for Tartrazine. Negative findings in parallel genotoxicity studies on Allura Red AC and Ponceau 4R (published separately) are consistent with lack of genotoxicity for azo dyes used as food colors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Current investigations into the genotoxicity of zinc oxide and silica nanoparticles in mammalian models in vitro and in vivo: carcinogenic/genotoxic potential, relevant mechanisms and biomarkers, artifacts, and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon JY

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jee Young Kwon,1,* Preeyaporn Koedrith,2,* Young Rok Seo1 1Department of Life Science, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Dongguk University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2Faculty of Environment and Resource Studies, Mahidol University, Phuttamonthon District, NakhonPathom, Thailand *These authors contributed equally to this work and should be considered as co-first authors Abstract: Engineered nanoparticles (NPs are widely used in many sectors, such as food, medicine, military, and sport, but their unique characteristics may cause deleterious health effects. Close attention is being paid to metal NP genotoxicity; however, NP genotoxic/carcinogenic effects and the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In this review, we address some metal and metal oxide NPs of interest and current genotoxicity tests in vitro and in vivo. Metal NPs can cause DNA damage such as chromosomal aberrations, DNA strand breaks, oxidative DNA damage, and mutations. We also discuss several parameters that may affect genotoxic response, including physicochemical properties, widely used assays/end point tests, and experimental conditions. Although potential biomarkers of nanogenotoxicity or carcinogenicity are suggested, inconsistent findings in the literature render results inconclusive due to a variety of factors. Advantages and limitations related to different methods for investigating genotoxicity are described, and future directions and recommendations for better understanding genotoxic potential are addressed. Keywords: carcinogenicity, exposure assessment, genotoxicity, nanoparticles, risk evaluation

  16. Assessment of the in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity of extracts and indole monoterpene alkaloid from the roots of Galianthe thalictroides (Rubiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, L M; Garcez, W S; Mantovani, M S; Figueiredo, P O; Fernandes, C A; Garcez, F R; Guterres, Z R

    2013-09-01

    Roots of Galianthe thalictroides K. Schum. (Rubiaceae) are used in folk medicine in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, for treating and preventing cancer. To gain information about the genotoxicity of extracts (aqueous and EtOH), the CHCl₃ phase resulting from partition of the EtOH extract and the indole monoterpene alkaloid 1 obtained from this plant. The genotoxicity of 1 and extracts was evaluated in vivo through the Drosophila melanogaster wing Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test - SMART, while in vitro cytotoxic (MTT) and Comet assays were performed only with alkaloid 1. The results obtained with the SMART test indicated that the aqueous extract had no genotoxic activity. The EtOH extract was not genotoxic to ST descendants but genotoxic to HB ones. The CHCl₃ phase was genotoxic and cytotoxic. Alkaloid 1 showed significant mutational events with SMART, in the cytotoxicity assay (MTT), it showed a high cytotoxicity for human hepatoma cells (HepG2), whereas for the Comet assay, not showing genotoxic activity. The ethanol extract was shown to be genotoxic to HB descendants in the SMART assay, while the results obtained in this test for the monoterpene indole alkaloid 1 isolated from this extract. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of the in vivo and in vitro genotoxicity of glyphosate isopropylamine salt in three different organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Moya, Carlos; Silva, Mónica Reynoso; Ramírez, Carlos Valdez; Gallardo, David Gómez; Sánchez, Rafael León; Aguirre, Alejandro Canales; Velasco, Alfredo Feria

    2014-03-01

    There is considerable controversy with regard to the genotoxicity of glyphosate, with some reports stating that this compound is non-toxic for fish, birds and mammals. In this work, we used the comet assay to examine the genotoxicity of glyphosate isopropylamine (0.7, 7, 70 and 700 μM) in human lymphocytes, erythrocytes of Oreochromis niloticus and staminal nuclei of Tradescantia (4430) in vitro and in vivo. Cells, nuclei and fish that had and had not been exposed to 5 mM N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Significant (p cell types and organisms tested. Human lymphocytes and Tradescantia hairs showed lower genetic damage in vivo compared to in vitro, possibly because of efficient metabolization of the herbicide. In O. niloticus erythrocytes, significant (p cells and organisms studied at concentrations of 0.7-7 μM.

  18. A tiered approach to the use of alternatives to animal testing for the safety assessment of cosmetics: genotoxicity. A COLIPA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfuhler, Stefan; Kirst, Annette; Aardema, Marilyn; Banduhn, Norbert; Goebel, Carsten; Araki, Daisuke; Costabel-Farkas, Margit; Dufour, Eric; Fautz, Rolf; Harvey, James; Hewitt, Nicola J; Hibatallah, Jalila; Carmichael, Paul; Macfarlane, Martin; Reisinger, Kerstin; Rowland, Joanna; Schellauf, Florian; Schepky, Andreas; Scheel, Julia

    2010-01-01

    For the assessment of genotoxic effects of cosmetic ingredients, a number of well-established and regulatory accepted in vitro assays are in place. A caveat to the use of these assays is their relatively low specificity and high rate of false or misleading positive results. Due to the 7th amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive ban on in vivo genotoxicity testing for cosmetics that was enacted March 2009, it is no longer possible to conduct follow-up in vivo genotoxicity tests for cosmetic ingredients positive in in vitro genotoxicity tests to further assess the relevance of the in vitro findings. COLIPA, the European Cosmetics Association, has initiated a research programme to improve existing and develop new in vitro methods. A COLIPA workshop was held in Brussels in April 2008 to analyse the best possible use of available methods and approaches to enable a sound assessment of the genotoxic hazard of cosmetic ingredients. Common approaches of cosmetic companies are described, with recommendations for evaluating in vitro genotoxins using non-animal approaches. A weight of evidence approach was employed to set up a decision-tree for the integration of alternative methods into tiered testing strategies. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Genotoxicity evaluation of alpha-linolenic acid-diacylglycerol oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Honda

    Full Text Available The alpha-linolenic acid (ALA-diacylglycerol (DAG oil is an edible oil enriched with DAG (>80% and ALA (>50%. Although DAG oil, which mainly consists of oleic and linoleic acids has no genotoxic concerns, the fatty acid composition could affect the chemical property of DAG. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of ALA-DAG oil using standard genotoxicity tests in accordance with the OECD guidelines. ALA-DAG oil showed negative results in the bacterial reverse mutation test (Ames test and in vitro micronucleus test in cultured Chinese hamster lung cells with and without metabolic activation, and in the in vivo bone marrow micronucleus test in mice. Our results did not show any genotoxicity, suggesting that the fatty acid composition had no deleterious effects. We conclude that ALA-DAG oil had no genotoxicity concerns under the testing conditions. Keywords: Alpha-linolenic acid-rich diacylglycerol, Diacylglycerol, Alpha-linolenic acid, Fatty acid composition, Genotoxicity

  20. In vivo genotoxicity of nitramines, transformation products of amine-based carbon capture technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Coutris

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In times where we need to reduce our CO2 emissions to the atmosphere, it is important to get a clearer picture of the environmental impacts associated with potential mitigation technologies. Chemical absorption with amines is emerging as the most advanced mitigation technology for post-combustion capture of CO2 from fossil fuel power stations. Although the amine solvent used in this technology is recycled during the capture process, degradation products are formed and released into the environment. Among these degradation products, the aliphatic nitramine compounds dimethylnitramine and ethanolnitramine have been identified, whose environmental impact was unknown. In addition to conducting survival, growth and reproduction tests in a range of marine species, we looked into the in vivo genotoxic potential of these two compounds to experimentally exposed fish (Coutris et al. 2015. DNA damage was analyzed in blood samples collected from the caudal vein of juvenile turbot Scophthalmus maximus after 28 day exposure to nitramines, using the 12 mini-gels version of the comet assay, with and without digestion with formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase. Although whole organism bioassays indicated that nitramine toxicity through necrosis was low, the genotoxicity assessment revealed contrasting results, with ethanolnitramine found to be more genotoxic than dimethylnitramine by three orders of magnitude. At the lowest ethanolnitramine concentration (1 mg/L, 84 % DNA damage was observed, whereas 100 mg/L dimethylnitramine was required to cause 37 % DNA damage. The mechanisms of genotoxicity were also shown to differ between the two compounds, with oxidation of the DNA bases responsible for over 90 % of the genotoxicity of dimethylnitramine, whereas DNA strand breaks and alkali-labile sites were responsible for over 90 % of the genotoxicity of ethanolnitramine. Fish exposed to > 3 mg/L ethanolnitramine had virtually no DNA left in their red blood cells. The

  1. Protective effects of acerola juice on genotoxicity induced by iron in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Nunes Horta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Metal ions such as iron can induce DNA damage by inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS and oxidative stress. Vitamin C is one of the most widely consumed antioxidants worldwide, present in many fruits and vegetables, especially inMalpighia glabra L., popularly known as acerola, native to Brazil. Acerola is considered a functional fruit due to its high antioxidant properties and phenolic contents, and therefore is consumed to prevent diseases or as adjuvant in treatment strategies. Here, the influence of ripe and unripe acerola juices on iron genotoxicity was analyzed in vivo using the comet assay and micronucleus test. The comet assay results showed that acerola juice exerted no genotoxic or antigenotoxic activity. Neither ripe nor unripe acerola juices were mutagenic to animals treated with juices, in micronucleus test. However, when compared to iron group, the pre-treatment with acerola juices exerted antimutagenic activity, decreasing significantly micronucleus mean values in bone marrow. Stage of ripeness did not influence the interaction of acerola compounds with DNA, and both ripe and unripe acerola juices exerted protective effect over DNA damage generated by iron.

  2. Genotoxic and Antigenotoxic Assessment of Chios Mastic Oil by the In Vitro Micronucleus Test on Human Lymphocytes and the In Vivo Wing Somatic Test on Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Vlastos

    Full Text Available Chios mastic oil (CMO, the essential oil derived from Pistacia lentiscus (L. var. chia (Duham, has generated considerable interest because of its antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant and other beneficial properties. In the present study, the potential genotoxic activity of CMO as well as its antigenotoxic properties against the mutagenic agent mitomycin-C (MMC were evaluated by employing the in vitro Cytokinesis Block MicroNucleus (CBMN assay and the in vivo Somatic Mutation And Recombination Test (SMART. In the in vitro experiments, lymphocytes were treated with 0.01, 0.05 and 0.10% (v/v of CMO with or without 0.05 μg/ml MMC, while in the in vivo assay Drosophila larvae were fed with 0.05, 0.10, 0.50 and 1.00% (v/v of CMO with or without 2.50 μg/ml MMC. CMO did not significantly increase the frequency of micronuclei (MN or total wing spots, indicating lack of mutagenic or recombinogenic activity. However, the in vitro analysis suggested cytotoxic activity of CMO. The simultaneous administration of MMC with CMO did not alter considerably the frequencies of MMC-induced MN and wing spots showing that CMO doesn't exert antigenotoxic or antirecombinogenic action. Therefore, CMO could be considered as a safe product in terms of genotoxic potential. Even though it could not afford any protection against DNA damage, at least under our experimental conditions, its cytotoxic potential could be of interest.

  3. "Aspartame: A review of genotoxicity data".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, David; Gatehouse, David

    2015-10-01

    Aspartame is a methyl ester of a dipeptide of aspartic acid and phenylalanine. It is 200× sweeter than sucrose and is approved for use in food products in more than 90 countries around the world. Aspartame has been evaluated for genotoxic effects in microbial, cell culture and animal models, and has been subjected to a number of carcinogenicity studies. The in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity data available on aspartame are considered sufficient for a thorough evaluation. There is no evidence of induction of gene mutations in a series of bacterial mutation tests. There is some evidence of induction of chromosomal damage in vitro, but this may be an indirect consequence of cytotoxicity. The weight of evidence from in vivo bone marrow micronucleus, chromosomal aberration and Comet assays is that aspartame is not genotoxic in somatic cells in vivo. The results of germ cell assays are difficult to evaluate considering limited data available and deviations from standard protocols. The available data therefore support the conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) that aspartame is non-genotoxic. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. The comet assay in testing the potential genotoxicity of nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaya Azqueta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades the production and use of nanomaterials (NMs has impressively increased. Their small size, given a mass equal to that of the corresponding bulk material, implies an increase in the surface area and consequently in the number of atoms that can be reactive. They possess different physical, chemical and biological properties compared to bulk materials of the same composition, which makes them very interesting and valuable for many different applications in technology, energy, construction, electronics, agriculture, optics, paints, textiles, food, cosmetics, medicine... Toxicological assessment of NMs is crucial; the same properties that make them interesting also make them potentially harmful for health and the environment. However, the term NM covers many different kinds of particle , and so there is no simple, standard approach to assessing their toxicity. NMs can enter the cell, interact with cell components and even penetrate the nucleus and interfere with the genetic material. Among the different branches of toxicology, genotoxicity is a main area of concern since it is closely related with the carcinogenic potential of compounds. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD has published internationally agreed in vitro and in vivo validated test methods to evaluate different genotoxic endpoints of chemicals, including chromosome and gene mutations, and DNA breaks. However not all the assays are suitable to study the genotoxic potential of NMs as has been shown by the OECD Working Party on Manufactured Nanomaterials (WPMN. Moreover, alterations to DNA bases, which are precursors to mutations and of great importance in elucidating the mechanism of action of NMs, are not covered by the OECD guidelines. The in vivo standard comet assay (which measures DNA breaks and alkali-labile sites was included in the OECD assays battery in September 2014 while the in vitro standard comet assay is currently under

  5. The Cosmetics Europe strategy for animal-free genotoxicity testing: project status up-date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfuhler, S; Fautz, R; Ouedraogo, G; Latil, A; Kenny, J; Moore, C; Diembeck, W; Hewitt, N J; Reisinger, K; Barroso, J

    2014-02-01

    The Cosmetics Europe (formerly COLIPA) Genotoxicity Task Force has driven and funded three projects to help address the high rate of misleading positives in in vitro genotoxicity tests: The completed "False Positives" project optimized current mammalian cell assays and showed that the predictive capacity of the in vitro micronucleus assay was improved dramatically by selecting more relevant cells and more sensitive toxicity measures. The on-going "3D skin model" project has been developed and is now validating the use of human reconstructed skin (RS) models in combination with the micronucleus (MN) and Comet assays. These models better reflect the in use conditions of dermally applied products, such as cosmetics. Both assays have demonstrated good inter- and intra-laboratory reproducibility and are entering validation stages. The completed "Metabolism" project investigated enzyme capacities of human skin and RS models. The RS models were shown to have comparable metabolic capacity to native human skin, confirming their usefulness for testing of compounds with dermal exposure. The program has already helped to improve the initial test battery predictivity and the RS projects have provided sound support for their use as a follow-up test in the assessment of the genotoxic hazard of cosmetic ingredients in the absence of in vivo data. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. In vivo genotoxic effects of dietary heme iron on rat colon mucosa and ex vivo effects on colon cells monitored by an optimized alkaline comet assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Océane, C Martin

    2015-04-01

    In conclusion, our results offer a suitable protocol to evaluate genotoxicity on in vivo cryopreserved colon mucosa and on in vitro murine colonic cells, with a middle throughput capacity. This protocol confirms the increase of genotoxicity in rat colon mucosa after an heme-iron diet. Moreover, this protocol enables the demonstration that aldehydes from heme-induced lipoperoxidation are responsible for this increase of genotoxicity.

  7. Genotoxicity test of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Noriho

    2004-01-01

    Safety tests of radiation irradiated foods started as early as from 1967 in Japan and genotoxicity tests in the Hatano Res. Inst., from 1977. The latter is unique in the world and is reviewed in this paper. Tests included those for the initial injury of DNA, mutagenicity, chromosomal aberration and transformation with use of bacteria, cultured mammalian cells and animals (for chromosomal aberration, micronucleus formation and dominant lethality). Foods tested hitherto were onion, rice, wheat and flour, Vienna sausage, fish sausage (kamaboko), mandarian orange, potato, black pepper and red capsicum, of which extract or powder was subjected to the test. Irradiation doses and its purposes were 0.15-6 kGy γ-ray ( 60 Co) or electron beam by the accelerator (only for the orange), and suppression of germination, pesticide action or sterilization, respectively. Genotoxicity of all foods under tested conditions is shown negative. (N.I.)

  8. In vivo genotoxicity assessment in rats exposed to Prestige-like oil by inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdiglesias, Vanessa; Kiliç, Gözde; Costa, Carla; Amor-Carro, Óscar; Mariñas-Pardo, Luis; Ramos-Barbón, David; Méndez, Josefina; Pásaro, Eduardo; Laffon, Blanca

    2012-01-01

    One of the largest oil spill disasters in recent times was the accident of the oil tanker Prestige in front of the Galician coast in 2002. Thousands of people participated in the cleanup of the contaminated areas, being exposed to a complex mixture of toxic substances. Acute and prolonged respiratory symptoms and genotoxic effects were reported, although environmental exposure measurements were restricted to current determinations, such that attribution of effects observed to oil exposure is difficult to establish. The aim of this study was to analyze peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) harvested from a rat model of subchronic exposure to a fuel oil with similar characteristics to that spilled by the Prestige tanker, in order to determine potential genotoxic effects under strictly controlled, in vivo exposure. Wistar Han and Brown Norway rats were exposed to the oil for 3 wk, and micronucleus test (MN) and comet assay, standard and modified with 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) enzyme, were employed to assess genotoxicity 72 h and 15 d after the last exposure. In addition, the potential effects of oil exposure on DNA repair capacity were determined by means of mutagen sensitivity assay. Results obtained from this study showed that inhalation oil exposure induced DNA damage in both Brown Norway and Wistar Han rats, especially in those animals evaluated 15 d after exposure. Although alterations in the DNA repair responses were noted, the sensitivity to oil substances varied depending on rat strain. Data support previous positive genotoxicity results reported in humans exposed to Prestige oil during cleanup tasks.

  9. Compounds used to produce cloned animals are genotoxic and mutagenic in mammalian assays in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, R.J. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia Celular e Molecular, Instituto de Biociências de Rio Claro, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil); Centro de Estudos em Células Tronco, Terapia Celular e Genética Toxicológica, Núcleo de Hospital Universitário, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS (Brazil); Programa de Pós-Graduação em Saúde em Desenvolvimento na Região Centro-Oeste, Faculdade de Medicina “Dr. Hélio Mandetta”, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS (Brazil); Programa de Mestrado em Farmácia, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS (Brazil); Mantovani, M.S.; Silva, A.F. da [Departamento de Biologia Geral, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Londrina, PR (Brazil); Pesarini, J.R. [Centro de Estudos em Células Tronco, Terapia Celular e Genética Toxicológica, Núcleo de Hospital Universitário, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS (Brazil); Programa de Pós-Graduação em Saúde em Desenvolvimento na Região Centro-Oeste, Faculdade de Medicina “Dr. Hélio Mandetta”, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS (Brazil); Mauro, M.O. [Centro de Estudos em Células Tronco, Terapia Celular e Genética Toxicológica, Núcleo de Hospital Universitário, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS (Brazil); Programa de Doutorado em Biotecnologia e Biodiversidade - Rede Pró Centro-Oeste, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS (Brazil); Ribeiro, L.R. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia Celular e Molecular, Instituto de Biociências de Rio Claro, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil); Programa de Pós-Graduação em Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2014-03-28

    The compounds 6-dimethylaminopurine and cycloheximide promote the successful production of cloned mammals and have been used in the development of embryos produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer. This study investigated the effects of 6-dimethylaminopurine and cycloheximide in vitro, using the thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide colorimetric assay to assess cytotoxicity, the trypan blue exclusion assay to assess cell viability, the comet assay to assess genotoxicity, and the micronucleus test with cytokinesis block to test mutagenicity. In addition, the comet assay and the micronucleus test were also performed on peripheral blood cells of 54 male Swiss mice, 35 g each, to assess the effects of the compounds in vivo. The results indicated that both 6-dimethylaminopurine and cycloheximide, at the concentrations and doses tested, were cytotoxic in vitro and genotoxic and mutagenic in vitro and in vivo, altered the nuclear division index in vitro, but did not diminish cell viability in vitro. Considering that alterations in DNA play important roles in mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, and morphofunctional teratogenesis and reduce embryonic viability, this study indicated that 6-dimethylaminopurine and cycloheximide utilized in the process of mammalian cloning may be responsible for the low embryo viability commonly seen in nuclear transfer after implantation in utero.

  10. Compounds used to produce cloned animals are genotoxic and mutagenic in mammalian assays in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.J. Oliveira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The compounds 6-dimethylaminopurine and cycloheximide promote the successful production of cloned mammals and have been used in the development of embryos produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer. This study investigated the effects of 6-dimethylaminopurine and cycloheximide in vitro, using the thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide colorimetric assay to assess cytotoxicity, the trypan blue exclusion assay to assess cell viability, the comet assay to assess genotoxicity, and the micronucleus test with cytokinesis block to test mutagenicity. In addition, the comet assay and the micronucleus test were also performed on peripheral blood cells of 54 male Swiss mice, 35 g each, to assess the effects of the compounds in vivo. The results indicated that both 6-dimethylaminopurine and cycloheximide, at the concentrations and doses tested, were cytotoxic in vitro and genotoxic and mutagenic in vitro and in vivo, altered the nuclear division index in vitro, but did not diminish cell viability in vitro. Considering that alterations in DNA play important roles in mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, and morphofunctional teratogenesis and reduce embryonic viability, this study indicated that 6-dimethylaminopurine and cycloheximide utilized in the process of mammalian cloning may be responsible for the low embryo viability commonly seen in nuclear transfer after implantation in utero.

  11. Compounds used to produce cloned animals are genotoxic and mutagenic in mammalian assays in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, R.J.; Mantovani, M.S.; Silva, A.F. da; Pesarini, J.R.; Mauro, M.O.; Ribeiro, L.R.

    2014-01-01

    The compounds 6-dimethylaminopurine and cycloheximide promote the successful production of cloned mammals and have been used in the development of embryos produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer. This study investigated the effects of 6-dimethylaminopurine and cycloheximide in vitro, using the thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide colorimetric assay to assess cytotoxicity, the trypan blue exclusion assay to assess cell viability, the comet assay to assess genotoxicity, and the micronucleus test with cytokinesis block to test mutagenicity. In addition, the comet assay and the micronucleus test were also performed on peripheral blood cells of 54 male Swiss mice, 35 g each, to assess the effects of the compounds in vivo. The results indicated that both 6-dimethylaminopurine and cycloheximide, at the concentrations and doses tested, were cytotoxic in vitro and genotoxic and mutagenic in vitro and in vivo, altered the nuclear division index in vitro, but did not diminish cell viability in vitro. Considering that alterations in DNA play important roles in mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, and morphofunctional teratogenesis and reduce embryonic viability, this study indicated that 6-dimethylaminopurine and cycloheximide utilized in the process of mammalian cloning may be responsible for the low embryo viability commonly seen in nuclear transfer after implantation in utero

  12. The Vitotox and ToxTracker assays: A two-test combination for quick and reliable assessment of genotoxic hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Gamze; Favyts, Dorien; Hendriks, Giel; Derr, Remco; Mertens, Birgit; Verschaeve, Luc; Rogiers, Vera; Y Doktorova, Tatyana

    2016-11-01

    To ensure safety for humans, it is essential to characterize the genotoxic potential of new chemical entities, such as pharmaceutical and cosmetic substances. In a first tier, a battery of in vitro tests is recommended by international regulatory agencies. However, these tests suffer from inadequate specificity: compounds may be wrongly categorized as genotoxic, resulting in unnecessary, time-consuming, and expensive in vivo follow-up testing. In the last decade, novel assays (notably, reporter-based assays) have been developed in an attempt to overcome these drawbacks. Here, we have investigated the performance of two in vitro reporter-based assays, Vitotox and ToxTracker. A set of reference compounds was selected to span a variety of mechanisms of genotoxic action and applicability domains (e.g., pharmaceutical and cosmetic ingredients). Combining the performance of the two assays, we achieved 93% sensitivity and 79% specificity for prediction of gentoxicity for this set of compounds. Both assays permit quick high-throughput analysis of drug candidates, while requiring only small quantities of the test substances. Our study shows that these two assays, when combined, can be a reliable method for assessment of genotoxicity hazard. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Genotoxicity tests on D-tagatose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, C L; Whittaker, M H; Frankos, V H

    1999-04-01

    D-tagatose is a low-calorie sweetener that tastes like sucrose. Its genotoxic potential was examined in five standard assays: the Ames Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay, the Escherichia coli/mammalian microsome assay, a chromosomal aberration assay in Chinese hamster ovary cells, a mouse lymphoma forward mutation assay, and an in vivo mouse micronucleus assay. D-tagatose was not found to increase the number of revertants per plate relative to vehicle controls in either the S. typhimurium tester strains or the WP2uvrA- tester strain with or without metabolic activation at doses up to 5000 microg/plate. No significant increase in Chinese hamster ovary cells with chromosomal aberrations was observed at concentrations up to 5000 microg/ml with or without metabolic activation. D-tagatose was not found to increase the mutant frequency in mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells with or without metabolic activation up to concentrations of 5000 microg/ml. D-tagatose caused no significant increase in micronuclei in bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes at doses up to 5000 mg/kg. D-tagatose was not found to be genotoxic under the conditions of any of the assays described above. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  14. In Vitro and In Vivo Genotoxicity Assessment of Aristolochia manshuriensis Kom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn-Hwan Hwang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arisolochiae species plants containing aristolochic acids I and II (AA I and AA II are well known to cause aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN. Recently, there are various approaches to use AAs-containing herbs after the removal of their toxic factors. However, there is little information about genotoxicity of Arisolochiae manshuriensis Kom. (AMK per se. To obtain safety information for AMK, its genotoxicity was evaluated in accordance with OECD guideline. To evaluate genotoxicity of AMK, we tested bacterial reverse mutation assay, chromosomal aberration test, and micronucleus test. Here, we also determined the amounts of AA I and II in AMK (2.85 ± 0.08 and 0.50 ± 0.02 mg/g extract, resp.. In bacterial reverse mutation assay, AMK dose-dependently increased revertant colony numbers in TA98, TA100 and TA1537 regardless of metabolic activation. AMK increased the incidence of chromosomal aberration in Chinese hamster ovary-K1 cells, but there was no statistically significant difference. The incidences of micronucleus in bone marrow erythrocyte were significantly increased in mice after oral administration of AMK (5000 mg/kg, comparing with those of vehicle group (P<0.05. The results of three standard tests suggest that the genotoxicity of AMK is directly related to the AAs contents in AMK.

  15. Assessment of the in vivo genotoxicity of cadmium chloride, chloroform, and D,L-menthol as coded test chemicals using the alkaline comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Kunio; Fukuyama, Tomoki; Nakashima, Nobuaki; Matsumoto, Kyomu

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM) international validation study of in vivo rat alkaline comet assays, we examined cadmium chloride, chloroform, and D,L-menthol under blind conditions as coded chemicals in the liver and stomach of Sprague-Dawley rats after 3 days of administration. Cadmium chloride showed equivocal responses in the liver and stomach, supporting previous reports of its poor mutagenic potential and non-carcinogenic effects in these organs. Treatment with chloroform, which is a non-genotoxic carcinogen, did not induce DNA damage in the liver or stomach. Some histopathological changes, such as necrosis and degeneration, were observed in the liver; however, they did not affect the comet assay results. D,L-Menthol, a non-genotoxic non-carcinogen, did not induce liver or stomach DNA damage. These results indicate that the comet assay can reflect genotoxic properties under blind conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Evalution of the genotoxic effects of tiamulin S-in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Marković Biljana; Stanimirović Zoran Ž.; Đelić Ninoslav J.

    2004-01-01

    In this work the genotoxic effect of the antibiotic preparation Tiamulin S was investigated. The experiments were done in vivo using cytogenetic analysis on BALB/c mouse bone marrow cells. The occurrence of chromosomal alterations was monitored in bone marrow and germ cells. The clastogenic effect of Tiamulin S was monitored at three doses (0.01 ml/kg, 0.2 ml/kg and 0.4 ml/kg) through eight experimental cycles. The results obtained showed that Tiamulin S induces kariotype changes including bo...

  17. Correlation of In Vivo Versus In Vitro Benchmark Doses (BMDs) Derived From Micronucleus Test Data: A Proof of Concept Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeteman-Hernández, Lya G; Fellows, Mick D; Johnson, George E; Slob, Wout

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we explored the applicability of using in vitro micronucleus (MN) data from human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells to derive in vivo genotoxicity potency information. Nineteen chemicals covering a broad spectrum of genotoxic modes of action were tested in an in vitro MN test using TK6 cells using the same study protocol. Several of these chemicals were considered to need metabolic activation, and these were administered in the presence of S9. The Benchmark dose (BMD) approach was applied using the dose-response modeling program PROAST to estimate the genotoxic potency from the in vitro data. The resulting in vitro BMDs were compared with previously derived BMDs from in vivo MN and carcinogenicity studies. A proportional correlation was observed between the BMDs from the in vitro MN and the BMDs from the in vivo MN assays. Further, a clear correlation was found between the BMDs from in vitro MN and the associated BMDs for malignant tumors. Although these results are based on only 19 compounds, they show that genotoxicity potencies estimated from in vitro tests may result in useful information regarding in vivo genotoxic potency, as well as expected cancer potency. Extension of the number of compounds and further investigation of metabolic activation (S9) and of other toxicokinetic factors would be needed to validate our initial conclusions. However, this initial work suggests that this approach could be used for in vitro to in vivo extrapolations which would support the reduction of animals used in research (3Rs: replacement, reduction, and refinement). © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology.

  18. Critical issues with the in vivo comet assay: A report of the comet assay working group in the 6th International Workshop on Genotoxicity Testing (IWGT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speit, Günter; Kojima, Hajime; Burlinson, Brian; Collins, Andrew R; Kasper, Peter; Plappert-Helbig, Ulla; Uno, Yoshifumi; Vasquez, Marie; Beevers, Carol; De Boeck, Marlies; Escobar, Patricia A; Kitamoto, Sachiko; Pant, Kamala; Pfuhler, Stefan; Tanaka, Jin; Levy, Dan D

    2015-05-01

    As a part of the 6th IWGT, an expert working group on the comet assay evaluated critical topics related to the use of the in vivo comet assay in regulatory genotoxicity testing. The areas covered were: identification of the domain of applicability and regulatory acceptance, identification of critical parameters of the protocol and attempts to standardize the assay, experience with combination and integration with other in vivo studies, demonstration of laboratory proficiency, sensitivity and power of the protocol used, use of different tissues, freezing of samples, and choice of appropriate measures of cytotoxicity. The standard protocol detects various types of DNA lesions but it does not detect all types of DNA damage. Modifications of the standard protocol may be used to detect additional types of specific DNA damage (e.g., cross-links, bulky adducts, oxidized bases). In addition, the working group identified critical parameters that should be carefully controlled and described in detail in every published study protocol. In vivo comet assay results are more reliable if they were obtained in laboratories that have demonstrated proficiency. This includes demonstration of adequate response to vehicle controls and an adequate response to a positive control for each tissue being examined. There was a general agreement that freezing of samples is an option but more data are needed in order to establish generally accepted protocols. With regard to tissue toxicity, the working group concluded that cytotoxicity could be a confounder of comet results. It is recommended to look at multiple parameters such as histopathological observations, organ-specific clinical chemistry as well as indicators of tissue inflammation to decide whether compound-specific toxicity might influence the result. The expert working group concluded that the alkaline in vivo comet assay is a mature test for the evaluation of genotoxicity and can be recommended to regulatory agencies for use

  19. Aspect ratio has no effect on genotoxicity of multi-wall carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Sik; Lee, Kyu; Lee, Young Hee; Cho, Hyun Sun; Kim, Ki Heon; Choi, Kyung Hee; Lee, Sang Hee; Song, Kyung Seuk; Kang, Chang Soo; Yu, Il Je

    2011-07-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have specific physico-chemical and electrical properties that are useful for telecommunications, medicine, materials, manufacturing processes and the environmental and energy sectors. Yet, despite their many advantages, it is also important to determine whether CNTs may represent a hazard to the environment and human health. Like asbestos, the aspect ratio (length:diameter) and metal components of CNTs are known to have an effect on the toxicity of carbon nanotubes. Thus, to evaluate the toxic potential of CNTs in relation to their aspect ratio and metal contamination, in vivo and in vitro genotoxicity tests were conducted using high-aspect-ratio (diameter: 10-15 nm, length: ~10 μm) and low-aspect-ratio multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs, diameter: 10-15 nm, length: ~150 nm) according to OECD test guidelines 471 (bacterial reverse mutation test), 473 (in vitro chromosome aberration test), and 474 (in vivo micronuclei test) with a good laboratory practice system. To determine the treatment concentration for all the tests, a solubility and dispersive test was performed, and a 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) solution found to be more suitable than distilled water. Neither the high- nor the low-aspect-ratio MWCNTs induced any genotoxicity in a bacterial reverse mutation test (~1,000 μg/plate), in vitro chromosome aberration test (without S9: ~6.25 μg/ml, with S9: ~50 μg/ml), or in vivo micronuclei test (~50 mg/kg). However, the high-aspect-ratio MWCNTs were found to be more toxic than the low-aspect-ratio MWCNTs. Thus, while high-aspect-ratio MWCNTs do not induce direct genotoxicity or metabolic activation-mediated genotoxicity, genotoxicity could still be induced indirectly through oxidative stress or inflammation.

  20. Acute genotoxicity analysis in vivo of the aqueous extract of Maytenus guyanensis Amazonian chichuá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionatas Ulises de Oliveira Meneguetti

    Full Text Available Abstract The species Maytenus guyanensis Klotzsch ex Reissek, Celastraceae, present a wide variety of possible pharmacological activities and its roots and stems are used by popular medicine in the western Amazon rainforest. Few studies have demonstrated the genotoxic safety of the popular use of this species, and owing to this, the present study aimed to perform an analysis of the acute genotoxicity in vivo of the aqueous extract of M. guyanensis. Male and female mice from Mus musculus species, of weights ranging from 20 to 40 g, organized in eight groups with different treatments were used. The aqueous extracts of the bark of M. guyanensis were administered orally by gavage with 0.1 ml of the test substance per 10 g of the animal, followed by performance of comet assay in peripheral blood, PCE/NCE correlation and occurrence of micronuclei in the bone marrow. It was found that the aqueous extract of M. guyanensis, with ten times higher concentration than those used in ethnopharmacology, did not present genotoxic effect and, moreover, it has antigenotoxic action in mice treated acutely. Further studies regarding bioaccumulation and chronic effects of this species are suggested, in order to improve the understanding of its mechanism of action, ensuring the efficacy and safety of its utilization and developing phytotherapics and drugs.

  1. Comparison of the in vivo and in vitro genotoxicity of glyphosate isopropylamine salt in three different organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alvarez-Moya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable controversy with regard to the genotoxicity of glyphosate, with some reports stating that this compound is non-toxic for fish, birds and mammals. In this work, we used the comet assay to examine the genotoxicity of glyphosate isopropylamine (0.7, 7, 70 and 700 µM in human lymphocytes, erythrocytes of Oreochromis niloticus and staminal nuclei of Tradescantia (4430 in vitro and in vivo. Cells, nuclei and fish that had and had not been exposed to 5 mM N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Significant (p 7 µM, whereas in vitro, glyphosphate was genotoxic in human lymphocytes and Tradescantia hairs at > 0.7 µM. These results indicate that glyphosate is genotoxic in the cells and organisms studied at concentrations of 0.7-7 µM.

  2. Detection of genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens in Xpc−/−p53+/− mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melis, Joost P.M.; Speksnijder, Ewoud N.; Kuiper, Raoul V.; Salvatori, Daniela C.F.; Schaap, Mirjam M.; Maas, Saskia; Robinson, Joke; Verhoef, Aart; Benthem, Jan van; Luijten, Mirjam; Steeg, Harry van

    2013-01-01

    An accurate assessment of the carcinogenic potential of chemicals and pharmaceutical drugs is essential to protect humans and the environment. Therefore, substances are extensively tested before they are marketed to the public. Currently, the rodent two-year bioassay is still routinely used to assess the carcinogenic potential of substances. However, over time it has become clear that this assay yields false positive results and also has several economic and ethical drawbacks including the use of large numbers of animals, the long duration, and the high cost. The need for a suitable alternative assay is therefore high. Previously, we have proposed the Xpa*p53 mouse model as a very suitable alternative to the two-year bioassay. We now show that the Xpc*p53 mouse model preserves all the beneficial traits of the Xpa*p53 model for sub-chronic carcinogen identification and can identify both genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens. Moreover, Xpc*p53 mice appear to be more responsive than Xpa*p53 mice towards several genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens. Furthermore, Xpc*p53 mice are far less sensitive than Xpa*p53 mice for the toxic activity of DNA damaging agents and as such clearly respond in a similar way as wild type mice do. These advantageous traits of the Xpc*p53 model make it a better alternative for in vivo carcinogen testing than Xpa*p53. This pilot study suggests that Xpc*p53 mice are suited for routine sub-chronic testing of both genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens and as such represent a suitable alternative to possibly replace the murine life time cancer bioassay. Highlights: ► The Xpc*p53 mouse model is able to identify genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens. ► Time, animals and cost can be significantly reduced compared to the 2-year bioassay. ► Xpc*p53 mice are more advantageous for carcinogen identification than Xpa*p53 mice. ► Xpc*p53 mice exhibit a wild type response upon exposure to genotoxicants.

  3. Genotoxic evaluation of two oral antidiabetic agents in the Drosophila wing spot test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürbüzel, Mehmet; Çapoğlu, Ilyas; Kızılet, Halit; Halıcı, Zekai; Özçiçek, Fatih; Demirtaş, Levent

    2014-05-01

    In this study, two sulfonylureas--glimepiride and glipizide--commonly used in type 2 diabetes mellitus were investigated for genotoxicity in the Drosophila wing spot test. For this purpose, three-day-old transheterozygous larvae were treated with three mutagenic compounds, and the results obtained were compared with the control group. Mutational or recombinogenic changes were recorded in two recessive genes--multiple wing hairs (mwh) and flare (flr (3)). Two recessive markers were located on the left arm of chromosome 3, mwh in map position 0.3, and flare-3 (flr3) at 38.8, while the centromere was located in position 47.7. Wing spot tests are targeted on the loss of heterozygosity, which may be grounded in different genetic mechanisms such as mutation, mitotic recombination, deletion, half-translocation, chromosome loss, or nondisjunction. Genetic changes formatting in somatic cells of the imaginal discs cause nascence different mutant cloning in different body parts of adult flies. Our in vivo experiments demonstrated that glimepiride and glipizide show the genotoxicity, which is especially dependent on homologous somatic recombination.

  4. Genotoxicity assessment of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with different particle sizes and surface coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yanping; Xia, Qiyue; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Shuyang; Cheng, Feng; Wang, Li; Li, Hongxia; Xiao, Kai; Zhong, Zhihui

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have been widely used for various biomedical applications such as magnetic resonance imaging and drug delivery. However, their potential toxic effects, including genotoxicity, need to be thoroughly understood. In the present study, the genotoxicity of IONPs with different particle sizes (10, 30 nm) and surface coatings (PEG, PEI) were assessed using three standard genotoxicity assays, the Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay (Ames test), the in vitro mammalian chromosome aberration test, and the in vivo micronucleus assay. In the Ames test, SMG-10 (PEG coating, 10 nm) showed a positive mutagenic response in all the five test bacterial strains with and without metabolic activation, whereas SEI-10 (PEI coating, 10 nm) showed no mutagenesis in all tester strains regardless of metabolic activation. SMG-30 (PEG coating, 30 nm) was not mutagenic in the absence of metabolic activation, and became mutagenic in the presence of metabolic activation. In the chromosomal aberration test, no increase in the incidence of chromosomal aberrations was observed for all three IONPs. In the in vivo micronucleus test, there was no evidence of increased micronuclei frequencies for all three IONPs, indicating that they were not clastogenic in vivo. Taken together, our results demonstrated that IONPs with PEG coating exhibited mutagenic activity without chromosomal and clastogenic abnormalities, and smaller IONPs (SMG-10) had stronger mutagenic potential than larger ones (SMG-30); whereas, IONPs with SEI coating (SEI-10) were not genotoxic in all three standard genotoxicity assays. This suggests that the mutagenicity of IONPs depends on their particle size and surface coating. (paper)

  5. In vivo genotoxicity assessment of acrylamide and glycidyl methacrylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrovolsky, Vasily N; Pacheco-Martinez, M Monserrat; McDaniel, L Patrice; Pearce, Mason G; Ding, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Acrylamide (ACR) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) are structurally related compounds used for making polymers with various properties. Both chemicals can be present in food either as a byproduct of processing or a constituent of packaging. We performed a comprehensive evaluation of ACR and GMA genotoxicity in Fisher 344 rats using repeated gavage administrations. Clastogenicity was measured by scoring micronucleated (MN) erythrocytes from peripheral blood, DNA damage in liver, bone marrow and kidneys was measured using the Comet assay, and gene mutation was measured using the red blood cell (RBC) and reticulocyte Pig-a assay. A limited histopathology evaluation was performed in order to determine levels of cytotoxicity. Doses of up to 20 mg/kg/day of ACR and up to 250 mg/kg/day of GMA were used. ACR treatment resulted in DNA damage in the liver, but not in the bone marrow. While ACR was not a clastogen, it was a weak (equivocal) mutagen in the cells of bone marrow. GMA caused DNA damage in the cells of bone marrow, liver and kidney, and induced MN reticulocytes and Pig-a mutant RBCs in a dose-dependent manner. Collectively, our data suggest that both compounds are in vivo genotoxins, but the genotoxicity of ACR is tissue specific. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Initial hazard screening for genotoxicity of photo-transformation products of ciprofloxacin by applying a combination of experimental and in-silico testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toolaram, Anju Priya; Haddad, Tarek; Leder, Christoph; Kümmerer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin (CIP) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic found within μg/L concentration range in the aquatic environment. It is a known contributor of umuC induction in hospital wastewater samples. CIP can undergo photolysis to result in many transformation products (TPs) of mostly unknown toxicity. The aims of this study were to determine the genotoxicity of the UV mixtures and to understand the possible genotoxic role of the stable TPs. As such, CIP and its UV-irradiated mixtures were investigated in a battery of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in vitro assays. The combination index (CI) analysis of residual CIP in the irradiated mixtures was performed for the umu assay. Further, Quantitative Structure–Activity Relationships (QSARs) predicted selected genotoxicity endpoints of the identified TPs. CIP achieved primary elimination after 128 min of irradiation but was not completely mineralized. Nine photo-TPs were identified. The irradiated mixtures were neither mutagenic in the Ames test nor genotoxic in the in vitro micronucleus (MN) test. Like CIP, the irradiated mixtures were umuC inducing. The CI analysis revealed that the irradiated mixtures and the corresponding CIP concentration in the mixtures shared similar umuC potentials. QSAR predictions suggested that the TPs may be capable of inducing chromosome aberration, MN in vivo, bacterial mutation and mammalian mutation. However, the experimental testing for a few genotoxic endpoints did not show significant genotoxic activity for the TPs present as a component of the whole mixture analysis and therefore, further genotoxic endpoints may need to be investigated to fully confirm this. - Highlights: • Identified photo-transformation products (TPs) retained the quinolone core. • Experimental and in silico tools assessed for genotoxicity of TPs in the mixtures. • Some of the TPs were predicted as genotoxic by QSAR analysis. • Irradiated mixtures were neither micronuclei inducing nor mutagenic in Ames test

  7. Evaluation of river water genotoxicity using the piscine micronucleus test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergene, Serap; Cavaş, Tolga; Celik, Ayla; Köleli, Nurcan; Aymak, Cemil

    2007-07-01

    The Berdan River, which empties into the Mediterranean Sea on the east coast of Turkey, receives discharges of industrial and municipal waste. In the present study, the in vivo piscine micronucleus (MN) test was used to evaluate the genotoxicity of water samples collected from different locations along the Berdan River. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were exposed in the laboratory for 2, 4, and 6 days, and micronuclei were evaluated in peripheral blood erythrocytes, gill cells, and caudal fin epithelial cells. A single dose of 5 mg/L cyclophosphamide was used as a positive control. In addition to micronuclei, nuclear abnormalities (NAs), such as binucleated cells and blebbed, notched, and lobed nuclei, were assessed in the erythrocytes, and chemical analyses were carried out to determine the amount of heavy metals in the water samples. MN and NA frequencies were significantly elevated (up to 2- to 3-fold) in fish exposed to river water samples taken downstream of potential discharges, and the elevated responses in gill and fin cells were related to the concentration of heavy metals in the water. MN frequencies (expressed as micronucleated cells/1,000 cells), in both treated and untreated fish, were greatest in gill cells (range: 0.80-3.70), and generally lower in erythrocytes (range: 0.50-2.80), and fin cells (range: 0.45-1.70). The results of this study indicate that the Berdan River is contaminated with genotoxic pollutants and that the genotoxicity is related to the discharge of wastes into the river water.

  8. In vivo micronucleus test as a biomarker of genotoxicity in free-range goats from suspected contaminated environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afusat Jagun Jubril

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: The finding indicates the prevalence and frequency of micronucleus as a biomarker of genotoxicity and an indicator of exposure to environmental genotoxic subtances. Hence, this highlights the relevance of these goats as important sentinel animal model. These findings, therefore, serve as a preliminary data for further studies on the latent genotoxic environmental contaminants and their potential deleterious impact. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(3.000: 281-287

  9. Synergistic effect of Gentiana lutea L. on methyl methanesulfonate genotoxicity in the Drosophila wing spot test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patenković, Aleksandra; Stamenković-Radak, Marina; Nikolić, Dragana; Marković, Tamara; Anđelković, Marko

    2013-03-27

    Gentiana lutea L., the yellow gentian, is herb known for its pharmacological properties, with a long tradition of use for the treatment of a variety of diseases including the use as a remedy for digestion, also in food products and in bitter beverages. The aim of the present study is to evaluate, for the first time, genotoxicity of gentian alone, and its antigenotoxicity against methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). The water infusion of the underground part of gentian were evaluated in vivo using the Drosophila wing spot test, at the dose commonly used in traditional medicine. For antigenotoxic study two types of treatment with gentian and MMS were performed: chronic co-treatment, as well as post-treatment with gentian after acute exposure with MMS. Water infusion of gentian alone did not exhibit genotoxicity. The results of co- and post-treatment experiments with gentian show that gentian enhanced the frequency of mutant clones over the values obtained with MMS alone, instead of reducing the genotoxicity of MMS, for 22.64% and 27.13% respectively. This result suggests a synergism of gentian with MMS, and indicates that water infusion of gentian used in traditional medicine may have particular effects with regard to genotoxicity indicating careful use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A review of the genotoxicity of trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, David; Fowler, Paul

    2018-04-01

    Trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) is a trifunctional acrylate monomer which polymerizes rapidly when exposed to sources of free radicals. It is widely used as a reactive diluent and polymer building block in the formulation of overprint varnishes, inks and a variety of wood, plastic and metal coatings. TMPTA has been tested in a range of in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity tests. There is no clear evidence of induction of gene mutations by TMPTA in bacteria or mammalian cells in vitro, but there is evidence of clastogenicity from induction of small colony tk mutants in the mouse lymphoma assay, and also induction of micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations. However, TMPTA was negative in bone marrow or blood micronucleus tests in vivo following oral or repeated dermal application, and did not induce comets in bone marrow or liver of mice following intravenous administration, which would have achieved plasma (and therefore tissue) concentrations estimated to exceed those inducing clastogenic effects in vitro. It is concluded that TMPTA is not genotoxic in vivo. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A re-assessment of the safety of silver in household water treatment: rapid systematic review of mammalian in vivo genotoxicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewtrell, Lorna; Majuru, Batsirai; Hunter, Paul R

    2017-06-20

    Despite poor evidence of their effectiveness, colloidal silver and silver nanoparticles are increasingly being promoted for treating potentially contaminated drinking water in low income countries. Recently, however, concerns have been raised about the possible genotoxicity of particulate silver. The goal of this paper was to review the published mammalian in vivo genotoxicity studies using silver micro and nanoparticles. SCOPUS and Medline were searched using the following search string: ("DNA damage" OR genotox* OR Cytotox* OR Embryotox*) AND (silver OR AgNP). Included papers were any mammalian in vivo experimental studies investigating genotoxicity of silver particles. Studies were quality assessed using the ToxRTool. 16 relevant papers were identified. There were substantial variations in study design including the size of silver particles, animal species, target organs, silver dose, route of administration and the method used to detect genotoxicity. Thus, it was not possible to produce a definitive pooled result. Nevertheless, most studies showed evidence of genotoxicity unless using very low doses. We also identified one human study reporting evidence of "severe DNA damage" in silver jewellery workers occupationally exposed to silver particles. With the available evidence it is not possible to be definitive about risks to human health from oral exposure to silver particulates. However, the balance of evidence suggests that there should be concerns especially when considering the evidence from jewellery workers. There is an urgent need to determine whether people exposed to particulate silver as part of drinking water treatment have evidence of DNA damage.

  12. Comet Assay on Daphnia magna in eco-genotoxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegri, Valerio; Gorbi, Gessica; Buschini, Annamaria

    2014-10-01

    Detection of potentially hazardous compounds in water bodies is a priority in environmental risk assessment. For the evaluation and monitoring of water quality, a series of methodologies may be applied. Among them, the worldwide used toxicity tests with organisms of the genus Daphnia is one of the most powerful. In recent years, some attempts were made to utilize Daphnia magna in genotoxicity testing as many of the new environmental contaminants are described as DNA-damaging agents in aquatic organisms. The aim of this research was to develop a highly standardized protocol of the Comet Assay adapted for D. magna, especially regarding the isolation of cells derived from the same tissue (haemolymph) from newborn organisms exposed in vivo. Several methods for haemolymph extraction and different Comet Assay parameters were compared. Electrophoretic conditions were adapted in order to obtain minimum DNA migration in cells derived from untreated organisms and, at the same time, maximum sensitivity in specimens treated with known genotoxicants (CdCl2 and H2O2). Additional tests were performed to investigate if life-history traits of the cladoceran (such as the age of adult organisms that provide newborns, the clutch size of origin, the number of generations reared in standard conditions) and the water composition as well, might influence the response of the assay. This study confirms the potential application of the Comet Assay in D. magna for assessing genotoxic loads in aqueous solution. The newly developed protocol could integrate the acute toxicity bioassay, thus expanding the possibility of using this model species in freshwater monitoring (waters, sediment and soil elutriates) and is in line with the spirit of the EU Water Framework Directive in reducing the number of bioassays that involve medium-sized species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Avaliação do potencial citotóxico e genotóxico de Plantago major L. em sistemas teste in vivo Evaluation of the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of Plantago major L. in test systems in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Luz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A infusão das folhas de Plantago major (Plantaginaceae, conhecida como tansagem ou transagem, é usada como antibiótica, antiinflamatória, anti-séptica, anti-térmica, na prevenção de tumores e no tratamento de neoplasias. Este efeito é atribuído aos flavonóides encontrados em diversas espécies do gênero Plantago. O presente estudo objetivou avaliar os potenciais efeitos, tóxico e mutagênico, do extrato bruto hidroalcoólico de folhas de P. major, por meio dos testes in vivo de Allium cepa e do micronúcleo. Para o ensaio biológico vegetal, meristemas de raízes de A. cepa foram usados para o preparo de lâminas através da técnica de esmagamento. No ensaio do micronúcleo foram analisadas lâminas de células de medula óssea de roedores. As análises estatísticas seguiram o teste de Tukey (pThe infusion of leaves of Plantago major (Plantaginaceae, known as "tansagem" or "transagem", is used as antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-septic, anti-thermal in the prevention of tumors and in the treatment of neoplasms. This effect is attributed to the flavonoids found in diverse species of the genus Plantago. The present study aimed to evaluate the potential toxic and mutagenic effects of the crude hydroalcoholic extract from P. major leaves by means of in vivo tests with Allium cepa and micronucleus. For the plant biological assay, meristems of A. cepa roots were used for the preparation of slides by adopting the crushing technique. In the micronucleus assay, slides of bone marrow cells from rodents were analyzed. Statistical analyses were carried out according to Tukey's test (ρ<0.05 for the Allium cepa assay and Scott-Knott test (ρ<0.05 for the micronucleus assay. Results of the A. cepa test demonstrate that there was a significant reduction in the germination index at all tested concentrations. P. major causes alteration in the cell cycle by inhibiting the division of cells, as indicated by the mitotic index. The indexes of

  14. Immunotoxicity, genotoxicity and epigenetic toxicity of nanomaterials: New strategies for toxicity testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusinska, Maria; Tulinska, Jana; El Yamani, Naouale; Kuricova, Miroslava; Liskova, Aurelia; Rollerova, Eva; Rundén-Pran, Elise; Smolkova, Bozena

    2017-11-01

    The unique properties of nanomaterials (NMs) are beneficial in numerous industrial and medical applications. However, they could also induce unintended effects. Thus, a proper strategy for toxicity testing is essential in human hazard and risk assessment. Toxicity can be tested in vivo and in vitro; in compliance with the 3Rs, alternative strategies for in vitro testing should be further developed for NMs. Robust, standardized methods are of great importance in nanotoxicology, with comprehensive material characterization and uptake as an integral part of the testing strategy. Oxidative stress has been shown to be an underlying mechanism of possible toxicity of NMs, causing both immunotoxicity and genotoxicity. For testing NMs in vitro, a battery of tests should be performed on cells of human origin, either cell lines or primary cells, in conditions as close as possible to an in vivo situation. Novel toxicity pathways, particularly epigenetic modification, should be assessed along with conventional toxicity testing methods. However, to initiate epigenetic toxicity screens for NM exposure, there is a need to better understand their adverse effects on the epigenome, to identify robust and reproducible causal links between exposure, epigenetic changes and adverse phenotypic endpoints, and to develop improved assays to monitor epigenetic toxicity. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Ex vivo assessment of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in murine fibroblasts exposed to white MTA or white Portland cement with 15% bismuth oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeferino, E G; Bueno, C E S; Oyama, L M; Ribeiro, D A

    2010-10-01

    To evaluate whether white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) or white Portland cement with 15% bismuth oxide were able to induce genetic damage and cellular death ex vivo. Aliquots of 1 × 10(4) murine fibroblasts were incubated at 37 °C for 3 h with MTA (white) or white Portland cement with 15% bismuth oxide, at final concentrations ranging from 10 to 1000 μg mL(-1) individually. Data of three independent repeats from the comet assay and the trypan blue exclusion test were assessed by the one-way anova followed by Tukey's test. Mineral trioxide aggregate or Portland cement containing bismuth oxide did not produce genotoxic effects with respect to the single-cell gel (comet) assay data for all concentrations evaluated. Furthermore, no cytotoxicity was observed for MTA or Portland cement. White MTA or white Portland cement containing 15% bismuth oxide were not genotoxic and cytotoxic. © 2010 International Endodontic Journal.

  16. Quantitative genotoxicity assays for analysis of medicinal plants: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponchiado, Graziela; Adam, Mônica Lucia; Silva, Caroline Dadalt; Soley, Bruna Silva; de Mello-Sampayo, Cristina; Cabrini, Daniela Almeida; Correr, Cassyano Januário; Otuki, Michel Fleith

    2016-02-03

    Medicinal plants are known to contain numerous biologically active compounds, and although they have proven pharmacological properties, they can cause harm, including DNA damage. Review the literature to evaluate the genotoxicity risk of medicinal plants, explore the genotoxicity assays most used and compare these to the current legal requirements. A quantitative systematic review of the literature, using the keywords "medicinal plants", "genotoxicity" and "mutagenicity", was undertakenQ to identify the types of assays most used to assess genotoxicity, and to evaluate the genotoxicity potential of medicinal plant extracts. The database searches retrieved 2289 records, 458 of which met the inclusion criteria. Evaluation of the selected articles showed a total of 24 different assays used for an assessment of medicinal plant extract genotoxicity. More than a quarter of those studies (28.4%) reported positive results for genotoxicity. This review demonstrates that a range of genotoxicity assay methods are used to evaluate the genotoxicity potential of medicinal plant extracts. The most used methods are those recommended by regulatory agencies. However, based on the current findings, in order to conduct a thorough study concerning the possible genotoxic effects of a medicinal plant, we indicate that it is important always to include bacterial and mammalian tests, with at least one in vivo assay. Also, these tests should be capable of detecting outcomes that include mutation induction, clastogenic and aneugenic effects, and structural chromosome abnormalities. In addition, the considerable rate of positive results detected in this analysis further supports the relevance of assessing the genotoxicity potential of medicinal plants. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. Combination of physico-chemical analysis, Allium cepa test system and Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based comet assay/nuclear abnormalities tests for cyto-genotoxicity assessments of treated effluents discharged from textile industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemachandra, Chamini K; Pathiratne, Asoka

    2016-09-01

    Bioassays for cyto-genotoxicity assessments are generally not required in current textile industry effluent discharge management regulations. The present study applied in vivo plant and fish based toxicity tests viz. Allium cepa test system and Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based comet assay and nuclear abnormalities tests in combination with physico-chemical analysis for assessing potential cytotoxic/genotoxic impacts of treated textile industry effluents reaching a major river (Kelani River) in Sri Lanka. Of the treated effluents tested from two textile industries, color in the Textile industry 1 effluents occasionally and color, biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand in the Textile industry 2 effluents frequently exceeded the specified Sri Lankan tolerance limits for discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters. Exposure of A. cepa bulbs to 100% and 12.5% treated effluents from both industries resulted in statistically significant root growth retardation, mito-depression, and induction of chromosomal abnormalities in root meristematic cells in comparison to the dilution water in all cases demonstrating cyto-genotoxicity associated with the treated effluents. Exposure of O. niloticus to the 100% and 12.5% effluents, resulted in erythrocytic genetic damage as shown by elevated total comet scores and induction of nuclear abnormalities confirming the genotoxicity of the treated effluents even with 1:8 dilution. The results provide strong scientific evidence for the crucial necessity of incorporating cyto-genotoxicity impact assessment tools in textile industry effluent management regulations considering human health and ecological health of the receiving water course under chronic exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Limited ability of DNA polymerase kappa to suppress benzo[a]pyrene-induced genotoxicity in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masumura, Kenichi; Toyoda-Hokaiwado, Naomi; Niimi, Naoko; Grúz, Petr; Wada, Naoko A; Takeiri, Akira; Jishage, Kou-Ichi; Mishima, Masayuki; Nohmi, Takehiko

    2017-12-01

    DNA polymerase kappa (Polk) is a specialized DNA polymerase involved in translesion DNA synthesis. To understand the protective roles against genotoxins in vivo, we established inactivated Polk knock-in gpt delta (inactivated Polk KI) mice that possessed reporter genes for mutations and expressed inactive Polk. In this study, we examined genotoxicity of benzo[a]pyrene (BP) to determine whether Polk actually suppressed BP-induced genotoxicity as predicted by biochemistry and in vitro cell culture studies. Seven-week-old inactivated Polk KI and wild-type (WT) mice were treated with BP at doses of 5, 15, or 50 mg/(kg·day) for three consecutive days by intragastric gavage, and mutations in the colon and micronucleus formation in the peripheral blood were examined. Surprisingly, no differences were observed in the frequencies of mutations and micronucleus formation at 5 or 50 mg/kg doses. Inactivated Polk KI mice exhibited approximately two times higher gpt mutant frequency than did WT mice only at the 15 mg/kg dose. The frequency of micronucleus formation was slightly higher in inactivated Polk KI than in WT mice at the same dose, but it was statistically insignificant. The results suggest that Polk has a limited ability to suppress BP-induced genotoxicity in the colon and bone marrow and also that the roles of specialized DNA polymerases in mutagenesis and carcinogenesis should be examined not only by in vitro assays but also by in vivo mouse studies. We also report the spontaneous mutagenesis in inactivated Polk KI mice at young and old ages. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:644-653, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Genotoxicity of 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol in the SOS chromotest and in the Ames test. Elucidation of the genotoxic mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, H; Eder, E; Deininger, C

    1991-01-01

    1,3-Dichloro-2-propanol (1,3-DCP-OH, glycerol dichlorohydrin) is of great importance in many industrial processes and has been detected in foodstuffs, in particular in soup spices and instant soups. It has been shown to be carcinogenic, genotoxic and mutagenic. Its genotoxic mechanisms are, however, not yet entirely understood. We have investigated whether alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) catalysed activation to the highly mutagenic and carcinogenic 1,3-dichloroacetone or formation of epichlorohydrin or other genotoxic compounds play a role for mutagenicity and genotoxicity. In our studies, no indications of ADH catalysed formation of 1,3-dichloropropane could be found, although we could demonstrate a clear activation by ADH in the case of 2-chloropropenol. Formation of allyl chloride could also be excluded. We found, however, clear evidence that epichlorohydrin formed chemically in the buffer and medium used in the test is responsible for genotoxicity. No indication was found that enzymatic formation of epichlorohydrin plays a role. Additional mutagenicity and genotoxicity studies with epichlorohydrin also confirmed the hypothesis that genotoxic effects of 1,3-DCP-OH depend on the chemical formation of epichlorohydrin.

  20. Genotoxicity of drinking water treated with different disinfectants and effects of disinfection conditions detected by umu-test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xuebiao; Liu, Wenjun; Zhang, Liping; Liu, Qing

    2017-06-01

    The genotoxicity of drinking water treated with 6 disinfection methods and the effects of disinfection conditions were investigated using the umu-test. The pretreatment procedure of samples for the umu-test was optimized for drinking water analysis. The results of the umu-test were in good correlation with those of the Ames-test. The genotoxicity and production of haloacetic acids (HAAs) were the highest for chlorinated samples. UV+chloramination is the safest disinfection method from the aspects of genotoxicity, HAA production and inactivation effects. For chloramination, the effects of the mass ratio of Cl 2 to N of chloramine on genotoxicity were also studied. The changes of genotoxicity were different from those of HAA production, which implied that HAA production cannot represent the genotoxic potential of water. The genotoxicity per chlorine decay of chlorination and chloramination had similar trends, indicating that the reaction of organic matters and chlorine made a great contribution to the genotoxicity. The results of this study are of engineering significance for optimizing the operation of waterworks. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Genotoxicity Assessment of Chlorotrifluoroethylene Tetramer Acid using a Battery of In Vitro and In Vivo/In Vitro Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    hypolipidemic ixgent, clofibrate (Lalwani et al., 1983). However, numerous industrial chemicals such as phthalate eater plasticizers and phenoxy acid ...AD-A240 492 AA..MRL-TR-90-069 ~l~iiIIi1111fl GENOTOXICITY ASSESSMENT OF CHLOROTRIFLUOROETHYLENE TETRAMER ACID USING A BATTERY OF IN VITRO AND IN VIVO... Acid Using a Battery of In Vitro and In Vivo,/n Vitro Assays PE 62202F 6. AUTHOR(S) PR 6302 TA 630201 C. S. Godin, B. C. Myhr, T. E. Lawlor, R. R. Young

  2. Way forward in case of a false positive in vitro genotoxicity result for a cosmetic substance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doktorova, Tatyana Y; Ates, Gamze; Vinken, Mathieu; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Rogiers, Vera

    2014-02-01

    The currently used regulatory in vitro mutagenicity/genotoxicity test battery has a high sensitivity for detecting genotoxicants, but it suffers from a large number of irrelevant positive results (i.e. low specificity) thereby imposing the need for additional follow-up by in vitro and/or in vivo genotoxicity tests. This could have a major impact on the cosmetic industry in Europe, seen the imposed animal testing and marketing bans on cosmetics and their ingredients. Afflicted, but safe substances could therefore be lost. Using the example of triclosan, a cosmetic preservative, we describe here the potential applicability of a human toxicogenomics-based in vitro assay as a potential mechanistically based follow-up test for positive in vitro genotoxicity results. Triclosan shows a positive in vitro chromosomal aberration test, but is negative during in vivo follow-up tests. Toxicogenomics analysis unequivocally shows that triclosan is identified as a compound acting through non-DNA reactive mechanisms. This proof-of-principle study illustrates the potential of genome-wide transcriptomics data in combination with in vitro experimentation as a possible weight-of-evidence follow-up approach for de-risking a positive outcome in a standard mutagenicity/genotoxicity battery. As such a substantial number of cosmetic compounds wrongly identified as genotoxicants could be saved for the future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Genotoxicity of extracts of Japanese traditional herbal medicines (Kampo)

    OpenAIRE

    Makoto, Katami; Haruo, Kuboniwa; Shunichi, Maemura; Toshihiko, Yanagisawa; New Drug Discovery Laboratory, R & D Division, TSUMURA & Co.; New Drug Discovery Laboratory, R & D Division, TSUMURA & Co.; New Drug Discovery Laboratory, R & D Division, TSUMURA & Co.; New Drug Discovery Laboratory, R & D Division, TSUMURA & Co.

    2002-01-01

    The possible genotoxicity potential of 128 Japanese traditional herbal medicines (Kampo) was investigated using a bacterial reverse mutation test (the Ames test), an in vivo micronucleus test (MN test) in mouse bone marrow cells and an unscheduled DNA synthesis test (UDS test) in rat hepatocytes. Of 128 Kampo extracts examined, 98 did not induce mutations in bacteria while 30 induced mutations weakly in Salmonella typhimurium TA1537. Extracts of Scutellariae Radix, a common herbal drug, and i...

  4. New investigations into the genotoxicity of cobalt compounds and their impact on overall assessment of genotoxic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, David; Brock, Tom; Haddouk, Hasnaà; Hargeaves, Victoria; Lloyd, Melvyn; Mc Garry, Sarah; Proudlock, Raymond; Sarlang, Séverine; Sewald, Katherina; Sire, Guillaume; Sokolowski, Andrea; Ziemann, Christina

    2015-10-01

    The genotoxicity of cobalt metal and cobalt compounds has been widely studied. Several publications show induction of chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei or DNA damage in mammalian cells in vitro in the absence of S9. Mixed results were seen in gene mutation studies in bacteria and mammalian cells in vitro, and in chromosomal aberration or micronucleus assays in vivo. To resolve these inconsistencies, new studies were performed with soluble and poorly soluble cobalt compounds according to OECD-recommended protocols. Induction of chromosomal damage was confirmed in vitro, but data suggest this may be due to oxidative stress. No biologically significant mutagenic responses were obtained in bacteria, Tk(+/-) or Hprt mutation tests. Negative results were also obtained for chromosomal aberrations (in bone marrow and spermatogonia) and micronuclei at maximum tolerated doses in vivo. Poorly soluble cobalt compounds do not appear to be genotoxic. Soluble compounds do induce some DNA and chromosomal damage in vitro, probably due to reactive oxygen. The absence of chromosome damage in robust GLP studies in vivo suggests that effective protective processes are sufficient to prevent oxidative DNA damage in whole mammals. Overall, there is no evidence of genetic toxicity with relevance for humans of cobalt substances and cobalt metal. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. JaCVAM-organized international validation study of the in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay for the detection of genotoxic carcinogens: I. Summary of pre-validation study results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Yoshifumi; Kojima, Hajime; Omori, Takashi; Corvi, Raffaella; Honma, Masamistu; Schechtman, Leonard M; Tice, Raymond R; Burlinson, Brian; Escobar, Patricia A; Kraynak, Andrew R; Nakagawa, Yuzuki; Nakajima, Madoka; Pant, Kamala; Asano, Norihide; Lovell, David; Morita, Takeshi; Ohno, Yasuo; Hayashi, Makoto

    2015-07-01

    The in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay (comet assay) is used internationally to investigate the in vivo genotoxic potential of test chemicals. This assay, however, has not previously been formally validated. The Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM), with the cooperation of the U.S. NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM)/the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM), the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), and the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society/Mammalian Mutagenesis Study Group (JEMS/MMS), organized an international validation study to evaluate the reliability and relevance of the assay for identifying genotoxic carcinogens, using liver and stomach as target organs. The ultimate goal of this validation effort was to establish an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) test guideline. The purpose of the pre-validation studies (i.e., Phase 1 through 3), conducted in four or five laboratories with extensive comet assay experience, was to optimize the protocol to be used during the definitive validation study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effect of the [166Dy]Dy/166Ho-EDTMP in vivo generator system in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedraza-Lopez, Martha; Ferro-Flores, Guillermina; Arteaga de Murphy, Consuelo; Morales-Ramirez, Pedro; Piedras-Ross, Josefa; Murphy-Stack, Eduardo; Hernandez-Oviedo, Omar

    2004-01-01

    Multiple myeloma and other hematological malignancies have been treated by myeloablative radiotherapy/chemotherapy and subsequent stem cell transplantation. [ 166 Dy]Dy/ 166 Ho-ethylenediaminetetramethylene phosphonate (EDTMP) forms a stable in vivo generator system with selective skeletal uptake in mice; therefore, it could work as a potential and improved agent for marrow ablation. Induced bone marrow cytotoxicity and genotoxicity are determined by the reduction of reticulocytes (RET) and elevation of micronucleated reticulocyte (MN-RET) in peripheral blood and ablation by bone marrow histological studies. The aim of this study was to determine the bone marrow cytotoxic and genotoxic effect of the [ 166 Dy]Dy/ 166 Ho-EDTMP in vivo generator system in mice and to evaluate by histopathology its myeloablative potential. Enriched 166 Dy 2 O 3 was irradiated and [ 166 Dy]DyCl 3 was added to EDTMP in phosphate buffer (pH 8.0) in a molar ratio of 1:1.75. QC was determined by TLC. Dy-EDTMP complex was prepared the same way with nonirradiated dysprosium oxide. A group of BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally injected with the radiopharmaceutical and two groups of control animals were injected with the cold complex and with 0.9% sodium chloride, respectively. A blood sample was taken at the beginning of the experiments and every 48 h for 12 days postinjection. The animals were sacrificed, organs of interest taken out and the radioactivity determined. The femur was used for histological studies. Flow cytometry analysis was used to quantify the frequency of RET and MN-RET in the blood samples. The MCNP4B Monte Carlo computer code was used for dosimetry calculations. Radiochemical purity was 99% and the mean specific activity was 1.3 MBq/mg. The RET and MN-RET frequency were statistically different in the treatment at the end of the 12-day period demonstrating cytotoxicity and genotoxicity induced by the in vivo generator system. The histology studies show that there was

  7. Considerations on photochemical genotoxicity. II: Report of the 2009 International Workshop on Genotoxicity Testing Working Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lynch, A.M.; Guzzie, P.J.; Bauer, D.; Gocke, E.; Itoh, S.; Jacobs, A.; Krul, C.A.M.; Schepky, A.; Tanaka, N.; Kasper, P.

