WorldWideScience

Sample records for vitamin ot beskulturja

  1. OT-Combiners Via Secure Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harnik, Danny; Ishai, Yuval; Kushilevitz, Eyal

    2008-01-01

    An OT-combiner implements a secure oblivious transfer (OT) protocol using oracle access to n OT-candidates of which at most t may be faulty. We introduce a new general approach for combining OTs by making a simple and modular use of protocols for secure computation. Specifically, we obtain an OT......, in a network consisting of a single OT-channel. Our approach applies both to the “semi-honest” and the “malicious” models of secure computation, yielding the corresponding types of OT-combiners. Instantiating our general approach with secure computation protocols from the literature, we conceptually simplify......, strengthen the security, and improve the efficiency of previous OT-combiners. In particular, we obtain the first constant-rate OT-combiners in which the number of secure OTs being produced is a constant fraction of the total number of calls to the OT-candidates, while still tolerating a constant fraction...

  2. Vitamins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz-Roso, Baltasar

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available A thermal treatment is an intrinsic part of most food processing procedures and may be employed to inactive enzimes and toxic '• factors, to change texture and flavour or to preserve. The vitamin degree of transformation or destruction in cooking methods depends on the temperature and on the time of exposure to this temperature. Oxigen, light and transition metals frequently play an active role in accelerating or promoting vitamin losses. Both chemical change and difussion proceed more rapidly as the temperature is raised. An advantage of deep frying consists of the fact that the temperature within the food does not exceed the temperature of the steam under the crust, and that frying times are in general very short compared to other cooking procedures. Another advantages may be the low content of dissolved oxygen in frying fats, and also in its high tocopherol content. There is no leaching of water-soluble vitamins in deep-frying. Speaking of vitamin stability we have to keep in mind that the concept of vitamins is a more physiological concept than a chemical one. The stability itself is not a property of the various vitamins but rather of the various chemical compounds sometimes called vitamers, of which a certain vitamin group consists. For practical purposes, vitamin losses should be considered only in foods wich substantially contribute to the vitamin supply of single people or population groups. There is little data in the literature about vitamin changes in deep-frying of food. However published experimental data on vitamin loses show that deep-frying is one of the most protective cooking procedures. For example, in ours results the vitamin C losses of stewed vegetable foods were twice higher than that of fried ones, (raw potatoes containing 19 mg/100g fresh weight, 13 mg/100 fried in olive oil, and 5 mg/100g stewed in the same oil.

  3. Vitamins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fruits, like oranges cantaloupe strawberries tomatoes broccoli cabbage kiwi fruit sweet red peppers previous continue Vitamin D ... leafy green vegetables dairy products, like milk and yogurt broccoli soybean oil When your body gets this ...

  4. Vitamins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and asparagus) Dark leafy vegetables (spinach, kale, collards, and turnip greens) Fish, liver, beef, and eggs WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINS Biotin: Chocolate Cereal Egg yolk Legumes ...

  5. MASTER: bright OT during Fermi trigger inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumkov, V.; Lipunov, V.; Budnev, N.; Gress, O.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kuznetsov, A.; Vlasenko, D.; Vladimirov, V.; Kuvshinov, D.; Chazov, V.; Gorbunov, I.; Zimnuhov, D.

    2017-10-01

    MASTER-Tunka auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 06h 20m 10.45s +54d 46m 57.8s on 2017-09-28.56648 UT. The OT magnitude in unfiltered is 16.1m (limit 18.2m).

  6. Master: Psn in PGC2143082 and OT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumkov, V.; Pogrosheva, T.; Lipunov, V.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Kornilov, V.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Gress, O.; Vladimirov, V.; Kuznetsov, A.; Gorbunov, I.; Chazov, V.; Zimnukhov, D.; Budnev, N.; Gabovich, A.

    2017-10-01

    MASTER-Tavrida auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 03h 08m 37.50s +39d 05m 21.3s on 2017-10-10 20:58:55 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is (mlim=19.0m).

  7. LATERAL SURVIVAL: AN OT ACCOUNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moira Yip

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available When laterals are the targets of phonological processes, laterality may or may not survive. In a fixed feature geometry, [lateral] should be lost if its superordinate node is eliminated by either the spreading of a neighbouring node, or by coda neutralization. So if [lateral] is under Coronal (Blevins 1994, it should be lost under Place assimilation, and if [lateral] is under Sonorant Voicing (Rice & Avery 1991 it should be lost by rules that spread voicing. Yet in some languages lateral survives such spreading intact. Facts like these argue against a universal attachment of [lateral] under either Coronal or Sonorant Voicing, and in favour of an account in terms of markedness constraints on feature-co-occurrence (Padgett 2000. The core of an OT account is that IFIDENTLAT is ranked above whatever causes neutralization, such as SHARE-F or *CODAF. laterality will survive. If these rankings are reversed, we derive languages in which laterality is lost. The other significant factor is markedness. High-ranked feature co-occurrence constraints like *LATDORSAL can block spreading from affecting laterals at all.

  8. The Open Terminology Services (OTS) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solbrig, Harold R; Armbrust, Daniel C; Chute, Christopher G

    2003-01-01

    The Open Terminology Services (OTS) project provides a common, well-specified mechanism to access terminological content in a vendor and platform neutral fashion. The project includes a freely available API specification and an open source reference implementation. The API specification derives from the OMG Lexicon Query Services interface specification as a foundation and defines mechanisms for browsing, querying and import terminological content. The Java-based reference implementation uses the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) for a back end, and provides a mechanism to query and distribute heterogeneous terminological content using a common format. The project includes the CTS (Central Terminology Services) subset under HL7.

  9. MASTER Net: OT in M31 direction and new CV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumkov, V.; Pogrosheva, T.; Lipunov, V.; Lopez, R. Rebolo; Serra-Ricart, M.; Buckley, D.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kuznetsov, A.; Kornilov, V.; Gress, O.; Zimnukhov, D.; Vladimirov, V.; Vlasenko, D.; Kuvshinov, D.

    2018-01-01

    MASTER-SAAO auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 03h 00m 57.16s -66d 25m 23.1s on 2018-01-11.89176 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 19.2m (mlim=20.1).

  10. OT Clicking - digital and social inclusion of the elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Kátia Vanessa Pinto de Meneses; Patrícia Azevedo Garcia; Carolina Becker Bueno Abreu; Grasielle Tavares Paulin

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The implementation of strategies of digital inclusion and physical, cognitive and social activities has a positive effect on the preservation of the physical and cognitive abilities and quality of life of the elderly. Objective: To report the experience of establishing and developing a university extension project called “OT Clicking”, describing its characteristics, goals, and academic and community contributions. Method: The “OT Clicking” project was created in 201...

  11. OT promotes closer interpersonal distance among highly empathic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Anat; Mankuta, David; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G

    2015-01-01

    The space between people, or 'interpersonal distance', creates and defines the dynamics of social interactions and is a salient cue signaling responsiveness and feeling comfortable. This distance is implicit yet clearly felt, especially if someone stands closer or farther away than expected. Increasing evidence suggests that Oxytocin (OT) serves as a social hormone in humans, and that one of its roles may be to alter the perceptual salience of social cues. Considering that empathic ability may shape the way individuals process social stimuli, we predicted that OT will differentially affect preferred interpersonal distance depending on individual differences in empathy. Participants took part in two interpersonal distance experiments: In the first, they had to stop a (computer visualized) protagonist when feeling most comfortable; in the second, they were asked to choose the room in which they would later discuss intimate topics with another. Both experiments revealed an interaction between the effect of OT and empathy level. Among highly empathic individuals, OT promoted the choice of closer interpersonal distances. Yet, OT had an opposite effect on individuals with low empathic traits. We conclude that the enhancement of social cues following OT administration may have opposite effects on individuals with different empathic abilities. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. A new assessment method of outdoor tobacco smoke (OTS) exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyeri; Lee, Kiyoung

    2014-04-01

    Outdoor tobacco smoke (OTS) is concerned due to potential health effects. An assessment method of OTS exposure is needed to determine effects of OTS and validate outdoor smoking policies. The objective of this study was to develop a new method to assess OTS exposure. This study was conducted at 100 bus stops including 50 centerline bus stops and 50 roadside bus stops in Seoul, Korea. Using real-time aerosol monitor, PM2.5 was measured for 30 min at each bus stop in two seasons. ‘Peak analysis' method was developed to assess short term PM2.5 exposure by OTS. The 30-min average PM2.5 exposure at each bus stop was associated with season and bus stop location but not smoking activity. The PM2.5 peak occurrence rate by the peak analysis method was significantly associated with season, bus stop location, observed smoking occurrence, and the number of buses servicing a route. The PM2.5 peak concentration was significantly associated with season, smoking occurrence, and the number of buses servicing a route. When a smoker was standing still at the bus stop, magnitude of peak concentrations were significantly higher than when the smoker walking-through the bus stop. People were exposed to high short-term PM2.5 peak levels at bus stops, and the magnitude of peak concentrations were highest when a smoker was located close to the monitor. The magnitude of peak concentration was a good indicator helped distinguish nearby OTS exposure. Further research using ‘peak analysis' is needed to measure smoking-related exposure to PM2.5 in other outdoor locations.

  13. Recent optical activity of the blazar OT 355

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachev, R.; Kurtenkov, A.; Nikolov, Y.; Spassov, B.; Boeva, S.; Latev, G.; Dimitrova, R. V. Munoz

    2017-06-01

    The Flat Spectrum Radio Quasar OT 355 (also known as 7C 173240.70+385949.00, z=0.975) was typically observed to be in the optical between 16th and 21th magnitude (CRTS, http://nesssi.cacr.caltech.edu/catalina/20011332/113321380764100137p.html).

  14. Erlang loss bounds for OT-ICU systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, N.M.; Kortbeek, Nikky

    2009-01-01

    In hospitals, patients can be rejected at both the operating theater (OT) and the intensive care unit (ICU) due to limited ICU capacity. The corresponding ICU rejection probability is an important service factor for hospitals. Rejection of an ICU request may lead to health deterioration for

  15. . rn Press, punished ots Books GENDER, POWER AND POLITICAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ots Books. GENDER, POWER AND POLITICAL LEADERSHIP IN. NIGERIA: Lessons from Selected Plays of. TessOnwueme. Member Euginia George- Genyi. Department of Political Science. Benue State University ..... illiteracy and low level of educational attainment. It is also of a fact that education is a key to development ...

  16. Vitamin K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin K helps your body by making proteins for ... blood clotting. If you don't have enough vitamin K, you may bleed too much. Newborns have ...

  17. Vitamin A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin A plays a role in your Vision Bone growth Reproduction Cell functions Immune system Vitamin A is an antioxidant. It can come from ...

  18. Vitamin C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin C is an antioxidant. It is important for ... promotes healing and helps the body absorb iron. Vitamin C comes from fruits and vegetables. Good sources ...

  19. Vitamin E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin E is an antioxidant. It plays a role ... immune system and metabolic processes. Good sources of vitamin E include Vegetable oils Margarine Nuts and seeds ...

  20. Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin D helps your body absorb calcium. Calcium is ... main building blocks of bone. A lack of vitamin D can lead to bone diseases such as ...

  1. Vitamin E

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heart disease References Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. National Academies Press. Washington, DC, 2000. ...

  2. 12 CFR 516.10 - How does OTS compute time periods under this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... APPLICATION PROCESSING PROCEDURES § 516.10 How does OTS compute time periods under this part? In computing time periods under this part, OTS does not include the day of the act or event that commences the time... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How does OTS compute time periods under this...

  3. 12 CFR 563b.115 - How will OTS review my business plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How will OTS review my business plan? 563b.115... business plan? (a) OTS will review your business plan to determine that it demonstrates a safe and sound... will be determinative. OTS will review every case on its merits. (b) You must file your business plan...

  4. OT - Education for the health services of the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bodil Winther; Sørensen, Annette; Hove, Anne

    OT - Education for the health services of the future This presentation offers knowledge about which qualifications the health services and OT practice in general demand from Occupational Therapists. The study was developed in a wider context of the constant reflection within higher education...... as a result of the rapid pace of change in society. The Faculty of Occupational Therapy in Copenhagen wanted to enable the graduates in the best possible way to meet the employers’ demands as to qualifications. Furthermore, the aim was to develop and guarantee the quality of the educations offered...... which can give guidelines and recommendations for future educational planning. And give some answers to which elements of the education are important to meet these demands? Kvale, Steinar(1997): Interview. En introduktion til det kvalitative forskningsinterview, Hans Reitzels Forlag. By Annette Sørensen...

  5. Vitamin Chart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Vitamin Chart KidsHealth / For Teens / Vitamin Chart Print en español Tabla de las vitaminas Type Benefits Sources Quantity Vitamin A Vitamin A prevents eye problems, promotes a ...

  6. Hydrosoluble vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Jasvinder; Kvarnberg, David

    2014-01-01

    The hydrosoluble vitamins are a group of organic substances that are required by humans in small amounts to prevent disorders of metabolism. Significant progress has been made in our understanding of the biochemical, physiologic and nutritional aspects of the water-soluble vitamins. Deficiency of these particular vitamins, most commonly due to inadequate nutrition, can result in disorders of the nervous system. Many of these disorders have been successfully prevented in developed countries; however, they are still common in developing countries. Of the hydrosoluble vitamins, the nervous system depends the most on vitamins B and C (ascorbic acid) for proper functioning. The B group vitamins include thiamin (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2), niacin or niacinamide (vitamin B3), pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), pyridoxine or pyridoxal (vitamin B6) and cobalamin (vitamin B12). Clinical findings depend upon the deficiency of the underlying vitamin; generally, deficiency symptoms are seen from a combination rather than an isolated vitamin deficiency. True hereditary metabolic disorders and serious deficiency-associated diseases are rare and in general limited to particular geographic regions and high-risk groups. Their recognition is truly important as that determines the appropriate therapeutic management. The general availability of vitamins to practically everyone and several national health programs have saved many lives and prevented complications. However, there has been some apprehension for several decades about how harmless generous dosages of these vitamins are. Overt overdosages can cause vitamin toxicity affecting various body systems including the nervous system. Systemically, vitamin toxicity is associated with nonspecific symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and skin rash which are common with any acute or chronic vitamin overdose. At a national level, recommended daily allowances for vitamins become policy statements. Nutrition policy has far

  7. OT Clicking - digital and social inclusion of the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Vanessa Pinto de Meneses

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The implementation of strategies of digital inclusion and physical, cognitive and social activities has a positive effect on the preservation of the physical and cognitive abilities and quality of life of the elderly. Objective: To report the experience of establishing and developing a university extension project called “OT Clicking”, describing its characteristics, goals, and academic and community contributions. Method: The “OT Clicking” project was created in 2011 to promote social and digital inclusion of the elderly by means of computer workshops, cognitive stimulation workshops, hands-on activities, and socialization activities. The activities were developed in a long-term care facility. The elderly were evaluated every six months. Workshops and assessments were performed by students of the occupational therapy course at the University of Brasilia under the guidance of teachers of the physiotherapy and occupational therapy departments. Results: Two hundred and fifty four senior citizens actively attended 11 computer workshops, eight cognitive stimulation workshops, five hands-on activities, and two socialization activities. Teachers, fellow students, and volunteers participated, enabling the development of a research project and conference presentations. The project’s attendance and production suggest that the activities serve the interests of the elderly, bring new perspectives of social participation, and open a field for practice and research. Conclusion: “OT Clicking” is a viable example of extension project which includes teachers, students and the community, configuring a space for learning, socialization, and social and digital inclusion of the elderly, allowing connection between university teaching, research and extension.

  8. MASTER-SAAO: contradictory SN and flaring OT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanutsa, P.; Lipunov, V.; Buckley, D.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Kuznetsov, A.; Kornilov, V.; Gress, O.; Pogrosheva, T.; Shumkov, V.; Vladimirov, V.; Vlasenko, D.; Kuvshinov, D.; Gabovich, A.

    2017-07-01

    MASTER-SAAO auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 03h 42m 50.70s , -01d 52m 28s.7 on 2017-07-01.1753UT with unfiltered (6 images), that contradicts to Ia type detected in ATEL #10240 , ATEL #10225 for ATLAS17dcl ( http://www.supernova.thistlethwaites.com/sn2017/sndate.html ). It is in 8.4"W,20"S of PGC135685 with Btc=15.13, Vgsr=2773 http://leda.univ-lyon1.fr/ledacat.cgi?PGC135685 Spectral observations are required.

  9. Vitamin K

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs)Vitamin K1 might decrease blood sugar. Diabetes medications are also used to lower blood sugar. Taking vitamin K1 along with diabetes medications might cause your blood sugar to go ...

  10. Vitamin C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to stomach upset and diarrhea. Large doses of vitamin C supplementation are not recommended during pregnancy. They can lead ... gov/pubmed/23440782 . Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. National Academies ...

  11. Tools for breeding 'calçots' ( Allium cepa L.), an expanding crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'Calçots', the floral stems of second-year onion resprouts of the 'Ceba Blanca Tardana de Lleida' landrace, have a growing market. Different constraints have prevented the inclusion of sensory attributes in 'calçot' breeding programs. Thus, we aimed to: (i) elaborate a sensory ideotype representing consumers' preferences ...

  12. Short-Term Hα Line Variations in Classical Be Stars: 59 Cyg and OT ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-07-23

    Jul 23, 2009 ... Abstract. We present the optical spectroscopic study of two classical Be stars, 59 Cyg and OT Gem obtained over a period of few months in 2009. We detected a rare triple-peak Hα emission phase in. 59 Cyg and a rapid decrease in the emission strength of Hα in OT Gem, which are used to understand.

  13. B Vitamins

    Science.gov (United States)

    The B vitamins are B1 (thiamine) B2 (riboflavin) B3 (niacin) B5 (pantothenic acid) B6 B7 (biotin) B12 Folic acid ... help form red blood cells. You can get B vitamins from proteins such as fish, poultry, meat, ...

  14. Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thin, and brittle bones, a condition known as rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. Vitamin D is important ... to its active form in the body. In children, vitamin D deficiency causes rickets, a condition in which the bones become soft ...

  15. Consonant harmony in Nilotic: contrastive specifications and Stratal OT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mackenzie

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Through analyses of dental harmony in four Nilotic languages, this paper argues both for contrastive representations and for a stratal version of Optimality Theory. Dholuo, Päri, Shilluk and Anywa all have dental harmony patterns which bar the co-occurrence of dental and alveolar segments. Details of the dental harmony patterning vary between languages and are tied to contrasts in the inventory. In Anywa, harmony is non-structure-preserving and an allophonic dental nasal surfaces in harmonic forms. This pattern can be analyzed in a stratal model of OT but leads to a ranking paradox if only a single level of evaluation is used. Further support for a stratal analysis can be found in the interaction between harmony and consonant mutation processes in the four languages. In Dholuo, harmony applies at the stem level and consonant mutation results in disharmonic surface forms in morphologically complex words. In Anywa, harmony applies later, at the word level, and words formed through consonant mutation must obey the dental harmony restrictions.

  16. Influence of poly3-octylthiophene (P3OT) film thickness and preparation method on photovoltaic performance of hybrid ITO/CdS/P3OT/Au solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenas, M.C. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, UNAM, Solar Materials, Priv.Xochicalco S/N, Temixco 62580, Morelos (Mexico); Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, UNAM, Blvd. Juriquilla 3001, Queretaro 76230 (Mexico); Mendoza, N.; Cortina, Hugo; Hu, Hailin [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, UNAM, Solar Materials, Priv.Xochicalco S/N, Temixco 62580, Morelos (Mexico); Nicho, M.E. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas, UAEM, Av.Universidad 1001, Cuernavaca 62210, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-01-15

    Chemically synthesized poly3-octylthiophene (P3OT) solution was spin-coated (SC) or drop-cast (DC) on cadmium sulfide thin film to form a hybrid junction of transparent conductive glass (indium-tin oxide (ITO))/CdS/P3OT/Au. XRD patterns of DC P3OT films show a couple of peaks at 2{theta} between 8 and 13 . It suggests that a long-range order may exist in the slowly dried DC P3OT films. Optical absorption coefficient spectra of P3OT films exhibit the presence of polaron bands in P3OT films with thickness lower than 700 nm, which indicates that thin P3OT films are susceptible to oxygen doping. The microscopically more ordered DC P3OT films show a coplanar photoconductivity, which was absent in the SC P3OT ones. The effect of P3OT film preparation method and ambient conditions was also notable on the photovoltaic performance of CdS/P3OT-based solar cells. The potential barrier of the CdS/P3OT heterojunctions decreased as the P3OT film thickness reduced from 671 to 106 nm, which was related to the diffusion of oxygen into the polymer film. As the P3OT film thickness increased to more than 1000 nm, the open-circuit voltage (V{sub OC}) reached to around 1 V, close to the value suggested by fitting the current-voltage curves with the Schottky barrier diode model. But at the same time, the short-circuit current density (J{sub SC}) of the same cells is lowered due to the increasing charge recombination effect inside the polymer material. The simple and economic drop-cast preparation method is promising for polymer film deposition in hybrid solar cell fabrication. (author)

  17. Vitamin E

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... loss of central vision in older people, and cataracts are among the most common causes of vision ... E plus other antioxidants (such as vitamin C, selenium , and beta-carotene ) reduced the heart-protective effects ...

  18. Vitamin A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... carotenoid is beta-carotene. Beta-carotene is an antioxidant. Antioxidants protect cells from damage caused by substances called ... A can lead to hyperkeratosis or dry, scaly skin. If you get too much vitamin A, you ...

  19. Cosmeceuticals vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manela-Azulay, Mônica; Bagatin, Ediléia

    2009-01-01

    The term cosmeceutical was created over 25 years ago to define products with active substances that cannot be considered cosmetics or drugs. Cosmeceuticals are increasingly popular, with sales representing one of the largest growing segments of the skin care market. These products are found in many forms, including vitamins, peptides, growth factors, and botanical extracts. Cosmeceuticals that contain topically applied vitamins have an increasing role in skin care.

  20. Wyzwania terapii otępienia w chorobie Alzheimera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Gabryelewicz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Rozpowszechnienie choroby Alzheimera (Alzheimer’s disease, AD, która jest najczęstszą przyczyną otępienia, zaczyna osiągać rozmiary światowej epidemii. Kluczowe znaczenie dla pacjenta i jego rodziny ma wczesne, prawidłowe rozpoznanie choroby z możliwością uzyskania szybkiej, profesjonalnej pomocy i optymalnego leczenia farmakologicznego i niefarmakologicznego. Wciąż brakuje skutecznego leczenia przyczynowego, które mogłoby zapobiegać rozwojowi procesu chorobowego lub skutecznie go zahamować. Metody niefarmakologiczne pozwalają opóźnić manifestację kliniczną AD i łagodzić jej przebieg. Z kolei leki zaaprobowane w terapii AD działają objawowo w trzech obszarach: codziennej aktywności życiowej, behawioralnym i poznawczym. W Polsce dysponujemy trzema lekami o potwierdzonej skuteczności klinicznej. Dwa z nich to inhibitory cholinesteraz (rywastygmina, donepezil, trzeci jest antagonistą receptora NMDA (memantyna. Wymienione leki mogą być stosowane w monoterapii lub w terapii łączonej: inhibitor cholinesteraz i memantyna. Leczenie powinno być prowadzone długoterminowo z okresowym monitorowaniem jego efektów. Zasadą kuracji jest nieprzerwane stosowanie maksymalnej, dobrze tolerowanej terapeutycznej dawki dobowej. Oprócz działania usprawniającego funkcje poznawcze leki stosowane w AD wpływają korzystnie na objawy neuropsychiatryczne. Stosowanie innych leków niż inhibitory cholinesteraz i memantyna nie zostało potwierdzone w badaniach klinicznych i nie jest zalecane w rutynowym leczeniu AD.

  1. OT2_smalhotr_3: Herschel Extreme Lensing Line Observations (HELLO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, S.

    2011-09-01

    We request 59.8 hours of Herschel time to observe 20 normal star-forming galaxies in the [CII] 158 micron and [OI] 63 micron lines. These galaxies lie at high redshift (1OT1, 49 high redshift IR luminous galaxies were approved for spectroscopy, but only two so-called normal galaxies were included. This is an imbalance that should be corrected, to balance Herschel's legacy.

  2. OmniTread OT-4 serpentine robot: new features and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borenstein, Johann; Hansen, Malik

    2007-04-01

    Serpentine robots are slender, multi-segmented vehicles designed to provide greater mobility than conventional wheeled or tracked robots. Serpentine robots are thus ideally suited for urban search and rescue, military intelligence gathering, and for surveillance and inspection tasks in hazardous and hard-to-reach environments. One such serpentine robot, developed at the University of Michigan, is the "OmniTread OT-4." The OT-4 comprises seven segments, which are linked to each other by 2-degree-of-freedom joints. The OT-4 can climb over obstacles that are much higher than the robot itself, propel itself inside pipes of different diameters, and traverse even the most difficult terrain, such as rocks or the rubble of a collapsed structure. The foremost and unique design characteristic of the OT-4 is the use of pneumatic bellows to actuate the joints. These bellows allow simultaneous control of position and stiffness for each joint. Controllable stiffness is of crucial importance in serpentine robots, which require stiff joints to cross gaps and compliant joints to conform to rough terrain for effective propulsion. Another unique feature of the OmniTread design is the maximal coverage of all four sides with driven tracks. This design makes the robot indifferent to roll-overs, which are happen frequently when the slender bodies of serpentine robots travel over rugged terrain. This paper describes the OmniTread concept as well as its latest technical features, and an extensive Experiment Results Section documents the abilities of the OT-4.

  3. Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... iscd.org/documents/2014/10/nof-clin-guidelines.pdf . Accessed May 5, 2017. Salwen MJ. Vitamins and trace elements. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods . 23rd ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017: ...

  4. Octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS-coated ionic liquid drops: Micro-reactors for homogenous catalytic reactions at designated interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoning Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An ionic liquid (IL, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim]Cl can assemble on prefabricated carboxylic acid–terminated chemical patterns on octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS film. The chemical pattern controls the position, shape and size of the IL on the surface. After the IL assembly – by incubating IL drops assembled on sample surface in an OTS silane vapor – an OTS layer was coated on the IL drop surface which encapsulated the IL drop. The OTS-coated capsule can exist stably under aqueous solution. The OTS coating protected the IL drops from being instantaneously dissolved by other solutions. We found that a homogenous catalyst (FeCl3 dissolved in [Bmim]Cl can be assembled together on the chemical patterns and subsequently encapsulated together with [Bmim]Cl by OTS coating. The pinhole defects within the vapor-coated silane layer provide space for the catalyst inside the capsule and reactants outside the capsule to meet and react. When the OTS-coated capsule containing a FeCl3/IL mixture was soaked under H2O2 solution, the Fe3+ ions catalyzed the decomposition reaction of hydrogen peroxide at the vapor-coated OTS-water interface. Since the shape and position of the interface is defined by the underneath chemical pattern, our findings show that the OTS-coated IL drops assembled on chemical patterns can be used as novel micro-reactors. This allows homogenous catalytic reactions to occur at the designated interfaces.

  5. Vitamins, Minerals, and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan G.; Field, Catherine J.; Simpson, J. Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like…

  6. Performance of non-ideal OT-MRC with co-channel interference

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh

    2010-12-01

    This paper studies the effect of non-ideal estimation of channel state information (CSI) on the performance of output-threshold maximal-ratio combining (OT-MRC) diversity scheme in the presence of co-channel interference as well as white noise. The channel fading envelopes are assumed to follow slowly varying flat Rayleigh model. New closed-form expressions for the combined signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) distribution and outage probability performance are presented. Performance comparisons between the conventional MRC and OT-MRC for the system model described above are provided. © 2010 IEEE.

  7. MASTER OT in HI4Pi marked area during Fermi 519133191 inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumkov, V.; Lipunov, V.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kuznetsov, A.; Kornilov, V.; Gress, O.; Pogrosheva, T.; Chazov, V.; Vlasenko, D.; Vladimirov, V.; Gorbunov, I.; Krylov, A.; Kuvshinov, D.; Gabovich, A.

    2017-06-01

    MASTER-Tavrida auto-detection system( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 349171 ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 14h 40m 27.85s +48d 25m 51.2s on 2017-06-14.80883 UT during Fermi trigger 519133191 inspection (GRBtime=17/06/14 11:39:46.66, NoticeTime with Rer.b.=1.86d is 19:06:22UT, RADec(2000)=14 42 50 +47 30 00). The OT unfiltered magnitude is 17.5m (mlimit 19.6m).

  8. Regulation of functional KCNQ1OT1 lncRNA by β-catenin

    OpenAIRE

    Naohiro Sunamura; Takahito Ohira; Miki Kataoka; Daigo Inaoka; Hideyuki Tanabe; Yuji Nakayama; Mitsuo Oshimura; Hiroyuki Kugoh

    2016-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been implicated in many biological processes through epigenetic mechanisms. We previously reported that KCNQ1OT1, an imprinted antisense lncRNA in the human KCNQ1 locus on chromosome 11p15.5, is involved in cis-limited silencing within an imprinted KCNQ1 cluster. Furthermore, aberration of KCNQ1OT1 transcription was observed with a high frequency in colorectal cancers. However, the molecular mechanism of the transcriptional regulation and the functional role...

  9. Regulation of functional KCNQ1OT1 lncRNA by β-catenin.

    OpenAIRE

    SUNAMURA, Naohiro; OHIRA, Takahito; KATAOKA, Miki; INAOKA, Daigo; TANABE, Hideyuki; NAKAYAMA, Yuji; OSHIMURA, Mitsuo; KUGOH, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been implicated in many biological processes through epigenetic mechanisms. We previously reported that KCNQ1OT1, an imprinted antisense lncRNA in the human KCNQ1 locus on chromosome 11p15.5, is involved in cis-limited silencing within an imprinted KCNQ1 cluster. Furthermore, aberration of KCNQ1OT1 transcription was observed with a high frequency in colorectal cancers. However, the molecular mechanism of the transcriptional regulation and the functional role...

  10. Vitamin B6

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food Sources Vitamin B6 is found in: Avocado Banana Legumes (dried beans) Beef and pork Nuts Poultry ... Alternative Names Pyridoxal; Pyridoxine; Pyridoxamine Images Vitamin B6 benefit Vitamin B6 source References Institute of Medicine, Food ...

  11. Vitamin D Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Vitamin D Tests Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Ergocalciferol (Vitamin D 2 ); Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D 3 ); Calcidiol (25- ...

  12. Vitamin Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer can interfere with the metabolism of folate. Vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia risk factors include: Lack ... vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia called pernicious anemia. Vitamin C deficiency anemia risk factors include: Smoking. Smoking ...

  13. Vitamin A blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003570.htm Vitamin A blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The vitamin A test measures the level of vitamin A ...

  14. Vitamin D and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Service Resources Additional Resources About FAQ Contact Vitamin D and Health Table of Contents Vitamin D Deficiency: ... and Colds Risk of Premature Death References Vitamin D Deficiency: A Global Concern If you live north ...

  15. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... E, K, and the B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B- ... vitamin K pills. Water-soluble Vitamins B-3 (niacin): flushing, redness of the skin, upset stomach. B- ...

  16. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... vitamins for a variety of biological processes, including growth, digestion, and nerve function. There are 13 vitamins ... fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E (for children and adolescents) vitamin B-12, iron, folic acid, and vitamins ...

  17. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... vitamins that the body absolutely needs: vitamins A, C, D, E, K, and the B vitamins (thiamine, ... excessive amounts of water-soluble vitamins, like vitamins C and B, are not used by the body ...

  18. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body absolutely needs: vitamins A, C, D, E, K, and the B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic ... your doctor before taking vitamin E or vitamin K pills. Water-soluble Vitamins B-3 (niacin): flushing, ...

  19. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with taking too much of a vitamin. Fat-soluble Vitamins A (retinol, retinal, retinoic acid): Nausea, vomiting, ... taking vitamin E or vitamin K pills. Water-soluble Vitamins B-3 (niacin): flushing, redness of the ...

  20. Squeezing the infinite into the finite : Handling the OT candidate set with Finite State technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biro, Tamas; YliJyra, A; Karttunen, L; Karhumaki, J

    2006-01-01

    Finite State approaches to Optimality Theory have had two goals. The earlier and less ambitious one was to compute the optimal output by compiling a finite state automaton for each underlying representation. Newer approaches aimed at realizing the OT-systems as FS transducers mapping any underlying

  1. Optical Monitoring of OT 546 in 2009 Difu Guo , Shaoming Hu & Xu ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shaoming Hu & Xu Chen. School of Space Science and Physics, Shandong University Weihai,. 180 Cultural West Road, Weihai, Shandong 264209, China. ∗ e-mail: difu@sdu.edu.cn. Abstract. We reported the monitoring results of OT 546 in V, R and I bands, observed on 22 nights from February 16 to July 1 in 2009 at ...

  2. Characterization of an immunodominant cancer-specific O-glycopeptide epitope in murine podoplanin (OTS8)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steentoft, Catharina; Schjoldager, Katrine T; Cló, Emiliano

    2010-01-01

    antibody 237, developed to a spontaneous murine fibrosarcoma, was shown to be directed to murine podoplanin (OTS8) with truncated Tn O-glycans. Our understanding of such cancer-specific auto-antibodies to truncated glycoforms of glycoproteins is limited. Here we have investigated immunogenicity...

  3. 12 CFR 563b.200 - What actions may OTS take on my application?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What actions may OTS take on my application? 563b.200 Section 563b.200 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... sale of shares, and demonstrate that the earnings multiple used is appropriate, including future...

  4. Doktoritööd : [2007, Janis Ešots, Signe Dobelniece

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    29. mail kaitseb Janis Ešots doktoritööd "Mullā Sadrā wujūd õpetus: müstitsismi ja filosoofia süntees"; 11. juunil kaitseb Signe Dobelniece doktoritööd "Kodutus Lätis: põhjused ja lahendused"

  5. "Merging Yoga and Occupational Therapy (MY-OT): A feasibility and pilot study".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Arlene A; Puymbroeck, Marieke Van; Portz, Jennifer D; Atler, Karen E; Fruhauf, Christine A

    2016-10-01

    To examine the feasibility and benefits of the Merging Yoga and Occupational Therapy (MY-OT) intervention. This is the primary analysis of a non-controlled pretest-posttest pilot study to understand the feasibility and impact of MY-OT on balance, balance self-efficacy, and fall risk factor management in people with chronic stroke. University research laboratory. People with chronic stroke were included in the study if they: had sustained a fall or had fear of falling, were able to stand, and hand impaired balance and were at risk for falls (≤46 on the Berg Balance Scale (BBS)). Individuals completed an 8 week intervention that included 16 sessions of both yoga and group occupational therapy (OT). Yoga included physical postures, breathing exercises, and meditation. OT focused on post-stroke fall risk factor management. The BBS was used to assess balance, the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC) was used to measure balance self-efficacy. Five fall risk factor management scales were used. Overall, the intervention was considered feasible, as individuals were able to safely complete the intervention with little attrition and high attendance. Balance improved by 30% (p=0.002). Balance self-efficacy improved by 15% (p=0.034). Each of the five fall risk factor management scales improved, but only two significantly improved (Fall Prevention and Management Questionnaire, 29%, p=0.004 and Fall Prevention Strategy Survey, 42%, p=0.032). The results demonstrate that MY-OT is a potential intervention to improve multiple fall related outcomes for people with stroke. Therapists may consider these interventions for people with stroke, but additional research is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Vitamin B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Vitamin B12 Fact Sheet for Consumers Have a question? ... out more about vitamin B12? Disclaimer What is vitamin B12 and what does it do? Vitamin B12 ...

  7. Vitamin B6

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Vitamin B6 Fact Sheet for Consumers Have a question? ... out more about vitamin B6? Disclaimer What is vitamin B6 and what does it do? Vitamin B6 ...

  8. FATSOLUBLE VITAMINS AND SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novica Bojanić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamins are the cell biocatalysts, indispensable factors in performing the basic body functions. Fat-soluble vitamins are not involved in processes related to musscle contractions and energy expenditure, but they can affect physical performance indirectly because they are important for immune function (vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, antioxidant function (vitamin A, vitamin E or bone methabolism (vitamin D, vitamin K. Currently there are no clear recommendations for increase of fat-solubile vitamins intake in athletes, as well as evidence that athletic performance may be improved due to fat-solubile vitamins supplementation. In a small number of studies, it was shown that an antioxidant effect of beta carotene and vitamin E can prevent muscle damage and facilitate recovery after exercise. Also, athletes who perform the exercises in the halls should be informed about the necessity of sun exposure, as vitamin D is synthesised in the skin. Most athletes are not familiar with their needs for vitamins and trace elements, and take these compounds as supplements without consulting a nutritionist. It is important to emphasize that liposulubile vitamins are deposited in the body and can cause hypervitaminosis and toxic effects if taken in excess. It is indisputable that the lack of any fat-soluble vitamin cause problems in normal physiological processes, but supplementation is generally not required in athlets who have a well-balanced diet.

  9. Facts about Vitamin K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facts about Vitamin K 1 R. Elaine Turner and Wendy J. Dahl 2 FCS8666 Figure 1. Vitamin K is mostly found in vegetables, especially green ... ColognePhotos/iStock/Thinkstock, © ColognePhotos Why do we need vitamin K? Vitamin K is one of the fat- ...

  10. Facts about Vitamin C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facts about Vitamin C 1 Linda B. Bobroff and Isabel Valentín-Oquendo 2 FCS8702 Why do we need vitamin C? Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, has a ... keep body tissues and the immune system healthy. Vitamin C also helps the body absorb iron from ...

  11. PREDICTING PROGNOSTIC VALUE OF OCULAR TRAUMA SCORE (OTS IN AN OPEN GLOBE INJURY IN TERTIARY EYE CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM : To evaluate the prognostic value of OTS in open globe injuries. MATERIAL METHOD : Retrospective analysis of 77 eyes with open globe injuries was done from 01/07/2013 to 31/12/2014. Patients were assigned raw score sum based on initial V/A, and ocular findings then classified into 5 categories for predicting final visual outcome based on ocular Trauma score (OTS. RESULT : We estimated final V/A in 77 cases of open globe injuries (64.93% had raw sc ore between 65.91 (category 3, 4 Six months after the injury, 42.85% patients of categories 1 (raw score 0 - 44 achieved V/A of PL/HM as compared to 17% in OTS study. 16 patients with raw compared to OTS study. We reported comparable visual outcome with OT S study except in category 1 & 2. CONCLUSION: OTS score is valuable in triage, patient counseling and decision making for the management of ocular trauma. We recommend that OTS should be used routinely for open globe injuries as it is a simple guide

  12. Vitamin Supplement - Editorial

    OpenAIRE

    Jakobsen, Jette; Bysted, Anette

    2012-01-01

    This Vitamin Supplement presents some of the main information presented at The First International Vitamin Conference in Copenhagen, May, 2010. The theme of the conference was ‘Vitamins in foods and supplements: Analytical possibilities versus nutritional needs in human research, food databases, and labeling’. All 13 vitamins were represented. Although vitamin D and folate that in recent years have been heavily debated, also were the one in focus and is represented in 8 of the 17 papers inclu...

  13. In a changing society which elements and competencies is needed and demanded in the future OT education?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bodil Winther; Sørensen, Annette

    to plan a curriculum, in order to enable OT graduates to meet employers’ demands in a rapidly changing society •The future OT profession. After 12 years of practising Problem Based Learning (PBL), the Faculty of Occupational Therapy wanted to develop the quality of the OT education offered by Metropolitan...... University College, Copenhagen. The object was to evaluate and develop the pedagogical practice, and to examine if the pedagogical concept prepares the students for the future in the best way possible. To describe the level of education to be achieved in terms of competences and learning outcome, the study...

  14. BA- proposal made in collaboration between students and clinical practitioner at the OT-program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Presentation 24 BA- proposal made in collaboration between students and clinical practitioner at the OT-program Anne Hove (Metropolitan University College, Denmark) At the OT education a key aim is to ensure the students develop their BA-projects in a concrete collaboration with the practice field...... developing a project proposal is a difficult task. We have therefore in the spring of 2014 piloted a new ways of addressing this challenge. We have given students and practitioners the opportunity to develop project proposals in collaboration. I will present the first experiences from the pilot. We will host....... This focus is strengthen through a process where clinical practitioners and students develop in collaboration project proposals to BA-projects. We strongly believe that students learn more with this type of BA-project. In the lecture, I will short describe the learning potential we see in this type of BA...

  15. Towards Reliable E-Government Systems with the OTS/CafeOBJ Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Weiqiang; Ogata, Kazuhiro; Futatsugi, Kokichi

    System implementation for e-Government initiatives should be reliable. Unreliable system implementation could, on the one hand, be insufficient to fulfill basic system requirements, and more seriously on the other hand, break the trust of citizens on governments. The objective of this paper is to advocate the use of formal methods in general, the OTS/CafeOBJ method in particular in this paper, to help develop reliable system implementation for e-Government initiatives. An experiment with the OTS/CafeOBJ method on an e-Government messaging framework proposed for providing citizens with seamless public services is described to back up our advocation. Two previously not well-clarified problems of the framework and their potential harm realized in this experiment are reported, and possible ways of revisions to the framework are suggested as well. The revisions are proved to be sufficient for making the framework satisfy certain desired properties.

  16. Imaging and Analysis of OT1 T Cell Activation on Lipid Bilayers

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Peter Beemiller, Jordan Jacobelli & Matthew Krummel ### Abstract Supported lipid bilayers are frequently used to study cell membrane protein dynamics during immune synapse formation by T cells. Here we describe methods for the imaging and analysis of OT1+ T cell activation and T-cell receptor (TCR) dynamics on lipid bilayers. ### Introduction T cells are activated at immune synapses when TCRs bind agonist ligands on antigen presenting cells (APCs). Glass coverslip...

  17. Clinical Bioequivalence of OT329 SOLIS and ADVAIR DISKUS in Adults with Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longphre, Malinda V; Getz, Elise Burmeister; Fuller, Rick

    2017-02-01

    OT329 SOLIS is a generic candidate for the branded asthma treatment, ADVAIR DISKUS (fluticasone propionate/salmeterol xinafoate), and, as such, the manufacturer is required to provide evidence of clinical "bioequivalence" as a condition for regulatory approval. The objective of the current study was to determine if SOLIS and DISKUS provided bioequivalent improvements in lung function at two time points: Day 1 and Week 4. This study was a randomized, multiple-dose, placebo-controlled, parallel-group design conducted in the United States (NCT02260492) with a 2-week run-in followed by a 4-week treatment period. Consenting patients were randomized to treatment with OT329 SOLIS 100/50, ADVAIR DISKUS 100/50, or placebo. Lung function was measured predose and 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 hours after the first dose to test equivalence of the β-agonist salmeterol component based on FEV1 area under the curve (0-12 h). After 4 weeks of twice-daily dosing, trough (predose) FEV1 was measured to evaluate equivalence of the fluticasone propionate corticosteroid component. Bioequivalence was concluded if the 90% confidence interval (CI) for the ratio of the products fell within 80-125%. Of the 1,524 screened, 879 patients with asthma were randomized to treatment (n = 418 SOLIS, 419 DISKUS, 42 placebo). OT329 SOLIS and ADVAIR DISKUS were bioequivalent at Day 1, with an FEV1 area under the curve (0-12 h) test/reference ratio of 108% (90% CI = 94-122%). Likewise, the products were bioequivalent at Week 4 with a trough FEV1 test/reference ratio of 105% (90% CI = 90-119). Both active treatments were superior to placebo (P bioequivalence of OT329 SOLIS to ADVAIR DISKUS. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02260492).

