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Sample records for vitrified ovarian tissue

  1. Expression of Folliculogenesis-Related Genes in Vitrified Human Ovarian Tissue after Two Weeks In Vitro Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams Mofarahe, Zahra; Salehnia, Mojdeh; Ghaffari Novin, Marefat; Ghorbanmehr, Nassim; Fesharaki, Mohammad Gholami

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of vitrification and in vitro culture of human ovarian tissue on the expression of oocytic and follicular cell-related genes. In this experimental study, ovarian tissue samples were obtained from eight transsexual women. Samples were cut into small fragments and were then assigned to vitrified and non-vitrified groups. In each group, some tissue fragments were divided into un-cultured and cultured (in α-MEM medium for 2 weeks) subgroups. The normality of follicles was assessed by morphological observation under a light microscope using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Expression levels of factor in the germ line alpha (FIGLA), KIT ligand (KL), growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF-9) and follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) genes were quantified in both groups by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) at the beginning and the end of culture. The percentage of normal follicles was similar between non-cultured vitrified and non-vitrified groups (P>0.05), however, cultured tissues had significantly fewer normal follicles than non-cultured tissues in both vitrified and non-vitrified groups (Pcultured groups the rate of primary and secondary follicles was significantly higher than non-cultured tissues (Pcultured groups. Whiles, in comparison with cultured tissues non-cultured tissues, the expression of FIGLA gene was significantly decreased, KL gene was not changed, GDF-9 and FSHR genes was significantly increased (Pculture has no impairing effects on follicle normality and development and expression of related-genes. However, in vitro culture condition has deleterious effects on normality of follicles.

  2. Short Term Culture of Vitrified Human Ovarian Cortical Tissue to Assess the Cryopreservation Outcome: Molecular and Morphological Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Mehdi; Salehnia, Mojdeh; Jafarabadi, Mina

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of human ovarian vitrification protocol followed with in vitro culture at the morphological and molecular levels. Ovarian tissues were obtained from 10 normal transsexual women and cut into small pieces and were divided into non-vitrified and vitrified groups and some of the tissues fragments in both groups were randomly cultured for two weeks. The morphological study using hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining was done. The analysis of mean follicular density, 17-β estradiol (E2) and anti mullerian hormone (AMH), and real-time RT-PCR was down for the evaluation of expression of genes related to folliculogenesis. Data were compared by paired-samples and independent-samples T test. Values of pculture but these rates and the mean follicle density significantly decreased in both cultured tissues (pcultured tissues the expression of GDF9 and FSHR genes increased and the expression of FIGLA and KIT-L genes decreased (pculture in both groups. In conclusion, the present study indicated that the follicular development and gene expression in vitrified ovarian tissue was not altered before and after in vitro culture, thus this method could be useful for fertility preservation; however, additional studies are needed to improve the culture condition.

  3. Comparison of the developmental potential of 2-week-old preantral follicles derived from vitrified ovarian tissue slices, vitrified whole ovaries and vitrified/transplanted newborn mouse ovaries using the metal surface method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Kung-Hao

    2008-04-01

    comparing 14-day old ovarian tissue (ovarian tissue slices and whole ovaries and whole newborn ovaries vitrified in 6 μl droplet, lower success rates of antral-like cavity formation and COCs collection were found in the whole ovaries group. Conclusion Our results suggest that the metal plate surface vitrification method is an appropriate and convenient method for cryopreservation of mouse ovaries and preantral follicles. The droplet volume of vitrification solution in 2 μl and 6 μl can be an option.

  4. Optimal vitrification protocol for mouse ovarian tissue cryopreservation: effect of cryoprotective agents and in vitro culture on vitrified-warmed ovarian tissue survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youm, Hye Won; Lee, Jung Ryeol; Lee, Jaewang; Jee, Byung Chul; Suh, Chang Suk; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2014-04-01

    What is the optimal vitrification protocol according to the cryoprotective agent (CPA) for ovarian tissue (OT) cryopreservation? The two-step protocol with 7.5% ethylene glycol (EG) and 7.5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 10 min then 20% EG, 20% DMSO and 0.5 M sucrose for 5 min showed the best results in mouse OT vitrification. Establishing the optimal cryopreservation protocol is one of the most important steps to improve OT survival. However, only a few studies have compared vitrification protocols with different CPAs and investigated the effect of in vitro culture (IVC) on vitrified-warmed OT survival. Some recent papers proposed that a combination of CPAs has less toxicity than one type of CPA. However, the efficacy of different types and concentrations of CPA are not yet well documented. A total of 644 ovaries were collected from 4-week-old BDF1 mice, of which 571 ovaries were randomly assigned to 8 groups and vitrified using different protocols according to CPA composition and the remaining 73 ovaries were used as controls. After warming, each of the eight groups of ovaries was further randomly divided into four subgroups and in vitro cultured for 0, 0.5, 2 and 4 h, respectively. Ovaries of the best two groups among the eight groups were autotransplanted after IVC. The CPA solutions for the eight groups were composed of EDS, ES, ED, EPS, EF, EFS, E and EP, respectively (E, EG; D, DMSO; P, propanediol; S, sucrose; F, Ficoll). The IVC medium was composed of α-minimal essential medium, 10% fetal bovine serum and 10 mIU/ml follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Autotransplantation of vitrified-warmed OTs after IVC (0 to 4 h) using the EDS or ES protocol was performed, and the grafts were recovered after 3 weeks. Ovarian follicles were assessed for morphology, apoptosis, proliferation and FSH level. The percentages of the morphologically intact (G1) and apoptotic follicles in each group at 0, 0.5, 2 and 4 h of IVC were compared. For G1 follicles at 0 and 4 h of IVC

  5. Effect of growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9) on the progression of buffalo follicles in vitrified-warmed ovarian tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Ghani, M A; El-Sherry, T M; Abdelhafeez, H H

    2016-10-01

    To improve the reproductive performance of water buffalo to level can satisfy our needs, the mechanisms controlling ovarian follicular growth and development should be thoroughly investigated. Therefore, in this study, the expressions of growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9) in buffalo ovaries were examined by immunohistochemistry, and the effects of GDF-9 treatment on follicle progression were investigated using a buffalo ovary organ culture system. Frozen-thawed buffalo ovarian follicles within slices of ovarian cortical tissue were cultured for 14 days in the presence or absence of GDF-9. After culture, ovarian slices were fixed, sectioned and stained. The follicles were morphologically analysed and counted. Expression pattern of GDF-9 was detected in oocytes from primordial follicles onwards, besides, also presented in granulosa cells. Moreover, GDF-9 was detected in mural granulosa cells and theca cells of pre-antral follicles. In antral follicles, cumulus cells and theca cells displayed positive expression of GDF-9. In corpora lutea, GDF-9 was expressed in both granulosa and theca lutein cells. After in vitro culture, there was no difference in the number of primordial follicles between cultured plus GDF-9 and cultured control that indicated the GDF-9 treatment has no effect on the primordial to primary follicle transition. GDF-9 treatment caused a significant decrease in the number of primary and secondary follicles compared with controls accompanied with a significant increase in pre-antral and antral follicles. These results suggest that a larger number of primary and secondary follicles were stimulated to progress to later developmental stages when treated with GDF-9. Vitrification/warming of buffalo ovarian tissue had a little remarkable effect, in contrast to culturing for 14 days, on the expression of GDF-9. In conclusion, treatment with GDF-9 was found to promote progression of primary follicle that could provide an alternative approach to

  6. Morphological and Molecular Aspects of In Vitro Culture of Preantral Follicles Derived from Vitrified Ovarian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoushahi, Mahboobeh; Salehnia, Mojdeh; Mowla, Seyed Javad; Ghorbanmehr, Nassim

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the expression of the genes related to folliculogenesis after vitrification of mouse ovarian tissues using a two-step in vitro culture. In this experimental study, vitrified and non-vitrified ovaries from 7- day old (neonate) female mice were cultured using alpha-Minimum Essential Medium (α-MEM) supplemented with 5% fetal bovine serum (FBS) for 7 days. Morphology, surface area of ovaries and percentage of normal follicles were evaluated and compared in both groups. After one-week culture, in non-vitrified group, preantral follicles of cultured ovaries were isolated and cultured in a three-dimensional alginate culture system for 12 days. Then, the collected metaphase (M) II oocytes were inseminated with capacitated spermatozoa derived from 7-8-week old (adult) male NMRI mice. Follicular diameter, oocyte maturation, fertilization, embryo development and the expression of genes related to follicular development (Pcna, Fshr and Cyp17a1,) using real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were assessed at the end of last culture period in both groups. The ovarian area in vitrified group (162468.20 703.78) was less than non-vitrified group (297211.40 6671.71), while the percentage of preantral follicles in vitrified group (18.40%) was significantly lower than those of non-vitrified group (24.50%) on day 7 of culture (P>0.05). There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of follicular diameter, expression of genes related to development of follicles, oocyte maturation, fertilization, as well as embryo development (P>0.05). The results of this study showed that vitrification of ovarian tissue following in vitro culture had negative impact on the survival and development of follicles within the tissue. However, no significant alterations were observed in development, gene expression and hormonal production of in vitro culture of isolated follicles derived from vitrified ovarian tissues as compared

  7. Good Preservation of Stromal Cells and No Apoptosis in Human Ovarian Tissue after Vitrification

    OpenAIRE

    Raffaella Fabbri; Rossella Vicenti; Maria Macciocca; Gianandrea Pasquinelli; Roberto Paradisi; Cesare Battaglia; Nicola Antonio Martino; Stefano Venturoli

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a vitrification procedure for human ovarian tissue cryopreservation in order to better preserve the ovarian tissue. Large size samples of ovarian tissue retrieved from 15 female-to-male transgender subjects (18–38 years) were vitrified using two solutions (containing propylene glycol, ethylene glycol, and sucrose at different concentrations) in an open system. Light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and TUNEL assay were applied to evaluate the ...

  8. Evaluation of the ovarian reserve in women transplanted with frozen and thawed ovarian cortical tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Tine; Schmidt, Kirsten Tryde; Kristensen, Stine Gry

    2012-01-01

    To investigate ovarian reserve and ovarian function in women transplanted with frozen/thawed ovarian tissue.......To investigate ovarian reserve and ovarian function in women transplanted with frozen/thawed ovarian tissue....

  9. Successful vitrification and autografting of baboon (Papio anubis) ovarian tissue.

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    Amorim, Christiani A; Jacobs, Sophie; Devireddy, Ram V; Van Langendonckt, Anne; Vanacker, Julie; Jaeger, Jonathan; Luyckx, Valérie; Donnez, Jacques; Dolmans, Marie-Madeleine

    2013-08-01

    Can a vitrification protocol using an ethylene glycol/dimethyl sulphoxide-based solution and a cryopin successfully cryopreserve baboon ovarian tissue? Our results show that baboon ovarian tissue can be successfully cryopreserved with our vitrification protocol. Non-human primates have already been used as an animal model to test vitrification protocols for human ovarian tissue cryopreservation. Ovarian biopsies from five adult baboons were vitrified, warmed and autografted for 5 months. After grafting, follicle survival, growth and function and also the quality of stromal tissue were assessed histologically and by immunohistochemistry. The influence of the vitrification procedure on the cooling rate was evaluated by a computer model. After vitrification, warming and long-term grafting, follicles were able to grow and maintain their function, as illustrated by Ki67, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9) immunostaining. Corpora lutea were also observed, evidencing successful ovulation in all the animals. Stromal tissue quality did not appear to be negatively affected by our cryopreservation procedure, as demonstrated by vascularization and proportions of fibrotic areas, which were similar to those found in fresh ungrafted ovarian tissue. Despite our promising findings, before applying this technique in a clinical setting, we need to validate it by achieving pregnancies. In addition to encouraging results obtained with our vitrification procedure for non-human ovarian tissue, this study also showed, for the first time, expression of AMH and GDF-9 in ovarian follicles. This study was supported by grants from the Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique de Belgique (grant Télévie No. 7.4507.10, grant 3.4.590.08 awarded to Marie-Madeleine Dolmans), Fonds Spéciaux de Recherche, Fondation St Luc, Foundation Against Cancer, and Department of Mechanical Engineering at Louisiana State University (support to Ram Devireddy), and

  10. Cryobanking of human ovarian tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macklon, Kirsten Tryde; Ernst, Erik; Andersen, Anders Nyboe

    2014-01-01

    Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is one way of preserving fertility in young women with a malignant disease or other disorders that require gonadotoxic treatment. The purpose of the study was to explore how many women remained interested in continued cryostorage of their ovarian tissue beyond a...... women with ovarian tissue cryobanked requested continued cryostorage after an initial period of at least 5 years. The main reason for requesting disposal was successful completion of a family.......Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is one way of preserving fertility in young women with a malignant disease or other disorders that require gonadotoxic treatment. The purpose of the study was to explore how many women remained interested in continued cryostorage of their ovarian tissue beyond...... an initial 5-year period. Between 1999 and 2006, a total of 201 girls and young women had one ovary cryopreserved for fertility preservation in Denmark. One hundred of these met our inclusion criteria, which included a follow-up period of at least 5 years, and were mailed a questionnaire. The response rate...

  11. Comparison of live-birth defects after luteal-phase ovarian stimulation vs. conventional ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization and vitrified embryo transfer cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Wang, Yun; Lyu, Qifeng; Ai, Ai; Fu, Yonglun; Tian, Hui; Cai, Renfei; Hong, Qingqing; Chen, Qiuju; Shoham, Zeev; Kuang, Yanping

    2015-05-01

    To assess live-birth defects after a luteal-phase ovarian-stimulation regimen (LPS) for in vitro fertilization (IVF) and vitrified embryo transfer (ET) cycles. Retrospective cohort study. Tertiary-care academic medical center. Infants who were born between January 1, 2013 and May 1, 2014 from IVF with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatments (n = 2,060) after either LPS (n = 587), the standard gonadotropin-releasing hormone-agonist (GnRH-a) short protocol (n = 1,257), or mild ovarian stimulation (n = 216). The three ovarian-stimulation protocols described and assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment (IVF or ICSI, and vitrified ET) in ordinary practice. The main measures were: gestational age, birth weight and length, multiple delivery, early neonatal mortality, and birth defects. Associations were assessed using logistic regression by adjusting for confounding factors. The final sample included 2,060 live-born infants, corresponding to 1,622 frozen-thawed (FET) cycles, which led to: 587 live-born infants from LPS (458 FET cycles); 1,257 live-born infants from the short protocol (984 FET cycles); and 216 live-born infants from mild ovarian stimulation (180 FET cycles). Birth characteristics regarding gestational age, birth weight and length, multiple delivery, and early neonatal death were comparable in all groups. The incidence of live-birth defects among the LPS group (1.02%) and the short GnRH-a protocol group (0.64%) was slightly higher than in the mild ovarian-stimulation group (0.46%). However, none of these differences reached statistical significance. For congenital malformations, the risk significantly increased for the infertility-duration factor and multiple births; the adjusted odds ratios were 1.161 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.009-1.335) and 3.899 (95% CI: 1.179-12.896), respectively. No associations were found between congenital birth defects and various ovarian-stimulation regimens, maternal age, body mass index, parity

  12. Photoacoustic characterization of ovarian tissue

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    Aguirre, Andres; Gamelin, John; Guo, Puyun; Yan, Shikui; Sanders, Mary; Brewer, Molly; Zhu, Quing

    2009-02-01

    Ovarian cancer has the highest mortality of all gynecologic cancers with a five-year survival rate of only 30%. Because current imaging techniques (ultrasound, CT, MRI, PET) are not capable of detecting ovarian cancer early, most diagnoses occur in later stages (III/IV). Thus many women are not correctly diagnosed until the cancer becomes widely metastatic. On the other hand, while the majority of women with a detectable ultrasound abnormality do not harbor a cancer, they all undergo unnecessary oophorectomy. Hence, new imaging techniques that can provide functional and molecular contrasts are needed for improving the specificity of ovarian cancer detection and characterization. One such technique is photoacoustic imaging, which has great potential to reveal early tumor angiogenesis through intrinsic optical absorption contrast from hemoglobin or extrinsic contrast from conjugated agents binding to appropriate molecular receptors. To better understand the cancer disease process of ovarian tissue using photoacoustic imaging, it is necessary to first characterize the properties of normal ovarian tissue. We have imaged ex-vivo ovarian tissue using a 3D co-registered ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging system. The system is capable of volumetric imaging by means of electronic focusing. Detecting and visualizing small features from multiple viewing angles is possible without the need for any mechanical movement. The results show strong optical absorption from vasculature, especially highly vascularized corpora lutea, and low absorption from follicles. We will present correlation of photoacoustic images from animals with histology. Potential application of this technology would be the noninvasive imaging of the ovaries for screening or diagnostic purposes.

  13. Damage to fetal bovine ovarian tissue caused by cryoprotectant exposure and vitrification is mitigated during tissue culture.

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    Mouttham, Lara; Fortune, Joanne E; Comizzoli, Pierre

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study is to characterize the impact of exposure to cryoprotectants followed by vitrification on primordial follicle survival and activation using a fetal bovine model. In the first study, fetal bovine cortical pieces were exposed to cryoprotectants with or without sucrose and cultured up to 7 days in the presence or absence of insulin. In the second study, cortical pieces were exposed to cryoprotectants with or without sucrose, vitrified, and cultured up to 7 days after warming in the presence or absence of insulin. Viability and morphology of follicles, as well as proliferation and/or DNA repair in ovarian tissue were analyzed. When compared to non-exposed controls, normal follicular morphology was affected in groups exposed to cryoprotectants only immediately post-exposure and after 1 day of culture, but improved by day 3 and did not significantly differ by day 7. Similarly, normal follicular morphology was compromised in vitrified groups after warming and on day 1 compared to controls, but improved by days 3 and 7. Proliferation and/or DNA repair in ovarian tissue was not affected by vitrification in this model. Cryoprotectant exposure and vitrification of ovarian tissue did not impair the activation of primordial follicles in response to insulin, although activation was delayed relative to non-exposed controls. Interestingly, sucrose had no noticeable protective effect. Vitrified fetal bovine ovarian tissue has the intrinsic capacity to mitigate the immediate damage to primordial follicles' morphology and retains the capacity to activate. These findings provide a basis for a successful cryopreservation protocol for ovarian cortical tissue in other species including humans.

  14. Efficacy of ovarian tissue cryopreservation in a major European center

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastings, L.; Liebenthron, J.; Westphal, J.R.; Beerendonk, C.C.M.; Ven, H. van de; Meinecke, B.; Montag, M.; Braat, D.D.M.; Peek, R.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of cryopreservation and thawing of ovarian tissue from oncological patients opting for fertility preservation on ovarian tissue viability. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, the ovarian tissue viability before and after cryopreservation and thawing was

  15. Lead, selenium and nickel concentrations in epithelial ovarian cancer, borderline ovarian tumor and healthy ovarian tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canaz, Emel; Kilinc, Metin; Sayar, Hamide; Kiran, Gurkan; Ozyurek, Eser

    2017-09-01

    Wide variation exists in ovarian cancer incidence rates suggesting the importance of environmental factors. Due to increasing environmental pollution, trace elements and heavy metals have drawn attention in studies defining the etiology of cancer, but scant data is available for ovarian cancer. Our aim was to compare the tissue concentrations of lead, selenium and nickel in epithelial ovarian cancer, borderline tumor and healthy ovarian tissues. The levels of lead, selenium and nickel were estimated using atomic absorption spectrophotometry in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples. Tests were carried out in 20 malignant epithelial ovarian cancer, 15 epithelial borderline tumor and 20 non-neoplastic healthy ovaries. Two samples were collected for borderline tumors, one from papillary projection and one from the smooth surface of cyst wall. Pb and Ni concentrations were found to be higher both in malignant and borderline tissues than those in healthy ovaries. Concentrations of Pb and Ni in malignant tissues, borderline papillary projections and capsular tissue samples were not different. Comparison of Se concentrations of malignant, borderline and healthy ovarian tissues did not reveal statistical difference. Studied metal levels were not found to be different in either papillary projection or in cyst wall of the borderline tumors. This study revealed the accumulation of lead and nickel in ovarian tissue is associated with borderline and malignant proliferation of the surface epithelium. Accumulation of these metals in epithelial ovarian cancer and borderline ovarian tumor has not been demonstrated before. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Live birth after ovarian tissue transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D. M.; Yeoman, R. R.; Battaglia, D. E.; Stouffer, R. L.; Zelinski-Wooten, M. B.; Fanton, J. W.; Wolf, D. P.

    2004-03-01

    Radiation and high-dose chemotherapy may render women with cancer prematurely sterile, a side-effect that would be avoided if ovarian tissue that had been removed before treatment could be made to function afterwards. Live offspring have been produced from transplanted ovarian tissue in mice and sheep but not in monkeys or humans, although sex steroid hormones are still secreted. Here we describe the successful transplantation of fresh ovarian tissue to a different site in a monkey, which has led to the birth of a healthy female after oocyte production, fertilization and transfer to a surrogate mother. The ectopically grafted tissue functions without surgical connection to major blood vessels and sets the stage for the transplantation of cryopreserved ovarian tissue in humans.

  17. Morphological and functional preservation of pre-antral follicles after vitrification of macaque ovarian tissue in a closed system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, A Y; Yeoman, R R; Campos, J R; Lawson, M S; Mullen, S F; Fahy, G M; Zelinski, M B

    2013-05-01

    What are the appropriate conditions to vitrify the macaque ovarian cortex in a large-volume, closed system that will preserve functional pre-antral follicles? The combination of glycerol, ethylene glycol (EG) and polymers with cooling in liquid nitrogen (LN2) vapor and a two-step warming procedure was able to preserve tissue and follicle morphology as well as function of a small population of secondary follicles in the macaque ovarian cortex following vitrification in a closed system. For prepubertal cancer patients or those who require immediate cancer therapy, ovarian tissue cryopreservation offers the only hope for future fertility. However, the efficacy of live birth from the transplantation of cryopreserved ovarian tissue is still unclear. In addition, live birth from cryopreserved ovarian tissue has only been demonstrated after tissue autotransplantation, which poses the risk of transmitting metastatic cancer cells back to the cancer survivor in certain cancers. Non-human primate model, n = 4, randomized, control versus treatment. End-points were collected from tissue histology, tissue culture (48 h) and isolated secondary follicle culture (6 weeks). Two vitrification solutions (VSs) containing EG + glycerol (VEG) and EG + dimethylsulfoxide (VED) were examined for vitrification, devitrification and thermodynamic properties. Once the optimal VS was determined, macaque ovarian cortical pieces (3 × 3 × 0.5 mm(3)) were divided into fresh and two vitrified groups (VEG and VED). For the vitrification groups, tissues were exposed to 1/4, 1/2 and 1× VS for 5 min/step as well as 1× VS + polymers for 1 min at 37°C, loaded into high-security straws with 1 ml of VS + polymers, heat sealed and cooled in LN2 vapor. Samples were warmed in a 40°C water bath and cryoprotective agents were diluted with 1, 0.5, 0.25 and 0 M sucrose. Tissues were fixed for histological analysis and cultured with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). Secondary follicles from VEG tissues were

  18. Human ovarian tissue from cortex surrounding benign cysts: a model to study ovarian tissue cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Benoît; Canis, Michel; Darcha, Claude; Artonne, Christine; Pouly, Jean-Luc; Déchelotte, Pierre; Boucher, Daniel; Grizard, Geneviève

    2005-07-01

    The scarcity of human ovarian tissue is a major problem in developing research on ovarian cryopreservation. We were interested in ovarian cortex surrounding benign ovarian cysts harvested during their requisite operations. Ovarian tissue was collected from 25 women (mean age = 27.7 +/- 1.0 SEM) and frozen in serum-free cryoprotective medium. Histological and viability analysis were performed on fresh and frozen-thawed slices of tissue. Dermoid (n = 7), endometriosis (n = 13) and serous (n = 5) cysts were observed. Follicular densities (expressed per mm3) in ovarian cortex surrounding dermoid cysts were higher than in endometriosis and serous cysts for both histological (median of follicular densities: 13.04, 0.31 and 0.89 respectively) and viability analysis (2.93, 0.05 and 0.71 respectively). Freezing-thawing did not result in gross abnormality of follicle population either in number or morphology (80% of follicles preserved a normal pattern). However, a slight decrease of the density of living follicles (expressed per mm2) was reported. Ovarian cortex surrounding ovarian cysts, especially dermoid cysts, could be considered a source of ovarian tissue for future research. In our study, the cryopreservation procedure resulted in high follicular survival assessed by both histological and viability analysis. Nevertheless, further studies of in vivo and in vitro follicular maturation are needed to strengthen this model.

  19. Vitrification of in vitro matured oocytes collected from antral follicles at the time of ovarian tissue cryopreservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fasano Giovanna

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past few years, cryopreservation of ovarian tissue has become an established procedure proposed in many centers around the world and transplantation has successfully resulted in full-term pregnancies and deliveries in human. This prospective study aims to evaluate the feasibility of vitrifying in vitro matured oocytes (IVM isolated at the time of ovarian tissue cryopreservation to improve the efficiency of fertility preservation programs. Methods Oocyte-cumulus complexes were retrieved from freshly collected ovarian cortex by aspirating antral follicular fluid, and were matured in vitro for 24-48 h prior to vitrification. Oocytes were matured in an IVM commercial medium (Copper Surgical, USA supplemented with 75 mIU/ml FSH and 75 mIU/ml LH and vitrified using a commercial vitrification kit (Irvine Scientific, California in high security vitrification straws (CryoBioSystem, France. Oocyte collection and IVM rates were evaluated according to the age, the cycle period and the amount of tissue collected. Results Immature oocyte retrieval from ovarian tissue was carried out in 57 patients between 8 and 35 years of age, undergoing ovarian tissue cryopreservation. A total of 266 oocytes were isolated, 28 of them were degenerated, 200 were at germinal vesicle stage (GV, 35 were in metaphase I (MI and 3 displayed a visible polar body (MII. The number of oocytes collected was positively correlated with the amount of tissue cryopreserved (p p = 0.005. Oocytes were obtained regardless of menstrual cycle period or contraception. A total maturation rate of 31% was achieved, leading to the vitrification of at least one mature oocyte for half of the cohort. Conclusions The study showed that a significant number of immature oocytes can be collected from excised ovarian tissue whatever the menstrual cycle phases and the age of the patients, even for prepubertal girls.

  20. Screening of the residual normal ovarian tissue adjacent to orthotopic epithelial ovarian carcinomas in nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, G H; Wang, S T; Yao, M Z; Cai, J H; Chen, C Y; Yang, Z X; Hong, L; Yang, S Y

    2014-04-16

    The objective of this study was to explore the feasibility and methods of screening the residual normal ovarian tissue adjacent to orthotopic ovarian carcinomas in nude mice. Human epithelial ovarian cancer cells (OVCAR3) were subcutaneously implanted for a tumor source and ovarian orthotopic transplantation. The cancer tissue, proximal paraneoplastic tissue, middle paraneoplastic tissue, remote paraneoplastic tissue, and normal ovarian tissue were removed. CK-7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 expression was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. We obtained 35 paraneoplastic residual ovarian tissues with normal biopsies from 40 cases of an orthotopic epithelial ovarian carcinoma model (87.5%). CK-7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 expression was lower in proximal paraneoplastic tissue than in cancer tissue (P tissue (P tissue as well as among residual normal ovarian tissues with different severity (P > 0.05). In ovarian tissues of 20 normal nude mice, the expression of CK- 7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 was negative. Overall, the expression levels of CK-7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, TIMP-2, and other molecular markers showed a decreasing trend in the non-cancer tissue direction. The expression levels can be used as standards to screen residual normal ovarian tissue. We can obtain relatively safe normal ovarian tissues adjacent to epithelial ovarian cancer.

  1. Good Preservation of Stromal Cells and No Apoptosis in Human Ovarian Tissue after Vitrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Fabbri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a vitrification procedure for human ovarian tissue cryopreservation in order to better preserve the ovarian tissue. Large size samples of ovarian tissue retrieved from 15 female-to-male transgender subjects (18–38 years were vitrified using two solutions (containing propylene glycol, ethylene glycol, and sucrose at different concentrations in an open system. Light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and TUNEL assay were applied to evaluate the efficiency of the vitrification protocol. After vitrification/warming, light microscopy showed oocyte nucleus with slightly thickened chromatin and irregular shape, while granulosa and stromal cells appeared well preserved. Transmission electron microscopy showed oocytes with slightly irregular nuclear shape and finely dispersed chromatin. Clear vacuoles and alterations in cellular organelles were seen in the oocyte cytoplasm. Stromal cells had a moderately dispersed chromatin and homogeneous cytoplasm with slight vacuolization. TUNEL assay revealed the lack of apoptosis induction by vitrification in all ovarian cell types. In conclusion after vitrification/warming the stromal compartment maintained morphological and ultrastructural features similar to fresh tissue, while the oocyte cytoplasm was slightly damaged. Although these data are encouraging, further studies are necessary and essential to optimize vitrification procedure.

  2. Good preservation of stromal cells and no apoptosis in human ovarian tissue after vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Raffaella; Vicenti, Rossella; Macciocca, Maria; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea; Paradisi, Roberto; Battaglia, Cesare; Martino, Nicola Antonio; Venturoli, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a vitrification procedure for human ovarian tissue cryopreservation in order to better preserve the ovarian tissue. Large size samples of ovarian tissue retrieved from 15 female-to-male transgender subjects (18-38 years) were vitrified using two solutions (containing propylene glycol, ethylene glycol, and sucrose at different concentrations) in an open system. Light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and TUNEL assay were applied to evaluate the efficiency of the vitrification protocol. After vitrification/warming, light microscopy showed oocyte nucleus with slightly thickened chromatin and irregular shape, while granulosa and stromal cells appeared well preserved. Transmission electron microscopy showed oocytes with slightly irregular nuclear shape and finely dispersed chromatin. Clear vacuoles and alterations in cellular organelles were seen in the oocyte cytoplasm. Stromal cells had a moderately dispersed chromatin and homogeneous cytoplasm with slight vacuolization. TUNEL assay revealed the lack of apoptosis induction by vitrification in all ovarian cell types. In conclusion after vitrification/warming the stromal compartment maintained morphological and ultrastructural features similar to fresh tissue, while the oocyte cytoplasm was slightly damaged. Although these data are encouraging, further studies are necessary and essential to optimize vitrification procedure.

  3. Vitrification of human ovarian tissue: effect of different solutions and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Christiani Andrade; David, Anu; Van Langendonckt, Anne; Dolmans, Marie-Madeleine; Donnez, Jacques

    2011-03-01

    To test the effect of different vitrification solutions and procedures on the morphology of human preantral follicles. Pilot study. Gynecology research unit in a university hospital. Ovarian biopsies were obtained from nine women aged 22-35 years. Ovarian tissue fragments were subjected to [1] different vitrification solutions to test their toxicity or [2] different vitrification methods using plastic straws, medium droplets, or solid-surface vitrification before in vitro culture. Number of morphologically normal follicles after toxicity testing or vitrification with the different treatments determined by histologic analysis. In the toxicity tests, only VS3 showed similar results to fresh tissue before and after in vitro culture (fresh controls 1 and 2). In addition, this was the only solution able to completely vitrify. In all vitrification procedures, the percentage of normal follicles was lower than in controls. However, of the three protocols, the droplet method yielded a significantly higher proportion of normal follicles. Our experiments showed VS3 to have no deleterious effect on follicular morphology and to be able to completely vitrify, although vitrification procedures were found to affect human follicles. Nevertheless, the droplet method resulted in a higher percentage of morphologically normal follicles. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of vitrified and unvitrified Eocene woody tissues by TMAH thermochemolysis – implications for the early stages of the formation of vitrinite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huggett William W

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Samples of vitrified and unvitrified Eocene woody plant tissues collected from the Fossil Forest site, Geodetic Hills, Axel Heiberg Island, have been characterized by TMAH thermochemolysis. All samples are gymnosperm-derived, are of very low maturity and all share the same post-depositional geologic history. Differences in the distributions of products observed from vitrified and unvitrified samples suggest that vitrification of woody tissue is associated with modification of the lignin C3 side chain, following loss of all or most of the carbohydrate present in the precursor woody tissues. The key driver of vitrification appears to be physical compression of the tissue following biological removal of cellulosic materials.

  5. [National guideline 'Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heineman, M.J.; Beerendonk, C.C.M.; Kaandorp, C.J.

    2008-01-01

    The treatment of children and young adults with cancer increasingly results in cure, but for a number of female patients this is at the expense of infertility. For women and girls with cancer and the wish to have children in the future, cryopreservation of ovarian tissue may be a solution in the

  6. Long-term function of ovarian tissue transplants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherman J. Silber

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The long term duration of function of ovarian cortical tissue grafts is reviewed in this paper by describing cases of restoration of fertility by transplant of ovarian cortical tissue from matching donors where the recipient was in need of the transplant due to sterilizing effects of leukemia, premature ovarian failure (POF, and to reflect that it may be possible to postpone the normal time of menopause or to alleviate its symptoms.

  7. Nedd4L expression is decreased in ovarian epithelial cancer tissues compared to ovarian non-cancer tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiuyun; Zhao, Jinghe; Cui, Manhua; Gi, Shuting; Wang, Wei; Han, Xiaole

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally downregulated 4-like (Nedd4L) gene plays a role in the progression of various cancers. However, reports describing Nedd4L expression in ovarian cancer tissues are limited. A cohort (n = 117) of archival formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded resected normal ovarian epithelial tissues (n = 10), benign ovarian epithelial tumor tissues (n = 10), serous borderline ovarian epithelial tumor tissues (n = 14), mucous borderline ovarian epithelial tumor tissues (n = 11), and invasive ovarian epithelial cancer tissues (n = 72) were assessed for Nedd4L protein expression using immunohistochemistry. Nedd4L protein expression was significantly decreased in invasive ovarian epithelial cancer tissues compared to non-cancer tissues (P < 0.05). Decreased Nedd4L protein expression correlated with clinical stage, pathological grade, lymph node metastasis and survival (P < 0.05). Nedd4L protein expression may be an independent prognostic marker of ovarian cancer development. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  8. The Increased Expression of Connexin and VEGF in Mouse Ovarian Tissue Vitrification by Follicle Stimulating Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanzhou Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian follicular damages were caused by cryoinjury during the process of ovarian vitrification and ischemia/reperfusion during the process of ovarian transplantation. And appropriate FSH plays an important role in antiapoptosis during ovarian follicle development. Therefore, in this study, 0.3 IU/mL FSH was administered into medium during mouse ovarian cryopreservation by vitrification to ascertain the function of FSH on ovarian vitrification and avascular transplantation. The results suggested that the expressions of Cx37, Cx43, apoptotic molecular caspase-3, and angiogenesis molecular VEGF were confirmed using immunohistochemistry, western blotting, and real-time PCR, and the results suggested that the treatment with FSH remarkably increased the number of morphologically normal follicles in vitrified/warmed ovaries by upregulating the expression of Cx37, Cx43, VEGF, and VEGF receptor 2, but downregulating the expression of caspase-3. In addition, the vitrified/warmed ovaries were transplanted, and the related fertility was analyzed, and the results suggested that the fertility, neoangiogenesis, and follicle reserve were remarkably increased in the FSH administrated group. Taken together, administration of 0.3 IU/mL FSH during ovarian cryopreservation by vitrification can maintain ovarian survival during ovarian vitrification and increases the blood supply with avascular transplantation via upregulation of Cx43, Cx37, and VEGF/VEGFR2, as well as through its antiapoptotic effects.

  9. The safety of transplanting cryopreserved ovarian tissue in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mikkel; Greve, Tine; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2013-01-01

    Transplantation of frozen/thawed ovarian tissue from patients with a malignant condition is associated with a risk of re-introduction of the disease as the tissue usually is removed before anti-cancer therapy and may thus contain malignant cells. We review studies investigating the presence of ma...... of malignant cells in cryopreserved ovarian tissue from patients with malignant disease and based on the strength of the evidence, recommendations for transplantations are proposed....

  10. An Introduction to The Royan Human Ovarian Tissue Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abtahi Naeimeh Sadat

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available From December 2000 until 2010, the researchers at Royan Institute conducted a wide range of investigations on ovarian tissue cryopreservation with the intent to provide fertility pres- ervation to cancer patients that were considered to be candidates for these services. In 2010, Royan Institute established the Royan Human Ovarian Tissue Bank as a subgroup of the Embryology Department. Since its inception, approximately 180 patients between the ages of 747 years have undergone consultations. Ovarian samples were cryopreserved from 47 patients (age: 7-35 years diagnosed with cervical adenocarcinoma (n=9; breast carcinoma (n=7, Ewing’s sarcoma (n=7, opposite side ovarian tumor (n=7, endometrial adenocarci- noma (n=4, malignant colon tumors (n=3, as well as Hodgkin’s lymphoma, major thalas- semia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n=1-2 patients for each disease. Additionally, two patients requested ovarian tissue transplantation after completion of their treatments.

  11. Vitrification and in vitro culture had no adverse effect on the follicular development and gene expression of stimulated human ovarian tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Mahdi; Salehnia, Mojdeh; Jafarabadi, Mina

    2018-01-05

    The study assesses the effect of the vitrification procedure on the integrity, morphology, follicular development and gene expression of stimulated human ovarian tissue after warming and two weeks of in vitro culture. Ovarian specimens were divided into non-vitrified and vitrified groups and were cultured for two weeks. Morphological analysis and immunohistochemistry were performed. The 17-β estradiol and anti-Müllerian hormone levels in collected media were assessed. Gene expression was analyzed using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The morphology and immunohistochemistry of bcl-2-like protein 4 and B-cell lymphoma 2 of human stimulated ovarian tissue were similar in both groups. There was no significant difference in the percentage of normal follicles between the groups before and after in vitro culture. In spite of an increase in the percentage of growing follicles in cultured tissues compared to the non-cultured groups, the rate of normal follicles was significantly decreased in both cultured groups (P vitro culture (P cultured groups, the level of 17-β estradiol was increased (P vitro culture condition needs improvement. © 2018 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  12. Long-term duration of function of ovarian tissue transplants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Yding; Silber, Sherman J; Berghold, Stinne Holm

    2012-01-01

    These three case reports describe the long-term duration of function of ovarian cortical tissue grafts among patients in a university fertility preservation programme in Europe and in a private practice programme in the USA. One woman underwent sterilizing cancer treatment and had frozen ovarian...... (repeatedly in some cases) of cryopreserved ovarian tissue has restored reproductive function to all other women in the study centres' programmes for some years. The sustained longevity of function of the transplanted tissue suggests that it may also be possible to postpone the normal time of menopause...... or to alleviate its symptoms. These three case reports describe the long-term duration of function of ovarian cortical tissue grafts among patients in a university fertility preservation programme in Europe and in a private practice programme in the USA. One woman underwent sterilizing cancer treatment and had...

  13. Equine ovarian tissue viability after cryopreservation and in vitro culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficiency of several cryoprotective agents were compared using both slow-freezing and vitrification methods. Results indicate that the viability of ovarian tissue cells increases when DMSO (slow-freezing) and ethylene glycol (vitrification) are used....

  14. ELF5 in epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissues and biological behavior in ovarian carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hongchao; Qiu, Linglin; Xie, Xiaolei; Yang, He; Liu, Yongli; Lin, Xiaoman; Huang, Hongxiang

    2017-03-01

    The expression of E74-like factor 5 (ELF5) in epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissues and its effects on biological behavior in ovarian carcinoma cells were assessed in search for a new approach for gene treatment of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. RT-PCR technology was applied to detect the expression of ELF5 mRNA in epithelial ovarian carcinoma (n=49), borderline ovarian epithelial tumor (n=19), benign ovarian epithelial tumor (n=31) and normal ovarian tissues (n=40). Then, we transfected recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1‑ELF5+EGFP into human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells (recombinant plasmid group) in vitro and screened out stably transfected cells to conduct multiplication culture. Western blot analysis was performed to detect the expression of ELF5 protein in the different groups. Flow cytometry was employed to detect cell apoptosis and cycles. ELF5 mRNA in epithelial ovarian carcinoma and borderline ovarian epithelial tumor tissues were significantly lower (Pepithelial tumor and normal ovarian tissues. ELF5 protein expression in the cells of recombinant plasmid group was significantly higher compared with empty plasmid and blank control groups. The capacity of cell reproductive recombinant plasmid group at each time point decreased (P<0.05). Flow cytometry detection showed that 67.03% of cells in recombinant plasmid group was blocked in G0/G1 phase (P<0.05), compared with empty plasmid group (37.17%) and blank control group (38.24%). Apoptotic rate of recombinant plasmid group was significantly lower (31.4±1.9%; P<0.05), compared with that of empty plasmid group (9.1±2.2%) and blank control group (8.7±1.5%), and the differences were statistically significant. In conclusion, ELF5 interfered with cell cycle of human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells and promoted apoptosis of human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells inhibiting their growth and invasive capacity; and thus providing a new approach to gene treatment of ovarian carcinoma.

  15. Effects of three different types of antifreeze proteins on mouse ovarian tissue cryopreservation and transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewang Lee

    Full Text Available Ovarian tissue (OT cryopreservation is effective in preserving fertility in cancer patients who have concerns about fertility loss due to cancer treatment. However, the damage incurred at different steps during the cryopreservation procedure may cause follicular depletion; hence, preventing chilling injury would help maintain ovarian function.This study was designed to investigate the beneficial effects of different antifreeze proteins (AFPs on mouse ovarian tissue cryopreservation and transplantation.Ovaries were obtained from 5-week-old B6D2F1 mice, and each ovary was cryopreserved using two-step vitrification and four-step warming procedures. In Experiment I, ovaries were randomly allocated into fresh, vitrification control, and nine experimental groups according to the AFP type (FfIBP, LeIBP, type III and concentration (0.1, 1, 10 mg/mL used. After vitrification and warming, 5,790 ovarian follicles were evaluated using histology and TUNEL assays, and immunofluorescence for τH2AX and Rad51 was used to detect DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs and repair (DDR, respectively. In Experiment II, 20 mice were randomly divided into two groups: one where the vitrification and warming media were supplemented with 10 mg/mL LeIBP, and the other where media alone were used (control. Ovaries were then autotransplanted under both kidney capsules 7 days after vitrification together with the addition of 10 mg/mL LeIBP in the vitrification-warming media. After transplantation, the ovarian follicles, the percentage of apoptotic follicles, the extent of the CD31-positive area, and the serum FSH levels of the transplanted groups were compared.In Experiment I, the percentage of total grade 1 follicles was significantly higher in the 10 mg/mL LeIBP group than in the vitrification control, while all AFP-treated groups had significantly improved grade 1 primordial follicle numbers compared with those of the vitrification control. The number of apoptotic (TUNEL

  16. Doxorubicin and cisplatin induce apoptosis in ovarian stromal cells obtained from cryopreserved human ovarian tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Raffaella; Macciocca, Maria; Vicenti, Rossella; Paradisi, Roberto; Klinger, Francesca Gioia; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea; Spisni, Enzo; Seracchioli, Renato; Papi, Alessio

    2016-07-01

    To investigate mechanisms by which doxorubicin (DOX) and cisplatin (CIS) cause human ovarian stroma injury. Stromal cells from human cryopreserved ovarian tissue were cultured in the presence of 1 µM DOX and 10 µM CIS. Ovarian damage induced by treatments was evaluated by 'Live/Dead' and sulforhodamine-B assays, the expression of different apoptosis markers. Stromal cell growth was inhibited by DOX and CIS, and this effect was accompanied by apoptosis through mitochondrial pathway activation: Bax, cleaved-caspase 9, cleaved-PARP1 induction and Akt1, Bcl2, phospho-44/42-MAPK/ERK1/2 reduction were observed. DOX and CIS induced apoptosis in human ovarian stromal cells. Knowledge of mechanisms by which the drugs act is important to identify possible ways to counteract side effects of chemotherapy on ovaries.

  17. Risk of transferring malignant cells with transplanted frozen-thawed ovarian tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmans, Marie-Madeleine; Luyckx, Valérie; Donnez, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian tissue cryopreservation and transplantation is a real option to preserve and restore fertility in young cancer patients. However, there is a concern regarding the possible presence of malignant cells in the ovarian tissue, which could lead to recurrence of the primary disease after...... residual disease before ovarian tissue transplantation. Indeed, these pathologies, reviewed here in detail, are considered to be most at risk of ovarian metastasis....... reimplantation. A review of the existing literature was done to evaluate the risk of transplanting malignant cells in case of the main malignant indications for ovarian tissue cryopreservation. For ovarian tissue from patients with hematologic malignancies, it is of paramount importance to identify minimal...

  18. Slow-freezing versus vitrification for human ovarian tissue cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klocke, Silke; Bündgen, Nana; Köster, Frank; Eichenlaub-Ritter, Ursula; Griesinger, Georg

    2015-02-01

    Ovarian tissue can be cryopreserved prior to chemotherapy using either the slow-freezing or the vitrification method; however, the data on the equality of the procedures are still conflicting. In this study, a comparison of the cryo-damage of human ovarian tissue induced by either vitrification or slow-freezing was performed. Ovarian tissue from 23 pre-menopausal patients was cryopreserved with either slow-freezing or vitrification. After thawing/warming, the tissue was histologically and immunohistochemically analyzed and cultured in vitro. During tissue culture the estradiol release was assessed. No significant difference was found in the proportion of high-quality follicles after thawing/warming in the slow-freezing and vitrification group, respectively (72.7 versus 66.7 %, p = 0.733). Estradiol secretion by the ovarian tissue was similar between groups during 18 days in vitro culture (area-under-the-curve 5,411 versus 13,102, p = 0.11). Addition of Sphingosine-1-Phosphate or Activin A to the culture medium did not alter estradiol release in both groups. The proportion of Activated Caspase-3 or 'Proliferating-Cell-Nuclear-Antigen' positive follicles at the end of the culture period was similar between slow-freezing and vitrification. Slow-freezing and vitrification result in similar morphological integrity after cryopreservation, a similar estradiol release in culture, and similar rates of follicular proliferation and apoptosis after culture.

  19. Increased expression of cysteine cathepsins in ovarian tissue from chickens with ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahn Suzie E

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cysteine cathepsins (CTSs are involved in the degradation and remodeling of the extracellular matrix and are associated with cell transformation, differentiation, motility, and adhesion. These functions are also related to cancer cell invasion and metastasis. Chickens spontaneously develop epithelial ovarian cancer and are therefore a good animal model for human ovarian cancer. However, no studies have investigated the expression of CTSs in chickens with ovarian cancer. Methods Cancerous (n = 5 and normal (n = 3 ovaries were collected from 2-to 3-year-old hens, and ovarian tissue samples were collected for study. Ovarian cancers were evaluated with hematoxylin and eosin staining. Reverse transcriptase and quantitative PCR analyses, in situ hybridization analysis were performed to examine the mRNA expression pattern of three CTSs in detail, and protein expression of CTSB was evaluated. Results The CTSB, CTSC, and CTSS genes were highly expressed in cancerous chicken ovaries. Messenger RNAs for the three CTSs were localized to a nodule area, a major characteristic of cancerous ovaries, but the three CTSs showed no specific localization in normal ovaries. Immunoreactive CTSB protein was present in the nodule area of cancerous ovaries. Conclusion Our results suggest that CTSB, CTSC, and CTSS have important functions in the development of epithelial ovarian cancer.

  20. The pituitary-ovarian axis in dogs with remnant ovarian tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijtels, J J C W M; de Gier, J; Kooistra, H S; Naan, E C; Oei, C H Y; Okkens, A C

    2011-01-01

    It can be difficult to confirm the presence of remnant ovarian tissue (ROT) in bitches that are presumed to be ovariohysterectomised. A GnRH stimulation test can be used to distinguish ovariectomised bitches from those in anoestrus, but it is uncertain whether the GnRH-induced changes in plasma LH

  1. Restoration of ovarian activity and pregnancy after transplantation of cryopreserved ovarian tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donnez, Jacques; Dolmans, Marie-Madeleine; Pellicer, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    to preserve fertility in cancer patients. The present review reports the results of 60 orthotopic reimplantations of cryopreserved ovarian tissue performed by three teams, as well as 24 live births reported in the literature to date. Restoration of ovarian activity occurred in almost all cases in the three...... series. Among the 60 patients, eleven conceived and six of those had already delivered twelve healthy babies. In the future, we are looking to: 1) improve freezing techniques; and 2) enhance the "vascular bed" before reimplantation to increase pregnancy rates. On the other hand, cryopreservation...

  2. Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue for a decade in Denmark: a view of the technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mikkel; Schmidt, Kirsten Tryde; Andersen, Anders Nyboe

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the Danish 10-year experience (1999-2009) with cryopreservation (n=386) and autotransplantation of ovarian tissue (n=18). Before applying the technique to humans, the method was thoroughly tested and validated. The cryoprotectant solution was chosen after histological evaluation...... validated. Overnight transport of fresh ovarian tissue prior to cryopreservation was evaluated when human ovarian tissue was kept on ice for 20h and then cryopreserved. The thawed ovarian tissue was transplanted to an oophorectomized Nude mouse and histology confirmed viability. In Denmark 12 women have...... received a total of 18 autotransplantations of ovarian tissue. All women resumed ovarian function and three healthy babies were born to two women. In both women, the tissue was transported on ice for 4-5h prior to cryopreservation. Ovarian tissue cryopreservation is an important method for fertility...

  3. Retaining Residual Ovarian Tissue following Ovarian Failure Has Limited Influence on Bone Loss in Aged Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelieann R. Craig

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous work showed that retaining residual ovarian tissue protects young mice from accelerated bone loss following ovarian failure. The present study was designed to determine whether this protection is also present in aged animals. Aged (9–12 months C57BL/6Hsd female mice were divided into: CON (vehicle, VCD (160 mg/kg; 15d, or OVX (ovariectomized. Lumbar BMD was monitored by DXA and μCT used to assess vertebral microarchitecture. BMD was not different between VCD and CON at any time point but was lower (P<.05 than baseline, starting 1 month after ovarian failure in VCD and OVX mice. Following μCT analysis there were no differences between CON and VCD, but OVX mice had lower bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness, and a trend for decreased connectivity density. These findings provide evidence that retention of residual ovarian tissue may protect aged follicle-depleted mice from accelerated bone loss to a lesser extent than that observed in young mice.

  4. Is tissue CA125 expression in epithelial ovarian adenocarcinoma heterogenic?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparholt, Morten H; Høgdall, Claus K; Nedergaard, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    diagnosed with serous ovarian adenocarcinomas were included. Preoperative blood samples were collected to determine serum CA125 levels. Tumor tissue from primary surgery was collected and processed for immunohistochemical analyses. CA125 was expressed in varying degrees in tumor tissues from all patients...... of CA125 is heterogenic. Although most patients had a high mean expression, it covers a large intrapatient variation in expression. This suggests that if using CA125 as a tissue marker and anti-CA125 (oregovomab) as immunotherapy treatment in future studies, it will be necessary to take heterogeneity...

  5. Fertility Preservation Among the Cancer Patients by Ovarian Tissue Cryopreservation, Transplantation, and Follicular Development

    OpenAIRE

    Abedelahi, Ali; Rezaei-Tavirani, Mostafa; Mohammadnejad, Daryosh

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian tissue freezing or cryopreservation might be the only acceptable method for preserving the young women fertility, before radiotherapy or chemotherapy. This technology might be used for patients with recurrent ovarian cysts or endometriosis, without ovarian stimulation. Many efforts have made to improve cryopreservation conditions that should be seriously considered for cancer patients. Vitrification is a process which prevents ovarian tissue from cryo damage, then preserves cell viabi...

  6. Prevalence of human papillomavirus in epithelial ovarian cancer tissue. A meta-analysis of observational studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svahn, Malene F; Faber, Mette Tuxen; Christensen, Jane

    2014-01-01

    The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer is controversial, and conflicting results have been published. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of HPV in epithelial ovarian cancer tissue.......The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer is controversial, and conflicting results have been published. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of HPV in epithelial ovarian cancer tissue....

  7. Vitrification of in vitro matured oocytes collected from surplus ovarian medulla tissue resulting from fertility preservation of ovarian cortex tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Huiqun; Jiang, Hong; Kristensen, Stine Gry

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to investigate the maturation rate of immature oocytes collected from ovarian medulla tissue normally discarded during preparation of ovarian cortical tissue for fertility preservation. Further we evaluated survival of derived MII oocytes following vitrification ...

  8. Fertility preservation among the cancer patients by ovarian tissue cryopreservation, transplantation, and follicular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedelahi, Ali; Rezaei-Tavirani, Mostafa; Mohammadnejad, Daryosh

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian tissue freezing or cryopreservation might be the only acceptable method for preserving the young women fertility, before radiotherapy or chemotherapy. This technology might be used for patients with recurrent ovarian cysts or endometriosis, without ovarian stimulation. Many efforts have made to improve cryopreservation conditions that should be seriously considered for cancer patients. Vitrification is a process which prevents ovarian tissue from cryo damage, then preserves cell viability. Both methods have used for evaluating not only the follicular development, but also the fertility after freezing and thawing. In this manuscript, we have discussed the techniques of ovarian tissue vitrification, then graft and maturation or follicular development is also mentioned.

  9. Occurrence of epidermal growth factor receptors in benign and malignant ovarian tumors and normal ovarian tissues: an immunohistochemical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C. Henzen-Logmans; M.E.L. van der Burg (Maria); J.A. Foekens (John); P.M.J.J. Berns (Els); R. Brussée (R.); J.H. Fieret (J.); J.G.M. Klijn (Jan); D. Chadha; C.J. Rodenburg (C.)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractEpidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) was studied with monoclonal antibody 2E9 on 50 ovarian tumors of various histological types and 10 non-tumorous ovarian tissues by immunohistochemistry. Enhanced expression was observed in 26/50 (52%) of the tumors. Only 25 out of 46 epithelial

  10. Cryopreservation of in vitro matured oocytes in addition to ovarian tissue freezing for fertility preservation in paediatric female cancer patients before and after cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abir, R; Ben-Aharon, I; Garor, R; Yaniv, I; Ash, S; Stemmer, S M; Ben-Haroush, A; Freud, E; Kravarusic, D; Sapir, O; Fisch, B

    2016-04-01

    Is a protocol that combines in vitro maturation of germinal vesicle-stage oocytes and their vitrification with freezing of cortical ovarian tissue feasible for use in fertility preservation for both chemotherapy-naive paediatric patients as well as patients after initiation of cancer therapy? Follicle-containing ovarian tissue as well as oocytes that can undergo maturation in vitro can be obtained from paediatric patients (including prepubertal girls) both before and after cancer therapy. Anticancer therapy reduces the number of follicles/oocytes but this effect is less severe in young patients, particularly the paediatric age group. Autotransplantation of ovarian tissue has yielded to date 60 live births, including one from tissue that was cryostored in adolescence. However, it is assumed that autografting cryopreserved-thawed ovarian cortical tissue poses a risk of reseeding the malignancy. Immature oocytes can be collected from very young girls without hormonal stimulation and then matured in vitro and vitrified. We have previously shown that there is no difference in the number of ovarian cortical follicles between paediatric patients before and after chemotherapy. A prospective study was conducted in a cohort of 42 paediatric females with cancer (before and after therapy initiation) who underwent fertility preservation procedures in 2007-2014 at a single tertiary medical centre. The study group included girls and adolescent females with cancer: 22 before and 20 after chemotherapy. Following partial or complete oophorectomy, immature oocytes were either aspirated manually ex vivo from visible small antral follicles or filtered from spent media. Oocytes were incubated in oocyte maturation medium, and those that matured at 24 or 48 h were vitrified. Ovarian cortical tissue was cut and prepared for slow-gradual cryopreservation. Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) levels were measured in serum before and after oophorectomy. Ovarian tissue was successfully collected from

  11. Is the stripping technique a tissue-sparing procedure in large simple ovarian cysts in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Francesco; Romeo, Carmelo; Castagnetti, Marco; Scalfari, GianFranco; Cimador, Marcello; Impellizzeri, Pietro; Villari, Daniela; Zimbaro, Fabrizio; DeGrazia, Enrico

    2008-07-01

    Stripping of the cystic wall is performed by gynecologists to treat large ovarian cysts. Information in the pediatric population is poor. We prospectively evaluated the pathologic specimens of large ovarian cyst to determine whether the stripping technique is a tissue-sparing procedure even in this age. We evaluated 5 patients. Samples were taken from the intermediate part of the cystic wall and from the layer covering the cyst during excision. The presence of ovarian tissue adjacent to the cyst wall, and the morphological features of the surrounding tissue were both evaluated. Pelvic ultrasound follow-up was also performed. Patients' mean age was 4.5 years (7 days to 12 years). All cysts were removed because all were symptomatic. The mean diameter was 86.6 mm (74-100 mm). Cysts were follicular in 2 cases, serous in other two, and endometriotic in 1 case. Adjacent ovarian tissue was present in 1 of 5 specimens and was approximately 1 to 2 mm in thickness. The layer adjacent to the cystic wall always appeared as normal ovarian tissue. Ultrasound scans at follow-up revealed presence of ovarian tissue. The stripping procedure for large ovarian cyst excision allows to spare the adjacent normal ovarian tissue even in pediatric age because ovarian tissue is rarely excised with the cyst wall during the procedure.

  12. Distribution of p53 expression in tissue from 774 Danish ovarian tumour patients and its prognostic significance in ovarian carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogdall, E.V.S.; Christensen, L.; Frederiksen, K.

    2008-01-01

    The clinical roles played by normal and altered p53 in cancer are under intensive investigation, but larger studies describing the pattern as well as the prognostic value are still needed. The aim of this study was, using tissue array (TA), to examine the overexpression of p53 protein in 774...... epithelial ovarian tumour tissues from Danish women and to evaluate whether p53 tissue expression levels correlate with clinicopathological parameters and prognosis. The distribution of p53 expression levels at different stages of disease, in different histological subtypes, and the prognostic value of p53...... tissue expression were examined. Overall, p53 was expressed in 24/189 (13%) low malignant potential ovarian tumours (LMP) and in 278/585 (48%) ovarian cancers (OC). No significant difference in frequency of p53 tissue expression in LMP tissue was noted with increasing tumour stage (p=0.98). By contrast...

  13. [Expressions of Ras and Sos1 in epithelial ovarian cancer tissues and their clinical significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zheng-Hua; Linghu, Hua; Liu, Qian-Fen

    2016-11-20

    To detect the expressions of Ras and Sos1 proteins in human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) tissues and explore their correlation with the clinicopathological features of the patients. The expressions of Ras and Sos1 proteins were detected immunohistochemically in 62 EOC tissues, 5 borderline ovarian cancer tissues, 15 benign epithelial ovarian neoplasm tissues, and 18 normal ovarian tissues. The EOC tissues showed significantly higher expression levels of both Ras and Sos1 than the other tissues tested (Ptissues, Ras and Sos1 proteins were expressed mostly on the cell membrane and in the cytoplasm. The expression level of Ras was correlated with pathological types of the tumor (Ptissue-specific variation of Ras expression can lend support to a specific diagnosis of ovarian serous adenocarcinoma. The association of Ras and Sos1 protein expression with the tumor-free survival time of the patients awaits further investigation with a larger sample size.

  14. Evaluation of minimal disseminated disease in cryopreserved ovarian tissue from bone and soft tissue sarcoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolmans, M M; Iwahara, Y; Donnez, J; Soares, M; Vaerman, J L; Amorim, C A; Poirel, H

    2016-10-01

    What is the risk of finding malignant cells in cryopreserved ovarian tissue from sarcoma patients? Minimal disseminated disease (MDD) was not detected in frozen-thawed ovarian tissue from 26 patients by any of the sensitive methods applied. In case of leukemia, the risk of malignant cell transmission through the graft is well known and widely documented. However, for bone cancer, like Ewing sarcoma or osteosarcoma, only a small number of case reports, have been published. These cancers often affect prepubertal girls, in whom ovarian tissue cryopreservation and transplantation is the only option to preserve fertility. The presence of malignant cells in cryopreserved ovarian tissue from patients with bone/soft tissue sarcoma was investigated with disease-specific markers for each patient, using immunohistochemistry (IHC), FISH and real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR), with the original tumor serving as a positive control. Forty-eight sarcoma patients were enrolled in the study, 12 of whom subsequently died. In each case, tissue from the primary tumor was investigated in order to identify markers (immunohistochemical and/or molecular) to analyze the ovarian tissue case by case. Ovarian tissue from osteosarcoma (n = 15), liposarcoma (n = 1) and undifferentiated sarcoma (n = 5) patients could not be evaluated, as no specific markers were detected by FISH or sensitive IHC in any of their primary tumoral tissue. One patient with Li-Fraumeni syndrome was also excluded from the study. IHC analyses were therefore performed on ovarian tissue from 26 patients and qPCR on 19. The primary tumors involved were Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (n = 14), rhabdomyosarcoma (n = 7), synovial sarcoma (n = 2), clear cell sarcoma (n = 2) and a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (n = 1). MDD was not detected in any of the 26 analyzed samples using sensitive techniques in this largest reported series, even from patients who subsequently died and/or those who presented

  15. Expression and clinical significance of YKL-40 protein in epithelial ovarian cancer tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guo-Fen; Cai, Peng-Yu; Li, Xiao-Ming; Deng, Hai-Xia; He, Wei-Peng; Xie, Dan

    2009-02-01

    Overexpression of YKL-40 has been detected in the sera from patients with various kinds of malignant tumors, including epithelial ovarian cancer. Moreover, YKL-40 expression is closely related to clinical phenotypes of some malignant tumors. This study was to investigate the expression and clinical significance of YKL-40 protein in epithelial ovarian cancer tissues. Protein expression of YKL-40 was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using tissue microarray (TMA) consisting of 86 specimens of epithelial ovarian cancer and 20 specimens of normal ovarian tissues. The correlations of YKL-40 expression to clinical features and prognosis, as well as to the expression of clusterin protein in epithelial ovarian cancer were evaluated. The expression of YKL-40 in all normal ovarian tissues was negative or at low levels. In 74 evaluable specimens of epithelial ovarian cancer, overexpression of YKL-40 was detected in 42 cases (56.8%). YKL-40 expression was closely associated with the clinical stage of epithelial ovarian cancer (p ovarian cancer (p ovarian cancer.

  16. Children born after autotransplantation of cryopreserved ovarian tissue. A review of 13 live births

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donnez, Jacques; Silber, Sherman; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2011-01-01

    of fresh ovarian tissue transplantation. We report 13 live births after orthotopic transplantation of frozen-thawed ovarian tissue in cancer patients (n = 8) and in patients treated with high doses of chemotherapy for benign diseases (n = 2) (microscopic polyangiitis, sickle cell anemia). Interpretation...

  17. Expression and significance of twist and E-cadherin in ovarian cancer tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Shuang; Yu, Shou-Li; Yang, Xing-Sheng; Chang, Shu-De; Hou, Jian-Qing

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the expression of Twist and E-cadherin in ovarian cancer tissues as well as the role of epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) in ovarian cancer metastasis. The expressions of Twist and E-cadherin in 54 cases of ovarian cancer and paracancerous tissues were detected by Western blottin g and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. We used RNA interference to silence Twist expression in human ovarian cancer cell line, and detected E-cadherin expression using Western blotting. There was an increase in the relative abundance of Twist proteins and a decrease in E-cadherin in ovarian cancer compared with normal ovary tissues (P cadherin mRNA were 1.49 ± 0.53 and 0.82 ± 0.24 in ovarian cancer, and 1.14 ± 0.38 and 1.08 ± 0.19 in paracancerous tissues, respectively. The difference between the indicators in ovarian cancer and in paracancerous tissues was statistically significant (P cadherin protein increased (Pcadherin is downregulated in ovarian cancer. EMT, mediated by Twist, may be correlated with ovarian cancer metastasis.

  18. Expression of PCV2 antigen in the ovarian tissues of gilts

    Science.gov (United States)

    TUMMARUK, Padet; PEARODWONG, Pachara

    2015-01-01

    The present study was performed to determine the expression of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) antigen in the ovarian tissue of naturally infected gilts. Ovarian tissues were obtained from 11 culled gilts. The ovarian tissues sections were divided into two groups according to PCV2 DNA detection using PCR. PCV2 antigen was assessed in the paraffin embedded ovarian tissue sections by immunohistochemistry. A total of 2,131 ovarian follicles (i.e., 1,437 primordial, 133 primary, 353 secondary and 208 antral follicles), 66 atretic follicles and 131 corpora lutea were evaluated. It was found that PCV2 antigen was detected in 280 ovarian follicles (i.e., 239 primordial follicles, 12 primary follicles, 10 secondary follicles and 19 antral follicles), 1 atretic follicles and 3 corpora lutea (P<0.05). PCV2 antigen was detected in primordial follicles more often than in secondary follicles, atretic follicles and corpora lutea (P<0.05). The detection of PCV2 antigen was found mainly in oocytes. PCV2 antigen was found in both PCV2 DNA positive and negative ovarian tissues. It can be concluded that PCV2 antigen is expressed in all types of the ovarian follicles and corpora lutea. Further studies should be carried out to determine the influence of PCV2 on porcine ovarian function and oocyte quality. PMID:26522687

  19. Identification of cell-surface markers for detecting breast cancer cells in ovarian tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Inge T. A.; Hilders, Carina G. J. M.; Sier, Cornelis F. M.; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.; Smit, Vincent T. H. B. M.; Baptist Trimbos, J.; Kuppen, Peter J. K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The safety of ovarian tissue autotransplantation in oncology patients cannot be ensured, as current tumor-detection methods compromise the ovarian tissue viability. Although non-destructive methods (for instance near-infrared fluorescence imaging) can discriminate malignant from healthy tissues while leaving the examined tissues unaffected, they require specific cell-surface tumor markers. We determined which tumor markers are suitable targets for tumor-specific imaging to exclude the...

  20. The effects of permethrin on rat ovarian tissue morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotil, Tuğba; Yön, Nazan Deniz

    2015-03-01

    All organisms are exposed to chemical agents during their lifetime. One of these agents is a pesticide that is used as fly killer. In this study we investigated the effects of permethrin on rat ovaries using light and electron microscopy. We used 24 Wistar albino female rats and divided them into 3 groups. Dosages 20 and 40 mg/kg/day permethrin were administered by gavage for 14 days. Normal saline was given to control rats. After treatment, ovarian tissues were collected and prepared for light and electron microscopy evaluation. Negative effects of permethrin were detected on follicular and corpus luteum cell morphology in a dose dependent manner when compared with the control group. Picnotic cellular appearance and condensed chromatin were detected as evidence of apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, degenerative changes were seen in the ultrastructure of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. Thus, these findings suggested that permethrin caused degenerative effects on ovarian morphology in a dose dependent manner. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Limited prognostic value of tissue protein expression levels of cyclin E in Danish ovarian cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heeran, Mel C; Høgdall, Claus K; Kjaer, Susanne K

    2012-01-01

    tissue arrays (TA), we analysed the cyclin E expression levels in tissues from 168 women with borderline ovarian tumours (BOT) (147 stage I, 4 stage II, 17 stage III) and 493 Ovarian cancer (OC) patients (127 stage I, 45 stage II, 276 stage III, 45 stage IV). Using a 10% cut-off level for cyclin E......The primary objective of this study was to assess the expression of cyclin E in tumour tissues from 661 patients with epithelial ovarian tumours. The second was to evaluate whether cyclin E tissue expression levels correlate with clinico-pathological parameters and prognosis of the disease. Using...

  2. Accuracy and safety verification of ovarian reserve assessment technique for ovarian tissue transplantation using optical coherence tomography in mice ovary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takae, Seido; Tsukada, Kosuke; Sato, Yorino; Okamoto, Naoki; Kawahara, Tai; Suzuki, Nao

    2017-03-01

    Except for histological study, there are currently no suitable techniques available for the detection and identification of primordial follicles in ovary of primary ovarian insufficiency patients who have undetectable AMH levels. Also, the ability to locate and quantify follicles on ovarian cortex strips, without fixation, is valuable for patients who could undergo subsequent successful ovarian tissue transplantation. Although optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a well-established high resolution imaging technique without fixation commonly applied in biomedicine, few reports are available on ovarian tissue imaging. In present study, we established standard OCT follicle images at each developmental stage, including the primordial follicle, and demonstrated the efficacy of OCT to estimate IVF outcome in transplanted mice ovary like ovarian reserve tests. Unfortunately, the current commercial OCT could not be used to accurate follicle count the number of follicles for whole ovary, because the maximum depth of examination was 100 μm. And we demonstrated the safety of OCT examination, it did not affect IVF outcome and birth defect rate, and reproductive ability. Although there is room for improvement, these findings will be first step to bring OCT examination a step closer to clinical application for measuring true ovarian reserve and localizing follicles.

  3. Lysyl oxidase interacts with AGE signalling to modulate collagen synthesis in polycystic ovarian tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Papachroni, Katerina K.; Piperi, Christina; Levidou, Georgia; Korkolopoulou, Penelope; Pawelczyk, Leszek; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Connective tissue components ? collagen types I, III and IV ? surrounding the ovarian follicles undergo drastic changes during ovulation. Abnormal collagen synthesis and increased volume and density of ovarian stroma characterize the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). During the ovulatory process, collagen synthesis is regulated by prolyl hydroxylase and lysyl oxidase (LOX) activity in ovarian follicles. LOX catalyzes collagen and elastin cross-linking and plays essential role in coor...

  4. Safety considerations for transplanting cryopreserved ovarian tissue to restore fertility in female patients who have recovered from Ewing's sarcoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Stine D; Greve, Tine; Wielenga, Vera Timmermans

    2014-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma (EWS) is a highly malignant cancer in children, adolescents and young adults. The chemotherapy required to treat female EWS patients may cause primary ovarian insufficiency and infertility as a side effect. Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue before the start of chemotherapy can...... potentially preserve fertility. When the patient has been cured and primary ovarian insufficiency has developed, transplantation of frozen/thawed ovarian tissue can restore ovarian function. The tissue is usually collected before chemotherapy is initiated, and malignant cells may contaminate the stored...... of EWS patients and presents a new case of malignant cells in an ovarian biopsy from a girl with EWS....