    2011-01-01

    A workshop to reappraise the previous IWGT recommendations for photogenotoxicity testing [E. Gocke, L. Muller, P.J. Guzzie, S. Brendler-Schwaab, S. Bulera, C.F. Chignell, L.M. Henderson, A. Jacobs, H. Murli, R.D. Snyder, N. Tanaka, Considerations on photochemical genotoxicity: report of the

  8. Tradescantia micronucleus test indicates genotoxic potential of traffic emissions in European cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klumpp, Andreas; Ansel, Wolfgang; Klumpp, Gabriele; Calatayud, Vicent; Garrec, Jean Pierre; He Shang; Penuelas, Josep; Ribas, Angela; Ro-Poulsen, Helge; Rasmussen, Stine; Sanz, Maria Jose; Vergne, Phillippe

    2006-01-01

    Urban atmospheres contain complex mixtures of air pollutants including mutagenic and carcinogenic substances such as benzene, diesel soot, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In the frame of a European network for the assessment of air quality by the use of bioindicator plants, the Tradescantia micronucleus (Trad-MCN) test was applied to examine the genotoxicity of urban air pollution. Cuttings of Tradescantia clone no. 4430 were exposed to ambient air at 65 monitoring sites in 10 conurbations employing a standardised methodology. The tests revealed an elevated genotoxic potential mainly at those urban sites which were exposed to severe car traffic emissions. This bioassay proved to be a suitable tool to detect local 'hot spots' of mutagenic air pollution in urban areas. For its use in routine monitoring programmes, however, further standardisation of cultivation and exposure techniques is recommended in order to reduce the variability of results due to varying environmental conditions. - The Tradescantia micronucleus test can be used to assess genotoxic potential at urban sites

  9. Tradescantia micronucleus test indicates genotoxic potential of traffic emissions in European cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klumpp, Andreas [Institute for Landscape and Plant Ecology (320), University of Hohenheim, 70593 Stuttgart (Germany)]. E-mail: aklumpp@uni-hohenheim.de; Ansel, Wolfgang [Institute for Landscape and Plant Ecology (320), University of Hohenheim, 70593 Stuttgart (Germany); Klumpp, Gabriele [Institute for Landscape and Plant Ecology (320), University of Hohenheim, 70593 Stuttgart (Germany); Calatayud, Vicent [Fundacion CEAM, Parque Tecnologico, c/Charles Darwin 14, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Garrec, Jean Pierre [INRA Nancy, Laboratoire Pollution Atmospherique, 54280 Champenoux (France); He Shang [INRA Nancy, Laboratoire Pollution Atmospherique, 54280 Champenoux (France); Penuelas, Josep [Unitat Ecofisiologia CSIC-CEAB-CREAF, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Ed. C, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Ribas, Angela [Unitat Ecofisiologia CSIC-CEAB-CREAF, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Ed. C, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Ro-Poulsen, Helge [Botanical Institute, University of Copenhagen, Oster Farimagsgade 2D, 1353 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Rasmussen, Stine [Botanical Institute, University of Copenhagen, Oster Farimagsgade 2D, 1353 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Sanz, Maria Jose [Fundacion CEAM, Parque Tecnologico, c/Charles Darwin 14, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Vergne, Phillippe [ENS Lyon and Lyon Botanical Garden, 46 Allee d' Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France)

    2006-02-15

    Urban atmospheres contain complex mixtures of air pollutants including mutagenic and carcinogenic substances such as benzene, diesel soot, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In the frame of a European network for the assessment of air quality by the use of bioindicator plants, the Tradescantia micronucleus (Trad-MCN) test was applied to examine the genotoxicity of urban air pollution. Cuttings of Tradescantia clone no. 4430 were exposed to ambient air at 65 monitoring sites in 10 conurbations employing a standardised methodology. The tests revealed an elevated genotoxic potential mainly at those urban sites which were exposed to severe car traffic emissions. This bioassay proved to be a suitable tool to detect local 'hot spots' of mutagenic air pollution in urban areas. For its use in routine monitoring programmes, however, further standardisation of cultivation and exposure techniques is recommended in order to reduce the variability of results due to varying environmental conditions. - The Tradescantia micronucleus test can be used to assess genotoxic potential at urban sites.

  10. In vitro and in vivo evidence of the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of metal ions released by orthodontic appliances: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Cameán, Ana; Jos, Ángeles; Mellado-García, Pilar; Iglesias-Linares, Alejandro; Solano, Enrique; Cameán, Ana M

    2015-07-01

    Intraoral fixed orthodontic appliances are frequently used in the clinical practice of dentistry. They are made from alloys containing different metals at various percentages. The use of these appliances leads to the long-term exposure of patients to these materials, and the potential toxic effects of this exposure raises concerns about patient safety. Thus, the biocompatibility (corrosion behaviour and toxicity) of these materials has to be evaluated prior to clinical use. In the present report, the most recent studies in the scientific literature examining metal ion release from orthodontic appliances and the toxic effects of these ions have been reviewed with a special focus on cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Previous studies suggest that a case-by-case safety evaluation is required to take into account the increasing variability of materials, their composition and the manufacturing processes. Moreover, in vivo toxicity studies in regard to metal release, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity are still scarce. Therefore, in vitro and in vivo monitoring studies are needed to establish cause-effect relationships between metal ion release and biomarkers of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Further investigations could be performed to elucidate the toxic mechanisms involved in the observed effects with a special emphasis on oxidative damage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Screening potential genotoxic effect of aquatic plant extracts using the mussel micronucleus test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Eck-Varanka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the genotoxic potential of selected aquatic macrophytes: Ceratophyllum demersum L. (hornwort, family Ceratophyllaceae, Typha angustifolia L. (narrowleaf cattail, family Typhaceae, Stratiotes aloides L. (water soldier, family Butomaceae, and Oenanthe aquatica (L. Poir. (water dropwort, family Umbelliferae. Methods: For genotoxicity assessment, the mussel micronucleus test was applied. Micronucleus frequency was determined from the haemolymph of Unio pictorum L. (painter’s mussel. In parallel, total and hydrolisable tannin contents were determined. Results: All plant extracts elucidated significant mutagenic effect. Significant correlation was determined between tannin content and mutagenic capacity. Conclusions: The significant correlation between genotoxicity as expressed by micronucleus frequency and tannin content (both total and hydrolisable tannins indicate that tannin is amongst the main compounds being responsible for the genotoxic potential. It might be suggested that genotoxic capacity of these plants elucidate a real ecological effect in the ecosystem.

  12. Genotoxicity evaluation of dental restoration nanocomposite using comet assay and chromosome aberration test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musa, Marahaini; Ponnuraj, Kannan Thirumulu; Mohamad, Dasmawati; Rahman, Ismail Ab

    2013-01-01

    Nanocomposite is used as a dental filling to restore the affected tooth, especially in dental caries. The dental nanocomposite (KelFil) for tooth restoration used in this study was produced by the School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia and is incorporated with monodispersed, spherical nanosilica fillers. The aim of the study was to determine the genotoxic effect of KelFil using in vitro genotoxicity tests. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of KelFil was evaluated using MTT assay, comet assay and chromosome aberration tests with or without the addition of a metabolic activation system (S9 mix), using the human lung fibroblast cell line (MRC-5). Concurrent negative and positive controls were included. In the comet assay, no comet formation was found in the KelFil groups. There was a significant difference in tail moment between KelFil groups and positive control (p < 0.05). Similarly, no significant aberrations in chromosomes were noticed in KelFil groups. The mitotic indices of treatment groups and negative control were significantly different from positive controls. Hence, it can be concluded that the locally produced dental restoration nanocomposite (KelFil) is non-genotoxic under the present test conditions. (paper)

  13. Ground and surface water for drinking: a laboratory study on genotoxicity using plant tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Feretti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Surface waters are increasingly utilized for drinking water because groundwater sources are often polluted. Several monitoring studies have detected the presence of mutagenicity in drinking water, especially from surface sources due to the reaction of natural organic matter with disinfectant. The study aimed to investigate the genotoxic potential of the products of reaction between humic substances, which are naturally present in surface water, and three disinfectants: chlorine dioxide, sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid. Commercial humic acids dissolved in distilled water at different total organic carbon (TOC concentrations were studied in order to simulate natural conditions of both ground water (TOC=2.5 mg/L and surface water (TOC=7.5 mg/L. These solutions were treated with the biocides at a 1:1 molar ratio of C:disinfectant and tested for genotoxicity using the anaphase chromosomal aberration and micronucleus tests in Allium cepa, and the Vicia faba and Tradescantia micronucleus tests. The tests were carried out after different times and with different modes of exposure, and at 1:1 and 1:10 dilutions of disinfected and undisinfected humic acid solutions. A genotoxic effect was found for sodium hypochlorite in all plant tests, at both TOCs considered, while chlorine dioxide gave positive results only with the A.cepa tests. Some positive effects were also detected for PAA (A.cepa and Tradescantia. No relevant differences were found in samples with different TOC values. The significant increase in all genotoxicity end-points induced by all tested disinfectants indicates that a genotoxic potential is exerted even in the presence of organic substances at similar concentrations to those frequently present in drinking water.

  14. Different mechanisms of modulation of gap junction communication by non-genotoxic carcinogens in rat liver in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowles, C.; Mally, A.; Chipman, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    This is a comparative study of the mechanisms by which three different rodent non-genotoxic carcinogens modulate connexin-mediated gap junction intercellular communication in male rat liver in vivo. In the case of the peroxisome proliferating agent Wy-14,643, a non-hepatotoxic dose of 50 mg/kg led to a marked loss of inter-hepatocyte dye transfer associated with a loss of both Cx32 and Cx26 protein expression. In contrast, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) at a non-hepatotoxic dose (25 mg/kg) was not found to alter Cx32 or Cx26 expression or to produce a measurable Cx32 serine phosphorylation but did give a small, significant reduction of cell communication. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) did not affect cell communication (despite a small significant reduction of Cx32 content) at a non-hepatotoxic dose. Both loss of communication and Cx32 expression was observed only at a dose that caused hepatocyte toxicity as evidenced by increased serum alanine aminotransferase activity. Overall, the findings emphasise that loss of gap junctional communication in vivo can contribute to carcinogenesis by non-genotoxic carcinogens through different primary mechanism. In contrast to Wy-14,643 and DDT, the results with CCl 4 are consistent with a requirement for hepatotoxicity in its carcinogenic action

  15. Genotoxicity Assessment of Perfluorodecanoic Acid Using a Battery of In Vitro and In Vivo/in Vitro Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    clofibrate (Lalwani et al., 1983) and industrial chemicals such as phthalate ester plasticizers and phsnoxy acid herbicides (Reddy at al., 1976; Kawashima at...of hypolipideaic drugs ( clofibrate , nafenopin, tibric acid and WY-14643) on hepatic peroxisomes and p-3roxisome associated enzymes. Am. .7. Pathol. 90...AD-A240 490 AAMRL-TR-90-070 GENOTOXICITY ASSESSMENT OF PERFLUORODECANOIC ACID USING A BATTERY OF IN VITRO AND IN VIVO/IN VITRO ASSAYS C. S. Godin NSI

  16. Genotoxicity of metal nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hong; Mason, Michael M; Wise, John Pierce

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology is currently used in industry, medicine, and military applications, as well as in more than 300 commercial products. Yet, the same properties that make these particles exciting for technology also make them daunting public health concerns because their toxicity is unknown and relatively unexplored. Increased attention is being placed on the study of metal particle genotoxicity; however, a lot of unknowns remain about their effects and the mechanisms. In this article, we highlight some metal and metal oxide nanoparticles of interest and discuss the current in vivo and in vitro studies of genotoxic effects. Many metal nanoparticles were found to cause chromosomal aberrations, DNA strand breaks, oxidative DNA damage, and mutations. Inconsistencies are found in the literature, however, thus drawing conclusions is difficult due to a variety of factors. Therefore, the areas requiring further attention are highlighted and recommendations to improve our understanding of the genotoxic potential are addressed.

  17. Genotoxic effect of alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. P. Henriques

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the increase use of alkaloids in general medical practice in recent years, it is of interest to determine genotoxic, mutagenic and recombinogenic response to different groups of alkaloids in prokaryotic and eucaryotic organisms. Reserpine, boldine and chelerythrine did not show genotoxicity response in the SOS-Chromotest whereas skimmianine showed genotixicity in the presence of a metabolic activation mixture. Voacristine isolated fromthe leaves of Ervatamia coronaria shows in vivo cytostatic and mutagenic effects in Saccharomyces cerevisiae hapioids cells. The Rauwolfia alkaloid (reserpine was not able to induce reverse mutation and recombinational mitotic events (crossing-over and gene conversion in yeast diploid strain XS2316.

  18. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity evaluation of organochalcogens in human leucocytes: a comparative study between ebselen, diphenyl diselenide, and diphenyl ditelluride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caeran Bueno, Diones; Meinerz, Daiane Francine; Allebrandt, Josiane; Waczuk, Emily Pansera; dos Santos, Danúbia Bonfanti; Mariano, Douglas Oscar Ceolin; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira

    2013-01-01

    Organochalcogens, particularly ebselen, have been used in experimental and clinical trials with borderline efficacy. (PhSe)2 and (PhTe)2 are the simplest of the diaryl dichalcogenides and share with ebselen pharmacological properties. In view of the concerns with the use of mammals in studies and the great number of new organochalcogens with potential pharmacological properties that have been synthesized, it becomes important to develop screening protocols to select compounds that are worth to be tested in vivo. This study investigated the possible use of isolated human white cells as a preliminary model to test organochalcogen toxicity. Human leucocytes were exposed to 5-50  μM of ebselen, (PhSe)2, or (PhTe)2. All compounds were cytotoxic (Trypan's Blue exclusion) at the highest concentration tested, and Ebselen was the most toxic. Ebselen and (PhSe)2 were genotoxic (Comet Assay) only at 50  μM, and (PhTe)2 at 5-50  μM. Here, the acute cytotoxicity did not correspond with in vivo toxicity of the compounds. But the genotoxicity was in the same order of the in vivo toxicity to mice. These results indicate that in vitro genotoxicity in white blood cells should be considered as an early step in the investigation of potential toxicity of organochalcogens.

  19. Evaluation of Genotoxicity and 28-day Oral Dose Toxicity on Freeze-dried Powder of Tenebrio molitor Larvae (Yellow Mealworm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, So-Ri; Yun, Eun-Young; Kim, Ji-Young; Hwang, Jae Sam; Jeong, Eun Ju; Moon, Kyoung-Sik

    2014-06-01

    The larval form of Tenebrio molitor (T. molitor) has been eaten in many countries and provides benefits as a new food source of protein for humans. However, no information exists regarding its safety for humans. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the genotoxicity and repeated dose oral toxicity of the freeze-dried powder of T. molitor larvae. The genotoxic potential was evaluated by a standard battery testing: bacterial reverse mutation test, in vitro chromosome aberration test, and in vivo micronucleus test. To assess the repeated dose toxicity, the powder was administered once daily by oral gavage to Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats at dose levels of 0, 300, 1000 and 3000 mg/kg/day for 28 days. The parameters which were applied to the study were mortality, clinical signs, body and organ weights, food consumption, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, serum chemistry, gross findings and histopathologic examination. The freezedried powder of T. molitor larvae was not mutagenic or clastogenic based on results of in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity assays. Furthermore, no treatment-related changes or findings were observed in any parameters in rats after 28 days oral administration. In conclusion, the freeze-dried powder of T. molitor larvae was considered to be non-genotoxic and the NOAEL (No Observed Adverse Effect Level) was determined to be 3000 mg/kg/day in both sexes of SD rats under our experimental conditions.

  20. Electrochemical Genotoxicity Assay Based on a SOS/umu Test Using Hydrodynamic Voltammetry in a Droplet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramitz, Hideki; Sazawa, Kazuto; Nanayama, Yasuaki; Hata, Noriko; Taguchi, Shigeru; Sugawara, Kazuharu; Fukushima, Masami

    2012-01-01

    The SOS/umu genotoxicity assay evaluates the primary DNA damage caused by chemicals from the β-galactosidase activity of S. typhimurium. One of the weaknesses of the common umu test system based on spectrophotometric detection is that it is unable to measure samples containing a high concentration of colored dissolved organic matters, sediment, and suspended solids. However, umu tests with electrochemical detection techniques prove to be a better strategy because it causes less interference, enables the analysis of turbid samples and allows detection even in small volumes without loss of sensitivity. Based on this understanding, we aim to develop a new umu test system with hydrodynamic chronoamperometry using a rotating disk electrode (RDE) in a microliter droplet. PAPG when used as a substrate is not electroactive at the potential at which PAP is oxidized to p-quinone imine (PQI), so the current response of chronoamperometry resulting from the oxidation of PAP to PQI is directly proportional to the enzymatic activity of S. typhimurium. This was achieved by performing genotoxicity tests for 2-(2-furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-acrylamide (AF-2) and 2-aminoanthracene (2-AA) as model genotoxic compounds. The results obtained in this study indicated that the signal detection in the genotoxicity assay based on hydrodynamic voltammetry was less influenced by the presence of colored components and sediment particles in the samples when compared to the usual colorimetric signal detection. The influence caused by the presence of humic acids (HAs) and artificial sediment on the genotoxic property of selected model compounds such as 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4-NQO), 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX), 1,8-dinitropyrene (1,8-DNP) and 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) were also investigated. The results showed that the genotoxicity of 1-NP and MX changed in the presence of 10 mg·L−1 HAs. The genotoxicity of tested chemicals with a high hydrophobicity such as 1,8-DNP

  1. Applicability of in silico genotoxicity models on food and feed ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuorinen, Anna; Bellion, Phillip; Beilstein, Paul

    2017-11-01

    Evaluation of the genotoxic potential of food and feed ingredients is required in the development of new substances and for their registration. In addition to in vitro and in vivo assays, in silico tools such as expert alert-based and statistical models can be used for data generation. These in silico models are commonly used among the pharmaceutical industry, whereas the food industry has not widely adopted them. In this study, the applicability of in silico tools for predicting genotoxicity was evaluated, with a focus on bacterial mutagenicity, in vitro and in vivo chromosome damage assays. For this purpose, a test set of 27 food and feed ingredients including vitamins, carotenoids, and nutraceuticals with experimental genotoxicity data was constructed from proprietary data. This dataset was run through multiple models and the model applicability was analyzed. The compounds were generally within the applicability domain of the models and the models predicted the compounds correctly in most of the cases. Although the regulatory acceptance of in silico tools as single data source is still limited, the models are applicable and can be used in the safety evaluation of food and feed ingredients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mutagenicity and genotoxicity of coal fly ash water leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Rajarshi; Mukherjee, Anita

    2009-03-01

    Fly ash is a by-product of coal-fired electricity generation plants. The prevalent practice of disposal is as slurry of ash and water to storage or ash ponds located near power stations. This has lain to waste thousands of hectares of land all over the world. Since leaching is often the cause of off-site contamination and pathway of introduction into the human environment, a study on the genotoxic effects of fly ash leachate is essential. Leachate prepared from the fly ash sample was analyzed for metal content, and tested for mutagenicity and genotoxicity. Analyses of metals show predominance of the metals-sodium, silicon, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc, and sulphate. The Ames Salmonella mutagenicity assay, a short-term bacterial reverse mutation assay, was conducted on two-tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA97a and TA102. For genotoxicity, the alkaline version of comet assay on fly ash leachate was carried in vitro on human blood cells and in vivo on Nicotiana plants. The leachate was directly mutagenic and induced significant (Ppercentage (%), tail length (mum), and olive tail moment (arbitrary units). Our results indicate that leachate from fly ash dumpsites has the genotoxic potential and may lead to adverse effects on vegetation and on the health of exposed human populations.

  3. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effect of the [{sup 166}Dy]Dy/{sup 166}Ho-EDTMP in vivo generator system in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedraza-Lopez, Martha [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion, Salvador Zubiran, Delegacion Tlalpan, Mexico DF 14000 (Mexico); Ferro-Flores, Guillermina [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera Mexico-Toluca, Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico, CP 52045 (Mexico); Arteaga de Murphy, Consuelo [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion, Salvador Zubiran, Delegacion Tlalpan, Mexico DF 14000 (Mexico)]. E-mail: consuelo_murphy@yahoo.com.mx; Morales-Ramirez, Pedro [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera Mexico-Toluca, Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico, CP 52045 (Mexico); Piedras-Ross, Josefa [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion, Salvador Zubiran, Delegacion Tlalpan, Mexico DF 14000 (Mexico); Murphy-Stack, Eduardo [Hospital Santaelena, Mexico DF (Mexico); Hernandez-Oviedo, Omar [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, IPN, Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2004-11-01

    Multiple myeloma and other hematological malignancies have been treated by myeloablative radiotherapy/chemotherapy and subsequent stem cell transplantation. [{sup 166}Dy]Dy/{sup 166}Ho-ethylenediaminetetramethylene phosphonate (EDTMP) forms a stable in vivo generator system with selective skeletal uptake in mice; therefore, it could work as a potential and improved agent for marrow ablation. Induced bone marrow cytotoxicity and genotoxicity are determined by the reduction of reticulocytes (RET) and elevation of micronucleated reticulocyte (MN-RET) in peripheral blood and ablation by bone marrow histological studies. The aim of this study was to determine the bone marrow cytotoxic and genotoxic effect of the [{sup 166}Dy]Dy/{sup 166}Ho-EDTMP in vivo generator system in mice and to evaluate by histopathology its myeloablative potential. Enriched {sup 166}Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} was irradiated and [{sup 166}Dy]DyCl{sub 3} was added to EDTMP in phosphate buffer (pH 8.0) in a molar ratio of 1:1.75. QC was determined by TLC. Dy-EDTMP complex was prepared the same way with nonirradiated dysprosium oxide. A group of BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally injected with the radiopharmaceutical and two groups of control animals were injected with the cold complex and with 0.9% sodium chloride, respectively. A blood sample was taken at the beginning of the experiments and every 48 h for 12 days postinjection. The animals were sacrificed, organs of interest taken out and the radioactivity determined. The femur was used for histological studies. Flow cytometry analysis was used to quantify the frequency of RET and MN-RET in the blood samples. The MCNP4B Monte Carlo computer code was used for dosimetry calculations. Radiochemical purity was 99% and the mean specific activity was 1.3 MBq/mg. The RET and MN-RET frequency were statistically different in the treatment at the end of the 12-day period demonstrating cytotoxicity and genotoxicity induced by the in vivo generator system. The

  4. Fipronil-induced genotoxicity and DNA damage in vivo: Protective effect of vitamin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badgujar, P C; Selkar, N A; Chandratre, G A; Pawar, N N; Dighe, V D; Bhagat, S T; Telang, A G; Vanage, G R

    2017-05-01

    Fipronil, an insecticide of the phenylpyrazole class has been classified as a carcinogen by United States Environmental Protection Agency, yet very limited information is available about its genotoxic effects. Adult male and female animals were gavaged with various doses of fipronil (2.5, 12.5, and 25 mg/kg body weight (bw)) to evaluate micronucleus test (mice), chromosome aberration (CA), and comet assay (rats), respectively. Cyclophosphamide (40 mg/kg bw; intraperitoneal) was used as positive control. Another group of animals were pretreated with vitamin E orally (400 mg/kg bw) for 5 days prior to administration of fipronil (12.5 mg/kg). Fipronil exposure in both male and female mice caused significant increase in the frequency of micronuclei (MN) in polychromatic erythrocytes. Similarly, structural CAs in bone marrow cells and DNA damage in the lymphocytes was found to be significantly higher in the male and female rats exposed to fipronil as compared to their respective controls. The average degree of protection (male and female animals combined together) shown by pretreatment of vitamin E against fipronil-induced genotoxicity was 63.28%: CAs; 47.91%: MN formation; and 74.70%: DNA damage. Findings of this study demonstrate genotoxic nature of fipronil regardless of gender effect and documents protective role of vitamin E.

  5. Andiroba Oil (Carapa guianensis Aublet Nanoemulsions: Development and Assessment of Cytotoxicity, Genotoxicity, and Hematotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Suely Rodrigues Milhomem-Paixão

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Andiroba oil (AO is obtained from an Amazonian plant and is used in traditional medicine. We carried out a comparative study to test the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and hematotoxicity of the oil and its nanoemulsion (AN in vitro (fibroblasts, lineage NIH/3T3 and in vivo (Swiss mice. The AN was characterized by DLS/Zeta, and its stability was investigated for 120 days. The biological activity of AN was assessed in vitro by MTT test and cell morphology analyses and in vivo by micronucleus, comet, and hematotoxicity tests. The AN presented a hydrodynamic diameter (Hd of 142.5±3.0 and PDI of 0.272±0.007 and good stability at room temperature. The MTT test evidenced the cytotoxicity of AO and of AN only at their highest concentrations, but AN showed lower cytotoxicity than AO. A lower cytotoxicity of AN, when compared to AO, is in fact an interesting data suggesting that during therapeutic application there will be a lower impact in the cell viability of healthy cells. Cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and hematotoxicity were not observed in vivo. These tests on the biological and toxicological effects of andiroba oil and nanostructured oil are still initial ones but will give a direction to future application in cosmetics and/or the development of new phytotherapics.

  6. Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity Evaluation of Organochalcogens in Human Leucocytes: A Comparative Study between Ebselen, Diphenyl Diselenide, and Diphenyl Ditelluride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diones Caeran Bueno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Organochalcogens, particularly ebselen, have been used in experimental and clinical trials with borderline efficacy. (PhSe2 and (PhTe2 are the simplest of the diaryl dichalcogenides and share with ebselen pharmacological properties. In view of the concerns with the use of mammals in studies and the great number of new organochalcogens with potential pharmacological properties that have been synthesized, it becomes important to develop screening protocols to select compounds that are worth to be tested in vivo. This study investigated the possible use of isolated human white cells as a preliminary model to test organochalcogen toxicity. Human leucocytes were exposed to 5–50 μM of ebselen, (PhSe2, or (PhTe2. All compounds were cytotoxic (Trypan’s Blue exclusion at the highest concentration tested, and Ebselen was the most toxic. Ebselen and (PhSe2 were genotoxic (Comet Assay only at 50 μM, and (PhTe2 at 5–50 μM. Here, the acute cytotoxicity did not correspond with in vivo toxicity of the compounds. But the genotoxicity was in the same order of the in vivo toxicity to mice. These results indicate that in vitro genotoxicity in white blood cells should be considered as an early step in the investigation of potential toxicity of organochalcogens.

  7. Evaluation of Genotoxicity and 28-day Oral Dose Toxicity on Freeze-dried Powder of Tenebrio molitor Larvae (Yellow Mealworm)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, So-Ri; Yun, Eun-Young; Kim, Ji-Young; Hwang, Jae Sam; Jeong, Eun Ju

    2014-01-01

    The larval form of Tenebrio molitor (T. molitor) has been eaten in many countries and provides benefits as a new food source of protein for humans. However, no information exists regarding its safety for humans. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the genotoxicity and repeated dose oral toxicity of the freeze-dried powder of T. molitor larvae. The genotoxic potential was evaluated by a standard battery testing: bacterial reverse mutation test, in vitro chromosome aberration test, and in vivo micronucleus test. To assess the repeated dose toxicity, the powder was administered once daily by oral gavage to Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats at dose levels of 0, 300, 1000 and 3000 mg/kg/day for 28 days. The parameters which were applied to the study were mortality, clinical signs, body and organ weights, food consumption, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, serum chemistry, gross findings and histopathologic examination. The freezedried powder of T. molitor larvae was not mutagenic or clastogenic based on results of in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity assays. Furthermore, no treatment-related changes or findings were observed in any parameters in rats after 28 days oral administration. In conclusion, the freeze-dried powder of T. molitor larvae was considered to be non-genotoxic and the NOAEL (No Observed Adverse Effect Level) was determined to be 3000 mg/kg/day in both sexes of SD rats under our experimental conditions. PMID:25071922

  8. [Evaluation of cyto- and genotoxic action of ferronanomagnetic and constant magnetic field in in vivo system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekhun, V F; Lozovs'ka, Iu V; Luk'ianova, N Iu; Demash, D V; Todor, I M; Nalieskina, L A

    2013-01-01

    Cyto- and genotoxic effects of nanoparticles on the basis of FM, CMF or their combination have been studied in AKE cells, BM cells of erythroid line, and peripheral blood lymphocytes with the use of MN test and "DNA-comet" assay. It has been shown that expression of mentioned effects is related to FM concentration and duration of tested agent action. It has been also demonstrated that action of CMF alone in the studied cells did not cause any changes in cell architectonics or affect MN counts which are associated with DNA damage. When FM and CMF were used in combination there has been observed the phenomenon of induction of CMF action with FM nanoparticles. The obtained results allow recommend MN test and "DNA-comet" assay as the markers of genome stability in the tests of genotoxic effects of nanomaterials for development of vector nanosystems.

  9. The effect of gamma radiation on the Common carp (Cyprinus carpio): In vivo genotoxicity assessment with the micronucleus and comet assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M K, Praveen Kumar; Soorambail K, Shyama; Bhagatsingh Harisingh, Sonaye; D'costa, Avelyno; Ramesh Chandra, Chaubey

    2015-10-01

    Radioactive wastes may be leached into freshwater, either accidentally or in industrial effluents. We have studied gamma radiation-induced DNA damage in the freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio. Fish were irradiated with 2-10Gy gamma radiation and genotoxic effects in blood cells were studied with the micronucleus (MN) and comet assays. Micronuclei and a dose-dependent increase in comet-tail DNA were seen in dose- and time-dependent studies. The highest % tail DNA was observed at 24h, declining until 72h, which may indicate the repair of radiation-induced DNA single-strand breaks after gamma radiation. However, double-stranded DNA damage may not have been repaired, as indicated by increased micronuclei at later periods. A positive correlation was observed between the comet and micronucleus assay results. This study confirms the mutagenic/genotoxic potential of gamma radiation in the Common carp, as well as the possible combined use of the micronucleus and comet assays for in vivo laboratory studies with fresh-water fish for screening the genotoxic potential of radioactive pollution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Genotoxicity assessment of ethylenediamine dinitrate (EDDN) and diethylenetriamine trinitrate (DETN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Gunda; Song, Jian; Kirby, Paul; Johnson, Mark S

    2011-12-24

    Ethylenediamine dinitrate (EDDN) and diethylenetriamine trinitrate (DETN) are relatively insensitive explosive compounds that are being explored as safe alternatives to other more sensitive compounds. When used in combination with other high explosives they are an improvement and may provide additional safety during storage and use. The genetic toxicity of these compounds was evaluated to predict the potential adverse human health effects from exposure by using a standard genetic toxicity test battery which included: a gene mutation test in bacteria (Ames), an in vitro Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell chromosome aberration test and an in vivo mouse micronucleus test. The results of the Ames test showed that EDDN increased the mean number of revertants per plate with strain TA100, without activation, at 5000μg/plate compared to the solvent control, which indicated a positive result. No positive results were observed with the other tester strains with or without activation in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA1535, TA1537, and Escherichia coli strain WP2 uvrA. DETN was negative for all Salmonella tester strains and E. coli up to 5000μg/plate both with and without metabolic activation. The CHO cell chromosome aberration assay was performed using EDDN and DETN at concentrations up to 5000μg/mL. The results indicate that these compounds did not induce structural chromosomal aberrations at all tested concentrations in CHO cells, with or without metabolic activation. EDDN and DETN, when tested in vivo in the CD-1 mouse at doses up to 2000mg/kg, did not induce any significant increase in the number of micronuclei in bone marrow erythrocytes. These studies demonstrate that EDDN is mutagenic in one strain of Salmonella (TA100) but was negative in other strains, for in vitro induction of chromosomal aberrations in CHO cells, and for micronuclei in the in vivo mouse micronucleus assay. DETN was not genotoxic in all in vitro and in vivo tests. These results show the in

  11. Quantitative structure-activity relationships for toxicity and genotoxicity of halogenated aliphatic compounds: wing spot test of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chroust, Karel; Pavlová, Martina; Prokop, Zbynek; Mendel, Jan; Bozková, Katerina; Kubát, Zdenek; Zajícková, Veronika; Damborský, Jiri

    2007-02-01

    Halogenated aliphatic compounds were evaluated for toxic and genotoxic effects in the somatic mutation and recombination test employing Drosophila melanogaster. The tested chemicals included chlorinated, brominated and iodinated; mono-, di- and tri-substituted; saturated and unsaturated alkanes: 1,2-dibromoethane, 1-bromo-2-chloroethane, 1-iodopropane, 2,3-dichloropropene, 3-bromo-1-propene, epibromohydrin, 2-iodobutane, 3-chloro-2-methylpropene, 1,2,3-trichloropropane, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,2-dichlorobutane, 1-chloro-2-methylpropane, 1,3-dichloropropane, 1,2-dichloropropane, 2-chloroethymethylether, 1-bromo-2-methylpropane and 1-chloropentane. N-methyl-N-nitrosourea served as the positive and distilled water as the negative control. The set of chemicals for the toxicological testing was selected by the use of statistical experiment design. Group of unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons were generally more toxic than saturated analogues. The genotoxic effect was observed with 14 compounds in the wing spot test, while 3 substances did not show any genotoxicity by using the wing spot test at 50% lethal concentration. The highest number of wing spots was observed in genotoxicity assay with 1-bromo-2-chloroethane, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,2-dibromoethane and 1-iodopropane. Nucleophilic superdelocalizability calculated by quantum mechanics appears to be a good parameter for prediction of both toxicity and genotoxicity effects of halogenated aliphatic compounds.

  12. Critical review of the current and future challenges associated with advanced in vitro systems towards the study of nanoparticle (secondary) genotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Stephen J; Clift, Martin J D; Singh, Neenu; de Oliveira Mallia, Jefferson; Burgum, Michael; Wills, John W; Wilkinson, Thomas S; Jenkins, Gareth J S; Doak, Shareen H

    2017-01-01

    With the need to understand the potential biological impact of the plethora of nanoparticles (NPs) being manufactured for a wide range of potential human applications, due to their inevitable human exposure, research activities in the field of NP toxicology has grown exponentially over the last decade. Whilst such increased research efforts have elucidated an increasingly significant knowledge base pertaining to the potential human health hazard posed by NPs, understanding regarding the possibility for NPs to elicit genotoxicity is limited. In vivo models are unable to adequately discriminate between the specific modes of action associated with the onset of genotoxicity. Additionally, in line with the recent European directives, there is an inherent need to move away from invasive animal testing strategies. Thus, in vitro systems are an important tool for expanding our mechanistic insight into NP genotoxicity. Yet uncertainty remains concerning their validity and specificity for this purpose due to the unique challenges presented when correlating NP behaviour in vitro and in vivo This review therefore highlights the current state of the art in advanced in vitro systems and their specific advantages and disadvantages from a NP genotoxicity testing perspective. Key indicators will be given related to how these systems might be used or improved to enhance understanding of NP genotoxicity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society.

  13. Genotoxic and teratogenic potential of marine sediment extracts investigated with comet assay and zebrafish test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kammann, Ulrike; Biselli, Scarlett; Huehnerfuss, Heinrich; Reineke, Ninja; Theobald, Norbert; Vobach, Michael; Wosniok, Werner

    2004-01-01

    Organic extracts of marine sediments from the North Sea and the Baltic Sea were investigated with two toxicity assays. The comet assay based on the fish cell line Epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) was applied to determine the genotoxic potential; zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio) were used to quantify the teratogenic potential of the samples. EC 50 values were calculated from dose-response curves for both test systems. Highest teratogenic and genotoxic effects normalised to total organic carbon (TOC) content were detected in sediment samples of different origins. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are not likely to be the causes of the observed effects, as demonstrated by a two-step fractionation procedure of selected extracts. The toxic potential was more pronounced in fractions having polarity higher than those possessed by PAHs and PCBs. The suitability of the two in vitro test systems for assessing genotoxic and teratogenic effects of marine sediment extracts could be demonstrated. - Capsule: In vitro toxicity assays are used to assess genotoxic and teratogenic effects of environmental extracts

  14. In vivo assessment of genotoxic, antigenotoxic and anticarcinogenic activities of Solanum lycocarpum fruits glycoalkaloidic extract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Carolina Munari

    Full Text Available The fruits of Solanum lycocarpum, known as wolf-fruit, are used in folk medicine, and because of that we have evaluated both the genotoxic potential of its glycoalkaloidic extract (SL and its influence on the genotoxicity induced by methyl methanesulfonate. Furthermore, the potential blocking effect of SL intake in the initial stage of colon carcinogenesis in Wistar rats was investigated in a short-term (4-week bioassay using aberrant crypt foci (ACF as biomarker. The genotoxic potential was evaluated using the Swiss mice peripheral blood micronucleus test. The animals were treated with different doses of SL (15, 30 and 60 mg/kg b.w. for 14 days, and the peripheral blood samples were collected at 48 h, 7 days and 14 days after starting the treatment. For antigenotoxicity assessment, MMS was administered on the 14th day, and after 24 h the harvesting of bone marrow and liver cells was performed, for the micronucleus and comet assays, respectively. In the ACF assay, male Wistar rats were given four subcutaneous injections of the carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH, 40 mg/kg b.w., twice a week, during two weeks to induce ACF. The treatment with SL (15, 30 and 60 mg/kg b.w. was given for four weeks during and after carcinogen treatment to investigate the potential beneficial effects of SL on DMH-induced ACF. The results demonstrated that SL was not genotoxic in the mouse micronucleus test. In animals treated with SL and MMS, the frequencies of micronucleus and extensions of DNA damage were significantly reduced in comparison with the animals receiving only MMS. Regarding the ACF assay, SL significantly reduced the frequency of ACF induced by DMH.

  15. Does the recommended lymphocyte cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay for human biomonitoring actually detect DNA damage induced by occupational and environmental exposure to genotoxic chemicals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speit, Günter

    2013-07-01

    This commentary challenges the paradigm that the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN assay) with cultured human lymphocytes, as it is performed currently, is a sensitive and useful tool for detecting genotoxic effects in populations exposed occupationally or environmentally to genotoxic chemicals. Based on the principle of the assay and the available data, increased micronucleus (MN) frequencies in binucleated cells (BNC) are mainly due to MN produced in vitro during the cultivation period (i.e. MN produced in vivo do not substantially contribute to the MN frequency measured in BNC). The sensitivity of the assay for the detection of induced MN in BNC after an in vivo exposure to a genotoxic chemical is limited because cytochalasin B (Cyt-B) is added relatively late during the culture period and, therefore, the BNC that are scored do not always represent cells that have completed one cell cycle only. Furthermore, this delay means that damaged cells can be eliminated by apoptosis and/or that DNA damage induced in vivo can be repaired prior to the production of a MN in the presence of Cyt-B. A comparison with the in vitro CBMN assay used for genotoxicity testing leads to the conclusion that it is highly unlikely that DNA damage induced in vivo is the cause for increased MN frequencies in BNC after occupational or environmental exposure to genotoxic chemicals. This commentary casts doubt on the usefulness of the CBMN assay as an indicator of genotoxicity in human biomonitoring and questions the relevance of many published data for hazard identification and risk assessment. Thus, it seems worthwhile to reconsider the use of the CBMN assay as presently conducted for the detection of genotoxic exposure in human biomonitoring.

  16. Measurement of micronuclei and internal dose in mice demonstrates that 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) has no genotoxic potency in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasa, Jenny; Törnqvist, Margareta; Abramsson-Zetterberg, Lilianne

    2017-11-01

    In this study 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD), a compound that appears as contaminant in refined cooking oils, has been studied with regard to genotoxicity in vivo (mice) with simultaneous measurement of internal dose using state-of-the-art methodologies. Genotoxicity (chromosomal aberrations) was measured by flow cytometry with dual lasers as the frequency of micronuclei in erythrocytes in peripheral blood from BalbC mice intraperitoneally exposed to 3-MCPD (0, 50, 75, 100, 125 mg/kg). The internal doses of 3-MCPD in the mice were calculated from N-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)-valine adducts to hemoglobin (Hb), quantified at very low levels by high-resolution mass spectrometry. Convincing evidence for absence of genotoxic potency in correlation to measured internal doses in the mice was demonstrated, despite relatively high administered doses of 3-MCPD. The results are discussed in relation to another food contaminant that is formed as ester in parallel to 3-MCPD esters in oil processing, i.e. glycidol, which has been studied previously by us in a similar experimental setup. Glycidol has been shown to be genotoxic, and in addition to have ca. 1000 times higher rate of adduct formation compared to that observed for 3-MCPD. The conclusion is that at simultaneous exposure to 3-MCPD and glycidol the concern about genotoxicity would be glycidol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Genotoxicity of the Musi River (Hyderabad, India) investigated with the VITOTOX test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayashree, B; Ahuja, Y R; Regniers, L; Rao, V; Verschaeve, L

    2005-01-01

    The bacterial VITOTOX genotoxicity test was used to screen water samples collected from three different stations along the banks of the river Musi, in Hyderabad, India. Water was collected at three stations that differed from each other in the nature of the surrounding industrial and other activities. A number of different pollutants were also measured in water, soil and air samples. The three stations were found highly polluted and different with regard to the genotoxicity and toxicity of their samples. These results demonstrate the need for further biological studies in this area to generate valuable data on genomic instability, risk assessment of cancer, and to provide avenues for risk management.

  18. Histopathological and genotoxic effects of chlorpyrifos in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzi, Lobna; Belhadj Salah, Imen; Haouas, Zohra; Sakly, Amina; Grissa, Intissar; Chakroun, Sana; Kerkeni, Emna; Hassine, Mohsen; Mehdi, Meriem; Ben Cheikh, Hassen

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of chlorpyrifos's sub-acute exposure on male rats. Two groups with six animals each were orally treated, respectively, with 3.1 mg/kg b w and 6.2 mg/kg b w of chlorpyrifos during 4 weeks. The genotoxic effect of chlopyrifos was investigated using the comet assay and the micronucleus test. Some hematological and liver's histopathological changes were also evaluated. Results revealed that chlorpyrifos induced histopathological alterations in liver parenchyma. The lymphoid infiltration observed in liver sections and the increase in white blood cells parameter are signs of inflammation. A significant increase in the platelet' count and in polychromatic erythrocytes/normochromatic erythrocytes (PCE/NCE) ratio was observed in chlorpyrifos-treated groups which could be due to the stimulatory effect of chlorpyrifos on cell formation in the bone marrow at lower doses. In addition, the increase of bone marrow micronucleus percentage and the comet tail length revealed a genotoxic potential of chlorpyrifos in vivo.

  19. Genotoxicity of two heavy metal compounds: lead nitrate and cobalt chloride in Polychaete Perinereis cultrifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nisha; Bhagat, Jacky; Ingole, Baban S

    2017-07-01

    The present study explores the in vivo and in vitro genotoxic effects of lead nitrate, [Pb(NO 3 ) 2 ] a recognized environmental pollutant and cobalt chloride (CoCl 2 ), an emerging environmental pollutant in polychaete Perinereis cultrifera using comet assay. Despite widespread occurrence and extensive industrial applications, no previous published reports on genotoxicity of these compounds are available in polychaete as detected by comet assay. Polychaetes were exposed in vivo to Pb(NO 3 ) 2 (0, 100, 500, and 1000 μg/l) and CoCl 2 (0, 100, 300, and 500 μg/l) for 5 days. At 100 μg/l Pb(NO 3 ) 2 concentration, tail DNA (TDNA) values in coelomocytes were increase by 1.16, 1.43, and 1.55-fold after day 1, day 3, and day 5, whereas, OTM showed 1.12, 2.33, and 2.10-fold increase in in vivo. Pb(NO 3 ) 2 showed a concentration and time-dependent genotoxicity whereas CoCl 2 showed a concentration-dependent genotoxicity in in vivo. A concentration-dependent increase in DNA damage was observed in in vitro studies for Pb(NO 3 ) 2 and CoCl 2 . DNA damage at 500 μg/L showed almost threefold increase in TDNA and approximately fourfold increase in OTM as compared to control in in vitro. Our studies suggest that Pb(NO 3 ) 2 and CoCl 2 have potential to cause genotoxic damage, with Pb(NO 3 ) 2 being more genotoxic in polychaete and should be used more carefully in industrial and other activities. Graphical abstract.

  20. Comet assay evaluation of six chemicals of known genotoxic potential in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Cheryl A; Recio, Leslie; Streicker, Michael; Boyle, Molly H; Tanaka, Jin; Shiga, Atsushi; Witt, Kristine L

    2015-07-01

    As a part of an international validation of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay (comet assay) initiated by the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM) we examined six chemicals for potential to induce DNA damage: 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF), N-nitrosodimethylamine (DMN), o-anisidine, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (1,2-DMH), sodium chloride, and sodium arsenite. DNA damage was evaluated in the liver and stomach of 7- to 9-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats. Of the five genotoxic carcinogens tested in our laboratory, DMN and 1,2-DMH were positive in the liver and negative in the stomach, 2-AAF and o-anisidine produced an equivocal result in liver and negative results in stomach, and sodium arsenite was negative in both liver and stomach. 1,2-DMH and DMN induced dose-related increases in hedgehogs in the same tissue (liver) that exhibited increased DNA migration. However, no cytotoxicity was indicated by the neutral diffusion assay (assessment of highly fragmented DNA) or histopathology in response to treatment with any of the tested chemicals. Therefore, the increased DNA damage resulting from exposure to DMN and 1,2-DMH was considered to represent a genotoxic response. Sodium chloride, a non-genotoxic non-carcinogen, was negative in both tissues as would be predicted. Although only two (1,2-DMH and DMN) out of five genotoxic carcinogens produced clearly positive results in the comet assay, the results obtained for o-anisidine and sodium arsenite in liver and stomach cells are consistent with the known mode of genotoxicity and tissue specificity exhibited by these carcinogens. In contrast, given the known genotoxic mode-of-action and target organ carcinogenicity of 2-AAF, it is unclear why this chemical failed to convincingly increase DNA migration in the liver. Thus, the results of the comet assay validation studies conducted in our laboratory were considered appropriate for five out of the six test chemicals. Copyright © 2015

  1. Potential genotoxic effects of melted snow from an urban area revealed by the Allium cepa test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagojević, Jelena; Stamenković, Gorana; Vujosević, Mladen

    2009-09-01

    The presence of well-known atmospheric pollutants is regularly screened for in large towns but knowledge about the effects of mixtures of different pollutants and especially their genotoxic potential is largely missing. Since falling snow collects pollutants from the air, melted snow samples could be suitable for evaluating potential genotoxicity. For this purpose the Allium cepa anaphase-telophase test was used to analyse melted snow samples from Belgrade, the capital city of Serbia. Samples of snow were taken at two sites, characterized by differences in pollution intensity, in three successive years. At the more polluted site the analyses showed a very high degree of both toxicity and genotoxicity in the first year of the study corresponding to the effects of the known mutagen used as the positive control. At the other site the situation was much better but not without warning signals. The results showed that standard analyses for the presence of certain contaminants in the air do not give an accurate picture of the possible consequences of urban air pollution because the genotoxic potential remains hidden. The A. cepa test has been demonstrated to be very convenient for evaluation of air pollution through analyses of melted snow samples.

  2. Recommendations for safety testing with the in vivo comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Marie Z

    2012-08-30

    While the in vivo comet assay increases its role in regulatory safety testing, deliberations about the interpretation of comet data continue. Concerns can arise regarding comet assay publications with limited data from non-blind testing of positive control compounds and using protocols (e.g. dose concentrations, sample times, and tissues) known to give an expected effect. There may be a tendency towards bias when the validation or interpretation of comet assay data is based on results generated by widely accepted but non-validated assays. The greatest advantages of the comet assay are its sensitivity and its ability to detect genotoxicity in tissues and at sample times that could not previously be evaluated. Guidelines for its use and interpretation in safety testing should take these factors into account. Guidelines should be derived from objective review of data generated by blind testing of unknown compounds dosed at non-toxic concentrations and evaluated in a true safety-testing environment, where the experimental design and conclusions must be defensible. However, positive in vivo comet findings with such compounds are rarely submitted to regulatory agencies and this data is typically unavailable for publication due to its proprietary nature. To enhance the development of guidelines for safety testing with the comet assay, and with the permission of several sponsors, this paper presents and discusses relevant data from multiple GLP comet studies conducted blind, with unknown pharmaceuticals and consumer products. Based on these data and the lessons we have learned through the course of conducting these studies, I suggest significant adjustments to the current conventions, and I provide recommendations for interpreting in vivo comet assay results in situations where risk must be evaluated in the absence of carcinogenicity or clinical data. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Anti-Genotoxic Potential of Bilirubin In Vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallner, Marlies; Antl, Nadja; Rittmannsberger, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The bile pigment bilirubin is a known antioxidant and is associated with protection from cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD) when present in too strong concentrations. Unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) might also possess anti-genotoxic potential by preventing oxidative damage to DNA. Moderately...... elevated bilirubin levels are found in individuals with Gilbert syndrome and more severe in the hyperbilirubinemic Gunn rat model. This study was therefore aimed to assess the levels of oxidative damage to DNA in Gilbert syndrome subjects and Gunn rats compared to matched controls. Seventy-six individuals...

  4. Genotoxic, Cytotoxic, Antigenotoxic, and Anticytotoxic Effects of Sulfonamide Chalcone Using the Ames Test and the Mouse Bone Marrow Micronucleus Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Ribeiro E Silva

    Full Text Available Chalcones present several biological activities and sulfonamide chalcone derivatives have shown important biological applications, including antitumor activity. In this study, genotoxic, cytotoxic, antigenotoxic, and anticytotoxic activities of the sulfonamide chalcone N-{4-[3-(4-nitrophenylprop-2-enoyl]phenyl} benzenesulfonamide (CPN were assessed using the Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation test (Ames test and the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test. The results showed that CPN caused a small increase in the number of histidine revertant colonies in S. typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100, but not statistically significant (p > 0.05. The antimutagenicity test showed that CPN significantly decreased the number of His+ revertants in strain TA98 at all doses tested (p 0.05. Additionally, CPN co-administered with MMC significantly increased PCE/NCE ratio at all doses tested, demonstrating its anticytotoxic effect. In summary, CPN presented genotoxic, cytotoxic, antigenotoxic, and anticytotoxic properties.

  5. In vitro and in vivo genotoxicity of 1,3-butadiene and metabolites.

    OpenAIRE

    Arce, G T; Vincent, D R; Cunningham, M J; Choy, W N; Sarrif, A M

    1990-01-01

    1,3-Butadiene and two major genotoxic metabolites 3,4-epoxybutene (EB) and 1,2:3,4-diepoxybutane (DEB) were used as model compounds to determine if genetic toxicity findings in animal and human cells can aid in extrapolating animal toxicity data to man. Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and micronucleus induction results indicated 1,3-butadiene was genotoxic in the bone marrow of the mouse but not the rat. This paralleled the chronic bioassays which showed mice to be more susceptible than rats ...

  6. Dose-Response Assessment of Four Genotoxic Chemicals in a Combined Mouse and Rat Micronucleus and Comet Assay Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recio, Leslie; Hobbs, Cheryl; Caspary, William; Witt, Kristine L.

    2012-01-01

    The in vivo micronucleus (MN) assay has proven to be an effective measure of genotoxicity potential. However, sampling a single tissue (bone marrow) for a single indicator of genetic damage using the MN assay provides a limited genotoxicity profile. The in vivo alkaline (pH>13) Comet assay, which detects a broad spectrum of DNA damage, can be applied to a variety of rodent tissues following administration of test agents. To determine if the Comet assay is a useful supplement to the in vivo MN assay, a combined test protocol (MN/Comet assay) was conducted in male B6C3F1 mice and F344/N rats using four model genotoxicants: ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), acrylamide (ACM), cyclophosphamide (CP), and vincristine sulfate (VS). Test compounds were administered on 4 consecutive days at 24-hour intervals (VS was administered to rats for 3 days); animals were euthanized 4 hours after the last administration. All compounds induced significant increases in micronucleated reticulocytes (MN-RET) in the peripheral blood of mice, and all but ACM induced MN-RET in rats. EMS and ACM induced significant increases in DNA damage, measured by the Comet assay, in multiple tissues of mice and rats. CP-induced DNA damage was detected in leukocytes and duodenum cells. VS, a spindle fiber disrupting agent, was negative in the Comet assay. Based on these results, the MN/Comet assay holds promise for providing more comprehensive assessments of potential genotoxicants, and the National Toxicology Program is presently using this combined protocol in its overall evaluation of the genotoxicity of substances of public health concern. PMID:20371966

  7. Assessment of in vivo and in vitro genotoxicity of glibenclamide in eukaryotic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Rocha de Sant'Anna

    Full Text Available Glibenclamide is an oral hypoglycemic drug commonly prescribed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, whose anti-tumor activity has been recently described in several human cancer cells. The mutagenic potential of such an antidiabetic drug and its recombinogenic activity in eukaryotic cells were evaluated, the latter for the first time. The mutagenic potential of glibenclamide in therapeutically plasma (0.6 μM and higher concentrations (10 μM, 100 μM, 240 μM and 480 μM was assessed by the in vitro mammalian cell micronucleus test in human lymphocytes. Since the loss of heterozygosity arising from allelic recombination is an important biologically significant consequence of oxidative damage, the glibenclamide recombinogenic activity at 1 μM, 10 μM and 100 μM concentrations was evaluated by the in vivo homozygotization assay. Glibenclamide failed to alter the frequency of micronuclei between 0.6 μM and 480 μM concentrations and the cytokinesis block proliferation index between 0.6 μM and 240 μM concentrations. On the other hand, glibenclamide changed the cell-proliferation kinetics when used at 480 μM. In the homozygotization assay, the homozygotization indices for the analyzed markers were lower than 2.0 and demonstrated the lack of recombinogenic activity of glibenclamide. Data in the current study demonstrate that glibenclamide, in current experimental conditions, is devoid of significant genotoxic effects. This fact encourages further investigations on the use of this antidiabetic agent as a chemotherapeutic drug.

  8. A predictive toxicogenomics signature to classify genotoxic versus non-genotoxic chemicals in human TK6 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Williams

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Genotoxicity testing is a critical component of chemical assessment. The use of integrated approaches in genetic toxicology, including the incorporation of gene expression data to determine the DNA damage response pathways involved in response, is becoming more common. In companion papers previously published in Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, Li et al. (2015 [6] developed a dose optimization protocol that was based on evaluating expression changes in several well-characterized stress-response genes using quantitative real-time PCR in human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells in culture. This optimization approach was applied to the analysis of TK6 cells exposed to one of 14 genotoxic or 14 non-genotoxic agents, with sampling 4 h post-exposure. Microarray-based transcriptomic analyses were then used to develop a classifier for genotoxicity using the nearest shrunken centroids method. A panel of 65 genes was identified that could accurately classify toxicants as genotoxic or non-genotoxic. In Buick et al. (2015 [1], the utility of the biomarker for chemicals that require metabolic activation was evaluated. In this study, TK6 cells were exposed to increasing doses of four chemicals (two genotoxic that require metabolic activation and two non-genotoxic chemicals in the presence of rat liver S9 to demonstrate that S9 does not impair the ability to classify genotoxicity using this genomic biomarker in TK6cells.

  9. Evaluation of genotoxic potential of neurotoxin anatoxin-a with the use of umuC test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieroslawska, Anna; Rymuszka, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate genotoxicity of anatoxin-a, cyanotoxin of neurotoxic activity. Additionally, other frequently detected cyanotoxin of previously described genotoxic potential, microcystin-LR, was used at the same concentrations, as well as the mixture of both toxins, anatoxin-a and microcystin-LR. Genotoxicity of the toxins was determined with the use of the umuC assay, in which the induction and expression of the umuC - lacZ reporter gene was assessed. The test was conducted on Salmonella typhimurium TA 1535/pSK1002 strain, with and without metabolic transformation. The toxin concentrations were 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2 µg/ml. The exposure time was 2 h. The highest inefficient concentration of anatoxin-a without metabolic transformation was 0.25 µg/ml, of microcystin-LR was 0.5 µg/ml and in case of the toxin mixture all used concentrations induced the umuC gene. When S9 fraction was added to the samples, no effects were detected. To our knowledge, this is the first report on genotoxic effects of anatoxin-a. Although the study is preliminary and needs further research, however, indicates the new potential activity of the toxin, as well as the possible increase of genotoxicity of other cyanotoxins, more stable in the environment, e.g. microcystin-LR.

  10. Chromosomal abnormalities in roots of aquatic plant Elodea canadensis as a tool for testing genotoxicity of bottom sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotina, Tatiana; Medvedeva, Marina; Trofimova, Elena; Alexandrova, Yuliyana; Dementyev, Dmitry; Bolsunovsky, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    Submersed freshwater macrophytes are considered as relevant indicators for use in bulk bottom sediment contact tests. The purpose of this study was to estimate the validity of endpoints of aquatic plant Elodea canadensis for laboratory genotoxicity testing of natural bottom sediments. The inherent level of chromosome abnormalities (on artificial sediments) in roots of E. canadensis under laboratory conditions was lower than the percentage of abnormal cells in bulk sediments from the Yenisei River. The percentage of abnormal cells in roots of E. canadensis was more sensitive to the presence of genotoxic agents in laboratory contact tests than in the natural population of the plant. The spectra of chromosomal abnormalities that occur in roots of E. canadensis under natural conditions in the Yenisei River and in laboratory contact tests on the bulk bottom sediments from the Yenisei River were similar. Hence, chromosome abnormalities in roots of E. canadensis can be used as a relevant and sensitive genotoxicity endpoint in bottom sediment-contact tests. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. How to assess the mutagenic potential of cosmetic products without animal tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speit, Günter

    2009-08-01

    Animal experiments (in vivo tests) currently play a key role in genotoxicity testing. Results from in vivo tests are, in many cases, decisive for the assessment of a mutagenic potential of a test compound. The Seventh Amendment to the European Cosmetics Directive will, however, ban the European marketing of cosmetic/personal care products that contain ingredients that have been tested in animal experiments. If genotoxicity testing is solely based on the currently established in vitro tests, the attrition rate for chemicals used in cosmetic products will greatly increase due to irrelevant positive in vitro test results. There is urgent need for new and/or improved in vitro genotoxicity tests and for modified test strategies. Test strategies should consider all available information on chemistry of the test substance/the chemical class (e.g. SAR, metabolic activation and dermal adsorption). Test protocols for in vitro genotoxicity tests should be sensitive and robust enough to ensure that negative results can be accepted with confidence. It should be excluded that positive in vitro test results are due to high cytotoxicity or secondary genotoxic effects which may be thresholded and/or only occur under in vitro test conditions. Consequently, further research is needed to establish the nature of thresholds in in vitro assays and to determine the potential for incorporation of mode of action data into future risk assessments. New/improved tests have to be established and validated, considering the use of (metabolically competent) primary (skin) cells, 3D skin models and cells with defined capacity for metabolic activation (e.g. genetically engineered cell lines). The sensitivity and specificity of new and improved genotoxicity tests has to be determined by testing a battery of genotoxic and non-genotoxic chemicals. New or adapted international guidelines will be needed for these tests. The establishment of such a new genotoxicity testing strategy will take time and the

  12. 13-week dietary study and in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity studies of a structuring fat produced through a microalgal fermentation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Matulka

    Full Text Available Microalgae are increasingly being utilized as food ingredients for a variety of applications, including as sources of protein, egg and dairy substitutes, and cooking oils. The dietary safety of a new structuring fat produced using a heterotrophic fermentation process by a strain of Prototheca moriformis was evaluated in a 13-week dietary toxicity study and compared with kokum fat, a structuring fat of similar composition used in the food industry and derived from Garcinia indica seeds. The algal structuring fat was evaluated for its genotoxic potential using both in vitro and in vivo assays. No treatment-related adverse events occurred in rats consuming algal structuring fat or kokum fat in the 13-week study; no treatment-related effects were reported for body weight, food consumption, urinalysis, hematology, clinical chemistry, gross pathology, organ weights, or histopathology. While statistically significant effects occurred in some parameters, none were dose-related or considered adverse. Overall, the NOAELs for the algal structuring fat and the kokum fat were 100 000 ppm, the highest concentrations tested. The algal structuring fat was not mutagenic in the bacterial reverse mutation assay in the Salmonella typhimurium or Escherichia coli strains tested and was not clastogenic in the in vivo mouse bone marrow chromosome aberration assay. Keywords: Microalgae, Stearic acid, Subchronic toxicity, Kokum, Prototheca moriformis, Structuring fat

  13. Benzene-induced genotoxicity in mice in vivo detected by the alkaline comet assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuo, J; Loft, S; Thomsen, M S

    1996-01-01

    was further increased to 5.4-fold and 6.6-fold of the control values, respectively (p propylene glycol (5 microliters/g b.wt., twice with a 60-min interval), a selective CYP2E1 inhibitor, reduced the increase in the tail length by about half at all doses in both cell types (p ...The myelotoxic and genotoxic effects of benzene have been related to oxidative DNA damage after metabolism by CYP2E1. Single cell gel electrophoresis (alkaline comet assay) detects DNA damage and may thus be a convenient method for the study of benzene genotoxicity. Benzene exposure to NMRI mice.......01). By comparing our data with those from genotoxicity studies on benzene using other methods, we conclude that the 'alkaline comet assay' is a sensitive method to detect DNA damage induced by benzene. We also infer that CYP2E1 contributes, at least partly, to the formation of the 'comet'-inducing metabolites...

  14. Testing, comparison, further development and assessment of genotoxicity tests for surface water. Findings of a BMBF study; Erprobung, Vergleich, Weiterentwicklung und Beurteilung von Gentoxizitaetstests fuer Oberflaechenwasser. Ergebnisse eines BMBF-Verbundvorhabens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grummt, T. [Umweltbundesamt, Bad Elster (Germany)

    2001-05-01

    A research project was designed to develop a test strategy for the detection and evaluation of genotoxic effects in surface water aquatic organisms. Indicator tests were evaluated with respect to their predictive power, sensitivity and practicability in order to determine whether they are suitable for inclusion in a battery of tests. The bioassays utilized in this study include the umu-test, alkaline filter elution (mussels, green algae), the DNA unwinding test (fish larvae, cray fish, mussels, fish cell lines), the comet assay (protozoans, green algae, mussels, primary fish hepatocytes, fish and mammalian cell lines) and the UDS-test (primary fish hepatocytes). The Ames Salmonella assay, a direct genotoxicity assay and a well-known base test in chemicals assessment, was included in the study programme for comparison. All test results were verified with statistical methods. During the first phase of the project five known genotoxic substances (2-acetylamidofluorene, benzo(a)pyrene, N-nitrosodimethylamine, nitrofurantoin, 4-nitroquinoin-N-oxide) were tested to establish and optimize the assays. In a second phase of the project the validated methods were applied to non-concentrated samples of surface water taken on a monthly basis from the river Rhine, the Wahnbach dam, the rivers Elbe and Mulde over a period of 12 months. The data obtained showed the comet assay, the umu-test and the Ames-test to be particularly sensitive and to detect genotoxic effects in complex mixtures in a low dose range. They seem to be suitable for routine testing and should therefore be used in the first stage of a graduated testing battery for detection of genotoxicity in surface water in combination with effect-oriented chemical analysis. (orig.)

  15. Efficacy of Allium cepa test system for screening cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of industrial effluents originated from different industrial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathiratne, Asoka; Hemachandra, Chamini K; De Silva, Nimal

    2015-12-01

    Efficacy of Allium cepa test system for screening cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of treated effluents originated from four types of industrial activities (two textile industries, three rubber based industries, two common treatment plants of industrial zones, and two water treatment plants) was assessed. Physico-chemical parameters including the heavy metal/metalloid levels of the effluents varied depending on the industry profile, but most of the measured parameters in the effluents were within the specified tolerance limits of Sri Lankan environmental regulations for discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters. In the A. cepa test system, the undiluted effluents induced statistically significant root growth retardation, mitosis depression, and chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells in most cases in comparison to the dilution water and upstream water signifying effluent induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Ethyl methane sulphonate (a mutagen, positive control) and all the effluents under 1:8 dilution significantly induced total chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells in comparison to the dilution water and upstream water indicating inadequacy of expected 1:8 dilutions in the receiving waters for curtailing genotoxic impacts. The results support the use of a practically feasible A. cepa test system for rapid screening of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of diverse industrial effluents discharging into inland surface waters.

  16. Does Caesalpinia bonducella ameliorate genotoxicity? An in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study is to investigate the antimutagenic and antigenotoxic potential of alcoholic extracts of C. bonducella against methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) induced genotoxicity. In this experiment we have used in vitro method i.e., human lymphocyte culture and in vivo method in bone marrow cells of albino mice, ...

  17. Genotoxicity test of Maytenus rigida and Aristolochia birostris in the radicular meristem of the onion, Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra S. Mendes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are an important source of treatment for many ailments, although little is known of the potential genotoxic effects of most species. In the present study, two species from diverse and medicinally important genera - Maytenus rigida Mart., Celastraceae, and Aristolochia birostris Ducht, Aristolochiaceae - were analyzed to identify potentially significant secondary metabolites and the possible effects of their aqueous and alcoholic extracts on cell division in the onion root stem (genotoxicity test. The phytochemical testing revealed the presence of a number of potentially important secondary compounds in both species, including phenols, flavonoids, triterpenoids, steroids, and saponins. In the genotoxicity tests, no chromosomal abnormalities of any kind were observed in either species. In the case of M. rigida, a significant increase in mitotic activity was observed at the highest concentration. No significant tendency was recorded in A. birostris, although a considerable increase in the prophase was observed at all concentrations of the alcoholic extract. The triterpenoid content of both species may be especially important from a medicinal viewpoint, although recent findings on the carcinogenic potential of Aristolochia extracts demands caution in the interpretation of the results, and the need for further research.

  18. Genotoxicity test of Maytenus rigida and Aristolochia birostris in the radicular meristem of the onion, Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra S. Mendes

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are an important source of treatment for many ailments, although little is known of the potential genotoxic effects of most species. In the present study, two species from diverse and medicinally important genera - Maytenus rigida Mart., Celastraceae, and Aristolochia birostris Ducht, Aristolochiaceae - were analyzed to identify potentially significant secondary metabolites and the possible effects of their aqueous and alcoholic extracts on cell division in the onion root stem (genotoxicity test. The phytochemical testing revealed the presence of a number of potentially important secondary compounds in both species, including phenols, flavonoids, triterpenoids, steroids, and saponins. In the genotoxicity tests, no chromosomal abnormalities of any kind were observed in either species. In the case of M. rigida, a significant increase in mitotic activity was observed at the highest concentration. No significant tendency was recorded in A. birostris, although a considerable increase in the prophase was observed at all concentrations of the alcoholic extract. The triterpenoid content of both species may be especially important from a medicinal viewpoint, although recent findings on the carcinogenic potential of Aristolochia extracts demands caution in the interpretation of the results, and the need for further research.

  19. Molecular and structural changes induced by essential oils treatments in Vicia faba roots detected by genotoxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturchio, Elena; Boccia, Priscilla; Zanellato, Miriam; Meconi, Claudia; Donnarumma, Lucia; Mercurio, Giuseppe; Mecozzi, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few years, there has been an increased interest in exploiting allelopathy in organic agriculture. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effects of essential oil mixtures in order to establish their allelopathic use in agriculture. Two mixtures of essential oils consisting respectively of tea tree oil (TTO) and clove plus rosemary (C + R) oils were tested. Phytotoxicity and genotoxicity tests on the root meristems of Vicia faba minor were performed. A phytotoxic influence was particularly relevant for C + R mixture, while genotoxicity tests revealed significant results with both C + R oil mixture and TTO. Phenotypic analysis on Vicia faba minor primary roots following C + R oil mixture treatment resulted in callose production, an early symptom attributed to lipid peroxidation. The approach described in this study, based on genotoxicity bioassays, might identify specific DNA damage induced by essential oil treatments. These tests may represent a powerful method to evaluate potential adverse effects of different mixtures of essential oils that might be useful in alternative agriculture. Future studies are focusing on the positive synergism of more complex mixtures of essential oils in order to reduce concentrations of potentially toxic components while at the same time maintaining efficacy in antimicrobial and antifungal management.

  20. Genotoxic and cytotoxic damage by the therapeutic radiopharmaceutical [166Dy]Dy/166Ho-EDTMP as in vivo generator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedraza L, M.; Piedras R, J.; Ferro F, G.; Morales R, P.; Murphy S, E.; Hernandez O, O.

