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Sample records for visible foliar injuries

  1. CORRELATION BETWEEN OZONE EXPOSURE AND VISIBLE FOLIAR INJURY IN PONDEROSA AND JEFFREY PINES. (R825433)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone exposure was related to ozone-induced visible foliar injury in ponderosa and Jeffrey pines growing on the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. Measurements of ozone exposure, chlorotic mottle and fascicle retention were collected during the years ...

  2. Ozone air pollution and foliar injury development on native plants of Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, Kristopher; Skelly, John M.; Schaub, Marcus; Kraeuchi, Norbert; Hug, Christian; Landolt, Werner; Bleuler, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Visible ozone-induced foliar injury on native forest species of Switzerland was identified and confirmed under ambient OTC-conditions and related to the current European AOT40 standard. - The objectives of this study were to examine the foliar sensitivity to ozone exposure of 12 tree, shrub, and herbaceous species native to southern Switzerland and determine the seasonal cumulative ozone exposures required to induce visible foliar injury. The study was conducted from the beginning of May through the end of August during 2000 and 2001 using an open-top chamber research facility located within the Lattecaldo Cantonal Forest Nursery in Canton Ticino, southern Switzerland (600 m asl). Plants were examined daily and dates of initial foliar injury were recorded in order to determine the cumulative AOT40 ppb h ozone exposure required to cause visible foliar injury. Plant responses to ozone varied significantly among species; 11 species exhibited visible symptoms typical of exposures to ambient ozone. The symptomatic species (from most to least sensitive) were Populus nigra, Viburnum lantana, Salix alba, Crataegus monogyna, Viburnum opulus, Tilia platyphyllos, Cornus alba, Prunus avium, Fraxinus excelsior, Ribes alpinum, and Tilia cordata; Clematis spp. did not show foliar symptoms. Of the 11 symptomatic species, five showed initial injury below the critical level AOT40 10 ppmh O 3 in the 2001 season

  3. Ozone air pollution effects on tree-ring growth,{delta}{sup 13}C, visible foliar injury and leaf gas exchange in three ozone-sensitive woody plant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, K. [Swiss Federal Inst. for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Agroscope FAL Reckenholz, Swiss Federal Research Station for Agroecology and Agriculture, Zurich (Switzerland); Saurer, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. Villigen (Switzerland); Fuhrer, J. [Agroscope FAL Reckenholz, Swiss Federal Research Station for Agroecology and Agriculture, Zurich (Switzerland); Skelly, J.M. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Plant Pathology; Krauchi, N.; Schaub, M. [Swiss Federal Inst. for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, Birmensdorf (Switzerland)

    2007-07-15

    Species specific plant responses to tropospheric ozone pollution depend on a range of morphological, biochemical and physiological characteristics as well as environmental factors. The effects of ambient tropospheric ozone on annual tree-ring growth, {delta}{sup 13} C in the rings, leaf gas exchange and ozone-induced visible foliar injury in three ozone-sensitive woody plant species in southern Switzerland were assessed during the 2001 and 2002 growing seasons. Seedlings of Populus nigra L., Viburnum lantana L. and Fraxinus excelsior L. were exposed to charcoal-filtered air and non-filtered air in open-top chambers, and to ambient air (AA) in open plots. The objective was to determine if a relationship exists between measurable ozone-induced effects at the leaf level and subsequent changes in annual tree-ring growth and {delta} {sup 13} C signatures. The visible foliar injury, early leaf senescence and premature leaf loss in all species was attributed to the ambient ozone exposures in the region. Ozone had pronounced negative effects on net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in all species in 2002 and in V. lantana and F. excelsior in 2001. Water-use efficiency decreased and intercellular carbon dioxide concentrations increased in all species in response to ozone in 2002 only. The width and {delta}{sup 13} C of the 2001 and 2002 growth rings were measured for all species at the end of the 2002 growing season. Significant ozone-induced effects at the leaf level did not correspond to reduced tree-ring growth or increased {delta}{sup 13} C in all species, suggesting that the timing of ozone exposure and extent of leaf-level responses may be relevant in determining the sensitivity of tree productivity to ozone exposure. 48 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs.

  4. Probability of foliar injury for Acer sp. based on foliar fluoride concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Andrew M; Dixon, Murray J; Terry, Debbie T; Todd, Aaron K; Luciani, Michael A; Williamson, Michele L; Roszak, Danuta S; Farias, Kim A

    2016-12-01

    Fluoride is considered one of the most phytotoxic elements to plants, and indicative fluoride injury has been associated over a wide range of foliar fluoride concentrations. The aim of this study was to determine the probability of indicative foliar fluoride injury based on Acer sp. foliar fluoride concentrations using a logistic regression model. Foliage from Acer nedundo, Acer saccharinum, Acer saccharum and Acer platanoides was collected along a distance gradient from three separate brick manufacturing facilities in southern Ontario as part of a long-term monitoring programme between 1995 and 2014. Hydrogen fluoride is the major emission source associated with the manufacturing facilities resulting with highly elevated foliar fluoride close to the facilities and decreasing with distance. Consistent with other studies, indicative fluoride injury was observed over a wide range of foliar concentrations (9.9-480.0 μg F -  g -1 ). The logistic regression model was statistically significant for the Acer sp. group, A. negundo and A. saccharinum; consequently, A. negundo being the most sensitive species among the group. In addition, A. saccharum and A. platanoides were not statistically significant within the model. We are unaware of published foliar fluoride values for Acer sp. within Canada, and this research provides policy maker and scientist with probabilities of indicative foliar injury for common urban Acer sp. trees that can help guide decisions about emissions controls. Further research should focus on mechanisms driving indicative fluoride injury over wide ranging foliar fluoride concentrations and help determine foliar fluoride thresholds for damage.

  5. Seasonal trends in reduced leaf gas exchange and ozone-induced foliar injury in three ozone sensitive woody plant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, K. [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland)]. E-mail: kristopher.novak@wsl.ch; Schaub, M. [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Fuhrer, J. [Swiss Federal Research Station for Agroecology and Agriculture FAL, 8046 Zurich (Switzerland); Skelly, J.M. [Department of Plant Pathology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Hug, C. [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Landolt, W. [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Bleuler, P. [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Kraeuchi, N. [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland)

    2005-07-15

    Seasonal trends in leaf gas exchange and ozone-induced visible foliar injury were investigated for three ozone sensitive woody plant species. Seedlings of Populus nigra L., Viburnum lantana L., and Fraxinus excelsior L. were grown in charcoal-filtered chambers, non-filtered chambers and open plots. Injury assessments and leaf gas exchange measurements were conducted from June to October during 2002. All species developed typical ozone-induced foliar injury. For plants exposed to non-filtered air as compared to the charcoal-filtered air, mean net photosynthesis was reduced by 25%, 21%, and 18% and mean stomatal conductance was reduced by 25%, 16%, and 8% for P. nigra, V. lantana, and F. excelsior, respectively. The timing and severity of the reductions in leaf gas exchange were species specific and corresponded to the onset of visible foliar injury. - Reductions in leaf gas exchange corresponded to the onset of ozone-induced visible foliar injury for seedlings exposed to ambient ozone exposures.

  6. Seasonal trends in reduced leaf gas exchange and ozone-induced foliar injury in three ozone sensitive woody plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, K.; Schaub, M.; Fuhrer, J.; Skelly, J.M.; Hug, C.; Landolt, W.; Bleuler, P.; Kraeuchi, N.

    2005-01-01

    Seasonal trends in leaf gas exchange and ozone-induced visible foliar injury were investigated for three ozone sensitive woody plant species. Seedlings of Populus nigra L., Viburnum lantana L., and Fraxinus excelsior L. were grown in charcoal-filtered chambers, non-filtered chambers and open plots. Injury assessments and leaf gas exchange measurements were conducted from June to October during 2002. All species developed typical ozone-induced foliar injury. For plants exposed to non-filtered air as compared to the charcoal-filtered air, mean net photosynthesis was reduced by 25%, 21%, and 18% and mean stomatal conductance was reduced by 25%, 16%, and 8% for P. nigra, V. lantana, and F. excelsior, respectively. The timing and severity of the reductions in leaf gas exchange were species specific and corresponded to the onset of visible foliar injury. - Reductions in leaf gas exchange corresponded to the onset of ozone-induced visible foliar injury for seedlings exposed to ambient ozone exposures

  7. Effect of simulated sulfuric acid rain on yield, growth and foliar injury of several crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J J; Neely, G E; Perrigan, S C; Grothaus, L C

    1981-01-01

    This study was designed to reveal patterns of response of major United States crops to sulfuric acid rain. Potted plants were grown in field chambers and exposed to simulated sulfuric acid rain (pH 3.0, 3.5 or 4.0) or to a control rain (pH 5.6). At harvest, the weights of the marketable portion, total aboveground portion and roots were determined for 28 crops. Of these, marketable yield production was inhibited for 5 crops (radish, beet, carrot, mustard greens, broccoli), stimulated for 6 crops (tomato, green pepper, strawberry, alfalfa, orchardgrass, timothy), and ambiguously affected for 1 crop (potato). In addition, stem and leaf production of sweet corn was stimulated. Visible injury of tomatoes might have decreased their marketabiity. No statistically significant effects on yield were observed for the other 15 crops. The results suggest that the likelihood of yield being affected by acid depends on the part of the plant utilized, as well as on species. Effects on the aboveground portion of crops and on roots are also presented. Plants were regularly examined for foliar injury associated with acid rain. Of the 35 cultivars examined, the foliage of 31 was injured at pH 3.0, 28 at pH 3.5, and 5 at pH 4.0. Foliar injury was not generally related to effects on yield. However, foliar injury of Swiss chard, mustard greens and spinach was severe enough to adversely affect marketability.

  8. Foliar injury responses of eleven plant species to ozone/sulfur dioxide mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tingey, D T; Reinert, R A; Dunning, J A; Heck, W W

    1973-01-01

    Eleven plant species were exposed to ozone and/or sulfur dioxide to determine if a mixture of the two gases enhanced foliar injury. Tobacco, radish, and alfalfa developed more injury that the additive injury of the single gases. In other species, such as cabbage, broccoli, and tomato, the foliar injury from mixed-gas exposures was additive or less than additive. Leaf injury from the ozone/sulfur dioxide mixture appeared as upper surface flecking, stipple, bifacial necrosis, and lower surface glazing and, in general, appeared similar to injury from oxidant or ozone. The concentrations of ozone and sulfur dioxide that caused plant injury were similar to those found in urban areas. These concentrations may result in yield losses to plants grown under field conditions.

  9. Erythroneura lawsoni abundance and feeding injury levels are influenced by foliar nutrient status in intensively managed American sycamore.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, David, Robert: Aubrey, Doug, Patric; Bentz, Jo-Ann

    2010-01-01

    Abstract 1 Abundance and feeding injury of the leafhopper Erythroneura lawsoni Robinson was measured in an intensively-managed American sycamore Platanus occidentalis L. plantation. Trees were planted in spring 2000 in a randomized complete block design, and received one of three annual treatments: (i) fertilization (120 kg N/ha/year); (ii) irrigation (3.0 cm/week); (iii) fertilization + irrigation; or (iv) control (no treatment). 2 Foliar nutrient concentrations were significantly influenced by the treatments because only sulphur and manganese levels were not statistically greater in trees receiving fertilization. 3 Over 116 000 E. lawsoni were captured on sticky traps during the study. Leafhopper abundance was highest on nonfertilized trees for the majority of the season, and was positively correlated with foliar nutrient concentrations. Significant temporal variation in E. lawsoni abundance occurred, suggesting five discrete generations in South Carolina. 4 Significant temporal variation occurred in E. lawsoni foliar injury levels, with the highest injury ratings occurring in late June and August. Foliar injury was negatively correlated with foliar nutrient content, and higher levels of injury occurred more frequently on nonfertilized trees. 5 The results obtained in the present study indicated that increased E. lawsoni abundance occurred on trees that did not receive fertilization. Nonfertilized trees experienced greater foliar injury, suggesting that lower foliar nutrient status may have led to increased levels of compensatory feeding.

  10. Leaf age affects the responses of foliar injury and gas exchange to tropospheric ozone in Prunus serotina seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jianwei; Schaub, Marcus; Ferdinand, Jonathan A.; Skelly, John M.; Steiner, Kim C.; Savage, James E.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effect of leaf age on the response of net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (g wv ), foliar injury, and leaf nitrogen concentration (N L ) to tropospheric ozone (O 3 ) on Prunus serotina seedlings grown in open-plots (AA) and open-top chambers, supplied with either carbon-filtered or non-filtered air. We found significant variation in A, g wv , foliar injury, and N L (P 3 treatments. Seedlings in AA showed the highest A and g wv due to relatively low vapor pressure deficit (VPD). Older leaves showed significantly lower A, g wv , N L , and higher foliar injury (P wv , and foliar injury to O 3 . Both VPD and N L had a strong influence on leaf gas exchange. Foliar O 3 -induced injury appeared when cumulative O 3 uptake reached 8-12 mmol m -2 , depending on soil water availability. The mechanistic assessment of O 3 -induced injury is a valuable approach for a biologically relevant O 3 risk assessment for forest trees. - Ozone effects on symptom development and leaf gas exchange interacted with leaf age and N-content on black cherry seedlings.

  11. Leaf age affects the responses of foliar injury and gas exchange to tropospheric ozone in Prunus serotina seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jianwei, E-mail: jianweizhang@fs.fed.u [Environmental Resources Research Institute, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); School of Forest Resources, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Schaub, Marcus; Ferdinand, Jonathan A. [Environmental Resources Research Institute, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Skelly, John M. [Department of Plant Pathology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Steiner, Kim C. [School of Forest Resources, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Savage, James E. [Department of Plant Pathology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    We investigated the effect of leaf age on the response of net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (g{sub wv}), foliar injury, and leaf nitrogen concentration (N{sub L}) to tropospheric ozone (O{sub 3}) on Prunus serotina seedlings grown in open-plots (AA) and open-top chambers, supplied with either carbon-filtered or non-filtered air. We found significant variation in A, g{sub wv}, foliar injury, and N{sub L} (P < 0.05) among O{sub 3} treatments. Seedlings in AA showed the highest A and g{sub wv} due to relatively low vapor pressure deficit (VPD). Older leaves showed significantly lower A, g{sub wv}, N{sub L}, and higher foliar injury (P < 0.001) than younger leaves. Leaf age affected the response of A, g{sub wv}, and foliar injury to O{sub 3}. Both VPD and N{sub L} had a strong influence on leaf gas exchange. Foliar O{sub 3}-induced injury appeared when cumulative O{sub 3} uptake reached 8-12 mmol m{sup -2}, depending on soil water availability. The mechanistic assessment of O{sub 3}-induced injury is a valuable approach for a biologically relevant O{sub 3} risk assessment for forest trees. - Ozone effects on symptom development and leaf gas exchange interacted with leaf age and N-content on black cherry seedlings.

  12. Fluoride-induced foliar injury in Solanum pseudo-capsicum: its induction in the dark and activation in the light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLean, D.C.; Schneider, R.C.; Weinstein, L.H.

    1982-09-01

    The differential responses of plants exposed to hydrogen fluoride (HF) in continuous light or darkness were investigated in Jerusalem cherry Solanum pseudo-capsicum L. Plants exposed to HF in the dark develop few, if any, foliar symptoms by the end of the exposure period, but severe foliar injury develops rapidly upon transfer to the light after exposure. The results suggest that light is required for the expression of responses induced by exposure to HF in the dark.

  13. Leaf age affects the responses of foliar injury and gas exchange to tropospheric ozone in Prunus serotina seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianwei Zhang; Marcus Schaub; Jonathan A. Ferdinand; John M. Skelly; Kim C. Steiner; James E. Savage

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effect of leaf age on the response of net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gwv), foliar injury, and leaf nitrogen concentration (NL) to tropospheric ozone (O3) on Prunus serotina seedlings grown in open-plots (AA) and open-top...

  14. Seasonal development of ozone-induced foliar injury on tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata) in Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Lara; Neufeld, Howard S; Chappelka, Arthur H; Burkey, Kent O; Davison, Alan W

    2006-05-01

    The goals of this study were to document the development of ozone-induced foliar injury, on a leaf-by-leaf basis, and to develop ozone exposure relationships for leaf cohorts and individual tall milkweeds (Asclepias exaltata L.) in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Plants were classified as either ozone-sensitive or insensitive based on the amount of foliar injury. Sensitive plants developed injury earlier in the season and to a greater extent than insensitive plants. Older leaf cohorts were more likely to belong to high injury classes by the end of each of the two growing seasons. In addition, leaf loss was more likely for older cohorts (2000) and lower leaf positions (2001) than younger cohorts and upper leaves, respectively. Most leaves abscised without prior ozone-like stippling or chlorosis. Failure to take this into account can result in underestimation of the effects of ozone on these plants.

  15. Seasonal development of ozone-induced foliar injury on tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata) in Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Lara; Neufeld, Howard S.; Chappelka, Arthur H.; Burkey, Kent O.; Davison, Alan W.

    2006-01-01

    The goals of this study were to document the development of ozone-induced foliar injury, on a leaf-by-leaf basis, and to develop ozone exposure relationships for leaf cohorts and individual tall milkweeds (Asclepias exaltata L.) in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Plants were classified as either ozone-sensitive or insensitive based on the amount of foliar injury. Sensitive plants developed injury earlier in the season and to a greater extent than insensitive plants. Older leaf cohorts were more likely to belong to high injury classes by the end of each of the two growing seasons. In addition, leaf loss was more likely for older cohorts (2000) and lower leaf positions (2001) than younger cohorts and upper leaves, respectively. Most leaves abscised without prior ozone-like stippling or chlorosis. Failure to take this into account can result in underestimation of the effects of ozone on these plants. - Leaf loss was not necessarily accompanied by symptoms of foliar ozone injury

  16. Seasonal development of ozone-induced foliar injury on tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata) in Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Lara [Department of Biology, 572 Rivers Street, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC 28608 (United States)]. E-mail: lsouza@utk.edu; Neufeld, Howard S. [Department of Biology, 572 Rivers Street, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC 28608 (United States); Chappelka, Arthur H. [School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, 108 M White-Smith Hall, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Burkey, Kent O. [US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Plant Science Research Unit and Department of Crop Science, North Carolina State University, 3908 Inwood Road, Raleigh, NC 26703 (United States); Davison, Alan W. [School of Biology, Ridley Building, University of Newcastle, Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2006-05-15

    The goals of this study were to document the development of ozone-induced foliar injury, on a leaf-by-leaf basis, and to develop ozone exposure relationships for leaf cohorts and individual tall milkweeds (Asclepias exaltata L.) in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Plants were classified as either ozone-sensitive or insensitive based on the amount of foliar injury. Sensitive plants developed injury earlier in the season and to a greater extent than insensitive plants. Older leaf cohorts were more likely to belong to high injury classes by the end of each of the two growing seasons. In addition, leaf loss was more likely for older cohorts (2000) and lower leaf positions (2001) than younger cohorts and upper leaves, respectively. Most leaves abscised without prior ozone-like stippling or chlorosis. Failure to take this into account can result in underestimation of the effects of ozone on these plants. - Leaf loss was not necessarily accompanied by symptoms of foliar ozone injury.

  17. Physiological and foliar injury responses of Prunus serotina, Fraxinus americana, and Acer rubrum seedlings to varying soil moisture and ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaub, M.; Skelly, J.M.; Steiner, K.C.; Davis, D.D.; Pennypacker, S.P.; Zhang, J.; Ferdinand, J.A.; Savage, J.E.; Stevenson, R.E.

    2003-01-01

    High soil water availability favors ozone uptake, increases foliar injury, and exacerbates the negative ozone effect on gas exchange of seedlings of deciduous tree species. - Sixteen black cherry (Prunus serotina, Ehrh.), 10 white ash (Fraxinus americana, L.) and 10 red maple (Acer rubrum, L.) 1-year old seedlings were planted per plot in 1997 on a former nursery bed within 12 open-top chambers and six open plots. Seedlings were exposed to three different ozone scenarios (ambient air: 100% O 3 ; non-filtered air: 98% ambient O 3 ; charcoal-filtered air: 50% ambient O 3 ) within each of two different water regimes (nine plots irrigated, nine plots non-irrigated) during three growing seasons. During the 1998 and 1999 growing season, leaf gas exchange, plant water relations, and foliar injury were measured. Climatic data, ambient- and chamber-ozone-concentrations were monitored. We found that seedlings grown under irrigated conditions had similar (in 1998) but significantly higher gas exchange rates (in 1999) than seedlings grown within non-irrigated plots among similar ozone exposures. Cherry and ash had similar ozone uptake but cherry developed more ozone-induced injury (<34% affected leaf area, LAA) than ash (<5% LAA), while maple rarely showed foliar injury, indicating the species differed in ozone sensitivity. Significantly more severe injury on seedlings grown under irrigated conditions than seedlings grown under non-irrigated conditions demonstrated that soil moisture altered seedling responses to ambient ozone exposures

  18. Fluoride-induced foliar injury in Solanum pseudo-capsicum: its induction in the dark and activation in the light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLean, D.C.; Schneider, R.E.; Weinstein, L.H.

    1982-01-01

    The differential responses of plants exposed to hydrogen fluoride (HF) in continuous light or darkness were investigated in Jerusalem cherry Solanum pseudo-capsicum L. Plants exposed to HF in the dark develop few, if any, foliar symptoms by the end of the exposure period, but severe folia injury develops rapidly upon transfer to the light after exposure. The results suggest that light is required for the expression of responses induced by exposure to HF in the dark.

  19. Application of plant growth regulators mitigates chlorotic foliar injury by the black pecan aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Ted E; Wood, Bruce W; Ni, Xinzhi

    2010-11-01

    Black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), feeding elicits localized chlorotic injury to pecan foliage [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K Koch] and apparent acceleration of leaf senescence and defoliation. The ability of certain plant growth regulators (PGRs) (forchlorfenuron, gibberellic acid and aviglycine) to prevent M. caryaefoliae from triggering pecan leaf chlorosis and senescence-like processes was evaluated on two dates in both 2006 and 2007. Treatments were applied to orchard foliage and used in laboratory leaf-disc bioassays to assess possible reduction in aphid-elicited chlorosis and concomitant effects on aphid mortality and development. Foliage pretreated with forchlorfenuron + gibberellic acid prior to being challenged with aphids resulted in significantly less aphid-elicited chlorosis than did control or aviglycine-treated leaf discs. No PGR affected aphid mortality; however, development time was increased by forchlorfenuron + gibberellic acid in 2006 and by aviglycine + gibberellic acid on one date in 2007. Certain PGRs possess the potential for usage on pecan to protect foliar canopies from M. caryaefoliae via changes in the susceptibility of the host leaf to senescence-like factors being introduced by feeding aphids. This protective effect on host foliage and the associated suppressive effect on development of feeding aphids might also be relevant to pest management programs on other aphid-crop systems in which aphid-elicited chlorosis and senescence-like processes can limit profitability. Published 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Ozone exposure, defoliation of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and visible foliar symptoms on native plants in selected plots of South-Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferretti, Marco; Calderisi, Marco; Bussotti, Filippo

    2007-01-01

    The relationships between crown defoliation of beech, visible foliar symptoms on native vegetation and ozone exposure were investigated on permanent monitoring sites in South-Western Europe in the years 2000-2002. Relationships between defoliation of beech and O 3 (seasonal mean, 2-week maximum, AOT40) were investigated by means of multiple regression models (11 plots, 1-3 years of data each) and a model based on temporal autocorrelation of defoliation data (14 plots, 1-3 years of data each). Different multiple regression techniques were used. The four models generated (R 2 = 0.71-0.85, explained variance in cross-validation 61-78%) identified several significant predictors of defoliation, with AOT40 (p = 0.008) and foliar content of phosphorous (p = 0.0002-0.0004) being common to all models. The autocorrelation model (R 2 = 0.55; p 35,000 ppbh). O 3 -like visible foliar symptoms were recorded on 65 species at 47% of the common monitoring sites in 2001 and 38% in 2002. No relationship was found between O 3 exposure, frequency of symptomatic sites and frequency of species with symptoms (R 2 = 0.11; p > 0.05). A number of questions related to the ecological and methodological basis of the survey were identified. Inherent sampling and non-sampling errors and multicollinearity of the data suggest great caution when examining results obtained from mensurational, correlative studies. - Ozone AOT40 was identified as a significant predictor of defoliation of beech, but a limited relationship was found between ozone exposure and visible symptoms on native vegetation

  1. Foliar injury response of petunia and kidney bean to simultaneous and alternate exposures to ozone and PAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouchi, I.; Mayumi, H.; Yamazoe, F.

    1984-01-01

    Petunia at about 6 weeks old and kidney bean at two growing stages (6-7 days old and 16-18 days old) were exposed separately to O/sub 3/ (0-0.40 ppm) and PAN (0-0.25 ppm) for 4 h and to the mixture for the same time. In addition, petunia was exposed to O/sub 3/ (0.10-0.40 ppm) and then PAN (0.010-0.040 ppm) for 4 h, respectively. Foliar injury of petunia and kidney bean in exposures to the mixtures of O/sub 3/ and PAN was significantly smaller than that induced by each oxidant, with the exception of PAN injury on young leaves of 16-18 day-old kidney bean. The percentage of foliar injury caused by either of the mixed pollutants decreased with an increase of the concentration of the other oxidant, and was found to approximate a logarithmic function of the combined pollutant concentrations expressed as O/sub 3/ minum PAN or vice versa. Alternate exposures caused no additive or synergistic injuries. 23 references, 3 figures, 6 tables.

  2. Foliar injury response of petunia and kidney bean to simultaneous and alternate exposures to ozone and pan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouchi, Isamu; Mayumi, Hirokazu; Yamazoe, Fumio

    Petunia at about 6 weeks old and kidney bean at two growing stages (6-7 days old and 16-18 days old) were exposed separately to O 3, (0-0.40 ppm) and PAN (0-0.25 ppm) for 4 h and to the mixture for the same time. In addition, petunia was exposed to O, (0.10-0.40 ppm) and then PAN (0.010-0.040 ppm) for 4 h, respectively. Foliar injury of petunia and kidney bean in exposures to the mixtures of O 3 and PAN was significantly smaller than that induced by each oxidant, with the exception of PAN injury on young leaves of 16-18 day-old kidney bean. The percentage of foliar injury caused by either of the mixed pollutants decreased with an increase of the concentration of the other oxidant, and was found to approximate a logarithmic function of the combined pollutant concentrations expressed as O 3, minum PAN or vice versa. Alternate exposures caused no additive or synergistic injuries.

  3. Ozone exposure, defoliation of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and visible foliar symptoms on native plants in selected plots of South-Western Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferretti, Marco [Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale, Universita di Firenze, Piazzale Cascine 28, I-50144 Florence (Italy)]. E-mail: m.ferretti@linnaea.it; Calderisi, Marco [Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale, Universita di Firenze, Piazzale Cascine 28, I-50144 Florence (Italy)]. E-mail: calderisi@chemiometria.it; Bussotti, Filippo [Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale, Universita di Firenze, Piazzale Cascine 28, I-50144 Florence (Italy)]. E-mail: filippo.bussotti@unifi.it

    2007-02-15

    The relationships between crown defoliation of beech, visible foliar symptoms on native vegetation and ozone exposure were investigated on permanent monitoring sites in South-Western Europe in the years 2000-2002. Relationships between defoliation of beech and O{sub 3} (seasonal mean, 2-week maximum, AOT40) were investigated by means of multiple regression models (11 plots, 1-3 years of data each) and a model based on temporal autocorrelation of defoliation data (14 plots, 1-3 years of data each). Different multiple regression techniques were used. The four models generated (R {sup 2} = 0.71-0.85, explained variance in cross-validation 61-78%) identified several significant predictors of defoliation, with AOT40 (p = 0.008) and foliar content of phosphorous (p = 0.0002-0.0004) being common to all models. The autocorrelation model (R {sup 2} = 0.55; p < 0.0001) was used to calculate expected defoliation on the basis of the previous year's defoliation, and model predictions were used as an estimate of expected defoliation under constant site and environmental condition. Residuals (predicted-measured) plotted against current AOT40 shows that a possible effect of ozone occurs only at very high AOT40 (>35,000 ppbh). O{sub 3}-like visible foliar symptoms were recorded on 65 species at 47% of the common monitoring sites in 2001 and 38% in 2002. No relationship was found between O{sub 3} exposure, frequency of symptomatic sites and frequency of species with symptoms (R {sup 2} = 0.11; p > 0.05). A number of questions related to the ecological and methodological basis of the survey were identified. Inherent sampling and non-sampling errors and multicollinearity of the data suggest great caution when examining results obtained from mensurational, correlative studies. - Ozone AOT40 was identified as a significant predictor of defoliation of beech, but a limited relationship was found between ozone exposure and visible symptoms on native vegetation.

  4. An epidemiological assessment of stomatal ozone flux-based critical levels for visible ozone injury in Southern European forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sicard, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.sicard@acri-he.fr [ACRI-HE, 260 route du Pin Montard, BP 234, 06904 Sophia Antipolis cedex (France); De Marco, Alessandra [ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development), 76, Lungotevere Thaon de Revel, Rome (Italy); Dalstein-Richier, Laurence [GIEFS (Groupe International d' Etudes des Forêts Sud-européennes), 60, Avenue des Hespérides, 06300 Nice (France); Tagliaferro, Francesco [IPLA (Istituto per le Piante da Legno e l‘Ambiente), Corso Casale 476, 10132 Turin (Italy); Renou, Camille [ACRI-HE, 260 route du Pin Montard, BP 234, 06904 Sophia Antipolis cedex (France); Paoletti, Elena [IPSP-CNR (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche — Istituto per la Protezione Sostenibile delle Piante), Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Florence) (Italy)

    2016-01-15

    Southern forests are at the highest ozone (O{sub 3}) risk in Europe where ground-level O{sub 3} is a pressing sanitary problem for ecosystem health. Exposure-based standards for protecting vegetation are not representative of actual field conditions. A biologically-sound stomatal flux-based standard has been proposed, although critical levels for protection still need to be validated. This innovative epidemiological assessment of forest responses to O{sub 3} was carried out in 54 plots in Southeastern France and Northwestern Italy in 2012 and 2013. Three O{sub 3} indices, namely the accumulated exposure AOT40, and the accumulated stomatal flux with and without an hourly threshold of uptake (POD1 and POD0) were compared. Stomatal O{sub 3} fluxes were modeled (DO3SE) and correlated to measured forest-response indicators, i.e. crown defoliation, crown discoloration and visible foliar O{sub 3} injury. Soil water content, a key variable affecting the severity of visible foliar O{sub 3} injury, was included in DO3SE. Based on flux–effect relationships, we developed species-specific flux-based critical levels (CLef) for forest protection against visible O{sub 3} injury. For O{sub 3} sensitive conifers, CLef of 19 mmol m{sup −2} for Pinus cembra (high O{sub 3} sensitivity) and 32 mmol m{sup −2} for Pinus halepensis (moderate O{sub 3} sensitivity) were calculated. For broadleaved species, we obtained a CLef of 25 mmol m{sup −2} for Fagus sylvatica (moderate O{sub 3} sensitivity) and of 19 mmol m{sup −2} for Fraxinus excelsior (high O{sub 3} sensitivity). We showed that an assessment based on PODY and on real plant symptoms is more appropriated than the concentration-based method. Indeed, POD0 was better correlated with visible foliar O{sub 3} injury than AOT40, whereas AOT40 was better correlated with crown discoloration and defoliation (aspecific indicators). To avoid an underestimation of the real O{sub 3} uptake, we recommend the use of POD0 calculated for

  5. Effect of ambient-level gas-phase peroxides on foliar injury, growth, and net photosynthesis in Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xuan, E-mail: xuan66chen@yahoo.co.j [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Science, No.8, Dayangfang, Anwai, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Aoki, Masatoshi [Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwaicho 3-5-8, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Takami, Akinori [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Onogawa 16-2, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Chai Fahe [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Science, No.8, Dayangfang, Anwai, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Hatakeyama, Shiro [Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwaicho 3-5-8, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan)

    2010-05-15

    To investigate the effects of ambient-level gas-phase peroxides concurrent with O{sub 3} on foliar injury, photosynthesis, and biomass in herbaceous plants, we exposed Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus) to clean air, 50 ppb O{sub 3}, 100 ppb O{sub 3}, and 2-3 ppb peroxides + 50 ppb O{sub 3} in outdoor chambers. Compared with exposure to 100 ppb O{sub 3}, exposure to 2-3 ppb peroxides + 50 ppb O{sub 3} induced greater damage in foliar injury, net photosynthetic rates and biomass; the pattern of foliar injury and the cause of net photosynthetic rate reduction also differed from those occurring with O{sub 3} exposure alone. These results indicate for the first time that sub-ppb peroxides + 50 ppb O{sub 3} can cause more severe damage to plants than 100 ppb O{sub 3}, and that not only O{sub 3}, but also peroxides, could be contributing to the herbaceous plant damage and forest decline observed in Japan's air-polluted urban and remote mountains areas. - Ambient-level gas-phase peroxides coexisted with 50 ppb O{sub 3} may contribute to the herbaceous plants damage and forest decline observed in Japan.

  6. Assessing the risk of foliar injury from ozone on vegetation in parks in the U.S. National Park Service's Vital Signs Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohut, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The risk of ozone injury to plants was assessed in support of the National Park Service's Vital Signs Monitoring Network program. The assessment examined bioindicator species, evaluated levels of ozone exposure, and investigated soil moisture conditions during periods of exposure for a 5-year period in each park. The assessment assigned each park a risk rating of high, moderate, or low. For the 244 parks for which assessments were conducted, the risk of foliar injury was high in 65 parks, moderate in 46 parks, and low in 131 parks. Among the well-known parks with a high risk of ozone injury are Gettysburg, Valley Forge, Delaware Water Gap, Cape Cod, Fire Island, Antietam, Harpers Ferry, Manassas, Wolf Trap Farm Park, Mammoth Cave, Shiloh, Sleeping Bear Dunes, Great Smoky Mountains, Joshua Tree, Sequoia and Kings Canyon, and Yosemite. - An assessment of the risk of foliar ozone injury on plants was conducted for 269 parks in support of the U.S. National Park Service's Vital Signs Monitoring Network Program

  7. Assessing the risk of foliar injury from ozone on vegetation in parks in the U.S. National Park Service's Vital Signs Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohut, Robert [Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)], E-mail: rjk9@cornell.edu

    2007-10-15

    The risk of ozone injury to plants was assessed in support of the National Park Service's Vital Signs Monitoring Network program. The assessment examined bioindicator species, evaluated levels of ozone exposure, and investigated soil moisture conditions during periods of exposure for a 5-year period in each park. The assessment assigned each park a risk rating of high, moderate, or low. For the 244 parks for which assessments were conducted, the risk of foliar injury was high in 65 parks, moderate in 46 parks, and low in 131 parks. Among the well-known parks with a high risk of ozone injury are Gettysburg, Valley Forge, Delaware Water Gap, Cape Cod, Fire Island, Antietam, Harpers Ferry, Manassas, Wolf Trap Farm Park, Mammoth Cave, Shiloh, Sleeping Bear Dunes, Great Smoky Mountains, Joshua Tree, Sequoia and Kings Canyon, and Yosemite. - An assessment of the risk of foliar ozone injury on plants was conducted for 269 parks in support of the U.S. National Park Service's Vital Signs Monitoring Network Program.

  8. Whiplash Injuries Can be Visible by Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengt H Johansson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Whiplash trauma can result in injuries that are difficult to diagnose. Diagnosis is particularly difficult in injuries to the upper segments of the cervical spine (craniocervical joint [CCJ] complex. Studies indicate that injuries in that region may be responsible for the cervicoencephalic syndrome, as evidenced by headache, balance problems, vertigo, dizziness, eye problems, tinnitus, poor concentration, sensitivity to light and pronounced fatigue. Consequently, diagnosis of lesions in the CCJ region is important. Functional magnetic resonance imaging is a radiological technique that can visualize injuries of the ligaments and the joint capsules, and accompanying pathological movement patterns.