  5. Follicle dynamics: visualization and analysis of follicle growth and maturation using murine ovarian tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Tomohiko; Iwase, Akira; Komatsu, Kouji; Bayasula; Nakamura, Tomoko; Osuka, Satoko; Takikawa, Sachiko; Goto, Maki; Kotani, Tomomi; Kikkawa, Fumitaka

    2017-10-27

    To visualize and analyze follicle development in ovarian tissue culture using physiological concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in order to establish an ovarian tissue culture system that enables efficient in vitro growth of follicles. Ovarian tissues from 4-week-old female ICR mice were sliced and cultured. Images of ovarian tissues in culture were obtained at 24-h or 30-min intervals by using a microscope. The area of each follicle observed in the ovarian tissue slices was tracked and analyzed in association with oocyte maturation. We were able to track the development of each follicle using this culture system. Follicle growth was associated with oocyte maturation. Meiotically matured oocytes (MII) were obtained from 33% of all follicles investigated. Approximately, a quarter of follicles (24%) did not grow and resulted in atresia. Follicle dynamics were successfully visualized and analyzed in murine ovarian tissue culture. We were able to obtain mature oocytes from the fully grown follicles in vitro. This culture system would be helpful for efficient in vitro culturing of ovarian tissues.

  6. Clinically applied procedures for human ovarian tissue cryopreservation result in different levels of efficacy and efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastings, L.; Westphal, J.R.; Beerendonk, C.C.M.; Bekkers, R.L.M.; Zusterzeel, P.L.M.; Hendriks, J.C.M.; Braat, D.D.M.; Peek, R.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Different protocols are being used worldwide for the cryopreservation of human ovarian tissue for fertility preservation purposes. The efficiency and efficacy of the majority of these protocols has not been extensively evaluated, possibly resulting in sub-optimally cryopreserved ovarian

  7. Optimizing outcomes from ovarian tissue cryopreservation and transplantation; activation versus preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meirow, Dror; Roness, Hadassa; Kristensen, Stine Gry

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian tissue cryopreservation and transplantation (OTCP) is gaining increasing traction in the field of fertility preservation as a result of accumulated successes. We now have a decade of experience with the technique, with tens of live births and greater than 90% return of ovarian function...

  8. The effect of ethanol sclerotherapy of 5 minutes duration on cyst diameter and rat ovarian tissue in simple ovarian cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şimşek M

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mehmet Şimşek,1 Tuncay Kuloğlu,2 Şehmus Pala,3 Abdullah Boztosun,4 Behzat Can,1 Remzi Atilgan1 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2Department of Histology, Firat University School of Medicine, Elazig, Turkey; 3Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Batman Yasam Hospital, Batman, Turkey; 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Akdeniz University School of Medicine, Antalya, Turkey Objectives: To examine the effect of 95% ethanol sclerotherapy (EST administered over 5 minutes on cyst diameter and ovarian tissue in experimentally induced simple ovarian cysts in a rat model. Materials and methods: In order to induce ovarian cysts, unilateral total salpingectomy was performed in regularly menstruating adult female Wistar albino rats (n=20 between 12 and 14 weeks of age and weighing between 200 and 220 g. One month after the procedure, the abdominal cavity was opened and 14 rats (70% were found to have developed macroscopic cysts. Rats with macroscopic cysts (n=14 were assigned into two groups in a prospective and single-blinded manner: group 1 (G1 (n=7, control rats; and group 2 (G2 (n=7, 5-minute EST 95% group. Cyst diameter was measured and recorded for each rat. In G2, after whole cyst fluid was aspirated the cystic cavity was irrigated with 95% ethanol, approximately equal to half of the aspirated cyst volume, after which an interval of 5 minutes was allowed and same amount was re-aspirated and the abdominal cavity was closed. One month after this procedure, abdominal cavities were reopened and intra-abdominal adhesion scoring was performed in both groups. Cyst diameter was measured for each rat, and the right ovary was removed, fixed in 10% formaldehyde, and transported to the laboratory. A histologic assessment of the ovarian tissues was performed under light microscopy following staining with hematoxylin and eosin. Mann–Whitney U-test was used for statistical analysis. A P-level less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results

  9. Endothelial cells are essential for ovarian stromal tissue restructuring after xenotransplantation of isolated ovarian stromal cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dath, C; Dethy, A; Van Langendonckt, A; Van Eyck, A S; Amorim, C A; Luyckx, V; Donnez, J; Dolmans, M M

    2011-01-01

    .... To help improve the grafting technique, we investigated whether short-term xenografting of a suspension containing ovarian stromal and endothelial cells without follicles could enhance graft survival...

  10. Legal termination of a pregnancy resulting from transplanted cryopreserved ovarian tissue due to cancer recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Emil Hagen; Offersen, Birgitte Vrou; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2013-01-01

    To report on a woman who conceived naturally and had a normal intrauterine pregnancy following transplantation of frozen/thawed ovarian tissue but decided to have an early abortion due to recurrence of breast cancer.......To report on a woman who conceived naturally and had a normal intrauterine pregnancy following transplantation of frozen/thawed ovarian tissue but decided to have an early abortion due to recurrence of breast cancer....

  11. The Effect of Ascorbic Acid on Expression of Bax and Bcl-2 and In Vitro Maturation of Mouse Preantral Follicles Isolated from Vitrified and Non-vitrified Ovaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Mazoochi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Background: This study was designed to investigate the effect of ascorbic acid on expression of Bax and Bcl-2 and maturation of mouse prenatal follicles isolated from vitrified and non-vitrified ovaries. Methods: In this study one ovary from each forty female mouse was vitrified. Preantral follicles were mechanically isolated from vitrified and non- vitrified ovaries and cultured in α-MEM in vitro for 10 days in four groups non-vitrified and non-ascorbic acid (NVNA, non-vitrified and ascorbic acid (NVA, vitrified and non-ascorbic acid (VNA, vitrified and ascorbic acid (VA. Expression of Bax and Bcl-2, survival rate, diameter of follicle and number of antral follicles were compared in four groups. Results: In all groups, the diameter of preantral follicles was increased during in vitro culture. The mean diameter of follicles on day 2 of culture in NVNA, NVA, VNA, and VA groups were 158.5±7.2, 161.9±9.6, 151.7±6.4, and 156.9±7.6 respectively and at day 4 of culture were 213.1±11.8, 218±8.5, 202.9±6.2, and 215.9±9.2 respectively. There were significant differences between the mean diameter of follicles in non-vitrified groups and VNA group at day 2 and 4 of culture (p=0.011 and p=0.001 respectively. The addition of ascorbic acid increased follicular diameter on day 4 of culture in vitrified group (p=0.001. The level of Bax mRNA in NVA group was significantly lower than that other groups (p=o.oo1. Conclusion: Although the addition of ascorbic acid to the media had no effect on growth, survival rate and antrum formation of follicles in vitro, but this reduced the level of the Bax proapoptotic gene in non-vitrified group and improved the growth of preantral follicles after ovarian vitrification.

  12. The pituitary-ovarian axis in dogs with remnant ovarian tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buijtels, J J C W M; de Gier, J; Kooistra, H S; Naan, E C; Oei, C H Y; Okkens, A C

    2011-03-01

    It can be difficult to confirm the presence of remnant ovarian tissue (ROT) in bitches that are presumed to be ovariohysterectomised. A GnRH stimulation test can be used to distinguish ovariectomised bitches from those in anoestrus, but it is uncertain whether the GnRH-induced changes in plasma LH and oestradiol concentrations that occur in intact bitches also occur in ROT-bitches. We report here eighteen ROT-bitches and compare the results of GnRH stimulation tests with those of six ovariectomised and six bitches in anoestrus. The basal (n = 17) and/or GnRH-stimulated (n = 18) plasma oestradiol concentration was above the detection limit of the assay, i.e., < 7 pmol/l, in all ROT-bitches but below the detection limit in all ovariectomised bitches. Basal plasma LH concentration was significantly higher in ROT-bitches (4.1 ± 0.7 μg/L) than those in anoestrus (0.64 ± 0.04 μg/L), and significantly lower than in ovariectomised bitches (20.2 ± 3.6 μg/L). Basal plasma LH concentration was relatively high in bitches in which there was a long interval between ovariectomy and appearance of oestrus. GnRH administration resulted in a significant increase in plasma LH and oestradiol concentrations in ROT-bitches. The GnRH-induced increase and subsequent decline in plasma LH concentration were significantly less in ROT-bitches than in either ovariectomised bitches or those in anoestrus. The GnRH-induced increase in plasma oestradiol concentration was significantly smaller in ROT-bitches than in those in anoestrus. In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrate that in dogs ROT is associated with noticeable changes in the pituitary-ovarian axis and suggest that a GnRH stimulation test may be used to distinguish between completely ovariectomised bitches and those with ROT. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Histomorphological Evaluation of Fresh Ovarian Tissue Transplanted Into Back Muscles of Balb/C Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Amiri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available & objectives: Today, different methods for maintaining reproductive capability in young women with cancer are being considered. One of the most prominent of these methods is ovarian tissue transplant. Despite the relative success of this method, the appropriate location and methods of transplantation is still a matter of discussion. The present study evaluated the histomorphology of fresh ovarian tissue transplantation by two methods, inter muscular and intra muscular, in Balb/C mice. Methods & Materials: The study was conducted at Hamedan University of Medical Sciences in 2009. Fresh ovarian tissues from 12-14 day old Balb/C mice were transplanted into back muscles of ovarectomized 6 week old Balb/C mice both intermuscularly and intramuscularly. All transplanted mice received intra-peritoneal injections of a unit of rFSH for 4 weeks, every other day. At the end of the tenth week, all transplant recipient mice were killed and the transplanted ovarian tissues were removed. All samples were assessed for the angiogenesis and viability of follicles. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, using independent t- test. Results: In intermuscular transplanted group, the transplanted tissues were rejected in two cases. In the sections prepared from the other cases, in spite of the presence of some small necrotic areas, the majority of ovarian tissues had a healthy appearance within the primordial, primary, secondary and antral follicles. Apart from a significant reduction in the number of follicles and smaller size of follicles in the transplanted tissue in comparison with control group, no other major differences in morphology, histology, and the process of maturation of ovarian follicles were observed between the transplanted and control groups. Conclusion: Fresh ovarian tissue transplantation into muscles of the back area without basic vascular pedicle has new angiogenesis capabilities, appropriate survival and development of primordial follicles and

  14. Roles of Cx43 and AKAP95 in ovarian cancer tissues in G1/S phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenzhi; Hua, Suhang; Dai, Yue; Yuan, Yangyang; Yang, Jinghui; Deng, Jiali; Huo, Yunjie; Chen, Xiaoxuan; Teng, Bogang; Yu, Xiuyi; Zhang, Yongxing

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of A-kinase anchor protein 95 (AKAP95), cell cycle protein E1 (cyclinE1) and D1 (cyclinD1), and gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) in ovarian cancer tissues, the relationship between four proteins and clinicopathologic parameters, and the correlation between these proteins. The expression of proteins in 54 cases of ovarian cancer tissues was detected by immunohistochemical method. The positive expression rates of AKAP95, cyclinD1 and cyclinE1 in ovarian cancer tissues were 72.22%, 66.67% and 79.63%, respectively, which were higher than that of ovarian pericarcinoma tissues expressing as 33.33%, 25% and 8.30% (Povarian cancer tissues was 40.74%, which was lower than that of ovarian pericarcinoma tissues expressing as 75%; respectively, and the difference was statistically significant between groups (Povarian cancer tissues was related to the histologic type (P0.05). Additionally, the expression of AKAP95, Cx43 and cyclinE1 in ovarian cancer tissues showed no correlation with the degree of differentiation or the histologic type (P>0.05). Protein expressions of AKAP95, Cx43 and cyclinE1 were correlated with each other (P0.05). AKAP95, cyclinD1 and cyclinE1 play an important role in promoting the process of ovarian cancer formation. The tumor inhibitory effects of Cx43 protein on the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer were weakened. The expression of cyclinD1 in ovarian cancer tissues is related to the histologic type while it shows no correlation with the degree of differentiation. Additionally, the expression of AKAP95, Cx43 and cyclinE1 in ovarian cancer tissues shows no correlation with the degree of differentiation or the histologic type. AKAP95 expression is correlated with Cx43 and cyclinE1 expression; Cx43 expression is correlated with AKAP95, cyclinD1 and cyclinE1 expression; cyclinE1 expression is correlated with AKAP95, Cx43, cyclinD1 expression; cyclinD1 expression is correlated with Cx43 and

  15. Endothelial cells are essential for ovarian stromal tissue restructuring after xenotransplantation of isolated ovarian stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dath, C; Dethy, A; Van Langendonckt, A; Van Eyck, A S; Amorim, C A; Luyckx, V; Donnez, J; Dolmans, M M

    2011-06-01

    Grafting of isolated follicles represents an approach to prevent the risk of reimplanting malignant cells with cryopreserved ovarian fragments. Optimal conditions and cell types required to sustain human follicular growth need to be identified. To help improve the grafting technique, we investigated whether short-term xenografting of a suspension containing ovarian stromal and endothelial cells without follicles could enhance graft survival and revascularization. In human ovary, CD34 selectively labels endothelial cells of blood vessels. A CD34-replete ovarian stromal cell group, including stromal and endothelial cells, was obtained after enzymatic digestion of fresh human ovarian cortex. Magnetic-activated cell sorting was used to establish a CD34-depleted ovarian stromal cell group. Proportions of CD34-positive cells were evaluated by flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. Cell suspensions were embedded in human plasma clots and grafted (n = 10 for each group, 7 days) to the ovarian bursa of nude mice. Angiogenesis was quantified after human/mouse CD34 immunostaining. CD34-replete grafts had a well-organized and vascularized stromal structure, containing tubular components staining for human CD34 and corresponding to functional vessels, as evidenced by intraluminal red blood cells. CD34-depleted grafts tended to be smaller than CD34-replete grafts and poorly vascularized with central necrosis. Global microvessel density was higher in the CD34-replete than depleted group (337.9 versus 187.3 vessels/mm(2), P ovarian endothelial and stromal cells to ensure the formation of a well-vascularized and structured ovarian-like stroma after short-term xenografting, for future application in the transplantation of isolated follicles.

  16. Lysyl oxidase interacts with AGE signalling to modulate collagen synthesis in polycystic ovarian tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papachroni, Katerina K; Piperi, Christina; Levidou, Georgia; Korkolopoulou, Penelope; Pawelczyk, Leszek; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G

    2010-10-01

    Connective tissue components--collagen types I, III and IV--surrounding the ovarian follicles undergo drastic changes during ovulation. Abnormal collagen synthesis and increased volume and density of ovarian stroma characterize the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). During the ovulatory process, collagen synthesis is regulated by prolyl hydroxylase and lysyl oxidase (LOX) activity in ovarian follicles. LOX catalyzes collagen and elastin cross-linking and plays essential role in coordinating the control of ovarian extracellular matrix (ECM) during follicular development. We have recently shown accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), molecules that stimulate ECM production and abnormal collagen cross-linking, in ovarian tissue. However, the possible link between LOX and AGEs-induced signalling in collagen production and stroma formation in ovarian tissue from PCOS remains elusive. The present study investigates the hypothesis of AGE signalling pathway interaction with LOX gene activity in polycystic ovarian (PCO) tissue. We show an increased distribution and co-localization of LOX, collagen type IV and AGE molecules in the PCO tissue compared to control, as well as augmented expression of AGE signalling mediators/effectors, phospho(p)-ERK, phospho(p)-c-Jun and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) in pathological tissue. Moreover, we demonstrate binding of AGE-induced transcription factors, NF-κB and activator protein-1 (AP-1) on LOX promoter, indicating a possible involvement of AGEs in LOX gene regulation, which may account for the documented increase in LOX mRNA and protein levels compared to control. These findings suggest that deposition of excess collagen in PCO tissue that induces cystogenesis may, in part, be due to AGE-mediated stimulation of LOX activity. © 2009 The Authors Journal compilation © 2010 Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Tissue-engineered cells producing complex recombinant proteins inhibit ovarian cancer in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen, Antonia E.; Masiakos, Peter T.; Segev, Dorry L.; Vacanti, Joseph P.; Donahoe, Patricia K.; MacLaughlin, David T.

    2001-01-01

    Techniques of tissue engineering and cell and molecular biology were used to create a biodegradable scaffold for transfected cells to produce complex proteins. Mullerian Inhibiting Substance (MIS) causes regression of Mullerian ducts in the mammalian embryo. MIS also causes regression in vitro of ovarian tumor cell lines and primary cells from ovarian carcinomas, which derive from Mullerian structures. In a strategy to circumvent the complicated purification protoc...

  18. Recent advances in the field of ovarian tissue cryopreservation and opportunities for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladanyi, Camille; Mor, Amir; Christianson, Mindy S; Dhillon, Namisha; Segars, James H

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to summarize the latest advances and successes in the field of ovarian tissue cryopreservation while identifying gaps in current knowledge that suggest opportunities for future research. A systematic review was performed according to PRISMA guidelines for all relevant full-text articles in PubMed published in English that reviewed or studied historical or current advancements in ovarian tissue cryopreservation and auto-transplantation techniques. Ovarian tissue auto-transplantation in post-pubertal women is capable of restoring fertility with over 80 live births currently reported with a corresponding pregnancy rate of 23 to 37%. The recently reported successes of live births from transplants, both in orthotopic and heterotopic locations, as well as the emerging methods of in vitro maturation (IVM), in vitro culture of primordial follicles, and possibility of in vitro activation (IVA) suggest new fertility options for many women and girls. Vitrification, as an ovarian tissue cryopreservation technique, has also demonstrated successful live births and may be a more cost-effective method to freezing with less tissue injury. Further, transplantation via the artificial ovary with an extracellular tissue matrix (ECTM) scaffolding as well as the effects of sphingosine-1-phosphate (SIP) and fibrin modified with heparin-binding peptide (HBP), heparin, and a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) have demonstrated important advancements in fertility preservation. As a fertility preservation method, ovarian tissue cryopreservation and auto-transplantation are currently considered experimental, but future research may pave the way for these modalities to become a standard of care for women facing the prospect of sterility from ovarian damage.

  19. A transportation network for human ovarian tissue is indispensable to success for fertility preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyono, K; Hashimoto, T; Toya, M; Koizumi, M; Sasaki, C; Shibasaki, S; Aono, N; Nakamura, Y; Obata, R; Okuyama, N; Ogura, Y; Igarashi, H

    2017-09-02

    The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of an ovarian tissue transportation network for fertility preservation (FP) for cancer patients in Japan. PubMed was searched for papers on transportation of human ovarian tissue for FP. We analyzed population, area, number of cancer patients for ovarian tissue cryopreservation (OTC), quality control/assessment and safety, cost of a cryopreservation center for the building for 30 years, and medical fees of cancer patients (operation, cryopreservation, and storage of ovarian tissue). More than twenty babies have been born in Denmark and Germany through a transportation system. Up to 400 new patients a year need OTC. The fees for removal, cryopreservation, and storage for 5 years, and transplantation of ovarian tissue are around €5,000, €4,000, and €5,000, respectively. It costs more than €5 million to establish and maintain one cryopreservation center for 30 years. If we have a few cryopreservation centers in Japan, we can cryopreserve 400 patients' ovarian tissue per year by safer slow freezing and maintain quality control/assessment. We need to lighten the patients' burden for easy to use FP by a government subsidy and medical insurance coverage. This model has been termed the Danish model ("the woman stays - the tissue moves"). This is truly patient-centered medicine. We can have maximum effects with the minimum burden. A transportation network like those of Denmark and Germany is the best strategy for FP in Japan. It may be the best system for cancer patients, medical staff, and the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare.

  20. Manifestations of oxidative stress and molecular damages in ovarian cancer tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. I. Falfushynska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Indices of oxidative stress are recognized molecular markers and prognostic criteria for malignant transformation of tissue, but their value depends on the type of tumor and the stage of its development. The goal of this study was to clarify the relationship between the characteristics of the oxidative stress system including­ metal-associated ones and the cytotoxicity manifestations in neoplastically transformed human ovarian tissue. The highest level of Mn-superoxide dismutase activity (by 630% and metallothionein protein (MT, 100% has been estimated for the first time in malignant ovarian tissue compared to normal ovarian tissue. The researchers have also found a much higher level of oxy-radical formation (by 332%, a lower activity of catalase (by 49% and a lower level of reduced glutathione (by 46% and its redox index (0.84 versus 0.89 in the control in tumor tissue. Under the relatively stable content of zinc, copper and cadmium in MTs, the content of zinc and especially copper in a form non-binding with MTs was significantly lower in the malignant tissue compared to normal one while the content of cadmium was higher. A discriminant analysis of all definable parameters revealed that the higher content of the products of oxidative destruction of proteins, lipids, fragmented DNA and the activity of cathepsin D, especially in its free form (by 235%, are the main characteristic signs of malignant ovarian tissue.

  1. Live birth in a woman without ovaries after autograft of frozen-thawed ovarian tissue combined with growth factors

    OpenAIRE

    Callejo, Justo; Salvador, Cristina; Gonz?lez-Nu?ez, Santiago; Almeida, Laura; Rodriguez, Luciano; Marqu?s, Laura; Valls, Ana; Lailla, Jos? Maria

    2013-01-01

    Currently, cryopreservation of oocytes, embryos and ovarian tissue is considered the basis of fertility preservation programs for women with cancer and other diseases who are rendered sterile by gonadotoxic drugs or radiation. Numerous studies have confirmed that autograft of frozen-thawed ovarian tissue can restore ovarian function and fertility. A total of twenty-two live births have been reported but we still have to consider this technique as experimental. The main problem is that the imp...

  2. Fertility preservation in pre-pubertal girls with cancer: the role of ovarian tissue cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, W Hamish B; Kelsey, Thomas W; Anderson, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing numbers of survivors of cancer in young people, future fertility and ovarian function are important considerations that should be discussed before treatment commences. Some young people, by nature of the treatment they will receive, are at high risk of premature ovarian insufficiency and infertility. For them, ovarian tissue cryopreservation (OTC) is one approach to fertility preservation that remains both invasive and for young patients experimental. There are important ethical and consent issues that need to be explored and accepted before OTC can be considered established in children with cancer. In this review we have discussed a framework for patient selection which has been shown to be effective in identifying those patients at high risk of premature ovarian insufficiency and who can be offered OTC safely. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification of cell-surface markers for detecting breast cancer cells in ovarian tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Inge T A; Hilders, Carina G J M; Sier, Cornelis F M; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L; Smit, Vincent T H B M; Baptist Trimbos, J; Kuppen, Peter J K

    2016-08-01

    The safety of ovarian tissue autotransplantation in oncology patients cannot be ensured, as current tumor-detection methods compromise the ovarian tissue viability. Although non-destructive methods (for instance near-infrared fluorescence imaging) can discriminate malignant from healthy tissues while leaving the examined tissues unaffected, they require specific cell-surface tumor markers. We determined which tumor markers are suitable targets for tumor-specific imaging to exclude the presence of breast cancer cells in ovarian tissue. Immunohistochemistry was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens of ten ovaries from premenopausal patients. Additionally, we screened a tissue microarray containing tumor tissue cores from 24 breast cancer patients being eligible for ovarian tissue cryopreservation. The following cell-surface tumor markers were tested: E-cadherin, EMA (epithelial membrane antigen), Her2/neu (human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2), αvβ6 integrin, EpCAM (epithelial cell adhesion molecule), CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen), FR-α (folate receptor-alpha), and uPAR (urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor). For each tumor, the percentage of positive breast tumor cells was measured. None of the ten ovaries were positive for any of the markers tested. However, all markers (except CEA and uPAR) were present on epithelial cells of inclusion cysts. E-cadherin was present in the majority of breast tumors: ≥90 % of tumor cells were positive for E-cadherin in 17 out of 24 tumors, and 100 % of tumor cells were positive in 5 out of 24 tumors. Of the markers tested, E-cadherin is the most suitable marker for a tumor-specific probe in ovarian tissue. Methods are required to distinguish inclusion cysts from breast tumor cells.

  4. Multispectral fluorescence imaging of human ovarian and Fallopian tube tissue for early stage cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Tyler; Baggett, Brenda; Rice, Photini; Watson, Jennifer; Orsinger, Gabe; Nymeyer, Ariel C.; Welge, Weston A.; Keenan, Molly; Saboda, Kathylynn; Roe, Denise J.; Hatch, Kenneth; Chambers, Setsuko; Black, John; Utzinger, Urs; Barton, Jennifer

    2015-03-01

    With early detection, five year survival rates for ovarian cancer are over 90%, yet no effective early screening method exists. Emerging consensus suggests that perhaps over 50% of the most lethal form of the disease, high grade serous ovarian cancer, originates in the Fallopian tube. Cancer changes molecular concentrations of various endogenous fluorophores. Using specific excitation wavelengths and emissions bands on a Multispectral Fluorescence Imaging (MFI) system, spatial and spectral data over a wide field of view can be collected from endogenous fluorophores. Wavelength specific reflectance images provide additional information to normalize for tissue geometry and blood absorption. Ratiometric combination of the images may create high contrast between neighboring normal and abnormal tissue. Twenty-six women undergoing oophorectomy or debulking surgery consented the use of surgical discard tissue samples for MFI imaging. Forty-nine pieces of ovarian tissue and thirty-two pieces of Fallopian tube tissue were collected and imaged with excitation wavelengths between 280 nm and 550 nm. After imaging, each tissue sample was fixed, sectioned and HE stained for pathological evaluation. Comparison of mean intensity values between normal, benign, and cancerous tissue demonstrate a general trend of increased fluorescence of benign tissue and decreased fluorescence of cancerous tissue when compared to normal tissue. The predictive capabilities of the mean intensity measurements are tested using multinomial logistic regression and quadratic discriminant analysis. Adaption of the system for in vivo Fallopian tube and ovary endoscopic imaging is possible and is briefly described.

  5. Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue for fertility preservation in a large cohort of young girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, A K; Rechnitzer, C; Macklon, K T

    2017-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is there an association between the need for medical puberty induction and the diagnosis or treatment received in girls who have undergone cryopreservation of ovarian tissue for fertility preservation? SUMMARY ANSWER: There was a clear association between the intensity of treatment...... risk of POI should be offered ovarian tissue cryopreservation (OTC). This includes girls who are planned to receive either high doses of alkylating agents, conditioning regimen before stem cell transplantation (SCT), total body irradiation (TBI) or high radiation doses to the craniospinal, abdominal...

  6. Tissue Factor–Factor VII Complex as a Key Regulator of Ovarian Cancer Phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiro Koizume

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue factor (TF is an integral membrane protein widely expressed in normal human cells. Blood coagulation factor VII (fVII is a key enzyme in the extrinsic coagulation cascade that is predominantly secreted by hepatocytes and released into the bloodstream. The TF–fVII complex is aberrantly expressed on the surface of cancer cells, including ovarian cancer cells. This procoagulant complex can initiate intracellular signaling mechanisms, resulting in malignant phenotypes. Cancer tissues are chronically exposed to hypoxia. TF and fVII can be induced in response to hypoxia in ovarian cancer cells at the gene expression level, leading to the autonomous production of the TF–fVII complex. Here, we discuss the roles of the TF–fVII complex in the induction of malignant phenotypes in ovarian cancer cells. The hypoxic nature of ovarian cancer tissues and the roles of TF expression in endometriosis are discussed. Arguments will be extended to potential strategies to treat ovarian cancers based on our current knowledge of TF–fVII function.

  7. The effect of Setarud (IMODTM) on angiogenesis in transplanted human ovarian tissue to nude mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormozi, Maryam; Talebi, Saeed; Khorram Khorshid, Hamid Reza; Zarnani, Amir-Hassan; Kamali, Koorosh; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Soltangoraee, Haleh; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the promising methods in fertility preservation among women with cancer is cryopreservation of ovarian cortex but there are many drawbacks such as apoptosis and considerable reduction of follicular density in the transplanted ovary. One solution to reduce ischemic damage is enhancing angiogenesis after transplantation of ovarian cortex tissue. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Setarud, on angiogenesis in transplanted human ovarian tissue. Materials and Methods: In this case control study, twenty four nude mice were implanted subcutaneously, with human ovarian tissues, from four women. The mice were randomly divided into two groups (n=12): the experimental group was treated with Setarud, while control group received only vehicle. Each group was divided into three subgroups (n=4) based on the graft recovery days post transplantation (PT). The transplanted fragments were removed on days 2, 7, and 30 PT and the expression of Angiopoietin-1, Angiopoietin-2, and Vascular endothelial growth factor at both gene and protein levels and vascular density were studied in the grafted ovarian tissues. Results: On the 2nd and 7th day PT, the level of Angiopoietin-1 gene expression in case group was significantly lower than that in control group, while the opposite results were obtained for Angiopoietin-2 and Vascular endothelial growth factor. These results were also confirmed at the protein level. The density of vessels in Setarud group elevated significantly on day 7 PT compared to pre-treatment state. Conclusion: Our results showed that administration of Setarud may stimulates angiogenesis in transplanted human ovarian tissues, although further researches are needed before a clear judgment is made. PMID:26644788

  8. Developmental competence of oocytes isolated from surplus medulla tissue in connection with cryopreservation of ovarian tissue for fertility preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilken-Jensen, Helle N; Kristensen, Stine G; Jeppesen, Janni V

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Evaluating the developmental competence of immature oocytes collected from surplus medulla tissue in connection with ovarian tissue cryopreservation for fertility preservation. DESIGN: Cohort comparative study. SETTING: University laboratory in Denmark from 2011-2012. POPULATION: 69...... girls and women (0-38 years of age) who each had one ovary cryopreserved for fertility preservation. METHODS: Ovaries were obtained directly from the local hospital or from collaborating hospitals (two to five hours' transport on ice). Immature oocytes were aspirated from large antral follicles visible...... on the ovaries, and collected from the saline solution, containing surplus medulla tissue, following dissection of the ovarian cortical tissue for cryopreservation. The immature oocytes were cultured for 48 h in an Embryoscope™ Time-lapse System or in culture dishes overlaid with liquid paraffin using commercial...

  9. Differential BCCIP gene expression in primary human ovarian cancer, renal cell carcinoma and colorectal cancer tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoxia; Cao, Lingling; Ni, Jinsong; Liu, Ning; Zhao, Xiaoming; Wang, Yanfang; Zhu, Lin; Wang, Lingyao; Wang, Jin; Yue, Ying; Cai, Yong; Jin, Jingji

    2013-12-01

    Human BCCIP, a protein which interacts with BRCA2 and CDKN1A (Cip1, p21), has been implicated in many cellular processes including cell cycle regulation, DNA recombination and damage repair, telomere maintenance, embryonic development and genomic stability. BCCIP gene expression, which is an important BRCA2 cofactor in tumor suppression, has been identified in some primary cancers. Thus, we investigated the role of BCCIP expression in a large sample of clinically diagnosed primary ovarian cancer, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues. Using clinically diagnosed frozen primary cancer tissues, quantitative PCR (qPCR), western blot analysis (WB) and immunohistochemical staining (IHC) approaches were used to detect and measure gene expression. Reduced BCCIP gene expression in ovarian cancer, RCC and CRC tissues occurred in 74, 89 and 75% of tissue samples, respectively. qPCR analysis of mRNA expression in 54 ovarian cancer, 50 RCC and 44 CRC samples revealed significant (>2-fold decreased) BCCIP downregulation in 56, 70 and 46% of tissue samples, respectively. Although BCCIP expression in three different tumor tissues decreased, the relationship between BCCIP expression and clinicopathological features of each cancer was distinct. Compared to normal tissues, BCCIP expression in ovarian cancers was significantly downregulated in serous, endometrioid and mucinous carcinomas. Downregulation of BCCIP expression was strongly associated with clear cell RCC (ccRCC) and Fuhrman tumor grading, but significant differences in BCCIP expression between CRC and matched normal tissues occurred only in male CRC tissues (povarian cancer and RCC tissue samples (povarian cancer, RCC and CRC tissues, suggesting a role for the gene in the pathogenesis of these cancers.

  10. Characterization of aldehyde dehydrogenase isozymes in ovarian cancer tissues and sphere cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saw Yu-Ting

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aldehyde dehydrogenases belong to a superfamily of detoxifying enzymes that protect cells from carcinogenic aldehydes. Of the superfamily, ALDH1A1 has gained most attention because current studies have shown that its expression is associated with human cancer stem cells. However, ALDH1A1 is only one of the 19 human ALDH subfamilies currently known. The purpose of the present study was to determine if the expression and activities of other major ALDH isozymes are associated with human ovarian cancer and ovarian cancer sphere cultures. Methods Immunohistochemistry was used to delineate ALDH isozyme localization in clinical ovarian tissues. Western Blot analyses were performed on lysates prepared from cancer cell lines and ovarian cancer spheres to confirm the immunohistochemistry findings. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions were used to measure the mRNA expression levels. The Aldefluor® assay was used to measure ALDH activity in cancer cells from the four tumor subtypes. Results Immunohistochemical staining showed significant overexpression of ALDH1A3, ALDH3A2, and ALDH7A1 isozymes in ovarian tumors relative to normal ovarian tissues. The expression and activity of ALDH1A1 is tumor type-dependent, as seen from immunohistochemisty, Western blot analysis, and the Aldefluor® assay. The expression was elevated in the mucinous and endometrioid ovarian epithelial tumors than in serous and clear cell tumors. In some serous and most clear cell tumors, ALDH1A1 expression was found in the stromal fibroblasts. RNA expression of all studied ALDH isozymes also showed higher expression in endometrioid and mucinous tumors than in the serous and clear cell subtypes. The expression of ALDH enzymes showed tumor type-dependent induction in ovarian cancer cells growing as sphere suspensions in serum-free medium. Conclusions The results of our study indicate that ALDH enzyme expression and activity may be associated

  11. Effect of bovine ovarian tissue vitrification on the structural preservation of antral follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faheem, M S; Carvalhais, I; Baron, E; Moreira da Silva, F

    2013-10-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the structural preservation of antral follicles after bovine ovarian tissue vitrification using histological analysis. Ovaries (n = 30) of slaughtered cows were cut into small fragments using a scalpel blade, and the ovarian tissues were randomly assigned to vitrification using 15% dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) and 15% ethylene glycol (EG) and fresh tissues (control) groups. For histological evaluations, fresh and post-thawing ovarian tissues were immediately fixed, serially sectioned into 5-μm sections and stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Nine serial sections per fragment were subjected for morphological assessment. The diameter of the antral follicles was determined and classified into four groups: 1 (≤1 mm), 2 (>1-2 mm), 3 (>2-3 mm) and 4 (>3-4 mm). Then, follicular morphology was evaluated in relation to atresia and categorized into seven grades: Grade A (healthy follicle); Grades B, C and D (early atresia); Grades E and F (moderate atresia); and Grade G (advanced atresia). The results revealed that small diameters of antral follicles (1 and 2 mm) were more susceptible for cryoinjury. The normal follicular morphology (Grade A) was not affected by vitrification throughout follicle diameters. Nevertheless, some damage features were monitored after vitrification. In conclusion, the morphological structure of bovine antral follicles could be successfully preserved by ovarian tissue vitrification. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Trolox enhances follicular survival after ovarian tissue autograft in squirrel monkey (Saimiri collinsi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalercio, Sarah R; Amorim, Christiani A; Brito, Danielle C; Percário, Sandro; Oskam, Irma C; Domingues, Sheyla F S; Santos, Regiane R

    2015-05-21

    The aim of this study was to evaluate ovarian tissue pre-treatment with 50 µM Trolox followed by heterotopic transplantation in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri collinsi) and to assess tissue functionality via immunohistochemical analysis of the stroma and ovarian follicles. Five healthy and sexually mature squirrel monkey (Saimiri collinsi) females were used. Heterotopic autografting of fresh ovarian tissue with or without previous exposure to the antioxidant Trolox was performed and grafts were recovered for analysis 7 days later. Tissue vascularisation was confirmed by both macroscopic inspection and cluster of differentiation 31 (CD31) staining. Trolox prevented massive follicular activation and kept the percentages of morphologically normal follicles higher than in untreated grafts. Expression of anti-Müllerian hormone in developing follicles was observed only in controls and Trolox-treated grafts. Also, immunostaining for growth differentiation factor-9 was positive only in primordial follicles from controls and from Trolox-treated grafts. Although Trolox improved follicular quality and avoided apoptosis in stromal cells, ovarian tissue fibrosis was increased in Trolox-treated grafts, mainly due to an increase in collagen Type I synthesis.

  13. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase-26 and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-3 and -4 in normal ovary and ovarian carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, D; Tunuguntla, R; Susi, L; Chegini, N

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the spatial expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their physiologic inhibitors, the tissue inhibitor of MMP (TIMP)-3 and TIMP-4, in ovarian carcinoma compared to normal ovaries. Immunohistochemistry was carried out in this study. Tissue sections prepared from normal ovarian tissues from throughout the menstrual cycle (N = 20) and ovarian carcinomas (N = 45) characterized as stage I (N = 5), stage III/IV (N = 40) were immunostained using polyclonal antibodies to the latent and the active form of MMP-26, TIMP-3, and a monoclonal antibody to TIMP-4. Immunoreactive MMP-26, TIMP-3, and TIMP-4 were detected in all the ovarian cell types in normal and tumor tissues. In normal ovarian tissues, theca externa and luteal cells immunostained with high intensity for MMP-26 and TIMPs while theca/granulosa cell staining intensity increased as lutenization progressed. There was low immunostaining of the ovarian stromal and surface epithelial cells for MMP-26, with moderate staining for TIMPs. In the carcinoma specimens, cancer cells and vascular endothelial cells displayed the highest staining intensity compared to adjacent nontumor areas. The immunostaining intensity of MMP-26 and TIMP-3 increased with stage of tumor with the invading tumor cells displaying the strongest immunostaining. MMP-26, TIMP-3, and TIMP-4 are expressed in normal ovarian as well as ovarian tumors with elevated expression in the invasive tumor cells suggesting a potential role for MMP-26 in normal ovary and ovarian cancer biologic function.

  14. 45,X/46,XY ovotesticular disorder of sex development revisited: undifferentiated gonadal tissue may be mistaken as ovarian tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Juliana Gabriel Ribeiro de; Andrade, Liliana Aparecida Lucci De Angelo; Guerra-Junior, Gil; Maciel-Guerra, Andréa Trevas

    2017-08-28

    The 45,X/46,XY karyotype has been associated with mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD) and ovotesticular disorder of sex development (DSD). Our aim was to revise the diagnosis of ovotesticular DSD in two patients in the context of a retrospective study of 45,X/46,XY subjects with genital ambiguity. Patient 1 had a left streak gonad; the right one was considered an ovotestis. Patient 2 had a right testis; the left gonad was considered an ovary. Revision of the histological sections was performed. Both the "ovarian" part of the right gonad of patient 1 and the left "ovary" of patient 2 contained ovarian-type stroma with clusters of sex-cordlike structures and rare germ cells, compatible with undifferentiated gonadal tissue (UGT). Misdiagnosis of ovarian tissue in patients with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism or its variants could also be found in six published case reports. A distinction between 45,X/46,XY ovotesticular DSD and MGD should be made on past and future cases keeping in mind that UGT may be mistaken as ovarian tissue.

  15. FTIR and Raman microspectroscopy of normal, benign, and malignant formalin-fixed ovarian tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, C Murali; Sockalingum, G D; Bhat, Rani A; Venteo, L; Kushtagi, Pralhad; Pluot, M; Manfait, M

    2007-03-01

    Ovarian cancer is the sixth most common cancer among women worldwide, and mortality rates from this cancer are higher than for other gynecological cancers. This is attributed to a lack of reliable screening methods and the inadequacy of treatment modalities for the advanced stages of the disease. FTIR and Raman spectroscopic studies of formalin-fixed normal, benign, and malignant ovarian tissues have been undertaken in order to investigate and attempt to understand the underlying biochemical changes associated with the disease, and to explore the feasibility of discriminating between these different tissue types. Raman spectra of normal tissues indicate the dominance of proteins and lower contents of DNA and lipids compared to malignant tissues. Among the pathological tissues studied, spectra from benign tissues seem to contain more proteins and less DNA and lipids compared to malignant tissue spectra. FTIR studies corroborate these findings. FTIR and Raman spectra of both normal and benign tissues showed more similarities than those of malignant tissues. Cluster analysis of first-derivative Raman spectra in the 700-1700 cm(-1) range gave two clear groups, one corresponding to malignant and the other to normal+benign tissues. At a lower heterogeneity level, the normal+benign cluster gave three nonoverlapping subclusters, one corresponding to normal and two for benign tissues. Cluster analysis of second-derivative FTIR spectra in the combined spectral regions of 1540-1680 and 1720-1780 cm(-1) resulted into two clear clusters corresponding to malignant and normal+benign tissues. The cluster corresponding to normal+benign tissues produced nonoverlapping subclusters for normal and benign tissues at a lower heterogeneity level. The findings of this study demonstrate the feasibility of Raman and FTIR microspectroscopic discrimination of formalin-fixed normal, benign, and malignant ovarian tissues.

  16. Expression of IL-18, IL-18 Binding Protein, and IL-18 Receptor by Normal and Cancerous Human Ovarian Tissues: Possible Implication of IL-18 in the Pathogenesis of Ovarian Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liat Medina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Proinflammatory cytokine IL-18 has been shown to be elevated in the sera of ovarian carcinoma patients. The aim of the study was to examine the levels and cellular origin of IL-18, IL-18 binding protein, and IL-18 receptor in normal and cancerous ovarian tissues. Ovarian tissue samples were examined by immunohistochemical staining for IL-18, IL-18BP, and IL-18R and mRNA of these cytokines was analyzed with semiquantitative PT-PCR. IL-18 levels were significantly higher in cancerous ovarian tissues (P=0.0007, IL-18BP levels were significantly higher in normal ovarian tissues (P=0.04, and the ratio of IL-18/IL-18BP was significantly higher in cancerous ovarian tissues (P=0.036. Cancerous ovarian tissues expressed significantly higher IL-18 mRNA levels (P=0.025, while there was no difference in the expression of IL-18BP mRNA and IL-18R mRNA between cancerous and normal ovarian tissues. IL-18 and IL-18BP were expressed dominantly in the epithelial cells of both cancerous and normal ovarian tissues, while IL-18R was expressed dominantly in the epithelial cells of cancerous ovarian tissues but expressed similarly in the epithelial and stromal cells of normal cancerous tissues. This study indicates a possible role of IL-18, IL-18BP, and IL-18R in the pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian carcinoma.

  17. Ovarian adrenal rest tissue in congenital adrenal hyperplasia--a patient report.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claahsen-van der Grinten, H.L.; Hulsbergen- van de Kaa, C.A.; Otten, B.J.

    2006-01-01

    We report a young girl who died in an Addisonian crisis due to previously undiagnosed congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), in whom ovarian adrenal rest tissue was detected at postmortem histopathological examination. This is a very rare complication in female patients with CAH with only two

  18. Ovarian tissue cryopreserved for fertility preservation from patients with Ewing or other sarcomas appear to have no tumour cell contamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Tine; Wielenga, Vera Timmermans; Grauslund, Morten

    2013-01-01

    The chemotherapy required to treat patients with sarcoma may as a side-effect induce infertility in girls and young women. If these patients have ovarian cortical tissue cryopreserved prior to chemotherapy, they may, if necessary, have the tissue transplanted and restore their fertility. The aim ...... of this study was to evaluate the risk of residual cancer cells in the ovarian cortex intended for transplantation.......The chemotherapy required to treat patients with sarcoma may as a side-effect induce infertility in girls and young women. If these patients have ovarian cortical tissue cryopreserved prior to chemotherapy, they may, if necessary, have the tissue transplanted and restore their fertility. The aim...

  19. Vitrified waste option study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, D.A.; Kimmitt, R.R.

    1998-02-01

    A {open_quotes}Settlement Agreement{close_quotes} between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates that all radioactive high-level waste (HLW) now stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) will be treated so that it is ready to be moved out of Idaho for disposal by a target date of 2035. This report investigates vitrification treatment of all ICPP calcine, including the existing and future HLW calcine resulting from calcining liquid Sodium-Bearing Waste (SBW). Currently, the SBW is stored in the tank farm at the ICPP. Vitrification of these wastes is an acceptable treatment method for complying with the Settlement Agreement. This method involves vitrifying the calcined waste and casting the vitrified mass into stainless steel canisters that will be ready to be moved out of the Idaho for disposal by 2035. These canisters will be stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) until they are sent to a HLW national repository. The operating period for vitrification treatment will be from 2013 through 2032; all HLW will be treated and in storage by the end of 2032.

  20. Follicular growth and estradiol follow-up after subcutaneous xenografting of fresh and cryopreserved human ovarian tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Benoit; Canis, Michel; Darcha, Claude; Artonne, Christine; Smitz, Johan; Grizard, Genevieve

    2008-06-01

    To assess ovarian cortex surrounding benign ovarian cysts after cryopreservation and grafting to severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. Animal study. Academic research laboratories. Ovarian tissue obtained from 15 patients. Grafting of fresh and frozen/thawed ovarian tissue into the subcutaneous space of 22 SCID mice for 80 days. Histologic analysis before and after grafting. Serum E(2) measured before (after 37 days of grafting) and after FSH/LH supplementation (end of the study). After grafting, follicular density had decreased for frozen/thawed tissue in all cases. The follicular distribution was modified in fresh tissue: Primordial follicles proportion was reduced (79% vs. 17%), whereas the primary and secondary ones were increased (21% vs. 57% and 0% vs. 23%, respectively). The same tendency was observed in frozen/thawed tissue. Significant E(2) secretion was obtained before and after FSH/LH supplementation in castrated mice, grafted with either fresh or frozen/thawed tissue. Fresh and cryopreserved ovarian cortex surrounding benign ovarian cysts grafted into the subcutaneous space of SCID mice is able to sustain ovarian tissue function, although follicular growth appears lower with frozen/thawed tissue.

  1. Tetranectin positive expression in tumour tissue leads to longer survival in Danish women with ovarian cancer. Results from the 'Malova' ovarian cancer study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heeran, Mel C; Rask, Lene; Høgdall, Claus K

    2015-01-01

    of the disease. Using tissue arrays we analysed the expression levels in tissues from 166 women with borderline ovarian tumours (BOTs) and 592 women with ovarian cancer (OC). A panel of three antibodies was used for immunohistochemistry: a polyclonal and two monoclonal antibodies. Serum TN was measured using......The primary objective of this study was to analyse Tetranectin (TN) expression in tumour tissues and TN serum concentration in 758 women with epithelial ovarian tumours. The second was to evaluate, whether TN tissue expression levels correlate with clinico-pathological parameters and prognosis...... the polyclonal antibody A-371. Univariate survival analyses stratified for chemotherapy showed that positive tissue TN as demonstrated by the polyclonal antibody indicated a significantly longer overall survival (OS) (p = 0.0001) as well as cancer specific survival (CSS) (p

  2. Two successful pregnancies following autotransplantation of frozen/thawed ovarian tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Yding; Rosendahl, M.; Byskov, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cryopreservation of the ovarian cortex with subsequent autotransplantation has, on an experimental basis, been performed to preserve fertility in women being treated for a malignant disease. The present study reports ovarian activity and pregnancies following autotransplantation...... was performed replacing 20-60% of the tissue. Two patients received additional heterotopic transplants. RESULTS: In all cases, the tissue restored menstrual cyclicity 14-20 weeks following transplantation. Four of the six women conceived following assisted reproduction: two women (who had the tissue transported...... 4-5 h prior to cryopreservation) each, based on the orthotopic transplanted tissue, delivered one healthy child (February 2007 and January 2008); one woman miscarriaged in gestational Week 7; and the other had a positive hCG test but no clinical pregnancy. The remaining two women did not become...

  3. Goat and sheep ovarian tissue cryopreservation: Effects on the morphology and development of primordial follicles and density of stromal cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faustino, L R; Santos, R R; Silva, C M G; Pinto, L C; Celestino, J J H; Campello, C C; Figueiredo, J R; Rodrigues, A P R

    2010-10-01

    The effect of exposure to cryoprotectant and cryopreservation of goat and sheep ovarian cortical fragments on the morphology of primordial follicles, stromal cell density and follicular development was performed. Goat and sheep ovarian fragments were exposed to 1.0 or 1.5M ethylene glycol (EG) for 5, 10 or 20min, followed or not by conventional cryopreservation. Follicular morphology and stromal cell density were evaluated by means of classical histological analysis. In addition, ovarian fragments were cultured for 1 or 7 days after cryopreservation to evaluate follicular development. Both exposure to cryoprotectant and cryopreservation of goat and sheep ovarian tissue did affect the morphology of primordial follicles and stromal cell density, except when goat ovarian tissue was exposed to EG for 5min. Although exposure time did not influence follicular morphology in both species, increase in the exposure time from 5 to 20min did reduce goat stromal cell density. Increase in EG concentration from 1.0 to 1.5M did result in the decrease of the percentage of goat morphologically normal primordial follicles evaluated after exposure only. In vitro culture of frozen-thawed goat and sheep ovarian tissue showed that exposure to 1.0M, for 10min, before freezing of goat and sheep ovarian tissue does not impair follicular developmental capacity. In addition, stromal cell density may play a role in follicular survival and development after cryopreservation of ovarian tissue. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Relationship between promoter methylation & tissue expression of MGMT gene in ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Shilpa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Epigenetic alterations, in addition to multiple gene abnormalities, are involved in the genesis and progression of human cancers. Aberrant methylation of CpG islands within promoter regions is associated with transcriptional inactivation of various tumour suppressor genes. O 6 -methyguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT is a DNA repair gene that removes mutagenic and cytotoxic adducts from the O 6 -position of guanine induced by alkylating agents. MGMT promoter hypermethylation and reduced expression has been found in some primary human carcinomas. We studied DNA methylation of CpG islands of the MGMT gene and its relation with MGMT protein expression in human epithelial ovarian carcinoma. Methods: A total of 88 epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC tissue samples, 14 low malignant potential (LMP tumours and 20 benign ovarian tissue samples were analysed for MGMT promoter methylation by nested methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP after bisulphite modification of DNA. A subset of 64 EOC samples, 10 LMP and benign tumours and five normal ovarian tissue samples were analysed for protein expression by immunohistochemistry. Results: The methylation frequencies of the MGMT gene promoter were found to be 29.5, 28.6 and 20 per cent for EOC samples, LMP tumours and benign cases, respectively. Positive protein expression was observed in 93.8 per cent of EOC and 100 per cent in LMP, benign tumours and normal ovarian tissue samples. Promoter hypermethylation with loss of protein expression was seen only in one case of EOC. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results suggest that MGMT promoter hypermethylation does not always reflect gene expression.

  5. Prognostic value of tissue protein expression levels of MIB-1 (Ki-67) in Danish ovarian cancer patients. From the 'MALOVA' ovarian cancer study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heeran, Mel C; Høgdall, Claus K; Kjaer, Susanne K

    2013-01-01

    of the disease. Using tissue arrays (TA), we analysed the MIB-1 (Ki-67) expression levels in tissues from 202 women with borderline ovarian tumours (BOT) (177 stage I, 5 stage II, 19 stage III, 1 stage IV) and 606 ovarian cancer (OC) patients (177 stage I, 64 stage II, 311 stage III, 54 stage IV). Using a 10......The primary objective of this study was to assess the expression of MIB-1 (Ki-67) in tumour tissues from 808 patients with epithelial ovarian tumours. The second was to evaluate, whether MIB-1 (Ki-67) tissue expression levels correlate with clinicopathological parameters and prognosis......% cut-off level for MIB-1 (Ki-67) overexpression, 12% of the BOTs and 51% of the OCs were positive for MIB-1 (Ki-67) expression. The frequency of MIB-1 (Ki-67) expression-positive OC increased with increasing FIGO stage (p = 0.003), increasing histological grade (p ≤ 0.0001), and a significantly...

  6. Outcomes of transplantations of cryopreserved ovarian tissue to 41 women in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, A K; Kristensen, S G; Macklon, K T

    2015-01-01

    with a pregnancy-wish. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is now gaining ground as a valid method for fertility preservation. More than 36 children worldwide have now been born following this procedure. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This is a retrospective cohort study of 41 women who had...... by monitoring relapse in cancer survivors. MAIN RESULTS, AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Among 32 women with a pregnancy-wish, 10 (31%) had a child/children (14 children in total); this included 1 woman with a third trimester on-going pregnancy. In addition, two legal abortions and one second trimester miscarriage...... when the tissue became non-functional. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is likely to become integrated into the treatment of young women, with cancer, who run a risk of losing their fertility. The full functional lifespan of grafts is still being evaluated, because...

  7. Ovarian teratoma displaying a wide variety of tissue components in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, there were multiple indistinguishable tissue elements, which showed no malignant cytological features but were unidentifiable as to corresponding embryological layer of origin. These heterogeneous teratoma tissues consisted of a variety of glandular, cystic, duct-like, and tubular structures, some of which ...

  8. Cryopreservation and autotransplantation of human ovarian tissue prior to cytotoxic therapy--a technique in its infancy but already successful in fertility preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Wolff, Michael; Donnez, Jacques; Hovatta, Outi

    2009-01-01

    available for fertility preservation in these patients. A new promising method is cryopreservation and transplantation of ovarian cortex. Ovarian tissue can be extracted by laparoscopy without any significant delay of gonadotoxic therapy. The tissue can be cryopreserved by specialised centres...... of reproductive medicine and transplanted in case the women experience premature ovarian failure (POF). This review summarises the European expertise on cryopreservation and transplantation of ovarian tissue, following around 30 reported transplantations globally, resulting in six live births and several ongoing...... pregnancies. It emphasises that fertility preservation by the cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is a new but already a successful clinical option, which can be considered for selected cancer patients....

  9. Reduced and delayed expression of GDF9 and BMP15 in ovarian tissues from women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li-Na; Huang, Rui; Li, Li-Lin; Fang, Cong; Li, Yi; Liang, Xiao-Yan

    2014-11-01

    Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) play crucial roles in follicular development and oocyte maturation. This study aimed to investigate and compare the expression of these proteins in ovarian tissues of women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Ovarian tissues from 28 patients with PCOS and 26 normal ovulatory women were collected, and the expression of GDF9 and BMP15 in oocytes and granulosa cells was evaluated via immunohistochemical staining. GDF9 and BMP15 were first expressed in primordial follicles at very low levels, and their expression increased gradually with follicular development, reaching the highest levels in Graafian follicles. However, less GDF9 and BMP15 expression was observed in primordial, primary, and secondary follicles in ovarian tissues of PCOS patients compared with levels in the control tissues (P  0.05). The expression of GDF9 and BMP15 in ovarian tissues varies among the developmental stages in both oocytes and granulosa cells in human ovarian tissues. The expression of these proteins is reduced and delayed in the early follicular stage in PCOS ovarian tissues, and these differences in expression may be associated with aberrant follicular development in patients with PCOS.

  10. RNA quality and gene expression analysis of ovarian tumor tissue undergoing repeated thaw-freezing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochumsen, Kirsten Marie; Tan, Qihua; Dahlgaard, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    unsupervised, and supervised multivariate statistical methods, reliability analysis, as well as verification using published gene lists in ovarian cancer studies. RNA quality and quantity did not change during the division procedure and microarray data showed insignificant difference in gene expression. Tumor......Gene expression profiles evaluated by microarray-based quantization of RNA are used in studies of differential diagnosis and prognosis in cancer. RNA of good quality is mandatory for this evaluation. The RNA most often comes from tumor banks with limited amount of tissue, and the tissue often...... undergoes repeated thawing and freezing. We evaluated the influence of repeated division of tumor samples at room temperature, on RNA quality and quantity, in addition to the gene expression profile. Sixteen ovarian tumor samples were divided in three aliquots each, undergoing respectively one, two...

  11. Follicle Development of Xenotransplanted Sheep Ovarian Tissue into Male and Female Immunodeficient Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Sadat Tahaei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to assess follicle survival after xenotransplantation of sheep ovarian tissue into male and female immunodeficient rats. We evaluated the effects of gonadotropin treatment on follicular development in the transplanted tissue. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, sheep ovarian cortical strips were transplanted into the neck back muscles of 8 male and 8 female immunodeficient, castrated rats. Fourteen days after surgery, each rat was treated with human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG for 9 weeks. One day after the last injection, ovarian tissues were removed and fixed for histology assessment. Histology analyses were performed before and after grafting. Estradiol (E2 levels were measured before and after gonadectomy, and at the end of the experiment. The control group consisted of 7 male and 7 female noncastrated/ non-grafted rats and the sham group comprised 7 male and 7 female castrated/ non-grafted rats for comparison of serum E2 concentrations. Results: The percentage of primordial follicles decreased after transplantation in male (25.97% and female (24.14% rats compared to the control group (ovarian tissue nongrafted; 37.51%. Preantral follicles increased in the male (19.5% and female (19.49% transplanted rats compared to the control group (11.4%. Differences in antral follicles between male (0.06 ± 0.0% and female (0.06 ± 0.0% rats were not noticeable compared to control (1.25 ± 0.0% rats. We observed a significantly higher percent of mean E2 secretion in grafted males compared to grafted females (P˂0.05. Conclusion: Despite significant differences in E2 secretion between xenografted male and female rats, we observed no statistical differences in terms of follicular development.

  12. Comparison of the effects of letrozole and cabergoline on vascular permeability, ovarian diameter, ovarian tissue VEGF levels, and blood PEDF levels, in a rat model of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Nur; Apaydın, Nesin; Töz, Emrah; Sivrikoz, Oya Nermin; Genç, Mine; Turan, Gülüzar Arzu; Cengiz, Hakan; Eskicioğlu, Fatma

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the effects of letrozole and cabergoline in a rat model of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). In this prospective, controlled experimental study, the 28 female Wistar rats were divided into four subgroups (one non-stimulated control and three OHSS-positive groups: placebo, letrozole, and cabergoline). To induce OHSS, rats were injected with 10 IU of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin from day 29 to day 32 of life, followed by subcutaneous injection of 30 IU hCG on day 33. Letrozole rats received with a single dose of 0.1 mg/kg letrozole via oral gavage, on the hCG day. Cabergoline rats received with a single dose of 100 µg/kg cabergoline via oral gavage, on the hCG day. All animals were compared in terms of body weight, vascular permeability (VP), ovarian diameter, ovarian tissue VEGF expression (assessed via immunohistochemical staining), and blood pigment epithelium-derived growth factor (PEDF) levels. The OHSS-positive placebo group (group 2) exhibited the highest VP, ovarian diameter, extent of VEGF staining, and lowest PEDF level, as expected. No significant difference was evident between the letrozole and cabergoline groups in terms of any of body weight; VP; PEDF level; ovarian diameter; or the staining intensity of, or percentage staining for, VEGF in ovarian tissues. Letrozole and cabergoline were equally effective to prevent OHSS, reducing the ovarian diameter, VP, and PEDF and VEGF levels to similar extents.

  13. Elevation of sulfatides in ovarian cancer: An integrated transcriptomic and lipidomic analysis including tissue-imaging mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDonald John F

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sulfatides (ST are a category of sulfated galactosylceramides (GalCer that are elevated in many types of cancer including, possibly, ovarian cancer. Previous evidence for elevation of ST in ovarian cancer was based on a colorimetric reagent that does not provide structural details and can also react with other lipids. Therefore, this study utilized mass spectrometry for a structure-specific and quantitative analysis of the types, amounts, and tissue localization of ST in ovarian cancer, and combined these findings with analysis of mRNAs for the relevant enzymes of ST metabolism to explore possible mechanisms. Results Analysis of 12 ovarian tissues graded as histologically normal or having epithelial ovarian tumors by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC ESI-MS/MS established that most tumor-bearing tissues have higher amounts of ST. Because ovarian cancer tissues are comprised of many different cell types, histological tissue slices were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-tissue-imaging MS (MALDI-TIMS. The regions where ST were detected by MALDI-TIMS overlapped with the ovarian epithelial carcinoma as identified by H & E staining and histological scoring. Furthermore, the structures for the most prevalent species observed via MALDI-TIMS (d18:1/C16:0-, d18:1/C24:1- and d18:1/C24:0-ST were confirmed by MALDI-TIMS/MS, whereas, a neighboring ion(m/z 885.6 that was not tumor specific was identified as a phosphatidylinositol. Microarray analysis of mRNAs collected using laser capture microdissection revealed that expression of GalCer synthase and Gal3ST1 (3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate:GalCer sulfotransferase were approximately 11- and 3.5-fold higher, respectively, in the ovarian epithelial carcinoma cells versus normal ovarian stromal tissue, and they were 5- and 2.3-fold higher in comparison with normal surface ovarian epithelial cells, which is a likely

  14. 86 successful births and 9 ongoing pregnancie s worldwide in women transplanted with frozen-thawed ovarian tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Klüver; Macklon, Kirsten Tryde; Fedder, Jens

    2017-01-01

    : PubMed was searched for papers of deliveries resulting from ovarian tissue cryopreservation (OTC). Seven women underwent OTC prior to chemotherapy. Four of these women still had low ovarian function and had tried to conceive. They therefore had tissue autotransplanted to augment their fertility....... The other three women had developed premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) after the end of treatment. RESULTS: Worldwide, approximately 95 children have been born or will be born in the near future from OTC, including these 9 new children. Information on the perinatal outcome was found on 40 children...... Danish women became pregnant within 1-3 years after transplantation. They gave birth to nine healthy children. CONCLUSION: The data is reassuring and further suggests that cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is becoming an established fertility preservation method. The seven Danish women reported...

  15. Evaluation of the suitability of ex vivo handled ovarian tissues for optical diagnosis by Raman microspectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, C Murali; Sockalingum, G D; Venteo, L; Bhat, Rani A; Kushtagi, Pralhad; Pluot, M; Manfait, M

    2005-12-05

    A pilot Raman microspectroscopy study of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, and deparaffinized sections from the same ovarian normal and malignant tissues was carried out. This approach was considered in order to evaluate the suitability of these ex vivo tissue handling procedures in discrimination as well as biochemical characterization. The spectra of formalin-fixed normal and malignant tissues exhibited no contamination due to formalin, which is indicated by the absence of strong formalin peaks; spectral features also show significant differences for normal and malignant tissues. The differences between spectral profiles of deparaffinized normal and malignant tissues are subtle and spectra show few residual sharp peaks of paraffin. Complete dominance of paraffin swamping signals from tissues was observed in the spectra of paraffin-embedded tissues. Principal components analysis (PCA), which was employed for discrimination of tissue type, provided good discrimination for formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue spectra. PCA of deparaffinized tissues resulted in a poor classification with significant overlap among the clusters. Thus, this study indicates that formalin fixation is the most suitable among the three procedures employed in the study. Significant differences between spectral profiles of normal and malignant formalin-fixed tissues can not only be exploited for discrimination but can also provide information on biochemical characteristics of the tissues. Deparaffinized tissues provide poor discrimination and information on tissue biochemistry is lost. Paraffin-embedded tissues may provide good discrimination, but predominance of paraffin in the spectra could jeopardize biochemical characterization. Prospectively, as a result of the better availability of paraffin-embedded tissues and problems associated with frozen sectioning of formalin-fixed tissues, the results of this study using paraffin-embedded tissues are very encouraging.

  16. Patterns of Somatically Acquired Amplifications and Deletions in Apparently Normal Tissues of Ovarian Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Aghili

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Little is understood about the occurrence of somatic genomic alterations in normal tissues and their significance in the context of disease. Here, we identified potential somatic copy number alterations (pSCNAs in apparently normal ovarian tissue and peripheral blood of 423 ovarian cancer patients. There were, on average, two to four pSCNAs per sample detectable at a tissue-level resolution, although some individuals had orders of magnitude more. Accordingly, we estimated the lower bound of the rate of pSCNAs per cell division. Older individuals and BRCA mutation carriers had more pSCNAs than others. pSCNAs significantly overlapped with Alu and G-quadruplexes, and the affected genes were enriched for signaling and regulation. Some of the amplification/deletion hotspots in pan-cancer genomes were hot spots of pSCNAs in normal tissues as well, suggesting that those regions might be inherently unstable. Prevalence of pSCNA in peripheral blood predicted survival, implying that mutations in normal tissues might have consequences for cancer patients.

  17. Expression of Tissue Factor in Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma Is Involved in the Development of Venous Thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Manabu; Matsumoto, Koji; Gosho, Masahiko; Sakata, Akiko; Hosokawa, Yoshihiko; Tenjimbayashi, Yuri; Katoh, Takashi; Shikama, Ayumi; Komiya, Haruna; Michikami, Hiroo; Tasaka, Nobutaka; Akiyama-Abe, Azusa; Nakao, Sari; Ochi, Hiroyuki; Onuki, Mamiko; Minaguchi, Takeo; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki; Satoh, Toyomi

    2017-01-01

    Our 2007 study of 32 patients with ovarian cancer reported the possible involvement of tissue factor (TF) in the development of venous thromboembolism (VTE) before treatment, especially in clear cell carcinoma (CCC). This follow-up study further investigated this possibility in a larger cohort. We investigated the intensity of TF expression (ITFE) and other variables for associations with VTE using univariate and multivariate analyses in 128 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer initially treated between November 2004 and December 2010, none of whom had received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Before starting treatment, all patients were ultrasonographically screened for VTE. The ITFE was graded based on immunostaining of surgical specimens. Histological types were serous carcinoma (n = 42), CCC (n = 12), endometrioid carcinoma (n = 15), mucinous carcinoma (n = 53), and undifferentiated carcinoma (n = 6). The prevalence of VTE was significantly higher in CCC (34%) than in non-CCC (17%, P = 0.03). As ITFE increased, the frequencies of CCC and VTE increased significantly (P epithelial ovarian cancer may involve TF expression in cancer tissues.

  18. Evaluation of venous thrombosis and tissue factor in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joshua G; Prendergast, Emily; Geddings, Julia E; Walts, Ann E; Agadjanian, Hasmik; Hisada, Yohei; Karlan, Beth Y; Mackman, Nigel; Walsh, Christine S

    2017-07-01

    Ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) and high grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) are associated with the highest risk of VTE among patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Tissue factor (TF) is a transmembrane glycoprotein which can trigger thrombosis. We sought to evaluate if there is an association between VTE and tumor expression of tissue factor (TF), plasma TF, and microvesicle TF (MV TF) activity in this high-risk population. We performed a case-control study of OCCC and HGSOC patients with and without VTE. 105 patients who underwent surgery at a tertiary care center between January 1995 and October 2013 were included. Plasma TF was measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A TF-dependent Factor Xa generation assay was used to measure MV TF activity. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis was performed to evaluate tumor expression of TF. 35 women with OCCC or HGSOC diagnosed with VTE within 9months of surgery were included in the case group. Those with VTE had a worse OS, pIHC expression will be useful in risk stratification for VTE in this population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A preliminary study on a new model system to evaluate tumour-detection and tumour-purging protocols in ovarian cortex tissue intended for fertility preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek, R; Bastings, L; Westphal, J R; Massuger, L F A G; Braat, D D M; Beerendonk, C C M

    2015-04-01

    Is it possible to create a model system that mimics ovarian metastatic disease in order to devise new strategies to detect cancer cells and prevent cancer cell transmission via ovarian tissue autotransplantation in cancer survivors? Injection of bovine or human ovarian cortex fragments with cells from different cancer types led to the formation of proliferating tumour masses and newly formed small metastatic lesions. Autotransplantation of ovarian tissue comes with the major concern of cancer cells possibly being present in the tissue. A model system to develop strategies aimed at enhancing the safety of ovarian tissue autotransplantation is currently lacking. The ability of injected human leukaemia, lymphoma, Ewing's sarcoma or breast cancer cells to proliferate and form tumour-like structures in bovine and human ovarian cortex tissue in vitro was assessed. The injected cells were from human cancer cell lines. After 4 days of culture, some tissue fragments were harvested for standard histological staining and immunohistochemical staining of tumour cell specific antigens and the Ki67 proliferation marker, while the remaining fragments were incubated for an additional 6 days (bovine tissue) or 3 days (human tissue) before analysis. Experiments were performed with ovarian tissue from women after prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy. Bovine ovarian tissue was obtained at an abattoir. Glucose uptake during in vitro culture was monitored to quantify the viability of tissue. Tumour formation was assessed at Day 4 and Day 10 in bovine ovarian tissue and at Day 4 and Day 7 in human ovarian tissue, using histology and immunohistochemistry. We found that bovine and human ovarian cortex tissue could be cultured for up to 10 and 7 days, respectively, without any loss of viability. Our preliminary results show that all cell lines tested were capable of forming proliferating tumours in ovarian cortex tissue in vitro. Lymphoma and breast cancer cells produced small metastases near

  20. Follicle activation is a significant and immediate cause of follicle loss after ovarian tissue transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavish, Zohar; Spector, Itay; Peer, Gil; Schlatt, Stefan; Wistuba, Joachim; Roness, Hadassa; Meirow, Dror

    2017-11-03

    Extensive follicle loss has been demonstrated in ovarian grafts post transplantation, reducing their productivity and lifespan. Several mechanisms for this loss have been proposed, and this study aims to clarify when and how the massive follicle loss associated with transplantation of ovarian tissue graft occurs. An understanding of the mechanisms of follicle loss will pinpoint potential new targets for optimization and improvement of this important fertility preservation technique. Frozen-thawed marmoset (n = 15), bovine (n = 37), and human (n = 46) ovarian cortical tissue strips were transplanted subcutaneously into immunodeficient castrated male mice for 3 or 7 days. Histological (H&E, Masson's trichrome) analysis and immunostaining (Ki-67, GDF9, cleaved caspase-3) were conducted to assess transplantation-associated follicle dynamics, with untransplanted frozen-thawed tissue serving as a negative control. Evidence of extensive primordial follicle (PMF) activation and loss was observed already 3 days post transplantation in marmoset, bovine, and human tissue grafts, compared to frozen-thawed untransplanted controls (p < 0.001). No significant additional PMF loss was observed 7 days post transplantation. Recovered grafts of all species showed markedly higher rates of proliferative activity and progression from dormant to growing follicles (Ki-67 and GDF9 staining) as well as higher growing/primordial (GF/PMF) ratio (p < 0.02) and higher collagen levels compared with untransplanted controls. This multi-species study demonstrates that follicle activation plays an important role in transplantation-induced follicle loss, and that it occurs within a very short time frame after grafting. These results underline the need to prevent this activation at the time of transplantation in order to retain the maximal possible follicle reserve and extend graft lifespan.