    2005-01-01

    In patients with leukemias and multiple myeloma, the cure can be obtained to inclination of a bone marrow transplant (m.o.), for that which one is used a combination of external radiotherapy and chemotherapy with the consequent toxicity to healthy organs. The complex [ 166 Dy]Dy/ 166 Ho-ethylenediaminetetramethylenephosphonate ([ 166 Dy]Dy/ 166 Ho-EDTMP) it forms a generator system in vivo stable with bony selective likeness in mice therefore, this it could work as a therapeutic radiopharmaceutical for bone marrow ablation. The objective of this original work was to determine the genotoxic and cytotoxic damage produced by the [ 166 Dy]Dy/ 166 Ho-EDTMP like a generator system in vivo by means of the reticulocytes reduction (RET) and micronucleus elevation in reticulocytes (RET-MN) in peripheral blood and to evaluate its myeloablative potential for histopathologic studies. It was irradiated 166 Dy 2 O 3 enriched and it was add in form 166 DyCI 3 to the EDTMP in a softening media of phosphates (pH 8), the optimal molar relationship 166 Dy: EDTMP was 1.7:1 and the radiochemical purity was evaluated by ITLC. The Dy:EDTMP complexes, non radioactive, its were prepared in the same way with non irradiated dysprosium oxide. A group of BALB/c mice was injected intraperitoneally with the radiopharmaceutical and two groups of control mice were injected with the non radioactive complex and with sodium chloride 0.9% respectively. Before injecting each one of the solutions it was take a basal sample of peripheral blood of the mouse tail and each 48 h post-injection during 12 d. The animals were sacrificed to obtain the organs of interest and to determine the radioactivity in each one. The femur was used for the histopathologic studies. The quantification of the frequency of RET and RET-MN was carried out by flow cytometry of the sanguine samples and the Monte Carlo code MCNP4B for the dosimetry calculations was used. The radiochemical purity was 99% and in average the specific

  1. In vivo genotoxicity of furan in F344 rats at cancer bioassay doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Wei; Petibone, Dayton M.; Latendresse, John R.; Pearce, Mason G.; Muskhelishvili, Levan; White, Gene A.; Chang, Ching-Wei; Mittelstaedt, Roberta A.; Shaddock, Joseph G.; McDaniel, Lea P.; Doerge, Daniel R.; Morris, Suzanne M.; Bishop, Michelle E.; Manjanatha, Mugimane G.; Aidoo, Anane; Heflich, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Furan, a potent rodent liver carcinogen, is found in many cooked food items and thus represents a human cancer risk. Mechanisms for furan carcinogenicity were investigated in male F344 rats using the in vivo Comet and micronucleus assays, combined with analysis of histopathological and gene expression changes. In addition, formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (Fpg) and endonuclease III (EndoIII)-sensitive DNA damage was monitored as a measure of oxidative DNA damage. Rats were treated by gavage on four consecutive days with 2, 4, and 8 mg/kg bw furan, doses that were tumorigenic in 2-year cancer bioassays, and with two higher doses, 12 and 16 mg/kg. Rats were killed 3 h after the last dose, a time established as producing maximum levels of DNA damage in livers of furan-treated rats. Liver Comet assays indicated that both DNA strand breaks and oxidized purines and pyrimidines increased in a near-linear dose-responsive fashion, with statistically significant increases detected at cancer bioassay doses. No DNA damage was detected in bone marrow, a non-target tissue for cancer, and peripheral blood micronucleus assays were negative. Histopathological evaluation of liver from furan-exposed animals produced evidence of inflammation, single-cell necrosis, apoptosis, and cell proliferation. In addition, genes related to apoptosis, cell-cycle checkpoints, and DNA-repair were expressed at a slightly lower level in the furan-treated livers. Although a mixed mode of action involving direct DNA binding cannot be ruled out, the data suggest that furan induces cancer in rat livers mainly through a secondary genotoxic mechanism involving oxidative stress, accompanied by inflammation, cell proliferation, and toxicity. -- Highlights: ► Furan is a potent rodent liver carcinogen and represents a human cancer risk. ► Furan induces DNA damage in rat liver at cancer bioassay doses. ► Furan induces oxidative stress, inflammation and cell proliferation in rat liver. ► Expression of

  2. Genotoxicity assessment of propyl thiosulfinate oxide, an organosulfur compound from Allium extract, intended to food active packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellado-García, P; Maisanaba, S; Puerto, M; Llana-Ruiz-Cabello, M; Prieto, A I; Marcos, R; Pichardo, S; Cameán, A M

    2015-12-01

    Essential oils from onion (Allium cepa L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and their main components, such as propyl thiosulfinate oxide (PTSO) are being intended for active packaging with the purpose of maintaining and extending food product quality and shelf life. The present work aims to assess for the first time the potential mutagenicity/genotoxicity of PTSO (0-50 µM) using the following battery of genotoxicity tests: (1) the bacterial reverse-mutation assay in Salmonella typhimurium (Ames test, OECD 471); (2) the micronucleus test (OECD 487) (MN) and (3) the mouse lymphoma thymidine-kinase assay (OECD 476) (MLA) on L5178YTk(+/-), cells; and (4) the comet assay (with and without Endo III and FPG enzymes) on Caco-2 cells. The results revealed that PTSO was not mutagenic in the Ames test, however it was mutagenic in the MLA assay after 24 h of treatment (2.5-20 µM). The parent compound did not induce MN on mammalian cells; however, its metabolites (in the presence S9) produced positive results (from 15 µM). Data from the comet assay indicated that PTSO did not induce DNA breaks or oxidative DNA damage. Further in vivo genotoxicity tests are needed to confirm its safety before it is used as active additive in food packaging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Genotoxicity profile of erinacine A-enriched Hericium erinaceus mycelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, I-Chen; Chen, Yen-Lien; Chen, Wan-Ping; Lee, Li-Ya; Tsai, Yueh-Ting; Chen, Chin-Chu; Chen, Chin-Shuh

    2014-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus ( H. erinaceus ) has a long history of usage in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of gastric disorders. Recently, it has become a well-established candidate in causing positive brain and nerve health-related activities by inducing nerve growth factor (NGF) from its bioactive ingredient, erinacine A. This active compound, which exists only in fermented mycelium but not in its fruiting body, increases NGF levels in astroglial cells in vitro as well as catecholamine and NGF levels in vivo . With increasing recognition of erinacine A in H. erinaceus (EAHE) mycelium improving neurodegenerative diseases, numerous products are being marketed based on these functional claims. To our knowledge, there have been no reports on the mutagenicity of EAHE prior to this paper. Hence, the present study was undertaken to determine the mutagenicity and genotoxicity effects of EAHE mycelium conducted in three standard battery of tests (reverse mutation, chromosomal aberration, and micronuclei tests) according to the latest guidelines in order to meet all international regulatory requirements and provide information on the safety of this new and promising natural remedy. Our results have indicated that EAHE mycelium did not significantly increase the number of revertant colonies in the bacterial reverse mutation test nor induce higher frequency of aberrations in the chromosome aberration test. Moreover, no statistically significant EAHE mycelium-related increase was observed in the incidence of reticulocytes per 1000 red blood cells and micronucleated reticulocytes per 1000 reticulocytes. In conclusion, the three standard battery of tests suggested that EAHE mycelium was devoid of mutagenicity and genotoxicity in the tested doses and experimental conditions.

  4. Investigation of flurbiprofen genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in rat bone marrow cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timocin, Taygun; Ila, Hasan B

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate cytogenetic effects of NSAID flurbiprofen which was used as active ingredient in some analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory drugs. Genotoxic effect of flurbiprofen was investigated using in vivo chromosome aberration (CA) test and random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) test. Also, oxidative stress potential of flurbiprofen was determined by measuring total oxidant and antioxidant level which occurred with flurbiprofen treatment in rat peripheral blood. For these purposes, rats were treated with three concentrations of flurbiprofen (29.25, 58.50 and 117 mg/kg, body weight) in single dose at two different treatment periods (12 and 24 h). According to the results, flurbiprofen did not affect chromosome aberrations in rat bone marrow cells with CA test. In RAPD-PCR test, polymorphic bands were unaffected. Also, test substance did not change total oxidant and antioxidant status (except for 58.50 and 117 mg/kg, 12 h) and therefore it did not lead to significant increase on oxidative stress (again except 58.50 and 117 mg/kg, 12 h). However, flurbiprofen reduced to mitotic indexes and these reductions were dose-dependent for 12 h treatment. In summary, flurbiprofen did not show significant genotoxic effect. But it caused cytotoxicity in rat bone marrow cells.

  5. Genotoxicity of swine effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techio, V H; Stolberg, J; Kunz, A; Zanin, E; Perdomo, C C

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of genotoxic effects of swine effluents from different stages of a treatment system for swine wastes through bioassay of stamen hairs and micronuclei in Tradescantia (clone BNL 4430). No significant differences (p≥0.05) regarding the genic mutations were found in the bioassay of stamen hairs, independently of the effluent analysed. For the genotoxicity test with micronuclei, the plants exposed to raw wastes, to sludge, and to effluent of the biodigester have presented higher rates of chromosomal damages (micronuclei), with significant differences in relation to the control group and other effluent of the waste treatment system (p≤0.05). The association between the chemical parameters and the genotoxicity data have shown that the variables COD and TKN have presented significant correlation (p≤0.05) with the number of mutagenic events in the tetrads.

  6. Protective Effects of Quercetin against Dimethoate-Induced Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity in Allium sativum Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Waseem; Shaikh, Sibhghatulla; Nazam, Nazia; Lone, Mohammad Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation was directed to study the possible protective activity of quercetin-a natural antioxidant against dimethoate-induced cyto- and genotoxicity in meristematic cells of Allium sativum. So far there is no report on the biological properties of quercetin in plant test systems. Chromosome breaks, multipolar anaphase, stick chromosome, and mitotic activity were undertaken in the current study as markers of cyto- and genotoxicity. Untreated control, quercetin controls (@ 5, 10 and 20 μg/mL for 3 h), and dimethoate exposed groups (@ 100 and 200 μg/mL for 3 h) were maintained. For protection against cytogenotoxicity, the root tip cells treated with dimethoate at 100 and 200 μg/mL for 3 h and quercetin treatment at 5, 10, and 20 μg/mL for 16 h, prior to dimethoate treatment, were undertaken. Quercetin was found to be neither cytotoxic nor genotoxic in Allium sativum control at these doses. A significant increase (P Allium. Pretreatment of Allium sativum with quercetin significantly (P Allium sativum that resides, at least in part, on its antioxidant effects.

  7. Genotoxicity testing of samples generated during UV/H2O2 treatment of surface water for the production of drinking water using the Ames test in vitro and the Comet assay and the SCE test in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penders, E.J.M.; Martijn, A.J.; Spenkelink, A.; Alink, G.M.; Rietjens, I.; Hoogenboezem, W.

    2012-01-01

    UV/H2O2 treatment can be part of the process converting surface water to drinking water, but would pose a potential problem when resulting in genotoxicity. This study investigates the genotoxicity of samples collected from the water treatment plant Andijk, applying UV/H2O2 treatment with an

  8. DNA-synthesis inhibition and repair DNA-synthesis in CHO Ade- C cells: An alternative approach to genotoxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slamenova, D.; Papsova, E.; Gabelova, A.; Dusinska, M.; Collins, A.; Wsolova, L.

    1997-01-01

    We describe an alternative assay to determine genotoxicity. Its main feature is that it combines two measures in a single experiment; the inhibition of replicative DNA synthesis together with the stimulation of DNA repair. We show that, in tests of four different genotoxic agents, the assay gives results that are entirely consistent with what is known about the mode of action of these agents. In addition, we have demonstrated that chemical carcinogens requiring metabolic activation can be examined using a standard procedure of incubation with a microsomal activating fraction. We consider the combined assay for DNA synthesis inhibition and repair synthesis to be a useful way for the rapid pre-screening of chemicals suspected of genotoxic activity on the level of mammalian cells. (author)

  9. An assessment of the genotoxicity and human health risk of topical use of kojic acid [5-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)-4H-pyran-4-one].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohynek, Gerhard J; Kirkland, David; Marzin, Daniel; Toutain, Herve; Leclerc-Ribaud, Christele; Jinnai, Hiroyuki

    2004-01-01

    Kojic acid (KA), a natural substance produced by fungi or bacteria, such as Aspergillus, Penicillium or Acetobacter spp, is contained in traditional Japanese fermented foods and is used as a dermatological skin-lightening agent. High concentrations of KA (>or=1000 microg/plate) were mutagenic in S. typhimurium strains TA 98, TA 100, TA 1535, TA102 and E. coli WP2uvrA, but not in TA 1537. An Ames test following the "treat and plate" protocol was negative. A chromosome aberration test in V79 cells following a robust protocol showed only a marginal increase in chromosome aberrations at cytotoxic concentrations after prolonged (>or=18 h) exposure. No genotoxic activity was observed for hprt mutations either in mouse lymphoma or V79 cells, or in in vitro micronucleus tests in human keratinocytes or hepatocytes. All in vivo genotoxicity studies on KA doses were negative, including mouse bone marrow micronucleus tests after single or multiple doses, an in vivo/in vitro unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) test, or a study in the liver of the transgenic Muta(TM) Mouse. On the basis of pharmacokinetic studies in rats and in vitro absorption studies in human skin, the systemic exposure of KA in man following its topical application is estimated to be in the range of 0.03-0.06 mg/kg/day. Comparing these values with the NOAEL in oral subchronic animal studies (250 mg/kg/day), the calculated margin of safety would be 4200- to 8900-fold. Comparing human exposure with the doses that were negative for micronuclei, UDS and gene mutations in vivo, the margins of safety are 16000 to 26000-fold. In conclusion, the topical use of KA as a skin lightening agent results in minimal exposure that poses no or negligible risk of genotoxicity or toxicity to the consumer.

  10. Genotoxic effects of environmental endocrine disruptors on the aquatic insect Chironomus riparius evaluated using the comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Paz, Pedro; Morales, Mónica; Martínez-Guitarte, José Luis; Morcillo, Gloria

    2013-12-12

    Genotoxicity is one of the most important toxic endpoints in chemical toxicity testing and environmental risk assessment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic potential of various environmental pollutants frequently found in aquatic environments and characterized by their endocrine disrupting activity. Monitoring of DNA damage was undertaken after in vivo exposures of the aquatic larvae of the midge Chironomus riparius, a model organism that represents an abundant and ecologically relevant macroinvertebrate, widely used in freshwater toxicology. DNA-induced damage, resulting in DNA fragmentation, was quantified by the comet assay after short (24 h) and long (96 h) exposures to different concentrations of the selected toxicants: bisphenol A (BPA), nonylphenol (NP), pentachlorophenol (PCP), tributyltin (TBT) and triclosan (TCS). All five compounds were found to have genotoxic activity as demonstrated by significant increases in all the comet parameters (%DNA in tail, tail length, tail moment and Olive tail moment) at all tested concentrations. Persistent exposure did not increase the extent of DNA damage, except for TCS at the highest concentration, but generally there was a reduction in DNA damage thought to be associated with the induction of the detoxification processes and repairing mechanisms. Comparative analysis showed differences in the genotoxic potential between the chemicals, as well as significant time and concentration-dependent variations, which most likely reflect differences in the ability to repair DNA damage under the different treatments. The present report demonstrates the sensitivity of the benthic larvae of C. riparius to these environmental genotoxins suggesting its potential as biomonitor organism in freshwater ecosystems. The results obtained about the DNA-damaging potential of these environmental pollutants reinforce the need for additional studies on the genotoxicity of endocrine active substances that, by linking genotoxic

  11. Genotoxicity of Tri- and Hexavalent Chromium Compounds In Vivo and Their Modes of Action on DNA Damage In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhijia; Zhao, Min; Zhen, Hong; Chen, Lifeng; Shi, Ping; Huang, Zhiwei

    2014-01-01

    Chromium occurs mostly in tri- and hexavalent states in the environment. Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] compounds are extensively used in diverse industries, and trivalent chromium [Cr(III)] salts are used as micronutrients and dietary supplements. In the present work, we report that they both induce genetic mutations in yeast cells. They both also cause DNA damage in both yeast and Jurkat cells and the effect of Cr(III) is greater than that of Cr(VI). We further show that Cr(III) and Cr(VI) cause DNA damage through different mechanisms. Cr(VI) intercalates DNA and Cr(III) interferes base pair stacking. Based on our results, we conclude that Cr(III) can directly cause genotoxicity in vivo. PMID:25111056

  12. Assessing genotoxicity of diuron on Drosophila melanogaster by the wing-spot test and the wing imaginal disk comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peraza-Vega, Ricardo I; Castañeda-Sortibrán, América N; Valverde, Mahara; Rojas, Emilio; Rodríguez-Arnaiz, Rosario

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of the herbicide diuron in the wing-spot test and a novel wing imaginal disk comet assay in Drosophila melanogaster. The wing-spot test was performed with standard (ST) and high-bioactivation (HB) crosses after providing chronic 48 h treatment to third instar larvae. A positive dose-response effect was observed in both crosses, but statistically reduced spot frequencies were registered for the HB cross compared with the ST. This latter finding suggests that metabolism differences play an important role in the genotoxic effect of diuron. To verify diuron's ability to produce DNA damage, a wing imaginal disk comet assay was performed after providing 24 h diuron treatment to ST and HB third instar larvae. DNA damage induced by the herbicide had a significantly positive dose-response effect even at very low concentrations in both strains. However, as noted for the wing-spot test, a significant difference between strains was not observed that could be related to the duration of exposure between both assays. A positive correlation between the comet assay and the wing-spot test was found with regard to diuron genotoxicity.

  13. Immunotoxicity and genotoxicity testing for in-flight experiments under microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Peter-Diedrich; Hansen, Peter-Diedrich; Unruh, Eckehardt

    Life Sciences as Related to Space (F) Influence of Spaceflight Environment on Biological Systems (F44) Immunotoxicity and genotoxicity testing for In-flight experiments under microgravity Sensing approaches for ecosystem and human health Author: Peter D. Hansen Technische Universit¨t Berlin, Faculty VI - Planen, Bauen, Umwelt, a Institute for Ecological Research and Technology, Department for Ecotoxicology, Berlin, Germany Peter-diedrich.hansen@tu-berlin.de Eckehardt Unruh Technische Universit¨t Berlin, Faculty VI - Planen, Bauen, Umwelt, Institute a for Ecological Research and Technology, Department for Ecotoxicology, Berlin, Germany An immune response by mussel hemocytes is the selective reaction to particles which are identified as foreign by its immune system shown by phagocytosis. Phagocytotic activity is based on the chemotaxis and adhesion, ingestion and phagosome formation. The attachment at the surface of the hemocytes and consequently the uptake of the particles or bacteria can be directly quantified in the format of a fluorescent assay. Another relevant endpoint of phagocytosis is oxidative burst measured by luminescence. Phagocytosis-related production of ROS will be stimulated with opsonised zymosan. The hemocytes will be stored frozen at -80oC and reconstituted in-flight for the experiment. The assay system of the TRIPLELUX-B Experiment has been performed with a well-defined quantification and evaluation of the immune function phagocytosis. The indicator cells are the hemocytes of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis). The signals of the immuno cellular responses are translated into luminescence as a rapid optical reporter system. The results expected will determine whether the observed responses are caused by microgravity and/or radiation (change in permeability, endpoints in genotoxicity: DNA unwinding). The samples for genotoxicity will be processed after returning to earth. The immune system of invertebrates has not been studied so far in space. The

  14. Genotoxicity of indium tin oxide by comet test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Hakkı Ciğerci

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Indium tin oxide (ITO is used for liquid crystal display (LCDs, electrochromic displays, flat panel displays, field emission displays, touch or laptop computer screens, cell phones, energy conserving architectural windows, defogging aircraft and automobile windows, heat-reflecting coatings to increase light bulb efficiency, gas sensors, antistatic window coatings, wear resistant layers on glass, nanowires and nanorods because of its unique properties of high electrical conductivity, transparency and mechanical resistance.Genotoxic effects of ITO were investigated on the root cells of Allium cepa by Comet assay. A. cepa roots were treated with the aqueous dispersions of ITO at 5 different concentrations (12.5, 25, 50, 75, and 100 ppm for 4 h. A significant increase in DNA damage was a observed at all concentrations of ITO by Comet assay. These result indicate that ITO exhibit genotoxic activity in A. cepa root meristematic cells.

  15. New investigations into the genotoxicity of cobalt compounds and their impact on overall assessment of genotoxic risk

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkland, David; Brock, Tom; Haddouk, Hasnaà; Hargeaves, Victoria; Lloyd, Melvyn; Mc Garry, Sarah; Proudlock, Raymond; Sarlang, Séverine; Sewald, Katherina; Sire, Guillaume; Sokolowski, Andrea; Ziemann, Christina

    2015-01-01

    The genotoxicity of cobalt metal and cobalt compounds has been widely studied. Several publications show induction of chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei or DNA damage in mammalian cells in vitro in the absence of S9. Mixed results were seen in gene mutation studies in bacteria and mammalian cells in vitro, and in chromosomal aberration or micronucleus assays in vivo. To resolve these inconsistencies, new studies were performed with soluble and poorly soluble cobalt compounds according to OE...

  16. Genotoxicity profile of erinacine A-enriched Hericium erinaceus mycelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Chen Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hericium erinaceus (H. erinaceus has a long history of usage in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of gastric disorders. Recently, it has become a well-established candidate in causing positive brain and nerve health-related activities by inducing nerve growth factor (NGF from its bioactive ingredient, erinacine A. This active compound, which exists only in fermented mycelium but not in its fruiting body, increases NGF levels in astroglial cells in vitro as well as catecholamine and NGF levels in vivo. With increasing recognition of erinacine A in H. erinaceus (EAHE mycelium improving neurodegenerative diseases, numerous products are being marketed based on these functional claims. To our knowledge, there have been no reports on the mutagenicity of EAHE prior to this paper. Hence, the present study was undertaken to determine the mutagenicity and genotoxicity effects of EAHE mycelium conducted in three standard battery of tests (reverse mutation, chromosomal aberration, and micronuclei tests according to the latest guidelines in order to meet all international regulatory requirements and provide information on the safety of this new and promising natural remedy. Our results have indicated that EAHE mycelium did not significantly increase the number of revertant colonies in the bacterial reverse mutation test nor induce higher frequency of aberrations in the chromosome aberration test. Moreover, no statistically significant EAHE mycelium-related increase was observed in the incidence of reticulocytes per 1000 red blood cells and micronucleated reticulocytes per 1000 reticulocytes. In conclusion, the three standard battery of tests suggested that EAHE mycelium was devoid of mutagenicity and genotoxicity in the tested doses and experimental conditions.

  17. Comparison of in vitro test systems using bacterial and mammalian cells for genotoxicity assessment within the "health-related indication value (HRIV) concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prantl, Eva-Maria; Kramer, Meike; Schmidt, Carsten K; Knauer, Martina; Gartiser, Stefan; Shuliakevich, Aliaksandra; Milas, Julia; Glatt, Hansruedi; Meinl, Walter; Hollert, Henner

    2018-02-01

    In numerous cases, the German health-related indication value (HRIV) concept has proved its practicability for the assessment of drinking water relevant trace substances (Umweltbundesamt 2003). The HRIV is based on the toxicological profile of a substance. An open point of the HRIV concept has been the assignment of standardized test procedures to be used for the assessment. The level of the HRIV is at its lowest as soon as the genotoxicity of the substance is detected. As a single test on its own, it is not sufficient enough to assess the human toxicological relevance of a genotoxic effect or exclude it in the case of a negative result; a reasonable test battery was required, technically oriented towards the already harmonized international, hierarchical evaluation for toxicological assessment of chemicals. Therefore, an important aim of this project was to define a strategy for the genotoxicological assessment of anthropogenic trace substances. The basic test battery for genotoxicity of micropollutants in drinking water needs to fulfill several requirements. Although quick test results are needed for the determination of HRIV, a high degree of transferability to human genotoxicity should be ensured. Therefore, an in vitro genotoxicity test battery consisting of the Ames fluctuation test with two tester strains (ISO 11350), the umu test and the micronucleus test, or from the Ames test with five tester strains (OECD 471) and the micronucleus test is proposed. On the basis of selected test substances, it could be shown that the test battery leads to positive, indifferent, and negative results. Given indifferent results, the health authority and the water supplier must assume that it is a genotoxic substance. Genetically modified tester strains are being sensitive to different chemical classes by expression of selected mammalian key enzymes for example nitroreductase, acetyltransferase, and glutathione-S-transferase. These strains may provide valuable additional

  18. Effect of training data size and noise level on support vector machines virtual screening of genotoxic compounds from large compound libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Ma, Xiaohua; Liu, Xianghui; Jia, Jia; Bucong, Han; Xue, Ying; Li, Ze Rong; Yang, Sheng Yong; Wei, Yu Quan; Chen, Yu Zong

    2011-05-01

    Various in vitro and in-silico methods have been used for drug genotoxicity tests, which show limited genotoxicity (GT+) and non-genotoxicity (GT-) identification rates. New methods and combinatorial approaches have been explored for enhanced collective identification capability. The rates of in-silco methods may be further improved by significantly diversified training data enriched by the large number of recently reported GT+ and GT- compounds, but a major concern is the increased noise levels arising from high false-positive rates of in vitro data. In this work, we evaluated the effect of training data size and noise level on the performance of support vector machines (SVM) method known to tolerate high noise levels in training data. Two SVMs of different diversity/noise levels were developed and tested. H-SVM trained by higher diversity higher noise data (GT+ in any in vivo or in vitro test) outperforms L-SVM trained by lower noise lower diversity data (GT+ in in vivo or Ames test only). H-SVM trained by 4,763 GT+ compounds reported before 2008 and 8,232 GT- compounds excluding clinical trial drugs correctly identified 81.6% of the 38 GT+ compounds reported since 2008, predicted 83.1% of the 2,008 clinical trial drugs as GT-, and 23.96% of 168 K MDDR and 27.23% of 17.86M PubChem compounds as GT+. These are comparable to the 43.1-51.9% GT+ and 75-93% GT- rates of existing in-silico methods, 58.8% GT+ and 79% GT- rates of Ames method, and the estimated percentages of 23% in vivo and 31-33% in vitro GT+ compounds in the "universe of chemicals". There is a substantial level of agreement between H-SVM and L-SVM predicted GT+ and GT- MDDR compounds and the prediction from TOPKAT. SVM showed good potential in identifying GT+ compounds from large compound libraries based on higher diversity and higher noise training data.

  19. Adverse reactions to cosmetics and methods of testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, P K

    2009-01-01

    Untoward reactions to cosmetics, toiletries, and topical applications are the commonest single reason for hospital referrals with allergic contact dermatitis. In most cases, these are only mild or transient and most reactions being irritant rather than allergic in nature. Various adverse effects may occur in the form of acute toxicity, percutaneous absorption, skin irritation, eye irritation, skin sensitization and photosensitization, subchronic toxicity, mutagenicity/genotoxicity, and phototoxicity/photoirritation. The safety assessment of a cosmetic product clearly depends upon how it is used, since it determines the amount of substance which may be ingested, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin or mucous membranes. Concentration of ingredients used in the different products is also important. Various test procedures include in vivo animal models and in vitro models, such as open or closed patch test, in vivo skin irritation test, skin corrosivity potential tests (rat skin transcutaneous electrical resistance test, Episkin test), eye irritation tests (in vivo eye irritancy test and Draize eye irritancy test), mutagenicity/genotoxicity tests (in vitro bacterial reverse mutation test and in vitro mammalian cell chromosome aberration test), and phototoxicity/photoirritation test (3T3 neutral red uptake phototoxicity test). Finished cosmetic products are usually tested in small populations to confirm the skin and mucous membrane compatibility, and to assess their cosmetic acceptability.

  20. In silico prediction of genotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichard, Jörg D

    2017-08-01

    The in silico prediction of genotoxicity has made considerable progress during the last years. The main driver for the pharmaceutical industry is the ICH M7 guideline about the assessment of DNA reactive impurities. An important component of this guideline is the use of in silico models as an alternative approach to experimental testing. The in silico prediction of genotoxicity provides an established and accepted method that defines the first step in the assessment of DNA reactive impurities. This was made possible by the growing amount of reliable Ames screening data, the attempts to understand the activity pathways and the subsequent development of computer-based prediction systems. This paper gives an overview of how the in silico prediction of genotoxicity is performed under the ICH M7 guideline. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Use of early phenotypic in vivo markers to assess human relevance of an unusual rodent non-genotoxic carcinogen in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boess, Franziska; Lenz, Barbara; Funk, Juergen; Niederhauser, Urs; Bassett, Simon; Zhang, Jitao David; Singer, Thomas; Roth, Adrian B.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • RG3487 induced foci of altered hepatocytes and subsequent liver tumors in rats. • Early phenotypic markers preceding foci appearance in rats were identified. • These early foci markers could be recapitulated in cellular rat liver models. • A species comparison using rat, mouse and dog liver cell models qualified the approach. • In vitro human data support non-human-relevance for RG3487 induced foci formation. - Abstract: Foci of altered hepatocytes (FAH) are considered putative, pre-neoplastic lesions that can occur spontaneously in aging rodents, but can also be induced by chemicals or drugs. Progression of FAH to hepatocellular neoplasms has been reported repeatedly but increases in foci in rodents do not necessarily lead to tumors in carcinogenicity studies and the relevance for humans often remains unclear. Here we present the case of RG3487, a molecule which induced FAH and, later on, tumors in rats. Because the molecule was negative in genotoxicity assays it was classified as a non-genotoxic carcinogen. In order to assess the potential for liver tumor formation in humans, we analyzed treatment-induced changes in vivo to establish a possible mode of action (MoA). In vivo and in vitro gene expression analysis revealed that nuclear receptor signaling was unlikely to be the relevant MoA and no other known mechanism could be established. We therefore took an approach comparing phenotypic markers, including mRNA changes, proliferation and glycogen accumulation, in vitro using cells of different species to assess the human relevance of this finding. Since the alterations observed in rats were not seen in the liver of mice or dogs in vivo, we could validate the relevance of the cell models chosen by use of hepatocytes from these species in vitro. This ultimately allowed for a cross-species comparison, which suggested that the formation of FAH and liver tumors was rat specific and unlikely to translate to human. Our work showed that phenotypic

  2. Antioxidant, genotoxic and antigenotoxic activities of daphne gnidium leaf extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaabane Fadwa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plants play a significant role in maintaining human health and improving the quality of human life. They serve humans well as valuable components of food, as well as in cosmetics, dyes, and medicines. In fact, many plant extracts prepared from plants have been shown to exert biological activity in vitro and in vivo. The present study explored antioxidant and antigenotoxic effects of Daphne gnidium leaf extracts. Methods The genotoxic potential of petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and total oligomer flavonoid (TOF enriched extracts from leaves of Daphne gnidium, was assessed using Escherichia coli PQ37. Likewise, the antigenotoxicity of the same extracts was tested using the “SOS chromotest test”. Antioxidant activities were studied using non enzymatic and enzymatic method: NBT/Riboflavine and xantine oxidase. Results None of the different extracts produced a genotoxic effect, except TOF extract at the lowest tested dose. Our results showed that D. gnidium leaf extracts possess an antigenotoxic effect against the nitrofurantoin a mutagen of reference. Ethyl acetate and TOF extracts were the most effective in inhibiting xanthine oxidase activity. While, methanol extract was the most potent superoxide scavenger when tested with the NBT/Riboflavine assay. Conclusions The present study has demonstrated that D. gnidium leaf extract possess antioxidant and antigenotoxic effects. These activities could be ascribed to compounds like polyphenols and flavonoid. Further studies are required to isolate the active molecules.

  3. Cell cycle progression, but not genotoxic activity, mainly contributes to citrinin-induced renal carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Ken; Ishii, Yuji; Takasu, Shinji; Kijima, Aki; Matsushita, Kohei; Watanabe, Maiko; Takahashi, Haruo; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Sakai, Hiroki; Yanai, Tokuma; Nohmi, Takehiko; Ogawa, Kumiko; Umemura, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Citrinin (CTN) is a food-contaminating mycotoxin that efficiently induces renal tumors in rats. However, the modes of carcinogenic action are still unknown, preventing assessment of the risks of CTN in humans. In the present study, the proliferative effects of CTN and its causal factors were investigated in the kidneys of gpt delta rats. In addition, three in vivo genotoxicity assays (reporter gene mutation using gpt delta rats and comet and micronucleus assays using F344 rats) were performed to clarify whether CTN was genotoxic in vivo. CTN was administrated at 20 and 40 mg/kg/day, the higher dose being the maximal tolerated dose and a nearly carcinogenic dose. In the kidney cortex of gpt delta rats, significant increases in the labeling indices of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive cells were observed at all doses of CTN. Increases in the mRNA expression levels of Ccna2, Ccnb1, Ccne1, and its transcription factor E2f1 were also detected, suggesting induction of cell cycle progression at all tested doses of CTN. However, histopathological changes were found only in rats treated with the higher dose of CTN, which was consistent with increases in the mRNA expression levels of mitogenic factors associated with tissue damage/regeneration, such as Hgf and Lcn2, at the same dose. Thus, the proliferative effects of CTN may result not only from compensatory reactions, but also from direct mitogenic action. Western blot analysis showed that ERK phosphorylation was increased at all doses, implying that cell cycle progression may be mediated by activation of the ERK pathway. On the other hand, in vivo genotoxicity analyses were negative, implying that CTN did not have the potential for inducing DNA damage, gene mutations, or chromosomal aberrations. The overall data clearly demonstrated the molecular events underlying CTN-induced cell cycle progression, which could be helpful to understand CTN-induced renal carcinogenesis

  4. In Vivo and In Vitro Genotoxic and Epigenetic Effects of Two Types of Cola Beverages and Caffeine: A Multiassay Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Mateo-Fernández

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to assess the biological and food safety of two different beverages: Classic Coca Cola™ (CCC and Caffeine-Free Coca Cola (CFCC. To this end, we determined the genotoxicological and biological effects of different doses of lyophilised CCC and CFCC and Caffeine (CAF, the main distinctive constituent. Their toxic/antitoxic, genotoxic/antigenotoxic, and chronic toxicity (lifespan assay effects were determined in vivo using the Drosophila model. Their cytotoxic activities were determined using the HL-60 in vitro cancer model. In addition, clastogenic DNA toxicity was measured using internucleosomal fragmentation and SCGE assays. Their epigenetic effects were assessed on the HL-60 methylation status using some repetitive elements. The experimental results showed a slight chemopreventive effect of the two cola beverages against HL-60 leukaemia cells, probably mediated by nonapoptotic mechanisms. Finally, CCC and CAF induced a global genome hypomethylation evaluated in LINE-1 and Alu M1 repetitive elements. Overall, we demonstrated for the first time the safety of this famous beverage in in vivo and in vitro models.

  5. In Vivo and In Vitro Genotoxic and Epigenetic Effects of Two Types of Cola Beverages and Caffeine: A Multiassay Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo-Fernández, Marcos; Merinas-Amo, Tania; Moreno-Millán, Miguel; Alonso-Moraga, Ángeles; Demyda-Peyrás, Sebastián

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the biological and food safety of two different beverages: Classic Coca Cola™ (CCC) and Caffeine-Free Coca Cola (CFCC). To this end, we determined the genotoxicological and biological effects of different doses of lyophilised CCC and CFCC and Caffeine (CAF), the main distinctive constituent. Their toxic/antitoxic, genotoxic/antigenotoxic, and chronic toxicity (lifespan assay) effects were determined in vivo using the Drosophila model. Their cytotoxic activities were determined using the HL-60 in vitro cancer model. In addition, clastogenic DNA toxicity was measured using internucleosomal fragmentation and SCGE assays. Their epigenetic effects were assessed on the HL-60 methylation status using some repetitive elements. The experimental results showed a slight chemopreventive effect of the two cola beverages against HL-60 leukaemia cells, probably mediated by nonapoptotic mechanisms. Finally, CCC and CAF induced a global genome hypomethylation evaluated in LINE-1 and Alu M1 repetitive elements. Overall, we demonstrated for the first time the safety of this famous beverage in in vivo and in vitro models.

  6. Genotoxicity induced by Taenia solium and its reduction by immunization with calreticulin in a hamster model of taeniosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Ana María; Mendlovic, Fela; Cruz-Rivera, Mayra; Chávez-Talavera, Oscar; Sordo, Monserrat; Avila, Guillermina; Flisser, Ana; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia

    2013-06-01

    Genotoxicity induced by neurocysticercosis has been demonstrated in vitro and in vivo in humans. The adult stage of Taenia solium lodges in the small intestine and is the main risk factor to acquire neurocysticercosis, nevertheless its carcinogenic potential has not been evaluated. In this study, we determined the genotoxic effect of T. solium infection in the hamster model of taeniosis. In addition, we assessed the effect of oral immunization with recombinant T. solium calreticulin (rTsCRT) plus cholera toxin as adjuvant on micronuclei induction, as this protein has been shown to induce 33-44% protection in the hamster model of taeniosis. Blood samples were collected from the orbital venous plexus of noninfected and infected hamsters at different days postinfection, as well as from orally immunized animals, to evaluate the frequency of micronucleated reticulocytes as a measure of genotoxicity induced by parasite exposure and rTsCRT vaccination. Our results indicate that infection with T. solium caused time-dependent DNA damage in vivo and that rTsCRT immunization reduced the genotoxic damage induced by the presence of the tapeworms. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Retrospective analysis of the mutagenicity/genotoxicity data of the cosmetic ingredients present on the Annexes of the Cosmetic EU legislation (2000-12).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Gamze; Doktorova, Tatyana Y; Pauwels, Marleen; Rogiers, Vera

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the mutagenicity/genotoxicity of cosmetic ingredients at the regulatory level, usually a battery of three in vitro tests is applied. This battery, designed to be very sensitive, produces a high number of positive results, imposing the need for in vivo follow-up testing to clear the substance under study. In Europe, the use of experimental animals has become impossible for cosmetic ingredients due to the implementation of animal testing and marketing bans. Consequently, the possibility to 'de-risk' substances with positive in vitro results disappear and potentially safe cosmetic substances will be lost for the EU market unless currently used in vitro assays can be adapted or new non-animal mutagenicity/genotoxicity studies become available. Described strategies to improve the specificity of existing in vitro assays include optimisation of the used cell type and cytotoxicity assay and lowering of the applied top concentration. A reduction of the number of tests in the battery from three to two also has been suggested. In this study, the performance of the 'standard' in vitro mutagenicity/genotoxicity testing battery is analysed for a number of cosmetic ingredients. We composed a database with toxicological information on 249 cosmetic ingredients, mainly present on the Annexes of the European cosmetic legislation. Results revealed that the in vitro mutagenicity/genotoxicity tests showed a low specificity for the cosmetic ingredients concerned, comparable to the specificity published for chemicals. Non-confirmed or 'misleading' positive results amounted up to 93% for the in vitro test batteries. The cell type and top concentrations did not have a major impact on the specificity. With respect to cytotoxicity determinations, different end points were used, potentially leading to different testing concentrations, suggesting the need for a consensus in this matter. Overall, the results of this retrospective analysis point to an urgent need of better regulatory

  8. Genotoxicity test of propolis extract, mineral trioksida aggregat, and calcium hydroxide on fibroblast BHK-21 cell cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceples Dian Kartika W.P

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health industry has always used natural products as an alternative. Propolis, a natural antibiotic, is a resinous yellow brown or dark brown substance derived from honey bees (Apis mellifera. The main chemical compounds contained in propolis are flavonoids, phenolics and other various aromatic compounds. Flavonoids are well known plant compounds that have antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory proprieties. Propolis is expected to be an alternative used for root canal treatment with lower toxicity compared to calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH2 . Over the last decade, a new material, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA was developed, and has been used as the gold standard. All materials used in mouth should be biocompatible. The initial level of material biocompatibility evaluation involves toxicity and genotoxicity tests. Purpose: This research is aimed to conduct comparison test of genotoxicity effect of propolis extract, MTA and Ca(OH2 on fibroblast BHK-21 cell culture. Methods: This research was conducted with single-cell gel electrophoresis method. Results: The results indicate that propolis extract cannot cause DNA damage, while MTA can cause apoptosis and Ca(OH2 can cause neucrosis. Conclusion: It can be concluded that propolis extract has genotoxicity effect lower than MTA and Ca(OH2 , but MTA has lower effect on fibroblast BHK-21 cell culture.

  9. Adverse reactions to cosmetics and methods of testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigam P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Untoward reactions to cosmetics, toiletries, and topical applications are the commonest single reason for hospital referrals with allergic contact dermatitis. In most cases, these are only mild or transient and most reactions being irritant rather than allergic in nature. Various adverse effects may occur in the form of acute toxicity, percutaneous absorption, skin irritation, eye irritation, skin sensitization and photosensitization, subchronic toxicity, mutagenicity/genotoxicity, and phototoxicity/photoirritation. The safety assessment of a cosmetic product clearly depends upon how it is used, since it determines the amount of substance which may be ingested, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin or mucous membranes. Concentration of ingredients used in the different products is also important. Various test procedures include in vivo animal models and in vitro models, such as open or closed patch test, in vivo skin irritation test, skin corrosivity potential tests (rat skin transcutaneous electrical resistance test, Episkin test, eye irritation tests (in vivo eye irritancy test and Draize eye irritancy test, mutagenicity/genotoxicity tests (in vitro bacterial reverse mutation test and in vitro mammalian cell chromosome aberration test, and phototoxicity/photoirritation test (3T3 neutral red uptake phototoxicity test. Finished cosmetic products are usually tested in small populations to confirm the skin and mucous membrane compatibility, and to assess their cosmetic acceptability.

  10. Cytogenotoxicity screening of source water, wastewater and treated water of drinking water treatment plants using two in vivo test systems: Allium cepa root based and Nile tilapia erythrocyte based tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemachandra, Chamini K; Pathiratne, Asoka

    2017-01-01

    Biological effect directed in vivo tests with model organisms are useful in assessing potential health risks associated with chemical contaminations in surface waters. This study examined the applicability of two in vivo test systems viz. plant, Allium cepa root based tests and fish, Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based tests for screening cytogenotoxic potential of raw source water, water treatment waste (effluents) and treated water of drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) using two DWTPs associated with a major river in Sri Lanka. Measured physico-chemical parameters of the raw water, effluents and treated water samples complied with the respective Sri Lankan standards. In the in vivo tests, raw water induced statistically significant root growth retardation, mitodepression and chromosomal abnormalities in the root meristem of the plant and micronuclei/nuclear buds evolution and genetic damage (as reflected by comet scores) in the erythrocytes of the fish compared to the aged tap water controls signifying greater genotoxicity of the source water especially in the dry period. The effluents provoked relatively high cytogenotoxic effects on both test systems but the toxicity in most cases was considerably reduced to the raw water level with the effluent dilution (1:8). In vivo tests indicated reduction of cytogenotoxic potential in the tested drinking water samples. The results support the potential applications of practically feasible in vivo biological test systems such as A. cepa root based tests and the fish erythrocyte based tests as complementary tools for screening cytogenotoxicity potential of the source water and water treatment waste reaching downstream of aquatic ecosystems and for evaluating cytogenotoxicity eliminating efficacy of the DWTPs in different seasons in view of human and ecological safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Somatic cell genotoxicity at the glycophorin A locus in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, R.H.; Grant, S.G.; Langlois, R.G.; Bigbee, W.L.

    1990-01-01

    We have developed an assay for detecting variant erythrocytes that occur as a result of in vivo allele loss at the glycophorin A (GPA) locus on chromosome 4 in humans. This gene codes for an erythroid- specific cell surface glycoprotein, and with our assay we are able to detect rare variant erythrocytes that have lost expression of one of the two GPA alleles. Two distinctly different variant cell types are detected with this assay. One variant cell type (called N OE) is hemizygous. Our assay also detects homozygous variant erythrocytes that have lost expression of the GPA(M) allele and express the GPA(N) allele at twice the heterozygous level. The results of this assay are an enumeration of the frequency of N OE and NN variant cell types for each individual analyzed. These variant cell frequencies provide a measure of the amount of somatic cell genotoxicity that has occurred at the GPA locus. Such genotoxicity could be the result of (1) reactions of toxic chemicals to which the individual has been exposed, or (2) high energy radiation effects on erythroid precursor cells, or (3) errors in DNA replication or repair in these cells of the bone marrow. Thus, the GPA-based variant cell frequency can serve as a biodosimeter that indicates the amount of genotoxic exposure each individual has received. Because two very different kinds of variant cells are enumerated, different kinds of genotoxicity should be distinguishable. Results of the GPA somatic genotoxicity assay may also provide valuable information for cancer-risk estimation on each individual. 16 refs

  12. Assessment of genotoxic effects of pesticide and vermicompost treated soil with Allium cepa test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivika Datta

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil forms a huge reservoir of nutrients that sustains life on earth. Anthropogenic and natural impacts have led to degradation of land which declines the overall quality of soil, water or vegetation. The present study involves comparison of genotoxicity of soil procured from two different agricultural sites, pesticide treated soil (PTS and vermicompost treated soil (VTS. The soil was physico-chemically characterized and showed significant differences in terms of cytotoxicity (root length; mitotic index and genotoxicity (chromosomal aberrations in Allium cepa test. The mitotic index of the control after 24 and 48 h was found to be 26.1 ± 1.6 and 26.1 ± 1.3 respectively. Mitotic index was reduced to 10.3 ± 0.9 and 9.7 ± 0.6 in 100% PTS and 24.4 ± 1.7 and 25.4 ± 0.8 in 100% VTS after 24 and 48 h of exposure, respectively. Clastogenic aberrations were found to be highest (54.5% in 100% PTS which was significantly different from VTS extract. The PTS extracts incurred significantly more cytotoxic and genotoxic effects on A. cepa in comparison to VTS. The result indicates that addition of vermicompost in agriculture field acts as soil ameliorator and plays an important role in promotion of cell division and proliferation, hence good for the plant health and crop productivity.

  13. Critical effective methods to detect genotoxic carcinogens and neoplasm-promoting agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisburger, J H; Williams, G M

    1991-01-01

    Neoplasia in fish can result from contamination of waters with carcinogens and promoters. Cancer in fish, therefore, is a possible indicator of cancer risk to man and serves as a guide to the need for preventive approaches involving improved means of waste disposal and environmental hygiene. Moreover, cancer in fish indicates that this important food source may be contaminated. Detection of genotoxic carcinogens to which fish are exposed can be achieved quickly and efficiently by carefully selected batteries of complementary in vitro and in vivo bioassays. One such battery consists of the Ames test, a reverse mutation assay in prokaryotic Salmonella typhimurium, and the Williams test, involving DNA repair in freshly explanted metabolically highly competent liver cells from diverse species, including humans. Determination of DNA-carcinogen adducts by varied techniques, including 32P-postlabeling, as well as DNA breakage, mammalian cell mutagenicity, chromosome aberrations, sister chromatid exchange, or cell transformation represent additional approaches, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. More research is needed on systems to apprehend neoplasm promoters, but tests to determine interruption of intercellular communications through gap junctions appear promising. Other approaches rely on measurement of enzymes such as ornithine decarboxylase and protein kinase C. Approaches to the definition of risk to fish or humans require characterization of the genotoxic or nongenotoxic properties of a chemical, relative potency data obtained in select, limited rodent bioassays, and knowledge of prevailing environmental concentrations of specific carcinogens.

  14. Evaluation of Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Inula viscosa Leaf Extracts with Allium Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Aşkin Çelik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available I. viscosa has been used for years in folk medicine for its anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antiseptic, and paper antiphlogistic activities. In this study, cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of I. viscosa leaf extracts on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa have been examined. Onion bulbs were exposed to 2.5 mg/ml, 5 mg/ml, and 10 mg/ml concentrations of the extracts for macroscopic and microscopic analysis. Tap water has been used as a negative control and Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS (2⋅10−2 M has been used as a positive control. The test concentrations have been determined according to doses which are recommended for use in alternative medicine. There has been statistically significant (P<.05 inhibition of root growth depending on concentration by the extracts when compared with the control groups. All the tested extracts have been observed to have cytotoxic effects on cell division in A. cepa. I. viscosa leaf extract induces the total number of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei (MNC formations in A. cepa root tip cells significantly when compared with control groups. Also, this paper shows for the first time the induction of cell death, ghost cells, cells with membrane damage, and binucleated cells by extract treatment. These results suggest the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of the I. viscosa leaf extracts on A. cepa.

  15. Genotoxic and Antigenotoxic Potential of Momordica charantia Linn (Cucurbitaceae) in the Wing Spot Test of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterres, Zaira Rosa; Zanetti, Thalita Alves; Sennes-Lopes, Tiago Felipe; da Silva, Ana Francisca Gomes

    2015-10-01

    Momordica charantia, popularly known as bitter melon, is a plant widely used in ethnobotanical medicine. It has antibacterial, antifungal, anthelmintic, antidiabetic, antiviral, and antimalarial activities, among others. The goal of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic and/or antigenotoxic activity of the aqueous extracts obtained from the aerial parts and fruit of this plant by means of the Drosophila melanogaster wing spot test. Third-stage larvae that obtained standard (ST) cross and high bioactivation (HB) cross were treated with aqueous extracts of the aerial parts (IQA) and fruit (IQF) of M. charantia, following two protocols (genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity). The aqueous extracts are not genotoxic in lower concentrations. The frequencies of mutant spots observed in the descendants of the ST and HB crosses treated with doxorubicin (DXR) alone were 8.65 and 9.25, respectively, whereas in those cotreated with IQA and DXR, the frequencies ranged from 15.90 to 29 in the ST cross and from 15.05 to 24.78 in the HB cross. In cotreatment with IQF, the frequencies ranged from 30.10 to 30.65 in the ST cross and from 13.60 to 14.50 in the HB cross, whereas the frequencies obtained with DXR were 32.50 in the ST cross and 26.00 in the HB cross. In conclusion, the IQA has a synergistic effect, enhancing the genotoxicity of DXR in the ST cross and the HB cross, whereas the IQF has antigenotoxic effects in the HB cross.

  16. Lack of genotoxic effect of food dyes amaranth, sunset yellow and tartrazine and their metabolites in the gut micronucleus assay in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poul, Martine; Jarry, Gérard; Elhkim, Mostafa Ould; Poul, Jean-Michel

    2009-02-01

    The food dyes amaranth, sunset yellow and tartrazine were administered twice, at 24h intervals, by oral gavage to mice and assessed in the in vivo gut micronucleus test for genotoxic effects (frequency of micronucleated cells) and toxicity (apoptotic and mitotic cells). The concentrations of each compound and their main metabolites (sulfanilic acid and naphthionic acid) were measured in faeces during a 24-h period after single oral administrations of the food dyes to mice. Parent dye compounds and their main aromatic amine metabolites were detected in significant amounts in the environment of colonic cells. Acute oral exposure to food dye additives amaranth, sunset yellow and tartrazine did not induce genotoxic effect in the micronucleus gut assay in mice at doses up to 2000 mg/kg b.w. Food dyes administration increased the mitotic cells at all dose levels when compared to controls. These results suggest that the transient DNA damages previously observed in the colon of mice treated by amaranth and tartrazine by the in vivo comet assay [Sasaki, Y.F., Kawaguchi, S., Kamaya, A., Ohshita, M., Kabasawa, K., Iwama, K., Taniguchi, K., Tsuda, S., 2002. The comet assay with 8 mouse organs: results with 39 currently used food additives. Mutat. Res. 519, 103-119] are unable to be fixed in stable genotoxic lesions and might be partly explained by local cytotoxicity of the dyes.

  17. Nanoceria have no genotoxic effect on human lens epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierscionek, Barbara K; Yasseen, Akeel A [School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulster, Coleraine, BT52 1SA (United Kingdom); Li, Yuebin; Schachar, Ronald A; Chen, Wei [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Colhoun, Liza M, E-mail: b.pierscionek@ulster.ac.uk, E-mail: weichen@uta.edu [Centre for Vision and Vascular Sciences, School of Medicine, Dentistry and Biomedical Sciences, Queen' s University Belfast, Grosvenor Road, Belfast, BT12 6BA (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-22

    There are no treatments for reversing or halting cataract, a disease of the structural proteins in the eye lens, that has associations with other age-related degenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. The incidence of cataract and associated conditions is increasing as the average age of the population rises. Protein folding diseases are difficult to assess in vivo as proteins and their age-related changes are assessed after extraction. Nanotechnology can be used to investigate protein changes in the intact lens as well as for a potential means of drug delivery. Nanoparticles, such as cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) which have antioxidant properties, may even be used as a means of treating cataract directly. Prior to use in treatments, nanoparticle genotoxicity must be tested to assess the extent of any DNA or chromosomal damage. Sister chromatid exchanges were measured and DNA damage investigated using the alkaline COMET assay on cultured human lens epithelial cells, exposed to 5 and 10 {mu}g ml{sup -1} of CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles (nanoceria). Nanoceria at these dosages did not cause any DNA damage or significant increases in the number of sister chromatid exchanges. The absence of genotoxic effects on lens cells suggests that nanoceria, in the doses and exposures tested in this study, are not deleterious to the eye lens and have the potential for use in studying structural alterations, in developing non-surgical cataract treatments and in investigating other protein folding diseases.

  18. Tartrazine induces structural and functional aberrations and genotoxic effects in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Khayyat, Latifa; Essawy, Amina; Sorour, Jehan; Soffar, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Tartrazine is a synthetic organic azo dye widely used in food and pharmaceutical products. The current study aimed to evaluate the possible adverse effect of this coloring food additive on renal and hepatic structures and functions. Also, the genotoxic potential of tartrazine on white blood cells was investigated using comet assay. Twenty adult male Wistar rats were grouped into two groups of 10 each, control- and tartrazine-treated groups. The control group was administered orally with water...

  19. Investigations of genotoxic potential of levamisole hydrochloride in bone marrow cells of Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulić Milan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was performed under in vivo conditions on bone marrow cells of Wistar rats. The following doses of levamisole hydrochloride were tested: a therapeutic dose of 2.2 mg/kg bm, a dose of 4.4 mg/kg bm, LD50 -25% mg/kg bm, and LD50 -75% mg/kg bm. We followed the effect of levamisole hydrochloride on kinetics of the cell cycle and the appearance of structural and numeric changes in chromosomes in bone marrow cells. The therapeutic dose of levamisole of 2.2 mg/kg bm exhibited a capability to increase mitotic activity in the observed cells, thus confirming knowledge of the immunostimulative effect of this dose of the medicine under in vivo conditions. The other tested doses of levamisole in this experiment, observed in comparison with the control group, had an opposite effect, namely, they caused a reduction in the mitotic activity of bone marrow cells. All the examined doses in vivo exhibited the ability to induce numeric (aneuploid and polyploid and structural (lesions, breaks and insertions chromosomal aberrations. It can be concluded on the grounds of these findings that the examined doses have a genotoxic effect.

  20. Modified in vivo comet assay detects the genotoxic potential of 14-hydroxycodeinone, an α,β-unsaturated ketone in oxycodone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Kamala; Roden, Nicholas; Zhang, Charles; Bruce, Shannon; Wood, Craig; Pendino, Kimberly

    2015-12-01

    14-Hydroxycodeinone (14-HC) is an α,β-unsaturated ketone impurity found in oxycodone drug substance and has a structural alert for genotoxicity. 14-HC was tested in a combined Modified and Standard Comet Assay to determine if the slight decrease in % Tail DNA noted in a previously conducted Standard Comet Assay with 14-HC could be magnified to clarify if the response was due to cross-linking activity. One limitation of the Standard Comet Assay is that DNA cross-links cannot be reliably detected. However, under certain modified testing conditions, DNA cross-links and chemical moieties that elicit such cross-links can be elucidated. One such modification involves the induction of additional breakages of DNA strands by gamma or X-ray irradiation. To determine if 14-HC is a DNA crosslinker in vivo, a Modified Comet Assay was conducted using X-ray irradiation as the modification to visualize crosslinking activity. In this assay, 14-HC was administered orally to mice up to 320 mg/kg/day. Results showed a statistically significant reduction in percent tail DNA in duodenal cells at 320 mg/kg/day, with a nonstatistically significant but dose-related reduction in percent tail DNA also observed at the mid dose of 160 mg/kg/day. Similar decreases were not observed in cells from the liver or stomach, and no increases in percent tail DNA were noted for any tissue in the concomitantly conducted Standard Comet Assay. Taken together, 14-HC was identified as a cross-linking agent in the duodenum in the Modified Comet Assay. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Evaluation of the genotoxic potential of Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang), a new natural product with antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodeiro, I; Cancino, L; González, J E; Morffi, J; Garrido, G; González, R M; Nuñez, A; Delgado, R

    2006-10-01

    Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang) consists of a defined mixture of components (polyphenols, terpenoids, steroids, fatty acids and microelements). It contains a variety of polyphenols, phenolic esters, flavan-3-ols and a xanthone (mangiferin), as main component. This extract has antioxidant action, antitumor and immunemodulatory effects proved in experimental models in both in vitro and in vivo assays. The present study was performed to investigate the genotoxicity potential activity of Vimang assessed through different tests: Ames, Comet and micronucleus assays. Positive and negative controls were included in each experimental series. Histidine requiring mutants of Salmonella typhimurium TA1535, TA1537, TA1538, TA98, TA100 and TA102 strains for point-mutation tests and in vitro micronucleus assay in primary human lymphocytes with and without metabolic activation were performed. In addition, genotoxic effects were evaluated on blood peripheral lymphocytes of NMRI mice of both sexes, which were treated during 2 days with intraperitoneal doses of M. indica L. extract (50-150 mg/kg). The observed results permitted to affirm that Vimang (200-5,000 microg/plate) did not increase the frequency of reverse mutations in the Ames test in presence or not of metabolic activation. Results of Comet assay showed that the extract did not induce single strand breaks or alkali-labile sites on blood peripheral lymphocytes of treated animals compared with controls. On the other hand, the results of the micronucleus studies (in vitro and in vivo) showed Vimang induces cytotoxic activity, determined as cell viability or PCE/NCE ratio, but neither increased the frequency of micronucleated binucleate cells in culture of human lymphocytes nor in mice bone marrow cells under our experimental conditions. The positive control chemicals included in each experiment induced the expected changes. The present results indicate that M. indica L. extract showed evidences of light cytotoxic activity

  2. Can Genotoxic Effect be Model Dependent in Allium Test?-An Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Singh Rathore

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Genotoxicity of peracetic acid (PAA has been assessed in two models (protocols of Allium cepa conducting two sets of experiments to know whether the results would be model dependent. One experiment was set as per Fiskesjo's model in which Allium cepa bulbs were grown in five concentrations of peracetic acid (0.039, 0.078, 0.156, 0.312 and 0.625 ppm in tap water. Another experiment was set as per Rank and Nielson's model in which Allium cepa bulbs were first grown in tap water for 24 hours and were then further grown in the same concentrations of peracetic acid as in earlier model. Genotoxic effects of peracetic acid were assessed in both models using usual parameters i.e. shape, colour and length of root tips, mitotic index, chromosomal aberrations and cell death. Magnitude of effect differed significantly in both models. More severe genotoxic effects could be seen in Fiskesjo's model. It is suggested that root primordial cells were in G0 state in Fiskesjo's model, which presumably lacked their defense system, hence were more prone to peracetic acid toxicity. Mitotically dividing root cells in Rank and Nielsen's model were equipped with antioxidant system and were more resistant to peracetic acid

  3. Genotoxicity investigation of araticum(Annona crassiflora Mart., 1841, Annonaceae using SOS-Inductest and Ames test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JB. Vilar

    Full Text Available Although the use of medicinal plants or natural products has increased in recent decades all over the world, little information is available on their potential risk to health. Annona crassiflora Mart., a plant commonly known as araticum in Brazil, has been widely used in folk medicine for a long time since its seeds and leaves are often utilised in the treatment of cancer, snake bites, and venereal diseases, its fruits are consumed as tonic and astringent, and its bark powder has anti-fungal and anti-rheumatic properties. To evaluate the genotoxic and mutagenic properties induced by the ethanolic extract of araticum leaves, we performed the prophage λ induction (Inductest and bacterial mutagenicity assays. We used Escherichia coli WP2s(λ and RJF013 strains in the lysogenic induction test, whereas the mutagenic studies were carried out using Salmonella typhimurium histidine auxotroph strains TA97a, TA98, TA100, and TA102. Each experiment was performed three times in duplicate and included positive and negative controls. No statistically significant (p > 0.05 positive results were obtained for any of the strains tested, which suggests that the ethanolic extract of araticum leaves did not exhibit direct mechanisms of genotoxicity or mutagenicity that could be detected by the tests used in the present work.

  4. Genotoxicity risk assessment of diversely substituted quinolines using the SOS chromotest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Leidy Tatiana Díaz; Rincón, Nathalia Olivar; Galvis, Carlos Eduardo Puerto; Kouznetsov, Vladimir V; Lorenzo, Jorge Luis Fuentes

    2015-03-01

    Quinolines are aromatic nitrogen compounds with wide therapeutic potential to treat parasitic and microbial diseases. In this study, the genotoxicity of quinoline, 4-methylquinoline, 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO), and diversely functionalized quinoline derivatives and the influence of the substituents (functional groups and/or atoms) on their genotoxicity were tested using the SOS chromotest. Quinoline derivatives that induce genotoxicity by the formation of an enamine epoxide structure did not induce the SOS response in Escherichia coli PQ37 cells, with the exception of 4-methylquinoline that was weakly genotoxic. The chemical nature of the substitution (C-5 to C-8: hydroxyl, nitro, methyl, isopropyl, chlorine, fluorine, and iodine atoms; C-2: phenyl and 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl rings) of quinoline skeleton did not significantly modify compound genotoxicities; however, C-2 substitution with α-, β-, or γ-pyridinyl groups removed 4-methylquinoline genotoxicity. On the other hand, 4-NQO derivatives whose genotoxic mechanism involves reduction of the C-4 nitro group were strong inducers of the SOS response. Methyl and nitrophenyl substituents at C-2 of 4-NQO core affected the genotoxic potency of this molecule. The relevance of these results is discussed in relation to the potential use of the substituted quinolines. The work showed the sensitivity of SOS chromotest for studying structure-genotoxicity relationships and bioassay-guided quinoline synthesis. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Assessment of Genotoxicity of Ionizing radiation using Tradescantia-Comet assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Min; Ryu, Tae Ho; Hyun, Kyung Man; Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Wilhelmova, Nad [Institute of Experimental Botany, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2010-05-15

    Over the last two decades, several new methodologies for the detection of DNA damage have been developed. The comet assay is currently used in different areas of biological sciences to detect DNA damage. The comet assay, also called the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) was first introduced by Ostling and Johanson as a microelectrophoretic technique for the direct visualization of DNA damage in individual cells. The comet assay, due to its simplicity, sensitivity and need of a few cells, is ideal as a short-term genotoxicity test. The comet assay can theoretically be applied to every type of eukaryotic cell, including plant cells. Plants are very useful as monitors of genetic effects caused by pollution in the atmosphere, water and soil. Although the genotoxic effects detected by Tradescantia tests cannot be associated with mutagenesis or even carcinogenesis in humans, these bioassays are very useful tools for screening the mutagenic potential in the environment. Experiments were conducted to study the genotoxic effects of ionizing radiations on the genome integrity, particularly of Tradescantia. The increasingly frequent use of Tradescantia as a sensitive environmental bioindicator of genotoxic effects. This study was designed to assess the genotoxicity of ionizing radiation using Tradescnatia-comet assay

  6. Results of the International Validation of the in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay for the detection of genotoxic carcinogens: Individual data for 1,2-dibromoethane, p-anisidine, and o-anthranilic acid in the 2nd step of the 4th phase Validation Study under the JaCVAM initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasawa, Hironao; Takashima, Rie; Narumi, Kazunori; Kawasako, Kazufumi; Hattori, Akiko; Kawabata, Masayoshi; Hamada, Shuichi

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative International Validation Study of an in vivo rat alkaline comet assay, we examined 1,2-dibromoethane (DBE), p-anisidine (ASD), and o-anthranilic acid (ANT) to investigate the effectiveness of the comet assay in detecting genotoxic carcinogens. Each of the three test chemicals was administered to 5 male Sprague-Dawley rats per group by oral gavage at 48, 24, and 3h before specimen preparation. Single cells were collected from the liver and glandular stomach at 3h after the final dosing, and the specimens prepared from these two organs were subjected to electrophoresis under alkaline conditions (pH>13). The percentage of DNA intensity in the comet tail was then assessed using an image analysis system. A micronucleus (MN) assay was also conducted using these three test chemicals with the bone marrow (BM) cells collected from the same animals simultaneously used in the comet assay, i.e., combination study of the comet assay and BM MN assay. A genotoxic (Ames positive) rodent carcinogen, DBE gave a positive result in the comet assay in the present study, while a genotoxic (Ames positive) non-carcinogen, ASD and a non-genotoxic (Ames negative) non-carcinogen, ANT showed negative results in the comet assay. All three chemicals produced negative results in the BM MN assay. While the comet assay findings in the present study were consistent with those obtained from the rodent carcinogenicity studies for the three test chemicals, we consider the positive result in the comet assay for DBE to be particularly meaningful, given that this chemical produced a negative result in the BM MN assay. Therefore, the combination study of the comet assay and BM MN assay is a useful method to detect genotoxic carcinogens that are undetectable with the BM MN assay alone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Plant genotoxicity: a molecular cytogenetic approach in plant bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluszynska, Jolanta; Juchimiuk, Jolanta

    2005-06-01

    It is important for the prevention of DNA changes caused by environment to understand the biological consequences of DNA damages and their molecular modes of action that lead to repair or alterations of the genetic material. Numerous genotoxicity assay systems have been developed to identify DNA reactive compounds. The available data show that plant bioassays are important tests in the detection of genotoxic contamination in the environment and the establishment of controlling systems. Plant system can detect a wide range of genetic damage, including gene mutations and chromosome aberrations. Recently introduced molecular cytogenetic methods allow analysis of genotoxicity, both at the chromosomal and DNA level. FISH gives a new possibility of the detection and analysis of chromosomal rearrangements in a great detail. DNA fragmentation can be estimated using the TUNEL test and the single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet assay).

  8. The effect of different methods and image analyzers on the results of the in vivo comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyoya, Takahiro; Iwamoto, Rika; Shimanura, Yuko; Terada, Megumi; Masuda, Shuichi

    2018-01-01

    The in vivo comet assay is a widely used genotoxicity test that can detect DNA damage in a range of organs. It is included in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals. However, various protocols are still used for this assay, and several different image analyzers are used routinely to evaluate the results. Here, we verified a protocol that largely contributes to the equivalence of results, and we assessed the effect on the results when slides made from the same sample were analyzed using two different image analyzers (Comet Assay IV vs Comet Analyzer). Standardizing the agarose concentrations and DNA unwinding and electrophoresis times had a large impact on the equivalence of the results between the different methods used for the in vivo comet assay. In addition, there was some variation in the sensitivity of the two different image analyzers tested; however this variation was considered to be minor and became negligible when the test conditions were standardized between the two different methods. By standardizing the concentrations of low melting agarose and DNA unwinding and electrophoresis times between both methods used in the current study, the sensitivity to detect the genotoxicity of a positive control substance in the in vivo comet assay became generally comparable, independently of the image analyzer used. However, there may still be the possibility that other conditions, except for the three described here, could affect the reproducibility of the in vivo comet assay.

  9. Genotoxicity studies of organically grown broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and its interactions with urethane, methyl methanesulfonate and 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide genotoxicity in the wing spot test of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heres-Pulido, María Eugenia; Dueñas-García, Irma; Castañeda-Partida, Laura; Santos-Cruz, Luis Felipe; Vega-Contreras, Viridiana; Rebollar-Vega, Rosa; Gómez-Luna, Juan Carlos; Durán-Díaz, Angel

    2010-01-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) has been defined as a cancer preventive food. Nevertheless, broccoli contains potentially genotoxic compounds as well. We performed the wing spot test of Drosophila melanogaster in treatments with organically grown broccoli (OGB) and co-treatments with the promutagen urethane (URE), the direct alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and the carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO) in the standard (ST) and high bioactivation (HB) crosses with inducible and high levels of cytochrome P450s (CYPs), respectively. Larvae of both crosses were chronically fed with OGB or fresh market broccoli (FMB) as a non-organically grown control, added with solvents or mutagens solutions. In both crosses, the OGB added with Tween-ethanol yielded the expected reduction in the genotoxicity spontaneous rate. OGB co-treatments did not affect the URE effect, MMS showed synergy and 4-NQO damage was modulated in both crosses. In contrast, FMB controls produced damage increase; co-treatments modulated URE genotoxicity, diminished MMS damage, and did not change the 4-NQO damage. The high dietary consumption of both types of broccoli and its protective effects in D. melanogaster are discussed. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Genotoxicity evaluation of the insecticide ethion in root of Allium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... In this study, the genotoxic effects of ethion were investigated in the mitotic cell division of Allium ... The use of plant root tips, particularly those of A. cepa and Vicia faba, as a bioassay test system for the genotoxicity of pesticides has shown extremely ..... the long run, even below the recommended dose.