  9. Effects of ozone on the foliar histology of the mastic plant (Pistacia lentiscus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reig-Arminana, J.; Calatayud, V.; Cervero, J.; Garcia-Breijo, F.J.; Ibars, A.; Sanz, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    An open-top chamber study was conducted to investigate the tissue and cellular-level foliar effects of ozone (O 3 ) on a Mediterranean evergreen species, the mastic plant (Pistacia lentiscus L.). Plants were exposed at three different O 3 levels, and leaf samples were collected periodically from the beginning of the exposure. Although no visible foliar injury was evident, alterations of the plastids and vacuoles in the mesophyll were observed. Senescence processes were accelerated with an anomalous stacking of tannin vacuoles, and a reduction in the size and number of the chloroplasts. Overall, most of the modifications induced by O 3 were consistent with previously reported observations on deciduous broadleaf species, with the exception of alterations in the cells covering the secretory channels, reported here as a new finding. Comments on the feasibility of using microscopy to validate O 3 related field observations and subtle foliar injury are also given

  10. Effects of ozone on the foliar histology of the mastic plant (Pistacia lentiscus L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reig-Arminana, J.; Calatayud, V.; Cervero, J.; Garcia-Breijo, F.J.; Ibars, A.; Sanz, M.J

    2004-11-01

    An open-top chamber study was conducted to investigate the tissue and cellular-level foliar effects of ozone (O{sub 3}) on a Mediterranean evergreen species, the mastic plant (Pistacia lentiscus L.). Plants were exposed at three different O{sub 3} levels, and leaf samples were collected periodically from the beginning of the exposure. Although no visible foliar injury was evident, alterations of the plastids and vacuoles in the mesophyll were observed. Senescence processes were accelerated with an anomalous stacking of tannin vacuoles, and a reduction in the size and number of the chloroplasts. Overall, most of the modifications induced by O{sub 3} were consistent with previously reported observations on deciduous broadleaf species, with the exception of alterations in the cells covering the secretory channels, reported here as a new finding. Comments on the feasibility of using microscopy to validate O{sub 3} related field observations and subtle foliar injury are also given.

  11. CCD-Based Skinning Injury Recognition on Potato Tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.): A Comparison between Visible and Biospeckle Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yingwang; Geng, Jinfeng; Rao, Xiuqin; Ying, Yibin

    2016-10-18

    Skinning injury on potato tubers is a kind of superficial wound that is generally inflicted by mechanical forces during harvest and postharvest handling operations. Though skinning injury is pervasive and obstructive, its detection is very limited. This study attempted to identify injured skin using two CCD (Charge Coupled Device) sensor-based machine vision technologies, i.e., visible imaging and biospeckle imaging. The identification of skinning injury was realized via exploiting features extracted from varied ROIs (Region of Interests). The features extracted from visible images were pixel-wise color and texture features, while region-wise BA (Biospeckle Activity) was calculated from biospeckle imaging. In addition, the calculation of BA using varied numbers of speckle patterns were compared. Finally, extracted features were implemented into classifiers of LS-SVM (Least Square Support Vector Machine) and BLR (Binary Logistic Regression), respectively. Results showed that color features performed better than texture features in classifying sound skin and injured skin, especially for injured skin stored no less than 1 day, with the average classification accuracy of 90%. Image capturing and processing efficiency can be speeded up in biospeckle imaging, with captured 512 frames reduced to 125 frames. Classification results obtained based on the feature of BA were acceptable for early skinning injury stored within 1 day, with the accuracy of 88.10%. It is concluded that skinning injury can be recognized by visible and biospeckle imaging during different stages. Visible imaging has the aptitude in recognizing stale skinning injury, while fresh injury can be discriminated by biospeckle imaging.

  12. Ozone uptake (flux) as it relates to ozone-induced foliar symptoms of Prunus serotina and Populus maximowizii x trichocarpa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orendovici-Best, T.; Skelly, J.M.; Davis, D.D.; Ferdinand, J.A.; Savage, J.E.; Stevenson, R.E.

    2008-01-01

    Field studies were conducted during 2003 and 2004 from early June to the end of August, at 20 sites of lower or higher elevation within north-central Pennsylvania, using seedlings of black cherry (Prunus serotina, Ehrh.) and ramets of hybrid poplar (Populus maximowizii x trichocarpa). A linear model was developed to estimate the influence of local environmental conditions on stomatal conductance. The most significant factors explaining stomatal variance were tree species, air temperature, leaf vapor pressure deficit, elevation, and time of day. Overall, environmental factors explained less than 35% of the variation in stomatal conductance. Ozone did not affect gas exchange rates in either poplar or cherry. Ozone-induced foliar injury was positively correlated with cumulative ozone exposures, expressed as SUM40. Overall, the amount of foliar injury was better correlated to a flux-based approach rather than to an exposure-based approach. More severe foliar injuries were observed on plants growing at higher elevations. - Within heterogeneous environments, ozone flux does not completely explain the variation observed in ozone-induced visible injury

  13. Schools-based interventions for reducing stigmatization of acquired brain injury: the role of interpersonal contact and visible impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Lynn G; Fortune, Dónal G

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of contact versus education interventions for adolescents in reducing stigmatizing attitudes toward people with acquired brain injury (ABI), and whether visibility of ABI affects the intervention outcome. 408 students (age range = 14-17 years) from 13 schools in the Mid-West of Ireland were randomly allocated to one of the three interventions: Education only, Contact (Visible Disability), or Contact ("Invisible" Disability). Stigmatizing attitudes were measured before and after intervention. Results suggest that a Contact intervention was more effective in reducing stigmatizing attitudes in terms of social restrictiveness, benevolence, and community mental health beliefs than education alone. Visibility of ABI impacted the effectiveness of the contact intervention on Community Mental Health beliefs only. Contact with a person with ABI is thus more effective in promoting positive attitudes than ABI education alone, while the presence of visible impairment was not found to increase this intervention effect.

  14. Phylogenetic Structure of Foliar Spectral Traits in Tropical Forest Canopies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly M. McManus

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Spectranomics approach to tropical forest remote sensing has established a link between foliar reflectance spectra and the phylogenetic composition of tropical canopy tree communities vis-à-vis the taxonomic organization of biochemical trait variation. However, a direct relationship between phylogenetic affiliation and foliar reflectance spectra of species has not been established. We sought to develop this relationship by quantifying the extent to which underlying patterns of phylogenetic structure drive interspecific variation among foliar reflectance spectra within three Neotropical canopy tree communities with varying levels of soil fertility. We interpreted the resulting spectral patterns of phylogenetic signal in the context of foliar biochemical traits that may contribute to the spectral-phylogenetic link. We utilized a multi-model ensemble to elucidate trait-spectral relationships, and quantified phylogenetic signal for spectral wavelengths and traits using Pagel’s lambda statistic. Foliar reflectance spectra showed evidence of phylogenetic influence primarily within the visible and shortwave infrared spectral regions. These regions were also selected by the multi-model ensemble as those most important to the quantitative prediction of several foliar biochemical traits. Patterns of phylogenetic organization of spectra and traits varied across sites and with soil fertility, indicative of the complex interactions between the environmental and phylogenetic controls underlying patterns of biodiversity.

  15. A flux-based assessment of the effects of ozone on foliar injury, photosynthesis, and yield of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Borlotto Nano Lingua di Fuoco) in open-top chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerosa, Giacomo; Marzuoli, Riccardo; Rossini, Micol; Panigada, Cinzia; Meroni, Michele; Colombo, Roberto; Faoro, Franco; Iriti, Marcello

    2009-01-01

    Stomatal ozone uptake, determined with the Jarvis' approach, was related to photosynthetic efficiency assessed by chlorophyll fluorescence and reflectance measurements in open-top chamber experiments on Phaseolus vulgaris. The effects of O 3 exposure were also evaluated in terms of visible and microscopical leaf injury and plant productivity. Results showed that microscopical leaf symptoms, assessed as cell death and H 2 O 2 accumulation, preceded by 3-4 days the appearance of visible symptoms. An effective dose of ozone stomatal flux for visible leaf damages was found around 1.33 mmol O 3 m -2 . Significant linear dose-response relationships were obtained between accumulated fluxes and optical indices (PRI, NDI, ΔF/F m ' ). The negative effects on photosynthesis reduced plant productivity, affecting the number of pods and seeds, but not seed weight. These results, besides contributing to the development of a flux-based ozone risk assessment for crops in Europe, highlight the potentiality of reflectance measurements for the early detection of ozone stress. - Ozone stomatal fluxes affect leaf cell viability, photosynthetic performance, optical properties and crop yield of bean.

  16. A flux-based assessment of the effects of ozone on foliar injury, photosynthesis, and yield of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Borlotto Nano Lingua di Fuoco) in open-top chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerosa, Giacomo [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, via dei Musei 41, 20125 Brescia (Italy); Marzuoli, Riccardo [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, via dei Musei 41, 20125 Brescia (Italy); Fondazione Lombardia per l' Ambiente, piazza Diaz 9, 20123 Milano (Italy); Rossini, Micol; Panigada, Cinzia; Meroni, Michele; Colombo, Roberto [Remote Sensing of Environmental Dynamics Lab., DISAT, University of Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Faoro, Franco [Plant Pathology Institute, Universita di Milano, via Celoria 2, 20133 Milano (Italy); Iriti, Marcello, E-mail: marcello.iriti@unimi.i [Plant Pathology Institute, Universita di Milano, via Celoria 2, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    Stomatal ozone uptake, determined with the Jarvis' approach, was related to photosynthetic efficiency assessed by chlorophyll fluorescence and reflectance measurements in open-top chamber experiments on Phaseolus vulgaris. The effects of O{sub 3} exposure were also evaluated in terms of visible and microscopical leaf injury and plant productivity. Results showed that microscopical leaf symptoms, assessed as cell death and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} accumulation, preceded by 3-4 days the appearance of visible symptoms. An effective dose of ozone stomatal flux for visible leaf damages was found around 1.33 mmol O{sub 3} m{sup -2}. Significant linear dose-response relationships were obtained between accumulated fluxes and optical indices (PRI, NDI, DELTAF/F{sub m}{sup '}). The negative effects on photosynthesis reduced plant productivity, affecting the number of pods and seeds, but not seed weight. These results, besides contributing to the development of a flux-based ozone risk assessment for crops in Europe, highlight the potentiality of reflectance measurements for the early detection of ozone stress. - Ozone stomatal fluxes affect leaf cell viability, photosynthetic performance, optical properties and crop yield of bean.

  17. Estimating foliar nitrogen in Eucalyptus using vegetation indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Ramalho de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Nitrogen (N has commonly been applied in Eucalyptus stands in Brazil and it has a direct relation with biomass production and chlorophyll content. Foliar N concentrations are used to diagnose soil and plant fertility levels and to develop N fertilizer application rates. Normally, foliar N is obtained using destructive methods, but indirect analyses using Vegetation Indexes (VIs may be possible. The aim of this work was to evaluate VIs to estimate foliar N concentration in three Eucalyptus clones. Lower crown leaves of three clonal Eucalyptus plantations (25 months old were classified into five color patterns using the Munsell Plant Tissue Color Chart. For each color, N concentration was determined by the Kjeldahl method and foliar reflectance was measured using a CI-710 Miniature Leaf Spectrometer. Foliar reflectance data were used to obtain the VIs and the VIs were used to estimate N concentrations. In the visible region, the relationship between N concentration and reflectance percentage was negative. The highest correlations between VIs and N concentrations were obtained by the Inflection Point Position (IPP, r = 0.97, Normalized Difference Red-Edge (reNDVI, r = 0.97 and Modified Red-Edge Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (mNDI, r = 0.97. Vegetation indexes on the red edge region provided the most accurate estimates of foliar N concentration. The reNDVI index provided the best N concentration estimates in leaves of different colors of Eucalyptus urophylla × grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla × urophylla (R2 = 0.97 and RMSE = 0.91 g kg−1.

  18. Foliar Epidermal Studies of Plants in Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Thakur

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes foliar epidermal structure in 17 species belonging to 17 genera of the family Euphoprbiaceae. Anomocytic stomata is predominant, rarely they are anisocytic, paracytic on the same foliar surface with different combinations. Leaves are hypostomatic and rarely amphistomatic. The foliar surface is smooth, rarely striated. The foliar epidermal cell walls are straight or undulate. Distribution of stomata, stomatal index, stomatal frequency, stomatal size and other cell wall contours are described in detail.

  19. Physiological and foliar symptom response in the crowns of Prunus serotina, Fraxinus americana and Acer rubrum canopy trees to ambient ozone under forest conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaub, M.; Skelly, J.M.; Zhang, J.W.; Ferdinand, J.A.; Savage, J.E.; Stevenson, R.E.; Davis, D.D.; Steiner, K.C.

    2005-01-01

    The crowns of five canopy dominant black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), five white ash (Fraxinus americana L.), and six red maple (Acer rubrum L.) trees on naturally differing environmental conditions were accessed with scaffold towers within a mixed hardwood forest stand in central Pennsylvania. Ambient ozone concentrations, meteorological parameters, leaf gas exchange and leaf water potential were measured at the sites during the growing seasons of 1998 and 1999. Visible ozone-induced foliar injury was assessed on leaves within the upper and lower crown branches of each tree. Ambient ozone exposures were sufficient to induce typical symptoms on cherry (0-5% total affected leaf area, LAA), whereas foliar injury was not observed on ash or maple. There was a positive correlation between increasing cumulative ozone uptake (U) and increasing percent of LAA for cherry grown under drier site conditions. The lower crown leaves of cherry showed more severe foliar injury than the upper crown leaves. No significant differences in predawn leaf water potential (ψ L ) were detected for all three species indicating no differing soil moisture conditions across the sites. Significant variation in stomatal conductance for water vapor (g wv ) was found among species, soil moisture, time of day and sample date. When comparing cumulative ozone uptake and decreased photosynthetic activity (P n ), red maple was the only species to show higher gas exchange under mesic vs. drier soil conditions (P wv and P n demonstrate the strong influence of heterogeneous environmental conditions within forest canopies. - Within the heterogeneous environment of a mature forest, many factors in addition to soil moisture play a significant role in determining exposure/response relationships to ozone

  20. Tibouchina pulchra (Cham.) Cogn., a native Atlantic Forest species, as a bio-indicator of ozone: Visible injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furlan, Claudia M. [Departamento de Botanica, Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 11461, 05422-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: furlancm@yahoo.com.br; Moraes, Regina M.; Bulbovas, Patricia [Secao de Ecologia, Instituto de Botanica, SMA, CP 4005, 01061-970 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Sanz, Maria J. [Fundacion Centro de Estudios Ambientales del Mediterraneo, Parque Tecnologico, E-46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Domingos, Marisa [Secao de Ecologia, Instituto de Botanica, SMA, CP 4005, 01061-970 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Salatino, Antonio [Departamento de Botanica, Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 11461, 05422-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-03-15

    Tibouchina pulchra saplings were exposed to carbon filtered air (CF), ambient non-filtered air (NF) and ambient non-filtered air + 40 ppb ozone (NF + O{sub 3}) 8 h per day during two months. The AOT40 values at the end of the experiment were 48, 910 and 12,895 ppb h{sup -1}, respectively, for the three treatments. After 25 days of exposure (AOT40 = 3871 ppb h{sup -1}), interveinal red stippling appeared in plants in the NF + O{sub 3} chamber. In the NF chamber, symptoms were observed only after 60 days of exposure (AOT40 = 910 ppb h{sup -1}). After 60 days, injured leaves per plant corresponded to 19% in NF + O{sub 3} and 1% in the NF treatment; and the average leaf area injured was 7% within the NF + O{sub 3} and 0.2% within the NF treatment. The extent of leaf area injured (leaf injury index) was mostly explained by the accumulated exposure of ozone (r{sup 2} = 0.89; p < 0.05). - Tibouchina pulchra, a tropical species widely used in Brazilian landscapes as an ornamental tree, is a potential sensitive bio-indicator of ozone air pollution.

  1. Tibouchina pulchra (Cham.) Cogn., a native Atlantic Forest species, as a bio-indicator of ozone: Visible injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furlan, Claudia M.; Moraes, Regina M.; Bulbovas, Patricia; Sanz, Maria J.; Domingos, Marisa; Salatino, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Tibouchina pulchra saplings were exposed to carbon filtered air (CF), ambient non-filtered air (NF) and ambient non-filtered air + 40 ppb ozone (NF + O 3 ) 8 h per day during two months. The AOT40 values at the end of the experiment were 48, 910 and 12,895 ppb h -1 , respectively, for the three treatments. After 25 days of exposure (AOT40 = 3871 ppb h -1 ), interveinal red stippling appeared in plants in the NF + O 3 chamber. In the NF chamber, symptoms were observed only after 60 days of exposure (AOT40 = 910 ppb h -1 ). After 60 days, injured leaves per plant corresponded to 19% in NF + O 3 and 1% in the NF treatment; and the average leaf area injured was 7% within the NF + O 3 and 0.2% within the NF treatment. The extent of leaf area injured (leaf injury index) was mostly explained by the accumulated exposure of ozone (r 2 = 0.89; p < 0.05). - Tibouchina pulchra, a tropical species widely used in Brazilian landscapes as an ornamental tree, is a potential sensitive bio-indicator of ozone air pollution

  2. Influence of foliar fertilization on walnut foliar zinc levels and nut production in black walnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    William R. Reid; Andrew L. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The impact of foliar zinc fertilizer application on nut-bearing black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) trees was studied. Foliar sprays were applied three times per season on two cultivars during four growing seasons by wetting the foliage of the entire crown using a tank mix containing 500 ppm zinc, starting at leaf burst and continuing at 2 week intervals...

  3. Temporal patterns of foliar ozone symptoms on tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata L.) in Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelka, A H; Somers, G L; Renfro, J R

    2007-10-01

    Incidence and severity of ozone-induced foliar symptoms on tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata L.) along selected trails in Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM) were determined by two surveys/season conducted from 1992 through 1996. Overall incidence was 73%, and was 84%, 44%, 90%, 58%, and 82% for 1992-1996, respectively for the same clusters. Average incidence was 61% and 84% for the 1st and 2nd surveys, respectively. Seasonal comparisons showed two distinct injury groupings regarding incidence and severity of injury: 1992, 1994 and 1996 (high injury); 1993 and 1995 (low injury). No discernible patterns were observed between symptomatic and asymptomatic plants regarding height, herbivory or flowering. Regression analyses indicated no differentiation in foliar symptoms regarding topographic position, aspect, slope or elevation over the 5-year study period. Our findings indicate other micro-site or genetic factors may control ozone sensitivity of tall milkweed in GRSM.

  4. Protection of ash (Fraxinus excelsior) trees from ozone injury by ethylenediurea (EDU): Roles of biochemical changes and decreased stomatal conductance in enhancement of growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paoletti, Elena; Contran, Nicla; Manning, William J.; Castagna, Antonella; Ranieri, Annamaria; Tagliaferro, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    Treatments with ethylenediurea (EDU) protect plants from ozone foliar injury, but the processes underlying this protection are poorly understood. Adult ash trees (Fraxinus excelsior), with or without foliar ozone symptoms in previous years, were treated with EDU at 450 ppm by gravitational trunk infusion in May-September 2005 (32.5 ppm h AOT40). At 30-day intervals, shoot growth, gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence, and water potential were determined. In September, several biochemical parameters were measured. The protective influence of EDU was supported by enhancement in the number of leaflets. EDU did not contribute its nitrogen to leaf tissue as a fertiliser, as determined from lack of difference in foliar N between treatments. Both biochemical (increase in ascorbate-peroxidase and ascorbic acid, and decrease in apoplastic hydrogen peroxide) and biophysical (decrease in stomatal conductance) processes regulated EDU action. As total ascorbic acid increased only in the asymptomatic trees, its role in alleviating O 3 effects on leaf growth and visible injury is controversial. - Both biochemical and biophysical processes may regulate EDU action

  5. Foliar flavonoids of nine species of Bauhinia

    OpenAIRE

    SALATINO, ANTONIO; BLATT, CECÍLIA T.T.; SANTOS, DÉBORAH Y.A.C. DOS; VAZ, ANGELA M.S.F.

    1999-01-01

    Foliar flavonoids of nine species of Bauhinia were isolated and identified. All the compounds correspond to glycosides derived from kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin and myricetin. Derivatives of the latter aglyconhe seem to be rare in Bauhinia. Derivatives of isorhamnetin are commonly found in species of subgenus Bauhinia and were not detected in the two species of subgenus Phanera. Flavonoid patterns of species of the former subgenus are in general more complex than those of the latter. ...

  6. Foliar fungi of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris)

    OpenAIRE

    Millberg, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is an ecologically and economically important tree species in Fennoscandia. Scots pine needles host a variety of fungi, some with the potential to profoundly influence their host. These fungi can have beneficial or detrimental effects with important implications for both forest health and primary production. In this thesis, the foliar fungi of Scots pine needles were investigated with the aim of exploring spatial and temporal patterns, and development with needle...

  7. Foliar absorption of 15N labeled urea by tea plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshina, Tsuguo; Kozai, Shuji; Ishigaki, Kozo

    1978-01-01

    The effect of foliar application on the nitrogen nutrient status of tea shoots has been studied using 15 N labelled urea. Furthermore, the difference in nitrogen utilization by tea plant between foliar applied and top dressed nitrogen was investigated using 15 N labelled urea and ammonium sulfate. The foliar application of urea increased the amount of chlorophyll and total nitrogen in the new shoot, and the foliar application was more effective under shading condition. The urea sprayed upon old leaves prior to the opening of new leaf translocated to the new shoots. However, the foliar application after the opening of new leaf was more effective on nitrogen absorption by new shoots than one prior to that, and rather than top dressing for new shoots. It could be recognized that the foliar application of urea raises the nitrogen nutrient status of tea leaves in summer. (author)

  8. Physiological characteristics of Plantago major under SO2 exposure as affected by foliar iron spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohasseli, Vahid; Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir Hossein; Shariatmadari, Hossein

    2017-08-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) is considered as a main air pollutant in industrialized areas that can damage vegetation. In the present study, we investigated how exposure to SO 2 and foliar application of iron (Fe) would affect certain physiological characteristics of Plantago major. The plant seedlings exposed or unexposed to SO 2 (3900 μg m -3 ) were non-supplemented or supplemented with Fe (3 g L -1 ) as foliar spray. Plants were exposed to SO 2 for 6 weeks in 100 × 70 × 70 cm chambers. Fumigation of plants with SO 2 was performed for 3 h daily for 3 days per week (alternate day). Lower leaf Fe concentration in the plants exposed to SO 2 at no added Fe treatment was accompanied with incidence of chlorosis symptoms and reduced chlorophyll concentration. No visible chlorotic symptoms were observed on the SO 2 -exposed plants supplied with Fe that accumulated higher Fe in their leaves. Both at with and without added Fe treatments, catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activity was higher in the plants fumigated with SO 2 in comparison with those non-fumigated with SO 2 . Foliar application of Fe was also effective in increasing activity of antioxidant enzymes CAT and POD. Exposure to SO 2 led to reduced cellulose but enhanced lignin content of plant leaf cell wall. The results obtained showed that foliar application of Fe was effective in reducing the effects of exposure to SO 2 on cell wall composition. In contrast to SO 2 , application of Fe increased cellulose while decreased lignin content of the leaf cell wall. This might be due to reduced oxidative stress induced by SO 2 in plants supplied with Fe compared with those unsupplied with Fe.

  9. Observations of foliar injury to plants by sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, A.K.; Chaphekar, S.B.

    1978-01-01

    Morphological and anatomical changes in mature leaves indicated that Raphanus sativus, Commelina benghalensis and Medicago sativa were injured and Pennisetum typhoideum, Alternanthere ficoidea and Mangifera indica (seedlings) were not injured by sulfur dioxide fumigation. The highly susceptible plants like Raphanus, Medicago, and Commelina can be used for monitoring air quality in a polluted atmosphere. Uninjured species like Pennisetum on the other hand, may be grown in polluted areas for maintaining agricultural production. 9 references, 1 table.

  10. Estimating foliar biochemistry from hyperspectral data in mixed forest canopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber Gharib, Silvia; Kneubühler, Mathias; Psomas, Achilleas

    2008-01-01

    data to estimate the foliar concentration of nitrogen, carbon and water in three mixed forest canopies in Switzerland. With multiple linear regression models, continuum-removed and normalized HyMap spectra were related to foliar biochemistry on an individual tree level. The six spectral wavebands used...

  11. Diagnosing foliar nutrient dynamics of Eucalyptus grandis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fertilisation is one of the most cost-effective methods of increasing and maintaining the productivity of Eucalyptus grandis plantations in South Africa. This silvicultural practice can be optimised by using the foliar nutrient ratios measured in plants at maximum growth as a guideline for fertiliser application. The foliar nutrient ...

  12. Use of the radioisotopes in foliar fertilizing studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraoka, T.; Boaretto, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    The utilization of the radioactive isotopes is studied to evaluate the efficiency of nitrogen in foliar fertilizers. One of the objectives was study the urea absorption via foliar in time function in sugar cane. The nitrogen 15 determination was done by mass spectrometer. (author)

  13. Global patterns of foliar nitrogen isotopes and their relationships with climate, mycorrhizal fungi, foliar nutrient concentrations, and nitrogen availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph M. Craine; Andrew J. Elmore; Marcos P. M. Aidar; Mercedes Bustamante; Todd E. Dawson; Erik A. Hobbie; Ansgar Kahmen; Michelle C. Mack; Kendra K. McLauchlan; Anders Michelsen; Gabriela Nardoto; Linda H. Pardo; Josep Penuelas; Peter B. Reich; Edward A.G. Schuur; William D. Stock; Pamela H. Templer; Ross A. Virginia; Jeffrey M. Welker; Ian J. Wright

    2009-01-01

    Ratios of nitrogen (N) isotopes in leaves could elucidate underlying patterns of N cycling across ecological gradients. To better understand global-scale patterns of N cycling, we compiled data on foliar N isotope ratios, foliar N concentrations, mycorrhizal type and climate for over 11 000 plants worldwide. Global-scale comparisons of other components of the N cycle...

  14. Global patterns of foliar nitrogen isotopes and their relationships with climate, mycorrhizal fungi, foliar nutrient concentrations, and nitrogen availability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craine, J M; Elmore, A J; Aidar, M P M

    2009-01-01

    Ratios of nitrogen (N) isotopes in leaves could elucidate underlying patterns of N cycling across ecological gradients. To better understand global-scale patterns of N cycling, we compiled data on foliar N isotope ratios (d15N), foliar N concentrations, mycorrhizal type and climate for over 11 00...

  15. Morfoanatomia foliar de Palicourea longepedunculata Gardiner (Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Zefa Valdivina

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Palicourea - tribo Psychotrieae - compreende cerca de 200 espécies e destaca-se por apresentar alcalóides indólicos muitas vezes tóxicos para bovinos. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi contribuir para o conhecimento da família Rubiaceae, enfatizando os aspectos da morfoanatomia foliar de Palicourea longepedunculata. O material foi coletado na Reserva Florestal Mata do Paraíso (RFMP, município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais, e amostras-testemunha foram depositadas no herbário VIC. Folhas provenientes do quarto nó foram fixadas em FAA50 e conservadas em etanol 70%. Seções transversais e longitudinais do pecíolo e da lâmina foliar foram obtidas em micrótomo de mesa para montagem de lâminas permanentes, conforme metodologia usual. As folhas são simples, opostas, inteiras, ovais lanceoladas, dorsiventrais e hipoestomáticas. A epiderme do pecíolo e da lâmina foliar é uniestratificada, papilosa na face adaxial da folha e recoberta por cutícula delgada. Os estômatos são paracíticos e ocorrem no mesmo nível das demais células epidérmicas. O mesofilo é constituído por uma camada de parênquima paliçádico e de várias de parênquima lacunoso. Na face adaxial e abaxial da nervura mediana e no bordo da lâmina observa-se colênquima subepidérmico. Um feixe vascular do tipo colateral, em forma de "U", distribui-se ao longo do pecíolo e da nervura mediana, acompanhado, invariavelmente, por dois feixes menores localizados lateralmente. No córtex do pecíolo e da nervura mediana observa-se aerênquima. As características anatômicas seguem o padrão descrito para as Rubiaceae, e algumas delas são interpretadas como adaptações a ambientes úmidos e sombreados no qual a espécie ocorre.

  16. Foliar additional nutrition in the fruit growing field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soare, M.; Borlan, Z.; Gavriluta, I.; Budoi, G.; Marinca, C.; Bandu, G.G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents data concerning the influence of foliar application of some types of complex foliar fertilizers under the conditions of SCPP Caransebes (Caras-Severin district). The composition of these nutrients fulfils the nutritional needs of the fruit growing species on the fruit yield obtained in orchards. The application of different types of foliar nutrients on plants teguments resulted in some significant yield increases for the two species that were studied: apple and plum tree. The novelty of this paper is represented by the apparent degrees of productive use in yields of the macro and micronutrients from foliar fertilizers, as well as the productive use degrees of nutrients present in soil and of the nutrients applied in soil (we took into account the mean values for the studied years). The apparent degrees of productive use (in yield increases) of the nutrients from complex foliar fertilizers applied on apple-trees and plum-trees generally exceed 100 %. They determine high levels of productive use of the nutrients from soil and foliar nutrients applied. The experimental data emphasize the ecological protection effect of the supplementary foliar fertilization for the yield stimulation especially on soils with light texture and sloping soils. Refs. 6 (author)

  17. Noise-resistant spectral features for retrieving foliar chemical parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foliar chemical constituents are important indicators for understanding vegetation growing status and ecosystem functionality. Provided the noncontact and nondestructive traits, the hyperspectral analysis is a superior and efficient method for deriving these parameters. In practical implementation o...

  18. Physiological responses of Tillandsia albida (Bromeliaceae) to long-term foliar metal application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacik, Jozef, E-mail: jozkovacik@yahoo.com [Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); CEITEC - Central European Institute of Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Klejdus, Borivoj [Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); CEITEC - Central European Institute of Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Stork, Frantisek [Department of Botany, Institute of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, P. J. Safarik University, Manesova 23, 041 67 Kosice (Slovakia); Hedbavny, Josef [Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impact of foliar Cd, Ni and Cd + Ni application on Tillandsia albida was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd caused visible damage and enhanced stress parameters in combined treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrogenous compounds were slightly affected but phenols were up- and down-regulated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mineral nutrients (K, Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, and Zn) were not affected by any of treatments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Total Cd or Ni reached ca. 0.04% and Ni was more absorbed than Cd. - Abstract: The impact of 2-month foliar application of cadmium, nickel and their combination (10 {mu}M) on Tillandsia albida was studied. Cadmium caused damage of tissue but assimilation pigments were depressed in Cd + Ni variant only. Stress-related parameters (ROS and peroxidase activities) were elevated by Cd and Cd + Ni while MDA content remained unaffected. Free amino acids accumulated the most in Ni alone but soluble proteins were not influenced. Among phenolic acids, mainly vanillin contributed to increase of their sum in all variants while soluble phenols even decreased in Cd + Ni and flavonols slightly increased in Cd variants. Phenolic enzymes showed negligible responses to almost all treatments. Mineral nutrients (K, Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, and Zn) were not affected by metal application but N content increased. Total Cd or Ni amounts reached over 400 {mu}g g{sup -1} DW and were not affected if metal alone and combined treatment is compared while absorbed content differed (ca. 50% of total Cd was absorbed while almost all Ni was absorbed). These data indicate tolerance of T. albida to foliar metal application and together with strong xerophytic morphology, use for environmental studies is recommended.

  19. Physiological responses of Tillandsia albida (Bromeliaceae) to long-term foliar metal application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kováčik, Jozef; Klejdus, Bořivoj; Štork, František; Hedbavny, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Impact of foliar Cd, Ni and Cd + Ni application on Tillandsia albida was studied. ► Cd caused visible damage and enhanced stress parameters in combined treatment. ► Nitrogenous compounds were slightly affected but phenols were up- and down-regulated. ► Mineral nutrients (K, Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, and Zn) were not affected by any of treatments. ► Total Cd or Ni reached ca. 0.04% and Ni was more absorbed than Cd. - Abstract: The impact of 2-month foliar application of cadmium, nickel and their combination (10 μM) on Tillandsia albida was studied. Cadmium caused damage of tissue but assimilation pigments were depressed in Cd + Ni variant only. Stress-related parameters (ROS and peroxidase activities) were elevated by Cd and Cd + Ni while MDA content remained unaffected. Free amino acids accumulated the most in Ni alone but soluble proteins were not influenced. Among phenolic acids, mainly vanillin contributed to increase of their sum in all variants while soluble phenols even decreased in Cd + Ni and flavonols slightly increased in Cd variants. Phenolic enzymes showed negligible responses to almost all treatments. Mineral nutrients (K, Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, and Zn) were not affected by metal application but N content increased. Total Cd or Ni amounts reached over 400 μg g −1 DW and were not affected if metal alone and combined treatment is compared while absorbed content differed (ca. 50% of total Cd was absorbed while almost all Ni was absorbed). These data indicate tolerance of T. albida to foliar metal application and together with strong xerophytic morphology, use for environmental studies is recommended.

  20. Molecular mechanisms of foliar water uptake in a desert tree

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Xia; Zhou, Maoxian; Dong, Xicun; Zou, Songbing; Xiao, Honglang; Ma, Xiao-Fei

    2015-01-01

    Water deficits severely affect growth, particularly for the plants in arid and semiarid regions of the world. In addition to precipitation, other subsidiary water, such as dew, fog, clouds and small rain showers, may also be absorbed by leaves in a process known as foliar water uptake. With the severe scarcity of water in desert regions, this process is increasingly becoming a necessity. Studies have reported on physical and physiological processes of foliar water uptake. However, the molecul...

  1. Molecular mechanisms of foliar water uptake in a desert tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xia; Zhou, Maoxian; Dong, Xicun; Zou, Songbing; Xiao, Honglang; Ma, Xiao-Fei

    2015-11-12

    Water deficits severely affect growth, particularly for the plants in arid and semiarid regions of the world. In addition to precipitation, other subsidiary water, such as dew, fog, clouds and small rain showers, may also be absorbed by leaves in a process known as foliar water uptake. With the severe scarcity of water in desert regions, this process is increasingly becoming a necessity. Studies have reported on physical and physiological processes of foliar water uptake. However, the molecular mechanisms remain less understood. As major channels for water regulation and transport, aquaporins (AQPs) are involved in this process. However, due to the regulatory complexity and functional diversity of AQPs, their molecular mechanism for foliar water uptake remains unclear. In this study, Tamarix ramosissima, a tree species widely distributed in desert regions, was investigated for gene expression patterns of AQPs and for sap flow velocity. Our results suggest that the foliar water uptake of T. ramosissima occurs in natural fields at night when the humidity is over a threshold of 85 %. The diurnal gene expression pattern of AQPs suggests that most AQP gene expressions display a circadian rhythm, and this could affect both photosynthesis and transpiration. At night, the PIP2-1 gene is also upregulated with increased relative air humidity. This gene expression pattern may allow desert plants to regulate foliar water uptake to adapt to extreme drought. This study suggests a molecular basis of foliar water uptake in desert plants. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  2. Evaluation of ozone injury on foliage of black cherry (Prunus serotina) and tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata) in Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelka, A; Renfro, J; Somers, G; Nash, B

    1997-01-01

    The incidence and severity of visible foliar ozone injury on black cherry (Prunus serotina) seedlings and saplings and tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata) plants in Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM) were determined by surveys along selected trails conducted during late summer 1992. The incidence (% injured plants) of ozone injury on black cherry was 47% and the percent injured leaves/injured plant and average leaf area injured were 43 and 6%, respectively. Maximum severity (avg. leaf area of the most severely injured leaf) was 12%. Black cherry seedlings and saplings exhibiting ozone injury were taller than non-injured plants. When insect feeding was present, it occurred 96% of the time on plants with ozone injury. Significantly more injury (p=0.007) on black cherry (% injured leaves/injured black cherry) occurred in the NW section of GRSM compared with the other Park sections. Regression analyses showed no relationships in ozone injury with respect to aspect, slope or elevation. Tall milkweed was evaluated twice during August for ozone injury. The incidence (% injured plants) of ozone injury was 74 and 79% for the first and second survey, respectively. The percentage of injured leaves per plant from the first to second survey was 63 to 79%, respectively. Tall milkweeds showing ozone injury were taller than the non-injured plants. The percentage of insect-damaged plants was 50% among plants without ozone injury and 60% among ozone-injured plants. Non-injured tall milkweed had fewer flowers and/or pods than the injured plants. Mean leaf area injured increased over time, and mean maximum leaf area injured increased from 8 to 11% during the same period. Regression analyses showed no differences in ozone injury regarding aspect, slope or elevation. Our findings indicate that ozone injury is widespread throughout the Park on sensitive vegetation.