  1. Study on the expression of MMP-9 and NF-κB proteins in epithelial ovarian cancer tissue and their clinical value

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Shen; Juan Chen; Xiurong Li; Jie Yin

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and nuclear factor κappa-B (NF-κB) in different ovarian tissue and explore the relationship between their expression and clinicopathological features of epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods: The expression of NF-κB and MMP-9 in 15 cases of normal ovarian tissue and 80 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer were detected by mmunohistochemistry PV method. Results: Expression of MMP-9 and NF-κB in epithelial ovarian cancer ...

  2. Comparison between Slow Freezing and Vitrification in Terms of Ovarian Tissue Viability in a Bovine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Ana Luisa Menezes; Guedes, Janaína de Souza; Rodrigues, Jhenifer Kliemchen; Pace, Walter Antônio Prata; Fontoura, Renato Rinco; Caetano, João Pedro Junqueira; Marinho, Ricardo Mello

    2016-07-01

    Objective To assess the viability of bovine ovarian tissue after cryopreservation through either slow freezing or vitrification, and to compare it to that of control tissue by performing morphological analyses. Methods The study included 20 bovine ovarian cortex fragments that were divided into control, vitrification, and slow freezing groups. Each group consisted of four fragments of the same ovary, two fixed without cultivation, and two fixed with cultivation. Tissues were evaluated based on follicular morphology immediately after heating and after 7 days of culture, and compared with the control group. Results A total of 240 fragments were analyzed, generating a sample of 1,344 follicles without cultivation and 552 with cultivation. When the non-cultivated samples were classified as non-atretic follicles, 572 were found in the control group, 289 in the vitrification group, and 373 in the slow freezing group, showing no significant differences. When classified as atretic, 46 follicles were found in the control group, 23 in the vitrification group, and 41 in the slow freezing group, also showing no statistical difference. In the post-culture sample, an evolution of the follicular stages could be observed. This finding was important to support that the follicles considered non-atretic in the non-cultivated group were actually viable in the morphological evaluation. Conclusion With no differences between the protocols, vitrification was shown to be an advanced and alternative method for patients who will undergo treatments that carry the risk of ovarian failure, as the method is less expensive, faster, and more adaptable to laboratory routine. Thieme Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  3. Vitamin E-analog Trolox prevents endoplasmic reticulum stress in frozen-thawed ovarian tissue of capuchin monkey (Sapajus apella)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brito, D. C.; Brito, A. B.; Scalercio, S. R R A; Percário, S.; Miranda, M. S.; Rocha, R. M.; Diniz, J. A P; Oskam, I. C.; Van Den Hurk, R.; Paris, M. C J; Domingues, S. F S; Santos, R. R.

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian fragments were exposed to 0.5 M sucrose and 1 M ethylene glycol (freezing solution; FS) with or without selenium or Trolox. Histological and ultrastructural analyses showed that the percentages of normal follicles in control tissue and in tissue after exposure to FS + 50 μM Trolox were

  4. YKL-40 tissue expression and plasma levels in patients with ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjaer Susanne K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background YKL-40 (chitinase-3-like-1 is a member of "mammalian chitinase-like proteins". The protein is expressed in many types of cancer cells and the highest plasma YKL-40 levels have been found in patients with metastatic disease, short recurrence/progression-free intervals, and short overall survival. The aim of the study was to determine the expression of YKL-40 in tumor tissue and plasma in patients with borderline ovarian tumor or epithelial ovarian cancer (OC, and investigate prognostic value of this marker. Methods YKL-40 protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry in tissue arrays from 181 borderline tumors and 473 OC. Plasma YKL-40 was determined by ELISA in preoperative samples from 19 patients with borderline tumor and 76 OC patients. Results YKL-40 protein expression was found in cancer cells, tumor associated macrophages, neutrophils and mast cells. The tumor cell expression was higher in OC than in borderline tumors (p = 0.001, and associated with FIGO stage (p Conclusion YKL-40 in OC tissue and plasma are related to stage and histology, but only plasma YKL-40 is a prognostic biomarker in patients with OC.

  5. Culture of domestic cat ovarian tissue in vitro and in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, J M V; Leonel, E C R; D'Oliveira, L; Paiva, R E G; Miranda-Vilela, A L; Amorim, C A; Pic-Taylor, A; Lucci, C M

    2016-10-15

    In vitro culture and transplantation procedures are essential protocols employed in the evaluation of ovarian follicle survival and development. Culture in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of chick embryos is an intermediate method that provides important follicle development information and has not been tested for cat ovaries to date. The aim of this study was to investigate if in vitro and CAM culture could be used as short-term systems to study cat ovarian tissue development. The ovaries of eight cats were dissected into 3-mm(3) cubes, cultured in vitro and in CAM for up to 5 days, and stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Gomori trichrome. Cell proliferation was analyzed using anti-Ki67. Possible differences among groups were investigated by analysis of variance or the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Bonferroni correction. The T-test or Wilcoxon test was used to verify differences between the CAM and IVC. Results revealed that 87.5% of all follicles were primordial during culture. The percentage of primordial follicles in the morphologically normal follicles (MNF) pool was always higher than 80%, with the exception of Day 3 of CAM culture, but the number of MNF reduced significantly from Day 0 (600 out of 777 follicles) to Day 5 in the CAM (91 out of 171) and IVC (296 out of 686). The number of primordial follicles in 1 mm(3) in Days 2, 3, and 5 in the CAM was significantly lower than that in the control (Day 0). No cellular proliferation was observed in culture. Vascularization occurred in the CAM culture, but with no association to follicular viability. In addition, both methods showed an increase in connective tissue during culture. Although no significant differences were observed in the percentage of MNF, there was a reduction in the total number of follicles, both for IVC and CAM-cultured ovarian tissue. Furthermore, anti-Ki67 did not stain any follicle after Day 0 in IVC or in CAM culture. Neither system was capable of promoting follicle growth and

  6. Live birth in a woman without ovaries after autograft of frozen-thawed ovarian tissue combined with growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callejo, Justo; Salvador, Cristina; González-Nuñez, Santiago; Almeida, Laura; Rodriguez, Luciano; Marqués, Laura; Valls, Ana; Lailla, José Maria

    2013-05-07

    Currently, cryopreservation of oocytes, embryos and ovarian tissue is considered the basis of fertility preservation programs for women with cancer and other diseases who are rendered sterile by gonadotoxic drugs or radiation.Numerous studies have confirmed that autograft of frozen-thawed ovarian tissue can restore ovarian function and fertility. A total of twenty-two live births have been reported but we still have to consider this technique as experimental. The main problem is that the implant undergoes ischemia until neoangiogenesis is restored, resulting in significant follicular loss.At the moment, there are numerous publications in different medical fields that publish successful experiences with plasma rich in platelets (PRP) in different clinical situations promoting angiogenesis. Thus, we considered the possibility of using it in the field of ovarian autologous transplantation in order to improve the vascularization of the implant and its quality. For this, both thawed ovarian tissue as practiced pockets on the rear side of the broad ligament which have been placed, have been impregnated with PRP. We can say that the implant treated in this way has had a rapid and successful response.We report a special interesting case because this is the first time that this technique is performed successfully in a woman without ovaries combined with growth factors to promote neoangiogenesis. Obviously, the results of the hormonal response come exclusively from the implanted tissue in these special conditions.

  7. Fertility preservation and refreezing of transplanted ovarian tissue-a potential new way of managing patients with low risk of malignant cell recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Stine Gry; Giorgione, Veronica; Humaidan, Peter

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To report the first successful refreezing of ovarian tissue recovered more than 3 years after transplantation in a woman previously treated for early-stage ovarian cancer. DESIGN: Evaluation of cryopreserved and grafted ovarian tissue. SETTING: University hospital. PATIENT(S): A 23-year-old...... of functional follicles than previously estimated can actually support ovarian function. Removing and refreezing grafted tissue could be a new way of handling not only cancer patients with a risk of malignant cell recurrence, but also certain groups of patients with genetic conditions....

  8. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction to detect glass or ice formation in the vitrified bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes and morulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzar, Muhammad; Grochulski, Pawel; Bonnet, Brennan

    2014-01-01

    Vitrification of bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) is not as successful as bovine embryos, due to oocyte's complex structure and chilling sensitivity. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction (SXRD), a powerful method to study crystal structure and phase changes, was used to detect the glass or ice formation in water, tissue culture medium (TCM)-199, vitrification solution 2 (VS2), and vitrified bovine COCs and morulae. Data revealed Debye's rings and peaks associated with the hexagonal ice crystals at 3.897, 3.635, 3.427, 2.610, 2.241, 1.912 and 1.878 Å in both water and TCM-199, whereas VS2 showed amorphous (glassy) appearance, at 102K (-171°C). An additional peak of sodium phosphate monobasic hydrate (NaH2PO4.H2O) crystals was observed at 2.064 Å in TCM-199 only. All ice and NaH2PO4.H2O peaks were detected in the non-vitrified (control) and vitrified COCs, except two ice peaks (3.145 and 2.655 Å) were absent in the vitrified COCs. The intensities of majority of ice peaks did not differ between the non-vitrified and vitrified COCs. The non-vitrified bovine morulae in TCM-199 demonstrated all ice- and NaH2PO4.H2O-associated Debye's rings and peaks, found in TCM-199 alone. There was no Debye's ring present in the vitrified morulae. In conclusion, SXRD is a powerful method to confirm the vitrifiability of a solution and to detect the glass or ice formation in vitrified cells and tissues. The vitrified bovine COCs exhibited the hexagonal ice crystals instead of glass formation whereas the bovine morulae underwent a typical vitrification.

  9. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction to detect glass or ice formation in the vitrified bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes and morulae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Anzar

    Full Text Available Vitrification of bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs is not as successful as bovine embryos, due to oocyte's complex structure and chilling sensitivity. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction (SXRD, a powerful method to study crystal structure and phase changes, was used to detect the glass or ice formation in water, tissue culture medium (TCM-199, vitrification solution 2 (VS2, and vitrified bovine COCs and morulae. Data revealed Debye's rings and peaks associated with the hexagonal ice crystals at 3.897, 3.635, 3.427, 2.610, 2.241, 1.912 and 1.878 Å in both water and TCM-199, whereas VS2 showed amorphous (glassy appearance, at 102K (-171°C. An additional peak of sodium phosphate monobasic hydrate (NaH2PO4.H2O crystals was observed at 2.064 Å in TCM-199 only. All ice and NaH2PO4.H2O peaks were detected in the non-vitrified (control and vitrified COCs, except two ice peaks (3.145 and 2.655 Å were absent in the vitrified COCs. The intensities of majority of ice peaks did not differ between the non-vitrified and vitrified COCs. The non-vitrified bovine morulae in TCM-199 demonstrated all ice- and NaH2PO4.H2O-associated Debye's rings and peaks, found in TCM-199 alone. There was no Debye's ring present in the vitrified morulae. In conclusion, SXRD is a powerful method to confirm the vitrifiability of a solution and to detect the glass or ice formation in vitrified cells and tissues. The vitrified bovine COCs exhibited the hexagonal ice crystals instead of glass formation whereas the bovine morulae underwent a typical vitrification.

  10. Small putative NANOG, SOX2, and SSEA-4-positive stem cells resembling very small embryonic-like stem cells in sections of ovarian tissue in patients with ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virant-Klun, Irma; Kenda-Suster, Natasa; Smrkolj, Spela

    2016-03-03

    In previous studies it has been found that in cell cultures of human adult ovaries there is a population of small stem cells with diameters of 2-4 μm, which are present mainly in the ovarian surface epithelium and are comparable to very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) from bone marrow. These cells are not observed by histopathologists in the ovarian tissue due to their small size and unknown clinical significance. Because these cells express a degree of pluripotency, they might be involved in the manifestation of ovarian cancer. Therefore we studied the ovarian tissue sections in women with borderline ovarian cancer and serous ovarian carcinoma to perhaps identify the small putative stem cells in situ. In 27 women with borderline ovarian cancer and 20 women with high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma the ovarian tissue sections were stained, per standard practice, with eosin and hematoxylin staining and on NANOG, SSEA-4 and SOX2 markers, related to pluripotency, using immunohistochemistry. We focused on the presence and localization of small putative stem cells with diameters of up to 5 μm and with the nuclei spread over nearly the full cell volume. In ovarian sections of both borderline ovarian cancer and serous ovarian carcinoma patients we were able to identify the presence of small round cells complying with the above criteria. Some of these small cells were NANOG-positive, were located among epithelial cells in the ovarian surface epithelium and as a single cell or groups of cells/clusters in typical "chambers", were found only in the presence of ovarian cancer and not in healthy ovaries and are comparable to those in fetal ovaries. We envision that these small cells could be related to NANOG-positive tumor-like structures and oocyte-like cells in similar "chambers" found in sections of cancerous ovaries, which could support their stemness and pluripotency. Further immunohistochemistry revealed a similar population of SSEA-4 and SOX2-positive cells. We

  11. Vitamin E-analog Trolox prevents endoplasmic reticulum stress in frozen-thawed ovarian tissue of capuchin monkey (Sapajus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, D C; Brito, A B; Scalercio, S R R A; Percário, S; Miranda, M S; Rocha, R M; Diniz, J A P; Oskam, I C; Van den Hurk, R; Paris, M C J; Domingues, S F S; Santos, R R

    2014-02-01

    Ovarian fragments were exposed to 0.5 M sucrose and 1 M ethylene glycol (freezing solution; FS) with or without selenium or Trolox. Histological and ultrastructural analyses showed that the percentages of normal follicles in control tissue and in tissue after exposure to FS + 50 μM Trolox were similar. Trolox prevented endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-related vacuolization, which is commonly observed in oocytes and stromal tissue after exposure to FS. From the evaluated stress markers, superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) was up-regulated in ovarian tissue exposed to FS + 10 ng/ml selenium. Ovarian fragments were subsequently frozen-thawed in the presence of FS with or without 50 μM Trolox, followed by in vitro culture (IVC). Antioxidant capacity in ovarian fragments decreased after freeze-thawing in Trolox-free FS compared with FS + 50 μM Trolox. Although freezing itself minimized the percentage of viable follicles in each solution, Trolox supplementation resulted in higher rates of viable follicles (67 %), even after IVC (61 %). Furthermore, stress markers SOD1 and ERp29 were up-regulated in ovarian tissue frozen-thawed in Trolox-free medium. Relative mRNA expression of growth factors markers was evaluated after freeze-thawing followed by IVC. BMP4, BMP5, CTGF, GDF9 and KL were down-regulated independently of the presence of Trolox in FS but down-regulation was less pronounced in the presence of Trolox. Thus, medium supplementation with 50 μM Trolox prevents ER stress and, consequently, protects ovarian tissue from ER-derived cytoplasmic vacuolization. ERp29 but not ERp60, appears to be a key marker linking stress caused by freezing-thawing and cell vacuolization.

  12. Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue for fertility preservation: no evidence of malignant cell contamination in ovarian tissue from patients with breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mikkel; Timmermans Wielenga, Vera; Nedergaard, Lotte

    2011-01-01

    Cryopreserved ovarian cortical biopsies from 51 patients with breast cancer were examined by histologic and immunohistochemical analysis and showed no sign of metastases. Autotransplantation of ovarian cortex to patients with low-stage breast cancer disease appears safe, but confirmatory studies...

  13. Comparison of in vitro- and chorioallantoic membrane (CAM)-culture systems for cryopreserved medulla-contained human ovarian tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isachenko, Vladimir; Mallmann, Peter; Petrunkina, Anna M; Rahimi, Gohar; Nawroth, Frank; Hancke, Katharina; Felberbaum, Ricardo; Genze, Felicitas; Damjanoski, Ilija; Isachenko, Evgenia

    2012-01-01

    At present, there are three ways to determine effectively the quality of the cryopreservation procedure using ovarian tissue before the re-implantation treatment: evaluation of follicles after post-thawing xenotransplantation to SCID mouse, in-vitro culture in a large volume of culture medium under constant agitation and culture on embryonic chorio-allantoic membrane within a hen's eggs. The aim of this study was to compare the two methods, culture in vitro and culture on embryonic chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of cryopreserved human ovarian medulla-contained and medulla-free cortex. Ovarian fragments were divided into small pieces (1.5-2.0×1.0-1.2×0.8-1.5) of two types, cortex with medulla and medulla-free cortex, frozen, thawed and randomly divided into the following four groups. Group 1: medulla-free cortex cultured in vitro for 8 days in large volume of medium with mechanical agitation, Group 2: medulla-containing cortex cultured in vitro, Group 3: medulla-free cortex cultured in CAM-system for 5 days, Group 4: medulla-containing cortex cultured in CAM-system. The efficacy of the tissue culture was evaluated by the development of follicles and by intensiveness of angiogenesis in the tissue (von Willebrand factor and Desmin). For Group 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively 85%, 85%, 87% and 84% of the follicles were morphologically normal (P>0.1). The immunohistochemical analysis showed that angiogenesis detected by von Willebrand factor was lower in groups 1 and 3 (medulla-free cortex). Neo-vascularisation (by Desmin) was observed only in ovarian tissue of Group 4 (medulla-contained cortex after CAM-culture). It appears that the presence of medulla in ovarian pieces is beneficial for post-thaw development of cryopreserved human ovarian tissue. For medical practice it is recommended for evaluation of post-warming ovarian tissue to use the CAM-system as a valuable alternative to xenotransplantation and for cryopreservation of these tissues to prepare ovarian medulla

  14. Study on the expression of MMP-9 and NF-κB proteins in epithelial ovarian cancer tissue and their clinical value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 and nuclear factor κappa-B (NF-κB in different ovarian tissue and explore the relationship between their expression and clinicopathological features of epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods: The expression of NF-κB and MMP-9 in 15 cases of normal ovarian tissue and 80 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer were detected by mmunohistochemistry PV method. Results: Expression of MMP-9 and NF-κB in epithelial ovarian cancer was significantly higher than those in normal ovarian, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05. The expression of MMP-9 protein was not related to histology classification and differentiation degree, but it was significantly related with lymphatic metastasis and clinical stage (P < 0.05. The expression of NF-κB protein was significantly associated with histology classification, lymphatic metastasis, clinical stage, and differentiation degree (P < 0.05. In epithelial ovarian cancer tissue, the expression of MMP-9 and NF-κB proteins showed a significant positive correlation (P < 0.01. Conclusion: The expression MMP-9 and NF-κB proteins are closely related to pathological features of epithelial ovarian cancer and there are important significance to the development, invasion and metastasis of epithelial ovarian cancer. So they might become useful prognostic indicator for diagnosis and prognosis of epithelial ovarian cancer.

  15. Dermatan sulfate domains defined by the novel antibody GD3A12, in normal tissues and ovarian adenocarcinomas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, G.B. ten; Yamada, S.; Kobayashi, F.; Purushothaman, A.; Westerlo, E.M.A. van de; Bulten, J.; Malmstrom, A.; Sugahara, K.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van

    2009-01-01

    Dermatan sulfate (DS) expression in normal tissue and ovarian cancer was investigated using the novel, phage display-derived antibody GD3A12 that was selected against embryonic glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Antibody GD3A12 was especially reactive with DS rich in IdoA-GalNAc4S disaccharide units. IdoA

  16. Threat of fertility loss in cancer patients of reproductive age and the current feasibilities of ovarian tissue cryopreservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Parokonnaya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problem of preserving reproductive function in cancer patients is very urgent today because antitumor treatment comprising different combinations of radio- and chemotherapy and surgery lead to ovarian reserve depletion and premature menopause in repro- ductive-aged women. The authors propose to consider one of the fertility preservation techniques – ovarian tissue cryopreservation. A procedure for cryopreservation is described in detail; its efficiency is evaluated. In the authors’ opinion, this procedure is one of most promising in preserving the sexual material of cancer patients.

  17. Molecular characterization and hormonal regulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 in goat ovarian granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, J Y; Han, P; Xin, H Y; Ji, S Y; Gao, K X; An, X P; Cao, B Y

    2015-07-01

    Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1) belongs to a group of endogenous inhibitors that control the activity of matrix metalloproteinases and other metalloproteinases. TIMP1 is ubiquitously expressed and implicated in many physiological and pathologic processes. In this study, the full-length complementary DNA of goat (Capra hircus) Timp1 was cloned from adult goat ovary for the first time to better understand the regulatory role of TIMP1. The putative TIMP1 protein shared a high amino acid sequence identity with other species. Real-time polymerase chain reaction results showed that Timp1 was widely expressed in adult goat tissues, and messenger RNA expression was higher in the ovary than in other tissues; meanwhile, increasing expression of Timp1 was also discovered during the process of follicle growth and corpus luteum. We then investigated Timp1 expression patterns in different types of ovarian follicular cells from goats. In small or large antral follicles, Timp1 expression was higher (P 12-myristate 13-acetate, or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate + forskolin could also stimulate Timp1 messenger RNA expression. The effects of human chorionic gonadotropin were reduced (P 15 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Xenotransplantation of cryopreserved human ovarian tissue--a systematic review of MII oocyte maturation and discussion of it as a realistic option for restoring fertility after cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, Ralf; Lotz, Laura; Fehm, Tanja; Krüssel, Jan; von Wolff, Michael; Toth, Bettina; van der Ven, Hans; Schüring, Andreas N; Würfel, Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Inge; Beckmann, Matthias W

    2015-06-01

    To systematically review the reporting of MII (MII) oocyte development after xenotransplantation of human ovarian tissue. Systematic review in accordance with the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA). Not applicable. Not applicable. Formation of MII oocytes after xenotransplantation of human ovarian tissue. Any outcome reported in Pubmed. Six publications were identified that report on formation of MII oocytes after xenotransplantation of human ovarian tissue. Xenografting of human ovarian tissue has proved to be a useful model for examining ovarian function and follicle development in vivo. With human follicles that have matured through xenografting, the possibility of cancer transmission and relapse can also be eliminated, because cancer cells are not able to penetrate the zona pellucida. The reported studies have demonstrated that xenografted ovarian tissue from a range of species, including humans, can produce antral follicles that contain mature (MII) oocytes, and it has been shown that mice oocytes have the potential to give rise to live young. Although some ethical questions remain unresolved, xenotransplantation may be a promising method for restoring fertility. This review furthermore describes the value of xenotransplantation as a tool in reproductive biology and discusses the ethical and potential safety issues regarding ovarian tissue xenotransplantation as a means of recovering fertility. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Vascular endothelial growth factor polymorphisms and a synchronized examination of plasma and tissue expression in epithelial ovarian cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskari, J; Premalata, C S; Shilpa, V; Rahul, B; Pallavi, V R; Ramesh, G; Krishnamoorthy, Lakshmi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we have analyzed six genetic polymorphisms of the VEGF-A gene and correlated the genetic data with plasma and tissue expression of VEGF-A in epithelial ovarian carcinomas. A total of 130 cases including 95 malignant carcinomas, 17 low malignant potential and 18 benign tumours were studied. rs699947, rs833061, rs1570360, rs2010963, rs1413711 and rs3025039 were studied by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Plasma levels of VEGF-A were estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and tissue expression of VEGF-A by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Four polymorphisms of the above excluding rs699947 and rs3025039 showed significant association with malignancy, and we observed the presence of positive correlation between haplotype CCGGCC and increased expression of VEGF-A in both plasma and tissues which also correlated with poor prognosis and recurrence suggesting a probable increase in resistance to treatment in such carriers. Highly upregulated tissue expression of VEGF-A was seen in all epithelial ovarian carcinomas with intensity of expression increasing from benign to malignant cases. ELISA data from our study showed an increase in circulating levels of VEGF-A in malignancies. VEGF-A plasma levels can be employed as a biomarker for high-grade malignancy in epithelial ovarian cancers alongside tissue expression and CA-125 levels. This study is unique due to the fact that a simultaneous analysis of plasma and tissue expression has been demonstrated and is a first such study in epithelial ovarian cancers and representing the Indian population (South-east Asian) synchronized with genetic polymorphism data as well.

  20. Downregulation of Connective Tissue Growth Factor by Three-Dimensional Matrix Enhances Ovarian Carcinoma Cell Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbolina, Maria V.; Adley, Brian P.; Kelly, David L.; Shepard, Jaclyn; Fought, Angela J.; Scholtens, Denise; Penzes, Peter; Shea, Lonnie D.; Sharon Stack, M

    2010-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) is a leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancy, due mainly to the prevalence of undetected metastatic disease. The process of cell invasion during intra-peritoneal anchoring of metastatic lesions requires concerted regulation of many processes, including modulation of adhesion to the extracellular matrix and localized invasion. Exploratory cDNA microarray analysis of early response genes (altered after 4 hours of 3-dimensional collagen culture) coupled with confirmatory real-time RT-PCR, multiple three-dimensional cell culture matrices, Western blot, immunostaining, adhesion, migration, and invasion assays were used to identify modulators of adhesion pertinent to EOC progression and metastasis. cDNA microarray analysis indicated a dramatic downregulation of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in EOC cells placed in invasion-mimicking conditions (3-dimensional type I collagen). Examination of human EOC specimens revealed that CTGF expression was absent in 46% of the tested samples (n=41), but was present in 100% of normal ovarian epithelium samples (n=7). Reduced CTGF expression occurs in many types of cells and may be a general phenomenon displayed by cells encountering a 3D environment. CTGF levels were inversely correlated with invasion such that downregulation of CTGF increased, while its upregulation reduced, collagen invasion. Cells adhered preferentially to a surface comprised of both collagen I and CTGF relative to either component alone using α6β1 and α3β1 integrins. Together these data suggest that downregulation of CTGF in EOC cells may be important for cell invasion through modulation of cell-matrix adhesion. PMID:19382180

  1. Stromal Cells Derived from Visceral and Obese Adipose Tissue Promote Growth of Ovarian Cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    Full Text Available Obesity, and in particular visceral obesity, has been associated with an increased risk of developing cancers as well as higher rates of mortality following diagnosis. The impact of obesity on adipose-derived stromal cells (ASC, which contribute to the formation of tumor stroma, is unknown. Here we hypothesized that visceral source and diet-induced obesity (DIO changes the ASC phenotype, contributing to the tumor promoting effects of obesity. We found that ASC isolated from subcutaneous (SC-ASC and visceral (V-ASC white adipose tissue(WAT of lean(Le and obese(Ob mice exhibited similar mesenchymal cell surface markers expression, and had comparable effects on ovarian cancer cell proliferation and migration. Obese and visceral derived ASC proliferated slower and exhibited impaired differentiation into adipocytes and osteocytes in vitro as compared to ASC derived from subcutaneous WAT of lean mice. Intraperitoneal co-injection of ovarian cancer cells with obese or visceral derived ASC, but not lean SC-ASC, increased growth of intraperitoneal ID8 tumors as compared to controls. Obese and V-ASC increased stromal infiltration of inflammatory cells, including CD3+ T cells and F4/80+ macrophages. Obese and visceral derived ASC, but not lean SC-ASC, increased expression of chemotactic factors IL-6, MIP-2, and MCP-1 when cultured with tumor cells. Overall, these results demonstrate that obese and V-ASC have a unique phenotype, with more limited proliferation and differentiation capacity but enhanced expression of chemotactic factors in response to malignant cells which support infiltration of inflammatory cells and support tumor growth and dissemination.

  2. Stromal Cells Derived from Visceral and Obese Adipose Tissue Promote Growth of Ovarian Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Nowicka, Aleksandra; Solley, Travis N; Wei, Caimiao; Parikh, Aaroh; Court, Laurence; Burks, Jared K; Andreeff, Michael; Woodward, Wendy A; Dadbin, Ali; Kolonin, Mikhail G; Lu, Karen H; Klopp, Ann H

    2015-01-01

    Obesity, and in particular visceral obesity, has been associated with an increased risk of developing cancers as well as higher rates of mortality following diagnosis. The impact of obesity on adipose-derived stromal cells (ASC), which contribute to the formation of tumor stroma, is unknown. Here we hypothesized that visceral source and diet-induced obesity (DIO) changes the ASC phenotype, contributing to the tumor promoting effects of obesity. We found that ASC isolated from subcutaneous (SC-ASC) and visceral (V-ASC) white adipose tissue(WAT) of lean(Le) and obese(Ob) mice exhibited similar mesenchymal cell surface markers expression, and had comparable effects on ovarian cancer cell proliferation and migration. Obese and visceral derived ASC proliferated slower and exhibited impaired differentiation into adipocytes and osteocytes in vitro as compared to ASC derived from subcutaneous WAT of lean mice. Intraperitoneal co-injection of ovarian cancer cells with obese or visceral derived ASC, but not lean SC-ASC, increased growth of intraperitoneal ID8 tumors as compared to controls. Obese and V-ASC increased stromal infiltration of inflammatory cells, including CD3+ T cells and F4/80+ macrophages. Obese and visceral derived ASC, but not lean SC-ASC, increased expression of chemotactic factors IL-6, MIP-2, and MCP-1 when cultured with tumor cells. Overall, these results demonstrate that obese and V-ASC have a unique phenotype, with more limited proliferation and differentiation capacity but enhanced expression of chemotactic factors in response to malignant cells which support infiltration of inflammatory cells and support tumor growth and dissemination.

  3. Return of vitrified wastes from France to Japan; Retour des residus vitrifies de France au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The radioactive wastes resulting from the burnup of nuclear fuels in nuclear reactors represent 3 to 5% of the spent fuel. These wastes cannot be reused nor recycled and thus are vitrified after reprocessing. Japanese power companies have signed contracts with Cogema in France and BNFL in the UK for the reprocessing of their spent fuels. Then, the ultimate reprocessed wastes are sent back to Japan for storage. This information dossier takes stock of different questions relative to the transport of the vitrified wastes from France to Japan: why France sends back containers of vitrified wastes to Japan? What is a vitrified wastes container made of? How containers are transported? What is the regulatory frame applicable to these transports? Which safety measures are taken during transport? Which physical protection is applied? Which temporary storage facilities are used before and after transportation? How is performed the ultimate storage of wastes in Japan? Which quality and safety warranties are taken? Which emergency plans and exercises are provided? What are the applicable civil liability regimes? And what kind of information is given to the public about these transports. Some general information about energy and nuclear power worldwide, energy and environment, radioactivity, BNFL, Cogema and ORC is given in appendixes. (J.S.)

  4. Calves born after direct transfer of vitrified bovine in vitro-produced blastocysts derived from vitrified immature oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, A D; Forell, F; Feltrin, C; Rodrigues, J L

    2008-06-01

    Vitrification has been the method of choice for the cryopreservation of bovine oocytes, as rapid cooling decreases chilling sensitivity. The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro and in vivo survival and the viability of immature oocytes vitrified using super-cooled liquid nitrogen. Immature oocytes were randomly allocated to three groups: (i) non-vitrified control group, (ii) vitrified in normal (-196 degrees C) liquid nitrogen (LN(2)) and (iii) vitrified in super-cooled LN(2) (vitrification containers. Immature oocytes were in vitro-matured, fertilized and cultured to the blastocyst stage. In vitro viability was assessed by cleavage and blastocyst rates on days 2 and 7 of culture respectively. Vitrified blastocysts derived from the immature vitrified oocytes were directly transferred to synchronous recipients. The in vitro embryo development of vitrified immature oocytes was not influenced by the LN(2) state. After direct transfer (one embryo per recipient) of 16 embryos obtained from immature vitrified oocytes (eight from each vitrified group), two healthy calves were born in each group. These results indicated that vitrification of immature bovine oocytes using glass micropipettes under normal or super-cooled LN(2), resulted in viable blastocysts and live calves following in vitro embryo production.

  5. Expression and clinical implication of Beclin1, HMGB1, p62, survivin, BRCA1 and ERCC1 in epithelial ovarian tumor tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, L-L; Zhao, C Y; Ye, K-F; Yang, H; Zhang, J

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the differential expression of Beclin1, HMGB1, p62, survivin, ERCC1 and BRCA1 protein in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and to evaluate the relationship between autophagy and platinum resistance of EOC patients during platinum-based chemotherapy with the protein expression. Expression of Beclin1, HMGB1, p62, survivin, ERCC1 and BRCA1 were detected with immunohistochemistry in 60 patients, including 39 with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), 13 benign epithelial ovarian tumor tissue (BET) and 8 borderline ovarian tumor tissue. Beclin, p62 and ERCC1 expression was significantly higher in the EOC than the BET (p0.05). BRCA1 expression was lower in EOC than BET (pepithelial ovarian cancer.

  6. The generation of live offspring from vitrified oocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Gabriel Sanchez-Partida

    Full Text Available Oocyte cryopreservation is extremely beneficial for assisted reproductive technologies, the treatment of infertility and biotechnology and offers a viable alternative to embryo freezing and ovarian grafting approaches for the generation of embryonic stem cells and live offspring. It also offers the potential to store oocytes to rescue endangered species by somatic cell nuclear transfer and for the generation of embryonic stem cells to study development in these species. We vitrified mouse oocytes using a range of concentrations of trehalose (0 to 0.3 M and demonstrated that 0.1 and 0.3 M trehalose had similar developmental rates, which were significantly different to the 0.2 M cohort (P<0.05. As mitochondria are important for fertilisation outcome, we observed that the clustering and distribution of mitochondria of the 0.2 M cohort were more affected by vitifrication than the other groups. Nevertheless, all 3 cohorts were able to develop to blastocyst, following in vitro fertilisation, although developmental rates were better for the 0.1 and 0.3 M cohorts than the 0.2 M cohort (P<0.05. Whilst blastocysts gave rise to embryonic stem-like cells, it was apparent from immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR that these cells did not demonstrate true pluripotency and exhibited abnormal karyotypes. However, they gave rise to teratomas following injection into SCID mice and differentiated into cells of each of the germinal layers following in vitro differentiation. The transfer of 2-cell embryos from the 0.1 and 0.3 M cohorts resulted in the birth of live offspring that had normal karyotypes (9/10. When 2-cell embryos from vitrified oocytes underwent vitrification, and were thawed and transferred, live offspring were obtained that exhibited normal karyotypes, with the exception of one offspring who was larger and died at 7 months. We conclude that these studies highlight the importance of the endometrial environment for the maintenance of genetic stability and

  7. Hole Burning Imaging Studies of Cancerous and Analogous Normal Ovarian Tissues Utilizing Organelle Specific Dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuzaki, Satoshi [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Presented in this dissertation is the successful demonstration that nonphotochemical hole burning (NPWB) imaging can be used to study in vitro tissue cellular systems for discerning differences in cellular ultrastructures due to cancer development. This has been accomplished with the surgically removed cancerous ovarian and analogous normal peritoneal tissues from the same patient and the application of a fluorescent mitochondrion specific dye, Molecular Probe MitoFluor Far Red 680 (MF680), commonly known as rhodamine 800, that has been proven to exhibit efficient NPHB. From the results presented in Chapters 4 and 5 , and Appendix B, the following conclusions were made: (1) fluorescence excitation spectra of MF680 and confocal microscopy images of thin sliced tissues incubated with MF680 confirm the site-specificity of the probe molecules in the cellular systems. (2) Tunneling parameters, {lambda}{sub 0} and σΛ, as well as the standard hole burning parameters (namely, γ and S), have been determined for the tissue samples by hole growth kinetics (HGK) analyses. Unlike the preliminary cultured cell studies, these parameters have not shown the ability to distinguish tissue cellular matrices surrounding the chromophores. (3) Effects of an external electric (Stark) field on the nonphotochemical holes have been used to determine the changes in permanent dipole moment (fΔμ) for MF680 in tissue samples when burn laser polarization is parallel to the Stark field. Differences are detected between fΔμs in the two tissue samples, with the cancerous tissue exhibiting a more pronounced change (1.35-fold increase) in permanent dipole moment change relative to the normal analogs. It is speculated that the difference may be related to differences in mitochondrial membrane potentials in these tissue samples. (4) In the HGK mode, hole burning imaging (HBI) of cells adhered to coverslips and cooled to liquid helium temperatures in the complete absence of

  8. HER-2 and INT-2 amplification estimated by quantitative PCR in paraffin-embedded ovarian cancer tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruza, C; Dobianer, K; Beck, A; Czerwenka, K; Hanak, H; Klein, M; Leodolter, S; Medl, M; Müllauer-Ertl, S; Preiser, J

    1993-01-01

    Competitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) systems were developed for rapid and quantitative estimation of HER-2 (c-erbB-2) and INT-2 oncogene amplification in paraffin-embedded ovarian cancer tissue samples. The beta-globin gene was used as reference and DNA from paraffin-embedded placenta tissue as single copy control. Reliability of the PCR method could be demonstrated by comparing dot blot data with PCR data of identical tumour samples. The PCR method was used to determine HER-2 and INT-2 copy numbers in 196 ovarian cancer samples. HER-2 and INT-2 were found to be amplified in 40 and 19%, respectively. In 8% HER-2 copy numbers were greater than five, but no high INT-2 copies were noted. Kaplan-Meier estimates did not reveal significant association with overall survival. Indirect correlation between HER-2 and INT-2 amplification was observed. The present PCR system is a valuable method for prospective and retrospective studies.

  9. Treatment history and outcome of 24 deliveries worldwide after autotransplantation of cryopreserved ovarian tissue, including two new Danish deliveries years after autotransplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macklon, Kirsten T; Jensen, Annette Klüver; Loft, Anne

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To report another two successful pregnancies and deliveries resulting from autotransplanted cryopreserved ovarian tissue several years after the autotransplantation procedure took place. Further, to review the literature on the treatment history, number of live births and their outcome so...... far reported worldwide. METHODS: Two women underwent fertility preservation with cryopreservation of their ovarian tissue prior to a potentially sterilizing treatment with bone marrow transplantation. One woman suffered from paroxystic nocturnal hemoglobinuria and one woman from relapse of Hodgkin...

  10. Subcutaneous ovarian tissue transplantation in nonhuman primates: duration of endocrine function and normalcy of subsequent offspring as demonstrated by reproductive competence, oocyte production, and telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David M; Thomas, Carrie M; Xu, Fuhua; Yeoman, Richard R; Xu, Jing; Stouffer, Richard L; Wolf, Don P; Zelinski, Mary B

    2017-09-23

    The main purposes of the study were to investigate the endocrine function of ovarian tissue transplanted to heterotopic subcutaneous sites and the reproductive competence and telomere length of a nonhuman primate originating from transplanted tissue. Ovarian cortex pieces were transplanted into the original rhesus macaques in the arm subcutaneously, in the abdomen next to muscles, or in the kidney. Serum estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) concentrations were measured weekly for up to 8 years following tissue transplantation. A monkey derived from an oocyte in transplanted ovarian tissue entered time-mated breeding and underwent controlled ovarian stimulation. Pregnancy and offspring were evaluated. Telomere lengths and oocytes obtained following controlled ovarian stimulation were assessed. Monkeys with transplants in the arm and abdomen had cyclic E2 of 100 pg/ml, while an animal with arm transplants had E2 of 50 pg/ml. One monkey with transplants in the abdomen and kidney had ovulatory cycles for 3 years. A monkey derived from an oocyte in transplanted tissue conceived and had a normal gestation until intrapartum fetal demise. She conceived again and delivered a healthy offspring at term. Controlled ovarian stimulations of this monkey yielded mature oocytes comparable to controls. Her telomere length was long relative to controls. Heterotopic ovarian tissue transplants yielded long-term endocrine function in macaques. A monkey derived from an oocyte in transplanted tissue was reproductively competent. Her telomere length did not show epigenetically induced premature cellular aging. Ovarian tissue transplantation to heterotopic sites for fertility preservation should move forward cautiously, yet optimistically.

  11. Low or undetectable TPO receptor expression in malignant tissue and cell lines derived from breast, lung, and ovarian tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erickson-Miller Connie L

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous efficacious chemotherapy regimens may cause thrombocytopenia. Thrombopoietin receptor (TPO-R agonists, such as eltrombopag, represent a novel approach for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia. The TPO-R MPL is expressed on megakaryocytes and megakaryocyte precursors, although little is known about its expression on other tissues. Methods Breast, lung, and ovarian tumor samples were analyzed for MPL expression by microarray and/or quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR, and for TPO-R protein expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC. Cell line proliferation assays were used to analyze the in vitro effect of eltrombopag on breast, lung, and ovarian tumor cell proliferation. The lung carcinoma cell lines were also analyzed for TPO-R protein expression by Western blot. Results MPL mRNA was not detectable in 118 breast tumors and was detectable at only very low levels in 48% of 29 lung tumors studied by microarray analysis. By qRT-PCR, low but detectable levels of MPL mRNA were detectable in some normal (14-43% and malignant (3-17% breast, lung, and ovarian tissues. A comparison of MPL to EPOR, ERBB2, and IGF1R mRNA demonstrates that MPL mRNA levels were far lower than those of EPOR and ERBB2 mRNA in the same tissues. IHC analysis showed negligible TPO-R protein expression in tumor tissues, confirming mRNA analysis. Culture of breast, lung, and ovarian carcinoma cell lines showed no increase, and in fact, showed a decrease in proliferation following incubation with eltrombopag. Western blot analyses revealed no detectable TPO-R protein expression in the lung carcinoma cell lines. Conclusions Multiple analyses of breast, lung, and ovarian tumor samples and/or cell lines show no evidence of MPL mRNA or TPO-R protein expression. Eltrombopag does not stimulate growth of breast, lung, or ovarian tumor cell lines at doses likely to exert their actions on megakaryocytes and

  12. Low or undetectable TPO receptor expression in malignant tissue and cell lines derived from breast, lung, and ovarian tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson-Miller, Connie L; Pillarisetti, Kodandaram; Kirchner, Jennifer; Figueroa, David J; Ottesen, Lone; Martin, Anne-Marie; Liu, Yuan; Kamel, Yasser Mostafa; Messam, Conrad

    2012-09-11

    Numerous efficacious chemotherapy regimens may cause thrombocytopenia. Thrombopoietin receptor (TPO-R) agonists, such as eltrombopag, represent a novel approach for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia. The TPO-R MPL is expressed on megakaryocytes and megakaryocyte precursors, although little is known about its expression on other tissues. Breast, lung, and ovarian tumor samples were analyzed for MPL expression by microarray and/or quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and for TPO-R protein expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Cell line proliferation assays were used to analyze the in vitro effect of eltrombopag on breast, lung, and ovarian tumor cell proliferation. The lung carcinoma cell lines were also analyzed for TPO-R protein expression by Western blot. MPL mRNA was not detectable in 118 breast tumors and was detectable at only very low levels in 48% of 29 lung tumors studied by microarray analysis. By qRT-PCR, low but detectable levels of MPL mRNA were detectable in some normal (14-43%) and malignant (3-17%) breast, lung, and ovarian tissues. A comparison of MPL to EPOR, ERBB2, and IGF1R mRNA demonstrates that MPL mRNA levels were far lower than those of EPOR and ERBB2 mRNA in the same tissues. IHC analysis showed negligible TPO-R protein expression in tumor tissues, confirming mRNA analysis. Culture of breast, lung, and ovarian carcinoma cell lines showed no increase, and in fact, showed a decrease in proliferation following incubation with eltrombopag. Western blot analyses revealed no detectable TPO-R protein expression in the lung carcinoma cell lines. Multiple analyses of breast, lung, and ovarian tumor samples and/or cell lines show no evidence of MPL mRNA or TPO-R protein expression. Eltrombopag does not stimulate growth of breast, lung, or ovarian tumor cell lines at doses likely to exert their actions on megakaryocytes and megakaryocyte precursors.

  13. Studies on primary cell cultures derived from ovarian tissue of Penaeus monodon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, C A; Hall, M R

    1999-01-01

    As part of a bioassay approach to investigate ovarian development and function, primary cell cultures were derived from Penaeus monodon ovaries at various stages of maturation. These cultures were established in modified Grace's or modified 2x L-15 media. Various supplements including growth factors, vitamins and minerals were trailed. Four morphologically different types of cells (epithelioid, fibroblastic, rounded, and epithelioid with large nuclei) were maintained for up to 17 months. Epithelioid cells grew best in modified Grace's medium but were generally short-lived (less than two months). Fibroblast-like cells formed confluent monolayers in modified 2x L-15 medium, were passaged three times and survived for 17 months. In other cultures, millions of rounded cells migrated from tissue. They survived for prolonged periods (up to ten months), either loosely attached to the flask or suspended in the medium. A change in dominant cell type from fibroblastic to epithelioid was observed in some cultures after three or nine months incubation. These epithelioid cells which had very large nuclei, grew to confluence but could not be sub-cultured. It is noteworthy that the rounded cells and the epithelioid cells with the large nuclei both produced vitellogenin in protein-free media.

  14. Multiparity activates interferon pathways in peritoneal adipose tissue and decreases susceptibility to ovarian cancer metastasis in a murine allograft model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughran, Elizabeth A; Phan, Ryan C; Leonard, Annemarie K; Tarwater, Laura; Asem, Marwa; Liu, Yueying; Yang, Jing; Klymenko, Yuliya; Johnson, Jeff; Shi, Zonggao; Hilliard, Tyvette S; Blumenthaler, Marielle; Leevy, Matthew; Ravosa, Matthew J; Stack, M Sharon

    2017-12-28

    Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer deaths in U.S. women and the deadliest gynecologic malignancy. This lethality is largely due to the fact that most cases are diagnosed at metastatic stages of the disease when the prognosis is poor. Epidemiologic studies consistently demonstrate that parous women have a reduced risk of developing ovarian cancer, with a greater number of births affording greater protection; however little is known about the impact of parity on ovarian cancer metastasis. Here we report that multiparous mice are less susceptible to ovarian cancer metastasis in an age-matched syngeneic murine allograft model. Interferon pathways were found to be upregulated in healthy adipose tissue of multiparous mice, suggesting a possible mechanism for the multiparous-related protective effect against metastasis. This protective effect was found to be lost with age. Based on this work, future studies exploring therapeutic strategies which harness the multiparity-associated protective effect demonstrated here are warranted. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Highly sulfated chondroitin sulfates, a novel class of prognostic biomarkers in ovarian cancer tissue.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallen, M.J.E.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Dam, G.B. ten; Bulten, J.; Kuppevelt, T. van

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Clinical decision making in ovarian cancer needs new (prognostic) biomarkers. Although the search for biomarkers has traditionally focused on tumor cells, their surrounding contains important information as well. Glycosaminoglycans, heterogeneous polysaccharides which are abundantly

  16. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation analysis and ovarian histology of women with Turner syndrome presenting with Y-chromosomal material: a correlation between oral epithelial cells, lymphocytes and ovarian tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Lars; Bryman, Inger; Janson, Per Olof; Jakobsen, Anne-Marie; Hanson, Charles

    2002-01-01

    The early detection of Y-chromosomal material in women with Turner syndrome (TS) is of great importance due to a relatively high risk of gonadal tumour development. Using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) analysis, we studied the presence of three different Y-specific sequences (SRY, Ycen and Yq12) in three different tissues (oral epithelial cells, lymphocytes and ovarian tissue) of twelve TS women. We have also described their ovarian histology. Two of the women (17%) had gonadal tumours. In five women where ovarian tissue was available, the presence of Y-chromosomal material in oral epithelial cells and lymphocytes correlated to the presence of Y-chromosomal material in the gonads. We therefore conclude that FISH analysis of oral epithelial cells and/or lymphocytes is a valuable complement to karyotyping for the early detection of Y-chromosomal material in TS women.

  17. Viability of zebrafish (Danio rerio) ovarian follicles after vitrification in a metal container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Lis S; Bos-Mikich, Adriana; Godoy, Leandro C; Silva, Laura A; Maschio, Daniel; Zhang, Tiantian; Streit, Danilo P

    2015-12-01

    Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue has been studied for female germline preservation of farm animals and endangered mammalian species. However, there are relatively few reports on cryopreservation of fish ovarian tissue and especially using vitrification approach. Previous studies of our group has shown that the use of a metal container for the cryopreservation of bovine ovarian fragments results in good primordial and primary follicle morphological integrity after vitrification. The aim of this study was to assess the viability and in vitro development of zebrafish follicles after vitrification of fragmented or whole ovaries using the same metal container. In Experiment 1, we tested the follicular viability of five developmental stages following vitrification in four vitrification solutions using fluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide fluorescent probes. These results showed that the highest viability rates were obtained with immature follicles (Stage I) and VS1 (1.5 M methanol + 4.5 M propylene glycol). In Experiment 2, we used VS1 to vitrify different types of ovarian tissue (fragments or whole ovaries) in two different carriers (plastic cryotube or metal container). In this experiment, Stage I follicle survival was assessed following vitrification by vital staining after 24 h in vitro culture. Follicular morphology was analyzed by light microscopy after vitrification. Data showed that the immature follicles morphology was well preserved after cryopreservation. Follicular survival rate was higher (P vitrification devices were compared. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Photoperiodic and ovarian steroid regulation of histone deacetylase 1, 2, and 3 in Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) reproductive tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Eloise W J; Coyle, Christopher S; Stevenson, Tyler J

    2017-05-15

    Epigenetic modifications in reproductive tissues have predominantly focused on pathological conditions, such as ovarian and uterine cancers. The contribution of DNA methylation and histone acetylation to the timing and control of fertility is not well described. Siberian hamsters provide an important model to investigate the relatively short-term regulation of fertility (e.g. estrous) as well as long-term timing of breeding (e.g. seasonal). Recent work has shown that DNA methyltransferase 3a (dnmt3a) expression is associated with reproductive involution. Here, the objectives were to identify the impact of photoperiod on hdac1-3 expression in hamster testicular, ovarian and uterine tissue. Then, we assessed the effect of E 2 P 4 and estrous cycling on hdac1-3 expression in uterine tissue. Testicular expression of hdac1 was significantly reduced, whereas hdac3 increased in reproductively photoregressed male hamsters; hdac2 expression did not significantly change across photoperiod conditions. There was no significant photoperiodic effect on ovarian expression of hdac1-3. Uterine expression of hdac3 expression was greater in long day hamsters; exposure to short days significantly reduced uterine hdac2 expression. Ovariectomized hamsters administered a single bolus injection of oil were found to have elevated uterine hdac2 compared to E 2 P 4 treated females 12h and 24h post injection. Uterine hdac1-3 expression was relatively constant across the estrous cycle. Altogether these data indicate tissue-dependent photoperiodic regulation of hdac1-3 expression and that E 2 P 4 may inhibit uterine hdac2 over long-term breeding cycles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Application of microwave-assisted micro-solid-phase extraction for determination of parabens in human ovarian cancer tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Muhammad; Basheer, Chanbasha; Narasimhan, Kothandaraman; Choolani, Mahesh; Lee, Hian Kee

    2015-09-01

    Parabens (alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid) are widely used as preservatives in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical products. However, weak estrogenicity of some parabens has been reported in several studies, which provided the impetus for this work. Here, a simple and efficient analytical method for quantifying parabens in cancer tissues has been developed. This technique involves the simultaneous use of microwave-assisted solvent extraction (MASE) and micro-solid phase extraction (μ-SPE), in tandem with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC/UV) analysis for the determination of parabens. The pollutants studied included four parabens (methyl, ethyl, propyl and butyl parabens). Optimization of the experimental parameters for MASE and μ-SPE was performed. Good relative standard deviation (%RSD) ranged from 0.09 to 2.81% and high enrichment factors (27-314) were obtained. Coefficients of determination (r(2)) up to 0.9962 were obtained across a concentration range of 5.0-200ngg(-1). The method detection limits for parabens ranged from 0.005 to 0.0244ngg(-1). The procedure was initially tested on prawn samples to demonstrate its feasibility on a complex biological matrix. Preliminary studies on human ovarian cancer (OC) tissues showed presence of parabens. Higher levels of parabens were detected in malignant ovarian tumor tissues compared to benign tumor tissue samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of kallikrein-related peptidase 5 (KLK5) protein expression in tumor tissue of advanced ovarian cancer patients by immunohistochemistry and ELISA: correlation with clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Julia; Yassouridis, Alexandra; Walch, Axel; Diamandis, Eleftherios P; Schmitt, Manfred; Kiechle, Marion; Wang, Ping; Drecoll, Enken; Schmalfeldt, Barbara; Loessner, Daniela; Kotzsch, Matthias; Magdolen, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    Members of the human kallikrein-related peptidase (KLK) family, including KLK5, have been reported to play an important role in ovarian cancer progression. In the present study, we assessed KLK5 protein expression in ovarian cancer tissues by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and ELISA, and analyzed its association with clinicopathologic parameters and disease outcome in 95 patients with advanced ovarian cancer FIGO stage III/IV. KLK5 immunoexpression was evaluated in ovarian cancer tissue microarrays by IHC using a manual semiquantitative scoring system. KLK5 antigen levels were determined in ovarian cancer tumour tissue extracts by ELISA. KLK5 protein is expressed in ovarian cancer tissue by stromal and tumor cells. Mean KLK5 immunoscore values in tumor cells (KLK5-Tc; 5.7, range 0 to 12) were higher compared to stromal cells (KLK5-Sc; 1.2, range 0 to 9) but the correlation between KLK5-Tc and KLK5-Sc was rather low (rs = 0.34, P ovarian cancer patients. KLK5-Tc and KLK5-Tc+Sc scores as well as the KLK5-E values were not associated with patients' outcome. In multivariable analysis, KLK5-Sc expression was found to be statistically significant for PFS. Patients with elevated KLK5-Sc had a two-fold lower risk of disease recurrence (HR = 0.53, P = 0.037) as compared to patients with low KLK5-Sc. For KLK5-Sc and OS, a trend towards statistical significance was observed (HR = 0.62, P = 0.077). These results indicate that KLK5 overexpression by stromal cells (KLK5-Sc) may be a positive modulator lowering aggressiveness of ovarian cancer.

  1. Chapter 16 Directional Freezing of Ovarian Tissue and Freeze-Drying of Stem Cells for Fertility Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arav, Amir; Natan, Yehudit

    2017-01-01

    Fertility preservation is practiced today for women in their fertile years who wish or need to postpone or prolong their reproductive era. Currently women have two main options to preserve their fertility either by oocyte vitrification or by freezing of ovarian cortical slices. In this chapter we will describe the use of directional freezing for cortical slices and freeze-drying of stem cells. These procedures open the way for the preservation of reproductive cells and tissue for future use in fertility preservation treatments.

  2. Frozen and fresh ovarian tissue require different culture media to promote in vitro development of bovine preantral follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Simone Vieira; Carvalho, Adeline Andrade; Silva, Cleidson Manoel Gomes; Santos, Francielli Weber; Campello, Cláudio Cabral; de Figueiredo, José Ricardo; Rodrigues, Ana Paula Ribeiro

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of different media in the in vitro culture of bovine preantral follicles that were used either fresh or following slow freezing treatment. Frozen and fresh noncultured or cultured ovarian fragments were processed for histological, viability, and cell proliferation analyses. For cryopreservation, a solution containing 1.5 M ethylene glycol was frozen in a programmable biological freezer. After thawing, a portion of the samples was destined for frozen controls. The remainder were cultured in vitro for 5 days in three media: α-MEM, McCoy, or M199. Samples from these culture media were collected on days 1 and 5 for quantification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and for hormonal assays. In fresh-cultured tissues, the percentage of morphologically normal follicles was significantly higher when cultured in M199 compared to that in the other media. In frozen-cultured tissues, McCoy medium was significantly superior to the other media, and was the only treatment that helped in maintaining the viability similar to fresh and frozen controls. Upon quantification of the nucleolus organizer region, we observed greater proliferation of granulosa cells in the frozen-cultured tissues with McCoy medium, and lesser proliferation in fresh-cultured tissues only with α-MEM. In frozen-cultured tissues, ROS levels were highest at day 1 and progressively reduced during culture, independent of the media used. In conclusion, under the conditions used in this study, the M199 and McCoy media are recommended for the culture of follicles derived from fresh and frozen ovarian tissues, respectively.

  3. Inventory evaluation of high level radioactive vitrified waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, Yoshinao; Makino, Hitoshi; Ohi, Takao; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Waste Management and Fuel Cycle Research Center, Tokai Works, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Miyahara, Kaname; Umeki, Hiroyuki [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Geological Isolation Research Project, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Akasaka, Hidenari; Fujihara, Hiroshi [Tokyo Electirc Power Company, Tokyo (Japan); Hashi, Yasuyuki [Computer Software Development Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-11-01

    Spent fuel removed from nuclear power plants in Japan is reprocessed at home and abroad (Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited [JNFL] reprocessing plant, Tokai Vitrification Facility [TVF] of JNC, COGEMA in France and BNFL in England) and then vitrified. The properties of vitrified waste change depending on the fuel type, fuel burn-up in the reactor, and operating conditions at the reprocessing plants. However, properties of vitrified waste, such as heat generation and nuclide inventories, are important information for the design study of repository and the performance assessment in the geological disposal system. For the objectives of repository design and safety assessment, it is necessary that the model-vitrified waste is determined from the four types of waste. In this study, for supporting the determination of the model vitrified waste in the Research and Development for the Geological Disposal of HLW in Japan (H12 Project), the calculation and comparison of inventories for the four types of waste were performed. As results, it is found that there are no significant differences in the properties (i.e., radioactivity, heat generation, hazard index and nuclide inventories per one package) of the four types of vitrified waste from JNFL, COGEMA, BNFL and TVF. (author)

  4. Return of the vitrified residues of France to Germany; Retour des residus vitrifies de France en Allemagne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The return of the vitrified residues from France to Germany fits into framework of the spent fuels reprocessing contracts, signed between COGEMA and german electric power companies. These contracts preconize the return in the origin country of the ultimate wastes after their processing and conditioning. This document proposes nine information cards on this topic: why France returns vitrified residues in Germany; what is a vitrified residues container; the quality and the safety control; the containers transportation; the regulatory framework applied to these transports; the interim storage before and after the transport; the final disposal of vitrified residues in Germany; concerned societies, experts and authorities; the risks bound to the radiation exposure during the transport. (A.L.B.)

  5. The role of chemokines in lymphocyte infiltration in ovarian cancer: from MRNA microarray to tissue microarray

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooden, M.J.M.; Leffers, N.; Fehrmann, R.S.N.; Ten Hoor, K.A.; Daemen, T.; Van Der Zee, A.G.J.; De Bock, G.H.; Walenkamp, A.M.E.; Nijman, H.W.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: High numbers of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are associated with a survival advantage in ovarian cancer. Chemokines may play a role in T lymphocyte recruitment to the tumor, but they are also linked to metastasis and angiogenesis. Aim: To determine to what extent chemokines are

  6. Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue for fertility preservation in young female oncological patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Yding; Kristensen, Stine Gry; Greve, Tine

    2012-01-01

    Girls and women suffering from a cancer that requires treatment with gonadotoxic drugs may experience cessation of reproductive function as a side effect due to obliteration of the ovarian pool of follicles. Techniques are now available for fertility preservation, such as cryopreservation of mature...

  7. Maternal obesity leads to an inflammatory response and insulin resistance in ovarian tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal obesity during the pre-conception period may influence ovarian functions and affect embryo development. Lean and obese (OB) Sprague-Dawley dams were examined during the preimplantation period at dpc 4.5. Obesity was induced by controlled overfeeding (40% excess calories for 28 d) via total ...

  8. Effect of ovarian tissue storage in Morus nigra extract on the morphology and DNA fragmentation of ovine preantral follicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Yasmin Pitombeira Cavalcante

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrated the effect of Morus nigra leaf extract during ovine ovarian tissue transportation on the survival and apoptosis of preantral follicles in vitro. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC was used to determine the fingerprint chromatogram of the crude ethanolic extract. Four pairs of ovaries from four sheep were collected. The ovarian cortex was fragmented and one fragment was fixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde and processed for histological and TUNEL analysis (fresh control. The other fragments were placed in Minimal Essential Medium (MEM – control medium or M. nigra extract (0.025; 0.05 or 0.1 mg/mL and stored (simulating transport at 4ºC for 6, 12 or 24 h. Preserved fragments (6 h were also destined to histological and TUNEL analysis. HPLC analysis confirmed the presence of antioxidant compounds (rutin, isoquercetin e kaempferitrin in the extract. There was a decrease (P 0.05 to 0.1 mg/mL of the extract. Apoptosis increased (P < 0.05 after conservation for 6 h in all treatments compared to the fresh control. Moreover, TUNEL positive cells decreased (P < 0.05 after preservation in 0.05 or 0.1 mg/mL M. nigra compared to MEM or 0.025 mg/mL M. nigra. In conclusion, 0.05 mg/mL M. nigra extract can be used as a preservation medium for ovine ovarian tissue at 4°C for up to 6 h.

  9. Limited prognostic value of tissue protein expression levels of BCl-2 in Danish ovarian cancer patients: from the Danish 'MALOVA' ovarian cancer study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgdall, Estrid V S; Christensen, Lise Hanne; Kjaer, Susanne K

    2010-01-01

    women diagnosed with low malignant potential ovarian tumors (LMP) and from 582 patients diagnosed with ovarian cancer (OC). Using 30% as cutoff level for BCl-2 overexpression, 5% of LMPs were positive with a higher proportion of serous ovarian tumor of LMP, compared to mucinous ovarian tumor of LMP (p...... = 0.02). Women with a BCl-2-positive LMP tumor were older than women with a BCl-2 negative tumor (p = 0.02). Ten percent of OCs were positive for BCl-2 expression (>or=30%). No significant association was found between BCl-2 expression levels and histologic type of tumors (serous vs mucinous, p = 0...

  10. Isolation and in vitro culture of primary cell populations derived from ovarian tissues of the rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Hyung Ryu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was conducted to identify the general conditions for the isolation and in vitro culture of ovary-derived cells in rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli. The effects of three different enzymes on cell retrieval from ovarian tissues were evaluated first, and then the ovary-dissociated cells were cultured under various culture conditions, with varying basal media and culture temperatures, addition of growth factors, and/or culture types. We found that collagenase type I treatment was effective for cell isolation from ovarian tissues. From a total of 42 trials to evaluate the effects of basal media and culture temperatures on cell culture of ovary-dissociated cells, we observed that Leibovitz’s L15 medium was more supportive than Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium for culture, and the cells could grow at all three temperatures tested, 15, 20, and 25 °C, at least up to passage 2. However, growth factor addition did not improve cell growth. Introduction of suspension culture after monolayer culture expanded the culture period significantly more than did monolayer culture alone. Our results may provide a basis for developing an in vitro system for S. schlegeli germline cell culture, which will ultimately lead to improvement of the species.

  11. Toward in-vivo photoacoustic imaging of human ovarian tissue for cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Andres; Kumavor, Patrick; Ardeshirpour, Yasaman; Sanders, Mary M.; Brewer, Molly; Zhu, Quing

    2011-03-01

    Currently, most of the cancers in the ovary are detected when they have already metastasized to other parts of the body. As a result, ovarian cancer has the highest mortality of all gynecological cancers with a 5-year survival rate of 30% or less [1]. The reason is the lack of reliable symptoms as well as the lack of efficacious screening techniques [2,3]. Thus, there is an urgent need to improve the current diagnostic techniques. We have investigated the potential role of co-registered photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging in ovarian cancer detection. In an effort to bring this technique closer to clinical application, we have developed a co-registered ultrasound and photoacoustic transvaginal probe. A fiber coupling assembly has been developed to deliver the light from around the transducer for reflection geometry imaging. Co-registered ultrasound and photoacoustic images of swine ovaries through vagina wall muscle and human ovaries using the aforementioned probe, demonstrate the potential of photoacoustic imaging to non-invasively detect ovarian cancer in vivo.

  12. The effects of propolis extract on ovarian tissue and oxidative stress in rats with maternal separation stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Arabameri

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Stress in infancy has dramatic effects on different systems, including the nervous system, endocrine, immune, reproductive and etc. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of extract of Iranian propolis (EIP on ovarian tissue and oxidative stress in rats with maternal separation stress. Materials and Methods: 48 immature female rats were divided randomly into six groups. 1 Control group, 2 Control group+saline, 3 Stress group, includes infants that were separated from their mothers 6 hr/day, the 4th, 5th and 6th groups consisted of infants who in addition to daily stress received 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of EIP, respectively. Then serum corticosterone, 17-beta-estradiol, malondialdehyde, total superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and ferric reducing antioxidant power levels were measured. The ovarian sections were stained by H&E, PAS, and TUNEL methods and were studied with optical microscopy. Results: Stress increased the blood serum corticosterone levels and 17-beta-estradiol reduced significantly (p<0.001 and EIP prevented from this changes (p<0.01. EIP significantly increased the number of ovarian follicles, oocytes and oocytes diameter in neonatal rat following stress (p<0.01. EIP also significantly decreased the number of atretic follicles, TUNEL+granulosa cells, malondialdehyde levels and increased ferric reducing antioxidant power, total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase serum levels in neonatal rats following stress. The dose of 200 mg/kg EIP was more effective. Conclusion: This Study showed that the Iranian Propolis significantly could prevent oxidative stress and histopathological changes in the ovary of the neonatal rat the following stress.

  13. Long-term melatonin treatment reduces ovarian mass and enhances tissue antioxidant defenses during ovulation in the rat

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    L.G.A. Chuffa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin regulates the reproductive cycle, energy metabolism and may also act as a potential antioxidant indoleamine. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether long-term melatonin treatment can induce reproductive alterations and if it can protect ovarian tissue against lipid peroxidation during ovulation. Twenty-four adult female Wistar rats, 60 days old (± 250-260 g, were randomly divided into two equal groups. The control group received 0.3 mL 0.9% NaCl + 0.04 mL 95% ethanol as vehicle, and the melatonin-treated group received vehicle + melatonin (100 µg·100 g body weight-1·day-1 both intraperitoneally daily for 60 days. All animals were killed by decapitation during the morning estrus at 4:00 am. Body weight gain and body mass index were reduced by melatonin after 10 days of treatment (P < 0.05. Also, a marked loss of appetite was observed with a fall in food intake, energy intake (melatonin 51.41 ± 1.28 vs control 57.35 ± 1.34 kcal/day and glucose levels (melatonin 80.3 ± 4.49 vs control 103.5 ± 5.47 mg/dL towards the end of treatment. Melatonin itself and changes in energy balance promoted reductions in ovarian mass (20.2% and estrous cycle remained extensive (26.7%, arresting at diestrus. Regarding the oxidative profile, lipid hydroperoxide levels decreased after melatonin treatment (6.9% and total antioxidant substances were enhanced within the ovaries (23.9%. Additionally, melatonin increased superoxide dismutase (21.3%, catalase (23.6% and glutathione-reductase (14.8% activities and the reducing power (10.2% GSH/GSSG ratio. We suggest that melatonin alters ovarian mass and estrous cyclicity and protects the ovaries by increasing superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione-reductase activities.

  14. Microscopic morphology and apoptosis of ovarian tissue after cryopreservation using a vitrification method in post-hatching turkey poults, Meleagris gallopavo

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Microscopic morphology of ovarian tissue in post-hatching turkey poults at various ages was investigated. 2. Hematoxylin and eosin staining were used and the diameter of the oocytes and follicles were measured using microphotography. 3. Immediately after hatching, oocytes in one-day turkey pou...

  15. Ovarian tissue cryopreservation and transplantation among alternatives for fertility preservation in the Nordic countries - compilation of 20 years of multicenter experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez-Wallberg, Kenny A; Tanbo, Tom; Tinkanen, Helena

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study is to report the current status of ovarian tissue cryopreservation among alternatives for fertility preservation in the Nordic countries. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A questionnaire was sent to 14 Nordic academic reproductive centers with established fertility preser...

  16. [Expression of Jagged1 mRNA in human epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissues and effect of RNA interference of Jagged1 on growth of xenograft in nude mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G Y; Gao, Z H; Li, L; Song, T T; Sheng, X G

    2016-06-25

    To investigate the expression of Jagged1 in human epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissues and the effect of Jagged1 on growth of xenograft in nude mice. (1) Forty-eight cases of ovarian cancer and 30 cases of patients with benign epithelial ovarian tumor in the Henan Province Xinxiang Central Hospital during Feb. 2011 to Mar. 2014 were enrolled in this study. The mRNA expression of Jagged1, Notch1 and the downstream target genes Hes1, Hey1 were analyzed by using realtime PCR method. (2) The ovarian cancer xenograft models in nude mice were constructed by injecting SKOV3 cells in axillary subcutaneouswere. The nude mice were randomly divided into Jagged1 interference group, blank plasmid group and control group. Each group had 10 mice. They were transfected with pcDNA3.1(+)-siRNA-Jagged1, blank plasmid pDC3.1 and phosphate buffer, respectively. The tumor volumes and tumor masses were measured 14 days after transfection and the inhibition rate was calculated. The relative mRNA expression of Jagged1, Notch1, Hes1 and Hey1 in xenograft tissues after transfection in each group was detected by using realtime PCR technique and the relative protein expression of Jagged1, Notch1, Hes1 and Hey1 in xenograft tissues was detected by utilizing western blot method. (1) The relative mRNA expression of Jagged1, Notch1, Hes1 and Hey1 in ovarian cancer tissues were higher than benign ovarian tumor tissues, the differences were statistically significant (Pinterference group, which were significantly lower than that in the blank plasmid group [(842±88) mm(3) and (4.4±0.8) g, respectively] and that in the control group [(851±90) mm(3) and (4.5±0.9) g, respectively; Pinterference group, which was significantly higher than that in the blank plasmid group and that in the control group (2.2% and 0, respectively), the differences were statistically significant (Pinterference group were lower than that in the other two groups, the differences were statistically significant (P0.05). Jagged1

  17. Cryopreservation/transplantation of ovarian tissue and in vitro maturation of follicles and oocytes: Challenges for fertility preservation

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    Agarwal Ashok

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue and in vitro follicle maturation are two emerging techniques for fertility preservation, especially in cancer patients. These treatment regimes are opening up more options and allow for more suitable choices to preserve fertility according to the patient's specific circumstances. If these technologies are to become widely accepted, they need to be safe, easy to perform and must obtain favorable results. The generation of healthy eggs with the normal genetic complement and the ability to develop into viable and healthy embryos requires tight regulation of oocyte development and maturation. Novel freezing techniques such as vitrification, along with whole ovary cryopreservation and three-dimensional follicle cultures, have shown favorable outcomes. The scope of this article is to take a comprehensively look at the challenges still faced in order for these novel technologies to be routinely employed with the aim of successful fertility preservation.

  18. Vitrified chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for immobilization of radioisotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Arun S.

    2016-04-05

    A method of immobilizing a radioisotope and vitrified chemically bonded phosphate ceramic (CBPC) articles formed by the method are described. The method comprises combining a radioisotope-containing material, MgO, a source of phosphate, and optionally, a reducing agent, in water at a temperature of less than 100.degree. C. to form a slurry; curing the slurry to form a solid intermediate CBPC article comprising the radioisotope therefrom; comminuting the intermediate CBPC article, mixing the comminuted material with glass frits, and heating the mixture at a temperature in the range of about 900 to about 1500.degree. C. to form a vitrified CBPC article comprising the radioisotope immobilized therein.