  11. Genotoxicity assessment of cobalt chloride in Eisenia hortensis earthworms coelomocytes by comet assay and micronucleus test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciğerci, İbrahim Hakkı; Ali, Muhammad Muddassir; Kaygısız, Şöhret Yüksek; Liman, Recep

    2016-02-01

    Cobalt and its different compounds are extensively used worldwide and considered as possible environmental pollutant. Earthworms are useful model organism and its different species are used to monitor soil pollution. No study has been found to detect cobalt chloride (CoCl2) genotoxicity in earthworms. So, current study aimed to evaluate CoCl2 induced genotoxicity in Eisenia hortensis earthworms coelomocytes by alkaline comet assay (CA) and micronucleus (MN) test. The earthworms (n = 10 for each group) were exposed to different series of CoCl2 concentrations (100 ppm, 200 ppm, 300 ppm, 400 ppm, 500 ppm, 600 ppm) to find LD50. The LD50 for CoCl2 was found at 226 ppm. Then, doses of LD50/2, LD50 and 2XLD50 for 48 h were used. CA and MN demonstrated the significant increase (P earthworms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative genotoxicity testing of Rhine river sediment extracts using the comet assay with permanent fish cell lines (RTG-2 and RTL-W1) and the Ames test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosmehl, T.; Braunbeck, T.; Hollert, H. [Dept. of Zoology, Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Section, Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany); Krebs, F.; Manz, W. [German Federal Inst. of Hydrology, Koblenz (Germany); Erdinger, L. [Dept. for Hygiene and Medical Microbiology, Inst. for Hygiene, Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Whilst at least in Germany assessment strategies on the basis of chemical analysis and acute toxicity data dominated the last decades, the development of more specific biological endpoints and biomarkers in ecotoxicology is required in order to arrive at a good ecological potential and good chemical status of surface waters in the European river basins until the year 2015, as required by the European Water Framework Directive. Since sediments have for long been known to function both as a sink and as a source of pollutants in aquatic systems, and since part of the particle-associated substances have frequently been demonstrated to cause mutagenic and carcinogenic effects in aquatic organisms, particularly in fish, there is, among other requirements, an urgent need to develop, standardize and implement integrated vertebrate-based test systems addressing genotoxicity into recent sediment investigation strategies. Thus, the present study was designed to compare the suitability of two commonly used test systems, the comet assay and the Ames test, for the evaluation of the ecotoxicological burden of surface and core sediment samples from the river Rhine. Methods (or main features). In order to determine the importance of inherent enzymatic activities, two permanent fish cell lines with different biotransformation capacities, RTL-W1 and RTG-2, were compared with respect to their capability of detecting genotoxic effects in 18 surface and core sediment samples from 9 locations along the river Rhine in the comet assay with and without exogenous bioactivation. For further comparison, as a prokaryotic mutagenicity assay, the Salmonella plate incorporation assay (Ames test) with the test strains TA98 and TA100 with and without exogenous metabolic activation was used. Results and discussion. Whereas all sediment extracts induced genotoxic effects in the comet assay with RTL-W1 cells, only 12 out of 18 sediment extracts revealed significant genotoxicity in the tests with the

  13. Genotoxicity of diuron and glyphosate in oyster spermatozoa and embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcha, F; Spagnol, C; Rouxel, J

    2012-01-15

    We investigated the effects of genotoxicant exposure in gametes and embryos to find a possible link between genotoxicity and reproduction/developmental impairment, and explore the impact of chemical genotoxicity on population dynamics. Our study focused on the genotoxic effects of two herbicides on oyster gametes and embryos: glyphosate (both as an active substance and in the Roundup formulation) and diuron. France is Europe's leading consumer of agrochemical substances and as such, contamination of France's coastal waters by pesticides is a major concern. Glyphosate and diuron are among the most frequently detected herbicides in oyster production areas; as oyster is a specie with external reproduction, its gametes and embryos are in direct contact with the surrounding waters and are hence particularly exposed to these potentially dangerous substances. In the course of this study, differences in genotoxic and embryotoxic responses were observed in the various experiments, possibly due to differences in pollutant sensitivity between the tested genitor lots. Glyphosate and Roundup had no effect on oyster development at the concentrations tested, whereas diuron significantly affected embryo-larval development from the lowest tested concentration of 0.05 μg L⁻¹, i.e. an environmentally realistic concentration. Diuron may therefore have a significant impact on oyster recruitment rates in the natural environment. Our spermiotoxicity study revealed none of the tested herbicides to be cytotoxic for oyster spermatozoa. However, the alkaline comet assay showed diuron to have a significant genotoxic effect on oyster spermatozoa at concentrations of 0.05 μg L⁻¹ upwards. Conversely, no effects due to diuron exposure were observed on sperm mitochondrial function or acrosomal membrane integrity. Although our initial results showed no negative effect on sperm function, the possible impact on fertilization rate and the consequences of the transmission of damaged DNA for

  14. Genotoxicity of 2-bromo-3′-chloropropiophenone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Fanxue; Yan, Jian; Li, Yan [Division of Genetic and Molecular Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, 3900 NCTR Road, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Fu, Peter P. [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, 3900 NCTR Road, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Fossom, Linda H.; Sood, Ramesh K.; Mans, Daniel J.; Chu, Pei-I [Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Avenue, Silver Spring, MD 20993 (United States); Moore, Martha M. [Division of Genetic and Molecular Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, 3900 NCTR Road, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Chen, Tao, E-mail: tao.chen@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Genetic and Molecular Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, 3900 NCTR Road, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Impurities are present in any drug substance or drug product. They can be process-related impurities that are not completely removed during purification or are formed due to the degradation of the drug substance over the product shelf-life. Unlike the drug substance, impurities generally do not have beneficial effects and may present a risk without associated benefit. Therefore, their amount should be minimized. 2-Bromo-3′-chloropropiophenone (BCP) is an impurity of bupropion, a second-generation antidepressant and a smoking cessation aid. The United States Pharmacopeia recommends an acceptable level for BCP that is not more than 0.1% of the bupropion. Because exposure to genotoxic impurities even at low levels is of significant concern, it is important to determine whether or not BCP is genotoxic. Therefore, in this study the Ames test and the in vitro micronucleus assay were conducted to evaluate the genotoxicity of BCP. BCP was mutagenic with S9 metabolic activation, increasing the mutant frequencies in a concentration-dependent manner, up to 22- and 145-fold induction over the controls in Salmonella strains TA100 and TA1535, respectively. BCP was also positive in the in vitro micronucleus assay, resulting in up to 3.3- and 5.1-fold increase of micronucleus frequency for treatments in the absence and presence of S9, respectively; and 9.9- and 7.4-fold increase of aneuploidies without and with S9, respectively. The addition of N-acetyl-L-cysteine, an antioxidant, reduced the genotoxicity of BCP in both assays. Further studies showed that BCP treatment resulted in induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the TK6 cells. The results suggest that BCP is mutagenic, clastogenic, and aneugenic, and that these activities are mediated via generation of reactive metabolites. - Highlights: • 2-Bromo-3′-chloropropiophenone is an impurity of bupropion. • BCP was positive in both the Ames test and the in vitro micronucleus assay. • It induced high frequencies of

  15. Genotoxicity of 2-bromo-3′-chloropropiophenone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Fanxue; Yan, Jian; Li, Yan; Fu, Peter P.; Fossom, Linda H.; Sood, Ramesh K.; Mans, Daniel J.; Chu, Pei-I; Moore, Martha M.; Chen, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Impurities are present in any drug substance or drug product. They can be process-related impurities that are not completely removed during purification or are formed due to the degradation of the drug substance over the product shelf-life. Unlike the drug substance, impurities generally do not have beneficial effects and may present a risk without associated benefit. Therefore, their amount should be minimized. 2-Bromo-3′-chloropropiophenone (BCP) is an impurity of bupropion, a second-generation antidepressant and a smoking cessation aid. The United States Pharmacopeia recommends an acceptable level for BCP that is not more than 0.1% of the bupropion. Because exposure to genotoxic impurities even at low levels is of significant concern, it is important to determine whether or not BCP is genotoxic. Therefore, in this study the Ames test and the in vitro micronucleus assay were conducted to evaluate the genotoxicity of BCP. BCP was mutagenic with S9 metabolic activation, increasing the mutant frequencies in a concentration-dependent manner, up to 22- and 145-fold induction over the controls in Salmonella strains TA100 and TA1535, respectively. BCP was also positive in the in vitro micronucleus assay, resulting in up to 3.3- and 5.1-fold increase of micronucleus frequency for treatments in the absence and presence of S9, respectively; and 9.9- and 7.4-fold increase of aneuploidies without and with S9, respectively. The addition of N-acetyl-L-cysteine, an antioxidant, reduced the genotoxicity of BCP in both assays. Further studies showed that BCP treatment resulted in induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the TK6 cells. The results suggest that BCP is mutagenic, clastogenic, and aneugenic, and that these activities are mediated via generation of reactive metabolites. - Highlights: • 2-Bromo-3′-chloropropiophenone is an impurity of bupropion. • BCP was positive in both the Ames test and the in vitro micronucleus assay. • It induced high frequencies of

  16. Application of the micronucleus test and comet assay in Trachemys callirostris erythrocytes as a model for in situ genotoxic monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Lina M; Bock, Brian C; Orozco, Luz Yaneth; Palacio, Jaime A

    2016-05-01

    Trachemys callirostris is a turtle species endemic to northern South America. In northern Colombia it occurs in the middle and lower Magdalena River drainage and its principal tributaries (lower Cauca and San Jorge rivers) and in other minor drainages such as the lower Sinú River. In recent years, industrial, agricultural, and mining activities have altered natural habitats in Colombia where this species occurs, and many of the pollutants released there are known to induce genetic alterations in wildlife species. The micronucleus test and comet assay are two of the most widely used methods to characterize DNA damage induced by physical and chemical agents in wildlife species, but have not been employed previously for genotoxic evaluations in T. callirostris. The goal of this study was to optimize these genotoxic biomarkers for T. callirostris erythrocytes in order to establish levels of DNA damage in this species and thereby evaluate its potential as a sentinel species for monitoring genotoxic effects in freshwater environments in northern Colombia. Both genotoxic techniques were applied on peripheral blood erythrocytes from 20 captive-reared T. callirostris individuals as a negative control, as well as from samples obtained from 49 individuals collected in Magangué (Magdalena River drainage) and 24 individuals collected in Lorica (Sinú River drainage) in northern Colombia. Negative control individuals exhibited a baseline frequency of micronuclei of 0.78±0.58 and baseline values for comet tail length and tail moment of 3.34±0.24µm and 10.70±5.5, respectively. In contrast, samples from both field sites exhibited significantly greater evidence of genotoxic effects for both tests. The mean MN frequencies in the samples from Magangué and Lorica were 8.04±7.08 and 12.19±12.94, respectively. The mean tail length for samples from Magangué and Lorica were 5.78±3.18 and 15.46±7.39, respectively. Finally, the mean tail moment for samples from Magangué and

  17. Assessment of mutagenic, antimutagenic and genotoxicity effects of Mimosa tenuiflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane A. Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Genotoxic effects of Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir, Fabaceae, were investigated by using both micronucleus test and bacterial reverse mutation assay in Salmonella typhimurium TA97, TA98, TA100, TA102 respectively. In respect of Ames test results show that the extract does not induce mutations in any strains of Salmonella typhimurium tested since the mutagenicity index is less than 2. In the antimutagenic effect was observed that the extract at the concentrations tested significantly decreased the mutagenicity index of all strains tested which characterized the extract as antimutagenic in these conditions. In the micronucleus test in vivo, we observed that the concentrations used did not induce an increase in the frequency of micronucleus in normochromatic erythrocytes of mice. Therefore, we concluded that the extract of M. tenuiflora is not mutagenic in the absence of exogenous metabolizing system and does not induce an increase in the frequency of the micronucleus characterized as an agent not mutagenic in these conditions. Further studies of toxicity need to be made to the use of this plant in the treatment of diseases to be stimulated.

  18. Assessment of mutagenic, antimutagenic and genotoxicity effects of Mimosa tenuiflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane A. Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Genotoxic effects of Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir, Fabaceae, were investigated by using both micronucleus test and bacterial reverse mutation assay in Salmonella typhimurium TA97, TA98, TA100, TA102 respectively. In respect of Ames test results show that the extract does not induce mutations in any strains of Salmonella typhimurium tested since the mutagenicity index is less than 2. In the antimutagenic effect was observed that the extract at the concentrations tested significantly decreased the mutagenicity index of all strains tested which characterized the extract as antimutagenic in these conditions. In the micronucleus test in vivo, we observed that the concentrations used did not induce an increase in the frequency of micronucleus in normochromatic erythrocytes of mice. Therefore, we concluded that the extract of M. tenuiflora is not mutagenic in the absence of exogenous metabolizing system and does not induce an increase in the frequency of the micronucleus characterized as an agent not mutagenic in these conditions. Further studies of toxicity need to be made to the use of this plant in the treatment of diseases to be stimulated.

  19. Hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity of gasoline fumes in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folarin O. Owagboriaye

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Toxic effects of gasoline fumes have been reported, but evidence of its hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity are rare. Therefore, this study assesses hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity of gasoline fumes on forty Albino rats randomly assigned to five experimental treatments (T with eight rats per treatment (T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5. T1(Control was housed in a section of experimental animal house free from gasoline fumes while T2, T3, T4 and T5 were exposed to gasoline fumes in exposure chambers for one, three, five and nine hours daily respectively for twelve weeks. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and histopathological examination of the liver tissues were used as diagnostic markers to assess liver dysfunction. Genotoxicity test was conducted on the lung tissues using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting polymerase chain reaction (RAPD PCR technique. Significant increase (p < 0.05 in the level of ALT, AST and ALP for T2, T3, T4 and T5 compared to T1 were recorded. Photomicrograph examination of the liver sections of T1 showed hepatic tissue with normal liver cell architecture while that of T2, T3, T4 and T5 revealed degenerative changes in the ultrastructural integrity of the hepatic cells. Genotoxicity test revealed DNA bands at a reducing intensity from T1 to T5. Dendrogram showed DNA damage in the lungs of T3, T4 and T5 were closely similar and the genotoxic impact was more in T3. Frequent exposure to gasoline fumes was observed to induce hepatoxicity and genotoxicity, hence impairing the normal liver function and gene structure.

  20. Generation of in vitro data to model dose dependent in vivo DNA binding of genotoxic carcinogens and its consequences: the case of estragole

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paini, A.

    2012-01-01

    Our food contains several compounds which, when tested in isolated form at high doses in animal experiments, have been shown to be genotoxic and carcinogenic. At the present state-of-the-art there is no scientific consensus on how to perform the risk assessment of these compounds when present at

  1. A three-dimensional in vitro HepG2 cells liver spheroid model for genotoxicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ume-Kulsoom; Mallia, Jefferson de Oliveira; Singh, Neenu; Chapman, Katherine E; Doak, Shareen H; Jenkins, Gareth J S

    2018-01-01

    The liver's role in metabolism of chemicals makes it an appropriate tissue for toxicity testing. Current testing protocols, such as animal testing and two-dimensional liver cell systems, offer limited resemblance to in vivo liver cell behaviour, in terms of gene expression profiles and metabolic competence; thus, they do not always accurately predict human toxicology. In vitro three-dimensional liver cell models offer an attractive alternative. This study reports on the development of a 3D liver model, using HepG2 cells, by a hanging-drop technique, with a focus on evaluating spheroid growth characteristics and suitability for genotoxicity testing. The cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay protocol was adapted to enable micronucleus (MN) detection in the 3D spheroid models. This involved evaluating the difference between hanging vs non-hanging drop positions for dosing of the test agents and comparison of automated Metafer scoring with manual scoring for MN detection in HepG2 spheroids. The initial seeding density, used for all experiments, was 5000 cells/20 μl drop hanging spheroids, harvested on day 4, with >75% cell viability. Albumin secretion (7.8 g/l) and both CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 gene expression were highest in the 3D environment at day 4. Exposure to metabolically activated genotoxicants for 24 h resulted in a 6-fold increase in CYP1A1 enzyme activity (3 μM B[a]P) and a 30-fold increase in CYP1A2 enzyme activity (5 μM PhIP) in 3D hanging spheroids. MN inductions in response to B[a]P or PhIP were 2-fold and 3-fold, respectively, and were greater in 3D hanging spheroids than in 2D format, showing that hanging spheroids are more sensitive to genotoxic agents. HepG2 hanging-drop spheroids are an exciting new alternative system for genotoxicity studies, due to their improved structural and physiological properties, relative to 2D cultures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Genotoxicity testing of peptides: Folate deprivation as a marker of exaggerated pharmacology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guérard, Melanie; Zeller, Andreas; Festag, Matthias; Schubert, Christine; Singer, Thomas; Müller, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of micronucleated-cells is considered to be a marker of a genotoxic event and can be caused by direct- or indirect-DNA reactive mechanisms. In particular, small increases in the incidence of micronuclei, which are not associated with toxicity in the target tissue or any structurally altering properties of the compound, trigger the suspicion that an indirect mechanism could be at play. In a bone marrow micronucleus test of a synthetic peptide (a dual agonist of the GLP-1 and GIP receptors) that had been integrated into a regulatory 13-week repeat-dose toxicity study in the rat, small increases in the incidence of micronuclei had been observed, together with pronounced reductions in food intake and body weight gain. Because it is well established that folate plays a crucial role in maintaining genomic integrity and pronounced reductions in food intake and body weight gain were observed, folate levels were determined from plasma samples initially collected for toxicokinetic analytics. A dose-dependent decrease in plasma folate levels was evident after 4 weeks of treatment at the mid and high dose levels, persisted until the end of the treatment duration of 13-weeks and returned to baseline levels during the recovery period of 4 weeks. Based on these properties, and the fact that the compound tested (peptide) per se is not expected to reach the nucleus and cause DNA damage, the rationale is supported that the elevated incidence of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes is directly linked to the exaggerated pharmacology of the compound resulting in a decreased folate level. - Highlights: • A synthetic peptide has been evaluated for potential genotoxicity • Small increases in an integrated (13-weeks) micronucleus test were observed • Further, animals had a pronounced reductions in food intake and body weight gain • A dose-dependent decrease in plasma folate levels was evident from week 4 onwards • Elevated micronuclei-incidence due to the

  3. Benzophenone guttiferone A from Garcinia achachairu Rusby (Clusiaceae presents genotoxic effects in different cells of mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson Menezes Terrazas

    Full Text Available Benzophenones from natural sources and those of synthetic analogues present several reports of potent biological properties, and Guttiferone A represents a promising medicinal natural compound with analgesic and gastroprotective profiles. Considering that there are no reports that assess the genetic toxicity of Guttiferone A, the present study was undertaken to investigate the genotoxic potential of this benzophenone isolated from seeds of Garcinia achachairu in terms of DNA damage in different cells of Swiss albino mice using the comet assay, and its clastogenic/aneugenic effects in bone marrow cells in vivo by the micronucleus test. Cytotoxicity was assessed by scoring polychromatic (PCE and normochromatic (NCE erythrocytes ratio. Guttiferone A was administered by oral gavage at doses of 15, 30 and 60 mg/kg. The results showed that Guttiferone A produced genotoxic effects in leukocytes, liver, bone marrow, brain and testicle cells and clastogenic/aneugenic effects in bone marrow erythrocytes of mice. The PCE/NCE ratio indicated no cytotoxicity. Since guttiferone A is harmful to the genetic material we suggest caution in its use by humans.

  4. Recent perspectives on the relations between faecal mutagenicity, genotoxicity and diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eGratz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available DNA damage is an essential component of the genesis of colonic cancer. Gut microbial products and food components are thought to be principally responsible for the damage that initiates disease progression. Modified Ames tests and Comet assays have been developed for measuring mutagenicity and genotoxicity. Their relevance to oncogenesis remains to be confirmed, as does the relative importance of different mutagenic and genotoxic compounds present in faecal water and the bacteria involved in their metabolism. Dietary intervention studies provide clues to the likely risks of oncogenesis. High-protein diets lead to increases in N-nitroso compounds in faecal water and greater DNA damage as measured by the Comet assay, for example. Other dietary interventions, such as non-digestible carbohydrates and probiotics, may lead to lower faecal genotoxicity. In order to make recommendations to the general public, we must develop a better understanding of how genotoxic compounds are formed in the colon, how accurate the Ames and Comet assays are, and how diet affects genotoxicity.

  5. Evaluation of perfluorooctanoate for potential genotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L. Butenhoff

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA is a fully fluorinated eight-carbon fatty acid analog with exceptional stability toward degradation that has been used as an industrial surfactant and has been detected in environmental and biological matrices. Exposures to PFOA in the workplace and in the environment have continuously stimulated investigations into its potential human health hazards. In this article, the results of fifteen unpublished genotoxicity assays conducted with perfluorooctanoate (as either the linear or linear/branched ammonium salt (APFO or the linear/branched sodium salt are reported and include: seven mutation assays (three in vitro reverse mutation assays with histidine auxotrophic strains of Salmonella typhimurium, two in vitro reverse mutation assays with the tryptophan auxotrophic Escherichia coli WP2uvr strain, one in vitro mitotic recombination (gene conversion assay with Saccharomyces cerevisiae D4, and an in vitro Chinese hamster ovary (CHO HGPRT forward mutation assay; seven studies to assess potential for chromosomal damage (three in vitro CHO chromosomal aberration studies, an in vitro human whole blood lymphocyte chromosomal aberration study, and three in vivo mouse micronucleus assays; and an in vitro C3H 10T1/2 cell transformation assay. Although PFOA has not been demonstrated to be metabolized, all in vitro assays were conducted both in the presence and in the absence of a mammalian hepatic microsomal activation system. These assays were originally described in twelve contract laboratory reports which have been available via the United States Environmental Protection Agency public docket (Administrative Record 226 for over a decade; however, the details of these assays have not been published previously in the open scientific literature. With the exception of limited positive findings at high and cytotoxic concentrations in some assay trials which reflected the likely consequence of cytotoxic disruption of normal cellular

  6. Genotoxic valuation of Zinalco, a zinc base alloy, by the mutation and somatic recombination test in Drosophila Melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez V, P.

    1995-01-01

    Zinalco is an eutectoid alloy made of zinc, aluminium and copper (78% , 20% and 2%), because of its physical, chemical and mechanical characteristics, it has been established as a structural material and valued as a feasible bio material. Previous authors have studies on the cytotoxic effect of Zinalco, so for concluded that it is harmless to the organism. However, was considered necessary to evaluate its potential genotoxicity. The present work was done with the fruit fly Drosophila Melanogaster. The objectives were: to determine the administered particle size, to evaluate its ingestion zinalco and to score the genotoxic effect by means of the SMART test in wing cells of D. Melanogaster. The protocol consisted of an oral chronic treatment, to groups of 72th age larvae, with concentrations of 0,1,2,4,8 and 16 mg of zinalco in ml of water on 1.5 g of synthetic medium. Statistical analysis was done through the SMART program. The results obtained showed an average particle size of 16 m long x 5.9 m wide. The normal amount of the alloy elements in the larvae was increased and finally, no genotoxicity at any of the administered doses could be detected. (Author)

  7. Genotoxicity assessment of some cosmetic and food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sotto, Antonella; Maffei, Francesca; Hrelia, Patrizia; Di Giacomo, Silvia; Pagano, Ester; Borrelli, Francesca; Mazzanti, Gabriela

    2014-02-01

    α-Hexylcinnamaldehyde (HCA) and p-tert-butyl-alpha-methylhydrocinnamic aldehyde (BMHCA) are synthetic aldehydes, characterized by a typical floral scent, which makes them suitable to be used as fragrances in personal care (perfumes, creams, shampoos, etc.) and household products, and as flavouring additives in food and pharmaceutical industry. The aldehydic structure suggests the need for a safety assessment for these compounds. Here, HCA and BMHCA were evaluated for their potential genotoxic risk, both at gene level (frameshift or base-substitution mutations) by the bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames test), and at chromosomal level (clastogenicity and aneuploidy) by the micronucleus test. In order to evaluate a primary and repairable DNA damage, the comet assay has been also included. In spite of their potential hazardous chemical structure, a lack of mutagenicity was observed for both compounds in all bacterial strains tested, also in presence of the exogenous metabolic activator, showing that no genotoxic derivatives were produced by CYP450-mediated biotransformations. Neither genotoxicity at chromosomal level (i.e. clastogenicity or aneuploidy) nor single-strand breaks were observed. These findings will be useful in further assessing the safety of HCA and BMHCA as either flavour or fragrance chemicals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of Genotoxic Pressure along the Sava River.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoimir Kolarević

    Full Text Available In this study we have performed a comprehensive genotoxicological survey along the 900 rkm of the Sava River. In total, 12 sites were chosen in compliance with the goals of GLOBAQUA project dealing with the effects of multiple stressors on biodiversity and functioning of aquatic ecosystems. The genotoxic potential was assessed using a complex battery of bioassays performed in prokaryotes and aquatic eukaryotes (freshwater fish. Battery comprised evaluation of mutagenicity by SOS/umuC test in Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002. The level of DNA damage as a biomarker of exposure (comet assay and biomarker of effect (micronucleus assay and the level of oxidative stress as well (Fpg-modified comet assay was studied in blood cells of bleak and spirlin (Alburnus alburnus/Alburnoides bipunctatus respectively. Result indicated differential sensitivity of applied bioassays in detection of genotoxic pressure. The standard and Fpg-modified comet assay showed higher potential in differentiation of the sites based on genotoxic potential in comparison with micronucleus assay and SOS/umuC test. Our data represent snapshot of the current status of the river which indicates the presence of genotoxic potential along the river which can be traced to the deterioration of quality of the Sava River by communal and industrial wastewaters. The major highlight of the study is that we have provided complex set of data obtained from a single source (homogeneity of analyses for all samples.

  9. Dynamic Architecture of Eukaryotic DNA Replication Forks In Vivo, Visualized by Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellweger, Ralph; Lopes, Massimo

    2018-01-01

    The DNA replication process can be heavily perturbed by several different conditions of genotoxic stress, particularly relevant for cancer onset and therapy. The combination of psoralen crosslinking and electron microscopy has proven instrumental to reveal the fine architecture of in vivo DNA replication intermediates and to uncover their remodeling upon specific conditions of genotoxic stress. The replication structures are stabilized in vivo (by psoralen crosslinking) prior to extraction and enrichment procedures, allowing their visualization at the transmission electron microscope. This chapter outlines the procedures required to visualize and interpret in vivo replication intermediates of eukaryotic genomic DNA, and includes an improved method for enrichment of replication intermediates, compared to previously used BND-cellulose columns.

  10. Toxicity and genotoxicity of the quaternary ammonium compound benzalkonium chloride (BAC) using Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia as model systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavorgna, Margherita; Russo, Chiara; D'Abrosca, Brigida; Parrella, Alfredo; Isidori, Marina

    2016-01-01

    The toxicity and genotoxicity of the cationic surfactant benzalkonium chloride (BAC) were studied using Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia as model systems. Acute and chronic toxicity testing were performed according to the international standard guidelines and the genotoxicity was detected through the comet assay on cells from whole organisms in vivo exposed. Acute effects occurred at concentrations in the order of tens of μg/L in D. magna and hundreds of μg/L in C. dubia. Chronic effects were found at one order of magnitude less than short-term effects maintaining the same difference in sensitivity between D. magna and C. dubia. BAC induced relevant DNA damage, in both cladocerans; the lowest adverse effect levels were 0.4 and 4 ng/L for D. magna and C. dubia, respectively. As these effective concentrations are far lower than BAC occurrence in surface waters (units of μg/L) a concerning environmental risk cannot be excluded. The findings of this study showed that D. magna and C. dubia, could be used as model organisms to detect acute and chronic toxicity as well as genotoxicity at the whole organism level. - Highlights: • Benzalkonium chloride chronic effect in C. dubia was found at dozens of μg/L. • The LOAEC detected by comet assay in D. magna is in the order of hundreds of pg/L. • D. magna and C. dubia are useful model organisms to detect toxicity and genotoxicity. - Benzalkonium chloride showed chronic toxicity and genotoxicity in Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia at concentrations of environmental concern. Daphnids are useful model organisms.

  11. Genotoxicity testing approaches for the safety assessment of substances used in food contact materials prior to their authorization in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognesi, Claudia; Castoldi, Anna F; Crebelli, Riccardo; Barthélémy, Eric; Maurici, Daniela; Wölfle, Detlef; Volk, Katharina; Castle, Laurence

    2017-06-01

    Food contact materials are all materials and articles intended to come directly or indirectly into contact with food. Before being included in the positive European "Union list" of authorized substances (monomers, other starting substances and additives) for plastic food contact materials, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) must assess their safety "in use". If relevant for risk, the safety of the main impurities, reaction and degradation products originating from the manufacturing process is also evaluated. Information on genotoxicity is always required irrespective of the extent of migration and the resulting human exposure, in view of the theoretical lack of threshold for genotoxic events. The 2008 EFSA approach, requiring the testing of food contact materials in three in vitro mutagenicity tests, though still acceptable, is now superseded by the 2011 EFSA Scientific Committee's recommendation for only two complementary tests including a bacterial gene mutation test and an in vitro micronucleus test, to detect two main genetic endpoints (i.e., gene mutations and chromosome aberrations). Follow-up of in vitro positive results depends on the type of genetic effect and on the substance's systemic availability. In this study, we provide an analysis of the data on genotoxicity testing gathered by EFSA on food contact materials for the period 1992-2015. We also illustrate practical examples of the approaches that EFSA took when evaluating "non standard" food contact chemicals (e.g., polymeric additives, oligomer or other reaction mixtures, and nanosubstances). Additionally, EFSA's experience gained from using non testing methods and/or future possibilities in this area are discussed. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:361-374, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Geno-toxicity assay of sediment and water samples from the Upper Silesia post-mining areas, Poland by means of Allium-test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geras' kin, S.; Oudalova, A.; Michalik, B.; Dikareva, N.; Dikarev, V. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology & Agroecology RAAS, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2011-05-15

    Genotoxic potential of two environmental compartments (water and sediment) from the Upper Silesia Coal Basin (USCB), Poland were evaluated and compared by employing root meristem cells of Allium cepa. The clear genotoxic effect of water and sediment sampled was shown, with an important contribution of severe types of cytogenetic abnormalities. The most biologically relevant pollutants were revealed through multivariate statistical analysis of relationships between biological effects registered and the environment contamination. Overall, results of simultaneous use of conventional monitoring methods and biological tests suggested that contemporary levels of persistent pollutants in post-mining areas of the USCB may enhance the risk both for human health and biological components of natural ecosystems.

  13. Genotoxic potential of BM-21, an aqueous-ethanolic extract from Thalassia testudinum marine plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadira Ansoar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: BM-21 is a hydro-ethanolic extract obtained from the leaves of Thalassia testudinum marine plant, which is rich in polyphenols, and it has demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cytoprotective and neuroprotective properties. Aims: To investigate the genotoxicity potential of BM-21. Methods: Salmonella typhimurium Hist. – strains were used in the pointmutation test and Escherichia coli cells were used in SOS response test. DNA primary damage was tested in hepatocytes of mice treated with oral dose of the extract (2000 mg/kg. Bone marrow micronucleus assay was used in mice to detect clastogenic damage while serum from the same animals was used to determine MDA levels in order to find out the influence of BM-21 on lipid peroxidation. Positive and negative controls were included in all experimental series. Results: BM-21 did not increase the frequency of reverse mutations in the Ames test, and it did not induce primary damage in E. coli. Comet assay showed that 2 000 mg/kg of BM-21 induced single strand breaks or alkali-labile sites in the hepatocytes from the treated mice. However, no increase in the micronucleus frequency was observed in mice polychromatic erythrocytes and significantly reduced MDA levels were detected. Conclusions: BM-21 was neither mutagenic nor induces DNA damage to prokaryotic cells. Although, it increased DNA strand breaks in vivo, this one was not translated into clastogenic damage to the whole organism. Results suggested that BM-21 was not mutagenic or genotoxic under our experimental conditions.

  14. Molecular and cytogenetic assessment of Dipterygium glaucum genotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NADA H. ALTWATY

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of the present study is to assess the genotoxicity of Dipterygium glaucum grows widely in Saudi Arabia desert to produce safety herbal products. This work is considered the first and pioneer report so far due to the lack and poor evaluated reports of the plant species for their mutagensity, genotoxicity and cytogenetics effects. Cytogenetic effects of D. glaucum on mitotic in roots of Vicia faba showed reduction in mitotic activity using three extracts; water, ethanol and ethyl acetate. Chromosomal abnormalities were recorded that included stickiness of chromosomes, chromatin bridge, fragments, lagging chromosome and micronuclei. Protein bands and RAPD analyses of V. faba treated with three D. glaucum extracts revealed some newly induced proteins and DNA fragments and other disappeared. Chemical constitution of the plant species should be identified with their biological activities against human and animal cells like HeLa cancer cell line. We are recommending using additional genotoxicity tests and other toxicity tests on animal culture with different concentrations and also utilizing several drought and heat tolerant genes of the plant species in gene cloning to develop and improve other economical crop plants instead of using the species as oral herbal remedy

  15. Genotoxicity study of an experimental beverage made with quinua, kiwicha and kañiwa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francia D.P. Huaman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Genotoxic evaluation is an important step for a product that is aimed for human consumption. A beverage composed of pseudocereals with highly nutritious elements like quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., kiwicha (Amaranthus caudatus L. and kañiwa (Chenopodium pallidicaule Aellen was prepared to reduce lipid contents in a group of volunteers. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the genotoxic potential of an experimental beverage using two in vitro tests that have been validated by international agencies. For the Ames test, two strains of Salmonella typhimurium (TA98 and TA100 with and without microsomal fraction (S9 were used. Four doses of the beverage were tested and also a possible protective effect (same four doses of beverage added to plates with mutagens. Cultures of binucleated lymphocytes and five doses of the beverage were used for the micronucleus test. Both Ames and the micronucleus tests showed the beverage has not genotoxic effect in all tested doses. However, in evaluating the possible protective effect of the beverage, it would be evident that on the contrary, the mutagenic effect of mutagens used for each strain is enhanced. These results suggest that additional tests should be performed to check the genotoxic potential of this beverage before consumption.

  16. Genotoxicity of styrene oligomers extracted from polystyrene intended for use in contact with food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Nakai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we conducted in vitro genotoxicity tests to evaluate the genotoxicity of styrene oligomers extracted from polystyrene intended for use in contact with food. Styrene oligomers were extracted with acetone and the extract was subjected to the Ames test (OECD test guideline No. 471 and the in vitro chromosomal aberration test (OECD test guideline No. 473 under good laboratory practice conditions. The concentrations of styrene dimers and trimers in the concentrated extract were 540 and 13,431 ppm, respectively. Extraction with acetone provided markedly higher concentrations of styrene oligomers compared with extraction with 50% ethanol aqueous solution, which is the food simulant currently recommended for use in safety assessments of polystyrene by both the United States Food and Drug Administration and the European Food Safety Authority. And these high concentrations of styrene dimers and trimers were utilized for the evaluation of genotoxicity in vitro. Ames tests using five bacterial tester strains were negative both in the presence or absence of metabolic activation. The in vitro chromosomal aberration test using Chinese hamster lung cells (CHL/IU was also negative. Together, these results suggest that the risk of the genotoxicity of styrene oligomers that migrate from polystyrene food packaging into food is very low.

  17. Genotoxic Maillard byproducts in current phytopharmaceutical preparations of Echinodorus grandiflorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELISANGELA C. LIMA-DELLAMORA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of Echinodorus grandiflorus obtained from dried leaves by three different techniques were evaluated by bacterial lysogenic induction assay (Inductest in relation to their genotoxic properties. Before being added to test cultures, extracts were sterilized either by steam sterilization or ultraviolet light. Only the extracts prepared by infusion and steam sterilized have shown genotoxic activity. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of the flavonoids isovitexin, isoorientin, swertisin and swertiajaponin, isolated from a genotoxic fraction. They were assayed separately and tested negative in the Inductest protocol. The development of browning color and sweet smell in extracts submitted to heat, prompted further chemical analysis in search for Maillard's reaction precursors. Several aminoacids and reducing sugars were cast in the extract. The presence of characteristic Maillard's melanoidins products was determined by spectrophotometry in the visible region and the inhibition of this reaction was observed when its characteristic inhibitor, sodium bisulfite, was added prior to heating. Remarkably, this is the first paper reporting on the appearance of such compounds in a phytomedicine preparation under a current phytopharmaceutical procedure. The genotoxic activity of such heat-prepared infusions imply in some risk of developing degenerative diseases for patients in long-term, uncontrolled use of such phytomedicines.

  18. Genotoxic effects of environmental pollutants genotoxic monitoring and detection of antigenotoxic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simic, D.; Knezevic-Vukcevic, J.; Vukovi -Gacic, B.; Mitic, D.; Beric, T.; Nikolic, B.; Stanojevic, J.; Stankovic, S.

    2002-01-01

    The control of genotoxic agents mass release, which can adversely affect the ecosystem stability and human health is of the greatest importance. Therefore, it is necessary to seriously elaborate the strategy of genotoxic monitoring and relevant legislation. Additional approach is the study and dietary use of antigenotoxic plant substances for prevention of mutation-related diseases. (author)

  19. Genotoxic effects of environmental pollutants genotoxic monitoring and detection of antigenotoxic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simic, D; Knezevic-Vukcevic, J; Vukovi -Gacic, B; Mitic, D; Beric, T; Nikolic, B; Stanojevic, J; Stankovic, S [Faculty of Biology, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    2002-05-01

    The control of genotoxic agents mass release, which can adversely affect the ecosystem stability and human health is of the greatest importance. Therefore, it is necessary to seriously elaborate the strategy of genotoxic monitoring and relevant legislation. Additional approach is the study and dietary use of antigenotoxic plant substances for prevention of mutation-related diseases. (author)

  20. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of clothianidin in human lymphocytes with or without metabolic activation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlı Şekeroğlu, Zülal; Şekeroğlu, Vedat; Uçgun, Ebru; Kontaş Yedier, Seval; Aydın, Birsen

    2018-02-26

    Clothianidin (CHN) is a broad-spectrum neonicotinoid insecticide. Limited studies have been carried out on the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of both CHN using different genotoxicity tests in human cells with or without human metabolic activation system (S9 mix). Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of CHN and its metabolites on human lymphocyte cultures with or without S9 mix using chromosomal aberration (CA) and micronucleus (MN) tests. The cultures were treated with 25, 50, and 100 µg/ml of CHN in the presence (3 h treatment) and absence (48 h treatment) of S9 mix. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was used as a solvent control. CHN showed cytotoxic and genotoxic effects due to significant decreases in mitotic index (MI) and nuclear division index (NDI), and significant increases in the CAs, aberrant cells, and MN formation in the absence of S9 mix when compared with solvent control. However, CHN did not significantly induce cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in the presence of S9 mix. Our results indicated that CHN has cytotoxic, cytostatic, and genotoxic potential on human peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures, but not its metabolites under the experimental conditions.

  1. Eco- and genotoxicity profiling of a rapeseed biodiesel using a battery of bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eck-Varanka, Bettina; Kováts, Nora; Horváth, Eszter; Ferincz, Árpád; Kakasi, Balázs; Nagy, Szabolcs Tamás; Imre, Kornélia; Paulovits, Gábor

    2018-04-30

    Biodiesel is considered an important renewable energy source but still there is some controversy about its environmental toxicity, especially to aquatic life. In our study, the toxicity of water soluble fraction of biodiesel was evaluated in relatively low concentrations using a battery of bioassays: Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition, Sinapis alba root growth inhibition, Daphnia magna immobilization, boar semen live/dead ratio and DNA fragmentation and Unio pictorum micronucleus test. While the S. alba test indicated nutritive (stimulating) effect of the sample, the biodiesel exerted toxic effect in the aquatic tests. D. magna was the most sensitive with EC 50 value of 0.0226%. For genotoxicity assessment, the mussel micronucleus test (MNT) was applied, detecting considerable genotoxic potential of the biodiesel sample: it elucidated micronuclei formation already at low concentration of 3.3%. Although this test has never been employed in biodiesel eco/genotoxicity assessments, it seems a promising tool, based on its appropriate sensitivity, and representativity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Implementation of the three Rs in the human hazard assessment of Brazilian medicinal plants: an evaluation of the cytotoxic and genotoxic potentials of Dipteryx alata Vogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves-Pedro, Natália M; Rodas, Andrea C D; Dal Belo, Cháriston A; Oshima-Franco, Yoko; dos Santos, Márcio G; Lopes, Patricia S

    2011-05-01

    In Brazil, medicinal plants are widely used by the indigenous people, which leads to a constant requirement for toxicity tests to be performed on the plant extracts. Although the current Brazilian Directive 90/2004 on the preclinical toxicity testing of phytotherapeutics recommends only in vivo tests, some Brazilian researchers would like to change this situation by implementing the Three Rs in the toxicological testing of medicinal plants. The present study evaluated the cytotoxic and genotoxic potentials of bark extracts from Dipteryx alata Vogel, a medicinal plant of the Brazilian cerrado, by using CHO-K1 (Chinese hamster ovary) cells. An IC50 value was obtained, which corresponded to 0.16mg/ml of plant extract, and from this the equivalent LD50 was determined as 705mg/kg. In order to determine the genotoxic potential of the sample, the frequency of micronucleus formation was assessed. CHO-K1 cells were exposed, during targeted mitosis, to different concentrations of plant extract and cytochalasin B, in the presence and absence of an appropriate metabolic activation system (an S9 mix). The results obtained indicated that it might be possible to implement the Three Rs in assessing the potential human hazard of medicinal plants. The publication of such data can increase awareness of the Three Rs by showing how to optimise the management of animal use, if in vivo toxicological experiments are required. 2011 FRAME.

  3. Size- and coating-dependent cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of silver nanoparticles evaluated using in vitro standard assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoqing; Li, Yan; Yan, Jian; Ingle, Taylor; Jones, Margie Yvonne; Mei, Nan; Boudreau, Mary D; Cunningham, Candice K; Abbas, Mazhar; Paredes, Angel M; Zhou, Tong; Moore, Martha M; Howard, Paul C; Chen, Tao

    2016-11-01

    The physicochemical characteristics of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) may greatly alter their toxicological potential. To explore the effects of size and coating on the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of AgNPs, six different types of AgNPs, having three different sizes and two different coatings, were investigated using the Ames test, mouse lymphoma assay (MLA) and in vitro micronucleus assay. The genotoxicities of silver acetate and silver nitrate were evaluated to compare the genotoxicity of nanosilver to that of ionic silver. The Ames test produced inconclusive results for all types of the silver materials due to the high toxicity of silver to the test bacteria and the lack of entry of the nanoparticles into the cells. Treatment of L5718Y cells with AgNPs and ionic silver resulted in concentration-dependent cytotoxicity, mutagenicity in the Tk gene and the induction of micronuclei from exposure to nearly every type of the silver materials. Treatment of TK6 cells with these silver materials also resulted in concentration-dependent cytotoxicity and significantly increased micronucleus frequency. With both the MLA and micronucleus assays, the smaller the AgNPs, the greater the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. The coatings had less effect on the relative genotoxicity of AgNPs than the particle size. Loss of heterozygosity analysis of the induced Tk mutants indicated that the types of mutations induced by AgNPs were different from those of ionic silver. These results suggest that AgNPs induce cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in a size- and coating-dependent manner. Furthermore, while the MLA and in vitro micronucleus assay (in both types of cells) are useful to quantitatively measure the genotoxic potencies of AgNPs, the Ames test cannot.

  4. Tungsten carbide-cobalt as a nanoparticulate reference positive control in in vitro genotoxicity assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moche, Hélène; Chevalier, Dany; Barois, Nicolas; Lorge, Elisabeth; Claude, Nancy; Nesslany, Fabrice

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing human exposure to nanoparticles (NP), the evaluation of their genotoxic potential is of significant importance. However, relevance for NP of the routinely used in vitro genotoxicity assays is often questioned, and a nanoparticulate reference positive control would therefore constitute an important step to a better testing of NP, ensuring that test systems are really appropriate. In this study, we investigated the possibility of using tungsten carbide-cobalt (WC-Co) NP as reference positive control in in vitro genotoxicity assays, including 2 regulatory assays, the mouse lymphoma assay and the micronucleus assay, and in the Comet assay, recommended for the toxicological evaluation of nanomedicines by the French Agency of Human Health Products (Afssaps). Through these assays, we were able to study different genetic endpoints in 2 cell types commonly used in regulatory genotoxicity assays: the L5178Y mouse lymphoma cell line and primary cultures of human lymphocytes. Our results showed that the use of WC-Co NP as positive control in in vitro genotoxicity assays was conceivable, but that different parameters have to be considered, such as cell type and treatment schedule. L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells did not provide satisfactory results in the 3 performed tests. However, human lymphocytes were more sensitive to genotoxic effects induced by WC-Co NP, particularly after a 24-h treatment in the in vitro micronucleus assay and after a 4-h treatment in the in vitro Comet assay. Under such conditions, WC-Co could be used as a nanoparticulate reference positive control in these assays.

  5. Genotoxicity in earthworm after combined treatment of ionising radiation and mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Tae Ho; Kim, Jin Kyu; An, Kwang-Guk

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the acute genotoxic effects of mercury and radiation on earthworms (Eisenia fetida). The levels of DNA damage and the repair kinetics in the coelomocytes of E. fetida treated with mercuric chloride (HgCl 2 ) and ionising radiation (gamma rays) were analysed by means of the comet assay. For detection of DNA damage and repair, E. fetida was exposed to HgCl 2 (0-160 mg kg -1 ) and irradiated with gamma rays (0-50 Gy) in vivo. The increase in DNA damage depended on the concentration of mercury or dose of radiation. The results showed that the more the oxidative stress induced by mercury and radiation the longer the repair time that was required. When a combination of HgCl 2 and gamma rays was applied, the cell damage was much higher than those treated with HgCl 2 or radiation alone, which indicated that the genotoxic effects were increased after the combined treatment of mercury and radiation. (authors)

  6. Genotoxicity of freshwater ecosystem shows DNA damage in preponderant fish as validated by in vivo micronucleus induction in gill and kidney erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiakor, M O; Okonkwo, J C; Ezeonyejiaku, C D

    2014-12-01

    Genotoxicity of Anambra River was studied by micronucleus (MN) assay of preponderant fish species in the river. The micronucleus indices obtained were used as biomarker to estimate and predict pollution profile and possible danger of feeding on the aquatic species. Micronuclei profile of the fish was measured from gill and kidney erythrocytes using microscopic technique. Season, species and location effects on micronuclei, together with their interactions were also determined. Two major seasons (rainy and dry) and preponderant fish species in the river (Synodontis clarias, Linnaeus, 1758 and Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1757) were studied at five distinct locations that displayed differential environmental stresses. The study showed that the micronucleus index of fish is an excellent biomarker for measuring pollution level and genotoxicity of freshwater habitat. Season, species of fish and location affect micronuclei profile of the fish species sampled in the river. Disease outbreak among rural dwellers depending on the river for domestic and other uses is imminent and they lack knowledge on its health implication. Moreover, the study maintained that the micronuclei in fish could be measured from either the gill or kidney; however, gill is more efficient as it enables collection of several samples from the same individuals without sacrificing it, and Synodontis clarias fish species appeared to be more vulnerable to the genotoxic damage than Tilapia nilotica. Consequently, the study recommended regular monitoring (micronucleus tests) of edible aquatic life such as Synodontis clarias in order to eliminate the danger of people feeding on toxic metals, some of which are carcinogenic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of the tickcide, genotoxic, and mutagenic effects of the Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Vargas de Carvalho

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Current analysis investigated the tickcide effects of the aqueous extract and chloroform fractions of Ruta graveolens L. (rue on engorged females of Rhipicephalus microplus, as well as their genotoxic and mutagenic effects on human leukocytes. The best tickcide activity (non-dependent dose and genotoxic / mutagenic effects (dependent-dose were observed on exposure to chloroform fractions. Results suggest that extract fractions of R. graveolens L are efficient against R. microplus, although the fraction and the tested concentrations show genotoxic and mutagenic potential for human leukocytes.

  8. Evaluation of the genotoxic potential of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) and its metabolites, glycidol and beta-chlorolactic acid, using the single cell gel/comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ramy, R; Ould Elhkim, M; Lezmi, S; Poul, J M

    2007-01-01

    3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) is a member of a group of chemicals known as chloropropanols. It is found in many foods and food ingredients as a result of food processing. 3-MCPD is regarded as a rat carcinogen known to induce Leydig-cell and mammary gland tumours in males and kidney tumours in both genders. The aim of our study was to clarify the possible involvement of genotoxic mechanisms in 3-MCPD induced carcinogenicity at the target organ level. For that purpose, we evaluated DNA damages in selected target (kidneys and testes) and non-target (blood leukocytes, liver and bone marrow) male rat organs by the in vivo alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay, 3 and 24 h after 3-MCPD oral administration to Sprague-Dawley and Fisher 344 adult rats. 3-MCPD may be metabolised to a genotoxic intermediate, glycidol, whereas the predominant urinary metabolite in rats following 3-MCPD administration is beta-chlorolactic acid. Therefore, we also studied the DNA damaging effects of 3-MCPD and its metabolites, glycidol and beta-chlorolactic acid, in the in vitro comet assay on CHO cells. Our results show the absence of genotoxic potential of 3-MCPD in vivo in the target as well as in the non-target organs. Glycidol, the epoxide metabolite, induced DNA damages in CHO cells. beta-Chlorolactic acid, the main metabolite of 3-MCPD in rats, was shown to be devoid of DNA-damaging effects in vitro in mammalian cells.

  9. Effects of SO/sub 2/ or NOx on toxic and genotoxic properties of chemical carcinogens. II. Short term in vivo studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pool, B L; Brendler, S; Klein, R G; Monarca, S; Pasquini, R; Schmezer, P; Zeller, W J

    1988-07-01

    Short term in vivo studies were performed to study biological effects of the common air pollutants SO2 or NOx and their influence on the genotoxic activities of nitrosamines. Hepatocytes and lung cells were isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats which had inhaled 50 p.p.m. of SO2 or NOx for 2 weeks. After incubating the cells for 1 h, genotoxicity was determined in hepatocytes by measuring DNA single-strand breaks induced by N-nitroso-acetoxymethylmethylamine, N-nitrosodimethylamine and N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine. Parameters of toxicity (trypan blue exclusion and leakage of serum enzymes) were determined in both liver and lung cells also following 1 h incubation. The activities of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH), nitrosodimethylamine demethylase (NDMA-D) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were determined in subcellular microsomal fractions isolated from lung and liver tissues. Finally, as a measure of overall toxicity, the activities of various serum enzymes were determined in the blood serum of the rats. It was found that the induction of DNA single-strand breaks by three nitrosamines was decreased in hepatocytes from SO2-treated animals. The viability of rat hepatocytes and of rat lung cells, as determined by trypan blue exclusion, was similar in all three treatment groups immediately after isolation, as well as after 1 h incubation with DMSO or with the nitrosamines. In contrast, the leakage of enzymes was different in hepatocytes of SO2-treated rats, since lactate dehydrogenase activity was decreased. Leakage of enzymes from the lung cells did not differ from group to group, but was lower than from hepatocytes. Foreign compound metabolizing enzymes were mainly decreased in NOx-treated animals, namely AHH, NDMA-D and GST in liver and GST in the lung. For SO2-treated animals NDMA-D was increased in liver and GST was decreased in lung.

  10. Results of screening NCI/NTP nongenotoxic carcinogens and genotoxic noncarcinogens with the ke test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelsohn, M.L.; Bakale, G.; McCreary, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    The interdependence of the electrophilic and carcinogenic properties of chemicals that was demonstrated two decades ago rekindled interest in the somatic mutation theory of carcinogenesis. Interest in this theory grew with the development of a reverse-mutation bacterial assay in the laboratory of B.N. Ames that permitted the mutagenic properties of the chemicals to be determined quickly and yielded results which indicated that ''carcinogens are mutagens.'' Subsequent validation studies of this bioassay, the Salmonella typhimurium/microsome or ''Ames test,'' by Ames' group and others provided additional support for the correlation between mutagenicity and carcinogenicity which led to the worldwide deployment of the Ames test in thousands of laboratories and to the development of more than 100 other short-term tests that continue to be used to identify potential carcinogens via various end-points of genotoxicity. This document discusses electrophilicity, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity relationships as well as carcinogen-screening of chemicals. 28 refs., 4 tabs

  11. Safety assessment of non-animal chondroitin sulfate sodium: Subchronic study in rats, genotoxicity tests and human bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraglia, Niccolò; Bianchi, Davide; Trentin, Antonella; Volpi, Nicola; Soni, Madhu G

    2016-07-01

    Chondroitin sulfate, an amino sugar polymer made of glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-galactosamine, is used in dietary supplements to promote joint health. Commonly used chondroitin sulfate is of animal origin and can pose potential safety problems including bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). The objective of the present study was to investigate potential adverse effects, if any, of microbial derived chondroitin sulfate sodium (CSS) in subchronic toxicity, genotoxicity and bioavailability studies. In the toxicity study, Sprague Dawley rats (10/sex/group) were gavaged with CSS at dose levels of 0, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day for 90-days. No mortality or significant changes in clinical signs, body weights, body weight gain or feed consumption were noted. Similarly, no toxicologically relevant treatment-related changes in hematological, clinical chemistry, urinalysis and organ weights were noted. Macroscopic and microscopic examinations did not reveal treatment-related abnormalities. In vitro mutagenic and clastogenic potentials as evaluated by Ames assay, chromosomal aberration test and micronucleus assay did not reveal genotoxicity of CSS. In pharmacokinetic study in human, CSS showed higher absorption as compared to chondroitin sulfate of animal origin. The results of subchronic toxicity study supports the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for CSS as 1000 mg/kg bw/day, the highest dose tested. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Testing strategies in mutagenicity and genetic toxicology: an appraisal of the guidelines of the European Scientific Committee for Cosmetics and Non-Food Products for the evaluation of hair dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, D J; Henderson, L; Marzin, D; Müller, L; Parry, J M; Speit, G; Tweats, D J; Williams, G M

    2005-12-30

    reaction between the chemicals present in hair-dye formulations. Ideally, these should also be tested for genotoxicity, but at present such experiences are very limited. There is also the possibility that one component could mask the genotoxicity of another (e.g. by being more toxic), and so it is not practical at this time to recommend routine testing of complete hair-dye formulations as well. The most sensible approach would be to establish whether any reaction products within the hair-dye formulation penetrate the skin under normal conditions of use and test only those that penetrate at toxicologically relevant levels in the three-test in vitro battery. Recently published data [D. Kirkland, M. Aardema, L. Henderson, L. Müller, Evaluation of the ability of a battery of three in vitro genotoxicity tests to discriminate rodent carcinogens and non-carcinogens. I. Sensitivity, specificity and relative predictivity, Mutat. Res. 584 (2005) 1-256] suggest the three-test battery will produce a significant number of false as well as real positives. Whilst we are aware of the desire to reduce animal experiments, determining the relevance of positive results in any of the three recommended in vitro assays will most likely have to be determined by use of in vivo assays. The bone marrow micronucleus test using routes of administration such as oral or intraperitoneal may be used where the objective is extended hazard identification. If negative results are obtained in this test, then a second in vivo test should be conducted. This could be an in vivo UDS in rat liver or a Comet assay in a relevant tissue. However, for hazard characterisation, tests using topical application with measurement of genotoxicity in the skin would be more appropriate. Such specific site-of-contact in vivo tests would minimise animal toxicity burden and invasiveness, and, especially for hair dyes, be more relevant to human routes of exposure, but there are not sufficient scientific data available to allow

  13. Genotoxic damage in pathology anatomy laboratory workers exposed to formaldehyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Solange; Coelho, Patricia; Costa, Carla; Silva, Susana; Mayan, Olga; Silva Santos, Luis; Gaspar, Jorge; Teixeira, Joao Paulo

    2008-01-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) is a chemical traditionally used in pathology and anatomy laboratories as a tissue preservative. Several epidemiological studies of occupational exposure to FA have indicated an increased risk of nasopharyngeal cancers in industrial workers, embalmers and pathology anatomists. There is also a clear evidence of nasal squamous cell carcinomas from inhalation studies in the rat. The postulated mode of action for nasal tumours in rats was considered biologically plausible and considered likely to be relevant to humans. Based on the available data IARC, the International Agency for Research on Cancer, has recently classified FA as a human carcinogen. Although the in vitro genotoxic as well as the in vivo carcinogenic potentials of FA are well documented in mammalian cells and in rodents, evidence for genotoxic effects and carcinogenic properties in humans is insufficient and conflicting thus remains to be more documented. To evaluate the genetic effects of long-term occupational exposure to FA a group of 30 Pathological Anatomy laboratory workers was tested for a variety of biological endpoints, cytogenetic tests (micronuclei, MN; sister chromatid exchange, SCE) and comet assay. The level of exposure to FA was evaluated near the breathing zone of workers, time weighted average of exposure was calculated for each subject. The association between the biomarkers and polymorphic genes of xenobiotic metabolising and DNA repair enzymes was also assessed. The mean level of exposure was 0.44 ± 0.08 ppm (0.04-1.58 ppm). MN frequency was significantly higher (p = 0.003) in the exposed subjects (5.47 ± 0.76) when compared with controls (3.27 ± 0.69). SCE mean value was significantly higher (p < 0.05) among the exposed group (6.13 ± 0.29) compared with control group (4.49 ± 0.16). Comet assay data showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) of TL in FA-exposed workers (60.00 ± 2.31) with respect to the control group (41.85 ± 1.97). A positive correlation was

  14. Genotoxicity of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in Granulosa Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Pöttler

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles that are aimed at targeting cancer cells, but sparing healthy tissue provide an attractive platform of implementation for hyperthermia or as carriers of chemotherapeutics. According to the literature, diverse effects of nanoparticles relating to mammalian reproductive tissue are described. To address the impact of nanoparticles on cyto- and genotoxicity concerning the reproductive system, we examined the effect of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs on granulosa cells, which are very important for ovarian function and female fertility. Human granulosa cells (HLG-5 were treated with SPIONs, either coated with lauric acid (SEONLA only, or additionally with a protein corona of bovine serum albumin (BSA; SEONLA-BSA, or with dextran (SEONDEX. Both micronuclei testing and the detection of γH2A.X revealed no genotoxic effects of SEONLA-BSA, SEONDEX or SEONLA. Thus, it was demonstrated that different coatings of SPIONs improve biocompatibility, especially in terms of genotoxicity towards cells of the reproductive system.

  15. Genotoxicity Expert Panel review: weight of evidence evaluation of the genotoxicity of glyphosate, glyphosate-based formulations, and aminomethylphosphonic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusick, David; Aardema, Marilyn; Kier, Larry; Kirkland, David; Williams, Gary

    2016-09-01

    In 2015, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) published a monograph concluding there was strong evidence for genotoxicity of glyphosate and glyphosate formulations and moderate evidence for genotoxicity of the metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA). These conclusions contradicted earlier extensive reviews supporting the lack of genotoxicity of glyphosate and glyphosate formulations. The IARC Monograph concluded there was strong evidence of induction of oxidative stress by glyphosate, glyphosate formulations, and AMPA. The Expert Panel reviewed the genotoxicity and oxidative stress data considered in the IARC Monograph, together with other available data not considered by IARC. The Expert Panel defined and used a weight of evidence (WoE) approach that included ranking of studies and endpoints by the strength of their linkage to events associated with carcinogenic mechanisms. Importantly, the Expert Panel concluded that there was sufficient information available from a very large number of regulatory genotoxicity studies that should have been considered by IARC. The WoE approach, the inclusion of all relevant regulatory studies, and some differences in interpretation of individual studies led to significantly different conclusions by the Expert Panel compared with the IARC Monograph. The Expert Panel concluded that glyphosate, glyphosate formulations, and AMPA do not pose a genotoxic hazard and the data do not support the IARC Monograph genotoxicity evaluation. With respect to carcinogenicity classification and mechanism, the Expert Panel concluded that evidence relating to an oxidative stress mechanism of carcinogenicity was largely unconvincing and that the data profiles were not consistent with the characteristics of genotoxic carcinogens.

  16. In vitro genotoxicity of neutral red after photo-activation and metabolic activation in the Ames test, the micronucleus test and the comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérard, Melanie; Zeller, Andreas; Singer, Thomas; Gocke, Elmar

    2012-07-04

    Neutral red (Nr) is relatively non-toxic and is widely used as indicator dye in many biological test systems. It absorbs visible light and is known to act as a photosensitizer, involving the generation of reactive oxygen species (type-I reaction) and singlet oxygen (type-II reaction). The mutagenicity of Nr was determined in the Ames test (with Salmonella typhimurium strains TA1535, TA97, TA98, TA98NR, TA100, and TA102) with and without metabolic activation, and with and without photo-activation on agar plates. Similarly to the situation following metabolic activation, photo-mutagenicity of Nr was seen with all Salmonella strains tested, albeit with different effects between these strains. To our knowledge, Nr is the only photo-mutagen showing such a broad action. Since the effects are also observed in strains not known to be responsive to ROS, this indicates that ROS production is not the sole mode of action that leads to photo-genotoxicity. The reactive species produced by irradiation are short-lived as pre-irradiation of an Nr solution did not produce mutagenic effects when added to the bacteria. In addition, mutagenicity in TA98 following irradiation was stronger than in the nitroreductase-deficient strain TA98NR, indicating that nitro derivatives that are transformed by bacterial nitroreductase to hydroxylamines appear to play a role in the photo-mutagenicity of Nr. Photo-genotoxicity of Nr was further investigated in the comet assay and micronucleus test in L5178Y cells. Concentration-dependent increases in primary DNA damage and in the frequency of micronuclei were observed after irradiation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of genotoxicity through micronuclei test in workers of car and battery repair garages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino-Roth M.G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the micronuclei test (MNT was applied in exfoliated cells of buccal mucosa, in order to evaluate the genotoxic risk associated with occupational exposure of mechanics, storage battery renovation workers, and car painters. For each individual, 3000 exfoliated buccal cells were analyzed. There was a significantly higher frequency of micronucleated cells (MNC in the exposed workers than in controls. Smoking and drinking habits, age, and working time did not represent significant factors in terms of increasing the production of micronuclei (MN, when the control and the exposed groups were compared. These results allowed to conclude that the studied individuals belong to a risk group and should periodically undergo biological monitoring and proper care.

  18. Comparative in vitro and in vivo models of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, A.L.; Mitchell, C.E.; Seiler, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    To understand the development of disease from inhalation of complex chemical mixtures, it is necessary to use both in vitro and whole animal systems. This project is designed to provide links between these two types of research. The project has three major goals. The first goal is to evaluate the mutagenic activity of complex mixtures and the interactions between different fractions in these mixtures. The second is to develop model cellular systems that help define the mechanisms of genotoxic damage and repair in the lung. The third goal is to understand the mechanisms involved in the induction of mutations and chromosome aberrations in mammalian cells. Research on the measurement and interactions of mutagens in complex mixtures is illustrated by reporting a study using diesel exhaust particle extracts. The extracts were fractionated into ten different chemical classes. Each of the fractions was tested for mutagenic activity in the Ames Salmonella mutation assay. Individual fractions were combined using different permutations. The total mixture was reconstituted and the mutagenic activity compared to the predicted level of activity. Mutagenic activity was additive indicating that the chemical fractionation did not alter the extracts and that there was little evidence of synergistic or antagonistic interaction. To help define the mechanisms involved in the induction of mutations, they have exposed CHO cells to radiation and mutagenic chemicals alone and in combination. In these studies, they have demonstrated that when cells were exposed to 500 rad of x-rays followed by either direct or indirect acting mutagens frequency was less than would be predicted by an additive model

  19. Genotoxic evaluation of terbinafine in human lymphocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolomeotti, Danielle; de Castro-Prado, Marialba Avezum Alves; de Sant'Anna, Juliane Rocha; Martins, Ana Beatriz Tozzo; Della-Rosa, Valter Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Terbinafine is an antimycotic drug usually used against several superficial fungal infections and with a potential application in the treatment of human cancers. Since to date there are few data on the genotoxic effects of terbinafine in mammalian cells, current study evaluated the potential genotoxic of such antifungal agent in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Terbinafine was used at the peak plasma concentration (1.0 μg/ml) and in four additional concentrations higher than the human plasmatic peak (5.0 μg/ml, 25.0 μg/ml, 50.0 μg/ml and 100.0 μg/ml). Chromosomal aberrations (CA), sister chromatid exchanges (SCE), micronuclei (MN), nucleoplasmic bridges (NP) and nuclear buds (NB) were scored as genetic endpoints. In all analysis no significant differences (α = 0.05, Kruskal-Wallis test) were observed. Complementary criterion adopted to obtain the final response in cytogenetic agreed with statistical results. Therefore, results of this study showed that terbinafine neither induced CA, SCE, MN, NP and NB nor affected significantly mitotic, replication and cytokinesis-block proliferation indices in any of the tested concentrations. It may be assumed that terbinafine was not genotoxic or cytotoxic to cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes in our experimental conditions.

  20. Methodological considerations for using umu assay to assess photo-genotoxicity of engineered nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cupi, Denisa; Baun, Anders

    2016-01-01

    In this study we investigated the feasibility of high-throughput (96-well plate) umu assay to test the genotoxic effect of TiO2 engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) under UV light (full spectrum) and visible light (455nm). Exposure of TiO2 ENPs to up to 60min of UV light induced a photocatalytic...... production of ROS. However, UV light itself caused cytotoxic damage to Salmonella typhimurium at exposures >15min and a genotoxic effect at exposures >0.5min; and use of UV filters did not lower this effect. No genotoxicity of TiO2 ENPs was observed under visible light conditions at concentrations up to 100...

  1. The effect of royal sun agaricus, agaricus brasiliensis S. Wasser et al., Extract on methyl Methanesulfonate caused genotoxicity in Drosophila melanogaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savic, T.; Patenkovic, A.; Sokovic, M.; Glamoclija, J.; Andjelkovic, M.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of culinary-medicinal Royal Sun Agaricus (Agaricus brasiliensis) hot water extract on methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) induced mutagenicity/genotoxity in Drosophila melanogaster was studied using a quick and broadly applicable in vivo assay, i.e., the wing somatic mutation and recombination

  2. Evaluation of Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Acacia aroma Leaf Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Mattana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acacia aroma, native plant from San Luis, Argentina, is commonly used as antiseptic and for healing of wounds. The present study was conducted to investigate the in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of hot aqueous extract (HAE and ethanolic extract (EE of A. aroma. The cytotoxic activity was assayed by neutral red uptake assay on Vero cell. Cell treatment with a range from 100 to 5000 μg/mL of HAE and EE showed that 500 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL were the maximum noncytotoxic concentrations, respectively. The CC50 was 658 μg/mL for EE and 1020 μg/mL for HAE. The genotoxicity was tested by the single-cell gel electrophoresis comet assay. The results obtained in the evaluation of DNA cellular damage exposed to varied concentrations of the HAE showed no significant genotoxic effect at range of 1–20 mg/mL. The EE at 20 mg/mL showed moderate genotoxic effect related to the increase of the DNA percentage contained in tail of the comet; DNA was classified in category 2. At concentrations below 5 mg/mL, the results of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Acacia aroma guarantee the safety at cell and genomic level. However further studies are needed for longer periods including animal models to confirm the findings.

  3. Comparative potency approach based on H2AX assay for estimating the genotoxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audebert, M; Zeman, F; Beaudoin, R; Péry, A; Cravedi, J-P

    2012-04-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) constitute a family of over one hundred compounds and can generally be found in complex mixtures. PAHs metabolites cause DNA damage which can lead to the development of carcinogenesis. Toxicity assessment of PAH complex mixtures is currently expressed in terms of toxic equivalents, based on Toxicity Equivalent Factors (TEFs). However, the definition of new TEFs for a large number of PAH could overcome some limitations of the current method and improve cancer risk assessment. The current investigation aimed at deriving the relative potency factors of PAHs, based on their genotoxic effect measured in vitro and analyzed with mathematical models. For this purpose, we used a new genotoxic assay (γH2AX) with two human cell lines (HepG2 and LS-174T) to analyze the genotoxic properties of 13 selected PAHs at low doses after 24h treatment. The dose-response for genotoxic effects was modeled with a Hill model; equivalency between PAHs at low dose was assessed by applying constraints to the model parameters. In the two cell lines tested, we observed a clear dose-response for genotoxic effects for 11 tested compounds. LS-174T was on average ten times more sensitive than HepG2 towards PAHs regarding genotoxicity. We developed new TEFs, which we named Genotoxic Equivalent Factor (GEF). Calculated GEF for the tested PAHs were generally higher than the TEF usually used. Our study proposed a new in vitro based method for the establishment of relevant TEFs for PAHs to improve cancer risk assessment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Detection of genotoxic effects of drinking water disinfection by-products using Vicia faba bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu; Tan, Li; Zhang, Shao-Hui; Zuo, Yu-Ting; Han, Xue; Liu, Na; Lu, Wen-Qing; Liu, Ai-Lin

    2017-01-01

    Plant-based bioassays have gained wide use among the toxicological and/or ecotoxicological assessment procedures because of their simplicity, sensitivity, low cost, and reliability. The present study describes the use of Vicia faba (V. faba) micronucleus (MN) test and V. faba comet assay in the evaluation of the genotoxic potential of disinfection by-products (DBPs) commonly found in chlorine-disinfected drinking water. Five haloacetic acids and three halogenated acetonitriles were chosen as representatives of DBPs in this study because they are of potentially great public health risk. Results of the MN test indicated that monochloroacetic acid (MCA), monobromoacetic acid (MBA), dichloroacetic acid (DCA), dibromoacetic acid (DBA), trichloroacetic acid (TCA), and trichloroacetonitrile (TCAN) caused a statistically significant increase in MN frequency in V. faba root tip cells. However, no genotoxic response was observed for dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN) and dibromoacetonitrile (DBAN). Results of the comet assay showed that all tested DBPs induced a statistically significant increase in genomic DNA damage to V. faba root tip cells. On considering the capacity to detect genomic damage of a different nature, we suggest that a combination of V. faba MN test and V. faba comet assay is a useful tool for the detection of genotoxic effects of DBPs. It is worthy of assessing the feasibility of using V. faba comet assay combined with V. faba MN test to screen for the genotoxic activity of chlorinated drinking water in future work.

  5. Cells behaviors and genotoxicity on topological surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, N.; Yang, M.K.; Bi, S.X.; Chen, L.; Zhu, Z.Y.; Gao, Y.T.; Du, Z.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate different cells behaviors and genotoxicity, which were driven by specific microenvironments, three patterned surfaces (pillars, wide grooves and narrow grooves) and one smooth surface were prepared by template-based technique. Vinculin is a membrane-cytoskeletal protein in focal adhesion plaques and associates with cell–cell and cell–matrix junctions, which can promote cell adhesion and spreading. The immunofluorescence staining of vinculin revealed that the narrow grooves patterned substrate was favorable for L929 cell adhesion. For cell multiplication, the narrow grooves surface was fitted for the proliferation of L929, L02 and MSC cells, the pillars surface was only in favor of L929 cells to proliferate during 7 days of cell cultivation. Cell genetic toxicity was evaluated by cellular micronuclei test (MNT). The results indicated that topological surfaces were more suitable for L929 cells to proliferate and maintain the stability of genome. On the contrary, the narrow grooves surface induced higher micronuclei ratio of L02 and MSC cells than other surfaces. With the comprehensive results of cell multiplication and MNT, it was concluded that the wide grooves surface was best fitted for L02 cells to proliferate and have less DNA damages, and the smooth surface was optimum for the research of MSC cells in vitro. - Highlights: • Different cells behaviors on microstructure surfaces were discussed in this paper. • The expression of cell protein of Vinculin was studied in this research. • Cellular micronuclei test was applied to evaluate cells' genotoxicity. • Cell genotoxicity was first studied in the research field of topological surfaces

  6. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of biogenic silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, R; Feitosa, L O; Ballottin, D; Tasic, L; Durán, N; Marcato, P D

    2013-01-01

    Biogenic silver nanoparticles with 40.3 ± 3.5 nm size and negative surface charge (− 40 mV) were prepared with Fusarium oxysporum. The cytotoxicity of 3T3 cell and human lymphocyte were studied by a TaliTM image-based cytometer and the genotoxicity through Allium cepa and comet assay. The results of BioAg-w (washed) and BioAg-nw (unwashed) biogenic silver nanoparticles showed cytotoxicity exceeding 50 μg/mL with no significant differences of response in 5 and 10 μg/mL regarding viability. Results of genotoxicity at concentrations 5.0 and 10.0 ug/mL show some response, but at concentrations 0.5 and 1.0 μg/mL the washed and unwashed silver nanoparticles did not present any effect. This in an important result since in tests with different bacteria species and strains, including resistant, MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration) had good answers at concentrations less than 1.9 μg/mL. This work concludes that biogenic silver nanoparticles may be a promising option for antimicrobial use in the range where no cyto or genotoxic effect were observed. Furthermore, human cells were found to have a greater resistance to the toxic effects of silver nanoparticles in comparison with other cells.