  3. Temporal patterns of foliar ozone symptoms on tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata L.) in Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chappelka, A.H.; Somers, G.L.; Renfro, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    Incidence and severity of ozone-induced foliar symptoms on tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata L.) along selected trails in Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM) were determined by two surveys/season conducted from 1992 through 1996. Overall incidence was 73%, and was 84%, 44%, 90%, 58%, and 82% for 1992-1996, respectively for the same clusters. Average incidence was 61% and 84% for the 1st and 2nd surveys, respectively. Seasonal comparisons showed two distinct injury groupings regarding incidence and severity of injury: 1992, 1994 and 1996 (high injury); 1993 and 1995 (low injury). No discernible patterns were observed between symptomatic and asymptomatic plants regarding height, herbivory or flowering. Regression analyses indicated no differentiation in foliar symptoms regarding topographic position, aspect, slope or elevation over the 5-year study period. Our findings indicate other micro-site or genetic factors may control ozone sensitivity of tall milkweed in GRSM. - Ground-level ozone has the potential to cause deleterious effects to tall milkweed growing in Great Smoky Mountains National Park

  4. Temporal patterns of foliar ozone symptoms on tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata L.) in Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chappelka, A.H. [School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)], E-mail: chappah@auburn.edu; Somers, G.L. [School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Renfro, J.R. [USDI National Park Service, Resource Management and Science Division, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Gatlinburg, TN 37738 (United States)

    2007-10-15

    Incidence and severity of ozone-induced foliar symptoms on tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata L.) along selected trails in Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM) were determined by two surveys/season conducted from 1992 through 1996. Overall incidence was 73%, and was 84%, 44%, 90%, 58%, and 82% for 1992-1996, respectively for the same clusters. Average incidence was 61% and 84% for the 1st and 2nd surveys, respectively. Seasonal comparisons showed two distinct injury groupings regarding incidence and severity of injury: 1992, 1994 and 1996 (high injury); 1993 and 1995 (low injury). No discernible patterns were observed between symptomatic and asymptomatic plants regarding height, herbivory or flowering. Regression analyses indicated no differentiation in foliar symptoms regarding topographic position, aspect, slope or elevation over the 5-year study period. Our findings indicate other micro-site or genetic factors may control ozone sensitivity of tall milkweed in GRSM. - Ground-level ozone has the potential to cause deleterious effects to tall milkweed growing in Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

  5. Reflectance measurements of leaves for detecting visible and non-visible ozon damage to crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, M.; Weigel, H.-J.; Mejer, G.-J.; Brandes, F.

    1996-01-01

    Spring wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Turbo), white clover (Trifolium repens cv. Karina) and maize (Zea mays cv. Bonny) plants were exposed for 20–30 days in open top chambers to charcoal-filtered air (CF, control) and CF air supplied with O 3 for 8–12 h/per day in the concentration range of 180–240 μg O 3 /m 3 (8–12 h/day treatment mean). At the end of the O 3 treatment spectral reflectance measurements were made on single leaves of all 3 species and on canopies of wheat and clover using a CCD (Charged Coupled Device) camera and wavelength filters with 11 wavelength bands ranging from 450 nm to 950 nm. Different vegetation indices such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the ≪main inflection point≫ (MIP) were calculated. Based on these results it was shown that visible O 3 damages were correlated to the spectral reflectance changes: Both leaves and canopies showed an increased reflectance of visible light after ozone treatment. While clover and maize leaves as well as clover and wheat canopies showed a decreased near infrared (NIR) reflectance, the NIR reflectance of wheat leaves did not change, even if the leaves had visible symptoms. A decreased infrared reflectance was detectable for all clover leaves after O 3 treatment although for part of the leaves no visible foliar damage symptoms could be observed

  6. Effect of Maize Hybrid and Foliar Fungicides on Yield Under Low Foliar Disease Severity Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallowa, Sally O; Esker, Paul D; Paul, Pierce A; Bradley, Carl A; Chapara, Venkata R; Conley, Shawn P; Robertson, Alison E

    2015-08-01

    Foliar fungicide use in the U.S. Corn Belt increased in the last decade; however, questions persist pertaining to its value and sustainability. Multistate field trials were established from 2010 to 2012 in Illinois, Iowa, Ohio, and Wisconsin to examine how hybrid and foliar fungicide influenced disease intensity and yield. The experimental design was in a split-split plot with main plots consisting of hybrids varying in resistance to gray leaf spot (caused by Cercospora zeae-maydis) and northern corn leaf blight (caused by Setosphaera turcica), subplots corresponding to four application timings of the fungicide pyraclostrobin, and sub-subplots represented by inoculations with either C. zeae-maydis, S. turcica, or both at two vegetative growth stages. Fungicide application (VT/R1) significantly reduced total disease severity relative to the control in five of eight site-years (P<0.05). Disease was reduced by approximately 30% at Wisconsin in 2011, 20% at Illinois in 2010, 29% at Iowa in 2010, and 32 and 30% at Ohio in 2010 and 2012, respectively. These disease severities ranged from 0.2 to 0.3% in Wisconsin in 2011 to 16.7 to 22.1% in Illinois in 2010. The untreated control had significantly lower yield (P<0.05) than the fungicide-treated in three site-years. Fungicide application increased the yield by approximately 6% at Ohio in 2010, 5% at Wisconsin in 2010 and 6% in 2011. Yield differences ranged from 8,403 to 8,890 kg/ha in Wisconsin 2011 to 11,362 to 11,919 kg/ha in Wisconsin 2010. Results suggest susceptibility to disease and prevailing environment are important drivers of observed differences. Yield increases as a result of the physiological benefits of plant health benefits under low disease were not consistent.

  7. A two-compartment exposure device for foliar uptake study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, Q.; Lin, H.; Zhang, X.L.; Li, Q.L.; Liu, S.Z.; Tao, S.

    2006-01-01

    An airtight two-chamber exposure devise was designed for investigating foliar uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by plants. The upper and the bottom chambers of the device were air-tightly separated by an aluminum foil and the plant aerial tissues and roots were exposed in the two chambers, respectively. The device was tested using maize exposed to several PAH species. Positive correlations between air and aerial tissue concentrations of the exposed PAH species were revealed. PAHs spiking in the culture solution had no influence on the leaf concentrations. -- A two-compartment gastight exposure device was developed for investigation of foliar uptake of PAHs by plants

  8. Visibility and Haze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haze forms when sunlight encounters particle pollution. It reduces visibility in cities and scenic areas. This web area provides regulatory information and progress towards improving visibility through EPA’s regional haze program.

  9. Visible Human Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cryosections are associated with anatomical terminology. AnatLine : A prototype system consisting of an anatomical image database and ... further information is available Publications VHJOE: Visible Human Journal of Endoscopy. NLM's Current Bibliographies in Medicine, Visible ...

  10. Visibly Pushdown Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srba, Jiri

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of (bi)simulation-like preorder/equivalence checking on the class of visibly pushdown automata and its natural subclasses visibly BPA (Basic Process Algebra) and visibly one-counter automata. We describe generic methods for proving complexity upper and lower bounds...... for a number of studied preorders and equivalences like simulation, completed simulation, ready simulation, 2-nested simulation preorders/equivalences and bisimulation equivalence. Our main results are that all the mentioned equivalences and preorders are EXPTIME-complete on visibly pushdown automata, PSPACE......-complete on visibly one-counter automata and P-complete on visibly BPA. Our PSPACE lower bound for visibly one-counter automata improves also the previously known DP-hardness results for ordinary one-counter automata and one-counter nets. Finally, we study regularity checking problems for visibly pushdown automata...

  11. Imaging spectroscopy of foliar biochemistry in forestry environments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Remote sensing estimates of leaf biochemicals provide valuable information on ecosystem functioning, vitality and state at local to global spatial scales. This paper aims to give an overview of the state of the art of foliar biochemistry assessment in general and, where possible, attention is given to: (1) Eucalyptus forest ...

  12. A preliminary survey of foliar sclerenchyma in neotropical Loranthaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijt, J.; Lye, D.

    2005-01-01

    The foliar sclerenchyma of all genera of neotropical Loranthaceae is surveyed by means of cleared leaves, using selected species. Three general categories of sclerenchyma are recognized. Fibers may form discontinuous or continuous bundles associated with veins or, more rarely, occur as individual

  13. Foliar micromorphology of Lippia javanica (Burm.F) Spreng ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Lippia javanica (Burm.F.) Spreng is an aromatic indigenous South African plant with culinary and medicinal values. This study investigated the foliar morphology and elemental composition of the plant because not much data concerning the anatomical and micro-morphological features can be found in ...

  14. Foliar nutrition in apple production | Murtic | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to provide a comprehensive review of research papers dealing with the effect of foliar feeding on development parameters in apple trees in an attempt to obtain a more thorough insight into the advantages and disadvantages of this fertilization type and facilitate the potential use of this practice ...

  15. Effect of foliar application of salicylic acid, hydrogen peroxide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 42; Issue 2. Effect of foliar application of salicylic acid, hydrogen peroxide and a xyloglucan oligosaccharide on capsiate content and gene expression associatedwith capsinoids synthesis in Capsicum annuum L. AY ZUNUN-PÉREZ T GUEVARA-FIGUEROA SN ...

  16. SE-ENRICHMENT OF CARROT AND ONION VIA FOLIAR APPLICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Kapolna, Emese; Laursen, Kristian H.; Hillestrøm, Peter; Husted, Søren; Larsen, Erik H.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the selenium accumulation in carrot and onion plants using foliar application by sodium selenite and sodium selenate. Furthermore, we aimed at identifying the Se species biosynthesised by onion and carrot plants. The results were used to prepare for production of 77Se enriched plants for an ongoing human absorption study.

  17. Variation in foliar water content and hyperspectral reflectance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sirex noctilio, the Eurasian wood wasp, is one of the major pests responsible for declining forest health in pine forests located in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Researchers have shown that stress induced by S. noctilio causes a rapid decrease in foliar water content, with the foliage of the tree changing from a dark green to a ...

  18. Improving growth and yield of cowpea by foliar application of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water stress impaired cowpea plant growth and decreased ion percentage and chlorophyll and carbohydrate concentration in the shoot as well as yield and its quality. Foliar-applied chitosan, in particular 250 mg/l, increased plant growth, yield and its quality as well as physiological constituents in plant shoot under stressed ...

  19. Does foliar application of salicylic acid protects nitrate reductase and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was conducted to assess whether exogenous applied salicylic acid (SA) as a foliar spray could ameliorate the adverse effects of virus infection in two maize cultivars (maize cv. sabaini and maize cv. Nab El-gamal). The plants were grown under normal field conditions for two weeks in sand clay soil, and ...

  20. Foliar biofilms of Burkholderia pyrrocinia FP62 on geraniums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofilm formation on foliar surfaces is commonly associated with plants in water-saturated environments (e.g. tropics or modified environments). On most leaf surfaces bacteria are thought to reside in aggregates with limited production of an exopolysaccharide (EPS) matrix. However, the biocontrol ag...

  1. Assessment of weather-associated causes of red spruce winter injury and consequences to aboveground carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul G. Schaberg; Brynne E. Lazarus; Gary J. Hawley; Joshua M. Halman; Catherine H. Borer; Christopher F. Hansen

    2011-01-01

    Despite considerable study, it remains uncertain what environmental factors contribute to red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) foliar winter injury and how much this injury influences tree C stores. We used a long-term record of winter injury in a plantation in New Hampshire and conducted stepwise linear regression analyses with local weather and regional...

  2. Foliar uptake of zinc by vascular plants. Radiometric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maresova, J.; Remenarova, L.; Hornik, M.; Pipiska, M.; Augustin, J.; Lesny, J.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to obtain quantitative data of foliar uptake kinetics and long distance transport of zinc in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) and hop (Humulus lupulus L.) plants. Zinc was used as a model of microelement and toxic metal, tobacco and hop as a representatives of agriculturally important plants. A tip of leaf blade was immersed in the solution spiked with 65 ZnCl 2 and foliar uptake and translocation to other parts of the plant grown in nutrient solution was measured by gamma-spectrometry and autoradiography. We found that foliar zinc uptake by both plants is dependent on the initial metal concentration within the range C 0 = 10-100 μmol dm -3 ZnCl 2 . Zinc is immobilized mainly in immersed part of the contact leaf and only 0 = 0.1 mmol dm -3 ZnCl 2 concentrations >2.5 mg/g Zn and 4.8 mg/g Zn (dry wt.) in immersed part of tobacco and hop leaf plant, respectively were found after 5 days of exposure. Low mobility of zinc entering the plant via the leaf surface can be attributed to the immobilization of zinc into Zn-ligand complexes with high stability constants log K at pH 6.0-8.0, such as the reaction products of Zn 2+ ions with citric acid, histidine or phosphates. Zinc can be extracted from dried leaves by the solutions of inorganic salts, carboxylic acids, amino acids and synthetic complexing ligands such as EDTA. Anionic (SDS) and non-ionic (Tween 40) surfactants causes the decrease of the Zn foliar uptake, but not translocation of Zn from the contact leaf area. Obtained data are discussed from the point of view of possible limited efficiency of liquid formulations designed for practical applications as Zn foliar fertilizers. (author)

  3. Estimativa da área foliar de nabo forrageiro em função de dimensões foliares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Cargnelutti Filho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um modelo para estimar a área foliar de nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg determinada por fotos digitais, em função do comprimento, ou da largura e/ou do produto comprimento vezes largura da folha. Aos 76 dias após a semeadura, foram coletadas 557 folhas da haste principal de 92 plantas, sendo mensurados o comprimento (C e a largura (L de cada folha, e calculado o produto comprimento × largura (C×L. Após, determinou-se a área foliar (Y, por meio do método de fotos digitais. Do total de folhas, separaram-se, aleatoriamente, 450 folhas para a construção de modelos do tipo quadrático, potência e linear de Y em função de C, da L, e/ou de C×L. 107 folhas foram usadas para a validação dos modelos. O modelo do tipo potência da área foliar obtida por meio do método de fotos digitais (Ŷ=0,6843x0,9221, R²=0,9862 em função do produto comprimento × largura é adequado para estimar a área foliar de nabo forrageiro.

  4. Glyphosate e adubação foliar com manganês na cultura da soja transgênica Glyphosate and foliar fertilization using manganese in transgenic soybean crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Correia

    2009-01-01

    evaluate the interaction of transgenic soybean sprayed with glyphosate and manganese foliar fertilization. The experiment was carried out under field conditions in the agricultural year 2007/2008 on the UNESP Campus Teaching, Research and Production Farm in Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil. An experiment was arranged in a randomized block design, in a factorial scheme (4 x 4, with four replications. Four weed controls [glyphosate (c.p. Roundup Ready at 0.72 and 1.20 kg ha-1 of equivalent acid; fluazifop-p-butyl plus fomesafen (c.p. Fusiflex at 0.25 plus 0.25 kg ha-1 and under mechanical control, without herbicide] and four manganese rates (0, 42, 84 and 126 g ha-1 were applied on the soybean leaf. The treatments did not significantly affect grain yield, manganese concentration in the soil, height and dry matter of the soybean plants. Only the mixture fluazifop-p-butyl plus fomesafen caused visible injuries in the plants. However, the symptoms were restricted to the leaves that intercepted spraying. The herbicide treatments did not differ from the control for 100 grain mass, although the plants treated with glyphosate 0.72 kg ha-1 presented less grain mass. Manganese application did not influence element concentration in the plant treated with glyphosate and under mechanical control. Therefore, glyphosate did not impair manganese absorption or metabolism by the plant. Growth and development of the herbicide-treated plants were statistically similar to those of the plants not treated with herbicides.

  5. Landscape-scale spatial patterns of winter injury to red spruce foliage in a year of heavy region-wide injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brynne E. Lazarus; Paul G. Schaberg; Gary J. Hawley; Donald H. DeHayes

    2006-01-01

    Red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) winter injury is caused by freezing damage that results in the abscission of the most recent foliar age-class. Injury was widespread and severe in the northeastern United States in 2003 and was assessed at multiple elevations at 23 sites in Vermont and adjacent states. This paper presents a spatial analysis of these...

  6. Response of cotton, alfalfa, and cantaloupe to foliar-deposited salt in an arid environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, W.C.; Karpiscak, M.M.; Bartels, P.G.

    1987-01-01

    The cooling towers at the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station (PVNGS), located 80 km west of Phoenix, AZ, will release as estimated 2.1 Mg/d of particulates (primarily salts) into the atmosphere when the station is in full operation. The saline drift will disperse and settle onto agricultural fields surrounding the station. Field studies were conducted in 1983 to investigate the influence of foliar-applied saline aerosol on crop growth, foliar injury, and tissue elemental concentration on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), alfalfa (medicago sativa L.), and cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L.) in an arid environment. The treatment aerosol solutions simulated treated wastewater effluent and included all essential plant nutrients and other elements, including trace concentrations of heavy metals. The treatments included unsprayed plots, and plots sprayed with salt solutions at 0 (distilled water), 8, 83, and 415 kg/(ha yr). The alfalfa received an additional 829 kg/(ha yr) treatment. The species were evaluated in separate experiments on Mohave clay loam and Sonoita sandy loam soils (Typic Haplargid) near Marana, AZ. Cotton treated with 415 kg/(ha yr) had significantly less chlorosis and tended to be slightly taller than the cotton in the unsprayed plots. The alfalfa treated at a rate of 829 kg/(ha yr) showed significantly more leaf margin necrosis than did the unsprayed alfalfa. In the cantaloupe, there were no visually apparent differences among salt treatments. Hand-harvested cotton plots had a significant reduction is seed cotton yield at the 415 kg/(ha yr) treatment. A similar though nonsignificant, trend towards reduced yield with increased salt treatment was observed in machine-harvested cotton plots

  7. Foliar pH as a new plant trati: van it explain variation in foliar chemistry and carbon cycling processes among subarctiv plant species and types?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, J.H.C.; Quested, H.M.; van Logtestijn, R.S.P; Perez-Harguindeguy, N.; Gwynn-Jones, D.; Diaz, S.; Callaghan, T.V.; Press, M.C.; Aerts, R.

    2006-01-01

    Plant traits have become popular as predictors of interspecific variation in important ecosystem properties and processes. Here we introduce foliar pH as a possible new plant trait, and tested whether (1) green leaf pH or leaf litter pH correlates with biochemical and structural foliar traits that

  8. Estimativa da área foliar da berinjela em função das dimensões foliares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Dill Hinnah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho explora diferentes modelos não destrutivos de estimativa da área foliar de Solanum melongela L. através de medidas do comprimento (C e largura (L do limbo foliar. Para tanto, um cultivo de berinjela em estufa plástica foi conduzido no período de março a junho de 2007. Amostraram-se folhas de plantas em momentos aleatórios totalizando 186 folhas, sendo 98 utilizadas na estimativa dos parâmetros dos modelos e 88 para sua validação. As amostragens abrangeram amplo espectro de dimensões foliares, visando minimizar a raiz do quadrado médio do erro (RQME. Elas foram realizadas aos 71, 79, 81, 85, 92 e 99 dias após o transplante. Posteriormente obteve-se o maior número possível de discos foliares com o auxílio de um calador de 25 mm de diâmetro. Correlações foram realizadas entre a área foliar obtida pelo método dos discos com as dimensões lineares de L e C, o produto entre elas (CL e o quadrado do comprimento multiplicado pela largura (C²L. Análises de regressão para 20 modelos foram obtidas, entre quadráticos, exponenciais, lineares, logarítmicos e de potência, dos quais 12 apresentaram coeficiente de determinação (R² elevado. O modelo quadrático (Y = -5,78+0,4981CL-3,263.10-4CL² e o da potência (Y = 0,4395CL1,0055 apresentaram melhores estimativas, com R² de 0,964 para ambos e RQME de 33,2 e 34,4, respectivamente. Com a medida apenas de uma dimensão foliar, o modelo quadrático (Y = -63,5+10,492L+0,2822L²; R² = 0,937; RQME = 44,1 apresenta-se como alternativa, pouco afetando a precisão da estimativa.

  9. FOLIAR FERTILIZATION ON PINEAPPLE QUALITY AND YIELD ADUBAÇÃO FOLIAR NA QUALIDADE E PRODUTIVIDADE DE ABACAXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Carvalho Minhoto Teixeira Filho

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available There are just a few studies using foliar sprays with micronutrients on pineapple crops. The objective of this study was to evaluate the B and Zn effect, as chelate, acid or salt, via foliar feeding, on fruit yield and quality. The experiment was carried out in Guaraçaí, São Paulo State, Brazil, in a loamy medium texture soil, by using Smooth Cayenne (Hawaiian pineapple seedlings. A randomized block design with four replications was adopted, with 110 g ha-1 of B and 250 g ha-1 of Zn for each application. Two foliar sprays were applied, at 7 and 9 months after planting. The B and Zn sources did not affect the total soluble solids contents, titratable acidity, average fruit diameter, fruit length without crown, and maturity index. Only the B, Zn, and K concentrations in the leaves were influenced by the application of micronutrients.

    Poucos são os estudos desenvolvidos com a aplicação via foliar de micronutrientes, na cultura do abacaxi. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos de B e Zn, em forma de quelato, ácido ou sal, via foliar, buscando-se obter respostas sobre os efeitos na produtividade e qualidade dos frutos. O experimento foi realizado em Guaraçaí (SP, em solo com textura média. Foram utilizadas mudas tipo filhote, da cultivar Smooth Cayenne (Havaiano. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, utilizando-se fontes para fornecer, em cada aplicação, 110 g ha-1 de B e 250 g ha-1 de Zn. Foram realizadas duas pulverizações foliares, aos 7 e 9 meses após o plantio. As fontes de B e Zn não exerceram efeito nos teores de sólidos solúveis totais, acidez titulável, diâmetro médio do fruto, comprimento do fruto sem coroa e índice de maturação. Apenas os teores de B, Zn e K, na

  10. Severe red spruce winter injury in 2003 creates unusual ecological event in the northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brynne E. Lazarus; Paul G. Schaberg; Donald H. DeHayes; Gary J. Hawley

    2004-01-01

    Abundant winter injury to the current-year (2002) foliage of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) became apparent in the northeastern United States in late winter of 2003. To assess the severity and extent of this damage, we measured foliar winter injury at 28 locations in Vermont and surrounding states and bud mortality at a subset of these sites. Ninety percent of all...

  11. Visibility and Citation Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahim, Nader Ale; Salehi, Hadi; Embi, Mohamed Amin; Tanha, Farid Habibi; Gholizadeh, Hossein; Motahar, Seyed Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The number of publications is the first criteria for assessing a researcher output. However, the main measurement for author productivity is the number of citations, and citations are typically related to the paper's visibility. In this paper, the relationship between article visibility and the number of citations is investigated. A case study of…

  12. Viewer Makes Radioactivity "Visible"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, L. I.

    1983-01-01

    Battery operated viewer demonstrates feasibility of generating threedimensional visible light simulations of objects that emit X-ray or gamma rays. Ray paths are traced for two pinhold positions to show location of reconstructed image. Images formed by pinholes are converted to intensified visible-light images. Applications range from radioactivity contamination surveys to monitoring radioisotope absorption in tumors.

  13. Inferring foliar water uptake using stable isotopes of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Gregory R; Lehmann, Marco M; Cernusak, Lucas A; Arend, Matthias; Siegwolf, Rolf T W

    2017-08-01

    A growing number of studies have described the direct absorption of water into leaves, a phenomenon known as foliar water uptake. The resultant increase in the amount of water in the leaf can be important for plant function. Exposing leaves to isotopically enriched or depleted water sources has become a common method for establishing whether or not a plant is capable of carrying out foliar water uptake. However, a careful inspection of our understanding of the fluxes of water isotopes between leaves and the atmosphere under high humidity conditions shows that there can clearly be isotopic exchange between the two pools even in the absence of a change in the mass of water in the leaf. We provide experimental evidence that while leaf water isotope ratios may change following exposure to a fog event using water with a depleted oxygen isotope ratio, leaf mass only changes when leaves are experiencing a water deficit that creates a driving gradient for the uptake of water by the leaf. Studies that rely on stable isotopes of water as a means of studying plant water use, particularly with respect to foliar water uptake, must consider the effects of these isotopic exchange processes.

  14. Decoupling Seasonal Changes in Water Content and Dry Matter to Predict Live Conifer Foliar Moisture Content.

    OpenAIRE

    Jolly, W. M.; Hadlow, A. M.; Huguet, K.

    2014-01-01

    Live foliar moisture content (LFMC) significantly influences wildland fire behaviour. However, characterising variations in LFMC is difficult because both foliar mass and dry mass can change throughout the season. Here we quantify the seasonal changes in both plant water status and dry matter partitioning. We collected new and old foliar samples fromPinus contorta for two growing seasons and quantified their LFMC, relative water content (RWC) and dry matter chemistry. LFMC quantifies the amou...

  15. Analyzing Visibility Configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachsbacher, C

    2011-04-01

    Many algorithms, such as level of detail rendering and occlusion culling methods, make decisions based on the degree of visibility of an object, but do not analyze the distribution, or structure, of the visible and occluded regions across surfaces. We present an efficient method to classify different visibility configurations and show how this can be used on top of existing methods based on visibility determination. We adapt co-occurrence matrices for visibility analysis and generalize them to operate on clusters of triangular surfaces instead of pixels. We employ machine learning techniques to reliably classify the thus extracted feature vectors. Our method allows perceptually motivated level of detail methods for real-time rendering applications by detecting configurations with expected visual masking. We exemplify the versatility of our method with an analysis of area light visibility configurations in ray tracing and an area-to-area visibility analysis suitable for hierarchical radiosity refinement. Initial results demonstrate the robustness, simplicity, and performance of our method in synthetic scenes, as well as real applications.

  16. Visible spectroscopy on ASDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, J.V.

    1991-12-01

    In this report visible spectroscopy and impurity investigations on ASDEX are reviewed and several sets of visible spectra are presented. As a basis for identification of metallic impurity lines during plasma discharges spectra from a stainless steel - Cu arc have been recorded. In a next step a spectrum overview of ASDEX discharges is shown which reveals the dominating role of lines from light impurities like carbon and oxygen throughout the UV and visible range (2000 A ≤ λ ≤ 8000 A). Metallic impurity lines of neutrals or single ionized atoms are observed near localized surfaces. The dramatic effect of impurity reduction by boronization of the vessel walls is demonstrated in a few examples. In extension to some ivesti-gations already published, further diagnostic applications of visible spectroscopy are presented. Finally, the hardware and software system used on ASDEX are described in detail. (orig.)

  17. FOLIAR NUTRIENT CONTENTS AND FRUIT YIELD IN CUSTARD APPLE PROGENIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Lima e Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Foliar nutrient contents are evaluated in several fruit trees with many objectives. Leaf analysis constitutes a way of evaluating the nutritional requirements of crops. Due to the positive impact that fertilizers have on crop yields, researchers frequently try to evaluate the correlations between yield and foliar nutrient contents. This work's objective was to present fruit yields from the 4th to the 6th cropping seasons, evaluate foliar nutrient contents (on the 5th cropping season, and estimate the correlations between these two groups of traits for 20 half-sibling custard apple tree progenies. The progenies were evaluated in a random block design with five replicates and four plants per plot. One hundred leaves were collected from the middle third of the canopy (in height of each of four plants in each plot. The leaves were collected haphazardly, i.e., in a random manner, but without using a drawing mechanism. In the analysis of variance, the nutrient concentrations in the leaves from plants of each plot were represented by the average of four plants in the plot. Fruit yield in the various progenies did not depend on cropping season; progeny A4 was the most productive. No Spearman correlation was found between leaf nutrient concentrations and fruit yield. Increased nutrient concentrations in the leaves were progeny-dependent, i.e., with regard to Na (progenies FE5 and JG1, Ca (progeny A4, Mg (progeny SM7, N (progeny A3, P (progeny M, and K contents (progeny JG3. Spearman's correlation was negative between Na-Mg, Na-Ca, and Mg-P contents, and positive between Mg-Ca and N-K contents.

  18. Bioconcentraciones foliares de elementos minerales en Lippia alba (salvia morada)

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, María A; Burgos, Ángela M

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: la salvia morada es un subarbusto aromático, que crece de modo espontáneo en América Central y del Sur. Frecuentemente es cultivada en jardines como ornamental, por su intenso aroma y sus propiedades medicinales y culinarias. No se encontraron estudios sobre parámetros nutricionales en esta especie. Objetivos: determinar las bioconcentraciones foliares de elementos minerales en Lippia alba (Mill.) N. E. Br. ex Britton & P. Wilson que crece naturalmente en el bioambiente del nort...

  19. Movement of foliar uptake radionuclides in radish. [Raphanus sativus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagisawa, K.; Kamada, H.

    1986-05-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the translocation of /sup 60/Co, /sup 54/Mn, and two representative fission products of /sup 85/Sr and /sup 137/Cs in radish (Raphanus sativus) and to provide a translocation rate for a given nuclide. The effect of air humidity on the foliar uptake-translocation was also investigated. Retention of the radionuclides was usually higher in plants grown under conditions of 100% humidity at night as opposed to conditions of a constant humidity of 70%. Results indicate that Co and Cs translocate much more than Mn and Sr in the plant.

  20. Predicting visibility of aircraft.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Watson

    Full Text Available Visual detection of aircraft by human observers is an important element of aviation safety. To assess and ensure safety, it would be useful to be able to be able to predict the visibility, to a human observer, of an aircraft of specified size, shape, distance, and coloration. Examples include assuring safe separation among aircraft and between aircraft and unmanned vehicles, design of airport control towers, and efforts to enhance or suppress the visibility of military and rescue vehicles. We have recently developed a simple metric of pattern visibility, the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO. In this report we examine whether the SSO can predict visibility of simulated aircraft images. We constructed a set of aircraft images from three-dimensional computer graphic models, and measured the luminance contrast threshold for each image from three human observers. The data were well predicted by the SSO. Finally, we show how to use the SSO to predict visibility range for aircraft of arbitrary size, shape, distance, and coloration.

  1. Measuring visibility using smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Jan; Bialon, Raphael; Claßen, Christoph; Graffi, Kalman

    2017-04-01

    Spatial information on fog density is an important parameter for ecohydrological studies in cloud forests. The Dhofar cloud forest in Southern Oman exhibits a close interaction between the fog, trees, and rainfall. During the three month monsoon season the trees capture substantial amounts of horizontal precipitation from fog which increases net precipitation below the tree canopy. As fog density measurements are scarce, a smartphone app was designed to measure visibility. Different smartphone units use a variety of different parts. It is therefore important to assess the developed visibility measurement across a suite of different smartphones. In this study we tested five smartphones/ tablets (Google/ LG Nexus 5X, Huawei P8 lite, Huawei Y3, HTC Nexus 9, and Samsung Galaxy S4 mini) against digital camera (Sony DLSR-A900) and visual visibility observations. Visibility was assessed from photos using image entropy, from the number of visible targets, and from WiFi signal strength using RSSI. Results show clear relationships between object distance and fog density, yet a considerable spread across the different smartphone/ tablet units is evident.

  2. Susceptibility to Phytophthora ramorum in California bay laurel, a key foliar host of sudden oak death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian L. Anacker; Nathan E. Rank; Daniel Hüberli; Matteo Garbelotto; Sarah Gordon; Rich Whitkus; Tami Harnik; Matthew Meshriy; Lori Miles; Ross K. Meentemeyer

    2008-01-01

    Sudden oak death, caused by the water mold Phytophthora ramorum, is a plant disease responsible for the death of hundreds of thousands of oak and tanoak trees. Some foliar hosts play a major role in the epidemiology of this disease. Upon infection by P. ramorum, these foliar hosts express non-fatal leaf lesions from which large...

  3. Foliar and ecosystem respiration in an old-growth tropical rain forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molly A. Cavaleri; Steven F. Oberbauer; Michael G. Ryan

    2008-01-01

    Foliar respiration is a major component of ecosystem respiration, yet extrapolations are often uncertain in tropical forests because of indirect estimates of leaf area index (LAI).A portable tower was used to directly measure LAI and night-time foliar respiration from 52 vertical transects throughout an old-growth tropical rain forest in Costa Rica. In this study, we (...

  4. Foliar moisture content of Pacific Northwest vegetation and its relation to wildland fire behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James K. Agee; Clinton S. Wright; Nathan Williamson; Mark H. Huff

    2002-01-01

    Fotiar moisture was monitored for five conifers and associated understory vegetation in Pacific Northwest forests. Decline in foliar moisture of new foliage occurred over the dry season, while less variation was evident in older foliage. Late season foliar moisture ranged from 130 to 170%. In riparian-upland comparisons, largest differences were found for understory...

  5. Regional assessment of N saturation using foliar and root δ15N

    Science.gov (United States)

    L.H. Pardo; P.H. Templer; C.L. Goodale; S. Duke; P.M. Groffman; M.B. Adams; P. Boeckx; J. Boggs; J. Campbell; B. Colman; J. Compton; B. Emmett; P. Gundersen; J. Kjonaas; G. Lovett; M. Mack; A. Magill; M. Mbila; M.J. Mitchell; G. McGee; S. McNulty; K. Nadelhoffer; S. Ollinger; D. Ross; H. Rueth; L. Rustad; P. Schaberg; S. Schiff; P. Schleppi; J. Spoelstra; W. Wessel

    2006-01-01

    N saturation induced by atmospheric N deposition can have serious consequences for forest health in many regions. In order to evaluate whether foliar δ15N may be a robust, regional-scale measure of the onset of N saturation in forest ecosystems, we assembled a large dataset on atmospheric N deposition, foliar and root δ

  6. Comparing algorithms for estimating foliar biomass of conifers in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal L. Raymond; Donald. McKenzie

    2013-01-01

    Accurate estimates of foliar biomass (FB) are important for quantifying carbon storage in forest ecosystems, but FB is not always reported in regional or national inventories. Foliar biomass also drives key ecological processes in ecosystem models. Published algorithms for estimating FB in conifer species of the Pacific Northwest can yield signifi cantly different...

  7. Importance of Foliar Nitrogen Concentration to Predict Forest Productivity in the Mid-Atlantic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yude Pan; John Hom; Jennifer Jenkins; Richard Birdsey

    2004-01-01

    To assess what difference it might make to include spatially defined estimates of foliar nitrogen in the regional application of a forest ecosystem model (PnET-II), we composed model predictions of wood production from extensive ground-based forest inventory analysis data across the Mid-Atlantic region. Spatial variation in foliar N concentration was assigned based on...

  8. UVISS preliminary visibility analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part of the w......The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part...... of the work is also to setup the kernel of a software tool for the visibility analysis thatshould be easily expandable to consider more complex strucures for future activities.This analysis is part of the UVISS assessment study and it is meant to provide elementsfor the definition and the selection...

  9. De-coupling seasonal changes in water content and dry matter to predict live conifer foliar moisture content

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Matt Jolly; Ann M. Hadlow; Kathleen Huguet

    2014-01-01

    Live foliar moisture content (LFMC) significantly influences wildland fire behaviour. However, characterising variations in LFMC is difficult because both foliar mass and dry mass can change throughout the season. Here we quantify the seasonal changes in both plant water status and dry matter partitioning. We collected new and old foliar samples from Pinus contorta for...