  19. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β maintains follicular ultrastructure and stimulates preantral follicle growth in caprine ovarian tissue cultured in vitro

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    G.Q. Rodrigues

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to investigate whether TGF-β affect the survival, activation and further growth of goat primordial follicles enclosed in ovarian cortex after in vitro culture. Goat ovaries were collected from an abattoir and pieces of ovarian tissues were cultured for one or seven days in a supplemented alpha Minimum Essential Medium, alone or containing TGF-β (1, 5, 10 or 50ng/mL. Ovarian tissues from the fresh control as well as those cultured were processed for histological and ultrastructural studies. The results showed that when compared with fresh control, there was decrease in the percentages of histologically normal follicles in all treatments only after seven days culture. TGF-β did not affect the activation of preantral follicles regardless of its concentration, however, larger follicles diameter (P<0.05 was observed using 10ng/mL TGF-β than in the fresh control and other treatments. Moreover, this concentration maintained the normal ultrastructure after seven days of culture. In conclusion, TGF-β showed additional effect on the follicle growth and the maintenance of ultrastructural integrity of goat preantral follicles enclosed in ovarian tissue when used at 10ng/mL during seven days of culture.

  20. Improving ovarian tissue cryopreservation for oncologic patients: slow freezing versus vitrification, effect of different procedures and devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herraiz, Sonia; Novella-Maestre, Edurne; Rodríguez, Beatriz; Díaz, César; Sánchez-Serrano, María; Mirabet, Vicente; Pellicer, Antonio

    2014-03-01

    To compare slow freezing (SF) with four vitrification techniques (VT) for cryopreservation of ovarian tissue (OT) and to evaluate the best protocol for human OT in a xenograft model. Experimental study. University hospital. Patients undergoing fertility preservation. Ovariectomized nude mice. Cryopreservation of bovine OT after SF and four VTs (VT1, VT2, VT3, and VT4) by combining two cryoprotectant vitrification solutions (VS1 and VS2) and two devices (metallic grid and ethyl vinyl acetate bag), after which the cryopreservation of human OT by SF and VT1 and xenograft into nude mice. Follicular densities, proliferation, vascularization, fibrosis, apoptosis, tissue viability. The in vitro study in bovine OT showed a lower percentage of quiescent follicles in the SF group but not in the vitrification groups (VT1-VT4). Apoptosis increased and cell proliferation decreased in all the experimental groups except VT1 (20% ethylene glycol, 20% dimethyl sulfoxide, 0.5 M sucrose, and 20% synthetic serum substitute in HEPES-buffered M199 culture media with Cryotissue metallic grids). Tissue viability was diminished in VT3, and the SF-xenografted human samples showed reduced primordial and secondary densities and unbalanced follicular populations when compared with fresh and VT1 tissue. VT1 offers similar conditions to fresh tissue for follicular density, proliferation, viability, and cell death and preserves a larger population of quiescent follicles than SF after transplantation, thus ensuring the maintenance of graft potential fertility. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Expression of preoperative KISS1 gene in tumor tissue with epithelial ovarian cancer and its prognostic value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fang; Chen, Liping; Liu, Manhua; Lin, Weiwei; Ji, Jinlong; You, Jun; Qiao, Fenghai; Liu, Hongbin

    2016-11-01

    Our study aimed to elucidate the role of Kisspeptin (KISS1) in tumor tissues of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and investigate the prognostic value of this biomarker.Forty EOC patients and 20 uterine fibroids female patients with healthy ovaries undergoing cytoreductive surgery between January 2010 and January 2014 in our hospital were enrolled in this study. KISS1 expression in tumor and normal tissues was detected. Correlations between clinic-pathologic variables and KISS1 expression in EOC tissues and the prognostic value of KISS1 for overall survival were evaluated.During the follow-up of 11.2 to 62.1 months, the overall survival rate and mean survival time were 28.9% (11/38) and 38.35 ± 2.84 months. Preoperative KISS1 mRNA was higher in tumor tissue than in normal tissue (P <0.001), and it was associated with histologic grade of tumor, surgical FIGO stage, metastasis, and residual tumor size (all P <0.05). Multivariate survival analysis indicated significant influence of residual tumor size (HR = 2.357, P = 0.039) and preoperative KISS1 mRNA (HR = 0.0001, P <0.001) on mean survival time. Patients with low KISS1 mRNA expression had shorter survival time than those with high expression (P = 0.001).Preoperative KISS1 mRNA was a potential prognostic biomarker for EOC, and high preoperative KISS1 expression indicated a favorable prognosis.

  2. 86 successful births and 9 ongoing pregnancies worldwide in women transplanted with frozen-thawed ovarian tissue: focus on birth and perinatal outcome in 40 of these children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Annette Klüver; Macklon, Kirsten Tryde; Fedder, Jens; Ernst, Erik; Humaidan, Peter; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to make an account of the children born following transplantation of frozen-thawed ovarian tissue worldwide with specific focus on the perinatal outcome of the children. Furthermore, perinatal outcome of seven deliveries (nine children) from Denmark is reported. PubMed was searched for papers of deliveries resulting from ovarian tissue cryopreservation (OTC). Seven women underwent OTC prior to chemotherapy. Four of these women still had low ovarian function and had tried to conceive. They therefore had tissue autotransplanted to augment their fertility. The other three women had developed premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) after the end of treatment. Worldwide, approximately 95 children have been born or will be born in the near future from OTC, including these 9 new children. Information on the perinatal outcome was found on 40 children. The mean gestational age was 39 weeks and the mean birth weight was 3168 g of the singleton pregnancies, which is within internationally recognized normal standards. Furthermore, half the singletons resulted from natural conception and all twins resulted from in vitro fertilization treatment. All seven Danish women became pregnant within 1-3 years after transplantation. They gave birth to nine healthy children. The data is reassuring and further suggests that cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is becoming an established fertility preservation method. The seven Danish women reported in this study were all in their early thirties when OTC was performed. Most other reported cases were in the women's twenties. This suggests that the follicular pool in the thirties is large enough and sufficient to sustain fertility.

  3. Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenoma After Ovarian Graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajau-Prevot, Carole; Le Gac, Yann Tanguy; Chevreau, Christine; Cohade, Clémentine; Gatimel, Nicolas; Parinaud, Jean; Leandri, Roger

    2017-06-01

    Freezing strips of ovarian cortex before chemotherapy followed by transplantation is an experimental method to preserve fertility for reproductive-aged women with cancer. We report a case of a cancer patient who developed a mucinous cystadenoma in a grafted piece of ovarian cortex. A 32-year-old woman with a Ewing sarcoma had ovarian cryopreservation using cortical strip freezing before receiving chemotherapy. Five years later she had no ovarian function, and the strips were thawed and grafted back onto the ovary. She spontaneously became pregnant 1 year after this procedure and delivered a healthy neonate near term. During the cesarean delivery, a 5×3-cm cyst was removed from the graft. On pathologic evaluation, it was determined to be a mucinous cystadenoma. Ovarian pathology can develop in previously frozen ovarian cortex tissue after transplantation back onto the ovary. This suggests that routine gynecologic surveillance remains important for these women.

  4. Cryotop and development of vitrified immature bovine oocytes

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    H Hajarian

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of different cryodevices (open-pulled straw (OPS, electron microscopy grid (EMG, and Cryotop was evaluated for vitrification of immature bovine oocytes. Polar body, metaphase II stage (MII, survivability, and subsequent developmental rates were determined. Only oocytes with four or five layers of cumulus cells were used. Oocytes were equilibrated in two vitrification solutions - 1: 10% DMSO + 10% ethylene glycol (EG for 30-45sec and 2: 20% DMSO + 20% EG +0.5M sucrose for 25sec -, mounted on one of the cryodevices and directly plunged into liquid nitrogen for 10 days. Immature vitrified oocytes using Cryotop showed the highest rates of polar body extrusion (PB and nuclear maturity (MII; 41 and 58% respectively. Vitrified oocytes using OPS and EMG showed 26 and 32%; and 35 and 46% of PB and MII rates, respectively. The highest survivability resulted from Cryotop and EMG groups and no significant difference was found between them. Vitrified oocytes using Cryotop had the highest cleavage and blastocyst rates. All of the mean rates for vitrified immature oocytes were significantly lower than that of control group (P<0.05. The results of this study showed the superiority of Cryotop device for vitrification of immature bovine oocytes

  5. Ovarian teratoma displaying a wide variety of tissue components in a broiler chicken (Gallus Domesticus: morphological heterogeneity of pluripotential germ cell during tumorigenesis

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    S. Ohfuji

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous ovarian teratoma was found in a seven-week-old female Chunky broiler chicken that was slaughtered for food. On post-mortem inspection, a spherical tumor mass attaching to a juvenile ovary was found in the abdominal cavity. Histopathologically, the tumor was comprised of immature mesenchymal stroma and a variety of mature tissue elements of mesodermal and ectodermal origin. In addition, there were multiple indistinguishable tissue elements, which showed no malignant cytological features but were unidentifiable as to corresponding embryological layer of origin. These heterogeneous teratoma tissues consisted of a variety of glandular, cystic, duct-like, and tubular structures, some of which exhibited a lining by a mixture of both keratinizing/non-keratinizing stratified squamous epithelial cells and cuboidal/columnar epithelial cells. The ovarian tetatoma was considered a benign and congenital one. The highly diverse differentiation of the teratoma might have manifested a morphological aspect of intrinsic character of the pluripotential germ cells during tumorigenesis.

  6. Interpretation of sequential measurements of cancer antigen 125 (CA 125), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA) based on analytical imprecision and biological variation in the monitoring of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuxen, Malgorzata K.; Sölétormos, G; Petersen, P H

    2001-01-01

    The main objective with cancer antigen 125 (CA 125), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA) monitoring of ovarian cancer patients is to detect an early change of disease activity with high reliability. We hypothesized that a monitoring scheme for ovarian cancer patie...

  7. Increasing follicular and stromal cell proliferation in cryopreserved human ovarian tissue after long-term precooling prior to freezing: in vitro versus chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isachenko, Vladimir; Isachenko, Evgenia; Mallmann, Peter; Rahimi, Gohar

    2013-01-01

    A positive effect on the future development of cells, which have been cooled to low suprazero temperatures and then thawed, has been observed before and is not new. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of postthawing culture of human ovarian tissue, which was either frozen just after operative removal or cooled after removal to 5°C for 24 h before cryopreservation. Ovarian fragments from six patients were divided into small pieces in the form of cortex with medulla and randomly divided into the following four groups: Group 1 consisted of pieces that just after removal had been cultured in vitro for 8 days in a big volume of medium with mechanical agitation; Group 2 included pieces cooled after operation to 5°C for 24 h and then cultured in vitro for 8 days; Group 3 was comprised of pieces frozen-thawed just after operation and then cultured for 5 days in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) culture system; and the pieces in Group 4 were cooled after operation to 5°C for 24 h, frozen-thawed, and then cultured in the CAM system for 5 days. The effectiveness of the tissue culture was evaluated by the development of follicles and by the intensiveness of proliferation in the tissue (by expression of cytokeratin and Ki-67). For Groups 1, 2, 3, and 4, the mean densities of follicles per 1 mm(3) was 12.9, 12.2, 12.4, and 16.1, respectively (p1-2>0.1; p3-4ovarian tissue to 5°C before cryopreservation increases the viability of the cells in the tissue after thawing. Additionally, the efficacy of the CAM system for the culture of thawed human ovarian tissue was demonstrated.

  8. Chicken pleiotrophin: regulation of tissue specific expression by estrogen in the oviduct and distinct expression pattern in the ovarian carcinomas.

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    Jin-Young Lee

    Full Text Available Pleiotrophin (PTN is a developmentally-regulated growth factor which is widely distributed in various tissues and also detected in many kinds of carcinomas. However, little is known about the PTN gene in chickens. In the present study, we found chicken PTN to be highly conserved with respect to mammalian PTN genes (91-92.6% and its mRNA was most abundant in brain, heart and oviduct. This study focused on the PTN gene in the oviduct where it was detected in the glandular (GE and luminal (LE epithelial cells. Treatment of young chicks with diethylstilbesterol induced PTN mRNA and protein in GE and LE, but not in other cell types of the oviduct. Further, several microRNAs, specifically miR-499 and miR-1709 were discovered to influence PTN expression via its 3'-UTR which suggests that post-transcriptional regulation influences PTN expression in chickens. We also compared expression patterns and CpG methylation status of the PTN gene in normal and cancerous ovaries from chickens. Our results indicated that PTN is most abundant in the GE of adenocarcinoma of cancerous, but not normal ovaries of hens. Bisulfite sequencing revealed that 30- and 40% of -1311 and -1339 CpG sites are demethylated in ovarian cancer cells, respectively. Collectively, these results indicate that chicken PTN is a novel estrogen-induced gene expressed mainly in the oviductal epithelia implicating PTN regulation of oviduct development and egg formation, and also suggest that PTN is a biomarker for epithelial ovarian carcinoma that could be used for diagnosis and monitoring effects of therapies for the disease.

  9. Microfabrication of extracellular matrix structures using multipohoton-excited photochemistry: Application to modeling ovarian tissue in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajeti, Visar

    The extracellular matrix plays a crucial role in tissue development, differentiation and homeostasis by providing the necessary biophysical and biochemical cues for the cells. In tumors, the composition and the structure of the microenvironment is thought to be manipulated by the cancers cells to support proliferative growth and enhanced migration as means of facilitated metastasis. Current in vitro tools to address these mechanistic events in tumor progression are lacking in part due to the difficulty in recapitulating the complexity of the composition and nanoarchitecture of the tumor microenvironment. In this thesis, we explore the feasibility of multiphoton-excited photochemistry as a fabrication tool for generating in vitro scaffolds that are highly repeatable, biologically relevant and relatively affordable in a research setting. The power of this technique lays in the capabilities of crosslinking whole extracellular matrix proteins in three dimensions (3D) to recreate key topographical features of the tissue with sub-micron resolution and high fidelity. The technological developments we present here enable direct translation of matrix topographies by using the high resolution image data of the tissue samples as a fabrication template. To this effect, we have applied the fabrication technique to generate gradients of crosslinked proteins as means of studying the role of haptotaxis in ovarian and breast cancers. Our findings show that cancer cells modulate their migration velocity and persistence in response to the changes in the composition of the extracellular matrix. In addition, we have examined structural features of the stroma in relation to cancer migration dynamics. We find that by recreating highly aligned nanoarchitectural features prevalent in cancer stroma, we see permissive and enhanced cell migration with cell morphologies similar to in vivo. We believe multiphoton fabrication to be an enabling tool in the next generation of tissue scaffolding

  10. A new method for isolation of interstitial fluid from human solid tumors applied to proteomic analysis of ovarian carcinoma tissue.

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    Hanne Haslene-Hox

    Full Text Available Major efforts have been invested in the identification of cancer biomarkers in plasma, but the extraordinary dynamic range in protein composition, and the dilution of disease specific proteins make discovery in plasma challenging. Focus is shifting towards using proximal fluids for biomarker discovery, but methods to verify the isolated sample's origin are missing. We therefore aimed to develop a technique to search for potential candidate proteins in the proximal proteome, i.e. in the tumor interstitial fluid, since the biomarkers are likely to be excreted or derive from the tumor microenvironment. Since tumor interstitial fluid is not readily accessible, we applied a centrifugation method developed in experimental animals and asked whether interstitial fluid from human tissue could be isolated, using ovarian carcinoma as a model. Exposure of extirpated tissue to 106 g enabled tumor fluid isolation. The fluid was verified as interstitial by an isolated fluid:plasma ratio not significantly different from 1.0 for both creatinine and Na(+, two substances predominantly present in interstitial fluid. The isolated fluid had a colloid osmotic pressure 79% of that in plasma, suggesting that there was some sieving of proteins at the capillary wall. Using a proteomic approach we detected 769 proteins in the isolated interstitial fluid, sixfold higher than in patient plasma. We conclude that the isolated fluid represents undiluted interstitial fluid and thus a subproteome with high concentration of locally secreted proteins that may be detected in plasma for diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic monitoring by targeted methods.

  11. Continuous 900-megahertz electromagnetic field applied in middle and late-adolescence causes qualitative and quantitative changes in the ovarian morphology, tissue and blood biochemistry of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okatan, Derya Öztürk; Kaya, Haydar; Aliyazıcıoğlu, Yüksel; Demir, Selim; Çolakoğlu, Serdar; Odacı, Ersan

    2018-01-09

    The purpose of this study was to use histological and biochemical methods in order to evaluate changes taking place in the ovarian of rats exposed to the effect of a 900-megahertz (MHz) electromagnetic field (EMF) in middle and late adolescence. Twenty-four 34-d-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned equally to control, sham and EMF groups. EMF group rats were exposed to the effect of a 900-MHz EMF for 1 h a day, at the same time every day between postnatal days 35 and 59, while inside an EMF cage. Sham group rats were kept inside the EMF cage for the same time between postnatal days 35 and 59 without being exposed to any EMF effect. At the end of the study, rats' ovarian were removed and blood specimens were taken. Right ovarium tissues were subjected to routine histological procedures and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid shift and Masson's trichrome. Follicles were counted in ovarian sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The TUNEL method was used to evaluate apoptosis. Left ovarian tissue and blood specimens were investigated biochemically. Histopathological examination of EMF group ovarian tissue revealed thinning in the zona granulosa and theca layers, shrinking in granulosa cells, reduced mitotic activity and leukocyte infiltration in the follicles and stroma. Secondary follicle numbers in the EMF group were significantly lower than in the other groups. In terms of biochemistry, EMF and sham group superoxide dismutase, catalase and anti-Mullerian hormone levels and EMF group 3-nitrotyrosine values increased significantly compared to the control group. EMF and sham group serum catalase and 8-hydroxy-deoxiguanosine values increased significantly compared to the control group, and EMF group total oxidant status and oxidative stress index values were significantly higher compared to the sham and control groups. A total of 900-MHz EMF applied in middle and late adolescence may cause changes in the morphology and biochemistry of the

  12. Label-free LC-MSe in tissue and serum reveals protein networks underlying differences between benign and malignant serous ovarian tumors.

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    Wouter Wegdam

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To identify proteins and (molecular/biological pathways associated with differences between benign and malignant epithelial ovarian tumors. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES: Serum of six patients with a serous adenocarcinoma of the ovary was collected before treatment, with a control group consisting of six matched patients with a serous cystadenoma. In addition to the serum, homogeneous regions of cells exhibiting uniform histology were isolated from benign and cancerous tissue by laser microdissection. We subsequently employed label-free liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MSe to identify proteins in these serum and tissues samples. Analyses of differential expression between samples were performed using Bioconductor packages and in-house scripts in the statistical software package R. Hierarchical clustering and pathway enrichment analyses were performed, as well as network enrichment and interactome analysis using MetaCore. RESULTS: In total, we identified 20 and 71 proteins that were significantly differentially expressed between benign and malignant serum and tissue samples, respectively. The differentially expressed protein sets in serum and tissue largely differed with only 2 proteins in common. MetaCore network analysis, however inferred GCR-alpha and Sp1 as common transcriptional regulators. Interactome analysis highlighted 14-3-3 zeta/delta, 14-3-3 beta/alpha, Alpha-actinin 4, HSP60, and PCBP1 as critical proteins in the tumor proteome signature based on their relative overconnectivity. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001084. DISCUSSION: Our analysis identified proteins with both novel and previously known associations to ovarian cancer biology. Despite the small overlap between differentially expressed protein sets in serum and tissue, APOA1 and Serotransferrin were significantly lower expressed in both serum and cancer tissue samples, suggesting a tissue-derived effect in serum

  13. The use of laser microdissection in the identification of suitable reference genes for normalization of quantitative real-time PCR in human FFPE epithelial ovarian tissue samples.

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    Jing Cai

    Full Text Available Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR is a powerful and reproducible method of gene expression analysis in which expression levels are quantified by normalization against reference genes. Therefore, to investigate the potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for epithelial ovarian cancer by qPCR, it is critical to identify stable reference genes. In this study, twelve housekeeping genes (ACTB, GAPDH, 18S rRNA, GUSB, PPIA, PBGD, PUM1, TBP, HRPT1, RPLP0, RPL13A, and B2M were analyzed in 50 ovarian samples from normal, benign, borderline, and malignant tissues. For reliable results, laser microdissection (LMD, an effective technique used to prepare homogeneous starting material, was utilized to precisely excise target tissues or cells. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and nonparametric (Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare the expression differences. NormFinder and geNorm software were employed to further validate the suitability and stability of the candidate genes. Results showed that epithelial cells occupied a small percentage of the normal ovary indeed. The expression of ACTB, PPIA, RPL13A, RPLP0, and TBP were stable independent of the disease progression. In addition, NormFinder and geNorm identified the most stable combination (ACTB, PPIA, RPLP0, and TBP and the relatively unstable reference gene GAPDH from the twelve commonly used housekeeping genes. Our results highlight the use of homogeneous ovarian tissues and multiple-reference normalization strategy, e.g. the combination of ACTB, PPIA, RPLP0, and TBP, for qPCR in epithelial ovarian tissues, whereas GAPDH, the most commonly used reference gene, is not recommended, especially as a single reference gene.

  14. The use of laser microdissection in the identification of suitable reference genes for normalization of quantitative real-time PCR in human FFPE epithelial ovarian tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jing; Li, Tao; Huang, Bangxing; Cheng, Henghui; Ding, Hui; Dong, Weihong; Xiao, Man; Liu, Ling; Wang, Zehua

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a powerful and reproducible method of gene expression analysis in which expression levels are quantified by normalization against reference genes. Therefore, to investigate the potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for epithelial ovarian cancer by qPCR, it is critical to identify stable reference genes. In this study, twelve housekeeping genes (ACTB, GAPDH, 18S rRNA, GUSB, PPIA, PBGD, PUM1, TBP, HRPT1, RPLP0, RPL13A, and B2M) were analyzed in 50 ovarian samples from normal, benign, borderline, and malignant tissues. For reliable results, laser microdissection (LMD), an effective technique used to prepare homogeneous starting material, was utilized to precisely excise target tissues or cells. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and nonparametric (Kruskal-Wallis) tests were used to compare the expression differences. NormFinder and geNorm software were employed to further validate the suitability and stability of the candidate genes. Results showed that epithelial cells occupied a small percentage of the normal ovary indeed. The expression of ACTB, PPIA, RPL13A, RPLP0, and TBP were stable independent of the disease progression. In addition, NormFinder and geNorm identified the most stable combination (ACTB, PPIA, RPLP0, and TBP) and the relatively unstable reference gene GAPDH from the twelve commonly used housekeeping genes. Our results highlight the use of homogeneous ovarian tissues and multiple-reference normalization strategy, e.g. the combination of ACTB, PPIA, RPLP0, and TBP, for qPCR in epithelial ovarian tissues, whereas GAPDH, the most commonly used reference gene, is not recommended, especially as a single reference gene.

  15. Insulin improves in vitro survival of equine preantral follicles enclosed in ovarian tissue and reduces reactive oxygen species production after culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, F L N; Lunardi, F O; Lima, L F; Rocha, R M P; Bruno, J B; Magalhães-Padilha, D M; Cibin, F W S; Rodrigues, A P R; Gastal, M O; Gastal, E L; Figueiredo, J R

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of insulin concentration on the in vitro culture of equine preantral follicles enclosed in ovarian tissue. Ovarian tissue samples were immediately fixed (noncultured control) or cultured for 1 or 7 days in α-MEM(+) supplemented with 0 ng/mL, 10 ng/mL, or 10 μg/mL insulin. Ovarian tissues were processed and analyzed by classical histology. Culture medium samples were collected after 1 and 7 days of culture for steroid and reactive oxygen species (ROS) analyses. The percentage of morphologically normal follicles was greater (P culture; likewise, more (P culture in medium supplemented with 10-ng/mL insulin. Furthermore, an increase (P culture was observed only with the 10-ng/mL insulin treatment. ROS production after 1 or 7 days of culture was lower (P culture; however, treatments did not differ in steroid production. In conclusion, the use of a physiological concentration (10 ng/mL) of insulin rather than the previously reported concentration (10 μg/mL) for in vitro culture of equine preantral follicles improved follicular survival and growth and lowered oxidative stress. Results from this study shed light on new perspectives for producing an appropriate medium to improve equine preantral follicle in vitro survival and growth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Phytoestrogenic Potential of Yam Bean (Pachyrhizus erosus on Ovarian and Uterine Tissue Structure of Premenopausal Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicilia Novi Primiani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of estrogen hormone by public has significantly been improved either as prevention or treatment of disease. Menopausal issues in women are often treated using hormone replacement therapy. In regard to this, yam bean is found to contain genistein and daidzein compounds with a chemical structure that resembles estrogen hormone, therefore yam bean is categorized in the phytoestrogen group. The purpose of this study was to identify the potential of yam bean on ovarian and uterine histology of mice. This research employed a Completely Randomized Design of experimental research approach of one factor namely yam bean in three different dosage treatment: 0.3 g/kg, 0.6 g/kg, and 0.9 g/kg of yam bean for 24 days. The surgery and organ harvesting of ovary and uterus were conducted on Day 25 along with the making of histological preparat using paraffin method and Hematoxylin-eosin (HE staining. The data was then analyzed descriptively. This research found that there were both secondary and tertiary follicle proliferation as the antrum contains some estrogen level. Meanwhile, the endometrial tissue of the uterus experienced uterine glandular proliferation. To conclude, yam bean was found to be a natural estrogen source.

  17. Profiling of serum and tissue high abundance acute-phase proteins of patients with epithelial and germ line ovarian carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-Rahman Puteri

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute-phase response involves the simultaneous altered expression of serum proteins in association to inflammation, infection, injury or malignancy. Studies of the acute-phase response usually involve determination of the levels of individual acute-phase serum proteins. In the present study, the acute-phase response of patients with epithelial (EOCa and germ-line (GOCa ovarian carcinoma was investigated using the gel-based proteomic approach, a technique which allowed the simultaneous assessment of the levels of the acute-phase serum high abundance proteins. Data obtained were validated using ELISA and immunostaining of biopsy samples. Results Enhanced expression of clusterin (CLU, α1-antitrypsin, haptoglobin and leucine rich glycoprotein was detected in all patients. However, the levels of α1-antichymotrypsin (ACT was only enhanced in EOCa patients, while patients with GOCa were typically characterized by elevated levels of ceruloplasmin but lower levels of α2-HS glycoprotein. The enhanced expression of CLU in EOCa and GOCa patients and up-regulated expression of ACT specifically in EOCa patients were confirmed by ELISA. Immunohistochemical staining of biopsy samples of EOCa and GOCa patients demonstrated correlation of the acute-phase protein expression. Conclusion Patients with EOCa and GOCa demonstrated distinctive aberrant expression of serum and tissue high abundance acute-phase proteins compared to negative control women.

  18. Properties of vitrified rocky flats TRUW with different waste loadings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, T.L.; Sears, J.W.; Grandy, J.D.; Miley, D.V.; Erickson, A.W.; Farnsworth, R.N.; Larsen, E.D. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Leach rates, phase structures, and mechanical properties of simulated Rocky Flats Plant 1st and 2nd slate sludge vitrified in an arc melter are described as a function of waste to soil fraction and method of devitrification to produce the glass-ceramic waste form. Volatile, hazardous, and transuranic (TRU) surrogate metals were added to assess dissolution effects. Zirconia and titania were also added to confirm their ability as transuranic-surrogate getters.

  19. In vitro blastocyst development of post-thaw vitrified bovine oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Dutta,

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the developmental competence of post-thaw vitrified bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs in vitro.Materials and Methods: A total of 129 COCs were cryopreserved using vitrification solution comprising of 15% ethylene glycol (EG + 15% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO + 0.6 M sucrose in medium TCM-199 with 10% FBS. Immediately, within a minute they are plunged into liquid nitrogen using 0.25 ml straws. Thawing was made with a step wise dilution method. Post-thaw normal vitrified and non-vitrified oocytes were subjected to in vitro maturation and in vitro fertilization.Results: Post-thaw survival percentage of vitrified oocytes was 88.37% and maturation performance of vitrified oocytes on the basis of cumulus expansion was 81.58% as compared to non-vitrified control 93.85%. The in vitro fertilization performance of vitrified oocytes was 49.46% as compared to the non-vitrified ones (63.11%. Similarly, blastocyst formation of vitrified oocytes was 21.74% as compared to 32.47% in non-vitrified oocytes.Conclusion: Vitrification of immature bovine oocytes using 7.5% EG + 7.5% DMSO for equilibration and 15% EG +15% DMSO + 0.6 M sucrose as vitrification solution yielded better in vitro fertilization and blastocyst formation rate.

  20. In vitro oocyte fertilization and subsequent embryonic development after cryopreservation of bovine ovarian tissue, using an effective approach for oocyte collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faheem, Marwa S; Carvalhais, I; Chaveiro, A; Moreira da Silva, F

    2011-05-01

    This study was undertaken to assess dissection/puncture combined technique for collecting large number of oocytes from bovine ovaries and to determine the effect of ovarian tissue cryopreservation on the oocytes capability to undergo in vitro maturation, fertilization and subsequent embryonic development. Ovaries (n=31) of slaughtered cows were cut into small fragments using a scalpel blade and the ovarian tissues were randomly assigned to cryopreserved by slow freezing and vitrification and non cryopreserved (fresh) groups. Oocytes were collected from non-atretic follicles from fresh and post-thawing ovarian tissue by the puncture method. The advantage of this technique appeared through morphologically good quality cumulus-oocyte complex (COC) recovery rate from fresh tissue (31.7±2.0 oocytes/ovary). However, the cryopreservation affected the post thawing total and good quality COC recovery rates from slow freezing (26.6±2.0 and 23.5±2.3 oocytes/ovary, respectively) and vitrification groups (21.7±1.1 and 17.6±1.8 oocyte/ovary, respectively). The maturation rate resulted in significant differences between the fresh tissue (94.1±1.1%) and the two cryopreservation groups. Moreover, this rate was significantly higher in the slow freezing group (80.1±1.3%) than in the vitrification group (73.0±1.9%). No statistical differences were observed in the cleavage and the embryonic developmental rates between fresh tissue group and cryopreservation groups. Furthermore the number of embryos produced per animal was statistically higher for fresh tissues than for slow freezing and the vitrification groups (34.4±1.4, 27.8±3.1 and 22.0±0.7, respectively). In conclusion, dissection method followed by puncture of bovine ovaries greatly maximizes the number of good quality oocytes recovered, as well as the number of embryos obtained per animal. Ovarian tissue can be successfully cryopreserved by slow freezing and vitrification. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  1. Differentially Methylated Loci Distinguish Ovarian Carcinoma Histological Types: Evaluation of a DNA Methylation Assay in FFPE Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda E. Kelemen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Epigenomic markers can identify tumor subtypes, but few platforms can accommodate formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tumor tissue. We tested different amounts of bisulfite-converted (bs DNA from six FFPE ovarian carcinomas (OC of serous, endometrioid, and clear cell histologies and two HapMap constitutional genomes to evaluate the performance of the GoldenGate methylation assay. Methylation status at each 1,505 CpG site was expressed as β-values. Comparing 400 ng versus 250 ng bsDNA, reproducibility of the assay ranged from Spearman r2=0.41 to 0.90, indicating that β-values obtained with a lower DNA amount did not always correlate well with the higher amount. Average methylation for the six samples was higher using 250 ng (β-value = 0.45, SD=0.29 than with 400 ng (β-value = 0.36, SD=0.32. Reproducibility between duplicate HapMap samples (r2=0.76 to 0.92 was also variable. Using 400 ng input bsDNA, THBS2 and ERG were differentially methylated across all histologic types and between endometrioid and clear cell types at <0.1% false discovery rate. Methylation did not always correlate with gene expression (r2=-0.70 to 0.15. We found that lower bsDNA overestimates methylation, and, using higher bsDNA amounts, we confirmed a previous report of higher methylation of THBS2 in clear cell OC, which could provide new insight into biological pathways that distinguish OC histological types.

  2. Ovarian cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physiologic ovarian cysts; Functional ovarian cysts; Corpus luteum cysts; Follicular cysts ... and forms a cyst . This is called a follicular cyst. Another type ... blood. Ovarian cysts are more common in the childbearing years ...

  3. Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deaths than other female reproductive cancers. The sooner ovarian cancer is found and treated, the better your chance for recovery. But ovarian cancer is hard to detect early. Women with ovarian ...

  4. Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... than other ovarian tumors. About 7 percent of ovarian tumors are stromal. Germ cell tumors, which begin in the egg-producing cells. These rare ovarian cancers tend to occur in younger women. Certain ...

  5. A Simplified Method for Three-Dimensional (3-D) Ovarian Tissue Culture Yielding Oocytes Competent to Produce Full-Term Offspring in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Carolyn M.; Maeda, Yuuki; Horiuchi, Toshitaka; Yamazaki, Yukiko

    2015-01-01

    In vitro growth of follicles is a promising technology to generate large quantities of competent oocytes from immature follicles and could expand the potential of assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Isolated follicle culture is currently the primary method used to develop and mature follicles in vitro. However, this procedure typically requires complicated, time-consuming procedures, as well as destruction of the normal ovarian microenvironment. Here we describe a simplified 3-D ovarian culture system that can be used to mature multilayered secondary follicles into antral follicles, generating developmentally competent oocytes in vitro. Ovaries recovered from mice at 14 days of age were cut into 8 pieces and placed onto a thick Matrigel drop (3-D culture) for 10 days of culture. As a control, ovarian pieces were cultured on a membrane filter without any Matrigel drop (Membrane culture). We also evaluated the effect of activin A treatment on follicle growth within the ovarian pieces with or without Matrigel support. Thus we tested four different culture conditions: C (Membrane/activin-), A (Membrane/activin+), M (Matrigel/activin-), and M+A (Matrigel/activin+). We found that the cultured follicles and oocytes steadily increased in size regardless of the culture condition used. However, antral cavity formation occurred only in the follicles grown in the 3-D culture system (M, M+A). Following ovarian tissue culture, full-grown GV oocytes were isolated from the larger follicles to evaluate their developmental competence by subjecting them to in vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro fertilization (IVF). Maturation and fertilization rates were higher using oocytes grown in 3-D culture (M, M+A) than with those grown in membrane culture (C, A). In particular, activin A treatment further improved 3-D culture (M+A) success. Following IVF, two-cell embryos were transferred to recipients to generate full-term offspring. In summary, this simple and easy 3-D ovarian culture

  6. A Simplified Method for Three-Dimensional (3-D Ovarian Tissue Culture Yielding Oocytes Competent to Produce Full-Term Offspring in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn M Higuchi

    Full Text Available In vitro growth of follicles is a promising technology to generate large quantities of competent oocytes from immature follicles and could expand the potential of assisted reproductive technologies (ART. Isolated follicle culture is currently the primary method used to develop and mature follicles in vitro. However, this procedure typically requires complicated, time-consuming procedures, as well as destruction of the normal ovarian microenvironment. Here we describe a simplified 3-D ovarian culture system that can be used to mature multilayered secondary follicles into antral follicles, generating developmentally competent oocytes in vitro. Ovaries recovered from mice at 14 days of age were cut into 8 pieces and placed onto a thick Matrigel drop (3-D culture for 10 days of culture. As a control, ovarian pieces were cultured on a membrane filter without any Matrigel drop (Membrane culture. We also evaluated the effect of activin A treatment on follicle growth within the ovarian pieces with or without Matrigel support. Thus we tested four different culture conditions: C (Membrane/activin-, A (Membrane/activin+, M (Matrigel/activin-, and M+A (Matrigel/activin+. We found that the cultured follicles and oocytes steadily increased in size regardless of the culture condition used. However, antral cavity formation occurred only in the follicles grown in the 3-D culture system (M, M+A. Following ovarian tissue culture, full-grown GV oocytes were isolated from the larger follicles to evaluate their developmental competence by subjecting them to in vitro maturation (IVM and in vitro fertilization (IVF. Maturation and fertilization rates were higher using oocytes grown in 3-D culture (M, M+A than with those grown in membrane culture (C, A. In particular, activin A treatment further improved 3-D culture (M+A success. Following IVF, two-cell embryos were transferred to recipients to generate full-term offspring. In summary, this simple and easy 3-D ovarian

  7. Local geology controlled the feasibility of vitrifying Iron Age buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian B Wadsworth,; Michael J Heap,; Damby, David; Kai-Uwe Hess,; Jens Najorka,; Jérémie Vasseur,; Dominik Fahrner,; Donald B Dingwell,

    2017-01-01

    During European prehistory, hilltop enclosures made from polydisperse particle-and-block stone walling were exposed to temperatures sufficient to partially melt the constituent stonework, leading to the preservation of glassy walls called ‘vitrified forts’. During vitrification, the granular wall rocks partially melt, sinter viscously and densify, reducing inter-particle porosity. This process is strongly dependent on the solidus temperature, the particle sizes, the temperature-dependence of the viscosity of the evolving liquid phase, as well as the distribution and longevity of heat. Examination of the sintering behaviour of 45 European examples reveals that it is the raw building material that governs the vitrification efficiency. As Iron Age forts were commonly constructed from local stone, we conclude that local geology directly influenced the degree to which buildings were vitrified in the Iron Age. Additionally, we find that vitrification is accompanied by a bulk material strengthening of the aggregates of small sizes, and a partial weakening of larger blocks. We discuss these findings in the context of the debate surrounding the motive of the wall-builders. We conclude that if wall stability by bulk strengthening was the desired effect, then vitrification represents an Iron Age technology that failed to be effective in regions of refractory local geology.

  8. Local geology controlled the feasibility of vitrifying Iron Age buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Fabian B; Heap, Michael J; Damby, David E; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Najorka, Jens; Vasseur, Jérémie; Fahrner, Dominik; Dingwell, Donald B

    2017-01-12

    During European prehistory, hilltop enclosures made from polydisperse particle-and-block stone walling were exposed to temperatures sufficient to partially melt the constituent stonework, leading to the preservation of glassy walls called 'vitrified forts'. During vitrification, the granular wall rocks partially melt, sinter viscously and densify, reducing inter-particle porosity. This process is strongly dependent on the solidus temperature, the particle sizes, the temperature-dependence of the viscosity of the evolving liquid phase, as well as the distribution and longevity of heat. Examination of the sintering behaviour of 45 European examples reveals that it is the raw building material that governs the vitrification efficiency. As Iron Age forts were commonly constructed from local stone, we conclude that local geology directly influenced the degree to which buildings were vitrified in the Iron Age. Additionally, we find that vitrification is accompanied by a bulk material strengthening of the aggregates of small sizes, and a partial weakening of larger blocks. We discuss these findings in the context of the debate surrounding the motive of the wall-builders. We conclude that if wall stability by bulk strengthening was the desired effect, then vitrification represents an Iron Age technology that failed to be effective in regions of refractory local geology.

  9. How does vitrification affect oocyte viability in oocyte donation cycles? A prospective study to compare outcomes achieved with fresh versus vitrified sibling oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, M; Santaló, J; Boada, M; Clua, E; Rodríguez, I; Martínez, F; Coroleu, B; Barri, P N; Veiga, A

    2013-08-01

    (40.8 versus 33.3%) or implantation rate (21.8 versus 26.8%). The oocytes were donated by healthy, young women (≤35 years) and these results cannot be extrapolated to other populations. Outcomes obtained with vitrified oocytes are as good as with fresh oocytes and the use of vitrification can be extended to new applications, e.g. accumulation of oocytes from successive stimulations for preimplantation genetic diagnosis, for patients at risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome or in patients needing to preserve their fertility. This work was done under the auspices of the Càtedra d'Investigació en Obstetrícia i Ginecologia of the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona.

  10. Expression of benign and malignant thyroid tissue in ovarian teratomas and the importance of multimodal management as illustrated by a BRAF-positive follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Erin F; Hughes, Marybeth; Merino, Maria J; Reynolds, James C; Davis, Jeremy L; Cochran, Craig S; Celi, Francesco S

    2010-09-01

    The most common type of ovarian germ cell tumor is the teratoma. Thyroid tissue, both benign and malignant, may be a component of an ovarian teratoma. Here we review this topic and illustrate major features by presenting multimodal management of a patient with BRAF-positive disseminated follicular thyroid cancer arising in an ovarian teratoma. Malignant thyroid tissue is often difficult to distinguish from benign thyroid tissue arising in ovarian teratomas. Preoperatively, an elevated thyroglobulin (Tg) level, laboratory or clinical evidence of hyperthyroidism, or ultrasonography appearance of "struma pearl" should prompt referral to oncologist for surgical management of a possibly malignant ovarian teratoma. Postoperatively, tumor tissue should be referred to pathologists experienced with differentiating benign from malignant struma ovarii. Once diagnosed, treatment of this rare condition should be handled by a team of specialists with combined treatment modalities. We cared for woman with disseminated thyroid cancer arising in an ovarian teratoma whose history illustrates the complexity of managing ovarian teratomas with malignant thyroid tissue. At age 33 she had an intraoperative rupture of an ovarian cyst, thought to be struma ovarii. During her next pregnancy, pelvic masses were noted; biopsies revealed well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma, follicular variant. She was euthyroid, but had elevated serum Tg levels. Surgical staging demonstrated widely metastatic intraabdominal dissemination. A thyroidectomy revealed no malignancy. A post-(131)I treatment scan revealed diffuse uptake throughout the abdomen. She then developed abdominal pain and, on computed tomography, was found to have multiple intraabdominal foci of disease. Serum Tg was 264 ng/mL while on L-thyroxine for hypothyroidism and to obtain thyrotropin suppression. A 18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scan showed no pathological uptake. The tumor was found to be BRAF

  11. Survival and growth of isolated pre-antral follicles from human ovarian medulla tissue during long-term 3D culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, H L; Kristensen, S G; Jiang, H

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Can human pre-antral follicles isolated enzymatically from surplus medulla tissue survive and grow in vitro during long-term 3D culture? SUMMARY ANSWER: Secondary human follicles can develop to small antral follicles and remain hormonally active in an alginate-encapsulation culture...... during long-term culture has received only little attention. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Two to ten human pre-antral follicles were encapsulated together within an alginate bead and cultured with or without ovarian interstitial tissue for either 7 days or >30 days. Follicles were cultured in either 20......% oxygen or 5% oxygen or encapsulated in a lower concentration of alginate together with a lower concentration of FSH in high oxygen. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: A total of 395 pre-antral follicles from 16 cancer patients, aged 9-37 years, were co-cultured for either 7 days or >30 days...

  12. Standard test methods for vitrified ceramic materials for electrical applications

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1986-01-01

    1.1 These test methods outline procedures for testing samples of vitrified ceramic materials that are to be used as electrical insulation. Where specified limits are mentioned herein, they shall not be interpreted as specification limits for completed insulators. 1.2 These test methods are intended to apply to unglazed specimens, but they may be equally suited for testing glazed specimens. The report section shall indicate whether glazed or unglazed specimens were tested. 1.3 The test methods appear as follows: This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific precaution statements are given in 11.3, 13.5, and 15.3.

  13. Improved parthenogenetic development of vitrified-warmed bovine oocytes activated with 9% ethanol plus 6-DMAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Y -p; Liu, Ying; Dai, Y -p

    2009-01-01

    The objective was to compare various activation protocols on developmental potential of vitrified bovine oocytes. Bovine oocytes matured in vitro for 23 h were vitrified with EDFSF30 in open pulled straws. After warming, they were cultured in vitro for 1 h, followed by parthenogenetic activation...... evaluating other activation protocols with 9% ethanol, calcium ionophore A23187, or ionomycin alone, or in combination with DMAP or cycloheximide (CHX). In conclusion, the oocyte activation protocol affected developmental capacity of vitrified bovine oocytes; 9% ethanol (5 min) followed by 6-DMAP (4 h...

  14. Survival and growth of isolated pre-antral follicles from human ovarian medulla tissue during long-term 3D culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, H; Kristensen, S G; Jiang, H; Rasmussen, A; Andersen, C Yding

    2016-07-01

    Can human pre-antral follicles isolated enzymatically from surplus medulla tissue survive and grow in vitro during long-term 3D culture? Secondary human follicles can develop to small antral follicles and remain hormonally active in an alginate-encapsulation culture system for more than 30 days. Ovarian tissue cryopreservation followed by transplantation is a promising fertility preservation approach for cancer patients. However, transplantation of cryopreserved tissue to patients may carry the risk of re-implanting malignant cells. Grafting of follicles enzymatically isolated from ovarian tissue or developing a method for follicular culture and maturation in vitro may provide fertility to such patients without the risk of reintroducing the malignancy. However, the growth of pre-antral follicles isolated by enzymatic digestion from medulla tissue during long-term culture has received only little attention. Two to ten human pre-antral follicles were encapsulated together within an alginate bead and cultured with or without ovarian interstitial tissue for either 7 days or >30 days. Follicles were cultured in either 20% oxygen or 5% oxygen or encapsulated in a lower concentration of alginate together with a lower concentration of FSH in high oxygen. A total of 395 pre-antral follicles from 16 cancer patients, aged 9-37 years, were co-cultured for either 7 days or >30 days. A proportion of follicle (64) were removed from culture on Day 7 and assessed for viability using confocal fluorescence microscopy following calcein-AM and ethidium homodimer-1 staining or histology. The remaining follicles (331) were continued in culture for >30 days then assessed for survival and growth. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and estradiol levels were quantified in the medium. An optimized protocol for isolation of intact healthy pre-antral follicles from ovarian medulla was developed. After 7 days of culture, secondary follicles had a significantly higher survival rates compared with

  15. Frequent and increased expression of human METCAM/MUC18 in cancer tissues and metastatic lesions is associated with the clinical progression of human ovarian carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Jer Wu

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Upexpression of huMETCAM/MUC18 may be a marker for the malignant potential of ovarian carcinomas. Progression of ovarian cancer may involve increased signaling in anti-apoptosis, proliferation, survival/proliferation pathway, and angiogenesis.

  16. Ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... often due to accumulation of fluid ( ascites ). A pelvic examination may reveal an ovarian or abdominal mass . A ... to ask your doctor Pelvic radiation - discharge Images Female reproductive anatomy Ascites with ovarian cancer, CT scan ...

  17. Histopathological and Follicular Atresia Assessment of Rat’s Ovarian Tissue Following Experimental Chronic Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Zarbakhsh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background One of the important side effects in spinal cord injuries in both genders is sexual dysfunction. This study aimed at investigating histopathological changes of ovaries in the chronic phase after spinal cord injury. Methods Animals (adult female rats were divided to the following groups, Control (Co, Sham (Sh, and Spinal Cord Injury (SCI; each group contained 18 rats. The spinal cord of SCI animals was transected by the bilateral laminectomy method on level T9, while the rats of the sham group were incised in the same location without any spinal cord injury. Animals were sacrified at 7th, 14th and 21st day postsurgical intervention, then the body weight, and the weight and volume of ovaries were measured. The slices were stained by hematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid Schiff methods. The histomorphometric changes of the diameter of the follicle and ovum, and the thickness of granulosa layer were measured in different kinds of follicles including, Unilaminar Primary Follicle (UPF, Multilaminar Primary Follicle (MPF, Secondary Follicle (SF, and Tertiary Follicle (TF. Results The results showed that the animal weights were decreased in three SCI groups (P = 0.018. In the SCI groups, the diameter of follicle and ovum and the thickness of granulosa layer were significantly decreased in different kinds of follicles (P = 0.012. Also the thickness of zona pellucida and theca interna were significantly decreased in UPF, SF, and TF in the SCI groups on 14th and 21st day (P = 0.024. The histopathologic examination revealed widespread ovarian follicle atresia in the SCI groups on the 14th and 21st day, including numerous cell debris and inflammatory cells in the antrum atretic follicles. The ovarian stroma showed edema, fibrosis, hypercellularity, and vasodilation in the SCI group, compared to the sham or control groups. Conclusions The histopathlogic data indicated that after spinal cord injury many histologic parameter changes occurred and

  18. Melatonin inhibits apoptosis and improves the developmental potential of vitrified bovine oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue-Ming; Hao, Hai-Sheng; Du, Wei-Hua; Zhao, Shan-Jiang; Wang, Hao-Yu; Wang, Na; Wang, Dong; Liu, Yan; Qin, Tong; Zhu, Hua-Bin

    2016-03-01

    Vitrification of oocytes has been shown to be closely associated with increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptotic events. However, little information is available the effect of melatonin on the ROS levels and apoptotic events in vitrified oocytes. Therefore, we studied the effect of melatonin on ROS and apoptotic events in vitrified bovine oocytes by supplementing vitrification solution or in vitro maturation (IVM) and vitrification solution with 10(-9) m melatonin. We analyzed the ROS, mitochondrial Ca(2+) (mCa(2+) ) and membrane potential (ΔΨm), externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS), caspase-3 activation, DNA fragmentation, mRNA expression levels of Bax and Bcl2 l1, and developmental potential of vitrified bovine oocytes. Vitrified bovine oocytes exhibited increased levels of ROS, mCa(2+) , Bax mRNA, and caspase-3 protein and higher rates of PS externalization and DNA fragmentation, and decreased ΔΨm and Bcl2 l1 mRNA expression level. However, melatonin supplementation in vitrification solution or IVM and vitrification solution significantly decreased the levels of ROS, mCa(2+) , Bax mRNA expression, and caspase-3 protein, and PS externalization and DNA fragmentation rates, and increased the ΔΨm and Bcl2 l1 mRNA expression level in vitrified oocytes, resulting in an increased developmental ability of vitrified bovine oocytes after parthenogenetic activation. The developmental ability of vitrified oocytes with melatonin supplementation in IVM and vitrification solution was similar to that of fresh ones. This study showed that supplementing the IVM and vitrification medium or vitrification medium with 10(-9) m melatonin significantly decreased the ROS level and inhibited apoptotic events of vitrified bovine oocytes, consequently increasing their developmental potential. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Ultrastructure and Development of Vitrified/Warmed Bovine Oocytes Matured with 9-cis Retinoic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Aida; Gómez, Enrique; Antolín, Isaac; Duque, Paloma; Hidalgo, C.O. (Carlos); Alonso, Cristina; Tamargo, Carolina; Fernández, Lina; Carbajo, Maite; Facal, Nieves; Caamaño, J.N. (José); Díez, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    In this work we analyze the effects of vitrification on the ultrastructure and developmental ability of bovine oocytes matured in the presence of 9-cis-retinoic acid (RA). Bovine cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were matured in a basic medium containing 10% fetal calf serum (FCS), 9-cis-RA or polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Mature oocytes were vitrified using the Open Pulled Straw method with minor modifications. A group of fresh and vitrified/warmed COCs was fixed for ultrastructural analysis, wh...

  20. Prevalence of porcine circovirus-2 DNA-positive ovarian and uterine tissues in gilts culled due to reproductive disturbance in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearodwong, Pachara; Srisuwatanasagul, Sayamon; Teankum, Komkrich; Tantilertcharoen, Rachod; Tummaruk, Padet

    2015-06-01

    The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2) DNA-positive ovarian and uterine tissues in gilts culled due to reproductive disturbance in Thailand. Tissues (70 ovaries and 102 uteri) and serum (n = 102) samples from 102 gilts were included. PCV-2 DNA was detected by using polymerase chain reactions. The localisation of PCV-2 antigen was determined by immunohistochemistry, and PCV-2 antibody was evaluated by ELISA. PCV-2 DNA was detected in 30.0 % (21/70) of the ovaries and in 45.1 % (46/102) of the uteri. Age did not influence the frequency of PCV-2 DNA detection in these reproductive organs of gilts (P > 0.05). The prevalence of PCV-2 DNA-positive uterine tissue in gilts culled due to non-reproductive problems (20.0 %) was lower than gilts culled due to abortion (85.0 %), abnormal vaginal discharge (47.5 %) and anoestrus (53.5 %) (P gilts with high antibody titres (23.0 %) was lower than in gilts with low antibody titres (57.6 %) and seronegative gilts (64.5 %) (P gilts.

  1. Candidate gene expression in Bos indicus ovarian tissues: pre-pubertal and post-pubertal heifers in diestrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Morena Del Cambre Amaral Weller

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Growth factors such as bone morphogenetic proteins 6, 7, 15 and two isoforms of transforming growth factor-beta (BMP6, BMP7, BMP15, TGFB1 and TGFB2 and insulin-like growth factor system act as local regulators of ovarian follicular development. To elucidate if these factors as well as others candidate genes such as estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1, growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9, follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR, luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR, bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type 2 (BMPR2, type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR1, and key steroidogenic enzymes cytochrome P450 aromatase and 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (CYP19A1 and HSD3B1 could modulate or influence diestrus on the onset of puberty in Brahman heifers, their ovarian mRNA expression was measured before and after puberty (luteal phase. Six post-pubertal (POST heifers were euthanized on the luteal phase of their second cycle, confirmed by corpus luteum observation, and six pre-pubertal (PRE heifers were euthanized in the same day. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of FSHR, BMP7, CYP19A1, IGF1 and IGFR1 mRNA was greater in PRE heifers, when contrasted to POST heifers. The expression of LHR and HSD3B1 was lower in PRE heifers. Differential expression of ovarian genes could be associated with changes in follicular dynamics and different cell populations that have emerged as consequence of puberty and the luteal phase. The emerging hypothesis is that BMP7 and IGF1 are co-expressed and may modulate the expression of FSHR, LHR and IGFR1 and CYP19A1. BMP7 could influence the down-regulation of LHR and up-regulation of FSHR and CYP19A1, which mediates the follicular dynamics in heifer ovaries. Up-regulation of IGF1 expression pre-puberty, compared to post-puberty diestrus, correlates with increased levels FSHR and CYP19A1. Thus, BMP7 and IGF1 may play synergic roles and were predicted to interact, from the expression data (P = 0

  2. Carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone (FCCP) pre-exposure ensures follicle integrity during in vitro culture of ovarian tissue but not during cryopreservation in the domestic cat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanpradit, Nae; Chatdarong, Kaywalee; Comizzoli, Pierre

    2016-12-01

    Temporary and reversible downregulation of metabolism may improve the survival of tissues exposed to non-physiological conditions during transport, in vitro culture, and cryopreservation. The objectives of the study were to (1) optimize the concentration and duration of carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone (FCCP-a mitochondrial uncoupling agent) exposures for biopsies of domestic cat ovarian tissue and (2) examine the effects of FCCP pre-exposures on follicle integrity after tissue culture and/or cryopreservation. Biopsies of cat ovarian tissue were first treated with various concentrations of FCCP (0, 10, 40, or 200 nM) for 10 or 120 min to determine the most suitable pre-exposure conditions. Based on these results, tissues were pre-exposed to 200 nM FCCP for 120 min for the subsequent studies on culture and cryopreservation. In all experiments and for each treatment group, tissue activity and integrity were measured by mitochondrial membrane potential (relative optical density of rhodamine 123 fluorescence), follicular viability (calcein assay), follicular morphology (histology), granulosa cell proliferation (Ki-67 immunostaining), and follicular density. Ovarian tissues incubated with 200 nM FCCP for 120 min led to the lowest mitochondrial activity (1.17 ± 0.09; P  0.05). After 2 days of in vitro culture, percentage of viable follicles (78.8 ± 8.9 %) in similar pre-exposure conditions was higher (P  0.05). Interestingly, percentages of cellular proliferation and follicular density were unaltered by the FCCP exposures. Based on the indicators mentioned above, the FCCP-treated tissue fragments did not have a better follicle integrity after freezing and thawing. Pre-exposure to 200 nM FCCP during 120 min protects and enhances the follicle integrity in cat ovarian tissue during short-term in vitro culture. However, FCCP does not appear to exert a beneficial or detrimental effect during ovarian tissue cryopreservation.

  3. Ovarian damage due to cyst removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perlman, Signe; Kjer, Jens J

    2016-01-01

    laparoscopically for 393 benign cysts with a diagnosis of either endometrioma (n = 294) or dermoid cyst (n = 99). The microscopic existence of ovarian tissue in the cystectomy specimens were compared and correlation between CA 125 and size of cysts was examined. RESULTS: In total, 80.3% endometrioma cystectomies...... disclosed ovarian stroma compared with 17.2% of the resected dermoid cysts (p ... (p ovarian tissue during laparoscopic surgery is significantly higher for endometriomas than for dermoid cysts....

  4. Characterization of porcine multipotent stem/stromal cells derived from skin, adipose, and ovarian tissues and their differentiation in vitro into putative oocyte-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Seung-Hee; Kumar, Basavarajappa Mohana; Kang, Eun-Ju; Lee, Yeon-Mi; Kim, Tae-Ho; Ock, Sun-A; Lee, Sung-Lim; Jeon, Byeong-Gyun; Rho, Gyu-Jin

    2011-08-01

    The present study evaluated the alkaline phosphatase activity, cell cycle stage, expression of markers and early transcriptional factors, and in vitro differentiation into selected cell lineages of porcine stem/stromal cells (SCs) isolated from skin (SSCs), adipose, and ovarian (OSCs) tissues. Skin and adipose SCs were isolated from a 6-month-old miniature pig, whereas OSCs were isolated from a newly born piglet. Isolated cells exhibited fibroblast-like cell population with significant renewal capacity and formed colonies by cells out-growth. All cells were positive for alkaline phosphatase activity and showed a relatively lower population at G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. SCs derived from all tissues were strongly positive for cell surface markers, such as CD29, CD44, CD90, and vimentin. Further, relatively lower expression of cytokeratin and immunophenotype markers, such as major histocompatibility complex II (MHCII) and swine leukocyte antigen (SLA), was also observed. SCs derived from all tissues positively expressed the transcription factors, such as Oct-3/4, Nanog, and Sox-2. After induction, all SCs successfully differentiated into osteocytes and adipocytes and expressed the lineage specific marker genes. Further, cells from all tissues exhibited their potential for in vitro oogenesis with morphological changes and expression of markers during the germ-cell formation, namely Oct-4, growth differentiation factor 9b, c-Mos, Vasa, deleted in azoospermia-like gene, zona pellucida C, and follicle stimulating hormone receptor. Apart from basic features and selected lineage potential among all types of cells, OSCs possessed a greater ability to differentiate into the germ cell lineage in vitro.

  5. Neovascularisation of the ovary post ligation of ovarian vessels in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The viable ovarian tissues noticed on histology were evidence of revascularization suggestive of newer invasion of blood vessels from the ovarian attachment from the retroperitoneal tissues and likely from the subcutaneous supplies. Consequently, it is not advisable to neuter a bitch by ligation of the ovarian vessels ...

  6. Expression of CPEB, GAPDH and U6snRNA in cervical and ovarian tissue during cancer development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christina Neigaard; Ketabi, Zohreh; Rosenstierne, Maiken Worsøe

    2009-01-01

    with involvement of cytoplasmic polyadenylation elements (CPEs) in the messengers. We here show that the mRNA levels of one of the four known CPE-binding proteins (CPEBs), the CPEB3, were downregulated in HPV-positive cervical cancers, whereas in ovarian cancer the CPEB1 mRNA level was downregulated. In addition......, we showed that the RNA levels of the widely used reference marker GAPDH were upregulated in both cancer forms, and the level of the reference marker U6snRNA was upregulated in cervical cancers. Moreover, a possible correlation between the degree of U6snRNA upregulation and cervical cancer propagation...... was shown. These changes observed in CPEB1 and CPEB3 might indicate regulatory functions of CPEBs in cancer development of HPV-positive and HPV-negative tumors, respectively, and the U6snRNA, GAPDH mRNA and CPEB1 mRNA levels may be useful as tumor markers for genital cancers although further investigations...

  7. Assessing HER2 amplification by IHC, FISH, and real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis (real-time PCR) following LCM in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue from 40 women with ovarian cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hillig, Thore; Thode, J?rgen; Breinholt, Marie F; Franzmann, Maria-Benedicte; Pedersen, Carsten; Lund, Flemming; Mygind, Henrik; S?l?tormos, Gy?rgy; Rudnicki, Martin

    2012-01-01

    We compare HER2 receptor amplification analysis by immunohistochemistry (IHC), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) DNA copy-number assay following laser capture microdissection (LCM) in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue from 40 women with verified ovarian cancer. We speculate that LCM should result in a more accurate assessment of HER2 amplification in our real-time PCR assay compared with IHC and FISH. HER2 overexpression m...

  8. Microproteomics by liquid extraction surface analysis: application to FFPE tissue to study the fimbria region of tubo-ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisztorski, Maxence; Fatou, Benoit; Franck, Julien; Desmons, Annie; Farré, Isabelle; Leblanc, Eric; Fournier, Isabelle; Salzet, Michel

    2013-04-01

    We have developed a new method for rapid analysis of a specific region on formalin fixed and paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue sections. This method combines advantages of direct tissue MS analysis keeping histological information and conventional proteomics approaches for confident identification of proteins in complex sample. After histological annotation, heat-induced antigen retrieval is performed on FFPE tissue. Using a chemical inkjet printer, trypsin is deposited on discrete regions of less than 1 mm². After protein digestion, a liquid extraction is performed to retrieve all the peptides. Data coming from identification of proteins in cancer and benign region are compared. In total, 3649 unique peptides were identified (with a peptide strict false discovery rate less than 1%) corresponding to 983 and 792 nonredundant protein groups identified in benign and cancer region, respectively. A total of 123 protein groups are found only in cancer region and 315 are specific to the benign part. From these data, it has been possible to obtain different important signaling pathways involved in cancer processes and some proteins already known as biomarkers. This new approach using a combination of localized on-tissue protein digestion and liquid microextraction followed by LC-MS/MS analysis is useful for advancing our understanding of cancer biology. It is a rapid and innovative technique that will contribute positively to clinical proteomics. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Ovarian serous cystadenoma with ectopic adrenal tissue in a 65-year-old patient: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çağdaş Şahin

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Ectopic adrenal tissues are generally asymptomatic and revealed incidentally during surgery; however some cases have demonstrated the risk of neoplastic transformation. Therefore, surgeons must be aware of this rare entity that bears the risk of malignancy, and should surgically remove all suspicious lesions.

  10. In-straw cryoprotectant dilution of IVP bovine blastocysts vitrified in hand-pulled glass micropipettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, A D; Forell, F; Feltrin, C; Rodrigues, J L

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of two ethylene glycol-based vitrification solutions on in vitro and in vivo survival after in-straw cryoprotectant dilution of vitrified in vitro-produced bovine embryos. Day-7 expanded blastocysts were selected according to diameter (> or = 180 microm) and osmotic characteristics and randomly assigned to one of three groups (i) VSa: vitrification in 40% EG+17.1% SUC+0.1% PVA; (ii) VSb: vitrification in 20% EG+20% DMSO; (iii) control: non-vitrified embryos. Vitrification was performed in hand-pulled glass micropipettes (GMP) and cryoprotectant dilution in 0.25 ml straws after warming in a plastic tube. Embryo viability was assessed by re-expansion and hatching rates after 72 h of IVC and by pregnancy rates after direct transfer of vitrified embryos. No differences in re-expansion rates were observed between vitrified groups after 24 h in culture (VSa=84.5%; VSb=94.8%). However, fewer VSa embryos (55.2%, Pstraw cryoprotectant dilution and direct embryo transfer.

  11. Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts About Gynecologic Cancer campaign. The campaign helps women get the facts about gynecologic cancer, providing important “inside knowledge” about their bodies and health. What is ovarian cancer? Cancer is a disease ...

  12. Uptake and selective partitioning of dietary lipids to ovarian and muscle tissue of maturing female coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch, during secondary oocyte growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald B; Kroeger, Eric L; Reichert, William L; Carter, Cameron S; Rust, Michael B

    2017-06-01

    Female coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch, were fed one of two experimental feeds containing lipids with markedly different stable 13 C isotope signatures during the late cortical alveolus, lipid droplet, and vitellogenesis stages of secondary oocyte growth. Ovarian and muscle lipids fatty acid concentrations were significantly affected by treatment during all three stages of development. Stable 13 C isotope analyses confirmed that dietary lipids were incorporated into both ovarian and muscle lipids during all three stages and revealed that ovarian lipids were more affected than muscle lipids during vitellogenesis. Arachidonic acid (ARA) was incorporated into ovarian lipids at the highest rate of all fatty acids examined with the greatest uptake observed during the cortical alveolus and lipid droplet stages of development. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was incorporated into ovarian lipids at the next highest rate with the greatest uptake observed during the lipid droplet stage of development. The presence of an ovary specific, fatty acid transfer mechanism is proposed. Results from this study demonstrate the ability to greatly alter the fatty acid composition of ovarian lipids through a dietary change during secondary oocyte growth and may be of great interest to producers of farmed salmon and salmon broodstock programs. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Predictive value of serum HCG concentrations in pregnancies achieved after single fresh or vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oron, Galia; Shavit, Tal; Esh-Broder, Efrat; Weon-Young, Son; Tulandi, Togas; Holzer, Hananel

    2017-09-01

    Possible differences between serum HCG levels in pregnancies achieved after transfer of a single fresh or a vitrified-warmed blastocyst were evaluated. Out of 1130 single blastocyst transfers resulting in positive HCG results, 789 were single fresh blastocyst transfers and 341 single vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfers. The initial serum HCG levels of 869 clinical intrauterine pregnancies were evaluated, 638 after the transfer of a single fresh blastocysts and 231 after the transfer of a single vitrified-warmed blastocysts. The HCG levels from cycles resulting in a clinical intrauterine pregnancy were significantly higher after the transfer of a single vitrified-warmed blastocyst (383 ± 230 IU/l) versus a fresh transfer (334 ± 192 IU/l; P = 0.01). Threshold values for predicting a clinical pregnancy for a fresh blastocyst were 111 IU/l and for a vitrified-warmed blastocyst 137 IU/l. Our study shows that the overall beta-HCG levels are comparable after the transfer of a fresh or vitrified-warmed blastocyst, suggesting that vitrification most probably does not affect the ability of the embryos to produce beta-HCG. This study further shows that when clinicians counsel patients, they should take into account that higher HCG levels are needed after a vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfer to predict a clinical intrauterine pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Egg donation of vitrified oocytes bank produces similar pregnancy rates by blastocyst transfer when compared to fresh cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Thais S; Aquino, Ana Paula; Barros, Bruna; Mazetto, Raquel; Nicolielo, Mariana; Kimati, Carolina M; Devecchi, Talita; Bonetti, Tatiana C S; Serafini, Paulo C; Motta, Eduardo L A

    2017-08-16

    Advances in reproductive techniques, mainly the introduction of oocyte vitrification, have provided the opportunity to conceive from oocyte banks. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of fresh and vitrified oocytes in an egg donation program following blastocyst transfer. This retrospective observational study included 504 oocyte donation cycles. All donor women were younger than 30 years of age. The recipient cycles were divided into two groups: fresh oocytes (n = 78) or vitrified oocytes (n = 426). All oocytes were fertilized by ICSI using ejaculated sperm, followed by blastocyst transfer. Endometrium preparation was performed with estradiol valerate plus micronized progesterone according to standard protocols. Recipients were of similar age (fresh 42.0 ± 4.5 years vs vitrified 41.8 ± 4.8 years; p = 0.790). The fresh group received more mature oocytes for injection compared to the vitrified group (10.1 ± 2.8 vs 9.2 ± 2.2; p = 0.005). The two pronuclei (2PN) rate (74.5 vs 77.4%; p = 0.195) and blastocyst rate (48.8 vs 51.6%; 0.329) were similar between the fresh and vitrified groups, respectively. The rates of clinical pregnancy were 60.9% in the fresh and 59.0% in the vitrified groups (p = 0.771). Our findings suggest that vitrified oocytes result in similar pregnancy rates when compared to fresh oocytes with blastocyst transfer in an egg donation program. Moreover, vitrified oocytes may allow for a better cycle schedule, starting with a lower number of oocytes to be fertilized. Therefore, we hypothesize that egg banks with vitrified oocytes could be safely utilized in an egg donation program.

  15. Alteration of HGF and TSP-1 expression in ovarian carcinoma associated with clinical features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Kong, Beihua; Qu, Xun

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the expression levels of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) with the clinical pathological factors in ovarian cancer, and the correlation between HGF and TSP-1 expression at the protein level. Immunohistochemistry was applied to detect the location and expression of HGF and TSP-1 protein in ovarian cancer and benign ovarian tumor tissue. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was applied to detect HGF and TSP-1 gene mRNA expression in ovarian cancer and benign ovarian tumor tissue. The level and positive expression rate of HGF mRNA in ovarian cancer tissue was significantly higher than in ovarian adenoma tissues. The positive expression of HGF protein in ovarian cancer was related with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage and lymph node metastasis. The level and positive expression rate of TSP-1 mRNA in ovarian cancer tissue was lower than in ovarian adenoma. The absence expression of TSP-1 protein in ovarian cancer was significantly related with FIGO stage and histological grade. The intensity of these positive expressions in ovarian cancer tissues were significant negatively associated with each other. Abnormal expression of HGF and TSP-1 may be related to malignant progression of ovarian cancer and associated in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2011 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  16. Expression of c-Kit and PDGFRα in epithelial ovarian tumors and tumor stroma

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Cunjian; Li, Li; Chen, Keming; LIN, SHENGRONG; Liu, Xiangqiong

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of c-Kit and platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα) in epithelial ovarian tumor cells and tumor stroma. The expression of c-Kit and PDGFRα in 71 malignant or benign epithelial ovarian tumor tissues and 20 normal ovarian tissues was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. The expression of c-Kit and PDGFRα in 71 malignant epithelial ovarian tumors and tumor stroma tissue samples was analyzed. A significant increase (P

  17. Prooxidant Effects of Verbascoside, a Bioactive Compound from Olive Oil Mill Wastewater, on In Vitro Developmental Potential of Ovine Prepubertal Oocytes and Bioenergetic/Oxidative Stress Parameters of Fresh and Vitrified Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Dell'Aquila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Verbascoside (VB is a bioactive polyphenol from olive oil mill wastewater with known antioxidant activity. Oxidative stress is an emerging problem in assisted reproductive technology (ART. Juvenile ART is a promising topic because, in farm animals, it reduces the generation gap and, in human reproductive medicine, it helps to overcome premature ovarian failure. The aim of this study was to test the effects of VB on the developmental competence of ovine prepubertal oocytes and the bioenergetic/oxidative stress status of fresh and vitrified oocytes. In fresh oocytes, VB exerted prooxidant short-term effects, that is, catalase activity increase and uncoupled increases of mitochondria and reactive oxygen species (ROS fluorescence signals, and long-term effects, that is, reduced blastocyst formation rate. In vitrified oocytes, VB increased ROS levels. Prooxidant VB effects in ovine prepubertal oocytes could be related to higher VB accumulation, which was found as almost one thousand times higher than that reported in other cell systems in previous studies. Also, long exposure times of oocytes to VB, throughout the duration of in vitro maturation culture, may have contributed to significant increase of oocyte oxidation. Further studies are needed to identify lower concentrations and/or shorter exposure times to figure out VB antioxidant effects in juvenile ARTs.