  7. Genotoxicity studies in semiconductor industry. 1. In vitro mutagenicity and genotoxicity studies of waste samples resulting from plasma etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, R.; Huettner, E.M.; Merten, H.; Raabe, F. (Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Gatersleben (Germany))

    1993-07-01

    Solid waste samples taken from the etching reactor, the turbo pump, and the waste air system of a plasma etching technology line in semiconductor production were studied as to their genotoxic properties in a bacterial repair test, in the Ames/Salmonella microsome assay, in the SOS chromotest, in primary mouse hepatocytes, and in Chinese hamster V79 cell cultures. All three waste samples were found to be active by inducing of unscheduled DNA-synthesis in mouse hepatocytes in vitro. In the bacterial rec-type repair test with Proteus mirabilis, waste samples taken from the turbo pump and the vacuum pipe system were not genotoxic. The waste sample taken from the chlorine-mediated plasma reactor was clearly positive in the bacterial repair assay and in the SOS chromotest with Escherichia coli. Mutagenic activity was demonstrated for all samples in the presence and absence of S9 mix made from mouse liver homogenate. Again, highest mutagenic activity was recorded for the waste sample taken from the plasma reactor, while samples collected from the turbo pump and from the waste air system before dilution and liberation of the air were less mutagenic. For all samples chromosomal damage in V79 cells was not detected, indicating absence of clastogenic activity in vitro. Altogether, these results indicate generation of genotoxic and mutagenic products as a consequence of chlorine-mediated plasma etching in the microelectronics industry and the presence of genotoxins even in places distant from the plasma reactor. Occupational exposure can be expected both from the precipitated wastes and from chemicals reaching the environment with the air stream.

  8. A whole-cell bioreporter assay for quantitative genotoxicity evaluation of environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bo; Li, Guanghe; Xing, Yi; Zhang, Dayi; Jia, Jianli; Cui, Zhisong; Luan, Xiao; Tang, Hui

    2017-10-01

    Whole-cell bioreporters have emerged as promising tools for genotoxicity evaluation, due to their rapidity, cost-effectiveness, sensitivity and selectivity. In this study, a method for detecting genotoxicity in environmental samples was developed using the bioluminescent whole-cell bioreporter Escherichia coli recA::luxCDABE. To further test its performance in a real world scenario, the E. coli bioreporter was applied in two cases: i) soil samples collected from chromium(VI) contaminated sites; ii) crude oil contaminated seawater collected after the Jiaozhou Bay oil spill which occurred in 2013. The chromium(VI) contaminated soils were pretreated by water extraction, and directly exposed to the bioreporter in two phases: aqueous soil extraction (water phase) and soil supernatant (solid phase). The results indicated that both extractable and soil particle fixed chromium(VI) were bioavailable to the bioreporter, and the solid-phase contact bioreporter assay provided a more precise evaluation of soil genotoxicity. For crude oil contaminated seawater, the response of the bioreporter clearly illustrated the spatial and time change in genotoxicity surrounding the spill site, suggesting that the crude oil degradation process decreased the genotoxic risk to ecosystem. In addition, the performance of the bioreporter was simulated by a modified cross-regulation gene expression model, which quantitatively described the DNA damage response of the E. coli bioreporter. Accordingly, the bioluminescent response of the bioreporter was calculated as the mitomycin C equivalent, enabling quantitative comparison of genotoxicities between different environmental samples. This bioreporter assay provides a rapid and sensitive screening tool for direct genotoxicity assessment of environmental samples. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Antioxidant and antigenotoxic properties of CeO2 NPs and cerium sulphate: Studies with Drosophila melanogaster as a promising in vivo model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaraby, Mohamed; Hernández, Alba; Annangi, Balasubramanyam; Demir, Esref; Bach, Jordi; Rubio, Laura; Creus, Amadeu; Marcos, Ricard

    2015-01-01

    Although in vitro approaches are the most used for testing the potential harmful effects of nanomaterials, in vivo studies produce relevant information complementing in vitro data. In this context, we promote the use of Drosophila melanogaster as a suitable in vivo model to characterise the potential risks associated to nanomaterials exposure. The main aim of this study was to evaluate different biological effects associated to cerium oxide nanoparticles (Ce-NPs) and cerium (IV) sulphate exposure. The end-points evaluated were egg-to-adult viability, particles uptake through the intestinal barrier, gene expression and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by haemocytes, genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity. Transmission electron microscopy images showed internalisation of Ce-NPs by the intestinal barrier and haemocytes, and significant expression of Hsp genes was detected. In spite of these findings, neither toxicity nor genotoxicity related to both forms of cerium were observed. Interestingly, Ce-NPs significantly reduced the genotoxic effect of potassium dichromate and the intracellular ROS production. No morphological malformations were detected after larvae treatment. This study highlights the importance of D. melanogaster as animal model in the study of the different biological effects caused by nanoparticulated materials, at the time that shows its usefulness to study the role of the intestinal barrier in the transposition of nanomaterials entering via ingestion.

  10. Genotoxic and cytotoxic damage by the therapeutic radiopharmaceutical [{sup 166}Dy]Dy/{sup 166}Ho-EDTMP as in vivo generator system; Dano genotoxico y citotoxico por el radiofarmaco terpeutico [{sup 166}Dy]Dy/{sup 166}Ho-EDTMP como sistema de generador in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedraza L, M; Piedras R, J [Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion, Salvador Zubiran. Vasco. de Quiroga 15, 14000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Ferro F, G; Morales R, P [ININ, Km. 36.5 Carretera Mexico-Toluca, Ocoyoacac, 52045 Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Murphy S, E [Hospital Santaelena, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Hernandez O, O [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, IPN, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    In patients with leukemias and multiple myeloma, the cure can be obtained to inclination of a bone marrow transplant (m.o.), for that which one is used a combination of external radiotherapy and chemotherapy with the consequent toxicity to healthy organs. The complex [{sup 166}Dy]Dy/{sup 166}Ho-ethylenediaminetetramethylenephosphonate ([{sup 166}Dy]Dy/{sup 166}Ho-EDTMP) it forms a generator system in vivo stable with bony selective likeness in mice therefore, this it could work as a therapeutic radiopharmaceutical for bone marrow ablation. The objective of this original work was to determine the genotoxic and cytotoxic damage produced by the [{sup 166}Dy]Dy/{sup 166}Ho-EDTMP like a generator system in vivo by means of the reticulocytes reduction (RET) and micronucleus elevation in reticulocytes (RET-MN) in peripheral blood and to evaluate its myeloablative potential for histopathologic studies. It was irradiated {sup 166}Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} enriched and it was add in form {sup 166}DyCI{sub 3} to the EDTMP in a softening media of phosphates (pH 8), the optimal molar relationship {sup 166}Dy: EDTMP was 1.7:1 and the radiochemical purity was evaluated by ITLC. The Dy:EDTMP complexes, non radioactive, its were prepared in the same way with non irradiated dysprosium oxide. A group of BALB/c mice was injected intraperitoneally with the radiopharmaceutical and two groups of control mice were injected with the non radioactive complex and with sodium chloride 0.9% respectively. Before injecting each one of the solutions it was take a basal sample of peripheral blood of the mouse tail and each 48 h post-injection during 12 d. The animals were sacrificed to obtain the organs of interest and to determine the radioactivity in each one. The femur was used for the histopathologic studies. The quantification of the frequency of RET and RET-MN was carried out by flow cytometry of the sanguine samples and the Monte Carlo code MCNP4B for the dosimetry calculations was used. The

  11. On the relevance of genotoxicity for fish populations I: effects of a model genotoxicant on zebrafish (Danio rerio) in a complete life-cycle test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekmann, Markus; Hultsch, Veit; Nagel, Roland

    2004-05-28

    Genotoxicity may be detected in surface waters by means of various genotoxicity assays. In order to enable an ecotoxicological assessment of the consequences of such genotoxic potential for fish populations, a complete life-cycle test with zebrafish (Danio rerio) and the model genotoxicant 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (NQO) was conducted. Zebrafish (f1) were continuously exposed to NQO (i.e. 0.1, 0.3, 1.1, 2.9, and 14.6 microg/l, respectively) from fertilised eggs until sexual maturity. In addition to reproduction studies in the f1-generation, f2-fish were exposed to NQO during the first 6 weeks of development. Up to 2.9 microg/l NQO, fish did not display differences in survival and growth (P < 0.05). A NQO concentration of 14.6 microg/l, however, was lethal. Female fish exposed to all NQO concentrations up to 2.9 microg/l displayed a significant reduction in egg production (P < 0.05). A mathematical simulation revealed that exposure to weak concentrations of NQO is leading to an elevated extinction risk. Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V.

  12. Genotoxicity of unmodified and organo-modified montmorillonite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Anoop Kumar; Schmidt, Bjørn; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    2010-01-01

    absent in the filtered samples, which was independently confirmed by dynamic light-scattering measurements. Detection and identification of free quaternary ammonium modifier in the filtered sample was carried out by HPLC-Q-TOF/MS and revealed a total concentration of a mixture of quaternary ammonium...... assay, none of the clays produced ROS in a cell-free test system (the DCFH-DA assay). Inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to detect clay particles in the filtered samples using aluminium as a tracer element characteristic to clay. The results indicated that clay particles were...... analogues of 1.57 mu g/ml. These findings suggest that the genotoxicity of organo-modified montmorillonite was caused by the organo-modifier. The detected organo-modifier mixture was synthesized and comet-assay results showed that the genotoxic potency of this synthesized organo-modifier was in the same...

  13. Lack of in vivo embryotoxic and genotoxic activities of orally administered stem bark aqueous extract of Mangifera indica L. (Vimang).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, J E; Rodríguez, M D; Rodeiro, I; Morffi, J; Guerra, E; Leal, F; García, H; Goicochea, E; Guerrero, S; Garrido, G; Delgado, R; Nuñez-Selles, A J

    2007-12-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) stem bark aqueous extract (MSBE) is a new natural product with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects known by the brand name of its formulations as Vimang. Previously, the oral toxicity studies of the extract showed a low toxicity potential up to 2000 mg/kg. This work reports the results about teratogenic and genotoxicologic studies of MSBE. For embryotoxicity study, MSBE (20, 200, or 2000 mg/kg/day) was given to Sprague-Dawley rats by gavage on days 6-15 of gestation. For genotoxicity, MSBE was administered three times during 48 h to NMRI mice. Cyclophosphamide (50 mg/kg) was used as a positive control. No maternal or developmental toxicities were observed when the rats were killed on day 20th. The maternal body-weight gain was not affected. No dose-related effects were observed in implantations, fetal viability or external fetal development. Skeletal and visceral development was similar among fetuses from all groups. No genotoxicity was observed in bone marrow erythrocytes and liver cells after administration. MSBE appears to be neither embryotoxic nor genotoxic as measured by bone marrow cytogenetics in rodents.

  14. Genotoxic evaluation of an industrial effluent from an oil refinery using plant and animal bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Fernando Postalli; Angeli, José Pedro Friedmann; Mantovani, Mário Sérgio; Guedes, Carmen Luisa Barbosa; Jordão, Berenice Quinzani

    2010-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are genotoxic chemicals commonly found in effluents from oil refineries. Bioassays using plants and cells cultures can be employed for assessing environmental safety and potential genotoxicity. In this study, the genotoxic potential of an oil refinery effluent was analyzed by means of micronucleus (MN) testing of Alium cepa, which revealed no effect after 24 h of treatment. On the other hand, primary lesions in the DNA of rat (Rattus norvegicus) hepatoma cells (HTC) were observed through comet assaying after only 2 h of exposure. On considering the capacity to detect DNA damage of a different nature and of these cells to metabolize xenobiotics, we suggest the association of the two bioassays with these cell types, plant (Allium cepa) and mammal (HTC) cells, for more accurately assessing genotoxicity in environmental samples.

  15. Genotoxic Properties of 2-Dodecylcyclobutanone, a Compound Formed on Irradiation of Food Containing Fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delincee, Henry; Pool-Zobel, Beatrice-Louise

    1998-01-01

    When food containing fat is treated by ionizing radiation, a group of 2-alkylcyclobutanones is formed. These components contain the same number of carbon atoms as their precursor fatty acids and the alkyl group is located in ring position 2. Thus, from palmitic acid 2-dodecylcyclobutanone is derived. To date, there is no evidence that the cyclobutanones occur in unirradiated food. Therefore, these components cannot be considered inherent to food, and for questions pertaining to risk assessment of irradiated food it would be advisable to determine the genotoxic and toxic potentials of cyclobutanones. Measurements of DNA damage in cells exposed to 2-dodecylcyclobutanone, employing the single cell microgel electrophoresis technique, have been carried out. In vitro experiments using rat and human colon cells indicate that 2-dodecylcyclobutanone in the concentration range of about 0.30-1.25 mg/ml induces DNA strand breaks in the cells. Simultaneously, a concentration related cytotoxic effect is observed as was determined by trypan blue exclusion. To which extent these in vitro findings are of relevancy for the in vivo human exposure situation needs to be investigated in further studies. In vivo tests in rats are in progress

  16. Acute toxicity and genotoxic activity of avocado seed extract (Persea americana Mill., c.v. Hass).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Martínez-Velázquez, Moisés; Flores-Fernández, José Miguel; Villanueva-Rodríguez, Socorro

    2013-01-01

    The use of vegetal extracts requires toxicological and genotoxic evaluations to establish and verify safety before being added to human cosmetic, pharmaceutical medicine, or alimentary products. Persea americana seeds have been used in traditional medicine as treatment for several diseases. In this work, the ethanolic seed extract of Persea americana was evaluated with respect to its genotoxic potential through micronucleus assay in rodents. The frequency of micronuclei in groups of animals treated with avocado seed extract showed no differences compared to the negative control (vehicle); therefore, it is considered that the avocado seed extract showed no genotoxic activity in the micronucleus test.

  17. THE GENOTOXICITY OF AMBIENT OUTDOOR AIR, A REVIEW: SALMONELLA MUTAGENICITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genotoxicity of ambient outdoor air, a review: Salmonella mutagenicityAbstractMutagens in urban air pollution come from anthropogenic sources (especially combustion sources) and are products of airborne chemical reactions. Bacterial mutation tests have been used ...

  18. New probabilistic risk assessment of ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate: Comparing the genotoxic effects of trans- and cis-EHMC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nečasová, Anežka; Bányiová, Katarína; Literák, Jaromír; Čupr, Pavel

    2017-02-01

    Ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC) is a widely used UV filter present in a large number of personal care products (PCPs). Under normal conditions, EHMC occurs in a mixture of two isomers: trans-EHMC and cis-EHMC in a ratio of 99:1. When exposed to sunlight, the trans isomer is transformed to the less stable cis isomer and the efficiency of the UV filter is reduced. To date, the toxicological effects of the cis-EHMC isomer remain largely unknown. We developed a completely new method for preparing cis-EHMC. An EHMC technical mixture was irradiated using a UV lamp and 98% pure cis-EHMC was isolated from the irradiated solution using column chromatography. The genotoxic effects of the isolated cis-EHMC isomer and the nonirradiated trans-EHMC were subsequently measured using two bioassays (SOS chromotest and UmuC test). In the case of trans-EHMC, significant genotoxicity was observed using both bioassays at the highest concentrations (0.5 - 4 mg mL -1 ). In the case of cis-EHMC, significant genotoxicity was only detected using the UmuC test at concentrations of 0.25 - 1 mg mL -1 . Based on these results, the NOEC was calculated for both cis- and trans-EHMC, 0.038 and 0.064 mg mL -1 , respectively. Risk assessment of dermal, oral and inhalation exposure to PCPs containing EHMC was carried out for a female population using probabilistic simulation and by using Quantitative in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (QIVIVE). The risk of cis-EHMC was found to be ∼1.7 times greater than trans-EHMC. In the case of cis-EHMC, a hazard index of 1 was exceeded in the 92nd percentile. Based on the observed differences between the isomers, EHMC application in PCPs requires detailed reassessment. Further exploration of the toxicological effects and properties of cis-EHMC is needed in order to correctly predict risks posed to humans and the environment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 569-580, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of calcium silicate-based cements on an osteoblast lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lívia GOMES-CORNÉLIO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several calcium silicate-based biomaterials have been developed in recent years, in addition to Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and apoptosis/necrosis in human osteoblast cells (SAOS-2 of pure calcium silicate-based cements (CSC and modified formulations: modified calcium silicate-based cements (CSCM and three resin-based calcium silicate cements (CSCR1 (CSCR 2 (CSCR3. The following tests were performed after 24 hours of cement extract exposure: methyl-thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT, apoptosis/necrosis assay and comet assay. The negative control (CT- was performed with untreated cells, and the positive control (CT+ used hydrogen peroxide. The data for MTT and apoptosis were submitted to analysis of variance and Bonferroni’s posttest (p < 0.05, and the data for the comet assay analysis, to the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests (p < 0.05. The MTT test showed no significant difference among the materials in 2 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL concentrations. CSCR3 showed lower cell viability at 10 mg/mL. Only CSC showed lower cell viability at 50 mg/mL. CSCR1, CSCR2 and CSCR3 showed a higher percentage of initial apoptosis than the control in the apoptosis test, after 24 hours exposure. The same cements showed no genotoxicity in the concentration of 2 mg/mL, with the comet assay. CSC and CSCR2 were also not genotoxic at 10 mg/mL. All experimental materials showed viability with MTT. CSC and CSCR2 presented a better response to apoptosis and genotoxicity evaluation in the 10 mg/mL concentration, and demonstrated a considerable potential for use as reparative materials.

  20. Assessing the genotoxic effects of two lipid peroxidation products (4-oxo-2-nonenal and 4-hydroxy-hexenal) in haemocytes and midgut cells of Drosophila melanogaster larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Eşref; Marcos, Ricard

    2017-07-01

    Lipid peroxidation products can induce tissue damage and are implicated in diverse pathological conditions, including aging, atherosclerosis, brain disorders, cancer, lung and various liver disorders. Since in vivo studies produce relevant information, we have selected Drosophila melanogaster as a suitable in vivo model to characterise the potential risks associated to two lipid peroxidation products namely 4-oxo-2-nonenal (4-ONE) and 4-hydroxy-hexenal (4-HHE). Toxicity, intracellular reactive oxygen species production, and genotoxicity were the end-points evaluated. Haemocytes and midgut cells were the evaluated targets. Results showed that both compounds penetrate the intestine of the larvae, affecting midgut cells, and reaching haemocytes. Significant genotoxic effects, as determined by the comet assay, were observed in both selected cell targets in a concentration/time dependent manner. This study highlights the importance of D. melanogaster as a model organism in the study of the different biological effects caused by lipid peroxidation products entering via ingestion. This is the first study reporting genotoxicity data in haemocytes and midgut cells of D. melanogaster larvae for the two selected compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Genotoxic evaluation of an industrial effluent from an oil refinery using plant and animal bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Postalli Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are genotoxic chemicals commonly found in effluents from oil refineries. Bioassays using plants and cells cultures can be employed for assessing environmental safety and potential genotoxicity. In this study, the genotoxic potential of an oil refinery effluent was analyzed by means of micronucleus (MN testing of Alium cepa, which revealed no effect after 24 h of treatment. On the other hand, primary lesions in the DNA of rat (Rattus norvegicus hepatoma cells (HTC were observed through comet assaying after only 2 h of exposure. On considering the capacity to detect DNA damage of a different nature and of these cells to metabolize xenobiotics, we suggest the association of the two bioassays with these cell types, plant (Allium cepa and mammal (HTC cells, for more accurately assessing genotoxicity in environmental samples.

  2. In Vivo Cytogenetic Studies on Aspartame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Entissar S. AlSuhaibani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspartame (a-Laspartyl-L-phenylalanine 1-methylester is a dipeptide low-calorie artificial sweetener that is widely used as a nonnutritive sweetener in foods and drinks. The safety of aspartame and its metabolic breakdown products (phenylalanine, aspartic acid and methanol was investigated in vivo using chromosomal aberration (CA test and sister chromatid exchange (SCE test in the bone marrow cells of mice. Swiss Albino male mice were exposed to aspartame (3.5, 35, 350 mg/kg body weight. Bone marrow cells isolated from femora were analyzed for chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges. Treatment with aspartame induced dose dependently chromosome aberrations at all concentrations while it did not induce sister chromatid exchanges. On the other hand, aspartame did not decrease the mitotic index (MI. However, statistical analysis of the results show that aspartame is not significantly genotoxic at low concentration.

  3. Genotoxicity detected in wild mice living in a highly polluted wetland area in south western Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateos, Santiago; Daza, Paula; Dominguez, Inmaculada; Cardenas, Jose Antonio [University of Seville, Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Biology, Avenida de la Reina Mercedes no 6, E-41012 Seville (Spain); Cortes, Felipe [University of Seville, Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Biology, Avenida de la Reina Mercedes no 6, E-41012 Seville (Spain)], E-mail: cortes@us.es

    2008-06-15

    A field study was carried out in the south of the Iberian Peninsula in an industrial area in the neighbourhood of Huelva city, SW Spain, and in a natural area (Donana National Park) for comparison, to estimate the genetic risk induced by environmental pollution in wild mice. Genotoxic effects in a sentinel organism, the Algerian mice (Mus spretus) free living in the industrial area were compared with animals of the same species living in the natural protected area. The single cell gel electrophoresis, or Comet assay, was performed as a genotoxicity test in peripheral blood of mice. Our results clearly show that mice free living in the contaminated area bear a high burden of genetic damage as compared with control individuals. The results suggest that the assessing of genotoxicity levels by the Comet assay in wild mice can be used as a valuable test in pollution monitoring and environmental conservation. - We have found an increased genotoxic damage in wild mice in a highly polluted area from industry, mining and agriculture in SW Spain, as assessed by the Comet assay.

  4. Contributions of DNA repair and damage response pathways to the non-linear genotoxic responses of alkylating agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapacz, Joanna; Pottenger, Lynn H.; Engelward, Bevin P.; Heinen, Christopher D.; Johnson, George E.; Clewell, Rebecca A.; Carmichael, Paul L.; Adeleye, Yeyejide; Andersen, Melvin E.

    2016-01-01

    From a risk assessment perspective, DNA-reactive agents are conventionally assumed to have genotoxic risks at all exposure levels, thus applying a linear extrapolation for low-dose responses. New approaches discussed here, including more diverse and sensitive methods for assessing DNA damage and DNA repair, strongly support the existence of measurable regions where genotoxic responses with increasing doses are insignificant relative to control. Model monofunctional alkylating agents have in vitro and in vivo datasets amenable to determination of points of departure (PoDs) for genotoxic effects. A session at the 2013 Society of Toxicology meeting provided an opportunity to survey the progress in understanding the biological basis of empirically-observed PoDs for DNA alkylating agents. Together with the literature published since, this review discusses cellular pathways activated by endogenous and exogenous alkylation DNA damage. Cells have evolved conserved processes that monitor and counteract a spontaneous steady-state level of DNA damage. The ubiquitous network of DNA repair pathways serves as the first line of defense for clearing of the DNA damage and preventing mutation. Other biological pathways discussed here that are activated by genotoxic stress include post-translational activation of cell cycle networks and transcriptional networks for apoptosis/cell death. The interactions of various DNA repair and DNA damage response pathways provide biological bases for the observed PoD behaviors seen with genotoxic compounds. Thus, after formation of DNA adducts, the activation of cellular pathways can lead to the avoidance a mutagenic outcome. The understanding of the cellular mechanisms acting within the low-dose region will serve to better characterize risks from exposures to DNA-reactive agents at environmentally-relevant concentrations. PMID:27036068

  5. Evaluation of 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl ether in the rat comet assay: Part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of in vivo rat alkaline comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priestley, Catherine C; Walker, Joanne S; O'Donovan, Michael R; Doherty, Ann T

    2015-07-01

    As a part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay, 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl ether (DPE), a known rodent genotoxic carcinogen, was tested in this laboratory. Sprague Dawley rats (7-9 weeks of age) were given three oral doses of DPE, 24 and 21 h apart and liver or stomach sampled 3h after the final dose. Under the conditions of the test, no increases in DNA damage in liver and stomach were observed with DPE (up to 200 mg/kg/day). A dose-dependent decrease in DNA migration, compared to vehicle controls, was noted for DPE in rat stomach. Further analysis is required to elucidate fully whether this decrease is a consequence of the mode of action or due to the toxicity of DPE. What is perhaps surprising is the inability of the comet assay to detect a known rat genotoxic carcinogen in liver. Further investigation is needed to clarify whether this apparent lack of response results from limited tissue exposure or metabolic differences between species. This finding highlights a need for careful consideration of study design when evaluating assay performance as a measure of in vivo genotoxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of genotoxic activity of ketamine and rocuronium bromide using the somatic mutation and recombination test in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koksal, Pakize Muge; Gürbüzel, Mehmet

    2015-03-01

    The present study evaluated the mutagenic and recombinogenic effects of two commonly used anesthetic agents, ketamine and rocuronium bromide, in medicine using the wing somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) in Drosophila. The standard (ST) cross and the high-bioactivation (HB) cross with high sensitivity to procarcinogens and promutagens were used. The SMART test is based on the loss of heterozygosity, which occurs via various mechanisms, such as chromosome loss and deletion, half-translocation, mitotic recombination, mutation, and non-disjunction. Genetic alterations occurring in the somatic cells of the wing's imaginal discs result in mutant clones in the wing blade. Three-day-old trans-heterozygous larvae with two recessive markers, multiple wing hairs (mwh) and flare (flr(3)), were treated with ketamine and rocuronium bromide. Analysis of the ST cross indicated that ketamine exhibited genotoxicity activity and that this activity was particularly dependent on homologous mitotic recombination at concentrations of 250 μg/ml and above. Rocuronium bromide did not exert mutagenic and/or recombinogenic effects. In the HB cross, ketamine at a concentration of 1000 μg/ml and rocuronium bromide at all concentrations, with the exception of 250 μg/ml (inconclusive), exerted genotoxic effects, which could also be associated with the increase in mitotic recombination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Genotoxicity of antiobesity drug orlistat and effect of caffeine intervention: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Manoswini; Ghosh, Ilika; Jana, Aditi; Ghosh, Manosij; Mukherjee, Anita

    2017-07-01

    Obesity is a major global health problem associated with various adverse effects. Pharmacological interventions are often necessary for the management of obesity. Orlistat is an FDA-approved antiobesity drug which is a potent inhibitor of intestinal lipases. In the current study, orlistat was evaluated for its genotoxic potential in human lymphocyte cells in vitro and was compared with that of another antiobesity drug sibutramine, presently withdrawn from market due its undesirable health effects. Caffeine intake may be an additional burden in people using anorectic drugs, therefore, further work is needed to be carried out to evaluate the possible effects of caffeine on orlistat-induced DNA damage. Human lymphocytes were exposed to orlistat (250, 500 and 1000 μg/ml), sibutramine (250, 500 and 1000 μg/ml) and caffeine (25, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 μg/ml) to assess their genotoxicity by comet assay in vitro. In addition, lymphocytes were co-incubated with caffeine (50, 75 and 100 μg/ml) and a single concentration of orlistat (250 μg/ml). Orlistat and sibutramine were genotoxic at all concentrations tested, sibutramine being more genotoxic. Caffeine was found to be genotoxic at concentrations 125 μg/ml and above. Co-treatment of orlistat with non-genotoxic concentrations (50, 75 and 100 μg/ml) of caffeine lead to a decrease in DNA damage. Orlistat can induce DNA damage in human lymphocytes in vitro and caffeine was found to reduce orlistat-induced genotoxicity.

  8. Genotoxic potential evaluation of a cosmetic insoluble substance by the micronuclei assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, N; Shah, V; Minko, T

    2011-01-01

    An optical brightener (OB) powder (INCI: sodium silicoaluminate (and) glycidoxypropyl trimethyloxysilane/PEI-250 cross fluorescent brightener 230 salt (and) polyvinylalcohol crosspolymer) that is used in cosmetic facial products was tested for its genotoxic potential using the micronuclei test (MNT). It is a solid dry powder with an average size of 5 microns that is insoluble but dispersible in water. This study describes the exposure of cell culture to positive controls with and without enzymatic activation and to the test compound in different concentrations. We evaluated three end points: microscopic observation and quantification of micronuclei formation, and cell viability and proliferation. Both positive controls induced significant changes that were observed under the microscope and quantified. Based on its chemical nature, it was not anticipated that the test substance will degrade under the conditions of the experiments. However, the test is required to make sure that when solublized, impurities that may be present, even at trace levels, will not induce a genotoxic effect. The test compound did not promote micronuclei formation or change the viability or proliferation rate of cells. During this study we faced challenges such as solubilization and correlating viability data to genotoxicity data. These are described in the body of the paper. We believe that with the emergence of the 7(th) European amendment that bans animal testing, sharing these data and the study protocol serves as a key in building the understanding of the utilization of in vitro studies in the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients.

  9. The lipidome, genotoxicity, hematotoxicity and antioxidant properties of andiroba oil from the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Suely Rodrigues Milhomem-Paixão

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Andirobeira is an Amazonian tree, the seeds of which produce a commercially valuable oil that is used in folk medicine and in the cosmetic industry. Andiroba oil contains components with anti-inflammatory, cicatrizing and insect-repellant actions. However, virtually nothing is known of the safety of this oil for humans. The aim of this work was therefore to investigate the hematotoxicity, genotoxicity and mutagenicity of andiroba oil using the comet and micronucleus assays, and to assess its antioxidant properties and lipidome as a means of addressing safety issues. For the experiments, andiroba oil was administered by gavage for 14 consecutive days in nulliparous female Swiss mice randomly distributed in four groups: negative control and three doses of oil (500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg/day. These doses were chosen based on recommendations of the OECD guideline no. 474 (1997. GC/MS was used to investigate the free fatty acid, cholesterol and triterpene content of andiroba oil in a lipidomic analysis. No clinical or behavioral alterations were observed throughout the period of treatment, and exposure to andiroba oil at the doses and conditions used here did not result in hematotoxic, genotoxic or mutagenic effects. Tests in vitro showed that oil sample 3 from southwestern of Brazilian Amazon had a high antioxidant capacity that may protect biological systems from oxidative stress, although this activity remains to be demonstrated in vivo.

  10. Acute Toxicity and Genotoxic Activity of Avocado Seed Extract (Persea americana Mill., c.v. Hass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Padilla-Camberos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of vegetal extracts requires toxicological and genotoxic evaluations to establish and verify safety before being added to human cosmetic, pharmaceutical medicine, or alimentary products. Persea americana seeds have been used in traditional medicine as treatment for several diseases. In this work, the ethanolic seed extract of Persea americana was evaluated with respect to its genotoxic potential through micronucleus assay in rodents. The frequency of micronuclei in groups of animals treated with avocado seed extract showed no differences compared to the negative control (vehicle; therefore, it is considered that the avocado seed extract showed no genotoxic activity in the micronucleus test.

  11. Results of screening NCI/NTP nongenotoxic carcinogens and genotoxic noncarcinogens with the k sub e test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, M.L. (ed.); Bakale, G.; McCreary, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    The interdependence of the electrophilic and carcinogenic properties of chemicals that was demonstrated two decades ago rekindled interest in the somatic mutation theory of carcinogenesis. Interest in this theory grew with the development of a reverse-mutation bacterial assay in the laboratory of B.N. Ames that permitted the mutagenic properties of the chemicals to be determined quickly and yielded results which indicated that carcinogens are mutagens.'' Subsequent validation studies of this bioassay, the Salmonella typhimurium/microsome or Ames test,'' by Ames' group and others provided additional support for the correlation between mutagenicity and carcinogenicity which led to the worldwide deployment of the Ames test in thousands of laboratories and to the development of more than 100 other short-term tests that continue to be used to identify potential carcinogens via various end-points of genotoxicity. This document discusses electrophilicity, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity relationships as well as carcinogen-screening of chemicals. 28 refs., 4 tabs.

  12. GENOTOXICITY OF TOBACCO SMOKE AND TOBACCO SMOKE CONDENSATE: A REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genotoxicity of Tobacco Smoke and Tobacco Smoke Condensate: A ReviewAbstractThis report reviews the literature on the genotoxicity of main-stream tobacco smoke and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) published since 1985. CSC is genotoxic in nearly all systems in which it h...

  13. Tartrazine induces structural and functional aberrations and genotoxic effects in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifa Khayyat

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Tartrazine is a synthetic organic azo dye widely used in food and pharmaceutical products. The current study aimed to evaluate the possible adverse effect of this coloring food additive on renal and hepatic structures and functions. Also, the genotoxic potential of tartrazine on white blood cells was investigated using comet assay. Twenty adult male Wistar rats were grouped into two groups of 10 each, control- and tartrazine-treated groups. The control group was administered orally with water alone. The experimental group was administered orally with tartrazine (7.5 mg/kg, b.wt.. Our results showed a marked increase in the levels of ALT, AST, ALP, urea, uric acid, creatinine, MDA and NO, and a decreased level of total antioxidants in the serum of rats dosed with tartrazine compared to controls. On the other hand, administration of tartrazine was associated with severe histopathological and cellular alterations of rat liver and kidney tissues and induced DNA damage in leucocytes as detected by comet assay. Taken together, the results showed that tartrazine intake may lead to adverse health effects.

  14. Tartrazine induces structural and functional aberrations and genotoxic effects in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayyat, Latifa; Essawy, Amina; Sorour, Jehan; Soffar, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Tartrazine is a synthetic organic azo dye widely used in food and pharmaceutical products. The current study aimed to evaluate the possible adverse effect of this coloring food additive on renal and hepatic structures and functions. Also, the genotoxic potential of tartrazine on white blood cells was investigated using comet assay. Twenty adult male Wistar rats were grouped into two groups of 10 each, control- and tartrazine-treated groups. The control group was administered orally with water alone. The experimental group was administered orally with tartrazine (7.5 mg/kg, b.wt.). Our results showed a marked increase in the levels of ALT, AST, ALP, urea, uric acid, creatinine, MDA and NO, and a decreased level of total antioxidants in the serum of rats dosed with tartrazine compared to controls. On the other hand, administration of tartrazine was associated with severe histopathological and cellular alterations of rat liver and kidney tissues and induced DNA damage in leucocytes as detected by comet assay. Taken together, the results showed that tartrazine intake may lead to adverse health effects.

  15. Mutagenic and genotoxic activity of particulate matter MP2,5, in Pamplona, North Santander, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Montañez, Mónica Liseth

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the mutagenic and genotoxic activities of particulate material (MP2,5 collected in Pamplona, Norte de Santander, Colombia.Materials and methods: MP2,5 was monitored by means of a Partisol 2025 sequential air sampler with Plus Palmflex quartz filters. The latter were subjected to two extraction procedures: Soxhlet extraction using dichloromethane-acetone; and ultrasonic extraction using dichloromethane, acetone and dichloromethane/ acetone mix. The mutagenic and genotoxic activities were determined for each extract.Results: This is the first study conducted in Colombia that reports the mutagenic and genotoxic activities associated with particulate matter (MP2,5 taken from vehicular emissions in Pamplona, Norte de Santander. The mutagenic assay determined by the Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 showed a high direct mutagenic activity in the analyzed extracts. On the other hand, the genotoxic activity, determined by means of the comet assay, was high too.Conclusion: Particulate material (MP2,5 present in air samples in Pamplona (northeastern Colombia is a risk factor for the exposed population because it can directly induce mutations and also cause genotoxic damage.

  16. Contributions of DNA repair and damage response pathways to the non-linear genotoxic responses of alkylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapacz, Joanna; Pottenger, Lynn H; Engelward, Bevin P; Heinen, Christopher D; Johnson, George E; Clewell, Rebecca A; Carmichael, Paul L; Adeleye, Yeyejide; Andersen, Melvin E

    2016-01-01

    From a risk assessment perspective, DNA-reactive agents are conventionally assumed to have genotoxic risks at all exposure levels, thus applying a linear extrapolation for low-dose responses. New approaches discussed here, including more diverse and sensitive methods for assessing DNA damage and DNA repair, strongly support the existence of measurable regions where genotoxic responses with increasing doses are insignificant relative to control. Model monofunctional alkylating agents have in vitro and in vivo datasets amenable to determination of points of departure (PoDs) for genotoxic effects. A session at the 2013 Society of Toxicology meeting provided an opportunity to survey the progress in understanding the biological basis of empirically-observed PoDs for DNA alkylating agents. Together with the literature published since, this review discusses cellular pathways activated by endogenous and exogenous alkylation DNA damage. Cells have evolved conserved processes that monitor and counteract a spontaneous steady-state level of DNA damage. The ubiquitous network of DNA repair pathways serves as the first line of defense for clearing of the DNA damage and preventing mutation. Other biological pathways discussed here that are activated by genotoxic stress include post-translational activation of cell cycle networks and transcriptional networks for apoptosis/cell death. The interactions of various DNA repair and DNA damage response pathways provide biological bases for the observed PoD behaviors seen with genotoxic compounds. Thus, after formation of DNA adducts, the activation of cellular pathways can lead to the avoidance of a mutagenic outcome. The understanding of the cellular mechanisms acting within the low-dose region will serve to better characterize risks from exposures to DNA-reactive agents at environmentally-relevant concentrations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A comparison of foamy and lentiviral vector genotoxicity in SCID-repopulating cells shows foamy vectors are less prone to clonal dominance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M Everson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC gene therapy using retroviral vectors has immense potential, but vector-mediated genotoxicity limits use in the clinic. Lentiviral vectors are less genotoxic than gammaretroviral vectors and have become the vector of choice in clinical trials. Foamy retroviral vectors have a promising integration profile and are less prone to read-through transcription than gammaretroviral or lentiviral vectors. Here, we directly compared the safety and efficacy of foamy vectors to lentiviral vectors in human CD34+ repopulating cells in immunodeficient mice. To increase their genotoxic potential, foamy and lentiviral vectors with identical transgene cassettes with a known genotoxic spleen focus forming virus promoter were used. Both vectors resulted in efficient marking in vivo and a total of 825 foamy and 460 lentiviral vector unique integration sites were recovered in repopulating cells 19 weeks after transplantation. Foamy vector proviruses were observed less often near RefSeq gene and proto-oncogene transcription start sites than lentiviral vectors. The foamy vector group were also more polyclonal with fewer dominant clones (two out of six mice than the lentiviral vector group (eight out of eight mice, and only lentiviral vectors had integrants near known proto-oncogenes in dominant clones. Our data further support the relative safety of foamy vectors for HSC gene therapy.

  18. Aporrectodea caliginosa, a suitable earthworm species for field based genotoxicity assessment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klobucar, Goeran I.V.; Stambuk, Anamaria; Srut, Maja; Husnjak, Ivana; Merkas, Martina; Traven, Luka; Cvetkovic, Zelimira

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing interest for the application of biomakers to field-collected earthworms. Therefore we have evaluated the usability of native populations of endogeic, widely distributed earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa in the assessment of soil genotoxicity using the Comet assay. Validation of the Comet assay on earthworm coelomocytes has been established using commercially available Eisenia fetida exposed to copper, cadmium, and pentachlorophenol, along with A. caliginosa exposed to copper in a filter paper contact test. Neutral red retention time (NRRT) assay was conducted on copper exposed and field-collected earthworms. Significant DNA and lysosomal damage was measured using Comet and NRRT assays in native populations of A. caliginosa sampled from the polluted soils in the urban area in comparison to the earthworms from the reference site. The results of this study confirm the employment of A. caliginosa as a suitable species for the in situ soil toxicity and genotoxicity field surveys. - Research highlights: → Native A. caliginosa has shown significant biological effect measured by the Comet and NRRT assays. → The Comet assay on A. caliginosa and E. fetida has shown to be of similar sensitivity as the NRRT assay. → A. caliginosa is a suitable species for the in situ soil toxicity and genotoxicity field surveys. - Native populations of endogeic earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa can be successfully applied in the genotoxicity field surveys using Comet assay.

  19. Aporrectodea caliginosa, a suitable earthworm species for field based genotoxicity assessment?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klobucar, Goeran I.V., E-mail: gklobuca@zg.biol.pmf.hr [Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Rooseveltov trg 6, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Stambuk, Anamaria; Srut, Maja [Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Rooseveltov trg 6, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Husnjak, Ivana [Ministry of Environmental Protection, Physical Planning and Construction, Ulica Republike Austrije 14, Zagreb (Croatia); Merkas, Martina [Croatian Institute for Brain Research, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Salata 12, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Traven, Luka [Department of Environmental Medicine, Medical Faculty, University of Rijeka, Brace Branchetta 20a, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Teaching Institute of Public Health of the Primorsko-goranska County, Kresimirova 52a, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Cvetkovic, Zelimira [Department of Ecology, Institute of Public Health, Mirogojska c. 16, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2011-04-15

    There is a growing interest for the application of biomakers to field-collected earthworms. Therefore we have evaluated the usability of native populations of endogeic, widely distributed earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa in the assessment of soil genotoxicity using the Comet assay. Validation of the Comet assay on earthworm coelomocytes has been established using commercially available Eisenia fetida exposed to copper, cadmium, and pentachlorophenol, along with A. caliginosa exposed to copper in a filter paper contact test. Neutral red retention time (NRRT) assay was conducted on copper exposed and field-collected earthworms. Significant DNA and lysosomal damage was measured using Comet and NRRT assays in native populations of A. caliginosa sampled from the polluted soils in the urban area in comparison to the earthworms from the reference site. The results of this study confirm the employment of A. caliginosa as a suitable species for the in situ soil toxicity and genotoxicity field surveys. - Research highlights: > Native A. caliginosa has shown significant biological effect measured by the Comet and NRRT assays. > The Comet assay on A. caliginosa and E. fetida has shown to be of similar sensitivity as the NRRT assay. > A. caliginosa is a suitable species for the in situ soil toxicity and genotoxicity field surveys. - Native populations of endogeic earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa can be successfully applied in the genotoxicity field surveys using Comet assay.

  20. High throughput comet assay to study genotoxicity of nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naouale El Yamani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The unique physicochemical properties of engineered nanomaterials (NMs have accelerated their use in diverse industrial and domestic products. Although their presence in consumer products represents a major concern for public health safety, their potential impact on human health is poorly understood. There is therefore an urgent need to clarify the toxic effects of NMs and to elucidate the mechanisms involved. In view of the large number of NMs currently being used, high throughput (HTP screening technologies are clearly needed for efficient assessment of toxicity. The comet assay is the most used method in nanogenotoxicity studies and has great potential for increasing throughput as it is fast, versatile and robust; simple technical modifications of the assay make it possible to test many compounds (NMs in a single experiment. The standard gel of 70-100 μL contains thousands of cells, of which only a tiny fraction are actually scored. Reducing the gel to a volume of 5 μL, with just a few hundred cells, allows twelve gels to be set on a standard slide, or 96 as a standard 8x12 array. For the 12 gel format, standard slides precoated with agarose are placed on a metal template and gels are set on the positions marked on the template. The HTP comet assay, incorporating digestion of DNA with formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG to detect oxidised purines, has recently been applied to study the potential induction of genotoxicity by NMs via reactive oxygen. In the NanoTEST project we investigated the genotoxic potential of several well-characterized metal and polymeric nanoparticles with the comet assay. All in vitro studies were harmonized; i.e. NMs were from the same batch, and identical dispersion protocols, exposure time, concentration range, culture conditions, and time-courses were used. As a kidney model, Cos-1 fibroblast-like kidney cells were treated with different concentrations of iron oxide NMs, and cells embedded in minigels (12

  1. Assessment of the genotoxicity of Cu and Zn in raw and anaerobically digested slurry with the Vicia faba micronucleus test

    OpenAIRE

    Marcato, Claire-Emmanuelle; Pinelli, Eric; Pourrut, Bertrand; Silvestre, Jérôme; Guiresse, Agnès Maritchù

    2009-01-01

    Genotoxicity of Cu and Zn was assessed by use of the micronucleus (MN) test on Vicia faba roots. Plants were exposed to various leachates of rawand anaerobically digested pig slurry, with maximum total concentrations of 200MCu and 600MZn. The results indicated stabilisation of the organic matter during anaerobic digestion of the slurry and bioconversion of some phytotoxic organic compounds (e.g. phenols or p-cresol), but did not showa relationship between Cu and Zn concentrations and MN fr...

  2. Conventional and whitening toothpastes: cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and effect on the enamel surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Samira Esteves Afonso; Jóias, Renata Pilli; Santana-Melo, Gabriela Fátima; Ferreira, Lara Tolentino; El Achkar, Vivian Narana Ribeiro; Rode, Sigmar de Mello

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of whitening and common toothpastes, and the surface roughness of tooth enamel submitted to brushing with both toothpastes. Samples of whitening toothpastes [Colgate Whitening (CW) and Oral-B Whitening (OBW)] and regular (non-whitening) toothpastes (Colgate and Oral-B) were extracted in culture medium. Gingival human fibroblasts (FMM-1) were placed in contact with different dilutions of culture media that had been previously exposed to such materials, and the cytotoxicity was evaluated using the MTT assay. The genotoxicity was assessed by the micronucleus formation assay in Chinese hamster fibroblasts (V79). The cell survival rate and micronuclei number were assessed before and after exposure to the toothpaste extracts. For the surface roughness evaluation, 20 bovine tooth specimens, divided into four groups according to toothpastes, were submitted to 10,000 brushing cycles. The results were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U and two-way ANOVA tests (P whitening toothpastes showed the highest numbers of micronuclei compared to the untreated control (UC) (P enamel surface (P whitening toothpastes and Oral-B were cytotoxic to the cells. The whitening toothpastes were more genotoxic to cells in vitro than the common toothpastes, and genotoxicity was more pronounced in the OBW toothpaste.

  3. Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity induced by eluates from orthodontic glass ionomer cements in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Angelieri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of some orthodontic glass ionomer cements commercially available by means of the single cell gel (comet assay. For this purpose, five commercial orthodontic glass ionomer cements (Vidrion C®, Meron®, Optiband®, Multicure® and Ultra Band Lok® were tested in murine fibroblasts in vitro. For this purpose, eluates from each cement were prepared according manufactures instructions at 0, 2, 4, 8, 18, 32 and 64 days of immersion in artificial saliva at 37 °C. All orthodontic glass ionomer cements failed to induce cytotoxicity to murine fibroblasts for all periods evaluated in this study. However, Vidrion C® was able to induce genotoxicity after 64 days of exposure to eluates. Meron® also demonstrated genotoxicity as depicted by increasing DNA damage on 2nd day. Multicure® demonstrated genotoxicity on 32nd day and Ultra band Lok on 18th, 32nd days of exposure. Taken together, our results demonstrated that orthodontic cements derived from resin-modified glass ionomer composite (Multicure® and compomer (Ultra Band Lok® cause genetic damage in mammalian cells in vitro.

  4. Genotoxicity of Nicotiana tabacum leaves on Helix aspersa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Fernanda R; Erdtmann, Bernardo; Dalpiaz, Tiago; Nunes, Emilene; Ferraz, Alexandre; Martins, Tales L C; Dias, Johny F; da Rosa, Darlan P; Porawskie, Marilene; Bona, Silvia; da Silva, Juliana

    2013-07-01

    Tobacco farmers are routinely exposed to complex mixtures of inorganic and organic chemicals present in tobacco leaves. In this study, we examined the genotoxicity of tobacco leaves in the snail Helix aspersa as a measure of the risk to human health. DNA damage was evaluated using the micronucleus test and the Comet assay and the concentration of cytochrome P450 enzymes was estimated. Two groups of snails were studied: one fed on tobacco leaves and one fed on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) leaves (control group). All of the snails received leaves (tobacco and lettuce leaves were the only food provided) and water ad libitum. Hemolymph cells were collected after 0, 24, 48 and 72 h. The Comet assay and micronucleus test showed that exposure to tobacco leaves for different periods of time caused significant DNA damage. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes occurred only in the tobacco group. Chemical analysis indicated the presence of the alkaloid nicotine, coumarins, saponins, flavonoids and various metals. These results show that tobacco leaves are genotoxic in H. aspersa and inhibit cytochrome P450 activity, probably through the action of the complex chemical mixture present in the plant.

  5. Genotoxicity of Nicotiana tabacum leaves on Helix aspersa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda R. da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco farmers are routinely exposed to complex mixtures of inorganic and organic chemicals present in tobacco leaves. In this study, we examined the genotoxicity of tobacco leaves in the snail Helix aspersa as a measure of the risk to human health. DNA damage was evaluated using the micronucleus test and the Comet assay and the concentration of cytochrome P450 enzymes was estimated. Two groups of snails were studied: one fed on tobacco leaves and one fed on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L leaves (control group. All of the snails received leaves (tobacco and lettuce leaves were the only food provided and water ad libitum. Hemolymph cells were collected after 0, 24, 48 and 72 h. The Comet assay and micronucleus test showed that exposure to tobacco leaves for different periods of time caused significant DNA damage. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes occurred only in the tobacco group. Chemical analysis indicated the presence of the alkaloid nicotine, coumarins, saponins, flavonoids and various metals. These results show that tobacco leaves are genotoxic in H. aspersa and inhibit cytochrome P450 activity, probably through the action of the complex chemical mixture present in the plant.

  6. Dicholesteroyl diselenide: cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and mutagenicity in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Iuri Marques; Degrandi, Tiago Hoerbe; Jorge, Patrícia Mendes; Saffi, Jenifer; Rosa, Renato Moreira; Guecheva, Temenouga Nikolova; Henriques, João Antonio Pêgas

    2014-03-15

    The organoselenium compound, dicholesteroyl diselenide (DCDS) is a structural analogue of diphenyl diselenide (DPDS) and may be considered as a promising antioxidant drug in vivo. Nevertheless, little is known about the toxicological properties of DCDS. In the present study we evaluated the cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic properties of DCDS in Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts (V79) and in strains of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, proficient and deficient in several DNA-repair pathways. The results with V79 cells show that DCDS induced cytotoxicity, GSH depletion and elevation of lipid peroxidation at lower concentrations than did DPDS. DCDS also generated single- and double-strand DNA breaks in V79 cells, both in the presence and in the absence of metabolic activation, as revealed by alkaline and neutral comet assays. Moreover, the induction of oxidative DNA base-damage was demonstrated by means of a modified comet assay with formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase and endonuclease III. Treatment with DCDS also induced micronucleus formation in V79 cells as well as point and frame-shift mutations in a haploid wild-type strain of S. cerevisiae. Yeast mutants defective in base excision-repair proteins were the most sensitive to DCDS. Pre-incubation with N-acetylcysteine reduced DCDS's oxidative, genotoxic and mutagenic effects in yeast and in V79 cells. Our findings indicate that the presence of cholesteroyl substituents in DCDS results in elevation of its cytotoxic and genotoxic potential compared with that of DPDS in yeast and in V79 cells. However, due to dose-dependent contrasting behaviour of organoselenium compounds and differences in their toxicity in in vitro and in vivo systems, further studies are needed in order to establish the non-toxic concentration range for treatment in mammals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Genotoxicity of Swimming Pool Water and Carcinogenicity of Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among the 11 disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water that are regulated by the U.S. EPA, (a) 2 DBPs (chloroaceticacid and chlorite) are not carcinogenic-in either of2 species; (b) chlorite is not carcinogenic in 3 rodent assays and has never been tested for genotoxicity...

  8. Genotoxicity of Swimming Pool Water and Carcinogenicity of Drinking Water**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among the 11 disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water that are regulated by the U.S. EPA, (a) 2 DBPs (chloroaceticacid and chlorite) are not carcinogenic-in either of2 species; (b) chlorite is not carcinogenic in 3 rodent assays and has never been tested for genotoxicity...

  9. ROS-mediated genotoxicity of asbestos-cement in mammalian lung cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rödelsperger Klaus

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Asbestos is a known carcinogen and co-carcinogen. It is a persisting risk in our daily life due to its use in building material as asbestos-cement powder. The present study done on V79-cells (Chinese hamster lung cells demonstrates the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of asbestos-cement powder (ACP in comparison with chrysotile asbestos. A co-exposure of chrysotile and ACP was tested using the cell viability test and the micronucleus assay. The kinetochore analysis had been used to analyse the pathway causing such genotoxic effects. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances were determined as evidence for the production of reactive oxygen species. Both, asbestos cement as well as chrysotile formed micronuclei and induced loss of cell viability in a concentration- and time- dependent way. Results of TBARS analysis and iron chelator experiments showed induction of free radicals in ACP- and chrysotile exposed cultures. CaSO4 appeared to be a negligible entity in enhancing the toxic potential of ACP. The co-exposure of both, ACP and chrysotile, showed an additive effect in enhancing the toxicity. The overall study suggests that asbestos-cement is cytotoxic as well as genotoxic in vitro. In comparison to chrysotile the magnitude of the toxicity was less, but co-exposure increased the toxicity of both.

  10. Genotoxicity and mutagenicity of Echinodorus macrophyllus (chapéu-de-couro extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo S. Vidal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Echinodorus macrophyllus, commonly known as chapéu-de-couro, is a medicinal plant used in folk medicine to treat inflammation and rheumatic diseases. In this work, we used short-term bacterial assays based on the induction of SOS functions to examine the genotoxicity and mutagenicity of an aqueous extract of E. macrophyllus leaves. Whole extract and an ethyl acetate fraction showed similar genotoxicity and caused an ~70-fold increase in lysogenic induction. The extract also gave a positive result in the SOS chromotest with an increase of 12-fold in β-Galactosidase enzymatic units. There was a strong trend towards base substitutions and frameshifts at purine sites in the mutations induced by the extract in Escherichia coli (CC103 and CC104 strains and Salmonella typhimurium test strains (22-fold increase in histidine revertants in TA98 strain. Since reactive oxygen species may be implicated in aging process and in degenerative diseases, we used antioxidant compounds as catalase, thiourea and dipyridyl in the lysogenic induction test. All this compounds were able to reduce the induction factor observed in the treatment with chapéu-de-couro, thus suggesting that the genotoxicity and mutagenicity were attributable to the production of reactive oxygen species that targeted DNA purines.

  11. An evaluation of the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of the anti-obesity drugs sibutramine and fenproporex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Cristiano José; dos Santos, José Ernesto; Satie Takahashi, Catarina

    2010-03-01

    Anti-obesity medications deserve special considerations at the present time due to an increasing number of overweight and obese people who require these therapeutic alternatives. Obesity is positively associated with several chronic illnesses, including cancer. In this work, we evaluated the possible genotoxic and/or cytotoxic actions of two drugs, sibutramine and fenproporex, in the doses of 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg body weight (bw), administered intraperitoneally in male Swiss mice. The genotoxic effect was analyzed by comet assay and micronucleus test. We found that both drugs increased the frequency of genotoxic damage in Swiss mice, but did not present cytotoxic activities towards the polychromatic erythrocytes of the bone marrow of these animals.

  12. Non-genotoxic carcinogens: early effects on gap junctions, cell proliferation and apoptosis in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mally, Angela; Chipman, James Kevin

    2002-01-01

    Non-genotoxic carcinogens are thought to induce tumour formation by disturbing the balance between cell growth and cell death. Gap junctions (GJ) contribute to the maintenance of tissue homeostasis by allowing the intercellular exchange of growth regulatory signals and potential inhibition of GJ intercellular communication through loss of connexin (Cx) plaques has been shown to be involved in the cancer process. We have investigated the time- and dose-dependent effects of the non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogens Wy-14,643, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, methapyrilene and hexachlorobenzene and the male rat kidney carcinogens chloroform, p-dichlorobenzene and d-limonene on gap junction plaque expression in relation to proliferation and apoptosis. With the exception of limonene, all non-genotoxic carcinogens significantly reduced the expression of GJ plaques containing Cx32 in their respective target tissue. No dose-dependent, significant effects were seen in non-target organs. Although alteration of Cx32 expression did not appear to correlate with induction of cell proliferation, out data suggest that the interaction of both processes--interference of GJ coupled with a proliferative stimulus (at the carcinogenic dose)--may be important in non-genotoxic carcinogenesis and provide a potential alert for non-genotoxic carcinogens in short-term toxicity tests

  13. Micronuclei induced by municipal landfill leachate in mouse bone marrow cells in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guangke; Sang Nan; Zhao Youcai

    2004-01-01

    The induction of micronuclei (MN) in polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) of mouse bone marrow by municipal landfill leachate was studied in vivo. Results showed that mouse exposure via drinking water containing various concentrations of leachate caused a significant increase of MN frequencies in a concentration (Chemical oxygen demand measured with potassium dichromate oxidation, COD Cr )-dependent manner. MN induction in female and male mice was different at higher concentrations. This implies that leachate is a genotoxic agent in mammalian cells and that exposure to leachate in an aquatic environment may pose a potential genotoxic risk to human beings

  14. Evaluation of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of water samples from the Sinos River Basin, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Bianchi

    Full Text Available Some water bodies in the Sinos River Basin (SRB have been suffering the effects of pollution by residential, industrial and agroindustrial wastewater. The presence of cytotoxic and genotoxic compounds could compromise the water quality and the balance of these ecosystems. In this context, the research aimed to evaluate the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of the water at four sites along the SRB (in the cities of Santo Antônio da Patrulha, Parobé, Campo Bom and Esteio, using bioassays in fish and cell culture. Samples of surface water were collected and evaluated in vitro using the Astyanax jacuhiensis fish species (micronucleus test and comet assay and the Vero lineage of cells (comet assay and cytotoxicity tests, neutral red - NR and tetrazolium MTT. The micronucleus test in fish showed no significant differences between the sampling sites, and neither did the comet assay and the MTT and NR tests in Vero cells. The comet assay showed an increase in genetic damage in the fish exposed to water samples collected in the middle and lower sections of the basin (Parobé, Campo Bom and Esteio when compared to the upper section of the basin (Santo Antônio da Patrulha. The results indicate contamination by genotoxic substances starting in the middle section of the SRB.

  15. Use of the Microscreen phage-induction assay to assess the genotoxicity of 14 hazardous industrial wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houk, V.S.; DeMarini, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    The Microscreen phage-induction assay, which quantitatively measures the induction of prophage lambda in Escherichia coli WP2s lambda, was used to test 14 crude (unfractionated) hazardous industrial-waste samples for genotoxic activity in the presence and absence of metabolic activation. Eleven of the 14 wastes induced prophage, and induction was observed at concentrations as low as 0.4 picograms per ml. Comparisons between the mutagenicity of these waste samples in Salmonella and their ability to induce prophage lambda indicate that the Microscreen phage-induction assay detected genotoxic activity in all but one of the wastes that were mutagenic in Salmonella. Moreover, the Microscreen assay detected as genotoxic 5 additional wastes that were not detected in the Salmonella assay. The applicability of the Microscreen phage-induction assay for screening hazardous wastes for genotoxic activity is discussed along with some of the problems associated with screening highly toxic wastes containing toxic volatile compounds.

  16. Use of the microscreen phage-induction assay to assess the genotoxicity of 14 hazardous industrial wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houk, V.S.; DeMarini, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    The Microscreen phage-induction assay, which quantitatively measures the induction of prophage lambda in Escherichia coli WP2s(lambda), was used to test 14 crude (unfractionated) hazardous industrial waste samples for genotoxic activity in the presence and absence of metabolic activation. Eleven of the 14 wastes induced prophage, and induction was observed at concentrations as low as 0.4 pg per ml. Comparisons between the ability of these waste samples to induce prophage and their mutagenicity in the Salmonella reverse mutation assay indicate that the phage-induction assay detected genotoxic activity in all but one of the wastes that were mutagenic in Salmonella. Moreover, the Microscreen assay detected as genotoxic five additional wastes that were not detected in the Salmonella assay. The applicability of the Microscreen phage-induction assay for screening hazardous wastes for genotoxic activity is discussed, as are some of the problems associated with screening highly toxic wastes containing toxic volatile compounds.

  17. Comparing BMD-derived genotoxic potency estimations across variants of the transgenic rodent gene mutation assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, John W; Johnson, George E; Battaion, Hannah L; Slob, Wout; White, Paul A

    2017-12-01

    There is growing interest in quantitative analysis of in vivo genetic toxicity dose-response data, and use of point-of-departure (PoD) metrics such as the benchmark dose (BMD) for human health risk assessment (HHRA). Currently, multiple transgenic rodent (TGR) assay variants, employing different rodent strains and reporter transgenes, are used for the assessment of chemically-induced genotoxic effects in vivo. However, regulatory issues arise when different PoD values (e.g., lower BMD confidence intervals or BMDLs) are obtained for the same compound across different TGR assay variants. This study therefore employed the BMD approach to examine the ability of different TGR variants to yield comparable genotoxic potency estimates. Review of over 2000 dose-response datasets identified suitably-matched dose-response data for three compounds (ethyl methanesulfonate or EMS, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea or ENU, and dimethylnitrosamine or DMN) across four commonly-used murine TGR variants (Muta™Mouse lacZ, Muta™Mouse cII, gpt delta and BigBlue® lacI). Dose-response analyses provided no conclusive evidence that TGR variant choice significantly influences the derived genotoxic potency estimate. This conclusion was reliant upon taking into account the importance of comparing BMD confidence intervals as opposed to directly comparing PoD values (e.g., comparing BMDLs). Comparisons with earlier works suggested that with respect to potency determination, tissue choice is potentially more important than choice of TGR assay variant. Scoring multiple tissues selected on the basis of supporting toxicokinetic information is therefore recommended. Finally, we used typical within-group variances to estimate preliminary endpoint-specific benchmark response (BMR) values across several TGR variants/tissues. We discuss why such values are required for routine use of genetic toxicity PoDs for HHRA. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:632-643, 2017. © 2017 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada

  18. Induction of micronuclei by 2-hydroxypyridine in water and elimination of solution genotoxicity by UVC (254 nm) photolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoutelis, Charalambos G.; Vlastos, Dimitris; Kortsinidou, Marianna C.; Theodoridis, Ioannis T.; Papadaki, Maria I.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► 2-Hydroxypyridine (2-HPY) is the major metabolite of 2-halogenated pyridines photolysis. ► We examine the genotoxicity of 2-HPY in cultured human lymphocytes applying the micronucleus assay. ► 2-HPY was found to be genotoxic. ► Aqueous solutions of 2-HPY were irradiated by UV at 254 nm. ► Solution genotoxicity can be completely removed after prolonged phototreatment. - Abstract: 2-Hydroxypyridine (2-HPY) is a major first-stage product formed upon the photolytic destruction of 2-halogenated pyridines. Genotoxicity of 2-HPY in water was studied as a function of concentration. Aqueous solutions of 2-HPY were irradiated by ultraviolet (UV) at 254 nm. 2-HPY concentration, solution total organic carbon (TOC) concentration and solution genotoxicity were measured as a function of treatment time and their profile as a function of time is presented in this work. 2-HPY was found to be genotoxic at all concentrations in the range of 5–400 μg ml −1 . 2-HPY mineralises completely upon prolonged UV irradiation. All untreated and irradiated solution samples, taken at different photo-treatment times, were tested in cultured human lymphocytes applying the cytokinesis block micronucleus (CBMN) assay. The genotoxicity of the solution was reduced near to the control level after prolonged UV irradiation.

  19. Three-Dimensional, Transgenic Cell Models to Quantify Space Genotoxic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, S. R.; Sognier, M. A.; Wu, H.; Pingerelli, P. L.; Glickman, B. W.; Dawson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The space environment contains radiation and chemical agents known to be mutagenic and carcinogenic to humans. Additionally, microgravity is a complicating factor that may modify or synergize induced genotoxic effects. Most in vitro models fail to use human cells (making risk extrapolation to humans more difficult), overlook the dynamic effect of tissue intercellular interactions on genotoxic damage, and lack the sensitivity required to measure low-dose effects. Currently a need exists for a model test system that simulates cellular interactions present in tissue, and can be used to quantify genotoxic damage induced by low levels of radiation and chemicals, and extrapolate assessed risk to humans. A state-of-the-art, three-dimensional, multicellular tissue equivalent cell culture model will be presented. It consists of mammalian cells genetically engineered to contain multiple copies of defined target genes for genotoxic assessment,. NASA-designed bioreactors were used to coculture mammalian cells into spheroids, The cells used were human mammary epithelial cells (H184135) and Stratagene's (Austin, Texas) Big Blue(TM) Rat 2 lambda fibroblasts. The fibroblasts were genetically engineered to contain -a high-density target gene for mutagenesis (60 copies of lacl/LacZ per cell). Tissue equivalent spheroids were routinely produced by inoculation of 2 to 7 X 10(exp 5) fibroblasts with Cytodex 3 beads (150 micrometers in diameter). at a 20:1 cell:bead ratio, into 50-ml HARV bioreactors (Synthecon, Inc.). Fibroblasts were cultured for 5 days, an equivalent number of epithelial cells added, and the fibroblast/epithelial cell coculture continued for 21 days. Three-dimensional spheroids with diameters ranging from 400 to 600 micrometers were obtained. Histological and immunohistochemical Characterization revealed i) both cell types present in the spheroids, with fibroblasts located primarily in the center, surrounded by epithelial cells; ii) synthesis of extracellular matrix

  20. Analysis of Aloe vera cytotoxicity and genotoxicity associated with endodontic medication and laser photobiomodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Nayane Chagas; Guedes, Simone Alves Garcez; Albuquerque-Júnior, Ricardo Luiz Cavalcanti; de Albuquerque, Diana Santana; de Souza Araújo, Adriano Antunes; Paranhos, Luiz Renato; Camargo, Samira Esteves Afonso; Ribeiro, Maria Amália Gonzaga

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate, in vitro, the effect of Aloe vera associated with endodontic medication, with or without laser photobiomodulation (FTL) irradiation in FP6 human pulp fibroblasts. The materials were divided into eight groups: CTR - control; CL - FTL alone; AA - Aloe vera with distilled water; AL - Aloe vera with distilled water and FTL; HA - calcium hydroxide P.A. with distilled water; HL - calcium hydroxide P.A. with distilled water and FTL; HAA - calcium hydroxide P.A. with Aloe vera and distilled water; HAL - calcium hydroxide P.A. with Aloe vera, distilled water, and FTL. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT assay at 24, 48, and 72h and the genotoxicity by micronucleus test assay. This study was performed in triplicate. Data obtained in both tests were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's tests (p≤0.05). Group AA presented high genotoxicity and low cytotoxicity. After 24, 48, and 72h, the group HAA significantly reduced the cell viability. Interaction with FTL showed slightly increase cell viability after 24 and 48h in groups CL and HL (pAloe vera allowed higher cell viability in human pulp fibroblasts in the presence of calcium hydroxide or with FTL separately, but genotoxicity increased in these associations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. In-vitro Antioxidant, Cytotoxic, Cholinesterase Inhibitory Activities and Anti-Genotoxic Effects of Hypericum retusum Aucher Flowers, Fruits and Seeds Methanol Extracts in Human Mononuclear Leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Cumali; Aktepe, Necmettin; Yükselten, Yunus; Sunguroglu, Asuman; Boğa, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigates the antioxidant, anticancer, anticholinesterase, anti-genotoxic activities and phenolic contents of flower, fruit and seed methanol extracts of Hypericum retusum AUCHER. The amounts of protocatechuic acid, catechin, caffeic acid and syringic acid in methanol extracts were determined by HPLC. Total phenolic content of H. retusum seed extract was found more than fruit and flower extracts. The DPPH free radical scavenging activity of flower and seed methanol extracts showed close activity versus BHT as control. Among three extracts of H. retusum only flower methanol extract was exhibited considerable cytotoxic activities against to HeLa and NRK-52E cell lines. Moreover, seed methanol extract showed both acetyl and butyrl-cholinesterase inhibitory activity. The highest anti-genotoxic effects were seen 25 and 50 μg/mL concentrations. In this study, the extracts showed a strong antioxidant and anti-genotoxic effect. The seed extract was more efficient- than extracts of fruit and flowers. Our results suggest that the antioxidant and anti-genotoxic effects of extracts depend on their phenolic contents. Further studies should evaluate the in-vitro and in-vivo the benefits of H. retusum seed methanol extracts.

  2. Evaluation of Genotoxicity and 28-day Oral Dose Toxicity on Freeze-dried Powder of Tenebrio molitor Larvae (Yellow Mealworm)

    OpenAIRE

    Han, So-Ri; Yun, Eun-Young; Kim, Ji-Young; Hwang, Jae Sam; Jeong, Eun Ju; Moon, Kyoung-Sik

    2014-01-01

    The larval form of Tenebrio molitor (T. molitor) has been eaten in many countries and provides benefits as a new food source of protein for humans. However, no information exists regarding its safety for humans. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the genotoxicity and repeated dose oral toxicity of the freeze-dried powder of T. molitor larvae. The genotoxic potential was evaluated by a standard battery testing: bacterial reverse mutation test, in vitro chromosome aberration tes...