  10. Making Invisible Forces Visible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene Gad

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates managerial tactics of visualisation when a need to know and manage employees' values and attitudes is expressed. Using the Danish public school as a case study, we explore how school managers use teachers' emotions to render visible presumably invisible information about...... their 'true' attitudes and values. The paper draws on theories of affect as well as actor-network theory to analyse three incidents where managers turn their interpretations of teachers' emotions into such information. These incidents suggest that the efforts to render employees' attitudes and values visible...

  11. FOLIAR APPLICATION OF SILICON ON YIELD COMPONENTS OF WHEAT CROP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THOMAS NEWTON MARTIN

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat is a major winter crop in southern Brazil. To maximize its productivity, there should be no biotic or abiotic restrictions that can affect the yield components. Thus, the objective was to evaluate the changes caused in the wheat crop yield components by silicon foliar application. The experiment was conducted in two growing seasons. In the first year, five wheat cultivars (Quartzo, Campo Real, Onix and Fundacep Lineage were assessed and in the second year four were assessed (Mirante, Campo Real, Horizonte and Quartzo. In both years the crops were subjected to three doses of silicon (0, 3 and 6 L of silicon ha -1. The silicon was applied during the tillering, booting and anthesis stages. The yield components assessed were the number of plants, number of ears, number of fertile tillers, dry matter per plant, hectoliter weight, number of spikelets, number of grains per spike, weight of hundred grains, grain yield and harvest index. Most yield components did not respond to the silicon foliar application. The harvest index (first year and the number of tillers (second year however presented a quadratic relationship with the supply of silicon. The remaining differences were attributed to variations among the wheat cultivars.

  12. Improvement of Soybean (Glycine max L. Yield with Urea Foliar Application at Growth Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Tohidi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of nitrogen foliar application at different growth stages of soybean on the yield and yield components this experiment was performed in Shush, north of Khuzestan, Iran, during growing season of 2014. The experiment was in split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Experimental treatments consisted of four levels of nitrogen fertilizer foliar applications as control (no nitrogen foliar application, 25, 50 and 75 kg/ha pure nitrogen from urea source (46% pure nitrogen assigned to the main plots and spraying times in three levels, at vegetative stage, flowering stage and podding stage to the subplots. Results showed that the effects of nitrogen foliar application on traits measured in this experiment like leaf area index, number of pod per plant, number of seeds per pod, thousand seed weight, seed yield, biologic yield, harvest index, protein percent and protein yield and also interaction of different levels of nitrogen foliar application and different growth stages, were significant. Oil percent and yield were only significant under the effect of nitrogen foliar application treatments at different growth stages while the interaction of different levels of nitrogen foliar application and different growth stages, were not significant. In this experiment nitrogen foliar application increased seed yield. The highest seed yield amounted to 2466 kg/ha when 50kg/ha of foliar nitrogen applied at vegetative growth stage and lowest seed yield amounted to 1295 kg/ha in the control treatment at the stage of podding. In general, results demonstrated that 50 kg/ha treatment could be considered as the best management option of nitrogen foliar application for soybean at vegetative growth stage.

  13. Making Invisible Histories Visible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Ana Maria

    2012-01-01

    This article features Omaha Public Schools' "Making Invisible Histories Visible" program, or MIHV. Omaha's schools have a low failure rate among 8th graders but a high one among high school freshmen. MIHV was created to help at-risk students "adjust to the increased demands of high school." By working alongside teachers and…

  14. Visible Solid State Lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hikmet, R.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Diode lasers can be found in various applications most notably in optical communication and optical storage. Visible lasers were until recently were all based on IR diode lasers. Using GaN, directly blue and violet emitting lasers have also been introduced to the market mainly in the area of optical

  15. Social media visibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie

    2018-01-01

    of activists remains under-researched. This article examines BP’s surveillance of activists who criticise the company’s corporate social responsibility (CSR) programme as ‘greenwashing’. In this way, it goes beyond corporations’ uses of big data and instead explores how they monitor and discuss strategies......As activists move from alternative media platforms to commercial social media platforms, they face increasing challenges in protecting their online security and privacy. While government surveillance of activists is well-documented in scholarly research and the media, corporate surveillance...... for responding to the activities of individual activists in social media. It shows that while social media afford an unprecedented level of visibility for activists, it comes with the risk of being monitored by corporations. Theoretically, it draws on conceptions of visibility in social sciences and media...

  16. Making Heat Visible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodhew, Julie; Pahl, Sabine; Auburn, Tim; Goodhew, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Householders play a role in energy conservation through the decisions they make about purchases and installations such as insulation, and through their habitual behavior. The present U.K. study investigated the effect of thermal imaging technology on energy conservation, by measuring the behavioral effect after householders viewed images of heat escaping from or cold air entering their homes. In Study 1 (n = 43), householders who received a thermal image reduced their energy use at a 1-year follow-up, whereas householders who received a carbon footprint audit and a non-intervention control demonstrated no change. In Study 2 (n = 87), householders were nearly 5 times more likely to install draught proofing measures after seeing a thermal image. The effect was especially pronounced for actions that addressed an issue visible in the images. Findings indicate that using thermal imaging to make heat loss visible can promote energy conservation. PMID:26635418

  17. Comparison between Seed and Foliar Treatment as a Tool in Integrated Pest Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyjaszczyk, Ewa

    2017-08-02

    A study into doses of seed treatments and foliar plant protection products containing an identical active substance registered to control the same pest in the same crops was carried out in the European Union. The results show that, for fungicides, the use of seed treatment is often connected with a significantly lower release of active substance per hectare when compared to foliar treatments. In 11 of 13 cases, the difference was 8-fold or higher. For insecticides, in most of the cases, the consumption of an active substance was several times higher for seed treatment, in one case for foliar application.

  18. Effects of Zn, macronutrients, and their interactions through foliar applications on winter wheat grain nutritional quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoxia Wang

    Full Text Available Although application of Zn combined with macronutrients (K, P, and N can be used to fortify wheat grain with Zn, little is known about their interactions when foliar application is employed or the influences of common soil fertility management practices (e.g. N and straw management on their efficiency. Therefore, the effects of foliar-applied Zn and N, P, or K on grain nutritional quality (especially Zn were investigated in wheat grown under different soil N rates at two sites with (Sanyuan or without (Yangling employing straw return. A 4-year-long field experiment was also conducted to evaluate the environmental stability of the foliar formulations. Across 6 site-years, foliar Zn application alone or combined with N, P, or K fertilizers resulted in 95.7%, 101%, 67.9% and 121% increases in grain Zn concentration, respectively. In terms of increasing grain Zn concentration, foliar-applied Zn positively interacted with N (at Sanyuan and K (at Yangling, but negatively interacted with P at any condition tested, suggesting depressive effects of foliarly-applied P on physiological availability of Zn. Although these interaction effects were the major factor that governing the efficiency of foliar-applied Zn combined with N, P, or K on grain Zn concentration, the magnitude of the increase/decrease in grain Zn (-3.96~5.71 mg kg-1 due to these interactions was much less than the average increases following Zn+K (31.3, Zn+P (18.7, and Zn+N (26.5 mg kg-1 treatments relative to that observed in foliar Zn-only treatment. The combined foliar application of Zn with N, P, or K did not cause any adverse impact on grain yield and other nutritional quality and in some cases slightly increased grain yield and macronutrient concentrations. Grain phytic acid:Zn molar ratios were respectively 52.0%, 53.1%, 43.4% and 63.5% lower in the foliar Zn, Zn+N, Zn+P and Zn+K treatments than in the control treatment. These effects were consistent over four years and across three

  19. Effects of Zn, macronutrients, and their interactions through foliar applications on winter wheat grain nutritional quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaoxia; Li, Meng; Liu, Ke; Tian, Xiaohong; Li, Shuo; Chen, Yanlong; Jia, Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Although application of Zn combined with macronutrients (K, P, and N) can be used to fortify wheat grain with Zn, little is known about their interactions when foliar application is employed or the influences of common soil fertility management practices (e.g. N and straw management) on their efficiency. Therefore, the effects of foliar-applied Zn and N, P, or K on grain nutritional quality (especially Zn) were investigated in wheat grown under different soil N rates at two sites with (Sanyuan) or without (Yangling) employing straw return. A 4-year-long field experiment was also conducted to evaluate the environmental stability of the foliar formulations. Across 6 site-years, foliar Zn application alone or combined with N, P, or K fertilizers resulted in 95.7%, 101%, 67.9% and 121% increases in grain Zn concentration, respectively. In terms of increasing grain Zn concentration, foliar-applied Zn positively interacted with N (at Sanyuan) and K (at Yangling), but negatively interacted with P at any condition tested, suggesting depressive effects of foliarly-applied P on physiological availability of Zn. Although these interaction effects were the major factor that governing the efficiency of foliar-applied Zn combined with N, P, or K on grain Zn concentration, the magnitude of the increase/decrease in grain Zn (-3.96~5.71 mg kg-1) due to these interactions was much less than the average increases following Zn+K (31.3), Zn+P (18.7), and Zn+N (26.5 mg kg-1) treatments relative to that observed in foliar Zn-only treatment. The combined foliar application of Zn with N, P, or K did not cause any adverse impact on grain yield and other nutritional quality and in some cases slightly increased grain yield and macronutrient concentrations. Grain phytic acid:Zn molar ratios were respectively 52.0%, 53.1%, 43.4% and 63.5% lower in the foliar Zn, Zn+N, Zn+P and Zn+K treatments than in the control treatment. These effects were consistent over four years and across three soil N

  20. Paradoxes of Visibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarnay László

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates two possible critical arguments following the pictorial turn. The first is formulated within ocularcentrism, the dominance of sight, and starts with the right to visibility as a general principle that governs today’s digital culture but gets twisted in special cases like the Auschwitz photos of the Shoa, the Abu Ghraib prison videos, or recently the website called Yolocaust. The second is conceived outside the visual culture and is meant to vindicate the other senses vis-à-vis the eyes. However, the argument is truncated here only to highlight the boomerang effect of the other senses: haptic vision. It is the case of visual perception when (a there is a lack of things to see and (b indeterminate synaesthesia: when vision intensifies the other senses in the embodied viewer. The two arguments converge upon a dialectic of the visible and the imaginable, which is formulated here as two paradoxes that the discussed examples transcend. By enforcing visibility at all costs where there is hardly anything recognizable to see, they lead to two diverging results. On the one hand, the meaning of “image” is extended toward the unimaginable, the traumatic experience, on the other hand, it is extended toward the invisible, the encounter with the radical Other.

  1. The benefits of visibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupnick, A.; DeWitt, D.

    1994-01-01

    The benefits of visibility improvement (or the damages with additional degradation) refer to increases (or decreases) in utility obtained in three different dimensions. The first of these is associated with the nature of the visibility change. Visual range may be improved so that features of an area become more distinct or the sky becomes clearer. Alternatively, normal features of an area may be marred, say by the site of a power plant or its plume (called plume blight). The second dimension is the location of the change: in an urban area, in a rural setting, or in a recreational area or area of particular beauty, such as the Grand Canyon. The third dimension is the type of value: use or non-use. Thus, a person who visits the Grand Canyon (or may visit it in the future) may hold use values for improving his view of the Canyon or its surroundings and may also old non-use values for improved visibility (whether for altruistic or other reasons) irrespective of present or planned visits. In all, therefore, there are 12 possible combinations of the elements in these three dimension, each of which is logically distinct from the others and which demands attention in the literature to derive willingness to pay (WTP)

  2. The benefits of visibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupnick, A; DeWitt, D

    1994-07-01

    The benefits of visibility improvement (or the damages with additional degradation) refer to increases (or decreases) in utility obtained in three different dimensions. The first of these is associated with the nature of the visibility change. Visual range may be improved so that features of an area become more distinct or the sky becomes clearer. Alternatively, normal features of an area may be marred, say by the site of a power plant or its plume (called plume blight). The second dimension is the location of the change: in an urban area, in a rural setting, or in a recreational area or area of particular beauty, such as the Grand Canyon. The third dimension is the type of value: use or non-use. Thus, a person who visits the Grand Canyon (or may visit it in the future) may hold use values for improving his view of the Canyon or its surroundings and may also old non-use values for improved visibility (whether for altruistic or other reasons) irrespective of present or planned visits. In all, therefore, there are 12 possible combinations of the elements in these three dimension, each of which is logically distinct from the others and which demands attention in the literature to derive willingness to pay (WTP)

  3. Estimativa da área foliar de Crambe abyssinica por discos foliares e por fotos digitais Estimate leaf area of Crambe abyssinica for leaf discs and digital photos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Toebe

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A área foliar é importante na determinação do crescimento e desenvolvimento das culturas agrícolas. Assim, os objetivos do trabalho foram comparar os métodos de discos foliares e de fotos digitais na estimativa da área foliar de Crambe abyssinica e modelar a área foliar em função do comprimento (C, da largura (L e ou do produto comprimento vezes largura (CxL de diferentes tamanhos de folhas. Para isso, em 308 folhas, foram determinados a área foliar, o comprimento, a largura e o produto comprimento vezes largura por meio dos métodos de discos foliares e de fotos digitais. Em seguida, foram comparados os métodos por meio do coeficiente de correlação linear entre a área foliar. A seguir, em cada método, modelou-se a área foliar (Y em função do C, da L e do CxL, por meio dos modelos: linear, linear simples, quadrático, geométrico e exponencial. Os coeficientes de correlação linear de Pearson e de Spearman entre a área foliar dos métodos de discos foliares e de fotos digitais foram de 0,9917 e 0,9889, respectivamente, o que revela métodos concordantes. Em ambos os métodos, os modelos quadráticos e geométricos apresentaram os melhores coeficientes de determinação da área foliar em função do comprimento e da largura das folhas. A largura da folha é a variável que melhor estima a área foliar. O método de fotos digitais pode ser utilizado para estimar a área foliar de crambe.Leaf area is important in determining the growth and development of agricultural crops. The aim of this study was to compare the methods of leaf discs and digital photos in estimating leaf area of Crambe abyssinica, and model leaf area according to length (C, width (L and/ or the product of length width (CxL for different sizes of leaves. For this, in 308 leaves it was determined the leaf area, length, width and the product of length width using the methods of leaf discs and digital photos. Then the methods were compared using the linear

  4. Assimilação foliar de enxofre elementar pela soja Foliar elementary sulfur assimilation by soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godofredo Cesar Vitti

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a assimilação de enxofre elementar (S0, aplicado nas folhas de soja, e sua eficiência comparada à adubação feita ao solo, de acordo com a dose e a natureza da fonte do nutriente. O S0 aplicado às folhas, independentemente da dose e fonte, foi assimilado pela planta, o que acarretou em aumento no teor de proteína total na folha. Todas as fontes de S aplicadas às folhas aumentaram a produção de grãos, semelhantemente à aplicação ao solo. Observou-se uma mesma produtividade com o uso de 20 kg ha-1 de S0 no solo ou de 6 kg ha-1 via foliar. A eficiência da aplicação de S via foliar, com base no conteúdo de proteína solúvel total, foi superior à da aplicação ao solo.The objective of this work was to evaluate the elementary sulfur (S0 assimilation applied on soybean leaves, and its efficiency compared to the fertilization done in the soil, according to the dose and nature of the nutrient source. The S0 applied to leaves, independently of the dose and source, was assimilated by the plant, what resulted in increase of total protein content in the leaf. All S sources applied to leaves increased the grain yield, similarly to the application to the soil. The same productivity was observed with the use of 20 kg ha-1 of S0 in the soil or 6 kg ha-1 applied to leaves. The elementary S application efficiency on leaves, based on the content of total soluble protein, was superior to application efficiency on soil.

  5. Effects of Foliar Selenite on the Nutrient Components of Turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We administered foliar applications of 50, 100, and 200 mg L−1 selenium (Se, selenite on turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa Linn. and detected the changes in the main nutrient components in fleshy roots. Results showed that the foliar application of Se (IV significantly increased the Se content in turnip, and Se (IV positively affected the uptake of several mineral elements, including magnesium, phosphorus, iron, zinc, manganese, and copper. Se (IV treatments also improved the synthesis of protein and multiple amino acids instead of crude fat and total carbohydrate in turnip, indicating that the foliar application of Se (IV could enhance Se biofortification in turnip and promote its nutritional value. We recommended 50–100 mg L−1 Se treatment for foliar application on turnip based on the daily intake of Se for adults (96–139 μg person−1 day−1 and its favorable effects on the nutrient components of turnip.

  6. Effects of foliar selenite on the nutrient components of turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa Linn.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiong; Li, Boqun; Yang, Yongping

    2018-03-01

    We administered foliar applications of 50, 100 and 200 mg L‑1 selenium (Se, selenite) on turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa Linn.) and detected the changes in the main nutrient components in fleshy roots. Results showed that the foliar application of Se (Ⅳ) significantly increased the Se content in turnip, and Se (Ⅳ) positively affected the uptake of several mineral elements, including magnesium, phosphorus, iron, zinc, manganese and copper. Se (Ⅳ) treatments also improved the synthesis of protein and multiple amino acids instead of crude fat and total carbohydrate in turnip, indicating that the foliar application of Se (Ⅳ) could enhance Se biofortification in turnip and promote its nutritional value. We recommended 50–100 mg L‑1 Se treatment for foliar application on turnip based on the daily intake of Se for adults (96–139 µg person‑1 day‑1) and its favourable effects on the nutrient components of turnip.

  7. Foliar application of two silica sols reduced cadmium accumulation in rice grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chuanping; Li Fangbai; Luo Chunling; Liu Xinming; Wang Shihua; Liu Tongxu; Li Xiangdong

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, pot experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of foliar application of two silica (Si) sols on the alleviation of cadmium (Cd) toxicity in contaminated soil to rice. Results showed that the foliar application of Si sols significantly increased the dry weight of grains (without husk) and shoots in rice grown in Cd contaminated soil, whereas the Cd concentration in the grains and shoots decreased obviously. The total accumulation of Cd in rice grains also decreased with the application of both of the Si sols, but no significant effect was found on the Cd accumulation in the shoots. For the optimal effect, Si-sol-B should be foliar applied at the tillering-stage during rice growth. The mechanism of Si foliar application to alleviate the toxicity and accumulation of Cd in grains of rice may be related to the probable Cd sequestration in the shoot cell walls

  8. Environmental protection foliar fertilization in areas subject to limitation of fertilizers use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavriluta, I.; Alexandrescu, A; Budoi, G.; Bireescu, L.; Bireescu, G.

    1999-01-01

    Significant increases of plant productivity have been recorded in field experiments conducted between 1991 - 1994 using general purpose complex foliar fertilizers as well as aminoacid containing complex foliar fertilizers. These increases at the same time had positive environmental effects against chemical pollution, especially with nitrates. As a rule, the greater the degree of nutrient efficiency, especially of nitrate, the lower are the losses, which are subject to transfer to the environment. So in the light of environmental protection against chemical pollution using foliar fertilization is certainly beneficial for crops and for all other components of the agricultural environment giving rise to its significant improvement. Both, foliar and soil fertilization in areas with limitation of fertilizer use should be carried out under a continuous and strict analytical check of plant, soil and water. Refs. 14 (author)

  9. Foliar nutrients explain goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus, adult feeding preference among four California oak species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigen Chen; Tom. W. Coleman; Michael. I. Jones; Mary. L. Flint; Steven. J. Seybold

    2013-01-01

    Adults of the invasive goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), consumed foliar weight in no-choice feeding tests of, in descending order, California black oak Quercus kelloggii Newb., Engelmann oak, Quercus engelmannii Greene, coast live oak, Quercus...

  10. On court interpreters' visibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubslaff, Friedel; Martinsen, Bodil

    of the service they receive. Ultimately, the findings will be used for training purposes. Future - and, for that matter, already practising - interpreters as well as the professional users of interpreters ought to take the reality of the interpreters' work in practice into account when assessing the quality...... on the interpreter's interpersonal role and, in particular, on signs of the interpreter's visibility, i.e. active co-participation. At first sight, the interpreting assignment in question seems to be a short and simple routine task which would not require the interpreter to deviate from the traditional picture...

  11. Making Invisible Forces Visible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene Gad

    2013-01-01

    their 'true' attitudes and values. The paper draws on theories of affect as well as actor-network theory to analyse three incidents where managers turn their interpretations of teachers' emotions into such information. These incidents suggest that the efforts to render employees' attitudes and values visible...... install a normative emotional scale where an ideal employee displays emotional investment and self-control. This has implications, not only for employees who are expected to exhibit the 'right' emotions, but also for management, which comes to depend on transient emotions and co-presence in situations...

  12. Effect of Foliar Application of Micro Nutrients on Physiological Growth Indices and Total Dry Matter Yield of Forage Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Soleymani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of foliar application of micro nutrients on physiological growth indices and total dry matter yield of forage corn. Field experiment was conducted in 2006 at Bersian village Isfahan. A randomized complete block design with four replications was used. Plant treated with 8 foliar application treatments (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe + Mn, Cu + Zn, Fe + Mn + Cu + Zn and control. The responses to foliar application in total dry weight, LAI and CGR appeared to differ between the treatments, but there is no significant difference in NAR between the treatments. Maximum leaf area index gained in foliar application of Fe but there is significant difference between this treatment and other treatments except foliar application of Zn and Fe + Mn. Foliar application of Fe and Fe + Mn result to maximum total dry weight, but there is no significant difference between these treatments and foliar application of Zn, Mn, Mn + Cu and Fe + Zn + Cu +Mn. Maximum and minimum NAR gained in foliar application of Mn and control treatments respectively. Maximum CGR gained in foliar application of Zn, there is significant difference between this treatment and others. Control treatment in comparison with others shows minimum value in all measured factors. The results indicate that foliar application of micro nutrients particularly Fe and Fe+Mn may be suitable to product maximum total dry matter yield under similar condition.

  13. Evaluation of soil and foliar fertilization on wheat yield and quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndiema, A.C.; Maina, M.P.D.; Kamundia, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    Traditionally wheat farmers in Kenya apply basal compound fertilizer like diammonium phosphate (DAP), Triple super phosphate (TSP). Plants require a considerable number of different elements for optimal growth. One way of supplying these micronutrients is through foliar fertilization. However there was an increase of 71.7% for 40kg N/ha plus bayfolan in Njoro over the control, 61.8% for bayfolan alone a foliar fertilizer, which contain a wide range of plant nutrients. In Molo the control out-yielded all the treatments indicating that planting the crop with DAP is sufficient. Foliar fertilizer was applied directly to the plant leaves to enhance crop yield due to their rapid absorption. The potential of improving yields comes as a result of increase in number of seeds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of foliar fertilizer on wheat yield when used alone or in combination with soil-applied fertilizers. Byfolan is a fast acting fertilizer with nutrients rapidly becoming available to the plant. The composition of Bayfolan includes N (11%), P (8%), K (6%), Fe (0.019%), Mn (0.016%). Zn (0.0061% ), Co (0.00035%), Mo (0.00009%), sodium, sulphur, vitamin B 1 and growth hormones. The design was RCBD with nine (9) treatments and three (3) replications. The treatments included control, 20kg N/ha, 40kg N/ha, 80kg N/ha, Bayfolan foliar, 20kg N/ha + Baylon a foliar, 40kg N/ha + Bayfolan foliar, 20kg N/ha urea in solution form, 20kg N/ha urea in solution form + Bayfolan foliar. DAP was applied at the rate of 130kg/ha, as a blanket treatment at planting timeto provide N and P for initial growth. Significant difference in spike density and kernel weight at 5% level was observed at farms in Njoro but not at farms in Molo. (author)

  14. Foliar fertilizations with boron and growth regulators on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cv floresta culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masunaga, S.I.; Chueire, F.B.; Teixeira, N.T.

    1989-01-01

    The experiment was realized to verify the possibility of applying Boron as foliar fertilization with growth regulators: indol acetic acid, giberellic acid, ethephon and cycocel. The other objective was to compare the foliar and soil fertilization, with Boron, on the lettuce culture. The results showed that there wasn't difference of production between the treatments. Meanwhile the application of growth regulator modified the Boron grade in the leaves. (author) [pt

  15. Residual effect of sugar cane ratoon of urea nitrogen foliar application to plant cane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivelin, P.C.O.; Lara Cabezas, W.A.R.; Coleti, J.T.

    1984-01-01

    The residual effect of urea - N, foliar applied to plant cane, on sugar cane ratoon is studied. Setts grown in drums containing washed sand are used. 180 days from planting, foliar fertilizer (43.5% urea solution) labelled with 3.95 atom % 15 N is applied. The first harvest is made 7 days after application and final harvest of resprouting at 123 days. (M.A.C.) [pt

  16. Modeling ozone bioindicator injury with microscale and landscape-scale explanatory variables: A logistic regression approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Coulston

    2011-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone occurs at phytotoxic levels in the United States (Lefohn and Pinkerton 1988). Several plant species, including commercially important timber species, are sensitive to elevated ozone levels. Exposure to elevated ozone can cause growth reduction and foliar injury and make trees more susceptible to secondary stressors such as insects and pathogens (...

  17. Organismic-Scale Remote Sensing of Canopy Foliar Traits in Lowland Tropical Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dana Chadwick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Airborne high fidelity imaging spectroscopy (HiFIS holds great promise for bridging the gap between field studies of functional diversity, which are spatially limited, and satellite detection of ecosystem properties, which lacks resolution to understand within landscape dynamics. We use Carnegie Airborne Observatory HiFIS data combined with field collected foliar trait data to develop quantitative prediction models of foliar traits at the tree-crown level across over 1000 ha of humid tropical forest. We predicted foliar leaf mass per area (LMA as well as foliar concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and potassium for canopy emergent trees (R2: 0.45–0.67, relative RMSE: 11%–14%. Correlations between remotely sensed model coefficients for these foliar traits are similar to those found in laboratory studies, suggesting that the detection of these mineral nutrients is possible through their biochemical stoichiometry. Maps derived from HiFIS provide quantitative foliar trait information across a tropical forest landscape at fine spatial resolution, and along environmental gradients. Multi-nutrient maps implemented at the fine organismic scale will subsequently provide new insight to the functional biogeography and biological diversity of tropical forest ecosystems.

  18. Foliar water uptake of Tamarix ramosissima from an atmosphere of high humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang; Xiao, Hong-lang; Zhao, Liang; Zhou, Mao-Xian; Wang, Fang

    2014-01-01

    Many species have been found to be capable of foliar water uptake, but little research has focused on this in desert plants. Tamarix ramosissima was investigated to determine whether its leaves can directly absorb water from high humidity atmosphere and, if they can, to understand the magnitude and importance of foliar water uptake. Various techniques were adopted to demonstrate foliar water uptake under submergence or high atmospheric humidity. The mean increase in leaf water content after submergence was 29.38% and 20.93% for mature and tender leaves, respectively. In the chamber experiment, obvious reverse sap flow occurred when relative humidity (RH) was persistently above 90%. Reverse flow was recorded first in twigs, then in branches and stems. For the stem, the percentage of negative sap flow rate accounting for the maximum value of sap flow reached 10.71%, and its amount accounted for 7.54% of diurnal sap flow. Small rainfall can not only compensate water loss of plant by foliar uptake, but also suppress transpiration. Foliar uptake can appear in the daytime under certain rainfall events. High atmospheric humidity is beneficial for enhancing the water status of plants. Foliar uptake should be an important strategy of water acquisition for desert plants.

  19. Foliar Water Uptake of Tamarix ramosissima from an Atmosphere of High Humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many species have been found to be capable of foliar water uptake, but little research has focused on this in desert plants. Tamarix ramosissima was investigated to determine whether its leaves can directly absorb water from high humidity atmosphere and, if they can, to understand the magnitude and importance of foliar water uptake. Various techniques were adopted to demonstrate foliar water uptake under submergence or high atmospheric humidity. The mean increase in leaf water content after submergence was 29.38% and 20.93% for mature and tender leaves, respectively. In the chamber experiment, obvious reverse sap flow occurred when relative humidity (RH was persistently above 90%. Reverse flow was recorded first in twigs, then in branches and stems. For the stem, the percentage of negative sap flow rate accounting for the maximum value of sap flow reached 10.71%, and its amount accounted for 7.54% of diurnal sap flow. Small rainfall can not only compensate water loss of plant by foliar uptake, but also suppress transpiration. Foliar uptake can appear in the daytime under certain rainfall events. High atmospheric humidity is beneficial for enhancing the water status of plants. Foliar uptake should be an important strategy of water acquisition for desert plants.

  20. Self-cleaning Foliar Surfaces Characterization using RIMAPS Technique and Variogram Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosi, Pablo E.

    2002-01-01

    Along the last ten years many important studies about characterization of self-cleaning foliar surfaces have been done and focused new interest on this kind of surfaces.These studies were possible due to the development of a novel preparation technique for this biological material that let us observe the delicate structures of a foliar surface under scanning electron microscope (S.E.M.).This technique consists of replacing the natural water of the specimen by glycerol. Digital S.E.M. images from both self-cleaning and non-self-cleaning foliar surfaces were obtained and analyzed using RIMAPS technique and Variograms method. Our results revealed the existence of a common and exclusive geometrical pattern that is found in species which present self-cleaning foliar surfaces.This pattern combines at least nine different directions.The results from the Variograms method showed that the stomata play a key role in the determination of foliar surface roughness. In addition, spectra from RIMAPS technique constitute a fingerprint of a foliar surface so they can be used to find evolutionary relationships among species.Further studies will provide more detailed information to fully elucidate the self-cleaning pattern, so it might be possible to reproduce it on an artificial surface and make it self-cleaning

  1. Control of Powdery Mildew by Foliar Application of a Suspension of Cheonggukjang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Jeong Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate control efficacy of a fermented food ’Cheonggukjang’ against cucumber powdery mildew caused by Sphaerotheca fuliginea in greenhouse. Sterilized Daepung beans were inoculated with the rice straw as natural inoculum and then incubated for 72 hrs at 42"C in the household cheonggkjang maker. After 72 hrs of cheonggukjang fermentation, white zymogens were grown on the surface of a sterile Daepung beans. The pH of the 72 hrs fermented soybean was not significantly changed and electrical conductivity was found to increase by about 2 times than before fermentation. The population density of soybean zymogen showed a peak of growth at 60 hrs after fermentation and the concentration of zymogen was 8.2×107 cfu/ml. Soybean zymogen form of the colony was divided into three kinds of bacteria and a white and a large colony (WL was predominant bacteria among those up to 60 hrs of fermentation. To control the cucumber powdery mildew, diluted solutions of cheonggukjang was applied from 6.0% to 30.0% on cucumber leaves and they showed injury symptoms on cucumber leaves in more than 15% of them. However, more than 6.0% diluted cheonggukjang solutions showed more than 77.8% control effect of cucumber powdery mildew at 15 days after treatment. The fermented bacteria of Chenggukjang were well established in the cucumber leaf area at 15 days after treatment. The antifungal activity of 10% diluted cheonggukjang solutions was excellent for four species of plant fungal pathogens, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Sclerotinia cepivorum, Rhizoctonia sloani and Phytophthora capsici in the dual culture test. Results indicated that foliar application of Cheonggukjang solution could be used for the control of powdery mildews occurring on organically cultivated cucumber.

  2. Patrones de nerviación foliar en Myrtaceae de la Estación Biológica La Selva, provincia de Heredia, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gabriela Jolochin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron descripciones de la arquitectura foliar, con énfasis en patrones de nerviación, de cuatro géneros y 14 especies de Myrtaceae incluyendo dos especies citadas como exóticas, para la Estación Biológica La Selva, OET, Heredia, Costa Rica. El material fresco descrito fue coleccionado en la estación biológica y fueron visitados los herbarios INB y CR, además de consultar el herbario de la propia estación e imágenes del MO. El 85% de las especies presentan un patrón de nerviación secundaria camptódromo- broquidódromo y ca. 50% poseen nervaduras secundarias rectas, que sólo se curvan cercanas al margen simulando una nervadura intramarginal. Las nervaduras terciarias son detectables a simple vista sólo en siete de las especies, de las cuales cuatro poseen un patrón reticulado y la nerviación última marginal en arcos o no visible. La combinación de los datos de arquitectura foliar con patrones de nerviación permitió discriminar las especies y obtener una clave de determinación de fácil uso en el campo.

  3. Visible but Unseen?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torkilsheyggi, Arnvør Martinsdóttir á; Hertzum, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that whiteboards support much cooper-ative work by for example strengthening awareness, im-proving communication, and reducing mental workload. In line with these predominantly positive findings, an emer-gency department (ED) turned to its whiteboard to improve the coordination...... of its work with blood tests. We investi-gate this use of the whiteboard through observations and informal interviews in the ED and analyze the ability of the whiteboard to support coordination and awareness in the work with blood tests. Our findings show limitations in the ability of the whiteboard...... to support awareness in a setting where the users are (locally) mobile, specifically in regard to information that requires continuous monitoring. We do however also find that the whiteboard safeguarded the work with blood tests against some risks by making blood-test information socially visible....

  4. Native arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis alters foliar bacterial community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poosakkannu, Anbu; Nissinen, Riitta; Kytöviita, Minna-Maarit

    2017-11-01

    The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on plant-associated microbes are poorly known. We tested the hypothesis that colonization by an AM fungus affects microbial species richness and microbial community composition of host plant tissues. We grew the grass, Deschampsia flexuosa in a greenhouse with or without the native AM fungus, Claroideoglomus etunicatum. We divided clonally produced tillers into two parts: one inoculated with AM fungus spores and one without AM fungus inoculation (non-mycorrhizal, NM). We characterized bacterial (16S rRNA gene) and fungal communities (internal transcribed spacer region) in surface-sterilized leaf and root plant compartments. AM fungus inoculation did not affect microbial species richness or diversity indices in leaves or roots, but the AM fungus inoculation significantly affected bacterial community composition in leaves. A total of three OTUs in leaves belonging to the phylum Firmicutes positively responded to the presence of the AM fungus in roots. Another six OTUs belonging to the Proteobacteria (Alpha, Beta, and Gamma) and Bacteroidetes were significantly more abundant in NM plants when compared to AM fungus-inoculated plants. Further, there was a significant correlation between plant dry weight and leaf microbial community compositional shift. Also, there was a significant correlation between leaf bacterial community compositional shift and foliar nitrogen content changes due to AM fungus inoculation. The results suggest that AM fungus colonization in roots has a profound effect on plant physiology that is reflected in leaf bacterial community composition.

  5. Incorporation of tritium due to foliar exposure in certain vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyengar, T.S.; Sadarangani, S.H.; Vaze, P.K.; Soman, S.D.

    1981-01-01

    Tritium uptake, release and incorporation patterns through the foliage of seedlings of certain edible vegetation were investigated, for exposure periods ranging from an hour to about 20 hours. A large number of plants belonging to the family of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), cabbage (Brassica Oleracea L.) and capsicum (Capsicum fruitescens L.) were exposed to tritiated air under dynamic and static conditions. The half times for tissue-free-water-tritium (TFWT) were found to be about 46 and 32 minutes for capsicum and lettuce and 45 minutes for cabbage. Tissue-bound-tritium (TBT) in the seedlings and the grown plants showed different incorporation rates as a result of foliar exposure. The relative concentration factors were larger by a factor of ten for TFWT in the leaves of the grown plants than in the shoots of the seedlings. However, tissue-bound-tritium concentration values in the shoots/stems of the young and grown plants were of the same order, as related to the tissue-free-water-tritium concentrations. Thus the study indicates a larger translocation of tritium from aqueous to organic phase in the leaves of the grown plants than in the shoots of young seedlings. (auth.)