  18. In-straw cryoprotectant dilution for bovine embryos vitrified using Cryotop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Yasushi; Aikawa, Yoshio; Hirai, Tomokazu; Hashiyada, Yutaka; Yamanouchi, Tadayuki; Misumi, Koji; Ohtake, Masaki; Somfai, Tamas; Kobayashi, Shuji; Saito, Norio; Matoba, Satoko; Konishi, Kazuyuki; Imai, Kei

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an in-straw dilution method suitable for 1-step bovine embryo transfer of vitrified embryos using the Cryotop vitrification-straw dilution (CVSD) method. The development of embryos vitrified using the CVSD method was compared with those of embryos cryopreserved using in-straw vitrification-dilution (ISVD) and conventional slow freezing, outside dilution of straw (SFODS) methods. In Experiment 1, in vitro-produced (IVP) embryos cryopreserved using the CVSD method were diluted, warmed and exposed to the dilution solution at various times. When vitrified IVP embryos were exposed to the dilution solution for 30 min after warming, the rates of embryos developing to the hatched blastocyst stage after 72 h of culture (62.0-72.5%) were significantly lower (Pembryos exposed to the solution for 5 and 10 min (82.4-94.3%), irrespective of supplementation with 0.3 M sucrose in the dilution solution. In Experiment 2, the rate of embryos developing to the hatching blastocyst stage after 48 h of culture in IVP embryos cryopreserved using the SFODS method (75.0%) was significantly (Pembryos cryopreserved using the CVSD and ISVD methods (93.2 and 97.3%, respectively). In Experiment 3, when in vivo-produced embryos that had been cryopreserved using the CVSD, ISVD and SFODS methods and fresh embryos were transferred to recipient animals, no significant differences were observed in the conception and delivery rates among groups. In Experiment 4, when IVP embryos derived from oocytes collected by ovum pick-up that had been cryopreserved using the CVSD and ISVD methods and fresh embryos were transferred to recipient animals, no significant differences were observed in the conception rates among groups. Our results indicate that this simplified regimen of warming and diluting Cryotop-vitrified embryos may enable 1-step bovine embryo transfer without the requirement of a microscope or other laboratory equipment.

  19. Rescue of vitrified-warmed bovine oocytes with rho-associated coiled-coil kinase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In-Sul; Hara, Hiromasa; Chung, Hak-Jae; Hirabayashi, Masumi; Hochi, Shinichi

    2013-08-01

    Cryotolerance of matured bovine oocytes is not fully practical even though a promising vitrification procedure with a ultrarapid cooling rate was applied. The present study was conducted to investigate whether recovery culture of vitrified-warmed bovine oocytes with an inhibitor (Y-27632) of Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK) can improve the developmental potential after in vitro fertilization (IVF) and in vitro culture. Immediately after warming, almost all oocytes appeared to be morphological normal. Treatment of the postwarming oocytes with 10 μM Y-27632 for 2 h resulted in the significantly higher oocyte survival rate before IVF as well as higher cleavage rate and blastocyst formation rate. Quality analysis of the resultant blastocysts in terms of total cell number and apoptotic cell ratio also showed the positive effect of the Y-27632 treatment. Time-dependent change in mitochondrial activity of the vitrified-warmed oocytes was not influenced by ROCK inhibition during the period of recovery culture. However, the ability of ooplasm to support single-aster formation was improved by the ROCK inhibition. Thus, inhibition of ROCK activity in vitrified-warmed bovine oocytes during a short-term recovery culture can lead to higher developmental competence, probably due to decreased apoptosis and normalized function of the microtubule-organizing center.

  20. Crucial surviving aspects for vitrified in vitro-produced bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudano, Mateus José; Paschoal, Daniela Martins; da Silva Rascado, Tatiana; Crocomo, Letícia Ferrari; Magalhães, Luis Carlos Oña; Junior, Alício Martins; Machado, Rui; da Cruz Landim-Alvarenga, Fernanda

    2014-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to correlate some parameters (cleavage, blastocyst production, quality degree score, total cell number, fresh apoptosis and lipid content) with embryo survival after cryopreservation. A total of 1727 in vitro-produced bovine blastocysts were used to establish the parameters (mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM)) for cleavage (85.6 ± 0.8), blastocyst production (39.9 ± 1.4), quality degree score (1.6 ± 0.1), total cell number (140.1 ± 2.9), fresh apoptosis (20.8 ± 1.1) and lipid content (21.3 ± 0.8 droplets). On the same way 1316 blastocysts were vitrified for the determination of post-cryopreservation embryo survival (49.4 ± 1.9). Fresh apoptosis rate and total lipid droplets value were correlated (P embryo survival after cryopreservation (r = 0.91 and r = 0.59; respectively). However, cleavage, blastocyst production, quality degree score and total cell number were not correlated (P > 0.05) with embryo cryotolerance (r = 0.23, r = 0.38, r = 0.22 and r = 0.28; respectively). Therefore, the increased lipid content was moderately correlated with apoptosis in vitrified blastocysts. On the other hand, increased apoptosis in fresh blastocysts was strongly correlated with apoptosis in vitrified blastocysts, which indicated that the apoptosis rate in fresh embryos was a better parameter than the lipid content to predict post-vitrification embryo survival.

  1. Gene expression profiles of vitrified in vitro- and in vivo-derived bovine blastocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksu, Digdem Aktoprakligil; Agca, Cansu; Aksu, Soner; Bagis, Haydar; Akkoc, Tolga; Caputcu, Arzu Tas; Arat, Sezen; Taskin, Ali Cihan; Kizil, Sedat H; Karasahin, Tahir; Akyol, Numan; Satilmis, Muharrem; Sagirkaya, Hakan; Ustuner, Burcu; Nur, Zekeriya; Agca, Yuksel

    2012-09-01

    Vitrification is becoming a preferred method for pre-implantation embryo cryopreservation. The objective of this study was to determine the differentially expressed genes of in vivo- and in vitro-produced bovine embryos after vitrification. In vitro- (IVF) and in vivo-derived (IVV) bovine blastocysts were identified as follows: in vitro-produced fresh (IVF-F), in vitro-produced vitrified (IVF-V), in vivo-derived fresh (IVV-F), in vivo-derived vitrified (IVV-V). The microarray results showed that 53 genes were differentially regulated between IVF and IVV, and 121 genes were differentially regulated between fresh and vitrified blastocysts (P vitro bovine blastocyst production protocols used in this study caused no major gene expression differences compared to those of in vivo-produced blastocysts. After vitrification, however, in vitro-produced blastocysts showed major gene expression differences compared to in vivo blastocysts. This study suggests that in vitro-produced embryos are of comparable quality to their in vivo counterparts. Vitrification of in vitro blastocysts, on the other hand, causes significant up-regulation of genes that are involved in stress responses. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Effects of vitrified and nonvitrified sugars on phosphatidylcholine fluid-to-gel phase transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, K L; Lei, Y P; Anderson, M; Martin, S; Bryant, G

    2000-04-01

    DSC was used to study the ability of glass-forming sugars to affect the gel-to-fluid phase transition temperature, T(m), of several phosphatidylcholines during dehydration. In the absence of sugars, T(m) increased as the lipid dried. Sugars diminished this increase, an effect we explain using the osmotic and volumetric properties of sugars. Sugars vitrifying around fluid phase lipids lowered T(m) below the transition temperature of the fully hydrated lipid, T(o). The extent to which T(m) was lowered below T(o) ranged from 12 degrees to 57 degrees, depending on the lipids' acyl chain composition. Sugars vitrifying around gel phase lipids raised T(m) during the first heating scan in the calorimeter, then lowered it below T(o) in subsequent scans of the sample. Ultrasound measurements of the mechanical properties of a typical sugar-glass indicate that it is sufficiently rigid to hinder the lipid gel-to-fluid transition. The effects of vitrification on T(m) are explained using the two-dimensional Clausius-Clapeyron equation to model the mechanical stress in the lipid bilayer imposed by the glassy matrix. Dextran and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) also vitrified but did not depress T(m) during drying. Hydration data suggest that the large molecular volumes of these polymers caused their exclusion from the interbilayer space during drying.

  3. Biobanking of patient and patient-derived xenograft ovarian tumour tissue : efficient preservation with low and high fetal calf serum based methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkema, Nicolette G.; Tomar, Tushar; Duiker, Evelien W.; Meersma, Gert Jan; Klip, Harry; van der Zee, Ate G. J.; Wisman, G. Bea A.; de Jong, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Using patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) for preclinical cancer research demands proper storage of tumour material to facilitate logistics and to reduce the number of animals needed. We successfully established 45 subcutaneous ovarian cancer PDXs, reflecting all histological subtypes, with an overall

  4. Ovarian Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... whether it is fluid-filled, solid, or mixed) Pregnancy test to rule out pregnancy Hormone level tests to see if there are hormone-related problems ... to "false positives." A false positive is a test result that says a woman has ovarian cancer when she does ... cysts are common during pregnancy. Typically, these ...

  5. Expression of c-Kit and PDGFRα in epithelial ovarian tumors and tumor stroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Cunjian; Li, Li; Chen, Keming; Lin, Shengrong; Liu, Xiangqiong

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of c-Kit and platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα) in epithelial ovarian tumor cells and tumor stroma. The expression of c-Kit and PDGFRα in 71 malignant or benign epithelial ovarian tumor tissues and 20 normal ovarian tissues was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. The expression of c-Kit and PDGFRα in 71 malignant epithelial ovarian tumors and tumor stroma tissue samples was analyzed. A significant increase (Povarian tumors (50.7%) when compared to normal ovarian tissues (10.0%) or benign ovarian tumors (20.0%). The PDGFRα expression rate in malignant ovarian tumors (63.4%) was also significantly higher (Povarian tissues (15.0%) or benign ovarian tumors (25.0%). c-Kit was expressed in only 4.2% of the tumor stroma samples, which was significantly lower than the expression of malignant ovarian tumors (Pstroma (87.3%) was significantly higher than that of the malignant ovarian tumors (Povarian tumors than in the benign ovarian tumors or normal tissues. In the malignant ovarian tumor stroma, c-Kit expression is low and PDGFRα expression is high, and the differential changes of c-kit and PDGFRα suggest distinct roles in ovarian cancer.

  6. Tubo-ovarian actinomycosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shroff C

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycotic infection of the female genital tract is rare. Actinomycosis is a chronic suppurative granulomatous infection that is characterized by formation of abscesses, multiple draining sinuses and appearance of tangled mycelial masses or granules in the discharges and tissue sections. 2 cases of tubo-ovarian actinomycosis are reported. The 1st case presented clinical with gastrointestinal symptoms and a ventral scar hernia following an operation for a non-healing abdominal wound 6 months earlier. The 2nd case sought medical attention for backache and leucorrhea of 4 years′ duration. Exploratory laparotomy in the 1st case revealed tubo-ovarian masses; the vermiform appendix was not traceable. The uterine cavity in the 2nd case harbored a wooden stick. Direct extension from established ileocacal actinomycosis was believed to involve the female genital adnexae in the past. Association of tubo-ovarian actinomycosis with the presence of a foreign body in the female genital tract has been reported sporadically in the literature, yet an increase in the incidence may be expected because of the frequent use of intrauterine contraceptive devices in recent times. It is suggested that in women presenting clinically with vague abdominal symptoms, backache and discharge, actinomycosis should be considered and ruled out with the help of cytologic and proper microbial culture methods. Once the diagnosis is established, the infection can be treated with good results with penicillin.

  7. Comparison of ectopic pregnancy risk among transfers of embryos vitrified on day 3, day 5, and day 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Tong; Chen, Hong; Fu, Rong; Chen, Qiuju; Wang, Yun; Mol, Ben W; Kuang, Yanping; Lyu, Qifeng

    2017-07-01

    To compare ectopic pregnancy risk among transfers of embryos vitrified on day 3, day 5, and day 6. Retrospective cohort study. Academic tertiary-care medical center. A total of 10,736 pregnancies after 23,730 frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) cycles of in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection from March 2003 to May 2015. The ectopic pregnancy rate was compared among pregnancies resulting from transfers of embryos vitrified on day 3, day 5, and day 6. Generalized estimation equation regression models were used to calculate unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between ectopic pregnancy and selected patient and treatment characteristics. We studied this association in both the group that achieved pregnancy and the group that underwent an FET cycle. Odds of ectopic pregnancy. The overall rate of ectopic pregnancy was 2.8% (304/10,736). Ectopic pregnancy rates after day-3, day-5, and day-6 vitrified embryo transfers were 3.1% (287/9,224), 2.0% (11/562), and 0.6% (6/950), respectively. After adjusting for confounders, the risks of ectopic pregnancy in day-3 and day-5 vitrified embryo transfers were both significantly higher than in day-6 vitrified embryo transfers. The associations were similar when we did calculations per cycle. In women undergoing FET, day-6 vitrified embryo transfer is associated with a significantly lower risk of ectopic pregnancy than both day-3 and day-5 vitrified embryo transfers. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. An Update on Ovarian Aging and Ovarian Reserve Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Migraci Tosun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ovaries are the female organs that age more quickly than other tissues such as the uterus, the pituitary gland or pancreas. Different from males, an interesting question is why and how the females lose fertility so rapidly. During the aging process, both the number and quality of the oocytes in the ovaries decrease and reach to a point beyond that no more viable offspring may be produced and the associated cyclic endocrinological activities cease, entering the menopause in females at an average age of 50 years. Females who delayed childbearing with or without their willing until their 30 years or 40 years constitute the largest portion of the total infertility population. Ovarian reserve tests (ORTs provide an indirect estimate of a female�s diminishing ovarian reserve or remaining follicular pool. This article briefly reviews recent progresses in relation to ovarian aging and ORTs.

  9. Isolated ovarian tuberculosis mimicking ovarian carcinoma: Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although genitourinary tuberculosis is common, reports of isolated ovarian tuberculosis are rare. However, its presentation can mimick that of an ovarian tumour, leading to diagnostic difficulties. A woman of 17 years presented with chronic pelvic pain, weight loss, a right ovarian mass on ultrasound, and a significantly ...

  10. Nuclear localization of E-cadherin but not beta-catenin in human ovarian granulosa cell tumours and normal ovarian follicles and ovarian stroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohishi, Yoshihiro; Oda, Yoshinao; Kurihara, Shuichi; Kaku, Tsunehisa; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Wake, Norio; Tsuneyoshi, Masazumi

    2011-02-01

    The role of misregulated Wnt/beta-catenin signalling in human ovarian granulosa cell tumour (GCT) has not been well characterized. The aim of this study was to confirm subcellular localization of key molecules of Wnt signalling (beta-catenin and E-cadherin) in human ovarian GCTs. Tissue samples taken from 32 human ovarian GCTs and 19 human normal ovaries containing 68 follicles were stained immunohistochemically using monoclonal anti-beta-catenin and anti-E-cadherin antibodies. None of the 32 GCTs and none of the 68 ovarian follicles showed beta-catenin nuclear expression (0%). On the other hand, 28 of 32 GCTs (88%) and 53 of 68 normal ovarian follicles (78%) showed nuclear expression of E-cadherin in granulosa cells. The ovarian stroma in all 19 normal ovaries showed nuclear expression of E-cadherin but not beta-catenin. Membranous and cytoplasmic expression was observed variously in ovarian GCT, follicles and stroma. We have confirmed frequent nuclear localization of E-cadherin but not beta-catenin in human ovarian GCT, ovarian follicles and stroma. There is no evidence of misregulated Wnt/beta-catenin signalling (represented by nuclear expression of beta-catenin) in human ovarian GCT. Nuclear translocation of E-cadherin might contribute to ovarian folliculogenesis or granulosa/stromal cell differentiation. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Limited.

  11. Effect of culture system on survival rate of vitrified bovine embryos produced in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, A; Nazari, H; Ahmadi, E; Heidari, B; Shams-Esfandabadi, N

    2009-12-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of in vitro culture system on bovine blastocyst yield and quality after vitrification. In Experiment 1, IVM/IVF zygotes were allocated to three culture conditions: (I) Oviductal cells-SOF (OCM-SOF); (II) Oviductal cells-TCM (OCM-TCM); and (III) SOF for 8 days. There was no significant difference between blastocyst rates among groups. In Experiment 2, the IVP-blastocysts in three above culture conditions were vitrified within groups segregated according to age (Day 7 and 8) and blastocoelic cavity size (early and expanded blastocysts). A trend of higher survival rate was obtained in vitrified/warmed early blastocysts compared with expanded ones, so that the difference in OCM-TCM group was significant (P<0.001). Higher survival and hatching rates (P<0.001) were obtained in OCM-SOF and OCM-TCM groups (co-culture) compared with SOF group and the age of blastocyst had no effect on post-thaw survival and hatching rates. In Experiment 3, after staining of blastocysts, in fresh blastocysts the highest number of trophectoderm cells was observed in OCM-TCM group and the number of inner cell mass (ICM) was higher in co-culture groups than SOF group (P<0.001). In vitrified/warmed blastocysts the number of ICM and trophectoderm cells in co-culture groups was higher than SOF group (P<0.001) except for the ICM of expanded blastocysts. In conclusion, in our culture conditions, the blastocyst yield is not influenced by culture system, while the cryotolerance of IVP-blastocysts is positively influenced by the presence of somatic cells. Moreover, the expanded blastocysts are more susceptible to cryoinjury than early blastocysts.

  12. Comparison of concomitant outcome achieved with fresh and cryopreserved donor oocytes vitrified by the Cryotop method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo, Ana; Kuwayama, Masashigue; Pérez, Sonia; Ruiz, Amparo; Pellicer, Antonio; Remohí, José

    2008-06-01

    To evaluate the outcome of oocyte vitrification using the Cryotop method, observed in an egg donation program by simultaneously evaluating embryos derived from vitrified and fresh oocytes coming from the same stimulated cycle. Cohort prospective randomized study. Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad (IVI) Valencia, Spain. Thirty oocyte donors and 30 recipients with informed consents. Vitrification by the Cryotop method. Warming 1 hour after vitrification. Microinjection of surviving MII and fresh oocytes, evaluation of fertilization, embryo development, and clinical results. Survival, fertilization, and cleavage rate. Embryo quality, pregnancy rate (PR), and implantation rate. Survival rate observed was 96.7%. There was no difference in fertilization rates (76.3% and 82.2%), day 2 cleavage (94.2% and 97.8%), day 3 cleavage (80.8% and 80.5%), and blastocyst formation (48.7% and 47.5%) for vitrified and fresh oocytes, respectively. Embryo quality on day 3 and on day 5-6 were similar for vitrification and fresh oocyte group (80.8% vs. 80.5% and 81.1% vs. 70%, respectively). A total of 23 embryo transfers were carried out in the vitrification group. Pregnancy rates, implantation rates, miscarriage rates, and ongoing PR were 65.2%, 40.8%, 20%, and 47.8%, respectively. The Cryotop method preserves the potential of vitrified oocytes to fertilize and further develop, which is similar, when evaluated simultaneously, to fresh counterparts. Excellent clinical outcome indicates the possible use of this technology for egg donation programs, as well as a high potential for establishing oocyte banking.

  13. Ovarian hormones and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeners, Brigitte; Geary, Nori; Tobler, Philippe N; Asarian, Lori

    2017-05-01

    Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake, i.e. eating and energy expenditure (EE). Severe obesity is more prevalent in women than men worldwide, and obesity pathophysiology and the resultant obesity-related disease risks differ in women and men. The underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Pre-clinical and clinical research indicate that ovarian hormones may play a major role. We systematically reviewed the clinical and pre-clinical literature on the effects of ovarian hormones on the physiology of adipose tissue (AT) and the regulation of AT mass by energy intake and EE. Articles in English indexed in PubMed through January 2016 were searched using keywords related to: (i) reproductive hormones, (ii) weight regulation and (iii) central nervous system. We sought to identify emerging research foci with clinical translational potential rather than to provide a comprehensive review. We find that estrogens play a leading role in the causes and consequences of female obesity. With respect to adiposity, estrogens synergize with AT genes to increase gluteofemoral subcutaneous AT mass and decrease central AT mass in reproductive-age women, which leads to protective cardiometabolic effects. Loss of estrogens after menopause, independent of aging, increases total AT mass and decreases lean body mass, so that there is little net effect on body weight. Menopause also partially reverses women's protective AT distribution. These effects can be counteracted by estrogen treatment. With respect to eating, increasing estrogen levels progressively decrease eating during the follicular and peri-ovulatory phases of the menstrual cycle. Progestin levels are associated with eating during the luteal phase, but there does not appear to be a causal relationship. Progestins may increase binge eating and eating stimulated by negative emotional states during the luteal phase. Pre-clinical research indicates that one mechanism for the pre-ovulatory decrease in eating is a

  14. Loss of Programmed cell death 4 (Pdcd4 associates with the progression of ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheung Annie NY

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Programmed cell death 4 (Pdcd4 is a novel tumour suppressor and originally identified as a neoplastic transformation inhibitor. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression, prognostic significance and potential function of Pdcd4 in ovarian cancer. Results The expression of Pdcd4 was examined in 30 normal ovarian tissues, 16 borderline and 93 malignant ovarian tissues. A continuous down regulation of Pdcd4 expression in the sequence of normal, borderline and malignant tissues was observed. The expressions of Pdcd4 in both ovarian borderline tissues and carcinomas were significantly lower than the expression in normal ovarian tissues (p Conclusion Our study demonstrated that the loss of Pdcd4 was a common abnormality at molecular level in ovarian cancer and it might be a potential prognostic factor in ovarian cancer patients.

  15. RASSF1A promoter methylation in high-grade serous ovarian cancer: A direct comparison study in primary tumors, adjacent morphologically tumor cell-free tissues and paired circulating tumor DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannopoulou, Lydia; Chebouti, Issam; Pavlakis, Kitty; Kasimir-Bauer, Sabine; Lianidou, Evi S

    2017-03-28

    The RASSF1A promoter is frequently methylated in high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC). We examined RASSF1A promoter methylation in primary tumors, adjacent morphologically tumor cell-free tissues and corresponding circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) samples of patients with HGSC, using a real-time methylation specific PCR (real-time MSP) and a methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting analysis (MS-HRMA) assay for the detection and semi-quantitative estimation of methylation, respectively. Two groups of primary HGSC tumor FFPE samples were recruited (Group A n=67 and Group B n=61), along with matched adjacent morphologically tumor cell-free tissues (n=58) and corresponding plasma samples (n=59) for group B. Using both assays, RASSF1A promoter was found highly methylated in primary tumors of both groups, and at lower percentages in the adjacent morphologically tumor cell-free tissues. Interestingly, RASSF1A promoter methylation was also observed in ctDNA by real-time MSP. Overall survival (OS) was significantly associated with RASSF1A promoter methylation in primary tumor samples using MS-HRMA (P=0.023). Our results clearly indicate that RASSF1A promoter is methylated in adjacent tissue surrounding the tumor in HGSC patients. We report for the first time that RASSF1A promoter methylation provides significant prognostic information in HGSC patients.

  16. Ovarian maldescent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trinidad, Carmen; Tardaguila, Francisco; Fernandez, Gabriel C.; Martinez, Concepcion; Chavarri, Elena; Rivas, Isabel [Departments of Radiology and Gynecology, Povisa Medical Center, Salamanca St. 5, 36211, Vigo (Pontevedra) (Spain)

    2004-05-01

    Undescended ovary is a rare disorder that can be associated with muellerian malformations. There is an unclear association with infertility and malignant disease. When an ovary is not in its normal location, it is sought in other locations above the pelvic brim. This is important in cases of undetermined cyclical abdominal pain, follicle aspiration and surgical castration. MRI has proven to be the best imaging method for finding an ovary in an anomalous position and for disregarding associated malformations. We report two patients with unilateral ovarian maldescent, one of them with Rokitansky-Kuester-Hauser syndrome. A review of the literature is included. (orig.)

  17. Microcell-mediated chromosome transfer identifies EPB41L3 as a functional suppressor of epithelial ovarian cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dafou, Dimitra; Grun, Barbara; Sinclair, John

    2010-01-01

    lines. Using immunohistochemistry, 66% of 794 invasive ovarian tumors showed no EPB41L3 expression compared with only 24% of benign ovarian tumors and 0% of normal ovarian epithelial tissues. EPB41L3 was extensively methylated in ovarian cancer cell lines and primary ovarian tumors compared with normal...... (erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1-like 3, alternative names DAL-1 and 4.1B) was a candidate ovarian cancer-suppressor gene. Immunoblot analysis showed that EPB41L3 was activated in TOV21G(+18) hybrids, expressed in normal ovarian epithelial cell lines, but was absent in 15 (78%) of 19 ovarian cancer cell...... tissues (P = .00004), suggesting this may be the mechanism of gene inactivation in ovarian cancers. Constitutive reexpression of EPB41L3 in a three-dimensional multicellular spheroid model of ovarian cancer caused significant growth suppression and induced apoptosis. Transmission and scanning electron...

  18. Crystal-chemistry of alteration products of vitrified wastes: implications on the retention of polluting elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterpenich, Jérôme

    2008-01-01

    Alteration products of vitrified wastes coming from the incineration of household refuse (MSW) are described. Two vitrified wastes containing 50% and 70% of fly ash and a synthetic stained-glass with a composition close to that of an ancient glass (medieval stained-glass) were altered under different pH conditions (1, 5.5 corresponding to demineralized water and 10) during 181 days. Under acidic condition, the alteration layer is made of an amorphous hydrated silica gel impoverished in most of the initial elements. A minor phase MPO(4)*nH(2)O, where M represents Fe, Ti, Al, Ca and K cations, also constitutes the altered layer of the synthetic stained-glass. Under neutral and basic conditions, the altered layer is made of an amorphous hydrated silica gel and a crystallized calcium phosphate phase. The silica gel is depleted in alkalis and alkali-earth elements but contains significant amounts of aluminium, magnesium and transition elements, whereas the calcium phosphate is a hydroxylapatite-like phase with P-Si substitutions and a Ca/P ratio depending on the pH of the solution. This study shows: (i) the strong influence of pH conditions on the crystal-chemistry of alteration products and thus on the mechanisms of weathering resulting in different trapping of polluting elements, and (ii) that glass alteration does not necessary produce thermodynamically stable phases which has to be taken into account for the prediction of the long-term behavior.

  19. In vitro production of buffalo embryos from stepwise vitrified immature oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Mohammed Abd-Allah

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to produce buffalo embryos in vitro from stepwise vitrified immature oocytes. Cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs were obtained from the ovaries of slaughtered buffalo and were collected from the local abattoir. Selected COCs were exposed to a vitrification solution consisting of 40% ethylene glycol (EG plus 0.3 M trehalose and 20% polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP for 1 min and loaded in 0.25 ml plastic mini-straws containing 100 µl of 10% sucrose. The loaded cryostraws were cryopreserved by stepwise vitrification and were stored in liquid nitrogen for 4 to 6 months. Data analysis revealed a high percentage of post-thawing morphologically normal immature oocytes (80.7% with a low percentage of damaged oocytes. There were no significant differences in the maturation (82.1%, cleavage (47.6% and buffalo embryo development (15.4% produced by the stepwise vitrified immature oocytes in comparison to the three observations in fresh oocytes (88.3%, 50.4% and 19.4%, respectively, p<0.05.

  20. In vitro production of buffalo embryos from stepwise vitrified immature oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Allah, Saber Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to produce buffalo embryos in vitro from stepwise vitrified immature oocytes. Cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were obtained from the ovaries of slaughtered buffalo and were collected from the local abattoir. Selected COCs were exposed to a vitrification solution consisting of 40% ethylene glycol (EG) plus 0.3 M trehalose and 20% polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) for 1 min and loaded in 0.25 ml plastic mini-straws containing 100 microl of 10% sucrose. The loaded cryostraws were cryopreserved by stepwise vitrification and were stored in liquid nitrogen for 4 to 6 months. Data analysis revealed a high percentage of post-thawing morphologically normal immature oocytes (80.7%) with a low percentage of damaged oocytes. There were no significant differences in the maturation (82.1%), cleavage (47.6%) and buffalo embryo development (15.4%) produced by the stepwise vitrified immature oocytes in comparison to the three observations in fresh oocytes (88.3%, 50.4% and 19.4%, respectively, p<0.05).

  1. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM Through Focused ION Beam (FIB from Vitrified Chromium Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ballesteros-Elizondo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study shows how the Focused Ion Beam (FIB has been applied to vitrified materials obtained from chromiumwastes. Due to the issues arising during conventional Ar+ ion milling, it was necessary to thin these samples usingFIB. Difficulties came from the heterogeneous size between chromium spinels and the residual glass phase. The FIBwas applied to obtain thin foils from vitrified materials. These brittle and heterogeneous samples result in specimenswith many perforations and chipping when using conventional thinning below 100 nanometers. Alternatively, FIBallowed thinning in the range of 60 - 80 nanometers from specifically selected areas such as the areas containingspinel crystals Mg(Al,Cr2O4 in order to facilitate the final Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM observations. Inthis paper, FIB is shown to be a very powerful microtool as a brittle samples preparation method as well as providingan alternative way for performing conventional ceramography and Ar+ ion milling. FIB is a much less destructivemethod with greater observed capacity in the quantity and analysis of microcrystalline phases.

  2. A novel biomarker ARMc8 promotes the malignant progression of ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guiyang; Yang, Dalei; Wang, Liang; Zhang, Xiupeng; Xu, Hongtao; Miao, Yuan; Wang, Enhua; Zhang, Yong

    2015-10-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy worldwide, and the survival rates have remained low in spite of medical advancements. More research is dedicated to the identification of novel biomarkers for this deadly disease. The association between ARMc8 and ovarian cancer remained unraveled. In this study, immunohistochemical staining was used to examine ARMc8 expression in 247 cases of ovarian cancer, 19 cases of borderline ovarian tumors, 41 cases of benign ovarian tumors, and 9 cases of normal ovarian tissues. It was shown that ARMc8 was predominantly located in the cytoplasm of tumor cells, and its expression was up-regulated in the ovarian cancer (61.9%) and the borderline ovarian tumor tissues (57.9%), in comparison with the benign ovarian tumors (12.2%; P ovarian cancer, ARMc8 expression was closely related to International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stages (P = .002), histology grade (P ovarian cancer (P = .039 and P = .005). In addition, ARMc8 could promote the invasion and migration of ovarian cancer cells. Overexpressing ARMc8 enhanced the invasion and metastasis capacity of ARMc8-low Cavo-3 cells (P ovarian cancer cells and likely to become a potential therapeutic target for ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Duplicitous Origin of Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Mor

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The past few decades have seen many advances in the treatment of a variety of cancers. Unfortunately, for ovarian cancer, which is the most lethal type of gynecologic malignancy, no new therapeutic approach has been successfully introduced since the 1990s. Ovarian cancer is usually detected in later stages, when remission rates are high and tumors are resistant to chemotherapy. Little is known about the primary lesion in ovarian cancer. Recently, it has been shown that the origin of ovarian cancer can be cells from adjacent tissue or cells from other primary tumors, which make their way to the ovaries due to the unique nature of their microenvironment during ovulation. The tumor in ovarian cancer is heterogeneous and hierarchically organized. In this review, we discuss the role of ovarian cancer stem cells in the process of tumor formation and recurrence. We propose the need to shift the paradigm away from the classification of ovarian cancer as a single disease with a single cellular origin. Understanding the complexity of the disease will facilitate devising new methods for fighting this cancer and improving the life of many women inflicted with the disease.

  4. Ovarian Splenosis: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    H. Talati; Jasim Radhi

    2010-01-01

    Splenosis is auto transplantation of splenic tissue following traumatic rupture of the spleen. In females it can mimic endometriosis when symptomatic. Asymptomatic splenosis is common than previously suspected and it can also involve ovary. In a patient with a history of splenectomy, splenosis can act and provide the function of the spleen and thus should not be routinely excised. We report a case of an asymptomatic, incidental ovarian splenosis of left ovary accompanying multiple pelvic and ...

  5. Expression of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in ovarian and uterine tissue during diestrus and open cervix cystic endometrial hyperplasia-pyometra in the bitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultiken, Nilgun; Yarim, Murat; Yarim, Gul Fatma; Gacar, Ayhan; Mason, James Ian

    2016-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare the expression of 3β-hydroxystreroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) in the uterus and ovary of healthy dogs and those with cystic endometrial hyperplasia and/or pyometra complex (CEH-pyometra). Eighteen female dogs were included in the study. Eleven bitches with open cervix CEH-pyometra were included in the CEH-pyometra group and seven diestrus bitches in the control group. For immunostaining a rabbit polyclonal, one raised against recombinant human type 2 (adrenal/gonadal) 3β-HSD was used. Progesterone (P4) concentrations were not statistically different between the groups. Strongly stained large interstitial cell groups in the ovarian medulla were observed particularly in CEH-pyometra group although these cells in the control group were weakly or moderately stained and existed singly or paired. The expressions of 3β-HSD in luminal epithelium (42.40 ± 22.40% vs. 18.42 ± 13.15%, P pyometra group than those in the control group. The expression of 3β-HSD in CL was higher (29.38 ± 9.58% vs. 22.94 ± 4.97%) in CEH-pyometra group than that of control group although the differences were not significant (P > 0.05). Similarly, the significant increase in the expression of 3β-HSD in ovarian interstitial cells (33.86 ± 29.44 vs. 1.13 ± 2.97, P pyometra group compared to the control group. The study revealed that 3β-HSD expression in the endometrium of canine CEH-pyometra was significantly high. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Piglets produced by transfer of vitrified porcine embryos after stepwise dilution of cryoprotectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, S; Takei, M; Kano, M; Tomita, M; Leibo, S P

    1998-02-01

    A total of 498 porcine embryos at various stages of development collected from superovulated gilts was used to investigate cryopreservation. First, blastocysts (BL), expanded blastocysts (ExB), and hatched blastocysts (HB) were used to determine the effect of exposure to concentrated solutions of ethylene glycol as cryoprotective additives (CPAs) on embryo survival. Then, survival of other embryos after vitrification by rapid cooling was determined. Based on their development after 48 h in culture, embryos were not injured by being exposed to 2.0 M ethylene glycol (EG) for 15 min or to 2.0 M EG for 5 min and then to a solution of 8.0 M EG in 7% polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) for 1 min. The CPAs were removed from the embryos by diluting them with 1.7 M galactose. To vitrify the embryos, they were exposed to 2.0 M EG for 5 min and then were pipetted directly into short columns of 8.0 M EG-PVP contained within (1.25-ml plastic straws and separated from long columns of 1.7 M galactose by an air bubble. The straws were plunged directly into LN2. After the straws were warmed rapidly in a 25 degrees C water bath, the embryos were immediately mixed with galactose within the straws by shaking them vigorously to mix the contents. In sequential experiments, three methods were used to dilute the CPA solutions. Method 1: Embryos in the EG-PVP-galactose mixture were expelled from the straws and rinsed and cultured in modified CZB medium (mCZB). Method II: Embryos in the mixture were placed briefly into 1.5 M EG and then rinsed and cultured in mCZB. Method III: Embryos in the mixture were rinsed in 1.0 M EG and then in 0.5 M EG and finally rinsed with mCZB and cultured. After 48 h in culture, the respective percentages of survival of embryos vitrified as BL, ExB, or HB were: Method I, 21, 32, and 13%; Method II, 9, 40, and 24%; Method III, 35, 85, and 71%. Of 20 additional ExB vitrified embryos diluted by Method III and transferred into a recipient, four developed into live piglets

  7. The pathogenesis of ovarian myxoma: a neoplasm sometimes arising from other ovarian stromal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Lawrence M; Gaba, Arthur R; Cheng, Liang

    2013-07-01

    Ovarian myxoma is a rare distinctive benign ovarian stromal neoplasm that occurs predominantly in young women and is hormonally inactive. Although typically classified as an ovarian stromal tumor, its exact pathogenesis remains uncertain. We report 4 cases of ovarian myxoma, 3 of which were associated with another type or other types of ovarian stromal tumor and 1 occurred as a pure myxoma. In 2 cases, the myxoma arose from a sclerosing stromal tumor, and the third, most likely arose from a luteinized theca cell tumor (LTCT). Myxoid transformation of the connective tissue of the parent neoplasm appears to be a precursor of ovarian myxoma in some instances. We believe that the occurrence of trisomy 12 or other genetic abnormalities may play a role in this transformation. Whether or not associated with another type of ovarian stromal tumor, ovarian myxoma can be suspected macroscopically by its cystic gelatinous appearance and sharp circumscription. The most important differential diagnosis is a low-grade sarcoma with myxomatous features. We believe that myxomas arising from different anatomic sites likely are genetically, histologically, and biologically distinct. For purposes of classification, they should be considered as separate tumor types.

  8. Sucrose Non-Fermenting Related Kinase Expression in Ovarian Cancer and Correlation with Clinical Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, Elizabeth E; Cossette, Stephanie M; Kumar, Suresh N; Eastwood, Daniel; Ramchandran, Ramani; Bishop, Erin

    2017-08-09

    Sucrose non-fermenting related kinase (SNRK) is a serine/threonine kinase known to regulate cellular metabolism and adipocyte inflammation. Since alterations in adipocyte metabolism play a role in ovarian cancer metastasis, we investigated the expression of SNRK in benign and malignant human ovarian tissue using immunohistochemistry and qPCR. The number of SNRK positive (+) nuclei is increased in malignant tissue compared to benign tissue (21.03% versus 14.90%, p ovarian cancer metastasis.

  9. Ultrasonographic findings of ovarian tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Yang Sook; Kim, Soo Han; Kim, Seung Hyup; Shin, Hyun Ja [Korea Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-10-15

    The ultrasound is easily available and noninvasive diagnostic method without radiation hazard. We can approach to differential diagnosis of ovarian tumors by gray scale ultrasound which can display the detailed structure of soft tissue. In department of radiology, Korea Veterans Hospital, 27 cases of histologically confirmed ovarian tumors collected from March 1984 to February 1986 were analyzed. The results were as follows: 1. The age distribution was from 13 to 72 years. 2. The histologic diagnosis of ovarian tumors (27 cases) are as follows; teratoma (14), mucinous cystadenoma (8), mucinous cystadenocarcinoma (1), serous cystadenoma (2), Krukenburg tumor (1) and malignant thecoma (1). 3. The long diameter of ovarian tumors ranges from 4 cm to 28 cm. In these, mucinous cystadenoma is the largest and their size are as follows; less than 10 cm; 25%, 11-15 cm; 12%, 16-20 cm; 25% and more than 20 cm; 38%. 4. The ultrasonographic findings of teratoma (14) were mainly cystic (8) or echogenic (6). There were echogenic solid components showing distal acoustic shadowing or fat-fluid level within cystic masses. Echogenecity of solid masses was heterogenous. 5. The ultrasonographic findings of mucinous cystadenoma and cystadenocarcinoma (9) were unilocular cystic (3) or multilocular cystic (6). There were variable amount of echogenic component within cystic masses. 6. Those of serous cystadenoma (2) were unilocular cystic (1) or multilocular cystic (1). 7. Krukenburg tumor (1) and Malignant thecoma (1) were heterogenously echogenic.

  10. Assessing HER2 amplification by IHC, FISH, and real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis (real-time PCR) following LCM in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue from 40 women with ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillig, Thore; Thode, Jørgen; Breinholt, Marie F; Franzmann, Maria-Benedicte; Pedersen, Carsten; Lund, Flemming; Mygind, Henrik; Sölétormos, György; Rudnicki, Martin

    2012-12-01

    We compare HER2 receptor amplification analysis by immunohistochemistry (IHC), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) DNA copy-number assay following laser capture microdissection (LCM) in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue from 40 women with verified ovarian cancer. We speculate that LCM should result in a more accurate assessment of HER2 amplification in our real-time PCR assay compared with IHC and FISH. HER2 overexpression measured by IHC, FISH, or real-time PCR was found in 5.0%, 5.0%, and 22.5%, respectively. HER2 negative results measured by IHC, FISH, or real-time PCR were found in 95%, 92.5%, and 60.0%, respectively. Analysis failed for IHC, FISH, or real-time PCR in 0%, 2.5%, or 17.5% of cases. Concordance between IHC and FISH, IHC and real-time PCR, or FISH and real-time PCR were 89.7%, 72.7%, or 78.1%, respectively. Only few ovarian cancer patients were HER2 overexpressed measured by IHC or FISH and thus could be eligible for antibody-based therapy with trastuzumab (Herceptin). Interestingly, we find an increased number of HER2 positive patients by real-time PCR analysis on microdissected cancer cells, suggesting a number of HER2 positive patients not detected by current methods. Thus, the concept of quantitative measurement of HER2 on microdissected cancer cells should be explored further. © 2012 The Authors APMIS © 2012 APMIS.

  11. Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Informed Cancer Home What Are the Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Gynecologic cancer symptoms diaries Ovarian cancer may cause the following signs and symptoms— Vaginal ...

  12. In Vitro Growth and Maturation of Vitrified-Warmed Bovine Oocytes Collected from Early Antral Follicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIRAO, Yuji; SOMFAI, Tamás; NARUSE, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Cryopreservation of growing oocytes enriches the choice of timing and location of artificial embryo production. However, completion of oocyte growth after warming is crucial when using such cryopreserved oocytes. Our research objective was to develop a sequential system that incorporates cryopreservation of growing bovine oocytes and their subsequent in vitro growth. Oocyte-granulosa cell complexes with a mean oocyte diameter of approximately 100 µm were vitrified-warmed and then cultured for 14 days. The percentage of surviving oocytes following cryopreservation and 14-day culture was approximately 80%. More than half of the surviving oocytes were capable of maturing to metaphase II after in vitro maturation; the rate was comparable to that of control oocytes grown in vitro without cryopreservation. Taken together, the combined protocols for vitrification-warming of growing oocytes and subsequent in vitro growth can produce oocytes capable of undergoing meiotic maturation. PMID:24126072

  13. Live birth potential of good morphology and vitrified blastocysts presenting abnormal cell divisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azzarello, Antonino; Høst, Thomas; Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2017-01-01

    This study included 238 good morphology blastocysts, which were transferred after vitrification-warming to 152 women by single blastocyst transfer in Holbæk Fertility Clinic, Denmark. Time-lapse recordings of transferred good morphology blastocysts were reassessed to recognize every abnormal cell...... division (ACD) from the 1st to the 4th cell cycle. ACDs were distinguished as failed cell divisions and multi-cell divisions. ACDs were recognized in 37.0% (no. 88/238) of good morphology blastocysts that were vitrified-warmed and transferred in our clinic. Good morphology blastocysts with ACDs showed...... a lower live birth rate (17.0%) than blastocyst with solely regular cell divisions (29.3%). ACDs could occur at more than one cell division in the same good morphology blastocyst. Reported as independent events, we observed ACDs occurring more frequently at the later cell cycles (1st: 1.3%; 2nd: 8.0%; 3rd...

  14. The Effect of Media Supplementation with Angiotensin on Developmental Competence of Ovine Embryos Derived from Vitrified-warmed Oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Mohammad Mehdi; Borjian Boroujeni, Sara; Sarvari, Ali; Heidari, Banafsheh; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Zarnani, Amir-Hassan; Shirazi, Abolfazl

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study was aimed to assess the effects of angiotensin II (Ang II) supplementation to the In Vitro Maturation (IVM) and In Vitro Culture (IVC) media of vitrified-warmed ovine oocytes on their developmental competence and expression of Na+/K+/ATPase in resulting embryos. Methods: The slaughterhouse-derived immature oocytes (n=1069) were randomly distributed into four experimental groups: groups I and II) IVM/IVF and IVC of fresh and vitrified oocytes without angiotensin supplementation (Control-Fresh and Control-Vit groups, respectively); group III) IVM of vitrified oocytes in the presence of Ang II followed by IVF/IVC (Vit-IVM group); and group IV) IVM/IVF of vitrified oocytes followed by IVC wherein the embryos were exposed to Ang II on day 4 of IVC (Vit-D4 group). The embryos were immunostained with primary antibodies against Na+/K+/ATPase α1 and β1 subunits. Results: In Vit-IVM and Vit-D4 groups, the rates of expanded and total blastocysts on day 7 as well as the proportion of blastocysts on day 8 were increased. The expression of Na+/K+/ATPase α1 and β1 subunits were positively influenced by the addition of Ang II on day 4 (Vit-D4 group). Conclusion: The addition of Ang II to the IVM and IVC media could improve blastocysts formation in vitrified sheep oocytes. This improvement might be related to the greater expression of Na+/K+/ATPase α1 and β1 subunits when Ang II was added during IVC. PMID:27563427

  15. Developmental potential of vitrified holstein cattle embryos fertilized in vitro with sex-sorted sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; Guo, Z; Su, L; Nedambale, T L; Zhang, J; Schenk, J; Moreno, J F; Dinnyés, A; Ji, W; Tian, X C; Yang, X; Du, F

    2006-07-01

    In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a feasible way to utilize sex-sorted sperm to produce offspring of a predetermined sex in the livestock industry. The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of various factors on bovine IVF and to systematically improve the efficiency of IVF production using sex-sorted sperm. Both bulls and sorting contributed to the variability among differential development rates of embryos fertilized by sexed sperm. Increased sorting pressures (275.8 to 344.75 kPa) did not have a significant effect on the in vitro fertility of the sorted sperm; neither did an extended period of 9 to 14 h from semen collection to sorting. As few as 600 sorted sperm were used to fertilize an oocyte, resulting in blastocyst development of 33.2%. Postwarming of vitrified sexed IVF embryos resulted in high morphological survival (96.3%) and hatching (84.4%) rates, similar to those fertilized by nonsexed sperm (93.1 and 80.6%, respectively). A 40.9% pregnancy rate was established following the transfer of 3,627 vitrified, sexed embryos into synchronized recipients. This was not different from the rates with nonsexed IVF (41.9%, n = 481), or in vivo-produced (53.1%, n = 192) embryos. Of 458 calves born, 442 (96.5%) were female and 99.6% appeared normal. These technologies (sperm sexing-IVF-vitrification-embryo transfer) provide farmers, as well as the livestock industry, with a valuable option for herd expansion and heifer replacement programs. In summary, calves were produced using embryos fertilized by sex-sorted sperm in vitro and cryopreserved by rapid cooling vitrification.

  16. [The role of cancer stem cells in progressive growth and resistance of ovarian cancer: true or fiction?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar, Julia K; Grelewski, Piotr; Lis-Nawara, Anna; Drobnikowska, Kamila

    2015-09-20

    Growing evidence indicates that biological heterogeneity of ovarian cancer is associated with a small subpopulation of cancer cells existing within tumor tissue and defined as cancer stem cells (CSCs). This small group of ovarian cells possesses the capacity of self-renewal. Recent data revealed that progression, metastasis and relapse of ovarian cancers are related to the behavior of cancer stem cells. However, how ovarian CSCs maintain their migration properties is still unclear. The clinical relevance of CSCs has been supported by emerging evidence, showing that CSCs are resistant to conventional chemotherapy of ovarian cancer. Identification of biomarkers of ovarian cancer stem cells seems to be important for target therapy. Therapeutic strategies aimed at eliminating CSCs in ovarian cancers might extend disease survival and limit recurrence. This review will describe the current knowledge of ovarian CSCs biology and contribution of these cells to metastasis and chemoresistance of ovarian cancer as well as the possibility to use target therapy of ovarian CSCs.

  17. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 promotes ovarian cancer cell invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jinsong

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP2 is overexpressed in ovarian malignant tissues and in the serum and cystic fluid of ovarian cancer patients, suggesting an important role of IGFBP2 in the biology of ovarian cancer. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of increased IGFBP2 in ovarian cancer cells. Results Using western blotting and tissue microarray analyses, we showed that IGFBP2 was frequently overexpressed in ovarian carcinomas compared with normal ovarian tissues. Furthermore, IGFBP2 was significantly overexpressed in invasive serous ovarian carcinomas compared with borderline serous ovarian tumors. To test whether increased IGFBP2 contributes to the highly invasive nature of ovarian cancer cells, we generated IGFBP2-overexpressing cells from an SKOV3 ovarian cancer cell line, which has a very low level of endogenous IGFBP2. A Matrigel invasion assay showed that these IGFBP2-overexpressing cells were more invasive than the control cells. We then designed small interference RNA (siRNA molecules that attenuated IGFBP2 expression in PA-1 ovarian cancer cells, which have a high level of endogenous IGFBP2. The Matrigel invasion assay showed that the attenuation of IGFBP2 expression indeed decreased the invasiveness of PA-1 cells. Conclusions We therefore showed that IGFBP2 enhances the invasion capacity of ovarian cancer cells. Blockage of IGFBP2 may thus constitute a viable strategy for targeted cancer therapy.

  18. Ovarian cancer and smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beral, V; Gaitskell, K; Hermon, C

    2012-01-01

    Smoking has been linked to mucinous ovarian cancer, but its effects on other ovarian cancer subtypes and on overall ovarian cancer risk are unclear, and the findings from most studies with relevant data are unpublished. To assess these associations, we review the published and unpublished evidence....

  19. Development of a Mouse Model of Menopausal Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elizabeth R.; Wang, Ying; Xu, Xiang-Xi

    2014-01-01

    Despite significant understanding of the genetic mutations involved in ovarian epithelial cancer and advances in genomic approaches for expression and mutation profiling of tumor tissues, several key questions in ovarian cancer biology remain enigmatic: the mechanism for the well-established impact of reproductive factors on ovarian cancer risk remains obscure; cell of origin of ovarian cancer continue to be debated; and the precursor lesion, sequence, or events in progression remain to be defined. Suitable mouse models should complement the analysis of human tumor tissues and may provide clues to these questions currently perplexing ovarian cancer biology. A potentially useful model is the germ cell-deficient Wv (white spotting variant) mutant mouse line, which may be used to study the impact of menopausal physiology on the increased risk of ovarian cancer. The Wv mice harbor a point mutation in c-Kit that reduces the receptor tyrosine kinase activity to about 1–5% (it is not a null mutation). Homozygous Wv mutant females have a reduced ovarian germ cell reservoir at birth and the follicles are rapidly depleted upon reaching reproductive maturity, but other biological phenotypes are minimal and the mice have a normal life span. The loss of ovarian function precipitates changes in hormonal and metabolic activity that model features of menopause in humans. As a consequence of follicle depletion, the Wv ovaries develop ovarian tubular adenomas, a benign epithelial tumor corresponding to surface epithelial invaginations and papillomatosis that mark human ovarian aging. Ongoing work will test the possibility of converting the benign epithelial tubular adenomas into neoplastic tumors by addition of an oncogenic mutation, such as of Tp53, to model the genotype and biology of serous ovarian cancer. Model based on the Wv mice may have the potential to gain biological and etiological insights into ovarian cancer development and prevention. PMID:24616881

  20. Development of A Mouse Model of Menopausal Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth R. Smith

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant understanding of the genetic mutations involved in ovarian epithelial cancer and advances in genomic approaches for expression and mutation profiling of tumor tissues, several key questions in ovarian cancer biology remain enigmatic: the mechanism for the well-established impact of reproductive factors on ovarian cancer risk remains obscure; questions of the cell of origin of ovarian cancer continue to be debated; and the precursor lesion, sequence, or events in progression remain to be defined. Suitable mouse models should complement the analysis of human tumor tissues and may provide clues to these questions currently perplexing ovarian cancer biology.A potentially useful model is the germ cell-deficient Wv (white spotting variant mutant mouse line, which may be used to study the impact of menopausal physiology on the increased risk of ovarian cancer. The Wv mice harbor a point mutation in c-Kit that reduces the receptor tyrosine kinase activity to about 1-5% (it is not a null mutation. Homozygous Wv mutant females have a reduced ovarian germ cell reservoir at birth and the follicles are rapidly depleted upon reaching reproductive maturity, but other biological phenotypes are minimal and the mice have a normal life span. The loss of ovarian function precipitates changes in hormonal and metabolic activity that model features of menopause in humans. As a consequence of follicle depletion, the Wv ovaries develop ovarian tubular adenomas, a benign epithelial tumor corresponding to surface epithelial invaginations and papillomatosis that mark human ovarian aging. Ongoing work will test the possibility of converting the benign epithelial tubular adenomas into neoplastic tumors by addition of an oncogenic mutation, such as of Tp53, to model the genotype and biology of serous ovarian cancer.Model based on the Wv mice may have the potential to gain biological and etiological insights into ovarian cancer development and prevention.

  1. Human umbilical cord stem cell conditioned medium versus serum-free culture medium in the treatment of cryopreserved human ovarian tissues in in-vitro culture: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yingxian; Shi, Xiaohan; Xie, Yidong; Xie, Xiaochuan; Wang, Yan; Li, Shangwei

    2017-06-24

    To reduce young female fertility loss, the in-vitro culture of cryopreserved ovarian cortical tissues (OCTs) is considered an effective approach without delaying treatment and undergoing stimulation medicine. However, ischemic damage and follicular loss during the in-vitro culture of OCTs are major technical challenges. Human umbilical cord stem cells (HUMSCs) and their conditioned medium (HUMSC-CM) have been considered to be potential resources for regeneration medicine because they secrete cytokines and enhance cell survival and function. The aim of this study was to determine whether HUMSC-CM improves the development of frozen-thawed in-vitro cultured ovarian tissues compared with a serum-free culture medium (SF-CM). The thawed OCTs (n = 68) were cultivated in HUMSC-CM and SF-CM in vitro for 8 days, and the ovarian tissues were processed and analyzed by a classical histological evaluation. The microvessel density (MVD) and apotosis detection during in-vitro culture of OCTs were also performed. A significant difference in the rate of morphologically normal primordial follicles in the HUMSC-CM group was observed compared to that in the SF-CM group (group C) from days 2 to 4 (day 2: group B 58.0 ± 2.45% vs group C 32.0 ± 5.83%, p = 0.002; day 3: group B 55.5 ± 4.20% vs group C 21.0 ± 9.80%, p = 0.048; day 4: group B 52.0 ± 4.08% vs group C 21.5 ± 8.19%, p = 0.019). The microvessel density (MVD) detection showed a time-dependent increase and peaked on day 4. There was a significant difference between groups B (49.33 ± 0.58) and C (24.33 ± 3.79) (p = 0.036). The percentage of apoptotic follicles in group B was lower than that in group C on day 1 (13.75 ± 2.50% vs 27.0 ± 10.10%, p = 0.003), day 5 (11.75 ± 1.50% vs 51.0 ± 10.5%, p = 0.019) and day 7 (15.0 ± 5.10% vs 46.5 ± 21.75%, p = 0.018). These data have provided the first experimental evidence of the effect of

  2. Ovarian transposition: a surgical option for fertility preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arian, Sara E; Goodman, Linnea; Flyckt, Rebecca L; Falcone, Tommaso

    2017-04-01

    To describe and demonstrate a novel surgical method for laparoscopic ovarian transposition. In this video, we present a unique minimally invasive technique for transposing the ovaries, whereby the ovary is tunneled through the peritoneum. Video presentation of clinical article. The video uses animations and a surgical case to demonstrate the detailed surgical technique for laparoscopic ovarian transposition with a unique feature. Institutional review board approval was not required for this video presentation. Institutional review board approval is not required at the Cleveland Clinic for a case report of a single patient. Teaching University. A 29-year-old female patient diagnosed with rectal cancer. The patient underwent laparoscopic ovarian transposition followed by ovarian decortication for ovarian tissue freezing of the contralateral ovary, both performed in one laparoscopic surgery, before further chemotherapy and radiation. Value and feasibility of laparoscopic ovarian transposition using the unique feature of ovarian tunneling in maintaining the retroperitoneal location of the ovarian vessels and potentially preserving ovarian blood supply. Creating a retroperitoneal tunnel for passing the ovary through is a feasible and effective technique, while performing laparoscopic ovarian transposition that can be performed in order to prevent the ovarian vessels from taking a sharp turn into the pelvic cavity and thereby preventing alteration of ovarian blood flow. Ovarian transposition is a great surgical option for fertility preservation in reproductive-aged women before they undergo gonadotoxic pelvic or craniospinal radiation. This surgical procedure is not a beneficial option for those patients receiving concomitant gonadotoxic chemotherapy. Ovarian transposition can be performed using different surgical techniques, including laparotomy and laparoscopy. Laparoscopic ovarian transposition is the preferred surgical technique described in the literature, because

  3. E-cadherin expression in ovarian cancer in the laying hen, Gallus domesticus, compared to human ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansenberger, Kristine; Zhuge, Yan; Lagman, Jo Ann J; Richards, Cassandra; Barua, Animesh; Bahr, Janice M; Hales, Dale Buchanan

    2009-06-01

    Epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) is a leading cause of cancer deaths in women. Until recently, a significant lack of an appropriate animal model has hindered the discovery of early detection markers for ovarian cancer. The aging hen serves as an animal model because it spontaneously develops ovarian adenocarcinomas similar in histological appearance to the human disease. E-cadherin is an adherens protein that is down-regulated in many cancers, but has been shown to be up-regulated in primary human ovarian cancer. Our objective was to evaluate E-cadherin expression in the hen ovary and compare its expression to human ovarian cancer. White Leghorn hens aged 185 weeks (cancerous and normal) were used for sample collection. A human ovarian tumor tissue array was used for comparison to the human disease. E-cadherin mRNA and protein expression were analyzed in cancerous and normal hen ovaries by immunohistochemistry (IHC), Western blot, and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Tissue fixed in neutral buffered formalin was used for IHC. Protein from tissue frozen in liquid nitrogen was analyzed by Western blot. RNA was extracted from tissue preserved in RNAlater and analyzed by qRT-PCR. The human ovarian tumor tissue array was used for IHC. E-cadherin mRNA and protein expression were significantly increased in cancerous hen ovaries as compared to ovaries of normal hens by qRT-PCR and Western blot. Similar expression of E-cadherin was observed by IHC in both human and hen ovarian cancer tissues. Similar E-cadherin expression was also observed in primary ovarian tumor and peritoneal metastatic tissue from cancerous hens. Our findings suggest that the up-regulation of E-cadherin is an early defining event in ovarian cancer and may play a significant role in the initial development of the primary ovarian tumor. E-cadherin also appears to be important in the development of secondary tumors within the peritoneal cavity. Our data suggest that E-cadherin may prove to be an

  4. Viability of zebrafish (Danio rerio) ovarian follicles after vitrification in a metal container.

    OpenAIRE

    MARQUES, L.S.; Bos-Mikich, A.; Godoy, L.C.; Silva,L.A; Maschio, D; Zhang, Tiantian; Streit, D.P.

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue has been studied for female germline preservation of farm animals and endangered mammalian species. However, there are relatively few reports on cryopreservation of fish ovarian tissue and especially using vitrification approach. Previous studies of our group has shown that the use of a metal container for the cryopreservation of bovine ovarian fragments results in good primordial and primary follicle morphological integrity after vitrification. The aim of t...

  5. Growth differentiation factor 15 stimulates rapamycin-sensitive ovarian cancer cell growth and invasion

    OpenAIRE

    Griner, Samantha E.; Joshi, Jayashree P.; Nahta, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Identification of novel molecular markers and therapeutic targets may improve survival rates for patients with ovarian cancer. In the current study, immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of two human ovarian tumor tissue arrays showed high staining for GDF15 in a majority of tissues. Exogenous stimulation of ovarian cancer cell lines with recombinant human GDF15 (rhGDF15) or stable overexpression of a GDF15 expression plasmid promoted anchorage-independent growth, increased invasion, and up-regu...

  6. NUCKS nuclear elevated expression indicates progression and prognosis of ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ce; Qin, Ling; Gao, Hongyu; Gu, Lina; Yang, Chang; Liu, Hebing; Liu, Tianbo

    2017-09-01

    NUCKS (nuclear, casein kinase, and cyclin-dependent kinase substrate) is implicated in the tumorigenesis of several human malignancies, but its role in ovarian cancer remains unknown. We aim to investigate NUCKS expression and its clinical significance in ovarian cancer. The messenger RNA expression of NUCKS was determined in normal and malignant ovarian tissues using quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay. Immunohistochemistry was applied to detect the status of NUCKS protein expression in 121 ovarian cancer tissues. NUCKS protein high expression was detected in 52 (43.0%) of 121 patients. NUCKS messenger RNA expression was gradually upregulated in non-metastatic ovarian cancers ( n = 20), metastatic ovarian cancers ( n = 20), and its matched metastatic lesions ( n = 20) in comparison with that in normal ovarian tissues ( n = 10; p ovarian cancer was associated significantly with the Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage ( p = 0.037), histological grade ( p = 0.003), residual disease ( p = 0.013), lymph node metastasis ( p = 0.002), response to chemotherapy ( p ovarian cancer with p values of ovarian cancer especially in advanced ovarian cancer.

  7. Tight junction proteins claudin-3 and claudin-4 are frequently overexpressed in ovarian cancer but not in ovarian cystadenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Leticia B A; Agarwal, Rachana; D'Souza, Theresa; Pizer, Ellen S; Alò, Piero L; Lancaster, Wayne D; Gregoire, Lucie; Schwartz, Donald R; Cho, Kathleen R; Morin, Patrice J

    2003-07-01

    Claudin proteins represent a large family of integral membrane proteins crucial for tight junction (TJ) formation and function. Claudins have been shown to be up-regulated in various cancers and have been suggested as possible biomarkers and targets for cancer therapy. Because claudin-3 and claudin-4 have been proposed to be expressed in epithelial ovarian cancer, we have performed a detailed analysis of CLDN3 and CLDN4 expression in a panel of ovarian tumors of various subtypes and cell lines. We also investigated whether high expression of claudin-3 and claudin-4 was associated with TJ function in ovarian cancer cells. RNA was obtained from a panel of 39 microdissected epithelial ovarian tumors of various histological subtypes for real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis. In addition, a total of 70 cases of ovarian carcinomas, ovarian cysts, and normal ovarian epithelium from a tissue array were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Finally, a panel of cell lines was used for Western analysis of claudin expression and TJ permeability studies. Although expressed at low levels in some normal human tissues, including the ovary, CLDN3 and CLDN4 are highly up-regulated in epithelial ovarian cancers of all subtypes. Immunohistochemical analyses using our ovarian tissue array confirmed the high level of expression of claudin-3 and claudin-4 in the majority of ovarian carcinomas, including many tumors exhibiting cytoplasmic staining. Ovarian cystadenoma did not frequently overexpress these proteins, suggesting that the expression of these proteins is associated with malignancy. In ovarian cancer cell lines, claudin-3 and claudin-4 expression was not associated with functional TJs as measured by transepithelial electrical resistance. These results show that CLDN3 and CLDN4 are frequently up-regulated in ovarian tumors and cell lines and may represent novel markers for this disease. Overexpression of these genes in ovarian cancer also suggests interesting scenarios for the

  8. Proteomics Analysis for Finding Serum Markers of Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushan Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A combination of peptide ligand library beads (PLLB and 1D gel liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (1DGel-LC-MS/MS was employed to analyze serum samples from patients with ovarian cancer and from healthy controls. Proteomic analysis identified 1200 serum proteins, among which 57 proteins were upregulated and 10 were downregulated in the sera from cancer patients. Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4 is highly upregulated in the ovarian cancer serum samples. ELISA was employed to measure plasma concentrations of RBP4 in 80 samples from ovarian cancer patients, healthy individuals, myoma patients, and patients with benign ovarian tumor, respectively. The plasma concentrations of RBP4 ranging from 76.91 to 120.08 ng/mL with the mean value 89.13±1.67 ng/mL in ovarian cancer patients are significantly higher than those in healthy individuals (10.85±2.38 ng/mL. Results were further confirmed with immunohistochemistry, demonstrating that RBP4 expression levels in normal ovarian tissue were lower than those in ovarian cancer tissues. Our results suggested that RBP4 is a potential biomarker for diagnostic of screening ovarian cancer.

  9. Cryopreservation of Equine Embryos and First Report of a Native Colombian Breed Born by Transfer of an Equine Vitrified Embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadya Nathalie Martínez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to report on the success of a cryopreservation procedure of equine embryos to achieve a viable pregnancy. Equine embryos were collected on day 6-6.5 (<300 μm, n = 24 and subjected to two cryopreservation techniques: group 1 (n = 12, vitrified, exposing them to a VS1 (Gli [1.4 M] 5 min, VS2 (Gli [1.4 M] + EG [3.6 M] and VS3 (Gli [3.4M] + EG [4.6 M] 1 min solution. They were packed in 0.25 ml straws and immersed in liquid nitrogen; group 2 (n = 12, slow freezing: exposed to a freezing solution (1.8 M EG + 0.1 M sucrose for 10 minutes, packed into 0.25 ml straws, brought to the embryos freezer, exposed to a freezing curve and immersed in liquid nitrogen. Following defrosting, cryoprotectants were removed from the 24 embryos in one step; they were submerged in culture medium DMEM/F12 + 10% of fetal bovine serum (FBS and incubated under controlled atmosphere (5% CO2, 5% N2, 90% O2 for 48 h. Embryonic development was evaluated in 75% of the vitrified embryos (n = 4; 20% of the embryos were subjected to slow freezing (n = 1. No significant difference was observed in the groups regarding embryonic development, but a greater survival tendency on the vitrified embryos was noted. Also, one of these vitrified embryos was transferred to a receiver, achieving a viable pregnancy and the birth of a living foal.

  10. Comparison of loss of heterozygosity patterns between ovarian tumors of low malignant potential and malignant ovarian tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, E.C.; Miller, D.M.; Finley, W.H. [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Ovarian tumors of low malignant potential (LMP) represent a pathologic subtype of ovarian tumor that possess many features common to malignant tumors including epithelial stratification, increased mitotic activity and atypical cellularity. These tumors, however, do not invade the ovarian stroma and have a much improved patient prognosis. Utilizing dinucleotide repeats, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) studies were performed on a total of 12 ovarian tumors of LMP in 5 regions found to have significant levels of LOH in malignant ovarian tumors. The regions chosen for study were 3p, 6q, 11p, 17p and 17q. LOH could be demonstrated in malignant ovarian tumors in loci from 3p, 11p and both chromosomal arms of 17 when compared to normal tissue from the same patient. Loss in malignant tumors was more common in loci mapped to 3p21 and to 11p15. OH was not noted in any samples for a repeat in the TP53 gene even though flanking markers on 17p were lost in 1 patient with a malignant tumor. Loss was not demonstrated in any of the loci examined from 6q in malignant ovarian tumors. LOH was not demonstrated in any of the 39 loci examined from any of the five chromosomal regions in the ovarian tumors of LMP. Cytogenetic analyses of these LMP tumors were consistent with lack of involvement in these chromosomal regions. These data suggest the mechanism of tumorigenesis is different in tumors of LMP from that in malignant ovarian tumors.

  11. Oocyte maturation and expression pattern of follicular genes during in-vitro culture of vitrified mouse pre-antral follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamalzaei, Parisa; Valojerdi, Mojtaba Rezazadeh; Ebrahimi, Bita; Farrokhi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the oocyte maturation rate and follicular genes expression pattern during in-vitro culture of vitrified mouse pre-antral follicles. Middle sized pre-antral follicles were isolated mechanically from the ovaries of pre-pubertal mice and distributed in vitrification and control groups. In the vitrification group, follicles were washed in equilibration and vitrification solutions and then were immersed in liquid nitrogen after loading on cryotop tips. After warming in descending concentrations of sucrose solutions, fresh and vitrified-warmed follicles were cultured for 13 days. Follicles survival rate and follicular genes expression were assessed during in vitro culture. Finally, at the end of the culture period oocytes maturation rate were compared in both groups. In the vitrification group, follicles survival rate was lower significantly comparing to the control group (P culture period, expression of some genes such as Gdf9, Bmp15, Tgfβ1 and BmprII were higher in the vitrification group (P culture period expression pattern of all follicular genes were similar in both groups. In conclusion, survival rate of cryotop vitrified pre-antral follicles reduced during culture period while oocytes maturation and follicular genes expression did not show any noticeable alteration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Number of supernumerary vitrified blastocysts is positively correlated with implantation and live birth in single-blastocyst embryo transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Micah J; Richter, Kevin S; Heitmann, Ryan J; Lewis, Terrance D; DeCherney, Alan H; Graham, James R; Widra, Eric; Levy, Michael J

    2013-05-01

    To estimate whether live birth in single-blastocyst transfers is correlated with the number of sibling supernumerary vitrified blastocysts (embryos not transferred) generated from that same cycle. Retrospective cohort study. A large academic assisted reproduction clinic. All single-blastocyst transfers in 2010 graded as "good" embryos by Society for Assisted Reproductive Technologies (SART) criteria. None. Implantation and live birth. Of the 655 single-blastocyst transfers that met inclusion criteria, implantation occurred in 65% and live birth in 54% of cycles. In chi-square analysis, patients with supernumerary vitrified blastocysts had a statistically higher implantation rate (65% versus 50%) and live-birth rate (56% versus 41%) when compared with patients without supernumerary blastocysts. Univariate logistic regression demonstrated an increase in implantation (OR 1.09; 95% CI, 1.03-1.15) and live birth (OR 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02-1.09) with increasing number of supernumerary blastocysts. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that patient age and the number of supernumerary blastocysts were statistically significantly associated with implantation and live birth. The number of supernumerary vitrified blastocysts correlated positively with the odds of implantation and live birth in good quality single-blastocyst transfers. Patients with supernumerary blastocysts are good candidates for single-embryo transfer. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Effects of High Hydrostatic Pressure on Expression Profiles of In Vitro Produced Vitrified Bovine Blastocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zongliang; Harrington, Patrick; Zhang, Ming; Marjani, Sadie L; Park, Joonghoon; Kuo, Lynn; Pribenszky, Csaba; Tian, Xiuchun Cindy

    2016-02-17

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has been used to pre-condition embryos before essential, yet potentially detrimental procedures such as cryopreservation. However, the mechanisms for HHP are poorly understood. We treated bovine blastocysts with three different HHP (40, 60 and 80 MPa) in combination with three recovery periods (0, 1 h, 2 h post HHP). Re-expansion rates were significantly higher at 40 and 60 but lower at 80 MPa after vitrification-warming in the treated groups than controls. Microarray analysis revealed 399 differentially expressed transcripts, representing 254 unique genes, among different groups. Gene ontology analysis indicated that HHP at 40 and 60 MPa promoted embryo competence through down-regulation of genes in cell death and apoptosis, and up-regulation of genes in RNA processing, cellular growth and proliferation. In contrast, 80 MPa up-regulated genes in apoptosis, and down-regulated protein folding and cell cycle-related genes. Moreover, gene expression was also influenced by the length of the recovery time after HHP. The significantly over-represented categories were apoptosis and cell death in the 1 h group, and protein folding, response to unfolded protein and cell cycle in the 2 h group compared to 0 h. Taken together, HHP promotes competence of vitrified bovine blastocysts through modest transcriptional changes.