  3. Genotoxicity, potential cytotoxicity and cell uptake of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in the marine fish Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus, 1766)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vignardi, Caroline P., E-mail: carolpatvig@usp.br [Department of Biological Oceanography, Oceanographic Institute, University of São Paulo, Praça do Oceanogáfico 191, Cidade Universitária, Butantã, São Paulo, SP 05508900 (Brazil); Hasue, Fabio M., E-mail: humbigutis@gmail.com [Department of Biological Oceanography, Oceanographic Institute, University of São Paulo, Praça do Oceanogáfico 191, Cidade Universitária, Butantã, São Paulo, SP 05508900 (Brazil); Sartório, Priscila V., E-mail: pri.sartorio@gmail.com [Department of Biological Oceanography, Oceanographic Institute, University of São Paulo, Praça do Oceanogáfico 191, Cidade Universitária, Butantã, São Paulo, SP 05508900 (Brazil); Cardoso, Caroline M., E-mail: camargonato@gmail.com [Department of Biological Oceanography, Oceanographic Institute, University of São Paulo, Praça do Oceanogáfico 191, Cidade Universitária, Butantã, São Paulo, SP 05508900 (Brazil); Machado, Alex S.D., E-mail: mamiferomarinho@gmail.com [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Integrated College North of Minas Osmane Barbosa Avenue, 11111, JK, Montes Claros, MG 39404006 (Brazil); and others

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2}–NP cytogenotoxicity and cell uptake in marine fish was studied. • TiO{sub 2}–NP suspension was in primary particle, agglomerated and aggregated form. • TiO{sub 2}–NP genotoxicity was time/dose dependent and may induce cell uptake. • Methodology proved to be efficient for evaluating the toxic effect of TiO{sub 2}–NP. - Abstract: Nanoparticles have physicochemical characteristics that make them useful in areas such as science, technology, medicine and in products of everyday use. Recently the manufacture and variety of these products has grown rapidly, raising concerns about their impact on human health and the environment. Adverse effects of exposure to nanoparticles have been reported for both terrestrial and aquatic organisms, but the toxic effects of the substances on marine organisms remain poorly understood. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of TiO{sub 2}–NP in the marine fish Trachinotus carolinus, through cytogenotoxic methods. The fish received two different doses of 1.5 μg and 3.0 μg–TiO{sub 2}–NP g{sup −1} by intraperitoneal injection. Blood samples were collected to analyze erythrocyte viability using the Trypan Blue exclusion test, comet assay (pH > 13), micronucleus (MN) and other erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities (ENA) 24, 48 and 72 h after injection. The possible cell uptake of TiO{sub 2}–NP in fish injected with the higher dose was investigated after 72 h using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that TiO{sub 2}–NP is genotoxic and potentially cytotoxic for this species, causing DNA damage, inducing the formation of MN and other ENA, and decreasing erythrocyte viability. TEM examination revealed that cell uptake of TiO{sub 2}–NP was mainly in the kidney, liver, gills and to a lesser degree in muscle. To the extent of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first in vivo study of genotoxicity and other effects of TiO{sub 2}–NP in a marine fish.

  4. The effect of royal sun agaricus, Agaricus brasiliensis S. Wasser et al., extract on methyl methanesulfonate caused genotoxicity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savić, Tatjana; Patenković, Aleksandra; Soković, Marina; Glamoclija, Jasmina; Andjelković, Marko; van Griensven, Leo J L D

    2011-01-01

    The effect of culinary-medicinal Royal Sun Agaricus (Agaricus brasiliensis) hot water extract on methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) induced mutagenicity/genotoxity in Drosophila melanogaster was studied using a quick and broadly applicable in vivo assay, i.e., the wing somatic mutation and recombination test. We used 2nd instar larvae, trans-heterozygous for the third chromosome recessive markers, i.e., multiple wing hairs (mvh) and flare-3 [flr (3)], and fed them for 24 h with the aqueous extract of A. brasiliensis. For antigenotoxicity studies a 24-h pretreatment with the extract was done, followed by a 48-h treatment of the then 3rd instar larvae with MMS. The frequency of mutations of the wing blade changes (i.e., of the number of wing spots of different sizes) induced in somatic cells was determined as a parameter of genetic changes of the wing imaginal discs. The results showed that A. brasiliensis extract did not cause any genotoxic or mutagenic effects. No antigenotoxic and/or protective effect against the induction of mutations by MMS was observed. Instead, a possible enhanced mitotic recombination frequency by MMS was seen after pretreatment of the larvae with A. brasiliensis extract. Possible mechanisms of action are discussed.

  5. SIGNALING TO THE P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR THROUGH PATHWAYS ACTIVATED BY GENOTOXIC AND NON-GENOTOXIC STRESSES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ANDERSON,C.W.APPELLA,E.

    2002-07-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor is a tetrameric transcription factor that is post-translational modified at {approx}18 different sites by phosphorylation, acetylation, or sumoylation in response to various cellular stress conditions. Specific posttranslational modifications, or groups of modifications, that result from the activation of different stress-induced signaling pathways are thought to modulate p53 activity to regulate cell fate by inducing cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, or cellular senescence. Here we review the posttranslational modifications to p53 and the pathways that produce them in response to both genotoxic and non-genotoxic stresses.

  6. The cda GenoTox assay: A new and sensitive method for detection of environmental genotoxins, including nitroarenes and aromatic amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Trine G.; Hansen, Lars Henrik; Binderup, Mona-Lise

    2007-01-01

    A new bacterial test system for detection of genotoxic compounds was developed, based on two new Sahnonella typhimurium tester strains, TGO1 and TGO2. Both strains contain a gene fusion between a strong SOS-promotor, P-cda, and the gfp gene, which allows detection of genotoxic compounds that indu...

  7. Correlation between the genotoxicity endpoints measured by two different genotoxicity assays: comet assay and CBMN assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Ladeira

    2015-06-01

    The results concerning of positive findings by micronuclei and non significant ones by comet assay, are corroborated by Deng et al. (2005 study performed in workers occupationally exposed to methotrexate, also a cytostatic drug. According to Cavallo et al. (2009, the comet assay seems to be more suitable for the prompt evaluation of the genotoxic effects, for instance, of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons mixtures containing volatile substances, whereas the micronucleus test seems more appropriate to evaluate the effects of exposure to antineoplastic agents. However, there are studies that observed an increase in both the comet assay and the micronucleus test in nurses handling antineoplastic drugs, although statistical significance was only seen in the comet assay, quite the opposite of our results (Maluf & Erdtmann, 2000; Laffon et al. 2005.

  8. Evaluation of genotoxicity after application of Listerine(R) on human lymphocytes by micronucleus and single cell gel electrophoresis assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkez, Hasan; Togar, Basak; Arabaci, Taner

    2012-04-01

    Listerine (LN) is one of the most commonly used mouth rinses worldwide although very limited information is available concerning its genotoxicity. In another view, the biological safety profile of oral care products is frequently assumed on the basis of simplistic test models. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the in vitro genotoxic potential of LN using micronucleus and single cell gel electrophoresis tests as genetic endpoints. Different concentrations of LN (0-100% of ml/culture, v/v) were applied to whole human blood cultures (n = 5). The result of the present study showed that there were no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) between the control group and the groups treated with LN alone in both analysed endpoints. In conclusion, our result first demonstrated the absence of genotoxicity of LN on human lymphocytes.

  9. Application of fish cell lines for evaluating the chromium induced cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taju, G; Abdul Majeed, S; Nambi, K S N; Sahul Hameed, A S

    2017-10-01

    In the present study, we hypothesize that cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative stress play a key role in chromium induced toxicity in SISS, SISK, IEE, IEK, IEG, SICH and ICG cell lines after 24 h exposure. Three fish species namely Lates calcarifer, Etroplus suratensis and Catla catla were exposed to the concentrations of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg/L of chromium for 96 h under static conditions for conducting acute toxicity tests. LC 50 was then calculated. The percentage cell survival was assessed by multiple endpoints such as MTT, NR, AB and CB assays in the seven fish cell lines exposed to different concentrations of chromium and EC 50 values of all the four endpoints were calculated. High significances were noted in the correlations between each in vitro cytotoxicity assays and in vivo mortality data. Cell shrinkage, cell detachment, vacuolations and cell swelling at the highest concentration of chromium (50 mg/L) were seen on microscopic examination of cell morphology. Comet assay and Hoechst staining were carried out to assess DNA damage and nuclear fragmentation in the seven fish lines exposed to chromium. The results of antioxidant parameters obtained indicate a significant reduction in the level of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione S-transferase and Glutathione peroxidase, and increased level of lipid peroxidation in all the cell lines exposed to chromium. These results confirm that fish cell lines could be used as an alternative to whole fish for cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative stress assessment in chromium toxicity studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. FEMA expert panel review of p-mentha-1,8-dien-7-al genotoxicity testing results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, Samuel M.; Fukushima, Shoji; Gooderham, Nigel J.; Guengerich, F.P.; Hecht, Stephen S.; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.; Smith, Robert L.; Bastaki, Maria; Harman, Christie L.; McGowen, Margaret M.; Taylor, Sean V.

    2016-01-01

    p-Mentha-1,8-dien-7-al is a naturally occurring cyclic alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehyde that is used as a flavoring substance throughout the world. Due to the chemical structure and the potential DNA reactivity of the alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl moiety, a battery of genotoxicity assays was

  11. Assessment of Genotoxic Potential of Hridayarnava Rasa (A Herbo-Mineralo-Metallic Ayurvedic Formulation) Using Chromosomal Aberration and Sperm Abnormality Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagtap, Chandrashekhar Y.; Chaudhari, Swapnil Y.; Thakkar, Jalaram H.; Galib, R.; Prajapati, P. K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Herbo-mineral formulations are being successfully used in therapeutics since centuries. But recently, they came under the scanner for their metallic contents especially the presence of heavy metals. Hence it is the need of the hour to assess and establish the safety of these formulations through toxicity studies. In line with the various toxicity studies that are being carried out, Government of India expressed the need for conducting genotoxicity studies of different metal- or mineral-based drugs. Till date very few Ayurvedic herbo-mineral formulations have been studied for their genotoxic potential. The present study is aimed to evaluate the genotoxic potential of Hridayarnava Rasa. Materials and Methods: It was prepared as per classical guidelines and administered to Swiss albino mice for 14 consecutive days. Chromosomal aberration and sperm abnormality assay were done to evaluate the genotoxic potential of the test drugs. Cyclophosphamide (CP) was taken as positive group and results were compared. Results: All treated groups exhibited significant body weight gain in comparison to CP group. Results revealed no structural deformity in the above parameters in comparison to the CP-treated group. Conclusion: Reported data showed that both tested samples of Hridayarnava Rasa does not possess genotoxic potential under the experimental conditions and can be safely used. PMID:25948961

  12. Intermediate frequency magnetic field generated by a wireless power transmission device does not cause genotoxicity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Dejing; Zhu, Chunbo; Lu, Rengui; Mao, Shitong; Qi, Yanhua

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of intermediate frequency magnetic fields (IFMF) generated by a wireless power transmission (WPT) based on magnetic resonance from the perspective of cellular genotoxicity on cultured human lens epithelial cells (HLECs). We evaluated the effects of exposure to 90 kHz magnetic fields at 93.36 µT on cellular genotoxicity in vitro for 2 and 4 h. The magnetic flux density is approximately 3.5 times higher than the reference level recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines. For assessment of genotoxicity, we studied cellular proliferation, apoptosis and DNA damage by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, flow cytometry analysis, alkaline comet assay and phosphorylated histone H2AX (γH2AX) foci formation test. We did not detect any effect of a 90 kHz IFMF generated by WPT based on magnetic resonance on cell proliferation, apoptosis, comet assay, and γH2AX foci formation test. Our results indicated that exposure to 90 kHz IFMF generated by WPT based on magnetic resonance at 93.36 µT for 2 and 4 h does not cause detectable cellular genotoxicity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Evaluation of genotoxic effects of surface waters using a battery of bioassays indicating different mode of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yingnan; Li, Na; Oda, Yoshimitsu; Ma, Mei; Rao, Kaifeng; Wang, Zijian; Jin, Wei; Hong, Gang; Li, Zhiguo; Luo, Yi

    2016-11-01

    With the burgeoning contamination of surface waters threatening human health, the genotoxic effects of surface waters have received much attention. Because mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds in water cause tumors by different mechanisms, a battery of bioassays that each indicate a different mode of action (MOA) is required to evaluate the genotoxic effects of contaminants in water samples. In this study, 15 water samples from two source water reservoirs and surrounding rivers in Shijiazhuang city of China were evaluated for genotoxic effects. Target chemical analyses of 14 genotoxic pollutants were performed according to the Environmental quality standards for surface water of China. Then, the in vitro cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay, based on a high-content screening technique, was used to detect the effect of chromosome damage. The SOS/umu test using strain TA1535/pSK1002 was used to detect effects on SOS repair of gene expression. Additionally, two other strains, NM2009 and NM3009, which are highly sensitive to aromatic amines and nitroarenes, respectively, were used in the SOS/umu test to avoid false negative results. In the water samples, only two of the genotoxic chemicals listed in the water standards were detected in a few samples, with concentrations that were below water quality standards. However, positive results for the CBMN assay were observed in two river samples, and positive results for the induction of umuC gene expression in TA1535/pSK1002 were observed in seven river samples. Moreover, positive results were observed for NM2009 with S9 and NM3009 without S9 in some samples that had negative results using the strain TA1535/pSK1002. Based on the results with NM2009 and NM3009, some unknown or undetected aromatic amines and nitroarenes were likely in the source water reservoirs and the surrounding rivers. Furthermore, these compounds were most likely the causative pollutants for the genotoxic effect of these water samples. Therefore

  14. Comparative study of the mutagenic and genotoxic activity associated with inhalable particulate matter in Rio de Janeiro air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel, A.G.; Daisey, J.M.; Sousa, J.A. (Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))

    1990-01-01

    We have determined the genotoxic and mutagenic activities associated with inhalable particulate matter (IPM) collected in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Camden, NJ, and Caldecott Tunnel, CA, and used these results to compare three different bioassays. Samples collected every 12 hr (Rio) or every 24 hr (Camden) were extracted sequentially with cyclohexane (CX), dichloromethane (DCM), and acetone (ACE), for a rough fractionation by polarity, and composites of the extracts were tested for mutagenicity using the Salmonella frame shift (TA98) and base substitution (TA100) tester strains, as well as for genotoxicity using the Rossman Microscreen bioassay based on the induction of lambda-prophage in a lysogenic Escherichia coli strain. All samples were tested without and with S9 metabolic activation. Maximum mutagenic and genotoxic activities were in the nonpolar (CX) and polar (ACE) fractions, respectively, indicating that these two assays detect different classes of compounds with different efficiencies. Oxidative aging of the Rio aerosol is indicated by a shift in activities in both tests from the less polar fractions in the day to the polar (ACE) fraction at night. The Rio TA98 mutagenic (18 rev/m3) and genotoxic (1.4 x 10(5) PFU/m3) activities were higher than those for Camden, an Eastern U.S. city, by factors of 1.4 and 2.8, respectively.

  15. Genotoxicity assessment of water sampled from R-11 reservoir by means of allium test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukatich, E.; Pryakhin, E. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine (Russian Federation); Geraskin, S. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    The Mayak PA was the first enterprise for the production of weapon-grade plutonium in Russia and it incorporates uranium-graphite reactors for plutonium production and radiochemical facilities for its separation. Radiochemical processing resulted in huge volumes of liquid radioactive wastes of different specific activities. To reduce the radionuclides release into the environment, a system of bypasses and ponds (the Techa Cascade Reservoirs system) to store low-activity liquid wastes has been constructed in the upper reaches of the Techa River. Currently, industrial reservoirs of Mayak PA contain over 350 million m{sup 3} of low-level radioactive liquid wastes with total activity over 7.4 x 10{sup 15} Bq. Reservoir R-11 is the final reservoir in the Techa Cascade Reservoirs system. The average specific activity of main radionuclides in the water of R-11 are: {sup 90}Sr - 1.4x10{sup 3} Bq/l; {sup 137}Cs - 3 Bq/l; {sup 3}H - 7x10{sup 2} Bq/l; α-emitting radionuclides - 2.6 x 10{sup -1} Bq/l. In our study the Allium-test was employed to estimate reservoir R-11 water genotoxic effects. In 2012, 3 water samples were collected in different parts of reservoir R-11. Water samples from the Shershnevskoye reservoir (artificial reservoir on the Miass River designed for Chelyabinsk city water supply) were used as natural control. Samples of distilled and bottled water were used as an additional laboratory control. The common onion, Allium cepa L. (Stuttgarter Riesen) was used. Healthy equal-sized bulbs were soaked for 24 hours at +4±2 deg. C to synchronize cell division. The bulbs were maintained in distilled water at +23 deg. C until roots have grown up to 2±1 mm length and then plunged into water samples. Control samples remained in distilled and bottled water as well as in water samples from the Shershnevskoye reservoir (natural control). Roots of the 18±3 mm length were randomly sampled and fixed in an alcohol/acetic acid mixture. For microscopic analysis, squashed

  16. Antigenotoxic effects of a polyherbal drug septilin against the genotoxicity of cyclophosphamide in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shruthi

    Full Text Available Septilin (Spt is a polyherbal drug formulation from Himalaya Drug Company, consisting of extracts from different medicinal plants and minerals. In the traditional system of medicine, septilin is being used as immunomodulatory, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. In the present study, the protective effects of septilin against the genotoxicity of cyclophosphamide (CP a widely used alkylating anticancer drug was evaluated by using in vivo micronucleus (MN and sperm shape abnormality assays in Swiss albino mice. CP administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 50 mg/kg b.w. was used as positive mutagen. Different doses of septilin viz., 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w. was orally administered for 5 consecutive days. CP was administered intraperitoneally on 5th day. MN and sperm preparations were made after 24 h and 35 days respectively. CP induced significant MN in both bone marrow and peripheral blood cells and also a high frequency of abnormal sperms. In septilin supplemented animals, no significant induction of MN and abnormal sperms was recorded. In septilin supplemented groups, a dose dependent significant decrease in CP induced clastogenicity was observed. Thus the current in vivo study revealed the antigenotoxic effects of septilin against CP induced damage, in both somatic and germ cells of Swiss albino mice. Keywords: Septilin, Cyclophosphamide, Micronucleus test, Sperm abnormality, Antigenotoxic

  17. In vivo micronucleus studies with 6 titanium dioxide materials (3 pigment-grade & 3 nanoscale) in orally-exposed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, E M; Myhre, A; Brown, S C; Boatman, R; Warheit, D B

    2016-02-01

    Six pigment-grade (pg) or ultrafine (uf)/nanoscale (anatase and/or rutile) titanium dioxide (TiO2) particulates were evaluated for in vivo genotoxicity (OECD 474 Guidelines) in male and female rats by two different laboratories. All test materials were robustly characterized. The BET surface areas of the pg and uf samples ranged from 7 to 17 m(2)/g and 50 to 82 m(2)/g respectively. The materials were assessed for induction of micronuclei and toxicity in bone marrow by analyzing peripheral blood reticulocytes (RETs) by flow cytometry. Single oral gavage doses of 500, 1000 or 2000 mg/kg body weight (bw) of each material were implemented with concurrent negative (water) and positive controls (cyclophosphamide). Approximately 48 and 72 h after exposure, blood samples were collected and 20,000 RETs per animal were analyzed. For each of the six tests, there were no biologically or toxicologically relevant increases in the micronucleated RET frequency in any TiO2 exposed group at either time point at any dose level. In addition, there were a lack of biologically relevant decreases in %RETs among total erythrocytes. All six TiO2 test substances were negative for in vivo genotoxicity effects; however, it is noted that the exposure to target tissues was likely negligible. One pigment grade and one ultrafine material each were evaluated for potential systemic exposure/uptake from the gastrointestinal tract by analysis of TiO2 into blood and liver. No significant increases in TiO2 over controls were measured in blood (48 or 72 h) or liver (72 h) following exposures to 2000 mg/kg bw TiO2. These data indicate that there was no absorption of the test material from the gastrointestinal tract into the blood circulation and the lack of genotoxic effects is therefore attributed to a lack of exposure due to the inability of the test material to migrate from the gastrointestinal tract into the blood and then into target tissues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  18. Genotoxic evaluation of infusions of Urera baccifera leaves and roots in Allium cepa cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L. Gindri

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: The aqueous extracts of Urera baccifera Wedd. leaves and roots are used to inflammatory and infectious diseases in Brazilian folk medicine. Oxalic acid, a substance co-related with toxicity and stinging, was already quantified in this plant. Aims: To evaluate the action of leaves and roots infusions (1, 30, 75 g/L and the oxalic acid standard on mitosis as indicative of presumably antimitotic and genotoxic actions, using the Allium cepa test. Methods: Oxalic acid was quantified in the roots and leaves infusions by High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-DAD, with the mobile phase of 25 mM phosphate buffer (pH 2.5: acetonitrile at 95:5 (v/v. To the genotoxicity test, onion bulbs were used. After the rootlets germination, each bulb was submitted for 24 h of the individual treatments. Were analyzed 1000 cells per bulb, in a total of 5000 cells per treatment. Results: Results showed that all concentrations of roots infusions induced chromosomes abnormalities, except for the highest, that caused a substantial inhibition in the mitosis, precluding to be observed abnormalities. In the leaves infusions, only the two higher concentrations caused the highest values of damage in the cellular cycle. The oxalic acid also caused abnormalities in the mitosis, and may be considered responsible by part of the genotoxic action of U. baccifera. Conclusions: Oxalic acid can be responsible by part of the chromosomal abnormalities caused by U. baccifera, although, there must have more metabolites that evoke the same effect promoting the genotoxic effect of this nettle.

  19. Genotoxicity testing: Comparison of the γH2AX focus assay with the alkaline and neutral comet assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolova, Teodora; Marini, Federico; Kaina, Bernd

    2017-10-01

    Genotoxicity testing relies on the quantitative measurement of adverse effects, such as chromosome aberrations, micronuclei, and mutations, resulting from primary DNA damage. Ideally, assays will detect DNA damage and cellular responses with high sensitivity, reliability, and throughput. Several novel genotoxicity assays may fulfill these requirements, including the comet assay and the more recently developed γH2AX assay. Although they are thought to be specific for genotoxicants, a systematic comparison of the assays has not yet been undertaken. In the present study, we compare the γH2AX focus assay with the alkaline and neutral versions of the comet assay, as to their sensitivities and limitations for detection of genetic damage. We investigated the dose-response relationships of γH2AX foci and comet tail intensities at various times following treatment with four prototypical genotoxicants, methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), mitomycin C, and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and we tested whether there is a correlation between the endpoints, i.e., alkali-labile sites and DNA strand breaks on the one hand and the cell's response to DNA double-strand breaks and blocked replication forks on the other. Induction of γH2AX foci gave a linear dose response and all agents tested were positive in the assay. The increase in comet tail intensity was also a function of dose; however, mitomycin C was almost completely ineffective in the comet assay, and the doses needed to achieve a significant effect were somewhat higher for some treatments in the comet assay than in the γH2AX foci assay, which was confirmed by threshold analysis. There was high correlation between tail intensity and γH2AX foci for MMS and H 2 O 2 , less for MNNG, and none for mitomycin C. From this we infer that the γH2AX foci assay is more reliable, sensitive, and robust than the comet assay for detecting genotoxicant-induced DNA damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  20. Standardization of Alternative Methods for Nano genotoxicity Testing in Drosophila melanogaster Using Iron Nanoparticles: A Promising Link to Nanodosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvathi, D. P.; Rajagopal, K.; Sumitha, R.

    2016-01-01

    The remarkable advancement of nano technology has triggered enormous production of metal nanoparticles and nano materials for diverse applications in clinical diagnostics and biomedical research. Nano technology has facilitated understanding and analysing nano toxicology in a holistic approach. Iron nanoparticles have been of special interest in recent research owing to their dynamic, paramagnetic, and catalytic properties. Research studies (in vitro model) have demonstrated the lack of toxicity in nano iron. The present study design involves in vivo toxicity assessment of nano iron at specific concentrations of 0.1mM, 1 mM, 5 mM, and 10 mM in Drosophila. DNA fragmentation assay in exposed and F1 population showed first-line toxicity to flies. Viability and reproductive ability were assessed at 24-hour and 48-hour intervals and thus indicated no statistical significance between the exposed and control groups. The wing spot assay has expressed transparent lack of toxicity in the studied concentrations of nano iron. Protein profiling has demonstrated that the protein profiles have been intact in the larvae which confirm lack of toxicity of nano iron. This leads to concluding that nano iron at the defined concentrations is neither genotoxic nor mutagenic.

  1. Genotoxic Changes to Rodent Cells Exposed in Vitro to Tungsten, Nickel, Cobalt and Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Bardack

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten-based materials have been proposed as replacements for depleted uranium in armor-penetrating munitions and for lead in small-arms ammunition. A recent report demonstrated that a military-grade composition of tungsten, nickel, and cobalt induced a highly-aggressive, metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma when implanted into the leg muscle of laboratory rats to simulate a shrapnel wound. The early genetic changes occurring in response to embedded metal fragments are not known. In this study, we utilized two cultured rodent myoblast cell lines, exposed to soluble tungsten alloys and the individual metals comprising the alloys, to study the genotoxic effects. By profiling cell transcriptomes using microarray, we found slight, yet distinct and unique, gene expression changes in rat myoblast cells after 24 h metal exposure, and several genes were identified that correlate with impending adverse consequences of ongoing exposure to weapons-grade tungsten alloy. These changes were not as apparent in the mouse myoblast cell line. This indicates a potential species difference in the cellular response to tungsten alloy, a hypothesis supported by current findings with in vivo model systems. Studies examining genotoxic-associated gene expression changes in cells from longer exposure times are warranted.

  2. Sensitivity of Bidens laevis L. to mutagenic compounds. Use of chromosomal aberrations as biomarkers of genotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, D.J. [Laboratorio de Genetica, Estacion Experimental Agropecuaria Balcarce (INTA), Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, UNMdP, CC 276, 7620 Balcarce (Argentina); Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Departamento de Ciencias Marinas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, UNMdP, Funes 3350, 7600 Mar del Plata (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Rivadavia 1917, 1033 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Lukaszewicz, G. [Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Departamento de Ciencias Marinas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, UNMdP, Funes 3350, 7600 Mar del Plata (Argentina); Menone, M.L., E-mail: lujanm@mdp.edu.a [Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Departamento de Ciencias Marinas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, UNMdP, Funes 3350, 7600 Mar del Plata (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Rivadavia 1917, 1033 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Camadro, E.L. [Laboratorio de Genetica, Estacion Experimental Agropecuaria Balcarce (INTA), Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, UNMdP, CC 276, 7620 Balcarce (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Rivadavia 1917, 1033 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-01-15

    The wetland macrophyte Bidens laevis possesses suitable cytological characteristics for genotoxicity testing. To test its sensitivity as compared to terrestrial plants species currently in use in standardized assays, Methyl Methanesulfonate (MMS), N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) and Maleic Hydrazide (HM) were used. On the other hand, the insecticide Endosulfan (ES) - an environmentally relevant contaminant - was assayed in seeds and two-month old plants. Mitotic Index (MI), frequency of Chromosome Aberrations in Anaphase-Telophase (CAAT) and frequency of Abnormal Metaphases (AM) were analyzed. MH, MMS and ENU caused a significant decrease of the MI. MMS was aneugenic whereas MH and ENU were both aneugenic and clastogenic. ES caused a significant concentration-dependent increase of total- and aneugenic-CAAT in roots and a significant high frequency of AM at high concentrations. Because of its sensitivity to mutagenic substances, B. laevis can be regarded as a reliable and convenient species for genotoxicity assays especially if aquatic contaminants are evaluated. - The wetland macrophyte Bidens laevis is sensitive to genotoxic compounds similarly to terrestrial standardized species.

  3. Sensitivity of Bidens laevis L. to mutagenic compounds. Use of chromosomal aberrations as biomarkers of genotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, D.J.; Lukaszewicz, G.; Menone, M.L.; Camadro, E.L.

    2011-01-01

    The wetland macrophyte Bidens laevis possesses suitable cytological characteristics for genotoxicity testing. To test its sensitivity as compared to terrestrial plants species currently in use in standardized assays, Methyl Methanesulfonate (MMS), N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) and Maleic Hydrazide (HM) were used. On the other hand, the insecticide Endosulfan (ES) - an environmentally relevant contaminant - was assayed in seeds and two-month old plants. Mitotic Index (MI), frequency of Chromosome Aberrations in Anaphase-Telophase (CAAT) and frequency of Abnormal Metaphases (AM) were analyzed. MH, MMS and ENU caused a significant decrease of the MI. MMS was aneugenic whereas MH and ENU were both aneugenic and clastogenic. ES caused a significant concentration-dependent increase of total- and aneugenic-CAAT in roots and a significant high frequency of AM at high concentrations. Because of its sensitivity to mutagenic substances, B. laevis can be regarded as a reliable and convenient species for genotoxicity assays especially if aquatic contaminants are evaluated. - The wetland macrophyte Bidens laevis is sensitive to genotoxic compounds similarly to terrestrial standardized species.

  4. Genotoxicity studies on DNA-interactive telomerase inhibitors with application as anti-cancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Dean J; Cemeli, Eduardo; Carder, Joanna; Fearnley, Jamie; Estdale, Sian; Perry, Philip J; Jenkins, Terence C; Anderson, Diana

    2003-01-01

    Telomerase-targeted strategies have aroused recent interest in anti-cancer chemotherapy, because DNA-binding drugs can interact with high-order tetraplex rather than double-stranded (duplex) DNA targets in tumour cells. However, the protracted cell-drug exposure times necessary for clinical application require that telomerase inhibitory efficacy must be accompanied by both low inherent cytotoxicity and the absence of mutagenicity/genotoxicity. For the first time, the genotoxicity of a number of structurally diverse DNA-interactive telomerase inhibitors is examined in the Ames test using six Salmonella typhimurium bacterial strains (TA1535, TA1537, TA1538, TA98, TA100, and TA102). DNA damage induced by each agent was also assessed using the Comet assay with human lymphocytes. The two assay procedures revealed markedly different genotoxicity profiles that are likely to reflect differences in metabolism and/or DNA repair between bacterial and mammalian cells. The mutational spectrum for a biologically active fluorenone derivative, shown to be mutagenic in the TA100 strain, was characterised using a novel and rapid assay method based upon PCR amplification of a fragment of the hisG46 allele, followed by RFLP analysis. Preliminary analysis indicates that the majority (84%) of mutations induced by this compound are C --> A transversions at position 2 of the missense proline codon of the hisG46 allele. However, despite its genotoxic bacterial profile, this fluorenone agent gave a negative response in the Comet assay, and demonstrates how unwanted systemic effects (e.g., cytotoxicity and genotoxicity) can be prevented or ameliorated through suitable molecular fine-tuning of a candidate drug in targeted human tumour cells. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity assessment of shiitake (Lentinula edodes (Berkeley Pegler using the Comet assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CK Miyaji

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The mushroom shiitake (Lentinula edodes (Berkeley Pegler is been widely consumed in many countries, including Brazil, because of its pleasant flavor and reports of its therapeutic properties, although there is little available information on the genotoxicity and/or antigenotoxicity of this mushroom. We used the Comet assay and HEp-2 cells to evaluate the in vitro genotoxic and antigenotoxic activity of aqueous extracts of shiitake prepared in three different concentrations (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mg/mL and three different temperatures (4, 22 and 60 °C, using methyl methanesulfonate (MMS as a positive control and untreated cells as a negative control. Two concentrations (1.0 and 1.5 mg/mL of extract prepared at 4 °C and all of the concentrations prepared at 22 ± 2 and 60 °C showed moderate genotoxic activity. To test the protective effect of the three concentrations of the extracts against the genotoxicity induced by methyl methanesulfonate, three protocols were used: pre-treatment, simultaneous-treatment and post-treatment. Treatments were repeated for all combinations of preparation temperature and concentration. Two extracts (22 ± 2 °C 1.0 mg/mL (simultaneous-treatment and 4 °C 0.5 mg/mL (post-treatment showed antigenotoxic activity.

  6. Oxcarbazepine-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in human lymphocyte cultures with or without metabolic activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlı Şekeroğlu, Zülal; Kefelioğlu, Haluk; Kontaş Yedier, Seval; Şekeroğlu, Vedat; Delmecioğlu, Berrin

    2017-03-01

    There has been considerable debate about the relationship between epilepsy and cancer. Oxcarbazepine (OXC) is used for treating certain types of seizures in patients with epilepsy. There have been no detailed investigations about genotoxicity of OXC and its metabolites. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of OXC and its metabolites on cultured human lymphocytes. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of OXC on human peripheral blood lymphocytes were examined in vitro by sister chromatid exchange (SCE), chromosomal aberration (CA) and micronucleus (MN) tests. Cultures were treated with 125, 250 and 500 μg/ml of OXC in the presence (3 h treatment) and absence (24 h and 48 h treatment) of a metabolic activator (S9 mix). Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was used as a solvent control. OXC showed cytotoxic activities due to significant decreases in mitotic index (MI), proliferation index (PI) and nuclear division index (NDI) in the absence of S9 mix when compared with solvent control. Metabolites of OXC also significantly reduced MI and PI in cultures with S9 mix. OXC significantly increased the CAs, aberrant cells, SCE and MN values in the presence and absence of S9 mix. Our results indicated that both OXC and its metabolites have cytotoxic, cytostatic and genotoxic potential on human peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures under the experimental conditions. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the relationship between cytotoxic, cytostatic and genotoxic effects, and to make a possible risk assessment in patients receiving therapy with this drug.

  7. A comprehensive study of the harmful effects of ZnO nanoparticles using Drosophila melanogaster as an in vivo model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaraby, Mohamed; Annangi, Balasubramanyam; Hernández, Alba; Creus, Amadeu; Marcos, Ricard

    2015-10-15

    This study planned to determine the range of biological effects associated with ZnO-NP exposure using Drosophila melanogaster as an in vivo model. In addition, ZnCl2 was used to determine the potential role of Zn ions alone. Toxicity, internalization through the intestinal barrier, gene expression changes, ROS production, and genotoxicity were the end-points evaluated. No toxicity or oxidative stress induction was observed in D. melanogaster larvae, whether using ZnO-NPs or ZnCl2. Internalization of ZnO-NPs through the intestinal barrier was observed. No significant changes in the frequency of mutant clones (wing-spot test) or percentage of DNA in tail (comet assay) were observed although significant changes in Hsp70 and p53 gene expression were detected. Our study shows that ZnO-NPs do not induce toxicity or genotoxicity in D. melanogaster, although uptake occurs and altered gene expression is observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Human biological monitoring of occupational genotoxic exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Sorsa, M

    1993-01-01

    Human biological monitoring is a valuable tool for exposure assessment in groups of persons occupationally exposed to genotoxic agents. If the monitoring activity covers genetic material the term genetic monitoring is used. The methods used for genetic monitoring are either substance specific, e......) occupational exposure limit value of styrene in ambient air. The consideration of ethical issues in human genetic monitoring is an important but often overlooked aspect. This includes the scientific and preventional relevance of performing a test on individuals, pre- and post study information of donors...

  9. Air quality biomonitoring: assessment of air pollution genotoxicity in the Province of Novara (North Italy) by using Trifolium repens L. and molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piraino, F; Aina, R; Palin, L; Prato, N; Sgorbati, S; Santagostino, A; Citterio, S

    2006-12-15

    Mixed air pollutants are considered a major cause of DNA damage in living species. In this study Trifolium repens L. cv Regal was used as a bioindicator to assess the genotoxicity of air stressors in the Italian province of Novara. Two on-site biomonitoring experiments were performed during the spring and autumn of 2004. Test plants were exposed at 19 monitoring sites distributed homogeneously throughout the province, and each experiment lasted for a period of 6 weeks. Genotoxicity was evaluated with Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) molecular markers. The results show the predominantly rural central-west region of the Novara Province to have the worst air quality with regard to genotoxicity. Analyses of geomorphology, land use and climatic factors suggest that the compromised air quality in the region could be attributed to wind strength and direction, transporting pollution from vehicular traffic on the A4 highway and from the urban/industrialized centres of Novara and Vercelli. Plant growth, changes in plant photochemical efficiency and the presence of ozone related leaf injuries were also measured to better interpret the results of genotoxicity. Statistical analyses show that although climatic factors such as light intensity and temperature influence plant growth, they do not contribute to atmospheric stressor-induced DNA damage. Further analyses indicated that, as expected, a mixture of genotoxic and non-genotoxic pollutants coexist in the Novara Province troposphere, and that the elevated ozone concentrations experienced during the study may have contributed to the DNA damage in the tested plants by enhancing genotoxicity via interaction with other air stressors.

  10. Photochemical fate and eco-genotoxicity assessment of the drug etodolac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passananti, Monica [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario Monte S. Angelo, via Cintia, 4, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand (ICCF) UMR 6296, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); Lavorgna, Margherita [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Ambientali, Biologiche e Farmaceutiche, Seconda Università di Napoli, Via Vivaldi 43, I-81100 Caserta (Italy); Iesce, Maria Rosaria, E-mail: iesce@unina.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario Monte S. Angelo, via Cintia, 4, 80126 Napoli (Italy); DellaGreca, Marina [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario Monte S. Angelo, via Cintia, 4, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Brigante, Marcello [Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand (ICCF) UMR 6296, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); Criscuolo, Emma [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Ambientali, Biologiche e Farmaceutiche, Seconda Università di Napoli, Via Vivaldi 43, I-81100 Caserta (Italy); Cermola, Flavio [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario Monte S. Angelo, via Cintia, 4, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Isidori, Marina, E-mail: marina.isidori@unina2.it [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Ambientali, Biologiche e Farmaceutiche, Seconda Università di Napoli, Via Vivaldi 43, I-81100 Caserta (Italy)

    2015-06-15

    The photochemical behavior of etodolac was investigated under various irradiation conditions. Kinetic data were obtained after irradiation of 10{sup −4} M aqueous solutions by UVB, UVA and direct exposure to sunlight. The Xenon lamp irradiation was used in order to determine the photodegradation quantum yield under sun-simulated condition (ϕ{sub sun}). The value was determined to be = 0.10 ± 0.01. In order to obtain photoproducts and for mechanistic purposes, experiments were carried out on more concentrated solutions by exposure to sunlight and to UVA and UVB lamps. The drug underwent photooxidative processes following an initial oxygen addition to the double bond of the five membered ring and was mainly converted into a spiro compound and a macrolactam. Ecotoxicity tests were performed on etodolac, its photostable spiro derivative and its sunlight irradiation mixture on two different aquatic trophic levels, plants (algae) and invertebrates (rotifers and crustaceans). Mutagenesis and genotoxicity were detected on bacterial strains. The results showed that only etodolac had long term effects on rotifers although at concentrations far from environmental detection values. A mutagenic and genotoxic potential was found for its derivative. - Highlights: • Photochemical transformation of etodolac occurs in the environment. • Etodolac was slightly toxic in the long term for some aquatic organisms. • A mutagenic and genotoxic potential was found for etodolac photostable derivative.

  11. Genotoxic activities of the food contaminant 5-hydroxymethylfurfural using different in vitro bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, Isabelle; Dumont, Coralie; Jondeau-Cabaton, Adeline; Graillot, Vanessa; Chagnon, Marie-Christine

    2010-02-01

    5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) is known as an indicator of quality deterioration in a wide range of foods. 5-HMF is formed as an intermediate in the Maillard reaction and has been identified in a wide variety of heat-processed foods. In recent years, the presence of 5-HMF in foods has raised toxicological concerns: data have shown cytotoxic, genotoxic and tumoral effects but further studies suggest that 5-HMF does not pose a serious health risk. However the subject is still a matter of debate. We investigated the genotoxicity of the food-borne contaminant 5-HMF using the Ames test, the micronucleus (MN) and the single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assays in the human metabolically active HepG2 cell line. Cytotoxic effect of 5-HMF was first assessed using Alamar Blue as a sensitive sub-lethal assay. 5-HMF did not induce any genic mutation in bacteria whatever the concentration in the Ames test. Furthermore, it does not induce clastogenic or aneugenic effects in the HepG2 cells. In contrast, 5-HMF induced HepG2 DNA damage at concentrations from 7.87 to 25 mM in the comet assay suggesting a weak genotoxic effect of 5-HMF in the HepG2 cells probably repaired. 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The comet assay: assessment of in vitro and in vivo DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpayee, Mahima; Kumar, Ashutosh; Dhawan, Alok

    2013-01-01

    Rapid industrialization and pursuance of a better life have led to an increase in the amount of chemicals in the environment, which are deleterious to human health. Pesticides, automobile exhausts, and new chemical entities all add to air pollution and have an adverse effect on all living organisms including humans. Sensitive test systems are thus required for accurate hazard identification and risk assessment. The Comet assay has been used widely as a simple, rapid, and sensitive tool for assessment of DNA damage in single cells from both in vitro and in vivo sources as well as in humans. Already, the in vivo comet assay has gained importance as the preferred test for assessing DNA damage in animals for some international regulatory guidelines. The advantages of the in vivo comet assay are its ability to detect DNA damage in any tissue, despite having non-proliferating cells, and its sensitivity to detect genotoxicity. The recommendations from the international workshops held for the comet assay have resulted in establishment of guidelines. The in vitro comet assay conducted in cultured cells and cell lines can be used for screening large number of compounds and at very low concentrations. The in vitro assay has also been automated to provide a high-throughput screening method for new chemical entities, as well as environmental samples. This chapter details the in vitro comet assay using the 96-well plate and in vivo comet assay in multiple organs of the mouse.

  13. Lack of genotoxicity in medical oncology nurses handling antineoplastic drugs: effect of work environment and protective equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulten, Tuna; Evke, Elif; Ercan, Ilker; Evrensel, Turkkan; Kurt, Ender; Manavoglu, Osman

    2011-01-01

    In this study we aimed to investigate the genotoxic effects of antineoplastic agents in occupationally exposed oncology nurses. Genotoxic effects mean the disruptive effects in the integrity of DNA and they are associated with cancer development. Biomonitoring of health care workers handling antineoplastic agents is helpful for the evaluation of exposure to cytostatics. The study included an exposed and two control groups. The exposed group (n=9) was comprised of oncology nurses. The first (n=9) and second (n=10) control groups were comprised of subjects who did not come into contact with antineoplastic drugs working respectively in the same department with oncology nurses and in different departments. Genotoxicity evaluation was performed using SCE analysis. After applying culture, harvest and chromosome staining procedures, a total of 25 metaphases were analyzed per person. Kruskal Wallis test was used to perform statistical analysis. A statistically significant difference of sister chromatid exchange frequencies was not observed between the exposed and control groups. Lack of genotoxicity in medical oncology nurses might be due to good working conditions with high standards of technical equipment and improved personal protection.

  14. Development of cultures of the marine sponge Hymeniacidon perleve for genotoxicity assessment using the alkaline comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpiri, Rachael U; Konya, Roseline S; Hodges, Nikolas J

    2017-12-01

    Sponges are a potential alternative model species to bivalves in pollution biomonitoring and environmental risk assessment in the aquatic ecosystem. In the present study, a novel in vivo exposure sponge culture model was developed from field-collected and cryopreserved sponge (Hymeniacidon perleve) cells to investigate the genotoxic effects of environmentally relevant metals in the laboratory. Sponge cell aggregates were cultured and exposed to noncytotoxic concentrations (0-0.4 mg/L) of cadmium chloride, nickel chloride, and sodium dichromate as quantified by the reduction of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and DNA-strand breaks assessed by the comet assay. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation was quantified by oxidation of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate in sponge cell aggregates exposed to the same concentrations of Cd, Cr, and Ni. There was a statistically significant (p sponge cells and demonstrated that exposure to noncytotoxic concentrations of Cd, Cr, and Ni for 12 h results in a concentration-dependent increase in DNA damage and levels of ROS production. In conclusion, we have developed a novel in vivo model based on culture of cryopreserved sponge cells that is compatible with the alkaline comet assay. Genotoxicity in marine sponges measured by the comet assay technique may be a useful tool for biomonitoring research and risk assessment in aquatic ecosystems. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:3314-3323. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  15. The genotoxic effect of oxcarbazepine on mice blood lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Huma; Khan, Ajmal; Mohammadzai, Imdadullah; Khisroon, Muhammad; Begum, Ilham

    2018-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the amount of DNA damage caused by Oxcarbazepine (OXC) through single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) technique/comet assay. OXC derived from dibenzazepine series is an effective second generation antiepileptic drug (AED) for both children and adults. Side effects like genotoxic effects of AEDs are of prime importance resulting from toxic metabolites, free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Forty Eight adult male Bagg's albino mice (BALB/c) were randomly classified into eight groups, each comprising of six animals. Two of these groups were control and six were tested groups. Control groups were injected with 1% tween 80 while tested groups were injected with 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg-day OXC for seven days (acute therapy) and 28 days (subchronic therapy) in peritoneal cavity. Blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture and subjected to comet assay for the analysis of DNA damage. Per sample 100 cells were scored and classified according to comet tail length. The results showed that OXC in acute and long term therapies had significantly higher (p < 0.05) genotoxicity in treated groups as compared to control groups. Our study suggests that OXC may cause significant DNA damage in both acute as well as in subchronic therapies.

  16. Cyto-genotoxic and DNA methylation changes induced by different crystal phases of TiO{sub 2}-np in bronchial epithelial (16-HBE) cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Manosij, E-mail: gmanosij@gmail.com [K.U.Leuven, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Centre Environment & Health, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Öner, Deniz; Duca, Radu-Corneliu [K.U.Leuven, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Centre Environment & Health, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Cokic, Stevan M. [Department of Oral Health Sciences, KU Leuven BIOMAT, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Seys, Sven [K.U.Leuven, Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Leuven (Belgium); Kerkhofs, Stef [Centre for Surface Chemistry and Catalysis, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200f, Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); Van Landuyt, Kirsten [Department of Oral Health Sciences, KU Leuven BIOMAT, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Hoet, Peter [K.U.Leuven, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Centre Environment & Health, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Godderis, Lode, E-mail: lode.godderis@med.kuleuven.be [K.U.Leuven, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Centre Environment & Health, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Idewe, External Service for Prevention and Protection at Work, B-3001, Heverlee (Belgium)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Comet and micronucleus (with and without CytB) assays revealed significant genotoxic effect of TiO{sub 2}-np. • TiO{sub 2}-np induces cell cycle arrest in the S-phase. • Anatase form induces more cyto-genotoxic effect compared to rutile and anatase-rutile mixture. • Significant hypomethylation were observed at for anatase, rutile and anatase: rutile mixture. - Abstract: With the increase in use of TiO{sub 2}-np, a better understanding of their safety is important. In the present study the effect of different crystal phases of TiO{sub 2}-np (anatase, rutile and anatase: rutile mixture; 20–26 nm) were studied for cyto-genotoxicity and global DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation. Cytotoxic response was observed at a concentration of 25 μg/ml for the particles tested. Results of comet and micronucleus (with and without CytB) assays revealed significant genotoxic effect of these particles. Flow cytometry revealed cell cycle arrest in the S-phase. Based on the results, toxicity of the particles could be correlated with their physico-chemical properties (i.e. smaller size and hydrodynamic diameter and larger surface area), anatase form being the most toxic. From the results of the cyto-genotoxicity assays, concentrations were determined for the epigenetic study. Effect on global DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation levels were studied at cyto-genotoxic (25 μg/ml), genotoxic (12.5 μg/ml) and sub cyto-genotoxic (3.25 μg/ml) concentrations using LC–MS/MS analysis. Though no significant changes were observed for 3 h treatment schedule; significant hypomethylation were observed at 24 h for anatase (significant at 3.25 and 25 μg/ml), rutile (significant at 3.25 and 25 μg/ml) and anatase: rutile mixture (significant at 25 μg/ml) forms. The results suggest that epigenetic changes could occur at sub cyto-genotoxic concentrations. And hence for complete characterization of nanoparticle toxicity, epigenetic studies should be performed along with

  17. The genotoxic contribution of wood smoke to indoor respirable suspended particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boone, P.M. (John B. Pierce Foundation Laboratory, New Haven, CT (USA)); Rossman, T.G. (New York Univ. Medical Center, New York (USA)); Daisey, J.M. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (USA))

    1989-01-01

    The effect of wood burning stoves on the genotoxicity of indoor respirable organic matter was investigated for four homes during the winter and spring of 1986. Paired samples, one collected when the stove was not used and one when wood was burned, were extracted with dichloromethane and acetone. Aliquots of the dichloromethane extracts were analyzed with and without metabolic activation using the Microscreen bioassay. The Microscreen is a rapid, sensitive bioassay which measures a broad genotoxic endpoint, {lambda}-prophage induction. Per nanogram of organic material, wood smoke proved to be a major source of indirect (observed with metabolic activation) but not direct genotoxins in homes. The increase in indirect genotoxicity for extracts from aerosol containing wood smoke is probably due to higher concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the wood smoke aerosol as well as other unidentified classes. The direct genotoxicity observed for extracts of aerosol not containing wood smoke decreased with metabolic activation. This direct genotoxicity may be related to cooking activities in the homes. The trends in genotoxicity observed per nanogram of organic material are more pronounced when expressed per m{sup 3} of air due to the higher percentage of extractable material in aerosol containing wood smoke.

  18. Evaluation of environmental genotoxicity by comet assay in Columba livia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Acevedo, Anahi; García-Salas, Juan A; Gosálvez, Jaime; Fernández, José Luis; Dávila-Rodríguez, Martha I; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; Méndez-López, Luis F; Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva I

    2016-01-01

    The concentrations of recognized or suspected genotoxic and carcinogenic agents found in the air of large cities and, in particular, developing countries, have raised concerns about the potential for chronic health effects in the populations exposed to them. The biomonitoring of environmental genotoxicity requires the selection of representative organisms as "sentinels," as well as the development of suitable and sensitive assays, such as those aimed at assessing DNA damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate DNA damage levels in erythrocytes from Columba livia living in the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Mexico, compared with control animals via comet assay, and to confirm the results via Micronuclei test (MN) and DNA breakage detection-fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH). Our results showed a significant increase in DNA migration in animals from the area assayed compared with that observed in control animals sampled in non-contaminated areas. These results were confirmed by MN test and DBD-FISH. In conclusion, these observations confirm that the examination of erythrocytes from Columba livia via alkaline comet assay provides a sensitive and reliable end point for the detection of environmental genotoxicants.

  19. Mequindox Induced Genotoxicity and Carcinogenicity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianying Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mequindox (MEQ, acting as an inhibitor of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA synthesis, is a synthetic heterocyclic N-oxides. To investigate the potential carcinogenicity of MEQ, four groups of Kun-Ming (KM mice (50 mice/sex/group were fed with diets containing MEQ (0, 25, 55, and 110 mg/kg for one and a half years. The result showed adverse effects on body weights, feed consumption, hematology, serum chemistry, organ weights, relative organ weights, and incidence of tumors during most of the study period. Treatment-related changes in hematology, serum chemistry, relative weights and histopathological examinations revealed that the hematological system, liver, kidneys, and adrenal glands, as well as the developmental and reproductive system, were the main targets after MEQ administration. Additionally, MEQ significantly increased the frequency of micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes in bone marrow cells of mice. Furthermore, MEQ increased the incidence of tumors, including mammary fibroadenoma, breast cancer, corticosuprarenaloma, haemangiomas, hepatocarcinoma, and pulmonary adenoma. Interestingly, the higher incidence of tumors was noted in M25 mg/kg group, the lowest dietary concentration tested, which was equivalent to approximately 2.25 and 1.72 mg/kg b.w./day in females and males, respectively. It was assumed that the lower toxicity might be a reason for its higher tumor incidence in M25 mg/kg group. This finding suggests a potential relationships among the dose, general toxicity and carcinogenicity in vivo, and further study is required to reveal this relationship. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that MEQ is a genotoxic carcinogen in KM mice.

  20. Tissue-specific in vivo genetic toxicity of nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons assessed using the Muta™Mouse transgenic rodent assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Alexandra S., E-mail: alexandra.long@hc-sc.gc.ca [Faculty of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Mechanistic Studies Division, Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Lemieux, Christine L. [Air Health Science Division, Water and Air Quality Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Arlt, Volker M. [Analytical and Environmental Sciences Division, MRC-PHE Centre for Environment and Health, King' s College London, London (United Kingdom); White, Paul A. [Faculty of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Mechanistic Studies Division, Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2016-01-01

    Test batteries to screen chemicals for mutagenic hazard include several endpoints regarded as effective for detecting genotoxic carcinogens. Traditional in vivo methods primarily examine clastogenic endpoints in haematopoietic tissues. Although this approach is effective for identifying systemically distributed clastogens, some mutagens may not induce clastogenic effects; moreover, genotoxic effects may be restricted to the site of contact and/or related tissues. An OECD test guideline for transgenic rodent (TGR) gene mutation assays was released in 2011, and the TGR assays permit assessment of mutagenicity in any tissue. This study assessed the responses of two genotoxicity endpoints following sub-chronic oral exposures of male Muta™Mouse to 9 carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Clastogenicity was assessed via induction of micronuclei in peripheral blood, and mutagenicity via induction of lacZ transgene mutations in bone marrow, glandular stomach, small intestine, liver, and lung. Additionally, the presence of bulky PAH-DNA adducts was examined. Five of the 9 PAHs elicited positive results across all endpoints in at least one tissue, and no PAHs were negative or equivocal across all endpoints. All PAHs were positive for lacZ mutations in at least one tissue (sensitivity = 100%), and for 8 PAHs, one or more initial sites of chemical contact (i.e., glandular stomach, liver, small intestine) yielded a greater response than bone marrow. Five PAHs were positive in the micronucleus assay (sensitivity = 56%). Furthermore, all PAHs produced DNA adducts in at least one tissue. The results demonstrate the utility of the TGR assay for mutagenicity assessment, especially for compounds that may not be systemically distributed. - Highlights: • The Muta™Mouse is a reliable tool for in vivo mutagenicity assessment of PAHs. • All 9 PAHs induced lacZ transgene mutations in small intestine. • Only 5 of 9 PAHs induced lacZ mutations and micronuclei in

  1. Potential preventive role of lactic acid bacteria against aflatoxin M₁ immunotoxicity and genotoxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salah-Abbès, Jalila; Abbès, Samir; Jebali, Rania; Haous, Zohra; Oueslati, Ridha

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a mycotoxin produced by numerous Aspergillus species in pre- or post-harvest cereals and milk. Exposure to AFM1 imparts potent economic losses in the livestock industry. Toxicologically, it also causes severe immune system problems. The aims of this study were to evaluate a new AFM1-binding/degrading microorganism for biologic detoxification, to examine its ability to degrade AFM1 in liquid medium, and to evaluate its potential for in vivo preventative effects against AFM1-induced immunotoxicity and genotoxicity in mice. Lactobacillus plantarum MON03 (LP) isolated from Tunisian artisanal butter was found to display significant binding ability to AFM1 in PBS (93%) within 24 h of incubation. Further, the LP was able to tolerate gastric acidity, bile salts, and adhere efficiently to Caco-3 cells in vitro. The in vivo study used Balb/c mice that received either vehicle (control), LP only (at 1 × 10(9)CFU/L, ∼1 mg/kg bw), AFM1 (100 mg/kg bw), or AFM1 + LP daily for 15 days (by gavage); two other groups received a single dose of colchicine (4 mg/kg) or mitomycin C (1 mg/kg) as positive controls for induction of micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations, respectively. The results showed that, compared to in control mice, AFM1 treatment led to significantly decreased body weight gains, and caused cytotoxic/genotoxic effects as indicated by increases in frequencies of polychromatic erythrocytes, as well as those with micronucleation (PCEMN) and chromosomal aberrations, among bone marrow cells. The concurrent administration of LP with AFM1 strongly reduced the adverse effects of AFM1 on each parameter. Mice receiving AFM1 + LP co-treatment displayed no significant differences in the assayed parameters as compared to the control mice. By itself, the bacteria caused no adverse effects. Based on the data, it is concluded that the test bacteria could potentially be beneficial in the detoxification of AFM1-contaminated foods and feeds

  2. METABOLISM, GENOTOXICITY, AND CARCINOGENICITY OF COMFREY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Nan; Guo, Lei; Fu, Peter P.; Fuscoe, James C.; Luan, Yang; Chen, Tao

    2018-01-01

    Comfrey has been consumed by humans as a vegetable and a tea and used as an herbal medicine for more than 2000 years. Comfrey, however, produces hepatotoxicity in livestock and humans and carcinogenicity in experimental animals. Comfrey contains as many as 14 pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA), including 7-acetylintermedine, 7-acetyllycopsamine, echimidine, intermedine, lasiocarpine, lycopsamine, myoscorpine, symlandine, symphytine, and symviridine. The mechanisms underlying comfrey-induced genotoxicity and carcinogenicity are still not fully understood. The available evidence suggests that the active metabolites of PA in comfrey interact with DNA in liver endothelial cells and hepatocytes, resulting in DNA damage, mutation induction, and cancer development. Genotoxicities attributed to comfrey and riddelliine (a representative genotoxic PA and a proven rodent mutagen and carcinogen) are discussed in this review. Both of these compounds induced similar profiles of 6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine (DHP)-derived DNA adducts and similar mutation spectra. Further, the two agents share common mechanisms of drug metabolism and carcinogenesis. Overall, comfrey is mutagenic in liver, and PA contained in comfrey appear to be responsible for comfrey-induced toxicity and tumor induction. PMID:21170807

  3. Metabolism, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity of comfrey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Nan; Guo, Lei; Fu, Peter P; Fuscoe, James C; Luan, Yang; Chen, Tao

    2010-10-01

    Comfrey has been consumed by humans as a vegetable and a tea and used as an herbal medicine for more than 2000 years. Comfrey, however, produces hepatotoxicity in livestock and humans and carcinogenicity in experimental animals. Comfrey contains as many as 14 pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA), including 7-acetylintermedine, 7-acetyllycopsamine, echimidine, intermedine, lasiocarpine, lycopsamine, myoscorpine, symlandine, symphytine, and symviridine. The mechanisms underlying comfrey-induced genotoxicity and carcinogenicity are still not fully understood. The available evidence suggests that the active metabolites of PA in comfrey interact with DNA in liver endothelial cells and hepatocytes, resulting in DNA damage, mutation induction, and cancer development. Genotoxicities attributed to comfrey and riddelliine (a representative genotoxic PA and a proven rodent mutagen and carcinogen) are discussed in this review. Both of these compounds induced similar profiles of 6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine (DHP)-derived DNA adducts and similar mutation spectra. Further, the two agents share common mechanisms of drug metabolism and carcinogenesis. Overall, comfrey is mutagenic in liver, and PA contained in comfrey appear to be responsible for comfrey-induced toxicity and tumor induction.

  4. Evaluation of toxicity and genotoxicity of 2-chlorophenol on bacteria, fish and human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlastos, Dimitris; Antonopoulou, Maria; Konstantinou, Ioannis

    2016-05-01

    Due to the extensive use of chlorophenols (CPs) in anthropogenic activities, 2-Chlorophenol (2-CP), among other CPs, can enter aquatic ecosystems and can be harmful to a variety of organisms, including bacteria, fish and humans, that are exposed directly and/or indirectly to such contaminated environments. Based on the existing knowledge and in order to move a step forward, the purpose of this study is to investigate the toxic and mainly the genotoxic effects of 2-CP using a combination of bioassays. The tests include the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri and micronuclei induction in the erythrocytes of Carassius auratus as well as in cultured human lymphocytes. The results obtained reveal that 2-CP is able to induce dose-dependent toxic and genotoxic effects on the selected tested concentrations under the specific experimental conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Investigations on genotoxic effects of groundwater from the Mitterndorfer Senke and from the vicinity of Wiener Neustadt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knasmüller, S; Helma, C; Eckl, P M; Gottmann, E; Steinkellner, H; Kassie, F; Haider, T; Parzefall, W; Schulte-Hermann, R

    1998-12-11

    This report describes the first study on genotoxic effects of Austrian ground- and drinking waters. Samples from the Mitterndorfer Senke (MS) and the vicinity of Wiener Neustadt were tested over a three years period. The MS is the largest aquifer in Austria. Due to deposition of industrial and community wastes, chemicals have polluted the groundwater in this area. Aim of the present study was to elucidate if consumption of these waters might pose a carcinogenic risk to humans. 43 Water samples were tested in a test battery which consisted of bacterial gene mutation assays (Salmonella strains TA100 and TA98), micronucleus (MN) assays with cultures of primary rat hepatocytes and plant bioassays (MN tests with Tradescantia and Vicia faba). For the bacterial assays, the water samples were extracted with XAD resins. In total, 27.9% of the samples caused positive effects; 8 samples were active in Salmonella microsome assays, Strain TA100 was particularly sensitive upon addition of metabolic activation mix (6 positive samples). Four samples were positive exclusively in MN assays with cultures of primary rat hepatocytes; one sample gave positive results in all three bioassays. Finished waters from waterworks were consistently devoid of mutagenic activity under all experimental conditions. Overall, only a small fraction of the groundwaters caused mutagenic effects and in all cases the activities were moderate. Comparison of the results of the present study with data obtained in other investigations under similar experimental conditions shows that the genotoxicity of groundwaters of the MS area are lower than the effects caused by ground- and drinking waters from other countries. The fact that no genotoxic activity was detected in any of the finished drinking waters can be taken as an indication that consumption of these waters does not pose a health hazard arising from contamination with genotoxic carcinogens to humans.

  6. Effect of upgraded diesel fuels and oxidation catalysts on emission properties, especially PAH and genotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Keld; Gabrielsson, Pär; Stavnsbjerg, Peter

    1997-01-01

    in an engine test bench and a full ECE R49 13 mode test was performed and 2) a VW GOLF 1.6 l engine was mounted in a car and a full transient FTP-75 test was performed. Regulated emissions and unregulated emissions as SOF, sulphur, nitrate, PAH in PM plus vapour phase were measured. Genotoxic activity...

  7. Mixture Genotoxicity of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid, Acrylamide, and Maleic Hydrazide on Human Caco-2 Cells Assessed with Comet Assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syberg, Kristian; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Cedergreen, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of genotoxic properties of chemicals is mainly conducted only for single chemicals, without taking mixture genotoxic effects into consideration. The current study assessed mixture effects of the three known genotoxic chemicals, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), acrylamide (AA......), and maleic hydrazide (MH), in an experiment with a fixed ratio design setup. The genotoxic effects were assessed with the single-cell gel electrophoresis assay (comet assay) for both single chemicals and the ternary mixture. The concentration ranges used were 0-1.4, 0-20, and 0-37.7 mM for 2,4-D, AA, and MH......, respectively. Mixture toxicity was tested with a fixed ratio design at a 10:23:77% ratio for 2.4-D:AA:MH. Results indicated that the three chemicals yielded a synergistic mixture effect. It is not clear which mechanisms are responsible for this interaction. A few possible interactions are discussed...

  8. [Study on the chemical components of edible oil fume in kitchen and its genotoxity on Drosophila].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S; Wang, Y; Zhang, J; Zhao, X

    1999-01-30

    To study the chemical components of the condensate of edible oil fume in kitchen and its genotoxicity on Drosophila. Analysis for the chemical components was carried out by gas chromatography and mass spectra (GC/MS) and its genotoxicity was studied by sex linked recessive lethal (SLRL) test in Drosophila. A total of 74 organic compounds were found in samples of condensed oil from the fume in kitchen. It included hydroxylic acids, hydrocarbons, alcohols, esters, aldehydes, ketones, aromatic compounds, and steroids, etc. The total mutagenicity rates in SLRL test induced by the samples at concentrations of 110,320 and 960 mg/L were 0.1732%, 0.4306% and 0.1707% respectively. The sterility rates of the first broods were 2.564%, 2.056% and 2.845% at above 3 concentrations respectively(P < 0.05, as compared with the control). The mutagenicity rate of the second brood at 320 mg/L was 0.530% and that of the third brood at 110 mg/L 0.540%(P < 0.001). Some of the compounds in the condensate of edible oil fume were proved to have high recessive lethal effect and genotoxic effect on the reproductive system of Drosophila.

  9. Comparative Genotoxicity of Cadmium and Lead in Earthworm Coelomocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ptumporn Muangphra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine genotoxicity to coelomocytes, Pheretima peguana earthworms were exposed in filter paper studies to cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb for 48 h, at concentrations less than the LC10—Cd: 0.09, 0.19, 0.38, 0.75, and 1.50 μg cm−2; Pb: 1.65, 3.29, 6.58, 13.16, and 26.32 μg cm−2. For Cd at 0.75 μg cm−2, in the micronucleus test (detects chromosomal aberrations, significant increases (<.05 in micronuclei and binucleate cells were observed, and in the comet assay (detects DNA single-strand breaks, tail DNA% was significantly increased. Lead was less toxic with minimal effects on DNA, but the binucleates were significantly increased by Pb at 3.29 μg cm−2. This study shows that Cd is more acutely toxic and sublethally genotoxic than Pb to P. peguana. Cadmium caused chromosomal aberrations and DNA single-strand breaks at 45% of the LC10 concentration. Lead, in contrast, did not induce DNA damage but caused cytokinesis defects.

  10. Effect of green juice and their bioactive compounds on genotoxicity induced by alkylating agents in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, Gabriela Elibio; Damiani, Adriani Paganini; Borges, Gabriela Daminelli; Teixeira, Karina Oliveira; Jesus, Maiellen Martins; Daumann, Francine; Ramlov, Fernanda; Carvalho, Tiago; Leffa, Daniela Dimer; Rohr, Paula; Moraes De Andrade, Vanessa

    2017-01-01

    Kale juice (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala D.C.) is a reliable source of dietary carotenoids and typically contains the highest concentrations of lutein (LT) and beta-carotene (BC) among green leafy vegetables. As a result of their antioxidant properties, dietary carotenoids are postulated to decrease the risk of disease occurrence, particularly certain cancers. The present study aimed to (1) examine the genotoxic and antigenotoxic activity of natural and commercially available juices derived from Brassica oleracea and (2) assess influence of LT or BC against DNA damage induced by alkylating agents such as methyl methanesulfonate (MS) or cyclophosphamide (CP) in vivo in mice. Male Swiss mice were divided into groups of 6 animals, which were treated with water, natural, or commercial Brassica oleraceae juices (kale), LT, BC, MMS, or CP. After treatment, DNA damage was determined in peripheral blood lymphocytes using the comet assay. Results demonstrated that none of the Brassica oleraceae juices or carotenoids produced genotoxic effects. In all examined cell types, kale juices or carotenoids inhibited DNA damage induced by MMS or CP administered either pre- or posttreatment by 50 and 20%, respectively. Under our experimental conditions, kale leaf juices alone exerted no marked genotoxic or clastogenic effects. However, a significant decrease in DNA damage induced by MMS or CP was noted. This effect was most pronounced in groups that received juices, rather than carotenoids, suggesting that the synergy among constituents present in the food matrix may be more beneficial than the action of single compounds. Data suggest that the antigenotoxic properties of kale juices may be of therapeutic importance.

  11. Micronuclei as biomarkers of genotoxicity of gamma radiation in aquatic environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Luanna R.S.; Silva, Edvane B.; Melo, Ana M.M.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (GERAR/DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia; Silva, Ronaldo C. da [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Genetica; Amancio, Francisco F. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia. Lab. de Radiobiologia

    2011-07-01

    Ionizing radiation is a genotoxic agent, inducing gene mutations and cellular death. Several efforts have been defendants in the development of techniques for measurement of radiation damage in biological systems. Among these techniques, micronuclei test has been showing as a great bio marker of DNA damage, being used in environmental monitoring to detect genotoxic agents in the environment. Additionally, organisms as Biomphalaria glabrata, freshwater molluscs, presents itself as an excellent model to assess damage caused by physical and chemical agents, due their biological and environmental characteristics. The snails were divided into groups of 5 individuals exposed to doses of 0 (control), 25, 35, 45 and 55 Gy of {sup 60}Co. After 48 hours of irradiation, the hemo lymph was collected and prepared the slides, which were stained with Giemsa and analyzed the cellular changes in haemocytes Statistical analysis was accomplished through chi-square test, ANOVA and Tukey test (p< 0,05). The results indicated that B. glabrata showed to be sensitive to gamma radiation. The snails irradiated with 35 Gy showed a decrease of haemocytes, while that of 55 Gy increased. Cellular and morphological changes were observed at doses of 35, 45 and 55 Gy and the dose of 55 Gy, the most radiotoxic. (author)

  12. Micronuclei as biomarkers of genotoxicity of gamma radiation in aquatic environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Luanna R.S.; Silva, Edvane B.; Melo, Ana M.M.A.; Silva, Ronaldo C. da; Amancio, Francisco F.

    2011-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is a genotoxic agent, inducing gene mutations and cellular death. Several efforts have been defendants in the development of techniques for measurement of radiation damage in biological systems. Among these techniques, micronuclei test has been showing as a great bio marker of DNA damage, being used in environmental monitoring to detect genotoxic agents in the environment. Additionally, organisms as Biomphalaria glabrata, freshwater molluscs, presents itself as an excellent model to assess damage caused by physical and chemical agents, due their biological and environmental characteristics. The snails were divided into groups of 5 individuals exposed to doses of 0 (control), 25, 35, 45 and 55 Gy of 60 Co. After 48 hours of irradiation, the hemo lymph was collected and prepared the slides, which were stained with Giemsa and analyzed the cellular changes in haemocytes Statistical analysis was accomplished through chi-square test, ANOVA and Tukey test (p< 0,05). The results indicated that B. glabrata showed to be sensitive to gamma radiation. The snails irradiated with 35 Gy showed a decrease of haemocytes, while that of 55 Gy increased. Cellular and morphological changes were observed at doses of 35, 45 and 55 Gy and the dose of 55 Gy, the most radiotoxic. (author)

  13. Genotoxicity of dill (Anethum graveolens L.), peppermint (Menthaxpiperita L.) and pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) essential oils in human lymphocytes and Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazutka, J R; Mierauskiene, J; Slapsyte, G; Dedonyte, V

    2001-05-01

    Genotoxic properties of the essential oils extracted from dill (Anethum graveolens L.) herb and seeds, peppermint (Menthaxpiperita L.) herb and pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles were studied using chromosome aberration (CA) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) tests in human lymphocytes in vitro, and Drosophila melanogaster somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) in vivo. In the CA test, the most active essential oil was from dill seeds, then followed essential oils from dill herb, peppermint herb and pine needles, respectively. In the SCE test, the most active essential oils were from dill herb and seeds followed by essential oils from pine needles and peppermint herb. Essential oils from dill herb and seeds and pine needles induced CA and SCE in a clear dose-dependent manner, while peppermint essential oil induced SCE in a dose-independent manner. All essential oils were cytotoxic for human lymphocytes. In the SMART test, a dose-dependent increase in mutation frequency was observed for essential oils from pine and dill herb. Peppermint essential oil induced mutations in a dose-independent manner. Essential oil from dill seeds was almost inactive in the SMART test.