  6. Effect of foliar nitrogen and sulphur application on aromatic expression of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Lacroux

    2008-09-01

    Significance and impact of the study: Vine nitrogen deficiency can negatively impact on grape aroma potential. Soil nitrogen application can increase vine nitrogen status, but it has several drawbacks: it increases vigour and enhances Botrytis susceptibility. This study shows that foliar N and foliar N + S applications can improve vine nitrogen status and enhance aroma expression in Sauvignon blanc wines without the negative impact on vigour and Botrytis susceptibility. Although this study was carried out on Sauvignon blanc vines, it is likely that foliar N or foliar N + S applications will have similar effects on other grapevine varieties containing volatile thiols (Colombard, Riesling, Petit Manseng and Sémillon.

  7. Foliar uptake of cesium from the water column by aquatic macrophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinder, J.E. [Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, University of Georgia, Drawer E, Aiken, SC 29801 (United States); Hinton, T.G. [Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, University of Georgia, Drawer E, Aiken, SC 29801 (United States)]. E-mail: thinton@srel.edu; Whicker, F.W. [Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1618 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The probable occurrence and rate of foliar absorption of stable cesium ({sup 133}Cs) from the water column by aquatic macrophyte species was analyzed following the addition of {sup 133}Cs into a small reservoir near Aiken, South Carolina, USA. An uptake parameter u (10{sup 3} L kg{sup -1} d{sup -1}) and a loss rate parameter k (d{sup -1}) were estimated for each species using time series of {sup 133}Cs concentrations in the water and plant tissues. Foliar uptake, as indicated by rapid increases in plant concentrations following the {sup 133}Cs addition, occurred in two floating-leaf species, Brasenia schreberi and Nymphaea odorata, and two submerged species, Myriophyllum spicatum and Utricularia inflata. These species had values of u {>=} 0.75 x 10{sup 3} L kg{sup -1} d{sup -1}. Less evidence for foliar uptake was observed in three emergent species, including Typha latifolia. Ratios of u to k for B. schreberi, M. spicatum, N. odorata and U. inflata can be used to estimate concentration ratios (CR) at equilibrium, and these estimates were generally within a factor of 2 of the CR for {sup 137}Cs for these species in the same reservoir. This correspondence suggests that foliar uptake of Cs was the principal absorption mechanism for these species. Assessments of: (1) the prevalence of foliar uptake of potassium, rubidium and Cs isotopes by aquatic macrophytes and (2) the possible importance of foliar uptake of Cs in other lentic systems are made from a review of foliar uptake studies and estimation of comparable u and k values from lake studies involving Cs releases.

  8. Foliar pH as a new plant trait: can it explain variation in foliar chemistry and carbon cycling processes among subarctic plant species and types?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, J H C; Quested, H M; van Logtestijn, R S P; Pérez-Harguindeguy, N; Gwynn-Jones, D; Díaz, S; Callaghan, T V; Press, M C; Aerts, R

    2006-03-01

    Plant traits have become popular as predictors of interspecific variation in important ecosystem properties and processes. Here we introduce foliar pH as a possible new plant trait, and tested whether (1) green leaf pH or leaf litter pH correlates with biochemical and structural foliar traits that are linked to biogeochemical cycling; (2) there is consistent variation in green leaf pH or leaf litter pH among plant types as defined by nutrient uptake mode and higher taxonomy; (3) green leaf pH can predict a significant proportion of variation in leaf digestibility among plant species and types; (4) leaf litter pH can predict a significant proportion of variation in leaf litter decomposability among plant species and types. We found some evidence in support of all four hypotheses for a wide range of species in a subarctic flora, although cryptogams (fern allies and a moss) tended to weaken the patterns by showing relatively poor leaf digestibility or litter decomposability at a given pH. Among seed plant species, green leaf pH itself explained only up to a third of the interspecific variation in leaf digestibility and leaf litter up to a quarter of the interspecific variation in leaf litter decomposability. However, foliar pH substantially improved the power of foliar lignin and/or cellulose concentrations as predictors of these processes when added to regression models as a second variable. When species were aggregated into plant types as defined by higher taxonomy and nutrient uptake mode, green-specific leaf area was a more powerful predictor of digestibility or decomposability than any of the biochemical traits including pH. The usefulness of foliar pH as a new predictive trait, whether or not in combination with other traits, remains to be tested across more plant species, types and biomes, and also in relation to other plant or ecosystem traits and processes.

  9. Ozone and ozone injury on plants in and around Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Wuxing; Manning, W.J.; Wang, Xiaoke; Zhang, Hongxing; Sun, Xu; Zhang, Qianqian

    2014-01-01

    Ozone (O 3 ) levels were assessed for the first time with passive samplers at 10 sites in and around Beijing in summer 2012. Average O 3 concentrations were higher at locations around Beijing than in the city center. Levels varied with site locations and ranged from 22.5 to 48.1 ppb and were highest at three locations. Hourly O 3 concentrations exceeded 40 ppb for 128 h and 80 ppb for 17 h from 2 to 9 in August at one site, where it had a real-time O 3 analyzer. Extensive foliar O 3 injury was found on 19 species of native and cultivated trees, shrubs, and herbs at 6 of the 10 study sites and the other 2 sites without passive sampler. This is the first report of O 3 foliar injury in and around Beijing. Our results warrant an extensive program of O 3 monitoring and foliar O 3 injury assessment in and around Beijing. - Highlights: • Plants have been threatened by high O 3 concentration in and around Beijing, China. • 19 plant species are reported as obvious ambient O 3 injury symptoms in Beijing. • The O 3 injury symptoms occur more often where ambient O 3 concentration is higher. • The results warrant more extensive and long-term study of ambient O 3 in China. - First report of ozone incidence and ozone injury on plants in and around Beijing, China

  10. Dynamic responses of photosystem II in the Namib Desert shrub, Zygophyllum prismatocarpum, during and after foliar deposition of limestone dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heerden, P.D.R. van; Krueger, G.H.J.; Kilbourn Louw, M.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of limestone dust deposition on vegetation in desert ecosystems have not yet been reported. We investigated these effects in a succulent shrub from the Namib Desert at a limestone quarry near Skorpion Zinc mine (Namibia). Effects of limestone dust were determined in Zygophyllum prismatocarpum (dollar bush) plants with heavy, moderate and no visible foliar dust cover by means of chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements. Limestone dust deposition decreased overall plant performance through loss of chlorophyll content, inhibition of CO 2 assimilation, uncoupling of the oxygen-evolving complex and decreased electron transport. Importantly, dynamic recovery occurred after termination of limestone extraction at the quarry. Recovery was accelerated by rainfall, mainly because of dust removal from leaves and stimulation of new growth. These results indicate that limestone dust has severe effects on photosynthesis in desert shrubs, but that recovery is possible and that, in arid environments, this process is modulated by rainfall. - Limestone dust deposition reduced photosynthetic capacity in the Namib Desert shrub, Zygophyllum prismatocarpum

  11. Contributing factors in foliar uptake of dissolved inorganic nitrogen at leaf level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuyts, Karen, E-mail: karen.wuyts@uantwerpen.be [Laboratory of Environmental and Urban Ecology, Research Group ENdEMIC, Dept. Bioscience Engineering, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Forest and Nature Lab (ForNaLab), Dept. Forest and Water Management, Ghent University, Geraardsbergsesteenweg 267, B-9090 Gontrode-Melle (Belgium); Adriaenssens, Sandy, E-mail: adriaenssens@irceline.be [Belgian Interregional Environment Agency (IRCEL-CELINE), Kunstlaan 10–11, B-1210 Brussels (Belgium); Staelens, Jeroen, E-mail: jeroen_staelens@yahoo.com [Flemish Environment Agency (VMM), Kronenburgstraat 45, B-2000 Antwerp (Belgium); Wuytack, Tatiana, E-mail: tatiana.wuytack@uantwerpen.be [Laboratory of Environmental and Urban Ecology, Research Group ENdEMIC, Dept. Bioscience Engineering, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Van Wittenberghe, Shari, E-mail: shari.vanwittenberghe@uantwerpen.be [Laboratory of Environmental and Urban Ecology, Research Group ENdEMIC, Dept. Bioscience Engineering, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Boeckx, Pascal, E-mail: pascal.boeckx@ugent.be [Isotope Bioscience Laboratory (ISOFYS), Dept. Applied Analytical and Physical Chemistry, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Samson, Roeland, E-mail: roeland.samson@uantwerpen.be [Laboratory of Environmental and Urban Ecology, Research Group ENdEMIC, Dept. Bioscience Engineering, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Verheyen, Kris, E-mail: kris.verheyen@ugent.be [Forest and Nature Lab (ForNaLab), Dept. Forest and Water Management, Ghent University, Geraardsbergsesteenweg 267, B-9090 Gontrode-Melle (Belgium)

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the influence of leaf traits, rainwater chemistry, and pedospheric nitrogen (N) fertilisation on the aqueous uptake of inorganic N by physiologically active tree leaves. Leaves of juvenile silver birch and European beech trees, supplied with NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} to the soil at rates from 0 to 200 kg N ha{sup −1} y{sup −1}, were individually exposed to 100 μl of artificial rainwater containing {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +} or {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup −} at two concentration levels for one hour. In the next vegetative period, the experiment was repeated with NH{sub 4}{sup +} at the highest concentration only. The N form and the N concentration in the applied rainwater and, to a lesser extent, the pedospheric N treatment and the leaf traits affected the aqueous foliar N uptake. The foliar uptake of NH{sub 4}{sup +} by birch increased when leaves were more wettable. High leaf N concentration and leaf mass per area enhanced the foliar N uptake, and NO{sub 3}{sup −} uptake in particular, by birch. Variation in the foliar N uptake by the beech trees could not be explained by the leaf traits considered. In the first experiment, N fertilisation stimulated the foliar N uptake in both species, which was on average 1.42–1.78 times higher at the highest soil N dose than at the zero dose. However, data variability was high and the effect was not appreciable in the second experiment. Our data suggest that next to rainwater chemistry (N form and concentration) also forest N status could play a role in the partitioning of N entering the ecosystem through the soil and the canopy. Models of canopy uptake of aqueous N at the leaf level should take account of leaf traits such as wettability and N concentration. - Highlights: • Foliar uptake of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (N) by potted trees was studied. • Leaves were individually exposed to rainwater drops containing {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +} or {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup −}. • Foliar N uptake efficiency depended on

  12. Manutenção da área foliar e produtividade de arroz irrigado com a aplicação de fertilizantes foliares no estádio de emborrachamento Foliar area maintenance and yield with application of foliar fertilizers on booting stage of irrigated rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edinalvo Rabaioli Camargo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de fertilizantes foliares, aplicados ao final do ciclo da cultura do arroz irrigado, pode proporcionar complementação nutricional para a planta e proteção contra patógenos com reflexos na produtividade. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a utilização de fertilizantes foliares, aplicados no estádio de emborrachamento, sobre a produtividade do arroz irrigado. O experimento foi conduzido no ano agrícola 2005/2006, em área experimental de várzea do Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram compostos por 10 fertilizantes foliares, dois produtos aplicados via sementes, um fungicida e a testemunha. Os fertilizantes não influenciaram qualquer parâmetro avaliado. As condições climáticas e o manejo da adubação anterior à aplicação dos tratamentos foliares propiciaram condições favoráveis para o arroz expressar o seu potencial produtivo, em torno de 10.000kg ha-1. Neste nível de produtividade, os produtos utilizados não aumentaram a produtividade do arroz irrigado.The use of foliar fertilizers applied to the reproductive phase of rice can improve the plant nutrition and protect the field against foliar diseases with gains in yield. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the use of the foliar fertilizers applied to the booting stage in order to verify the irrigated rice yield. The experiment was carried out in 2005/06 in a lowland area in Santa Maria-RS, Brazil. The treatments, arranged in a randomized block design with four replications, were constituted by 10 foliar fertilizers available in the market, two products applied to seeds, a fungicide, and a check treatment. The treatments presented no effects on any of the variables studied. The suitable climatic conditions and the fertilizer management carried out before the application of the foliar treatments led to the

  13. Herbage Production and Quality of Shrub Indigofera Treated by Different Concentration of Foliar Fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Abdullah

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment on fodder legume Indigofera sp. was conducted to investigate the effects of foliar fertilizer concentration on forage yield and quality, and to identify optimum concentrations among the fertilizer treatments on herbage yield, chemical composition (CP, NDF, ADF, minerals, and in vitro dry matter (IVDMD as wll as organic matter (IVOMD digestibility in goat’s rumen. Randomized block design was used for the six concentration of fertilizer treatments; control, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 g/10 l with 3 replicates. Leaves were sprayed with foliar fertilizer at 30, 34, 38, and 42 days after harvest. Samples were collected at 2 harvest times with 60 days cutting interval. Application of the foliar fertilizer up to 30 g/10 l significantly increased herbage DM yield, twig numbers, tannin, saponin, Ca and P content, as well as herbage digestibility (IVDMD and IVOMD. The lower and higher concentration of foliar fertilizer resulted in lower value of those parameters, but NDF and ADF contents had the opposite patterns. The optimum level of foliar fertilizer that resulted the highest herbage yield and quality was 30 g/10 l, and the highest in vitro digestibility and Ca concentration was 20 g/10 l.

  14. Effect of foliar fertilizer and fungicidal protection against leaf spot diseases on winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Mączyńska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were carried out in the seasons 2000/2001 and 2001/2002 in Plant Protection Institute, Sooenicowice Branch to assess the influence of foliar fertilizers such as Ekolist PK 1, Ekolist Mg, Mikrosol Z and Urea on healthiness of winter wheat. Foliar fertilizers were mixed with fungicides. The fungicides were applied at full or half recommended doses. The effect of the disease on wheat leaves was evaluated three times in each vegetation season. Remaining green leaf area (GLA of leaves was also determined. GLA of the leaves F-1 was not significantly different for each combination with different fertilization and different levels of chemical treatment. The application of foliar fertilizer only had no effect on green leaf area (GLA. The results indicate that foliar fertilization of all experimental plots improved leaf condition and therefore halted the development of wheat leaf diseases. The increases of 1000 grain mass and yield was high for each plot where a fertilizer and a full or half dose of a fungicide was applied. Foliar fertilizing with no chemical control had no proven effect on studied parameters.

  15. variability in foliar phenolic composition of several quercus species in northern mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, J.A.A.; Antuna, E.M.; Abarca, N.A.; Alvarado, E.A.D.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative composition of the foliar phenolic compounds were investigated in 81 individual specimens of several white oak species (Quercus spp.). The trees were growing in twelve locations in Durango, Mexico. The phenol profiles were determined by HPLC-DAD and a Folin-Ciocateuprocedure. The results revealed that: (i) the foliar phenol profiles of all species analysed were complex and formed by 6 to 30 compounds, (ii) the flavonols mostly quercetin glycoside, isorhamnetin glycoside, kaempferol glycoside and phenolic acids were the main identified compounds, (iii) there was a high intra and inter-specific variability in the foliar phenol profiles both at the quantitative and qualitative levels, and (iv) the foliar phenol profiles indicated a slight species-specific tendency for phenols to be accumulated, although this was not clearly distinguished. Significant differences (P < 0.05) in the content and composition of the foliar flavonoids between species were observed due to the large environmental and soil conditions variability between localities. (author)

  16. Coping with gravity: the foliar water relations of giant sequoia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cameron B; Reese Næsborg, Rikke; Dawson, Todd E

    2017-10-01

    In tall trees, the mechanisms by which foliage maintains sufficient turgor pressure and water content against height-related constraints remain poorly understood. Pressure-volume curves generated from leafy shoots collected crown-wide from 12 large Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindley) J. Buchholz (giant sequoia) trees provided mechanistic insights into how the components of water potential vary with height in tree and over time. The turgor loss point (TLP) decreased with height at a rate indistinguishable from the gravitational potential gradient and was controlled by changes in tissue osmotica. For all measured shoots, total relative water content at the TLP remained above 75%. This high value has been suggested to help leaves avoid precipitous declines in leaf-level physiological function, and in giant sequoia was controlled by both tissue elasticity and the balance of water between apoplasm and symplasm. Hydraulic capacitance decreased only slightly with height, but importantly this parameter was nearly double in value to that reported for other tree species. Total water storage capacity also decreased with height, but this trend essentially disappeared when considering only water available within the typical range of water potentials experienced by giant sequoia. From summer to fall measurement periods we did not observe osmotic adjustment that would depress the TLP. Instead we observed a proportional shift of water into less mobile apoplastic compartments leading to a reduction in hydraulic capacitance. This collection of foliar traits allows giant sequoia to routinely, but safely, operate close to its TLP, and suggests that gravity plays a major role in the water relations of Earth's largest tree species. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Quantifying the non-fungicidal effects of foliar applications of fluxapyroxad (Xemium) on stomatal conductance, water use efficiency and yield in winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J; Grimmer, M; Waterhouse, S; Paveley, N

    2013-01-01

    The active ingredient fluxapyroxad belongs to the chemical group of carboxamides and is a new generation succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor (SDHI) in complex II of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. It has strong efficacy against the key foliar diseases of winter wheat in the UK: Septoria leaf blotch, yellow stripe rust and brown rust. Fluxapyroxad is marketed under the brand name of Xemium, was launched in 2012 and is available in the UK as a solo product (Imtrex) for co-application with triazoles, in co-formulation with epoxiconazole (Adexar), or in a three way formulation with epoxiconazole and pyraclostrobin (Ceriax). The objective of the study was to quantify the direct effects of Xemium on stomatal conductance and yield, mediated through stimulation of host physiology. Three field experiments and two controlled environment (CE) experiments were conducted across three cropping seasons (2010-2012) in Herefordshire and Cambridge, in the UK. Xemium was evaluated against boscalid, pyraclostrobin (F500), epoxiconazole and an untreated control. Across site-seasons, disease severity was significantly reduced when Xemium was applied as a foliar spray. Healthy canopy size and duration was increased by Xemium and canopy greening effects were seen shortly after application. Stomatal conductance was found to be consistently lower in Xemium treated plants but reduced stomatal opening was not found to be detrimental to yield in these experiments. Large, beneficial effects of Xemium on water use efficiency were found at the canopy level and this finding was supported by measurements of instantaneous water use efficiency at the leaf level. Effects on season long water use efficiency were largely driven by improvements in yield for a given amount of water uptake. Foliar applications of Xemium reduced the water required to produce 1.0 t grain per hectare by 82,330 L(82 t) when compared with an untreated crop. Yield was significantly higher in Xemium treatments and this was

  18. Concentração foliar de manganês e zinco em laranjeiras adubadas com óxidos e carbonatos via foliar Leaf concentrations of manganese and zinc in the orange fertilized via foliar application with oxides and carbonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro José Grava de Godoy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Dentre os micronutrientes, o Zn e o Mn limitam a produção dos citros, no Brasil. A aplicação foliar tem sido a forma tradicional de fornecimento, contudo, a eficiência desta adubação depende de uma série de fatores, entre eles o tipo de fertilizante. Foram realizados dois experimentos em pomar com laranjeiras Pêra, enxertadas em limão cravo, com sete anos de idade, em Botucatu, SP. No primeiro experimento foram avaliadas três fontes de Mn via foliar: carbonato de manganês A, carbonato de manganês B e sulfato manganoso, em duas doses para cada fertilizante, correspondente a 250 e 500 g ha-1 de Mn, mais o controle, pulverizado somente com água. No segundo experimento foram testadas três fontes de Zn para aplicação foliar: óxido de zinco A, óxido de zinco B e sulfato de zinco, em duas doses para cada fertilizante, correspondente a 375 e 750 g ha-1 de Zn, mais o controle. As amostragens de folhas foram realizadas mensalmente, iniciando aos 30 dias após aplicação dos tratamentos. A aplicação foliar com carbonato de manganês B, na dose de 500 g ha-1 Mn, e com óxido de zinco B, na dose de 750 g ha-1, proporcionaram, respectivamente, níveis nutricionais adequados de Mn e Zn nas folhas de laranjeira. Na ausência de chuvas, os teores adequados de Mn e Zn no solo, não permitem suprir satisfatoriamente as laranjeiras Pêra enxertadas em limoeiro cravo.Among micronutrients, Zn and Mn limit the production of citrus in Brazil. Foliar application has been the traditional form of supply, however the efficiency of this type of fertilization depends on a number of factors, including the type of fertilizer used. Two experiments were conducted in an orchard of seven year old Pêra orange, grafted onto Rangpur lime, in Botucatu, São Paulo. In the first experiment three sources of Mn, applied via foliar application, were evaluated: manganese carbonate A, manganese carbonate B and manganese sulphate, at two rates per fertilizer

  19. Revisiting visibility in the plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkinson, Bryan Thomas

    Abstract We consider two closely related problems: computing the region visible from a point amid simple polygonal obstacles and computing the lower envelope of a set of disjoint segments. Visibility problems such as these were proposed and promptly solved in the late'80s and early'90s before...

  20. On the detection and monitoring of reduced water content in plants using spectral responses in the visible domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranoski, Gladimir V. G.; Van Leeuwen, Spencer; Chen, Tenn F.

    2016-05-01

    The water status of cultivated plants can have a significant impact not only on food production, but also on the appropriate usage of increasingly scarce freshwater supplies. Accordingly, the cost-effective detection and monitoring of changes in their water content are longstanding remote sensing goals. Existing procedures employed to achieve these goals are largely based on the spectral responses of plant leaves in the infrared domain where the light absorption within the foliar tissues is dominated by water. Recently, it has been suggested that such procedures could be implemented using spectral responses, more specifically spectral subsurface reflectance to transmittance ratios, obtained in the visible domain. The basis for this proposition resides on the premise that a reduced water content (RWC) can result in histological changes whose effects on the foliar optical properties may not be limited to the infrared domain. However, the experiments leading to this proposition were performed on detached leaves, which were not influenced by the whole plant's adaptation mechanisms to water stress. In this work, we investigate whether the spectral responses of living plant leaves in the visible domain can lead to reliable RWC estimations. We employ measured biophysical data and predictive light transport simulations in order to extend qualitatively and quantitatively the scope of previous studies in this area. Our findings indicate that the living specimens' physiological responses to water stress should be taken into account in the design of new procedures for the cost-effective RWC estimation using visible subsurface reflectance to transmittance ratios.

  1. Purple Phototrophic Bacterium Enhances Stevioside Yield by Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni via Foliar Spray and Rhizosphere Irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Wang, Yiming; Lin, Xiangui

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effects of foliar spray and rhizosphere irrigation with purple phototrophic bacteria (PPB) on growth and stevioside (ST) yield of Stevia. rebaudiana. The S. rebaudiana plants were treated by foliar spray, rhizosphere irrigation, and spray plus irrigation with PPB for 10 days, respectively. All treatments enhanced growth of S. rebaudiana, and the foliar method was more efficient than irrigation. Spraying combined with irrigation increased the ST yield plant -1 by 69.2% as compared to the control. The soil dehydrogenase activity, S. rebaudiana shoot biomass, chlorophyll content in new leaves, and soluble sugar in old leaves were affected significantly by S+I treatment, too. The PPB probably works in the rhizosphere by activating the metabolic activity of soil bacteria, and on leaves by excreting phytohormones or enhancing the activity of phyllosphere microorganisms. PMID:23825677

  2. Foliar retention, transport and leaching of polonium-210 and lead-210

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athalye, V V; Mistry, K B

    1972-01-01

    Polonium-210 and lead-210, the long-lived daughter radionuclides of gaseous radon-222, are deposited on plant surfaces under conditions of atmospheric washout. Foliar retention, transport and leaching of these radionuclides in Red Kidney beans were investigated in nutrient culture experiments. Under identical conditions, over 90 percent of foliar applied radiolead was retained by the plant while only about 30 percent of polonium was retained. Over a 48-hr period small quantities of polonium were translocated from the treated leaflet to other parts of the plant. By comparison, radiolead was totally immobilized at the site of retention. Leachability of root absorbed radiolead from bean leaves was 20-fold greater than that of polonium. The marked differences in the extent of foliar retention, translocation and leaching of polonium and radiolead could significantly affect the levels of these long-lived radionuclides attained in plants.

  3. Improving Tolerance of Faba Bean during Early Growth Stages to Salinity through Micronutrients Foliar Spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. EL FOULY

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Salinity, either of soil or of irrigation water, causes disturbances in plant growth and nutrient balance. Previous work indicates that applying nutrients by foliar application increases tolerance to salinity. A pot experiment with three replicates was carried out in the green house of NRC, Cairo, Egypt, to study the effect of micronutrients foliar application on salt tolerance of faba bean. Two concentrations of a micronutrient compound (0.1% and 0.15% were sprayed in two different treatments prior to or after the salinity treatments. Levels of NaCl (0.00-1000-2000-5000 ppm were supplied to irrigation water. Results indicated that 2000 and 5000 ppm NaCl inhibited growth and nutrient uptake. Spraying micronutrients could restore the negative effect of salinity on dry weight and nutrients uptake, when sprayed either before or after the salinity treatments. It is suggested that micronutrient foliar sprays could be used to improve plant tolerance to salinity.

  4. A study of the wet deposit and foliar uptake of iodine and strontium on rye-grass and clover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeletti, Livio; Levi, Emilio; Commission of the European Communities, Ispra

    1977-12-01

    Foliar uptake of iodine and strontium by rye-grass and clover was studied as a function of aspersion intensities. At the same time, the contribution of root sorption to foliar uptake was measured. The effective half-lives of radionuclides of standing and harvested grass were also determined together with their uptake under the action of demineralized water aspersion [fr

  5. The Effect of Zinc Sulfate Different Amount Soil and Foliar Application on Correlated Grain Characters in Sweet Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mahmoodi,

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to evaluate the effects different concentrations of zinc sulfate applications at different growth stages on sweet corn at the Research Station of Faculty of Agriculture in Islamic Azad University, Tabriz branch in 2012. The study was conducted in split plot experiment based on Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Treatments were seven levels of zinc sulfate application methods: (control, soil application, foliar application at 6-8 leaf growth stage, tasseling, grain filling stage, foliar application at three stages, soil application with foliar application at three stages as main plot, three levels of foliar and soil application of zinc sulfate: (0.003, 0.005 and 0.007 for foliar application and 15, 25 and 35 kg/ha for soil application as sub plot. Results showed that the highest grain yield correlated characters were obtained in foliar application at three stages and soil application with foliar application at three stages. In these conditions increasing of dry grain yield and ear were more than 50%. The higher values for grain production were obtained in Zn foliar application with 0.005 concentration (25 kg/ha soil application. Zinc sulfate increased Zn content of grains produced more than 100%. Thus, using Zn not only increases sweet corn grain and ear yield but also increased quality of products.

  6. Effects of mercury on visible/near-infrared reflectance spectra of mustard spinach plants (Brassica rapa P.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunagan, Sarah C.; Gilmore, Martha S.; Varekamp, Johan C.

    2007-01-01

    Mustard spinach plants were grown in mercury-spiked and contaminated soils collected in the field under controlled laboratory conditions over a full growth cycle to test if vegetation grown in these soils has discernible characteristics in visible/near-infrared (VNIR) spectra. Foliar Hg concentrations (0.174-3.993 ppm) of the Mustard spinach plants were positively correlated with Hg concentration of soils and varied throughout the growing season. Equations relating foliar Hg concentration to spectral reflectance, its first derivative, and selected vegetation indices were generated using stepwise multiple linear regression. Significant correlations are found for limited wavelengths for specific treatments and dates. Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI) and Red Edge Position (REP) values of plants in Hg-spiked and field-contaminated soils are significantly lower relative to control plants during the early and middle portions of the growth cycle which may be related to lower chlorophyll abundance or functioning in Hg-contaminated plants. - Some spectral characteristics of leaves of Brassica rapa P. may be associated with foliar mercury content

  7. Vegetation Indices for Mapping Canopy Foliar Nitrogen in a Mixed Temperate Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihui Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral remote sensing serves as an effective tool for estimating foliar nitrogen using a variety of techniques. Vegetation indices (VIs are a simple means of retrieving foliar nitrogen. Despite their popularity, few studies have been conducted to examine the utility of VIs for mapping canopy foliar nitrogen in a mixed forest context. In this study, we assessed the performance of 32 vegetation indices derived from HySpex airborne hyperspectral images for estimating canopy mass-based foliar nitrogen concentration (%N in the Bavarian Forest National Park. The partial least squares regression (PLSR was performed for comparison. These vegetation indices were classified into three categories that are mostly correlated to nitrogen, chlorophyll, and structural properties such as leaf area index (LAI. %N was destructively measured in 26 broadleaf, needle leaf, and mixed stand plots to represent the different species and canopy structure. The canopy foliar %N is defined as the plot-level mean foliar %N of all species weighted by species canopy foliar mass fraction. Our results showed that the variance of canopy foliar %N is mainly explained by functional type and species composition. The normalized difference nitrogen index (NDNI produced the most accurate estimation of %N (R2CV = 0.79, RMSECV = 0.26. A comparable estimation of %N was obtained by the chlorophyll index Boochs2 (R2CV = 0.76, RMSECV = 0.27. In addition, the mean NIR reflectance (800–850 nm, representing canopy structural properties, also achieved a good accuracy in %N estimation (R2CV = 0.73, RMSECV = 0.30. The PLSR model provided a less accurate estimation of %N (R2CV = 0.69, RMSECV = 0.32. We argue that the good performance of all three categories of vegetation indices in %N estimation can be attributed to the synergy among plant traits (i.e., canopy structure, leaf chemical and optical properties while these traits may converge across plant species for evolutionary reasons. Our

  8. Patrones de arquitectura foliar en la subtribu Conceveibinae (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murillo Aldana José Carmelo

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The leaf architecture of the species ofthe subtribe Conceveibinae is of great taxonomic value. The pattern of the secondary venation, the number of tertiary veins and the development, arrangement and forms of the areolations are the most useful characters to separate species or groups of species. The areolation is important to separate the sections; in the sect. Gavarretia has imperfect development, while the sect. Conceveiba is incomplete or developed. Venation in Conceveiba is pinnate craspedodromous or pinnate semicraspedodromous, except for C. martiana, C. ptariana, C. maynasensis, and C. pleiostemona where it is actinodromous. The number of pairs of secondary veins is usually less than 10. The tertiary venation is percurrent and frequently oblique. The marginal venation is looped and there are not  intersecondary veins. The largest venation order is between 5° and 7°; in general the veins of 4° and 5° orders are orthogonal. The results ofthis study support as well as inc1usion of Gavarretia and Polyandra in Conceveiba, and the separation of the sections Conceveiba and Gavarretia.La arquitectura foliar de las especies de la subtribu Conceveibinae es de gran valor taxonómico. El patrón de la venación secundaria, el número de venas terciarias y el desarrollo, el arreglo y la forma de las aréolas están entre los caracteres más útiles para separar especies o grupos de especies. Las aréolas tienen importancia para separar las secciones; en la sección Gavarretia tienen desarrollo imperfecto, en tanto que en la sección Conceveiba son incompletas o bien desarrolladas. La venación de las especies de Conceveiba es pinnada craspedódroma b pinnada semicraspedódroma, con excepción de C. martiana, C. maynasensis, C. ptariana y C. pleiostemona en las que es actinódroma. El número de pares de venas secundarias usualmente es menor de 10. La venación terciaria es percurrente y frecuentemente oblicua. La venación marginal es areolada y

  9. On characterizing terrain visibility graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Evans

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A terrain is an $x$-monotone polygonal line in the $xy$-plane. Two vertices of a terrain are mutually visible if and only if there is no terrain vertex on or above the open line segment connecting them. A graph whose vertices represent terrain vertices and whose edges represent mutually visible pairs of terrain vertices is called a terrain visibility graph. We would like to find properties that are both necessary and sufficient for a graph to be a terrain visibility graph; that is, we would like to characterize terrain visibility graphs.Abello et al. [Discrete and Computational Geometry, 14(3:331--358, 1995] showed that all terrain visibility graphs are “persistent”. They showed that the visibility information of a terrain point set implies some ordering requirements on the slopes of the lines connecting pairs of points in any realization, and as a step towards showing sufficiency, they proved that for any persistent graph $M$ there is a total order on the slopes of the (pseudo lines in a generalized configuration of points whose visibility graph is $M$.We give a much simpler proof of this result by establishing an orientation to every triple of vertices, reflecting some slope ordering requirements that are consistent with $M$ being the visibility graph, and prove that these requirements form a partial order. We give a faster algorithm to construct a total order on the slopes. Our approach attempts to clarify the implications of the graph theoretic properties on the ordering of the slopes, and may be interpreted as defining properties on an underlying oriented matroid that we show is a restricted type of $3$-signotope.

  10. Incremental Visualizer for Visible Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukauskas, Linas; Bøhlen, Michael Hanspeter

    This paper discusses the integration of database back-end and visualizer front-end into a one tightly coupled system. The main aim which we achieve is to reduce the data pipeline from database to visualization by using incremental data extraction of visible objects in a fly-through scenarios. We...... also argue that passing only relevant data from the database will substantially reduce the overall load of the visualization system. We propose the system Incremental Visualizer for Visible Objects (IVVO) which considers visible objects and enables incremental visualization along the observer movement...... path. IVVO is the novel solution which allows data to be visualized and loaded on the fly from the database and which regards visibilities of objects. We run a set of experiments to convince that IVVO is feasible in terms of I/O operations and CPU load. We consider the example of data which uses...

  11. Visible neutrino decay at DUNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coloma, Pilar [Fermilab; Peres, Orlando G. [ICTP, Trieste

    2017-05-09

    If the heaviest neutrino mass eigenstate is unstable, its decay modes could include lighter neutrino eigenstates. In this case part of the decay products could be visible, as they would interact at neutrino detectors via mixing. At neutrino oscillation experiments, a characteristic signature of such \\emph{visible neutrino decay} would be an apparent excess of events at low energies. We focus on a simple phenomenological model in which the heaviest neutrino decays as $\

  12. Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...

  13. Golf Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our Newsletter Donate Blog Skip breadcrumb navigation Preventing Golf Injuries Golf looks like an easy game to ... WHAT TYPES OF INJURIES ARE MOST COMMON IN GOLF? Acute injuries are usually the result of a ...

  14. The Relationship Between Soils and Foliar Nutrition For Planted Royal Paulownia

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Johnson; David O. Mitchem; Richard E. Kreh

    2002-01-01

    Royal paulownia is becoming an important hardwood plantation species in the southern U.S. A study was done to investigate two novel site preparation techniques for aiding the establishment of royal paulownia seedlings in the Virginia Piedmont. The effects of these treatments on the foliar nutrition of first year seedlings was determined, as was the relationship...

  15. Effect of some factors on foliar absorption and mobility of Fe59 in plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, F.A.

    1990-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted under greenhouse conditions using Fe 59 and seedlings of guava and orange to study the effect of PH value (3-8), Fe SO 4 concentrations in combination with three values of PH on foliar absorption and mobility of Fe. In addition, a comparative study to evaluate some compounds of iron for foliar spray was achieved. Foliar absorption of Fe 59 by guava leaves and its mobility were considerably influenced by PH value of spray solution. Maximum absorption and translocation were observed at PH 6. However, most of the absorbed iron 'about 90%' was retained in the treated leaves and the portion 'about 10%' acropetally and basipetally translocated. Upward transport of iron was more pronounced than downward one. Total iron in plant derived from applied FeSO 4 was greatly increased, whereas utilization percent of it was reduced by increasing the rate of Fe in spray solution. Generally, FeSO 4 had a good efficiency which ranged from about 25-43%. Specific absorption of iron by orange leaves was higher than that of guava leaves. From plant nutritional point of view, efficiency of FeSo 4 , Fe-metalosate and multi mineral-metalosate as different sources of Fe through foliar application remarkably varied and FeSO 4 was highly efficient one in comparison with metalosate compounds

  16. Are nitrate exports in stream water linked to nitrogen fluxes in decomposing foliar litter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn B. Piatek; Mary Beth. Adams

    2011-01-01

    The central hardwood forest receives some of the highest rates of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition, which results in nitrate leaching to surface waters. Immobilization of N in foliar litter during litter decomposition represents a potential mechanism for temporal retention of atmospherically deposited N in forest ecosystems. When litter N dynamics switch to the N-...