  18. Vitamin D and allergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gafvelin Guro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing amount of evidence has established that the biologically active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3, possesses immunoregulatory properties. Vitamin D exerts its effects through binding to the nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR, which is expressed by cells of the immune system. Most of the immunological effects mediated by vitamin D-VDR are regulatory, inhibiting adaptive immune responses. It has become apparent that the incidence of vitamin D insufficiency is surprisingly high in the general population. A link between low vitamin D serum levels and the increased prevalence of allergic diseases has been proposed. This possible connection has been investigated in numerous studies on associations between vitamin D serum concentrations and different allergic conditions, as well as studies on the effect of vitamin D supplementation. Although there is some evidence for a protective role of vitamin D in asthma, no consensus on the role of vitamin D in allergic disease has yet been reached. Still, treatment strategies involving vitamin D supplementation to risk groups, combinatorial corticosteroid and vitamin D treatment in asthma and vitamin D as an immunomodulator in allergen specific immunotherapy show promise for the future.

  19. Concentration gradient P3OT/PCBM photovoltaic devices fabricated by thermal interdiffusion of separately spin-cast organic layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, M.; Gopal, A.; Heflin, J.R. [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Davis, R.M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    A series of organic photovoltaic devices consisting of concentration gradients of poly (3-octylthiophene) (P3OT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61} butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) were fabricated by thermally-induced interdiffusion of consecutively spin-cast layers of P3OT and PCBM from solvents of chloroform and pyridine, respectively. The device performance was evaluated as a function of the layer thicknesses, interdiffusion temperature, and interdiffusion time. A maximum power conversion efficiency of 1.0% under AM1.5G simulated solar spectrum was obtained for 70 nm P3OT thickness, 45 nm PCBM thickness, and interdiffusion at 150 C for 20 min. Auger spectroscopy depth profiling measurements indicated that the optimal devices consist of concentration gradients of P3OT and PCBM extending across the entire film in opposite directions. (author)

  20. Computer software design description for the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF), Project L-045H, Operator Training Station (OTS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, R.L. Jr.

    1994-11-07

    The Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) Operator Training Station (OTS) is a computer-based training tool designed to aid plant operations and engineering staff in familiarizing themselves with the TEDF Central Control System (CCS).

  1. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you are pregnant or breastfeeding Vitamin Facts Your body uses vitamins for a variety of biological processes, ... nerve function. There are 13 vitamins that the body absolutely needs: vitamins A, C, D, E, K, ...

  2. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body absolutely needs: vitamins A, C, D, E, K, and the B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, ... magnesium, and vitamins A (as carotenoids), C, and E (for adults) calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin ...

  3. Definitions of Health Terms: Vitamins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/definitions/vitaminsdefinitions.html Definitions of Health Terms: Vitamins To use the sharing features on this page, ... of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements Fat-Soluble Vitamins Fat-soluble vitamins include vitamins A, D, E, ...

  4. Vitamin D: The “sunshine” vitamin

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, Rathish; Maseeh, Arun

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency affects almost 50% of the population worldwide. An estimated 1 billion people worldwide, across all ethnicities and age groups, have a vitamin D deficiency (VDD). This pandemic of hypovitaminosis D can mainly be attributed to lifestyle (for example, reduced outdoor activities) and environmental (for example, air pollution) factors that reduce exposure to sunlight, which is required for ultraviolet-B (UVB)-induced vitamin D production in the skin. High prevalence of vit...

  5. Determination of the minimal clinically important difference on the Australian therapy outcome measures for occupational therapy (AusTOMs-OT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Carolyn Anne; Coulson, Melissa; Swinton, Luchie; Cole, Helen; Sarigiannis, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Outcome measures must be responsive to change (able to show statistically significant change) and must also produce information on the degree of change that is clinically significant, or the minimal clinically important difference (MCID). This research sought to establish the MCID for four domains of the Australian Therapy Outcome Measures for Occupational Therapy (AusTOMs-OT). Using a criterion approach, 30 international clinicians were surveyed about their perceptions of the MCID for AusTOMs-OT. Second, using a distribution-based approach, the MCID was calculated as half of the standard deviation (SD) of the AusTOMs-OT raw scores for a sample of 787 clients. Just over half the clinicians surveyed indicated that a one-point change represented the MCID for AusTOMs-OT for three domains, and 0.5-point change showed MCID for the final domain. The data analysed for the distribution-based calculation indicated that the half SD ranged from 0.51 to 0.61. Using both criterion and distribution-based approaches, this research empirically demonstrated that a change on the four domains of the AusTOMs-OT of between 0.51 and 1 point shows MCID. Considering these findings, and for ease of clinical interpretation, it is recommended that a one-point shift be adopted as the MCID across all domains. The AusTOMs-OT have been previously shown to be valid and reliable outcome measures for use with all client groups across all settings including rehabilitation. So that rehabilitation professionals can interpret outcomes data from AusTOMs-OT, information must be available on the degree of change that is clinically significant (also referred to as the minimal clinically important difference or MCID). Using empirical calculations as well as clinician opinion, it is recommended that a one-point shift be used as the minimal clinically important difference for the AusTOMs-OT.

  6. Vitamins, Are They Safe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Hamishehkar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of a daily multivitamin among people all over the world is dramatically increasing in recent years. Most of the people believe that if vitamins are not effective, at least they are safe. However, the long term health consequences of vitamins consumption are unknown. This study aimed to assess the side effects and possible harmful and detrimental properties of vitamins and to discuss whether vitamins can be used as safe health products or dietary supplements. We performed a MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and Google Scholar search and assessed reference lists of the included studies which were published from 1993 through 2015. The studies, with an emphasis on RCTs (randomized controlled clinical trials, were reviewed. As some vitamins such as fat-soluble vitamins (vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, and also some of the water-soluble vitamins like folic acid may cause adverse events and some like vitamin C is widely taken assuming that it has so many benefits and no harm, we included relevant studies with negative or undesired results regarding the effect of these vitamins on health. Our recommendation is that taking high-dose supplements of vitamins A, E, D, C, and folic acid is not always effective for prevention of disease, and it can even be harmful to the health.

  7. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12 and folate). AAFP cites two categories of vitamins. ... magnesium, and vitamin E (for children and adolescents) vitamin B-12, iron, folic acid, and vitamins E and D ( ...

  8. Vitamin B6

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this effect. Taking a specific supplement containing garlic, amino acids (part of proteins), and vitamins such as folic ... a combination of fatty acids commonly found in fish oil (EPA and DHA) along with B vitamins, ...

  9. Vitamin Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are unique to specific vitamin deficiencies. Folate-deficiency anemia risk factors include: Undergoing hemodialysis for kidney failure. ... the metabolism of folate. Vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia risk factors include: Lack of intrinsic factor. Most ...

  10. Facts about Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... too soft and unable to support their weight (rickets). Adults deficient in vitamin D can develop soft ... and many other parts of the body. Growing children who do not get enough vitamin Current intake ...

  11. [Vitamin D and neurology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouvenot, Éric; Camu, William

    2013-10-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with a higher risk of multiple sclerosis and also with a higher relapse rate as well as a higher number of MRI lesions. Elders with vitamin D deficiency have worse cognitive performance. Vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for developing Alzheimer's disease. Ischemic stroke are more frequent and more severe in patients with low vitamin D levels. Carotid atherosclerosis is more frequent and more severe in patients with vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with a higher risk and worse prognosis of Parkinson's disease. In the different neurological disorders discussed herein, gene polymorphisms that could alter vitamin D metabolism are also associated with a higher incidence or a worse disease prognosis. Despite the links between vitamin D deficiency and the risks of developing neurological disorders, there is, to date, no proof that supplementation could alter the course of these diseases. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  12. Facts about Vitamin A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A? Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin essential to our health. It helps us see normally ... IFAS Extension, Gainesville, FL 32611. The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to ...

  13. Vitamin D and asthma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Sheena D; Calvert, H. Hardie; Fitzpatrick, Anne M

    2012-01-01

    .... Vitamin D is of particular interest in asthma since vitamin D concentrations decrease with increased time spent indoors, decreased exposure to sunlight, less exercise, obesity, and inadequate calcium intake...

  14. Vitamin D Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affect vitamin D metabolism, such as cholestyramine (a cholesterol drug), anti-seizure drugs, glucocorticoids, antifungal drugs, and ... cereals Orange juice Other dairy products, such as yogurt Soy drinks Vitamin D is in many multivitamins. ...

  15. Vitamin D Pooling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers brought together investigators from 10 cohorts to conduct a large prospective epidemiologic study of the association between vitamin D status and seven rarer cancers.

  16. Vitamin D-mangel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosekilde, Leif; Nielsen, Lars Rejnmark; Larsen, Erik Roj

    2005-01-01

    During the last two decades, biochemical assays for 25-hydroxyvitamin D have been available, and based on plasma measurements various definitions of vitamin D deficiency have been suggested. Whereas severe vitamin D deficiency is usually recognised relatively easy, it has been more difficult...... to delimit the more subtle forms of vitamin D insufficiency. Today, a suboptimal vitamin D status is considered to be when the plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D level is below 50 nmol/L. Vitamin D insufficiency is defined as a plasma concentration between 25 and 50 nmol/L, whereas the term deficiency is used...... if the concentration is below 25 nmol/L. An increased bone turnover as well as an increased risk of osteoporotic fractures has been found in subjects with vitamin D insufficiency. In blood donors and in free-living elderly Danes, vitamin D deficiency has been found in 18% and 31%, and vitamin D insufficiency in 42...

  17. Vitamin K and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlberg, Sofia; Ede, Jacob; Schött, Ulf

    2017-12-01

    Subclinical vitamin K deficits refer to carboxylation defects of different types of vitamin K-dependent hepatic and extrahepatic so-called Gla proteins without prolongation of the prothrombin time. This condition has been reported in different clinical situations due to insufficient supply or malabsorption of vitamin K as well as drug interactions. This review discusses the effects of different vitamin K subspecies on tumour growth and the possible anti-tumour effects of increased vitamin K intake. Blocking carboxylation of vitamin K-dependent proteins with warfarin anticoagulation - what are the risks/benefits for carcinogenesis? Previous studies on both heparin and low molecular weight heparin blocking of the vitamin K-dependent factors X and II have shown tumour suppressive effects. Vitamin K has anti-inflammatory effects that could also impact carcinogenesis, but little data exists on this subject.

  18. Vitamins, Are They Safe?

    OpenAIRE

    Hadi Hamishehkar; Farhad Ranjdoost; Parina Asgharian; Ata Mahmoodpoor; Sarvin Sanaie

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of a daily multivitamin among people all over the world is dramatically increasing in recent years. Most of the people believe that if vitamins are not effective, at least they are safe. However, the long term health consequences of vitamins consumption are unknown. This study aimed to assess the side effects and possible harmful and detrimental properties of vitamins and to discuss whether vitamins can be used as safe health products or dietary supplements. We performed a MED...

  19. HYDROSOLUBLE VITAMINS AND SPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Vladmila Bojanić; Jelena Radović; Zoran Bojanić; Marko Lazović

    2011-01-01

    Vitamins are organic substances needed for normal cell functioning in the human body, and therefore human health. People who train sports require an optimal psychophysical performance in order to achieve the best sports results. Athletes’ needs for vitamins may be higher than in general population, also they are taking vitamin supplements more often than other people. Thus, it is very important for them to be familiar with the vitamins’ roles and recommended intake levels.Hydrosoluble vitamin...

  20. Vitamin D – The Vitamin Hormone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vitamin D are rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. These are far from the only problems associated with a vitamin D deficiency. The consequences are numerous and include skeletal diseases, metabolic disorders, cancer, cardiovascular disease, autoimmune diseases, infections, cognitive disorders, and/or.

  1. Further Brightening of MASTER OT J132501.00+431846.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisenko, D.

    2017-06-01

    Large amplitude optical transient MASTER OT J132501.00+431846.1 was discovered by MASTER robotic telescopes network (P. Balanutsa et al., ATel #10470). The following unfiltered magnitude in MASTER system (calibrated against USNO-B1.0 0.2B+0.8R) was reported: 2017-06-05.955 UT 15.4m MASTER-IAC Follow up observations were performed remotely using iTelescope.Net instruments in Nerpio, Spain (T18), Auberry, CA, USA (T24) and Mayhill, NM, USA (T11) under the full Moon conditions.

  2. Rediscovering vitamin D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasr Anaizi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 2 years there has been a radical change in standard clinical practice with respect to vitamin D. As a result of a growing body of knowledgeable physicians are assessing the vitamin D nutritional status of their patients and prescribing aggressive repletion regimens of a vitamin D supplement. The present paper summarizes some basic information about this essential nutrient and reviews some of the more recent data implicating vitamin D deficiency in disease etiology with an emphasis on cardiovascular disease and cancer. Finally a rational approach to the dosing of vitamin D in different patient populations is provided.

  3. Vitamin C and Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemilä, Harri

    2017-01-01

    In the early literature, vitamin C deficiency was associated with pneumonia. After its identification, a number of studies investigated the effects of vitamin C on diverse infections. A total of 148 animal studies indicated that vitamin C may alleviate or prevent infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. The most extensively studied human infection is the common cold. Vitamin C administration does not decrease the average incidence of colds in the general population, yet it halved the number of colds in physically active people. Regularly administered vitamin C has shortened the duration of colds, indicating a biological effect. However, the role of vitamin C in common cold treatment is unclear. Two controlled trials found a statistically significant dose–response, for the duration of common cold symptoms, with up to 6–8 g/day of vitamin C. Thus, the negative findings of some therapeutic common cold studies might be explained by the low doses of 3–4 g/day of vitamin C. Three controlled trials found that vitamin C prevented pneumonia. Two controlled trials found a treatment benefit of vitamin C for pneumonia patients. One controlled trial reported treatment benefits for tetanus patients. The effects of vitamin C against infections should be investigated further. PMID:28353648

  4. [Vitamins and oxidative stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodentsova, V M; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Mazo, V K

    2013-01-01

    The central and local stress limiting systems, including the antioxidant defense system involved in defending the organism at the cellular and systemic levels from excess activation response to stress influence, leading to damaging effects. The development of stress, regardless of its nature [cold, increased physical activity, aging, the development of many pathologies (cardiovascular, neurodegenerative diseases, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, ischemia, the effects of burns), immobilization, hypobaric hypoxia, hyperoxia, radiation effects etc.] leads to a deterioration of the vitamin status (vitamins E, A, C). Damaging effect on the antioxidant defense system is more pronounced compared to the stress response in animals with an isolated deficiency of vitamins C, A, E, B1 or B6 and the combined vitamins deficiency in the diet. Addition missing vitamin or vitamins restores the performance of antioxidant system. Thus, the role of vitamins in adaptation to stressors is evident. However, vitamins C, E and beta-carotene in high doses, significantly higher than the physiological needs of the organism, may be not only antioxidants, but may have also prooxidant properties. Perhaps this explains the lack of positive effects of antioxidant vitamins used in extreme doses for a long time described in some publications. There is no doubt that to justify the current optimal doses of antioxidant vitamins and other dietary antioxidants specially-designed studies, including biochemical testing of initial vitamin and antioxidant status of the organism, as well as monitoring their change over time are required.

  5. Nonclassical Vitamin D Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Zittermann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming increasingly clear that vitamin D has a broad range of actions in the human body. Besides its well-known effects on calcium/phosphate homeostasis, vitamin D influences muscle function, cardiovascular homeostasis, nervous function, and the immune response. Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency has been associated with muscle weakness and a high incidence of various chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, multiple sclerosis, and type 1 and 2 diabetes. Most importantly, low vitamin D status has been found to be an independent predictor of all-cause mortality. Several recent randomized controlled trials support the assumption that vitamin D can improve muscle strength, glucose homeostasis, and cardiovascular risk markers. In addition, vitamin D may reduce cancer incidence and elevated blood pressure. Since the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency is high throughout the world, there is a need to improve vitamin D status in the general adult population. However, the currently recommended daily vitamin D intake of 5–15 µg is too low to achieve an adequate vitamin D status in individuals with only modest skin synthesis. Thus, there is a need to recommend a vitamin D intake that is effective for achieving adequate circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations (>75 nmol/L.

  6. Vitamin C and Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harri Hemilä

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the early literature, vitamin C deficiency was associated with pneumonia. After its identification, a number of studies investigated the effects of vitamin C on diverse infections. A total of 148 animal studies indicated that vitamin C may alleviate or prevent infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. The most extensively studied human infection is the common cold. Vitamin C administration does not decrease the average incidence of colds in the general population, yet it halved the number of colds in physically active people. Regularly administered vitamin C has shortened the duration of colds, indicating a biological effect. However, the role of vitamin C in common cold treatment is unclear. Two controlled trials found a statistically significant dose–response, for the duration of common cold symptoms, with up to 6–8 g/day of vitamin C. Thus, the negative findings of some therapeutic common cold studies might be explained by the low doses of 3–4 g/day of vitamin C. Three controlled trials found that vitamin C prevented pneumonia. Two controlled trials found a treatment benefit of vitamin C for pneumonia patients. One controlled trial reported treatment benefits for tetanus patients. The effects of vitamin C against infections should be investigated further.

  7. Vitamin C and Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemilä, Harri

    2017-03-29

    In the early literature, vitamin C deficiency was associated with pneumonia. After its identification, a number of studies investigated the effects of vitamin C on diverse infections. A total of 148 animal studies indicated that vitamin C may alleviate or prevent infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. The most extensively studied human infection is the common cold. Vitamin C administration does not decrease the average incidence of colds in the general population, yet it halved the number of colds in physically active people. Regularly administered vitamin C has shortened the duration of colds, indicating a biological effect. However, the role of vitamin C in common cold treatment is unclear. Two controlled trials found a statistically significant dose-response, for the duration of common cold symptoms, with up to 6-8 g/day of vitamin C. Thus, the negative findings of some therapeutic common cold studies might be explained by the low doses of 3-4 g/day of vitamin C. Three controlled trials found that vitamin C prevented pneumonia. Two controlled trials found a treatment benefit of vitamin C for pneumonia patients. One controlled trial reported treatment benefits for tetanus patients. The effects of vitamin C against infections should be investigated further.

  8. Vitamin D and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolden-Kirk, Heidi; Overbergh, Lut; Christesen, Henrik Thybo

    2011-01-01

    D supplementation may decrease the risk of these disorders. The protective effects of vitamin D are mediated through the regulation of several components such as the immune system and calcium homeostasis. However, an increasing amount of evidence suggests that vitamin D also affects beta cells...... directly thereby rendering them more resistant to the types of cellular stress encountered during T1D and T2D. This review evaluates the role of vitamin D signaling in the pathogenesis of T1D and T2D with a special emphasis on the direct effects of vitamin D on pancreatic beta cells.......Experimental evidence indicates that vitamin D may play a role in the defense against type 1 diabetes (T1D) as well as type 2 diabetes (T2D). Epidemiological data have established a link between vitamin D deficiency and an increased incidence of both T1D and T2D, whereas early and long-term vitamin...

  9. Organic photovoltaic devices based on graphene as an electron-acceptor material and P3OT as a donor material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haiteng; He, Dawei; Wang, Yongsheng; Liu, Zhiyong; Wu, Hongpeng; Wang, Jigang [Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Optical Information, Ministry of Education, Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing (China)

    2011-10-15

    We present the fabrication and performance studies of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices with bulk heterojunction (BHJ) structure that use organic solution-processable functionalized graphene (SPFGraphene) as an electron-acceptor material and poly(3-octylthiophene) (P3OT) as a donor material. The structural configuration of the device is ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3OT:PCBM-SPFGraphene/LiF/Al. After mixing graphene into the device, the performance enhanced significantly. Given illumination at 100 mW/cm{sup 2} AM1.5 and P3OT/PCBM (1:1) mixture with 9 wt% of SPFGraphene, we recorded the best performances. The open-circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) is 0.67 V. The short-circuit current density (J{sub sc}) is 4.6 mA/cm{sup 2}. The FF is 0.37. And the power conversion efficiency is 1.14%. In the P3OT:PCBM-SPFGraphene composite, the SPFGraphene acts as exciton dissociation sites and provides the transport pathway of LUMO-graphene-Al. Adding SPFGraphene into P3OT produces an appropriate energetic distance between the HOMO and the LUMO of the donor/acceptor, which leads to a high open-circuit voltage. Besides, doping SPFGraphene provides a higher exciton dissociation volume mobility of carrier transport, which leads to a large short-circuit current density. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. The Relationship between Admission Criteria and Fieldwork Performance in a Masters-Level OT Program: Implications for Admissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Bathje MS, OTR/L

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Occupational therapy (OT graduate programs strive to produce an effective OT workforce with competent and engaged OT practitioners. Admission into OT graduate programs is an increasingly competitive process, with most programs having more applicants than spaces available. Programs need to select applicants that will be the most successful in meeting graduation requirements, including both academic and clinical components. This pilot study was designed to examine the relationship between admission criteria and fieldwork (FW performance. The study utilized a retrospective analysis with a convenience sample of 108 students with complete data from a private university in the Midwest. Independent variables of Graduate Record Examination (GRE subscale scores (GRE-verbal, GRE-quantitative, and GRE-written and undergraduate Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA were included. The dependent variable was level II FW performance, as measured by the AOTA Fieldwork Performance Evaluation (FWPE. Results of this study found a significant correlation between CGPA and FWPE scores for level IIA FW experiences, and a significant correlation between GRE-written and FWPE scores for level IIB FW experiences. Regression models for FW IIB indicated that GRE-written was a significant predictor of FWPE scores for the FW IIB experience. This pilot study provides information that may be utilized during OT admission processes.

  11. Solar-energy-system performance evaluation: Honeywell OTS 44, Ocmulgee, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, A. K.; Pederson, S.

    1982-01-01

    The operation and technical performance of the solar operational test site (OTS 44) are described, based on data collected between April, 1981 and August, 1981. The following topics are discussed: system description, performance assessment, operating energy, energy savings, system maintenance, and conclusions. The solar energy system at OTS 44 is a hydronic heating and cooling system consisting of 5040 square feet of liquid cooled flat plate collectors; a 4000 gallon thermal storage tank; one 25 ton capacity organic Rankine cycle engine assisted water chillers; a forced draft cooling tower; and associated piping, pumps, valves, controls and heat rejection equipment. The solar system has eight basic modes of operation and several combination modes for providing space conditioning and hot water to the building. Data monitored during the 4 months of the operational test period found that the solar system collected 285 MMBtu of thermal energy of the total incident solar energy of 1040 MMBtu and provided 210 MMBtu for cooling and 10 MMBtu for heating and hot water. The net electrical energy saving due to the solar system was approximately 2600 kWh(e), and fossil energy saving was about 20 million Btu (MMBtu).

  12. Detection of GRBs and OTs by All-Sky Optical and SID Monitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hudec

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on two alternative simple methods to detect counterparts of cosmic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs and optical transients (OTs. We report on the development and tests of an alternative optical all-sky monitor recently tested at the Karlovy Vary Observatory. The monitor is based on a Peleng 8 mm fish-eye lens (1 : 3,5–1 : 16 and CANON EOS 350D digital CCD camera. This type of monitor represents a low-cost device suitable for easy replication and still able to detect brighter optical transients simultaneously to GRB triggers. Such OTs have been observed for some of the GRBs such as GRB990123, GRB060117, or recently GRB080319 indicating that some fraction of GRBs can generate optical transient emission accessible by simple small aperture instrumentation as described here. These efforts are accompanied by development of dedicated programmes to access and to evaluate all-sky images; these efforts will be also briefly described. The All-Sky Monitor is a space variant optical system and its point spread function (PSF has not uniform shape in the field of view. The processing and measuring of image data is complicated, and sophisticated deconvolution algorithms are used for image restoration. The second method is the GRB detection based on their ionospheric response.

  13. Solar energy system performance evaluation - final report for Honeywell OTS 45, Salt River Project, Phoenix, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathur, A K

    1983-09-01

    This report describes the operation and technical performance of the Solar Operational Test Site (OTS 45) at Salt River Project in Phoenix, Arizona, based on the analysis of data collected between April 1981 and March 31, 1982. The following topics are discussed: system description, performance assessment, operating energy, energy savings, system maintenance, and conclusions. The solar energy system at OTS 45 is a hydronic heating and cooling system consisting of 8208 square feet of liquid-cooled flat-plate collectors; a 2500-gallon thermal storage tank; two 25-ton capacity organic Rankine-cycle-engine-assisted water chillers; a forced-draft cooling tower; and associated piping, pumps, valves, controls and heat rejection equipment. The solar system has eight basic modes of operation and several combination modes. The system operation is controlled automatically by a Honeywell-designed microprocessor-based control system, which also provides diagnostics. Based on the instrumented test data monitored and collected during the 8 months of the Operational Test Period, the solar system collected 1143 MMBtu of thermal energy of the total incident solar energy of 3440 MMBtu and provided 241 MMBtu for cooling and 64 MMBtu for heating. The projected net annual electrical energy savings due to the solar system was approximately 40,000 kWh(e).

  14. Vitamin D and Disease Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have osteoporosis. Severe vitamin D deficiency can cause rickets in children and osteomalacia (“soft” bones) in adults. Yet, vitamin ... vitamin D can become “trapped” in body fat, obesity may cause low vitamin ... likely to affect children and teens with low vitamin D than adults. ...

  15. Pilot randomised controlled trial of occupational therapy to optimise independence in Parkinson's disease: the PD OT trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, C E; Furmston, A; Morgan, E; Patel, S; Sackley, C; Walker, M; Bryan, S; Wheatley, K

    2009-09-01

    To perform a pilot trial of occupational therapy (OT) to optimise functional independence in Parkinson disease (PD) to assess accrual/withdrawal rates, acceptability, outcome measures, and inform sample-size calculation. Non-demented patients with idiopathic PD and difficulties with activities of daily living (ADL) were recruited provided they had not received OT in the last 2 years and/or physiotherapy in the last year. Patients were randomised to immediate OT or OT after completion of the trial. Patients randomised to OT were assessed at home by an experienced therapist and then received six home treatment sessions over 2 months. Interventions were targeted at functional independence and mobility goals. Outcome measures were: Nottingham Extended Activity of Daily Living Scale, Rivermead Mobility Index, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale ADL scale, Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire 39, EuroQol-EQ-5D, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and health economics analysis. 39 patients (25 male; mean age 73 years) were recruited from four centres over 16 months. The mean difference in NEADL at 8 months was 3.5 (95% CI -3.2 to 10.2). The mean difference in PDQ-39 Summary Score was 3.8 (95% CI -4.94 to 12.6). There were strong correlations between the PDQ-39 and other outcomes. The intervention was acceptable to patients, with a low withdrawal rate and good questionnaire completion. Randomisation to a trial of OT in PD is feasible. NEADL and PDQ-39 are relevant outcomes and provided data to inform sample size for an adequately powered randomised trial for which there is pressing need.

  16. Importance of the N-terminal proline for the promiscuous activity of 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase (4-OT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazić Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Michael addition of aldehydes to nitroolefins is an effective method to obtain useful chiral γ-nitroaldehydes. γ-Nitroaldehydes are precursors for chiral γ-aminobytiric acid analogues which have numerous pharmacological activities and are used for treatment of neurological disorders. A whole-cell system based on recombinantly expressed 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase (4-OT has been developed and shown to be an effective biocatalyst for Michael addition of branched aldehydes to β-nitrostyrenes. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the substitution of the N-terminal proline with lysine and arginine both containing the reactive ε-amino group, on the Michael addition catalyzed by 4-OT. Firstly, the effect of these mutations was examined by in silico analysis, followed by generation of three terminal ly-sine mutants. The generated mutants, 4-OT_K, 4-OT_PK and 4-OT_KK were tested for the ability to utilise β-nitrostyrene (1, (E-2-(thiophene-2-ylnitroethen (2 and p-chloro-trans-β-nitrostyrene (3 as Michael acceptors with isobutanal as the donor. For comparison, the lithium salt of lysine was used in the same organocatalytic reactions. In general, the introduction of lysine had a negative effect on Michael additions based on overall product yields. However, additional lysine residues at the N-terminus of the protein resulted in structural changes that enhanced the activity towards 2 and 3. Therefore, the N-terminal proline is important for the 4-OT catalysed Michael-additons, but it is not essential. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173048 i br. 172002

  17. Vitamin K: an old vitamin in a new perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Gröber, U; Reichrath, J; Holick, MF; Kisters, K

    2015-01-01

    The topic of “Vitamin K” is currently booming on the health products market. Vitamin K is known to be important for blood coagulation. Current research increasingly indicates that the antihaemorrhagic vitamin has a considerable benefit in the prevention and treatment of bone and vascular disease. Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) is more abundant in foods but less bioactive than the vitamin K2 menaquinones (especially MK-7, menaquinone-7). Vitamin K compounds undergo oxidation-reduction cycling with...

  18. Vitamin D and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Robert H

    2011-02-01

    Vitamin D is an essential nutrient proven to be important for bone health. It has other physiological functions, and there are plausible reasons for investigating vitamin D in depressive disorders. Some cross-sectional clinical and epidemiologic studies, but not all studies, have found that low levels of vitamin D are significantly associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms or with a depression diagnosis. However, cross-sectional studies cannot establish causality, and the methodology of these studies has been criticized. Due to the poor quality of the treatment studies, the effectiveness of vitamin D for depression cannot be adequately assessed. Current evidence does not definitively demonstrate that vitamin D deficiency is a cause of or risk for developing depression or that vitamin D is an effective therapy for depression. Copyright © 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Vitamine K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal dit Sollier Claire

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Subclasses of vitamin K, their origins, their differential characteristics of absorption and metabolism, their relative effects on gammacarboxylation of various proteins implicated in hemostasis andcoagulation, in bone calcification are not well known even by experts in these fields. These misunderstandings explain errors in recommendations for public and for patients. This review will not expose again the fundamentals on vitamins K as presented in the paper by Marc Guillaumont published in 2000 in this same journal. This 2011 review will try to update our actual knowledge and most of all will insist on their practical implications especially on the management of oral anticoagulant treatments since until recently vitamin K antagonist was the only available type of such a treatment. Several examples illustrate the need for a better understanding of this subject. The fear that diet vitamin K could deregulate the equilibrium of oral vitamin K antagonist treatment leads to recommend a quite total suppression of vitamin K containing components in the diet of anticoagulated patients. This leads to an opposite effect: a high sensitivity to vitamin K and to disequilibrium of the anticoagulant treatment while a comprehensivemoderate and regular diet intake of vitamin K first facilitates the food choice of the patients but also helps to stabilise the treatment of chronically anticoagulated patients. Vitamin K plays a role in bone calcification and in osteoporosis prevention. Until recently the food supplementation with vitamin K in view of preventing osteoporosis in general population was strongly limited due to fear to affect the treatment equilibrium in anticoagulated patients. While an understanding that the effects of moderate supplementation in vitamin K has no or limited effect on anticoagulation and on the long run could at the opposite help to stabilize the daily level of anticoagulation in patients chronically treated with vitamin K.

  20. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E (for children and adolescents) vitamin B-12, iron, folic acid, and vitamins ... some medical tests or interfere with how some drugs work. Report Problems If you believe that you ...

  1. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E (for children and adolescents) vitamin B-12, iron, folic acid, and vitamins ... If you are an older adult, have dark skin, or are exposed to insufficient ultraviolet band radiation ( ...

  2. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E (for children and adolescents) vitamin B-12, iron, folic acid, and vitamins ... Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Alimentos ...

  3. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or vegan diet if you are pregnant or breastfeeding Vitamin Facts Your body uses vitamins for a variety of biological processes, including growth, digestion, and nerve function. There are 13 vitamins ...

  4. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from vitamin D-fortified foods and/or supplements. How Vitamins are Regulated Vitamin products are regulated by ... problems with some medical tests or interfere with how some drugs work. Report Problems If you believe ...

  5. Vitamin D and Disease Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that the body converts to a hormone. The skin makes vitamin D after exposure to sunlight. We also absorb vitamin D from certain foods, such as dairy products and certain oily fish, such as salmon, mackerel, and sardines. Vitamin ...

  6. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E (for children and adolescents) vitamin B-12, iron, folic acid, and vitamins ... Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos on ...

  7. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and the B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12 and ... into the body with the use of bile acids, which are fluids used to absorb fat. The ...

  8. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... before taking vitamin E or vitamin K pills. Water-soluble Vitamins B-3 (niacin): flushing, redness of ... Dietary Supplements Protect Your Health Joint FDA/WebMD resource Dietary Reference Intakes: A Risk Assessment Model for ...

  9. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of concern. These nutrients are: calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamins A (as carotenoids), C, and E (for adults) calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E (for children and adolescents) vitamin ...

  10. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E (for children and adolescents) vitamin B-12, iron, folic acid, and vitamins ... a woman of childbearing age who may become pregnant, eat foods high in heme-iron and/or ...

  11. Vitamin D and Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamzam Paknahad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, hypertension is one of the most important causes of death all over the world because of its adverse effects on cardiovascular system. For this reason its study is very valuable. Vitamin D is one of the important factors that may influence blood pressure. Many studies have shown the modulatory effect of this vitamin on rennin-angiotensin system as well as its inhibitory effect on vascular smooth muscle hypertrophy. According to the fact that vitamin receptors are distributed in almost all organs of human body, we can't consider its role just as factor in calcium homeostasis. Therefore many other important roles could be attributed to it. So vitamin D deficiency could arise many problems. There are many causes for vitamin D deficiency. The most important is insufficient exposure to UV-B. In epidemiological studies the vitamin D deficiency is considered to be associated with high blood pressure, as emphasized in many cross-sectional studies. Concerning the cohort prospective studies, the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and hypertension is reported in some cases. The interventional studies about the association between vitamin D and hypertension are not many and the results are different or contradictory. Controversial results might be due to differences in dose of supplements or duration of supplement therapy. The aim of this systematic review is to assess the researches about the association between vitamin D deficiency and hypertension and discuss the power of them. This can be helpful to lighten the path to prospective investigations.

  12. Vitamin D and sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Hariri Ahari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D receptors are located in body tissues and cells.  In various physiological processes of the body the primary circulating form of vitamin D, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, will become the active form, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, through many enzymatic. Although different functions of vitamin D has been identified, reducing the possibility of several chronic diseases, including common cancers, autoimmune, infectious, and cardiovascular diseases is proposed as the major role of this component. According to various experimental and clinical studies, vitamin D affects the immune system activity. In this review we study the possible effects of vitamin D on sepsis. The purpose of this review is to evaluate and summarize the role of vitamin D in the immune system, with particular focus on infections and sepsis. We studied different areas related to vitamin D in the literature review including its roles sepsis and infection incidence, as well as seasonal and racial variation in sepsis. Based on evidence, vitamin D positively affects the immune system, so it might act as a therapeutic strategy. Despite several experimental studies which demonstrated the beneficial effects of vitamin D on improved functioning of the immune system, its association with prevention or management of infections and sepsis is not revealed through clinical investigations.

  13. Vitamin D-mangel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hey, Henrik; Schmedes, Anne; Horn, Peer

    2009-01-01

    The importance of vitamin D for osteoporosis and fractures has been known for more than 40 years. Vitamin D deficiency is diagnosed by measuring 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), which should be > 50 nmol/l year round. Recent research suggests that a number of severe diseases could be prevented...... by increasing 25-OHD to 80 nmol/l. Despite a strong focus on such increase, recommendations for intake of Vitamin D have not been changed and the present recommendations are too low even to ensure > 50 nmol/l. To achieve optimal concentrations > 80 nmol/l, we estimate that 50-70 microgram of vitamin D per day...

  14. Trehalose-6-Phosphate-Mediated Toxicity Determines Essentiality of OtsB2 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis In Vitro and in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Korte

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Trehalose biosynthesis is considered an attractive target for the development of antimicrobials against fungal, helminthic and bacterial pathogens including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The most common biosynthetic route involves trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P synthase OtsA and T6P phosphatase OtsB that generate trehalose from ADP/UDP-glucose and glucose-6-phosphate. In order to assess the drug target potential of T6P phosphatase, we generated a conditional mutant of M. tuberculosis allowing the regulated gene silencing of the T6P phosphatase gene otsB2. We found that otsB2 is essential for growth of M. tuberculosis in vitro as well as for the acute infection phase in mice following aerosol infection. By contrast, otsB2 is not essential for the chronic infection phase in mice, highlighting the substantial remodelling of trehalose metabolism during infection by M. tuberculosis. Blocking OtsB2 resulted in the accumulation of its substrate T6P, which appears to be toxic, leading to the self-poisoning of cells. Accordingly, blocking T6P production in a ΔotsA mutant abrogated otsB2 essentiality. T6P accumulation elicited a global upregulation of more than 800 genes, which might result from an increase in RNA stability implied by the enhanced neutralization of toxins exhibiting ribonuclease activity. Surprisingly, overlap with the stress response caused by the accumulation of another toxic sugar phosphate molecule, maltose-1-phosphate, was minimal. A genome-wide screen for synthetic lethal interactions with otsA identified numerous genes, revealing additional potential drug targets synergistic with OtsB2 suitable for combination therapies that would minimize the emergence of resistance to OtsB2 inhibitors.

  15. Entraining IDyOT: timing in the information dynamics of thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Forth

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel hypothetical account of entrainment in music and language, in context of the Information Dynamics of Thinking model, IDyOT. The extended model affords an alternative view of entrainment, and its companion term, pulse, from earlier accounts. The model is based on hiearchical, statistical prediction, modeling expectations of both what an event will be and when it will happen. As such,it constitutes a kind of predictive coding, with a particular novel hypothetical implementation. Here, we focus on the model’s mechanism for predicting when a perceptual event will happen, given an existing sequence of past events, which maybe musical or linguistic. We propose a range of tests to validate or falsify the model, at various different levels of abstraction, and argue that computational modelling in particular, and this model in particular, can offer a means of providing limited but useful evidence for evolutionary hypotheses.

  16. Aerosol-OT micelles in Sephadex gels for concentrating metal-dithizone chelates from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saitoh, Tohru [Department of Molecular Design and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)]. E-mail: saitoh@numse.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Hattori, Kazuki [Department of Molecular Design and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Hiraide, Masataka [Department of Molecular Design and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2005-07-06

    Anionic surfactants, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and di-2-ethylhexyl sodium sulfosuccinate (Aerosol-OT, AOT), were incorporated into a hydrated macroreticular anion-exchanger such as a DEAE- or QAE-Sephadex A-25 gel. The observation of fluorescence spectra of N-phenyl-1-naphthlamine indicated the formation of the surfactant micelles in gels. The hydrophobicity of the micelles corresponded to octanol, tetrahydrofuran, or ethyl acetate. A hydrophobic chelating agent, dithizone (1,5-diphenylthiocarbazone), and its metal chelates were incorporated into the Sephadex gels. The complex formation with dithizone and the subsequent adsorption on Sephadex gels required 10 min. The metals collected in gels were desorbed with 8 M nitric acid. As a result of 300-fold concentrations, traces of heavy metal ions at ng l{sup -1} levels in river water were successfully determined by graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

  17. Sunlight and Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, Matthias; Holick, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D is the sunshine vitamin that has been produced on this earth for more than 500 million years. During exposure to sunlight 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin absorbs UV B radiation and is converted to previtamin D3 which in turn isomerizes into vitamin D3. Previtamin D3 and vitamin D3 also absorb UV B radiation and are converted into a variety of photoproducts some of which have unique biologic properties. Sun induced vitamin D synthesis is greatly influenced by season, time of day, latitude, altitude, air pollution, skin pigmentation, sunscreen use, passing through glass and plastic, and aging. Vitamin D is metabolized sequentially in the liver and kidneys into 25-hydroxyvitamin D which is a major circulating form and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D which is the biologically active form respectively. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D plays an important role in regulating calcium and phosphate metabolism for maintenance of metabolic functions and for skeletal health. Most cells and organs in the body have a vitamin D receptor and many cells and organs are able to produce 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. As a result 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D influences a large number of biologic pathways which may help explain association studies relating vitamin D deficiency and living at higher latitudes with increased risk for many chronic diseases including autoimmune diseases, some cancers, cardiovascular disease, infectious disease, schizophrenia and type 2 diabetes. A three-part strategy of increasing food fortification programs with vitamin D, sensible sun exposure recommendations and encouraging ingestion of a vitamin D supplement when needed should be implemented to prevent global vitamin D deficiency and its negative health consequences. PMID:24494042

  18. Vitamin E Nicotinate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimbell R. Duncan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin E refers to a family of compounds that function as lipid-soluble antioxidants capable of preventing lipid peroxidation. Naturally occurring forms of vitamin E include tocopherols and tocotrienols. Vitamin E in dietary supplements and fortified foods is often an esterified form of α-tocopherol, the most common esters being acetate and succinate. The vitamin E esters are hydrolyzed and converted into free α-tocopherol prior to absorption in the intestinal tract. Because its functions are relevant to many chronic diseases, vitamin E has been extensively studied in respect to a variety of diseases as well as cosmetic applications. The forms of vitamin E most studied are natural α-tocopherol and the esters α-tocopheryl acetate and α-tocopheryl succinate. A small number of studies include or focus on another ester form, α-tocopheryl nicotinate, an ester of vitamin E and niacin. Some of these studies raise the possibility of differences in metabolism and in efficacy between vitamin E nicotinate and other forms of vitamin E. Recently, through metabolomics studies, we identified that α-tocopheryl nicotinate occurs endogenously in the heart and that its level is dramatically decreased in heart failure, indicating the possible biological importance of this vitamin E ester. Since knowledge about vitamin E nicotinate is not readily available in the literature, the purpose of this review is to summarize and evaluate published reports, specifically with respect to α-tocopheryl nicotinate with an emphasis on the differences from natural α-tocopherol or α-tocopheryl acetate.

  19. Solar energy system performance evaluation: final report for Honeywell OTS 41, Shenandoah (Newnan), Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathur, A K; Pederson, S

    1982-08-01

    The operation and technical performance of the Solar Operational Test Site (OTS 41) located at Shenandoah, Georgia, are described, based on the analysis of data collected between January and August 1981. The following topics are discussed: system description, performance assessment, operating energy, energy savings, system maintenance, and conclusions. The solar energy system at OTS 41 is a hydronic heating and cooling system consisting of 702 square feet of liquid-cooled flat-plate collectors; a 1000-gallon thermal storage tank; a 3-ton capacity organic Rankine-cycle-engine-assisted air conditioner; a water-to-air heat exchanger for solar space heating; a finned-tube coil immersed in the storage tank to preheat water for a gas-fired hot water heater; and associated piping, pumps, valves, and controls. The solar system has six basic modes of operation and several combination modes. The system operation is controlled automatically by a Honeywell-designed microprocessor-based control system, which also provides diagnostics. Based on the instrumented test data monitored and collected during the 7 months of the Operational Test Period, the solar system collected 53 MMBtu of thermal energy of the total incident solar energy of 219 MMBtu and provided 11.4 MMBtu for cooling, 8.6 MMBtu for heating, and 8.1 MMBtu for domestic hot water. The projected net annual energy savings due to the solar system were approximately 50 MMBtu of fossil energy (49,300 cubic feet of natural gas) and a loss of 280 kWh(e) of electrical energy.