  14. Testing the genotoxicity of some perfumes with high diethylphthalate (DEP levels using comet assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Al-Saleh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The presence of phthalates in perfumes has gained recently some attention since these chemicals are added sometimes intentionally as a fixative. Our previous study tested 47 branded perfumes sold in Saudi market and found 68% of tested samples had diethylphthalate (DEP, above reported threshold limit of 1 ppm. Of these phthalates, DEP was found to have the highest mean value (1621.63 ppm. These results enticed us to test the potential genotoxicity of 7 brands in which their DEP contents were in the range of 1.06 ppm to 23649.3 ppm in human TK-6 cells using single cell gel electrophoresis assay (comet assay. Cells were exposed to 400 µl perfume for 2 hrs, at room temperature. Tail moment was (TM used as a metric measure for DNA damage and 25 cells per sample were determined by image analysis software. Four perfumes with DEP above 40 ppm produced significant DNA damage in TK-6 cells with TM of 54.27 ± 1.04, n=500 compare to the other 3 perfumes with DEP < 2 ppm (21.94 ± 1.09, n=300, untreated cells (2.99 ± 0.17, n=250 and cells induced with ethanol (33.76 ± 1.4, n=75 or methanol (23.82 ± 1.84, n=100 which are the vehicles used in perfume's preparations. The results suggest that DEP in perfumes might be one of the ingredients that provoked DNA damage; however, further investigation is required confirming our observation.

  15. In vitro cytotoxic, genotoxic and antioxidant/oxidant effects of guaiazulene on human lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Başak Toğar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate for the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and antioxidant/oxidant activity of GYZ on human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs. Guaiazulene (GYZ was added into culture tubes at various concentrations (0-400 µg/mL-1. Cytotoxicity against the human lymphocytes cultures was examined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release assay. The proliferative response was estimated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Antioxidant/oxidant activity was evaluated by measuring the total oxidant status (TOS and total antioxidant capacity (TAC levels. Micronucleus (MN and chromosomal aberration (CA tests were used in genotoxicity studies. The results showed that GYZ caused cytotoxicity in the PBLs at high concentrations, but TOS level were not affected, while the level of TAC was significantly increased. GYZ also did not induce chromosomal aberrations when compared to that of the control group. Results this study clearly revealed that GYZ was not genotoxic and also increased the capacity of the antioxidant in the culture of human PBL cells. This report is first report on the impact of GYZ on human PBL cells.

  16. Investigating the embryo/larval toxic and genotoxic effects of {gamma} irradiation on zebrafish eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, O., E-mail: olivier.simon@irsn.fr [Laboratoire de Radioecologie et d' Ecotoxicologie, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Massarin, S. [Laboratoire de Modelisation Environnementale, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Cadarache, Bat 159, BP3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Coppin, F. [Laboratoire de Radioecologie et d' Ecotoxicologie, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Hinton, T.G. [Service d' Etude du Comportement des Radionucleides dans les Ecosystemes, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Cadarache, Bat 159, BP3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Gilbin, R. [Laboratoire de Radioecologie et d' Ecotoxicologie, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France)

    2011-11-15

    Eggs/larval of freshwater fish (Danio rerio) were exposed to low dose rates of external gamma radiation (from 1 to 1000 mGy d{sup -1}) over a 20-day period, with the objective of testing the appropriateness of the 10 mGy d{sup -1} guideline suggested by the IAEA. The present study examines different endpoints, mortality and hatching time and success of embryos as well as the genotoxicity of {gamma}-irradiations (after 48 h). The 20-day embryo-larval bioassay showed an enhanced larval resistance to starvation after chronic exposure to {gamma} irradiation (from low 1 mGy d{sup -1} to high dose rate 1000 mGy d{sup -1}) and an acceleration in hatching time. Gamma irradiation led to increased genotoxic damage Ito zebrafish egg (40-50% DNA in tail in Comet assay) from the lowest dose rate (1 mGy d{sup -1}). Possible mechanisms of {gamma} radiotoxicity and implications for radioprotection are discussed. - Highlights: > Relevant information on the {gamma} radiation impact on early life stage biota is scarce. > The eggs of zebrafish Danio rerio were selected as biological model. > We test the appropriateness of the 10 mGy d{sup -1} guideline (IAEA). > We observed effects measured at individual levels (starvation, hatching time). > Chronic gamma irradiation led to increased genotoxic damage to zebrafish egg. > {gamma} radiotoxicity mechanisms and implications for radioprotection are discussed.

  17. Assessment of in vitro genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of flurbiprofen on human cultured lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timocin, Taygun; Ila, Hasan Basri; Dordu, Tuba; Husunet, Mehmet Tahir; Tazehkand, Mostafa Norizadeh; Valipour, Ebrahim; Topaktas, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Flurbiprofen is non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug which is commonly used for its analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory effects. The purpose of the study was to explore the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of flurbiprofen in human cultured lymphocytes by sister chromatid exchange, chromosome aberration, and cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus tests. 10, 20, 30, and 40 μg/mL concentrations of flurbiprofen (solvent is DMSO) were used to treatment of human cultured lymphocytes at two different treatment periods (24 and 48 h). Flurbiprofen had no significant genotoxic effect in any of these tests. But exposing to flurbiprofen for 24 and 48 h led to significant decrease on proliferation index, mitotic index, and nuclear division index (NDI). Also, all decreases were concentration-dependent (except NDI at 24 h treatment period). Consequently, the findings of this research showed that flurbiprofen had cytotoxic effects in human blood lymphocytes.

  18. Toxicological assessment of enzyme-treated asparagus extract in rat acute and subchronic oral toxicity studies and genotoxicity tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tomohiro; Ono, Tomoko; Sato, Atsuya; Goto, Kazunori; Miura, Takehito; Wakame, Koji; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Maeda, Takahiro

    2014-03-01

    The safety of enzyme-treated asparagus extract (ETAS) developed as a novel anti-stress functional material was assessed in acute and subchronic studies and genotoxicity assays. In the acute oral dose toxicity study, all rats survived during the test period and ETAS did not influence clinical appearance, body weight gain and necropsy findings at a dosage of 2000mg/kg body weight. Thus, the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of ETAS was determined to be greater than 2000mg/kg. The 90-day subchronic study (500, 1000 and 2000mg/kg body weight, delivered by gavage) in rats reported no significant adverse effects in food consumption, body weight, mortality, urinalysis, hematology, biochemistry, necropsy, organ weight and histopathology. In the micronucleus test of mice, the incidence of micronuclei in ETAS-administered groups (500, 1000 and 2000mg/kg/day, injected twice) was equivalent to that of the negative control group, while the positive control group receiving mitomycin C showed a high incidence. The potential of ETAS to induce gene mutation was tested using four Salmonella typhimurium strains and Escherichia coli WP2uvrA. The test sample was not mutagenic to the test strains. These results support the safety of ETAS as food and dietary supplement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Lack of genotoxicity of potassium iodate in the alkaline comet assay and in the cytokinesis-block micronucleus test. Comparison to potassium bromate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poul, J M; Huet, S; Godard, T; Sanders, P

    2004-02-01

    Iodine could be added to the diet of human population in the form of iodide or iodate but iodate had not been adequately tested for genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. In the present study, genotoxic effects of potassium iodate were evaluated in vitro using the alkaline comet assay and the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay on CHO cells and compared to halogenate salt analogues potassium bromate and chlorate and also to their respective reduced forms (potassium iodide, bromide and chloride). The results showed that the comet assay failed to detect the presence of DNA damage after a treatment of cells by potassium iodate for concentrations up to 10 mM. This absence of primary DNA damage was confirmed in the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. In the same way, results showed that potassium chlorate as well as potassium iodide, bromide and chloride did not induced DNA damage in the alkaline comet assay for doses up to 10 mM. By contrast, potassium bromate exposure led to an increase in both DNA damage and frequency of micronucleated cells. The repair of bromate-induced DNA damage was incomplete 24 h after the end of treatment. These results seem to indicate that potassium bromate would induce DNA damage by several mechanisms besides oxidative stress.

  20. Scientific opinion of Flavouring Group Evaluation 205 Revision 1 (FGE.205Rev1): consideration of genotoxicity data on representatives for 13 α,β-unsaturated aliphatic ketones with terminal double bonds and precursors from chemical subgroup 1.2.2 of FGE.19

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Nørby, Karin Kristiane

    The EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF Panel) was requested to consider in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 205 (FGE.205), the additional data on genotoxicity submitted by the Industry on two representative substances, oct-1-en-3-one [FL-no: 07.......081] and pent-1-en-3-one [FL-no: 07.102], from subgroup 1.2.2 of FGE.19. The Panel concluded that both substances were weakly genotoxic in bacteria with pent-1-en-3-one being the most potent (previously available data). In these assays, the representative substances were highly cytotoxic with a steep toxicity...... of the representative substances, pent-1-en-3-one, in an in vivo Comet assay on the first site of contact (e.g. the stomach or duodenum) and on the liver. The Industry has now submitted new data, a combined micronucleus and Comet assay for pent-1-en-3-one, with scoring in the liver and duodenum, and an Ames test...

  1. Genotoxicity and ELF-magnetic fields: a review through the micronucleus assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaraz, M.; Andreu-Galvez, M.; Sanchez-Villalobos, J. M.; Achel, D. G.; Olmos, E.; Martinez-Hernandez, C. M.

    2012-01-01

    Thirty for (34) published studies, conducted from 1994 to the present to evaluate the genotoxic effect of magnetic fields using ELF-EMF and diagnostic resonance on humans by the micronucleus assay have been reviewed. some characteristics of the assay methods, their significance to genotoxicity and basic interpretations of the results of these assays are discussed. of the studies analysed 70.5% implicated genotoxic effects induced by these magnetic fields: 52.9% were due to exposure to magnetic fields only and 17,6% by exposure to magnetic fields in combination with some treatment types, resulting in additive or synergistic effect. Evidence exist to support the notion that exposure of humans to magnetic fields stimulates genotoxic effects, although the actual mechanisms of action or even the true human health consequences resulting from these exposure still remain unclear. (Author) 80 refs.

  2. PET/CT imaging of c-Myc transgenic mice identifies the genotoxic N-nitroso-diethylamine as carcinogen in a short-term cancer bioassay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Hueper

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: More than 100,000 chemicals are in use but have not been tested for their safety. To overcome limitations in the cancer bioassay several alternative testing strategies are explored. The inability to monitor non-invasively onset and progression of disease limits, however, the value of current testing strategies. Here, we report the application of in vivo imaging to a c-Myc transgenic mouse model of liver cancer for the development of a short-term cancer bioassay. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: μCT and ¹⁸F-FDG μPET were used to detect and quantify tumor lesions after treatment with the genotoxic carcinogen NDEA, the tumor promoting agent BHT or the hepatotoxin paracetamol. Tumor growth was investigated between the ages of 4 to 8.5 months and contrast-enhanced μCT imaging detected liver lesions as well as metastatic spread with high sensitivity and accuracy as confirmed by histopathology. Significant differences in the onset of tumor growth, tumor load and glucose metabolism were observed when the NDEA treatment group was compared with any of the other treatment groups. NDEA treatment of c-Myc transgenic mice significantly accelerated tumor growth and caused metastatic spread of HCC in to lung but this treatment also induced primary lung cancer growth. In contrast, BHT and paracetamol did not promote hepatocarcinogenesis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study evidences the accuracy of in vivo imaging in defining tumor growth, tumor load, lesion number and metastatic spread. Consequently, the application of in vivo imaging techniques to transgenic animal models may possibly enable short-term cancer bioassays to significantly improve hazard identification and follow-up examinations of different organs by non-invasive methods.

  3. Differences in genotoxic activity of alpha-Ni3S2 on human lymphocytes from nickel-hypersensitized and nickel-unsensitized donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrouijal, F Z; Marzin, D; Hildebrand, H F; Pestel, J; Haguenoer, J M

    1992-05-01

    The genotoxic activity of alpha-Ni3S2 was assessed on human lymphocytes from nickel-hypersensitized (SSL) and nickel-unsensitized (USL) subjects. Three genotoxicity tests were performed: the sister chromatid exchange (SCE) test, the metaphase analysis test and the micronucleus test. (i) The SCE test (3-100 micrograms/ml) showed a weak but statistically significant increase in the number of SCE in both lymphocyte types with respect to controls, USL presenting a slightly higher SCE incidence but only at one concentration. (ii) The metaphase analysis test demonstrated a high dose-dependent clastogenic activity of alpha-Ni3S2 in both lymphocyte types. The frequency of chromosomal anomalies was significantly higher in USL than in SSL for all concentrations applied. (iii) The micronucleus test confirmed the dose-dependent clastogenic activity of alpha-Ni3S2 and the differences already observed between USL and SSL, i.e. the number of cells with micronuclei was statistically higher in USL. Finally, the incorporation study with alpha-63Ni3S2 showed a higher uptake of its solubilized fraction by USL. This allows an explanation of the different genotoxic action of nickel on the two cell types. In this study we demonstrated that hypersensitivity has an influence on the incorporation of alpha-Ni3S2 and subsequently on the different induction of chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes.

  4. Soil genotoxicity assessment: a new stategy based on biomolecular tools and plant bioindicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citterio, Sandra; Aina, Roberta; Labra, Massimo; Ghiani, Alessandra; Fumagalli, Pietro; Sgorbati, Sergio; Santagostino, Angela

    2002-06-15

    The setting up of efficient early warning systems is a challenge to research for preventing environmental alteration and human disease. In this paper, we report the development and the field application of a new biomonitoring methodology for assessing soil genotoxicity. In the first part, the use of amplified fragment length polymorphism and flow cytometry techniques to detect DNA damage induced by soils artificially contaminated with heavy metals as potentially genotoxic compounds is explained. Results show that the combination of the two techniques leads to efficient detection of the sublethal genotoxic effect induced in the plant bioindicator by contaminated soil. By contrast, the classic mortality, root, and shoot growth vegetative endpoints prove inappropriate for assessing soil genotoxicity because, although they cause genotoxic damage, some heavy metals do not affect sentinel plant development negatively. The statistical elaboration of the data obtained led to the development of a statistical predictive model which differentiates four different levels of soil genotoxic pollution and can be used everywhere. The second part deals with the application of the biomonitoring protocol in the genotoxic assessment of two areas surrounding a steelworks in northern Italy and the effectiveness of this methodology. In this particular case, in these areas, the predictive model reveals a pollution level strictly correlated to the heavy metal concentrations revealed by traditional chemical analysis.

  5. Genotoxicological Evaluation of NUTRALYS Pea Protein Isolate

    OpenAIRE

    Aouatif, Chentouf; Looten, Ph.; Parvathi, M. V. S.; Raja Ganesh, S.; Paranthaman, V.

    2013-01-01

    NUTRALYS Pea Protein Isolate, a protein supplement, is a high-quality source of protein which is primarily emulsifying functional protein. We evaluated the genotoxic potential of NUTRALYS isolated from dry yellow pea, using three established genotoxicity tests (AMES test in vitro chromosomal aberration test, and in vivo micronucleus test) employing OECD guidelines under GLP conditions. In the bacterial reverse mutation test, NUTRALYS did not show positive responses in strains detecting point ...

  6. Commentary: critical questions, misconceptions and a road map for improving the use of the lymphocyte cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay for in vivo biomonitoring of human exposure to genotoxic chemicals-a HUMN project perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch-Volders, Micheline; Bonassi, Stefano; Knasmueller, Siegfried; Holland, Nina; Bolognesi, Claudia; Fenech, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    The lymphocyte cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay has been applied in hundreds of in vivo biomonitoring studies of humans exposed to genotoxic chemicals because it allows the measurement of both structural and numerical chromosome aberrations. The CBMN cytome assay version which, apart from measuring micronuclei (MN) already present in cells in vivo or expressed ex vivo, also includes measurement of nucleoplasmic bridges (NPB), nuclear buds (NBUD), necrosis and apoptosis, is also increasingly being used in such studies. Because of the numerous published studies there is now a need to re-evaluate the use of MN and other biomarkers within the lymphocyte CBMN cytome assay as quantitative indicators of exposure to chemical genotoxins and the genetic hazard this may cause. This review has identified some important misconceptions as well as knowledge gaps that need to be addressed to make further progress in the proper application of this promising technique and enable its full potential to be realised. The HUMN project consortium recommends a three pronged approach to further improve the knowledge base and application of the lymphocyte CBMN cytome assay to measure DNA damage in humans exposed to chemical genotoxins: (i) a series of systematic reviews, one for each class of chemical genotoxins, of studies which have investigated the association of in vivo exposure in humans with MN, NPB and NBUD induction in lymphocytes; (ii) a comprehensive analysis of the literature to obtain new insights on the potential mechanisms by which different classes of chemicals may induce MN, NPB and NBUD in vitro and in vivo and (iii) investigation of the potential advantages of using the lymphocyte CBMN cytome assay in conjunction with other promising complementary DNA damage diagnostics to obtain an even more complete assessment of the DNA damage profile induced by in vivo exposure to chemical genotoxins in humans. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  7. Flow cytometry based micronucleus assay for evaluation of genotoxic potential of 2-ACBs in hepatic cells HepG2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbezan, Angélica B.; Santos, Carla J.B.; Carvalho, Luma R.; Vieira, Daniel P.; Villavicêncio, Anna L.C.H.; Santelli, Glaucia M.M.

    2017-01-01

    Food irradiation is approved for use in more than 60 countries for applications and purposes in a wide variety of foods, being an effective and safe method for preservation and long-term storage. 2-Alkylcyclobutanones (2-ACBs) are the only known radiolytic products generated from foods that contain fatty acids (Triglycerides) when irradiated. The acids analyzed in this study are palmitic and stearic, which when irradiated form 2-Dodecylcyclobutanones (2-dDCB) and 2-Tetradecylcyclobutanone (2-tDCB). Part of the 2-ACBs ingested is excreted through feces and part is deposited in adipose tissues. In vitro studies so far have been only in colon cells. The work used a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) since the accumulation of fat in this organ is quite common. Micronucleus test was selected to evaluate possible genotoxic effects of 2-dDCB and 2-tDCB compounds when exposed to high concentrations (447, 1422 and 2235 μM) for 4 and 24 hours. Tests were performed in quadriplicates using flow cytometric analysis. None detectable genotoxic damage was observed after 4 hours of exposure to the compounds, and cytotoxic effects were only significant at the highest concentration (2235 μM) of 2-dDCB. After 24 hours of exposure, slight genotoxic damage was observed at all concentrations evaluated, and cytotoxic effects were only present when exposed to compound 2-tDCB. Although there is a genotoxic and cytotoxic effect in some of the situations tested, the two compounds predominantly induced proliferation reduction effects of this hepatic tumor cell line. (author)

  8. Flow cytometry based micronucleus assay for evaluation of genotoxic potential of 2-ACBs in hepatic cells HepG2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbezan, Angélica B.; Santos, Carla J.B.; Carvalho, Luma R.; Vieira, Daniel P.; Villavicêncio, Anna L.C.H., E-mail: abarbezan@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Santelli, Glaucia M.M. [Universidade de São Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Biologia Celular e do Desenvolvimento

    2017-07-01

    Food irradiation is approved for use in more than 60 countries for applications and purposes in a wide variety of foods, being an effective and safe method for preservation and long-term storage. 2-Alkylcyclobutanones (2-ACBs) are the only known radiolytic products generated from foods that contain fatty acids (Triglycerides) when irradiated. The acids analyzed in this study are palmitic and stearic, which when irradiated form 2-Dodecylcyclobutanones (2-dDCB) and 2-Tetradecylcyclobutanone (2-tDCB). Part of the 2-ACBs ingested is excreted through feces and part is deposited in adipose tissues. In vitro studies so far have been only in colon cells. The work used a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) since the accumulation of fat in this organ is quite common. Micronucleus test was selected to evaluate possible genotoxic effects of 2-dDCB and 2-tDCB compounds when exposed to high concentrations (447, 1422 and 2235 μM) for 4 and 24 hours. Tests were performed in quadriplicates using flow cytometric analysis. None detectable genotoxic damage was observed after 4 hours of exposure to the compounds, and cytotoxic effects were only significant at the highest concentration (2235 μM) of 2-dDCB. After 24 hours of exposure, slight genotoxic damage was observed at all concentrations evaluated, and cytotoxic effects were only present when exposed to compound 2-tDCB. Although there is a genotoxic and cytotoxic effect in some of the situations tested, the two compounds predominantly induced proliferation reduction effects of this hepatic tumor cell line. (author)

  9. Borax counteracts genotoxicity of aluminum in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkez, Hasan; Geyikoğlu, Fatime; Tatar, Abdulgani

    2013-10-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the protective role of borax (BX) on genotoxicity induced by aluminum (Al) in rat liver, using liver micronucleus assay as an indicator of genotoxicity. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly separated into six groups and each group had four animals. Aluminum chloride (AlCl₃; 5 mg/kg b.w.) and BX (3.25 and 13 mg/kg b.w.) were injected intraperitoneally to rats. Besides, animals were also treated with Al for 4 consecutive days followed by BX for 10 days. Rats were anesthetized after Al and BX injections and the hepatocytes were isolated for counting the number of micronucleated hepatocytes (MNHEPs). AlCl₃ was found to significantly (p < 0.05) increase the number of MNHEPs. Rats treated with BX, however, showed no increase in MNHEPs. Moreover, simultaneous treatments with BX significantly modulated the genotoxic effects of AlCl₃ in rats. It can be concluded that BX has beneficial influences and has the ability to antagonize Al toxicity.

  10. Performance testing of radiobioassay laboratories: in-vivo measurements, pilot study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, A.V.; Fisher, D.R.; Reece, W.D.; MacLellan, J.A.

    1986-10-01

    This document describes a project to evaluate the in-vivo counting performance criteria of draft ANSI Standard N13.30, Performance Criteria for Radiobioassay. The draft ANSI Standard provides guidance to in-vivo counting facilities regarding the precision and accuracy of measurements for certain categories of commonly assayed radionuclides and critical regions of the body. The draft ANSI Standard was evaluated by conducting an intercomparison test involving a number of whole-body counting facilities. The testing involved three types of measurements: chest counting for detection of radioactive materials in the lung, whole-body counting for detection of uniformly distributed activity, and neck counting for detection of radioactive material concentrated in the thyroid. Results of the first-round intercomparison test are presented in this report. The appropriateness of the draft Standard performance criteria was judged by the measurement results reported by participating in-vivo counting facilities. The intercomparison testing showed that some laboratories had difficulty meeting the performance criteria specified in the draft ANSI Standard N13.30.

  11. Performance testing of radiobioassay laboratories: in-vivo measurements, pilot study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.V.; Fisher, D.R.; Reece, W.D.; MacLellan, J.A.

    1986-10-01

    This document describes a project to evaluate the in-vivo counting performance criteria of draft ANSI Standard N13.30, Performance Criteria for Radiobioassay. The draft ANSI Standard provides guidance to in-vivo counting facilities regarding the precision and accuracy of measurements for certain categories of commonly assayed radionuclides and critical regions of the body. The draft ANSI Standard was evaluated by conducting an intercomparison test involving a number of whole-body counting facilities. The testing involved three types of measurements: chest counting for detection of radioactive materials in the lung, whole-body counting for detection of uniformly distributed activity, and neck counting for detection of radioactive material concentrated in the thyroid. Results of the first-round intercomparison test are presented in this report. The appropriateness of the draft Standard performance criteria was judged by the measurement results reported by participating in-vivo counting facilities. The intercomparison testing showed that some laboratories had difficulty meeting the performance criteria specified in the draft ANSI Standard N13.30

  12. Embryotoxicity and genotoxicity evaluation of sediments from Yangtze River estuary using zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Chen, Ling; Liu, Li; Wu, Lingling

    2016-03-01

    Sediments function both as a sink and a source of pollutants in aquatic ecosystems and may impose serious effects on benthic organisms and human health. As one of the largest estuaries in the world, the Yangtze River estuary suffers from abundant wastewater from the coastal cities. In this study, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were employed in the fish embryo test and a comet assay to evaluate the embryotoxicity and genotoxicity of the sediments from the Yangtze River estuary, respectively. Results showed that the sediments from the Yangtze River estuary significantly increased mortality, induced development abnormalities, and reduced hatching rate and heart rate of zebrafish embryos after 96 h of exposure. Significant genotoxicity was observed in the samples relative to the controls. Relatively low-level embryotoxicity and genotoxicity of sediments were found in the Yangtze River compared with other river systems. Toxic responses were also discussed in relation to the analyzed organic contaminants in sediments. More attention should be paid to non-priority pollutant monitoring in the Yangtze River estuary.

  13. Safety evaluation of pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides (pAOS): genotoxicity and sub-chronic studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garthoff, J.A.; Heemskerk, S.; Hempenius, R.A.; Lina, B.A.; Krul, C.A.; Koeman, J.H.; Speijers, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    Pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides (pAOS) are non-digestible carbohydrates to be used in infant formulae and medical nutrition. To support its safety, the genotoxic potential of pAOS was evaluated. pAOS was not mutagenic in the Ames test. Positive results were obtained in the chromosome

  14. Safety evaluation of pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides (pAOS): Genotoxicity and sub-chronic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garthoff, J.A.; Heemskerk, S.; Hempenius, R.A.; Lina, B.A.R.; Krul, C.A.M.; Koeman, J.H.; Speijers, G.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides (pAOS) are non-digestible carbohydrates to be used in infant formulae and medical nutrition. To support its safety, the genotoxic potential of pAOS was evaluated. pAOS was not mutagenic in the Ames test. Positive results were obtained in the chromosome

  15. Genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity study of aqueous and hydro-methanol extracts of Spondias mombin L., Nymphaea lotus L. and Luffa cylindrical L. using animal bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyeyemi, Ifeoluwa Temitayo; Yekeen, Olaide Maruf; Odusina, Paul Olayinka; Ologun, Taiwo Mary; Ogbaide, Orezimena Michelle; Olaleye, Olayinka Israel; Bakare, Adekunle A

    2015-12-01

    Spondias mombin (Linn), Nymphaea lotus (Linn) and Luffa cylindrica (Linn) (syn Luffa aegyptiaca Mill) are plants traditionally used as food ingredients and in the management of diseases, including cancer, in Nigeria. Despite the therapeutic potentials attributed to these plants, reports on their genotoxicity are scanty. In this study, the genotoxicity of the aqueous and hydro-methanol extract of these plants was evaluated using mouse bone marrow micronucleus and sperm morphology assays. Antigenotoxicity was assessed by the bone marrow micronucleus test. The highest attainable dose of 5 000 mg/kg according to OECD guidelines was first used to assess acute toxicity of the aqueous and hydro-methanol extracts in Swiss albino mice. For each extract, there were five groups of mice (n=4/group) treated with different concentrations of the extract as against the negative and positive control group for the genotoxicity study. In the antigenotoxicity study, five groups of mice were exposed to five different concentrations of the extracts along with 60 mg/kg of methyl methane sulfonate (MMS), which was used to induce genotoxicity. The mice were administered 0.2 mL of extract per day for 10 days in the genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity groups. Administration of each of the extracts at the concentration of 5 000 mg/kg did not induce acute toxicity in mice. At the concentrations tested, all the extracts, except aqueous S. mombin, increased micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes. The aqueous and hydro-methanol extracts of N. lotus increased the frequency of aberrant sperm cells. All the extracts were also able to ameliorate MMS induced genotoxicity in bone marrow cells of the exposed mice. The results showed the potential of the extracts to induce somatic and germ cell mutation in male mice. The extracts also ameliorated the genotoxic effect of MMS.

  16. Genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity study of aqueous and hydro-methanol extracts of Spondias mombin L., Nymphaea lotus L. and Luffa cylindrical L. using animal bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyeyemi Ifeoluwa Temitayo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Spondias mombin (Linn, Nymphaea lotus (Linn and Luffa cylindrica (Linn (syn Luffa aegyptiaca Mill are plants traditionally used as food ingredients and in the management of diseases, including cancer, in Nigeria. Despite the therapeutic potentials attributed to these plants, reports on their genotoxicity are scanty. In this study, the genotoxicity of the aqueous and hydro-methanol extract of these plants was evaluated using mouse bone marrow micronucleus and sperm morphology assays. Antigenotoxicity was assessed by the bone marrow micronucleus test. The highest attainable dose of 5 000 mg/kg according to OECD guidelines was first used to assess acute toxicity of the aqueous and hydro-methanol extracts in Swiss albino mice. For each extract, there were five groups of mice (n=4/group treated with different concentrations of the extract as against the negative and positive control group for the genotoxicity study. In the antigenotoxicity study, five groups of mice were exposed to five different concentrations of the extracts along with 60 mg/kg of methyl methane sulfonate (MMS, which was used to induce genotoxicity. The mice were administered 0.2 mL of extract per day for 10 days in the genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity groups. Administration of each of the extracts at the concentration of 5 000 mg/kg did not induce acute toxicity in mice. At the concentrations tested, all the extracts, except aqueous S. mombin, increased micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes. The aqueous and hydro-methanol extracts of N. lotus increased the frequency of aberrant sperm cells. All the extracts were also able to ameliorate MMS induced genotoxicity in bone marrow cells of the exposed mice. The results showed the potential of the extracts to induce somatic and germ cell mutation in male mice. The extracts also ameliorated the genotoxic effect of MMS.

  17. Assessment of the Genotoxicity of olive mill waste water (OMWW) with the Vicia faba Micronucleus test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Hajjouji, H.; Pinelli, E.; Revel, J. C.; Hafidi, M.

    2009-01-01

    Olive mill waste water (OMW) can cause serious environmental hazards in olive producing countries, especially around the Mediterranean basin. In Morocco, olive mills are noe of the foremost polluters: the volume of OMW produced annually is estimated at 250 000 m 3 during the season of production. the present study concerns the genotoxicity of OMW generated in mills producing olive oil in Morocco. (Author)

  18. Assessment of the genotoxic impact of pesticides on farming communities in the countryside of Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueli Salvagni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the use of pesticides on farms located in the Lambedor River watershed in Guatambu, State of Santa Catarina, as well as to determine, by micronucleus testing, the risk of genotoxic impact. Samples from locally collected Cyprinus carpio, Hypostomus punctatus, Rhamdia quelen and Oreochromis niloticus gave evidence of a mean increase in micronuclei frequency from 6.21 to 13.78 in 1,000 erythrocytes, a clear indication of the genotoxic potenciality of pesticide residues in regional dams, and their significant contribution to local environmental contamination.

  19. Nonclinical Safety Assessment of Morus alba L. Fruits: Study of 90-D Toxicity in Sprague Dawley Rats and Genotoxicity in Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bo Yoon; Kim, Seon Beom; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Park, Hyun; Kim, Sung Yeon

    2016-05-01

    Morus alba L. is a traditional herb with a long history of consumption, both as an edible fruit and as medicine. However, its safety evaluation has not yet been established. The objective of this study was to evaluate subchronic oral toxicity and genotoxicity of M. alba L. fruits (MFE). The subchronic toxicity after daily oral administration of MFE at 0, 40, 200, and 1000 mg/kg for 90 d was examined in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. MFE administration did not lead to death, adverse effects, change in food and water consumption, and body weight gain. Significant toxic effects were not found within the parameters of organ weight, biochemical values, and hematological and urine analysis between the control and the MFE group. The genotoxicity of MFE was assayed by Ames test in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA102, and TA1535. No genotoxicity was found in all the tested strains. Thus in this study, a no-observed-adverse-effect level for MFE in 90 d repeated oral toxicity study in rats was determined to be greater than 1000 mg/kg regardless of gender. The results also suggested that MFE does not have a genotoxicity potential. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Genotoxicity of triiodothyronine: Effects on Salmonella typhimurium TA100 and human lymphocytes in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bošnjak-Neumüller Jasna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that substances which are normally present in human or animal bodies may, under the certain circumstances, exhibit deleterious effects on genetic material, therefore acting as endogenous mutagenic agents. Since hormones represent one of the best studied endogenous mutagens, some research focused on the possible role of thyroid hormone in mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. Indeed, thyroid hormones accelerate aerobic metabolism and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and, therefore, may exhibit mutagenic effects in various test systems on mammalian cells. However, possible mutagenic effects on prokaryotic DNA has not been investigated so far. Hence, the aim of this research was to compare the sensitivity of TA 100 Salmonella typhimurium with and without metabolic activation with S9 fraction, and human lymphocytes to possible genotoxic effects of triiodothyronine (T3. Therefore, we used the reverse mutation assay on S. typhimurium (Ames test and in vitro Comet assay in isolated peripheral blood human lymphocytes. In both tests-systems a broad spectrum of T3 concentrations was applied. The obtained results showed absence of genotoxic effects of T3 in bacterial reverse mutation assay and very profound genotoxic effects in human lymphocytes at concentrations higher than 15 μM. We only observed cytotoxic effects in bacterial system at very high T3 concentrations (300 and 500 μM. In conclusion, T3 was unable to increase the level of reverse mutations in Ames test both with and without S9 mix. Therefore, it seems that ROS production in mitochondria may be the primary cause of DNA damage caused by T3 in mammalian cells. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. III46002

  1. Genotoxicity of carbon nanofibers: Are they potentially more or less dangerous than carbon nanotubes or asbestos?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisin, E.R.; Murray, A.R.; Sargent, L.; Lowry, D.; Chirila, M.; Siegrist, K.J.; Schwegler-Berry, D.; Leonard, S.; Castranova, V.; Fadeel, B.; Kagan, V.E.; Shvedova, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    The production of carbon nanofibers and nanotubes (CNF/CNT) and their composite products is increasing globally. CNF are generating great interest in industrial sectors such as energy production and electronics, where alternative materials may have limited performance or are produced at a much higher cost. However, despite the increasing industrial use of carbon nanofibers, information on their potential adverse health effects is limited. In the current study, we examine the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of carbon-based nanofibers (Pyrograf (registered) -III) and compare this material with the effects of asbestos fibers (crocidolite) or single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT). The genotoxic effects in the lung fibroblast (V79) cell line were examined using two complementary assays: the comet assay and micronucleus (MN) test. In addition, we utilized fluorescence in situ hybridization to detect the chromatin pan-centromeric signals within the MN indicating their origin by aneugenic (chromosomal malsegregation) or clastogenic (chromosome breakage) mechanisms. Cytotoxicity tests revealed a concentration- and time-dependent loss of V79 cell viability after exposure to all tested materials in the following sequence: asbestos > CNF > SWCNT. Additionally, cellular uptake and generation of oxygen radicals was seen in the murine RAW264.7 macrophages following exposure to CNF or asbestos but not after administration of SWCNT. DNA damage and MN induction were found after exposure to all tested materials with the strongest effect seen for CNF. Finally, we demonstrated that CNF induced predominately centromere-positive MN in primary human small airway epithelial cells (SAEC) indicating aneugenic events. Further investigations are warranted to elucidate the possible mechanisms involved in CNF-induced genotoxicity.

  2. Biomonitoring of genotoxicity using micronuclei assay in native population of Astyanax jacuhiensis (Characiformes: Characidae) at sites under petrochemical influence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres de Lemos, Clarice [Divisao de Biologia, Programa de Pesquisas Ambientais, Departamento de Laboratorios, Fundacao Estadual de Protecao Ambiental Henrique Luis Roessler (FEPAM), Avenida Dr. Salvador Franca, 1707, 90690-000, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: claricetl@fepam.rs.gov.br; Almeida Iranco, Fabio de; D' Avila de Oliveira, Nanci Cristina; Dornelles de Souza, Getulio [Divisao de Biologia, Programa de Pesquisas Ambientais, Departamento de Laboratorios, Fundacao Estadual de Protecao Ambiental Henrique Luis Roessler (FEPAM), Avenida Dr. Salvador Franca, 1707, 90690-000, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Guimaraes Fachel, Jandyra Maria [Instituto de Matematica, Departamento de Estatistica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, 91509-9000, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2008-11-15

    Bom Jardim brook is a small stream that flows through an area under the influence of a Petrochemical Complex, demanding control over its quality, so a genotoxic evaluation was performed. This study was conducted in situ, based on previous analysis on the same subject. These were performed both in vitro, with Salmonella typhimurium and human lymphocytes, and in vivo, using bioassays with fish exposed to water from the study area. The purpose of this research was to assess the quality of the aquatic environment and possible effects from petrochemical pollution to surrounding native populations. Micronuclei (MNE) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) frequencies in peripheral blood of Astyanax jacuhiensis, a native fish species collected from the study area, were used as biomarkers. Study period was from summer/99 to spring/2001, using samples obtained seasonally at two ponds upstream from the industrial area (BJN and BJPa) and two sites in Bom Jardim brook (BJ002 and BJ000), which are subject to Complex influence. MNE and NA frequencies found in individuals from BJ002 and BJ000 were similar, showing positive genotoxic responses related to control sites BJN and BJPa. No differential sensitivity could be verified for micronuclei induction between genders of A. jacuhiensis in the studied population. This study showed that sites subject to petrochemical influence were under higher genotoxic impact. Biomarkers adequacy to the case and the sensitivity of A. jacuhiensis for water monitoring could be also inferred.

  3. Biomonitoring of genotoxicity using micronuclei assay in native population of Astyanax jacuhiensis (Characiformes: Characidae) at sites under petrochemical influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres de Lemos, Clarice; Almeida Iranco, Fabio de; D'Avila de Oliveira, Nanci Cristina; Dornelles de Souza, Getulio; Guimaraes Fachel, Jandyra Maria

    2008-01-01

    Bom Jardim brook is a small stream that flows through an area under the influence of a Petrochemical Complex, demanding control over its quality, so a genotoxic evaluation was performed. This study was conducted in situ, based on previous analysis on the same subject. These were performed both in vitro, with Salmonella typhimurium and human lymphocytes, and in vivo, using bioassays with fish exposed to water from the study area. The purpose of this research was to assess the quality of the aquatic environment and possible effects from petrochemical pollution to surrounding native populations. Micronuclei (MNE) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) frequencies in peripheral blood of Astyanax jacuhiensis, a native fish species collected from the study area, were used as biomarkers. Study period was from summer/99 to spring/2001, using samples obtained seasonally at two ponds upstream from the industrial area (BJN and BJPa) and two sites in Bom Jardim brook (BJ002 and BJ000), which are subject to Complex influence. MNE and NA frequencies found in individuals from BJ002 and BJ000 were similar, showing positive genotoxic responses related to control sites BJN and BJPa. No differential sensitivity could be verified for micronuclei induction between genders of A. jacuhiensis in the studied population. This study showed that sites subject to petrochemical influence were under higher genotoxic impact. Biomarkers adequacy to the case and the sensitivity of A. jacuhiensis for water monitoring could be also inferred

  4. Evaluation of the Genotoxic and Antigenotoxic Effects of Andiroba (Carapa guianensis Aublet Oil and Nanoemulsion on Swiss Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Motta Melo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Carapa guianensis (andiroba oil is commonly used by the Amazon population for medicinal purposes. The objective of this study was to determine the genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of the andiroba oil (AO and nanoemulsion (AN using Swiss mice. Therefore, we used the comet assay and micronucleus test. The AO predominant compounds were oleic (39.13%, palmitic (33.22%, and linoleic (16.86% acids. AN composition obeyed the surfactant/oil ratio of 0.69, and the Tween 80/Span 80 ratio was held at 0.9. Our results showed no cytotoxicity or genotoxicity in the mice treated with AO and AN alone. However, there was a significant reduction in the polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs numbers in all groups treated with doxorubicin (DOX, including those pretreated with AO and AN. Thus, the samples tested did not protect against DOX. On the other hand, our results showed a large increase in micronucleus (MN formation when the mice were treated with DOX alone; these numbers were reduced when the animals were pretreated with AO and AN. The results indicate a protective effect of andiroba on MN formation and show no evidence of genotoxicity in mice.

  5. Physicochemical characteristics, mutagenicity and genotoxicity of airborne particles under industrial and rural influences in Northern Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melki, Pamela N; Ledoux, Frédéric; Aouad, Samer; Billet, Sylvain; El Khoury, Bilal; Landkocz, Yann; Abdel-Massih, Roula M; Courcot, Dominique

    2017-08-01

    In this work, the main objectives were to assess the mutagenic and genotoxic effects of fine particulate matter collected in an industrial influenced site in comparison with a non-industrial influenced one (rural site) and to relate the particulate matter (PM) composition to the observed genotoxic effects. At the industrial influenced site, higher concentrations of phosphates, trace metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in particles could be related to the contributions of quarries, fertilizer producer, cement plants, and tires burning. Gasoline and diesel combustion contributions were evidenced in particles collected at both sites. Particles collected under industrial influence showed a higher mutagenic potential on three tested strains of Salmonella typhimurium (TA98, YG1041, and TA102), and especially on the YG1041, compared to particles from the rural site. Furthermore, only particles collected in the vicinity of the industrial site showed a tendency to activate the SOS responses in Escherichia coli PQ37, which is indicative of DNA damage as a result of exposure of the bacteria cells to the action of mutagenic samples. The mutagenicity and genotoxicity of the industrial PM 2.5-0.3 particulates may be attributed to its composition especially in organic compounds. This study showed that proximity of industries can affect local PM composition as well as PM genotoxic and mutagenic potential.

  6. Induction of cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of Guandu River waters in the Allium cepa system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Vieira Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Guandu River is the main source of water supply for the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro and has been facing serious environmental problems due to increasing population and industrial pollution, as well as the presence of polluted tributaries. This study analyzed the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of the Guandu River’s waters, through the use of the Allium cepa test system. Collection points were chosen at the greatest confluences of pollutant sources. The sampling included two different seasons: the rainy season (January and February and the dry season (June and July. The analyses of 5000 cells per treatment showed that all the points studied had some degree of cytotoxicity and/or genotoxicity. Two sampling locations, which receive major influxes from the polluted waters of the Poços/Queimados and Cabuçu/Ipiranga Rivers, stood out for the strong presence of micronuclei, sticky chromosomes, mitotic spindle abnormalities, necrotic cells and nucleolar changes compared to the negative control. At least two locations also found changes in the mitotic index. The existence of variations in the number of cytotoxic and genotoxic changes between periods of rain and drought indicates that the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of the water pollutants varies according to time, depending on the discharges of the tributary rivers and the increase of contaminated effluents. The results highlight the importance of bio-monitoring to assist managers in the control of effluent discharge.

  7. Survival of transfused red blood cells: In vivo compatibility testing with chromium-51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dharkar, D.D.; Pineda, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The /sup 51/Cr red cell survival test and specific test for measurement of the disappearance rate of labeled red cells. This procedure can be used for the assessment of red cell compatibility testing in vivo. The authors recommend that more routine transfusions as well as ''difficult'' transfusions be monitored by /sup 51/Cr in vivo compatibility testing before the actual transfusions, so that more consistent and reliable survival values are achieved

  8. Genotoxicity of the disinfection by-products resulting from peracetic acid- or hypochlorite-disinfected sewage wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crebelli, R; Conti, L; Monarca, S; Feretti, D; Zerbini, I; Zani, C; Veschetti, E; Cutilli, D; Ottaviani, M

    2005-03-01

    Wastewater disinfection is routinely carried out to prevent the spread of human pathogens present in wastewater effluents. To this aim, chemical and physical treatments are applied to the effluents before their emission in water bodies. In this study, the influence of two widely used disinfectants, peracetic acid (PAA) and sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), on the formation of mutagenic by-products was investigated. Wastewater samples were collected before and after disinfection, in winter and in summer, at a pilot plant installed in a municipal wastewater-treatment plant. Samples were adsorbed using silica C18 cartridges and the concentrates were tested for mutagenicity in the Salmonella typhimurium reversion test with strains TA98 and TA100. Non-concentrated water samples were tested with two plant genotoxicity assays (the Allium cepa root anaphase aberration test and the Tradescantia/micronucleus test). Mutagenicity assays in bacteria and in Tradescantia showed borderline mutagenicity in some of the wastewater samples, independent of the disinfection procedure applied. Negative results were obtained in the A. cepa anaphase aberration test. These results indicate that, in the conditions applied, wastewater disinfection with PAA and NaClO does not lead to the formation of significant amounts of genotoxic by-products.

  9. Genistein genotoxicity: Critical considerations of in vitro exposure dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Catherine B.; King, Audrey A.

    2007-01-01

    The potential health benefits of soy-derived phytoestrogens include their reported utility as anticarcinogens, cardioprotectants and as hormone replacement alternatives in menopause. Although there is increasing popularity of dietary phytoestrogen supplementation and of vegetarian and vegan diets among adolescents and adults, concerns about potential detrimental or other genotoxic effects persist. While a variety of genotoxic effects of phytoestrogens have been reported in vitro, the concentrations at which such effects occurred were often much higher than the physiologically relevant doses achievable by dietary or pharmacologic intake of soy foods or supplements. This review focuses on in vitro studies of the most abundant soy phytoestrogen, genistein, critically examining dose as a crucial determinant of cellular effects. In consideration of levels of dietary genistein uptake and bioavailability we have defined in vitro concentrations of genistein > 5 μM as non-physiological, and thus 'high' doses, in contrast to much of the previous literature. In doing so, many of the often-cited genotoxic effects of genistein, including apoptosis, cell growth inhibition, topoisomerase inhibition and others become less obvious. Recent cellular, epigenetic and microarray studies are beginning to decipher genistein effects that occur at dietarily relevant low concentrations. In toxicology, the well accepted principle of 'the dose defines the poison' applies to many toxicants and can be invoked, as herein, to distinguish genotoxic versus potentially beneficial in vitro effects of natural dietary products such as genistein

  10. Cytotoxic, mutagenicity, and genotoxicity effects of guanylhydrazone derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhatti, Valéria Rodrigues; da Silva, Juliana; Martins, Tales Leandro Costa; Moura, Dinara Jaqueline; Rosa, Renato Moreira; Villela, Izabel; Stopiglia, Cheila Denise Ottonelli; da Silva Santos, Selma; Scroferneker, Maria Lúcia; Machado, Carlos Renato; Saffi, Jenifer; Henriques, João Antonio Pêgas

    2016-08-01

    Several studies have reported that guanylhydrazones display a variety of desirable biological properties, such as antihypertensive, antibacterial, and antimalarial behaviour. They furthermore promote anti-pneumocystosis and anti-trypanosomiasis, exhibit antitumor activity, and show significant cytotoxicity against cancer cell lines. In this work, we have evaluated the cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, and genotoxicity of two guanylhydrazones derivatives, (E)-2-[(2,3-dimethoxyphenyl) methylene] hydrazine carboxymidamide hydrochloride (2,3-DMeB) and (E)-2-[(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl) methylene] hydrazine carboxymidamide hydrochloride (3,4-DMeB), in different biological models. Both 2,3-DMeB and 3,4-DMeB induce weak cytotoxic and mutagenic effects in bacteria and yeast. The genotoxicity of these compounds was determined in a fibroblast cell line (V79) using alkaline comet assay, as well as a modified comet assay with bacterial enzymes formamidopyrimidine DNA-glycosylase (FPG) and endonuclease III (EndoIII). Both guanylhydrazone derivatives induced DNA damage. Treatment of V79 cells with EndoIII and FPG proteins demonstrated a significant effect of 2,3-DMeB and 3,4-DMeB with respect to oxidized bases. In addition, the derivatives induced a significant increase in the frequency of micronucleated cells at high doses. The antifungal and anti-trypanosomal properties of these guanylhydrazone derivatives were also evaluated, and the obtained results suggest that 2,3-DMeB is more effective than 3,4-DMeB. The biological activity of 2,3-DMeB and 3,4-DMeB may thus be related, at least in part, to their oxidative potential, as well as to their ability to interact with DNA. Considering the previously reported in vitro antitumor activity of guanylhydrazone derivatives in combination with the lack of acute toxicity and the fact that DNA damage is only observed at high doses should render both compounds good candidates for in vivo studies on antitumor activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  11. Genotoxic pressure of vineyard pesticides in fish: field and mesocosm surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bony, S; Gillet, C; Bouchez, A; Margoum, C; Devaux, A

    2008-09-17

    The present study deals with the genotoxicity assessment of vineyard pesticides in fish exposed in the field or in mesocosm conditions. Primary DNA damage was quantified as strand breaks using the single cell gel electrophoresis assay (Comet assay) applied to fish erythrocytes. In a first experiment, a significant genotoxic effect was observed following an upstream-downstream gradient in early life stages of brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) exposed in the Morcille River contaminated by a mixture of vineyard pesticides during three consecutive years. The pronounced response in terms of DNA damage reported in the present study could argue for a high sensitivity of fish early life stage and/or a high level of exposure to genotoxic compounds in the Morcille River. This stresses the interest in using trout larvae incubated in sediment bed to assess genotoxic compounds in the field. In a second experiment, adult European topminnow (Phoxinus phoxinus) were exposed in water running through artificial channels to a mixture of diuron and azoxystrobin, two of the main pesticides detected in the Morcille watershed. As compared with the unexposed channel, a 3-5-fold increase in the DNA damage was observed in fish exposed to chronic environmental pesticide concentrations (1-2 microg L(-1) for diuron and 0.5-1 microg L(-1) for axoxystrobin). A single 6h pulse of pesticide (14 microg L(-1) of diuron and 7 microg L(-1) of azoxystrobin) was applied to simulate transiently elevated chemical concentrations in the river following storm conditions. It did not increase genotoxicity. After a 1-month recovery period, DNA damage in exposed fish erythrocytes recovered to unexposed level, suggesting possible involvement of both repair mechanisms and cellular turnover in this transient response. This work highlights that vineyard treatment by pesticides and in particular diuron and azoxystrobin can represent a genotoxic threat to fish from contaminated watershed rivers.

  12. Metabolism and genotoxicity of aromatic amines in aquatic organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knezovich, J.P.; Krauter, P.W.; Lawton, M.P.; Harrison, F.L.

    1987-01-01

    Marine mussels (Mytilus edulis) and bullfrog tadpoles (Rana catesbeiana) were used to investigate the comparative metabolism and genotoxicity of aromatic amines in vivo. These organisms were selected because they possess distinctly different metabolic capabilities: mussels lack an active mixed-function-oxidase enzyme system that is present in most other organisms, including amphibians. Using 14 C-labeled chemical probes (o- and p-toluidine, 2-aminofluorene (2-AF), and 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF)), mussels and tadpoles well dosed with individual compounds by direct immersion in aqueous solutions. The identities of metabolites were then determined by HPLC and GC/MS methods. Results indicate that the N-conjugating pathways used by mussels result primarily in the detoxification of aromatic amines by limiting the amount of primary amine available for activation. The tadpoles excreted a number of 2-AAF metabolites but did form DNA and protein adducts in the liver. Induction of micronuclei in the peripheral red blood cells was also demonstrated. The tadpole was shown to be a sensitive biological indicator of pollution in aquatic ecosystems

  13. 2-Dodecylcyclobutanone, a radiolytic product of palmitic acid, is genotoxic in primary human colon cells and in cells from preneoplastic lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, Nadine; Weise, Anja; Claussen, Uwe; Sendt, Wolfgang; Marian, Brigitte; Glei, Michael; Pool-Zobel, Beatrice L.

    2006-01-01

    The irradiation of fat results in the formation of 2-alkylcyclobutanones, a new class of food contaminants. Results of previous in vitro studies with primary human colon cells and in vivo experiments with rats fed with 2-alkylcyclobutanones indicated that these radiolytic derivatives may be genotoxic and enhance the progression of colon tumors. The underlying mechanisms of these effects, however, are not clearly understood. Therefore we performed additional investigations to elucidate the genotoxic potential of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone (2dDCB) that is generated from palmitic acid. In particular, we explored the relative sensitivities of human colon cells, representing different stages of tumor development and healthy colon tissues, respectively. HT29clone19A cells, LT97 adenoma cells and primary human epithelial cells were exposed to 2dDCB (150-2097 μM). We determined cytotoxic effects using trypan blue exclusion. Genotoxicity, reflected as strand breaks, was assessed using the alkaline version of the comet assay and chromosomal abnormalities were investigated by 24-color fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization. 2dDCB was cytotoxic in a time- and dose-dependent manner in LT97 adenoma cells and in freshly isolated primary cells but not in the human colon tumor cell line. Associated with this was a marked induction of DNA damage by 2dDCB in LT97 adenoma cells and in freshly isolated colonocytes, whereas in the HT29clone19A cells no strand breaks were detectable. A long-term incubation of LT97 adenoma cells with lower concentrations of 2dDCB revealed cytogenetic effects. In summary, 2dDCB was clearly genotoxic in healthy human colon epithelial cells and in cells representing preneoplastic colon adenoma. These findings provide additional evidence that this compound may be regarded as a possible risk factor for processes in colon carcinogenesis related to initiation and progression

  14. Evaluation of genotoxic effects caused by extracts of chlorinated drinking water using a combination of three different bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qiang; Zhang, Shao-Hui; Liao, Jing; Miao, Dong-Yue; Wang, Xin-Yi; Yang, Pan; Yun, Luo-Jia; Liu, Ai-Lin; Lu, Wen-Qing

    2015-10-15

    Potential genotoxic effects of chlorinated drinking water now are of a great concern. In this study, raw water, finished water, and tap water from a water plant in Wuhan, China were collected in two different sampling times of the year (January and July). Genotoxic effects of water extracts were evaluated using a combination of three different bioassays: SOS/umu test, HGPRT gene mutation assay, and micronucleus assay, which were separately used to detect DNA damage, gene mutation, and chromosome aberration. The results of three different bioassays showed that all water samples in January and July induced at least one types of genotoxic effects, of which the DNA-damage effects were all detectable. The levels of DNA-damage effects and gene-mutation effects of finished water and tap water in January were higher than those in July. Chlorination could increase the DNA-damage effects of drinking water in January and the gene-mutation effects of drinking water in both January and July, but did not increase the chromosome-aberration effects of drinking water in both January and July. Our results highlighted the importance of using a combination of different bioassays to evaluate the genotoxicity of water samples in different seasons. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Absence of genotoxic activity from milk and water boiled in microwave oven in somatic cells from Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Cristina das Dores.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports an experiment for evaluation of the possible genotoxic effects of food prepared in a microwave oven, through the mutation test and somatic recombination, in wings of Drosophila melanogaster. Two crossing have been performed: a standard cross-ST and a high bioactivation cross - HB resulting in marked trans -heterozygote descendents (MH) and balanced heterozygotes (BH). The 72 hours larvas were fed with water and milk boiled both in the microwave oven and in the traditional way. The MH individual wings were analyzed, where the spots can be induced either by mutation or mitotic recombination. The experiment presented negative results related to the genotoxic effects of the water and milk boiled using the microwave oven, in MH descendents of both crossing. Therefore, under these experimental conditions, genotoxic activity were not presented by milk and water boiled in the microwave oven. However, an extensive study using different techniques is necessary to investigate the action of the food prepared in the microwave oven on the genetic material

  16. Genotoxicity and potential carcinogenicity of cyanobacterial toxins - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegura, Bojana; Straser, Alja; Filipič, Metka

    2011-01-01

    , and metabolic activation by cytochrome P-450 enzymes is needed for its genotoxic activity. In metabolically competent cells, it induces DNA strand breaks and exerts clastogenic and aneugenic activity. In addition, CYN increased the expression of p53 regulated genes involved in cell cycle arrest, DNA damage repair, and apoptosis. It also has cell transforming potential, and limited preliminary rodent studies indicate that CYN could have tumor-initiating activity. In 2010, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified MCLR as possible human carcinogen (Group 2B). Although there is not enough available information for the classification of other cyanobacterial toxins, the existing data from in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that NOD and especially CYN may be even more hazardous than MCLR to human and animal health. In addition in the environment, cyanobacterial toxins occur in complex mixtures as well as together with other anthropogenic contaminants, and numerous studies showed that the toxic/genotoxic potential of the extracts from cyanobacterial scums is higher than that of purified toxins. This means that the mixtures of toxins to which humans are exposed may pose higher health risks than estimated from the toxicological data of a single toxin. Future research efforts should focus on the elucidation of the carcinogenic potential of NOD, CYN, and the mixture of cyanobacterial extracts, as well as on the identification of possible novel toxins. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. AFFINITY BIOSENSOR BASED ON SCREEN-PRINTED ELECTRODE MODIFIED WITH DNA FOR GENOTOXIC COMPOUNDS DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Kuswandi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An electrochemical method for the detection of the genotoxic compounds using a DNA-modified electrode was developed. This electrode was successfully used for the electrochemical detection of genotoxic compounds in water samples. The electrochemical results clearly demonstrated that, the development is related to the molecular interaction between the surface-linked DNA obtained from calf thymus and the target compounds, such as pollutants, in order to develop a simple device for rapid screening of genotoxic compounds in environmental samples. The detection of such compounds was measured by their effect on the oxidation signal of the guanine peak of the DNA immobilised on the surface of carbon based Screen-Printed Electrode (SPE in disposable mode, and monitored by square-wave voltametric analysis. The DNA biosensor is able to detect known intercalating and groove-binding genotoxic compounds such as Dioxin, Bisphenol A, PCBs, and Phtalates. Application to real water samples is discussed and reported.   Keywords: electrochemical, screen-printed electrode, DNA biosensor, genotoxic compounds

  18. Kinetics of micronucleus induction and cytotoxicity caused by distinct antineoplastics and alkylating agents in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ramírez, Pedro; Vallarino-Kelly, Teresita; Cruz-Vallejo, Virginia

    2014-01-30

    This mini-review aims to compare the differences in the kinetics of the induction of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MN-PCE) and cytotoxicity by distinct antineoplastic and genotoxic agents in murine peripheral blood in vivo and to correlate these kinetics with the underlying processes. Comparisons were carried out using our previously obtained data with nominal doses causing similar levels of cytotoxicity, as measured in terms reduction of PCE. The aneuploidogens caused the most rapid induction of MN-PCEs and had the highest rates of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. The promutagens cyclophosphamide and dimethylnitrosamine showed the most delayed responses and had the lowest genotoxic and cytotoxic efficiencies. DNA crosslinking agents had a similar delay of 4-5 h, greater than those of aneuploidogens, but differed in their cytotoxic and genotoxic efficiencies. Methylnitrosourea and 5-aza-cytidine caused greater delays than crosslinking agents. These delays can be due to the methylnitrosourea-mediated induction of formation of mono alkyl adducts which are interpreted as mismatches during DNA duplication, whereas 5-aza-cytidine requires incorporation into the DNA to induce breakage. This review allows us to conclude that the requirement for metabolic activation and the mechanisms of DNA breakage and of micronucleus induction are the main factors that affect the time of maximal MN-PCE induction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Assessment of cyto- and genotoxicity of natural waters in the vicinity of radioactive waste storage facility using Allium-test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udalova, A A; Geras'kin, S A; Dikarev, V G; Dikareva, N S

    2014-01-01

    Efficacy of bioassays of "aberrant cells frequency" and "proliferative activity" in root meristem of Allium cepa L. is studied in the present work for a cyto- and genotoxicity assessment of natural waters contaminated with 90Sr and heavy metals in the vicinity of the radioactive waste storage facility in Obninsk, Kaluga region. The Allium-test is shown to be applicable for the diagnostics of environmental media at their combined pollution with chemical and radioactive substances. The analysis of aberration spectrum shows an important role of chemical toxicants in the mutagenic potential of waters collected in the vicinity of the radioactive waste storage facility. Biological effects are not always possible to explain from the knowledge on water contamination levels, which shows limitations of physical-chemical monitoring in providing the adequate risk assessment for human and biota from multicomponent environmental impacts.

  20. Oxidative stress and genotoxicity induced by ketorolac on the common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galar-Martínez, M; García-Medina, S; Gómez-Olivan, L M; Pérez-Coyotl, I; Mendoza-Monroy, D J; Arrazola-Morgain, R E

    2016-09-01

    The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug ketorolac is extensively used in the treatment of acute postoperative pain. This pharmaceutical has been found at concentrations of 0.2-60 µg/L in diverse water bodies around the world; however, its effects on aquatic organisms remain unknown. The present study, evaluated the oxidative stress and genotoxicity induced by sublethal concentrations of ketorolac (1 and 60 µg/L) on liver, brain, and blood of the common carp Cyprinus carpio. This toxicant induced oxidative damage (increased lipid peroxidation, hydroperoxide content, and protein carbonyl content) as well as changes in antioxidant status (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activity) in liver and brain of carp. In blood, ketorolac increased the frequency of micronuclei and is therefore genotoxic for the test species. The effects observed were time and concentration dependent. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1035-1043, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Correlation between serum anyloid a low density lipoprotein and genotoxicity in smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamil, A.; Rashid, A.; Majeed, A.; Naveed, A.K.

    2018-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the relation between serum amyloid A-low density lipoprotein (SAA-LDL) and genotoxicity in smokers. Study Design:An experimental study. Place and Duration of Study:Army Medical College, Rawalpindi and National Institute of Health (NIH), Islamabad, from June 2014 to February 2015. Methodology:Seventy healthy Sprague Dawley rats were purchased from NIH and exposed to cigarette smoke in smoke chamber for three months. Blood samples were drawn from each rat at the end of the study period. SAA-LDL was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Genotoxicity was assessed by cytokinesis block micronucleus (CBMN) assay. Pearson correlation was used to find correlation between SAA-LDL and genotoxicity. Results:Strong positive correlation was found between SAA-LDL and micronuclei frequency in smoke-exposed rats (r=0.799, N=70, p <0.01). Conclusion:Statistically significant strong positive correlation between SAA-LDL and genotoxicity in smoke-exposed rats shows that changes in one is associated with changes in other and vice versa. (author)

  2. Reduction of use of animals in regulatory genotoxicity testing : Identification and implementation opportunities-Report from an ECVAM workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfuhler, S.; Kirkland, D.; Kasper, P.; Hayashi, M.; Vanparys, P.; Carmichael, P.; Dertinger, S.; Eastmond, D.; Elhajouji, A.; Krul, C.A.M.; Rothfuss, A.; Schoening, G.; Smith, A.; Speit, G.; Thomas, C.; Benthem, J. van; Corvi, R.

    2009-01-01

    In vivo genetic toxicology tests measure direct DNA damage or the formation of gene or chromosomal mutations, and are used to predict the mutagenic and carcinogenic potential of compounds for regulatory purposes and/or to follow-up positive results from in vitro testing. These tests are widely used

  3. Wild type p53 transcriptionally represses the SALL2 transcription factor under genotoxic stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Farkas

    Full Text Available SALL2- a member of the Spalt gene family- is a poorly characterized transcription factor found deregulated in various cancers, which suggests it plays a role in the disease. We previously identified SALL2 as a novel interacting protein of neurotrophin receptors and showed that it plays a role in neuronal function, which does not necessarily explain why or how SALL2 is deregulated in cancer. Previous evidences indicate that SALL2 gene is regulated by the WT1 and AP4 transcription factors. Here, we identified SALL2 as a novel downstream target of the p53 tumor suppressor protein. Bioinformatic analysis of the SALL2 gene revealed several putative p53 half sites along the promoter region. Either overexpression of wild-type p53 or induction of the endogenous p53 by the genotoxic agent doxorubicin repressed SALL2 promoter activity in various cell lines. However R175H, R249S, and R248W p53 mutants, frequently found in the tumors of cancer patients, were unable to repress SALL2 promoter activity, suggesting that p53 specific binding to DNA is important for the regulation of SALL2. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated binding of p53 to one of the identified p53 half sites in the Sall2 promoter, and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed in vivo interaction of p53 with the promoter region of Sall2 containing this half site. Importantly, by using a p53ER (TAM knockin model expressing a variant of p53 that is completely dependent on 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen for its activity, we show that p53 activation diminished SALL2 RNA and protein levels during genotoxic cellular stress in primary mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs and radiosensitive tissues in vivo. Thus, our finding indicates that p53 represses SALL2 expression in a context-specific manner, adding knowledge to the understanding of SALL2 gene regulation, and to a potential mechanism for its deregulation in cancer.

  4. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of soluble and particulate cobalt in human lung fibroblast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Leah J.; Holmes, Amie L. [Wise Laboratory of Environmental and Genetic Toxicology, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04101-9300 (United States); Maine Center for Environmental Toxicology and Health, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04101-9300 (United States); Department of Applied Medical Science, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04101-9300 (United States); Kandpal, Sanjeev Kumar; Mason, Michael D. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Zheng, Tongzhang [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT (United States); Wise, John Pierce, E-mail: John.Wise@usm.maine.edu [Wise Laboratory of Environmental and Genetic Toxicology, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04101-9300 (United States); Maine Center for Environmental Toxicology and Health, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04101-9300 (United States); Department of Applied Medical Science, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04101-9300 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Cobalt exposure is increasing as cobalt demand rises worldwide due to its use in enhancing rechargeable battery efficiency, super-alloys, and magnetic products. Cobalt is considered a possible human carcinogen with the lung being a primary target. However, few studies have considered cobalt-induced toxicity in human lung cells. Therefore, in this study, we sought to determine the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of particulate and soluble cobalt in human lung cells. Cobalt oxide and cobalt chloride were used as representative particulate and soluble cobalt compounds, respectively. Exposure to both particulate and soluble cobalt induced a concentration-dependent increase in cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and intracellular cobalt ion levels. Based on intracellular cobalt ion levels, we found that soluble cobalt was more cytotoxic than particulate cobalt while particulate and soluble cobalt induced similar levels of genotoxicity. However, soluble cobalt induced cell cycle arrest indicated by the lack of metaphases at much lower intracellular cobalt concentrations compared to cobalt oxide. Accordingly, we investigated the role of particle internalization in cobalt oxide-induced toxicity and found that particle-cell contact was necessary to induce cytotoxicity and genotoxicity after cobalt exposure. These data indicate that cobalt compounds are cytotoxic and genotoxic to human lung fibroblasts, and solubility plays a key role in cobalt-induced lung toxicity. - Highlights: • Particulate and soluble cobalt are cytotoxic and genotoxic to human lung cells. • Soluble cobalt induces more cytotoxicity compared to particulate cobalt. • Soluble and particulate cobalt induce similar levels of genotoxicity. • Particle-cell contact is required for particulate cobalt-induced toxicity.

  5. Evaluation of genotoxicity and DNA protective effects of mangiferin, a glucosylxanthone isolated from Mangifera indica L. stem bark extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodeiro, I; Hernandez, S; Morffi, J; Herrera, J A; Gómez-Lechón, M J; Delgado, R; Espinosa-Aguirre, J J

    2012-09-01

    Mangiferin is a glucosylxantone isolated from Mangifera indica L. stem bark. Several studies have shown its pharmacological properties which make it a promising candidate for putative therapeutic use. This study was focused to investigate the in vitro genotoxic effects of mangiferin in the Ames test, SOS Chromotest and Comet assay. The genotoxic effects in bone marrow erythrocytes from NMRI mice orally treated with mangiferin (2000 mg/kg) were also evaluated. Additionally, its potential antimutagenic activity against several mutagens in the Ames test and its effects on CYP1A1 activity were assessed. Mangiferin (50-5000 μg/plate) did not increased the frequency of reverse mutations in the Ames test, nor induced primary DNA damage (5-1000 μg/mL) to Escherichia coli PQ37 cells under the SOS Chromotest. It was observed neither single strand breaks nor alkali-labile sites in blood peripheral lymphocytes or hepatocytes after 1h exposition to 10-500 μg/mL of mangiferin under the Comet assay. Furthermore, micronucleus studies showed mangiferin neither induced cytotoxic activity nor increased the frequency of micronucleated/binucleated cells in mice bone marrow. In short, mangiferin did not induce cytotoxic or genotoxic effects but it protect against DNA damage which would be associated with its antioxidant properties and its capacity to inhibit CYP enzymes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of different types of dental cement on normal cultured human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakopoulou, A; Mourelatos, D; Tsiftsoglou, A S; Giassin, N P; Mioglou, E; Garefis, P

    2009-01-31

    In this study we have investigated the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of eluates derived from different types of commercially available dental cements, including glass ionomer cements (GICs) (Ketac Cem/3M ESPE and GC Fuji I/GC Corp), resin-modified glass ionomer cements (RM-GICs) (RelyX Luting/3M ESPE and Vitrebond/3M ESPE) and dual-cure resin cements (RCs) (Variolink II/ Ivoclar-Vivadent and Panavia F 2.0/Kuraray) on normal cultured human lymphocytes. Lymphocyte primary cultures obtained from blood samples of three healthy donors were exposed to serial dilutions of eluates derived from specimens of each material tested. Metaphases were induced with phytohaemagglutinin, collected after 72h treatment by use of colchicine and stained according to the fluorescence plus giemsa (FPG) procedure. Preparations were scored for sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and chromosomal aberrations (CAs), while the proliferation rate index (PRI) was also calculated. Our results show that eluates derived from the RM-GICs and RCs caused severe genotoxic effects by significantly increasing the frequencies of SCEs and CAs in cultures of peripheral blood lymphocytes and by decreasing the relevant PRI values in a dose-dependent manner, whereas the two GICs caused only minor cytogenetic effects. Eluates of the two RM-GICs (Vitrebond and RelyX) were also very cytotoxic, as the first serial dilutions of both materials caused a complete mitotic arrest in lymphocyte cultures. Overall, the degree of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity caused by dental cements decreased as follows: Viterbond>Rely X>Panavia F 2.0>Variolink II>Ketac Cem=GC Fuji I. These results indicate that different types of dental cement differ extensively in their genotoxic and cytotoxic potential and their ability to affect chromosomal integrity, cell-cycle progression, DNA replication and repair. Although these results cannot be directly extrapolated to the clinical situation, the potential occurrence of adverse effects caused by the

  7. In Vivo Effects of Vanadium Pentoxide and Antioxidants (Ascorbic Acid and Alpha-Tocopherol on Apoptotic, Cytotoxic, and Genotoxic Damage in Peripheral Blood of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen García-Rodríguez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of vanadium pentoxide (V2O5, ascorbic acid (AA, and alpha-tocopherol (α-TOH on apoptotic, cytotoxic, and genotoxic activity. Groups of five Hsd:ICR mice were treated with the following: (a vehicle, distilled water; (b vehicle, corn oil; (c AA, 100 mg/kg intraperitoneally (ip; (d α-TOH, 20 mg/kg by gavage; (e V2O5, 40 mg/kg by ip injection; (f AA + V2O5; and (g α-TOH + V2O5. Genotoxic damage was evaluated by examining micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MN-PCE obtained from the caudal vein at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h after treatments. Induction of apoptosis and cell viability were assessed at 48 h after treatment in nucleated cells of peripheral blood. Treatment with AA alone reduced basal MN-PCE, while V2O5 treatment marginally increased MN-PCE at all times after injection. Antioxidants treatments prior to V2O5 administration decreased MN-PCE compared to the V2O5 group, with the most significant effect in the AA + V2O5 group. The apoptotic cells increased with all treatments, suggesting that this process may contribute to the elimination of the cells with V2O5-induced DNA damage (MN-PCE. The necrotic cells only increased in the V2O5 group. Therefore, antioxidants such as AA and α-TOH can be used effectively to protect or reduce the genotoxic effects induced by vanadium compounds like V2O5.