  14. Increased live births after day 5 versus day 6 transfers of vitrified-warmed blastocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbing, Alice; Shaw-Jackson, Chloë; Ameye, Lieveke; Colin, Jérôme; Rozenberg, Serge; Autin, Candice

    2017-12-04

    An investigation into the clinical implications of delayed blastulation (day 5 versus day 6) was carried out for cryo cycles, as heterogeneous results persist in the current literature. We performed a retrospective study comparing clinical pregnancies and live births between 178 blastocysts vitrified and warmed on day 5 versus 149 on day 6. The stage of blastocyst development was taken into account and adjustment for confounding factors was performed. Our results demonstrate a significant difference in clinical pregnancy (43 versus 23% p value day of vitrification, in favour of day 5. This difference persisted after adjustment for confounding factors. The adjusted odds ratio for clinical pregnancies and deliveries for the day 5 group compared to that of the day 6 group was 2.83 (95%CI, 1.48 to 5.41) and 2.94 (95%CI, 1.39 to 6.22), respectively. When the stage of development of the blastocyst was taken into consideration, we still observed a significant advantage of day 5 versus day 6 vitrification. Day of vitrification (day 5 versus day 6) appears to be an independent predictor of clinical outcomes. Stratification of our cohort was carried out according to the developmental stage, and significant differences persisted. Although the transfer of day 6 cryopreserved embryos remains a viable option, giving priority to a day 5 embryo would reduce the time to pregnancy.

  15. Phosphorus detection in vitrified bacteria by cryo-STEM annular dark-field analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Sharon Grayer; Rez, Peter; Elbaum, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Bacterial cells often contain dense granules. Among these, polyphosphate bodies (PPBs) store inorganic phosphate for a variety of essential functions. Identification of PPBs has until now been accomplished by analytical methods that required drying or chemically fixing the cells. These methods entail large electron doses that are incompatible with low-dose imaging of cryogenic specimens. We show here that Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) of fully hydrated, intact, vitrified bacteria provides a simple means for mapping of phosphorus-containing dense granules based on quantitative sensitivity of the electron scattering to atomic number. A coarse resolution of the scattering angles distinguishes phosphorus from the abundant lighter atoms: carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. The theoretical basis is similar to Z contrast of materials science. EDX provides a positive identification of phosphorus, but importantly, the method need not involve a more severe electron dose than that required for imaging. The approach should prove useful in general for mapping of heavy elements in cryopreserved specimens when the element identity is known from the biological context. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  16. Effects of High Hydrostatic Pressure on Expression Profiles of In Vitro Produced Vitrified Bovine Blastocysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zongliang; Harrington, Patrick; Zhang, Ming; Marjani, Sadie L.; Park, Joonghoon; Kuo, Lynn; Pribenszky, Csaba; Tian, Xiuchun (Cindy)

    2016-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has been used to pre-condition embryos before essential, yet potentially detrimental procedures such as cryopreservation. However, the mechanisms for HHP are poorly understood. We treated bovine blastocysts with three different HHP (40, 60 and 80 MPa) in combination with three recovery periods (0, 1 h, 2 h post HHP). Re-expansion rates were significantly higher at 40 and 60 but lower at 80 MPa after vitrification-warming in the treated groups than controls. Microarray analysis revealed 399 differentially expressed transcripts, representing 254 unique genes, among different groups. Gene ontology analysis indicated that HHP at 40 and 60 MPa promoted embryo competence through down-regulation of genes in cell death and apoptosis, and up-regulation of genes in RNA processing, cellular growth and proliferation. In contrast, 80 MPa up-regulated genes in apoptosis, and down-regulated protein folding and cell cycle-related genes. Moreover, gene expression was also influenced by the length of the recovery time after HHP. The significantly over-represented categories were apoptosis and cell death in the 1 h group, and protein folding, response to unfolded protein and cell cycle in the 2 h group compared to 0 h. Taken together, HHP promotes competence of vitrified bovine blastocysts through modest transcriptional changes. PMID:26883277

  17. Beam-induced motion of vitrified specimen on holey carbon film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilot, Axel F; Chen, James Z; Cheng, Anchi; Pan, Junhua; Harrison, Stephen C; Potter, Clinton S; Carragher, Bridget; Henderson, Richard; Grigorieff, Nikolaus

    2012-03-01

    The contrast observed in images of frozen-hydrated biological specimens prepared for electron cryo-microscopy falls significantly short of theoretical predictions. In addition to limits imposed by the current instrumentation, it is widely acknowledged that motion of the specimen during its exposure to the electron beam leads to significant blurring in the recorded images. We have studied the amount and direction of motion of virus particles suspended in thin vitrified ice layers across holes in perforated carbon films using exposure series. Our data show that the particle motion is correlated within patches of 0.3-0.5 μm, indicating that the whole ice layer is moving in a drum-like motion, with accompanying particle rotations of up to a few degrees. Support films with smaller holes, as well as lower electron dose rates tend to reduce beam-induced specimen motion, consistent with a mechanical effect. Finally, analysis of movies showing changes in the specimen during beam exposure show that the specimen moves significantly more at the start of an exposure than towards its end. We show how alignment and averaging of movie frames can be used to restore high-resolution detail in images affected by beam-induced motion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Ensuring Longevity: Ancient Glasses Help Predict Durability of Vitrified Nuclear Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Jamie L.; McCloy, John S.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2016-05-01

    How does glass alter with time? For the last hundred years this has been an important question to the fields of object conservation and archeology to ensure the preservation of glass artifacts. This same question is part of the development and assessment of durable glass waste forms for the immobilization of nuclear wastes. Researchers have developed experiments ranging from simple to highly sophisticated to answer this question, and, as a result, have gained significant insight into the mechanisms that drive glass alteration. However, the gathered data have been predominately applicable to only short-term alteration times, i.e. over the course of decades. What has remained elusive is the long-term mechanisms of glass alteration[1]. These mechanisms are of particular interest to the international nuclear waste glass community as they strive to ensure that vitrified products will be durable for thousands to tens of thousands of years. For the last thirty years this community has been working to fill this research gap by partnering with archeologists, museum curators, and geologists to identify hundred to million-year old glass analogues that have altered in environments representative of those expected at potential nuclear waste disposal sites. The process of identifying a waste glass relevant analogue is challenging as it requires scientists to relate data collected from short-term laboratory experiments to observations made from long-term analogues and extensive geochemical modeling.

  19. Methods of vitrifying waste with low melting high lithia glass compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantzen, Carol M.; Pickett, John B.; Cicero-Herman, Connie A.; Marra, James C.

    2001-01-01

    The invention relates to methods of vitrifying waste and for lowering the melting point of glass forming systems by including lithia formers in the glass forming composition in significant amounts, typically from about 0.16 wt % to about 11 wt %, based on the total glass forming oxides. The lithia is typically included as a replacement for alkali oxide glass formers that would normally be present in a particular glass forming system. Replacement can occur on a mole percent or weight percent basis, and typically results in a composition wherein lithia forms about 10 wt % to about 100 wt % of the alkali oxide glass formers present in the composition. The present invention also relates to the high lithia glass compositions formed by these methods. The invention is useful for stabilization of numerous types of waste materials, including aqueous waste streams, sludge solids, mixtures of aqueous supernate and sludge solids, combinations of spent filter aids from waste water treatment and waste sludges, supernate alone, incinerator ash, incinerator offgas blowdown, or combinations thereof, geological mine tailings and sludges, asbestos, inorganic filter media, cement waste forms in need of remediation, spent or partially spent ion exchange resins or zeolites, contaminated soils, lead paint, etc. The decrease in melting point achieved by the present invention desirably prevents volatilization of hazardous or radioactive species during vitrification.

  20. A Review of Iron Phosphate Glasses and Recommendations for Vitrifying Hanford Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbert E. Ray; Chandra S. Ray

    2013-11-01

    This report contains a comprehensive review of the research conducted, world-wide, on iron phosphate glass over the past ~30 years. Special attention is devoted to those iron phosphate glass compositions which have been formulated for the purpose of vitrifying numerous types of nuclear waste, with special emphasis on the wastes stored in the underground tanks at Hanford WA. Data for the structural, chemical, and physical properties of iron phosphate waste forms are reviewed for the purpose of understanding their (a) outstanding chemical durability which meets all current DOE requirements, (b) high waste loadings which can exceed 40 wt% (up to 75 wt%) for several Hanford wastes, (c) low melting temperatures, can be as low as 900°C for certain wastes, and (d) high tolerance for “problem” waste components such as sulfates, halides, and heavy metals (chromium, actinides, noble metals, etc.). Several recommendations are given for actions that are necessary to smoothly integrate iron phosphate glass technology into the present waste treatment plans and vitrification facilities at Hanford.

  1. Three-photon imaging of ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Jennifer K.; Amirsolaimani, Babak; Rice, Photini; Hatch, Kenneth; Kieu, Khanh

    2016-02-01

    Optical imaging methods have the potential to detect ovarian cancer at an early, curable stage. Optical imaging has the disadvantage that high resolution techniques require access to the tissue of interest, but miniature endoscopes that traverse the natural orifice of the reproductive tract, or access the ovaries and fallopian tubes through a small incision in the vagina wall, can provide a minimally-invasive solution. We have imaged both rodent and human ovaries and fallopian tubes with a variety of endoscope-compatible modalities. The recent development of fiber-coupled femtosecond lasers will enable endoscopic multiphoton microscopy (MPM). We demonstrated two- and three-photon excited fluorescence (2PEF, 3PEF), and second- and third-harmonic generation microscopy (SHG, THG) in human ovarian and fallopian tube tissue. A study was undertaken to understand the mechanisms of contrast in these images. Six patients (normal, cystadenoma, and ovarian adenocarcinoma) provided ovarian and fallopian tube biopsies. The tissue was imaged with three-dimensional optical coherence tomography, multiphoton microscopy, and frozen for histological sectioning. Tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's trichrome, and Sudan black. Approximately 1 μm resolution images were obtained with an excitation source at 1550 nm. 2PEF signal was absent. SHG signal was mainly from collagen. 3PEF and THG signal came from a variety of sources, including a strong signal from fatty connective tissue and red blood cells. Adenocarcinoma was characterized by loss of SHG signal, whereas cystic abnormalities showed strong SHG. There was limited overlap of two- and three- photon signals, suggesting that three-photon imaging can provide additional information for early diagnosis of ovarian cancer.

  2. Premature ovarian failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persani Luca

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Premature ovarian failure (POF is a primary ovarian defect characterized by absent menarche (primary amenorrhea or premature depletion of ovarian follicles before the age of 40 years (secondary amenorrhea. It is a heterogeneous disorder affecting approximately 1% of women e.g. Turner syndrome represent the major cause of primary amenorrhea associated with ovarian dysgenesis. Despite the description of several candidate genes, the cause of POF remains undetermined in the vast majority of the cases. Management includes substitution of the hormone defect by estrogen/progestin preparations. The only solution presently available for the fertility defect in women with absent follicular reserve is ovum donation.

  3. Gene expression profiling supports the hypothesis that human ovarian surface epithelia are multipotent and capable of serving as ovarian cancer initiating cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matyunina Lilya V

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accumulating evidence suggests that somatic stem cells undergo mutagenic transformation into cancer initiating cells. The serous subtype of ovarian adenocarcinoma in humans has been hypothesized to arise from at least two possible classes of progenitor cells: the ovarian surface epithelia (OSE and/or an as yet undefined class of progenitor cells residing in the distal end of the fallopian tube. Methods Comparative gene expression profiling analyses were carried out on OSE removed from the surface of normal human ovaries and ovarian cancer epithelial cells (CEPI isolated by laser capture micro-dissection (LCM from human serous papillary ovarian adenocarcinomas. The results of the gene expression analyses were randomly confirmed in paraffin embedded tissues from ovarian adenocarcinoma of serous subtype and non-neoplastic ovarian tissues using immunohistochemistry. Differentially expressed genes were analyzed using gene ontology, molecular pathway, and gene set enrichment analysis algorithms. Results Consistent with multipotent capacity, genes in pathways previously associated with adult stem cell maintenance are highly expressed in ovarian surface epithelia and are not expressed or expressed at very low levels in serous ovarian adenocarcinoma. Among the over 2000 genes that are significantly differentially expressed, a number of pathways and novel pathway interactions are identified that may contribute to ovarian adenocarcinoma development. Conclusions Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that human ovarian surface epithelia are multipotent and capable of serving as the origin of ovarian adenocarcinoma. While our findings do not rule out the possibility that ovarian cancers may also arise from other sources, they are inconsistent with claims that ovarian surface epithelia cannot serve as the origin of ovarian cancer initiating cells.

  4. Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strother, Robert; Matei, Daniela

    2009-06-01

    The encapsulation of doxorubicin in a pegylated liposomal matrix led to a reformulated agent with a different toxicity profile and improved clinical utility. Liposomal doxorubicin is devoid of the cardiac toxicity associated with doxorubicin, but is associated with predictable muco-cutaneous toxicity. The liposomal formulation leads to improved delivery to the target tumor tissue, allowing enhanced uptake by cancer cells. These properties translate into clinical utility in recurrent ovarian cancer as demonstrated by phase II and III trials, this proven clinical efficacy leading to FDA approval in second-line therapy for ovarian cancer. New combinations with cytotoxics, in particular with carboplatin, have demonstrated an acceptable toxicity profile and clinical utility in platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer. A favorable toxicity profile renders liposomal doxorubicin an ideal partner for combination regimens with other cytotoxics, and more recently with biological agents. Such combinations are the subject of ongoing clinical trials.

  5. Unusual presentation of twisted ovarian cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet V Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian torsion (also termed as adnexal torsion refers to partial or complete rotation of the ovary and a portion of fallopian tube along its supplying vascular pedicle. It occurs commonly in reproductive age group; more on the right side (60% and often presents with acute lower abdominal pain lasting for few hours and up to 24 h, accounting for 2.7% of acute gynecological conditions. It is one of the devastating conditions, hampering blood supply of ovary which may lead to total necrosis of ovarian tissue and complications, if not diagnosed and managed in time. Hence, we present a case on a twisted ovarian cyst in postmenopausal woman with unusual symptomatology leading to delayed diagnosis and loss of an ovary.

  6. ROR1 expression correlated with poor clinical outcome in human ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huilin; Qiu, Jinrong; Ye, Chunping; Yang, Dazhen; Gao, Lingjuan; Su, Yiping; Tang, Xiaojun; Xu, Ning; Zhang, Dawei; Xiong, Lin; Mao, Yuan; Li, Fengshan; Zhu, Jin

    2014-07-24

    The receptor-tyrosine-kinase-like orphan receptor 1 (ROR1) is a transmembrane protein belongs to receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family. This study aimed to examine the expression of ROR1 in human ovarian cancer and investigate the relationship between its expression and the prognosis of ovarian cancer patients. In this present study, one-step quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (15 ovarian cancer samples of high FIGO stage, 15 ovarian cancer samples of low FIGO stage and nine normal ovary tissue samples) and immunohistochemistry by tissue microarrays (100 ovarian cancer samples and 50 normal ovary samples) were performed to characterize expression of the ROR1 gene in ovarian cancer. Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox regression analyses were executed to evaluate the prognosis of ovarian cancer. The results of qPCR and IHC analysis showed that the expression of ROR1 in ovarian cancer was significantly higher than that in normal ovary tissues (all p ovarian cancer and it may serve as a novel prognostic marker in ovarian cancer.

  7. Atypical case of preterm ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durst, Michelle A; Wicklow, Brandy; Narvey, Michael

    2017-02-22

    Preterm ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome is a rare syndrome in which preterm infant girls have hypogastric, upper leg and labial swelling accompanied by elevated serum oestradiol levels and ovarian follicular cysts on ultrasound. Our case is an infant born at 23 weeks gestational age who at 30 weeks postconceptional age (PCA) developed elevated 17-hydroxyprogesterone on her newborn screen with associated clitoromegaly and a ventral groove on the inferior aspect of the erectile tissue. An initial pelvic ultrasound at 32 weeks PCA demonstrated a normal appearing uterus, but the ovaries were not visualised. At 39 weeks PCA, follicular ovarian cysts were noted bilaterally (31×26×21 mm on left and 38×25×36 mm on right). Without treatment, oestradiol and testosterone levels began normalising by 42 weeks PCA. After this point, the right ovarian cysts had resolved and the left ovarian cyst continued to diminish in size. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  8. PAX2 Expression in Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwong-Kwok Wong

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available PAX2 is one of nine PAX genes that regulate tissue development and cellular differentiation in embryos. However, the functional role of PAX2 in ovarian cancer is not known. Twenty-six ovarian cancer cell lines with different histology origins were screened for PAX2 expression. Two ovarian cancer cell lines: RMUGL (mucinous and TOV21G (clear cell, with high PAX2 expression were chosen for further study. Knockdown PAX2 expression in these cell lines was achieved by lentiviral shRNAs targeting the PAX2 gene. PAX2 stable knockdown cells were characterized for cell proliferation, migration, apoptosis, protein profiles, and gene expression profiles. The result indicated that these stable PAX2 knockdown cells had reduced cell proliferation and migration. Microarray analysis indicated that several genes involved in growth inhibition and motility, such as G0S2, GREM1, and WFDC1, were up-regulated in PAX2 knockdown cells. On the other hand, over-expressing PAX2 in PAX2-negative ovarian cell lines suppressed their cell proliferation. In summary, PAX2 could have both oncogenic and tumor suppression functions, which might depend on the genetic content of the ovarian cancer cells. Further investigation of PAX2 in tumor suppression and mortality is warranty.

  9. The HER2 gene copies per tumor cell either before or after correction for chromosome-17 correlated significantly with HER2 IHC results in epithelial ovarian cancer in a tissue microarray study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Chih; Lee, Ming-Yung; Chen, Fong-Lin; Wang, Po-Hui; Lin, Wea-Lung; Ruan, Alexandra; Li, Yi-Ju; Wang, Shao-Chuan; Chiang, Hung; Han, Chih-Ping

    2011-09-01

    HER2 gene amplification and HER2 protein overexpression are important factors in predicting clinical sensitivity to anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody therapy in breast cancer patients. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the correlation between HER2 protein expressions and the HER2 gene copies per tumor cell either before or after chromosome-17 correction in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Adopting 2007 ASCO/CAP guideline recommendations for HER2 testing, 27 tissue microarray (TMA) samples from EOC patients were analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using Dako, c-erb-B2 antibody and subsequently examined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using Abbott/Vysis, PathVysion HER2 DNA Probe Kit. The overall concordance revealed 81.5% between HER2 IHC and HER2 FISH results. Additionally, HER2 gene copies prior to chromosome-17 correction increased significantly in a stepwise order through the negative, equivocal, and positive IHC result categories (P = 0.026), as did the HER2 gene copies after chromosome-17 correction (P = 0.028). On the other hand, HER2 IHC results correlated significantly with both chromosome-17 uncorrected HER2 gene copy numbers (ρ = 0.430, P = 0.025) and chromosome-17 corrected HER2 gene copy numbers (ρ = 0.524, P = 0.027). We demonstrated that both chromosome-17 corrected and uncorrected HER2 gene copies correlated significantly with HER2 IHC result categories; and tests for the HER2 gene copies per tumor cell either before or after correction for chromosome-17 can be applied as a potentially valuable tool in analyzing the HER2 status in EOC.

  10. Endometriosis and ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Králíčková, Milena; Vetvicka, Vaclav

    2014-12-10

    Endometriosis is the leading cause of morbidity among premenopausal women and the complex pathogenesis of this disease remains controversial despite extensive research. This disease represents one of the most common gynecological problems. It is generally believed that this disease is due primarily to retrograde menstruation or transplantation of shed endometrium. Based on overwhelming data, ovarian endometrioma is considered a neoplastic process, since most endometriosis-associated ovarian carcinoma occur in the presence of atypical ovarian endometriosis. A study comparing patients with typical epithelial ovarian cancer with endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer demonstrated that the patients with the latter disease strongly differ in both biological and histological characteristics. The prevelance of this disease is not completely established, but approximately 15 percent of women suffer from this disease. In addition, we know about the possible links between endometriosis and cancer for almost 100 years. Despite clear evidence revealing that endometriosis increases ovarian cancer risks, it is possible that it may not affect disease progression after the appearance of ovarian cancer. However, despite clear evidence revealing that endometriosis increases ovarian cancer risk, our knowledge of the risk factors is far from established. In our review, we focused on the most recent approaches including possible biomarkers and genetic approaches.

  11. Lycopene reduces ovarian tumor growth and intraperitoneal metastatic load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzapfel, Nina Pauline; Shokoohmand, Ali; Wagner, Ferdinand; Landgraf, Marietta; Champ, Simon; Holzapfel, Boris Michael; Clements, Judith Ann; Hutmacher, Dietmar Werner; Loessner, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Mutagens like oxidants cause lesions in the DNA of ovarian and fallopian tube epithelial cells, resulting in neoplastic transformation. Reduced exposure of surface epithelia to oxidative stress may prevent the onset or reduce the growth of ovarian cancer. Lycopene is well-known for its excellent antioxidant properties. In this study, the potential of lycopene in the prevention and treatment of ovarian cancer was investigated using an intraperitoneal animal model. Lycopene prevention significantly reduced the metastatic load of ovarian cancer-bearing mice, whereas treatment of already established ovarian tumors with lycopene significantly diminished the tumor burden. Lycopene treatment synergistically enhanced anti-tumorigenic effects of paclitaxel and carboplatin. Immunostaining of tumor and metastatic tissues for Ki67 revealed that lycopene reduced the number of proliferating cancer cells. Lycopene decreased the expression of the ovarian cancer biomarker, CA125. The anti-metastatic and anti-proliferative effects were accompanied by down-regulated expression of ITGA5, ITGB1, MMP9, FAK, ILK and EMT markers, decreased protein expression of integrin α5 and reduced activation of MAPK. These findings indicate that lycopene interferes with mechanisms involved in the development and progression of ovarian cancer and that its preventive and therapeutic use, combined with chemotherapeutics, reduces the tumor and metastatic burden of ovarian cancer in vivo.

  12. Different in vitro culture systems affect the birth weight of lambs from vitrified ovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, L; Sanna, D; Dattena, M; Mayorga Muñoz, I M

    2015-02-01

    It has been reported that different in vitro culture systems affect the birth weight of lambs. The aim of this study was to test body weight and lambing rate of lambs born from five different in vitro culture systems after vitrification. Oocytes of Sarda sheep were matured in TCM-199 plus 0.4% bovine serum albumin (BSA) using systems: (i) 4 mg/ml fatty acid-free BSA (BSA4); (ii) 8 mg/ml fatty acid-free BSA (BSA8); (iii) BSA8-hyaluronan (BSA8-HA); (iv) BSA8-charcoal-stripped FBS (BSA8-CH); or (v) with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS; serum) and fertilized with fresh semen. The presumptive zygotes were cultured up to the blastocyst stage with BSA8, BSA8-HA, BSA8-CH or serum or BSA4. In the third and fifth days of culture 5% charcoal-stripped FBS was added into BSA8-CH and serum, while 8 mg/ml or 4 mg/ml fatty acid-free BSA was added as BSA8, BSA8-HA and BSA4 respectively; 6 mg/ml HA was added to BSA8-HA. In total, 240 vitrified blastocysts were transferred into synchronized ewes. The lambing rate was not significant different between BSA groups or between serum groups (BSA8-CH and serum), while serum groups showed significant lower values when compared with BSA groups. Only BSA8 groups produced heavy lambs (≥4.5 kg) with a significant difference between BSA4 and BSA8 groups (P < 0.05).

  13. Live birth potential of good morphology and vitrified blastocysts presenting abnormal cell divisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzarello, Antonino; Hoest, Thomas; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Mikkelsen, Anne Lis

    2017-06-01

    This study included 238 good morphology blastocysts, which were transferred after vitrification-warming to 152 women by single blastocyst transfer in Holbæk Fertility Clinic, Denmark. Time-lapse recordings of transferred good morphology blastocysts were reassessed to recognize every abnormal cell division (ACD) from the 1st to the 4th cell cycle. ACDs were distinguished as failed cell divisions and multi-cell divisions. ACDs were recognized in 37.0% (no. 88/238) of good morphology blastocysts that were vitrified-warmed and transferred in our clinic. Good morphology blastocysts with ACDs showed a lower live birth rate (17.0%) than blastocyst with solely regular cell divisions (29.3%). ACDs could occur at more than one cell division in the same good morphology blastocyst. Reported as independent events, we observed ACDs occurring more frequently at the later cell cycles (1st: 1.3%; 2nd: 8.0%; 3rd: 18.5%; 4th: 18.1%). More blastocysts presented failed cell divisions (no. 95) than multi-cell divisions (no. 14). Live births were achieved from blastocysts showing multi-cell divisions at any cell cycle and failed cell divisions from the 2nd cell cycle. Analyses of the subgroup of first blastocyst transferred to each patient showed similar to results. In conclusion, good morphology blastocysts presenting ACDs can result in live birth although lower compared to blastocysts with solely regular cell division. Pre-implantation embryos in vitro may undergo self-selection or correcting processes. This supports the transfer of blastocysts instead of cleavage stage embryos, giving first priority to blastocyst showing solely regular cell divisions, and giving second priority to blastocysts presenting ACDs at any cell cycle. Copyright © 2017 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of Alkali Resistant (Ar) Fibreglass in Porcelain Clay for Manufacturing Vitrified Clay Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikhmal Hanapi, Muhammad; Ahmad, Sufizar; Taib, Hariati; Ismail, Al Emran; Nasrull Abdol Rahman, Mohd; Salleh, Salihatun Md; Sadikin, Azmahani; Mahzan, Shahruddin

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this work is to determine the characteristics of porcelain ceramic with influence of milled Alkali Resistant (AR) fiberglass for manufacturing vitrified clay pipes. In this study, raw materials consist of porcelain clay and AR fiberglass were refined into powders less than 90μm. Subsequently, these samples were compacted into cylindrical pellet for chemical analysis using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF). The ceramic sample was produced by mixing different weight percentage of AR glass to porcelain ceramic with 3 wt%, 6 wt%, 9 wt% and 12 wt%. Subsequently, the sample was compacted with 3 ton of pressure load and sintered at 900 °C, 1000 °C, 1100 °C and 1200 °C. The phase identification by using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and microstructural analysis were performed for the sintered sample. Chemical analysis revealed that the significant element for all raw material are SiO2, Al2O3, Na2O and K2O. Phase identification analysis shown that sample sintered at 1000 °C produces quartz (SiO2), berlinite (AlPO4), albite (NaAlSi3O8) and calcium-magnesium-aluminum-silicate (CaMgAlSiO). The formation of primary mullite was observed in sample sintered at 1100 °C. The image of microstructural morphology denoted that the formation of glassy phase with decreasing amount of void when sintering temperature and addition of AR glass were increased, which correspond well to phase identification analysis.

  15. Survival, Fertilization and Developmental Rates of Cryotop-Vitrified Oocyte and Embryo Using Low Concentrated Cryoprotectants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Roozbehi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: The preserving embryos, the risk of multiple pregnancies, the existence of factors in stimulated uterine cycle, are important forces in perfecting embryo cryopreservation. The aim of current study was to assess Survival, Fertilization and Developmental Rates (SRs, FRs, DRs of the mouse oocytes and embryos using cryotop and low concentrated cryoprotectants solutions. Methods: Mouse C57BL/6 oocytes and embryos were collected. Oocytes SRs, FRs, DRs were recorded after cryotop-vitrification/ warming. As well as comparing fresh oocytes and embryos, the data obtained from experimental groups (exp. applying 1.25, 1.0, and 0.75 Molar (M CPAs were analyzed in comparison to those of exp. adopting 1.5 M CPAs (largely-used concentration of EthylenGlycol (EG and Dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO. Results: The data of oocytes exposed to 1.25 M CPAs were in consistency with those exposed to 1.5 M and control group in terms of SR, FR and DR. As fewer concentrations were applied, the more decreased SRs, FRs and DRs were obtained from other experimental groups. The results of embryos were exposed to 1.25 M and 1.0 M was close to those vitrified with 1.5 M and fresh embryos. The results of 0.75 M concentrated CPAs solutions were significantly lower than those of control, 1.5 M and 1.0 M treated groups. Conclusion: CPAs limited reduction to 1.25 M and 1.0 M instead of using 1.5 M, for oocyte and embryo cryotop-vitrification procedure may be a slight adjustment.

  16. Ovarian Splenosis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Talati

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of an asymptomatic, incidental ovarian splenosis of left ovary accompanying multiple pelvic and serosal splenotic nodules. To our best knowledge, total three cases of ovarian splenosis have been reported previously including two cases of ovarian splenosis accompanying pelvic and serosal splenotic nodules and one case of solitary ovarian splenosis

  17. Multiple metastases from ovarian cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is one of the most common ovarian tumours. Ovarian cancer affects women in the age group >60 years much more frequently than younger women. At the time of diagnosis, cancer will already have spread beyond the ovaries in approximately 75% of cases. We report a case of epithelial ovarian ...

  18. Ovarian reserve parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, J G; Forman, Julie Lyng; Pinborg, Anja

    2012-01-01

    2-5 of the menstrual cycle or during withdrawal bleeding, blood sampling and transvaginal sonography was performed. After adjusting for age, ovarian reserve parameters were lower among users than among non-users of hormonal contraception: serum AMH concentration by 29.8% (95% CI 19.9 to 38...... was observed between duration of hormonal-contraception use and ovarian reserve parameters. No dose-response relation was found between the dose of ethinyloestradiol and AMH or AFC. This study indicates that ovarian reserve markers are lower in women using sex steroids for contraception. Thus, AMH...... concentration and AFC may not retain their accuracy as predictors of ovarian reserve in women using hormonal contraception. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentration is an indirect marker of the number of small follicles in the ovary and thereby the ovarian reserve. The AMH concentration is now widely...

  19. Autoimmune premature ovarian failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Komorowska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Premature ovarian failure (POF, also termed as primary ovarian insufficiency (POI, is a highly heterogenous condition affecting 0.5-3.0% of women in childbearing age. These young women comprise quite a formidable group with unique physical and psychological needs that require special attention. Premature ovarian senescence (POS in all of its forms evolves insidiously as a basically asymptomatic process, leading to complete loss of ovarian function, and POI/POF diagnoses are currently made at relatively late stages. Well-known and well-documented risk factors exist, and the presence or suspicion of autoimmune disorder should be regarded as an important one. Premature ovarian failure is to some degree predictable in its occurrence and should be considered while encountering young women with loss of menstrual regularity, especially when there is a concomitant dysfunction in the immune system.

  20. Searching for new biomarkers in ovarian cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hentze, Julie L.; Høgdall, Claus; Kjær, Susanne K.

    2017-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a silent killer and, due to late diagnosis, the primary cause of death amongst gynecological cancers, killing approximately 376 women annually in Denmark. The discovery of a specific and sensitive biomarker for ovarian cancer could improve early diagnosis, but also treatment...... regarding biomarkers and/or prognostic markers, with a focus on rationale and design. The study described has 3 major branches: microRNAs, epigenetics and Next Generation Sequencing. Tissue and blood from ovarian cancer patients, already enrolled in the prospective ongoing pelvic mass cohort...

  1. Advanced separation and transmutation, long dated behavior of vitrified wastes: 15 years of scientific researches; Separation poussee et transmutation, comportement a long terme des dechets vitrifies: 15 ans d'avancees scientifiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-15

    This report presents the results after 15 years of researches at the Cea, concerning the separation and transmutation of radioactive wastes and the conditioning and the long time storage of wastes at the surface. These researches were asked in the framework of the Bataille law. The first part devoted to the transmutation and separation of ling life radioactive elements presents the challenges, the advanced separation, the transmutation and the evaluation of the researches. The second part devoted to the long dated storage discusses the high activity wastes vitrification, the behavior of the vitrified wastes packages after thousand years, the international researches and the evaluation of the researches. (A.L.B.)

  2. Integrated analysis reveals tubal and ovarian originated serous ovarian cancer and predicts differential therapeutic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Dapeng; Li, Jingjing; Jia, Shanshan; Meng, Yuan; Wang, Li; Zhang, Chao; Di, Li-Jun

    2017-09-22

    The relative importance of fallopian tube (FT) compared to ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) in the genesis of serous type of ovarian cancer (SOC) is still unsettled. Here, we followed an integrated approach to study the tissue origin of SOC, as well as its association with clinical outcome and response to therapeutic drugs. A collection of transcriptome data of 80 FTs, 89 OSEs and 2,668 SOCs was systematically analyzed to determine the characteristic of FT-like and OSE-like tumors. A molecular signature was developed for identifying tissue origin of SOC and then was used to re-evaluate the prognostic genes and therapeutic biomarkers of SOC of different tissue origins. IHC staining of tissue array and functional experiments on a panel of ovarian cancer cell lines were used to further validate the key findings. The expression patterns of tissue specific genes, prognostic genes and molecular markers all support a dualistic tissue origin of SOC, from either FT or OSE. A molecular signature was established to identify the tissue identity of SOCs. Surprisingly, the signature showed a strong association with overall survival [OSE-like versus FT-like, HR = 4.16, 95%CI, 2.67-6.48, p<10-9]. The phamacogenomic approach revealed AXL to be a therapeutic target of the aggressive OSE-derived SOC. SOC has two subtypes originated from either FT or OSE, which show different clinical and pathological features. Copyright ©2017, American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Could transvaginal, ultrasound-guided ovarian interstitial laser treatment replace laparoscopic ovarian drilling in women with polycystic ovary syndrome resistant to clomiphene citrate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Api, Murat

    2009-12-01

    A number of novel surgical modalities that destroy or remove some ovarian tissue to restore ovarian function in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome have been described in the most recent literature. Although these modalities were reported to have easy applicability and low cost with shorter hospital stay, the efficacy and safety concerns need to be discussed extensively.

  4. MV-NIS Infected Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-31

    Malignant Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  5. Cosmetic micromanipulation of vitrified-warmed cleavage stage embryos does not improve ART outcomes: An ultrastructural study of fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Somayyeh; Khalili, Mohammad Ali; Barekati, Zeinab; Halvaei, Iman; Anvari, Morteza; Nottola, Stefania A

    2017-09-01

    The aim was to study the ultrastructure of cytoplasmic fragments along with the effect of cosmetic micromanipulation (CM) on the morphology and development of vitrified-warmed embryos as well as assisted reproductive technology (ART) outcomes. A total of 96 frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles were included in this prospective randomized study. They were divided into three groups of CM (n=32), sham (n=32) and control (n=32). In the CM group, the vitrified- warmed embryos were subjected to fragments and coarse granules removal (cosmetic micromanipulation) after laser assisted zona hatching (LAH); sham group subjected only to LAH and no intervention was taken for the control group. Fragmented embryo was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Significant improvement was observed in the morphological parameters, such as fragmentation degrees, evenness of the blastomeres and embryo grade during the subsequent development, after applying cosmetic micromanipulation, when compared to sham or control groups (P=0.00001). However, there were no differences in the clinical outcomes amongst the three studied groups e.g. the rates of clinical, ongoing and multiple pregnancies, implantation, delivery and live birth. In fine structure view, fragments exhibited uniform cytoplasmic texture containing majority of organelles that were observed in normal blastomeres including mitochondria. In conclusion, application of cosmetic micromanipulation in low-grade vitrified-warmed embryos showed significant improvement on embryo morphology parameters; however, did not result in noticeable improvements in clinical outcomes of the patients undergoing ART program. In addition, embryo vitrification had no adverse effects on fine structure of the fragments. Copyright © 2017 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  6. Comments on a paper tilted `The sea transport of vitrified high-level radioactive wastes: Unresolved safety issues`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprung, J.L.; McConnell, P.E.; Nigrey, P.J.; Ammerman, D.J. [and others

    1997-05-01

    The cited paper estimates the consequences that might occur should a purpose-built ship transporting Vitrified High Level Waste (VHLW) be involved in a severe collision that causes the VHLW canisters in one Type-B package to spill onto the floor of a major ocean fishing region. Release of radioactivity from VHLW glass logs, failure of elastomer cask seals, failure of VHLW canisters due to stress corrosion cracking (SCC), and the probabilities of the hypothesized accident scenario, of catastrophic cask failure, and of cask recovery from the sea are all discussed.

  7. A Review and Analysis of European Industrial Experience in Handling LWR Spent Fuel and Vitrified High-Level Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomeke, J.O.

    2001-07-10

    The industrial facilities that have been built or are under construction in France, the United Kingdom, Sweden, and West Germany to handle light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and canisters of vitrified high-level waste before ultimate disposal are described and illustrated with drawings and photographs. Published information on the operating performance of these facilities is also given. This information was assembled for consideration in planning and design of similar equipment and facilities needed for the Federal Waste Management System in the United States.

  8. Nintedanib in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalique, Saira; Banerjee, Susana

    2017-09-01

    Advanced ovarian cancer remains an unmet clinical need. Angiogenesis is considered a therapeutic target in ovarian cancer, with bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody against VEGF, being the first drug to show a progression-free survival benefit. Nintedanib is an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting VEGF receptor 1-3, FGFR 1-3 and PDGFR α and β, which has entered phase III trial development in ovarian cancer. Areas covered: This article reviews the preclinical and clinical efficacy of nintedanib in ovarian cancer, its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics profile, safety issues, together with an overview of clinical trials carried out so far. A literature search was made in PubMed for nintedanib, ovarian cancer, angiogenesis, and on ClinicalTrials.gov site for clinical trials with nintedanib. Expert opinion: An ongoing phase III trial investigating nintedanib combined with first-line chemotherapy in ovarian cancer has shown a statistically significant progression free survival benefit, although there were toxicity issues. The true clinical benefit of nintedanib in ovarian cancer including its optimal treatment setting and dosage still need to be addressed.

  9. Ovarian volume throughout life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelsey, Thomas W; Dodwell, Sarah K; Wilkinson, A Graham

    2013-01-01

    to about 2.8 mL (95% CI 2.7-2.9 mL) at the menopause and smaller volumes thereafter. Our model allows us to generate normal values and ranges for ovarian volume throughout life. This is the first validated normative model of ovarian volume from conception to old age; it will be of use in the diagnosis...... cancer. To date there is no normative model of ovarian volume throughout life. By searching the published literature for ovarian volume in healthy females, and using our own data from multiple sources (combined n=59,994) we have generated and robustly validated the first model of ovarian volume from...... conception to 82 years of age. This model shows that 69% of the variation in ovarian volume is due to age alone. We have shown that in the average case ovarian volume rises from 0.7 mL (95% CI 0.4-1.1 mL) at 2 years of age to a peak of 7.7 mL (95% CI 6.5-9.2 mL) at 20 years of age with a subsequent decline...

  10. Giant ovarian cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Santos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We read the exceedingly rare case study recently described by Hota et al. about giant ovarian cyst in term pregnancy1. The patient was a 25-year-old woman undergoing therapy for hypothyroidism, with history of three previous deliveries (P1L1A1. USG of abdomen and pelvis was normal with respect to gestational age in the second trimester, and ovarian cyst was not seen. However, the USG of control done on the third trimester revealed a left ovarian cyst (21x18 cm, with normal obstetric features. The weight of removed cyst of 29x20 cm was 4.9 kg, and the histopathology diagnosis was ovarian mucinous cystadenoma1. The authors emphasized the rarity of concomitat pregnancy and ovarian cyst, and 15% of these mucinous cysts are malignant1. Huge ovarian cysts are more often benign, and less frequently they are diagnosed in association with normal pregnancies1. Major concerns in this setting should be the early diagnosis, close follow-up of the cyst growing, and appropriate intervention1. Interestingly, in the case herein commented the ovarian cyst was not detected by USG in the first two trimesters of pregnancy. 

  11. [Hereditary ovarian cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikán, M; Foretová, L; Cibula, D; Kotlas, J; Pohlreich, P

    2006-05-01

    This article reviews the topic of hereditary ovarian cancer, describes persons at risk of hereditary disposition to cancer and gives instructions for genetic counselling and molecular analysis, including contacts to specialized centres in the Czech Republic. Review. Institute of Biochemistry and Experimental Oncology, Charles University in Prague. Hereditary ovarian cancer occurs in three autosomal dominant syndromes: appropriate hereditary ovarian cancer (HOC), hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) and hereditary non-poliposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). Physician in practice or specialist at the clinic should focus interest on patients form families with frequent occurrence of breast and/or ovarian cancer, patients with early onset disease or tumour duplicity (breast and ovarian cancer). Hereditary disposition to ovarian (and breast) cancer could be assessed by molecular genetic analysis of two main susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2, or other genes in families with diverse tumours. Molecular genetic analysis should be in any cases indicated by experienced clinical genetic. In the Czech Republic, the consensus of genetic and clinical care of risk patients was published and specialized centres for families with hereditary predisposition were settled in Prague and Brno. Persons with hereditary susceptibility to cancer constitute noted group where painstaking dispensarisation and preventive care may prevent malignancy or detect it in the early stage.

  12. Genetic analysis of the early natural history of epithelial ovarian carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavana Pothuri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The high mortality rate associated with epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC reflects diagnosis commonly at an advanced stage, but improved early detection is hindered by uncertainty as to the histologic origin and early natural history of this malignancy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report combined molecular genetic and morphologic analyses of normal human ovarian tissues and early stage cancers, from both BRCA mutation carriers and the general population, indicating that EOCs frequently arise from dysplastic precursor lesions within epithelial inclusion cysts. In pathologically normal ovaries, molecular evidence of oncogenic stress was observed specifically within epithelial inclusion cysts. To further explore potential very early events in ovarian tumorigenesis, ovarian tissues from women not known to be at high risk for ovarian cancer were subjected to laser catapult microdissection and gene expression profiling. These studies revealed a quasi-neoplastic expression signature in benign ovarian cystic inclusion epithelium compared to surface epithelium, specifically with respect to genes affecting signal transduction, cell cycle control, and mitotic spindle formation. Consistent with this gene expression profile, a significantly higher cell proliferation index (increased cell proliferation and decreased apoptosis was observed in histopathologically normal ovarian cystic compared to surface epithelium. Furthermore, aneuploidy was frequently identified in normal ovarian cystic epithelium but not in surface epithelium. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Together, these data indicate that EOC frequently arises in ovarian cystic inclusions, is preceded by an identifiable dysplastic precursor lesion, and that increased cell proliferation, decreased apoptosis, and aneuploidy are likely to represent very early aberrations in ovarian tumorigenesis.

  13. Morphological and phenotypical features of ovarian metastases in breast cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Inge T. A.; van der Steen, Merle A.; Huisman, Bertine W.; Hilders, Carina G. J .M.; Smit, Vincent T. H. B. M.; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.; Sier, Cornelis F. M.; Trimbos, J. Baptist; Kuppen, Peter J. K.

    2017-01-01

    Background Autotransplantation of frozen-thawed ovarian tissue is a method to preserve ovarian function and fertility in patients undergoing gonadotoxic therapy. In oncology patients, the safety cannot yet be guaranteed, since current tumor detection methods can only exclude the presence of malignant cells in ovarian fragments that are not transplanted. We determined the need for a novel detection method by studying the distribution of tumor cells in ovaries from patients with breast cancer. ...

  14. Ovarian failure due to cancer treatment and fertility preservation options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Aminimoghaddam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI, commonly referred to premature ovarian failure, is defined as ovarian failure before the age of 40 years. It is the loss of ovarian function caused by a process directly affecting ovaries. Cancer therapy which includes surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy influence ovarian function, leading to premature menopause and loss of fertility. POI is idiopathic in most cases (74-90%. The known causes, in addition to anticancer treatment, are other processes like chromosomal abnormalities, autoimmunity, and natural aging can result in secondary ovarian failure, which is detected by an increase in serum gonadotropin levels (FSH and LH. There are evident risks of POI in women treated for cancer. Those who receive anticancer treatments have an increased risk of developing POI. There by, anticancer drugs and radiation therapy are considered as the most common toxins of ovaries. Although cancer incidence rates in women less than 50 years old continue to increase during recent years, mortality rates are dramatically decreasing due to modern advances in treatment. Increasing numbers of survivors are now confronted with the long-term consequences of exposure to these treatments. The pool of primordial follicles in the ovary is fixed and any injury to the ovary can potentially reduce this ovarian reserve, effectively advancing the patient’s reproductive age, thus narrowing the window of reproductive opportunity. Ovarian failure occurs in a significant percentage of childhood cancer survivors and many of them will seek care for reproductive dysfunction. Nevertheless, Embryo cryopreservation, oocyte cryopreservation, ovary tissue cryopreservation, ovarian suppression and oophoro-pexy are some options to preserve fertility in these groups. As a result, having foreknowledge of potential treatment related ovarian failure will allow the physician to give a better counsel to patients and their family regarding the importance and

  15. Factors related to clinical pregnancy after vitrified-warmed embryo transfer: a retrospective and multivariate logistic regression analysis of 2313 transfer cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wenhao; Zhang, Silin; Zhao, Wanqiu; Xia, Xue; Wang, Min; Wang, Hui; Bai, Haiyan; Shi, Juanzi

    2013-07-01

    What factors does multivariate logistic regression show to be significantly associated with the likelihood of clinical pregnancy in vitrified-warmed embryo transfer (VET) cycles? Assisted hatching (AH) and if the reason to freeze embryos was to avoid the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) were significantly positively associated with a greater likelihood of clinical pregnancy. Single factor analysis has shown AH, number of embryos transferred and the reason of freezing for OHSS to be positively and damaged blastomere to be negatively significantly associated with the chance of clinical pregnancy after VET. It remains unclear what factors would be significant after multivariate analysis. The study was a retrospective analysis of 2313 VET cycles from 1481 patients performed between January 2008 and April 2012. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the factors to affect clinical pregnancy outcome of VET. There were 22 candidate variables selected based on clinical experiences and the literature. With the thresholds of α entry = α removal= 0.05 for both variable entry and variable removal, eight variables were chosen to contribute the multivariable model by the bootstrap stepwise variable selection algorithm (n = 1000). Eight variables were age at controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH), reason for freezing, AH, endometrial thickness, damaged blastomere, number of embryos transferred, number of good-quality embryos, and blood presence on transfer catheter. A descriptive comparison of the relative importance was accomplished by the proportion of explained variation (PEV). Among the reasons for freezing, the OHSS group showed a higher OR than the surplus embryo group when compared with other reasons for VET groups (OHSS versus Other, OR: 2.145; CI: 1.4-3.286; Surplus embryos versus Other, OR: 1.152; CI: 0.761-1.743) and high PEV (marginal 2.77%, P = 0.2911; partial 1.68%; CI of area under receptor operator characteristic

  16. Clinicopathological correlation of endocan expression and survival in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Behery, Manal M; Seksaka, Mahmoud A; Ibrahiem, Moustafa A; Saleh, Hend S; El Alfy, Yehya

    2013-12-01

    Endothelial-cell-specific molecule-1 or endocan is a proteoglycan with tumorigenic activity through both its glycan and protein cores. Endocan mRNA is identified as one of the most significant molecular signatures defining a poor prognosis in lung, breast, kidney, and hepatocellular cancer. To assess the clinical value of endocan expression in ovarian cancer tissues in association with other prognostic factors and its impact on overall survival. Oncology unit of Zagazig University Hospitals, Egypt. Prospective observational cohort. One hundred primary ovarian cancer patients were recruited as study group, another 100 patients undergoing hysterectomy and oophorectomy due to uterine fibroid were the control group. Angiogenesis was determined by immunohistochemical staining, using anti-endocan, and anti vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) monoclonal antibodies. Endocan was expressed in endothelium of ovarian cancer tissue specimens in all patients with no expression in endothelium of normal ovarian tissue in the control group. VEGF was also expressed in endothelium of all specimens of ovarian cancer tissue, compared with 70% expression in normal ovarian tissue specimens in the control group. A significant association was found between endocan-microvessel density (MVD) and tumor histology, tumor size, staging, and grading. No significant association was found between VEGF expression and any of the clinicopathological variables. Overall survival of patients was inversely associated with endocan-MVD (P ovarian cancer (P ovarian cancer patients.

  17. Premature ovarian failure and ovarian autoimmunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Schoemaker (Joop); H.A. Drexhage (Hemmo); A. Hoek (Annemieke)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractPremature ovarian failure (POF) is defined as a syndrome characterized by menopause before the age of 40 yr. The patients suffer from anovulation and hypoestrogenism. Approximately 1% of women will experience menopause before the age of 40 yr. POF is a

  18. Forced collapse of the blastocoel enhances survival of cryotop vitrified bovine hatching/hatched blastocysts derived from in vitro fertilization and somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Sung-Hun; Lee, Enok; Son, Hyeong-Hoon; Yeon, Ji-Yeong; Koo, Deog-Bon

    2013-04-01

    Freezing of bovine blastocysts has been widely used to improve the feasibility of cattle production by the embryo transfer technique. However, the low survival of vitrified-warmed embryos and their further development are crucial problems. Particularly, the production of offspring in vitrified-warmed bovine hatching/hatched blastocysts derived from in vitro fertilization (IVF) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is very low. Thus, we examined the effects of forced blastocoel collapse (FBC) before vitrification of bovine IVF- and SCNT-derived hatching/hatched embryos on the survival rate and apoptosis index after warming. Under optimal conditions, the overall survival rates in vitrified-warmed bovine IVF- and SCNT-derived hatching/hatched blastocysts were higher in FBC groups than in non-FBC groups (pvitrification of bovine IVF- and SCNT-derived hatching/hatched blastocysts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Overexpression of clusterin promotes angiogenesis via the vascular endothelial growth factor in primary ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yanxia; Lai, Yingrong; Wang, Qiongjuan; Liu, Xingyang; He, Weipeng; Zhang, Haihong; Fan, Chunyang; Yang, Guofen

    2013-06-01

    Clusterin (CLU), a multifunctional glycoprotein, is ubiquitously produced in mammalian tissues. CLU has been shown to play significant roles in many of the biological behaviours of human tumors, such as cell proliferation, apoptosis, chemoresistance and angiogenesis. However, the relationship of CLU expression with angiogenesis in ovarian cancer has not been studied. A total of 275 epithelial ovarian tumors were obtained from archives of paraffin‑embedded tissues. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for CLU and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was performed on a tissue microarray (TMA) including 181 primary ovarian epithelial cancer, 40 borderline ovarian tumors and 54 ovarian cancer mesenteric metastasis samples. Of the 174 cases, overexpression of CLU and VEGF were detected in 107 (61.5%) and 109 (62.9%) cases of primary ovarian carcinoma, respectively. Of the 107 cases of primary ovarian carcinoma with overexpression of CLU, expression of VEGF was increased in 82 (75.2%) cases. However, in another 67 cases without CLU overexpression, overexpression of VEGF was observed in only 27 (24.8%) cases (Povarian cancer appears to be correlated with increased tumor angiogenesis, consistent with the established role of CLU as an oncogene in the biology of ovarian cancer. In the treatment of ovarian cancer, these two markers may be used in the selection of patients for targeted therapy.

  20. Ovarian Cancer FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vein thrombosis (DVT) , heart attack, and stroke. Current theories suggest that some types of ovarian cancer may ... Annual Meeting CME Overview CREOG Meetings Calendar Congressional Leadership Conference Advocacy Legislative Priorities GR & Outreach State Advocacy ...

  1. Ovarian Cancer and Comorbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noer, Mette Calundann; Sperling, Cecilie Dyg; Ottesen, Bent

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Comorbidity influences survival in ovarian cancer, but the causal relations between prognosis and comorbidity are not well characterized. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between comorbidity, system delay, the choice of primary treatment, and survival in Danish...... ovarian cancer patients. METHODS: This population-based study was conducted on data from 5317 ovarian cancer patients registered in the Danish Gynecological Cancer Database. Comorbidity was classified according to the Charlson Comorbidity Index and the Ovarian Cancer Comorbidity Index. Pearson χ test...... and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the association between comorbidity and primary outcome measures: primary treatment ("primary debulking surgery" vs "no primary surgery") and system delay (more vs less than required by the National Cancer Patient Pathways [NCPPs]). Cox...

  2. Primary ovarian malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostov Miloš

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Primary ovarian malignant melanoma is extremely rare. It usually appears in the wall of a dermoid cyst or is associated with another teratomatous component. Metastatic primary malignant melanoma to ovary from a primary melanoma elsewhere is well known and has been often reported especially in autopsy studies. Case report. We presented a case of primary ovarian malignant melanoma in a 45- year old woman, with no evidence of extraovarian primary melanoma nor teratomatous component. The tumor was unilateral, macroscopically on section presented as solid mass, dark brown to black color. Microscopically, tumor cells showed positive immunohistochemical reaction for HMB-45, melan-A and S-100 protein, and negative immunoreactivity for estrogen and progesteron receptors. Conclusion. Differentiate metastatic melanoma from rare primary ovarian malignant melanoma, in some of cases may be a histopathological diagnostic problem. Histopathological diagnosis of primary ovarian malignant melanoma should be confirmed by immunohistochemical analyses and detailed clinical search for an occult primary tumor.

  3. IMPROVED SURVIVAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL RATES IN VITRIFIED-WARMED PIG OOCYTES AFTER RECOVERY CULTURE WITH COENZYME Q10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In-Sul; Kwon, D ae-Jin; Kwak, Tae-Uk; Lee, Jeong-Woong; Im, Gi-Sun; Hwang, Seongsoo

    2016-01-01

    The primary problems with porcine oocyte vitrification are their low viability and development; both need improvement. This study was designed to improve the survival and developmental rates in vitrified-warmed porcine oocytes. Porcine oocytes matured in vitro were vitrified-warmed with Cryotop. Then the oocytes were supplemented with Q10 during recovery culture. The survival rates immediately after warming were 92.9% by morphological inspection and 39.3% by fluorescein diacetate (FDA) assay. The group of recovery culture with Q10 (VC+Q10) showed significantly higher viability compared to the group of recovery culture without Q10 (VC+) analyzed by morphology and the FDA. The VC+Q10 group showed a low Bax/Bcl-xl ratio and a high expression of MAP3K12 and TGFB3 compared to the VC+. The cleavage rate did not differ in both groups but, blastocyst yield was higher in VC+Q10 than the VC+ group. Supplementation of Q10 during recovery culture led to a higher blastocyst yield by increasing survival rates and regulating mRNA expressions.

  4. MR Imaging Findings of Ovarian Cystadenofibroma: Clues for Making the Differential Diagnosis from Ovarian Malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Jae Young [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    Ovarian cystadenofibromas are uncommon epithelial ovarian tumors in which fibrous stroma is the dominant component of the neoplasm, in addition to the epithelial lining of the cystic tumor. These tumors are classified, according to the epithelial cell types, into the serous, endometrioid, mucinous, clear cell and mixed categories. Outwater et al. have reported that ovarian cystadenofibromas were multilocular cystic masses with a solid component and they had a specific MR signal intensity for the solid portion, which consisted of fibrous tissue that had very low signal intensity on the T2-weighted sequences. Takeuchi et al. reported that small or tiny cystic locules within the solid component are the characteristic findings of cystadenofibroma, corresponding to a black sponge-like appearance on T2-weignted image. Cho et al. found that about half of ovarian cystadenofibromas are purely cystic and the other half are complex cystic masses with one or more solid components on CT or MR imaging. The imaging findings of purely cystic ovarian cystadenofibromas were identical to those of ovarian cystadenomas on CT or MR imaging. Upon reviewing of the pathology of these tumors, they had small foci of fibrous stromas that were detected only on microscopic examination. The cystadenofibromas with a complex cystic nature demonstrated variable amounts of solid components in the cystic tumor on the CT or MR imaging. Familiarity with the above mentioned MR imaging features of ovarian cystadenofibromas may allow a specific diagnosis and help distinguish this benign tumor from malignant tumors, and this can be a big help during surgical planning to avoid inappropriate management or excessive surgical intervention.

  5. No peri- and postnatal effects on calves born after transfer of in vitro produced embryos vitrified by the open pulled straw (OPS) method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Helene; Holm, Peter; Schmidt, Mette

    2003-01-01

    The general objective of this study was to perform follow-up studies including selected peri- and postnatal characteristics on calves born after transfer of in vitro produced (IVP) em- bryos vitrified by the ’Open Pulled Straw’ (OPS) method. An overall pregnancy rate of 16% after transfer...... of the OPS-vitrified IVP embryos was achieved and resulted in birth of 9 calves, with 11 AI calves serving as controls. There were no immediate or long- term effects on these calves with respect to birth weight, gestation length, perinatal mor- tality, growth rate, disease susceptibility and reproductive...

  6. No Peri- and Postnatal Effects on Calves Born After Transfer of in Vitro Produced Embryos Vitrified by the Open Pulled Straw (OPS Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callesen H

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of this study was to perform follow-up studies including selected peri- and postnatal characteristics on calves born after transfer of in vitro produced (IVP embryos vitrified by the 'Open Pulled Straw' (OPS method. An overall pregnancy rate of 16% after transfer of the OPS-vitrified IVP embryos was achieved and resulted in birth of 9 calves, with 11 AI calves serving as controls. There were no immediate or long-term effects on these calves with respect to birth weight, gestation length, perinatal mortality, growth rate, disease susceptibility and reproductive performance.

  7. No peri- and postnatal effects on calves born after transfer of in vitro produced embryos vitrified by the open pulled straw (OPS) method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, H.; Holm, P.; Schmidt, M.

    2003-01-01

    The general objective of this study was to perform follow-up studies including selected peri- and postnatal characteristics on calves born after transfer of in vitro produced (IVP) embryos vitrified by the 'Open Pulled Straw' (OPS) method. An overall pregnancy rate of 16% after transfer of the OPS......-vitrified IVP embryos was achieved and resulted in birth of 9 calves, with 11 AI calves serving as controls. There were no immediate or long-term effects on these calves with respect to birth weight, gestation length, perinatal mortality, growth rate, disease susceptibility and reproductive performance....

  8. Detection of glyco-mucin profiles improves specificity of MUC16 and MUC1 biomarkers in ovarian serous tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricardo, Sara; da Silva, Lara Patricia Marcos; Pereira, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    assays. Our aim was to refine ovarian cancer biomarkers by detection of aberrant glycoforms (Tn, STn, and T) of MUC16 and MUC1 in ovarian cancer tissue using Proximity Ligation Assays (PLA). We studied two series of serous ovarian tumours, a pilot series of 66 ovarian tumours (27 cystadenomas, 16...... borderline tumours and 23 adenocarcinomas) from Centro Hospitalar S. João, Porto and a validation series of 89 ovarian tumours (17 cystadenomas, 25 borderline tumours and 47 adenocarcinomas) from the Portuguese Institute of Oncology Francisco Gentil, Lisbon. PLA reactions for MUC16/Tn, MUC16/STn, MUC1/Tn...

  9. Influence of composition variations on the initial alteration rate of vitrified domestic waste incineration fly-ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frugier, P; Godon, N; Vernaz, E; Larché, F

    2002-01-01

    Vitrification as a waste stabilization technology has often been considered applicable only to high-level radioactive waste for which, with the use of suitable additives, it yields a vitreous material with excellent chemical durability. It has become apparent in recent years that some waste forms-notably domestic waste incineration fly-ash purification residues--contain most of the ingredients of a vitrified material, although their composition variations are difficult to control. It is thus important to ensure not only that the materials are suitable for vitrification, but also that the resulting product exhibits acceptable long-term behavior under all circumstances. An initial study showed that, allowing for the compensation changes inherent in the melting process builtby EDF**, the residue collected by a single fly-ash dust separation defines a composition range within which the suitability of the vitrified material can be verified. "Vitrified material" refers to a melted material that contains no unmelted inclusions after cooling, but that may contain a variable fraction of crystallized phases. Five composition parameters were identified for the long-term behavior assessment: the concentrations of the three major elements (silicon, aluminum and calcium), the total alkali metal (sodium and potassium) concentration, and the sum of the concentrations of two toxic elements (zinc and lead). The other elements were assumed constant at molar ratios representative of industrial wastes. The experimentation plan methodology applied to the composition range identified fourteen materials suilable for developing and validating first-order models of the material components. The fly-ash composition had a very significant effect on the degree and kinetics and crystallization in the vitrified material within the experimental composition range; the cooling rate was the determining factor for some of the fourteen materials studied. Two crystailine phases predominated: spinels

  10. Morphological and phenotypical features of ovarian metastases in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Inge T A; van der Steen, Merle A; Huisman, Bertine W; Hilders, Carina G J M; Smit, Vincent T H B M; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L; Sier, Cornelis F M; Trimbos, J Baptist; Kuppen, Peter J K

    2017-03-21

    Autotransplantation of frozen-thawed ovarian tissue is a method to preserve ovarian function and fertility in patients undergoing gonadotoxic therapy. In oncology patients, the safety cannot yet be guaranteed, since current tumor detection methods can only exclude the presence of malignant cells in ovarian fragments that are not transplanted. We determined the need for a novel detection method by studying the distribution of tumor cells in ovaries from patients with breast cancer. Furthermore, we examined which cell-surface proteins are suitable as a target for non-invasive tumor-specific imaging of ovarian metastases from invasive breast cancer. Using the nationwide database of the Dutch Pathology Registry (PALGA), we identified a cohort of 46 women with primary invasive breast cancer and ovarian metastases. The localization and morphology of ovarian metastases were determined on hematoxylin-and-eosin-stained sections. The following cell-surface markers were immunohistochemically analyzed: E-cadherin, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), human epidermal growth receptor type 2 (Her2/neu), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), αvβ6 integrin and epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM). The majority of ovarian metastases (71%) consisted of a solitary metastasis or multiple distinct nodules separated by uninvolved ovarian tissue, suggesting that ovarian metastases might be overlooked by the current detection approach. Combining the targets E-cadherin, EMA and Her2/neu resulted in nearly 100% detection of ductal ovarian metastases, whereas the combination of EMA, Her2/neu and EpCAM was most suitable to detect lobular ovarian metastases. Examination of the actual ovarian transplants is recommended. A combination of targets is most appropriate to detect ovarian metastases by tumor-specific imaging.

  11. Predicting and preventing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS: the need for individualized not standardized treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiedler Klaus

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS is the most serious complication of controlled ovarian stimulation (COS as part of assisted reproductive technologies (ART. While the safety and efficacy of ART is well established, physicians should always be aware of the risk of OHSS in patients undergoing COS, as it can be fatal. This article will briefly present the pathophysiology of OHSS, including the key role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, to provide the foundation for an overview of current techniques for the prevention of OHSS. Risk factors and predictive factors for OHSS will be presented, as recognizing these risk factors and individualizing the COS protocol appropriately is the key to the primary prevention of OHSS, as the benefits and risks of each COS strategy vary among individuals. Individualized COS (iCOS could effectively eradicate OHSS, and the identification of hormonal, functional and genetic markers of ovarian response will facilitate iCOS. However, if iCOS is not properly applied, various preventive measures can be instituted once COS has begun, including cancelling the cycle, coasting, individualizing the human chorionic gonadotropin trigger dose or using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH agonist (for those using a GnRH antagonist protocol, the use of intravenous fluids at the time of oocyte retrieval, and cryopreserving/vitrifying all embryos for subsequent transfer in an unstimulated cycle. Some of these techniques have been widely adopted, despite the scarcity of data from randomized clinical trials to support their use.

  12. Clinically-inspired automatic classification of ovarian carcinoma subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aicha BenTaieb

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: It has been shown that ovarian carcinoma subtypes are distinct pathologic entities with differing prognostic and therapeutic implications. Histotyping by pathologists has good reproducibility, but occasional cases are challenging and require immunohistochemistry and subspecialty consultation. Motivated by the need for more accurate and reproducible diagnoses and to facilitate pathologists′ workflow, we propose an automatic framework for ovarian carcinoma classification. Materials and Methods: Our method is inspired by pathologists′ workflow. We analyse imaged tissues at two magnification levels and extract clinically-inspired color, texture, and segmentation-based shape descriptors using image-processing methods. We propose a carefully designed machine learning technique composed of four modules: A dissimilarity matrix, dimensionality reduction, feature selection and a support vector machine classifier to separate the five ovarian carcinoma subtypes using the extracted features. Results: This paper presents the details of our implementation and its validation on a clinically derived dataset of eighty high-resolution histopathology images. The proposed system achieved a multiclass classification accuracy of 95.0% when classifying unseen tissues. Assessment of the classifier′s confusion (confusion matrix between the five different ovarian carcinoma subtypes agrees with clinician′s confusion and reflects the difficulty in diagnosing endometrioid and serous carcinomas. Conclusions: Our results from this first study highlight the difficulty of ovarian carcinoma diagnosis which originate from the intrinsic class-imbalance observed among subtypes and suggest that the automatic analysis of ovarian carcinoma subtypes could be valuable to clinician′s diagnostic procedure by providing a second opinion.

  13. Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Strother

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Robert Strother1,2, Daniela Matei1–51Department of Medicine, 2Indiana University Melvin and Bren Simon Cancer Center, 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 4Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 5VA Roudebush Hospital Indiana University School of Medicine, 535 Barnhill Drive, Indianapolis, IN, 46202Abstract: The encapsulation of doxorubicin in a pegylated liposomal matrix led to a reformulated agent with a different toxicity profile and improved clinical utility. Liposomal doxorubicin is devoid of the cardiac toxicity associated with doxorubicin, but is associated with predictable muco-cutaneous toxicity. The liposomal formulation leads to improved delivery to the target tumor tissue, allowing enhanced uptake by cancer cells. These properties translate into clinical utility in recurrent ovarian cancer as demonstrated by phase II and III trials, this proven clinical efficacy leading to FDA approval in second-line therapy for ovarian cancer. New combinations with cytotoxics, in particular with carboplatin, have demonstrated an acceptable toxicity profile and clinical utility in platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer. A favorable toxicity profile renders liposomal doxorubicin an ideal partner for combination regimens with other cytotoxics, and more recently with biological agents. Such combinations are the subject of ongoing clinical trials.Keywords: ovarian cancer, doxorubicin, liposomes, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin

  14. Cystic ovarian lesions in SSFP diffusion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaji, Yasushi; Matsuo, Michimasa [Tenri Hospital, Nara (Japan); Matsuki, Mitsuru [Osaka Medical Coll., Takatsuki (Japan)] (and others)

    2002-12-01

    MR assessments of ovarian cystic lesions are usually based on morphological features, signal intensities and enhancement with contrast media. This study was performed to evaluate the usefulness of the steady-state free precession (SSFP) diffusion imaging of cystic ovarian lesions for analyzing cystic contents. Sixty-one ovarian cystic lesions in 37 patients were examined. The diffusion-related coefficient (DRC) and the ratio of the relative apparent diffusion coefficient of the lesion to that of subcutaneous fat tissue (rADC{sub L}/rADC{sub F}) were calculated from SSFP diffusion images. The DRCs and the rADC{sub L} /rADC{sub F} ratios in endometrial cysts and in the fatty parts of dermoid cysts were significantly lower than in other cystic tumors. SSFP diffusion imaging can be included in clinical practice to analyze ovarian cystic lesions within a short scan time; the DRC and the rADC{sub L} /rADC{sub F} ratio are useful for evaluating cystic contents. (author)

  15. Bilateral ovarian cystadenoma in a geriatric African elephant (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoby, Stefan; Aloisio, Fabio; Schumacher, Vanessa L

    2014-06-01

    A 59-yr-old, captive female African elephant (Loxodonta africana) died of a cardiovascular collapse. Necropsy revealed bilateral replacement of the ovarian tissue by multiple cystic formations of up to 10 cm in diameter. The cysts were thin walled and filled with clear watery fluid. Smaller solid masses with an irregular surface projected from the wall of a few of the cysts. Histologically, the cystic structures were characterized by a single layer of well-differentiated cuboidal epithelial cells resting on a basement membrane. Occasionally the cysts contained nodular proliferations of single-layered, well-differentiated cuboidal epithelial cells forming anastomosing tubules and occasional papillary projections. The ovarian neoplasia was diagnosed as a bilateral multilocular serous ovarian cystadenoma. The nulliparous status and the advanced age may have contributed to the ovarian pathology.

  16. Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fallopian Tube, & Primary Peritoneal Cancer Screening Research Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Go to Health Professional Version Key ...

  17. DDX4 (DEAD box polypeptide 4) colocalizes with cancer stem cell marker CD133 in ovarian cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Hyung [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Research Institute and Pusan Cancer Center, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Yun-Jeong; Jo, Jin-Ok; Ock, Mee Sun [Department of Parasitology and Genetics, Kosin University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Soo Hyun; Suh, Dong Soo; Yoon, Man Soo [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Research Institute and Pusan Cancer Center, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Eun-Sil [Vincent Center for Reproductive Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, MA (United States); Jeong, Namkung [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Catholic University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Eo, Wan-Kyu [Department of Internal Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Heung Yeol, E-mail: hykyale@yahoo.com [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kosin University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Hee-Jae, E-mail: hcha@kosin.ac.kr [Department of Parasitology and Genetics, Kosin University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Institute for Medical Science, Kosin University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-02

    Highlights: • Germ cell marker DDX4 was significantly increased in ovarian cancer. • Ovarian cancer stem cell marker CD133 was significantly increased in ovarian cancer. • DDX4 and CD133 were mostly colocalized in various types of ovarian cancer tissues. • CD133 positive ovarian cancer cells also express DDX4 whereas CD133-negative cells did not possess DDX4. • Germ cell marker DDX4 has the potential of ovarian cancer stem cell marker. - Abstract: DDX4 (DEAD box polypeptide 4), characterized by the conserved motif Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp (DEAD), is an RNA helicase which is implicated in various cellular processes involving the alteration of RNA secondary structure, such as translation initiation, nuclear and mitochondrial splicing, and ribosome and spliceosome assembly. DDX4 is known to be a germ cell-specific protein and is used as a sorting marker of germline stem cells for the production of oocytes. A recent report about DDX4 in ovarian cancer showed that DDX4 is overexpressed in epithelial ovarian cancer and disrupts a DNA damage-induced G2 checkpoint. We investigated the relationship between DDX4 and ovarian cancer stem cells by analyzing the expression patterns of DDX4 and the cancer stem cell marker CD133 in ovarian cancers via tissue microarray. Both DDX4 and CD133 were significantly increased in ovarian cancer compared to benign tumors, and showed similar patterns of expression. In addition, DDX4 and CD133 were mostly colocalized in various types of ovarian cancer tissues. Furthermore, almost all CD133 positive ovarian cancer cells also express DDX4 whereas CD133-negative cells did not possess DDX4, suggesting a strong possibility that DDX4 plays an important role in cancer stem cells, and/or can be used as an ovarian cancer stem cell marker.