  20. Vitamins and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that they're packed with vitamins and minerals. Sports drinks claim they can rev up your flagging energy ... Vitamin D Figuring Out Fat and Calories Energy Drinks and Food Bars: Power or Hype? Vegan Food Guide Sports Supplements Food Labels Smart Snacking Calcium View more ...

  1. Riboflavin : A multifunctional vitamin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Souza, ACS; Ferreira, CV; Juca, MB; Aoyama, H; Cavagis, ADM; Peppelenbosch, MP

    2005-01-01

    Riboflavin, a component of the B-2 vitaminic complex, plays important roles in biochemistry, especially in redox reactions, due to the ability to participate in both one- and two-electron transfers as well as acting as a photosensitizer. Accordingly, low intakes of this vitamin have been associated

  2. Rediscovering vitamin D

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-11-08

    Nov 8, 2010 ... as rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. In the. 1940s it became mandatory in the United States to fortify milk with vitamin D3, which resulted in a dramatic decline in the incidence of rickets. Consequently, most of the early research focused on the role of vitamin D in regulating calcium balance ...

  3. Vitamin E and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dying from prostate cancer—than men given a placebo. Vitamin E’s protective effect was strongest for men whose cancers were far ... al. The SU.VI.MAX Study: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the health effects of antioxidant vitamins and minerals. Arch Intern Med . ...

  4. Vitamin B12 deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin B12 (B12; also known as cobalamin) is a B vitamin that has an important role in cellular metabolism, especially in DNA synthesis, methylation and mitochondrial metabolism. Clinical B12 deficiency with classic haematological and neurological manifestations is relatively uncommon. However, sub...

  5. Maternal vitamin D deficiency

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2017-05-01

    May 1, 2017 ... ABSTRACT. BACKGROUND: A rare but reversible cause of dilated cardiomyopathy occurs in infants born to vitamin D deficient mothers due to hypocalcaemia. CASE REPORT: We report a case of dilated cardiomyopathy due to hypocalcaemia secondary to maternal vitamin D deficiency in an.

  6. Ervaringsleerprojecten in de ambulante justitiële sector : de Elan basistraining voor ots-pupillen, een verkenning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaan, E.C.

    1995-01-01

    Sinds een aantal jaren organiseert Elan Training te Ulvenhout een zogenaamde basistraining voor ots-pupillen. De training, die vier weken duurt, bestaat uit een outward-boundgedeelte (een lange looptocht, bergbeklimmen, solobivak, een struintocht) en een intern gedeelte in Ulvenhout, waarbij de

  7. Allele-specific repression of Sox2 through the long non-coding RNA Sox2ot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messemaker, T.C. (Tobias); Leeuwen, S.M. (Selina) van; Berg, P.R. (Patrick) van den; Jong, A.E.J.T. (Anke E.J.T.); R.-J.T.S. Palstra (Robert-Jan); R.C. Hoeben (Rob); S. Semrau (Stefan); H. Mikkers (H.)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractThe transcription factor Sox2 controls the fate of pluripotent stem cells and neural stem cells. This gatekeeper function requires well-regulated Sox2 levels. We postulated that Sox2 regulation is partially controlled by the Sox2 overlapping long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) gene Sox2ot. Here

  8. Emerging role of long non-coding RNA SOX2OT in SOX2 regulation in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan E Askarian-Amiri

    Full Text Available The transcription factor SOX2 is essential for maintaining pluripotency in a variety of stem cells. It has important functions during embryonic development, is involved in cancer stem cell maintenance, and is often deregulated in cancer. The mechanism of SOX2 regulation has yet to be clarified, but the SOX2 gene lies in an intron of a long multi-exon non-coding RNA called SOX2 overlapping transcript (SOX2OT. Here, we show that the expression of SOX2 and SOX2OT is concordant in breast cancer, differentially expressed in estrogen receptor positive and negative breast cancer samples and that both are up-regulated in suspension culture conditions that favor growth of stem cell phenotypes. Importantly, ectopic expression of SOX2OT led to an almost 20-fold increase in SOX2 expression, together with a reduced proliferation and increased breast cancer cell anchorage-independent growth. We propose that SOX2OT plays a key role in the induction and/or maintenance of SOX2 expression in breast cancer.

  9. ePESSTO spectroscopic classification of the optical transient MASTER OT J034412.48-263556.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.; Lopez, K. M.; Cannizzaro, G.; Jonker, P. G.; Chen, T.-W.; Fraser, M.; Sollerman, J.; Inserra, C.; Kankare, E.; Maguire, K.; Smartt, S. J.; Smith, K. W.; Sullivan, M.; Valenti, S.; Yaron, O.; Young, D.; Manulis, I.; Tonry, J.; Stalder, B.; Denneau, L.; Heinze, A.; Weiland, H.; Rest, A.

    2017-11-01

    ePESSTO, the extended Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey for Transient Objects (see Smartt et al. 2015, A & A, 579, 40 http://www.pessto.org), reports the classification of MASTER OT J034412.48-263556.5 as a supernova.

  10. 12 CFR 502.26 - How does OTS calculate the semi-annual assessment for savings and loan holding companies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-site supervision of a noncomplex, low risk savings and loan holding company structure. OTS will... savings and loan holding companies: a component based on the risk or complexity of the savings and loan... assessment for savings and loan holding companies? 502.26 Section 502.26 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT...

  11. 12 CFR 516.220 - If OTS requests additional information to complete my application, how will it process my...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... process my application? (a) You may use the following chart to determine the procedure that applies to... complete my application, how will it process my application? 516.220 Section 516.220 Banks and Banking... application is materially deficient * * * OTS will not process your application. (iv) Take no action within 15...

  12. Vitamin D – The vitamin hormone | Muntingh | South African Family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that plays an important role in bone metabolism and seems to have some anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating properties. For most people sunlight is the most important source of vitamin D. The time required to make sufficient vitamin D varies according to a number of environmental, ...

  13. Vitamins as hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichrath, J; Lehmann, B; Carlberg, C; Varani, J; Zouboulis, C C

    2007-02-01

    Vitamins A and D are the first group of substances that have been reported to exhibit properties of skin hormones, such as organized metabolism, activation, inactivation, and elimination in specialized cells of the tissue, exertion of biological activity, and release in the circulation. Vitamin A and its two important metabolites, retinaldehyde and retinoic acids, are fat-soluble unsaturated isoprenoids necessary for growth, differentiation and maintenance of epithelial tissues, and also for reproduction. In a reversible process, vitamin A is oxidized IN VIVO to give retinaldehyde, which is important for vision. The dramatic effects of vitamin A analogues on embryogenesis have been studied by animal experiments; the clinical malformation pattern in humans is known. Retinoic acids are major oxidative metabolites of vitamin A and can substitute for it in vitamin A-deficient animals in growth promotion and epithelial differentiation. Natural vitamin A metabolites are vitamins, because vitamin A is not synthesized in the body and must be derived from carotenoids in the diet. On the other hand, retinoids are also hormones - with intracrine activity - because retinol is transformed in the cells into molecules that bind to and activate specific nuclear receptors, exhibit their function, and are subsequently inactivated. The mechanisms of action of natural vitamin A metabolites on human skin are based on the time- and dose-dependent influence of morphogenesis, epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation, epithelial and mesenchymal synthetic performance, immune modulation, stimulation of angiogenesis and inhibition of carcinogenesis. As drugs, vitamin A and its natural metabolites have been approved for the topical and systemic treatment of mild to moderate and severe, recalcitrant acne, photoaging and biologic skin aging, acute promyelocytic leukaemia and Kaposi's sarcoma. On the other hand, the critical importance of the skin for the human body's vitamin D endocrine

  14. Effect of Ozone Therapy (OT) on Healing of Colonic Anastomosis in a Rat Model of Peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erginel, Başak; Erginel, Turgay; Aksoy, Bilgin; Dokucu, Ali İhsan

    2014-09-01

    Ozone is a three-oxygen molecule (O3). Ozone therapy (OT) is systematically effective when pathological inflammatory and immunologic processes are activated. Among of these conditions are wound healing, macular degeneration related to aging, and conditions that are ischemic or infectious. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of OT on wound healing of intestinal anastomosis in the presence of peritonitis in a rat model. Animal experimentation. A total of 40 Wistar albino rats were randomized into four groups (n=10) including: sham (S), peritonitis (P), ozone 0 (O0), and ozone 24 (O24). In group S, only cecal dissection was carried out. The S group had only a cecal dissection and intestinal anastomosis performed, but no peritonitis. In all other groups, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) followed the cecal dissection to induce bacterial peritonitis. 24 h after puncture, a cecal resection and ileocolic anastomosis were performed. In group P, 24 h after CLP, a cecal resection and ileocolic anastomosis were performed and no ozone was administered. In group O0, immediately after the anastomosis, and in group O24, starting 24 hours after the anastomosis, an intraperitoneal 1 mg/kg/day ozone administration was applied for seven days. On the seventh day the animals were sacrificed, the anastomotic bursting pressures (BP) and the hydroxyproline values of the anastomotic tissues were measured, and histopathologic examination of the anastomotic segment was carried out. The highest BP was in group S, with 211±23.13 mmHg. The mean BP of group P was 141±56.25 mmHg, which was significantly lower than in the other two peritonitis groups that received ozone therapy, group O0 and O24, where it was 192±22 and 166±45 mmHg, respectively (p0.05). Histopathologic analyses of the anastomotic segments determined there was significantly more oedema and necrosis in the control group rats, and collagen deposition in the anastomotic tissue was significantly higher in the ozone

  15. Farmakoterapia choroby Alzheimera i innych otępień wpraktyce: który lek, kiedy i dla kogo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Wojtera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Otępienie  – zespół zaburzeń funkcji poznawczych  – negatywnie wpływa na codzienne funkcjonowanie pacjenta, uniemożliwia mu wykonywanie pracy, prowadzi do pełnej zależności od opieki ze strony bliskich lub instytucji. Zespoły otępienne zwykle są konsekwencją toczących się procesów neurodegeneracyjnych albo uszkodzeń naczyniopochodnych w  obrębie ośrodkowego układu nerwowego. Najczęstszą przyczyną otępień jest choroba Alzheimera, nieuleczalna i postępująca. Współczesna medycyna dysponuje jedynie lekami, które działają objawowo i nie wpływają na przyczyny choroby. Leki zarejestrowane do leczenia otępienia w chorobie Alzheimera (inhibitory cholinesterazy i memantyna są dostępne od wielu lat. Większość praktykujących lekarzy zajmujących się tematyką otępień uważa, że dość dobrze zna te preparaty, i często je stosuje. W badaniach klinicznych potwierdzono umiarkowaną skuteczność leków w zakresie wpływu na funkcje poznawcze, zaburzenia zachowania i objawy psychiatryczne towarzyszące otępieniu, a także funkcjonowanie pacjentów. Kontrowersyjna pozostaje kwestia wpływu leków na naturalny przebieg procesu chorobowego toczącego się w  ośrodkowym układzie nerwowym. W  artykule omówiono kliniczne zastosowania dostępnych w  Polsce „leków przeciwotępiennych” i praktyczne zalecenia dotyczące ich wyboru w codziennej pracy klinicznej. Ponadto przedstawiono aktualne rekomendacje odnośnie do zasad zamiany terapii (na inny inhibitor i leczenia skojarzonego (inhibitor i memantyna oraz konieczne środki ostrożności (przeciwwskazania, interakcje lekowe.

  16. Over-expression of the mycobacterial trehalose-phosphate phosphatase OtsB2 results in a defect in macrophage phagocytosis associated with increased mycobacterial-macrophage adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (OtsB2 is involved in the OtsAB trehalose synthesis pathway to produce free trehalose and is strictly essential for mycobacterial growth. We wished to determine the effects of OtsB2 expression on mycobacterial phenotypes such as growth, phagocytosis and survival in macrophages. Mycobacterium bovis-BCG (BCG over-expressing OtsB2 were able to better survive in stationary phase. Over-expression of OtsB2 led to a decrease in phagocytosis but not survival in THP-1 macrophage-like cells, and this was not due to a decrease in general macrophage phagocytic activity. Surprisingly, when we investigated macrophage-mycobacterial interactions by flow cytometry and atomic force microscopy, we discovered that BCG over-expressing OtsB2 have stronger binding to THP-1 cells than wild-type BCG. These results suggest that altering OtsB2 expression has implications for mycobacterial host-pathogen interactions. Macrophage-mycobacteria phagocytic interactions are complex and merit further study.

  17. Vitamin deficiencies in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, T M; Williams, S N; Graham, T W

    1991-03-01

    Deficiencies of vitamins A, D, K, E and thiamin can cause severe limitations in beef production. In particular, vitamin A and E can be common causes of lost profit, secondary to limitations of reproductive and growth potential. Prolonged dry periods will reduce available A and E in pasture forage, as can ensiling and prolonged storage of harvested feedstuffs. Polioencephalomalacia is a thiamin responsive disorder, associated with high concentrate feeding and lush pastures. Antimetabolites, such as amprolium, will cause thiamine deficiency when fed in excess. Recent information has shown improved performance with supplemental beta carotene and niacin. The positive responses in reproductive performance, noted with cattle fed supplemental beta carotene, was independent of vitamin A. Supplementation of vitamins above National Research Council recommendations can be justified. However, proper evaluation of feed and animal status, and documentation of a response to supplementation is necessary before diagnosing deficiencies of specific nutrients.

  18. Vitamin D Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease osteoporosis. Severe vitamin D deficiency can cause rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. Both problems cause soft, ... The oral dose is once daily or weekly. Children with rickets or at risk of this disease may get ...

  19. Vitamin A Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy hCG Tumor Marker HDL Cholesterol Heavy Metals Helicobacter pylori Testing Hematocrit Hemoglobin Hemoglobin A1c Hemoglobinopathy Evaluation ... nations where high numbers of people have limited diets. One of the first signs of vitamin A ...

  20. B Vitamins Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy hCG Tumor Marker HDL Cholesterol Heavy Metals Helicobacter pylori Testing Hematocrit Hemoglobin Hemoglobin A1c Hemoglobinopathy Evaluation ... nutritional status. B vitamins are absorbed from the diet, used as needed, and any excess is removed ...

  1. Breastfeeding: Vitamin D Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... International Lactation Consultant Association About Us Division Information Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Vitamin D Supplementation Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir While breastfeeding ...

  2. Vitamin D for infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korf, Hannelie; Decallonne, Brigitte; Mathieu, Chantal

    2014-12-01

    Current data clearly support an interaction of vitamin D with cells of the immune system apart from its regulatory role in calcium homeostasis. The discovery that immune cells express the vitamin D receptor and are capable of metabolizing circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D into its active form, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, has revolutionized the field and suggested a regulatory role on both the innate and adaptive immune systems. Of particular interest with respect to infectious diseases, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D has been shown to trigger the production of antimicrobial peptides with a direct pathogen-killing capacity. Interestingly, pathogen-derived components influence the key players in the vitamin D metabolizing pathway, further supporting such an interaction. Here, we review the potential mechanisms of vitamin D in promoting the innate immune response against infectious agents and discuss the possible implications for such a response in the prevention of or the intervention in various infectious diseases.

  3. Vitamin B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from foods. People who follow a vegetarian or vegan diet should try to eat vitamin B12-fortified ... B12 source References Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, ...

  4. Isolation and Pharmacological Characterization of α-Elapitoxin-Ot1a, a Short-Chain Postsynaptic Neurotoxin from the Venom of the Western Desert Taipan, Oxyuranus temporalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmel M. Barber

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Taipans (Oxyuranus spp. are elapids with highly potent venoms containing presynaptic (β and postsynaptic (α neurotoxins. O. temporalis (Western Desert taipan, a newly discovered member of this genus, has been shown to possess venom which displays marked in vitro neurotoxicity. No components have been isolated from this venom. We describe the characterization of α-elapitoxin-Ot1a (α-EPTX-Ot1a; 6712 Da, a short-chain postsynaptic neurotoxin, which accounts for approximately 30% of O. temporalis venom. α-Elapitoxin-Ot1a (0.1–1 µM produced concentration-dependent inhibition of indirect-twitches, and abolished contractile responses to exogenous acetylcholine and carbachol, in the chick biventer cervicis nerve-muscle preparation. The inhibition of indirect twitches by α-elapitoxin-Ot1a (1 µM was not reversed by washing the tissue. Prior addition of taipan antivenom (10 U/mL delayed the neurotoxic effects of α-elapitoxin-Ot1a (1 µM and markedly attenuated the neurotoxic effects of α-elapitoxin-Ot1a (0.1 µM. α-Elapitoxin-Ot1a displayed pseudo-irreversible antagonism of concentration-response curves to carbachol with a pA2 value of 8.02 ± 0.05. De novo sequencing revealed the main sequence of the short-chain postsynaptic neurotoxin (i.e., α-elapitoxin-Ot1a as well as three other isoforms found in O. temporalis venom. α-Elapitoxin-Ot1a shows high sequence similarity (i.e., >87% with other taipan short-chain postsynaptic neurotoxins.

  5. Isolation and Pharmacological Characterization of α-Elapitoxin-Ot1a, a Short-Chain Postsynaptic Neurotoxin from the Venom of the Western Desert Taipan, Oxyuranus temporalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Carmel M; Rusmili, Muhamad Rusdi Ahmad; Hodgson, Wayne C

    2016-02-29

    Taipans (Oxyuranus spp.) are elapids with highly potent venoms containing presynaptic (β) and postsynaptic (α) neurotoxins. O. temporalis (Western Desert taipan), a newly discovered member of this genus, has been shown to possess venom which displays marked in vitro neurotoxicity. No components have been isolated from this venom. We describe the characterization of α-elapitoxin-Ot1a (α-EPTX-Ot1a; 6712 Da), a short-chain postsynaptic neurotoxin, which accounts for approximately 30% of O. temporalis venom. α-Elapitoxin-Ot1a (0.1-1 µM) produced concentration-dependent inhibition of indirect-twitches, and abolished contractile responses to exogenous acetylcholine and carbachol, in the chick biventer cervicis nerve-muscle preparation. The inhibition of indirect twitches by α-elapitoxin-Ot1a (1 µM) was not reversed by washing the tissue. Prior addition of taipan antivenom (10 U/mL) delayed the neurotoxic effects of α-elapitoxin-Ot1a (1 µM) and markedly attenuated the neurotoxic effects of α-elapitoxin-Ot1a (0.1 µM). α-Elapitoxin-Ot1a displayed pseudo-irreversible antagonism of concentration-response curves to carbachol with a pA₂ value of 8.02 ± 0.05. De novo sequencing revealed the main sequence of the short-chain postsynaptic neurotoxin (i.e., α-elapitoxin-Ot1a) as well as three other isoforms found in O. temporalis venom. α-Elapitoxin-Ot1a shows high sequence similarity (i.e., >87%) with other taipan short-chain postsynaptic neurotoxins.

  6. MASTER OT J132104.04+560957.8: A Polar with Absorption–Emission Line Reversals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlefield, Colin; Garnavich, Peter; Hoyt, Taylor J.; Kennedy, Mark

    2018-01-01

    We present time-resolved photometry and spectroscopy of the recently classified polar MASTER OT J132104.04+560957.8. The spectrum shows a smooth, nonthermal continuum at the time of maximum light, without any individually discernible cyclotron harmonics. Using homogenous cyclotron modeling, we interpret this as cyclotron radiation whose individual harmonics have blended together, and on this basis, we loosely constrain the magnetic-field strength to be less than ∼30 MG. In addition, for about one-tenth of the orbital period, the Balmer and He I emission lines transition into absorption features, with He II developing an absorption core. We use our observations of this phenomenon to test theoretical models of the accretion curtain and conclude that the H and He I lines are produced throughout the curtain, in contravention of theoretical predictions of separate H and He I line-forming regions. Moreover, a significant amount of He II emission originates within the accretion curtain, implying that the curtain is significantly hotter than expected from theory. Finally, we comment on the object’s long-term photometry, including evidence that it recently transitioned into a prolonged, exceptionally stable high state following a potentially decades-long low state.

  7. Evaluation of a Coaching Experiential Learning Project on OT Student Abilities and Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin A. Phillips

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovative teaching methods to address emerging practice needs are critical components of effective occupational therapy education. Experiential learning strategies can enhance skill development and translation of knowledge into OT clinical practice. In addition, skills such as coaching may provide important links to health promotion practices. Thirty-two occupational therapy students took part in an experiential project to connect occupational engagement and health for a community of older adults. A pretest/posttest design was used to evaluate program outcomes in student perceived abilities, and narrative reflection papers provided postexperience qualitative information. The students improved in all 10 areas of abilities selfassessment with mean total scores from pretest (M = 42 improving significantly at posttest (M = 58. Themes from reflection papers indicated a positive response to experiential learning and a desire for more opportunities to prepare for clinical practice, including the use of interprofessional training. The students improved in their abilities to use coaching and health promotion strategies through the use of experiential learning methods. Outcomes suggest that experiential learning opportunities are an effective way to enhance student competencies in coaching, improve readiness for wellness programming, and increase student confidence in application of skills in future clinical practice.

  8. Secondary Metabolite Profiling of Species of the Genus Usnea by UHPLC-ESI-OT-MS-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Salgado

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Lichens are symbiotic associations of fungi with microalgae and/or cyanobacteria, which are considered among the slowest growing organisms, with strong tolerance to adverse environmental conditions. There are about 400 genera and 1600 species of lichens and those belonging to the Usnea genus comprise about 360 of these species. Usnea lichens have been used since ancient times as dyes, cosmetics, preservatives, deodorants and folk medicines. The phytochemistry of the Usnea genus includes more than 60 compounds which belong to the following classes: depsides, depsidones, depsones, lactones, quinones, phenolics, polysaccharides, fatty acids and dibenzofurans. Due to scarce knowledge of metabolomic profiles of Usnea species (U. barbata, U. antarctica, U. rubicunda and U. subfloridana, a study based on UHPLC-ESI-OT-MS-MS was performed for a comprehensive characterization of their secondary metabolites. From the methanolic extracts of these species a total of 73 metabolites were identified for the first time using this hyphenated technique, including 34 compounds in U. barbata, 21 in U. antarctica, 38 in U. rubicunda and 37 in U. subfloridana. Besides, a total of 13 metabolites were not identified and reported so far, and could be new according to our data analysis. This study showed that this hyphenated technique is rapid, effective and accurate for phytochemical identification of lichen metabolites and the data collected could be useful for chemotaxonomic studies.

  9. The luminous red nova M101-OT2015-1: a candidate for common envelope ejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagorodnova, Nadejda; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Kotak, Rubina

    2017-01-01

    Binary interaction is an important phase in the study of stellar evolution. Approximately 50% of O star population live in close binary systems as to allow interaction with the companion. Although massive binary progenitors have been associated with thermonuclear supernovae, stripped core collapse supernovae, cataclysmic variables, X-ray binaries, or the mind blowing massive binary black holes recently detected by LIGO, the exact evolutionary path followed by the system is still under debate. One of the critical phases is the common envelope (CE) phase, required to bring a long period binary into a much shorter orbit. Currently, this phase also represents a challenge for the current stellar evolution models. Given the uncertainty, observational constraints are valuable input to advance in this field. One particular class of transient objects, called Luminous Red Novae (LRNe), has been associated with the termination of the CE phase, when a total or partial ejection of the least bound layers of the primary star are expelled at the expense of decreasing the orbital energy of the system. In my talk I will discuss the results of 16 years of observations of M101-OT2015-1, a LRN in M101 galaxy. I will describe the progenitor star (system) and the main characteristics of the outburst. Finally, I will present the results of the evolution of its remnant in infrared wavelengths. Given the long time span of our observations, this event represents one of the best studied CE ejection candidate at extragalactic distances.

  10. Characterization of the Family I inorganic pyrophosphatase from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Jong Jeon

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A gene encoding for a putative Family inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPase, EC 3.6.1.1 from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 was cloned and the biochemical characteristics of the resulting recombinant protein were examined. The gene (Accession No. 1907 from P. horikoshii showed some identity with other Family I inorganic pyrophosphatases from archaea. The recombinant PPase from P. horikoshii (PhPPase has a molecular mass of 24.5 kDa, determined by SDS-PAGE. This enzyme specifically catalyzed the hydrolysis of pyrophosphate and was sensitive to NaF. The optimum temperature and pH for PPase activity were 70 °C and 7.5, respectively. The half-life of heat inactivation was about 50 min at 105 °C. The heat stability of PhPPase was enhanced in the presence of Mg2+. A divalent cation was absolutely required for enzyme activity, Mg2+ being most effective; Zn2+, Co2+ and Mn2+ efficiently supported hydrolytic activity in a narrow range of concentrations (0.05– 0.5 mM. The Km for pyrophosphate and Mg2+ were 113 and 303 µM, respectively; and maximum velocity, Vmax, was estimated at 930 U mg–1.

  11. Vitamin D supplementation guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pludowski, Pawel; Holick, Michael F; Grant, William B; Konstantynowicz, Jerzy; Mascarenhas, Mario R; Haq, Afrozul; Povoroznyuk, Vladyslav; Balatska, Nataliya; Barbosa, Ana Paula; Karonova, Tatiana; Rudenka, Ema; Misiorowski, Waldemar; Zakharova, Irina; Rudenka, Alena; Łukaszkiewicz, Jacek; Marcinowska-Suchowierska, Ewa; Łaszcz, Natalia; Abramowicz, Pawel; Bhattoa, Harjit P; Wimalawansa, Sunil J

    2018-01-01

    Research carried out during the past two-decades extended the understanding of actions of vitamin D, from regulating calcium and phosphate absorption and bone metabolism to many pleiotropic actions in organs and tissues in the body. Most observational and ecological studies report association of higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations with improved outcomes for several chronic, communicable and non-communicable diseases. Consequently, numerous agencies and scientific organizations have developed recommendations for vitamin D supplementation and guidance on optimal serum 25(OH)D concentrations. The bone-centric guidelines recommend a target 25(OH)D concentration of 20ng/mL (50nmol/L), and age-dependent daily vitamin D doses of 400-800IU. The guidelines focused on pleiotropic effects of vitamin D recommend a target 25(OH)D concentration of 30ng/mL (75nmol/L), and age-, body weight-, disease-status, and ethnicity dependent vitamin D doses ranging between 400 and 2000IU/day. The wise and balanced choice of the recommendations to follow depends on one's individual health outcome concerns, age, body weight, latitude of residence, dietary and cultural habits, making the regional or nationwide guidelines more applicable in clinical practice. While natural sources of vitamin D can raise 25(OH)D concentrations, relative to dietary preferences and latitude of residence, in the context of general population, these sources are regarded ineffective to maintain the year-round 25(OH)D concentrations in the range of 30-50ng/mL (75-125nmol/L). Vitamin D self-administration related adverse effects, such as hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria are rare, and usually result from taking extremely high doses of vitamin D for a prolonged time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Vitamin D and sepsis

    OpenAIRE

    Kempker, Jordan A; Jenny E. Han; Tangpricha, Vin; Ziegler, Thomas R.; Martin, Greg S.

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency and sepsis are both highly prevalent worldwide problems and this article reviews the emerging science that is defining the intersections of these conditions. The importance of vitamin D’s role in skeletal health has long been understood but recent evidence is beginning to highlight its role in the functioning of other physiologic systems of the body. Basic science data reveal its integral role in local immune responses to pathogens and the systemic inflammatory pathway...

  13. VITAMIN D IMMUNOMODULATORY EFFECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Radović

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the classical role in the homeostasis of calcium and phosphorus, vitamin D shows a regulatory effect on a number of different cells, especially its antiproliferative and pro-differential biological function. Through its own receptor in the immune cells, vitamin D increases the phagocytic activity of macrophages and NK cells. Also, by binding to the regulatory sequences of antimicrobial peptides genes, vitamin D increases the microbicidal activity of phagocytes. Inhibition of differentiation and maturation of antigen-presenting dendritic cells, as well as direct influence on their contact with T lymphocytes, it significantlly influences the type of immune response. Dendritic cells under the influence of vitamin D induce a suppressor T cells, which can inhibit Th1 cell response and are critical in the regulation of immune tolerance. Vitamin D inhibits proliferation of Th1 and Th17 cells, as well their cytokine production, and suppresses the differentiation and maturation of B lymphocytes. Due to all these functions, vitamin D has shown beneficial effects in the prevention and modification of a number of autoimmune diseases. On the other hand, immunity disorders with predominant Th2 response (asthma, allergies did not show such good results after the use of hypocalcemic VDR agonists.

  14. Prognostic value of lncRNA SOX2OT for Chinese cancer patients: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xuran; Lin, Jieru; Wang, Hongwei; Tian, Liyuan; Tian, Runhua; Zhang, Yunyuan; Chen, Xian; Zhang, Jinyu

    2017-01-01

    SOX2OT has been demonstrated to be aberrantly expressed in several types of cancer and maybe serve as a prognostic marker for cancer patients. However, most individual studies have been limited by small sample sizes and controversial results. Therefore, the present meta-analysis was conducted to analyze available data to reveal the potential clinical application of SOX2OT on cancer prognosis, tumor progression, distance metastasis and lymph node metastasis. Up to February 20, 2017, literature collections were conducted by comprehensive searching electronic databases, including Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, BioMed Central, Springer, ScienceDirect, ISI Web of Knowledge, together with three Chinese databases: China National Knowledge Internet (CNKI), Weipu and Wanfang. The hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated to assess the strength of the association. Five studies with a total of 481 cancer patients were included in the present meta-analysis. The results indicated that elevated SOX2OT significantly predicted unfavorable overall survival (OS) (HR = 2.44, 95% CI: 1.75-3.39, P<0.0001) and tumor progression (III/IV vs. I/II: HR 1.62, 95%CI: 1.30-2.02, P<0.0001), but failed to predict distant metastasis (HR: 3.30, 95%CI: 0.74-14.61, P = 0.12) and lymph node metastasis (HR: 1.29, 95% CI: 0.87-1.91, P = 0.21). The results revealed that SOX2OT expression level was an independent prognostic biomarker for OS and tumor progression in Chinese cancer patients.

  15. Ervaringsleerprojecten in de ambulante justitiële sector: de Elan basistraining voor ots-pupillen, een verkenning

    OpenAIRE

    Spaan, E.C.

    1995-01-01

    Sinds een aantal jaren organiseert Elan Training te Ulvenhout een zogenaamde basistraining voor ots-pupillen. De training, die vier weken duurt, bestaat uit een outward-boundgedeelte (een lange looptocht, bergbeklimmen, solobivak, een struintocht) en een intern gedeelte in Ulvenhout, waarbij de deelnemers onder andere een werkstage lopen, bosarbeid verrichten en huishoudelijke taken moeten uitvoeren. In deze evaluatie ligt de nadruk op de gevolgde verwijsprocedure, de voorbereiding van de tra...

  16. Vitamins and Other Nutrients during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... weight & fitness > Vitamins and other nutrients during pregnancy Vitamins and other nutrients during pregnancy E-mail to ... supplements without your provider’s OK. What are prenatal vitamins? Prenatal vitamins are multivitamins made just for pregnant ...

  17. Facts about Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... label> Information For… Media Policy Makers Facts about Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... deficient ” or has a “ vitamin deficiency ”. What is vitamin K and why is it important? Vitamin K is ...

  18. Transcriptional role of androgen receptor in the expression of long non-coding RNA Sox2OT in neurogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Tosetti

    Full Text Available The complex architecture of adult brain derives from tightly regulated migration and differentiation of precursor cells generated during embryonic neurogenesis. Changes at transcriptional level of genes that regulate migration and differentiation may lead to neurodevelopmental disorders. Androgen receptor (AR is a transcription factor that is already expressed during early embryonic days. However, AR role in the regulation of gene expression at early embryonic stage is yet to be determinate. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA Sox2 overlapping transcript (Sox2OT plays a crucial role in gene expression control during development but its transcriptional regulation is still to be clearly defined. Here, using Bicalutamide in order to pharmacologically inactivated AR, we investigated whether AR participates in the regulation of the transcription of the lncRNASox2OTat early embryonic stage. We identified a new DNA binding region upstream of Sox2 locus containing three androgen response elements (ARE, and found that AR binds such a sequence in embryonic neural stem cells and in mouse embryonic brain. Our data suggest that through this binding, AR can promote the RNA polymerase II dependent transcription of Sox2OT. Our findings also suggest that AR participates in embryonic neurogenesis through transcriptional control of the long non-coding RNA Sox2OT.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Follow-up photometry of M101 OT2015-1 (Blagorodnova+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagorodnova, N.; Kotak, R.; Polshaw, J.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Cao, Y.; Cody, A. M.; Doran, G. B.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Fraser, M.; Fremling, C.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, C.; Harmanen, J.; Jencson, J.; Kankare, E.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Magnier, E.; Manulis, I.; Masci, F. J.; Mattila, S.; Nugent, P.; Ochner, P.; Pastorello, A.; Reynolds, T.; Smith, K.; Sollerman, J.; Taddia, F.; Terreran, G.; Tomasella, L.; Turatto, M.; Vreeswijk, P. M.; Wozniak, P.; Zaggia, S.

    2017-07-01

    The location of M101-OT2015-1 has been serendipitously imaged by numerous telescopes and instruments over the last 15 years (from 2000 to 2015). Our best quality pre-discovery image (seeing of 0.55") is an r-band exposure at -3625 days pre-peak from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT). The historical optical data for M101-OT was retrieved from the CFHT MegaPrime and CFHT12K/Mosaic, using single and combined exposures, Pan-STARRS-1/GPC1 (PS1), Isaac Newton Telescope/Wide Field Camera (INT/WFC), and Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR 10 (Ahn+ 2014, see V/147). Unfortunately, there are no HST images covering the location of the source. Post-discovery optical magnitudes were obtained from the reported followup astronomer's telegrams (ATels), Liverpool Telescope (LT), the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT), and the Palomar P48 and P60 telescopes. The infrared data were retrieved from CFHT/WIRCam, UKIRT/WFCAM, and the Spitzer Infrared Array Camera in 3.6 and 4.5um as part of the SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey (SPIRITS) (Kasliwal+, 2017ApJ...839...88K). Details of pre-discovery photometry and post-discovery optical photometry may be found in the Appendices Tables 1 and 2, respectively. We obtained spectra of M101-OT using a range of facilities in 2015 Feb-Jul. (3 data files).

  20. Transcriptional role of androgen receptor in the expression of long non-coding RNA Sox2OT in neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosetti, Valentina; Sassone, Jenny; Ferri, Anna L M; Taiana, Michela; Bedini, Gloria; Nava, Sara; Brenna, Greta; Di Resta, Chiara; Pareyson, Davide; Di Giulio, Anna Maria; Carelli, Stephana; Parati, Eugenio A; Gorio, Alfredo

    2017-01-01

    The complex architecture of adult brain derives from tightly regulated migration and differentiation of precursor cells generated during embryonic neurogenesis. Changes at transcriptional level of genes that regulate migration and differentiation may lead to neurodevelopmental disorders. Androgen receptor (AR) is a transcription factor that is already expressed during early embryonic days. However, AR role in the regulation of gene expression at early embryonic stage is yet to be determinate. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) Sox2 overlapping transcript (Sox2OT) plays a crucial role in gene expression control during development but its transcriptional regulation is still to be clearly defined. Here, using Bicalutamide in order to pharmacologically inactivated AR, we investigated whether AR participates in the regulation of the transcription of the lncRNASox2OTat early embryonic stage. We identified a new DNA binding region upstream of Sox2 locus containing three androgen response elements (ARE), and found that AR binds such a sequence in embryonic neural stem cells and in mouse embryonic brain. Our data suggest that through this binding, AR can promote the RNA polymerase II dependent transcription of Sox2OT. Our findings also suggest that AR participates in embryonic neurogenesis through transcriptional control of the long non-coding RNA Sox2OT.

  1. [Vitamins in rat experimental diets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodentsova, V M; Beketova, N A; Vrzhesinskaia, O A

    2012-01-01

    A comparison of full semisynthetic diets used in different laboratories has shown that its vitamin content covers physiological requirements of rats in these micronutrients. The significant fluctuations in group B vitamin concentrations may take place when one uses brewer's yeast as a source of these vitamins. A preliminary assessment of vitamin content in brewer's yeasts is required in this case. An essential contribution of basic components in diet vitamin content must be taken in consideration when one creates a vitamin-deficient diet. Casein contains substantial amounts of group B vitamins and vitamin D. Therefore decontamination of casein from water and / or fat-soluble vitamins or the use of commercial purified casein is required. Vegetable oils are usually used as a fatty component of a diet and they simultaneously serve as an additional source of vitamin E. A choice of naturally containing vitamin E oil as a fat component of a diet is crucial for the creating an alimentary deficiency of vitamin E. The content of fat-soluble vitamins in the diet of control group (group of comparison) and vitamin level in the diet of experimental group of animals must be equivalent in investigations with modified (quality and quantitative) fat diet component. Caloric restriction by simple reducing of food without increasing the amount of vitamins to an adequate level is incorrect. With these considerations in mind proper attention to the equivalence of vitamin content in the diet of animals in experimental and control groups should be paid during experiments scheduling. Otherwise, the studies carried out under deficient or excessive intake of vitamins can lead to incorrect interpretation of the results and difficulties in their comparison with the data obtained under different conditions.

  2. Multiseasonal Tree Crown Structure Mapping with Point Clouds from OTS Quadrocopter Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hese, S.; Behrendt, F.

    2017-08-01

    OTF (Off The Shelf) quadro copter systems provide a cost effective (below 2000 Euro), flexible and mobile platform for high resolution point cloud mapping. Various studies showed the full potential of these small and flexible platforms. Especially in very tight and complex 3D environments the automatic obstacle avoidance, low copter weight, long flight times and precise maneuvering are important advantages of these small OTS systems in comparison with larger octocopter systems. This study examines the potential of the DJI Phantom 4 pro series and the Phantom 3A series for within-stand and forest tree crown 3D point cloud mapping using both within stand oblique imaging in different altitude levels and data captured from a nadir perspective. On a test site in Brandenburg/Germany a beach crown was selected and measured with 3 different altitude levels in Point Of Interest (POI) mode with oblique data capturing and deriving one nadir mosaic created with 85/85 % overlap using Drone Deploy automatic mapping software. Three different flight campaigns were performed, one in September 2016 (leaf-on), one in March 2017 (leaf-off) and one in May 2017 (leaf-on) to derive point clouds from different crown structure and phenological situations - covering the leaf-on and leafoff status of the tree crown. After height correction, the point clouds where used with GPS geo referencing to calculate voxel based densities on 50 × 10 × 10 cm voxel definitions using a topological network of chessboard image objects in 0,5 m height steps in an object based image processing environment. Comparison between leaf-off and leaf-on status was done on volume pixel definitions comparing the attributed point densities per volume and plotting the resulting values as a function of distance to the crown center. In the leaf-off status SFM (structure from motion) algorithms clearly identified the central stem and also secondary branch systems. While the penetration into the crown

  3. MULTISEASONAL TREE CROWN STRUCTURE MAPPING WITH POINT CLOUDS FROM OTS QUADROCOPTER SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hese

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available OTF (Off The Shelf quadro copter systems provide a cost effective (below 2000 Euro, flexible and mobile platform for high resolution point cloud mapping. Various studies showed the full potential of these small and flexible platforms. Especially in very tight and complex 3D environments the automatic obstacle avoidance, low copter weight, long flight times and precise maneuvering are important advantages of these small OTS systems in comparison with larger octocopter systems. This study examines the potential of the DJI Phantom 4 pro series and the Phantom 3A series for within-stand and forest tree crown 3D point cloud mapping using both within stand oblique imaging in different altitude levels and data captured from a nadir perspective. On a test site in Brandenburg/Germany a beach crown was selected and measured with 3 different altitude levels in Point Of Interest (POI mode with oblique data capturing and deriving one nadir mosaic created with 85/85 % overlap using Drone Deploy automatic mapping software. Three different flight campaigns were performed, one in September 2016 (leaf-on, one in March 2017 (leaf-off and one in May 2017 (leaf-on to derive point clouds from different crown structure and phenological situations – covering the leaf-on and leafoff status of the tree crown. After height correction, the point clouds where used with GPS geo referencing to calculate voxel based densities on 50 × 10 × 10 cm voxel definitions using a topological network of chessboard image objects in 0,5 m height steps in an object based image processing environment. Comparison between leaf-off and leaf-on status was done on volume pixel definitions comparing the attributed point densities per volume and plotting the resulting values as a function of distance to the crown center. In the leaf-off status SFM (structure from motion algorithms clearly identified the central stem and also secondary branch systems. While the penetration into the

  4. Characterization of OT4-1 Alloy by Multi-Dome Forming Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakhariev, Ivan; Aksenov, Sergey; Kotov, Anton; Kolesnikov, Aleksey

    2017-08-03

    In this study, the rheological characteristics of a titanium alloy have been obtained by multi-dome bulging test. Free bulging process is an experimental technique that can be used to characterize material in conditions of biaxial tension during superplastic, as well as conventional, hot forming. The constitutive constants are calculated on a base of the information about the bulge geometry, applied pressure, and forming time. A multi-dome forming test allows one to reduce the number of the experiments required for the characterization, since every multi-dome test produces several domes of different size. In this study, a specific die for multi-dome test was used. The die has six holes with different radiuses of 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, and 45 mm. During a test, the specimen is clamped between blank holder and die holder, heated to a specific temperature, and formed by applying constant gas pressure. The experiments were conducted at different temperatures for OT4-1 titanium alloy. The constitutive constants were obtained by processing the experimental data using two different techniques and compared with tensile test results. In order to estimate the influence of friction on the experimental results and to verify obtained material characteristics, finite element (FE) simulation was performed. Finally, the results of FE simulation were compared with the experimental data. The results of the simulation show the advantage of material characterization based on multi dome tests and its interpretation by inverse analysis. The deviations produced by the effect of friction are more significant when the direct approach is applied instead of inverse analysis with a semi analytical model of the bulging process.