  17. Foliar nitrogen application in Cabernet Sauvignon vines: Effects on wine flavonoid and amino acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Gamboa, Gastón; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Portu, Javier; Moreno-Simunovic, Yerko; Martínez-Gil, Ana M

    2017-06-01

    Wine quality greatly depends on its chemical composition. Among the most important wine chemical compounds, flavonoids are the major contributors to wine organoleptic properties while amino acids have a huge impact on fermentation development and wine volatile profile. Likewise, nitrogen applications are known to have an impact on wine composition. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the effects of foliar nitrogen applications on wine flavonoid and amino acid composition. The experiment involved five foliar nitrogen applications at veraison time: urea (Ur), urea plus sulphur (Ur+S), arginine (Arg), and two commercial fertilizers Nutrimyr Thiols (NT) and Basfoliar Algae (BA). The results showed that nitrogen foliar treatments decreased wine flavonoid content although the effect varied according to each treatment. This could be related to a low vine nitrogen requirement, since must yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) was above acceptable threshold values for all samples. With regard to wine amino acid content, all treatments except for Ur increased its values after the applications. Finally, foliar nitrogen treatments greatly influenced wine composition. Among them, urea seemed to exert the most negative effect on both phenolics and amino acids. In addition, an inverse relationship between wine amino acid content and flavonol concentration was exhibited. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Contribution of foliar leaching and dry deposition to sulfate in net throughfall below deciduous trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garten, C.T. Jr.; Bondietti, E.A.; Lomax, R.D.

    1988-01-01

    Experiments were conducted at Walker Branch Watershed, Tennessee in 1986 with radioactive 35 S to quantify the contribution of foliar leaching and dry deposition to sulfate (SO 4 2- ) in net throughfall (NTF). Two red maple (Acer rubrum) and two yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) trees (12-15 m tall) were radiolabeled by stem well injection. Total S and 35 S were measured in leaves; 35 S and SO 4 2- were measured in throughfall (THF). The contribution of foliar leaching to SO 4 2- in NTF, THF minus incident precipitation, was estimated by isotope dilution of 35 S in NTF arising from nonradioactive S in dry deposition. The per cent contribution of foliar leaching to SO 4 2- in NTF was greatest during the week following isotope labeling and during the period of autumn leaf fall. During the growing season, foliar leaching accounted for 80% of the SO 4 2- in NTF beneath the study trees. Dry deposition of S to these tree species can be reasonably approximated during summer from the measurement of SO 4 2- flux in NTF. (author)

  19. Foliar application effects of beet vinasse on rice yield and chemical composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejada, M.; Garcia-Martinez, A. M.; Benitez, C.; Gonzalez, J. L.; Bautista, J.; Parrado, J.

    2009-01-01

    This study presents an account of rice (oriza sativa cv. Puntal) yield quality parameters as influenced by the foliar application of an industrial byproduct (beet vinasse). Beet (Beta vulgaris L. Subsp.vurgaris) vinasse is a product of great agricultural interest, because of its organic matter content, N and K concentrations. (Author)

  20. Regional patterns in foliar 15N across a gradient of nitrogen deposition in the northeastern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda H. Pardo; Steven G. McNulty; Johnny L. Boggs; Sara Duke

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that natural abundance 15N can be a useful tool for assessing nitrogen saturation, because as nitrification and nitrate loss increase, d15N of foliage and soil also increases. We measured foliar d15N at 11 high-elevation spruce-fir stands along an N deposition gradient...

  1. Genetics and physiology of the nuclearly inherited yellow foliar mutants in soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant photosynthetic pigments are important in harvesting the light energy and transfer of energy during photosynthesis. There are several yellow foliar mutants discovered in soybean and chromosomal locations for about half of them have been deduced. Viable-yellow mutants are capable of surviving wi...

  2. Foliar absorption and translocation of 137cs in egyptian olive plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.A.; Maly, A.I.

    1999-01-01

    Foliar absorption and translocation of 137Cs by olive leaves were studied. Olive seedlings were transferred to the greenhouse in pots containing fine Nile silt.. Two seriies of pot experiments were conducted at the Nuclear Research Center site at Inshas. The treatments were conducted on leaves at the two middle nodes of the selected shoots. The lower surface of the olive leaf absorbed more 137Cs at the studied pH values as compared with the upper surface. The results show that changing the pH from 2 to 3 had no have any effect on the foliar absorption of 137Cs. Further increase of pH value caused the 137Cs foliar absorption to show a minimum at pH 5 then a maximum at pH 7. At pH 8 the foliar absorption of 137Cs started to decrease again. The concentration of translocated 137Cs was found to decrease gradually in the leaves above and below the treated ones. Absorption of 137Cs increased with time in the first 24 hours followed by lower absorption rates till the end of the experiment after 148 hours

  3. Seasonal variability of leaf area index and foliar nitrogen in contrasting dry-mesic tundras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campioli, Matteo; Michelsen, Anders; Lemeur, Raoul

    2009-01-01

    Assimilation and exchange of carbon for arctic ecosystems depend strongly on leaf area index (LAI) and total foliar nitrogen (TFN). For dry-mesic tundras, the seasonality of these characteristics is unexplored. We addressed this knowledge gap by measuring variations of LAI and TFN at five contras...

  4. Effects of magnesium sulfate on the foliar absorption of phosphates at the pumpkin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamel, A.

    1962-01-01

    The foliar absorption of phosphates labelled with 32 P and applied with or without magnesium sulfate on the first leaf of pumpkin seedlings have been studied. The magnesium sulfate applied with the phosphate reduces plainly the absorption rate of 32 P. (O.M.) [fr

  5. A comparison of two methods for estimating conifer live foliar moisture content

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Matt Jolly; Ann M. Hadlow

    2012-01-01

    Foliar moisture content is an important factor regulating how wildland fires ignite in and spread through live fuels but moisture content determination methods are rarely standardised between studies. One such difference lies between the uses of rapid moisture analysers or drying ovens. Both of these methods are commonly used in live fuel research but they have never...

  6. Foliar and soil chemistry at red spruce sites in the Monongahela National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanie J. Connolly

    2010-01-01

    In 2005, soil and foliar chemistry were sampled from 10 sites in the Monongahela National Forest which support red spruce. Soils were sampled from hand-dug pits, by horizon, from the O-horizon to bedrock or 152 cm, and each pit was described fully. Replicate, archived samples also were collected.

  7. Variation in foliar nitrogen and albedo in response to nitrogen fertilization and elevated CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley F. Wicklein; Scott V. Ollinger; Mary E. Martin; David Y. Hollinger; Lucie C. Lepine; Michelle C. Day; Megan K. Bartlett; Andrew D. Richardson; Richard J. Norby

    2012-01-01

    Foliar nitrogen has been shown to be positively correlated with midsummer canopy albedo and canopy near infrared (NIR) reflectance over a broad range of plant functional types (e.g., forests, grasslands, and agricultural lands). To date, the mechanism(s) driving the nitrogen-albedo relationship have not been established, and it is unknown whether factors affecting...

  8. Foliar application of calcium chloride and borax affects the fruit skin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of foliar application of calcium chloride and borax calcium on fruit skin strength and cracking incidence in litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) fruit was investigated at 25 days interval and also the evaluation of fruit skin calcium and boron contents, skin strength, ion leakage from skin discs and fruit cracking in four ...

  9. Slow-cycle effects of foliar herbivory alter the nitrogen acquisition and population size of Collembola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Bradford; Tara Gancos; Christopher J. Frost

    2008-01-01

    In terrestrial systems there is a close relationship between litter quality and the activity and abundance of decomposers. Therefore, the potential exists for aboveground, herbivore-induced changes in foliar chemistry to affect soil decomposer fauna. These herbivore-induced changes in chemistry may persist across growing seasons. While the impacts of such slow-cycle...

  10. Effect of polybag size and foliar application of urea on cocoa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of different polybag sizes and foliar application of urea on the growth of cocoa seedlings in the nursery were studied at the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana substation at Afosu in the Eastern Region of Ghana between June 2004 and May 2005. Hybrid cocoa seeds were sown in polybags measuring 17.5 cm ...

  11. Effect of potassium and potting-bag size on foliar biomass and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foliar fresh mass was significantly increased by the interaction between K concentration and potting-bag size. Growers may use a 5.3 mmol L−1 K concentration and a 5 L potting bag for optimum production of rose geranium under soil-less cultivation. Keywords: C:G ratio, enzyme activation, oil quality, potassium, rose ...

  12. Shrimp pond effluent dominates foliar nitrogen in disturbed mangroves as mapped using hyperspectral imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fauzi, A.; Skidmore, A.K.; van Gils, H.A.M.J.; Schlerf, M.; Heitkonig, I.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Conversion of mangroves to shrimp ponds creates fragmentation and eutrophication. Detection of the spatial variation of foliar nitrogen is essential for understanding the effect of eutrophication on mangroves. We aim (i) to estimate nitrogen variability across mangrove landscapes of the Mahakam

  13. Statistical analysis of grapevine mortality associated with esca or Eutypa dieback foliar expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia GUERIN-DUBRANA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Esca and Eutypa dieback are two major wood diseases of grapevine in France. Their widespread distribution in vineyards leads to vine decline and to a loss in productivity. However, little is known either about the temporal dynamics of these diseases at plant level, and equally, the relationships between foliar expression of the diseases and vine death is relatively unknown too.  To investigate this last question, the vines of six vineyards cv. Cabernet Sauvignon in the Bordeaux region were surveyed, by recording foliar symptoms, dead arms and dead plants from 2004 to 2010. In 2008, 2009 and 2010, approximately five percent of the asymptomatic vines died but the percentage of dead vines which had previously expressed esca foliar symptoms was higher, and varied between vineyards. A logistic regression model was used to determine the previous years of symptomatic expression associated with vine mortality. The mortality of esca is always associated with the foliar symptom expression of the year preceding vine death. One or two other earlier years of expression frequently represented additional risk factors. The Eutypa dieback symptom was also a risk factor of death, superior or equal to that of esca. The study of the internal necroses of vines expressing esca or Eutypa dieback is discussed in the light of these statistical results.

  14. influence of foliar applications of calcium chloride and borax on fruit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. A Rab

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... The influence of foliar application of calcium chloride and borax calcium on fruit skin strength and cracking incidence in litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) fruit was investigated at 25 days interval and also the evaluation of fruit skin calcium and boron contents, skin strength, ion leakage from skin discs and.

  15. Controls over foliar N:P ratios in tropical rain forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Alan R; Cleveland, Cory C; Asner, Gregory P; Bustamante, Mercedes M C

    2007-01-01

    Correlations between foliar nutrient concentrations and soil nutrient availability have been found in multiple ecosystems. These relationships have led to the use of foliar nutrients as an index of nutrient status and to the prediction of broadscale patterns in ecosystem processes. More recently, a growing interest in ecological stoichiometry has fueled multiple analyses of foliar nitrogen:phosphorus (N:P) ratios within and across ecosystems. These studies have observed that N:P values are generally elevated in tropical forests when compared to higher latitude ecosystems, adding weight to a common belief that tropical forests are generally N rich and P poor. However, while these broad generalizations may have merit, their simplicity masks the enormous environmental heterogeneity that exists within the tropics; such variation includes large ranges in soil fertility and climate, as well as the highest plant species diversity of any biome. Here we present original data on foliar N and P concentrations from 150 mature canopy tree species in Costa Rica and Brazil, and combine those data with a comprehensive new literature synthesis to explore the major sources of variation in foliar N:P values within the tropics. We found no relationship between N:P ratios and either latitude or mean annual precipitation within the tropics alone. There is, however, evidence of seasonal controls; in our Costa Rica sites, foliar N:P values differed by 25% between wet and dry seasons. The N:P ratios do vary with soil P availability and/or soil order, but there is substantial overlap across coarse divisions in soil type, and perhaps the most striking feature of the data set is variation at the species level. Taken as a whole, our results imply that the dominant influence on foliar N:P ratios in the tropics is species variability and that, unlike marine systems and perhaps many other terrestrial biomes, the N:P stoichiometry of tropical forests is not well constrained. Thus any use of N

  16. Taxonomic value of foliar characters in Dahlstedtia Malme: Leguminosae, Papilionoideae, Millettieae Valor taxonômico de caracteres foliares em Dahlstedtia Malme: Leguminosae, Papilionoideae, Millettieae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone de Pádua Teixeira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Dahlstedtia Malme (Leguminosae is a neotropical genus, native to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, and comprises two species, D. pinnata (Benth. Malme and D. pentaphylla (Taub. Burk., although it has been considered a monotypic genus by some authors. Leaf anatomy was compared to verify the presence of anatomical characters to help delimit species. Foliar primordium, leaflet, petiolule, petiole and pulvinus were collected from cultivated plants (Campinas, SP, Brazil and from natural populations (Picinguaba, Ubatuba and Caraguatatuba, SP, Brazil - D. pinnata; Antonina, PR, Brazil - D. pentaphylla. Studies on leaflet surface assessment (Scanning Electron Microscopy, as well as histology and venation analyses were carried out of dehydrated, fresh and fixed material from two species. Leaflet material was macerated for stomatal counts. Histological sections, obtained by free-hand cut or microtome, were stained with Toluidine Blue, Safranin/Alcian Blue, Ferric Chloride, Acid Phloroglucin. Secretory cavities are present in the lamina, petiolule, petiole, pulvinus and leaf primordium in D. pentaphylla, but not in D. pinnata, and can be considered an important character for species diagnosis. Other leaf characters were uninformative in delimiting Dahlstedtia species. There is cambial activity in the petiolule, petiole and pulvinus. This study, associated with other available data, supports the recognition of two species in Dahlstedtia.Dahlstedtia Malme (Leguminosae é um gênero neotropical, com duas espécies reconhecidas, D. pinnata (Benth. Malme e D. pentaphylla (Taub. Burk., embora tenha sido considerado monotípico por alguns autores. Seus representantes ocorrem na Floresta Atlântica, nos Estados do Sul e Sudeste do Brasil. Neste trabalho, realizamos um estudo comparativo da anatomia foliar, para verificar a presença de caracteres que possam auxiliar a identificação das espécies. Primórdio foliar, lâmina foliar, peciólulo, pecíolo e pulvino

  17. Climatic limits on foliar growth during major droughts in the southwestern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jeremy L.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Overpeck, Jonathan T.

    2012-09-01

    Pronounced droughts during the 1950s and 2000s in the American Southwest provide an opportunity to compare mesoscale ecosystem responses to anomalously dry conditions before and during the regional warming that started in the late 1970s. This year-round warming has produced fewer cool season freezes, losses in regional snowpack, an 8-10 day advance in spring onset, and hotter summers, all of which should affect vegetation differently across seasons and elevations. Here, we examine indices that represent climatic limits on foliar growth for both drought periods and evaluate these indices for areas that experienced tree mortality during the 2000s drought. Relative to the 1950s drought, warmer conditions during the 2000s drought decreased the occurrence of temperatures too low for foliar growth at lower elevations in winter and higher elevations in summer. Higher vapor pressure deficits (VPDs), largely driven by warmer temperatures in the more recent drought, were more limiting to foliar growth from spring through summer at lower and middle elevations. At many locations where tree mortality occurred during the 2000s drought, low-temperature constraints on foliar growth were extremely unlimiting, whereas VPD constraints were extremely limiting from early spring through late autumn. Our analysis shows that in physiographically complex regions such as the Southwest, seasonality and elevational gradients are important for understanding vegetative responses to warming. It also suggests that continued warming will both increase the degree to which VPD limits foliar growth during future droughts and expand its reach to higher elevations and other seasons.

  18. Shifting Foliar N:P Ratios with Experimental Soil Warming in Tussock Tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, B.; Mack, M. C.; Schuur, E.; Mauritz, M.; Walker, X. J.

    2017-12-01

    Warming temperatures in the Arctic and boreal ecosystems are currently driving widespread permafrost thaw. Thermokarst is one form of thaw, in which a deepening active soil layer and associated hydrologic changes can lead to increased nutrient availability and shifts in plant community composition. Individual plant species often differ in their ability to access nutrients and adapt to new environmental conditions. While nitrogen (N) is often the nutrient most limiting to Arctic plant communities, the extent to which plant available phosphorus (P) from previously frozen mineral soil may increase as the active layer deepens is still uncertain. To understand the changing relationship between species' uptake of N and P in a thermokarst environment, we assessed foliar N:P ratios from 2015 in two species, a tussock sedge (Eriophorum vaginatum) and a dwarf shrub (Rubus chamaemorus), at a moist acidic tussock tundra experimental passive soil warming site. The passive soil warming treatment increased active layer depth in warmed plots by 35.4 cm (+/- 1.1 cm), an 80% increase over the control plots. E.vaginatum demonstrated a 16.9% decrease (p=0.012, 95% CI [-27.99%, -5.94%]) in foliar N:P ratios in warmed plots, driven mostly by an increase in foliar phosphorus. Foliar N:P ratios of R.chamaemorus showed no significant change. However, foliar samples of R.chamaemorus were significantly enriched in the isotope 15N in soil warming plots (9.9% increase (p=0.002, 95% CI [4.45%, 15.39%])), while the sedge E.vaginatum was slightly depleted. These results suggest that (1) in environments with thawing mineral soil plant available phosphorus may increase more quickly than nitrogen, and (2) that species' uptake strategies and responses to increasing N and P will vary, which has implications for future ecological shifts in thawing ecosystems.

  19. PESO DE HOJAS COMO HERRAMIENTA PARA ESTIMAR EL ÁREA FOLIAR EN SOYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Rafael Garcés Fiallos

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Cuantificaciones del área foliar en plantas son importantes en estudios de daños ocasionados por enfermedades, por lo tanto su determinación requiere el uso de equipamientos que no siempre se encuentran disponibles para todos. La utilización de determinaciones indirectas, como el peso de materia fresca o seca podría ayudar en este proceso. En este trabajo, se evaluó la relación entre el peso de hojas y área foliar, a partir de plantas recolectadas en el estadío R7.1, en 64 parcelas de campo con el cultivar de soja Nidera 5909 RG. El peso fresco fue medido luego de la colecta, el peso seco después de 48 horas de incubación a 65° C y el área foliar a través de un integralizador digital Licor. Fueron obtenidas ecuaciones significativas (p < 0.0001 e R2 de 0.74 a 0.97 para cada estrato y para la planta entera. Para la media de la planta, la relación de área foliar fue de y = 45.53 x + 19.03 para peso fresco e y = 176.17 x – 75.30 para peso seco. Esta herramienta se presenta potencialmente viable para estimar el área foliar de la planta. La utilización del peso seco es mas trabajosa, más no requiere pesaje de las hojas inmediatamente después de su colecta. La utilización futura de esta herramienta requiere estudios adicionales con otros cultivares a fin de verificarse si el comportamiento es similar.

  20. Response of French Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Cultivars to Foliar Applications of Magnesium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Pisante

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium deficiencies have been shown to be particularly dangerous to short cycled crops, both on sandy and clay soils. Such deficiencies may be corrected by foliar fertilisations, but in French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. no experimental data may be found to support this hypothesis. Therefore this paper was aimed at studying the effect of foliar Mg-applications (56, 112 and 224 g ha-1 in single application at flowering or splitted half dose at 4-leaf stage and half at flowering alone and with Zn (200 g ha-1 on yield and quality of two French bean genotypes (Bronco, Cadillac. Foliar Mg-applications significantly increased pod yield and, considering the highest rate with respect to the untreated, such an increase was 78% and 32% for Bronco and Cadillac, respectively. Split applications were also more effective, with yield increases of 109% and 50% for the two genotypes. Concerning quality, foliar Mg applications showed a significant effect particularly on sugars, calcium, phosphate, sulphate and Mg contents in pods. On the other hand, a significant effect on the accumulation of nitrates was noted, especially with split applications (144% increase vs. unfertilised and, in some cases, an antagonistic effect on K content (10-20% decrease on average. Foliar Mg fertilisation of French bean seemed to be a promising practice with reference to human health and nutrition, tough some care is needed to avoid the accumulation of nitrates in pods. Split applications seemed to be more effective, while the addition of Zn to the fertiliser mix did not give any relevant effect.

  1. [Foliar water use efficiency of Platycladus orientalis sapling under different soil water contents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong E; Yu, Xin Xiao; Chen, Li Hua; Jia, Guo Dong; Zhao, Na; Li, Han Zhi; Chang, Xiao Min

    2017-07-18

    The determination of plant foliar water use efficiency will be of great value to improve our understanding about mechanism of plant water consumption and provide important basis of regional forest ecosystem management and maintenance, thus, laboratory controlled experiments were carried out to obtain Platycladus orientalis sapling foliar water use efficiency under five different soil water contents, including instantaneous water use efficiency (WUE gs ) derived from gas exchange and short-term water use efficiency (WUE cp ) caculated using carbon isotope model. The results showed that, controlled by stomatal conductance (g s ), foliar net photosynthesis rate (P n ) and transpiration rate (T r ) increased as soil water content increased, which both reached maximum va-lues at soil water content of 70%-80% field capacity (FC), while WUE gs reached a maximum of 7.26 mmol·m -2 ·s -1 at the lowest soil water content (35%-45% FC). Both δ 13 C of water-soluble leaf and twig phloem material achieved maximum values at the lowest soil water content (35%-45% FC). Besides, δ 13 C values of leaf water-soluble compounds were significantly greater than that of phloem exudates, indicating that there was depletion in 13 C in twig phloem compared with leaf water-soluble compounds and no obvious fractionation in the process of water-soluble material transportation from leaf to twig. Foliar WUE cp also reached a maximum of 7.26 mmol·m -2 ·s -1 at the lowest soil water content (35%-45% FC). There was some difference between foliar WUE gs and WUE cp under the same condition, and the average difference was 0.52 mmol·m -2 ·s -1 . The WUE gs had great space-time variability, by contrast, WUE cp was more representative. It was concluded that P. orientalis sapling adapted to drought condition by increasing water use efficiency and decreasing physiological activity.

  2. Changes in radiocesium contamination from Fukushima in foliar parts of 10 common tree species in Japan between 2011 and 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshihara, Toshihiro; Matsumura, Hideyuki; Tsuzaki, Masaharu; Wakamatsu, Takashi; Kobayashi, Takuya; Hashida, Shin-nosuke; Nagaoka, Toru; Goto, Fumiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Yearly changes in radiocesium ( 137 Cs) contamination, primarily due to the Fukushima accident of March 2011, were observed in the foliar parts of 10 common woody species in Japan (Chamaecyparis obtusa, Cedrus deodara, Pinus densiflora, Cryptomeria japonica, Phyllostachys pubescens, Cinnamomum camphora, Metasequoia glyptostroboides, Prunus × yedoensis, Acer buergerianum, and Aesculus hippocastanum). The samples were obtained from Abiko (approximately 200 km SSW of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant) during each growing season between 2011 and 2013, and the foliar parts were examined based on their year of expansion and location in each trees. The radiocesium concentrations generally decreased with time; however, the concentrations and rates of decrease varied among species, age of foliar parts, and locations. The radiocesium concentrations in the 2012 current-year foliar parts were 29%–220% of those from 2011, while those from 2013 fell to between 14% and 42% of the 2011 values. The net decontamination in the foliage was higher in evergreen species than in deciduous species. The radiocesium concentrations in the upper foliar parts were higher than those in the lower parts particularly in C. japonica. In addition, the radiocesium concentrations were higher in the current-year foliar parts than in the 1-year-old foliar parts, particularly in 2013. Thus, the influence of the direct deposition of the fallout was reduced with time, and the translocation ability of radiocesium from old to new tissues became more influential. Similar to the behavior of potassium in trees, Cs redistribution probably occurred primarily due to internal nutrient translocation mechanisms. - Highlights: • 137 Cs concentrations of foliar parts expanded in 2013 was 14–42% of those in 2011. • The rates of decrease varied with the species, sampling part, and position. • Newly expanded foliar parts contain higher 137 Cs concentrations than older parts. • 137 Cs translocation

  3. Aplicação foliar de fertilizantes organominerais em cultura de alface Foliar application of organic mineral fertilizer in lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Magno Q Luz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação de fertilizantes organominerais tem permitido respostas positivas em diversas olerícolas. No presente trabalho avaliou-se a produção de mudas e produção comercial de alface, cultivar Vera, em função da aplicação foliar de fertilizantes organominerais líquidos, de outubro de 2005 a janeiro de 2006. A etapa de produção de mudas foi realizada em viveiro especializado na produção de mudas de hortaliças em Uberlândia e a condução da fase de campo foi realizada em área da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia. Analisou-se altura e número de folhas, massa fresca da parte aérea e diâmetro de raízes das mudas, massas fresca da parte aérea e de raízes das plantas na fase de campo. Foram empregados os fertilizantes organominerais Aminoagro Raiz, Aminoagro Folha Top, Aminoagro Mol, Nobrico Star, Aminolom Foliar e Lombrico Mol 75. O primeiro experimento utilizando mudas foi instalado em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com 15 repetições. O segundo experimento instalado a campo, foi feito em blocos ao acaso com 4 repetições. O uso exclusivo dos produtos organominerais líquidos, via aplicação foliar foi superior à testemunha para a maioria das variáveis avaliadas nas fases de muda e campo na alface, cultivar Vera.Biofertilizer application provides positive responses of several vegetable crops. The effect of foliar application of liquid biofertilizers on seedling and on commercial production of lettuce cultivar Vera were evaluated from October 2005 to January 2006. Seedling production was carried out in a nursery specialized in the production of vegetable seedlings, in Uberlandia, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, and the crop growing was carried out at a field of the Universidade Federal de Uberlandia. Plant height, number of leaves, aboveground part fresh weight and root diameter were evaluated on seedlings and fresh weight of the aboveground part and roots were evaluated on plants in the field. Aminoagro Raiz

  4. Modelos para a estimação da área foliar de feijão de porco por dimensões foliares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Toebe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi modelar a área foliar de feijão de porco determinada por fotos digitais em função do comprimento ou da largura e/ou do produto comprimento vezes largura do limbo do folíolo central da folha. Em seis períodos de desenvolvimento da cultura (29, 43, 57, 73, 87 e 101 dias após a emergência foram coletadas, aleatoriamente, 745 folhas. Cada folha é composta pelos folíolos esquerdo, central e direito. Nas 745 folhas foi mensurado o comprimento (CFC e a largura (LFC e calculado o produto do comprimento pela largura (CFC×LFC do limbo do folíolo central. A seguir, determinou-se a área foliar (soma da área dos folíolos esquerdo, central e direito por meio do método de fotos digitais (Y. Do total de folhas, foram separadas, aleatoriamente, 605 folhas para a construção de modelos do tipo quadrático, potência e linear de Y em função do CFC, da LFC, e/ou do CFC×LFC e 140 folhas para a validação dos modelos. Em feijão de porco, o modelo tipo potência (Ŷ=3,7046x1,8747, R²=0,9757 da largura do limbo do folíolo central é adequado para estimar a área foliar obtida por fotos digitais.

  5. European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus, L.) green attack affects foliar reflectance and biochemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Haidi; Darvishzadeh, Roshanak; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Groen, Thomas A.; Heurich, Marco

    2018-02-01

    The European spruce bark beetle Ips typographus, L. (hereafter bark beetle), causes major economic loss to the forest industry in Europe, especially in Norway Spruce (Picea abies). To minimise economic loss and preclude a mass outbreak, early detection of bark beetle infestation (so-called ;green attack; stage - a period at which trees are yet to show visual signs of infestation stress) is, therefore, a crucial step in the management of Norway spruce stands. It is expected that a bark beetle infestation at the green attack stage affects a tree's physiological and chemical status. However, the concurrent effect on key foliar biochemical such as foliar nitrogen and chlorophyll as well as spectral responses are not well documented in the literature. Therefore, in this study, the early detection of bark beetle green attacks is investigated by examining foliar biochemical and spectral properties (400-2000 nm). We also assessed whether bark beetle infestation affects the estimation accuracy of foliar biochemicals. An extensive field survey was conducted in the Bavarian Forest National Park (BFNP), Germany, in the early summer of 2015 to collect leaf samples from 120 healthy and green attacked trees. The spectra of the leaf samples were measured using an ASD FieldSpec3 equipped with an integrating sphere. Significant differences (p < 0.05) between healthy and infested needle samples were found in the mean reflectance spectra, with the most pronounced differences being observed in the NIR and SWIR regions between 730 and 1370 nm. Furthermore, significant differences (p < 0.05) were found in the biochemical compositions (chlorophyll and nitrogen concentration) of healthy versus green attacked samples. Our results further demonstrate that the estimation accuracy of foliar chlorophyll and nitrogen concentrations, utilising partial least square regression model, was lower for the infested compared to the healthy trees. We show that early stage of infestation reduces not only

  6. Understanding and Approaching Muslim Visibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi

    2011-01-01

    Within Western nation-states such as Denmark, Islamic identities are often seen as inherently and divergently visible, an aspect that some argue is detrimental to the secular nation-state. From a research perspective, one way to nuance this position is by focusing on groups of 'invisible' Muslims...

  7. Early Learning Theories Made Visible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloglovsky, Miriam; Daly, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Go beyond reading about early learning theories and see what they look like in action in modern programs and teacher practices. With classroom vignettes and colorful photographs, this book makes the works of Jean Piaget, Erik Erikson, Lev Vygotsky, Abraham Maslow, John Dewey, Howard Gardner, and Louise Derman-Sparks visible, accessible, and easier…

  8. Non-Euclidean visibility problems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    FERNANDO CHAMIZO. Departamento de Matemáticas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain. MS received 14 November 2005. Abstract. We consider the analog of visibility problems in hyperbolic plane (repre- sented by Poincaré half-plane model H), replacing the standard lattice Z ...

  9. Are naked singularities really visible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvani, M [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia; De Felice, F [Alberta Univ., Edmonton (Canada); Nobili, L [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica

    1978-12-09

    The question whether a Kerr naked singularity is actually visible from infinity is investigated; it is shown that in fact any signal which could be emitted from the singularity is infinitely red-shifted. This implies that naked singularities would be indistinguishable from a black hole.

  10. Visible Machine Learning for Biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Michael K; Ma, Jianzhu; Fisher, Jasmin; Kreisberg, Jason F; Raphael, Benjamin J; Ideker, Trey

    2018-06-14

    A major ambition of artificial intelligence lies in translating patient data to successful therapies. Machine learning models face particular challenges in biomedicine, however, including handling of extreme data heterogeneity and lack of mechanistic insight into predictions. Here, we argue for "visible" approaches that guide model structure with experimental biology. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. [Dynamics of microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen during foliar litter decomposition under artificial forest gap in Pinus massoniana plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming Jin; Chen, Liang Hua; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Wan Qin; Liu, Hua; Li, Xun; Zhang, Yan

    2016-03-01

    Nowadays large areas of plantations have caused serious ecological problems such as soil degradation and biodiversity decline. Artificial tending thinning and construction of mixed forest are frequently used ways when we manage plantations. To understand the effect of this operation mode on nutrient cycle of plantation ecosystem, we detected the dynamics of microbial bio-mass carbon and nitrogen during foliar litter decomposition of Pinus massoniana and Toona ciliate in seven types of gap in different sizes (G 1 : 100 m 2 , G 2 : 225 m 2 , G 3 : 400 m 2 , G 4 : 625 m 2 , G 5 : 900 m 2 , G 6 : 1225 m 2 , G 7 : 1600 m 2 ) of 42-year-old P. massoniana plantations in a hilly area of the upper Yang-tze River. The results showed that small and medium-sized forest gaps(G 1 -G 5 ) were more advantageous for the increment of microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen in the process of foliar litter decomposition. Along with the foliar litter decomposition during the experiment (360 d), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) in P. massoniana foliar litter and MBN in T. ciliata foliar litter first increased and then decreased, and respectively reached the maxima 9.87, 0.22 and 0.80 g·kg -1 on the 180 th d. But the peak (44.40 g·kg -1 ) of MBC in T. ciliata foliar litter appeared on the 90 th d. Microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen in T. ciliate was significantly higher than that of P. massoniana during foliar litter decomposition. Microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen in foliar litter was not only significantly associated with average daily temperature and the water content of foliar litter, but also closely related to the change of the quality of litter. Therefore, in the thinning, forest gap size could be controlled in the range of from 100 to 900 m 2 to facilitate the increase of microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen in the process of foliar litter decomposition, accelerate the decomposition of foliar litter and improve soil fertility of plantations.

  12. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide and nitrogen addition on foliar stoichiometry of nitrogen and phosphorus of five tree species in subtropical model forest ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Wenjuan; Zhou Guoyi; Liu Juxiu; Zhang Deqiang; Xu Zhihong; Liu Shizhong

    2012-01-01

    The effects of elevated carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and nitrogen (N) addition on foliar N and phosphorus (P) stoichiometry were investigated in five native tree species (four non-N 2 fixers and one N 2 fixer) in open-top chambers in southern China from 2005 to 2009. The high foliar N:P ratios induced by high foliar N and low foliar P indicate that plants may be more limited by P than by N. The changes in foliar N:P ratios were largely determined by P dynamics rather than N under both elevated CO 2 and N addition. Foliar N:P ratios in the non-N 2 fixers showed some negative responses to elevated CO 2 , while N addition reduced foliar N:P ratios in the N 2 fixer. The results suggest that N addition would facilitate the N 2 fixer rather than the non-N 2 fixers to regulate the stoichiometric balance under elevated CO 2 . - Highlights: ► Five native tree species in southern China were more limited by P than by N. ► Shifts in foliar N:P ratios were driven by P dynamic under the global change. ► N addition lowered foliar N:P ratios in the N 2 fixer under elevated CO 2 . - N addition could facilitate the N 2 fixer rather than the non-N 2 fixers to regulate foliar N and P stoichiometry under elevated CO 2 in subtropical forests.

  13. Effect of Nutrient Solution Concentration, Time and Frequency of Foliar Application on Growth of Leaf and Daughter Corms of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Khorasani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of different levels of nutrient solution concentration and times and frequencies of foliar applications on dry weight, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium concentrations of leaf and corm of saffron, a pot experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement and three replications under open door conditions in research garden of ferdowsi university, faculty of agriculture. The experimental treatments were included 4 levels of solution concentration (0, 4, 8 and 12 per 1000 and 7 levels of time and frequency of foliar applications (F1: foliar application on 3th February, F2: foliar application on 18th February, F3: foliar application on 5th March, F4: foliar applications on 3th and 18th February, F5: foliar applications on 3th February and 5th March, F6: foliar applications on 18th February and 5th March, F7: foliar applications on 3th and 18th February and 5th March. Results of variance analysis showed that fresh and dry weight of corm and leaf were not influenced by concentration, time and frequency of foliar applications. Also, comparison of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium concentrations of leaf and corm showed that there was no significant difference between levels of foliar treatments and control. Therefore, it seems that due attention to pattern of leaf and low nutrient demand of saffron, foliar applications in different levels of nutrient solution concentrations and times and frequencies of foliar applications could not increase vegetative growth and consequently, could not improve the growth and nutritional properties of saffron corms.