  18. Candidate Tumor-Suppressor Gene DLEC1 Is Frequently Downregulated by Promoter Hypermethylation and Histone Hypoacetylation in Human Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Kwong

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Suppression of ovarian tumor growth by chromosome 3p was demonstrated in a previous study. Deleted in Lung and Esophageal Cancer 1 (DLEC1 on 3p22.3 is a candidate tumor suppressor in lung, esophageal, and renal cancers. The potential involvement of DLEC1 in epithelial ovarian cancer remains unknown. In the present study, DLEC1 downregulation was found in ovarian cancer cell lines and primary ovarian tumors. Focus-expressed DLEC1 in two ovarian cancer cell lines resulted in 41% to 52% inhibition of colony formation. No chromosomal loss of chromosome 3p22.3 in any ovarian cancer cell line or tissue was found. Promoter hypermethylation of DLEC1 was detected in ovarian cancer cell lines with reduced DLEC1 transcripts, whereas methylation was not detected in normal ovarian epithelium and DLEC1-expressing ovarian cancer cell lines. Treatment with demethylating agent enhanced DLEC1 expression in 90% (9 of 10 of ovarian cancer cell lines. DLEC1 promoter methylation was examined in 13 high-grade ovarian tumor tissues with DLEC1 downregulation, in which 54% of the tumors showed DLEC1 methylation. In addition, 80% of ovarian cancer cell lines significantly upregulated DLEC1 transcripts after histone deacetylase inhibitor treatment. Therefore, our results suggested that DLEC1 suppressed the growth of ovarian cancer cells and that its downregulation was closely associated with promoter hypermethylation and histone hypoacetylation.

  19. SPARC is a key regulator of proliferation, apoptosis and invasion in human ovarian cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC, a calcium-binding matricellular glycoprotein, is implicated in the progression of many cancers. In this study, we investigated the expression and function of SPARC in ovarian cancer. METHODS: cDNA microarray analysis was performed to compare gene expression profiles of the highly invasive and the low invasive subclones derived from the SKOV3 human ovarian cancer cell line. Immunohistochemistry (IHC staining was performed to investigate SPARC expression in a total of 140 ovarian tissue specimens. In functional assays, effects of SPARC knockdown on the biological behavior of ovarian cancer cells were investigated. The mechanisms of SPARC in ovarian cancer proliferation, apoptosis and invasion were also researched. RESULTS: SPARC was overexpressed in the highly invasive subclone compared with the low invasive subclone. High SPARC expression was associated with high stage, low differentiation, lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis of ovarian cancer. Knockdown of SPARC expression significantly suppressed ovarian cancer cell proliferation, induced cell apoptosis and inhibited cell invasion and metastasis. CONCLUSION: SPARC is overexpressed in highly invasive subclone and ovarian cancer tissues and plays an important role in ovarian cancer growth, apoptosis and metastasis.

  20. SPARC is a key regulator of proliferation, apoptosis and invasion in human ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Wang, Mei; Xi, Bo; Xue, Jian; He, Dan; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yueran

    2012-01-01

    Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), a calcium-binding matricellular glycoprotein, is implicated in the progression of many cancers. In this study, we investigated the expression and function of SPARC in ovarian cancer. cDNA microarray analysis was performed to compare gene expression profiles of the highly invasive and the low invasive subclones derived from the SKOV3 human ovarian cancer cell line. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining was performed to investigate SPARC expression in a total of 140 ovarian tissue specimens. In functional assays, effects of SPARC knockdown on the biological behavior of ovarian cancer cells were investigated. The mechanisms of SPARC in ovarian cancer proliferation, apoptosis and invasion were also researched. SPARC was overexpressed in the highly invasive subclone compared with the low invasive subclone. High SPARC expression was associated with high stage, low differentiation, lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis of ovarian cancer. Knockdown of SPARC expression significantly suppressed ovarian cancer cell proliferation, induced cell apoptosis and inhibited cell invasion and metastasis. SPARC is overexpressed in highly invasive subclone and ovarian cancer tissues and plays an important role in ovarian cancer growth, apoptosis and metastasis.

  1. Increased expression of Nlp, a potential oncogene in ovarian cancer, and its implication in carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Danni; Qu, Hongyan; Fu, Ming; Zhao, Xuelian; Liu, Rong; Sui, Lihua; Zhan, Qimin

    2008-08-01

    Nlp (Ninein-like protein), a novel centrosome protein involved in microtubule nucleation, has been studied extensively in our laboratory, and its overexpression has been found in some human tumors. To understand the role of Nlp in human ovarian cancer development, we studied the correlation of Nlp expression with clinicopathological parameters and survival in epithelial ovarian cancer, and the impact of Nlp overexpression on ovarian cancer cells. Nlp expression in normal, borderline, benign and malignant epithelial ovarian tissues was examined by immunohistochemistry. The correlation between Nlp expression and tumor grade, FIGO stage and histological type was also evaluated. Survival was calculated using Kaplan-Meier estimates. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were assayed after stable transfection of pEGFP-C3-Nlp or empty vector in human ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3. Nlp was positive in 1 of 10 (10%) normal ovarian tissues, 5 of 34 (14.7%) benign tumors, 9 of 26 (34.6%) borderline tumors and 73 of 131 (56.0%) ovarian tumors. Nlp immunoreactivity intensity significantly correlated with tumor grade, but not with FIGO stage or histological type. Kaplan-Meier curves showed that Nlp overexpression was marginally associated with decreased overall survival. Overexpression of Nlp enhanced proliferation and inhibited apoptosis induced by paclitaxel in the SKOV3 cell line. Overexpression of Nlp in ovarian tumors raises the possibility that Nlp may play a role in ovarian carcinogenesis.

  2. Thrombocytosis associated with malignant ovarian lesions within a pediatric/adolescent population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, L B; Laufer, M R

    2008-10-01

    To determine if there is an association between pediatric ovarian malignancies and elevated platelet counts: Retrospective chart review. Large referral children's hospital. 154 patients taken to the operating room between February 1993 and February 2006 with an adnexal mass where ovarian tissue was submitted for pathological analysis. The principle outcome was the presence of ovarian malignancy. We found that there is an increase in thrombocytosis among individuals with ovarian malignancy, with as high as 33% of those with ovarian germ cell tumors demonstrating preoperative thrombocytosis. These results suggest that thrombocytosis may be a useful marker for ovarian malignancy in this population. Further studies will be needed to determine if there is any prognostic value to thrombocytosis among these patients, with a potential value for counseling and future intervention based on these findings.

  3. Functional expression of TWEAK and the receptor Fn14 in human malignant ovarian tumors: possible implication for ovarian tumor intervention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liying Gu

    Full Text Available The aim of this current study was to investigate the expression of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK and its receptor fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14 in human malignant ovarian tumors, and test TWEAK's potential role on tumor progression in cell models in-vitro. Using immunohistochemistry (IHC, we found that TWEAK and its receptor Fn14 were expressed in human malignant ovarian tumors, but not in normal ovarian tissues or in borderline/benign epithelial ovarian tumors. High levels of TWEAK expression was detected in the majority of malignant tumors (36 out of 41, 87.80%. Similarly, 35 out of 41 (85.37% malignant ovarian tumors were Fn14 positive. In these malignant ovarian tumors, however, TWEAK/Fn14 expression was not corrected with patients' clinical subtype/stages or pathological features. In vitro, we demonstrated that TWEAK only inhibited ovarian cancer HO-8910PM cell proliferation in combination with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, whereas either TWEAK or TNF-α alone didn't affect HO-8910PM cell growth. TWEAK promoted TNF-α production in cultured THP-1 macrophages. Meanwhile, conditioned media from TWEAK-activated macrophages inhibited cultured HO-8910PM cell proliferation and invasion. Further, TWEAK increased monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 production in cultured HO-8910PM cells to possibly recruit macrophages. Our results suggest that TWEAK/Fn14, by activating macrophages, could be ovarian tumor suppressors. The unique expression of TWEAK/Fn14 in malignant tumors indicates that it might be detected as a malignant ovarian tumor marker.

  4. Vitrified bottom ash slag from municipal solid waste incinerators - Phase relations of CaO-SiO2-Na20 oxide system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Z.; Xiao, Y.; Yang, Y.; Boom, R.; Voncken, J.H.L.

    2009-01-01

    Vitrification is considered to be an attractive technology for bottom ash treatment because it destroys the hazardous organics, contributes to immobilization of the heavy metals, and additionally it reduces drastically the volume. The main components of the vitrified bottom ash slag are SiO2 , CaO,

  5. Alteration of epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers in human normal ovaries and neoplastic ovarian cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Bo-Rim; Kim, Tae-Hee; Kim, Ye-Seul; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2015-01-01

    Most ovarian cancers originate in the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE). Ovarian cancers might undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in response to various mediators or regulators such as EMT-inducing factors. In this study, ovarian tumor specimens from patients were analyzed to demonstrate alteration of EMT-related markers according to benign and malignant types of ovarian cancers. In the three ovarian cancer cell lines, OVCAR-3, SKOV-3, and BG-1, the expression of epithelial (E-cadherin) and mesenchymal (vimentin) cell markers was identified by RNA and protein analysis. OVCAR-3 and BG-1 cells strongly expressed E-cadherin as well as morphological features such as epithelial cells, but vimentin was not observed. In contrast to these cancer cells, SKOV-3 showed a phenotype typical of mesenchymal cells. Alteration of EMT markers and EMT-related transcriptional factors were confirmed in clinical ovarian tissue samples obtained from 74 patients. E-cadherin was expressed in 57.1% of benign tumors, while vimentin was expressed in 83.3% of normal ovaries by immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis of E-cadherin and vimentin revealed the phenomenon in the tissue specimens. Evaluation of the EMT-associated transcriptional factors Snail, Slug, and Twist revealed that Snail was overexpressed by 7.1-fold in malignant ovarian cancer compared to normal ovaries or benign tumors. Although expression levels of other factors were higher in benign and malignant ovarian tumors, they were not closely correlated with the aforementioned ovarian cancer types. Overall, Snail may affect the EMT process in ovarian cancer development and upregulation of Snail expression followed by the downregulation of E-cadherin enhances the invasiveness of ovarian cancer.

  6. Clinical significance of plasma lysophosphatidic acid levels in the differential diagnosis of ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Jie Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the value of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer. Materials and Methods: We first performed a hospital-based, case-control study involving 123 ovarian cancer patients and 101 benign ovarian tumor patients, and then conducted a meta-analysis with 19 case-control studies to assess the correlation between ovarian cancer and plasma LPA levels. Results: The case-control study results demonstrated that ovarian cancer patients have increased LPA and cancer antigen (CA-125 levels compared to patients with benign ovarian tumor (LPA: Ovarian cancer vs benign ovarian tumor: 5.28 ± 1.52 vs 1.82 ± 0.77 μmol/L; CA-125: Ovarian cancer vs benign ovarian tumor: 87.17 ± 45.81 vs. 14.03 ± 10.14 U/mL, which showed statistically significant differences (both P < 0.05. LPA with advanced sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy rate of diagnosis excelled CA-125 in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer (both P < 0.05. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer (LPA: 0.983; CA-125: 0.910 were statistically significant compared with the reference (both P < 0.001 and the difference of the areas of ROC curve between LPA and CA-125 in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer showed statistically significant difference (P < 0.05. The meta-analysis results suggested that plasma LPA levels were higher in ovarian cancer tissues than in benign tissues (standardized mean difference (SMD =2.36, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.61-3.11, P < 0.001 and normal tissues (SMD = 2.32, 95% CI: 1.77-2.87, P < 0.001. Conclusion: LPA shows greater value in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer compared to CA-125 and may be employed as a biological index to diagnose ovarian cancer.

  7. Optical biomarkers of serous and mucinous human ovarian tumor assessed with nonlinear optics microscopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adur, Javier; Pelegati, Vitor B; de Thomaz, Andre A; Baratti, Mariana O; Almeida, Diogo B; Andrade, L A L A; Bottcher-Luiz, Fátima; Carvalho, Hernandes F; Cesar, Carlos L

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear optical (NLO) microscopy techniques have potential to improve the early detection of epithelial ovarian cancer. In this study we showed that multimodal NLO microscopies, including two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF), second-harmonic generation (SHG), third-harmonic generation (THG) and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) can detect morphological and metabolic changes associated with ovarian cancer progression. We obtained strong TPEF + SHG + THG signals from fixed samples stained with Hematoxylin & Eosin (H&E) and robust FLIM signal from fixed unstained samples. Particularly, we imaged 34 ovarian biopsies from different patients (median age, 49 years) including 5 normal ovarian tissue, 18 serous tumors and 11 mucinous tumors with the multimodal NLO platform developed in our laboratory. We have been able to distinguish adenomas, borderline, and adenocarcinomas specimens. Using a complete set of scoring methods we found significant differences in the content, distribution and organization of collagen fibrils in the stroma as well as in the morphology and fluorescence lifetime from epithelial ovarian cells. NLO microscopes provide complementary information about tissue microstructure, showing distinctive patterns for serous and mucinous ovarian tumors. The results provide a basis to interpret future NLO images of ovarian tissue and lay the foundation for future in vivo optical evaluation of premature ovarian lesions.

  8. Optical biomarkers of serous and mucinous human ovarian tumor assessed with nonlinear optics microscopies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Adur

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nonlinear optical (NLO microscopy techniques have potential to improve the early detection of epithelial ovarian cancer. In this study we showed that multimodal NLO microscopies, including two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF, second-harmonic generation (SHG, third-harmonic generation (THG and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM can detect morphological and metabolic changes associated with ovarian cancer progression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We obtained strong TPEF + SHG + THG signals from fixed samples stained with Hematoxylin & Eosin (H&E and robust FLIM signal from fixed unstained samples. Particularly, we imaged 34 ovarian biopsies from different patients (median age, 49 years including 5 normal ovarian tissue, 18 serous tumors and 11 mucinous tumors with the multimodal NLO platform developed in our laboratory. We have been able to distinguish adenomas, borderline, and adenocarcinomas specimens. Using a complete set of scoring methods we found significant differences in the content, distribution and organization of collagen fibrils in the stroma as well as in the morphology and fluorescence lifetime from epithelial ovarian cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: NLO microscopes provide complementary information about tissue microstructure, showing distinctive patterns for serous and mucinous ovarian tumors. The results provide a basis to interpret future NLO images of ovarian tissue and lay the foundation for future in vivo optical evaluation of premature ovarian lesions.

  9. SHP2 overexpression enhances the invasion and metastasis of ovarian cancer in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu ZQ

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ZhongQian Hu,1,* Jia Li,2,* Qi Gao,2,* Shuping Wei,1 Bin Yang1 1Department of Ultrasound, Jinling Clinical Medical College of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China; 2Department of Ultrasound, Zhongda Hospital, Southeast University, Nanjing, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: SHP2 has roles in a variety of signal transduction pathways and in many important cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, movement regulation, and apoptosis. In addition, SHP2 expression is closely associated with multiple types of malignancies. In this study, we examined the role of SHP2 in epithelial ovarian cancer.Patients and methods: SHP2 expression in cancer and normal ovarian tissue specimens was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining and Western blot analyses. The correlation between the SHP2 expression level and clinicopathological features was analyzed. The role of SHP2 in epithelial ovarian cancer was evaluated by assessing SHP2 expression patterns in vitro and in vivo, and activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway was examined.Results: SHP2 is expressed at higher levels in ovarian cancer tissues than in normal ovarian tissues and in an ovarian cancer cell line than in a normal ovarian cell line. On the basis of these findings, SHP2 is overexpressed in ovarian cancer both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, SHP2 overexpression is associated with tumor stage and differentiation, enhanced cell proliferation and invasion, and tumorigenesis and metastasis.Conclusion: SHP2 overexpression enhances ovarian tumor proliferation and invasion by activating the PI3K-AKT axis, indicating that SHP2 potentially plays a direct role in the pathogenesis of ovarian epithelial cell cancer. These novel findings provide key insights that are applicable to basic cancer research and to the prevention and treatment of cancer. Keywords: ovarian tumor, SHP2, overexpression, proliferation, invasion, metastasis

  10. HBXIP overexpression is correlated with the clinical features and survival outcome of ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yixuan; Sun, Jie; Li, Nan; Che, Shuanlong; Jin, Tiefeng; Liu, Shuangping; Lin, Zhenhua

    2017-04-07

    Accumulated evidence has demonstrated that Mammalian hepatitis B X-interacting protein (HBXIP) has broad roles in cancer. Although HBXIP is associated with a variety of cancers, the HBXIP protein expression level and its clinical significance in ovarian cancer have not yet been determined. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between HBXIP expression and the clinicopathological features of ovarian cancer patients to determine whether HBXIP may be correlated with a poor prognosis in ovarian cancer patients. HBXIP protein expression was assessed in a well-characterized series of ovarian cancer tissue samples (n = 120) with long-term follow-up, using immunohistochemistry to determine the location pattern and expression of HBXIP in ovarian cancer. The localization of HBXIP was detected in SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells using immunofluorescence (IF) staining. The relationship between high HBXIP expression and the clinicopathological features of ovarian cancer patients was analyzed by Chi-square and Fisher's exact test. Overall survival (OS) rates of all the ovarian cancer patients were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using the Cox proportional hazards regression model. IF staining revealed strongly positive signals for HBXIP in both cytoplasm and nucleus, but mainly in the cytoplasm of SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells. High HBXIP expression was predominantly observed in ovarian cancer tissues but not the adjacent non-tumor ovarian tissues. The strongly positive rate of HBXIP expression was 60.0% (72/120) in ovarian cancer and was significantly higher than in adjacent non-tumor tissues (17.4%, 4/23) (P = 0.000). High HBXIP expression was positively correlated with the occurrence of lymph node metastases (P = 0.025), histological grade (P = 0.036) and clinical stage (P = 0.003). The patients with high HBXIP expression had lower overall survival (OS) rates. Moreover

  11. Successful pregnancies from vitrified embryos in the dromedary camel: Avoidance of a possible toxic effect of sucrose on embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrid, M; Billah, M; Skidmore, J A

    2017-12-01

    Successful embryo cryopreservation facilitates the wider application of assisted reproduction technologies and also provides a useful method for gene banking of valuable genetics. Unfortunately attempts to establish an effective cryopreservation protocol for camelid embryos have been unsuccessful. In the current study, a modified vitrification protocol with three steps was investigated, whereby embryos were exposed to solutions containing increasing amounts of glycerol and ethylene glycol for fixed time periods. Embryos were then loaded into an Open Pull Straw (OPS) and plunged directly into liquid nitrogen for storage. Three experiments were designed to investigate the effect of 1) artificial shrinkage (AS) of embryos, 2) the addition of sucrose to the vitrification solutions, and 3) the replacement of sucrose by galactose in the warming solution, on the outcome of vitrification. The results showed that neither AS of hatched embryos prior to vitrification, nor the addition of sucrose into vitrification solutions improves the outcome of vitrification, while replacement of sucrose with galactose in warming solution increases the survival and developmental rates of vitrified embryos in culture. Transfer of vitrified embryos that were warmed in galactose resulted in a pregnancy rate of 42.8% per embryo or 46.1% per recipient. Collectively, these results suggest a possible species-specific toxic effect of sucrose on camel embryos, and that avoiding its use either in vitrification or warming solution is critical for establishing an effective protocol. This study may also be applicable to the vitrification of embryos of other camelid species including alpaca and llamas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Human chorionic gonadotropin and its relation to grade, stage and patient survival in ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenhard Miriam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An influence of gonadotropins (hCG on the development of ovarian cancer has been discussed. Therefore, we quantified serum hCG levels in patients with benign and malignant ovarian tumors and the hCG expression in ovarian cancer tissue in order to analyze its relation to grade, stage, gonadotropin receptor (LH-R, FSH-R expression and survival in ovarian cancer patients. Methods Patients diagnosed and treated for ovarian tumors from 1990 to 2002 were included. Patient characteristics, histology including histological subtype, tumor stage, grading and follow-up data were available. Serum hCG concentration measurement was performed with ELISA technology, hCG tissue expression determined by immunohistochemistry. Results HCG-positive sera were found in 26.7% of patients with benign and 67% of patients with malignant ovarian tumors. In addition, significantly higher hCG serum concentrations were observed in patients with malignant compared to benign ovarian tumors (p = 0.000. Ovarian cancer tissue was positive for hCG expression in 68%. We identified significant differences in hCG tissue expression related to tumor grade (p = 0.022 but no differences with regard to the histological subtype. In addition, mucinous ovarian carcinomas showed a significantly increased hCG expression at FIGO stage III compared to stage I (p = 0.018. We also found a positive correlation of hCG expression to LH-R expression, but not to FSH-R expression. There was no significant correlation between tissue hCG expression and overall ovarian cancer patient survival, but subgroup analysis revealed an increased 5-year survival in LH-R positive/FSH-R negative and hCG positive tumors (hCG positive 75.0% vs. hCG negative 50.5%. Conclusions Serum human gonadotropin levels differ in patients with benign and malignant ovarian tumors. HCG is often expressed in ovarian cancer tissue with a certain variable relation to grade and stage. HCG expression correlates with LH

  13. Detection Of Hepatitis B Virus DNA In Moroccan Patients With Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma EOC By Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Benhessou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Epithelial ovarian cancer EOC is the most common type of ovarian cancer representing 90 of all ovarian cancers. The viruses are known as human malignancies agents. We tried to analyze the presence of Hepatitis B Virus infection in women with epithelial ovarian carcinoma. PCR-based detection of HBV infections was carried out on 50 tissue samples from patients with histologically proven EOC using consensus primers. The samples analyzed showed 8 450 positivity for HBV-DNA in cancerous ovarian tissues. All of the positive patients had serous adenocarcinoma and advanced stage disease. The results of this study suggest that hepatitis B could play a major role in the etiology of ovarian cancer.

  14. Intrafollicular iron and ferritin in women with ovarian endometriomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaglia, Laura; Paffoni, Alessio; Mangiarini, Alice; Restelli, Liliana; Bettinardi, Nora; Somigliana, Edgardo; Vercellini, Paolo; Fedele, Luigi

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate whether iron contained in ovarian endometriomas can diffuse through the cyst wall and negatively affect ovarian function. Prospective case series. Infertility unit in an academic setting. Thirty-nine infertile women with unilateral endometriomas who underwent in vitro fertilization. Iron and ferritin assessments in pools of follicular fluids obtained from affected and contralateral intact gonads. Iron and ferritin concentrations. Follicular fluid iron content did not differ between the two gonads. The median [interquartile range (IQR)] follicular concentrations in the affected and unaffected ovaries were 59 (IQR 44-74) and 59 (IQR 47-73) μg/dL, respectively (p = 0.77). Conversely, ferritin concentration was significantly higher in affected gonads. The median (IQR) concentrations of ferritin in the affected and unaffected ovaries were 57 (IQR 31-146) and 33 (IQR 23-67) μg/mL, respectively (p = 0.026). When considering together the 78 studied ovaries, no significant correlations emerged between follicular iron and ferritin and variables reflecting ovarian responsiveness and oocyte developmental competence. Iron may diffuse from ovarian endometriomas into the adjacent ovarian tissue. However, this phenomenon does not appear to markedly affect ovarian function. Some effective biological mechanisms such as ferritin storage may effectively sequester free iron, so limiting its detrimental effects. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  15. Laparoscopic treatment of ovarian dermoid cysts is a safe procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Experienced laparoscopic surgeons should consider laparoscopy as an alternative to laparotomy in management of ovarian dermoid cysts in selected cases. The aim of this study was to analyze the safety of laparoscopy in ovarian dermoid cysts treatment and risk of chemical peritonitis. We report 63 cases of patients (mean age of 37 with ovarian dermoid cysts originating from the ovary, treated from 2002 to 2010. Most of the patients underwent cysts removal. In 7 patients salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. We used 15 mm trocars for removing specimens. In patients with dermoid cyst rupture peritoneal cavity was washed out thoroughly with Ringer lactate and drained for 24-48 hours. All the material extracted was sent for a histopathology examination. The diagnosis of mature ovarian dermoid cysts was confirmed in 58 (92.63% of cases and immature ovarian dermoid cysts in 5 (7.37% cases. Dermoid cysts were composed of tissue developed from three germinative layers in 31 (49% patients, from two germinative layers in 25 (40%, and in 7 (11% patients from one germinative layer. No intra or postoperative complications occurred. No signs or symptoms of chemical peritonitis were observed regardless of cystic spillage or not. We conclude that the risk of chemical peritonitis can be minimized when undertaking laparoscopic removal of ovarian dermoid cysts if the peritoneal cavity is washed out thoroughly from spillage of cyst contents. Drainage of peritoneal cavity should be performed in the patients with the ruptured dermoid cysts.

  16. Molecular Profiling Predicts the Existence of Two Functionally Distinct Classes of Ovarian Cancer Stroma

    OpenAIRE

    Lili, Loukia N.; Lilya V Matyunina; L DeEtte Walker; Benigno, Benedict B; John F. McDonald

    2013-01-01

    Although stromal cell signaling has been shown to play a significant role in the progression of many cancers, relatively little is known about its importance in modulating ovarian cancer development. The purpose of this study was to investigate the process of stroma activation in human ovarian cancer by molecular analysis of matched sets of cancer and surrounding stroma tissues. RNA microarray profiling of 45 tissue samples was carried out using the Affymetrix (U133 Plus 2.0) gene expression ...

  17. Human papillomavirus genotyping and integration in ovarian cancer Saudi patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with different malignancies but its role in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer is controversial. This study investigated the prevalence, genotyping and physical state of HPV in ovarian cancer Saudi patients. Methods Hundred formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) ovarian carcinoma tissues and their normal adjacent tissues (NAT) were included in the study. HPV was detected by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using degenerated HPVL1 consensus primer pairs MY09/MY11 and GP5+/GP6 + to amplify a broad spectrum of HPV genotypes in a single reaction. The HPV positive samples were further genotyped using DNA sequencing. The physical state of the virus was identified using Amplification of Papillomavirus Oncogene Transcripts (APOT) assay in the samples positive for HPV16 and/or HPV18. Results High percentage of HPV (42%) was observed in ovarian carcinoma compared to 8% in the NAT. The high-risk HPV types 16, 18 and 45 were highly associated with the advanced stages of tumor, while low-risk types 6 and 11 were present in NAT. In malignant tissues, HPV-16 was the most predominant genotype followed by HPV-18 and -45. The percentage of viral integration into the host genome was significantly high (61.1%) compared to 38.9% episomal in HPV positive tumors tissues. In HPV18 genotype the percentage of viral integration was 54.5% compared to 45.5% episomal. Conclusion The high risk HPV genotypes in ovarian cancer may indicate its role in ovarian carcinogenesis. The HPV vaccination is highly recommended to reduce this type of cancer. PMID:24252426

  18. Survival of vitrified in vitro-produced bovine embryos after a one-step warming in-straw cryoprotectant dilution procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caamaño, J N; Gómez, E; Trigal, B; Muñoz, M; Carrocera, S; Martín, D; Díez, C

    2015-03-15

    Vitrification is an alternative to slow-rate freezing for cryopreserving bovine embryos. However, this technology requires simplification if it is to be used under field conditions. The main objective of this work was to develop a new system for the direct transfer of vitrified embryos to be used under farm conditions. For this, three objectives were set: (1) to compare the effect of vitrification, using the cryologic vitrification method (CVM), and slow-rate freezing on bovine embryo development and quality; (2) to develop a one-step warming procedure for bovine in vitro-produced (IVP) vitrified (by CVM) embryos; and (3) to assess the effects on embryo survival of a new method for the direct transfer of vitrified IVP bovine blastocysts. In vitro-produced blastocysts were initially either vitrified by CVM or subjected to slow freezing to compare embryo survival and quality (experiment 1). No differences were detected between these cryopreservation techniques in terms of the survival and quality variables at 24 hours or in terms of the proteins expressed. However, at 48 hours the vitrified embryos showed higher hatching rates, greater total cell numbers, and lower apoptotic indices (P < 0.05). In experiment 2, CVM-vitrified IVP blastocysts were warmed by the conventional two-step or one-step warming procedure by incubating them at 41 °C in 0.25 M sucrose for 10 minutes, 0.15 M sucrose for 10 minutes, or 0.25 M sucrose for 5 minutes. In addition, embryo transfer (ET) was performed using vitrified embryos warmed by the one-step procedure in 0.25 M sucrose solution for 5 minutes. As a control group, IVP fresh embryos were transferred to recipient females. No differences were observed in embryo survival or total cell number between any of the warming procedures. Moreover, no significant differences for pregnancy at 60 days were found between the ET groups. In experiment 3, expanded IVP blastocysts were then either vitrified using a conventional or a

  19. Pcsk6 mutant mice exhibit progressive loss of ovarian function, altered gene expression, and formation of ovarian pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujoomdar, Michelle L; Hogan, Laura M; Parlow, Albert F; Nachtigal, Mark W

    2011-03-01

    Bioactivation of precursor proteins by members of the proprotein convertase (PC) family is essential for normal reproduction. The Pcsk6 gene is a member of the PC family that is expressed in numerous ovarian cell types including granulosa cells and oocytes. We hypothesized that loss of PCSK6 would produce adverse effects in the mouse ovary. Mice incapable of expressing PCSK6 (Pcsk6(tm1Rob)) were obtained, and reproductive parameters (serum hormones, whelping interval, estrus cyclicity, and fertility) were compared to Pcsk6(+/+) mice. While Pcsk6(tm1Rob) female mice are fertile, they manifest reduced reproductive capacity at an accelerated rate relative to Pcsk6(+/+) mice. Reproductive senescence is typically reached by 9 months of age and is correlated with loss of estrus cyclicity, elevated serum FSH levels, and gross alterations in ovarian morphology. A wide range of ovarian morphologies were identified encompassing mild, such as an apparent reduction in follicle number, to moderate--ovarian atrophy with a complete absence of follicles--to severe, manifesting as normal ovarian structures replaced by benign ovarian tumors, including tubulostromal adenomas. Targeted gene expression profiling highlighted changes in RNA expression of molecules involved in processes such as steroidogenesis, gonadotropin signaling, transcriptional regulation, autocrine/paracrine signaling, cholesterol handling, and proprotein bioactivation. These results show that PCSK6 activity plays a role in maintaining normal cellular and tissue homeostasis in the ovary.

  20. Solitary ovarian splenosis

    OpenAIRE

    Vydianath, B; Gurumurthy, M.; Crocker, J.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the case of an asymptomatic, solitary splenotic nodule in the right ovary, revealed incidentally at histopathological examination. In gynaecological patients, splenosis most often presents as multiple pelvic nodules mimicking endometriosis. Two cases of ovarian splenosis accompanying pelvic and serosal splenotic nodules have been reported previously. However, this is the first documented case of solitary intraovarian splenosis.

  1. Solitary ovarian splenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vydianath, B; Gurumurthy, M; Crocker, J

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the case of an asymptomatic, solitary splenotic nodule in the right ovary, revealed incidentally at histopathological examination. In gynaecological patients, splenosis most often presents as multiple pelvic nodules mimicking endometriosis. Two cases of ovarian splenosis accompanying pelvic and serosal splenotic nodules have been reported previously. However, this is the first documented case of solitary intraovarian splenosis. PMID:16254119

  2. Managing hereditary ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourits, M. J.; de Bock, G. H.

    2009-01-01

    In this review we present an overview of recent developments in the management of hereditary ovarian cancer. Until recently, intensive screening of the ovaries was recommended to mutation carriers and their first-degree female relatives. However, since screening is not effective in detecting

  3. in ovarian fluid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-09-28

    Sep 28, 2011 ... programs of kutum within 8 h at temperatures ranging from 4 to 12°C. Key words: Rutilus frisii kutum, egg storage, temperature, ovarian fluid. INTRODUCTION. Although cryopreservation methods which are especially desirable for gene banking, might eventually be effective for restocking programs because ...

  4. Hepatocyte growth factor secreted by ovarian cancer cells stimulates peritoneal implantation via the mesothelial-mesenchymal transition of the peritoneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Michihiko; Ono, Yoshihiro J; Kanemura, Masanori; Tanaka, Tomohito; Hayashi, Masami; Terai, Yoshito; Ohmichi, Masahide

    2015-11-01

    A current working model for the metastatic process of ovarian carcinoma suggests that cancer cells are shed from the ovarian tumor into the peritoneal cavity and attach to the layer of mesothelial cells that line the inner surface of the peritoneum, and several studies suggest that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) plays an important role in the dissemination of ovarian cancer. Our objectives were to evaluate the HGF expression of ovarian cancer using clinical data and assess the effect of HGF secreted from human ovarian cancer cells to human mesothelial cells. HGF expression was immunohistochemically evaluated in 165 epithelial ovarian cancer patients arranged as tissue microarrays. HGF expression in four ovarian cancer cell lines was evaluated by using semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The effect of ovarian cancer cell derived HGF to the human mesothelial cells was assessed by using morphologic analysis, Western blotting and cell invasion assay. The effect of HGF on ovarian cancer metastasis was assessed by using in vivo experimental model. The clinical data showed a significantly high correlation between the HGF expression and the cancer stage. The in vivo and in vitro experimental models revealed that HGF secreted by ovarian cancer cells induces the mesothelial-to-mesenchymal transition and stimulates the invasion of mesothelial cells. Furthermore, manipulating the HGF activity affected the degree of dissemination and ascite formation. We demonstrated that HGF secreted by ovarian cancer cells plays an important role in cancer peritoneal implantation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Dysregulated estrogen receptor signaling in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis leads to ovarian epithelial tumorigenesis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary J Laws

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of ovarian epithelial cancer is poorly understood, mainly due to the lack of an appropriate experimental model for studying the onset and progression of this disease. We have created a mutant mouse model in which aberrant estrogen receptor alpha (ERα signaling in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis leads to ovarian epithelial tumorigenesis. In these mice, termed ERαd/d, the ERα gene was conditionally deleted in the anterior pituitary, but remained intact in the hypothalamus and the ovary. The loss of negative-feedback regulation by estrogen (E at the level of the pituitary led to increased production of luteinizing hormone (LH by this tissue. Hyperstimulation of the ovarian cells by LH resulted in elevated steroidogenesis, producing high circulating levels of steroid hormones, including E. The ERαd/d mice exhibited formation of palpable ovarian epithelial tumors starting at 5 months of age with 100% penetrance. By 15 months of age, 80% of ERαd/d mice die. Besides proliferating epithelial cells, these tumors also contained an expanded population of luteinized stromal cells, which acquire the ability to express P450 aromatase and synthesize E locally. In response to the elevated levels of E, the ERα signaling was accentuated in the ovarian epithelial cells of ERαd/d mice, triggering increased ERα-dependent gene expression, abnormal cell proliferation, and tumorigenesis. Consistent with these findings, treatment of ERαd/d mice with letrozole, an aromatase inhibitor, markedly reduced circulating E and ovarian tumor volume. We have, therefore, developed a unique animal model, which serves as a useful tool for exploring the involvement of E-dependent signaling pathways in ovarian epithelial tumorigenesis.

  6. Dysregulated Estrogen Receptor Signaling in the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Ovarian Axis Leads to Ovarian Epithelial Tumorigenesis in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Mary J.; Kannan, Athilakshmi; Pawar, Sandeep; Haschek, Wanda M.; Bagchi, Milan K.; Bagchi, Indrani C.

    2014-01-01

    The etiology of ovarian epithelial cancer is poorly understood, mainly due to the lack of an appropriate experimental model for studying the onset and progression of this disease. We have created a mutant mouse model in which aberrant estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) signaling in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis leads to ovarian epithelial tumorigenesis. In these mice, termed ERαd/d, the ERα gene was conditionally deleted in the anterior pituitary, but remained intact in the hypothalamus and the ovary. The loss of negative-feedback regulation by estrogen (E) at the level of the pituitary led to increased production of luteinizing hormone (LH) by this tissue. Hyperstimulation of the ovarian cells by LH resulted in elevated steroidogenesis, producing high circulating levels of steroid hormones, including E. The ERαd/d mice exhibited formation of palpable ovarian epithelial tumors starting at 5 months of age with 100% penetrance. By 15 months of age, 80% of ERαd/d mice die. Besides proliferating epithelial cells, these tumors also contained an expanded population of luteinized stromal cells, which acquire the ability to express P450 aromatase and synthesize E locally. In response to the elevated levels of E, the ERα signaling was accentuated in the ovarian epithelial cells of ERαd/d mice, triggering increased ERα-dependent gene expression, abnormal cell proliferation, and tumorigenesis. Consistent with these findings, treatment of ERαd/d mice with letrozole, an aromatase inhibitor, markedly reduced circulating E and ovarian tumor volume. We have, therefore, developed a unique animal model, which serves as a useful tool for exploring the involvement of E-dependent signaling pathways in ovarian epithelial tumorigenesis. PMID:24603706

  7. A Rare Case of Immature Ovarian Teratoma with Gliomatosis Peritonei

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tissues derived from all three germ layers regardless of its gross appearance.[1] It spreads on pelvic, abdominal peritoneum and omentum. In patients with extra ovarian spread, the microscopic appearance of the metastasis is of prognostic importance. Some peritoneal implants or lymph node metastasis contain only mature ...

  8. Study examines outcomes from surgery to prevent ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new study looked at women at high risk of ovarian cancer who had no clinical signs of the disease and who underwent risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO). The study results showed cancer in the removed tissues of 2.6 percent (25 of 966) of the par

  9. MicroRNA-181b promotes ovarian cancer cell growth and invasion by targeting LATS2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Ying; Gao, Yan, E-mail: gaoyanhdhos@126.com

    2014-05-09

    Highlights: • miR-181b is upregulated in human ovarian cancer tissues. • miR-181b promotes ovarian cancer cell proliferation and invasion. • LATS2 is a direct target of miR-181b. • LATS2 is involved in miR-181b-induced ovarian cancer cell growth and invasion. - Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are strongly implicated in tumorigenesis and metastasis. In this study, we showed significant upregulation of miR-181b in ovarian cancer tissues, compared with the normal ovarian counterparts. Forced expression of miR-181b led to remarkably enhanced proliferation and invasion of ovarian cancer cells while its knockdown induced significant suppression of these cellular events. The tumor suppressor gene, LATS2 (large tumor suppressor 2), was further identified as a novel direct target of miR-181b. Specifically, miR-181b bound directly to the 3′-untranslated region (UTR) of LATS2 and suppressed its expression. Restoration of LATS2 expression partially reversed the oncogenic effects of miR-181b. Our results indicate that miR-181b promotes proliferation and invasion by targeting LATS2 in ovarian cancer cells. These findings support the utility of miR-181b as a potential diagnostic and therapeutic target for ovarian cancer.

  10. A case of ovarian paragonimiasis mimicking ovarian carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantipalakorn, Charuwan; Khunamornpong, Surapan; Tongsong, Theera

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe ovarian paragonimiasis, a rare form of lung fluke infestation, mimicking ovarian cancer. A 47-year-old Thai woman presented with a pelvic mass. Imaging suggested ovarian cancer with pulmonary and hepatic metastases. She was scheduled for complete surgical staging. However, a frozen section revealed Paragonimus eggs in the enlarged ovarian mass. A total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed instead of complete staging. All other lesions were also proven later to be Paragonimus infestation. Postoperative treatment with antiparasitic drugs resulted in dramatic improvement, with nearly complete resolution of all lesions at 4 months of follow-up. This is an unusual case of ovarian paragonimiasis mimicking ovarian cancer, which is instructive and informative for differential diagnoses of pelvic masses. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Epigenetic down-regulated DDX10 promotes cell proliferation through Akt/NF-κB pathway in ovarian cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gai, Muhuizi; Bo, Qifang; Qi, Lixia, E-mail: lixiaqi_dph@sina.com

    2016-01-22

    Ovarian cancer contributes to the majority of ovarian cancer, while the molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Recently, some DEAD box protein 1 has been reported play a tumor suppressor role in ovarian cancer progression. However, the functions of DEAD box protein (DDX) members in ovarian cancer development remain largely unknown. In current study, we retrieved GEO databases and surprisingly found that DDX10 is significantly down-regulated in ovarian cancer tissues compared with normal ovary. These findings suggest that DDX10 might also play a suppressive role in ovarian cancer. We then validated the down-regulated expression pattern of DDX10 in fresh ovarian cancer tissues. Furthermore, both loss- and gain-functions assays reveal that the down-regulated DDX10 could promote ovarian cancer proliferation in vitro and the xenograft subcutaneous tumor formation assays confirmed these findings in vivo. In addition, we found that DDX10 is epigenetic silenced by miR-155-5p in ovarian cancer. Moreover, we further preliminary illustrated that down-regulated DDX10 promotes ovarian cancer cell proliferation through Akt/NF-κB pathway. Taken together, in current study, we found a novel tumor suppressor, DDX10, is epigenetic silenced by miR-155-5p in ovarian cancer, and the down-regulated expression pattern of DDX10 promotes ovarian cancer proliferation through Akt/NF-κB pathway. Our findings shed the light that DDX families might be a novel for ovarian cancer treatment. - Highlights: • A novel DEAD box protein, DDX10 is significantly down-regulated in ovarian cancer tissues. • Down-regulated DDX10 promotes ovarian cancer cell proliferation and growth both in vitro and in vivo. • miR-155-5p is highly expressed in ovarian cancer tissues and epigenetically targets DDX10. • DDX10 and miR-155-5p regulates Akt/p65 axis in ovarian cancer cells.

  12. Linc-ROR induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in ovarian cancer by increasing Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yanhui; Jiang, Huanhuan; Cui, Zhumei; Wang, Lingzhi; Wang, Xiangyu; Tian, Tian

    2017-09-19

    Long intergenic non-protein coding RNA, regulator of reprogramming (linc-ROR) is an intergenic long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) previously shown to contribute to tumorigenesis in several malignancies. However, little is known about whether linc-ROR has a role in ovarian cancer progression. In this study, we found that linc-ROR expression was increased in high-grade ovarian serous cancer tissues compared with normal ovarian tissues or normal fallopian tube tissues. Furthermore, the level of linc-ROR expression was associated with ovarian cancer International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage and lymph node metastasis. Linc-ROR promoted ovarian cancer cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo, and contributed to cell migration and invasion. Linc-ROR knockdown in ovarian cancer cell lines inhibited the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) program, which led to ovarian cancer cell metastasis through the repression of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Together, our results indicated that linc-ROR induces EMT in ovarian cancer cells and may be an important molecule in the invasion and metastasis of ovarian cancer.

  13. Overexpression of Notch3 and pS6 Is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Human Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoxia Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Notch3 and pS6 play important roles in tumor angiogenesis. To assess the expression of Notch3 and pS6 in Chinese ovarian epithelial cancer patients, a ten-year follow-up study was performed in ovarian epithelial cancer tissues from 120 specimens of human ovarian epithelial cancer, 30 specimens from benign ovarian tumors, and 30 samples from healthy ovaries by immunohistochemistry. The results indicate that the expression of Notch3 and pS6 was higher in ovarian epithelial cancer than in normal ovary tissues and in benign ovarian tumor tissues (p0.05 but positively associated with clinical stage, pathological grading, histologic type, lymph node metastasis, and ascites (p<0.05 or p<0.01. A follow-up survey of 64 patients with ovarian epithelial cancer showed that patients with high Notch3 and pS6 expression had a shorter survival time (p<0.01, in which the clinical stage (p<0.05 and Notch3 expression (p<0.01 played important roles. In conclusion, Notch3 and pS6 are significantly related to ovarian epithelial cancer development and prognosis, and their combination represents a potential biomarker and therapeutic target in ovarian tumor angiogenesis.

  14. Hexokinase 2 confers resistance to cisplatin in ovarian cancer cells by enhancing cisplatin-induced autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Meng; Cong, Qing; Zhang, Ming-Xing; Zhang, Meng-Yu; Lu, Ying-Ying; Xu, Cong-Jian

    2018-02-01

    The high mortality rate of ovarian cancer is connected with the development of acquired resistance to multiple cancer drugs, especially cisplatin. Activation of cytoprotective autophagy has been implicated as a contributing mechanism for acquired cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer cells. Hexokinase 2 (HK2) phosphorylates glucose to generate glucose-6-phosphate, the rate-limiting step in glycolysis. Higher HK2 expression has been associated with chemoresistance in ovarian cancer. However, whether HK2 functionally contributes to cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer is unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of HK2 in regulating ovarian cancer cisplatin resistance. Increased HK2 levels were detected in drug-resistant human ovarian cancer cells and tissues. Cisplatin downregulated HK2 in cisplatin-sensitive but not in resistant ovarian cancer cells. HK2 knockdown sensitized resistant ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin-induced cell death and apoptosis. Conversely, HK2 overexpression in cisplatin-sensitive cells induced cisplatin resistance. Mechanistically, cisplatin increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation as well as autophagic activity. Blocking autophagy with the autophagy inhibitor 3-MA sensitized resistant ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin. HK2 overexpression enhanced cisplatin-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation and autophagy while HK2 knockdown showed the opposite effects. Blocking the MEK/ERK pathway using the MEK inhibitor U0126 prevented cisplatin-induced autophagy enhanced by HK2 overexpression. Furthermore, HK2 knockdown sensitized resistance ovarian tumor xenografts to cisplatin in vivo. In conclusion, our data supported that HK2 promotes cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer by enhancing drug-induced, ERK-mediated autophagy. Therefore, targeting HK2 may be a new therapeutic strategy to combat chemoresistance in ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Genetically-defined ovarian cancer mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Patrice J; Weeraratna, Ashani T

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), the deadliest of gynaecological cancers, is a disease that remains difficult to detect early and treat efficiently. A significant challenge for researchers in the field is that the aetiology of EOC and the molecular pathways important for its development are poorly understood. Moreover, precursor lesions have not been readily identifiable, making the mechanisms of EOC progression difficult to delineate. In order to address these issues, several genetically-defined ovarian mouse models have been generated in the past 15 years. However, because of the recent suggestion that most EOCs may not originate from the ovarian surface 'epithelium', but from other tissues of the female genital tract, some models may need to be re-evaluated within this new paradigm. In this review, we examine several genetically-defined EOC models and discuss how the new paradigm may explain some of the features of these models. A better understanding of the strengths and limitations of the current EOC mouse models will undoubtedly allow us to utilize these tools to better understand the biology of the disease and develop new approaches for EOC prevention, detection, and treatment. Copyright © 2015 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Cryopreservation of canine ovarian and testicular fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Il-Jeoung; Leibo, S P; Songsasen, Nucharin; Dresser, Betsy L; Kim, In-Shik

    2009-01-01

    To derive a practical procedure to store canine somatic cells, fibroblasts isolated from testicular or ovarian tissues were cryopreserved in 1.2 M ethylene glycol or in 1.2 M dimethylsulfoxide prepared in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium as cryoprotectants, and were frozen either in plastic straws or vials. Thawed cells were cultured for 24 hr at 38.5 degree C in a humidified atmosphere of 5 percent CO2 95 percent air, and then their membrane integrity was assayed with a double fluorescent stain, Fertilight. In addition, frozen-thawed fibroblasts were cultured for 4 days, and then their functional survival was measured after staining small colonies with trypan blue. After freezing and thawing, membrane integrity of testicular fibroblasts was 55-70 percent and functional survival ranged from 20-40 percent. With frozen-thawed ovarian cells, the average membrane integrity was 55-75 percent and the average functional survival was 35-40 percent. When frozen in ethylene glycol, functional survival of ovarian fibroblasts was significantly higher than that of testicular cells (P less than 0.05). These methods should prove useful to preserve cells collected from canids in the wild.

  17. Somatostatin receptors in differentiated ovarian tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reubi, J.C.; Horisberger, U.; Klijn, J.G.; Foekens, J.A. (Sandoz Research Institute Berne, (Switzerland))

    1991-05-01

    The presence of somatostatin receptors was investigated in 57 primary human ovarian tumors using in vitro receptor autoradiography with three different somatostatin radioligands, {sup 125}I-(Tyr11)-somatostatin-14, {sup 125}I-(Leu8, D-Trp22, Tyr25)-somatostatin-28, or {sup 125}I-(Tyr3)-SMS 201-995. Three cases, all belonging to epithelial tumors, were receptor positive; specifically 1 of 42 adenocarcinomas, 1 of 3 borderline malignancies, and 1 of 2 cystadenomas. Four other epithelial tumors (3 fibroadenomas, 1 Brenner tumor), 4 sex cord-stromal tumors (2 fibrothecomas, 2 granulosa cell tumors), and 2 germ cell tumors (1 dysgerminoma, 1 teratoma) were receptor negative. In the positive cases, the somatostatin receptors were localized on epithelial cells exclusively, were of high affinity (KD = 4.6 nmol/l (nanomolar)), and specific for somatostatin analogs. These receptors bound somatostatin-14 and somatostatin-28 radioligands with a higher affinity than the octapeptide (Tyr3)-SMS 201-995. Healthy ovarian tissue had no somatostatin receptors. A subpopulation of relatively well-differentiated ovarian tumors, therefore, was identified pathobiochemically on the basis of its somatostatin receptor content. This small group of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors may be a target for in vivo diagnostic imaging with somatostatin ligands.

  18. Expression and roles of Slit/Robo in human ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Cai Feng; Jiang, Yi Zhou; Li, Yan; Wang, Kai; Liu, Pei Shu; Patankar, Manish S; Zheng, Jing

    2011-05-01

    The Slit glycoproteins and their Roundabout (Robo) receptors regulate migration and growth of many types of cells including human cancer cells. However, little is known about the expression and roles of Slit/Robo in human ovarian cancer. Herein, we examined the expression of Slit/Robo in human normal and malignant ovarian tissues and its potential participation in regulating migration and proliferation of human ovarian cancer cells using two ovarian cancer cell lines, OVCAR-3 and SKOV-3. We demonstrated that Slit2/3 and Robo1 were immunolocalized primarily in stromal cells in human normal ovaries and in cancer cells in many histotypes of ovarian cancer tissues. Protein expression of Slit2/3 and Robo1/4 was also identified in OVCAR-3 and SKOV-3 cells. However, recombinant human Slit2 did not significantly affect SKOV-3 cell migration, and OVCAR-3 and SKOV-3 cell proliferation. Slit2 also did not induce ERK1/2 and AKT1 phosphorylation in OVCAR-3 and SKOV-3 cells. The current findings indicate that three major members (Slit2/3 and Robo1) of Slit/Robo family are widely expressed in the human normal and malignant ovarian tissues and in OVCAR-3 and SKOV-3 cells. However, Slit/Robo signaling may not play an important role in regulating human ovarian cancer cell proliferation and migration.

  19. Ovarian blood vessel occlusion as a surgical sterilization method in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Eduardo; Sartori de Camargo, Laíza; Freitas Cardoso, Karym Christine de; Miguel, Marina Pacheco; Tavares, Denise Cláudia; Santos Honsho, Cristiane dos; Ferreira de Souza, Fabiana

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the female sterilization by occlusion of the ovarian blood flow, using the rat as experimental model. Fifty-five females rats were divided into four groups: I (n=10), bilateral ovariectomy, euthanized at 60 or 90 days; II (n=5), opening the abdominal cavity, euthanized at 90 days; III (n=20), bilateral occlusion of the ovarian blood supply using titanium clips, euthanized at 60 or 90 days; and IV (n=20), bilateral occlusion of the ovarian blood supply using nylon thread, euthanized at 60 or 90 days. The estrous cycle was monitored by vaginal cytology. After euthanasia, the reproductive tissues were evaluated histologically. Ovarian atresia was identified macroscopically at 60 days after surgery in the rats in groups III and IV; however, most of the rats in group III maintained cyclicity. Histology of the tissues from group IV revealed that the ovarian tissue was replaced by dense fibrous connective tissue that was slightly vascularized and that intact follicles were absent by 90 days. Ovarian blood vessels occluded caused ischemia, leading to progressive tissue necrosis, and bilateral occlusion using a nylon ligature is a viable method for surgical sterilization.

  20. Cell apoptosis and lipid content of in vitro-produced, vitrified bovine embryos treated with forskolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschoal, Daniela Martins; Sudano, Mateus José; Schwarz, Kátia Regina Lancellotti; Maziero, Rosiára Rosário Dias; Guastali, Midyan Daroz; Crocomo, Letícia Ferrari; Magalhães, Luis Carlos Oña; Martins, Alício; Leal, Claudia Lima Verde; Landim-Alvarenga, Fernanda da Cruz

    2017-01-01

    The presence of fetal calf serum in culture medium influences embryo quality, causing a reduction in postcryopreservation survival. Forskolin has been used to induce lipolysis and increase cryotolerance, functioning as an activator of adenylate cyclase and elevating cAMP levels. In the present experiment, bovine zygotes were cultured in synthetic oviduct fluid with amino acid plus 2.5% fetal calf serum for 6 days, when forskolin was added in three concentrations: 2.5, 5, and 10 μM. Treatment with forskolin lasted for 24 hours. Blastocyst formation rate, quantification of lipid granules, total cell numbers, and apoptosis rate were evaluated. In a second assessment, embryos were vitrified, and warming, re-expansion rate, total cell numbers, and apoptosis rate were also evaluated. There was no difference due to forskolin in blastocyst formation or re-expansion rates after vitrification. However, lipid measurements were lower (control: 136.8 and F 2.5 μM: 128.5; P < 0.05), and number of cells per embryo higher (control: 140.1 and F 2.5 μM: 173.5; P < 0.05) than controls for 2.5 μM forskolin but not for higher forskolin concentrations. The number of intact cells per embryo was higher, and the rate of apoptosis was lower in fresh than in vitrified embryos (number of cells of warmed embryos, control: 104.1, F 2.5 μM: 101.3, F 5 μM: 115.4, F 10 μM: 95.1; apoptotic of fresh cells, control: 12.1%, F 2.5 μM: 16.7%, F 5 μM: 11.1%, F 10 μM: 14.2%; and apoptotic warmed embryos, control: 22.3%, F 2.5 μM: 37.3%, F 5 μM: 33.2%, F 10 μM: 30.3%; P < 0.05). It was concluded that forskolin is an effective lipolytic agent even at low concentrations, leading to formation of blastocysts with a comparatively larger number of cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Etude d'une méthode de caractérisation des laitiers vitrifiés par l'Analyse Thermique Différentielle

    OpenAIRE

    TAMMA, S; PLATRET, Gérard; LABORATOIRE CENTRAL DES PONTS ET CHAUSSEES - LCPC

    2003-01-01

    De par ses propriétés hydrauliques, le laitier vitrifié (granulé ou bouleté) intéresse particulièrement les cimentiers car il peut être utilisé comme liant dans le ciment.L'objectif de ce stage au Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussées a été de mettre au point une méthode de caractérisation des laitiers vitrifiés moins contraignante et plus rapide que l'analyse quantitative de diffraction des rayons X utilisée actuellement. Le travail a consisté à réaliser des essais en analyse thermique ...

  2. Intravital Microscopy in Evaluating Patients With Primary Peritoneal, Fallopian Tube, or Stage IA-IV Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-28

    Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer

  3. Shielding calculations with SCALE/MAVRIC and comparison with measurements for the TN85 cask with vitrified high level radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Holger; Börst, Frank-Michael

    2017-09-01

    A series of dose rate/spectra measurements in the German interim storage facility Gorleben was carried out at a TN85 cask in April 2009. This type of cask is used for the transport and interim storage of vitrified high level radioactive waste (HAW) from reprocessing. The aim of this work is to assess the shielding component MAVRIC of the SCALE code system with these measurements for the use in the German Bundesamt für Kerntechnische Entsorgungssicherheit (BfE).

  4. Clinicomorphological Spectrum of Ovarian Cystic Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, R; Makaju, R; Bastakoti, R

    2016-01-01

    Background Ovarian cysts, which present as neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions, are the most common gynaecological cause of hospital admissions. Early diagnosis is difficult due to asymptomatic nature. Clinical, radiological and gross examination alone cannot distinguish benign from malignant lesions, hence, histopathological examination is important for diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic approach. Objective The objective of the study is to analyze the spectrum of ovarian cystic lesions with their clinico-morphorgical features. Method This is a prospective study done in between July 2014 and July 2015 in Dhulikhel Hospital-Kathmandu University Hospital. Clinical data of patients were obtained from hospital records and requisition submitted along with the tissue specimens received in the department. Result A total 84 cases of ovarian cystic lesions were studied. Among these, 47 (55.9%) were non-neoplastic lesions, 33 (39.3%) were benign neoplasms, two (2.4%) were borderline and two (2.4%) were malignant neoplasms. The most common nonneoplastic lesions were follicular cysts, 26 (55.3%) followed by simple cysts 14 (29.8%), hemorrhagic cysts five (10.6%) and corpus luteal cysts two (4.3%). Among all neoplasms, 19 (51.4%) were mature cystic teratoma followed by 10 (27.0%) cases of mucinous cystadenoma and four (10.8%) cases of serous cystadenoma. Between two (5.4%) malignant cases, one was immature cystic teratoma and the other was mucinous cystadenocarcinoma. Besides these, two (5.4%) cases of borderline mucinous cystadenoma were also present. Conclusion Ovarian cystic lesions are difficult to categorize on the basis of clinical and radiological findings. Histopathological examination plays a significant role to differentiate benign lesion from malignant as well as for the proper management.

  5. OVARIAN ARRHENOBLASTOMA - CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Jocić

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors belong to the group of sex-cord stromal tumors of the ovary. They account for less than 0,5% of all ovarian neoplasms. The majority of these tumors are benign and almost all are localized unilaterally. Herewith, we describe an ovarian Sertoli- Leydig cell tumor (arrhenoblastoma with virilization, in an 63-year-old woman. A left salpingo-oohorectomy (and hysterectomy was performed. Macroscopically, the tumor was 10 x 8 x 6cm, incapsulated, yellow-white in color, both solid and pseudocystic. Microscopically, the tumor was well differentiated, composed from Sertoli-Leydig cells, mixed with theca cells, fibrocytes and collagen fibers. During the 4-year follow-up, there was neither clinical nor sonographical evidence of recurrence. The treatment of this pathological entity has to be individualized according to the patient’s age, stage the of tumor and degree of differentiation.

  6. Altered Expression Pattern of Topoisomerase IIα in Ovarian Tumor Epithelial and Stromal Cells after Platinum-Based Chemotherapy1

    OpenAIRE

    Chekerov, Radoslav; Klaman, Irina; Zafrakas, Menelaos; Könsgen, Dominique; Mustea, Alexander; Petschke, Beate; Lichtenegger, Werner; Sehouli, Jalid; Dahl, Edgar

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of topoisomerase IIα (TOP2A) in epithelial and stromal cells of ovarian cancer. METHODS: TOP2A expression was analyzed in normal ovarian tissue and in laser-microdissected ovarian tumor epithelial and adjacent stromal cells using quantitative real time RT-PCR (n = 38), RNA in situ hybridization (n = 13), and immunhistochemistry (n = 69). Results: TOP2A mRNA was detected by RNA in situ hybridization in all ovarian cancer samples, ...

  7. Altered Expression Pattern of Topoisomerase IIα, in Ovarian Tumor Epithelial and Stromal Cells after Platinum-Based Chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Chekerov, Radoslav; Klaman, Irina; Zafrakas, Menelaos; Könsgen, Dominique; Mustea, Alexander; Petschke, Beate; Lichtenegger, Werner; Sehouli, Jalid; Dahl, Edgar

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of topoisomerase IIα (TOP2A) in epithelial and stromal cells of ovarian cancer. METHODS: TOP2A expression was analyzed in normal ovarian tissue and in laser-microdissected ovarian tumor epithelial and adjacent stromal cells using quantitative real time RT-PCR (n = 38), RNA in situ hybridization (n =13), and immunhistochemistry (n = 69). Results: TOP2A mRNA was detected by RNA in situ hybridization in all ovarian cancer samples, w...

  8. [Laparoscopic ovarian drilling and biopsy in women with polycystic ovaries (PCOS) and infertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punevska, M; Filipov, E; Mainhart, K; Zhivkova, R

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate ovarian reserve according to results of biopsy of ovaries during laparoscopy. To investigate connections between hystologic results, drilling of ovaries and pregnancies. We investigate prospectively 74 patients with polycystic ovaries (PCOS) and infertility. Operative laparoscopy have be done in 2006, 2008 and 2009 year in University Hospital "Maichin Dom" Sofia, Bulgaria. All patients had ovarian drilling and biopsy. Microscopic findings from biopsy of ovary in 74 women with PCOS were divided in 4 groups. In this investigation from 74 women with operative laparoscopy 33 patients (44.5%) were pregnant. The results of biopsy and registered pregnancies in PCOS patients is very difficult to analyse. Laparoscopic ovarian drilling and biopsy affect ovarian tissue. The ovary probably change own characteristics--ovarian metabolism and physiology are restored and this changes our clinical prognosis for a future pregnancies.

  9. Ovarian Carcinoma Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    b- myb , is also highly expressed in both FNAR cells (3.33-fold) and human 1 ovarian carcinoma [37]. 2 High levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), a...AW916991 3.56 Thioredoxin AW140607 3.07 Stathmin BF281472 3.23 b- myb RGIAC37 3.33 Gene Expression Profiling of FNAR Cells 8 9 10 25 1 2 3 4

  10. Developmental Competence of Vitrified-Warmed Bovine Oocytes at the Germinal-Vesicle Stage is Improved by Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Modulators during In Vitro Maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Ezoe

    Full Text Available Cryopreservation of mature oocytes and embryos has provided numerous benefits in reproductive medicine. Although successful cryopreservation of germinal-vesicle stage (GV oocytes holds promise for further advances in reproductive biology and clinical embryology fields, reports regarding cryopreservation of immature oocytes are limited. Oocyte survival and maturation rates have improved since vitrification is being performed at the GV stage, but the subsequent developmental competence of GV oocytes is still low. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementation of the maturation medium with cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP modulators on the developmental competence of vitrified-warmed GV bovine oocytes. GV oocytes were vitrified-warmed and cultured to allow for oocyte maturation, and then parthenogenetically activated or fertilized in vitro. Our results indicate that addition of a cAMP modulator forskolin (FSK or 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX to the maturation medium significantly improved the developmental competence of vitrified-warmed GV oocytes. We also demonstrated that vitrification of GV oocytes led to a decline in cAMP levels and maturation-promoting factor (MPF activity in the oocytes during the initial and final phases of maturation, respectively. Nevertheless, the addition of FSK or IBMX to the maturation medium significantly elevated cAMP levels and MPF activity during IVM. Taken together, our results suggest that the cryopreservation-associated meiotic and developmental abnormalities observed in GV oocytes may be ameliorated by an artificial increase in cAMP levels during maturation culture after warming.

  11. Developmental Competence of Vitrified-Warmed Bovine Oocytes at the Germinal-Vesicle Stage is Improved by Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Modulators during In Vitro Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezoe, Kenji; Yabuuchi, Akiko; Tani, Tetsuya; Mori, Chiemi; Miki, Tetsuya; Takayama, Yuko; Beyhan, Zeki; Kato, Yoko; Okuno, Takashi; Kobayashi, Tamotsu; Kato, Keiichi

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreservation of mature oocytes and embryos has provided numerous benefits in reproductive medicine. Although successful cryopreservation of germinal-vesicle stage (GV) oocytes holds promise for further advances in reproductive biology and clinical embryology fields, reports regarding cryopreservation of immature oocytes are limited. Oocyte survival and maturation rates have improved since vitrification is being performed at the GV stage, but the subsequent developmental competence of GV oocytes is still low. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementation of the maturation medium with cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) modulators on the developmental competence of vitrified-warmed GV bovine oocytes. GV oocytes were vitrified-warmed and cultured to allow for oocyte maturation, and then parthenogenetically activated or fertilized in vitro. Our results indicate that addition of a cAMP modulator forskolin (FSK) or 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) to the maturation medium significantly improved the developmental competence of vitrified-warmed GV oocytes. We also demonstrated that vitrification of GV oocytes led to a decline in cAMP levels and maturation-promoting factor (MPF) activity in the oocytes during the initial and final phases of maturation, respectively. Nevertheless, the addition of FSK or IBMX to the maturation medium significantly elevated cAMP levels and MPF activity during IVM. Taken together, our results suggest that the cryopreservation-associated meiotic and developmental abnormalities observed in GV oocytes may be ameliorated by an artificial increase in cAMP levels during maturation culture after warming. PMID:25965267

  12. Reduced competence of immature and mature oocytes vitrified by Cryotop method: assessment by in vitro fertilization and parthenogenetic activation in a bovine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgarelli, Daiane L; Vireque, Alessandra A; Pitangui-Molina, Caroline P; Silva-de-Sá, Marcos F; de Sá Rosa-E-Silva, Ana Carolina J

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the embryo development competence, the nuclear maturation and the viability of germinal vesicle (GV) and metaphase II (MII) oocytes vitrified by the Cryotop method. Cumulus-oocyte complexes were derived from bovine ovaries and three experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, GV oocytes were vitrified and underwent in vitro maturation (IVM) or not and their nuclear maturation was assessed by orcein staining. In Experiment 2, GV oocytes and MII oocytes were vitrified or not and the viability was assessed by calcein/ethidium homodimer-1 staining. In Experiment 3, MII oocytes matured before or after vitrification were submitted to in vitro fertilization (IVF) and parthenogenetic activation (PA) in order to evaluate embryo development. No difference was found for the nuclear maturation rate in the GV group (50%) and the GV control group (67%; P = 0.23) and for viability rate (56%; 77%; P = 0.055, respectively). However, in the MII group (27%) viability was significantly lower than that of the MII control group (84%; P vitrification by the Cryotop method reduced the capacity for embryo development. Vitrification of GV oocytes, however, did not influence the capacity of meiotic nuclear maturation and they exhibited higher viability following vitrification at the MII stage.

  13. The influence of female age on the cumulative live-birth rate of fresh cycles and subsequent frozen cycles using vitrified blastocysts in hyper-responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cheng-Hsuan; Lee, Tsung-Hsien; Chen, Hsiu-Hui; Chen, Chung-I; Huang, Chun-Chia; Lee, Maw-Sheng

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this research was to study the influence of female age on the cumulative live-birth rate of fresh and subsequent frozen cycles using vitrified blastocysts of the same cohort in hyper-responders. This was a retrospective study of 1137 infertile women undergoing their first in vitro fertilization treatment between 2006 and 2013. The main outcome measure was cumulative live births among the fresh and all vitrified blastocyst transfers combined after the same stimulation cycle. The results were also analyzed according to age (i.e., live-birth rate was 73.3%. The cumulative live-birth rate declined from 73.9% for women younger than 35 years old to 67.3% for women 35-39 years old to 57.9% for women 40 years or older. Combined fresh and vitrified blastocyst transfer cycles can result in a high cumulative live-birth rate. The cumulative live-birth rates among older women are lower than the rates among younger women when autologous oocytes are used. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Addition of L-ascorbic acid to culture and vitrification media of IVF porcine blastocysts improves survival and reduces HSPA1A levels of vitrified embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Martín, Miriam; Yeste, Marc; Soler, Albert; Morató, Roser; Bonet, Sergi

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of L-ascorbic acid on embryo quality and gene expression of porcine blastocysts after supplementations of in vitro culture medium and/or vitrification-warming media. Embryo quality, in terms of total cell number (TCN), DNA fragmentation and peroxide levels, together with the relative transcript abundance of BCL-2 associated X protein (BAX), BCL2-like 1 (BCL2L1), POU class 5 homeobox 1 (POU5F1) and heat shock protein 70 (HSPA1A), was analysed. In Experiment 1, gene expression and embryo quality of fresh blastocysts were evaluated after culture with or without L-ascorbic acid; no significant differences were observed between the groups. In Experiment 2, blastocysts cultured with or without L-ascorbic acid were vitrified using two different vitrification solutions, supplemented or not with L-ascorbic acid. Supplementation of culture and vitrification media significantly enhanced survival rates and reduced peroxide levels. No significant differences in TCN, DNA fragmentation and BAX, BCL2L1 and POU5F1 expression were found in vitrified blastocysts among experimental groups. Vitrification procedures increase HSPA1A transcript abundance, but this increase was significantly lower in embryos cultured and/or vitrified with L-ascorbic acid. Thus, supplementing culture and/or vitrification media with L-ascorbic acid enhances survival rates of porcine blastocysts, suggesting a relationship with HSPA1A expression.

  15. Diazinon-Induced Ovarian Toxicity and Protection by Vitamins E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinat Sargazi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: DZN (diazinon is an organophosphate insecticide that had been used in agriculture and for domestic and veterinary use for several years and caused many negative effects on plants and animal species, especially on human. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of DZN on MDA (malondialdehyde and GSH (glutathione levels in female rat reproductive tissue (ovary and to assess the protective role of vitamin E. Methods: A total of 30 adult female Wistar rats were divided into five groups: control group (without any intervention, sham group (received only pure corn oil, as solvent, experimental group 1 (DZN+corn oil, 60 mg/kg, experimental group 2 (vitamin E, 200 mg/kg, and experimental group 3 (DZN+vitamin E, the same dosage. All drugs were injected intraperitoneally, except vitamin E which was administrated by gavage. The animals were scarified after two weeks and MDA as a marker of lipid peroxidation and GSH content were measured in ovarian tissue. Results: DZN reduced GSH content and increased MDA level in ovary compared with the control group (P<0.001. Vitamin E plus DZN increased GSH content but decreased DZN-induced MDA elevation in rat ovarian tissue. Conclusion: Oxidative stress contributes to DZN-induced ovarian toxicity. The results of this study suggested that vitamin E may have a protective effect on DZN-induced ovarian toxicity.