  5. Characterization of OT4-1 Alloy by Multi-Dome Forming Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Zakhariev

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the rheological characteristics of a titanium alloy have been obtained by multi-dome bulging test. Free bulging process is an experimental technique that can be used to characterize material in conditions of biaxial tension during superplastic, as well as conventional, hot forming. The constitutive constants are calculated on a base of the information about the bulge geometry, applied pressure, and forming time. A multi-dome forming test allows one to reduce the number of the experiments required for the characterization, since every multi-dome test produces several domes of different size. In this study, a specific die for multi-dome test was used. The die has six holes with different radiuses of 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, and 45 mm. During a test, the specimen is clamped between blank holder and die holder, heated to a specific temperature, and formed by applying constant gas pressure. The experiments were conducted at different temperatures for OT4-1 titanium alloy. The constitutive constants were obtained by processing the experimental data using two different techniques and compared with tensile test results. In order to estimate the influence of friction on the experimental results and to verify obtained material characteristics, finite element (FE simulation was performed. Finally, the results of FE simulation were compared with the experimental data. The results of the simulation show the advantage of material characterization based on multi dome tests and its interpretation by inverse analysis. The deviations produced by the effect of friction are more significant when the direct approach is applied instead of inverse analysis with a semi analytical model of the bulging process.

  6. Uso de la tierra y diversidades alfa, beta y gamma de diplópodos en la cuenca del río Otún, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Feijoo-Martínez; Julián Bueno-Villegas; Darío Hernán Ruíz-Cobo

    2010-01-01

    Land use and alpha, beta, and gamma diversity of Diplopoda in the Otún basin, Colombia. Objective: To determine the relationshipbetween changes in ecosystems and agrosystems provoked by human intervention and the alpha, beta and gamma diversity of theDiplopoda in the middle basin of the Otún river. Materials and methods: In this research we used a stratified systematic design with sevensampling windows and 16 sampling points. Millipedes were divided into families and morphotypes to calculate ...

  7. Long Non-Coding RNA KCNQ1OT1 Promotes Cataractogenesis via miR-214 and Activation of the Caspase-1 Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Jin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: KCNQ1OT1 regulates the expression of tissue-specific imprinted genes within the Kcnq1 domain. Imprinted genes are positive regulators of apoptosis, one of the forms of cell death related to cataract formation, and thus may provide novel therapeutic targets for cataract treatment. Here, we studied the role of non-coding RNAs(ncRNA in cataract formation. Methods: Human lens epithelium cells (HLECs were treated with H2O2, and the expression of KCNQ1OT1 and miR-214 was detected by qRT-PCR. The expression of caspase-1 was detected using qRT-PCR, western blot and immunostaining. To confirm our findings in cell cultures, we analysed KCNQ1OT1, miR-214, and caspase-1 expression in lens anterior capsules of both cataract patients and normal controls by qRT-PCR and western blot analysis. Results: We found that the expression of KCNQ1OT1 was increased in both human cataract lens anterior capsular samples and SRA01/04 cell lines treated with H2O2. Knockdown of KCNQ1OT1 expression significantly suppressed H2O2-induced SRA01/04 cell pyroptosis in vitro, which is the critical step in cataract formation. The expression of microRNA-214 (miR-214 was also decreased in cataract lens anterior capsular tissues and H2O2-induced SRA01/04 cell lines. Knockdown of KCNQ1OT1 significantly increased the expression of miR-214. Conclusions: We demonstrated for the first time that caspase-1 is a functional downstream target of miR-214, and knockdown of KCNQ1OT1 reduced the expression of caspase-1. These results provide evidence that the KCNQ1OT1-miR-214-caspase-1 regulatory network is a novel mechanism for promoting cataract formation.

  8. 25-hydroxy vitamin D test

    Science.gov (United States)

    25-OH vitamin D test; Calcidiol; 25-hydroxycholecalciferol test ... follow any instructions for not eating before the test. ... This test is done to determine if you have too much or too little vitamin D in your blood.

  9. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For Consumers Consumer Updates Fortify Your Knowledge About Vitamins (video) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Consumer Update Although most people get all the vitamins they need from the foods they eat, millions ...

  10. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that the body absolutely needs: vitamins A, C, D, E, K, and the B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, ... comes to purchasing dietary supplements, Vasilios Frankos, Ph.D., Director of FDA's Division of Dietary Supplement Programs, ...

  11. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Vitamins are essential nutrients that contribute to a healthy life. Although most people get all the vitamins they need from the foods they eat, millions of people worldwide take supplemental ...

  12. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E (for children and adolescents) vitamin B-12, iron, folic acid, ... Older Adults More in Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices ...

  13. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... consuming foods, with supplementation suggested for certain sensitive populations. These guidelines, published by the Department of Health ... acid, and vitamins E and D (for specific population groups). Regarding the use of vitamin supplements, the ...

  14. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... or vegan diet if you are pregnant or breastfeeding Vitamin Facts Your body uses vitamins for a ... and enzymes," Frankos says. "Check with your health care providers before combining or substituting them with other ...

  15. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... vitamins A (as carotenoids), C, and E (for adults) calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E (for ... a varied diet. If you are an older adult, have dark skin, or are exposed to insufficient ...

  16. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... their health regimen. Why Buy Vitamins? There are many good reasons to consider taking vitamin supplements, such ... Needs According to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, many people consume more calories than they need without ...

  17. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... millions of people worldwide take supplemental vitamins as part of their health regimen. Why Buy Vitamins? There ... Dietary Supplements." The law defines dietary supplements, in part, as products taken by mouth that contain a " ...

  18. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... cause of concern. These nutrients are: calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamins A (as carotenoids), C, and E (for adults) calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E (for children and adolescents) ...

  19. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco ... FDA Consumer Health Information Vitamins are essential nutrients that contribute to a healthy life. Although most people get all the vitamins they need from the ...

  20. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... or vegan diet if you are pregnant or breastfeeding Vitamin Facts Your body uses vitamins for a ... They form the basis for federal food, nutrition education, and information programs. Barbara Schneeman, Ph.D., Director ...

  1. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or vegan diet if you are pregnant or breastfeeding Vitamin Facts Your body uses vitamins for a ... Research Industry Scroll back to top Popular Content Home Latest Recalls Report an Adverse Event MedWatch Safety ...

  2. Vitamin Supplements: Healthy or Hoax?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It Works Healthy Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Vitamin Supplements: Healthy or Hoax? Updated:Jun 12,2015 Can ... Don’t do this: Don’t take antioxidant vitamin supplements such as A, C and E . Scientific evidence ...

  3. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... There are many good reasons to consider taking vitamin supplements, such as over-the-counter multivitamins. According to ... for specific population groups). Regarding the use of vitamin supplements, the Dietary guidelines include the following: Consume a ...

  4. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... health regimen. Why Buy Vitamins? There are many good reasons to consider taking vitamin supplements, such as ... to spot false claims. If something sounds too good to be true, it probably is. Examples of ...

  5. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... Print Subscribe: FDA Consumer Health Information Vitamins are essential nutrients that contribute to a healthy life. Although most people get all the vitamins they need from the foods they eat, millions of people worldwide take supplemental ...

  6. Too Much Vitamin C: Harmful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating Is it possible to take too much vitamin C? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, ... 05, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/nutrition-and-healthy-eating/expert-answers/vitamin-c/faq- ...

  7. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... and vitamins E and D (for specific population groups). Regarding the use of vitamin supplements, the Dietary ... and beverages within and among the basic food groups. At the same time, choose foods that limit ...

  8. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... For Consumers Consumer Updates Fortify Your Knowledge About Vitamins Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... as part of their health regimen. Why Buy Vitamins? There are many good reasons to consider taking ...

  9. Vitamin Fortification of Fluid Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Eileen B; Barbano, David M; Drake, MaryAnne

    2017-04-01

    Vitamin concentrates with vitamins A and D are used for fortification of fluid milk. Although many of the degradation components of vitamins A and D have an important role in flavor/fragrance applications, they may also be source(s) of off-flavor(s) in vitamin fortified milk due to their heat, oxygen, and the light sensitivity. It is very important for the dairy industry to understand how vitamin concentrates can impact flavor and flavor stability of fluid milk. Currently, little research on vitamin degradation products can be found with respect to flavor contributions. In this review, the history, regulations, processing, and storage stability of vitamins in fluid milk are addressed along with some hypotheses for the role of vitamin A and D fortification on flavor and stability of fluid milk. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  10. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... Today's dietary supplements are not only vitamins and minerals. "They also include other less familiar substances such ... dietary ingredient" category are not only vitamins, but minerals, botanicals products, amino acids, and substances such as ...

  11. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... not provide the benefit you expect. For example, excessive amounts of water-soluble vitamins, like vitamins C ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  12. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... be a cause of concern. These nutrients are: calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamins A (as carotenoids), C, and E (for adults) calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E (for children ...

  13. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers ... FDA Consumer Health Information Vitamins are essential nutrients that contribute to a healthy life. Although most people get all the vitamins they need from the ...

  14. Vitamins for enhancing plant resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubakri, Hatem; Gargouri, Mahmoud; Mliki, Ahmed; Brini, Faiçal; Chong, Julie; Jbara, Moez

    2016-09-01

    This paper provides an overview on vitamins with inducing activities in plants, the molecular and cellular mechanisms implicated, and the hormonal signalling-network regulating this process. Moreover, it reports how vitamins might be part of the molecular events linked to induced resistance by the conventional elicitors. Induced resistance (IR), exploiting the plant innate-defense system is a sustainable strategy for plant disease control. In the last decade, vitamins have been proven to act as inducers of disease resistance, and these findings have received an important attention owing to their safety and cost effectiveness. Vitamins, including thiamine (TH, vitamin B1), riboflavin (RF, vitamin B2), menadione sodium bisulfite (MSB, vitamin K3), Para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA, vitamin Bx), and folic acid (FA, vitamin B9) provided an efficient protection against a wide range of pathogens through the modulation of specific host-defense facets. However, other vitamins, such as ascorbic acid (AA, vitamin C) and tocopherols (vitamin E), have been shown to be a part of the molecular mechanisms associated to IR. The present review is the first to summarize what vitamins are acting as inducers of disease resistance in plants and how could they be modulated by the conventional elicitors. Thus, this report provides an overview on the protective abilities of vitamins and the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying their activities. Moreover, it describes the hormonal-signalling network regulating vitamin-signal transduction during IR. Finally, a biochemical model describing how vitamins are involved in the establishment of IR process is discussed.

  15. Vitamin D Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... forms of vitamin D that are important for nutrition: vitamin D2 and vitamin D3. Vitamin D2 mainly comes ... from: http://www.merckmanuals.com/home/disorders-of-nutrition/vitamins/vitamin-d National Cancer Institute [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): ...

  16. Prevention of Malnutrition in Iran: 1. Vitamins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Wise

    1980-08-01

    Full Text Available The over-reliance on bread in the Iranian diet may l ead to relative deficiencies of ribof lavin, vitamin,A , and v i t ami n , C, with housebound persons also suffering from vi t amin D def i cienc y . The increased consumption of ani ma l pr oduc t s , fruit and vegetables should be pr e s c r l - bed . Economic progress could help t o improve die t , and 1S probably already doi ng s o . Increased nutrit ion educatien at all l evels is e s s e nt i a l , especially during teac her trai ning , s o t ha t t h e information would r e a ch schoolchi ldren . Even medical doctors r e ceiv e a ve ry short period of nutrition training so that it i s not surprising that ot he r sections of t he population a re a l so poorly i nformed . In t he me a n t i ~e f vegetable o i l c oul d be v itamini zed, and research could aim at discovering way s to enrich o t he r f oods als o . Patients at risk can be glven periodic i nj e c t i ons o f v i t ami ns A and 0, o r they may take 1 capsule o f "Unicap Hultivitaminll or 1 teaspoonsu l o f IlVi p l e x" daily or eve r y two day s .

  17. Vitamin D and Periodontal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Povoroznyuk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available D vitamine metabolites are necessary nutrients for the human body, they perform important functions. Vitamin D deficiency leads to the development of many somatic diseases, as well as diseases of the periodontal tissues. Pleiotropic effects of vitamin D on periodontal tissues include the impact on parodontopatogens, regulation of the immune response and metabolism of the skeletal system.

  18. Vitamin D and Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Vink-Van Wijngaarden (Trudy)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractVitamin D regulates calcium and phosphorus blood levels and bone metabolism via effects on intestine, kidney, and bone. Vitamin D is formed from 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin by ultraviolet irradiation or is taken up from dietary sources. Vitamin D must be metabolically altered

  19. Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kienreich, K.; Tomaschitz, A.; Verheyen, N.; Pieber, T.R.; Gaksch, M.; Grubler, M.; Pilz, S.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency, as well as cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and related risk factors are highly prevalent worldwide and frequently co-occur. Vitamin D has long been known to be an essential part of bone metabolism, although recent evidence suggests that vitamin D plays a key role in the

  20. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... before taking vitamin E or vitamin K pills. Water-soluble Vitamins B-3 (niacin): flushing, redness of ... and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 1-888-INFO-FDA (1-888- ...

  1. Vitamin B12 deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ralph; Allen, Lindsay H; Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (B12; also known as cobalamin) is a B vitamin that has an important role in cellular metabolism, especially in DNA synthesis, methylation and mitochondrial metabolism. Clinical B12 deficiency with classic haematological and neurological manifestations is relatively uncommon. However...... remain debated. Management depends on B12 supplementation, either via high-dose oral routes or via parenteral administration. This Primer describes the current knowledge surrounding B12 deficiency, and highlights improvements in diagnostic methods as well as shifting concepts about the prevalence, causes...

  2. Extraskeletal effects of vitamin D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Rossini

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last years we observed an increasing number of publications about the vitamin D, due to its recognised therapeutic actions and to the widespread hypovitaminosis D. In addition to the well known skeletal benefits, vitamin D can have multiple effects on other tissues.Muscular apparatus: hypovitaminosis D is associated with myopathy, sarcopenia, muscular strength reduction and increased risk of falls. The vitamin D supplementation increases the muscle functionality indexes. Cardiovascular system: low levels of vitamin D are related to increased levels of cardiovascular risk factors, heart failure, stroke, and cardiovascular mortality, while a good vitamin D status is associated with a decreased incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Diabetes and metabolic syndrome: a good vitamin D status is related to a decreased incidence of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome; a vitamin D supplementation in the early childhood reduces (nearly 30% the risk of having type 1 diabetes. Cancer: vitamin D deficit is associated with breast, colorectal cancer and melanoma relapses. Low and high levels of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OHD are related to a higher neoplastic mortality. Infectious diseases: hypovitaminosis D is associated with higher incidence of upper respiratory tract infections and worse interferon response in chronic hepatitis C. Vitamin D supplementation decreases the risk of having type A influence. Rheumatic diseases: in rheumatoid arthritis low serum levels of vitamin D metabolites are related to a higher disease activity, while a good vitamin D status is associated with a higher probability of remission or response to therapy and a lower degree of disability. Neurologic diseases: associations between vitamin D deficit and risk of multiple sclerosis, depression, cognitive deficits, and Parkinson’s disease have been reported.There is evidence of the extraskeletal effects of vitamin D, but most derive from observational studies: clinical trials

  3. A three-dimensional model of RNase P in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuzhu; Oshima, Kosuke; Ueda, Toshifumi; Nakashima, Takashi; Kimura, Makoto

    2017-11-18

    Ribonuclease P (RNase P) is an endoribonuclease involved in maturation of the 5'-end of tRNA. We found previously that RNase P in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 consists of a catalytic RNase P RNA (PhopRNA) and five protein cofactors designated PhoPop5, PhoRpp21, PhoRpp29, PhoRpp30, and PhoRpp38. The crystal structures of the five proteins have been determined, a three-dimensional (3-D) model of PhopRNA has been constructed, and biochemical data, including protein-RNA interaction sites, have become available. Here, this information was combined to orient the crystallographic structures of the proteins relative to their RNA binding sites in the PhopRNA model. Some alterations were made to the PhopRNA model to improve the fit. In the resulting structure, a heterotetramer composed of PhoPop5 and PhoRpp30 bridges helices P3 and P16 in the PhopRNA C-domain, thereby probably stabilizing a double-stranded RNA structure (helix P4) containing catalytic Mg(2+) ions, while a heterodimer of PhoRpp21 and PhoRpp29 locates on a single-stranded loop connecting helices P11 and P12 in the specificity domain (S-domain) in PhopRNA, probably forming an appropriate conformation of the precursor tRNA (pre-tRNA) binding site. The fifth protein PhoRpp38 binds each kink-turn (K-turn) motif in helices P12.1, P12.2, and P16 in PhopRNA. Comparison of the structure of the resulting 3-D model with that of bacterial RNase P suggests transition from RNA-RNA interactions in bacterial RNase P to protein-RNA interactions in archaeal RNase P. The proposed 3-D model of P. horikoshii RNase P will serve as a framework for further structural and functional studies on archaeal, as well as eukaryotic, RNase Ps. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Vitamin D and infectious diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosn, Jade; Viard, Jean-Paul

    2013-10-01

    Vitamin D plays a role in the synthesis of antibacterial peptids and in autophagy. Several studies have shown that low levels of vitamin D are associated with the susceptibility and the severity of acute infections on one hand, and with an unfavorable outcome of some chronic infections (such as HIV infection). Vitamin D supplementation improves response to treatment of some viral (such as chronic hepatitis C infection) or bacterial infections (such as pulmonar tuberculosis). Vitamin D supplementation demonstrated no benefit in reducing the incidence of pulmonary infections. The target level of vitamin D to be reached after supplementation is not known yet. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Water-soluble vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konings, Erik J M

    2006-01-01

    Simultaneous Determination of Vitamins.--Klejdus et al. described a simultaneous determination of 10 water- and 10 fat-soluble vitamins in pharmaceutical preparations by liquid chromatography-diode-array detection (LC-DAD). A combined isocratic and linear gradient allowed separation of vitamins in 3 distinct groups: polar, low-polar, and nonpolar. The method was applied to pharmaceutical preparations, fortified powdered drinks, and food samples, for which results were in good agreement with values claimed. Heudi et al. described a separation of 9 water-soluble vitamins by LC-UV. The method was applied for the quantification of vitamins in polyvitaminated premixes used for the fortification of infant nutrition products. The repeatability of the method was evaluated at different concentration levels and coefficients of variation were principle in a specific and sensitive method for the determination of free and bound pantothenic acid in a large variety of foods. A French laboratory invited European laboratories to participate in a series of collaborative studies for this method, which will be carried out in 2005/2006. A more sophisticated method was described by Mittermayer et al. They developed an LC-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) method for the determination of vitamin B5 in a wide range of fortified food products. Application of the method to various samples showed consistent results with those obtained by microbiology. Vitamin B6.-Method 2004.07, an LC method for the analysis of vitamin B6 in reconstituted infant formula, was published by Mann et al. In contrast with this method, which quantifies vitamin B6 after converting the phosphorylated and free vitamers into pyridoxine, Viñas et al. published an LC method which determines 6 vitamin B6 related compounds, the 3 B6 vitamers, their corresponding phosphorylated esters, and a metabolite. Accuracy was determined using 2 CRMs. Results were within the certified ranges. Vitamin C.-Franke et al. described an extensive

  6. Vitamin contents of archaebacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Noll, K M; Barber, T S

    1988-01-01

    The levels of six water-soluble vitamins of seven archaebacterial species were determined and compared with the levels found in a eubacterium, Escherichia coli. Biotin, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, nicotinic acid, pyridoxine, and lipoic acid contents of Halobacterium volcanii, Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum delta H, "Archaeoglobus fulgidus" VC-16, Thermococcus celer, Pyrodictium occultum, Thermoproteus tenax, and Sulfolobus solfataricus were measured by using bioassays. The archaebacte...

  7. Vitamin D and infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miragliotta, Giuseppe; Miragliotta, Luisa

    2014-01-01

    In the early 1920s the antirachitic effect of food irradiated with ultraviolet light and cod liver oil has been recognized. The antirachitic substance was identified and called "vitamin D". Since then the key role of vitamin D in calcium and bone homeostasis has been investigated. Moreover, it has been recognized that vitamin D is able to modulate a variety of processes and regulatory systems such as host defense, inflammation, immunity, and repair. According to recent studies, vitamin D deficiency is likely to be an important etiological factor in the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases, as well as it has been associated with higher mortality rate for respiratory disease. In this regard, either observational studies aimed to verify an association between low vitamin D level and the incidence of respiratory tract infections (RTIs) or clinical trials on the effect of vitamin D as a supplementary treatment in RTIs patients have been presented in the emerging clinical literature. Conflicting results have been demonstrated in several randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trials concerning the vitamin D treatment in tuberculosis. Some studies suggest a beneficial effect by vitamin D but it could not be reproduced in larger studies so far. In conclusion, although basic science research suggests that vitamin D may play an important role in modulating immune functions, no strong evidence exists whether correction of vitamin D depletion may be useful in the prevention or treatment of infections. Further and larger studies may clarify the role of vitamin D in infection.

  8. Vitamin D and respiratory disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Hushmand

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The active form of vitamin D is synthesized in some body organs following sun exposure and dietary intake. Vitamin D exhibits its major and critical effects not only through regulation of calcium and phosphate metabolism but also by influencing on respiratory and immune system. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D below the optimum limit lead to vitamin D insufficiency or maybe deficiency. These inappropriate concentrations of vitamin D lead to different types of pulmonary diseases such as viral and bacterial respiratory infection, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cancer. In this review we described the association between vitamin D deficiency and severe therapy resistant asthma. We also reviewed the underlying molecular mechanism of vitamin D deficiency in children with severe- therapy resistant asthma. Based on current information, future clinical trial are needed to study the role of vitamin D supplementation on different groups of patients with severe asthma including infants, children of school age, and ethnic minorities.

  9. Synthesis of B6 vitamin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučijak Nevena Ž.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of vitamin B6 has been known since its discovery in the 1940's. Chemical tests, elestrometric titration determinations, and absorption spectrum studies showed that this vitamin exists in three major chemical forms: pyridoxine (an alcohol, pyridoxal (an aldehyde, and pyridoxamine (a primary amine. Vitamin B6 is needed for more than 100 enzymes involved in protein metabolism, and it is assumed that this vitamin is cofactor of metabolic processes more important than any other substance. A deficiency of vitamin B6 in the human diet leads to severe disorders. Vitamin B6 is necessary for the proper function of the immune and nervous system, and helps the body convert protein to energy. This paper describes the history, properties and applications of vitamin B6, elucidation of chemical structure, and different procedures for synthesis of pyridoxine and pyridoxamine.

  10. Vitamin therapy after heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jignesh

    2015-10-01

    The need for routine nutritional supplementation with vitamins in most healthy individuals remains a matter of debate and current guidelines recommend that the need for these essential nutrients be met primarily through consuming an adequate diet. However, after heart transplantation, multiple factors, including the effects of prolonged debilitation prior to surgery and immunosuppression, may lead to physiological stress, which may justify consideration for vitamin supplementation. In general, clinical trials have not focused on vitamin supplementation after heart transplantation. There appears to be some limited clinical data to support the use of certain vitamins after heart transplantation. In particular, the putative antioxidant properties of vitamins C and E after heart transplantation may be beneficial as prophylaxis against cardiac allograft vasculopathy, and vitamin D, in conjunction with calcium, may help prevent post-transplant bone loss. Current guidelines only address the use of vitamin D after heart transplantation.

  11. Leczenie otępienia przy współistniejących schorzeniach internistycznych – wybrane zagadnienia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Klich-Rączka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Celem poniższej pracy było przedstawienie dylematów związanych ze stosowaniem leków poprawiających funkcje poznawcze przy obecności innych schorzeń u ludzi starszych. Ze względu na powszechną w starości polipatologię otępienie, będące jednym z najistotniejszych problemów medycznych w tym okresie życia, rzadko występuje jako pojedyncze schorzenie – zwykle współistnieje z innymi chorobami. Leczenie otępienia jest zwykle połączone z terapią innych jednostek chorobowych, co wiąże się ze zwiększonym ryzykiem interakcji lekowych oraz działań niepożądanych. Dodatkowo ryzyko tych działań wzrasta z powodu zmian w farmakokinetyce wynikających z gorszej dystrybucji leków w organizmie oraz pogarszającej się z wiekiem wydolności wielonarządowej, czego konsekwencją może być upośledzony metabolizm i wydalanie leków. Spośród stosowanych w leczeniu otępienia inhibitorów acetylocholinesterazy interakcje najczęściej dotyczą donepezilu, co spowodowane jest jego metabolizmem w wątrobie przy udziale cytochromu P450, który równocześnie uczestniczy w metabolizmie wielu innych leków wykorzystywanych w terapii różnych schorzeń wieku starczego. Przeciwwskazaniami do stosowania inhibitorów acetylocholinesterazy są przede wszystkim: ciężka niewydolność wątroby, zespół chorego węzła zatokowego, zaburzenia rytmu i przewodnictwa, czynna choroba wrzodowa żołądka lub dwunastnicy, choroby powodujące utrudnienie odpływu moczu, napady drgawkowe, astma oskrzelowa/przewlekła obturacyjna choroba płuc. Działania niepożądane leków występują u kilku do kilkudziesięciu procent pacjentów, a u części z nich stanowią przeciwwskazania do kontynuowania terapii. Problem interakcji lekowych i działań niepożądanych jest często marginalizowany w leczeniu starszych pacjentów z otępieniem.

  12. Catalytic activity of refolded penicillin acylase subunits in aqueous solution and aerosol ot reversed micelles in octane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabakov, V E; Klyachko, N L; Levashov, A V

    1994-08-01

    Refolded alpha and beta subunits of penicillin acylase were produced by gel-filtration under denaturing conditions followed by removal of urea through dialysis. Preparations of both renatured subunits hidrolysed specific substrate--phenylacetic acid p-nitroanilide in buffer and in the system of Aerosol OT reversed micelles, the alpha subunit being most catalytically active at Wo = 11.9, while the beta subunit--at Wo = 17.5. There was a good correlation between the position of the found maxima, the theoretically calculated optimal hydration degrees as well as the earlier reported profile of enzymatic activity for native enzyme in reversed micelles.

  13. The Kcnq1ot1 Long Non-Coding RNA Affects Chromatin Conformation and Expression of Kcnq1, but Does Not Regulate Its Imprinting in the Developing Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korostowski, Lisa; Sedlak, Natalie; Engel, Nora

    2012-01-01

    Although many of the questions raised by the discovery of imprinting have been answered, we have not yet accounted for tissue- or stage-specific imprinting. The Kcnq1 imprinted domain exhibits complex tissue-specific expression patterns co-existing with a domain-wide cis-acting control element. Transcription of the paternally expressed antisense non-coding RNA Kcnq1ot1 silences some neighboring genes in the embryo, while others are unaffected. Kcnq1 is imprinted in early cardiac development but becomes biallelic after midgestation. To explore this phenomenon and the role of Kcnq1ot1, we used allele-specific assays and chromosome conformational studies in wild-type mice and mice with a premature termination mutation for Kcnq1ot1. We show that Kcnq1 imprinting in early heart is established and maintained independently of Kcnq1ot1 expression, thus excluding a role for Kcnq1ot1 in repressing Kcnq1, even while silencing other genes in the domain. The exact timing of the mono- to biallelic transition is strain-dependent, with the CAST/EiJ allele becoming activated earlier and acquiring higher levels than the C57BL/6J allele. Unexpectedly, Kcnq1ot1 itself also switches to biallelic expression specifically in the heart, suggesting that tissue-specific loss of imprinting may be common during embryogenesis. The maternal Kcnq1ot1 transcript is shorter than the paternal ncRNA, and its activation depends on an alternative transcriptional start site that bypasses the maternally methylated promoter. Production of Kcnq1ot1 on the maternal chromosome does not silence Cdkn1c. We find that in later developmental stages, however, Kcnq1ot1 has a role in modulating Kcnq1 levels, since its absence leads to overexpression of Kcnq1, an event accompanied by an aberrant three-dimensional structure of the chromatin. Thus, our studies reveal regulatory mechanisms within the Kcnq1 imprinted domain that operate exclusively in the heart on Kcnq1, a gene crucial for heart development and function

  14. Vitamin D in allergic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Pawlak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is a factor that plays a significant role in calcium-phosphate balance. It has an effect on bone metabolism and also has modulator and anti-inflammatory activity. It is claimed that vitamin D inhibits immunological reactions with Th1 and Th17 lymphocytes. The influence of vitamin D on Th2 lymphocytes is not clear. The main effect of vitamin D is probably the activation of Treg lymphocytes. It was observed that vitamin D had a beneficial influence on diseases connected with excessive activation of Th1 lymphocytes, such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, non-specific enteritis, diabetes type 1 or psoriasis. The role of vitamin D in allergic diseases, in which increased activation of Th2-dependent reactions are of great importance, is controversial. However, due to a wide range of vitamin D activity, this view seems to be simplified. A beneficial effect on the course of allergic diseases was observed in up-to-date studies although the role of vitamin D in their pathogenesis has not been explained yet. On the basis of recent studies and well-known mechanisms of vitamin D activity on particular elements of the immunological system, the influence of vitamin D on the course of chosen allergic diseases, such as allergic asthma, atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis was presented considering the possibility of contribution of allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  15. The phenomenon of vitamin D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata M. Gruber

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The receptor of vitamin D (VDR is present in most non-skeletal human cells, suggesting its role beyond the bone and calcium metabolism. The relationship between vitamin D and the respiratory tract is a consequence of its activity in the immune system. Some gastrointestinal diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, coeliac disease, liver, pancreas or cardiac diseases, lead to vitamin D deficiency. Many studies indicate a correlation between vitamin D and diabetes. VDR and 1α-hydroxylase have been detected in the cutaneous capillary vessels, endothelium, vascular smooth muscles, myocytes and cardiac fibroblasts. The influence of vitamin D on the expression of genes related to the vascular walls implies its role in the pathomechanisms of vascular diseases and the cardiovascular system. Due to the VDR detected in most immunocompetent cells, calcitriol can modulate the congenital and acquired immune system. The correlation between vitamin D and cancer development is also not surprising because of many functions which vitamin D has in the organism. The vitamin D-regulated genes encode the proteins which participate in differentiation, proliferation or apoptosis. This paper aims to focus on the less well known roles of vitamin D in the organism, especially considering that most “sun consumers” know only its antirachitic and bone reinforcing action. So, this article may be surprising, and first of all it should convince everyone to vitamin D supplemention.

  16. Worldwide status of vitamin D nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lips, P.T.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    The vitamin D status depends on the production of vitamin D3 in the skin under the influence of ultraviolet radiation and vitamin D intake through the diet or vitamin D supplements. The serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration is the parameter of choice for the assessment of vitamin D

  17. Vitamin D, vitamin D binding protein, lung function and structure in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Isaac; Hanson, Corrine; Sayles, Harlan

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D and vitamin D binding protein (DBP) have been associated with COPD and FEV1. There are limited data regarding emphysema and vitamin D and DBP.......Vitamin D and vitamin D binding protein (DBP) have been associated with COPD and FEV1. There are limited data regarding emphysema and vitamin D and DBP....

  18. Mechanistic basis for high reactivity of (salen)Co-OTs in the hydrolytic kinetic resolution of terminal epoxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Lars P C; Zuend, Stephan J; Ford, David D; Jacobsen, Eric N

    2012-03-02

    The (salen)Co(III)-catalyzed hydrolytic kinetic resolution (HKR) of terminal epoxides is a bimetallic process with a rate controlled by partitioning between a nucleophilic (salen)Co-OH catalyst and a Lewis acidic (salen)Co-X catalyst. The commonly used (salen)Co-OAc and (salen)Co-Cl precatalysts undergo complete and irreversible counterion addition to epoxide during the course of the epoxide hydrolysis reaction, resulting in quantitative formation of weakly Lewis acidic (salen)Co-OH and severely diminished reaction rates in the late stages of HKR reactions. In contrast, (salen)Co-OTs maintains high reactivity over the entire course of HKR reactions. We describe here an investigation of catalyst partitioning with different (salen)Co-X precatalysts and demonstrate that counterion addition to epoxide is reversible in the case of the (salen)Co-OTs. This reversible counterion addition results in stable partitioning between nucleophilic and Lewis acidic catalyst species, allowing highly efficient catalysis throughout the course of the HKR reaction.

  19. Vitamin D4 in mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Katherine M; Horst, Ronald L; Koszewski, Nicholas J; Simon, Ryan R

    2012-01-01

    An unknown vitamin D compound was observed in the HPLC-UV chromatogram of edible mushrooms in the course of analyzing vitamin D(2) as part of a food composition study and confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to be vitamin D(4) (22-dihydroergocalciferol). Vitamin D(4) was quantified by HPLC with UV detection, with vitamin [(3)H] itamin D(3) as an internal standard. White button, crimini, portabella, enoki, shiitake, maitake, oyster, morel, chanterelle, and UV-treated portabella mushrooms were analyzed, as four composites each of a total of 71 samples from U.S. retail suppliers and producers. Vitamin D(4) was present (>0.1 µg/100 g) in a total of 18 composites and in at least one composite of each mushroom type except white button. The level was highest in samples with known UV exposure: vitamin D enhanced portabella, and maitake mushrooms from one supplier (0.2-7.0 and 22.5-35.4 µg/100 g, respectively). Other mushrooms had detectable vitamin D(4) in some but not all samples. In one composite of oyster mushrooms the vitamin D(4) content was more than twice that of D(2) (6.29 vs. 2.59 µg/100 g). Vitamin D(4) exceeded 2 µg/100 g in the morel and chanterelle mushroom samples that contained D(4), but was undetectable in two morel samples. The vitamin D(4) precursor 22,23-dihydroergosterol was found in all composites (4.49-16.5 mg/100 g). Vitamin D(4) should be expected to occur in mushrooms exposed to UV light, such as commercially produced vitamin D enhanced products, wild grown mushrooms or other mushrooms receiving incidental exposure. Because vitamin D(4) coeluted with D(3) in the routine HPLC analysis of vitamin D(2) and an alternate mobile phase was necessary for resolution, researchers analyzing vitamin D(2) in mushrooms and using D(3) as an internal standard should verify that the system will resolve vitamins D(3) and D(4).

  20. Vitamin D4 in mushrooms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M Phillips

    Full Text Available An unknown vitamin D compound was observed in the HPLC-UV chromatogram of edible mushrooms in the course of analyzing vitamin D(2 as part of a food composition study and confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to be vitamin D(4 (22-dihydroergocalciferol. Vitamin D(4 was quantified by HPLC with UV detection, with vitamin [(3H] itamin D(3 as an internal standard. White button, crimini, portabella, enoki, shiitake, maitake, oyster, morel, chanterelle, and UV-treated portabella mushrooms were analyzed, as four composites each of a total of 71 samples from U.S. retail suppliers and producers. Vitamin D(4 was present (>0.1 µg/100 g in a total of 18 composites and in at least one composite of each mushroom type except white button. The level was highest in samples with known UV exposure: vitamin D enhanced portabella, and maitake mushrooms from one supplier (0.2-7.0 and 22.5-35.4 µg/100 g, respectively. Other mushrooms had detectable vitamin D(4 in some but not all samples. In one composite of oyster mushrooms the vitamin D(4 content was more than twice that of D(2 (6.29 vs. 2.59 µg/100 g. Vitamin D(4 exceeded 2 µg/100 g in the morel and chanterelle mushroom samples that contained D(4, but was undetectable in two morel samples. The vitamin D(4 precursor 22,23-dihydroergosterol was found in all composites (4.49-16.5 mg/100 g. Vitamin D(4 should be expected to occur in mushrooms exposed to UV light, such as commercially produced vitamin D enhanced products, wild grown mushrooms or other mushrooms receiving incidental exposure. Because vitamin D(4 coeluted with D(3 in the routine HPLC analysis of vitamin D(2 and an alternate mobile phase was necessary for resolution, researchers analyzing vitamin D(2 in mushrooms and using D(3 as an internal standard should verify that the system will resolve vitamins D(3 and D(4.

  1. Vitamin D and Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    children. Termorshuizen F, et al. Photodermatology, Photoimmunology and Photomedicine 2004; 20: 270-271. Vitamin D Metabolism John Cannell and Bruce... ozone easily filters out Ultra Violet B radiation unless the sun is high enough in the sky. Seasonal variation of 25(OH)D levels Cannell JJ, Vieth R...could be easily measured, and such measurement could guide therapy using UV light or through diet. Acknowledgements Cannell JJ Vieth R Holick MF

  2. Cardiovascular Diseases and Fat Soluble Vitamins: Vitamin D and Vitamin K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsugawa, Naoko

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the associations between insufficiency of fat soluble vitamins and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have been reported. Vitamin D affects the cardiovascular system via several pathways, such as suppression of parathyroid hormone, the renin- angiotensin-aldosterone system and vascular endothelial growth and the immune system. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have shown the association between the concentration of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), which is a vitamin D metabolite indicating nutritional vitamin D status, and hypertension, myocardial infarction, heart failure and CVD mortality. On the other hand, the association between vitamin K status and CVDs, especially vascular calcification, has been also reported. Cross-sectional and cohort studies show that high vitamin K status is associated with reduced coronary artery calcification, CVDs and mortality risk. Epidemiological and basic studies indicate that vitamin K possesses a benefit in the prevention of the progression of coronary artery calcification via activation of matrix-gla protein (MGP). While these data in epidemiological and basic studies suggest the protective role of vitamin D and K in CVDs, the benefits of supplementation of both vitamins have not been validated in randomized controlled trials. Further basic and interventional studies are needed to confirm the benefit of both vitamins in protection against CVDs.

  3. Vitamin D and Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muyesser Saykı Arslan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence demonstrated that the active form of vitamin D, 1,25(OH2D3, has an antiproliferative, anti-apopitotic and prodifferentiating effects in several tumour types in preclinical studies. Several studies reported the impact of vitamin D on cancer risk particularly in breast and colorectal cancer however, its effect on thyroid cancer is less known. This review focuses on the relationship of vitamin D and thyroid cancer under the light of the litherature. Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine cancer and also vitamin D deficiency is a common condition throughout the world. Some clinical studies showed that vitamin D deficiency is higher in patients with thyroid cancer. Preclinical studies evidenced that vitamin D has an effect on differentiation, reduction in tumor burden, and prevention of metastatic growth in thyroid cancer used alone or in combination with anticancer drugs. However, further clinical studies are needed to understand its impact on prognosis of thyroid cancer.

  4. Vitamin D and muscle function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson-Hughes, Bess

    2017-10-01

    Muscle weakness is a hallmark of severe vitamin D deficiency, but the effect of milder vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency on muscle mass and performance and risk of falling is uncertain. In this presentation, I review the evidence that vitamin D influences muscle mass and performance, balance, and risk of falling in older adults. Special consideration is given to the impact of both the starting 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level and the dose administered on the clinical response to supplemental vitamin D in older men and women. Based on available evidence, older adults with serum 25(OH)D levels vitamin D dose range of 800-1000 IU per day has been effective in many studies; lower doses have generally been ineffective and several doses above this range have increased the risk of falls. In conclusion, older adults with serum 25(OH)D levels vitamin D. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Vitamin D and Immune Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Amrein

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D metabolizing enzymes and vitamin D receptors are present in many cell types including various immune cells such as antigen-presenting-cells, T cells, B cells and monocytes. In vitro data show that, in addition to modulating innate immune cells, vitamin D also promotes a more tolerogenic immunological status. In vivo data from animals and from human vitamin D supplementation studies have shown beneficial effects of vitamin D on immune function, in particular in the context of autoimmunity. In this review, currently available data are summarized to give an overview of the effects of vitamin D on the immune system in general and on the regulation of inflammatory responses, as well as regulatory mechanisms connected to autoimmune diseases particularly in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  6. The influence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolite-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) on mRNA expression for NP-I/OT and PGA, involved in oxytocin synthesis in bovine granulosa and luteal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynarczuk, Jaroslaw; Wrobel, Michal H; Kotwica, Jan

    2009-11-01

    The effect of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners (PCB 77, PCB 126, PCB 153) and their technical mixture-Aroclor (Ar) 1248, as well as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolite-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE; two individual isomers p,p'- and o,p'- or their mixture, 95% and 5%, respectively) at the dose of 10 ng/ml each, on the gene expression of (a) oxytocin (OT) precursor-neurophysin-oxytocin (NP-I/OT) and (b) peptidyl glycine-alpha-amidating mono-oxygenase (PGA), the terminal enzyme in the pathway of OT synthesis, was studied. Granulosa cells from follicles >1cm in diameter, collected on days 19-21 of estrous cycle, and luteal cells from corpora lutea (CL) collected on days 8-12 of the estrous cycle were used. The cells were incubated (6h) with these xenobiotics and the expression of NP-I/OT and PGA genes was determined. All PCBs increased (PNP-I/OT gene expression in granulosa cells. Similarly, all PCBs but PCB 126 increased (PPNP-I/OT in granulosa cells, while gene expression of PGA in these cells was stimulated (PNP-I/OT and PGA in luteal cells was increased (PPNP-I/OT mRNA expression, while increase (PNP-I/OT and PGA in bovine granulosa and luteal cells.

  7. Vitamin D toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasish Maji

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 67-year-old female was admitted to the hospital with a history of lethargy, memory impairment, confusion, anorexia and gait imbalance for 2 weeks duration. She did not have any history of fall or head injury. She had total hip replacement 1 year back and was on orthopedic follow-up. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI on admission revealed no focal abnormalities. Routine biochemistry detected hypercalcemia, and she was treated with I/V fluid, diuretics and glucocorticoids. She was screened thoroughly to exclude occult malignancy. After 7 days of admission, a follow-up orthopedic prescription revealed that she was getting inj. Arachitol 6 lac units every week for last 3 months. On the 9 th day of admission, she was detected to have very high serum 25(OH vitamin D level (254.70 ng/ml. Patient was discharged after 2 weeks after her serum calcium came down to normal range with the advice of no dietary calcium and vitamin D intake. Her 25(OH vitamin D level remained high for the next 6 months. Now she is completely asymptomatic and her serum 25(OH D is normal.

  8. Reproductive endocrinology of vitamin D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Mette; Boisen, Ida Marie; Mortensen, Li Juel

    2017-01-01

    in the reproductive tissues. The reproductive organs are therefore responsive to and able to metabolize vitamin D locally. The exact role remains to be clarified but several studies have suggested a link between vitamin D and production/release of reproductive hormones into circulation, which will be the main focus...... suffering from reproductive problems and abnormal endocrinology research addressing the role of vitamin D in reproductive endocrinology is of clinical importance....

  9. Extraskeletal effects of vitamin D

    OpenAIRE

    Maurizio Rossini

    2011-01-01

    In the last years we observed an increasing number of publications about the vitamin D, due to its recognised therapeutic actions and to the widespread hypovitaminosis D. In addition to the well known skeletal benefits, vitamin D can have multiple effects on other tissues.Muscular apparatus: hypovitaminosis D is associated with myopathy, sarcopenia, muscular strength reduction and increased risk of falls. The vitamin D supplementation increases the muscle functionality indexes. Cardiovascular...

  10. Vitamins and Minerals in Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy Donate A to Z Health Guide Vitamins and Minerals in Kidney Disease Tweet Share Print ... here’s what you need to know. What are vitamins and minerals? Vitamins and minerals are substances your ...

  11. Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bone Health Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health March 2012 Download ... also helps keep your bones strong. Why are vitamin D and calcium important to bone health? Vitamin ...