  8. Application of in vitro cell transformation assays in regulatory toxicology for pharmaceuticals, chemicals, food products and cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanparys, Philippe; Corvi, Raffaella; Aardema, Marilyn J; Gribaldo, Laura; Hayashi, Makoto; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Schechtman, Leonard

    2012-04-11

    Two year rodent bioassays play a key role in the assessment of carcinogenic potential of chemicals to humans. The seventh amendment to the European Cosmetics Directive will ban in 2013 the marketing of cosmetic and personal care products that contain ingredients that have been tested in animal models. Thus 2-year rodent bioassays will not be available for cosmetics/personal care products. Furthermore, for large testing programs like REACH, in vivo carcinogenicity testing is impractical. Alternative ways to carcinogenicity assessment are urgently required. In terms of standardization and validation, the most advanced in vitro tests for carcinogenicity are the cell transformation assays (CTAs). Although CTAs do not mimic the whole carcinogenesis process in vivo, they represent a valuable support in identifying transforming potential of chemicals. CTAs have been shown to detect genotoxic as well as non-genotoxic carcinogens and are helpful in the determination of thresholds for genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens. The extensive review on CTAs by the OECD (OECD (2007) Environmental Health and Safety Publications, Series on Testing and Assessment, No. 31) and the proven within- and between-laboratories reproducibility of the SHE CTAs justifies broader use of these methods to assess carcinogenic potential of chemicals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of "lixeira" (Curatella americanaL. λ using the prophage induction test (SOS inductest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Brandstetter Vilar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Curatella americana L., commonly known as "lixeira" in Brazil, has been used in folk medicine to treat ulcers and inflammations. The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of the ethanolic extract of C. americana stem bark using the prophage λ induction test (SOS inductest. To evaluate the cytotoxicity of this plant, after treatment with different concentrations of the extract, Escherichia coli WP2s(λ cultures were diluted in M9 buffer, inoculated into LB plates, and incubated for 24 h at 37 °C. To assess genotoxicity, the lysogenic strain E. coli WP2s(λ was treated with different concentrations of the extract. Then, the lysogenic strain was added to the indicator strain (RJF013, LB(1/2(malt/amp, seeded into plates with the matches, and incubated for 24 h at 37 °C. After this period, the total number of colonies and the number of plaques were counted to evaluate C. americana cytotoxicity and genotoxicity, respectively. Our results showed that although the extract of "lixeira" did not modify the survival of bacteria (p > 0.05, it caused a significant increase in prophage λ induction, especially at the higher concentrations (pCuratella americana L., comumente conhecida como "lixeira" no Brasil, é utilizada em medicina popular para tratamento de úlceras e inflamações. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial citotóxico e genotóxico do extrato etanólico das cascas de C. americana utilizando o Induteste SOS. Para avaliar a citotoxicidade da planta, depois de tratadas com diferentes concentrações do extrato, culturas de E. coli WP2s(λ foram diluνdas em tampão M9 e semeadas em placas LB. Para avaliar a genotoxicidade da planta, a cepa lisogênica WP2s(λ de E. coli foi tratada com diferentes concentrações do extrato. Em seguida, esta foi adicionada à cepa indicadora (RJF013 e ambas foram semeadas em placas em meio LB(1/2(malt(amp. Todas as culturas foram incubadas por 24

  10. Evaluation of germination, vegetative development and genotoxicity of lettuce from irradiated seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Caio H.; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: caiohaddadfranco@lnbio.cnpem.com.br, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia e Ambiente; Silva, Regildo M.G. da, E-mail: regildo@assis.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Assis, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias de Letras. Lab. de Fitoterapicos e Farmacologia; Franco, Jose G.; Franco, Suely S. H., E-mail: gilmita@uol.com.br, E-mail: zegilmar60@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Agriculture has benefited from the use of radiation techniques, which provides plant varieties with distinguish characteristics, such as higher productivity, precocity and greater resistance to disease, pests and harsh weather conditions. Therefore, this study aimed on the analysis of greenhouse morphological development of Lactuca sativa originated from irradiated seeds; as well as test their genotoxic effect. The seeds were irradiated at doses of 25, 50, 75, 150 and 300 Gy. In order to determine the germination index, the number of seedlings emerged from each well was counted. Biometric and weight measurements were taken during the development and post-harvest stages. Genotoxicity tests were performed based on the biological assay Allium cepa. The results demonstrated that the best vegetative development was observed for individuals originated from seeds irradiated with doses of 25 and 50 Gy when compared with the control, while this dose did not differ significantly from 75 Gy The calculated germination index remained constant at all dosages. Inhibition of vegetative growth was observed on 150 and 300 Gy dosed individuals. It was also observed that the increasing rate of irradiation is inversely proportional to the mitotic index. A relationship can be established between increased levels of irradiation with increasing percentage of aberrant cells. (author)

  11. Evaluation of germination, vegetative development and genotoxicity of lettuce from irradiated seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, Caio H.; Arthur, Valter

    2013-01-01

    Agriculture has benefited from the use of radiation techniques, which provides plant varieties with distinguish characteristics, such as higher productivity, precocity and greater resistance to disease, pests and harsh weather conditions. Therefore, this study aimed on the analysis of greenhouse morphological development of Lactuca sativa originated from irradiated seeds; as well as test their genotoxic effect. The seeds were irradiated at doses of 25, 50, 75, 150 and 300 Gy. In order to determine the germination index, the number of seedlings emerged from each well was counted. Biometric and weight measurements were taken during the development and post-harvest stages. Genotoxicity tests were performed based on the biological assay Allium cepa. The results demonstrated that the best vegetative development was observed for individuals originated from seeds irradiated with doses of 25 and 50 Gy when compared with the control, while this dose did not differ significantly from 75 Gy The calculated germination index remained constant at all dosages. Inhibition of vegetative growth was observed on 150 and 300 Gy dosed individuals. It was also observed that the increasing rate of irradiation is inversely proportional to the mitotic index. A relationship can be established between increased levels of irradiation with increasing percentage of aberrant cells. (author)

  12. Bioaccumulation of trace metals and total petroleum and genotoxicity responses in an edible fish population as indicators of marine pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Costa, Avelyno; Shyama, S K; Praveen Kumar, M K

    2017-08-01

    The present study reports the genetic damage and the concentrations of trace metals and total petroleum hydrocarbons prevailing in natural populations of an edible fish, Arius arius in different seasons along the coast of Goa, India as an indicator of the pollution status of coastal water. Fish were collected from a suspected polluted site and a reference site in the pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. Physico-chemical parameters as well as the concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and trace metals in the water and sediment as well as the tissues of fish collected from these sites were recorded. The genotoxicity status of the fish was assessed employing the micronucleus test and comet assay. A positive correlation (p<0.001) was observed between the tail DNA and micronuclei in all the fish collected. Multiple regression analysis revealed that tissue and environmental pollutant concentrations and genotoxicity were positively associated and higher in the tissues of the fish collected from the polluted site. Pollution indicators and genotoxicity tests, combined with other physiological or biochemical parameters represent an essential integrated approach for efficient monitoring of aquatic ecosystems in Goa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. QSAR screening of 70,983 REACH substances for genotoxic carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and developmental toxicity in the ChemScreen project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedebye, Eva Bay; Dybdahl, Marianne; Nikolov, Nikolai Georgiev

    2015-01-01

    The ChemScreen project aimed to develop a screening system for reproductive toxicity based on alternative methods. QSARs can, if adequate, contribute to the evaluation of chemical substances under REACH and may in some cases be applied instead of experimental testing to fill data gaps...... for information requirements. As no testing for reproductive effects should be performed in REACH on known genotoxic carcinogens or germ cell mutagens with appropriate risk management measures implemented, a QSAR pre-screen for 70,983 REACH substances was performed. Sixteen models and three decision algorithms...... were used to reach overall predictions of substances with potential effects with the following result: 6.5% genotoxic carcinogens, 16.3% mutagens, 11.5% developmental toxicants. These results are similar to findings in earlier QSAR and experimental studies of chemical inventories, and illustrate how...

  14. Toxicity and genotoxicity in Astyanax bimaculatus (Characidae induced by microcystins from a bloom of Microcystis spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Rocha Pavan da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of genotoxicity in fish caused by cyanobacterial microcystins can be useful both in determining the sensitivity of native species, as well as comparing exposure routes. The genotoxicity caused by the microcystins LR and LA from a bloom collected in a eutrophic lake, was revealed in the fish Astyanax bimaculatus, a native species from South America. LC50 (72 h was determined as 242.81 µg L-1 and LD50 (72 h as 49.19 µg kg-1 bw. There was a significant increase of DNA damage in peripheral erythrocytes, following intraperitoneal injection (ip with tested concentrations of 24.58 µg kg-1 bw and 36.88 µg kg-1 bw, as well as through body exposure to a concentration of 103.72 µg L-1. Micronucleus (MN induction was observed after ip injections of 24.58 µg kg-1 bw and 36.88 µg kg-1 bw for 72 h, as well as following body exposure for 72 at 103.72 µg L-1. Thus, both exposure routes resulted in MN induction and DNA damage. Apoptosis-necrosis testing was carried out only by ip injection with concentrations of 24.58 µg -1 bw and 36.88 µg kg-1 bw. Exposure to microcystins at lower concentrations induced more apoptosis than necrosis in peripheral erythrocytes, whereas exposure at higher concentrations gave rise to both conditions. Thus, Astyanax bimaculatus can be considered as a species sensitive to the genotoxic effects caused by microcystins.

  15. The application of structure-based assessment to support safety and chemistry diligence to manage genotoxic impurities in active pharmaceutical ingredients during drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobo, Krista L; Greene, Nigel; Cyr, Michelle O; Caron, Stéphane; Ku, Warren W

    2006-04-01

    Starting materials and intermediates used to synthesize pharmaceuticals are reactive in nature and may be present as impurities in the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) used for preclinical safety studies and clinical trials. Furthermore, starting materials and intermediates may be known or suspected mutagens and/or carcinogens. Therefore, during drug development due diligence need be applied from two perspectives (1) to understand potential mutagenic and carcinogenic risks associated with compounds used for synthesis and (2) to understand the capability of synthetic processes to control genotoxic impurities in the API. Recently, a task force comprised of experts from pharmaceutical industry proposed guidance, with recommendations for classification, testing, qualification and assessing risk of genotoxic impurities. In our experience the proposed structure-based classification, has differentiated 75% of starting materials and intermediates as mutagenic and non-mutagenic with high concordance (92%) when compared with Ames results. Structure-based assessment has been used to identify genotoxic hazards, and prompted evaluation of fate of genotoxic impurities in API. These two assessments (safety and chemistry) culminate in identification of genotoxic impurities known or suspected to exceed acceptable levels in API, thereby triggering actions needed to assure appropriate control and measurement methods are in place. Hypothetical case studies are presented demonstrating this multi-disciplinary approach.

  16. Comparative Physicochemical and Genotoxicity Assessments of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: The textile industry has become indispensable in view of its basic and social importance to human life, but its environmental impact has continued to be a subject of concern. ... the economy of many countries. ... Textile and clothing production process ..... Genotoxicity screening of industrial effluents using.

  17. Genotoxicity of clays with potential use in biopolymers for food packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Anoop Kumar; Mortensen, Alicja; Hadrup, Niels

    Genotoxicity of clays with potential use in biopolymers for food packaging Plastics produced from biopolymers are of commercial interest as they are manufactured from renewable resources such as agricultural crop wastes and have the potential to meet environmental and health requirements. Biopoly......Genotoxicity of clays with potential use in biopolymers for food packaging Plastics produced from biopolymers are of commercial interest as they are manufactured from renewable resources such as agricultural crop wastes and have the potential to meet environmental and health requirements...... in crude suspensions (suspended in cell culture medium) and crude suspensions filtrated through a 0.2 µm pore size filter in order to investigate the potential effect of “nanoparticles” only. The two clays showed noticeable differences in genotoxicity; both crude and filtered suspensions of Cloisite...

  18. UVA/UVB-induced genotoxicity and lesion repair in Colossoma macropomum and Arapaima gigas Amazonian fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groff, Aline Aparecida; da Silva, Juliana; Nunes, Emilene A; Ianistcki, Martus; Guecheva, Temenouga N; de Oliveira, Alzira Miranda; de Oliveira, Christiane Patrícia Feitosa; Val, Adalberto Luis; Henriques, João A P

    2010-05-03

    Ultraviolet radiation is known to cause adverse effects to aquatic species and aquatic environments. The fish Colossoma macropomum (tambaqui) and Arapaima gigas (pirarucu) live in the Amazon basin, near the Equator, and thus receive high intensity of ultraviolet radiation. Deforestation further aggravates the situation by reducing shade at ground level. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic effects of UVA and UVB radiation on erythrocytes of tambaqui and pirarucu fish using Micronuclei test and Comet assay. Our study showed that UV radiation caused DNA damage in both species as detected by Comet assay. In addition, there were differences in response to genotoxicity between both species, which are possibly related to their evolutionary history. Tambaqui fish exposed to ultraviolet radiation for different periods presented clear dose-response in DNA damage profile. Significant damage repair was observed 24h after cessation of ultraviolet radiation exposure. At the test conditions used, no significant increase in micronucleated cells was observed in tambaqui and pirarucu fish. Tambaqui proved to be more sensitive to ultraviolet radiation than Pirarucu, as detected by Comet assay, showing statistically higher baseline DNA damage. The present results demonstrated that alkaline Comet assay was very sensitive for detecting the UV-induced genotoxicity during the short exposure period in our study. In addition, the present study also suggests that tambaqui and pirarucu fish are useful sentinel organisms, as their UV sensitivity allows them to be effective monitors of biological hazards in the Amazon region. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Therapeutic Response to Non-genotoxic Activation of p53 by Nutlin3a Is Driven by PUMA-Mediated Apoptosis in Lymphoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz J. Valente

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutlin3a is a small-molecule antagonist of MDM2 that promotes non-genotoxic activation of p53 through p53 protein stabilization and transactivation of p53 target genes. Nutlin3a is the forerunner of a class of cancer therapeutics that have reached clinical trials. Using transgenic and gene-targeted mouse models lacking the critical p53 target genes, p21, Puma, and Noxa, we found that only loss of PUMA conferred profound protection against Nutlin3a-induced killing in both non-transformed lymphoid cells and Eμ-Myc lymphomas in vitro and in vivo. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeting of the PUMA gene rendered human hematopoietic cancer cell lines markedly resistant to Nutlin3a-induced cell death. These results demonstrate that PUMA-mediated apoptosis, but not p21-mediated cell-cycle arrest or senescence, is a critical determinant of the therapeutic response to non-genotoxic p53 activation by Nutlin3a. Importantly, in human cancer, PUMA expression may predict patient responses to treatment with MDM2 antagonists.

  20. Comet assay in gill cells of Prochilodus lineatus exposed in vivo to cypermethrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletta, G L; Gigena, F; Loteste, A; Parma, M J; Kleinsorge, E C; Simoniello, M F

    2013-11-01

    Agricultural chemicals can induce genetic alterations on aquatic organisms that have been associated with effects on growth, reproduction and population dynamics. The evaluation of DNA damage in fish using the comet assay (CA) frequently involves the utilization of erythrocytes. However, epithelial gill cells (EGC) can be more sensitive, as they are constantly dividing and in direct contact with potentially stressing compounds from the aquatic environment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate (1) the sensitivity and suitability of epithelial gill cells of Prochilodus lineatus in response to different genotoxic agents through the application of the CA, (2) the induction of DNA damage in this cell population after in vivo exposure to cypermethrin. Baseline value of the CA damage index (DI) for EGC of juvenile P. lineatus was 144.68±5.69. Damage increased in a dose-dependent manner after in vitro exposure of EGC to methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and H2O2, two known genotoxic agents. In vivo exposure of fish to cypermethrin induced a significant increase in DNA DI of EGC at 0.150μg/l (DI: 239.62±6.21) and 0.300μg/l (270.63±2.09) compared to control (150.25±4.38) but no effect was observed at 0.075μg/l (168.50±10.77). This study shows that EGC of this species are sensitive for the application of the CA, demonstrating DNA damage in response to alkylation (MMS), oxidative damage (H2O2), and to the insecticide cypermethryn. These data, together with our previous study on DNA damage induction on erythrocytes of this species, provides useful information for future work involving biomonitoring in regions where P. lineatus is naturally exposed to pesticides and other genotoxic agents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Genotoxicity assessment of membrane concentrates of landfill leachate treated with Fenton reagent and UV-Fenton reagent using human hepatoma cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guifang [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Lu, Gang [Key Laboratory of Water/Soil Toxic Pollutants Control and Bioremediation of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, Department of Environmental Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Yin, Pinghe, E-mail: tyinph@jnu.edu.cn [Research Center of Analysis and Test, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Zhao, Ling, E-mail: zhaoling@jnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Water/Soil Toxic Pollutants Control and Bioremediation of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, Department of Environmental Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Jimmy Yu, Qiming [Griffith School of Engineering, Griffith University, Nathan Campus, Brisbane, Queensland 4111 (Australia)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Membrane concentrates have a threat to human health and environment. • Untreated membrane concentrates induces cytotoxic and genotoxic to HepG2 cells. • Both methods were effective method for degradation of BPA and NP in concentrates. • Both methods were efficient in reducing genotoxic effects of concentrates. • UV-Fenton reagent had higher removal efficiency and provides toxicological safety. - Abstract: Membrane concentrates of landfill leachates contain organic and inorganic contaminants that could be highly toxic and carcinogenic. In this paper, the genotoxicity of membrane concentrates before and after Fenton and UV-Fenton reagent was assessed. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity was determined by using the methods of methyltetrazolium (MTT), cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) and comet assay in human hepatoma cells. MTT assay showed a cytotoxicity of 75% after 24 h of exposure to the highest tested concentration of untreated concentrates, and no cytotoxocity for UV-Fenton and Fenton treated concentrates. Both CBMN and comet assays showed increased levels of genotoxicity in cells exposed to untreated concentrates, compared to those occurred in cells exposed to UV-Fenton and Fenton reagent treated concentrates. There was no significant difference between negative control and UV-Fenton treated concentrates for micronucleus and comet assay parameters. UV-Fenton and Fenton treatment, especially the former, were effective methods for degradation of bisphenol A and nonylphenol in concentrates. These findings showed UV-Fenton and Fenton reaction were effective methods for treatment of such complex concentrates, UV-Fenton reagent provided toxicological safety of the treated effluent, and the genotoxicity assays were found to be feasible tools for assessment of toxicity risks of complex concentrates.

  2. Genotoxicity assessment of membrane concentrates of landfill leachate treated with Fenton reagent and UV-Fenton reagent using human hepatoma cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Guifang; Lu, Gang; Yin, Pinghe; Zhao, Ling; Jimmy Yu, Qiming

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Membrane concentrates have a threat to human health and environment. • Untreated membrane concentrates induces cytotoxic and genotoxic to HepG2 cells. • Both methods were effective method for degradation of BPA and NP in concentrates. • Both methods were efficient in reducing genotoxic effects of concentrates. • UV-Fenton reagent had higher removal efficiency and provides toxicological safety. - Abstract: Membrane concentrates of landfill leachates contain organic and inorganic contaminants that could be highly toxic and carcinogenic. In this paper, the genotoxicity of membrane concentrates before and after Fenton and UV-Fenton reagent was assessed. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity was determined by using the methods of methyltetrazolium (MTT), cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) and comet assay in human hepatoma cells. MTT assay showed a cytotoxicity of 75% after 24 h of exposure to the highest tested concentration of untreated concentrates, and no cytotoxocity for UV-Fenton and Fenton treated concentrates. Both CBMN and comet assays showed increased levels of genotoxicity in cells exposed to untreated concentrates, compared to those occurred in cells exposed to UV-Fenton and Fenton reagent treated concentrates. There was no significant difference between negative control and UV-Fenton treated concentrates for micronucleus and comet assay parameters. UV-Fenton and Fenton treatment, especially the former, were effective methods for degradation of bisphenol A and nonylphenol in concentrates. These findings showed UV-Fenton and Fenton reaction were effective methods for treatment of such complex concentrates, UV-Fenton reagent provided toxicological safety of the treated effluent, and the genotoxicity assays were found to be feasible tools for assessment of toxicity risks of complex concentrates.

  3. Absence of in vivo genotoxicity of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol and associated fatty acid esters in a 4-week comprehensive toxicity study using F344 gpt delta rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onami, Saeko; Cho, Young-Man; Toyoda, Takeshi; Horibata, Katsuyoshi; Ishii, Yuji; Umemura, Takashi; Honma, Masamitsu; Nohmi, Takehiko; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi; Ogawa, Kumiko

    2014-07-01

    3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) is regarded as a rat renal and testicular carcinogen and has been classified as a possible human carcinogen (group 2B) by International Agency for Research on Cancer. This is potentially of great importance given that esters of this compound have recently found to be generated in many foods and food ingredients as a result of food processing. There have been a few reports about their toxicity, although we have recently found that the toxicity profile of 3-MCPD esters was similar to that of 3-MCPD in a rat 13-week repeated dose study, except for the acute renal toxicity seen in 3-MCPD-treated females. In the present study, to examine in vivo genotoxicity we administered equimolar doses of 3-MCPD or 3-MCPD fatty acid esters (palmitate diester, palmitate monoester and oleate diester) to 6-week-old male F344 gpt delta rats carrying a reporter transgene for 4 weeks by intragastric administration. In vivo micronucleus, Pig-a mutation and gpt assays were performed, as well as investigations of major toxicological parameters including histopathological features. As one result, the relative kidney weights of the 3-MCPD and all three ester groups were significantly increased compared with the vehicle control group. However, the frequency of micronucleated reticulocytes and Pig-a mutant red blood cells did not differ among groups. Moreover, no changes were observed in mutant frequencies of gpt and red/gam (Spi(-)) genes in the kidney and the testis of 3-MCPD and 3-MCPD-fatty-acid-esters-treated rats. In histopathological analyses, no treatment related changes were observed, except for decrease of eosinophilic bodies in the kidneys of all treated groups. These results suggest that 3-MCPD and its fatty acid esters are not in vivo genotoxins, although they may exert renal toxicity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e

  4. Assessment of the genotoxicity of 137Cs radiation using Vicia-micronucleus, Tradescantia-micronucleus and Tradescantia-stamen-hair mutation bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minouflet, Marion; Ayrault, Sophie; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Cotelle, Sylvie; Ferard, Jean-François

    2005-01-01

    Since the middle of the 20th century, ionizing radiations from radioactive isotopes including 137Cs have been investigated to determine their genotoxic impact on living organisms. The present study was designed to compare the effectiveness of three plant bioassays to assess DNA damage induced by low doses of 137Cs: Vicia-micronucleus test (Vicia-MCN), Tradescantia-micronucleus test (Trad-MCN) and Tradescantia-stamen-hair mutation test (Trad-SH) were used. Vicia faba (broad bean) and Tradescantia clone 4430 (spiderwort) were exposed to 137Cs according to different scenarios: external and internal (contamination) irradiations. Experiments were conducted with various levels of radioactivity in solution or in soil, using solid or liquid 137Cs sources. The three bioassays showed different sensitivities to the treatments. Trad-MCN appeared to be the most sensitive test (significative response from 1.5 kBq/200 ml after 30 h of contamination). Moreover, at comparable doses, internal irradiations led to larger effects for the three bioassays. These bioassays are effective tests for assessing the genotoxic effects of radioactive 137Cs pollution.

  5. Assessment of the genotoxicity of 137Cs radiation using Vicia-micronucleus, Tradescantia-micronucleus and Tradescantia-stamen-hair mutation bioassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minouflet, Marion; Ayrault, Sophie; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Cotelle, Sylvie; Ferard, Jean-Francois

    2005-01-01

    Since the middle of the 20th century, ionizing radiations from radioactive isotopes including 137 Cs have been investigated to determine their genotoxic impact on living organisms. The present study was designed to compare the effectiveness of three plant bioassays to assess DNA damage induced by low doses of 137 Cs: Vicia-micronucleus test (Vicia-MCN), Tradescantia-micronucleus test (Trad-MCN) and Tradescantia-stamen-hair mutation test (Trad-SH) were used. Vicia faba (broad bean) and Tradescantia clone 4430 (spiderwort) were exposed to 137 Cs according to different scenarios: external and internal (contamination) irradiations. Experiments were conducted with various levels of radioactivity in solution or in soil, using solid or liquid 137 Cs sources. The three bioassays showed different sensitivities to the treatments. Trad-MCN appeared to be the most sensitive test (significative response from 1.5 kBq/200 ml after 30 h of contamination). Moreover, at comparable doses, internal irradiations led to larger effects for the three bioassays. These bioassays are effective tests for assessing the genotoxic effects of radioactive 137 Cs pollution

  6. Genotoxic potential of diesel exhaust particles from the combustion of first- and second-generation biodiesel fuels-the FuelHealth project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Magdalena; Wegierek-Ciuk, Aneta; Brzoska, Kamil; Wojewodzka, Maria; Meczynska-Wielgosz, Sylwia; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Joanna; Mruk, Remigiusz; Øvrevik, Johan; Kruszewski, Marcin; Lankoff, Anna

    2017-11-01

    Epidemiological data indicate that exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) from traffic emissions is associated with higher risk of morbidity and mortality related to cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, accelerated progression of atherosclerotic plaques, and possible lung cancer. While the impact of DEPs from combustion of fossil diesel fuel on human health has been extensively studied, current knowledge of DEPs from combustion of biofuels provides limited and inconsistent information about its mutagenicity and genotoxicity, as well as possible adverse health risks. The objective of the present work was to compare the genotoxicity of DEPs from combustion of two first-generation fuels, 7% fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) (B7) and 20% FAME (B20), and a second-generation 20% FAME/hydrotreated vegetable oil (SHB: synthetic hydrocarbon biofuel) fuel. Our results revealed that particulate engine emissions from each type of biodiesel fuel induced genotoxic effects in BEAS-2B and A549 cells, manifested as the increased levels of single-strand breaks, the increased frequencies of micronuclei, or the deregulated expression of genes involved in DNA damage signaling pathways. We also found that none of the tested DEPs showed the induction of oxidative DNA damage and the gamma-H2AX-detectable double-strand breaks. The most pronounced differences concerning the tested particles were observed for the induction of single-strand breaks, with the greatest genotoxicity being associated with the B7-derived DEPs. The differences in other effects between DEPs from the different biodiesel blend percentage and biodiesel feedstock were also observed, but the magnitude of these variations was limited.

  7. Modulatory action of 2-deoxy-D-glucose on mitomycin C-and 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide-induced genotoxicity in Swiss albino mice In vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohapatra Rashmi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: 2-Deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG, a structural analog of glucose is an effective inhibitor of glucose metabolism and ATP production. It selectively accumulates in cancer cells and interferes with glycolysis leading to cell death. 2-DG is shown to differentially enhance the radiation-induced damage in cancer cells both under euoxic and hypoxic conditions. A combination of 2-DG and ionizing radiation selectively destroys tumors while protecting the normal tissue. 2-DG is being advocated as an adjuvant in the radiotherapy and chemotherapy of cancer. Objective: The present investigation focuses on the modulatory effect of 2-DG on mitomycin C- (MMC and 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO-induced cytogenetic damage in bone marrow cells of Swiss albino mice in vivo. Materials and Methods: Experimental animals were pretreated with 2-DG (500 mg/kg, i.p. for five consecutive days followed by MMC (2 mg/kg, i.p or 4-NQO (15 mg/kg, i.p., 24h prior to sacrifice. Control animals were given either the mixture of olive oil and acetone (3:1 or distilled water. Bone marrow cells were processed for the micronucleus assay and metaphase analysis for estimating cytogenetic damage. Results: 2-DG significantly (P < 0.001 reduced the frequency of aberrant cells induced by MMC (~90% and 4-NQO (~74%. Incidence of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs induced by the mutagens were reduced up to 68%. Conclusion: 2-DG effectively reduces the MMC-and 4-NQO-induced genotoxicity.

  8. Genotoxic effects of boric acid and borax in zebrafish, Danio rerio using alkaline comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülsoy, Nagihan; Yavas, Cüneyd; Mutlu, Özal

    2015-01-01

    The present study is conducted to determine the potential mechanisms of Boron compounds, boric acid (BA) and borax (BX), on genotoxicity of zebrafish Danio rerio for 24, 48, 72 and 96-hours acute exposure (level:1, 4, 16, 64 mg/l BA and BX) in semi-static bioassay experiment. For that purpose, peripheral erythrocytes were drawn from caudal vein and Comet assay was applied to assess genotoxicity. Acute (96 hours) exposure and high concentrations of boric acid and borax increases % tail DNA and Olive tail moment. Genotoxicity was found for BA as concentration-dependent and BX as concentration and time dependent manner. In general, significant effects (P borax-induced genotoxicity in fish.

  9. Genotoxic Effects of Exposure to Gasoline Fumes on Petrol Pump Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Amrin Shaikh; Darshana Barot; Divya Chandel

    2018-01-01

    Background: Petrol pump workers are occupationally exposed to gasoline and its fumes consisting of several mutagenic chemicals. Objective: To evaluate the genotoxic effects of exposure to gasoline fumes on petrol pump workers. Methods: The study groups included 70 petrol pump workers (exposed group) and 70 healthy age-matched individuals with no known exposure (comparison group). Buccal micronucleus cytome assay (BMCyt) was performed to check the genotoxicity caused due to inhalation ...

  10. Assessing the genotoxicity of urban air pollutants using two in situ plant bioassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villarini, M.; Fatigoni, C.; Dominici, L.; Maestri, S. [Department of Medical-Surgical Specialties and Public Health, University of Perugia, I-06126 (Italy); Ederli, L.; Pasqualini, S. [Department of Applied Biology, University of Perugia, I-06121 (Italy); Monarca, S. [Department of Medical-Surgical Specialties and Public Health, University of Perugia, I-06126 (Italy); Moretti, M., E-mail: massimo.moretti@unipg.i [Department of Medical-Surgical Specialties and Public Health, University of Perugia, I-06126 (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    Genotoxicity of urban air has been analysed almost exclusively in airborne particulates. We monitored the genotoxic effects of airborne pollutants in the urban air of Perugia (Central Italy). Two plant bioindicators with different genetic endpoints were used: micronuclei in meiotic pollen mother cells using Tradescantia-micronucleus bioassay (Trad-MCN) and DNA damage in nuclei of Nicotiana tabacum leaves using comet assay (Nicotiana-comet). Buds of Tradescantia clone no. 4430 and young N. tabacum cv. Xanthi plants were exposed for 24 h at three sites with different pollution levels. One control site (indoor control) was also used. The two bioassays showed different sensitivities toward urban pollutants: Trad-MCN assay was the most sensitive, but DNA damage in N. tabacum showed a better correlation with the pollutant concentrations. In situ biomonitoring of airborne genotoxins using higher plants combined with chemical analysis is thus recommended for characterizing genotoxicity of urban air. - Plant bioassays used to explore in situ the correlation between air pollution and genotoxicity.

  11. Assessing the genotoxicity of urban air pollutants using two in situ plant bioassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villarini, M.; Fatigoni, C.; Dominici, L.; Maestri, S.; Ederli, L.; Pasqualini, S.; Monarca, S.; Moretti, M.

    2009-01-01

    Genotoxicity of urban air has been analysed almost exclusively in airborne particulates. We monitored the genotoxic effects of airborne pollutants in the urban air of Perugia (Central Italy). Two plant bioindicators with different genetic endpoints were used: micronuclei in meiotic pollen mother cells using Tradescantia-micronucleus bioassay (Trad-MCN) and DNA damage in nuclei of Nicotiana tabacum leaves using comet assay (Nicotiana-comet). Buds of Tradescantia clone no. 4430 and young N. tabacum cv. Xanthi plants were exposed for 24 h at three sites with different pollution levels. One control site (indoor control) was also used. The two bioassays showed different sensitivities toward urban pollutants: Trad-MCN assay was the most sensitive, but DNA damage in N. tabacum showed a better correlation with the pollutant concentrations. In situ biomonitoring of airborne genotoxins using higher plants combined with chemical analysis is thus recommended for characterizing genotoxicity of urban air. - Plant bioassays used to explore in situ the correlation between air pollution and genotoxicity.

  12. Genotoxicity Screening of Industrial Effluents using Onion bulbs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    ABSTRACT: The potential cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of three industrial wastewaters (brewery .... National recommended water quality criteria – correction; cWorld Health Organisation (1996). ..... Industrial Pollution Policy Management Study.

  13. Toward a Genotoxic Protection Factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesarini, J.P.; Demanneville, S.

    2000-01-01

    P53, a molecule normally expressed before mitosis, is considered as the 'guardian of the genome'. In the skin its level is normally very low (<3% of cells), detected by immunohistochemical methods. At least 50% of the keratinocytes express p53 protein, 24 h following a significant UV irradiation (2 SED). It is expected using sunscreens to reduce the expression of p53 in parallel with their ability to reduce the actinic erythema, the endpoint adopted to evaluate the Sun Protection Factor (SPF) of sunscreens. P53 detection on biopsies performed on the buttocks of human volunteers was used to evaluate the genotoxic protecting factor (GPF) of several sunscreens with either high UVB filtration or high UVA filtration, characterised by various SPF (COLIPA) from 10 to 40. The p53 count in parallel with sunburn cell count were the parameters studied. In general, the GPF of the sunscreens was found below the proprietary SPF. If a genotoxic effect is shown in an increased p53 expression, this effect is still observed at a dose lower than the dose inducing the faintest actinic erythema. (author)

  14. Toward a Genotoxic Protection Factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesarini, J.P.; Demanneville, S

    2000-07-01

    P53, a molecule normally expressed before mitosis, is considered as the 'guardian of the genome'. In the skin its level is normally very low (<3% of cells), detected by immunohistochemical methods. At least 50% of the keratinocytes express p53 protein, 24 h following a significant UV irradiation (2 SED). It is expected using sunscreens to reduce the expression of p53 in parallel with their ability to reduce the actinic erythema, the endpoint adopted to evaluate the Sun Protection Factor (SPF) of sunscreens. P53 detection on biopsies performed on the buttocks of human volunteers was used to evaluate the genotoxic protecting factor (GPF) of several sunscreens with either high UVB filtration or high UVA filtration, characterised by various SPF (COLIPA) from 10 to 40. The p53 count in parallel with sunburn cell count were the parameters studied. In general, the GPF of the sunscreens was found below the proprietary SPF. If a genotoxic effect is shown in an increased p53 expression, this effect is still observed at a dose lower than the dose inducing the faintest actinic erythema. (author)

  15. In vitro and in vivo investigation of the genotoxic potential of waters from rivers under the influence of a petroleum refinery (São Paulo State - Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Raquel Vaz; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2017-05-01

    In recent years concern about the chemical composition of wastewater generated by the oil refining industry has increased, even after its treatment. These wastewaters contain substances that can harm both the entire aquatic ecosystem and the health of any exposed organisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic and mutagenic potentials of the effluent generated by the largest Brazilian petroleum refinery, the effectiveness of the treatments used by the refinery, and whether its effluent can compromise the water quality of the river where it is discarded. Chromosomal aberration and micronucleus assays were performed in Allium cepa and micronucleus test in mammalian cell culture (CHO-K1). The samples were collected in three sites at the refinery: one site on the Jaguari River and two sites on the Atibaia Rivers (upstream and downstream of the discharged effluent), under three different climatic conditions. Tests with A. cepa showed increased frequencies of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei in meristematic cells for the effluent after physico-chemical treatment, but the samples after treatment biological and stabilization pond presented none of these abnormalities. It was observed that the induced damage in the meristematic cells was not observed in the F 1 cells of A. cepa roots. The micronucleus test performed with mammalian cell culture also indicated that the effluent, after physico-chemical treatment, induced a significant increase in micronucleus frequencies. Plant and hamster cells exposed to the other samples collected inside the refinery and in the Jaguari and Atibaia Rivers did not present evidence of genotoxicity and mutagenicity in the tests performed. This study showed that the effluent treated carried out by the refinery (biological treatment followed by a stabilization pond) proved to be efficient for the removal of the toxic load still present after the physico-chemical treatment, since no change in the quality of the Atibaia

  16. Safety and performance analysis of acriflavine and methylene blue for in vivo imaging of precancerous lesions using fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy (FCFM): an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obstoy, Bérengère; Salaun, Mathieu; Veresezan, Liana; Sesboüé, Richard; Bohn, Pierre; Boland, François-Xavier; Thiberville, Luc

    2015-03-31

    Fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy (FCFM) allows in vivo investigation of pulmonary microstructures. However, the bronchial epithelium can only be imaged using exogenous fluorophores. The objective of this study is to compare methylene blue (MB) and acriflavine genotoxicity and to assess FCFM performance for in vivo imaging of precancerous lesions. Genotoxicity was assessed using the comet assay on both cultured human lymphocytes and NCI-H460 cells, which had been exposed to MB or acriflavine before being illuminated at 660 or 488 nm, respectively. FCFM was performed on precancerous lesions in the hamster cheek pouch model, following topical application of the fluorophores. FCFM data were analyzed according to histology. No genotoxicity was found using 0.01% (w/v) MB after illumination at 660 nm for 2 and 15 min (5 mW). Acriflavine exposure (0.025%) led to DNA damages, increasing from 2 to 15 min of light exposure at 448 nm in both lymphocytes (83.4 to 88%, p = 0.021) and NCI H460 cell populations (79.9 to 84.6%, p = 0.045). In total, 11 invasive carcinoma, 24 reserve cell hyperplasia, and 17 dysplasia lesions were imaged using FCFM in vivo. With both fluorophores, the cellular density increased from hyperplasia to high-grade dysplasia (p < 0.05). With MB, the cellular diameter significantly decreased (48.9 to 13.9 μm) from hyperplasia to carcinoma (p < 0.05). In this model, a cut-off diameter of 30 μm enabled the diagnosis of high-grade lesions with a sensitivity of 94.7% and a specificity of 97%. Methylene blue can be used safely to image precancerous lesions in vivo. This study does not support the use of acriflavine in humans.

  17. Identification of early target genes of aflatoxin B1 in human hepatocytes, inter-individual variability and comparison with other genotoxic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josse, Rozenn; Dumont, Julie; Fautrel, Alain; Robin, Marie-Anne; Guillouzo, André

    2012-01-01

    Gene expression profiling has recently emerged as a promising approach to identify early target genes and discriminate genotoxic carcinogens from non-genotoxic carcinogens and non-carcinogens. However, early gene changes induced by genotoxic compounds in human liver remain largely unknown. Primary human hepatocytes and differentiated HepaRG cells were exposed to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) that induces DNA damage following enzyme-mediated bioactivation. Gene expression profile changes induced by a 24 h exposure of these hepatocyte models to 0.05 and 0.25 μM AFB1 were analyzed by using oligonucleotide pangenomic microarrays. The main altered signaling pathway was the p53 pathway and related functions such as cell cycle, apoptosis and DNA repair. Direct involvement of the p53 protein in response to AFB1 was verified by using siRNA directed against p53. Among the 83 well-annotated genes commonly modulated in two pools of three human hepatocyte populations and HepaRG cells, several genes were identified as altered by AFB1 for the first time. In addition, a subset of 10 AFB1-altered genes, selected upon basis of their function or tumor suppressor role, was tested in four human hepatocyte populations and in response to other chemicals. Although they exhibited large variable inter-donor fold-changes, several of these genes, particularly FHIT, BCAS3 and SMYD3, were found to be altered by various direct and other indirect genotoxic compounds and unaffected by non-genotoxic compounds. Overall, this comprehensive analysis of early gene expression changes induced by AFB1 in human hepatocytes identified a gene subset that included several genes representing potential biomarkers of genotoxic compounds. -- Highlights: ► Gene expression profile changes induced by aflatoxin B1 in human hepatocytes. ► AFB1 modulates various genes including tumor suppressor genes and proto-oncogenes. ► Important inter-individual variations in the response to AFB1. ► Some genes also altered by other

  18. Genotoxicity Biomonitoring Along a Coastal Zone Under Influence of Offshore Petroleum Exploration (Southeastern Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Juan Manuel; da Conceição, Moisés Basilio; Molisani, Mauricio Mussi; Weber, Laura Isabel

    2018-03-01

    Offshore oil exploration creates threats to coastal ecosystems, including increasing urbanization and associated effluent releases. Genotoxicity biomarkers in mussels were determined across a gradient of coastal zone influences of offshore petroleum exploration in southeastern Brazil. Coastal ecosystems such as estuaries, beaches and islands were seasonally monitored for genotoxicity evaluation using the brown mussel Perna perna. The greatest DNA damage (5.2% ± 1.9% tail DNA and 1.5‰  ± 0.8‰ MN) were observed in urban estuaries, while Santana Archipelago showed levels of genotoxicity near zero and is considered a reference site. Mussels from urban and pristine beaches showed intermediate damage levels, but were also influenced by urbanization. Thus, mussel genotoxicity biomarkers greatly indicated the proposed oil exploration and urbanization scenarios that consequently are genetically affecting coastal organisms.

  19. Genotoxicity evaluation of HMG CoA reductase inhibitor rosuvastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berber, Ahmet Ali; Celik, Mustafa; Aksoy, Hüseyin

    2014-07-01

    The genotoxic potential of rosuvastatin as one of the statin drugs was assessed by chromosomal aberrations (CAs), micronucleus (MN) and DNA damage by comet assay in the human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Rosuvastatin was used at concentrations of 0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5 and 1 µg/mL for these in vitro assays. In all assays, a negative and positive control were also included. CA frequencies were significantly increased in all concentrations at 24 hours and significantly increased in all concentrations except 0.0625 µg/mL at 48 hours, compared to the negative control. Rosuvastatin has a decreased mitotic index (MI) at 0.5- and 1-µg/mL concentrations at 24 hours and at 0.25, 0.5 and 1 µg/mL at 48 hours. A significant increase was observed for induction of MN in all treatments, compared to the negative control. Cytokinesis-block proliferation indices were not affected by treatments with rosuvastatin. In the comet assay, significant increases in comet tail length and tail moment were observed at 0.0625-, 0.5- and 1-µg/mL concentrations. Comet intensity was significantly increased in all concentrations except 0.0625 µg/mL. According to these results, rosuvastatin is cytotoxic and clastogenic/aneugenic in human peripheral lymphocytes. Further studies should be conducted in other test systems to evaluate the full genotoxic potential of rosuvastatin.

  20. Evaluation of the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taner, Gökçe; Yeşilöz, Recep; Özkan Vardar, Deniz; Şenyiğit, Taner; Özer, Özgen; Degen, Gisela H.; Başaran, Nurşen

    2014-02-01

    Nanoparticles-based drug targeting delivery systems have been introduced in the treatment for various diseases because of their effective properties, although there have been conflicting results on the toxicity of nanoparticles. In the present study, the aim was to evaluate the cytotoxicity and the genotoxicity of different concentrations of lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles with and without clobetasol-17-propionate (CP) by neutral red uptake (NRU) cytotoxicity assay and single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) and cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assays. The IC50 values of lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles with/without CP were found as 1.9 and 1.8 %, respectively, in the NRU cytotoxicity test. High concentrations of lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes as evaluated by comet assay. The micronucleus frequency was increased by the lecithin/chitosan treatment in a dose-dependent manner. Also at the two highest concentrations, a significant increase in micronucleus formation was observed. Lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles with CP did not increase the frequency of micronucleus and also did not induce additional DNA damage when compared with lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles without CP; therefore, CP itself has not found to be genotoxic at the studied concentration.

  1. Human mesenchymal stem cells are resistant to cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of cisplatin in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Corrêa Bellagamba

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are known for their important properties involving multilineage differentiation potential., trophic factor secretion and localization along various organs and tissues. On the dark side, MSCs play a distinguished role in tumor microenvironments by differentiating into tumor-associated fibroblasts or supporting tumor growth via distinct mechanisms. Cisplatin (CIS is a drug widely applied in the treatment of a large number of cancers and is known for its cytotoxic and genotoxic effects, both in vitro and in vivo. Here we assessed the effects of CIS on MSCs and the ovarian cancer cell line OVCAR-3, by MTT and comet assays. Our results demonstrated the resistance of MSCs to cell death and DNA damage induction by CIS, which was not observed when OVCAR-3 cells were exposed to this drug.

  2. Use of the aquatic plant Elodea canadensis to assess toxicity and genotoxicity of Yenisei River sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotina, Tatiana A; Trofimova, Elena A; Medvedeva, Marina Yu; Dementyev, Dmitry V; Bolsunovsky, Alexander Ya

    2015-10-01

    The toxicity, cytotoxicity, and genotoxicity of bulk sediments from the Yenisei River (Siberia, Russia) were estimated in laboratory bioassays based on several endpoints in the aquatic plant Elodea canadensis. The bottom sediment samples were collected in the Yenisei River upstream and downstream of the sources of chemical and radioactive contamination. The testing revealed different sensitivities of Elodea endpoints to the quality of the bottom sediment: weight of shoots Elodea) was the highest in sediments with chemical pollution, whereas the highest inhibition of toxicity endpoints (shoot and root length) occurred in sediments with the highest level of radioactive pollution. The extreme response of Elodea endpoints to the quality of certain sediment samples may be regarded as related to the possible presence of unknown toxicants. The results show that E. canadensis can be used as an indicator species in laboratory contact testing of bottom sediment. The responses of shoot and root length growth endpoints of Elodea can be recommended as basic sensitivity indicators of bottom sediment toxicity. Analysis of cells carrying abnormal chromosomes in the apical root meristem of Elodea can be performed optionally in the same test to assess the genotoxicity of sediments. © 2015 SETAC.

  3. Primary genotoxicity in the liver following pulmonary exposure to carbon black nanoparticles in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modrzynska, Justyna; Berthing, Trine; Ravn-Haren, Gitte

    2018-01-01

    Background Little is known about the mechanism underlying the genotoxicity observed in the liver following pulmonary exposure to carbon black (CB) nanoparticles (NPs). The genotoxicity could be caused by the presence of translocated particles or by circulating inflammatory mediators released during...

  4. Proteome-wide Identification of Poly(ADP-Ribosyl)ation Targets in Different Genotoxic Stress Responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungmichel, S.; Rosenthal, F.; Altmeyer, M.

    2013-01-01

    . Nuclear proteins encompassing nucleic acid binding properties are prominently PARylated upon genotoxic stress, consistent with the nuclear localization of ARTD1/PARP1 and ARTD2/PARP2. Distinct differences in proteins becoming PARylated upon various genotoxic insults are observed, exemplified...

  5. No evidence of the genotoxic potential of gold, silver, zinc oxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles in the SOS chromotest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Sun-Hwa; Kim, Shin Woong; An, Youn-Joo

    2013-10-01

    Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs), silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs), zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are widely used in cosmetic products such as preservatives, colorants and sunscreens. This study investigated the genotoxicity of Au NPs, Ag NPs, ZnO NPs and TiO2 NPs using the SOS chromotest with Escherichia coli PQ37. The maximum exposure concentrations for each nanoparticle were 3.23 mg l(-1) for Au NPs, 32.3 mg l(-1) for Ag NPs and 100 mg l(-1) for ZnO NPs and TiO2 NPs. Additionally, in order to compare the genotoxicity of nanoparticles and corresponding dissolved ions, the ions were assessed in the same way as nanoparticles. The genotoxicity of the titanium ion was not assessed because of the extremely low solubility of TiO2 NPs. Au NPs, Ag NPs, ZnO NPs, TiO2 NPs and ions of Au, Ag and Zn, in a range of tested concentrations, exerted no effects in the SOS chromotest, evidenced by maximum IF (IFmax) values of below 1.5 for all chemicals. Owing to the results, nanosized Au NPs, Ag NPs, ZnO NPs, TiO2 NPs and ions of Au, Ag and Zn are classified as non-genotoxic on the basis of the SOS chromotest used in this study. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the genotoxicity of Au NPs, Ag NPs, ZnO NPs and TiO2 NPs using the SOS chromotest. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Capacidad protectora de myrciaria dubia "camu camu" ante el daño genético inducido por estrés oxidativo, evaluado in vitro, en la línea celular de ovario de "hámster chino" cricetulus griseus e in vivo drosophila melanogaster “mosca de la fruta”

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez Bustamante, José Antonio

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that carcinogen and mutagens act through oxidatives mechanisms that they damage to the DNA, in this research we evaluate the protective capacity of Myrciaria dubia “camu camu” in vitro in an system constituted by cellular line CHO - K1 of ovary of hamster chinese Cricetulus griseus as well as in a system in vivo with Drosophila melanogaster. For test the genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity in vitro we used the aberrations chromosomal Test (AC) we used “camu camu” 3 doses (1,0;...

  7. A novel mechanism of oxidative genotoxicity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The genotoxicity of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is well established. The underlying mechanism involves oxidation of DNA by ROS. However, we have recently shown that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), the major mediator of oxidative stress, can also cause genomic damage indirectly. Thus, H2O2 at pathologically relevant ...

  8. Assessing genotoxic effects in fish from a marine protected area influenced by former mining activities and other stressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusso-Choueri, Paloma Kachel; Choueri, Rodrigo Brasil; Santos, Gustavo Souza; Seraphim de Araújo, Giuliana; Feitosa Cruz, Ana Carolina

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to evaluate different genotoxicity tools in order to assess a marine protected area (MPA) affected by former mining activities and urban settlements. A catfish (Cathorops spixii) was analyzed for genotoxic effects at the (i) molecular and at the (ii) chromosomal levels. Through factor analysis, genotoxicity was found to be linked to levels of metals bioaccumulated and PAH metabolites in the bile. Micronucleus and nuclear alteration were less vulnerable to the effects of confounding factors in mildly contaminated areas since they were more frequently associated with bioaccumulated metals than the DNA analysis. The different genotoxicity responses allowed for the identification of sources of pollution in the MPA. This approach was important for detecting environmental risks related to genotoxic contaminants in a mildly contaminated MPA. -- Highlights: •We assessed genotoxicity and bioaccumulation in catfish from a marine protected area. •The area is under the influence of past mining activities and urban settlements. •Cellular level responses were highly associated with body burdens of metals and As. •Responses at the molecular level were less associated with body burdens. •Genotoxicity in different organs helped identify pollution sources in MPA.

  9. Impacts of fullerene C60 and virgin olive oil on cadmium-induced genotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Fayza M; Kotb, Ahmed M; Haridy, Mohie A M; Hammad, Seddik

    2018-07-15

    Currently, cadmium is considered to be one of the major environmental pollutants. Environmentally, cadmium is released in various forms e.g. oxide, chloride and sulphide. The aim of the present study was to examine the genotoxic impact of fullerene nanoparticles C 60 (C 60 ) and virgin olive oil (VOO) on cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 )-induced genotoxicity in rats. To evaluate these effects on DNA damage and chromosomal frequency, 25 albino rats were randomly assigned to 5 groups (n=5 per group): Group 1 served as a control; Group 2 received a single intraperitoneal dose of CdCl 2 (3.5mg/kg); Group 3 animals were treated with C 60 (4mg/kg, orally) every other day for 20days; Group 4 received a single intraperitoneal dose of CdCl 2 (3.5mg/kg) and an oral dose of C 60 (4mg/kg); and Group 5 received a single intraperitoneal dose of CdCl 2 (3.5mg/kg) and oral doses of VOO every other day for 20 consecutive days. Genotoxic and anti-genotoxic effects of C 60 and VOO were evaluated in the liver, kidney and bone marrow using molecular and cytogenetic assays. As expected, CdCl 2 and C 60 administration was associated with band number alterations in both liver and kidney; however, C 60 pretreatment recovered to approximately basal number. Surprisingly, C 60 and VOO significantly attenuated the genotoxic effects caused by CdCl 2 in livers and kidneys. In bone marrow, in addition to a reduction in the chromosomal number, several chromosomal aberrations were caused by CdCl 2 . These chromosomal alterations were also reversed by C 60 and VOO. In conclusion, molecular and cytogenetic studies showed that C 60 and VOO exhibit anti-genotoxic agents against CdCl 2 -induced genotoxicity in rats. Further studies are needed to investigate the optimal conditions for potential biomedical applications of these anti-genotoxic agents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Genotoxicity of 11 heavy metals detected as food contaminants in two human cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, B; Zalko, D; Audebert, M

    2018-04-01

    Heavy metals, such as arsenic (As), antimony (Sb), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), germanium (Ge), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), tellurium (Te), and vanadium (V) are widely distributed in the environment and in the food chain. Human exposure to heavy metals through water and food has been reported by different international agencies. Although some of these heavy metals are essential elements for human growth and development, they may also be toxic at low concentrations due to indirect mechanisms. In this study, the genotoxic and cytotoxic properties of 15 different oxidation statuses of 11 different heavy metals were investigated using high-throughput screening (γH2AX assay) in two human cell lines (HepG2 and LS-174T) representative of target organs (liver and colon) for food contaminants. Base on their lowest observed adverse effect concentration, the genotoxic potency of each heavy metal in each cell line was ranked in decreasing order, NaAsO 2  > CdCl 2  > PbCl 2 (only in LS-174T cells) > As 2 O 5  > SbCl 3  > K 2 TeO 3  > As 2 O 3 . No significant genotoxicity was observed with the other heavy metals tested. Cell viability data indicate that several heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Ni, Sb, and Te) induce cytotoxicity at high concentrations, whereas an increase in the number of cells was observed for lead concentrations >100 µM in both cell lines tested, suggesting that lead stimulates cell growth. All these results highlight the possible human health hazards associated with the presence of heavy metals present in food. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 59:202-210, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. A novel genotoxic aspect of thiabendazole as a photomutagen in bacteria and cultured human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe-Akanuma, Mie; Ohta, Toshihiro; Sasaki, Yu F

    2005-09-15

    Thiabendazole (TBZ) is a post-harvest fungicide commonly used on imported citrus fruits. We recently found that TBZ showed photomutagenicity with UVA-irradiation in the Ames test using plate incorporation method. In the present study, potential of DNA-damaging activity, mutagenicity, and clastogenicity were investigated by short pulse treatment for 10 min with TBZ (50-400 microg/ml) and UVA-irradiation (320-400 nm, 250 microW/cm2) in bacterial and human cells. UVA-irradiated TBZ caused DNA damage in Escherichia coli and human lymphoblastoid WTK1 cells assayed, respectively, by the umu-test and the single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay. In a modified Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium and E. coli, strong induction of -1 frameshift mutations as well as base-substitution mutations were detected. TBZ at 50-100 microg/ml with UVA-irradiation significantly induced micronuclei in WTK1 cells in the in vitro cytochalasin-B micronucleus assay. Pulse treatment for 10 min with TBZ alone did not show any genotoxicity. Although TBZ is a spindle poison that induces aneuploidy, we hypothesize that the photogenotoxicity of TBZ in the present study was produced by a different mechanism, probably by DNA adduct formation. We concluded that UVA-activated TBZ is genotoxic in bacterial and human cells in vitro.

  12. Comparative cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of 13 drinking water disinfection by-products using a microplate-based cytotoxicity assay and a developed SOS/umu assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shao-Hui; Miao, Dong-Yue; Tan, Li; Liu, Ai-Lin; Lu, Wen-Qing

    2016-01-01

    The implications of disinfection by-products (DBPs) present in drinking water are of public health concern because of their potential mutagenic, carcinogenic and other toxic effects on humans. In this study, we selected 13 main DBPs found in drinking water to quantitatively analyse their cytotoxicity and genotoxicity using a microplate-based cytotoxicity assay and a developed SOS/umu assay in Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002. With the developed SOS/umu test, eight DBPs: 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2[5H]-fura3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2-[5H]-furanone (MX), dibromoacetonitrile (DBN), iodoacetic acid (IA), bromochloroacetonitrile (BCN), bromoacetic acid (BA), trichloroacetonitrile (TCN), dibromoacetic acid (DBA) and dichloroacetic acid (DCA) were significantly genotoxic to S. typhimurium. Three DBPs: chloroacetic acid (CA), trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and dichloroacetonitrile (DCN) were weakly genotoxic, whereas the remaining DBPs: chloroacetonitrile (CN) and chloral hydrate (CH) were negative. The rank order in decreasing genotoxicity was as follows: MX > DBN > IA > BCN > BA > TCN > DBA > DCA > CA, TCA, DCN > CN, CH. MX was approximately 370 000 times more genotoxic than DCA. In the microplate-based cytotoxicity assay, cytotoxic potencies of the 13 DBPs were compared and ranked in decreasing order as follows: MX > IA > DBN > BCN > BA > TCN > DCN > CA > DCA > DBA > CN > TCA > CH. MX was approximately 19 200 times more cytotoxic than CH. A statistically significant correlation was found between cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of the 13 DBPs in S. typhimurium. Results suggest that microplate-based cytotoxicity assay and the developed SOS/umu assay are feasible tools for analysing the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of DBPs, particularly for comparing their toxic intensities quantitatively. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e

  13. The history, genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of carbon-based fuels and their emissions: part 4 - alternative fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, Larry D

    2015-01-01

    Much progress has been made in reducing the pollutants emitted from various combustors (including diesel engines and power plants) by the use of alternative fuels; however, much more progress is needed. Not only must researchers improve fuels and combustors, but also there is a need to improve the toxicology testing and analytical chemistry methods associated with these complex mixtures. Emissions from many alternative carbonaceous fuels are mutagenic and carcinogenic. Depending on their source and derivation, alternative carbonaceous fuels before combustion may or may not be genotoxic; however, in order to know their genotoxicity, appropriate chemical analysis and/or bioassay must be performed. Newly developed fuels and combustors must be tested to determine if they provide a public health advantage over existing technologies - including what tradeoffs can be expected (e.g., decreasing levels of PAHs versus increasing levels of NOx and possibly nitroarenes in ambient air). Another need is to improve exposure estimations which presently are a weak link in doing risk analyses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Genotoxic valuation of Zinalco, a zinc base alloy, by the mutation and somatic recombination test in Drosophila Melanogaster.; Valoracion genotoxica de la aleacion Zinalco mediante la prueba de mutacion y recombinacion somatica en Drosophila Melanogaster.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez V, P

    1995-10-01

    Zinalco is an eutectoid alloy made of zinc, aluminium and copper (78% , 20% and 2%), because of its physical, chemical and mechanical characteristics, it has been established as a structural material and valued as a feasible bio material. Previous authors have studies on the cytotoxic effect of Zinalco, so for concluded that it is harmless to the organism. However, was considered necessary to evaluate its potential genotoxicity. The present work was done with the fruit fly Drosophila Melanogaster. The objectives were: to determine the administered particle size, to evaluate its ingestion zinalco and to score the genotoxic effect by means of the SMART test in wing cells of D. Melanogaster. The protocol consisted of an oral chronic treatment, to groups of 72th age larvae, with concentrations of 0,1,2,4,8 and 16 mg of zinalco in ml of water on 1.5 g of synthetic medium. Statistical analysis was done through the SMART program. The results obtained showed an average particle size of 16 m long x 5.9 m wide. The normal amount of the alloy elements in the larvae was increased and finally, no genotoxicity at any of the administered doses could be detected. (Author).

  15. Genotoxicity assessment of membrane concentrates of landfill leachate treated with Fenton reagent and UV-Fenton reagent using human hepatoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guifang; Lu, Gang; Yin, Pinghe; Zhao, Ling; Yu, Qiming Jimmy

    2016-04-15

    Membrane concentrates of landfill leachates contain organic and inorganic contaminants that could be highly toxic and carcinogenic. In this paper, the genotoxicity of membrane concentrates before and after Fenton and UV-Fenton reagent was assessed. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity was determined by using the methods of methyltetrazolium (MTT), cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) and comet assay in human hepatoma cells. MTT assay showed a cytotoxicity of 75% after 24h of exposure to the highest tested concentration of untreated concentrates, and no cytotoxocity for UV-Fenton and Fenton treated concentrates. Both CBMN and comet assays showed increased levels of genotoxicity in cells exposed to untreated concentrates, compared to those occurred in cells exposed to UV-Fenton and Fenton reagent treated concentrates. There was no significant difference between negative control and UV-Fenton treated concentrates for micronucleus and comet assay parameters. UV-Fenton and Fenton treatment, especially the former, were effective methods for degradation of bisphenol A and nonylphenol in concentrates. These findings showed UV-Fenton and Fenton reaction were effective methods for treatment of such complex concentrates, UV-Fenton reagent provided toxicological safety of the treated effluent, and the genotoxicity assays were found to be feasible tools for assessment of toxicity risks of complex concentrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Dichlorophen and Dichlorovos mediated genotoxic and cytotoxic assessment on root meristem cells of Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibhghatulla Shaikh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants are direct recipients of agro – toxics and therefore important materials for assessing environmental chemicals for genotoxicity. The meristematic mitotic cell of Allium cepa is an efficient cytogenetic material for chromosome aberration assay on environmental pollutants. Onion root tips were grown on moistened filter paper in petri dish at room temperature. Germinated root tips were then exposed to three concentrations of each pesticide for 24 h. About 1 – 2 mm length of root tip was cut, fixed in cornoy’s fixative, hydrolyzed in warm 1 N HCL, stained with acetocarmine and squashed on glass slide. About 3000 cells were scored and classified into interphase and normal or aberrant division stage. Cytotoxicity was determined by comparing the mitotic index (MI of treated cells with that of the negative control. The MI of cells treated with Dichlorophen and Dichlorovos at one or more concentration was half or less than that of control are said to be cytotoxic. Genotoxicity was measured by comparing the number of cells/1000 in aberrant division stages at each dose with the negative control using Mann – Whitney U test. Both Dichlorophen and Dichlorovos are genotoxic at higher concentrations i.e. 0.001%, 0.002% and 0.028%, 0.056% inducing chromosome fragment, chromosome lagging and bridges, stick chromosome and multipolar anaphase.

  17. The effect of temperature on the efficiency of industrial wastewater nitrification and its (genotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnida Anna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of the determination of the effects of temperature on the efficiency of the nitrification process of industrial wastewater, as well as its toxicity to the test organisms. The study on nitrification efficiency was performed using wastewater from one of Polish chemical factories. The chemical factory produces nitrogen fertilizers and various chemicals. The investigated wastewater was taken from the influent to the industrial mechanical-biological wastewater treatment plant (WWTP. The WWTP guaranteed high removal efficiency of organic compounds defined as chemical oxygen demand (COD but periodical failure of nitrification performance was noted in last years of the WWTP operation. The research aim was to establish the cause of recurring failures of nitrification process in the above mentioned WWTP. The tested wastewater was not acutely toxic to activated sludge microorganisms. However, the wastewater was genotoxic to activated sludge microorganisms and the genotoxicity was greater in winter than in spring time. Analysis of almost 3 years’ period of the WWTP operation data and laboratory batch tests showed that activated sludge from the WWTP under study is very sensitive to temperature changes and the nitrification efficiency collapses rapidly under 16°C. Additionally, it was calculated that in order to provide the stable nitrification, in winter period the sludge age (SRT in the WWTP should be higher than 35 days.

  18. Evaluation of 10 aliphatic halogenated hydrocarbons in the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crebelli, R; Carere, A; Leopardi, P; Conti, L; Fassio, F; Raiteri, F; Barone, D; Ciliutti, P; Cinelli, S; Vericat, J A

    1999-03-01

    Ten halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons (carbon tetrachloride, 1-chlorohexane, 2,3-dichlorobutane, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,2-dichloroethylene, 1,3-dichloropropane, hexachloroethane, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, 1,2,3-trichloropropane and 1,1,3-trichloropropene), previously assayed in genetic assays in fungi, were evaluated in the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test in order to assess their genotoxicity in vivo. All chemicals were administered once i.p. at 40 and 70-80% of their respective LD50 to male and female CD-1 mice, 24 and 48 h before killing. All treatments produced evident clinical symptoms, but no marked depression of bone marrow proliferation. No statistically significant increases in the incidence of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes over the control values were observed at any sampling time with any of the 10 halogenated hydrocarbons assayed. The comparison of the results obtained in this study with the findings provided by in vitro micronucleus assays on the same chemicals, reported by other authors, indicate that mouse bone marrow is weakly sensitive to the genotoxic effects induced by halogenated hydrocarbons in other test systems. This suggests that the role of such an assay in carcinogen screening may be questionable for this chemical class. An examination of mouse bone marrow micronucleus test results with the halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons classified as carcinogens by IARC supports this conclusion.

  19. The cyto- and genotoxicity of organotin compounds is dependent on the cellular uptake capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dopp, E.; Hartmann, L.M.; Recklinghausen, U. von; Florea, A.M.; Rabieh, S.; Shokouhi, B.; Hirner, A.V.; Obe, G.; Rettenmeier, A.W.

    2007-01-01

    Organotin compounds have been widely used as stabilizers and anti-fouling agents with the result that they are ubiquitously distributed in the environment. Organotins accumulate in the food chain and potential effects on human health are disquieting. It is not known as yet whether cell surface adsorption or accumulation within the cell, or indeed both is a prerequisite for the toxicity of organotin compounds. In this study, the alkylated tin derivatives monomethyltin trichloride (MMT), dimethyltin dichloride (DMT), trimethyltin chloride (TMT) and tetramethyltin (TetraMT) were investigated for cyto- and genotoxic effects in CHO-9 cells in relation to the cellular uptake. To identify genotoxic effects, induction of micronuclei (MN), chromosome aberrations (CA) and sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) were analyzed and the nuclear division index (NDI) was calculated. The cellular uptake was assessed using ICP-MS analysis. The toxicity of the tin compounds was also evaluated after forced uptake by electroporation. Our results show that uptake of the organotin compounds was generally low but dose-dependent. Only weak genotoxic effects were observed after exposure of cells to DMT and TMT. MMT and TetraMT were negative in the test systems. After forced uptake by electroporation MMT, DMT and TMT induced significant DNA damage at non-cytotoxic concentrations. The results presented here indicate a considerable toxicological potential of some organotin species but demonstrate clearly that the toxicity is modulated by the cellular uptake capability

  20. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2015. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 208 Revision 1 (FGE.208Rev1): Consideration of genotoxicity data on representatives for 10 alicyclic aldehydes with the a,b-unsaturation in ring / side-chain and precursors from chemical subgroup 2.2 of FGE.19

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Nørby, Karin Kristiane

    genotoxicity studies on p-mentha-1,8-dien-7-al [FL-no: 05.117], the representative substance for FGE.19 subgroup 2.2. This substance was tested in vivo in a combined micronucleus assay in bone marrow and Comet assay in liver and duodenum. It did not induce any increase in micronucleated polychromatic...... erythrocytes of the bone marrow of male rats in the micronucleus test and it did not induce DNA damage in duodenum of the same animals as analysed by the Comet assay. The Comet assay performed in liver shows a positive result and therefore the Panel concluded that p-mentha-1,8-dien-7-al [FL-no: 05...

  1. Cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of food-borne nitriles in a liver in vitro model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupke, Franziska; Herz, Corinna; Hanschen, Franziska S.; Platz, Stefanie; Odongo, Grace A.; Helmig, Simone; Bartolomé Rodríguez, María M.; Schreiner, Monika; Rohn, Sascha; Lamy, Evelyn

    2016-01-01

    Isothiocyanates are the most intensively studied breakdown products of glucosinolates from Brassica plants and well recognized for their pleiotropic effects against cancer but also for their genotoxic potential. However, knowledge about the bioactivity of glucosinolate-borne nitriles in foods is very poor. As determined by GC-MS, broccoli glucosinolates mainly degrade to nitriles as breakdown products. The cytotoxicity of nitriles in human HepG2 cells and primary murine hepatocytes was marginal as compared to isothiocyanates. Toxicity of nitriles was not enhanced in CYP2E1-overexpressing HepG2 cells. In contrast, the genotoxic potential of nitriles was found to be comparable to isothiocyanates. DNA damage was persistent over a certain time period and CYP2E1-overexpression further increased the genotoxic potential of the nitriles. Based on actual in vitro data, no indications are given that food-borne nitriles could be relevant for cancer prevention, but could pose a certain genotoxic risk under conditions relevant for food consumption. PMID:27883018

  2. Modulation of mitomycin C-induced genotoxicity by acetyl- and thio- analogues of salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Amol Ashok; Vikram, Ajit; Tripathi, Durga Nand; Padmanabhan, Shweta; Ramarao, Poduri; Jena, Gopabandhu

    2009-01-01

    Recent reports regarding acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and its metabolites suggest suppressive effects against mitomycin C (MMC)-induced genotoxicity in a mice chromosomal aberration assay. Keeping this in mind, the potential anti-genotoxic effect of the thio-analogue of salicylic acid namely thio