  16. The Effect of the Ovarian Endometrioma Surgery on Ovarian Reserve and Ovarian Blood Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manolya Yilmaz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the effectiveness of laparoscopic endometriosis surgery on ovarian reserve and ovarian blood flow index. Material and Method: Twenty-six patients were evaluated prospectively whom had laparoscopic surgery due to endometrioma in third care education and research hospital. Before and after surgical procedure all patients FSH, LH and E2 levels were measured in their 3rd menstrual period day. Periodically cysts and ovarian volume as well as ovarian artery resistive index measured by using transvaginal Doppler sonography. Results: Twenty-six patients%u2019 mean age was 25, 6 ± 4, 5 (20-36 years. When the compared to changes of preoperative and postoperative values of hormonal parameters FSH (p: 0,455 and LH (p: 0,672 were insignificant and E2 (p: 0,024 was significant respectively. While ovarian volume was decreasing significantly (p: 0,001, Ovarian Artery RI parameter was not changed (p: 0,587. Discussion: Our study was showed that while laparoscopic surgical treatment of ovarian endometriomas significantly decrease ovarian volume, but hormonal parameters and ovarian blood flow were not affected.

  17. A prospective randomized controlled trial investigating the effect of artificial shrinkage (collapse) on the implantation potential of vitrified blastocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Landuyt, L; Polyzos, N P; De Munck, N; Blockeel, C; Van de Velde, H; Verheyen, G

    2015-11-01

    What is the effect of artificial shrinkage by laser-induced collapse before vitrification on the implantation potential after transfer of vitrified-warmed blastocysts? The artificial shrinkage by laser-induced collapse did not significantly increase the implantation rate per transferred collapsed blastocyst (37.6%) compared with non-collapsed blastocysts (28.9%) [odds ratio (OR): 1.48, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.78-2.83]. Retrospective studies have demonstrated that artificial shrinkage of the blastocyst prior to vitrification can have a positive effect on blastocyst survival after warming. A recent study found a similar survival rate but higher implantation rate for collapsed blastocysts. So far, no randomized controlled trial has been conducted to investigate the implantation potential of collapsed blastocysts. Prospective randomized trial. Patients were recruited from December 2011 until April 2014 and warming cycles were included until July 2014. Patients were randomized in the fresh cycle if blastocysts were available for vitrification and were allocated to the study or control arm according to a computer-generated list. In the study group, blastocysts underwent laser-induced collapse before vitrification. In the control group, blastocysts were vitrified without collapsing. In total, 443 patients signed informed consent and 270 patients had blastocysts vitrified. One-hundred and thirty-five patients were allocated to the study group and 135 to the control group. Sixty-nine patients from the study group and 69 from the control group returned for at least one warming cycle in which 85 and 93 blastocysts were warmed in the first cycle, respectively. Primary outcome was implantation rate per embryo transferred in the first warming cycle. Secondary outcomes were survival and transfer rates, blastocyst quality after warming, clinical pregnancy rate and implantation rate per warmed blastocyst. Blastocysts were vitrified-warmed one by one using closed

  18. Laboratory Testing of Bulk Vitrified Low-Activity Waste Forms to Support the 2005 Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Eric M.; McGrail, B. Peter; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Rodriguez, Elsa A.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Baum, Steven R.; Reed, Lunde R.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2006-06-30

    The purpose of this report is to document the results from laboratory testing of the bulk vitri-fied (BV) waste form that was conducted in support of the 2005 integrated disposal facility (IDF) performance assessment (PA). Laboratory testing provides a majority of the key input data re-quired to assess the long-term performance of the BV waste package with the STORM code. Test data from three principal methods, as described by McGrail et al. (2000a; 2003a), are dis-cussed in this testing report including the single-pass flow-through test (SPFT) and product con-sistency test (PCT). Each of these test methods focuses on different aspects of the glass corrosion process. See McGrail et al. (2000a; 2003a) for additional details regarding these test methods and their use in evaluating long-term glass performance. In addition to evaluating the long-term glass performance, this report discusses the results and methods used to provided a recommended best estimate of the soluble fraction of 99Tc that can be leached from the engineer-ing-scale BV waste package. These laboratory tests are part of a continuum of testing that is aimed at improving the performance of the BV waste package.

  19. Laboratory Testing of Bulk Vitrified Low-Activity Waste Forms to Support the 2005 Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Eric M.; McGrail, B. Peter; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Rodriguez, Elsa A.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Baum, Steven R.; Reed, Lunde R.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2005-03-31

    The purpose of this report is to document the results from laboratory testing of the bulk vitri-fied (BV) waste form that was conducted in support of the 2005 integrated disposal facility (IDF) performance assessment (PA). Laboratory testing provides a majority of the key input data re-quired to assess the long-term performance of the BV waste package with the STORM code. Test data from three principal methods, as described by McGrail et al. (2000a; 2003a), are dis-cussed in this testing report including the single-pass flow-through test (SPFT) and product con-sistency test (PCT). Each of these test methods focuses on different aspects of the glass corrosion process. See McGrail et al. (2000a; 2003a) for additional details regarding these test methods and their use in evaluating long-term glass performance. In addition to evaluating the long-term glass performance, this report discusses the results and methods used to provided a recommended best estimate of the soluble fraction of 99Tc that can be leached from the engineer-ing-scale BV waste package. These laboratory tests are part of a continuum of testing that is aimed at improving the performance of the BV waste package.

  20. FY-97 operations of the pilot-scale glass melter to vitrify simulated ICPP high activity sodium-bearing waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musick, C.A.

    1997-11-01

    A 3.5 liter refractory-lined joule-heated glass melter was built to test the applicability of electric melting to vitrify simulated high activity waste (HAW). The HAW streams result from dissolution and separation of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) calcines and/or radioactive liquid waste. Pilot scale melter operations will establish selection criteria needed to evaluate the application of joule heating to immobilize ICPP high activity waste streams. The melter was fabricated with K-3 refractory walls and Inconel 690 electrodes. It is designed to be continuously operated at 1,150 C with a maximum glass output rate of 10 lbs/hr. The first set of tests were completed using surrogate HAW-sodium bearing waste (SBW). The melter operated for 57 hours and was shut down due to excessive melt temperatures resulting in low glass viscosity (< 30 Poise). Due to the high melt temperature and low viscosity the molten glass breached the melt chamber. The melter has been dismantled and examined to identify required process improvement areas and successes of the first melter run. The melter has been redesigned and is currently being fabricated for the second run, which is scheduled to begin in December 1997.

  1. Reusable temperature-sensitive luminescent material based on vitrified film of europium(III) β-diketonate complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapaev, Dmitry V.; Nikiforov, Victor G.; Lobkov, Vladimir S.; Knyazev, Andrey A.; Galyametdinov, Yury G.

    2018-01-01

    We have proposed a novel temperature-sensitive luminescent material which is a 20 μm thick vitrified film (sandwiched between two quartz plates) fabricated from an amorphous powder of a mesogenic europium(III) β-diketonate complex through a melt-processing technique. The film photoexcited by a 337 nm pulsed nitrogen laser displays a typical Eu3+ ion luminescence bands with the strongest peak at 612 nm and with the decay time of 537 μs at 298 K. It is obtained that both the mean luminescence intensity and the luminescence decay time at 612 nm decrease significantly with temperature increasing from 298 to 348 K; the average values of the relative and absolute temperature sensitivities of the luminescence decay time in the range of 298-348 K are -1.2%·K-1 and -6.5 μs·K-1, respectively. The thermal quenching mechanism of the luminescent properties was analyzed and discussed. The experiments showed that, the luminescent properties of the film is insensitive to oxygen, the film is photostable under UV light, there is full reversibility of the temperature-dependent luminescence intensity and the decay time, and the high luminescence brightness of the film can be observed with violet light excitation. These factors indicated that the film is promising material for reusable luminescent thermometers, suitable for long-term monitoring in the range of 298-348 K.

  2. [MRI and CT-scan in presumed benign ovarian tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomassin-Naggara, I; Bazot, M

    2013-12-01

    Radiological examinations are required for the assessment of complex or indeterminate ovarian masses, mainly using MRI and CT-scan. MRI provides better tissue characterization than Doppler ultrasound or CT-scan (LE2). Pelvic MRI is recommended in case of an indeterminate or complex ovarian ultrasonographic mass (grade B). The protocol of a pelvic MRI should include morphological T1 and T2 sequences (grade B). In case of solid portion, perfusion and diffusion sequences are recommended (grade C). In case of doubt about the diagnosis of ovarian origin, pelvic MRI is preferred over the CT-scan (grade C). MRI is the technique of choice for the difference between functional and organic ovarian lesion diagnosis (grade C). It can be useful in case of clinical diagnostic uncertainty between polycystic ovary syndrome and ovarian hyperstimulation and multilocular ovarian tumor syndrome (grade C). No MRI classification for ovarian masses is currently validated. The establishment of a presumption of risk of malignancy is required in a MRI report of adnexal mass with if possible a guidance on the histological diagnosis. In the absence of clinical or sonographic diagnosis, pelvic CT-scan is recommended in the context of acute painful pelvic mass in non-pregnant patients (grade C). It specifies the anomalies and allows the differential diagnosis with digestive and urinary diseases (LE4). Given the lack of data in the literature, the precautionary principle must be applied to the realization of a pelvic MRI in a pregnant patient. A risk-benefit balance should be evaluated case by case by the clinician and the radiologist and information should be given to the patient. In an emergency situation during pregnancy, pelvic MRI is an alternative to CT-scan for the exploration of acute pelvic pain in case of uncertain sonographic diagnosis (grade C). Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  3. KRAS mutation testing in borderline ovarian tumors and low-grade ovarian carcinomas with a rapid, fully integrated molecular diagnostic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadlecki, Pawel; Antosik, Paulina; Grzanka, Dariusz; Grabiec, Marek; Walentowicz-Sadlecka, Malgorzata

    2017-10-01

    Epithelial ovarian neoplasms are a heterogeneous group of tumors, including various malignancies with distinct clinicopathologic and molecular features. Mutations in BRAF and KRAS genes are the most frequent genetic aberrations found in low-grade serous ovarian carcinomas and serous and mucinous borderline tumors. Implementation of targeted therapeutic strategies requires access to highly specific and highly sensitive diagnostic tests for rapid determination of mutation status. One candidate for such test is fully integrated, real-time polymerase chain reaction-based Idylla™ system for quick and simple detection of KRAS mutations in formaldehyde fixed-paraffin embedded tumor samples. The primary aim of this study was to verify whether fully integrated real-time polymerase chain reaction-based Idylla system may be useful in determination of KRAS mutation status in patients with borderline ovarian tumors and low-grade ovarian carcinomas. The study included tissue specimens from 37 patients with histopathologically verified ovarian masses, operated on at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nicolaus Copernicus University Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz (Poland) between January 2009 and June 2012. Based on histopathological examination of surgical specimens, 30 lesions were classified as low-grade ovarian carcinomas and 7 as borderline ovarian tumors. Seven patients examined with Idylla KRAS Mutation Test tested positive for KRAS mutation. No statistically significant association was found between the incidence of KRAS mutations and histopathological type of ovarian tumors. Mean survival of the study subjects was 48.51 months (range 3-60 months). Presence of KRAS mutation did not exert a significant effect on the duration of survival in our series. Our findings suggest that Idylla KRAS Mutation Test may be a useful tool for rapid detection of KRAS mutations in ovarian tumor tissue.

  4. A mouse model for endometrioid ovarian cancer arising from the distal oviduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Paul H; van der Zee, Marten; Heijmans-Antonissen, Claudia; Jia, Yundan; DeMayo, Francesco J; Lydon, John P; van Deurzen, Carolien H M; Ewing, Patricia C; Burger, Curt W; Blok, Leen J

    2014-09-01

    Ovarian cancer is the deadliest gynecological malignancy in Western countries. Early detection, however, is hampered by the fact that the origin of ovarian cancer remains unclear. Knowing that in a high percentage of endometrioid ovarian cancers Wnt/β-catenin signaling is activated, and in view of the hypothesis that ovarian cancer may originate from the distal oviduct, we studied mice in which Wnt/β-catenin signaling was activated in Müllerian duct-derived tissues. Conditional adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) knockout mice were used to study the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in Müllerian duct-derived organs. These Pgr(Cre/+);Apc(ex15lox/lox) mice (n = 44) were sacrificed at 10, 20, 40 and 80 weeks and uterus, oviduct, ovaries and surrounding fat tissues were assessed using immunohistochemistry. Using nuclear β-catenin staining, Wnt/β-catenin signaling activation was confirmed in the entire epithelium of the adult Müllerian duct (fimbriae, oviduct and endometrium), but was absent in ovarian surface epithelium cells (OSEs). Besides endometrial hyperplasia, in 87.2% of mice intraepithelial lesions of the distal oviduct were found, whereas OSEs remained unaffected. In addition, 62.5% of mice developed tumors in the distal and fimbrial part of the oviduct. In the ovaries, mainly at young age, in 16.3% of mice, simple epithelial cysts were noted, which developed further into endometrioid ovarian tumors, resembling human endometrioid ovarian cancer (27.9% of mice). Next to this, locoregional growth in the utero-ovarian ligament was also shown. Here, for the first time, mutations (activation of Wnt/β-catenin) in the distal oviduct result in precursor lesions that develop into ovarian tumors, resembling human endometrioid ovarian cancer. © 2014 UICC.

  5. Insulin signalling and glucose transport in the ovary and ovarian function during the ovarian cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Joëlle; Scaramuzzi, Rex J

    2016-06-01

    Data derived principally from peripheral tissues (fat, muscle and liver) show that insulin signals via diverse interconnecting intracellular pathways and that some of the major intersecting points (known as critical nodes) are the IRSs (insulin receptor substrates), PI3K (phosphoinositide kinase)/Akt and MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase). Most of these insulin pathways are probably also active in the ovary and their ability to interact with each other and also with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) signalling pathways enables insulin to exert direct modulating influences on ovarian function. The present paper reviews the intracellular actions of insulin and the uptake of glucose by ovarian tissues (granulosa, theca and oocyte) during the oestrous/menstrual cycle of some rodent, primate and ruminant species. Insulin signals through diverse pathways and these are discussed with specific reference to follicular cell types (granulosa, theca and oocyte). The signalling pathways for FSH in granulosa cells and LH in granulosa and theca cells are summarized. The roles of glucose and of insulin-mediated uptake of glucose in folliculogenesis are discussed. It is suggested that glucose in addition to its well-established role of providing energy for cellular function may also have insulin-mediated signalling functions in ovarian cells, involving AMPK (AMP-dependent protein kinase) and/or hexosamine. Potential interactions of insulin signalling with FSH or LH signalling at critical nodes are identified and the available evidence for such interactions in ovarian cells is discussed. Finally the action of the insulin-sensitizing drugs metformin and the thiazolidinedione rosiglitazone on follicular cells is reviewed. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  6. Metabolomic Characterization of Ovarian Epithelial Carcinomas by HRMAS-NMR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ben Sellem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The objectives of the present study are to determine if a metabolomic study by HRMAS-NMR can (i discriminate between different histological types of epithelial ovarian carcinomas and healthy ovarian tissue, (ii generate statistical models capable of classifying borderline tumors and (iii establish a potential relationship with patient's survival or response to chemotherapy. Methods. 36 human epithelial ovarian tumor biopsies and 3 healthy ovarian tissues were studied using 1H HRMAS NMR spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis. Results. The results presented in this study demonstrate that the three histological types of epithelial ovarian carcinomas present an effective metabolic pattern difference. Furthermore, a metabolic signature specific of serous (N-acetyl-aspartate and mucinous (N-acetyl-lysine carcinomas was found. The statistical models generated in this study are able to predict borderline tumors characterized by an intermediate metabolic pattern similar to the normal ovarian tissue. Finally and importantly, the statistical model of serous carcinomas provided good predictions of both patient's survival rates and the patient's response to chemotherapy. Conclusions. Despite the small number of samples used in this study, the results indicate that metabolomic analysis of intact tissues by HRMAS-NMR is a promising technique which might be applicable to the therapeutic management of patients.

  7. Oxidatively Modified Proteins in the Serous Subtype of Ovarian Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifeh Mehrabi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Serous subtype of ovarian cancer is considered to originate from fallopian epithelium mucosa that has been exposed to physiological changes resulting from ovulation. Ovulation influences an increased in inflammation of epithelial ovarian cells as results of constant exposure of cells to ROS. The imbalance between ROS and antioxidant capacities, as well as a disruption of redox signaling, causes a wide range of damage to DNA, proteins, and lipids. This study applied spectrophotometric, dinitrophenylhydrazone (DNPH assay, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and Western blot analyses to assess the levels of oxidatively modified proteins in 100 primary serous epithelial ovarian carcinoma and normal/surrounding tissues. These samples were obtained from 56 Caucasian and 44 African-American patients within the age range of 61±10 years. Analyses showed that the levels of reactive protein carbonyl groups increased as stages progressed to malignancy. Additionally, the levels of protein carbonyls in serous ovarian carcinoma among African Americans are 40% (P<0.05 higher relative to Caucasian at similar advanced stages. Results suggest that oxidative stress is involved in the modification of carbonyl protein groups, leading to increased aggressiveness of epithelial ovarian tumors and may contribute to the disease's invasiveness among African Americans.

  8. TP53 and ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Schuijer (Monique); P.M.J.J. Berns (Els)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractOvarian cancer represents the fourth most frequent type of cancer among females and is the leading cause of death from gynecological cancer in the western world. This review describes gene alterations in ovarian cancer. Specific emphasis is placed on genetic alterations and the

  9. The hormonal composition of follicular fluid and its implications for ovarian cancer pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emori, Megan M; Drapkin, Ronny

    2014-07-06

    Ovulation has long been associated with an increased risk in ovarian cancer, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms remain obscure. Two aspects of ovulation have been linked to ovarian cancer pathogenesis. The first is the impact of repetitive tissue injury and repair that occurs with each ovulatory event. The second is the release of follicular fluid that accompanies the follicular rupture and its effect on the ovarian and fallopian tube epithelial cells. Hormones are an important component of follicular fluid, which transiently bathes the ovarian surface and fallopian tube epithelium during ovulation. Much work has been done exploring the role of hormones in fertility, but some, such as estrogen, have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of ovarian and other cancers. Understanding the role of hormones within follicular fluid, as well as how they are altered in disorders which increase ovarian cancer risk, will enhance our ability to assess risk and develop preventative strategies. This review provides an in depth discussion of the logistics of using and studying follicular fluid in ovarian cancer research, and discusses the fluctuations in follicular fluid hormone levels during normal physiological processes versus conditions that increase ovarian cancer risk.

  10. KRAS and MAPK1 Gene Amplification in Type II Ovarian Carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Ishikawa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined the clinical significance of KRAS and MAPK1 amplification and assessed whether these amplified genes were potential therapeutic targets in type II ovarian carcinoma. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and retrospectively collected clinical data, KRAS and MAPK1 amplifications were identified in 9 (13.2% and 5 (7.4% of 68 type II ovarian carcinoma tissue samples, respectively. Interestingly, co-amplification of KRAS and MAPK1 seemed to be absent in the type II ovarian carcinomas tested, except one case. Active phospho-ERK1/2 was identified in 26 (38.2% out of 68 type II ovarian carcinomas and did not correlate with KRAS or MAPK1 amplification. There was no significant relationship between KRAS amplification and overall or progression-free survival in patients with type II ovarian carcinoma. However, patients with MAPK1 amplification had significantly poorer progression-free survival than patients without MAPK1 amplification. Moreover, type II ovarian carcinoma cells with concomitant KRAS amplification and mutation exhibited dramatic growth reduction following treatment with the MEK inhibitor PD0325901. These findings indicate that KRAS/MAPK1 amplification is critical for the growth of a subset of type II ovarian carcinomas. Additionally, RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK pathway-targeted therapy may benefit selected patients with type II ovarian carcinoma harboring KRAS/MAPK1 amplifications.

  11. Overexpression of Cathepsin L is associated with chemoresistance and invasion of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Hongying; Shi, Caixia; Yan, Zhipeng; Wu, Mei

    2016-07-19

    Paclitaxel is recommended as a first-line chemotherapeutic agent against, ovarian cancer, however, the development of chemoresistance is a major obstacle in patients with aggressive ovarian cancer and results in recurrence after conventional therapy. The key molecule or mechanism associated with paclitaxel resistance in ovarian cancer still remains unclear. Cathepsin L (CTSL) is overexpressed in various cancers, however, the association between CTSL expression and paclitaxel resistance remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of CTSL in paclitaxel-resistant SKOV3/TAX cells by CTSL silencing. Expression of CTSL was examined by immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR in 58 clinical samples, and in SKOV3 cells and SKOV3/TAX cells. Effects of CTSL knockdown on ovarian cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion were also studied. The IHC and real-time PCR results showed that the difference of CTSL expression between ovarian cancer and the adjacent non-tumourous ovarian tissues was statistically significant. Western blot analysis showed that the CTSL was overexpressed in SKOV3/TAX cells and weakly detectable in paclitaxel-sensitive SKOV3 cells. Knocking-down of CTSL in ovarian cancer cells could decrease cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, and potentiate apoptosis induced by paclitaxel, suggesting CTSL may contribute to Paclitaxel resistance in ovarian cancer.

  12. Targeting Stromal-Cancer Cell Crosstalk Networks in Ovarian Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsz-Lun Yeung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is a histologically, clinically, and molecularly diverse disease with a five-year survival rate of less than 30%. It has been estimated that approximately 21,980 new cases of epithelial ovarian cancer will be diagnosed and 14,270 deaths will occur in the United States in 2015, making it the most lethal gynecologic malignancy. Ovarian tumor tissue is composed of cancer cells and a collection of different stromal cells. There is increasing evidence that demonstrates that stromal involvement is important in ovarian cancer pathogenesis. Therefore, stroma-specific signaling pathways, stroma-derived factors, and genetic changes in the tumor stroma present unique opportunities for improving the diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cancer. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs are one of the major components of the tumor stroma that have demonstrated supportive roles in tumor progression. In this review, we highlight various types of signaling crosstalk between ovarian cancer cells and stromal cells, particularly with CAFs. In addition to evaluating the importance of signaling crosstalk in ovarian cancer progression, we discuss approaches that can be used to target tumor-promoting signaling crosstalk and how these approaches can be translated into potential ovarian cancer treatment.

  13. Targeting Stromal-Cancer Cell Crosstalk Networks in Ovarian Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Tsz-Lun; Leung, Cecilia S; Li, Fuhai; Wong, Stephen S T; Mok, Samuel C

    2016-01-06

    Ovarian cancer is a histologically, clinically, and molecularly diverse disease with a five-year survival rate of less than 30%. It has been estimated that approximately 21,980 new cases of epithelial ovarian cancer will be diagnosed and 14,270 deaths will occur in the United States in 2015, making it the most lethal gynecologic malignancy. Ovarian tumor tissue is composed of cancer cells and a collection of different stromal cells. There is increasing evidence that demonstrates that stromal involvement is important in ovarian cancer pathogenesis. Therefore, stroma-specific signaling pathways, stroma-derived factors, and genetic changes in the tumor stroma present unique opportunities for improving the diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cancer. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are one of the major components of the tumor stroma that have demonstrated supportive roles in tumor progression. In this review, we highlight various types of signaling crosstalk between ovarian cancer cells and stromal cells, particularly with CAFs. In addition to evaluating the importance of signaling crosstalk in ovarian cancer progression, we discuss approaches that can be used to target tumor-promoting signaling crosstalk and how these approaches can be translated into potential ovarian cancer treatment.

  14. The Mare Model to Study the Effects of Ovarian Dynamics on Preantral Follicle Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Kele A.; Alves, Benner G.; Gastal, Gustavo D. A.; de Tarso, Saulo G. S.; Gastal, Melba O.; Figueiredo, José R.; Gambarini, Maria L.; Gastal, Eduardo L.

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian tissue collected by biopsy procedures allows the performance of many studies with clinical applications in the field of female fertility preservation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of reproductive phase (anestrous vs. diestrous) and ovarian structures (antral follicles and corpus luteum) on the quality, class distribution, number, and density of preantral follicles, and stromal cell density. Ovarian fragments were harvested by biopsy pick-up procedures from mares and submitted to histological analysis. The mean preantral follicle and ovarian stromal cell densities were greater in the diestrous phase and a positive correlation of stromal cell density with the number and density of preantral follicles was observed. The mean area (mm2) of ovarian structures increased in the diestrous phase and had positive correlations with number of preantral follicles, follicle density, and stromal cell density. Biopsy fragments collected from ovaries containing an active corpus luteum had a higher follicle density, stromal cell density, and proportion of normal preantral follicles. In conclusion, our results showed: (1) the diestrous phase influenced positively the preantral follicle quality, class distribution, and follicle and stromal cell densities; (2) the area of ovarian structures was positively correlated with the follicle and stromal cell densities; and (3) the presence of an active corpus luteum had a positive effect on the quality of preantral follicles, and follicle and stromal densities. Therefore, herein we demonstrate that the presence of key ovarian structures favors the harvest of ovarian fragments containing an appropriate number of healthy preantral follicles. PMID:26900687

  15. Growth differentiation factor 15 stimulates rapamycin-sensitive ovarian cancer cell growth and invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griner, Samantha E; Joshi, Jayashree P; Nahta, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Identification of novel molecular markers and therapeutic targets may improve survival rates for patients with ovarian cancer. In the current study, immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of two human ovarian tumor tissue arrays showed high staining for GDF15 in a majority of tissues. Exogenous stimulation of ovarian cancer cell lines with recombinant human GDF15 (rhGDF15) or stable over-expression of a GDF15 expression plasmid promoted anchorage-independent growth, increased invasion, and up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). MMP inhibition suppressed GDF15-mediated invasion. In addition, IHC analysis of human ovarian tumor tissue arrays indicated that GDF15 expression correlated significantly with high MMP2 and MMP9 expression. Exogenous and endogenous GDF15 over-expression stimulated phosphorylation of p38, Erk1/2, and Akt. Pharmacologic inhibition of p38, MEK, or PI3K suppressed GDF15-stimulated growth. Further, proliferation, growth, and invasion of GDF15 stable clones were blocked by rapamycin. IHC analysis demonstrated significant correlation between GDF15 expression and phosphorylation of mTOR. Finally, knockdown of endogenous GDF15 or neutralization of secreted GDF15 suppressed invasion and growth of a GDF15-over-expressing ovarian cancer cell line. These data indicate that GDF15 over-expression, which occurred in a majority of human ovarian cancers, promoted rapamycin-sensitive invasion and growth of ovarian cancer cells. Inhibition of mTOR may be an effective therapeutic strategy for ovarian cancers that over-express GDF15. Future studies should examine GDF15 as a novel molecular target for blocking ovarian cancer progression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Genomic alterations detected by comparative genomic hybridization in ovarian endometriomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C. Veiga-Castelli

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is a complex and multifactorial disease. Chromosomal imbalance screening in endometriotic tissue can be used to detect hot-spot regions in the search for a possible genetic marker for endometriosis. The objective of the present study was to detect chromosomal imbalances by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH in ectopic tissue samples from ovarian endometriomas and eutopic tissue from the same patients. We evaluated 10 ovarian endometriotic tissues and 10 eutopic endometrial tissues by metaphase CGH. CGH was prepared with normal and test DNA enzymatically digested, ligated to adaptors and amplified by PCR. A second PCR was performed for DNA labeling. Equal amounts of both normal and test-labeled DNA were hybridized in human normal metaphases. The Isis FISH Imaging System V 5.0 software was used for chromosome analysis. In both eutopic and ectopic groups, 4/10 samples presented chromosomal alterations, mainly chromosomal gains. CGH identified 11q12.3-q13.1, 17p11.1-p12, 17q25.3-qter, and 19p as critical regions. Genomic imbalances in 11q, 17p, 17q, and 19p were detected in normal eutopic and/or ectopic endometrium from women with ovarian endometriosis. These regions contain genes such as POLR2G, MXRA7 and UBA52 involved in biological processes that may lead to the establishment and maintenance of endometriotic implants. This genomic imbalance may affect genes in which dysregulation impacts both eutopic and ectopic endometrium.

  17. CA125 in ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duffy, M J; Bonfrer, J M; Kulpa, J

    2005-01-01

    CA125 is currently the most widely used tumor marker for ovarian epithelial cancer. The aim of this article is to provide guidelines for the routine clinical use of CA125 in patients with ovarian cancer. Due to lack of sensitivity for stage I disease and lack of specificity, CA125 is of little...... value in the detection of early ovarian cancer. At present, therefore, CA125, either alone or in combination with other modalities, cannot be recommended for screening for ovarian cancer in asymptomatic women outside the context of a randomized controlled trial. Preoperative levels in postmenopausal...... women, however, may aid the differentiation of benign and malignant pelvic masses. Serial levels during chemotherapy for ovarian cancer are useful for assessing response to treatment. Although serial monitoring following initial chemotherapy can lead to the early detection of recurrent disease...

  18. Oncolytic virotherapy for ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shoudong; Tong, Jessica; Rahman, Masmudur M; Shepherd, Trevor G; McFadden, Grant

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, more than 20 viruses with selective tropism for tumor cells have been developed as oncolytic viruses (OVs) for treatments of a variety of malignancies. Of these viruses, eleven have been tested in human ovarian cancer models in preclinical studies. So far, nine phase I or II clinical trials have been conducted or initiated using four different types of OVs in patients with recurrent ovarian cancers. In this article, we summarize the different OVs that are being assessed as therapeutics for ovarian cancer. We also present an overview of recent advances in identification of key genetic or immune-response pathways involved in tumorigenesis of ovarian cancer, which provides a better understanding of the tumor specificities and oncolytic properties of OVs. In addition, we discuss how next-generation OVs could be genetically modified or integrated into multimodality regimens to improve clinical outcomes based on recent advances in ovarian cancer biology. PMID:25977900

  19. Primary ovarian insufficiency: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox L

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Leticia Cox, James H LiuUH Case Medical Center, MacDonald Women's Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Department of Reproductive Biology, Cleveland, OH, USAAbstract: Primary ovarian insufficiency is a condition that represents impaired ovarian function on a continuum with intermittent ovulation. This condition commonly leads to premature menopause, defined as cessation of ovulation prior to the age of 40 years. Because there are potential immediate and long-term consequences of hypoestrogenism, a timely diagnosis is invaluable. This comprehensive review will discuss identifiable causes for primary ovarian insufficiency, including genetic disorders and metabolic abnormalities, as well as review current strategies for diagnosis, evaluation, and management of women with this condition.Keywords: premature ovarian failure, premature menopause, ovarian dysfunction

  20. Hormone therapy and ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2009-01-01

    of Medicinal Product Statistics provided individually updated exposure information. The National Cancer Register and Pathology Register provided ovarian cancer incidence data. Information on confounding factors and effect modifiers was from other national registers. Poisson regression analyses with 5-year age......CONTEXT: Studies have suggested an increased risk of ovarian cancer among women taking postmenopausal hormone therapy. Data are sparse on the differential effects of formulations, regimens, and routes of administration. OBJECTIVE: To assess risk of ovarian cancer in perimenopausal...... bands included hormone exposures as time-dependent covariates. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 909,946 women without hormone-sensitive cancer or bilateral oophorectomy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Ovarian cancer. RESULTS: In an average of 8.0 years of follow-up (7.3 million women-years), 3068 incident ovarian...

  1. Ixabepilone and Liposomal Doxorubicin in Advanced Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-11

    Fallopian Tube Cancer; Female Reproductive Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  2. Explicit targeting of transformed cells by VSV in ovarian epithelial tumor-bearing Wv mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capo-chichi, Callinice D; Yeasky, Toni M; Heiber, Joshua F; Wang, Ying; Barber, Glen N; Xu, Xiang-Xi

    2010-02-01

    Current treatment options for epithelial ovarian cancer are limited and therapeutic development for recurrent and drug-resistant ovarian cancer is an urgent agenda. We investigated the potential use of genetically engineered Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV) to treat ovarian cancer patients who fail to respond to available therapies. Specifically, we examined the toxicity to hosts and specificity of targeting ovarian tumors using a Wv ovarian tumor model. We first tested recombinant VSV for oncolytic activity in a panel of human ovarian epithelial cancer, immortalized, and primary ovarian surface epithelial cells in culture. Then, we tested VSV oncolytic therapy using the immune competent Wv mice that develop tubular adenomas, benign tumor lesions derived from ovarian surface epithelial cells. The expression of GFP encoded by the recombinant VSV genome was detected in about 5% of primary ovarian surface epithelial cells (3 lines) up to 30 days without significantly altering the growth pattern of the cells, suggesting the lack of toxicity to the normal ovarian surface epithelial cells. However, VSV-GFP was detected in the majority (around 90%) of cells that are either "immortalized" by SV40 antigen expression or cancer lines. Some variation in killing time courses was observed, but all the transformed cell lines were killed within 3 days. We found that regardless of the inoculation route (intra bursal, IP, or IV), VSV specifically infected and replicated in the in situ ovarian tumors in the Wv mice without significant activity in any other organs and tissues, and showed no detectable toxicity. The epithelial tumor lesions were greatly reduced in VSV-targeted ovarian tumors in the Wv mice. VSV oncolytic activity depends on a cell autonomous property distinguishing primary and transformed cells. The efficient oncolytic activity of VSV for the "immortalized" non-tumorigenic ovarian surface epithelial cells suggests that the selective specificity extends from pre

  3. [Clinical validation of multiple biomarkers suspension array technology for ovarian cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, B B; Yang, Z J; Wang, Q; Pan, Z M; Zhang, W; Li, L

    2017-01-25

    Objective: To investigates the diagnostic value of combined detection serum CCL18, CXCL1 antigen, C1D, TM4SF1, FXR1, TIZ IgG autoantibody by suspension array for ovarian cancer. Methods: Suspension array was used to detect CCL18, CXCL1 antigen, C1D, TM4SF1, FXR1, TIZ IgG autoantibody in 120 cases of healthy women, 204 cases of patients with benign pelvic tumors, 119 cases of pelvic malignant tumor patients, and 40 cases with breast cancer, lung cancer oroliver cancer, respectively. Constructed diagnosis model of combined detection six biomarkers for diagnosis of ovarian malignant tumor. Constructed diagnosis model of combined detection autoantibodies to diagnose epithelial ovarian cancer. Analysed the value of detecting six biomarkers for diagnosis of ovarian malignant tumor and detecting autoantibodies for diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer. Analysed diagnostic value of detecting six biomarkers to diagnose stage Ⅰ and Ⅱepithelial ovarian cancer. Compared diagnostic value of detecting six biomarkers in diagnosis of tissue types and pathologic grading with that of CA(125). Results: Model of combined detecting six biomarkers to diagnose ovarian malignant tumor was logit (P) =-11.151+0.008×C1D+0.011×TM4SF1+0.011×TIZ-0.008×FXR1+0.021×CCL18+0.200×CXCL1. Model of combined detection autoantibodies to diagnose epithelial ovarian cancer was logit (P) =-5.137+0.013×C1D+0.014×TM4SF1+0.060×TIZ-0.060×FXR1. Sensitivity and specificity of detecting six biomarker to diagnose ovarian malignant tumor was 90.6% and 98.7%. Sensitivity and specificity of detecting autoantibodies to diagnose epithelial ovarian cancer was 75.8% and 96.7%. Combined detection for six biomarkers to diagnose serous and mucinous ovarian cancer was statistically no better than those of CA(125) (P=0.196 and P=0.602, respectively); there was significantly difference in diagnosis of ovarian cancer (P=0.023), and there was no significantly difference in diagnosis of different pathological grading

  4. Histological changes within ovarian cortex, oviductal and uterine mucosa in case of ovarian cysts presence in sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulańczyk, Katarzyna

    2009-01-01

    The aim of study was histological evaluation of oviduct and uterus mucosa in case of cystic ovarian degeneration in sows. Materials for evaluations were received after slaughtering of 294 sows at age of 2-5 years. Sows were eliminated breeding and culled due to reproduction disorders: anoestrus after weaning of piglets, return of estrus, small litters and due to age, number of birth, bad condition after lactation. 20 sows (6,8%) had cysts on ovaries. Histological investigations were conducted on reproductive organs of sows with ovarian cysts. Sows were divided onto two groups: 1. with polycystic ovaries (12 sows), 2. with simple cyst (8 sows) occurred unilaterally (3 sows) or bilaterally (5 sows).In our studies we noted different kids of ovarian cysts and structural changes in ovarian cortex like decreasing numbers of ovarian follicules of all generations, increasing of follicular atresia. We compared the state of oviduct and uterus mucosa in case of polycystic ovaries with the histological changes in these tissues when single cysts were present on the ovaries. The single follicular cysts aren't accompanied with important changes in reproductive system. In case of polycystic ovaries the presence of cyst is connected with occurrence of morphological changes in endothelium of oviduct and uterus which would have been a reason of persistent infertility of pigs.

  5. Histological changes within ovarian cortex, oviductal and uterine mucosa in case of ovarian cysts presence in sows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Szulańczyk

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was histological evaluation of oviduct and uterus mucosa in case of cystic ovarian degeneration in sows. Materials for evaluations were received after slaughtering of 294 sows at age of 2-5 years. Sows were eliminated breeding and culled due to reproduction disorders: anoestrus after weaning of piglets, return of estrus, small litters and due to age, number of birth, bad condition after lactation. 20 sows (6,8% had cysts on ovaries. Histological investigations were conducted on reproductive organs of sows with ovarian cysts. Sows were divided onto two groups: 1. with polycystic ovaries (12 sows, 2. with simple cyst (8 sows occurred unilaterally (3 sows or bilaterally (5 sows.In our studies we noted different kids of ovarian cysts and structural changes in ovarian cortex like decreasing numbers of ovarian follicules of all generations, increasing of follicular atresia. We compared the state of oviduct and uterus mucosa in case of polycystic ovaries with the histological changes in these tissues when single cysts were present on the ovaries. The single follicular cysts aren't accompanied with important changes in reproductive system. In case of polycystic ovaries the presence of cyst is connected with occurrence of morphological changes in endothelium of oviduct and uterus which would have been a reason of persistent infertility of pigs.

  6. The role of miR-372 in ovarian carcinoma cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xue; Zong, Zhi-Hong; Chen, Shuo; Sang, Xiu-Bo; Wu, Dan-Dan; Wang, Li-Li; Liu, Yao; Zhao, Yang

    2017-08-15

    MicroRNA-372 has been shown to be associated with multiple tumors' development and progression, by regulating the expression of proteins involved in cell cycle and apoptosis. However, the specific mechanism and function of miR-372 in ovarian carcinoma are not clear. Our study explored the role of miR-372 in ovarian carcinoma cell cycle and proliferation. MiR-372 expression was quantified in normal ovarian tissue, benign tumors, primary ovarian carcinomas and metastatic omentum by qRT-PCR. MTT assay and plate clone formation assay were performed to evaluate the cell viability and proliferation. EDU assay and cell apoptosis assay were also used to determine cell growth. We used Western Blot to analysis expression of the known miR-372 targets. We found that miR-372 expression was significantly lower in ovarian carcinoma than normal ovarian tissues and benign tumors. Moreover, miR-372 overexpression showed significant inhibition of cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis. Western Blot revealed that miR-372 downregulated the expression of ATAD2, LATS2, P62, DKK1 and cyclinA1 to inhibit the proliferation of cells. Our findings indicate that miR-372 has a prominent role in inhibiting tumor growth and it is a valuable target for ovarian cancer therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Bcl-2 expression is altered with ovarian tumor progression: an immunohistochemical evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Nicole S

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy. The ovarian tumor microenvironment is comprised of tumor cells, surrounding stroma, and circulating lymphocytes, an important component of the immune response, in tumors. Previous reports have shown that the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 is overexpressed in many solid neoplasms, including ovarian cancers, and contributes to neoplastic transformation and drug-resistant disease, resulting in poor clinical outcome. Likewise, studies indicate improved clinical outcome with increased presence of lymphocytes. Therefore, we sought to examine Bcl-2 expression in normal, benign, and cancerous ovarian tissues to determine the potential relationship between epithelial and stromal Bcl-2 expression in conjunction with the presence of lymphocytes for epithelial ovarian tumor progression. Methods Ovarian tissue sections were classified as normal (n = 2, benign (n = 17 or cancerous (n = 28 and immunohistochemically stained for Bcl-2. Bcl-2 expression was assessed according to cellular localization, extent, and intensity of staining. The number of lymphocyte nests as well as the number of lymphocytes within these nests was counted. Results While Bcl-2 staining remained cytoplasmic, both percent and intensity of epithelial and stromal Bcl-2 staining decreased with tumor progression. Further, the number of lymphocyte nests dramatically increased with tumor progression. Conclusion The data suggest alterations in Bcl-2 expression and lymphocyte infiltration correlate with epithelial ovarian cancer progression. Consequently, Bcl-2 expression and lymphocyte status may be important for prognostic outcome or useful targets for therapeutic intervention.

  8. Claudins Overexpression in Ovarian Cancer: Potential Targets for Clostridium Perfringens Enterotoxin (CPE Based Diagnosis and Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana P. English

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Claudins are a family of tight junction proteins regulating paracellular permeability and cell polarity with different patterns of expression in benign and malignant human tissues. There are approximately 27 members of the claudin family identified to date with varying cell and tissue-specific expression. Claudins-3, -4 and -7 represent the most highly differentially expressed claudins in ovarian cancer. While their exact role in ovarian tumors is still being elucidated, these proteins are thought to be critical for ovarian cancer cell invasion/dissemination and resistance to chemotherapy. Claudin-3 and claudin-4 are the natural receptors for the Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE, a potent cytolytic toxin. These surface proteins may therefore represent attractive targets for the detection and treatment of chemotherapy-resistant ovarian cancer and other aggressive solid tumors overexpressing claudin-3 and -4 using CPE-based theranostic agents.

  9. Struma ovarii mimicking ovarian carcinoma: a case report and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landim, Fabio Machado [Hospital Geral Doutor Waldemar de Alcantara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Struma Ovarii is a rare neoplasia. It is a monodermic mixed teratoma, with predominance of thyroid tissue and represents 3% of ovarian teratomas. This article reports a case of Struma Ovarii in a 66 years-old patient, with a progressive abdominal mass, ascites and high levels of CA-125. The findings were highly suggestive of ovarian carcinoma. The CT scan showed a complex ovarian lesion and the patient was submitted to an exploratory laparotomy. The pathology report showed a left ovary Struma Ovarii. (author)

  10. Nitric oxide mediates metabolic coupling of omentum-derived adipose stroma to ovarian and endometrial cancer cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salimian Rizi, Bahar; Caneba, Christine; Nowicka, Aleksandra; Nabiyar, Ahmad W; Liu, Xinran; Chen, Kevin; Klopp, Ann; Nagrath, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Omental adipose stromal cells (O-ASC) are a multipotent population of mesenchymal stem cells contained in the omentum tissue that promote endometrial and ovarian tumor proliferation, migration, and drug resistance...

  11. [Significance and expression of PAX8, PAX2, p53 and RAS in ovary and fallopian tubes to origin of ovarian high grade serous carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Y N; Zeng, L X; Li, Y H; Liu, Y Z; Wu, J Y; Li, L; Wang, Q

    2017-10-25

    Objective: To explore the origin of ovarian high grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) through analysing the expression and significance of PAX8, PAX2, p53 and RAS in the ovary and fallopian tube of different types and grades of serous carcinoma. Methods: A total of 44 cases tissue samples of ovarian tumor including 34 malignant ovarian tumor and 10 normal normal tissue (as control group) were collected from the admitted patients in Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Guangxi Medical University from January 2015 to January 2016. Fallopian tube tissues were segmented in accordance with the fimbria, ampulla, isthmus and the corresponding ovarian tissues were by the side. There were 34 cases of patients with ovarian cancer including 29 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer (27 serous carcinoma, 1 mucinous carcinoma,1 endometrioid adenocarcinoma) and 5 non-epithelial ovarian cancer (sex cord-interstitial tumor). Among 27 cases of patients with ovarian serous cancer, there were 23 HGSC and 4 low-grade ovarian serous cancer (LGSC). One hundred fifty-three cases of samples were diagnosed as ovarian serous cancer by Shandong University Affiliated Qilu Hospital from 2005 to 2013 and these samples were made tissue microarray. (1) To analyze the expression and differences of PAX8, PAX2, p53 and RAS in the above tissues and tissue microarray from ovarian and tubal of HGSC and control women by immunohistochemistry methods. (2) To compare the expression levels of PAX8, PAX2, p53 and RAS in ovarian and fallopian tubes of ovarian cancer patients with different pathological types. (3) To analyze the correlations of tubal and ovarian tissue in PAX8, PAX2, p53 and RAS expression of HGSC. (4) To analyze the factors of the prognosis of ovarian serous cancer in tissue microarray by single factor analysis method. Results: (1) PAX8, PAX2, p53 and RAS expression was negative in normal ovarian epithelium of control group, but the expression of PAX8, PAX2, p53 and RAS were strongly positive brown in secrete

  12. History of Comorbidities and Survival of Ovarian Cancer Patients, Results from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minlikeeva, A.N.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Eng, K.H.; Cannioto, R.A.; Friel, G.; Szender, J.B.; Segal, B.; Odunsi, K.; Mayor, P.; Diergaarde, B.; Zsiros, E.; Kelemen, L.E.; Kobel, M.; Steed, H.; Defazio, A.; Jordan, S.J.; Fasching, P.A.; Beckmann, M.W.; Risch, H.A.; Rossing, M.A.; Doherty, J.A.; Chang-Claude, J.; Goodman, M.T.; Dork, T.; Edwards, R.; Modugno, F.; Ness, R.B.; Matsuo, K.; Mizuno, M.; Karlan, B.Y.; Goode, E.L.; Kjaer, S.K.; Hogdall, E.; Schildkraut, J.M.; Terry, K.L.; Cramer, D.W; Bandera, E.V.; Paddock, L.E.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Sutphen, R.; Anton-Culver, H.; Ziogas, A.; Menon, U.; Gayther, S.A.; Ramus, S.J.; Gentry-Maharaj, A.; Pearce, C.L.; Wu, A.H.; Kupryjanczyk, J.; Jensen, A.; Webb, P.M.; Moysich, K.B.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Comorbidities can affect survival of ovarian cancer patients by influencing treatment efficacy. However, little evidence exists on the association between individual concurrent comorbidities and prognosis in ovarian cancer patients.Methods: Among patients diagnosed with invasive ovarian

  13. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease and the Risk of Ovarian Cancer and Borderline Ovarian Tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christina B; Kjaer, Susanne K; Albieri, Vanna

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation has been implicated in ovarian carcinogenesis. However, studies investigating the association between pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and ovarian cancer risk are few and inconsistent. We investigated the association between PID and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer according to...

  14. Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Experimental Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengyel, E; Burdette, JE; Kenny, HA; Matei, D; Pilrose, J; Haluska, P.; Nephew, KP; Hales, DB; Stack, MS

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (OvCa) is associated with high mortality and, as the majority (>75%) of women with OvCa have metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis, rates of survival have not changed appreciably over 30 years. A mechanistic understanding of OvCa initiation and progression is hindered by the complexity of genetic and/or environmental initiating events and lack of clarity regarding the cell(s) or tissue(s) of origin. Metastasis of OvCa involves direct extension or exfoliation of cells and cellular aggregates into the peritoneal cavity, survival of matrix-detached cells in a complex ascites fluid phase, and subsequent adhesion to the mesothelium lining covering abdominal organs to establish secondary lesions containing host stromal and inflammatory components. Development of experimental models to recapitulate this unique mechanism of metastasis presents a remarkable scientific challenge and many approaches used to study other solid tumors (lung, colon, and breast, for example) are not transferable to OvCa research given the distinct metastasis pattern and unique tumor microenvironment. This review will discuss recent progress in the development and refinement of experimental models to study OvCa. Novel cellular, three-dimensional organotypic, and ex vivo models are considered and the current in vivo models summarized. The review critically evaluates currently available genetic mouse models of OvCa, the emergence of xenopatients, and the utility of the hen model to study OvCa prevention, tumorigenesis, metastasis, and chemoresistance. As these new approaches more accurately recapitulate the complex tumor microenvironment, it is predicted that new opportunities for enhanced understanding of disease progression, metastasis and therapeutic response will emerge. PMID:23934194

  15. Ovarian cancer: the clinical role of US, CT, and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togashi, K. [Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Imageology, Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan)

    2003-12-01

    This article presents an overview of ovarian cancer, which addresses the clinical roles of imaging studies, including US, CT, and MR imaging in the course of diagnosis and treatment of this important disease. US is the modality of choice in the evaluation of patients with suspected adnexal masses. Although its accuracy is not sufficient to avert surgery, morphological analysis of adnexal masses with US helps narrow the differential diagnosis, determining the degree of suspicion for malignancy, usually in concert with a serum CA-125 level. Combined morphological and vascular imaging obtained by US appear to further improve the preoperative assessment of adnexal masses. For uncertain or problematic cases, MR imaging helps to distinguish benign from malignant, with an overall accuracy for the diagnosis of malignancy of 93%. The accuracy of MR imaging in the confident diagnosis of mature cystic teratoma, endometrial cysts, and leiomayomas is very high. CT is not indicated for differential diagnosis of adnexal masses because of poor soft tissue discrimination, except for fatty tissue and for calcification, and the disadvantages of irradiation. In the staging of ovarian cancer, CT, US, and MR imaging all have a similarly high accuracy. Although it is difficult to suggest a simple algorithm for evaluating the state of women with adnexal masses, the correct preoperative diagnosis and staging of ovarian cancer with the use of any of these imaging studies will lead to an appropriate referral to a specialist in gynecologic oncology and offer a significant survival advantage for patients with ovarian cancer. (orig.)

  16. Examination of diagnostic features in multiphoton microscopy and optical coherence tomography images of ovarian tumorigenesis in a mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jennifer M.

    Ovarian cancer is a deadly disease owing to the non-specific symptoms and suspected rapid progression, leading to frequent late stage detection and poor prognosis. Medical imaging methods such as CT, MRI and ultrasound as well as serum testing for cancer markers have had extremely poor performance for early disease detection. Due to the poor performance of available screening methods, and the impracticality and ineffectiveness of taking tissue biopsies from the ovary, women at high risk for developing ovarian cancer are often advised to undergo prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy. This surgery results in many side effects and is most often unnecessary since only a fraction of high risk women go on to develop ovarian cancer. Better understanding of the early development of ovarian cancer and characterization of morphological changes associated with early disease could lead to the development of an effective screening test for women at high risk. Optical imaging methods including optical coherence tomography (OCT) and multiphoton microscopy (MPM) are excellent tools for studying disease progression owing to the high resolution and depth sectioning capabilities. Further, these techniques are excellent for optical biopsy because they can image in situ non-destructively. In the studies described in this dissertation OCT and MPM are used to identify cellular and tissue morphological changes associated with early tumor development in a mouse model of ovarian cancer. This work is organized into three specific aims. The first aim is to use the images from the MPM phenomenon of second harmonic generation to quantitatively examine the morphological differences in collagen structure in normal mouse ovarian tissue and mouse ovarian tumors. The second aim is to examine the differences in endogenous two-photon excited fluorescence in normal mouse ovarian tissue and mouse ovarian tumors. The third and final aim is to identify changes in ovarian microstructure resulting from early

  17. The effect of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells on chemotherapy induced ovarian failure in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabr, Hala; Rateb, Moshira Abdelhakiim; El Sissy, Maha Hamdi; Ahmed Seddiek, Hanan; Ali Abdelhameed Gouda, Sarah

    2016-10-01

    Chemotherapy targets rapidly dividing tissues in the body. It destroys the progenitor cells in gonads resulting in premature ovarian failure. Studies have suggested that bone marrow-derived stem cells can generate oocytes in chemotherapy treated female rats after transplantation. The present study aimed to assess mechanism of homing, the action of injected BM-MSCs on ovarian function after ovarian damage. Seventy two female albino rats were randomly allocated into Control and CTX group, The Experimental protocol was lasted for 12 weeks during which serum FSH and E2 were monitored twice at the end of the 2nd week (12 rats) and 8th week (6 rats). Stem cells identification and homing were evaluated by Flowcytometry and tagging of stem cells with iron oxide particles respectively. Also, histopathological examination was done to evaluate both degeneration (6 rats at 4th week) and regeneration (6 rats at 12th week) of ovarian tissue together with assessment of the levels of TNF-α in ovarian homogenate and IGF-I as a growth factor in ovarian tissue. Partial improvement of E2 and FSH levels as well as ovarian architecture. Elevation of ovarian TNF- α levels and of IGF-I immunohistochemical expressions in ovarian tissues of BM-MSCs injected rats were noticed following homing of BM- MSCs in the ovarian stroma in both control and chemotherapy groups. Injected BM- MSCs can home in the stroma of the injured ovaries. IGF-I and TNF- α may have a role in the attraction of stem cells in vivo. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Membrane lipid profile monitored by mass spectrometry detected differences between fresh and vitrified in vitro-produced bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão, Beatriz C S; Rocha-Frigoni, Nathália A S; Cabral, Elaine C; Franco, Marcos F; Ferreira, Christina R; Eberlin, Marcos N; Filgueiras, Paulo R; Mingoti, Gisele Z

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of vitrification on membrane lipid profile obtained by mass spectrometry (MS) of in vitro-produced bovine embryos. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) has been used to obtain individual embryo membrane lipid profiles. Due to conditions of analysis, mainly membrane lipids, most favorably phosphatidylcholines (PCs) and sphingomyelins (SMs) have been detected. The following ions described by their mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) and respective attribution presented increased relative abundance (1.2-20×) in the vitrified group: 703.5 [SM (16:0) + H]+; 722.5 [PC (40:3) + Na]+; 758.5 [PC (34:2) + H]+; 762.5 [PC (34:0) + H]+; 790.5 [PC (36:0) + H]+ and 810.5 [PC (38:4) + H]+ and/or [PC (36:1) + Na]+. The ion with a m/z 744.5 [PCp (34:1) and/or PCe (34:2)] was 3.4-fold more abundant in the fresh group. Interestingly, ions with m/z 722.5 or 744.5 indicate the presence of lipid species, which are more resistant to enzymatic degradation as they contain fatty acyl residues linked through ether type bonds (alkyl ether or plasmalogens, indicated by the lowercase 'e' and 'p', respectively) to the glycerol structure. The results indicate that cryopreservation impacts the membrane lipid profile, and that these alterations can be properly monitored by MALDI-MS. Membrane lipids can therefore be evaluated by MALDI-MS to monitor the effect of cryopreservation on membrane lipids, and to investigate changes in lipid profile that may reflect the metabolic response to the cryopreservation stress or changes in the environmental conditions.

  19. Adipokines as metabolic modulators of ovarian functions in livestock: A mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smruti Ranjan Mishra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is the principal fat storing tissue which secretes various molecules known as adipokines. The major adipokines secreted from adipose tissue are leptin, adiponectin, visfatin, resistin, chemerin and apelin. Adipokines are regarded as the and ldquo;marker of body metabolic status'' which maintains the body energy homeostasis. An adequate energy level is essential for the onset of puberty and ovarian functions. Adipokines act as energy sensor and signal the body energy level to hypothalamic neurons to regulate many physiological activities including ovarian functions such as onset of puberty, estrus behavior, follicular development and ovulation followed by corpus luteum (CL formation and function in livestock. However, adipose tissue dysfunctions limit adipokines secretion leading to an imbalance in body energy level which ultimately affects the reproduction in livestock. This mini-review highlights the modulatory roles of various adipokines in ovarian functions of livestock. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(3.000: 206-213

  20. FSH Injections and Ultrasonography Determine Presence of Ovarian Components in the Evaluation of Ovotesticular Disorders of Sex Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicks John

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Three infants with ambiguous genitalia and suspected ovotestes were given recombinant FSH to induce ovarian follicular development. The development of follicles in the gonadal tissue suggested the presence of ovarian tissue in two of the three infants. This method may provide a means to better characterize gonadal anatomy in patients affected by disorders of sex development (DSD. Sonographic information poststimulation provided parents with earlier and more specific education and support concerning the possible need for confirmative gonadal biopsy treatment options.

  1. Animal models of ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw Tanya J

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ovarian cancer is the most lethal of all of the gynecological cancers and can arise from any cell type of the ovary, including germ cells, granulosa or stromal cells. However, the majority of ovarian cancers arise from the surface epithelium, a single layer of cells that covers the surface of the ovary. The lack of a reliable and specific method for the early detection of epithelial ovarian cancer results in diagnosis occurring most commonly at late clinical stages, when treatment is less effective. In part, the deficiency in diagnostic tools is due to the lack of markers for the detection of preneoplastic or early neoplastic changes in the epithelial cells, which reflects our rather poor understanding of this process. Animal models which accurately represent the cellular and molecular changes associated with the initiation and progression of human ovarian cancer have significant potential to facilitate the development of better methods for the early detection and treatment of ovarian cancer. This review describes some of the experimental animal models of ovarian tumorigenesis that have been reported, including those involving specific reproductive factors and environmental toxins. Consideration has also been given to the recent progress in modeling ovarian cancer using genetically engineered mice.

  2. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Ovarian Metastases in Breast Cancer Patients < 41 Years of Age in the Netherlands: A Nationwide Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Inge T A; van Zwet, Erik W; Smit, Vincent T H B M; Liefers, Gerrit Jan; Kuppen, Peter J K; Hilders, Carina G J M; Trimbos, J Baptist

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the primary indications for cryopreservation and subsequent autotransplantation of ovarian tissue. The safety of this fertility preservation method remains questionable, as the presence of disseminated breast tumor cells cannot yet be excluded in the ovarian autografts. We explored the prevalence of ovarian metastases among young breast cancer patients and determined risk factors for the development of ovarian metastases. Using the nationwide database of the Dutch Pathology Registry (PALGA), we identified a cohort of 2648 women with primary invasive breast cancer at age breast cancer diagnosis and oophorectomy was selected. Data were collected on patient characteristics, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Ovarian metastases were found in 63 out of 2648 patients who met the inclusion criteria. The risk of developing ovarian metastases increased with time passed since breast cancer diagnosis. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed significant association between tumor stage and the development of ovarian metastases (p = 0.024). The prevalence of ovarian metastases was 2.4% among young breast cancer patients. Early ovary removal may reduce the risk of developing ovarian metastases. In breast cancer patients with tumors > 5 cm and/or inflammatory carcinoma, we recommend a cautious approach to ovarian tissue autotransplantation.

  3. The role of nuclear β-catenin accumulation in the Twist2-induced ovarian cancer EMT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yubin; Xu, Jinfei; Li, Zhihan; Zhang, Nini; Yin, Hao; Liu, Zuguo

    2013-01-01

    Twist2 has been shown to promote human tumor invasion as in breast cancer and cervical cancer. However, whether Twist2 promotes human ovarian cancer progression remains to be elucidated. Here, we investigate the role of Twist2 in ovarian cancer invasion and metastasis as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms. Twist2 expression was detected by Immunohistochemistry (IHC) on tissue microarray of human ovarian cancers with scoring procedure according to the staining intensity and pattern. Twist2 gene was stably introduced into SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells to examine the changes of cellular morphology, motility, invasiveness, and EMT molecular markers. Twist2 expression is significantly increased in ovarian cancers along with the FIGO disease stage, indicating that Twist2 may be associated with ovarian cancer metastasis. Overexpression of Twist2 induced the EMT phenotype including downregulation of E-cadherin, and upregulation of N-cadherin and β-catenin in human ovarian cancer cells, suggesting that Twist2 might promote β-catenin release from the E-cadherin/β-catenin complex through inhibition of E-cadherin. Thus, β-catenin degradation was inhibited due to inhibition of APC, and the Wnt/β-catenin pathway was then activated by nuclear β-catenin accumulation, which may activate transcription of downstream target genes to promote tumor invasion and metastasis. Collectively, these data indicated that β-catenin is involved in Twist2-induced EMT in ovarian cancer. Our data indicates that upregulation of Twist2 is correlated with the FIGO stage in human ovarian cancers. In this report, we demonstrated that nuclear β-catenin is accumulated in Twist2-induced EMT cells to facilitates ovarian cancer invasion and metastasis.

  4. The role of nuclear β-catenin accumulation in the Twist2-induced ovarian cancer EMT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubin Mao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Twist2 has been shown to promote human tumor invasion as in breast cancer and cervical cancer. However, whether Twist2 promotes human ovarian cancer progression remains to be elucidated. Here, we investigate the role of Twist2 in ovarian cancer invasion and metastasis as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms. METHODS: Twist2 expression was detected by Immunohistochemistry (IHC on tissue microarray of human ovarian cancers with scoring procedure according to the staining intensity and pattern. Twist2 gene was stably introduced into SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells to examine the changes of cellular morphology, motility, invasiveness, and EMT molecular markers. RESULTS: Twist2 expression is significantly increased in ovarian cancers along with the FIGO disease stage, indicating that Twist2 may be associated with ovarian cancer metastasis. Overexpression of Twist2 induced the EMT phenotype including downregulation of E-cadherin, and upregulation of N-cadherin and β-catenin in human ovarian cancer cells, suggesting that Twist2 might promote β-catenin release from the E-cadherin/β-catenin complex through inhibition of E-cadherin. Thus, β-catenin degradation was inhibited due to inhibition of APC, and the Wnt/β-catenin pathway was then activated by nuclear β-catenin accumulation, which may activate transcription of downstream target genes to promote tumor invasion and metastasis. Collectively, these data indicated that β-catenin is involved in Twist2-induced EMT in ovarian cancer. CONCLUSION: Our data indicates that upregulation of Twist2 is correlated with the FIGO stage in human ovarian cancers. In this report, we demonstrated that nuclear β-catenin is accumulated in Twist2-induced EMT cells to facilitates ovarian cancer invasion and metastasis.

  5. Expression and Functional Pathway Analysis of Nuclear Receptor NR2F2 in Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Shannon M.; Loomans, Holli A.; Wan, Ying-Wooi; Ghosh-Choudhury, Triparna; Coffey, Donna; Xiao, Weimin; Liu, Zhandong; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh

    2013-01-01

    Context: Recent evidence implicates the orphan nuclear receptor, nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group F, member 2 (NR2F2; chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor II) as both a master regulator of angiogenesis and an oncogene in prostate and other human cancers. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine whether NR2F2 plays a role in ovarian cancer and dissect its potential mechanisms of action. Design, Setting, and Patients: We examined NR2F2 expression in healthy ovary and ovarian cancers using quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry. NR2F2 expression was targeted in established ovarian cancer cell lines to assess the impact of dysregulated NR2F2 expression in the epithelial compartment of ovarian cancers. Results: Our results indicate that NR2F2 is robustly expressed in the stroma of healthy ovary with little or no expression in epithelia lining the ovarian surface, clefts, or crypts. This pattern of NR2F2 expression was markedly disrupted in ovarian cancers, in which decreased levels of stromal expression and ectopic epithelial expression were frequently observed. Ovarian cancers with the most disrupted patterns of NR2F2 were associated with significantly shorter disease-free interval by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Targeting NR2F2 expression in established ovarian cancer cell lines enhanced apoptosis and increased proliferation. In addition, we found that NR2F2 regulates the expression of NEK2, RAI14, and multiple other genes involved in the cell cycle, suggesting potential pathways by which dysregulated expression of NR2F2 impacts ovarian cancer. Conclusions: These results uncover novel roles for NR2F2 in ovarian cancer and point to a unique scenario in which a single nuclear receptor plays potentially distinct roles in the stromal and epithelial compartments of the same tissue. PMID:23690307

  6. Mass spectrometric profiling reveals association of N-glycan patterns with epithelial ovarian cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huanhuan; Deng, Zaian; Huang, Chuncui; Wu, Hongmei; Zhao, Xia; Li, Yan

    2017-07-01

    Aberrant changes of N-glycan modifications on proteins have been linked to various diseases including different cancers, suggesting possible avenue for exploring their etiologies based on N-glycomic analysis. Changes in N-glycan patterns during epithelial ovarian cancer development have so far been investigated mainly using serum, plasma, ascites, and cell lines. However, changes in patterns of N-glycans in tumor tissues during epithelial ovarian cancer progression have remained largely undefined. To investigate whether changes in N-glycan patterns correlate with oncogenesis and progression of epithelial ovarian cancer, we profiled N-glycans from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue slides using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and quantitatively compared among different pathological grades of epithelial ovarian cancer and healthy controls. Our results show that among the 80 compositions of N-glycan detected, expression levels of high-mannose type were higher in epithelial ovarian cancer samples than that observed in healthy controls, accompanied by reduced levels of hybrid-type glycans. By applying receiver operating characteristic analysis, we show that a combined panel composed of four high-mannose and three fucosylated neutral complex N-glycans allows for good discrimination of epithelial ovarian cancer from healthy controls. Furthermore, using a statistical analysis of variance assay, we found that different N-glycan patterns, including 2 high-mannose-type, 2 fucosylated and sialylated complex structures, and 10 fucosylated neutral complex N-glycans, exhibited specific changes in N-glycan abundance across epithelial ovarian cancer grades. Together, our results provide strong evidence that N-glycomic changes are a strong indicator for epithelial ovarian cancer pathological grades and should provide avenues to identify novel biomarkers for epithelial ovarian cancer diagnosis and monitoring.

  7. TGF-β1 and IL-10 expression in epithelial ovarian cancer cell line ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study highlights these roles and immunosuppressive functions in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Methods: TGF-β1 and IL-10 expression was compared in malignant, benign, and borderline cancerous tissues and tumour-free tissue by immunohistochemistry. Relationships among the levels of these cytokines, ...

  8. Altered Expression Pattern of Topoisomerase IIα, in Ovarian Tumor Epithelial and Stromal Cells after Platinum-Based Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslav Chekerov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of topoisomerase IIα (TOP2A in epithelial and stromal cells of ovarian cancer. METHODS: TOP2A expression was analyzed in normal ovarian tissue and in laser-microdissected ovarian tumor epithelial and adjacent stromal cells using quantitative real time RT-PCR (n = 38, RNA in situ hybridization (n =13, and immunhistochemistry (n = 69. Results: TOP2A mRNA was detected by RNA in situ hybridization in all ovarian cancer samples, with stronger hybridization signals in tumor epithelial cells compared to adjacent stromal cells. The same expression pattern was found by immunohistochemistry (P = .0001. Very interestingly, specific changes of TOP2A were found in recurrent ovarian cancer after platinum-based chemotherapy: TOP2A expression decreased in tumor epithelial cells (P = .056 of recurrent ovarian cancer, whereas it increased in tumor adjacent stromal cells (P = .023 compared to primary ovarian cancer. CONCLUSION: TOP2A mRNA and protein expressions in ovarian cancer exhibit specific patterns in tumor epithelial and adjacent stromal cells, which are differentially modulated after platinum-based chemotherapy. These data support the possible importance of the stromal compartment in tumor progression and suggest that tumor stromal cells might be relevant to the development of chemotherapy resistance in ovarian cancer.

  9. Current clinical application of serum biomarkers to detect ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Marek; Janas, Łukasz; Stachowiak, Grzegorz; Stetkiewicz, Tomasz; Wilczyński, Jacek R

    2015-12-01

    For the last decades, hundreds of potential serum biomarkers have been assessed in diagnosing of ovarian cancer including the wide spectrum of cytokines, growth factors, adhesion molecules, proteases, hormones, coagulation factors, acute phase reactants, and apoptosis factors but except CA125 none of them have been applied to everyday clinical practice. Nowadays, the growing number of evidence suggests that the classic marker CA125 should be accompanied by HE4 and in fact, Risk of Ovarian Malignancy Algorithm (ROMA) is becoming more and more widespread in clinical practice for the evaluation of adnexal masses. Early ovarian cancer is often asymptomatic, so the challenge still exists to develop serum markers suitable for early diagnosis and screening. Current knowledge strongly points to different mechanisms of pathogenesis, genetic disturbances and clinical course of major histological subtypes of ovarian cancer. Thus, future biomarker/multimarker panels should take into consideration the implications of different molecular patterns and biological behavior of various subtypes of ovarian cancer. Very promising are studies on miRNAs - small non-protein coding gene-regulatory RNA molecules functionally involved in the pathogenesis of cancers acting as oncogenes (oncomirs) or tumor suppressors. The studies devoted to ovarian cancer tissue miRNA profiling have shown that miRNAs could be useful in diagnosing and predicting the OC outcome. They also confirmed that OC is a highly heterogeneous disease, gathering four distinct histological tumor subtypes characterized not only by distinct origin, behavior and response to chemotherapy but also by different patterns of miRNA expression.

  10. Nesfatin-1 inhibits ovarian epithelial carcinoma cell proliferation in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yang; Pang, Xiaoyan; Dong, Mei; Wen, Fang, E-mail: wenfang64@hotmail.com; Zhang, Yi, E-mail: syzi960@yahoo.com

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •Nesfatin-1 inhibits the proliferation and growth of HO-8910 cells by G1 phase arrest. •Nesfatin-1 enhances HO-8910 cell apoptosis. •Nesfatin-1 inhibits HO-8910 cell proliferation via mTOR and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. •The first report of nesfatin-1-mediated proliferation in ovarian epithelial carcinoma. -- Abstract: Nesfatin-1, an 82-amino-acid peptide derived from a 396-amino-acid precursor protein nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2), was originally identified in hypothalamic nuclei involved in the regulation of food intake. It was recently reported that nesfatin-1 is a novel depot specific adipokine preferentially produced by subcutaneous tissue, with obesity- and food deprivation-regulated expression. Although a relation between ovarian cancer mortality and obesity has been previously established, a role of nesfatin-1 in ovarian epithelial carcinoma remains unknown. The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of nesfatin-1 on ovary carcinoma cells proliferation. We found that nesfatin-1 inhibits the proliferation and growth of HO-8910 cells by G1 phase arrest, this inhibition could be abolished by nesfatin-1 neutralizing antibody. Nesfatin-1 enhances HO-8910 cell apoptosis, activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway block the effects of nesfatin-1-induced apoptosis, therefore reverses the inhibition of HO-8910 cell proliferation by nesfatin-1. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that nesfatin-1 can inhibit the proliferation in human ovarian epithelial carcinoma cell line HO-8910 cells through inducing apoptosis via mTOR and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. This study provides a novel regulatory signaling pathway of nesfatin-1-regulated ovarian epithelial carcinoma growth and may contribute to ovarian cancer prevention and therapy, especially in obese patients.