  12. Vitamin K deficiency bleeding of the newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin K deficiency bleeding of the newborn (VKDB) is a bleeding disorder in babies. It most often ... A lack of vitamin K may cause severe bleeding in newborn babies. Vitamin K plays an important role in blood clotting. Babies often ...

  13. Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin R. Grübler

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency, as well as cardiovascular diseases (CVD and related risk factors are highly prevalent worldwide and frequently co-occur. Vitamin D has long been known to be an essential part of bone metabolism, although recent evidence suggests that vitamin D plays a key role in the pathophysiology of other diseases, including CVD, as well. In this review, we aim to summarize the most recent data on the involvement of vitamin D deficiency in the development of major cardiovascular risk factors: hypertension, obesity and dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease and endothelial dysfunction. In addition, we outline the most recent observational, as well as interventional data on the influence of vitamin D on CVD. Since it is still an unresolved issue whether vitamin D deficiency is causally involved in the pathogenesis of CVD, data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs designed to assess the impact of vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes are awaited with anticipation. At present, we can only conclude that vitamin D deficiency is an independent cardiovascular risk factor, but whether vitamin D supplementation can significantly improve cardiovascular outcomes is still largely unknown.

  14. Vitamin D and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouni-Berthold, Ioanna; Krone, Wilhelm; Berthold, Heiner K

    2009-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recently vitamin D deficiency has been identified as a potential risk factor for many diseases not traditionally associated with vitamin D, such as cancer and CVD. This review discusses the evidence suggesting an association between low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and CVD and the possible mechanisms mediating it. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with CVD risk factors such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus, with markers of subclinical atherosclerosis such as intima-media thickness and coronary calcification as well as with cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction and stroke as well as congestive heart failure. It could be suggested that vitamin D deficiency contributes to the development of CVD through its association with risk factors, such as diabetes and hypertension. However, direct effects of vitamin D on the cardiovascular system may also be involved. Vitamin D receptors are expressed in a variety of tissues, including cardiomyocytes, vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells and vitamin D has been shown to affect inflammation and cell proliferation and differentiation. While much evidence supports a potential antiatherosclerotic effect of vitamin D, prospective, placebo-controlled randomized as well as mechanistic studies are needed to confirm this association. Since vitamin D deficiency is easy to screen for and treat, the confirmation of such an association could have important implications for both, patient care and health policy.

  15. Anti-Tumor Effects after Adoptive Transfer of IL-12 Transposon-Modified Murine Splenocytes in the OT-I-Melanoma Mouse Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L Galvan

    Full Text Available Adoptive transfer of gene modified T cells provides possible immunotherapy for patients with cancers refractory to other treatments. We have previously used the non-viral piggyBac transposon system to gene modify human T cells for potential immunotherapy. However, these previous studies utilized adoptive transfer of modified human T cells to target cancer xenografts in highly immunodeficient (NOD-SCID mice that do not recapitulate an intact immune system. Currently, only viral vectors have shown efficacy in permanently gene-modifying mouse T cells for immunotherapy applications. Therefore, we sought to determine if piggyBac could effectively gene modify mouse T cells to target cancer cells in a mouse cancer model. We first demonstrated that we could gene modify cells to express murine interleukin-12 (p35/p40 mIL-12, a transgene with proven efficacy in melanoma immunotherapy. The OT-I melanoma mouse model provides a well-established T cell mediated immune response to ovalbumin (OVA positive B16 melanoma cells. B16/OVA melanoma cells were implanted in wild type C57Bl6 mice. Mouse splenocytes were isolated from C57Bl6 OT-I mice and were gene modified using piggyBac to express luciferase. Adoptive transfer of luciferase-modified OT-I splenocytes demonstrated homing to B16/OVA melanoma tumors in vivo. We next gene-modified OT-I cells to express mIL-12. Adoptive transfer of mIL-12-modified mouse OT-I splenocytes delayed B16/OVA melanoma tumor growth in vivo compared to control OT-I splenocytes and improved mouse survival. Our results demonstrate that the piggyBac transposon system can be used to gene modify splenocytes and mouse T cells for evaluating adoptive immunotherapy strategies in immunocompetent mouse tumor models that may more directly mimic immunotherapy applications in humans.

  16. Estudo morfológico dos otólitos Sagitta, Asteriscus e Lapillus de teleósteos (Actinopterygii, teleostei) de Portugal Continental

    OpenAIRE

    Assis, Carlos António da Silva, 1961-

    2000-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento em Biologia (Ecologia e Biossistemática), apresentada à Universidade de Lisboa através da Faculdade de Ciências, 2001 Os otólitos são concreções acelulares de carbonato de cálcio e outros sais inorgânicos, que se desenvolvem sobre uma matriz proteica no ouvido interno dos vertebrados. Nos peixes ósseos, os otólitos são em número de três pares, sagittae, asterisci e lapilli, e atingem normalmente dimensões apreciáveis, preenchendo quase completamente a cavidade interna ...

  17. Vitamins and bone health: beyond calcium and vitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadieh, Hala; Arabi, Asma

    2011-10-01

    Osteoporosis is a major health disorder associated with an increased risk of fracture. Nutrition is among the modifiable factors that influence the risk of osteoporosis and fracture. Calcium and vitamin D play important roles in improving bone mineral density and reducing the risk of fracture. Other vitamins appear to play a role in bone health as well. In this review, the findings of studies that related the intake and/or the status of vitamins other than vitamin D to bone health in animals and humans are summarized. Studies of vitamin A showed inconsistent results. Excessive, as well as insufficient, levels of retinol intake may be associated with compromised bone health. Deficiencies in vitamin B, along with the consequent elevated homocysteine level, are associated with bone loss, decreased bone strength, and increased risk of fracture. Deficiencies in vitamins C, E, and K are also associated with compromised bone health; this effect may be modified by smoking, estrogen use or hormonal therapy after menopause, calcium intake, and vitamin D. These findings highlight the importance of adequate nutrition in preserving bone mass and reducing the risk of osteoporosis and fractures. © 2011 International Life Sciences Institute.

  18. Conservation of Repeats at the Mammalian KCNQ1OT1-CDKN1C Region Suggests a Role in Genomic Imprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos De Donato

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available KCNQ1OT1 is located in the region with the highest number of genes showing genomic imprinting, but the mechanisms controlling the genes under its influence have not been fully elucidated. Therefore, we conducted a comparative analysis of the KCNQ1/KCNQ1OT1-CDKN1C region to study its conservation across the best assembled eutherian mammalian genomes sequenced to date and analyzed potential elements that may be implicated in the control of genomic imprinting in this region. The genomic features in these regions from human, mouse, cattle, and dog show a higher number of genes and CpG islands (detected using cpgplot from EMBOSS, but lower number of repetitive elements (including short interspersed nuclear elements and long interspersed nuclear elements, compared with their whole chromosomes (detected by RepeatMasker. The KCNQ1OT1-CDKN1C region contains the highest number of conserved noncoding sequences (CNS among mammals, where we found 16 regions containing about 38 different highly conserved repetitive elements (using mVista, such as LINE1 elements: L1M4, L1MB7, HAL1, L1M4a, L1Med, and an LTR element: MLT1H. From these elements, we found 74 CNS showing high sequence identity (>70% between human, cattle, and mouse, from which we identified 13 motifs (using Multiple Em for Motif Elicitation/Motif Alignment and Search Tool with a significant probability of occurrence, 3 of which were the most frequent and were used to find transcription factor–binding sites. We detected several transcription factors (using JASPAR suite from the families SOX, FOX, and GATA. A phylogenetic analysis of these CNS from human, marmoset, mouse, rat, cattle, dog, horse, and elephant shows branches with high levels of support and very similar phylogenetic relationships among these groups, confirming previous reports. Our results suggest that functional DNA elements identified by comparative genomics in a region densely populated with imprinted mammalian genes may be

  19. Gut Microbes Take Their Vitamins

    OpenAIRE

    Sonnenburg, Erica D.; Sonnenburg, Justin L.

    2014-01-01

    The dense microbial ecosystem within the gut is connected through a complex web of metabolic interactions. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Degnan et al. (2014) establish the importance of different vitamin B12transporters that help a Bacteroides species acquire vitamins from the environment tomaintain a competitive edge.

  20. The Vitamin D Endocrine System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Anthony W.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the physiology and biochemistry of the vitamin D endocrine system, including role of biological calcium and phosphorus, vitamin D metabolism, and related diseases. A 10-item, multiple-choice test which can be used to obtain continuing medical education credit is included. (JN)

  1. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resist the pressure to buy a product or treatment on the spot. Some supplement products may be expensive or may not provide the benefit you expect. For example, excessive amounts of water-soluble vitamins, like vitamins C and B, are ...

  2. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the first trimester of pregnancy, consume adequate synthetic folic acid daily (from fortified foods or supplements) in addition to food forms of ... consume extra vitamin D from vitamin D-fortified foods and/or supplements. ... a "dietary ingredient" intended to supplement the diet. Listed in the " ...

  3. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the first trimester of pregnancy, consume adequate synthetic folic acid daily (from fortified foods or supplements) in addition to food forms of ... consume extra vitamin D from vitamin D-fortified foods and/or supplements. ... a "dietary ingredient" intended to supplement the diet. Listed in the " ...

  4. Vitamin D deficiency and stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D comprises a group of fat-soluble pro-hormones, obtained from sun exposure, food, and supplements, and it must undergo two hydroxylation reactions to be activated in the body. Several studies have shown the role of vitamin D in mineral metabolism regulation, especially calcium, phosphorus, and bone metabolism. Some factors such as inadequate vitamin intake and liver or kidney disorders can lead to vitamin D deficiency. Furthermore, vitamin D malnutrition may also be linked to susceptibility to chronic diseases such as heart failure, peripheral artery disease, high blood pressure, cognitive impairment including foggy brain and memory loss, and autoimmune diseases including diabetes type I. Recent research has revealed that low levels of vitamin D increase the risk of cardiovascular-related morbidity (Sato et al., 2004 and mortality (Pilz et al., 2008. Also, hypertension contributes to a reduction in bone mineral density and increase in the incidence of stroke and death. This article reviews the function and physiology of vitamin D and examines the effects of vitamin D deficiency on susceptibility to stroke, as a cardiovascular event, and its morbidity and subsequent mortality.

  5. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Work with your health care providers to determine how best to achieve optimal health." Consider the following tips before ... a Vitamin Strategy It is important for consumers to have an overall strategy for how they will achieve adequate vitamin intakes. The 2005 ...

  6. Vitamin D and autoimmune diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Potrokhova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The review discusses the effect of vitamin D on the tolerogenic modulation of an immune response, its relationship to cells of the monocyte-macrophage series, including dendritic cells, monocytes, and macrophages, in the context of the impact of the expression of anti-inflammatory proinflammatory cytokines in some autoimmune diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, systemic scleroderma, multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes mellitus, systemic lupus erythematosus, and Crohn`s disease. It discusses the role of vitamin D in the development of innate and adaptive immunity. Despite some conflicting evidence, the immune regulatory function of vitamin D is generally directed toward inhibition of the components of innate and acquired immunity, which are responsible for the induction of autoimmune reactions; in this connection there are a growing number of publications devoted to the issues of vitamin D supplementation in patients with autoimmune diseases, the preventive effect of vitamin D intake on the risk of an abnormality and that of therapeutic doses of the vitamin on its course. The maintenance of the threshold value for serum 25(OHD3 at least 30 ng/ml, which is achieved by the intake of about 2000 IU of vitamin D, is shown to be required for its immune regulatory function. The data given raise the question as to whether it is necessity to revise the Russian recommended daily dietary allowances for vitamin D through its infant food fortification.

  7. Vitamin D Status in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Seok Choi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The majority of the vitamin D in our body is produced by cutaneous synthesis in response to sunlight. As more and more people live in cities and spend the bulk of their time indoors, it can be difficult to get sufficient sun exposure for adequate cutaneous production of vitamin D. Therefore, vitamin D insufficiency has become a very common health problem worldwide. The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV 2008 showed that the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency, defined as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] level below 50 nmol/L, was 47.3% in males and 64.5% in females. Only 13.2% of males and 6.7% of females had a serum 25(OHD level of greater than 75 nmol/L. In Korea, vitamin D insufficiency was more prevalent in young adults than in elderly people, likely due to the indoor lifestyle of younger people. Compared with the United States and Canada, Korea has a lower mean 25(OHD level and a higher prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency. To improve the vitamin D status of the Korean population, more aggressive policies on food fortification and vitamin D supplementation are needed.

  8. Vitamin D recommendations: beyond deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesalski, Hans K

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin D plays an important role in regular bone growth and in adequate function of the innate immune system, including barrier functions of mucous membranes. A sufficient supply during pregnancy and lactation protects the child from infectious diseases. Clinical symptoms of severe vitamin D deficiency (rickets) are well known and can be easily detected. Signs and symptoms beyond deficiency, however, remain to be elucidated. Based on clinical and observational data, the plasma level of 25(OH)D may serve as a 'marker' to detect or define a subclinical deficiency. Levels below 50 nmol/l might be insufficient to maintain the non-bone-related activities of vitamin D. Finally, it has to be considered that all of the nonbone activities of vitamin D are in concert with vitamin A (9-cis retinoic acid). Studies combining both vitamins in sufficient amounts (cod liver oil) demonstrated a beneficial effect on the prevention of respiratory tract infections. Consequently, it should be strongly recommended to increase the intake of vitamin D and to ensure a daily intake of vitamin A as counseled. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... taking too much of a vitamin. Fat-soluble Vitamins A (retinol, retinal, retinoic acid): Nausea, vomiting, headache, dizziness, blurred vision, clumsiness, birth defects, liver problems, possible risk of osteoporosis. You may be at greater risk of these effects if you drink high amounts of alcohol or ...

  10. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... vitamins for a variety of biological processes, including growth, digestion, and nerve function. There are 13 vitamins ... fix" that departs from scientific research and established dietary guidance. More ... and requirements for advance payment. "Also ask yourself, "Is the ...

  11. Vitamin K and bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Maryam S; Gajic-Veljanoski, Olga; Cheung, Angela M

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin K has been purported to play an important role in bone health. It is required for the gamma-carboxylation of osteocalcin (the most abundant noncollagenous protein in bone), making osteocalcin functional. There are 2 main forms (vitamin K1 and vitamin K2), and they come from different sources and have different biological activities. Epidemiologic studies suggest a diet high in vitamin K is associated with a lower risk of hip fractures in aging men and women. However, randomized controlled trials of vitamin K1 or K2 supplementation in white populations did not increase bone mineral density at major skeletal sites. Supplementation with vitamin K1 and K2 may reduce the risk of fractures, but the trials that examined fractures as an outcome have methodological limitations. Large well-designed trials are needed to compare the efficacies of vitamin K1 and K2 on fractures. We conclude that currently there is not enough evidence to recommend the routine use of vitamin K supplements for the prevention of osteoporosis and fractures in postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2013 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Vitamin D and gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Jan S; Lamont, Ronald F; Torloni, Maria R

    2014-01-01

    , macrosomia, shoulder dystocia and neonatal hypoglycemia. Women with GDM and their babies are at increased risk for developing type II diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: International definitions of vitamin D deficiency and normality are inconsistent. Vitamin D deficiency is common in pregnant women particularly...

  13. Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... provide oxygen to body tissues. There are many types of anemia. Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia is a low red ... People with this type of anemia often do well with treatment. Long-term vitamin B12 deficiency can cause nerve damage. This may be permanent if ...

  14. Biochemistry and Physiology of Vitamins in Euglena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Fumio; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Shigeoka, Shigeru

    2017-01-01

    Euglena gracilis Z requires vitamins B1 and B12 for growth. It takes up and accumulates large amounts of these exogenous vitamins through energy-dependent active transport systems. Except for these essential vitamins, E. gracilis Z has the ability to synthesize all human vitamins. Euglena synthesizes high levels of antioxidant vitamins such as vitamins C and E, and, thus, are used as nutritional supplements for humans and domestic animals. Methods to effectively produce vitamins in Euglena have been investigated.Previous biochemical studies indicated that E. gracilis Z contains several vitamin-related novel synthetic enzymes and metabolic pathways which suggests that it is a highly suitable organism for elucidating the physiological functions of vitamins in comparative biochemistry and biological evolution. E. gracilis Z has an unusual biosynthetic pathway for vitamin C, a hybrid of the pathways found in animals and plants. This chapter presents up-to-date information on the biochemistry and physiological functions of vitamins in this organism.

  15. A genome-wide association study of bipolar disorder with comorbid eating disorder replicates the SOX2-OT region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohua; Kelsoe, John R; Greenwood, Tiffany A

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a heterogeneous mood disorder associated with several important clinical comorbidities, such as eating disorders. This clinical heterogeneity complicates the identification of genetic variants contributing to bipolar susceptibility. Here we investigate comorbidity of eating disorders as a subphenotype of bipolar disorder to identify genetic variation that is common and unique to both disorders. We performed a genome-wide association analysis contrasting 184 bipolar subjects with eating disorder comorbidity against both 1370 controls and 2006 subjects with bipolar disorder only from the Bipolar Genome Study (BiGS). The most significant genome-wide finding was observed bipolar with comorbid eating disorder vs. controls within SOX2-OT (p=8.9×10(-8) for rs4854912) with a secondary peak in the adjacent FXR1 gene (p=1.2×10(-6) for rs1805576) on chromosome 3q26.33. This region was also the most prominent finding in the case-only analysis (p=3.5×10(-7) and 4.3×10(-6), respectively). Several regions of interest containing genes involved in neurodevelopment and neuroprotection processes were also identified. While our primary finding did not quite reach genome-wide significance, likely due to the relatively limited sample size, these results can be viewed as a replication of a recent study of eating disorders in a large cohort. These findings replicate the prior association of SOX2-OT with eating disorders and broadly support the involvement of neurodevelopmental/neuroprotective mechanisms in the pathophysiology of both disorders. They further suggest that different clinical manifestations of bipolar disorder may reflect differential genetic contributions and argue for the utility of clinical subphenotypes in identifying additional molecular pathways leading to illness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Cristina Garcia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency has been observed worldwide at all stages of life. It has been characterized as a public health problem, since low concentrations of this vitamin have been linked to the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases. Several studies have suggested that vitamin D is involved in cardiovascular diseases and have provided evidence that it has a role in reducing cardiovascular disease risk. It may be involved in regulation of gene expression through the presence of vitamin D receptors in various cells, regulation of blood pressure (through renin-angiotensin system, and modulation of cell growth and proliferation including vascular smooth muscle cells and cardiomyocytes. Identifying correct mechanisms and relationships between vitamin D and such diseases could be important in relation to patient care and healthcare policies.

  17. [Vitamin D and breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagykálnai, Tamás; Landherr, László; Nagy, András Csaba

    2014-07-13

    The active form of vitamin D, in conjunction with his own receptor, affect a multitude of biological processes in the cell (inter alia it influences the expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes). There is an increasing volume of scientific publications examining the relationships between serum vitamin D levels, vitamin D supplementation and malignant diseases. Some articles suggest inverse relationship between the low serum levels of vitamin D and the breast cancer risk and mortality, whilst other publications do not support this view. Thus the present opinion is conflicted. Vitamin D can exert a beneficial influence on the symptoms and outcomes of a large number of ailments, but its role in affecting cancer is still not completely clear.

  18. Vitamin D: present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsavsky, M; Alonso, G; García-Martín, A

    2014-10-01

    In recent years has been a growing interest by vitamin D, not only for its important role in the bone mineral metabolism, but also by the extra-osseous effects. Most of the scientific societies consider that deposits are sufficient if the serum concentration of 25-OH vitamin D is above 30ng/ml and are considered deficient if levels are below 20ng/ml. The majority of studies found that supplements of calcium plus vitamin D have a positive effect in reducing the risk of fracture and the risk of falls in the elderly, although several specifies that doses should be 700-1.000 IU daily. The treatment of the deficit can be performed with vitamin D2, D3 as well as calcidiol or the active metabolite calcitriol. In certain pathologies also selective vitamin D receptor activators can be used. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  19. Vitamin D and adolescent health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-López, Faustino R; Pérez-Roncero, Gonzalo; López-Baena, María T

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin D is a hormone sequentially produced at different body sites, and which plays a significant role in human health, particularly bone health. However, other roles are emerging. When the serum concentration of vitamin D is very low, the risk of rickets, osteomalacia and osteoporosis is increased. In children and adolescents there is a high prevalence of low vitamin D status, especially in females and during the winter-the prevalence being lower than during the summer. Although there is no unanimous agreement over the minimum values necessary for good health, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels below 20 ng/mL may be regarded as a vitamin D-deficient condition, and levels between 20-30 ng/mL may be the range of vitamin D insufficiency. Mild low levels have been associated with bone mass accrual alterations in children and adolescents, diminished muscle strength, negative cardiovascular outcomes, insulin resistance and obesity, and neurological disorders. Effective preventive strategies are needed to guarantee adequate vitamin D levels throughout childhood and adolescence, taking into account the geographical setting, season of the year, the level of environmental pollution, skin characteristics, eating habits and body weight, with a view to securing optimum health during these phases, and the prevention of complications in adulthood. There needs to be a renewed appreciation of the beneficial effect of moderate sunlight for providing all humans with the vitamin D needed for ensuring good health. Prolonged sun exposure is not advised, however, due to the risk of skin cancer. In addition, a balanced diet is indicated, since vitamin D-rich foods are better assimilated than supplements. When such conditions cannot be met, then the supplementation of 400 IU/day of vitamin D is advised in children and adolescents-though correcting vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency may require 1000 IU/day or more. High-dose calcifediol depots are an alternative for

  20. Vitamin C and Immune Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Anitra C; Maggini, Silvia

    2017-11-03

    Vitamin C is an essential micronutrient for humans, with pleiotropic functions related to its ability to donate electrons. It is a potent antioxidant and a cofactor for a family of biosynthetic and gene regulatory enzymes. Vitamin C contributes to immune defense by supporting various cellular functions of both the innate and adaptive immune system. Vitamin C supports epithelial barrier function against pathogens and promotes the oxidant scavenging activity of the skin, thereby potentially protecting against environmental oxidative stress. Vitamin C accumulates in phagocytic cells, such as neutrophils, and can enhance chemotaxis, phagocytosis, generation of reactive oxygen species, and ultimately microbial killing. It is also needed for apoptosis and clearance of the spent neutrophils from sites of infection by macrophages, thereby decreasing necrosis/NETosis and potential tissue damage. The role of vitamin C in lymphocytes is less clear, but it has been shown to enhance differentiation and proliferation of B- and T-cells, likely due to its gene regulating effects. Vitamin C deficiency results in impaired immunity and higher susceptibility to infections. In turn, infections significantly impact on vitamin C levels due to enhanced inflammation and metabolic requirements. Furthermore, supplementation with vitamin C appears to be able to both prevent and treat respiratory and systemic infections. Prophylactic prevention of infection requires dietary vitamin C intakes that provide at least adequate, if not saturating plasma levels (i.e., 100-200 mg/day), which optimize cell and tissue levels. In contrast, treatment of established infections requires significantly higher (gram) doses of the vitamin to compensate for the increased inflammatory response and metabolic demand.

  1. Vitamin C and Immune Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitra C. Carr

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C is an essential micronutrient for humans, with pleiotropic functions related to its ability to donate electrons. It is a potent antioxidant and a cofactor for a family of biosynthetic and gene regulatory enzymes. Vitamin C contributes to immune defense by supporting various cellular functions of both the innate and adaptive immune system. Vitamin C supports epithelial barrier function against pathogens and promotes the oxidant scavenging activity of the skin, thereby potentially protecting against environmental oxidative stress. Vitamin C accumulates in phagocytic cells, such as neutrophils, and can enhance chemotaxis, phagocytosis, generation of reactive oxygen species, and ultimately microbial killing. It is also needed for apoptosis and clearance of the spent neutrophils from sites of infection by macrophages, thereby decreasing necrosis/NETosis and potential tissue damage. The role of vitamin C in lymphocytes is less clear, but it has been shown to enhance differentiation and proliferation of B- and T-cells, likely due to its gene regulating effects. Vitamin C deficiency results in impaired immunity and higher susceptibility to infections. In turn, infections significantly impact on vitamin C levels due to enhanced inflammation and metabolic requirements. Furthermore, supplementation with vitamin C appears to be able to both prevent and treat respiratory and systemic infections. Prophylactic prevention of infection requires dietary vitamin C intakes that provide at least adequate, if not saturating plasma levels (i.e., 100–200 mg/day, which optimize cell and tissue levels. In contrast, treatment of established infections requires significantly higher (gram doses of the vitamin to compensate for the increased inflammatory response and metabolic demand.

  2. /sup 45/Ca efflux for myometrial cells: comparison of the effects of prostaglandin F/sub 2/. cap alpha. (PGF/sub 2/), oxytocin (OT) and arachidonate (A)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katona, G.; Molnar, M.; Toth, M.; Hertelendy, F.

    1986-03-01

    The aim of this study was to measure PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../-induced Ca/sup 2 +/ release from uterine cells and to compare this to the actions of OT and A. Smooth muscle cells isolated from the uterus (shell gland) of laying hens were cultured for 7 days in M199 plus 10% fetal calf serum. The cells were treated with digitonin (20..mu..M) and preloaded with /sup 45/Ca for 40 min. Addition of PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../ caused a biphasic /sup 45/Ca-efflux. There was a small but significant /sup 45/Ca-release within 30 sec (rapid phase) followed by a larger one within 7 min (slow phase). In comparison, both OT and A stimulated /sup 45/Ca efflux during a single, slow phase. The maximal effect of A was observed at < 7 min, whereas that of OT was slower, peaking after 7 min. Mepacrin, an inhibitor of A release, attenuated the action of OT without having any effect on A promoted /sup 45/Ca-efflux. Indomethacin, an inhibitor of PG synthase, failed to suppress the Ca-releasing effect of A suggesting the A itself or a lipoxygenase product may have been responsible for the observed effects. Moreover, these results provide suggestive evidence that A release is an important step in the action of various uterotonic agents converging on the mobilization of intracellular Ca.

  3. Sexual or paternal experiences alter alloparental behavior and the central expression of ERalpha and OT in male mandarin voles (Microtus mandarinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhenzhen; Tai, Fadao; Yu, Chengjun; Wu, Ruiyong; Zhang, Xia; Broders, Hugh; He, Fengqin; Guo, Rui

    2010-12-25

    Various hypotheses have been proposed to explain factors influencing male alloparental behavior in cooperatively breeding species. Mandarin voles (Microtus mandarinus) are ideal animal models to investigate these factors because they are highly social rodents and display biparental care and spontaneous parental care when exposed to foster pups. Here we test the idea that the sexual and paternal experience of males influences alloparental behavior toward novel pups, and that these experiences alter the expression of neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) and estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha). Alloparental behavior and OT and ERalpha expression were compared between virgin males that had no prior sexual or reproductive experience, exposed males that with prior exposure to novel pups before the test, paired males that had been housed with a female, and new fathers having their first litter with a female. Our results show that prior exposure to novel pups and prior mating and paternal experience increased male alloparental behavior toward a novel pup. This experience also increased OT expression and affected the expression of ERalpha. This study reveals important initiation factors for male alloparental behavior and suggests a relationship between alloparental behavior and central OT expression in males. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Milliseid ohte kätkeb endas laste ja noorte jaoks Internet? Kuidas neid vähendada? / Aimur Liiva, Hanna-Liisa Ennet, Tõnu Ots, Erkki Jaanhold

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Küsimustele vastavad Tiigrihüppe Sihtasutuse loodusteaduste ja tehnoloogia valdkonna juht Aimur Liiva, MTÜ Caritas psühholoog Hanna-Liisa Ennet, psühholoog Tõnu Ots ja Carl Robert Jakobsoni nimelise Gümnaasiumi õpilane Erkki Jaanhold

  5. Characterization of single airborne particle extinction using the tunable optical trap-cavity ringdown spectroscopy (OT-CRDS) in the UV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhiyong; Pan, Yong-Le; Wang, Chuji

    2017-03-20

    We integrated a rigid optical trap into a tunable pulsed cavity ringdown spectroscopy (OT-CRDS) system to characterize the extinction of single airborne particles in the UV spectral region (306-315 nm). Single solid particles from a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT), Bermuda grass smut spore, carbon microsphere, and blackened polyethylene microsphere were trapped in air based on the photophoretic force. The improved OT-CRDS system was highly sensitive and able to resolve extinctions of single particles from different materials and sizes at a given wavelength. Further, we successfully manipulated the number of particles, e.g., 1, 2 or more particles, in the trap and measured their distinguishable extinctions using the OT-CRDS. We also show that the particle size and extinction have a good linear correlation from the measurements of 24 single MWCNT particles. Material- and wavelength-dependent extinctions of the four types of airborne particles were also characterized. Results reveal that single airborne particles regardless of their differences in material and size, due to their heterogeneous morphology, have individual-particle dependent extinctions and that dependence can be resolved and characterized using the OT-CRDS technique.

  6. [Interference of vitamin E on the brain tissue damage by electromagnetic radiation of cell phone in pregnant and fetal rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xian; Luo, Rui; Ma, Bin; Wang, Hui; Liu, Tian; Zhang, Jing; Lian, Zhishun; Cui, Xi

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the interlerence ot vitamin E on brain tissue damage by electromagnetic radiation of cell phone in pregnant and fetal rats. 40 pregnant rats were randomly divided into five groups (positive control, negative control, low, middle and high dosage of vitamin E groups). The low, middle and high dosage of vitamin E groups were supplemented with 5, 15 and 30 mg/ml vitamin E respectively since the first day of pregnancy. And the negative control group and the positive control group were given peanut oil without vitamin E. All groups except for the negative control group were exposed to 900MHz intensity of cell phone radiation for one hour each time, three times per day for 21 days. After accouchement, the right hippocampus tissue of fetal rats in each group was taken and observed under electron microscope. The vitality of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in pregnant and fetal rats' brain tissue were tested. Compared with the negative control group, the chondriosomes in neuron and neuroglia of brain tissues was swelling, mild edema was found around the capillary, chromatin was concentrated and collected, and bubbles were formed in vascular endothelial cells (VEC) in the positive fetal rat control group, whereas the above phenomenon was un-conspicuous in the middle and high dosage of vitamin E groups. We can see uniform chromatin, abundant mitochondrion, rough endoplasmic reticulum and free ribosomes in the high dosage group. The apoptosis has not fond in all groups'sections. In the antioxidase activity analysis, compared with the negative control group, the vitality of SOD and GSH-Px significantly decreased and the content of MDA significantly increased both in the pregnant and fetal rats positive control group (P electromagnetic radiation of cell phone in pregnant rats and fetal rats.

  7. Erosive potential of vitamin and vitamin+mineral effervescent tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegehaupt, Florian J; Lunghi, Nancy; Hogger, Vanessa M G; Attin, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The extrinsic sources for erosion-causing acids are primarily acidic beverages and foodstuffs. Effervescent tablets also contain organic acids (e.g. citric, tartaric, malic) in order to form carbon dioxide by contact with water – with the help of the carbonate salts of the tablets. To adequately inform patients about the possible erosive potential of effervescent tablets, this study was undertaken in order to investigate the erosive potential of effervescent tablets (ET), containing either a combination of vitamins and minerals or vitamins only, commercially available in Switzerland. One hundred and ninety-two bovine enamel samples were prepared and allocated to 16 groups (A–H and 1–8; n = 12/group). Samples were eroded (120 s/erosive cycle) in freshly prepared solutions (200 ml/12 samples) comprised of tap water and a supplement as follows: none (control groups, A and 1); vitamin+mineral ET: Qualite and Prix (B), Optisana (C), Well and Active (D), Actilife All in One (E), Berocca (F), Isostar (G) and Qualite and Prix Mg + Vit C (H); vitamin ET: Actilife-Multivitamin (2), Sunlife Vitamin C (3), Optisana Vitamin C (4), Optisana Multivitamin (5), Well and Active Multivitamin (6), Kneipp Vitamin C+Zink (7) and Sunlife Multivitamin (8). Enamel loss was measured using profilometry after 10 and 20 erosive cycles. For the vitamin+mineral ET, no loss was observed in groups B–E. Significantly highest enamel loss (mean ± SD) after 20 cycles was observed for Isostar (5.26 ± 0.76 µm) and Qualite and Prix Mg + Vit C (5.12 ± 0.67 µm). All vitamine ET showed erosive enamel loss. Significantly highest loss was observed for Sunlife Multivitamin (8.45 ± 1.08 µm), while the lowest loss was observed for Actilife-Multivitamin (5.61 ± 1.08 µm) after 20 cycles. Some of the tested effervescent tablets showed a considerable erosive potential and patients should be informed accordingly.

  8. C-Vitamin mod åreforkalkning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frikke-Schmidt, Henriette Rønne; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Overraskende mange mennesker i den vestlige verden får ikke C-vitamin nok. Muligvis vil tilskud med C-vitamin kunne forebygge hjertekarsygdomme.......Overraskende mange mennesker i den vestlige verden får ikke C-vitamin nok. Muligvis vil tilskud med C-vitamin kunne forebygge hjertekarsygdomme....

  9. Maternal Vitamin D Status: Effect on Milk Vitamin D Content and Vitamin D Status of Breastfeeding Infants123

    OpenAIRE

    Dawodu, Adekunle; Tsang, Reginald C.

    2012-01-01

    There are increasing reports of rickets and vitamin D deficiency worldwide. Breastfeeding without adequate sunlight exposure and vitamin D supplementation are the major risk factors. In view of the drive to promote and increase the rate of exclusive breastfeeding, the relationship among maternal vitamin D status, vitamin D concentration of human milk, and hence vitamin D status of breastfeeding infants deserves reassessment. This review provides current information on the interrelationship be...

  10. Plasma and milk concentrations of vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 following intravenous injection of vitamin D3 or 25-hydroxy vitamin D3.

    OpenAIRE

    Hidiroglou, M; Knipfel, J E

    1984-01-01

    Plasma levels of vitamin D3 or 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in ewes after administration of a single massive intravenous dose of vitamin D3 (2 X 10(6) IU) or 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (5 mg) were determined at zero, one, two, three, five, ten and 20 days postinjection. In six ewes injected with vitamin D3 conversion of vitamin D3 to 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 resulted in a six-fold increase in the plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 level within one day. Elevated levels were maintained until day 10 but by day 20 a s...

  11. Live Longer with Vitamin D?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Gröber

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The global burden of vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency is of great concern for public health. According to recent studies, vitamin D deficiency is an important etiological factor in the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases. Whether or not there is a connection between 25-hydoxyvitamin D (25(OHD status and overall mortality is a matter of considerable debate. A new meta-analysis confirmed that low 25(OHD levels were associated with a significant increased risk for all-cause mortality. Individuals with severe vitamin D deficiency have almost twice the mortality rate as those with 25(OHD level ≥ 30 ng/mL, (≥75 nmol/L. Unlike previous meta-analyses which suggested that serum 25(OHD > 50 ng/mL was associated with increased mortality, this new analysis found that there was no increased risk even when 25(OHD levels were ≥70 ng/mL. In general, closer attention should be paid to vitamin D deficiency in medical and pharmaceutical practice than has been the case hitherto. The results of these studies are consistent with the recommendation to improve the general vitamin D status in children and adults by means of a healthy approach to sunlight exposure, consumption of foods containing vitamin D and supplementation with vitamin D preparations.

  12. Vitamin D and respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sa Del Fiol, Fernando; Barberato-Filho, Silvio; Lopes, Luciane Cruz; de Cassia Bergamaschi, Cristiane

    2015-04-15

    Vitamin D or 1,25-hydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2 D) has a well-established role in calcium homeostasis. In recent years, the discovery of vitamin D-metabolizing enzymes and vitamin D receptor (VDR) in the lungs and various cells of the immune system has led to numerous studies conducted to evaluate its role in respiratory functions and, in particular, upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs). A PubMed literature search was done using vitamin D and respiratory infections as key words. Only clinical studies were considered. This study aimed to review recent clinical and epidemiological studies conducted in adults and children, and to evaluate the functional role of vitamin D in respiratory infections. The evaluated studies show an important immunomodulatory role of vitamin D, which reduces the incidence and risk of URTIs, both in children and in adults. Combating URTIs can be done prophylactically, associating the use of vaccines against Streptococcus pneumoniae with strengthening the immune system through supplementation with vitamin D. These actions can significantly contribute to reducing the number of URTIs, the use of antibiotics, and consequently, the rates of antimicrobial resistance.

  13. Vitamin K and brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferland, Guylaine

    2013-11-01

    One of the fat-soluble vitamins, vitamin K was initially discovered for its role in blood coagulation. Although several vitamin K-dependent hemostatic proteins are particularly important for the brain, other vitamin K-dependent proteins (VKDPs), not associated with blood coagulation, also contribute to the brain function. In addition to the VKDPs, vitamin K participates in the nervous system through its involvement in sphingolipid metabolism, a class of lipids widely present in brain cell membranes. Classically known for their structural role, sphingolipids are biologically potent molecules involved in a wide range of cellular actions. Also, there is growing evidence that the K vitamer, menaquinone-4, has anti-inflammatory activity and offers protection against oxidative stress. Finally, although limited in numbers, reports point to a modulatory role of vitamin K in cognition. This short review presents an overview of the known role of vitamin K in brain function to date. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. [Vitamins and Minerals in Oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holch, Julian Walter; Michl, Marlies; Heinemann, Volker; Erickson, Nicole

    2017-06-01

    The use of vitamins and minerals to prevent cancer as well as their supportive use in oncological patients is widespread and often occurs without the knowledge of the treating physician. Beyond general recommendations with regard to a balanced and healthy diet, no evidence exists supporting the use of vitamins and minerals in the prevention of cancer. Furthermore, the diet of oncological patients should contain vitamins and minerals of the same quantity as for healthy individuals. In particular, there is currently no rationale for a high-dosage administration of antioxidants. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Vitamin requirements of juvenile penaeid shrimp

    OpenAIRE

    Conklin, D.

    1989-01-01

    The results of supplementing crustacean feeds with vitamins are examined specifically from the standpoint of shrimp culture. Micro-nutrients selected for discussion include: water-soluble vitamins of the B-complex, choline and inositol, vitamin C and the fat-soluble group of vitamins: A, D, E and K. Ways in which utilization of vitamins and ultimately dietary demand are altered by physiological state, conditions of culture, as well as factors which impact on feed levels, are explored.

  16. Vitamin E in spruces. Vitamin E in Fichten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzen, J.

    1990-05-01

    The distribution of vitamin E in spruce and the change of its concentration in the needles under oxidative or dark stress are studied in this thesis. [gamma]-tocopherol is found in seeds only, and [beta]-tocopherol and [alpha]-tocotrienol are found in seddlings only, but [alpha]-tocopherol is found in all living organs. The age groups of needles exhibit on asymptotic, age-dependent accumulation. Etiolation in consequence of artifical dark stress and oxidative stress result in an increase in vitamin E, while monoterpene fumigation and high light intensity entail a decrease in vitam E. Field investigations reveal a connection between the degree of injury in trees and their vitamin E content. On the whole, vitamin E seems to be an essential, stabilizing component of vegetable membranes. (UWA).

  17. Vitamin supplementation for preventing miscarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, Olukunmi O; da Silva Lopes, Katharina; Ota, Erika; Takemoto, Yo; Rumbold, Alice; Takegata, Mizuki; Mori, Rintaro

    2016-05-06

    Miscarriage is a common complication of pregnancy that can be caused by a wide range of factors. Poor dietary intake of vitamins has been associated with an increased risk of miscarriage, therefore supplementing women with vitamins either prior to or in early pregnancy may help prevent miscarriage. The objectives of this review were to determine the effectiveness and safety of any vitamin supplementation, on the risk of spontaneous miscarriage. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group Trials Register (6 November 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. All randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing supplementation during pregnancy with one or more vitamins with either placebo, other vitamins, no vitamins or other interventions. We have included supplementation that started prior to conception, periconceptionally or in early pregnancy (less than 20 weeks' gestation). Three review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, extracted data and assessed trial quality. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. The quality of evidence is included for numerical results of outcomes included in the 'Summary of findings' tables. We included a total of 40 trials (involving 276,820 women and 278,413 pregnancies) assessing supplementation with any vitamin(s) starting prior to 20 weeks' gestation and reporting at least one primary outcome that was eligible for the review. Eight trials were cluster-randomised and contributed data for 217,726 women and 219,267 pregnancies in total.Approximately half of the included trials were assessed to have a low risk of bias for both random sequence generation and adequate concealment of participants to treatment and control groups. Vitamin C supplementation There was no difference in the risk of total fetal loss (risk ratio (RR) 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92 to 1.40, seven trials, 18,949 women; high-quality evidence); early or late miscarriage (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.65 to 1

  18. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body, which doesn't store large amounts. The kidneys remove those vitamins that are not needed. Fat- ... walking, and pain. C (ascorbic acid): Upset stomach, kidney stones, increased iron absorption. Folic Acid (folate): High ...

  19. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About Vitamins FoodSafety.gov: Your Gateway to Federal Food Safety Information More in Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products ...

  20. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are numerous nutrients—including vitamins—for which low dietary intake may be a cause of concern. These nutrients are: calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamins A (as carotenoids), C, and ...

  1. Multiple Sclerosis and Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Editors David C. Spencer, MD Steven Karceski, MD Multiple sclerosis and vitamin D Andrew J. Solomon, MD WHAT ... caused by improper immune responses (autoimmune diseases), including multiple sclerosis (MS). A recent Patient Page in Neurology provided ...

  2. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... fortified foods or supplements. If you're a woman of childbearing age who may become pregnant, eat ... high in vitamin C. If you're a woman of childbearing age who may become pregnant or ...

  3. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... Upper Intake Levels for Nutrients Related Consumer Updates Infant Overdose Risk With Liquid Vitamin D 4 Medication ... Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training & Continuing Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health ...

  4. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... Joint FDA/WebMD resource Dietary Reference Intakes: A Risk Assessment Model for Establishing Upper Intake Levels for Nutrients Related Consumer Updates Infant Overdose Risk With Liquid Vitamin D 4 Medication Safety Tips ...

  5. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... Vitamin Strategy It is important for consumers to have an overall strategy for how they will achieve ... varied diet. If you are an older adult, have dark skin, or are exposed to insufficient ultraviolet ...

  6. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... easily absorbed by the body, which doesn't store large amounts. The kidneys remove those vitamins that ... are fluids used to absorb fat. The body stores these for use as needed. Practice Safety with ...

  7. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... Overdose Risk With Liquid Vitamin D 4 Medication Safety Tips for Older Adults More in Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products ...

  8. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Fortify Your Knowledge ... for Establishing Upper Intake Levels for Nutrients Related Consumer Updates Infant Overdose Risk With Liquid Vitamin D ...

  9. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... National Institute of Health's Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) eating plan. If you're over age ... and phosphate in soft tissues. If you take blood thinners, talk to your doctor before taking vitamin ...

  10. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... Related Consumer Updates Infant Overdose Risk With Liquid Vitamin D 4 Medication Safety Tips for Older Adults ... & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics ...