  14. Mapping spatial variability of foliar nitrogen in coffee (Coffea arabica L.) plantations with multispectral Sentinel-2 MSI data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemura, Abel; Mutanga, Onisimo; Odindi, John; Kutywayo, Dumisani

    2018-04-01

    Nitrogen (N) is the most limiting factor to coffee development and productivity. Therefore, development of rapid, spatially explicit and temporal remote sensing-based approaches to determine spatial variability of coffee foliar N are imperative for increasing yields, reducing production costs and mitigating environmental impacts associated with excessive N applications. This study sought to assess the value of Sentinel-2 MSI spectral bands and vegetation indices in empirical estimation of coffee foliar N content at landscape level. Results showed that coffee foliar N is related to Sentinel-2 MSI B4 (R2 = 0.32), B6 (R2 = 0.49), B7 (R2 = 0.42), B8 (R2 = 0.57) and B12 (R2 = 0.24) bands. Vegetation indices were more related to coffee foliar N as shown by the Inverted Red-Edge Chlorophyll Index - IRECI (R2 = 0.66), Relative Normalized Difference Index - RNDVI (R2 = 0.48), CIRE1 (R2 = 0.28), and Normalized Difference Infrared Index - NDII (R2 = 0.37). These variables were also identified by the random forest variable optimisation as the most valuable in coffee foliar N prediction. Modelling coffee foliar N using vegetation indices produced better accuracy (R2 = 0.71 with RMSE = 0.27 for all and R2 = 0.73 with RMSE = 0.25 for optimized variables), compared to using spectral bands (R2 = 0.57 with RMSE = 0.32 for all and R2 = 0.58 with RMSE = 0.32 for optimized variables). Combining optimized bands and vegetation indices produced the best results in coffee foliar N modelling (R2 = 0.78, RMSE = 0.23). All the three best performing models (all vegetation indices, optimized vegetation indices and combining optimal bands and optimal vegetation indices) established that 15.2 ha (4.7%) of the total area under investigation had low foliar N levels (landscape scale.

  15. Nanoparticle synthesis and delivery by an aerosol route for watermelon plant foliar uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Ning; Tarafdar, Jagadish C.; Biswas, Pratim

    2013-01-01

    An aerosol process was developed for synthesis and delivery of nanoparticles for living watermelon plant foliar uptake. This is an efficient technique capable of generating nanoparticles with controllable particle sizes and number concentrations. Aerosolized nanoparticles were easily applied to leaf surfaces and enter the stomata via gas uptake, avoiding direct interaction with soil systems, eliminating potential ecological risks. The uptake and transport of nanoparticles inside the watermelon plants were investigated systematically by various techniques, such as elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and plant anatomy by transmission electron microscopy. The results revealed that certain fractions of nanoparticles ( d p watermelon plants. The particle size and number concentration played an important role in nanoparticle translocation inside the plants. In addition, the nanoparticle application method, working environment, and leaf structure are also important factors to be considered for successful plant foliar uptake.

  16. The Prevention of Tipburn on Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis (Lour. Olson with Foliar Fertilizers and Biostimulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borkowski Jan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out in 2008-2010 on Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis (Lour. Olson. The main problem in cultivation of this vegetable is physiological disorder – tipburn. It is connected with low level of calcium in young leaves and with water deficiency. In 2008, seeds of Chinese cabbage were sown twice, in April and July. In July, the day temperature was high (25-30 °C and relative air humidity was low (35-50%. In these conditions, the young leaves were injured heavily. Rotting was caused by the activity of bacteria Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Jones Hauben et al. However, three times foliar application of 1.5% calcium nitrate or 1.5% Wapnovit significantly reduced the tipburn. Also spraying with 0.03% of Tytanit (containing ions of titanium or with 2.5% of Biochikol 020 PC (containing chitosan gave similar effect. In these conditions, application of 1.5% K-300 (containing potassium oxide and ammonium nitrate exacerbated symptoms of tipburn. Application of Wapnovit or Tytanit reduced instantly rotting of heads contrary to the application of their mixture. In autumn cultivation, when the relative air humidity was 80-100%, spraying with 1.5% solution of K-300 significantly decreased injuries in comparison to control. Application of Wapnovit, K-300, Biochikol, Tytanit or the mixture of Biochikol and calcium nitrate eliminated rotting. In experiments done in the springs of 2009 and 2010, when weather conditions were less favorable for tipburn appearance, a severity of it was lower but application of K-300 increased it appearance. In these experiments, Biochikol and Wapnovit eliminated rotting of heads. The results of three years of study have shown that calcium nitrate, Wapnovit, Tytanit and Biochikol limited occurrence of tipburn and bacterial rotting of Chinese cabbage, but the weather conditions during cultivation had the greatest impact on the severity of tipburn.

  17. Effects of Elevated Carbon Dioxide on the Growth and Foliar Chemistry of Transgenic Bt Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Wu; Fa-Jun Chen; Feng Ge; Yu-Cheng Sun

    2007-01-01

    A field study was carried out to quantify plant growth and the foliar chemistry of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)cotton (cv. GK-12) exposed to ambient CO2 and elevated (double-ambient) CO2 for different lengths of time (1, 2 and 3 months) in 2004 and 2005. The results indicated that CO2 levels significantly affected plant height, leaf area per plant and leaf chemistry of transgenic Bt cotton. Significantly, higher plant height and leaf area per plant were observed after cotton plants that were grown in elevated CO2 were compared with plants grown in ambient CO2 for 1, 2 and 3 months in the investigation. Simultaneously, significant interaction between CO2 level x investigating year was observed in leaf area per plant. Moreover, foliar total amino acids were increased by 14%, 13%, 11% and 12%, 14%, 10% in transgenic Bt cotton after exposed to elevated CO2 for 1, 2 or 3 months compared with ambient CO2 in 2004 and 2005, respectively. Condensed tannin occurrence increased by 17%, 11%, 9% in 2004 and 12%, 11%, 9% in 2005 in transgenic Bt cotton after being exposed to elevated CO2 for 1, 2 or 3 months compared with ambient CO2 for the same time. However, Bt toxin decreased by 3.0%,2.9%, 3.1% and 2.4%, 2.5%, 2.9% in transgenic Bt cotton after exposed to elevated CO2 for 1, 2 or 3months compared with ambient CO2 for same time in 2004 and 2005, respectively. Furthermore, there was prominent interaction on the foliar total amino acids between the CO2 level and the time of cotton plant being exposed to elevated CO2. It is presumed that elevated CO2 can alter the plant growth and hence ultimately the phenotype allocation to foliar chemistical components of transgenic Bt cotton, which may in turn, affect the plant-herbivore interactions.

  18. Morfo-anatomia foliar de Ocotea gardneri (Meisn. Mez (Lauraceae-Lauroideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise F. Coutinho

    Full Text Available Ocotea gardneri (Meisn. Mez é uma espécie arbórea, encontrada no nordeste brasileiro, principalmente nos estados da Paraíba e Pernambuco, conhecida por "louro-branco" e "louro-babão". Neste trabalho realizou-se morfodiagnoses (macroscópica e microscópica de folhas de O. gardneri, com o objetivo de fornecer subsídios à sua caracterização e identificação. Para a morfologia externa, analisaram-se amostras frescas e conservadas em álcool (70º, com auxílio de estereomicroscópio, e observações de campo. Realizaram-se secções transversais em lâminas foliares e pecíolos, e seções paradérmicas nas duas faces de lâminas foliares. Ocotea gardneri possui folhas elípticas a oval-elípticas, margem inteira, levemente ondeada, ápice agudo e base arredondada. A lâmina foliar é hipoestomática com estômatos do tipo paracítico; a epiderme é uniestratificada, com células de paredes retas e espessadas; o mesofilo é isobilateral, aqui referido pela primeira vez para uma espécie de Lauraceae, com células e ductos secretores evidentes e feixes vasculares colaterais envolvidos pela bainha esclerenquimática. Este conjunto de caracteres aliado à morfologia foliar, permitiram o estabelecimento de parâmetros que possibilitarão a caracterização de folhas de Ocotea gardneri em testes de autenticidade, bem como auxiliarão em estudos da taxonomia da espécie estudada.

  19. Relationship between photosynthetic phosphorus-use efficiency and foliar phosphorus fractions in tropical tree species

    OpenAIRE

    Hidaka, Amane; Kitayama, Kanehiro

    2013-01-01

    How plants develop adaptive strategies to efficiently use nutrients on infertile soils is an important topic in plant ecology. It has been suggested that, with decreasing phosphorus (P) availability, plants increase photosynthetic P-use efficiency (PPUE) (i.e., the ratio of instantaneous photosynthetic carbon assimilation rate per unit foliar P). However, the mechanism to increase PPUE remains unclear. In this study, we tested whether high PPUE is explained by an optimized allocation of P in ...

  20. Intercomparison of Remotely Sensed Vegetation Indices, Ground Spectroscopy, and Foliar Chemistry Data from NEON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulslander, D.; Warren, J. N.; Weintraub, S. R.

    2017-12-01

    Hyperspectral imaging systems can be used to produce spectral reflectance curves giving rich information about composition, relative abundances of materials, mixes and combinations. Indices based on just a few spectral bands have been used for over 40 years to study vegetation health, mineral abundance, and more. These indices are much simpler to visualize and use than a full hyperspectral data set which may contain over 400 bands. Yet historically, it has been difficult to directly relate remotely sensed spectral indices to quantitative biophysical properties significant to forest ecology such as canopy nitrogen, lignin, and chlorophyll. This linkage is a critical piece in enabling the detection of high value ecological information, usually only available from labor-intensive canopy foliar chemistry sampling, to the geographic and temporal coverage available via remote sensing. Previous studies have shown some promising results linking ground-based data and remotely sensed indices, but are consistently limited in time, geographic extent, and land cover type. Moreover, previous studies are often focused on tuning linkage algorithms for the purpose of achieving good results for only one study site or one type of vegetation, precluding development of more generalized algorithms. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a unique system of 47 terrestrial sites covering all of the major eco-climatic domains of the US, including AK, HI, and Puerto Rico. These sites are regularly monitored and sampled using uniform instrumentation and protocols, including both foliar chemistry sampling and remote sensing flights for high resolution hyperspectral, LiDAR, and digital camera data acquisition. In this study we compare the results of foliar chemistry analysis to the remote sensing vegetation indices and investigate possible sources for variance and difference through the use of the larger hyperspectral dataset as well as ground based spectrometer measurements of

  1. New substrate containing agroindustrial carnauba residue for production of papaya under foliar fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Albano, Francisca G.; Cavalcante, Ítalo H. L.; Machado, Jailson S.; Lacerda, Claudivan F. de; Silva, Esdras R. da; Sousa, Humberto G. de

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The use of organic waste in the composition of substrates for seedlings constitutes an alternative to the recycling of these materials. Thus, an experiment was conducted with the objective to evaluate the production of ‘Formosa’ papaya seedlings in substrate containing carnauba wax residue, under foliar fertilization. The experimental design was completely randomized with five replicates, with treatments distributed in a 5 x 2 factorial scheme, corresponding to five materials used as...

  2. New substrate containing agroindustrial carnauba residue for production of papaya under foliar fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Albano,Francisca G.; Cavalcante,Ítalo H. L.; Machado,Jailson S.; Lacerda,Claudivan F. de; Silva,Esdras R. da; Sousa,Humberto G. de

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The use of organic waste in the composition of substrates for seedlings constitutes an alternative to the recycling of these materials. Thus, an experiment was conducted with the objective to evaluate the production of ‘Formosa’ papaya seedlings in substrate containing carnauba wax residue, under foliar fertilization. The experimental design was completely randomized with five replicates, with treatments distributed in a 5 x 2 factorial scheme, corresponding to five mater...

  3. Foliar Nutrient Distribution Patterns in Sympatric Maple Species Reflect Contrasting Sensitivity to Excess Manganese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Denise R; Marshall, Alan T; Lynch, Jonathan P

    2016-01-01

    Sugar maple and red maple are closely-related co-occurring tree species significant to the North American forest biome. Plant abiotic stress effects including nutritional imbalance and manganese (Mn) toxicity are well documented within this system, and are implicated in enhanced susceptibility to biotic stresses such as insect attack. Both tree species are known to overaccumulate foliar manganese (Mn) when growing on unbuffered acidified soils, however, sugar maple is Mn-sensitive, while red maple is not. Currently there is no knowledge about the cellular sequestration of Mn and other nutrients in these two species. Here, electron-probe x-ray microanalysis was employed to examine cellular and sub-cellular deposition of excessively accumulated foliar Mn and other mineral nutrients in vivo. For both species, excess foliar Mn was deposited in symplastic cellular compartments. There were striking between-species differences in Mn, magnesium (Mg), sulphur (S) and calcium (Ca) distribution patterns. Unusually, Mn was highly co-localised with Mg in mesophyll cells of red maple only. The known sensitivity of sugar maple to excess Mn is likely linked to Mg deficiency in the leaf mesophyll. There was strong evidence that Mn toxicity in sugar maple is primarily a symplastic process. For each species, leaf-surface damage due to biotic stress including insect herbivory was compared between sites with acidified and non-acidified soils. Although it was greatest overall in red maple, there was no difference in biotic stress damage to red maple leaves between acidified and non-acidified soils. Sugar maple trees on buffered non-acidified soil were less damaged by biotic stress compared to those on unbuffered acidified soil, where they are also affected by Mn toxicity abiotic stress. This study concluded that foliar nutrient distribution in symplastic compartments is a determinant of Mn sensitivity, and that Mn stress hinders plant resistance to biotic stress.

  4. Foliar fertilization of sugarcane (Saccharum spp): absorption and translocation of 15-N-labeled urea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivelin, P.C.O.; Carvalho, J.G. de; Silva, A.Q. da; Primavesi, A.C.P.A.; Camacho, E.; Eimori, I.E.; Guilherme, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    The absorption and translocation of foliar applied nitrogen as urea solution to sugar cane plants was evaluated. An experiment using the isotope dilution technique with 15 N labeled urea was carried out in green house condition. Seedlings of sugarcane variety IAC 53-150 were planted in pots with 5KG of top soil''latossolo vermelho amarelo, fase arenosa'' (Haplustox). (M.A.C.) [pt

  5. Physiological and Biochemical Responses of Lavandula angustifolia to Salinity Under Mineral Foliar Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysargyris, Antonios; Michailidi, Evgenia; Tzortzakis, Nikos

    2018-01-01

    Saline water has been proposed as a solution to partially cover plant water demands due to scarcity of irrigation water in hot arid areas. Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) plants were grown hydroponically under salinity (0–25–50–100 mM NaCl). The overcome of salinity stress was examined by K, Zn, and Si foliar application for the plant physiological and biochemical characteristics. The present study indicated that high (100 mM NaCl) salinity decreased plant growth, content of phenolics and antioxidant status and essential oil (EO) yield, while low-moderate salinity levels maintained the volatile oil profile in lavender. The integrated foliar application of K and Zn lighten the presumable detrimental effects of salinity in terms of fresh biomass, antioxidant capacity, and EO yield. Moderate salinity stress along with balanced concentration of K though foliar application changed the primary metabolites pathways in favor of major volatile oil constituents biosynthesis and therefore lavender plant has the potential for cultivation under prevalent semi-saline conditions. Zn and Si application, had lesser effects on the content of EO constituents, even though altered salinity induced changings. Our results have demonstrated that lavender growth/development and EO production may be affected by saline levels, whereas mechanisms for alteration of induced stress are of great significance considering the importance of the oil composition, as well. PMID:29731759

  6. Modelo para estimar a área foliar de Combretum leprosum Mart.

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    Willame dos Santos Candido

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Combretum leprosum Mart. -Combretaceae es un arbusto utilizado en la medicina popular del noreste de Brasil como antiulceroso, antihemorrágica y antinociceptiva. En este estudio se desarrolló un modelo para el cálculo de área foliar de Combretum leprosum usando mediciones lineales de longitud (C y ancho máximo (L de la hoja. Se recolectaron 200 láminas de hojas de una población de C. leprosum nativo en un área de conservación de la Caatinga en el campus de la Universidad Federal Rural de la Semi árido en Mossoro, Rio Grande do Norte. Las hojas se obtuvieron de árboles adultos y el área foliar se midió utilizando un integrador (LI-3100, LI-COR. El análisis de regresión se hizo con el programa SAEG. Para estimar el área foliar de C. leprosum se puede utilizar la ecuación lineal simple de regresión A = 0.7103 x (C x L, que es equivalente a tomar 71.03% de los productos de la longitud a lo largo de la nervadura central y el ancho máximo, con un coeficiente de determinación de 0.952617.

  7. PHYSIOLOGICAL MATURATION IN SEEDS OF SWEET SOGHUM FOR FOLIAR FERTILISATION WITH SILICATE

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    BRUNO FRANÇA DA TRINDADE LESSA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate physiological quality in seeds of sweet sorghum grown under semi-arid conditions, and to determine the age of physiological maturity of the seeds as a function of the foliar application of potassium silicate. The experiment was carried out at the Curu Valley Experimental Farm, in Pentecoste in the state of Ceará, during the rainy seasons of 2014 and 2015. The BRS 506 and BRS 511 varieties were used, under foliar fertilisation with potassium silicate at doses of 500, 1000 and 1500 mL.ha -1, in addition to the control lots (with no application; harvesting was at four periods, 30, 37, 44 and 51 days after full bloom (DAB. The percentage and speed of germination were evaluated, together with the accelerated ageing test and seedling growth. The seeds presented greater than 90% germination from 37 DAB, reaching high seedling vigour at 51 DAB. Foliar fertilisation with potassium silicate under the conditions of the experiment resulted in an increase in the physiological quality of the seeds. The BRS 506 and BRS 511 cultivars displayed the highest physiological quality between 49 and 53 DAF.

  8. Behavior of Foliares Applications of Humus Mixed with the NPK in Rice Cultivation (Oryza Sativa L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Saborit Reyes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration the observation of one green yellowsh clorosis in the plantations of rice, after the cold campaings and the disminishing of the agricultural efficiency of the cerial in areas of Saint Elena Land belonging to the fortified cooperatove of credits and service (FCCS Camilo Cienfuegos in Las Nuevas, La Sierpe, Province of Sancti – Spiritus, were done foliars aplications with mineral fertilizing as, N.P.K to different doses and moments of applications, in order to obtain alternative of nutrition for the cultivation, the work was done on a green yellowish ferralitic ground since 2009 to 2011, using LP-5 cultivation doing the sowing by the method of transplantation, fertilization. It was done mixing 49L. ha-¹ of liquid warm humus with 0.35 Kg. ha-¹ of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. The results shown that the use of the foliar fertilization with liquid worm humus mixed with the N.P.K minerals, increased the efficiency, obtaining 5.3t. ha-¹ as an average in different variants used. The economic analysis showed that the treatment with 40% of nitrogen was reduced with seven foliars applications, it was highest to the witness N.P.K in 1.5t . ha-¹ of the grain obtaining a relative benefit of 4264.55 pesos by hectarea.

  9. Foliar nutrient status of Pinus ponderosa exposed to ozone and acid rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, P.D.; Houpis, J.L.J.

    1991-01-01

    A direct effect of foliar exposure to acid rain may be increased leaching of nutrient elements. Ozone exposure, through degradation of the cuticle and cellular membranes, may also result in increased nutrient leaching. To test these hypotheses, the foliar concentrations of 13 nutrient elements were monitored for mature branches of three clones of Pinus ponderosa exposed to ozone and/or acid rain. The three clones represented three distinct levels of phenotypic vigor. Branches were exposed to charcoal filtered, ambient, or 2 x ambient concentrations of ozone and received no acid rain (NAP), pH 5.1 rain (5.1), or pH 3.0 (3.0) rain. Following 10 months of continuous ozone exposure and 3 months of weekly rain applications, the concentrations of P and Mg differed significantly among rain treatments with a ranking of: 5.1 < NAP < 3.0. The S concentration increased with rain application regardless of pH. For the clones of moderate and low vigor, the concentration of N decreased with increasing rain acidity. There was no evidence of significant ozone or ozone x acid rain response. Among the three families, high phenotypic vigor was associated with significantly greater concentrations of N, P, K, Mg, B and An. These results indicate generally negligible leaching as a result of exposure to acid rain and/or ozone for one growing season. Increases in foliar concentrations of S, Mg and P are possibly the result of evaporative surface deposition from the rain solution

  10. Induction of drought tolerance in zea mays l. by foliar application of triacontanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perveen, S.; Iqbal, M.; Nawaz, A.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we assessed the effect of foliar application of triacontanol (TRIA) on various growth and physiochemical parameters of two maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars (cv. MMRI-Yellow and cv. Hybrid S-515) under different irrigation levels i.e., normal watering (control) and watering at 60% of the field capacity (drought). Seeds of the two maize cultivars were sown in plastic pots filled with sandy loam soil (2 kg in each). Foliar application of TRIA (0, 2 and 5 micro M) was performed after two weeks of drought stress to 28-day-old plants. Data of 58-day-old maize plants was collected for analysis of various growth and physiochemical attributes. Drought stress significantly decreased growth and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity while increased the activities of catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) and the contents of total phenolics, total soluble proteins, glycinebetaine (GB) and free proline. Foliar treatment with TRIA further increased CAT and POD activities whereas decreased the contents of hydrogen peroxide (H/sub 2/O/sub 2/), malondialdehyde (MDA), total phenolics and GB in the maize plants when under drought stress. Of the two maize cultivars, cv. MMRI-Yellow excelled the growth under both normal and drought stress (60% of the field capacity). Overall, TRIA (5 micro M) was much more effective in modulating various growth and physiochemical attributes, and thus improving drought tolerance in maize plants. (author)

  11. Efeitos do sombreamento na anatomia foliar de Gallesia integrifolia (Spreng Harms e Schinnus terebinthifolius Raddi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Santos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se estudo com o objetivo de analisar as alterações na anatomia foliar de Gallesia integrifolia (Spreng Harms e Schinnus terebinthifolius Raddi quando cultivadas em ambientes de sombra moderada ou densa, simulando as condições naturais encontradas em sistemas agroflorestais tradicionais do sul da Bahia, Brasil. Plantas das duas espécies, com aproximadamente um ano de idade, foram cultivadas em casa de vegetação sob quatro níveis de sombreamento (25%, 17%, 10% e 5%. Estudos anatômicos do limbo foliar foram realizados a partir de material incluído em parafina e seccionado em micrótomo rotativo. Os diferentes níveis de sombreamento ocasionaram alterações na estrutura do mesofilo de ambas as espécies, com diferenças significativas na espessura do parênquima paliçádico, limbo foliar, e densidade estomática. Nas condições em que o experimento foi realizado os resultados obtidos indicaram que G. integrifolia apresenta maior capacidade de aclimatação a ambientes de sombra moderada e densa do que S. terebinthifolius, sendo mais indicada para o cultivo em sistemas agroflorestais pré-estabelecidos.

  12. Foliar K application delays leaf senescence of winter rape-seed (Brassica napus L.) under waterlogging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Wan; Chao Hu; Chang Chen; Liyan Zhang; Ni Ma; Chunlei Zhang

    2017-01-01

    To better understand waterlogging effect on leaf senescence in winter rapseed (Brassica napus L.) during flowering stage, experiments were designed to explore foliar K application influences on adverse effects of waterlogging stress. Winter rapeseed was sprayed with K after waterlogging at initial flowering stage. Results indicated that waterlog-ging significantly decreased leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and transpiration rate (Tr). It also declined maximum quantum yield of PS II (Fv/Fm), quantum yield of electron transport (ΦPS II) and pho-tochemical quenching (qP), but increased leaf non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and minimal fluorescence (Fo). Interestingly, exogenous application of K significantly alleviated waterlogging-induced photosynthesis inhibition. Foliar K application increased RuBisCO activation, chlorophyll and soluble protein contents, while significantly decreased MDA con-tent under waterlogging stress. Moreover, K supplementation improved accumulation of K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, N, Zn2+, Mn2+, Fe2+ in leaves. In general, foliar K application is effective in alleviating deleterious effects of waterlogging stress and delays leaf senescence of winter rapeseed.

  13. Effect of foliar fertilization on Ananas comosus L. Merr. cv. `Cayena lisa' acclimatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortelio Hurtado

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The low survival and slow growth of in vitro pineapple plants (Ananas comosus L. Merr. in acclimatization stage limit the use of biotechnological techniques for it propagation. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of foliar fertilization in the acclimatization of pineapple plants cv. `Smooth Cayenne'. Two variants of foliar fertilization were compared. The first, plants were fertilized daily after the last irrigation with a minimum dose increased until three months of culture. The second included the same fertilizer at maximum dose with daily dose foliar applications after the last irrigation 10 days from planting to three months of cultivation. As a control, unfertilized plants were included. Every 20 days to three months of culture height (cm of plants was measured, the number of leaves per plant was quantified and the length and width of the leaves was measured. It was observed that fertilization had effect under the experimental conditions tested on the plants variables. After 90 days of culture plants obtained in the treatment with daily fertilization at maximun dose (option 2, met the requirements of height, length and width of the leaf for transplantation to field conditions. Key words: pineapple, propagation, zeolite

  14. Foliar Nutritional Quality Explains Patchy Browsing Damage Caused by an Invasive Mammal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah R Windley

    Full Text Available Introduced herbivores frequently inflict significant, yet patchy damage on native ecosystems through selective browsing. However, there are few instances where the underlying cause of this patchy damage has been revealed. We aimed to determine if the nutritional quality of foliage could predict the browsing preferences of an invasive mammalian herbivore, the common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula, in a temperate forest in New Zealand. We quantified the spatial and temporal variation in four key aspects of the foliar chemistry (total nitrogen, available nitrogen, in vitro dry matter digestibility and tannin effect of 275 trees representing five native tree species. Simultaneously, we assessed the severity of browsing damage caused by possums on those trees in order to relate selective browsing to foliar nutritional quality. We found significant spatial and temporal variation in nutritional quality among individuals of each tree species examined, as well as among tree species. There was a positive relationship between the available nitrogen concentration of foliage (a measure of in vitro digestible protein and the severity of damage caused by browsing by possums. This study highlights the importance of nutritional quality, specifically, the foliar available nitrogen concentration of individual trees, in predicting the impact of an invasive mammal. Revealing the underlying cause of patchy browsing by an invasive mammal provides new insights for conservation of native forests and targeted control of invasive herbivores in forest ecosystems.

  15. New substrate containing agroindustrial carnauba residue for production of papaya under foliar fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca G. Albano

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of organic waste in the composition of substrates for seedlings constitutes an alternative to the recycling of these materials. Thus, an experiment was conducted with the objective to evaluate the production of ‘Formosa’ papaya seedlings in substrate containing carnauba wax residue, under foliar fertilization. The experimental design was completely randomized with five replicates, with treatments distributed in a 5 x 2 factorial scheme, corresponding to five materials used as substrates, in the presence and absence of foliar fertilization. The materials used were: earthworm humus, carnauba residue + fresh rice husk; carnauba residue in powder; carnauba residue semi-decomposed and mixture of carnauba residues: carnauba residue + fresh rice husk + carnauba residue semi-decomposed + carnauba residue in powder, at the proportion 1:1:1. The agroindustrial residue of carnauba wax semi-decomposed can be used as substrates in the production of ‘Formosa’ papaya seedlings. The foliar fertilization increases the quality of papaya seedlings, leading to increment in leaf area, root volume and sulfur content in the leaves, thus becoming a necessary practice.

  16. Review of cleaning techniques and their effects on the chemical composition of foliar samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossini Oliva, S.; Raitio, H.

    2003-07-01

    Chemical foliar analysis is a tool widely used to study tree nutrition and to monitor the impact and extent of air pollutants. This paper reviews a number of cleaning methods, and the effects of cleaning on foliar chemistry. Cleaning may include mechanical techniques such as the use of dry or moistened tissues, shaking, blowing, and brushing, or use various washing techniques with water or other solvents. Owing to the diversity of plant species, tissue differences, etc., there is no standard procedure for all kinds of samples. Analysis of uncleaned leaves is considered a good method for assessing the degree of air contamination because it provides an estimate of the element content of the deposits on leaf surfaces or when the analysis is aimed at the investigation of transfer of elements along the food chain. Sample cleaning is recommended in order (1) to investigate the transfer rate of chemical elements from soil to plants, (2) to qualify the washoff of dry deposition from foliage and (3) to separate superficially absorbed and biomass-incorporated elements. Since there is not a standard cleaning procedure for all kinds of samples and aims, it is advised to conduct a pilot study in order to be able to establish a cleaning procedure to provide reliable foliar data. (orig.)

  17. Costs and benefits of insecticide and foliar nutrient applications to huanglongbing-infected citrus trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansey, James A; Vanaclocha, Pilar; Monzo, Cesar; Jones, Moneen; Stansly, Philip A

    2017-05-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), vectors Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, which causes huanglongbing (HLB). In Florida, HLB incidence is approaching 100% statewide. Yields have decreased and production costs have increased since 2005. Despite this, some growers are maintaining a level of production and attribute this in part to aggressive psyllid control and foliar nutrition sprays. However, the value of these practices is debated. A replicated field study was initiated in 2008 in a commercial block of 'Valencia' sweet orange trees to evaluate individual and combined effects of foliar nutrition and ACP control. Results from 2012-2016 are presented. Insecticides consistently reduced ACP populations. However, neither insecticide nor nutrition applications significantly influenced HLB incidence or PCR copy number in mature trees. In reset trees, infection continued to build and reached 100% in all treatments. Greatest yields (kg fruit ha -1 ) and production (kg solids ha -1 ) were obtained from trees receiving both insecticides and foliar nutrition. All treatments resulted in production and financial gains relative to controls. However, material and application costs associated with the nutrition component offset these gains, resulting in lesser benefits than insecticides applied alone. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. An Approach for Foliar Trait Retrieval from Airborne Imaging Spectroscopy of Tropical Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta E. Martin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial information on forest functional composition is needed to inform management and conservation efforts, yet this information is lacking, particularly in tropical regions. Canopy foliar traits underpin the functional biodiversity of forests, and have been shown to be remotely measurable using airborne 350–2510 nm imaging spectrometers. We used newly acquired imaging spectroscopy data constrained with concurrent light detection and ranging (LiDAR measurements from the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO, and field measurements, to test the performance of the Spectranomics approach for foliar trait retrieval. The method was previously developed in Neotropical forests, and was tested here in the humid tropical forests of Malaysian Borneo. Multiple foliar chemical traits, as well as leaf mass per area (LMA, were estimated with demonstrable precision and accuracy. The results were similar to those observed for Neotropical forests, suggesting a more general use of the Spectranomics approach for mapping canopy traits in tropical forests. Future mapping studies using this approach can advance scientific investigations and applications based on imaging spectroscopy.

  19. Zinc complexed chitosan/TPP nanoparticles: A promising micronutrient nanocarrier suited for foliar application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Paresh; Dapkekar, Ashwin; Oak, Manoj D; Paknikar, Kishore M; Rajwade, Jyutika M

    2017-06-01

    Cultivation of cereals in zinc deficient soils leads to declined nutritional quality of grain. Zinc deficiency in humans is a consequence of consumption of micronutrient deficient cereals as staple food. To achieve an increase in zinc density in grain, we evaluated zinc complexed chitosan nanoparticles (Zn-CNP) as a potential 'nanocarrier' suited for foliar fertilization. Zn-CNP were synthesized using tri-polyphosphate as a cross-linker. Spherical Zn-CNP (diameter 250-300nm) were positively charged (zeta potential, +42.34mV) and contained ∼20mg Zn/g (w/w). Plant growth in zinc deficient sand media, followed by foliar application of Zn-CNP (twice-a-week, for 5 weeks) after anthesis resulted in 27 and 42% increase in grain zinc content of MACS 3125 and UC1114 (durum wheat cultivars) respectively. Translocation of zinc ions from foliar applied Zn-CNP into the leaf and seed tissue was demonstrated using zinquin and dithizone stains, respectively. The study indicates the suitability of chitosan-based nanocarriers in agronomic biofortification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or work in certain jobs, you may need protection. The most common type of injury happens when something irritates the ...

  1. Ocular Injuries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2015-04-02

    Apr 2, 2015 ... KEYWORDS: Bangers, eye injuries, holidays, Nigeria ... antibiotic and cycloplegic eye drops, antibiotic ointment at night and .... Adeoti C. O, Bello T. O., Ashaye A. O. Blinding ... Can fireworks-related injuries to children during ...

  2. ACL Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... while doing things like skiing, playing soccer or football, and jumping on a trampoline. When you injure ... severity of the injury, age, physical condition, medical history, and other injuries or illnesses. People who are ...

  3. Knee Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Knee Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Knee Injuries What's in ... can do to protect them. What's in a Knee? The knee is a joint , actually the largest ...

  4. Effect of Zinc and Salicylic acid Foliar Application on Quantitative and Qualititative Characteristics of Soybean under Deficit Irrigation Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Zarei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill is a leguminous annual crop belonging to the Fabaceae family, that because an important source of food containing 20 to 28 grain oil percent and high protein is the most important oilseed of worldwide interest. Recently, cultivation of this plant is considered as a valuable oil plant in crop rotation. Drought, salinity, heat and freezing are environmental conditions that cause adverse effects on the growth of plants. Water deficit more than other stresses limits the growth of crops. Yield of soybean decreased due to drought stress. The consumption of fertilizers increases the quality of crops. According to the findings of Yasari and Vahedi (2012 use of Zn in soil and foliar application has an increasing effect on the percentage and the amount of oil and protein in soybean product. The role of salicylic acid (SA is reducing the effects of environmental stresses. It appears that water stress impairs plants and zinc alleviates water stress injuries. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of water stress, zinc and salicylic acid foliar application on oil and grain protein percentage and their relation with oil and protein yield of soybean. Materials and Methods This study was carried out in the agricultural garden of Lorestan-Iran, in 2013. The meteorological data of the region are representing in Table 2. The soil was clay-loam texture (Table 1. The experiment was performed using Split factorial in a randomized complete block design with four replications. In this study, main factor was two levels of irrigation regimes: after 60 (optimum irrigation and 120 mm (stress evaporation from evaporation pan class A and subplot were considered combination of zinc foliar application (Zero and 1 L/ha, in two levels and salicylic acid (0, 0.5 and 1 mM. All statistical analyses were carried out using SAS software and the correlation was done using MSTAT-C program. Results and Discussion In the

  5. Ultraviolet, Visible, and Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, Michael H.

    Spectroscopy in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) range is one of the most commonly encountered laboratory techniques in food analysis. Diverse examples, such as the quantification of macrocomponents (total carbohydrate by the phenol-sulfuric acid method), quantification of microcomponents, (thiamin by the thiochrome fluorometric procedure), estimates of rancidity (lipid oxidation status by the thiobarbituric acid test), and surveillance testing (enzyme-linked immunoassays), are presented in this text. In each of these cases, the analytical signal for which the assay is based is either the emission or absorption of radiation in the UV-Vis range. This signal may be inherent in the analyte, such as the absorbance of radiation in the visible range by pigments, or a result of a chemical reaction involving the analyte, such as the colorimetric copper-based Lowry method for the analysis of soluble protein.

  6. Chemical lasers in the visible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.R.; Broida, H.P.

    1974-01-01

    Since the beginning of the laser era in 1960, a continuing search for chemical lasers has been carried out. This quest has been influenced by the knowledge that many chemical reactions produce visible chemiluminescence and, therefore, partition some of the reaction products into emitting, electronically excited states. Such luminescence has been observed not only from low-pressure, gas-phase reactions, notably those of alkali metals and halogens, but also from a limited number of liquid-phase reactions. (U.S.)

  7. Computing Visible-Surface Representations,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    Terzopoulos N00014-75-C-0643 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AMC ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT, TASK Artificial Inteligence Laboratory AREA A...Massachusetts Institute of lechnolog,. Support lbr the laboratory’s Artificial Intelligence research is provided in part by the Advanced Rtccarcl Proj...dynamically maintaining visible surface representations. Whether the intention is to model human vision or to design competent artificial vision systems

  8. Hamstring Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamstring injury Overview A hamstring injury occurs when you strain or pull one of your hamstring muscles — the group of three muscles that run along ... You may be more likely to get a hamstring injury if you play soccer, basketball, football, tennis ...

  9. Orienteering injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Folan, Jean M.

    1982-01-01

    At the Irish National Orienteering Championships in 1981 a survey of the injuries occurring over the two days of competition was carried out. Of 285 individual competitors there was a percentage injury rate of 5.26%. The article discusses the injuries and aspects of safety in orienteering.