  11. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... the urine." Develop a Vitamin Strategy It is important for consumers to have an overall strategy for ... the individual's intake of food." She adds, "An important point made in the guidelines is that nutrient ...

  12. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ... a vitamin can also cause problems with some medical tests or interfere with how some drugs work. ...

  13. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... counter multivitamins. According to the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP), a doctor may recommend that you ... the urine." Develop a Vitamin Strategy It is important for consumers to have an overall strategy for ...

  14. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... Hypertension (DASH) eating plan. If you're over age 50, consume vitamin B-12 in its crystalline ... supplements. If you're a woman of childbearing age who may become pregnant, eat foods high in ...

  15. Vitamin D and colon cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pereira, Fábio; Larriba, María Jesús; Muñoz, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    .... In addition, recent epidemiological and experimental studies support the association of vitamin D deficiency with a large variety of human diseases, and particularly with the high risk of colorectal cancer...

  16. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... health problems if you eat a vegetarian or vegan diet if you are pregnant or breastfeeding Vitamin ... activity. They form the basis for federal food, nutrition education, and information programs. Barbara Schneeman, Ph.D., ...

  17. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers ... and phosphate in soft tissues. If you take blood thinners, talk to your doctor before taking vitamin ...

  18. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... you believe that you are experiencing an adverse response to taking a vitamin or a dietary supplement, ... Accessibility Careers FDA Basics FOIA No FEAR Act Site Map Nondiscrimination Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug ...

  19. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics ... skin, or are exposed to insufficient ultraviolet band radiation (such as sunlight), consume extra vitamin D from ...

  20. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), provide science-based advice to promote health and to reduce ... some vitamins and minerals, the National Academy of Sciences has established upper limits of intake (ULs) that ...

  1. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... Upper Intake Levels for Nutrients Related Consumer Updates Infant Overdose Risk With Liquid Vitamin D ... Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics ...

  2. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... other less familiar substances such as herbals, botanicals, amino acids, and enzymes," Frankos says. "Check with your health ... are not only vitamins, but minerals, botanicals products, amino acids, and substances such as enzymes, microbial probiotics, and ...

  3. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... problems if you eat a vegetarian or vegan diet if you are pregnant or breastfeeding Vitamin Facts ... and to reduce risk for chronic diseases through diet and physical activity. They form the basis for ...

  4. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... include other less familiar substances such as herbals, botanicals, amino acids, and enzymes," Frankos says. "Check with ... ingredient" category are not only vitamins, but minerals, botanicals products, amino acids, and substances such as enzymes, ...

  5. Vitamin D deficiency in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cashman, Kevin D.; Dowling, Kirsten G; Škrabáková, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    25(OH)D values from national health/nutrition surveys. OBJECTIVE: This study applied VDSP protocols to serum 25(OH)D data from representative childhood/teenage and adult/older adult European populations, representing a sizable geographical footprint, to better quantify the prevalence of vitamin D......BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency has been described as being pandemic, but serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] distribution data for the European Union are of very variable quality. The NIH-led international Vitamin D Standardization Program (VDSP) has developed protocols for standardizing existing...... sera. These data were combined with standardized serum 25(OH)D data from 4 previously standardized studies (for a total n = 55,844). Prevalence estimates of vitamin D deficiency [using various serum 25(OH)D thresholds] were generated on the basis of standardized 25(OH)D data. RESULTS: An overall pooled...

  6. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... Liquid Vitamin D 4 Medication Safety Tips for Older Adults More in Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics ...

  7. Vitamin D and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and adults spend lots of time indoors at school and work. When outdoors, it's important to protect skin to prevent melanoma and skin damage from too much sun exposure. Food Very few foods have vitamin D naturally. The ...

  8. Vitamin D and Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who are pregnant or lactating, the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) is 15 micrograms (μg) per day. Because ... intake level of vitamin D for adults and children older than 8 years of age is 100 ...

  9. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... are easily absorbed by the body, which doesn't store large amounts. The kidneys remove those vitamins ... have liver problems, high cholesterol levels or don't get enough protein. D (calciferol): Nausea, vomiting, poor ...

  10. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... the foods they eat, millions of people worldwide take supplemental vitamins as part of their health regimen. ... Physicians (AAFP), a doctor may recommend that you take them: for certain health problems if you eat ...

  11. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... product worth the money?'" Frankos advises. "Resist the pressure to buy a product or treatment on the ... and phosphate in soft tissues. If you take blood thinners, talk to your doctor before taking vitamin ...

  12. Vitamin D and adolescent health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faustino R Pérez-López

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Faustino R Pérez-López, Gonzalo Pérez-Roncero, María T López-BaenaGrupo de Investigación sobre Salud de la Mujer en Aragón (GRISAMAR, Universidad de Zaragoza, Hospital Clínico Zaragoza, SpainAbstract: Vitamin D is a hormone sequentially produced at different body sites, and which plays a significant role in human health, particularly bone health. However, other roles are emerging. When the serum concentration of vitamin D is very low, the risk of rickets, osteomalacia and osteoporosis is increased. In children and adolescents there is a high prevalence of low vitamin D status, especially in females and during the winter–the prevalence being lower than during the summer. Although there is no unanimous agreement over the minimum values necessary for good health, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] levels below 20 ng/mL may be regarded as a vitamin D-deficient condition, and levels between 20–30 ng/mL may be the range of vitamin D insufficiency. Mild low levels have been associated with bone mass accrual alterations in children and adolescents, diminished muscle strength, negative cardiovascular outcomes, insulin resistance and obesity, and neurological disorders. Effective preventive strategies are needed to guarantee adequate vitamin D levels throughout childhood and adolescence, taking into account the geographical setting, season of the year, the level of environmental pollution, skin characteristics, eating habits and body weight, with a view to securing optimum health during these phases, and the prevention of complications in adulthood. There needs to be a renewed appreciation of the beneficial effect of moderate sunlight for providing all humans with the vitamin D needed for ensuring good health. Prolonged sun exposure is not advised, however, due to the risk of skin cancer. In addition, a balanced diet is indicated, since vitamin D-rich foods are better assimilated than supplements. When such conditions cannot be met, then the

  13. Vitamins and abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Hisato; Umemoto, Takuya

    2017-02-01

    To summarize the association of vitamins (B6, B12, C, D, and E) and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), we reviewed clinical studies with a comprehensive literature research and meta-analytic estimates. To identify all clinical studies evaluating the association of vitamins B6/B12/C/D/E and AAA, databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched through April 2015, using Web-based search engines (PubMed and OVID). For each case-control study, data regarding vitamin levels in both the AAA and control groups were used to generate standardized mean differences (SMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Pooled analyses of the 4 case-control studies demonstrated significantly lower circulating vitamin B6 levels (SMD, -0.33; 95% CI, -0.55 to -0.11; P=0.003) but non-significantly lower vitamin B12 levels (SMD, -0.42; 95% CI, -1.09 to 0.25; P=0.22) in patients with AAA than subjects without AAA. Pooled analyses of the 2 case-control studies demonstrated significantly lower levels of circulating vitamins C (SMD, -0.71; 95% CI, -1.23 to -0.19; P=0.007) and E (SMD, -1.76; 95% CI, -2.93 to 0.60; P=0.003) in patients with AAA than subjects without AAA. Another pooled analysis of the 3 case-control studies demonstrated significantly lower circulating vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D) levels (SMD, -0.25; 95% CI, -0.50 to -0.01; P=0.04) in patients with AAA than subjects without AAA. In a double-blind controlled trial, 4.0-year treatment with a high-dose folic acid and vitamin B6/B12 multivitamin in kidney transplant recipients did not reduce a rate of AAA repair despite significant reduction in homocysteine level. In another randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 5.8-year supplementation with α-tocopherol (vitamin E) had no preventive effect on large AAA among male smokers. In clinical setting, although low circulating vitamins B6/C/D/E (not B12) levels are associated with AAA presence, vitamins B6/B12/E

  14. Vitamin D and inflammatory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin K

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Kai Yin, Devendra K Agrawal Center for Clinical and Translational Science, Creighton University School of Medicine, Omaha, NE, USA Abstract: Beyond its critical function in calcium homeostasis, vitamin D has recently been found to play an important role in the modulation of the immune/inflammation system via regulating the production of inflammatory cytokines and inhibiting the proliferation of proinflammatory cells, both of which are crucial for the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. Several studies have associated lower vitamin D status with increased risk and unfavorable outcome of acute infections. Vitamin D supplementation bolsters clinical responses to acute infection. Moreover, chronic inflammatory diseases, such as atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular disease, asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, chronic kidney disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and others, tend to have lower vitamin D status, which may play a pleiotropic role in the pathogenesis of the diseases. In this article, we review recent epidemiological and interventional studies of vitamin D in various inflammatory diseases. The potential mechanisms of vitamin D in regulating immune/inflammatory responses in inflammatory diseases are also discussed. Keywords: asthma, atherosclerosis, chronic kidney disease, inflammatory bowel disease

  15. Vitamin D in inflammatory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thea K Wöbke

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Changes in vitamin D serum levels have been associated with inflammatory diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, atherosclerosis or asthma. Genome- and transcriptome-wide studies indicate that vitamin D signalling modulates many inflammatory responses on several levels. This includes i the regulation of the expression of genes which generate pro-inflammatory mediators, such as cyclooxygenases or 5-lipoxygenase, ii the interference with transcription factors, such as NF-kB, which regulate the expression of inflammatory genes and iii the activation of signalling cascades, such as MAP kinases which mediate inflammatory responses. Vitamin D targets various tissues and cell types, a number of which belong to the immune system, such as monocytes/macrophages, dendritic cells as well as B- and T cells, leading to individual responses of each cell type. One hallmark of these specific vitamin D effects is the cell-type specific regulation of genes involved in the regulation of inflammatory processes and the interplay between vitamin D signalling and other signalling cascades involved in inflammation.An important task in the near future will be the elucidation of the regulatory mechanisms that are involved in the regulation of inflammatory responses by vitamin D on the molecular level by the use of techniques such as chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP, ChIP-seq and FAIRE-seq.

  16. Vitamins in Aging, Health, and Longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David R

    2006-01-01

    Evidence of epidemiological associations of vitamins and disease states have been found for nine vitamins. In observational studies, people with a high intake of antioxidant vitamins by regular diet or as food supplements generally have a lower risk of major chronic disease, such as myocardial infarction or stroke, than people who are low consumers of antioxidant vitamins. Prospectively, folate appears to reduce the incidence of neural tube defects. Vitamin D is associated with a decreased occurrence of fractures when taken with calcium. Zinc, betacarotene, and vitamin E appear to slow the progression of macular degeneration, but do not reduce the incidence. Vitamin E and lycopene may decrease the risk of prostate cancer. In other randomized controlled trials, the apparent beneficial results of a high intake of antioxidant vitamins seen in observational studies have not been confirmed. There is increasing concern from these trials that pharmacological supplementation of vitamins may be associated with a higher mortality risk. PMID:18047260

  17. Vitamin D in pregnancy: A metabolic outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manila Kaushal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency is a preventable health problem. Vitamin D deficiency among pregnant women is frequent in many populations over the world. Research indicates that adequate vitamin D intake in pregnancy is optimal for maternal, fetal and child health. Adverse health outcomes during pregnancy are preeclampsia; gestational diabetes mellitus and caesarean section. Consequences in newborns are low birth weight, neonatal rickets, a risk of neonatal hypocalcaemia, asthma and/or type 1 diabetes. Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy is the origin for a host of future perils for the child, especially effect on neurodevelopment and immune system. Some of this damage done by maternal Vitamin D deficiency gets evident after many years. Therefore, prevention of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant women is essential. The currently recommended supplementation amount of vitamin D is not sufficient to maintain a value of 25 hydroxy vitamin D above 30 ng/ml, during pregnancy. Studies are underway to establish the recommended daily doses of vitamin D in pregnant women. Clearly, further investigation is required into the effects of vitamin D, of vitamin D supplementation, and of vitamin D analogs for improvement in human health generally and mothers and children specifically. This review discusses vitamin D metabolism, dietary requirements and recommendations and implications of vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy and lactation.

  18. Characterization of the PH1704 protease from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 and the critical functions of Tyr120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Dongling; Bai, Aixi; Yu, Lei; Han, Weiwei; Feng, Yan

    2014-01-01

    The PH1704 protease from hyperthermophilic archaean Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 is a member of DJ-1/ThiJ/PfpI superfamily with diverse functional subclasses. The recombinant PH1704 was efficiently purified and was systematically characterized by a combination of substrate specificity analysis, steady-state kinetics study and molecular docking research. The homogeneous protease was obtained as a presumed dodecamer with molecular weight of ∼240 kDa. Iodoacetamide strongly inhibited the peptidase activity, confirming that Cys100 is a nucleophilic residue. The recombinant protein was identified as both an aminopeptidase and an endopeptidase. Experimental data showed that L-R-amc was the best substrate of PH1704. Structural interaction fingerprint analysis (SIFt) indicated the binding pose of PH1704 and showed that Tyr120 is important in substrate binding. Kinetic parameters Kcat and Kcat/Km of the Y120P mutant with L-R-amc was about 7 and 7.8 times higher than that of the wild type (WT). For the endopeptidase Y120P with AAFR-amc, Kcat and Kcat/Km is 10- and 21-fold higher than that of WT. Experimental data indicate the important functions of Tyr120: involvement in enzyme activity to form a hydrogen bond with Cys100 and as an entrance gate of the substrate with Lys43. The results of this study can be used to investigate the DJ-1/ThiJ/PfpI superfamily.

  19. VITAMIN AND MINERAL SUPPLEMENTATION FOR CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Iozefovich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamins and minerals play a unique role in the human health maintaining. Children’s organisms are particularly sensitive to the deficiency of vitamins. Typically, the child receives all the necessary vitamins and minerals as a part of nutrition. But in a period of an intensive growth, in climatic conditions changing, increased physical and mental stress, during stress conditions or infectious diseases, as well as during the recovery period the child should receive vitamins, minerals in the mineral and vitamin complexes.Key words: vitamins, minerals, avitaminosis, hypovitaminosis, treatment, prevention, children.

  20. Vitamin A deficiency in quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, R.B.; Bailey, W.W.

    1943-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the symptoms of avitaminosis A in growing and adolescent bobwhites. Chicks from parents that have received a diet rich in vitamin A may have enough stored to carry them a week or ten days on a growing diet deficient in vitamin A before symptoms of deficiency occur. The first sign is ruffled feathering, with the wing primaries standing out from the body and drooping. Ophthalmia in one or both eyes occurs and may close the eyes completely, but this condition is not severe in all cases and may not even be noticeable. Birds show poor growth, loss of appetite, and weakness before death. Under the conditions of the experiments discussed herein, death may occur in the fourth or fifth week, and mortality is high......Postmortem examination may reveal visceral gout with thick deposits of urates on the kidneys, in the ureters, on the heart, in the proventriculus, and occasionally covering all the viscera. There may also be hemorrhage of the heart and other organs....Adolescent quail reared on a diet rich in vitamin A may be able to live through the winter on a maintenance diet low in this vitamin without showing symptoms of avitaminosis, but some individuals whose storage of vitamin A in the liver is not as great as that of others may succumb to visceral gout.....A growing mash for quail which contains sufficient vitamin A when fresh may, after a period of storage, lose enough of the vitamin to cause the characteristic symptoms of avitaminosis A to appear.

  1. Geología de la zona de influencia de la falla otú en el distrito minero segovia-remedios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILTON ÁLVAREZ GALINDEZ

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la caracterización geológica y estructural de la zona de influencia de la falla Otú en jurisdicción del distrito minero Segovia-Remedios. Además, se proponen controles mecánicos para las mineralizaciones auríferas, que si bien son compatibles, en parte, con un modelo de depósitos de oro orogénico, dejan abiertas otras posibles interpretaciones

  2. DNA methylation patterns of imprinting centers for H19, SNRPN, and KCNQ1OT1 in single-cell clones of human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Huei Peng

    2012-09-01

    Conclusion: In conclusion, human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells contain a unique epigenetic signature during in vitro cell culture. H19 and KCNQ1OT1 possessed a substantial degree of hypermethylation status, and variable DNA methylation patterns of SNRPN was observed during in vitro cell culture of human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells. Our results urge further understanding of epigenetic status of human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells before it is applied in cell replacement therapy.

  3. Vitamin D receptors and parathyroid glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Christine S; Ruppe, Mary D; Grubbs, Elizabeth G

    2011-01-01

    To describe the function and metabolism of the vitamin D hormone and the role of the vitamin D receptor and the calcium-sensing receptor in the secretion of parathyroid hormone. A review of the literature was undertaken regarding the function and metabolism of vitamin D; the role of the vitamin D receptor and calcium-sensing receptor in the secretion of parathyroid hormone; and the contemporary research regarding the interaction of vitamin D and parathyroid hormone in patients with vitamin D deficiency, primary hyperparathyroidism, and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Over the last several years, great interest has been generated about the interaction of vitamin D and the parathyroid glands, gastrointestinal tract, kidney, and bone in relation to calcium and parathyroid hormone levels. Vitamin D has an important role in calcium and parathyroid hormone metabolism. Likewise, the vitamin D axis appears to be involved with the development of both primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism. The specific mechanism by which vitamin D interacts with the parathyroid gland to bring about observed effects is not yet fully understood. Future studies investigating the relationship of the vitamin D receptor, calcium-sensing receptor, and parathyroid glands are needed to enhance our knowledge of vitamin D deficiency and primary and secondary vitamin D deficiency.

  4. Iekšējas saskaņotības izjūtas saistība ar apmierinātību ar darbu

    OpenAIRE

    Arāja, Agnese

    2008-01-01

    Bakalaura darba mērķis bija noskaidrot vai pastāv iekšējās saskaņotības izjūtas saistība ar apmierinātību ar darbu. Pētījuma izlase sastāv no 60 respondentiem, 30 vīriešiem un 30 sievietēm, vienā organizācijā strādājošiem tirdzniecības darbiniekiem, vecumā no 18 līdz 40 gadiem. Lai noteiktu attiecības starp iekšējās saskaņotības izjūtu un apmierinātību ar darbu tika attiecīgi izmantotas Antonovska iekšējās saskaņotības izjūtas skala (Sense of Coherence Scale), ko izveidojis Antonovskais 1987....

  5. Life-cycle and genome of OtV5, a large DNA virus of the pelagic marine unicellular green alga Ostreococcus tauri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyne Derelle

    Full Text Available Large DNA viruses are ubiquitous, infecting diverse organisms ranging from algae to man, and have probably evolved from an ancient common ancestor. In aquatic environments, such algal viruses control blooms and shape the evolution of biodiversity in phytoplankton, but little is known about their biological functions. We show that Ostreococcus tauri, the smallest known marine photosynthetic eukaryote, whose genome is completely characterized, is a host for large DNA viruses, and present an analysis of the life-cycle and 186,234 bp long linear genome of OtV5. OtV5 is a lytic phycodnavirus which unexpectedly does not degrade its host chromosomes before the host cell bursts. Analysis of its complete genome sequence confirmed that it lacks expected site-specific endonucleases, and revealed the presence of 16 genes whose predicted functions are novel to this group of viruses. OtV5 carries at least one predicted gene whose protein closely resembles its host counterpart and several other host-like sequences, suggesting that horizontal gene transfers between host and viral genomes may occur frequently on an evolutionary scale. Fifty seven percent of the 268 predicted proteins present no similarities with any known protein in Genbank, underlining the wealth of undiscovered biological diversity present in oceanic viruses, which are estimated to harbour 200Mt of carbon.

  6. Life-Cycle and Genome of OtV5, a Large DNA Virus of the Pelagic Marine Unicellular Green Alga Ostreococcus tauri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derelle, Evelyne; Ferraz, Conchita; Escande, Marie-Line; Eychenié, Sophie; Cooke, Richard; Piganeau, Gwenaël; Desdevises, Yves; Bellec, Laure; Moreau, Hervé; Grimsley, Nigel

    2008-01-01

    Large DNA viruses are ubiquitous, infecting diverse organisms ranging from algae to man, and have probably evolved from an ancient common ancestor. In aquatic environments, such algal viruses control blooms and shape the evolution of biodiversity in phytoplankton, but little is known about their biological functions. We show that Ostreococcus tauri, the smallest known marine photosynthetic eukaryote, whose genome is completely characterized, is a host for large DNA viruses, and present an analysis of the life-cycle and 186,234 bp long linear genome of OtV5. OtV5 is a lytic phycodnavirus which unexpectedly does not degrade its host chromosomes before the host cell bursts. Analysis of its complete genome sequence confirmed that it lacks expected site-specific endonucleases, and revealed the presence of 16 genes whose predicted functions are novel to this group of viruses. OtV5 carries at least one predicted gene whose protein closely resembles its host counterpart and several other host-like sequences, suggesting that horizontal gene transfers between host and viral genomes may occur frequently on an evolutionary scale. Fifty seven percent of the 268 predicted proteins present no similarities with any known protein in Genbank, underlining the wealth of undiscovered biological diversity present in oceanic viruses, which are estimated to harbour 200Mt of carbon. PMID:18509524

  7. Synchronization of the seminiferous epithelium after vitamin A replacement in vitamin A-deficient mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Pelt, A. M.; de rooij, D. G.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of vitamin A deficiency and vitamin A replacement on spermatogenesis was studied in mice. Breeding pairs of Cpb-N mice were given a vitamin A-deficient diet for at least 4 wk. The born male mice received the same diet and developed signs of vitamin A deficiency at the age of 14-16 wk. At

  8. Insufficient vitamin D intakes among pregnant women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGowan, C A

    2011-09-01

    Vitamin D has an important role in pregnancy in promoting fetal skeletal health. Maternal dietary intake is a key factor influencing both maternal and fetal status. There are limited data available on food groups contributing to vitamin D intake in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine dietary intakes of vitamin D throughout pregnancy in 64 women and to determine the main food groups contributing to vitamin D intake. Results showed that median dietary intakes of vitamin D ranged from 1.9-2.1 μg\\/d during pregnancy, and were 80% below the current recommendation. The principal food groups contributing to vitamin D intake were meat, egg and breakfast cereal groups. Oily fish, the best dietary source of vitamin D, was consumed by <25% of women. These data call for more education; they question the role of vitamin D supplementation and highlight the contribution of other food groups more frequently consumed, namely, breakfast cereals, meat and eggs.

  9. Diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    HU, Rehman

    1984-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency occurs primarily as a result  of insufficient dietary intake or poor absorp-tion. There is widespread global prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency, resulting in considerable morbidity.

  10. Vitamin B12 and Folate Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy hCG Tumor Marker HDL Cholesterol Heavy Metals Helicobacter pylori Testing Hematocrit Hemoglobin Hemoglobin A1c Hemoglobinopathy Evaluation ... the body and must be supplied by the diet. Vitamin B12 and folate tests measure vitamin levels ...

  11. Vitamin D deficiency in pediatric critical illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran B. Hebbar, MD, FCCM

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency is common in the pediatric critical care population. Significant seasonal differences were noted even in the critically ill. The role of vitamin D in certain diseases like asthma in critically ill children merit further study.

  12. Vitamin D, Sunlight and Prostate Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Vanaja Donkena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the second common cancer in men worldwide. The prevention of prostate cancer remains a challenge to researchers and clinicians. Here, we review the relationship of vitamin D and sunlight to prostate cancer risk. Ultraviolet radiation of the sunlight is the main stimulator for vitamin D production in humans. Vitamin D's antiprostate cancer activities may be involved in the actions through the pathways mediated by vitamin D metabolites, vitamin D metabolizing enzymes, vitamin D receptor (VDR, and VDR-regulated genes. Although laboratory studies including the use of animal models have shown that vitamin D has antiprostate cancer properties, whether it can effectively prevent the development and/or progression of prostate cancer in humans remains to be inconclusive and an intensively studied subject. This review will provide up-to-date information regarding the recent outcomes of laboratory and epidemiology studies on the effects of vitamin D on prostate cancer prevention.

  13. Vitamin D Status in Danish Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke Agnete

    latitudes such as Denmark and low winter concentrations have been observed in Danish children. Also, very few foods are naturally rich in vitamin D and little is known on the effect of dietary vitamin D on children’s vitamin D status. The overall aim of this PhD project was to investigate aspects of Danish......A principal function of vitamin D is facilitation of intestinal calcium absorption and maintenance of calcium homeostasis. This is essential to several functions in the body, and vitamin D is believed to be particularly crucial during childhood growth as the requirement for calcium increases....... In addition to skeletal health, vitamin D has also been associated with several extra-skeletal conditions including cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes. Evaluation of Vitamin D status is complex because it is modified by several factors and because the level of optimal vitamin D concentration...

  14. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... website Submit Search NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets Search the list ... Supplements: Background Information Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information Vitamin and Mineral Fact Sheets Botanical Supplement Fact Sheets ...

  15. Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000490.htm Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones To use the sharing ... and maintain strong bones. How Much Calcium and Vitamin D do I Need? Amounts of calcium are ...

  16. Vitamin D Levels Predict Multiple Sclerosis Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Matters NIH Research Matters February 3, 2014 Vitamin D Levels Predict Multiple Sclerosis Progression Among people ... sclerosis (MS), those with higher blood levels of vitamin D had better outcomes during 5 years of ...

  17. Literatuuronderzoek HPLC-methoden voor vitamine E

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altena, A.; Hollman, P.C.H.

    1985-01-01

    Doel van dit onderzoek is: het inventariseren van HPLC-methoden voor vitamine E, eventueel in combinatie met vitamine A, in levensmiddelen. Een overzicht van de in de literatuur beschreven HPLC-methoden vanaf ca. 1977 wordt gegeven.

  18. Vitamin intake in Japanese women college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Naoko; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Sasaki, Ryuzo; Hayakawa, Fumiko; Shibata, Katsumi

    2003-06-01

    The Standard Food Tables of Japanese Foods was newly revised in 2000, and contains information on all of the vitamins except biotin. Thus, we carried out a survey of vitamin intake in Japanese women who were university seniors majoring a dietitian course. The subjects (n = 33) consumed self-selected foods, and food intake was recorded by the weight method. We calculated the vitamin intake except for biotin from the food records using the Standard Food Tables of Japanese Foods. In terms of daily intake, vitamin A was 705+/-435 microg (mean+/-SD), vitamin D 6+/-8 microg, vitamin E 7.7+/-3.0 mg, vitamin K 191+/-156 microg, vitamin B1 0.7+/-0.3 mg (0.43+/-0.15 mg/1,000 kcal), vitamin B2 1.1+/-0.4 mg (0.65+/-0.18 mg/1,000 kcal), vitamin B6 0.9+/-0.4 mg (0.017+/-0.005 mg/g protein), vitamin B12 4.4+/-4.1 microg, niacin equivalent 23+/-7 mg (14.4+/-4.9 mg/1,000 kcal), pantothenic acid 4.6+/-1.4 mg, folic acid 267+/-115 microg, and vitamin C 73+/-38 mg. All of these averages were around the Japanese Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for level "III (preferable)" of physical activity. Major vitamin A resources were vegetables; vitamin D resources, fish; vitamin E resources, fats and oils and vegetables; vitamin K resources, vegetables; vitamin B1 resources, cereals and animal meats; vitamin B2 resources, various foods; vitamin B6 resources, cereals, vegetables, fish, and animal meats; vitamin B12 resources, fish; niacin equivalent resources, fish, animal meats, and cereals; pantothenic acid resources, various foods; folic acid resources, vegetables; and vitamin C resources, vegetables and potatoes. From this survey, it was found that Japanese women college students consumed many kinds of food, and therefore, their vitamin nutrition was good as compared to the RDA values for level III of physical activity; however, their energy intake (1,622+/-377 kcal) was lower than the RDA for level III (2,050 kcal/d). Their strength of physical activity would be level I. Therefore, in

  19. Histopathological effects of Cyperdicot and vitamin E ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0.08 and 0.16 mg/L Cyperdicot and vitamin E. Fish were divided into six groups: control, 0.80 mg/L; Cyperdicot, 0.16 mg/L; Cyperdicot, vitamin E, vitamin E + 0.08 mg/L Cyperdicot, and vitamin E + 0.16 m/L Cyperdicot insecticide. There was significant relation between temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen with Cyperdicot ...

  20. Vitamin B12 deficiency and depression

    OpenAIRE

    Milanlıoğlu, Aysel

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency may cause psychiatric manifestations preceding the hematological and neurological symptoms. Despite a variety of symptoms, data on the role of vitamin B12 deficiency in depression are sparse. We report a case with B12 deficiency that is diagnosed with psychotic depression and treated successively with vitamin B12 replacement instead of using conventional therapy. Future investigations should focus on the role of vitamin B12 status in depression and other neurops...

  1. The use and misuse of vitamin supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, M; Briggs, M

    1977-02-01

    Overt vitamin deficiency in Australia is a medical curiosity. Suspected hypovitaminoses in the general population requires education in nutrition, rather than supplementation by vitamin capsules. Vitamin supplementation, however, may be needed by patients receiving long-term drug treatment, or with chronic malabsorption conditions. The receipt of specific additional vitamins may also be beneficial during pregnancy, or in persons dedicated to a totally vegan diet.

  2. VITAMIN AND MINERAL SUPPLEMENTATION FOR CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    O.V. Iozefovich

    2011-01-01

    Vitamins and minerals play a unique role in the human health maintaining. Children’s organisms are particularly sensitive to the deficiency of vitamins. Typically, the child receives all the necessary vitamins and minerals as a part of nutrition. But in a period of an intensive growth, in climatic conditions changing, increased physical and mental stress, during stress conditions or infectious diseases, as well as during the recovery period the child should receive vitamins, minerals in the m...

  3. Vitamin D and respiratory infection in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksi, Ilkka

    2012-02-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency is a global issue that has significant implications for health. The classical role of vitamin D in bone mineralisation is well known; vitamin D deficiency leads to rickets, osteomalacia or osteoporosis. The role of vitamin D in an immune system is less known. Vitamin D is not an actual vitamin but a secosteroid hormone produced in the skin from 7-dehydrocholesterol after exposure to sunlight UVB radiation. Nutrition and supplements are main sources of vitamin D in wintertime in northern countries as sunlight exposure is inadequate for the production. For activation vitamin D needs to be hydroxylated in liver to form 25-hydroxyvitamin D and in kidney to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, the most active hormone in Ca absorption in the gut. For determination of vitamin D status serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level, the major circulating form of the hormone is to be measured. Vitamin D regulates gene expression through binding with vitamin D receptors, which dimerises with retinoid X receptor. This complex binds to vitamin D-responsive elements inside the promoter regions of vitamin D-responsive genes. Vitamin D has a key role in innate immunity activation; the production of antimicrobial peptides (cathelicidin and defensins) following Toll-like receptor stimulation by pathogen lipopeptides is dependent on sufficient level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Clinically, there is evidence of the association of vitamin D insufficiency and respiratory tract infections. There is also some evidence of the prevention of infections by vitamin D supplementation. Randomised controlled trials are warranted to explore this preventive effect.

  4. 21 CFR 184.1930 - Vitamin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vitamin A. 184.1930 Section 184.1930 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1930 Vitamin A. (a)(1) Vitamin A (retinol; CAS Reg. No. 68-26-8) is the... odorless or have a mild fishy odor. Vitamin A is extracted from fish liver oils or produced by total...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1950 - Vitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vitamin D. 184.1950 Section 184.1950 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1950 Vitamin D. (a) Vitamin D is added to food as the following food ingredients: (1) Crystalline vitamin D2 (C28H44O, CAS Reg. No. 50-14-6), also known as ergocalciferol, is the...

  6. Update in vitamin D and multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Alharbi, Fatimah M.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common neurological disease, and its etiology remains unknown. In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to the possible association between MS and vitamin D deficiency. Here, we review the current literature between MS and vitamin D, showing clear evidence that vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for MS despite the lack of direct evidence for the effects of vitamin D in MS progression.

  7. APPLICATION OF VITAMINS IN PEDIATRIC PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Alekseeva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of balanced nutrition remains to be quite urgent in the modern pediatrics. Despite the fact there are many high quality foodstuffs in the Russian market, the occurrence of the vitamin deficient statuses is still high. The authors of the article describe the important functions of vitamins and microelements in the human body, as well as demonstrate the necessity to additionally administer them as correctly balanced pharmacological forms.Key words: vitamins, vitamin deficiency, correction, children.

  8. Vitamin D and multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Swui-Ling; Alappat, Lini; Awad, Atif B

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system and characterized by neurological and cognitive manifestations. The disease is more common in populations living in high altitudes with low sun exposure, women more than men, and certain ethnic backgrounds more than others. The etiology of MS is yet unknown, although several factors have been implicated in its development. These include genetic factors and environmental factors as well as dietary components and their interactions. Among the dietary components that have recently attracted the attention is vitamin D. This mini-review summarizes current knowledge on the potential use of vitamin D in the protection and treatment of MS. In addition, the mechanism(s) by which vitamin D plays a role in the development and/or protection from MS are discussed.

  9. Childhood pneumonia and vitamin A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Heidarian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the major causes of mortality in children younger than 5 years old is acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRI. ALRI clinical features are cough, tachypnea, fever, coryza, chest retraction, crackles and wheeze. Increased white blood cell count with left shift might happen in pneumonia. C-reactive protein (CRP and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR might rise in children with respiratory tract infections. Vitamin A deficiency is associated with severe childhood infections. The effect of vitamin A supplementation in childhood pneumonia depends on the prevalence and the level of vitamin A deficiency in the population. Some studies confirmed that retinol levels were significantly higher after recovery from acute pneumonia compared to acute phase. But there were no significant association between serum retinol level and the clinical manifestation.

  10. Pengaruh asupan Fe, vitamin A, vitamin B12, dan vitamin C terhadap kadar hemoglobin pada remaja vegan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damayanti Siallagan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vegan has become a diet that started to be many people's choice. Low intake of iron and vitamin B12 is factors that can cause anemia in vegan. On the other side vegans often consume vegetables and fruits that contained high of vitamin A and vitamin C which helps the absorption of iron, that can help prevent anemia. Objective: The purpose of the research know the effect of the intake of iron, vitamin A, vitamin B12, vitamin C on hemoglobin (Hblevels in young Buddhist vegan Pusdiklat Maitreyawira. Method: This research uses cross-sectional design. The population in this study are all adolescent vegan in the Buddhist Pusdiklat Maitreyawira. Samples in this study were 31 peoples. Independent variable is an intake of iron, vitamin A, vitamin B12, and vitamin C was obtained by SQ-FFQ, while the dependent variable was Hb with hemoglobin testing system quick-check set. Analysis of the data in this study using Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression. Results: There is a relationship intake of iron (p=0,000, vitamin B12 (p=0,037, and vitamin C (p=0,000 to Hb level of adolescent vegan in Buddhist Pusdiklat Maitreyawira, there is no relationship intake of vitamin A with a Hb level of adolescent vegan (p=0,220. The result of multivariate analysis using multiple regression analysis of the variables that most influence haemoglobin levels of adolescent vegan are the intake of iron and vitamin C. Each increase of 1 mg Fe intake will increase the Hb concentration as much as 0.013 g/dl and increase of 1 mg of vitamin C intake will increase Hb levels as much as 0.002 g/dl. Conclusion: Iron and vitamin C intake is the most influence factors to hemoglobin levels of adolescent vegan in Buddhist Pusdiklat Maitreyawira.

  11. Vitamin A and clefting: putative biological mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ackermans, M.M.; Zhou, Huiqing; Carels, C.E.L.; Wagener, F.A.D.T.G.; Hoff, J.W. Von den

    2011-01-01

    Nutritional factors such as vitamin intake contribute to the etiology of cleft palate. Vitamin A is a regulator of embryonic development. Excess vitamin A can cause congenital malformations such as spina bifida and cleft palate. Therefore, preventive nutritional strategies are required. This review

  12. How common is vitamin B12 deficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    In considering the vitamin B-12 fortification of flour, it is important to know who is at risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency and whether those individuals would benefit from flour fortification.This article reviews current knowledge of the prevalence and causes of vitamin B-12 deficiency and considers ...

  13. Vitamin B12 requirements in older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doets, Esmee; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of dose-response evidence relevant for estimating vitamin B12 requirements of healthy adults and elderly people, considering different indicators of health: vitamin B12 body stores, cognitive function, bone health, and biomarkers of vitamin B12

  14. Vitamine B12 en cognitieve functies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eussen, S.J.P.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Hoefnagels, W.H.L.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2004-01-01

    Vitamine B12-deficiëntie is een relatief veel voorkomend probleem bij ouderen. Wageningen Universiteit onderzoekt wat de optimale hoeveelheid vitamine B12 in capsules zou moeten zijn om een vitamine B12-deficiëntie te behandelen en of deze hoeveelheid B12 gunstige effecten heeft op het cognitief

  15. Vitamin K, osteoarthritis, and joint pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteoarthritis is the leading cause of joint pain and lower extremity disability in older adults and there is no known cure. Vitamin K has been implicated on osteoarthritis because vitamin K dependent proteins are present in joint tissues, such as cartilage and bone. In order to function, vitamin K ...

  16. Roles for vitamin K beyond coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent interest in vitamin K has been motivated by evidence of physiological roles beyond that of coagulation. Vitamin K and vitamin K-dependent proteins may be involved in regulation of calcification, energy metabolism, and inflammation. However, the evidence for many of these proposed roles in the...

  17. Vitamin D deficiency and heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilz, Stefan; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Drechsler, Christiane; de Boer, Rudolf A.

    Vitamin D deficiency is present in the vast majority of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and correcting a poor vitamin D status is recommended as a treatment of CKD-mineral and bone disorders. In this review, we summarize the molecular and clinical data on the role of vitamin D status for

  18. Bone muscle interactions and vitamin D

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunton, J.E.; Girgis, C.M.; Baldock, P.A.; Lips, P.

    2015-01-01

    Beyond the established roles of vitamin D in bone and mineral homeostasis, we are becoming increasingly aware of its diverse effects in skeletal muscle. Subjects with severe vitamin D deficiency or mutations of the vitamin D receptor develop generalized atrophy of muscle and bone, suggesting

  19. Vitamin D Deficiency and Tuberculosis Progression

    OpenAIRE

    Talat, Najeeha; Perry, Sharon; Parsonnet, Julie; Dawood, Ghaffar; Hussain, Rabia

    2010-01-01

    To assess the association between vitamin D deficiency and tuberculosis disease progression, we studied vitamin D levels in a cohort of tuberculosis patients and their contacts (N = 129) in Pakistan. Most (79%) persons showed deficiency. Low vitamin D levels were associated with a 5-fold increased risk for progression to tuberculosis.

  20. Prenatal vitamins: what is in the bottle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerbeck, Norman B; Dowling, David D; Duerbeck, Jillinda M

    2014-12-01

    Nearly all obstetricians routinely prescribe prenatal vitamins to their pregnant patients at the time of the first prenatal visit. Many times, patients' understanding of the health benefits of prenatal vitamins differs substantially from that of the prescribing physician. The following is a review of the most common ingredients found in prenatal vitamins and their purported health benefits.

  1. 21 CFR 582.5930 - Vitamin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin A. 582.5930 Section 582.5930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5930 Vitamin A. (a) Product. Vitamin A. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  2. Vitamins in the prevention of human diseases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Herrmann, Wolfgang, Prof; Obeid, Rima

    2011-01-01

    ... in ancient Egypt. One-sided nutrition, smoking, alcohol, genetic factors, and even geographical origin interfere with our dietary intake of the vitamins. Insufficient vitamin intake can impact our health and contribute significantly to the development of diseases. This book offers expert reviews and judgements on the role of vitamins in health and ...

  3. Vitamine A voorziening van de Nederlandse bevolking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waijers PMCM; Feskens EJM; CVG

    2004-01-01

    In this report vitamin A intake is assessed. From these analyses, 17 to 30 per cent of the adults in our study were found to have an inadequate vitamin A intake to maintain sufficient vitamin A stores. A substantial proportion of these individuals had a level of intake greatly less than required.

  4. Administration of Injectable Vitamin K Orally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasjeva, Janna

    2017-10-01

    Background: Vitamin K, or phytonadione, is available in both injectable and oral formulations. Oral vitamin K is available as 5-mg tablets, but the key drawbacks for using vitamin K tablets consist of availability of only 1 dose strength and recent tripling of the product's cost over a 2-year period. An interest exists for utilization of injectable vitamin K via oral route. Method: A literature search was performed on April 26, 2017, to identify any studies describing the use of injectable vitamin K for oral administration. The search involved PubMed and Embase and utilized various combinations of keywords vitamin K, phytonadione, IV, intravenous, injectable, and oral. The results were limited to studies that discussed oral administration of injectable vitamin K. The efficacy of the injectable preparation of vitamin K administered orally was explored in 6 studies and one cost-savings project. Results: Based on the available literature, the administration of injectable vitamin K via oral route is effective and safe. Injectable vitamin K for oral administration can be prepared as an undiluted solution or as a compounded solution. These 2 formulations have different beyond-use dates depending on ingredients used. Conclusion: Information on efficacy and stability of injectable vitamin K formulations prepared for oral administration provides an additional option for health care systems when vitamin K tablets are unavailable or cost-prohibitive to use.

  5. Vitamin D supplementation and fracture risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    This letter is written in response to an editorial by Gray and Bolland stating incorrectly that vitamin D does not reduce fracture risk and that safety of vitamin D has not been demonstrated. We and others have demonstrated that vitamin D is effective in lowering risk of fractures when given in adeq...

  6. Effects of Vitamin C Supplementation on Plasma and Urinary Vitamin C Concentration in Korean Women

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jayoung; Kim, Do-Yeon; Choue, Ryowon; Lim, Hyunjung

    2017-01-01

    Although vitamin C supplements were consumed for health maintenance and fatigue recovery, the effects of high doses of vitamin C supplement remains controversial. Our study performed the effects of 100 mg and 2,000 mg vitamin C supplements on plasma and urinary vitamin C concentration in Korean women. Twenty-four women completed the 4 weeks intervention. Anthropometric data, plasma and urinary vitamin C concentrations, superoxide dismutase activity, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBA...

  7. Role of Third Serum Vitamin B12 Binding Protein in Vitamin B12 Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Chanarin, I.; England, J. M.; Rowe, K. L.; Stacey, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    A third vitamin B12 binding protein present in normal serum has been shown to participate in transport of labelled vitamin B12 absorbed from the gut. All three vitamin B12 binding proteins in serum were labelled at the same time after oral administration of vitamin B12, implying that “free” vitamin B12 reached the portal blood from the gut mucosa.

  8. Vitamin D and pancreatic cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z.

    2008-01-01

    Sun exposure has been associated with lower death rates for pancreatic cancer in ecological studies. Skin exposure to solar ultra-violet B radiation induces cutaneous production of precursors to 25-hydroxy (OH) vitamin D (D) and is considered the primary contributor to vitamin D status in most populations. Pancreatic islet and duct cells express 25-(OH) D3-1α-hydroxylase that generates the biologically active 1,25-dihydroxy(OH)2 D form. Thus, 25(OH)D concentrations could affect pancreatic fun...

  9. Tissue content of vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 in minipigs after cutaneous synthesis, supplementation and deprivation of vitamin D3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burild, Anders; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Poulsen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Information regarding the endogenous storages of vitamin D3 after cutaneous vitamin D synthesis compared to oral vitamin D3 supplementation is sparse. Furthermore it is not known whether vitamin D3 can be stored for later use during periods of shortages of vitamin D3. To investigate the endogenous...

  10. Vitamine--vitamin. The early years of discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, L

    1997-04-01

    In 1905, Cornelius Adrianus Pekelharing found that animals fed purified proteins, carbohydrates, fats, inorganic salts, and water would thrive only if small amounts of milk were added to the diet. He concluded that the milk contained some unrecognized substance that in very small quantities was necessary for normal growth and maintenance. In 1911, Casimir Funk isolated a concentrate from rice polishings that cured polyneuritis in pigeons. He named the concentrate "vitamine" because it appeared to be vital to life and because it was probably an amine. Although the concentrate and other "accessory food substances" were not amines, the name stuck, but the final "e" was dropped. In 1913 two groups discovered a "fat-soluble" accessory food substance. Initially believed to be a single vitamin, two separate factors were involved. One, effective against xerophthalmia, was named vitamin A; the other, effective against rickets, was named vitamin D. The factor that prevented scurvy was isolated in 1928. Known as "water-soluble C," it was renamed ascorbic acid.

  11. Vitamin B12. III. The assay of vitamin B12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, J.; Wijmenga, H.G.; Wolff, R.; Karlin, R.; Winkler, K.C.; Haan, P.G. de

    1952-01-01

    1. 1. After the addition of KCN, purified liver-extracts can be chromatographed on Al2O3, the vitamin B12 being collected as one single band which can be measured spectrophotometrically. 2. 2. The values, thus obtained, agree satisfactorily with those of the L. Leichmannii and a little less with

  12. Effect of vitamin A and vitamin C supplementation on oxidative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: HIV and TB infections are both associated with elevated oxidative stress parameters. Anti-oxidant supplementation may offer beneficial effects in positively modulating oxidative stress parameters in HIV and HIV-TB infected patients. We investigated the effects of vitamin A and C supplementation on oxidative ...

  13. Effect of vitamin A and vitamin C supplementation on oxidative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the effects of vitamin A and C supplementation on oxidative stress in HIV infected and HIV-TB co-infected subjects. ... Comparing the indices at baseline and post no-supplementation in HIV/TB co-infection showed no significant differences in ... ease like diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease.11,12 Substantial.

  14. OT {-(Uk} / ET {-(Uk}

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. İbrahim TAŞ

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The {-(Uk} affix, expressing the verb result and derivingqualifications, is not seen among the the rules of vowels, rounded-unroundedat old Turkic and middle Turkic texts. But in some words, rounded -unrounded rule is seen. At this text, we investigated some of these words.

  15. Zarplata zavissit ot...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Saksa ajakirjanike Norbert Häringi ja Olaf Storbecki raamatust "Ökonomie 2.0. 99", mis hajutas enamuse kaasaja majanduses valitsevatest müütidest ja pretendeerib Saksamaal parima majandusalase raamatu tiitlile

  16. Matrjoshki ot kutjur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Vene moeajakirja Vogue kümnendaks juubeliks joonistasid tuntud moekunstnikud kogu maailmast matrjoshkade eskiise. Eskiiside järgi maalisid vene meistrid poolemeetrised nukud. Nii sai ajakiri kingituseks Yves Saint Laurent'i, Versace, Prada, Dolce&Gabbana, Oscar de la Renta, Judashkini, Simatshovi ja paljude teiste matrjoshkad

  17. Fajemila O.T.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fajemila, O. T.. Department of Geological Sciences, Osun State University, Osogbo. * Correspondence author ...... era tu s. A mm ob ac ulite s sp. Alv eo lo p hra gm iu m sp. Ve rn eu ilin a sp. G ra ve llin a na riva en sis. Am m ob acu lite sa gg lu tina ns. Re cu rv oid es sp. S piro ple ctam m in a ca rin ata. Alv eo lo p hra gm iu.

  18. Rickets-vitamin D deficiency and dependency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Sahay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rickets is an important problem even in countries with adequate sun exposure. The causes of rickets/osteomalacia are varied and include nutritional deficiency, especially poor dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium. Non-nutritional causes include hypophosphatemic rickets primarily due to renal phosphate losses and rickets due to renal tubular acidosis. In addition, some varieties are due to inherited defects in vitamin D metabolism and are called vitamin D dependent rickets. This chapter highlights rickets/osteomalacia related to vitamin D deficiency or to inherited defects in vitamin D metabolism. Hypophosphatemic rickets and rickets due to renal tubular acidosis are discussed in other sections of the journal.

  19. Relevance of vitamin D in fall prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff-Ferrari, Heike A

    2017-03-01

    This review will summarize recent clinical studies and meta-analyses on the effect of vitamin D supplementation on fall prevention. As fall prevention is fundamental in fracture prevention at older age, we discuss if and to what extend the vitamin D effect on muscle modulates hip fracture risk. Further, to explain the effect of vitamin D on fall prevention, we will review the mechanistic evidence linking vitamin D to muscle health and the potentially selective effect of vitamin D on type II fast muscle fibers.

  20. Bone health, vitamin D and lupus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangüesa Gómez, Clara; Flores Robles, Bryan Josué; Andréu, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus is high. This is likely due to photoprotection measures in addition to intrinsic factors of the disease. Low levels of vitamin D increase the risk of low bone mineral density and fracture. Vitamin D deficiency could also have undesirable effects on patients' immune response, enhancing mechanisms of loss of tolerance and autoimmunity. Vitamin D levels should be periodically monitored and patients should be treated with the objective of reaching vitamin D levels higher than 30-40 ng/ml. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Is vitamin C supplementation beneficial?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to the promised ‘antioxidant miracle' of the 1980s, several randomised controlled trials have shown no effect of antioxidant supplements on hard endpoints such as morbidity and mortality. The former over-optimistic attitude has clearly called for a more realistic assessment of the ben......In contrast to the promised ‘antioxidant miracle' of the 1980s, several randomised controlled trials have shown no effect of antioxidant supplements on hard endpoints such as morbidity and mortality. The former over-optimistic attitude has clearly called for a more realistic assessment...... of the benefit:harm ratio of antioxidant supplements. We have examined the literature on vitamin C intervention with the intention of drawing a conclusion on its possible beneficial or deleterious effect on health and the result is discouraging. One of several important issues is that vitamin C uptake is tightly...... controlled, resulting in a wide-ranging bioavailability depending on the current vitamin C status. Lack of proper selection criteria dominates the currently available literature. Thus, while supplementation with vitamin C is likely to be without effect for the majority of the Western population due...

  2. Eschenmoser Approach to Vitamin B

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 7. Eschenmoser Approach to Vitamin B12 by A/D Strategy: An Unexpected Journey. G Wayne Craig. General Article Volume 19 Issue 7 July 2014 pp 624-640. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  3. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Fortify Your Knowledge About Vitamins Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  4. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... overall strategy for how they will achieve adequate vitamin intakes. The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans advises that ... Guidelines warn that there are numerous nutrients—including vitamins—for which low dietary intake may be a cause of concern. These nutrients ...

  5. Vitamins and neural tube defects

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Rodney

    1988-01-01

    The use of vitamin supplements by women around the time of conception was examined and compared in those having babies with neural tube defects, those with still births or some other type of malformation, and in women who had normal babies.

  6. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... worldwide take supplemental vitamins as part of their health regimen. This Consumer Update video includes an interview ...

  7. Vitamin D Supplementation in Submariners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-02

    solar exposure since the melanin absorbs some of the UV energy required to manufacture vit D3.65 At higher latitudes, such as New York, winter...Philadelphia, Penn: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 1999:315-319. 24. Carlberg C, Polly P. Gene regulation by vitamin D3. Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene

  8. Bioavailability of vitamin B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is common in people of all ages who consume a low intake of animal-source foods, including populations in developing countries. It is also prevalent among the elderly, even in wealthier countries, due to their malabsorption of B12 from food. Several methods have been applied t...

  9. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Print Subscribe: FDA Consumer Health Information Vitamins are essential nutrients that contribute to a healthy life. Although ... that nutrient needs be met primarily through consuming foods, with supplementation ... (USDA), provide science-based advice to promote health and to reduce ...

  10. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as one of those recommended in the USDA Food Guide or the National Institute of Health's Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) eating plan. If you're over age 50, consume vitamin B-12 in its crystalline form, which is found in fortified foods or supplements. If you're a woman of ...

  11. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... FDA/WebMD resource Dietary Reference Intakes: A Risk Assessment Model for Establishing Upper Intake Levels for Nutrients Related Consumer Updates Infant Overdose Risk With Liquid Vitamin D 4 Medication Safety Tips for Older Adults More in Consumer ...

  12. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... some vitamins and minerals, the National Academy of Sciences has established upper limits of intake (ULs) that it recommends not be exceeded during any given day. (For more information, visit www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id= ...

  13. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... health problems if you eat a vegetarian or vegan diet if you are pregnant or breastfeeding Vitamin Facts ... pregnant or is in the first trimester of pregnancy, consume adequate synthetic ... of folate from a varied diet. If you are an older adult, have dark ...

  14. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... Linkedin Pin it Email Print Subscribe: FDA Consumer Health Information Vitamins are essential nutrients that contribute to ...

  15. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... vitamins and minerals. "They also include other less familiar substances such as herbals, botanicals, amino acids, and ... dicos Dispositivos que Emiten Radiación Fraude en la Salud Medicamentos Nutrición Productos Veterinarios Productos de Tabaco Salud ...

  16. Impact of vitamin D on infectious disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Malcolm D; Alvarez, Jessica A; Seidel, Natan; Tangpricha, Vin

    2015-03-01

    Observational studies have linked vitamin D status and infectious disease. This association is supported by the presence of the vitamin D receptor and CYP27B1 in immune cells. This review aims to consolidate data from clinical trials that used vitamin D for the treatment or prevention of infectious disease. The authors searched the term "(vitamin D OR ergocalciferol OR cholecalciferol OR vitamin D2 OR vitamin D3 OR calcitriol) AND (infection OR tuberculosis OR sepsis OR pneumonia)" with limits preset to manuscripts published in English and with human subjects. They identified controlled trials that measured infectious outcomes (eg, incidence and severity of disease, time to disease resolution or recurrence, measures of clinical improvement, mortality). Studies that used analog, topical or micronutrient formulations of vitamin D, assessed only vitamin D status or lacked a comparison group were excluded. The references from eligible manuscripts and from 2 recent reviews were scanned for additional manuscripts. One thousand two hundred eighty-four manuscripts were identified with our search terms, with 60 papers still eligible after review of the title and abstract. Full review of these papers, their references and 2 related reviews yielded 38 manuscripts. Although some prospective studies show positive results regarding vitamin D on infectious disease, several robust studies are negative. Factors such as high variability between studies, the difference in individual responsiveness to vitamin D and study designs that do not primarily investigate infectious outcomes may mask the effects of vitamin D on infections.

  17. Molecular Approaches for Optimizing Vitamin D Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlberg, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D can be synthesized endogenously within UV-B exposed human skin. However, avoidance of sufficient sun exposure via predominant indoor activities, textile coverage, dark skin at higher latitude, and seasonal variations makes the intake of vitamin D fortified food or direct vitamin D supplementation necessary. Vitamin D has via its biologically most active metabolite 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and the transcription factor vitamin D receptor a direct effect on the epigenome and transcriptome of many human tissues and cell types. Different interpretation of results from observational studies with vitamin D led to some dispute in the field on the desired optimal vitamin D level and the recommended daily supplementation. This chapter will provide background on the epigenome- and transcriptome-wide functions of vitamin D and will outline how this insight may be used for determining of the optimal vitamin D status of human individuals. These reflections will lead to the concept of a personal vitamin D index that may be a better guideline for an optimized vitamin D supplementation than population-based recommendations. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Natural vitamin D content in animal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Alexandra; Walther, Barbara

    2013-07-01

    Humans derive most vitamin D from the action of sunlight in their skin. However, in view of the current Western lifestyle with most daily activities taking place indoors, sun exposure is often not sufficient for adequate vitamin D production. For this reason, dietary intake is also of great importance. Animal foodstuffs (e.g., fish, meat, offal, egg, dairy) are the main sources for naturally occurring cholecalciferol (vitamin D-3). This paper therefore aims to provide an up-to-date overview of vitamin D-3 content in various animal foods. The focus lies on the natural vitamin D-3 content because there are many countries in which foods are not regularly fortified with vitamin D. The published data show that the highest values of vitamin D are found in fish and especially in fish liver, but offal also provides considerable amounts of vitamin D. The content in muscle meat is generally much lower. Vitamin D concentrations in egg yolks range between the values for meat and offal. If milk and dairy products are not fortified, they are normally low in vitamin D, with the exception of butter because of its high fat content. However, as recommendations for vitamin D intake have recently been increased considerably, it is difficult to cover the requirements solely by foodstuffs.

  19. Vitamin and water requirements of dairy sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvia Bovera

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors review the physiological role and the daily requirement of fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K, vitamin C  and water in dairy sheep. Regarding the vitamins, classical clinical symptoms and/or non-specific parameters, such as  lowered production and reproduction rates are associated with their deficiencies or excesses. Until the last decade,  these compounds were considered important only for the prevention of such alterations; currently, there is more  emphasis on their function as the vitamins can play a key role in optimising animal health. In this respect, of particu-  lar interest is the action of the antioxidant vitamins (especially vitamin C, vitamin E and beta-carotene in improving  the efficiency of the immune system. 

  20. Role of Vitamin D in Cardiometabolic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoxun Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency is a highly prevalent condition. Low vitamin D levels have long been associated with bone diseases, such as rickets in children and osteomalacia and osteoporosis in adults. However, it has become apparent in recent years that adequate vitamin D levels are also important for optimal functioning of many organs and tissues throughout the body, including the cardiovascular system. Evolving data indicate that vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Studies have shown that low vitamin D levels are associated with hypertension, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, left ventricular hypertrophy, and chronic vascular inflammation, all of which are risk factors for CVD. This paper reviews the definition and pathophysiology of vitamin D deficiency, clinical evidence linking vitamin D and CVD risk, diabetes and its complications, and metabolic syndrome.

  1. Vitamin D status in kidney transplant patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewers, Bettina; Gasbjerg, Ane; Moelgaard, Christian

    2008-01-01

    -25(OH)D 40-75 nmol/L], and an additional 29% had moderate-to-severe vitamin D deficiency [S-25(OH)D vitamin D supplementation (positive association) were independent determinants of S-25(OH)D concentrations...... transplant patients and is associated with reduced concentrations of S-1,25(OH)(2)D and increased S-PTH concentrations. Sun avoidance and vitamin D supplementation are important determinants of vitamin D status. The observed hypovitaminosis D might be corrected by intensified routine vitamin D......BACKGROUND: A high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency has been found in the general population and in patients with chronic kidney disease. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to examine vitamin D status and determinants and metabolic correlates of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a population of adult Danish...

  2. The role of vitamin D in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Khanh vinh quoc; Nguyen, Lan Thi Hoàng

    2012-04-01

    Vitamin D metabolites are important immune-modulatory hormones and are able to suppress Th2-mediated allergic airway disease. Some genetic factors that may contribute to asthma are regulated by vitamin D, such as vitamin D receptor (VDR), human leukocyte antigen genes (HLA), human Toll-like receptors (TLR), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a disintegrin and metalloprotein-33 (ADAM-33), and poly(ADP-ribosyl) polymerase- 1 (PARP-1). Vitamin D has also been implicated in asthma through its effects on the obesity, bacillus Calmettee Guérin (BCG) vaccination and high vitamin D level, vitamin D supplement, checkpoint protein kinase 1 (Chk1), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and gamma delta T cells (gdT). Vitamin D plays a role in asthma and exerts its action through either genomic and/or non-genomic ways.

  3. Vitamin D: Is There a New Era?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Amani

    2017-08-01

    Background: In recent decades, much interest has been focused on investigating new roles of vitamin D in human body beyond the mineral-ion homeostasis. Methods: By searching medical databases such as PubMed, over 16000 articles were found which have been published since 2000 on novel aspects of vitamin D in health and diseases. Results: Of great interest was the effects of vitamin D on decreasing the risk of several chronic illnesses, including common cancers, autoimmune, infectious, and cardiovascular diseases. In this review, the new roles of vitamin D that have recently been investigated were addressed. Conclusions: Due to the vast prevalence of vitamin D deficiency worldwide, it seems that time has come to conduct well-designed clinical trials and meta-analysis to explore the effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation in treatment of common diseases. Finally, the progression in cellular and molecular methods and technology will shed new lights on vitamin D roles in health and disease.

  4. Vitamin D and asthma: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Junfang; Castro, Mario

    2015-08-01

    To review the current evidence on the relationship between vitamin D and asthma. The rising morbidity and tremendous socioeconomic burden of asthma have prompted efforts to seek modifiable environmental and nutritional factors that contribute to the asthma epidemic. The association between low levels of vitamin D and asthma has been supported by many, but not all observational and epidemiologic studies. Recently, several controlled clinical trials have been undertaken to explore the effect of vitamin D supplementation on asthma control and respiratory tract infections. While some trials support the beneficial role of vitamin D supplementation in reducing asthma severity in children, several trials have found no beneficial role in adults. Given the high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in children and adults worldwide and recent randomized controlled trials of vitamin D in asthma, supplementation with vitamin D cannot be recommended as adjunctive therapy for asthma.

  5. Vitamin D with calcium reduces mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rejnmark, Lars; Avenell, Alison; Masud, Tahir

    2012-01-01

    Introduction:Vitamin D may affect multiple health outcomes. If so, an effect on mortality is to be expected. Using pooled data from randomized controlled trials, we performed individual patient data (IPD) and trial level meta-analyses to assess mortality among participants randomized to either...... calcium (odds ratio, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.88-0.99), but not with vitamin D alone (odds ratio, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.91-1.06).Conclusion:Vitamin D with calcium reduces mortality in the elderly, whereas available data do not support an effect of vitamin D alone....... vitamin D alone or vitamin D with calcium.Subjects and Methods:Through a systematic literature search, we identified 24 randomized controlled trials reporting data on mortality in which vitamin D was given either alone or with calcium. From a total of 13 trials with more than 1000 participants each, eight...

  6. Vitamin B12 in Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona O’Leary

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 is essential for DNA synthesis and for cellular energy production. This review aims to outline the metabolism of vitamin B12, and to evaluate the causes and consequences of sub-clinical vitamin B12 deficiency. Vitamin B12 deficiency is common, mainly due to limited dietary intake of animal foods or malabsorption of the vitamin. Vegetarians are at risk of vitamin B12 deficiency as are other groups with low intakes of animal foods or those with restrictive dietary patterns. Malabsorption of vitamin B12 is most commonly seen in the elderly, secondary to gastric achlorhydria. The symptoms of sub-clinical deficiency are subtle and often not recognized. The long-term consequences of sub-clinical deficiency are not fully known but may include adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes, vascular, cognitive, bone and eye health.

  7. Impaired vitamin K recycling in uremia is rescued by vitamin K supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaesler, Nadine; Magdeleyns, Elke; Herfs, Marjolein; Schettgen, Thomas; Brandenburg, Vincent; Fliser, Danilo; Vermeer, Cees; Floege, Jürgen; Schlieper, Georg; Krüger, Thilo

    2014-08-01

    In chronic kidney disease, vitamin K-dependent proteins, including the calcification inhibitor matrix Gla protein, are largely uncarboxylated indicating that functional vitamin K deficiency may contribute to uremic vascular calcification. Since the effects of uremia on the vitamin K cycle are unknown, we investigated the influence of uremia and vitamin K supplementation on the activity of the vitamin K cycle and extraosseous calcification. Uremia was induced in rats by an adenine-supplemented diet and vitamin K1 or K2 was administered over 4 and 7 weeks. After 4 weeks of adenine diet, the activity of the vitamin K cycle enzyme γ-carboxylase but not the activities of DT-diaphorase or vitamin K epoxide reductase were reduced. Serum levels of undercarboxylated matrix Gla protein increased, indicating functional vitamin K deficiency. There was no light microscopy-detectable calcification at this stage but chemically determined aortic and renal calcium content was increased. Vitamin K treatment reduced aortic and renal calcium content after 4 weeks. Seven weeks of uremia induced overt calcification in the aorta, heart, and kidneys; however, addition of vitamin K restored intrarenal γ-carboxylase activity and overstimulated it in the liver along with reducing heart and kidney calcification. Thus, uremic vitamin K deficiency may partially result from a reduction of the γ-carboxylase activity which possibly contributes to calcification. Pharmacological vitamin K supplementation restored the vitamin K cycle and slowed development of soft tissue calcification in experimental uremia.

  8. Vitamin C supplementation in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbold, Alice; Ota, Erika; Nagata, Chie; Shahrook, Sadequa; Crowther, Caroline A

    2015-09-29

    Vitamin C supplementation may help reduce the risk of pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction and maternal anaemia. There is a need to evaluate the efficacy and safety of vitamin C supplementation in pregnancy. To evaluate the effects of vitamin C supplementation, alone or in combination with other separate supplements on pregnancy outcomes, adverse events, side effects and use of health resources. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 March 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials evaluating vitamin C supplementation in pregnant women. Interventions using a multivitamin supplement containing vitamin C or where the primary supplement was iron were excluded. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. Twenty-nine trials involving 24,300 women are included in this review. Overall, 11 trials were judged to be of low risk of bias, eight were high risk of bias and for 10 trials it was unclear. No clear differences were seen between women supplemented with vitamin C alone or in combination with other supplements compared with placebo or no control for the risk of stillbirth (risk ratio (RR) 1.15, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.89 to 1.49; 20,038 participants; 11 studies; I² = 0%; moderate quality evidence), neonatal death (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.08; 19,575 participants; 11 studies; I² = 0%), perinatal death (average RR 1.07, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.49; 17,105 participants; seven studies; I² = 35%), birthweight (mean difference (MD) 26.88 g, 95% CI -18.81 to 72.58; 17,326 participants; 13 studies; I² = 69%), intrauterine growth restriction (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.06; 20,361 participants; 12 studies; I² = 15%; high quality evidence), preterm birth (average RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.10; 22,250 participants; 16 studies; I² = 49%; high quality evidence

  9. Vitamin D supplementation for chronic liver diseases in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Bjelakovic, Marko

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is often reported in people with chronic liver diseases. Therefore, improving vitamin D status could have a beneficial effect on people with chronic liver diseases. OBJECTIVES: To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of vitamin D supplementation in people...... that compared vitamin D at any dose, duration, and route of administration versus placebo or no intervention in adults with chronic liver diseases. Vitamin D could have been administered as supplemental vitamin D (vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) or vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol)), or an active form of vitamin D (1α...... in the remaining nine trials were vitamin D insufficient (less than 20 ng/mL). All trials administered vitamin D orally. Mean duration of vitamin D supplementation was 0.5 years and follow-up was 0.6 years. Eleven trials (831 participants; 40% women; mean age 52 years) tested vitamin D3, one trial (18 men; mean...

  10. Resistance imparted by vitamin C, vitamin E and vitamin B12 to the acute hepatic glycogen change in rats caused by noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bei-Wei; Piao, Mei-Lan; Zhang, Yu; Han, Song; An, Qing-Da; Murata, Yoshiyuki; Tada, Mikiro

    2006-04-01

    The effects of vitamin C, vitamin E and vitamin B12 on the noise-induced acute change in hepatic glycogen content in rats were investigated. The exposure of rats to 95 dB and 110 dB of noise acutely reduced their hepatic glycogens. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) attenuated the noise-induced acute reduction in the hepatic glycogen contents. This result suggests that antioxidants could reduce the change via reactive oxygen species. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) delayed the noise-induced change, a finding that suggests that vitamin B12 could postpone the acute change via compensating for vitamin B12 deficiency.

  11. Association between vitamin deficiency and metabolic disorders related to obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Valdés, Samanta; Tostes, Maria das Graças V; Anunciação, Pamella C; da Silva, Bárbara P; Sant'Ana, Helena M Pinheiro

    2017-10-13

    Inappropriate food behavior contributes to obesity and leads to vitamin deficiency. This review discusses the nutritional status of water- and fat-soluble vitamins in obese subjects. We verified that most vitamins are deficient in obese individuals, especially the fat-soluble vitamins, folic acid, vitamin B 12 and vitamin C. However, some vitamins have been less evaluated in cases of obesity. The adipose tissue is considered a metabolic and endocrine organ, which in excess leads to changes in body homeostasis, as well as vitamin deficiency which can aggravate the pathological state. Therefore, the evaluation of vitamin status is of fundamental importance in obese individuals.

  12. Uso de la tierra y diversidades alfa, beta y gamma de diplópodos en la cuenca del río Otún, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Cobo, Darío Hernán; Grupo Gestión en Agroecosistemas Tropicales Andinos (GATA), Facultad de Ciencias Ambientales, Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira. Vereda La Julita A.A. 97, Pereira; Bueno-Villegas, Julián; Laboratorio de Sistemática Animal, Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo. Km. 4.5 carretera Pachuca - Tulancingo S/N. Colonia Carboneras, Mineral de la Reforma, Hidalgo, 42184; Feijoo-Martínez, Alexander; Grupo Gestión en Agroecosistemas Tropicales Andinos (GATA), Facultad de Ciencias Ambientales, Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira. Vereda La Julita A.A. 97, Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar la relación entre los cambios promovidos por la intervención humana en ecosistemas y grosistemas y la diversidad alfa, beta y gamma de Diplopoda de la cuenca media del río Otún. Materiales y métodos: Se utilizó un diseño sistemático estratificado con la selección de siete ventanas y 16 puntos de muestreo. Se separaron los diplópodos en familias y morfotipos para calcular la diversidad alfa, beta y gamma relacionada con la heterogeneidad de usos del terreno. Resultados: Se...

  13. Otępienia jako choroby cywilizacyjne i społeczne XXI wieku = Dementia as a civilization and social diseases of the 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Oliwia; Łakomski, Mateusz; Kędziora–Kornatowska, Kornelia; Radzimińska, Agnieszka; Weber-Rajek, Magdalena; Żukow, Walery

    2016-01-01

    Beck Oliwia, Łakomski Mateusz, Kędziora–Kornatowska Kornelia, Radzimińska Agnieszka, Weber-Rajek Magdalena, Żukow Walery. Otępienia jako choroby cywilizacyjne i społeczne XXI wieku = Dementia as a civilization and social diseases of the 21st century. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2016;6(6):677-694. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.101640 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/3865 The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of S...

  14. Diagnostyka i postępowanie w otępieniu z ciałami Lewy’ego: aktualne zalecenia i nierozwiązane problemy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Sobów

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Otępienie z ciałami Lewy’ego (dementia with Lewy bodies, DLB jest uważane za drugą co do częstości, po chorobie Alzheimera, przyczynę otępień pierwotnie zwyrodnieniowych. Mimo że w badaniach epidemiologicznych i kliniczno-neuropatologicznych potwierdzono jego znaczne rozpowszechnienie, pozostaje względnie rzadko rozpoznawane. Najczęściej mylnie wskazuje się na choroby Alzheimera lub Parkinsona, rzadziej psychozę (zwykle wiązaną z zaawansowanym wiekiem chorych. Nieprawidłowa diagnoza skutkuje leczeniem nieskutecznym, a z powodu nadwrażliwości na nawet niewielkie dawki leków przeciwpsychotycznych u chorych z DLB – często skrajnie niebezpiecznym. Diagnostyka różnicowa obejmuje w głównej mierze różnicowanie z innymi zespołami pierwotnie zwyrodnieniowymi, w tym z najbardziej zbliżonymi fenotypowo – chorobą Alzheimera z parkinsonizmem i otępieniem w chorobie Parkinsona. Różnicowanie i ustalenie poprawnego rozpoznania ułatwia stosowanie klinicznych kryteriów diagnostycznych oraz badań dodatkowych. Najważniejszą kwestią pozostaje stwierdzenie charakterystycznego obrazu klinicznego psychiatrycznego i neurologicznego oraz sekwencja wystąpienia otępienia i parkinsonizmu. Prawidłowe rozpoznanie i posługiwanie się strategiami terapeutycznymi z pogranicza neurologii i psychiatrii pozwala na uzyskanie optymalnych popraw u większości pacjentów. Kluczowe pozostaje dziś zastosowanie inhibitorów cholinesteraz (leków wpływających korzystnie na funkcje poznawcze, ale także na niektóre objawy behawioralne, w tym psychotyczne oraz lewodopy (w celu kontroli objawów ruchowych. Leki przeciwpsychotyczne należy co do zasady stosować bardzo ostrożnie, a lekiem z wyboru jest obecnie kwetiapina. Istotny problem stanowi także terapia współistniejących zaburzeń snu związanych z fazą REM oraz zaburzeń autonomicznych.

  15. Vitamin D - roles in women's reproductive health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    In the past few years a growing interest in vitamin D can be observed in the lay and biomedical literature due to findings demonstrating a low vitamin D status in the population. In addition to its importance for the regulation of calcium and phosphorus homeostasis recent epidemiologic studies have observed relationships between low vitamin D levels and multiple disease states. This secosteroid hormone also regulates the expression of a large number of genes in reproductive tissues implicating a role for vitamin D in female reproduction. In this report we summarize the recent evidence that vitamin D status influences female reproductive and pregnancy outcomes. Human and animal data suggest that low vitamin D status is associated with impaired fertility, endometriosis and polycystic ovary syndrome. Evidence from observational studies shows higher rates of preeclampsia, preterm birth, bacterial vaginosis and gestational diabetes in women with low vitamin D levels. However, confirmation of experimental observations establishing an association of vitamin D deficiency with adverse reproductive outcomes by high quality observational and large-scale randomized clinical trials is still lacking. The determination of optimal 25(OH)D3 levels in the reproductive period and the amount of vitamin D supplementation required to achieve those levels for the numerous actions of vitamin D throughout a woman's life would have important public health implications. PMID:22047005

  16. Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Risk in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wen-Rui; Jin, Hong-Fang; Du, Jun-Bao

    2017-09-22

    Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble molecules that are structurally similar to steroids. Emerging data have led to the hypothesis that Vitamin D plays a role in the regulation of many physiological processes beyond calcium and phosphorus homeostasis. With this review, we aimed to summarize the changes in Vitamin D levels in children with cardiovascular diseases based on the literature. In addition, we also reviewed the potential mechanisms underlying cardiovascular diseases associated with Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency. The articles in English were searched from PubMed (1968-2016) and EMBASE (1991-2016), with the keywords of "Vitamin D AND cardiovascular diseases" and "Vitamin D AND children." Original articles and critical reviews about Vitamin D and cardiovascular risk in children were selected for review. Researches focused on adults were excluded. Studies have shown that several pediatric cardiovascular diseases may be associated with Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency, including hypertension, orthostatic intolerance, and Kawasaki disease. Vitamin D may play a role in the regulation of the cardiovascular system. Further investigation would hopefully disclose the usefulness of Vitamin D as a biomarker for cardiovascular diseases in children.

  17. Sports health benefits of vitamin d.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuler, Franklin D; Wingate, Matthew K; Moore, G Hunter; Giangarra, Charles

    2012-11-01

    Vitamin D is a potent secosteroid hormone that provides many skeletal and extraskeletal health benefits. Musculoskeletal injury prevention and recovery are potentially affected by sufficient circulating levels of the storage form of vitamin D: 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, or 25(OH)D. Vitamin D deficiency can exist among young, active, and healthy people, which may put them at increased risk for injury and prolonged recovery. PubMed was searched using vitamin D and skeletal muscle, vitamin D and athletic performance, and vitamin D review articles. Studies from the 1930s to 2012 were used for the review. There is strong correlation between vitamin D sufficiency and optimal muscle function. Increasing levels of vitamin D reduce inflammation, pain, and myopathy while increasing muscle protein synthesis, ATP concentration, strength, jump height, jump velocity, jump power, exercise capacity, and physical performance. 25(OH)D levels above 40 ng/mL are required for fracture prevention, including stress fractures. Optimal musculoskeletal benefits occur at 25(OH)D levels above the current definition of sufficiency (> 30 ng/mL) with no reported sports health benefits above 50 ng/mL. Vitamin D deficiency is common in athletes. For athletes presenting with stress fractures, musculoskeletal pain, and frequent illness, one should have a heightened awareness of the additional likely diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency. Correction of this deficiency is completed by standardized and supervised oral supplementation protocols producing significant musculoskeletal sports health benefits.

  18. Vitamin A supplementation for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifant, Catherine M; Shevill, Elizabeth; Chang, Anne B

    2014-05-14

    People with cystic fibrosis and pancreatic insufficiency are at risk of fat soluble vitamin deficiency as these vitamins (A, D, E and K) are co-absorbed with fat. Thus, some cystic fibrosis centres routinely administer these vitamins as supplements but the centres vary in their approach of addressing the possible development of deficiencies in these vitamins. Vitamin A deficiency causes predominantly eye and skin problems while supplementation of vitamin A to excessive levels may cause harm to the respiratory and skeletal systems in children. Thus a systematic review on vitamin A supplementation in people with cystic fibrosis would help guide clinical practice. To determine if vitamin A supplementation in children and adults with cystic fibrosis:1. reduces the frequency of vitamin A deficiency disorders;2. improves general and respiratory health;3. increases the frequency of vitamin A toxicity. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register which comprises of references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings.Date of the most recent search of the Group's Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register: 07 April 2014. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing all preparations of oral vitamin A used as a supplement compared to either no supplementation (or placebo) at any dose and for any duration, in children or adults with cystic fibrosis (defined by sweat tests or genetic testing) with and without pancreatic insufficiency. No relevant studies for inclusion were identified in the search. No studies were included in this review. As there were no randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials identified, we cannot draw any conclusions on the benefits (or otherwise) of regular administration of vitamin A in people with cystic fibrosis. Until further data are available, country or region specific guidelines on the use of

  19. Vitamin C for DNA damage prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sram, Radim J., E-mail: sram@biomed.cas.cz [Institute of Experimental Medicine, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 14220 Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Binkova, Blanka; Rossner, Pavel [Institute of Experimental Medicine, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 14220 Prague 4 (Czech Republic)

    2012-05-01

    The ability of vitamin C to affect genetic damage was reviewed in human studies that used molecular epidemiology methods, including analysis of DNA adducts, DNA strand breakage (using the Comet assay), oxidative damage measured as levels of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroxy-2 Prime -deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), cytogenetic analysis of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei, and the induction of DNA repair proteins. The protective effect of vitamin C was observed at plasma levels > 50 {mu}mol/l. Vitamin C supplementation decreased the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in groups with insufficient dietary intake who were occupationally exposed to mutagens, and also decreased the sensitivity to mutagens as assessed using the bleomycin assay. High vitamin C levels in plasma decreased the frequency of genomic translocations in groups exposed to ionizing radiation or c-PAHs in polluted air. The frequency of micronuclei was decreased by vitamin C supplementation in smokers challenged with {gamma}-irradiation, and higher vitamin C levels in plasma counteracted the damage induced by air pollution. The prevalence of DNA adducts inversely correlated with vitamin C levels in groups environmentally exposed to high concentrations of c-PAHs. Increased vitamin C levels decreased DNA strand breakage induced by air pollution. Oxidative damage (8-oxodG levels) was decreased by vitamin C supplementation in groups with plasma levels > 50 {mu}mol/l exposed to PM2.5 and c-PAHs. Modulation of DNA repair by vitamin C supplementation was observed both in poorly nourished subjects and in groups with vitamin C plasma levels > 50 {mu}mol/l exposed to higher concentrations of c-PAHs. It is possible that the impact of vitamin C on DNA damage depends both on background values of vitamin C in the individual as well as on the level of exposure to xenobiotics or oxidative stress.

  20. Combination vitamin C and vitamin E prevents enteric diabetic neuropathy in the small intestine in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Nelisis Zanoni

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the effects of supplementation with a combination of vitamin C and vitamin E on NADH-diaphorase-positive (NADH-d+ and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS-immunoreactive myenteric neurons in the duodenum and ileum in diabetic rats. Forty rats were distributed into the following groups: normoglycemic (N, normoglycemic supplemented with vitamin C and vitamin E (NS, diabetic (D, and diabetic supplemented with vitamin C and vitamin E (DS. Vitamin C was added to the drinking water, and vitamin E was incorporated in the diet (1%. After 120 days, the animals were euthanized, and the duodenum and ileum were subjected to NADH-d and nNOS staining. Quantitative and morphometric analyses of myenteric neurons were performed. Diabetes reduced NADH-d+ neurons in the D group. The density of nitrergic neurons was not changed by diabetes or vitamin treatment. Hypertrophy of the cell body area of NADH-d+ and nNOS-immunoreactive neurons was observed in both intestinal segments. Combined supplementation with vitamin C and vitamin E prevented the reduction of the density of NADH-d+ neurons and hypertrophy, demonstratred by both techniques. Supplementation with a combination of vitamin C and vitamin E promoted myenteric neuroprotection in the small intestine in diabetic rats.

  1. "Beneficial effects of vitamin C and vitamin E on blood pressure in Hyperandrogenic women "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotoudeh G

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Hyperandrogenism affects 2-6% of all women. Hypertension is one of disturbances which is related to androgen excess. Higher intakes of vitamin C and vitamin E have been associated with lower blood pressure. Tho investigate the effect of these vitamin supplementation on blood pressure in hyperandrogenic women, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was designed on 56 women 18-54 years old. Women were randomly allocated to one of four treatment groups: spironolactone plus vitamain C and viamin E (SCE, spironolactone plus vitamins placebo (SP, vitamin C plus vitamin E (CE, vitamins placebo (P. The treatment consisted of oral administration of 100 mg spironolactone, 1000 mg vitamin C and 900 mg vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol acetate daily for about 3 months. Results indicated that compared to pretreatment, vitamins supplementation significantly lowered systolic (119.1±12.6 vs. 112.6±15.4 mmHg and mean blood pressure (97.4±11.5 vs. 92. ±12.1 mmHg SCE group (P<0.05, diastolic (87.3±12.7 vs. 80±12 mmHg and mean group (P<0.05. Blood levels of vitamin C and alpha-tocopherol increased in all SCE and CE subjects. In conclusion, vitamin C and vitamin E supplementation reduced blood pressure in hperandrogenic women who are at risk of hypertension.

  2. Vitamin B12 and Cognitive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background More than 2.9 million serum vitamin B12 tests were performed in 2010 in Ontario at a cost of $40 million. Vitamin B12 deficiency has been associated with a few neurocognitive disorders. Objective To determine the clinical utility of B12 testing in patients with suspected dementia or cognitive decline. Methods Three questions were addressed: Is there an association between vitamin B12 deficiency and the onset of dementia or cognitive decline? Does treatment with vitamin B12 supplementation improve cognitive function in patients with dementia or cognitive decline and vitamin B12 deficiency? What is the effectiveness of oral versus parenteral vitamin B12 supplementation in those with confirmed vitamin B12 deficiency? A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, Embase, EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Cochrane Library, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination database, from January 2002 until August 2012. Results Eighteen studies (7 systematic reviews and 11 observational studies) were identified to address the question of the association between B12 and the onset of dementia. Four systematic reviews were identified to address the question of the treatment of B12 on cognitive function. Finally, 3 randomized controlled trials were identified that compared oral B12 to intramuscular B12. Conclusions Based on very low quality evidence, there does appear to be an association between elevated plasma homocysteine levels (a by-product of B vitamins) and the onset of dementia. Based on moderate quality evidence, but with less than optimal duration of follow-up, treatment with B12 supplementation does not appreciably change cognitive function. Based on low to moderate quality of evidence, treatment with vitamin B12 and folate in patients with mild cognitive impairment seems to slow the rate of brain atrophy. Based on moderate quality evidence, oral vitamin B12 is as effective as parenteral vitamin B12 in patients with

  3. The relationship between functional ovarian cysts and vitamin A, vitamin E, and folate intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafazoli, Mahin; Fazeli, Elham; Nematy, Mohsen; Bahri, Narjes; Dadgar, Salmeh

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to clarify the relationship between functional ovarian cysts and vitamin A, vitamin E, and folate intake. This case-control study evaluated 265 women of reproductive age who presented at gynaecology clinics of three hospitals in Mashhad, Iran. While women in the ovarian cyst group [n = 132] had functional ovarian cysts, control group [n = 133] consisted of women without functional ovarian cysts. The participants' vitamin A, vitamin E, and folate intake was assessed using the Food Frequency Questionnaire. Results showed that folate intake was significantly higher in the ovarian cyst group [p = .040]. No significant differences in vitamin A and vitamin E intake were observed between the two groups [p = .950 and .230, respectively]. It is concluded that women with functional ovarian cysts had significantly higher folate intake. Vitamin A and vitamin E intake had no significant effects on the incidence of these cysts.

  4. The effects of different levels of vitamin-E and organic selenium on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of different levels of vitamin-E and organic selenium on ... The hens performance including hen-day egg production%, feed intake, egg mass ... Antibody production against sheep red blood cells (SRBC) also was measured.

  5. Vitamin D status in kidney transplant patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewers, Bettina; Gasbjerg, Ane; Moelgaard, Christian

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency has been found in the general population and in patients with chronic kidney disease. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to examine vitamin D status and determinants and metabolic correlates of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a population of adult Danish......(OH)D], and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [S-1,25(OH)(2)D] were measured. Dietary and supplementary intake of vitamin D, avoidance of solar ultraviolet B exposure, and selected lifestyle factors were assessed in a subgroup (n = 97). RESULTS: Fifty-one percent of the patients had vitamin D insufficiency [S......-25(OH)D 40-75 nmol/L], and an additional 29% had moderate-to-severe vitamin D deficiency [S-25(OH)D vitamin D supplementation (positive association) were independent determinants of S-25(OH)D concentrations...

  6. Vitamin D content in human breast milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Við Streym, Susanna; Højskov, Carsten S; Møller, Ulla Kristine

    2016-01-01

    ) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) (vitamin D) and 25-hydroxivitamin D2 plus D3 (25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]) in foremilk and hindmilk during the first 9 mo of lactation and identified indexes of importance to the concentrations. DESIGN: We collected blood and breast-milk samples from mothers at 2 wk (n = 107), 4 mo......, (n = 90), and 9 mo (n = 48) postpartum. Blood samples from infants were collected 4 and 9 mo after birth. We measured concentrations of vitamin D metabolites in blood and milk samples with the use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Concentrations of vitamin D and 25(OH......)D concentrations (P taking vitamin D supplements had higher concentrations than did nonusers. Medians (IQRs) of infant daily intake through breast milk of vitamin D and 25(OH)D were 0.10 μg (0.02-0.40 μg) and 0.34 μg (0...

  7. Vitamin D, Cardiovascular Disease and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaaby, Tea; Thuesen, Betina H; Linneberg, Allan

    2017-01-01

    Observational studies have suggested a possible protective role of vitamin D on the cardiovascular system. The available evidence does not support either cardiovascular benefits or harms of vitamin D supplementation. This chapter provides an overview and discussion of the current knowledge of vitamin D effects from a cardiovascular health perspective. It focuses on vitamin D in relation to cardiovascular disease, i.e. ischemic heart disease, and stroke; the traditional cardiovascular risk factors hypertension, abnormal blood lipids, obesity; and the emerging risk factors hyperparathyroidism, microalbuminuria, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Meta-analyses of observational studies have largely found vitamin D levels to be inversely associated with cardiovascular risk and disease. However, Mendelian randomization studies and randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) have not been able to consistently replicate the observational findings. Several RCTs are ongoing, and the results from these are needed to clarify whether vitamin D deficiency is a causal and reversible factor to prevent cardiovascular disease.

  8. VITAMINS A AND E AS ANTIOXIDANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevan Glogovac

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A is involved in metabolism of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. It affects tissue respiration and energetic metabolism. The speed of oxidation process of citric acid cycle and process of oxidative phosphorilation are influenced by vitamin A. Anticarcinogenic effect of vitamin A is believed to exist due to β-karoten, which exerts antioxidative properties.Vitamin E proved to be effective in preventing lipid peroxidation and other radical driven oxidative events. Vitamin E acts mainly by being incorporated into cell membranes, thereby protecting them against free radical attack in the lipid phase, especially the lipoperoxyl radical, but also against O2−, singlet oxygen and OH. The antioxidant activity of vitamin E has persuaded many groups to study its ability to prevent chronic disease, especially those believed to have an oxidative stress component such as cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis, and cancer.

  9. Vitamin A and Retinoids as Mitochondrial Toxicants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Roberto de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A and its derivatives, the retinoids, are micronutrient necessary for the human diet in order to maintain several cellular functions from human development to adulthood and also through aging. Furthermore, vitamin A and retinoids are utilized pharmacologically in the treatment of some diseases, as, for instance, dermatological disturbances and some types of cancer. In spite of being an essential micronutrient with clinical application, vitamin A exerts several toxic effects regarding redox environment and mitochondrial function. Moreover, decreased life quality and increased mortality rates among vitamin A supplements users have been reported. However, the exact mechanism by which vitamin A elicits its deleterious effects is not clear yet. In this review, the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in the mechanism of vitamin A-induced toxicity is discussed.

  10. Vitamin D Status in Danish Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke Agnete

    children’s vitamin D status with regard to sufficiency level, possibilities to improve status, and whether status is associated with cardio-metabolic markers. The project is based on data from the OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (NND......A principal function of vitamin D is facilitation of intestinal calcium absorption and maintenance of calcium homeostasis. This is essential to several functions in the body, and vitamin D is believed to be particularly crucial during childhood growth as the requirement for calcium increases...... latitudes such as Denmark and low winter concentrations have been observed in Danish children. Also, very few foods are naturally rich in vitamin D and little is known on the effect of dietary vitamin D on children’s vitamin D status. The overall aim of this PhD project was to investigate aspects of Danish...

  11. Vitamin D therapy for chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhan, Ishir; Thadhani, Ravi

    2009-01-01

    Vitamin D has played a central role in the nephrologist's armamentarium, with active vitamin D analogues enjoying broad use for treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Increasing data are now coming to light about the broader biological actions of vitamin D, including wide-ranging effects in several endocrine pathways, cardiovascular disease, infectious disease, and even the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). As additional agents are emerging to help with control of metabolic bone disease, these nontraditional pathways of vitamin D action will become increasingly important to consider when formulating a treatment plan. Although the only approved use for vitamin D analogues in CKD is the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism, well-conducted clinical trials may soon broaden the scope of this therapy. This article reviews the role of vitamin D therapy in CKD and looks to the answers that future research may bring.

  12. NEW VITAMIN AND MINERAL COMPLEX FOR CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Alekseeva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to an important matter of pediatrics — hypovitaminosis prevention among children. The author generally provided for the functions of vitamins in ensuring the normal vital functions of the organism, as well as described the properties of certain vitamins and microelements, their uniqueness and irreplaceability. Therefore, considering great troubles in ensuring the optimal contents of these substances in the ration, the author showed the necessity of the preventive prescription of the vitamin and mineral complexes. Besides, their application is expedient during the period of recovery from acute infectious diseases and in the comprehensive therapy of the chronic somatic diseases. The author points out to the necessity to choose the dosage form of a vitamin and mineral complex with due regard for the daily requirement for the vitamins and minerals among children from different age groups.Key words: vitamins, microelements, hypovitaminosis, prevention, children.

  13. Diet and Asthma: Vitamins and Methyl Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yueh-Ying; Blatter, Josh; Brehm, John M.; Forno, Erick; Litonjua, Augusto A; Celedón, Juan C.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Dietary changes may partly explain the high burden of asthma in industrialized nations. Experimental studies have motivated a significant number of observational studies of the relation between vitamins (A, C, D, and E) or nutrients acting as methyl donors (folate, vitamin B12, and choline) and asthma. Because observational studies are susceptible to several sources of bias, well-conducted randomized controlled trials (RCTs) remain the “gold standard” to determine whether a vitamin or nutrient has an effect on asthma. Evidence from observational studies and/or relatively few RCTs most strongly justify ongoing and future RCTs of: 1) vitamin D to prevent or treat asthma, 2) choline supplementation as adjuvant treatment for asthma, and 3) vitamin E to prevent the detrimental effects of air pollution in subjects with asthma. At this time, there is insufficient evidence to recommend supplementation with any vitamin or nutrient acting as a methyl donor to prevent or treat asthma. PMID:24461761

  14. Vitamin Supplementation in the Treatment of Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Hannah E.; Roffman, Joshua L.

    2014-01-01

    In this article we review the current literature addressing the treatment of schizophrenia with vitamin supplementation. We first describe the important roles that vitamins play in normal metabolism, then review the evidence pertaining to vitamin deficiency and supplementation in patients with schizophrenia. We then describe mounting evidence suggesting that vitamin supplementation, in particular with folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin D, may be important in treatment within certain subgroups of patients. We highlight the need for larger, randomized controlled trials, and recommend further studies examining the incidence of schizophrenia in countries with poor prenatal care and malnutrition, as well as in countries that have adopted mandatory folic acid fortification of grain products. PMID:24846474

  15. The Big Vitamin D Mistake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios T. Papadimitriou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Since 2006, type 1 diabetes in Finland has plateaued and then decreased after the authorities’ decision to fortify dietary milk products with cholecalciferol. The role of vitamin D in innate and adaptive immunity is critical. A statistical error in the estimation of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA for vitamin D was recently discovered; in a correct analysis of the data used by the Institute of Medicine, it was found that 8895 IU/d was needed for 97.5% of individuals to achieve values ≥50 nmol/L. Another study confirmed that 6201 IU/d was needed to achieve 75 nmol/L and 9122 IU/d was needed to reach 100 nmol/L. The largest meta-analysis ever conducted of studies published between 1966 and 2013 showed that 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels 1 year of age, and around 8000 IU for young adults and thereafter. Actions are urgently needed to protect the global population from vitamin D deficiency.

  16. Vitamin effects on the immune system: vitamins A and D take centre stage

    OpenAIRE

    Mora, J. Rodrigo; Iwata, Makoto; von Andrian, Ulrich H.

    2008-01-01

    Vitamins are essential constituents of our diet that have long been known to influence the immune system. Vitamins A and D have received particular attention in recent years as these vitamins have been shown to have an unexpected and crucial effect on the immune response. We present and discuss our current understanding of the essential roles of vitamins in modulating a broad range of immune processes, such as lymphocyte activation and proliferation, T-helper-cell differentiation, tissue-spec...

  17. New Advances about the Effect of Vitamins on Human Health: Vitamins Supplements and Nutritional Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    García Uribe, Noelia; Reig García-Galbis, Manuel; Martínez-Espinosa, Rosa María

    2017-01-01

    The early twentieth century was a crucial period for the identification and biological-chemical-physical characterisation of vitamins. From then until now, many studies have attempted to clarify into detail the biological role of the vitamins in humans and their direct connection with certain diseases, either in a negative way (appearance of deficiency diseases due to vitamin deficiency) or a positive way (use of vitamins to treat diseases and/or to improve human health). The aim of this work...

  18. VITAMIN AND MINERAL CORRECTION IN PUBERTAL PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Talashova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a role of calcium, phosphorus, vitamins D, A and group of vitamins B in growth and development of adolescents. Balances composition of complex medication «Kalcinova» allow preventing of deficient state in children in prepubertal period.Key words: adolescents, calcium, vitamins, nutrition.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(3:120-122

  19. Vitamin D and melanoma incidence and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwick, Marianne; Erdei, Eszter O

    2013-01-01

    The role of vitamin D (25-OH-D, or 25-hydroxyvitamin D) and its potential confounders in relationship to melanoma risk and mortality is discussed. The paradox that ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure is the major environmental risk factor for melanoma etiology as well as a major source of vitamin D might be explained by viewing vitamin D levels as the result of a healthy lifestyle rather than a cause of health. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. New recommendations for vitamin D intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgen Benedik

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that plays an important role in bone metabolism and immune system. Low vitamin D levels (< 50 nmol/l have been widely reported in all age groups in recent years. Lack of vitamin D is associated with increased overall and cardiovascular mortality, cancer incidence and mortality, and autoimmune diseases. Vitamin D deficiency is rising, mainly due to modern lifestyle and malabsorption disorders. As an adequate intake of vitamin D is hard to achieve through the diet alone, the dietary supplements of vitamin D are recommended. Sun exposure (ultraviolet B radiation, UVB represents the main source of vitamin D, which is synthesised in the skin. UVB intensity varies through the year and the time of day. The peak UVB period is between 10 am to 4 pm from April till October (above 40° latitude. There is no universal consent on the amount and frequency of vitamin D supplementation. A sufficient supplementation of vitamin D is necessary through the whole life cycle, especially during lactation. With sufficient supplementation of vitamin D during lactation (4,000 IU/day mother covers her own and through her breast milk also the child`s nutritional needs (400 IU/day for vitamin D. However, further research in this field is needed before recommending such a high supplementation for nursing mothers. New German Reference values from 2012 advises 400 IU / day for infants during the first year of life, and afterwards 800 IU/day for the entire population.

  1. The risk of abuse of vitamin supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marosz, Agnieszka; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the results of studies on potential risks associated with the abuse of vitamin supplements which until recently had been considered not only highly effica- cious, but also completely safe. Particular consideration is given to vitamins A, E, D and C. The necessity to control the intake of vitamin supplements and even to strictly super- vise the supply to high risk patients is highlighted.

  2. Vitamine E et physiologie du tissu adipeux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landrier Jean-François

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin E constitutes a family of eight molecules well-known for its antioxidant properties and its essentiality in fertility. Its ability to regulate gene expression is more and more described and could be a major actor of its biological activity. Adipose tissue which is the main store site of vitamin E within the body is also subjected to the regulatory effect of vitamin E. These regulations could strongly impact adipose tissue physiology.

  3. Vitamin B12 deficiency causing night sweats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, H U

    2014-11-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is common. It is known to cause a wide spectrum of neurological syndromes, including autonomic dysfunction. Three cases are discussed here in which drenching night sweats were thought to be caused by vitamin B12 deficiency. All three responded dramatically to vitamin B12 therapy. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  4. Vitamin E Supplementation in Burn Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    SUBJECT TERMS Vitamin E deficiency in burn patients and supplementation 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES...our proposal were to a) attenuate alpha-tocopherol depletion in burn patients by vitamin E supplementation, b ) to prevent or reverse oxidative...improve our understanding of the metabolism of alpha-tocopherol in thermally injured patients, and B ) demonstrate the mechanism by which vitamin E

  5. Link between vitamin D and airway remodeling

    OpenAIRE

    Berraies A; Hamzaoui K; Hamzaoui A

    2014-01-01

    Anissa Berraies, Kamel Hamzaoui, Agnes HamzaouiPediatric Respiratory Diseases Department, Abderrahmen Mami Hospital, Ariana, and Research Unit 12SP15 Tunis El Manar University, Tunis, TunisiaAbstract: In the last decade, many epidemiologic studies have investigated the link between vitamin D deficiency and asthma. Most studies have shown that vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of asthma and allergies. Low levels of vitamin D have been associated with asthma severity and loss of control, ...

  6. Vitamin D in Children?s Health

    OpenAIRE

    Joy A. Weydert

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of vitamin D in the health of children has grown greatly over the years, extending past the importance for calcium homeostasis and bone growth. There is growing recognition of the role vitamin D plays in health impacting the innate immune system to prevent infections and the adaptive immune system to modulate autoimmunity. Other studies are starting to reveal the neurohormonal effects of vitamin D on brain development and behavior, with a link to mental health disorders. Many of the...

  7. Malabsorption of protein bound vitamin B12.

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, D W; Sawers, A H; Sharma, R K

    1984-01-01

    Patients with subnormal serum vitamin B12 concentrations were tested for absorption of protein bound vitamin B12 and compared with controls. Absorption of the protein bound vitamin appeared to decrease with increasing age in healthy subjects. Differences between the result of this test and the result of the Schilling test in patients who had undergone gastric surgery were confirmed; such differences were also seen in some patients who had iron deficiency anaemia, an excessive alcohol intake, ...

  8. No evidence supports vitamin E indiscriminate supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotan, Yedidia; Lichtenberg, Dov; Pinchuk, Ilya

    2009-01-01

    For many years, the prevailing concept was that LDL oxidation plays the central role in atherogenesis. As a consequence, supplementation of antioxidants, particularly vitamin E, became very popular. Unfortunately, major randomized clinical trials yielded disappointing results and recent meta-analyses concluded that indiscriminate, high dose vitamin E supplementation results in increased mortality. This conclusion raised (quite reasonable) criticism, much of which referred to the characteristics of meta-analysis. In our recent study, we used a Markov-model approach, which is free of most of the limitations of meta-analyses. Our major finding was that the average quality-adjusted life years (QALY) of vitamin E- supplemented individuals was 0.30 QALY (95%CI 0.21 to 0.39) less than that of untreated people. In our view, this supports the view that indiscriminate supplementation of high dose vitamin E can not be recommended to the general public.In the present communication we address several recent studies that demonstrated negative effects of vitamin E and raise possible mechanisms that may be responsible for the harmful effects of vitamin E supplementation. We also review recent studies conducted with specific groups of patients that gained from vitamin E supplementation, indicating that although, on the average, indiscriminate supplementation of high dose vitamin E is not beneficial, specific populations may gain from vitamin E. The challenge is to establish selection criteria that will predict who is likely to benefit from vitamin E supplementation. Such criteria may be based either on the assumption that antioxidants are likely to be beneficial for people under oxidative stress or on knowledge regarding the benefit of sick people with certain diseases. In short, we adopt the view that vitamin E is a "double-edge sword" that should not be consumed until criteria are defined to predict who is likely to benefit from high dose supplementation of vitamin E. (c) 2009

  9. Role of Vitamin D in Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chien Sung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is characterized as a regulator of homeostasis of bone and mineral metabolism, but it can also provide nonskeletal actions because vitamin D receptors have been found in various tissues including the brain, prostate, breast, colon, pancreas, and immune cells. Bone metabolism, modulation of the immune response, and regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation are all biological functions of vitamin D. Vitamin D may play an important role in modifying the risk of cardiometabolic outcomes, including diabetes mellitus (DM, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. The incidence of type 2 DM is increasing worldwide and results from a lack of insulin or inadequate insulin secretion following increases in insulin resistance. Therefore, it has been proposed that vitamin D deficiency plays an important role in insulin resistance resulting in diabetes. The potential role of vitamin D deficiency in insulin resistance has been proposed to be associated with inherited gene polymorphisms including vitamin D-binding protein, vitamin D receptor, and vitamin D 1alpha-hydroxylase gene. Other roles have been proposed to involve immunoregulatory function by activating innate and adaptive immunity and cytokine release, activating inflammation by upregulation of nuclear factor κB and inducing tumor necrosis factor α, and other molecular actions to maintain glucose homeostasis and mediate insulin sensitivity by a low calcium status, obesity, or by elevating serum levels of parathyroid hormone. These effects of vitamin D deficiency, either acting in concert or alone, all serve to increase insulin resistance. Although there is evidence to support a relationship between vitamin D status and insulin resistance, the underlying mechanism requires further exploration. The purpose of this paper was to review the current information available concerning the role of vitamin D in insulin resistance.

  10. Vitamin D in ocular and systemic health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solani D. Mathebula

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Accumulated data supports the argument that vitamin D possesses several biological and molecular actions apart from its role in calcium absorption and facilitation of gene expression. Vitamin D deficiency has been an associated risk factor for cardiovascular disease,metabolic syndrome and ocular complications. The aim of this review is to summarise the most relevant data regarding these associations and to try to clarify whether, and to what extent, oral vitamin D supplementation could be used as a beneficial intervention in such diseases.Vitamin D is produced in skin exposed to sunlight UVB radiation and is then metabolised by the kidney into calciferol, which is an active form. The main function of vitamin D is to promote calcium and phosphorus absorption, and studies have shown that a lack of itplays an important role in ocular conditions, such as age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. Recent studies have suggested that vitamin D may protect the diabetic retina; however, other vitamin D-associated conditions (diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases may result in secondary ocular manifestations and the potential forsight-threatening complications. The purpose of this review is to describe the current literature on the role of vitamin D in ocular and systemic wellness. However, more research is needed to determine if increasing levels of this vitamin can assist in preventing age-related macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy. Since vitamin D is a circulating steroid hormone, its receptors are found in almost every cell in the human body, and this suggests that vitamin D might have a very broad role for overall health. However, there is still demand for further research to clarify the clinical use of vitamin D in the prevention and treatment of various chronic diseases.

  11. Uso de la tierra y diversidades alfa, beta y gamma de diplópodos en la cuenca del río Otún, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Feijoo-Martínez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Land use and alpha, beta, and gamma diversity of Diplopoda in the Otún basin, Colombia. Objective: To determine the relationshipbetween changes in ecosystems and agrosystems provoked by human intervention and the alpha, beta and gamma diversity of theDiplopoda in the middle basin of the Otún river. Materials and methods: In this research we used a stratified systematic design with sevensampling windows and 16 sampling points. Millipedes were divided into families and morphotypes to calculate the alpha, beta and gammadiversity related to the heterogeneity of land uses. Results: We identified 35 morphotypes from 12 families and five orders. Alpha diversityof Diplopoda revealed significant differences between land uses (P 85% in spite of the low diversity in the land uses, which determined the high contribution of the betadiversity to the gamma diversity of the landscape. Conclusion: The heterogeneity of land uses showed that the changes modify the structureof diversity in Diplopoda with gradients diverging from the preserved ones to the highly transformed ones.

  12. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of selenomethionine-labelled KaiC-like protein PH0186 from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming, Hua; Miyazono, Ken-ichi; Tanokura, Masaru, E-mail: amtanok@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan)

    2007-04-01

    Preliminary crystallographic analysis of KaiC-like protein PH0186 from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 is reported. KaiC is the central protein in the circadian-clock system of cyanobacteria. A selenomethionine-labelled KaiC-homologous protein from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 (PH0186; 28 kDa) was crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using ethanol as a precipitant. The crystals diffracted X-rays to beyond 2.0 Å resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source. The space group of the crystals was determined to be C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 173.7, b = 51.8, c = 97.5 Å, β = 122.8°. The crystal contains three molecules in the asymmetric unit (V{sub M} = 2.2 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}) and has a solvent content of 43.5%. Sixfold noncrystallographic symmetry was identified from self-rotation calculations, assuming the presence of a hexamer in the crystal.

  13. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the archaeal phosphoglycerate mutase PH0037 from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lokanath, Neratur K.; Kunishima, Naoki, E-mail: kunisima@spring8.or.jp [Advanced Protein Crystallography Research Group, RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Harima Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2006-08-01

    The archaeal phosphoglycerate mutase PH0037 from P. horikoshii OT3 has been crystallized in space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = 155.62, c = 230.35 Å. A 2.2 Å resolution data was collected at SPring-8 beamline BL26B1. Phosphoglycerate mutases catalyze the interconversion of 2-phosphoglycerate and 3-phosphoglycerate in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis pathways. The archaeal phosphoglycerate mutase PH0037 from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Crystals were obtained using the oil-microbatch method at 291 K. A native data set extending to a resolution of 2.2 Å has been collected and processed in space group R32. Assuming the presence of a dimer in the asymmetric unit, the V{sub M} value is calculated to be 3.0 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}, consistent with the dynamic light-scattering experiment result, which shows a dimeric state of the protein in solution. Molecular-replacement trials using the crystal structure of Bacilllus stearothermophilus phosphoglycerate mutase as a search model did not provide a satisfactory solution, indicating substantially different structures of these two phophoglycerate mutases.

  14. Transcriptional analysis and molecular dynamics simulations reveal the mechanism of toxic metals removal and efflux pumps in Lysinibacillus sphaericus OT4b.31

    KAUST Repository

    Shaw, Dario Rangel

    2017-11-23

    Lysinibacillus sphaericus strain OT4b.31 is a bacterium widely applied in bioremediation processes of hydrocarbon and metal polluted environments. In this study, we identified the molecular mechanism underlying the Pb2+ and Cr6+ resistance. Metal uptake and temporal transcription patterns of metal resistance operons were evaluated using reverse-transcribed quantitative PCR amplification. The function of the resistance determinants was studied applying docking and in silico mutagenesis methods. The results revealed that the adaptation of Lysinibacillus sphaericus OT4b.31 to elevated levels of lead and chromium involves the pbr and chr operons which comprise a transcriptional regulatory component (pbrR and chrB) and efflux ATPases (pbrA and chrA) to expel ions from the cytoplasm. Expression of metal resistance genes was constitutive and specifically inducible to the exposure of Pb2+ and Cr6+. The simultaneous presence of cations didn\\'t affect the bioaccumulation of metals, evidencing the multimetal resistance of L. sphaericus. Docking analysis revealed the key metal-protein interactions and the conformational changes after metal or ATP binding. Results showed that residues with aromatic rings or imidazole in the catalytic domain are crucial for metal binding and achievement of the function. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a specific mechanism for lead and chromium resistance in Lysinibacillus genus. From the findings of this study, it is possible to suggest the bacterium as a suitable candidate for rapid toxic metals bioremediation processes.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: ataxia with vitamin E deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency Printable PDF Open All ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency is a disorder that ...

  16. Effect of combined folic acid, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 on colorectal adenoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folic acid, vitamin B(6), and vitamin B(12) act in concert in the one-carbon metabolism and may protect against colorectal neoplasia. We examined the effect of combined B-vitamin treatment on the occurrence of colorectal adenoma. The Women's Antioxidant and Folic Acid Cardiovascular Study was a rand...

  17. The impact of 1-year vitamin D supplementation on vitamin D status in athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backx, E.M.P.; Tieland, M.; Maase, K.; Kies, A.K.; Mensink, M.; Loon, van L.J.C.; Groot, de L.C.P.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives:To assess the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Dutch athletes and to define the required dosage of vitamin D3 supplementation to prevent vitamin D deficiency over the course of a year.Subjects/Methods:Blood samples were collected from 128 highly trained

  18. The role of vitamins in the diet of the elderly II. Water-soluble vitamins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csapó J.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Following a presentation of humans’ water-soluble vitamin requirements, the authors will discuss in detail the role these vitamins play in human organism and outline those major biochemical processes that are negatively affected in the body in case of vitamin deficiency. They point out that in the elderly population of developed countries cases of water-soluble vitamin deficiency are extremely rare and they are due to the lack of dietary vitamin, but mostly to the vitamin being released from its bindings, the difficulty of free vitamin absorption, gastrointestinal problems, medication, and often alcoholism. Among water-soluble vitamins, B12 is the only one with a sufficient storage level in the body, capable of preventing deficiency symptoms for a long period of time in cases of vitamin-deficient nutrition. Each type of vitamin is dealt with separately in discussing the beneficial outcomes of their overconsumption regarding health, while the authors of the article also present cases with contradictory results. Daily requirements are set forth for every water-soluble vitamin and information is provided on the types of nutrients that help us to the water-soluble vitamins essential for the organism.

  19. Genetic polymorphisms related to vitamin D and the therapeutic potential of vitamin D in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niino, Masaaki; Miyazaki, Yusei

    2015-05-01

    Vitamin D receptors (VDRs), which are responsible for most vitamin D functions, are expressed on various immune cells. Vitamin D is considered to be a potent immunomodulator. A variety of cells in the central nervous system (CNS) also express VDRs; thus, vitamin D may play a role in the regulation of neurodegeneration and repair processes within the CNS. Considered together with epidemiological studies, low vitamin D status is reckoned to be one of the risk factors for multiple sclerosis (MS). Further, vitamin D is considered to be a possible treatment for MS. However, previous clinical trials with small cohorts have not demonstrated significant effects of vitamin D in MS. Current ongoing clinical trials with large cohorts could provide answers with respect to the clinical effects of vitamin D in MS. However, genetic studies have suggested that genes associated with vitamin D, including VDRs, are susceptible genes for MS. Vitamin D needs to be considered from the perspective of the interaction between vitamin-D-related genetic factors and environmental factors affecting vitamin D levels.

  20. Vitamin C deficiency in weanling guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Trueba, Gilberto Perez; Poulsen, Henrik E.

    2007-01-01

    Neonates are particularly susceptible to malnutrition due to their limited reserves of micronutrients and their rapid growth. In the present study, we examined the effect of vitamin C deficiency on markers of oxidative stress in plasma, liver and brain of weanling guinea pigs. Vitamin C deficiency...... increased, while protein oxidation decreased (P¼0003). The results show that the selective preservation of brain ascorbate and induction of DNA repair in vitamin C-deficient weanling guinea pigs is not sufficient to prevent oxidative damage. Vitamin C deficiency may therefore be particularly adverse during...

  1. Vitamin E Transporters in Cancer Therapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alqahtani, Saeed; Kaddoumi, Amal

    2015-01-01

    Besides their potent antioxidant activity, vitamin E isoforms demonstrated multiple therapeutic activities among which is their activity against different cancer types, including breast, prostate, and colon cancers...

  2. B vitamins in the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, D A

    1984-01-01

    The coenzyme functions of the B vitamins in intermediatry metabolism are well established; nevertheless, for none of them is it possible to determine precisely the connection between the biochemical lesions associated with deficiency and the neurological consequences. Although there is convincing evidence of a neurospecific role for thiamin and other B vitamins, in no case has this role been adequately described. Similarly, the neurochemical sequelae of intoxication by massive amounts of vitamins (so-called mega-vitamin therapy or orthomolecular medicine) remain largely unexplained.

  3. Vitamin B12 Deficiency: Recognition and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan, Robert C; Goodbred, Andrew J

    2017-09-15

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is a common cause of megaloblastic anemia, various neuropsychiatric symptoms, and other clinical manifestations. Screening average-risk adults for vitamin B12 deficiency is not recommended. Screening may be warranted in patients with one or more risk factors, such as gastric or small intestine resections, inflammatory bowel disease, use of metformin for more than four months, use of proton pump inhibitors or histamine H2 blockers for more than 12 months, vegans or strict vegetarians, and adults older than 75 years. Initial laboratory assessment should include a complete blood count and serum vitamin B12 level. Measurement of serum methylmalonic acid should be used to confirm deficiency in asymptomatic high-risk patients with low-normal levels of vitamin B12. Oral administration of high-dose vitamin B12 (1 to 2 mg daily) is as effective as intramuscular administration for correcting anemia and neurologic symptoms. Intramuscular therapy leads to more rapid improvement and should be considered in patients with severe deficiency or severe neurologic symptoms. Absorption rates improve with supplementation; therefore, patients older than 50 years and vegans or strict vegetarians should consume foods fortified with vitamin B12 or take vitamin B12 supplements. Patients who have had bariatric surgery should receive 1 mg of oral vitamin B12 per day indefinitely. Use of vitamin B12 in patients with elevated serum homocysteine levels and cardiovascular disease does not reduce the risk of myocardial infarction or stroke, or alter cognitive decline.

  4. Vitamin D supplementation: a pharmacologic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boullata, Joseph I

    2010-11-01

    Vitamin D supplementation is expected to increase as clinicians try to optimize their patients' vitamin D status. This review integrates newer information into a perspective on vitamin D disposition and effect. Vitamin D is being considered for indications beyond bone health. The limited dose-response data vary by indication, but generally target a goal serum 25(OH)D concentration of 80-120 nmol/l. Although oral vitamin D is adequately absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and utilized before being excreted, these factors may vary with baseline vitamin D status, genetic polymorphism, and the form of vitamin D being administered. Additionally, the responses to vitamin D can be tissue-specific and are not always well described. There is still a need to better characterize the disposition and effect of vitamin D supplementation. Data will need to be more specific to the therapeutic indication and demonstrate health outcomes. Long-term effects of high-dose supplementation at the tissue level will be especially important to describe.

  5. Vitamin D and Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К.S. Biliaieva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents data concerning the problem of vitamin D deficiency in adolescents with diabetes mellitus type 1. A correlation between vitamin D deficiency and compensation of the disease is shown. The examination of adolescent patients suffering from type 1 diabetes mellitus found a connection between levels of vitamin D, duration and the degree of type 1 diabetes compensation. Further studies are focused on studying the impact and the correction of vitamin D status in children with diabetes mellitus type 1, on improving the glycemic control and quality of life of a patient.

  6. Ultraviolet radiation, vitamin D and multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Robyn M; Byrne, Scott N; Correale, Jorge; Ilschner, Susanne; Hart, Prue H

    2015-10-01

    There is compelling epidemiological evidence that the risk of developing multiple sclerosis is increased in association with low levels of sun exposure, possibly because this is associated with low vitamin D status. Recent work highlights both vitamin D and non-vitamin D effects on cellular immunity that suggests that higher levels of sun exposure and/or vitamin D status are beneficial for both MS risk and in ameliorating disease progression. Here we review this recent evidence, focusing on regulatory cells, dendritic cells, and chemokines and cytokines released from the skin following exposure to ultraviolet radiation.

  7. Role of vitamins in gastrointestinal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masri, Omar A; Chalhoub, Jean M; Sharara, Ala I

    2015-05-07

    A tremendous amount of data from research was published over the past decades concerning the roles of different vitamins in various gastrointestinal diseases. For instance, most vitamins showed an inverse relationship with the risk of colorectal carcinoma as well as other malignancies like gastric and esophageal cancer in observational trials, however interventional trials failed to prove a clear beneficial preventive role. On the other hand, more solid evidence was obtained from high quality studies for a role of certain vitamins in specific entities. Examples for this include the therapeutic role of vitamin E in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, the additive role of vitamins B12 and D to the standard therapy of chronic hepatitis C virus, the role of vitamin C in reducing the risk of gallstones, the positive outcome with vitamin B12 in patients with aphthous stomatitis, and the beneficial effect of vitamin D and B1 in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Other potential uses are yet to be elaborated, like those on celiac disease, pancreatic cancer, pancreatitis, cholestasis and other potential fields. Data from several ongoing interventional trials are expected to add to the current knowledge over the coming few years. Given that vitamin supplementation is psychologically accepted by patients as a natural compound with relative safety and low cost, their use should be encouraged in the fields where positive data are available.

  8. Vitamin K: from coagulation to calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paakkari, Ilari

    Vitamin K is not only essential for the synthesis of coagulation factors in the liver, but it also strengthens the bones and prevents calcification of the arteries. These effects are mediated through the same mechanism, i.e. carboxylation of Gla target proteins. The discovery of novel Gla proteins that are not associated with blood coagulation or calcium metabolism indicates that vitamin K has additional effects in the pancreas and the central nervous system, for example. As dietary supplements, vitamin K1 of plant origin and vitamins K2 of bacterial origin may exert different effects.

  9. Vitamin K status in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Kristin M; Adams, Michael A; Holden, Rachel M

    2013-11-07

    The purpose of this review is to summarize the research to date on vitamin K status in chronic kidney disease (CKD). This review includes a summary of the data available on vitamin K status in patients across the spectrum of CKD as well as the link between vitamin K deficiency in CKD and bone dynamics, including mineralization and demineralization, as well as ectopic mineralization. It also describes two current clinical trials that are underway evaluating vitamin K treatment in CKD patients. These data may inform future clinical practice in this population.

  10. On lupus, vitamin D and leukopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simioni, Juliana A; Heimovski, Flavia; Skare, Thelma L

    2016-01-01

    Immune regulation is among the noncalcemic effects of vitamin D. So, this vitamin may play a role in autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). To study the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in SLE and its association with clinical, serological and treatment profile as well as with disease activity. Serum OH vitamin D3 levels were measured in 153 SLE patients and 85 controls. Data on clinical, serological and treatment profile of lupus patients were obtained through chart review. Blood cell count and SLEDAI (SLE disease activity index) were measured simultaneously with vitamin D determination. SLE patients have lower levels of vitamin D than controls (p=0.03). In univariate analysis serum vitamin D was associated with leukopenia (p=0.02), use of cyclophosphamide (p=0.007) and methotrexate (p=0.03). A negative correlation was verified with prednisone dose (p=0.003). No association was found with disease activity measured by SLEDAI (p=0.88). In a multiple regression study only leukopenia remained as an independent association (B=4.04; p=0.02). A negative correlation of serum vitamin level with granulocyte (p=0.01) was also found, but not with lymphocyte count (p=0.33). SLE patients have more deficiency of vitamin D than controls. This deficiency is not associated with disease activity but with leucopenia (granulocytopenia). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Vitamin D deficiency among healthy Egyptian females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botros, Raif M; Sabry, Inas M; Abdelbaky, Rania S; Eid, Yara M; Nasr, Merihan S; Hendawy, Laila M

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is becoming endemic in many parts of the world. To study vitamin D status in Egyptian females of different age groups. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 404 females, who were categorized into group 1 (51 nursing females); group 2 (50 pregnant females); group 3 (208 females of childbearing age); group 4 (38 elderly females); and group 5 (57 geriatric females). Females completed a questionnaire regarding dietary calcium and vitamin D intake, sun exposure, and clothing habits, and performed laboratory tests including calcium, PO4, alkaline phosphatase, intact PTH, and 25-OH vitamin D levels. Median and IQR of vitamin D levels across groups 1, 2, 3 and 5 were in the deficient range, being lowest in groups 3, 5, and 1, respectively. Vitamin D deficiency was found in 72.6% of the nursing group, 54% of the pregnant group, 72% of the childbearing age group, 39.5% of the elderly group, and 77.2% of the geriatric group. Vitamin D was significantly higher in non-veiled females [23ng/dl] as compared to veiled females [16.7ng/dl]. Vitamin D levels with poor, fair, and good sun exposure were 14.1, 14, and 37ng/dl, respectively. These results show a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among healthy Egyptian females. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Vitamin D deficiency in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf T Soliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of severe vitamin D deficiency (VDD in adolescents is variable but considerably high in many countries, especially in Middle-east and Southeast Asia. Different factors attribute to this deficiency including lack of sunlight exposure due to cultural dress codes and veiling or due to pigmented skin, and less time spent outdoors, because of hot weather, and lower vitamin D intake. A potent adaptation process significantly modifies the clinical presentation and therefore clinical presentations may be subtle and go unnoticed, thus making true prevalence studies difficult. Adolescents with severe VDD may present with vague manifestations including pain in weight-bearing joints, back, thighs and/or calves, difficulty in walking and/or climbing stairs, or running and muscle cramps. Adaptation includes increased parathormone (PTH and deceased insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I secretion. PTH enhances the tubular reabsorption of Ca and stimulates the kidneys to produce 1, 25-(OH 2D3 that increases intestinal calcium absorption and dissolves the mineralized collagen matrix in bone, causing osteopenia and osteoporosis to provide enough Ca to prevent hypocalcaemia. Decreased insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I delays bone growth to economize calcium consumption. Radiological changes are not uncommon and include osteoporosis/osteopenia affecting long bones as well as vertebrae and ribs, bone cysts, decalcification of the metaphysis of the long bones and pseudo fractures. In severe cases pathological fractures and deformities may occur. Vitamin D treatment of adolescents with VDD differs considerably in different studies and proved to be effective in treating all clinical, biochemical, and radiological manifestations. Different treatment regiments for VDD have been discussed and presented in this mini-review for practical use. Adequate vitamin D replacement after treating VDD, improving calcium intake (milk and dairy products, encouraging

  13. [Diagnostic criteria for vitamin D-deficient rickets and hypocalcemia-].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozono, Keiichi

    2016-02-01

    Vitamin D deficiency causes rickets or osteomalacia, which is associated with hypomineralization of bone and chondrocytes, and/or hypocalcemia. Accumulating evidence indicates increase in frequency of vitamin D deficiency due to insufficient intake of vitamin D and calcium and decrease in sunshine. It is necessary for clinician to diagnose vitamin D deficiency accurately and treat patients with vitamin D deficiency adequately. For the purpose, clinical guideline or expert opinion on vitamin D deficiency has been reported.

  14. The role of vitamins in the diet of the elderly I. Fat-soluble vitamins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csapó J.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Following a discussion on the daily energy and protein requirements of elderly people, the authors will go on to talk about vitamin needs and the role of the four fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K. They point out that vitamin requirements in old age do not essentially differ from adult people’s, but they must take account of the fact that the body’s vitamin stores might get filled up, which may reduce vitamin needs, on the one part, but the altered physiological processes may increase them, on the other. Regarding the case of fat-soluble vitamins, reduced fat absorption, decreased vitamin storage capacity of the liver, reduced dietary intake, partial deficiency of digestive enzymes, and absorption disorders in the intestines may all lead to vitamin deficiencies. Problems may also arise due to multiple vitamin overdose developed either as a consequence of overconsumption of vitamin tablets or because the body’s vitamin stores are constantly filled up to maximum capacity. Positive and negative changes resulting from the consumption of several times the daily dose recommendations are covered as well. The authors show that A, D, E, or K vitamin deficiency occurs very rarely in the case of a normal diet; however, great care must be taken in order to meet vitamin D and, simultaneously, calcium requirements so that to avoid osteoporosis and an increased risk of bone fractures in elderly people. The paper discusses the fat-soluble vitamin needs of the elderly and, where necessary, specifies the requirements for men and women separately, while also touching upon those foodstuffs and methods that can contribute to the optimal satisfaction of the elderly people’s vitamin needs.

  15. O México de Rodrigo Otávio e de Cyro dos Anjos: entre as atribuições do funcionário e o olhar do escritor

    OpenAIRE

    Regina Crespo

    2014-01-01

    Rodrigo Otávio e Cyro dos Anjos estiveram no México no cumprimento de funções político-diplomáticas. Rodrigo Otávio visitou o país pela primeira vez em 1923 e Cyro dos Anjos o fez exatamente 30 anos depois. Neste artigo serão analisados os registros escritos que deixaram (o livro de viagem de Rodrigo Otávio e as cartas pessoais e oficiais de Cyro dos Anjos), a fim de saber como estes intelectuais analisaram o país, a partir de sua ligação profissional e afetiva com ele, num período em que as ...

  16. Yüksek düzeyde bor içeren topraklarda yetişen bazı yabancı ot türlerinin incirde beslenme dengesi üzerine etkileri

    OpenAIRE

    Çakır, Fulya

    2009-01-01

    Bu araştırma, Aydın için simge sayılacak bir bitki olan Sarılop incir çeşidinde B toksisitesi nedeniyle oluşan olumsuzlukları azaltabilmeye yönelik olarak; yörede yaygın olarak yetişen yabancı ot türlerinin toprakta yüksek düzeyde bulunan B'un incir tarafından alımının azaltılmasına olan katkısını, yabancı ot türlerinin B toksisitesine olan reaksiyonlarını ve yabancı ot gelişiminin incir bitkisinde beslenme dengesi üzerine etkilerini belirlemek amacıyla tarla ve sera koşullarında iki farklı ç...

  17. Vitamin D Deficiency and Pain: Clinical Evidence of Low Levels of Vitamin D and Supplementation in Chronic Pain States

    OpenAIRE

    Shipton, Elspeth E.; Shipton, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A number of studies suggest a link between low levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D and incidence of acute and chronic pain. Clinical studies of vitamin D supplementation in patients with known vitamin D deficiency have shown mixed results in improving pain scores. Methods In this article, vitamin D deficiency risk factors are observed and adequate levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D defined. Clinical supplementation with vitamin D is explored, including the schedules used in published clin...

  18. Does vitamin D supplementation improve bone density in vitamin D-deficient children?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winzenberg, Tania; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel; El-Hajj Fuleihan, Ghada

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Our previous study-level (aggregate data) meta-analysis suggested that vitamin D supplements may be beneficial for bone density specifically in children with vitamin D deficiency. However, the misclassification of vitamin D status inherent in study-level data means that the results...... are not definitive and cannot provide an accurate assessment of the size of any effect. Therefore, we propose to undertake an individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis to determine whether the effect of vitamin D supplementation on bone density in children differs according to baseline vitamin D status...... supplementation reporting bone density outcomes at least 6 months after the study commenced in children and adolescents (aged

  19. The Potential Role of Vitamin D Enhanced Foods in Improving Vitamin D Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Stepien

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Low vitamin D intake and status have been reported worldwide and many studies have suggested that this low status may be involved in the development of several chronic diseases. There are a limited number of natural dietary sources of vitamin D leading to a real need for alternatives to improve dietary intake. Enhancement of foods with vitamin D is a possible mode for ensuring increased consumption and thus improved vitamin D status. The present review examines studies investigating effects of vitamin D enhanced foods in humans and the feasibility of the approach is discussed.

  20. Vitamin D deficiency: a paediatric orthopaedic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Nicholas M P; Page, Jonathan E

    2012-02-01

    At the turn of the last century, rickets (vitamin D deficiency) was one of the most common musculoskeletal diseases of the paediatric population presenting to physicians. Today, the most common referral pathway for these patients ends in a paediatric orthopaedic outpatient clinic. Vitamin D deficiency is a clinical entity that can affect all children and should be looked for in all children with musculoskeletal symptoms. The child at risk of rickets is now white, breastfed, protected from the sun and obese. Vitamin D deficiency can present as atypical muscular pain, pathological fractures or slipped upper femoral epiphysis. Obesity is linked with lower vitamin D levels; however, in the paediatric population, this does not necessarily equal clinical disorder. Vitamin D supplements can be used to reduce the risk of pathological fractures in the cerebral palsy child. It should also form part of the differential diagnosis in the work-up of nonaccidental injuries. Children with a low vitamin D present with a higher incidence of fractures from normal activities. Vitamin D levels need to be assessed before any form of orthopaedic surgery, as it can affect growth, both in the diaphysis of the bone and in the growth plate. Vitamin D levels are a key element in the successful practice of paediatric orthopaedics. It is not just the possible cause of disorder presenting to the clinician but also extremely important in ensuring the successful postoperative recovery of the patient.