  10. Effects of soil and foliar applications of iron and zinc on flowering and essential oil of chamomile at greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef NASIRI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of soil and foliar applications of iron (Fe and zinc (Zn on flowering, flower yield and essential oil production of German chamomile a pot experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions at the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Iran in 2012. The experiment was arranged as completely randomized design with 12 treatments and three replications. Treatments were as follow: T1: control – without Fe or Zn fertilizers, T2: 30 mg FeSO4.7H2O kg-1 dry soil, T3: 22 mg ZnSO4.7H2O kg-1 dry soil, T4: 30 mg FeSO4.7H2O + 22 mg ZnSO4.7H2O kg-1 dry soil, T5: foliar spraying of FeSO4.7H2O (3.5 g L-1, T6: foliar spraying of FeSO4.7H2O (7.0 g L-1, T7: foliar spraying of ZnSO4.7H2O (2.5 g L-1, T8: foliar spraying of ZnSO4.7H2O (5.0 g L-1, T9: T5+T7, T10: T5+T8, T11: T6+T7, T12: T6+T8. The foliar spraying was done two times during the growing period. The results revealed that the flower number, flower yield, essential oil content and essential oil yield were significantly increased by soil and foliar applications of Fe + Zn, compared with the control (untreated. The highest flower number (477 plant-1, flower yield (11.6 g pot-1, essential oil content (0.88 % and essential oil yield (119 mg pot-1 were recorded for the soil application of Fe + Zn (T4 by 58, 68, 21.4 and 105 % increment compared to the control, respectively. Foliar application of Fe + Zn (T12 was placed at the next rank; however this treatment had no significant difference with the soil application of Fe + Zn (T4. Other treatments did not show significant differences with the control. Generally, the results showed that soil or foliar application of Fe + Zn can be effective on increase or improve of quantity and quality of chamomile yield. Moreover, use of foliar application as a low cost method especially in areas with alkaline or calcareous soils can be recommended.

  11. Absorption of foliar-applied arsenic by the arsenic hyperaccumulating fern (Pteris vittata L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondada, Bhaskar R.; Tu, Shuxin; Ma, Lena Q

    2004-10-01

    The fact that heavy metals can enter various domains of the plant system through foliar pathways spurred us to explore if the fronds of the Chinese brake fern (Pteris vittata L.), a hyperaccumulator of arsenic, a carcinogenic metalloid, was proficient in absorbing arsenic in the form of sprays. The specific objective of this study was to investigate the impact of frond age, form of arsenic, and time of application on the absorption of foliar-applied arsenic by the brake fern; also examined were the effects of foliar sprays on surface ultrastructure and arsenic speciation in the frond following absorption. Foliar sprays of different arsenic concentrations (0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 ppm) were applied to young and fertile fronds. A positive linear relationship existed between arsenic concentration and absorption; the arsenic concentration of fronds increased from 50 to 200 ppm. Time-course analysis with excised pinnae indicated an initial linear increase followed by a plateau at 48 h. The young fronds with immature sori absorbed more arsenic (3100 ppm) than the fertile mature fronds (890 ppm). In the frond, the arsenic absorption was greatest in the lamina of the pinnae followed by the sori and the rachis. Applying arsenic during night (20:00-22:00 h) or afternoon (12:00-14:00 h) resulted in greater absorption of arsenic than the application in the morning (08:00-10:00 h). The arsenic absorption was greater through abaxial surfaces than through adaxial surfaces. The brake fern absorbed more arsenic when it was applied in the form of arsenite. Regardless of the form of arsenic and the surface it was applied to, arsenic occurred as arsenite, the reduced and the most toxic form of arsenic, after having been absorbed by the fronds. Scanning electron microscopy revealed no surface morphological alterations following all arsenic sprays. The study unequivocally illustrated that the Chinese brake fern absorbed foliar-applied arsenic with great efficiency. Consequently, the

  12. Absorption of foliar-applied arsenic by the arsenic hyperaccumulating fern (Pteris vittata L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondada, Bhaskar R.; Tu, Shuxin; Ma, Lena Q.

    2004-01-01

    The fact that heavy metals can enter various domains of the plant system through foliar pathways spurred us to explore if the fronds of the Chinese brake fern (Pteris vittata L.), a hyperaccumulator of arsenic, a carcinogenic metalloid, was proficient in absorbing arsenic in the form of sprays. The specific objective of this study was to investigate the impact of frond age, form of arsenic, and time of application on the absorption of foliar-applied arsenic by the brake fern; also examined were the effects of foliar sprays on surface ultrastructure and arsenic speciation in the frond following absorption. Foliar sprays of different arsenic concentrations (0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 ppm) were applied to young and fertile fronds. A positive linear relationship existed between arsenic concentration and absorption; the arsenic concentration of fronds increased from 50 to 200 ppm. Time-course analysis with excised pinnae indicated an initial linear increase followed by a plateau at 48 h. The young fronds with immature sori absorbed more arsenic (3100 ppm) than the fertile mature fronds (890 ppm). In the frond, the arsenic absorption was greatest in the lamina of the pinnae followed by the sori and the rachis. Applying arsenic during night (20:00-22:00 h) or afternoon (12:00-14:00 h) resulted in greater absorption of arsenic than the application in the morning (08:00-10:00 h). The arsenic absorption was greater through abaxial surfaces than through adaxial surfaces. The brake fern absorbed more arsenic when it was applied in the form of arsenite. Regardless of the form of arsenic and the surface it was applied to, arsenic occurred as arsenite, the reduced and the most toxic form of arsenic, after having been absorbed by the fronds. Scanning electron microscopy revealed no surface morphological alterations following all arsenic sprays. The study unequivocally illustrated that the Chinese brake fern absorbed foliar-applied arsenic with great efficiency. Consequently, the

  13. [Street Outreach Offices: visibility, invisibility, and enhanced visibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallais, Janaína Alves da Silveira; Barros, Nelson Filice de

    2015-07-01

    This article discusses care for street people from a socio-anthropological perspective, using participant observation conducted with a team from a street outreach project. Based on observations, street people are historically viewed as marginal and rarely obtain access to health services, thus making them invisible to the Brazilian Unified National Health System. Brazil's National Policy for the Homeless provides for their access to health care, but such care is not always guaranteed in practice, because health services and professionals have little experience in dealing with homeless persons. The study concludes that enhanced visibility is needed to ensure care for people living on the street, establishing a therapeutic bond that deconstructs stigmatizing practice.

  14. Foliar and soil application of 15N-labelled fertilizers in the cultivation of common bean and soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanicolaou, E.P.; Skarlou, V.D.; Apostolakis, C.G.; Katranis, N.

    1979-01-01

    In two field experiments (one with beans and one with soybeans) during 1977, the influence of soil application of different nitrogen fertilizers and also of foliar application of the Hanway nutrient solution (N-P-K-S) on nitrogen fixation, grain yield and fertilizer utilization was studied. The nodule data for soybeans indicated that urea applied as starter, topdress or foliar spray adversely affected nodule number and weight. Starter (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 had an effect similar to urea, while starter NH 4 NO 3 had slight or no adverse effect. Use of (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 or NH 4 NO 3 in the Hanway solution had a strong adverse effect. Yield data of the soybean experiment indicated that urea, applied as starter or starter plus topdress, had no essential effect while foliar spray showed a clear adverse effect on the grain yield of soybean-nod. When (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 or NH 4 NO 3 were used in the foliar spray, the adverse effect was more evident. Non-nod soybean showed slight yield response to topdress N and significant positive response to Hanway foliar spray. In the bean experiment some evidence of positive response to topdress N plus Hanway foliar spray was observed in the non-nod crop, but it was not significant. The utilization coefficient of the applied fertilizers varied with the treatments. The highest utilization coefficient (50-70%), for both experiments, was observed when urea was applied as foliar spray. Application of urea as starter gave low utilization while topdress application gave high utilization in the soybean experiment and low in that of common bean. Under the experimental conditions starter urea was better utilized than starter ammonium sulphate or nitrate. (author)

  15. Effect of Foliar Application of Phosphorus and Water Deficit on Yield and Yield Components of Winter Wheat (Cultivar Alvand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vafapour

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of foliar application of phosphorus (P and water deficit on yield and yield components of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Alvand, a split-plot experiment, with completely randomized blocks design and three replications, was carried out at the Research Farm of Boyer Ahmad Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Station, 13 km west of Yasouj, in 2008-2009. The main plots were irrigation at three levels (1- full irrigation (control, 2- deficit irrigation from the stem elongation to booting stage, and 3- deficit irrigation from booting stage to the end of growth period and the subplots were five levels of foliar application of P fertilizer (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 kg/ha KH2PO4. The results showed that the effects of different irrigation regimes and foliar application of P were significant on all traits, and their interaction was significant on plant height, number of grain per spike, grain yield and biological yield. Full irrigation and foliar application of 6 kg/ha P produced the highest grain and biological yield (6000 and 14170 kg/ha, respectively and deficit irrigation from the stem elongation to booting stage without foliar application of P produced the lowest grain and biological yield (2920 and 8219 kg/ha, respectively. Foliar application of P affects significantly the evaluated traits only in drought-stress treatments and its effect was not significant in full irrigation treatment. In general, foliar application of 9 kg/ha P compensated the losses in wheat due to drought stress.

  16. Malabsorption of mineral nutrients and effects of foliar fertilization on continuously cropped capsicum annuum l. var. annuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, X.H.; Zhao, Z.L.; Zhao, Z.L.; Zhao, H.B.

    2014-01-01

    Cayenne pepper (C. annuum var. annuum) cultivar known as line No. 5 was used to establish a reference baseline for fertilization experiments under conditions of continuous cropping versus crop rotation. The effects of continuous cropping on absorption of 11 essential nutrient elements and fruit yield were studied. Concurrently, we also examined the effects of foliar application of urea + KH/sub 2/ PO/sub 4/ and Fe + B + Zn + Mn on nutrient absorption due to continuous cropping. The results showed that, compared with peppers grown in rotation soil, continuous cropping affected the uptake of eight elements (P, K, Mg, Fe, B, Zn, Mn, Cu) and transport of these elements to the aerial parts of the plant, although the element concentrations in continuous cropping soil were not lower than those in rotation soil. Continuous cropping caused a decline in fruit yield. The impact of continuous cropping on the uptake of trace elements was greater than it was for macro elements. Foliar application of urea + KH/sub 2/ PO/sub 4/ significantly improved the P, Mg, Fe, and Mo content of continuously-cropped pepper plants, but did not significantly improve the content of N and K, and there was an antagonistic effect on Zn uptake. Foliar application of Fe + B + Zn + Mn, significantly increased the Fe, B, Zn, Mn, and P content in the plants; Ca uptake in the leaves and fruits was promoted to a certain degree, but there was obvious antagonism toward Mo and Cu uptake in the stems, leaves and fruits. Pepper fruit yields were significantly increased by foliar application of urea + KH/sub 2/ PO/sub 4/ or foliar application of Fe + B + Zn + Mn. However the effects of foliar application of Fe + B + Zn + Mn on increased production were significantly better than the effects of foliar application of urea + KH/sub 2/ PO/sub 4/. (author)

  17. Changes in radiocesium contamination from Fukushima in foliar parts of 10 common tree species in Japan between 2011 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, Toshihiro; Matsumura, Hideyuki; Tsuzaki, Masaharu; Wakamatsu, Takashi; Kobayashi, Takuya; Hashida, Shin-Nosuke; Nagaoka, Toru; Goto, Fumiyuki

    2014-12-01

    Yearly changes in radiocesium ((137)Cs) contamination, primarily due to the Fukushima accident of March 2011, were observed in the foliar parts of 10 common woody species in Japan (Chamaecyparis obtusa, Cedrus deodara, Pinus densiflora, Cryptomeria japonica, Phyllostachys pubescens, Cinnamomum camphora, Metasequoia glyptostroboides, Prunus × yedoensis, Acer buergerianum, and Aesculus hippocastanum). The samples were obtained from Abiko (approximately 200 km SSW of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant) during each growing season between 2011 and 2013, and the foliar parts were examined based on their year of expansion and location in each trees. The radiocesium concentrations generally decreased with time; however, the concentrations and rates of decrease varied among species, age of foliar parts, and locations. The radiocesium concentrations in the 2012 current-year foliar parts were 29%-220% of those from 2011, while those from 2013 fell to between 14% and 42% of the 2011 values. The net decontamination in the foliage was higher in evergreen species than in deciduous species. The radiocesium concentrations in the upper foliar parts were higher than those in the lower parts particularly in C. japonica. In addition, the radiocesium concentrations were higher in the current-year foliar parts than in the 1-year-old foliar parts, particularly in 2013. Thus, the influence of the direct deposition of the fallout was reduced with time, and the translocation ability of radiocesium from old to new tissues became more influential. Similar to the behavior of potassium in trees, Cs redistribution probably occurred primarily due to internal nutrient translocation mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Soil and Foliar Arthropod Abundance and Diversity in Five Cropping Systems in the Coastal Plains of North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Paul R; Orr, David B; Arellano, Consuelo; Cardoza, Yasmin J

    2017-08-01

    Soil and foliar arthropod populations in agricultural settings respond to environmental disturbance and degradation, impacting functional biodiversity in agroecosystems. The objective of this study was to evaluate system level management effects on soil and foliar arthropod abundance and diversity in corn and soybean. Our field experiment was a completely randomized block design with three replicates for five farming systems which included: Conventional clean till, conventional long rotation, conventional no-till, organic clean till, and organic reduced till. Soil arthropod sampling was accomplished by pitfall trapping. Foliar arthropod sampling was accomplished by scouting corn and sweep netting soybean. Overall soil arthropod abundance was significantly impacted by cropping in corn and for foliar arthropods in soybeans. Conventional long rotation and organic clean till systems were highest in overall soil arthropod abundance for corn while organic reduced till systems exceeded all other systems for overall foliar arthropod abundance in soybeans. Foliar arthropod abundance over sampling weeks was significantly impacted by cropping system and is suspected to be the result of in-field weed and cover crop cultivation practices. This suggests that the sum of management practices within production systems impact soil and foliar arthropod abundance and diversity and that the effects of these systems are dynamic over the cropping season. Changes in diversity may be explained by weed management practices as sources of disturbance and reduced arthropod refuges via weed reduction. Furthermore, our results suggest agricultural systems lower in management intensity, whether due to organic practices or reduced levels of disturbance, foster greater arthropod diversity. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Complementary Evaluation of Iron Deficiency Root Responses to Assess the Effectiveness of Different Iron Foliar Applications for Chlorosis Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Fuentes

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency in plants is caused by a low availability of iron in the soil, and its main visual symptom is leaf yellowing due to a decrease in chlorophyll content, along with a reduction in plant growth and fruit quality. Foliar sprays with Fe compounds are an economic alternative to the treatment with expensive synthetic Fe-chelates applied to the soil, although the efficacy of foliar treatments is rather limited. Generally, plant response to Fe-foliar treatments is monitored by measuring chlorophyll content (or related parameters as SPAD index. However, different studies have shown that foliar Fe sprays cause a local regreening and that translocation of the applied Fe within the plant is quite low. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of foliar applications of different Fe compounds [FeSO4, Fe(III-EDTA, and Fe(III-heptagluconate] on Fe-deficient cucumber plants, by studying the main physiological plant root responses to Fe deficiency [root Fe(III chelate reductase (FCR activity; acidification of the nutrient solution; and expression of the Fe deficiency responsive genes encoding FCR, CsFRO1, Fe(II root transporter CsIRT1, and two plasma membrane H+-ATPases, CsHA1 and CsHA2], along with SPAD index, plant growth and Fe content. The results showed that the overall assessment of Fe-deficiency root responses improved the evaluation of the efficacy of the Fe-foliar treatments compared to just monitoring SPAD indexes. Thus, FCR activity and expression of Fe-deficiency response genes, especially CsFRO1 and CsHA1, preceded the trend of SPAD index and acted as indicators of whether the plant was sensing or not metabolically active Fe due to the treatments. Principal component analysis of the data also provided a graphical tool to evaluate the evolution of plant responses to foliar Fe treatments with time.

  20. Beyond Language Equivalence on Visibly Pushdown Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srba, Jiri

    2009-01-01

    We study (bi)simulation-like preorder/equivalence checking on the class of visibly pushdown automata and its natural subclasses visibly BPA (Basic Process Algebra) and visibly one-counter automata. We describe generic methods for proving complexity upper and lower bounds for a number of studied...... preorders and equivalences like simulation, completed simulation, ready simulation, 2-nested simulation preorders/equivalences and bisimulation equivalence. Our main results are that all the mentioned equivalences and preorders are EXPTIME-complete on visibly pushdown automata, PSPACE-complete on visibly...... one-counter automata and P-complete on visibly BPA. Our PSPACE lower bound for visibly one-counter automata improves also the previously known DP-hardness results for ordinary one-counter automata and one-counter nets. Finally, we study regularity checking problems for visibly pushdown automata...

  1. Anatomía foliar y del pecíolo de cuatro especies de Lupinus (Fabaceae Foliar and petiole anatomy of four species of Lupinus (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Zamora-Natera

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describe y compara la anatomía foliar y del pecíolo de 4 especies del género Lupinus (L. aschenbornii S.Schauer, L. exaltatus Zucc., L. montanus Kunth y L. reflexus Rose que se distribuyen en un gradiente altitudinal en el Parque Nacional Nevado de Colima. Las hojas se fijaron en campo y se procesaron mediante la técnica de inclusión en parafina. Parte de las láminas se deshidrataron para caracterizar la superficie foliar por medio del microscopio electrónico de barrido. Las especies comparten la epidermis papilosa de paredes anticlinales con diferentes grados de ondulación, estomas anomocíticos, tricomas simples lineares y mesofilo bifacial. Los folíolos de L. montanus son glabros en la superficie abaxial, las estrías cuticulares sobre las células localizadas en la base de los tricomas es un rasgo característico de L. montanus y de L. reflexus. Las diferencias encontradas en espesor de la lámina y del mesofilo así como la abundancia de ceras epicuticulares pueden estar influenciadas por el ambiente. Distintivamente, el número y distribución de haces vasculares en los pecíolos difieren entre las 4 especies y podrían ser de utilidad para diferenciarlas si estos resultados se confirman al estudiar un mayor número de especies de Lupinus.The aims of this study were to describe and compare the foliar and petiole anatomy of 4 species of Lupinus (L. aschenbornii S.Schauer, L. exaltatus Zucc., L. montanus Kunth, and L. reflexus Rose distributed in an elevation gradient at Parque Nacional Nevado de Colima. Leaves were fixed in the field and prepared using the paraffin embedding technique. In addition, part of the blades was dehydrated to describe leaf surface through the scanning electron microscope. The 4 species shared a papillose epidermis with undulated anticlinal walls in different degrees, stomata anomocytic, simple unicellular trichomes, and bifacial mesophyll. Leaflets of L. montanus are glabrous on the abaxial surface

  2. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord Injury Levels of Injury and What They Mean Animated Spinal ... Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord Injury Levels of Injury and What They Mean Animated Spinal ...

  3. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation ... Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation ...

  4. Computing visibility on terrains in external memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkort, H.J.; Toma, L.; Zhuang, Yi

    2007-01-01

    We describe a novel application of the distribution sweeping technique to computing visibility on terrains. Given an arbitrary viewpoint v, the basic problem we address is computing the visibility map or viewshed of v, which is the set of points in the terrain that are visible from v. We give the

  5. Visible Nulling Coronagraph Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, R. G.; Clampin, M.; Woodruff, R. A.; Vasudevan, G.; Thompson, P.; Petrone, P.; Madison, T.; Rizzo, M.; Melnick, G.; Tolls, V.

    2010-10-01

    We report on recent laboratory results with the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Visible Nulling Coronagraph (VNC) testbed. We have achieved focal plane contrasts of 108 and approaching 109 at inner working angles of 2 λ/D and 4 λ/D, respectively. Results were obtained with a broadband source and 40 nm filter centered on 630 nm. A null control breadboard (NCB) was also developed to assess and quantify MEMS based deformable mirror technology (DM), and to develop and assess closed-loop null control algorithms. We have demonstrated closed-loop performance at 27 Hz.

  6. Impact of Potassium Foliar Application in Alleviating the Harmful Effects of Salinity in Spinach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirhooshang jalali

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Spinach is an important leafy vegetable in the cold season, and despite the fact that is considered as low-calorie food source contains significant amount of minerals such as iron, and vitamin A and C. According to the University of Utah 3.8 dS m-1 is salinity tolerance threshold for the spinach and yield decrease that have been reported by 10%, 25% and 50% at 5.5, 7 and 8 dS m-1 salinity. The necessity to supply adequate potassium has been demonstrated in salinity conditions. In salt stress conditions, foliar application of K in spinach, reduces the harmful effects of salt and increase the ratio of potassium to sodium (1.61 to 2.72. Foliar application of K with prevent of potassium transfer from root to shoot is causing continuation of photosynthesis and reduce the effects of salinity. Absorption of potassium from the leaves depends on the type of used compound. In this context, characteristics of plant (leaves with a waxy composition, duration of growth and leaf area are important. 100 kg ha-1 of potassium in salt stress conditions by reducing the absorption of sodium, increased salt tolerance on the sunflower. Materials and Methods: In order to evaluate the foliar application of K on the yield and yield components of spinach in salt stress condition, a study was conducted in 2012 by using split plot randomized based on complete block design with four replications at Isfahan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Station. Three levels of irrigation water salinity consisted of a control (2 dS m-1, well water with salinity (4 dS m-1 and well water with salinity (8dS m-1 arranged in main plots and two levels of control and foliar applications of potassium fertilizer containing potassium oxide solubility in water (2.5 ml per liter arranged in subplots. Statistical analysis was conducted by using SAS software and statistical tests were compared with Duncan at 5 percent. Result and Discussions: The results showed that the yield of

  7. Anatomía foliar y caulinar en especies de Stemodia (Scrophulariaceae Foliar and caulinar anatomy in species of Stemodia (Scrophulariaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria De Las Mercedes Sosa

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la estructura anatómica foliar y caulinar en el género Stemodia. Son consideradas siete especies: S. ericifolia (Kuntze K. Schum., S. hyptoides Cham. & Schltdl., S. lanceolata Benth., S. lobelioides Lehm., S. palustris A. St.-Hil., S. stricta Cham. & Schltdl. y S. verticillata (Mill. Hassl. Se hallaron diferencias en la epidermis foliar, donde hay variación en el tipo de estomas y de tricomas, y en la forma de las papilas epidérmicas; también en la estructura del mesofilo. Se describen e ilustran cuatro tipos de tricomas considerando si son o no glandulares y el número de células que lo conforman. El estudio de la anatomía caulinar mostró diferencias en cuanto a la presencia de aerénquima cortical y de laguna medular, y el porcentaje de espacios en el aerénquima cortical.Comparative anatomical studies of the leaves and stems on the genus Stemodia are presented. Seven species are considered: S. ericifolia (Kuntze K. Schum., S. hyptoides Cham. & Schltdl., S. lanceolata Benth., S. lobelioides Lehm., S. palustris A. St.-Hil., S. stricta Cham. & Schltdl. and S. verticillata (Mill. Hassl. There are variation in the stomatal and trichome types, form of the papillae and mesophyll structure. Four trichome types are described and illustrated considering if they are glandular or non-glandular and the number of cells. The stems present a quite homogeneous anatomical structure. Some differences in the amount and distribution of the aerenchyma and the size of the intercellular spaces are observed.

  8. The Effects Foliar Application of Methanol at Different Growth Stages on Kernel Related Traits in Chickpea var. ILC 482

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Naeimi,

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to evaluate the effects of foliar application of methanol on certain kernel related traits at different growth stages of pea var. ILC482 at the Research Station of Faculty of Agriculture in Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch in 2011. The study was conducted in split plot experiment based on Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Treatments were three levels methanol foliar application at different growth stages (vegetative, reproductive and foliar application at both two stages which considered as main factor, six levels of foliar application of methanol concentrations: (0 [control], 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30% as sub factor. Results showed that the interactions of methanol applications growth stages and its concentrations on grain number per plant, 100 kernel weight, grain yield, grain filing rate and harvest index were significantly different. Foliar application of methanol at reproductive stage decrease kernel related traits, but this application at both growth stages had positive effect on grain production and kernel related traits. This positive effect on number and 100 kernel weight were significant. The highest grain yield (2460 kg/ha was obtained by 20% concentration of methanol at both growth stages that increased grain yield above 13.5% compared to the control condition.

  9. Foliar-applied urea modulates nitric oxide synthesis metabolism and glycinebetaine accumulation in drought-stressed maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, L.; Tian, L.; Lai, J.; Zheng, P.; Liang, Z.; Alva, A

    2014-01-01

    Foliar urea has been proved to play a better positive role in enhancing accumulation of nitric oxide (NO) and glycinebetaine (GB) in maize (Zea mays L.) under drought stress (DS). However, it is unclear how foliar urea affects biosynthetic metabolism of NO and its relationship with GB accumulation. This study was on investigating the effect of foliar- applied urea on seedlings of maize cultivar Zhengdan 958 grown in a hydroponic medium under DS or No DS. Contents of NO and GB and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity increased and peaked 12 h after the treatment. Nitrate reductase activity (NRA) followed the similar pattern 6h after the treatment. Under DS foliar urea application increased NR and NOS activity and, thereby, increased NO formation. Therefore, enhancement in activities of both NRA and NOS resulted in an increase of NO accumulation. Foliar- applied urea could induce an increased NO burst by enhanced NO synthesis metabolism as a nitrogen signal, possibly resulting in GB accumulation under DS. (author)

  10. Antecipação do período de diagnose foliar em laranjeira 'Pêra' no Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Rafael Machado Dias

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a possibilidade de se antecipar o período de realização da diagnose foliar em laranjeira 'Pêra'. Vinte e sete pomares representativos da região produtora de laranja do Estado do Amazonas foram monitorados durante o ano agrícola de 2011/2012. Foram realizadas diagnoses da composição nutricional (CND em amostras foliares retiradas durante a floração e quando a árvore apresentava frutos com três e seis meses de idade (época tradicional para o monitoramento nutricional. Pomares com produtividade superior a 25 Mg ha‑1 foram selecionados para o estabelecimento dos padrões de referência. O estado nutricional da laranja variou com o estádio fenológico no qual se realizou a amostragem foliar, o que fez com que fosse necessário estabelecer normas CND para cada período. Com a antecipação da diagnose para o período de floração, observou-se aumento nas concentrações foliares de N, P, K e Cu diminuição e nas de Ca. A antecipação da diagnose foliar em laranja 'Pêra' depende da geração de padrões nutricionais CND específicos para cada época de amostragem.

  11. Effect of Foliar Application of Iron, Zinc and Manganese on Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Two Varieties of Grain Millet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Javadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of foliar application of Fe, Zn and Mn on yield, yield components and protein content of two varieties of grain millet an experiment was conducted as factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications in research field of Birjand branch, Islamic Azad University at 2010.  In this study two millet varieties including Bastan (Setaria italica and Pishahang (Panicum miliaceum, and six levels of foliar micronutrient fertilizer including control, Fe, Zn, Mn, (Fe+Zn, (Fe+Zn+Mn were investigated. The results indicated that, panicle length, 1000 grain weight and panicle number per m2 were higher in Pishahang than Bastan, but grain yield, number of seeds per panicle, harvest index and protein yield were higher in Bastan. Characteristics such as panicle length, biological yield and harvest index and protein percentage were affected by foliar micronutrient fertilizer but grain yield remained unchanged. Foliar application with (Fe+Zn+Mn increased protein content compared to the control, but it did not affect protein yield. According to the results of this experiment, Bastan millet variety and foliar application of Zn is potent to produce the maximum grain yield, albeit it warrants further studies.

  12. Mapping Loci That Control Tuber and Foliar Symptoms Caused by PVY in Autotetraploid Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Washington L; Ingram, Jason; Hackett, Christine A; Coombs, Joseph J; Douches, David; Bryan, Glenn J; De Jong, Walter; Gray, Stewart

    2017-11-06

    Potato tuber necrotic ringspot disease (PTNRD) is a tuber deformity associated with infection by the tuber necrotic strain of Potato virus Y (PVY NTN ). PTNRD negatively impacts tuber quality and marketability, and poses a serious threat to seed and commercial potato production worldwide. PVY NTN symptoms differ in the cultivars Waneta and Pike: Waneta expresses severe PTNRD and foliar mosaic with vein and leaf necrosis, whereas Pike does not express PTNRD and mosaic is the only foliar symptom. To map loci that influence tuber and foliar symptoms, 236 F 1 progeny of a cross between Waneta and Pike were inoculated with PVY NTN isolate NY090029 and genotyped using 12,808 potato SNPs. Foliar symptom type and severity were monitored for 10 wk, while tubers were evaluated for PTNRD expression at harvest and again after 60 d in storage. Pairwise correlation analyses indicate a strong association between PTNRD and vein necrosis (τ = 0.4195). QTL analyses revealed major-effect QTL on chromosomes 4 and 5 for mosaic, 4 for PTNRD, and 5 for foliar necrosis symptoms. Locating QTL associated with PVY-related symptoms provides a foundation for breeders to develop markers that can be used to eliminate potato clones with undesirable phenotypes, e.g. , those likely to develop PTNRD or to be symptomless carriers of PVY. Copyright © 2017 Silva et al.

  13. Metabolic changes associated with ozone injury of bean leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craker, L.E.; Starbuck, J.S.

    1972-07-01

    Metabolic processes in primary leaves of bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) were altered by ozone stress. Decreases in levels of ribonucleic acid (RNA) and protein, and increases in ribonuclease (RNase) and free amine groups were associated with visible oxidant injury to the leaves. It appears that some air pollution injury to plants may result from changes in metabolic processes. 23 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  14. [Effects of different soil types on the foliar δ13C values of common local plant species in karst rocky desertification area in central Guizhou Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xue-lian; Wang, Shi-jie; Luo, Xu-qiang

    2014-09-01

    By measuring the foliar δ13C values of common local plant species grown in different soil types in Wangjiazhai catchments, a typical karst desertification area in Qingzhen City, Central Guizhou, we studied the impact of soil type and rocky desertification grade on the foliar δ13C values. The results showed that the foliar δ13C values were more negative in yellow soil area than those in black calcareous area and there was no obvious difference in foliar δ13C values between these two soil types. The distribution interval of foliar δ13C values in yellow soil area was narrower than those in black calcareous area and the variation coefficient of foliar δ13C values in yellow soil area were smaller than those in black calcareous area. With increasing degree of karst rocky desertification, the foliar δ13C values of plant community in black calcareous area increased, whereas those in yellow soil area first increased and then decreased. The result of multiple comparison showed that the difference in foliar δ13C values of plant community among rocky desertification grade was not obvious in yellow soil area, but it was obvious in black calcareous area. Correlation analysis between the foliar δ13C values of plant species and the main environmental factors indicated that slope and soil thickness were the main factors which affected the foliar δ13C values of plants in yellow soil area and soil water contant was the main factor in black calcareous area. The impact of soil on the foliar δ13C values was realized by adjusting the soil moisture in study area.

  15. Corn silage from corn treated with foliar fungicide and performance of Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haerr, K J; Lopes, N M; Pereira, M N; Fellows, G M; Cardoso, F C

    2015-12-01

    Foliar fungicide application to corn plants is used in corn aimed for corn silage in the dairy industry, but questions regarding frequency of application and its effect on corn silage quality and feed conversion when fed to dairy cows remain prevalent. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of various foliar fungicide applications to corn on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, and milk composition when fed to dairy cows. Sixty-four Holstein cows with parity 2.5±1.5, 653±80kg of body weight, and 161±51d in milk were blocked and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 corn silage treatments (total mixed ration with 35% of the dry matter as corn silage). Treatments were as follows: control (CON), corn silage with no applications of foliar fungicide; treatment 1 (1X), corn silage from corn that received 1 application of pyraclostrobin (PYR) foliar fungicide (Headline; BASF Corp.) at corn vegetative stage 5; treatment 2 (2X), corn silage from corn that received the same application as 1X plus another application of a mixture of PYR and metconazole (Headline AMP; BASF Corp.) at corn reproductive stage 1 ("silking"); and treatment 3 (3X), corn silage from corn that received the same applications as 2X as well as a third application of PYR and metconazole at reproductive stage 3 ("milky kernel"). Corn was harvested at about 32% dry matter and 3/4 milk line stage of kernel development and ensiled for 200d. Treatments were fed to cows for 5wk, with the last week being used for statistical inferences. Week -1 was used as a covariate in the statistical analysis. Dry matter intake tended to be lower for cows fed corn silage treated with fungicide than CON (23.8, 23.0, 19.5, and 21.3kg for CON, 1X, 2X, and 3X, respectively). A linear treatment effect for DMI was observed, with DMI decreasing as foliar fungicide applications increased. Treatments CON, 1X, 2X, and 3X did not differ for milk yield (34.5, 34.5, 34.2, and 34.4kg/d, respectively); however, a trend for

  16. Paragliding injuries.

    OpenAIRE

    Krüger-Franke, M; Siebert, C H; Pförringer, W

    1991-01-01

    Regulations controlling the sport of paragliding were issued in April 1987 by the German Department of Transportation. The growing popularity of this sport has led to a steady increase in the number of associated injuries. This study presents the incidence, localization and degree of injuries associated with paragliding documented in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The 283 injuries suffered by 218 paragliders were documented in the period 1987-1989: 181 occurred during landing, 28 during st...

  17. Foliar potassium nitrate application improves the tolerance of Citrus macrophylla L. seedlings to drought conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, V; Díaz-López, L; Simón-Grao, S; Martínez, V; Martínez-Nicolás, J J; García-Sánchez, F

    2014-10-01

    Scarcity of water is a severe limitation in citrus tree productivity. There are few studies that consider how to manage nitrogen (N) nutrition in crops suffering water deficit. A pot experiment under controlled-environment chambers was conducted to explore if additional N supply via foliar application could improve the drought tolerance of Citrus macrophylla L. seedlings under dry conditions. Two-month-old seedlings were subjected to a completely random design with two water treatments (drought stress and 100% water/field capacity). Plants under drought stress (DS) received three different N supplies via foliar application (DS: 0, DS + NH4NO3: 2% NH4NO3, DS + KNO3: 2% KNO3). KNO3-spraying increased leaf and stem DW as compared with DS + NH4NO3 and DS treatments. Leaf water potential (Ψw) was decreased by drought stress in all the treatments. However, in plants from DS + NH4NO and DS + KNO3, this was due to a decrease in the leaf osmotic potential, whereas the decrease in those from the DS treatment was due to a decrease in the leaf turgor potential. These responses were correlated with the leaf proline and K concentrations. DS + KNO3-treated plants had a higher leaf proline and K concentration than DS-treated plants. In terms of leaf gas exchange parameters, it was observed that net assimilation of CO2 [Formula: see text] was decreased by drought stress, but this reduction was much lower in DS + KNO3-treated plants. Thus, when all results are taken into account, it can be concluded that a 2% foliar-KNO3 application can enhance the tolerance of citrus plants to water stress by increasing the osmotic adjustment process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of the foliar enrichment and herbicides on maize and associated weeds irrigated with drainage water

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    Roshdy M.H. Tagour

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A two-year field experiment was conducted during summer seasons of 2013 and 2014, which were irrigated by drainage water which belong to salinity class (C3S1 to C4S2, to study the effect of the foliar enrichment namely (Anti-stress and weed management treatments (some pre and post-emergence herbicides and two-hand hoeing on maize growth, yield, yield components and chemical composition of maize grains and associated weeds (Portulaca oleracea, Amaranthus retroflexus and Echinochloa colonum. The results illustrated that application of the foliar enrichment enhanced the dry weight of weeds and increased maize growth characters, yield and yield components and total crude protein and total oil percentage of grain maize, as compared with untreated treatment. All weed management treatments caused a significant reduction in total dry weight of weeds at 60 and 80 days after sowing in both seasons. Two-hand hoeing treatment exerted the highest decrease in total dry weight of weeds followed by metribuzin, oxadiagyl, fluroxypyr and bentazon, respectively at 60 and 80 days after sowing compared with other weed management treatments. While, the highest values of maize growth, yield, yield components and maize grains' content of protein and oil was obtained with two-hand hoeing followed by metribuzin, oxadiagyl, fluroxypyr and bentazon, respectively. While, two hands hoeing produced the maximum values of leaf area, ear length, the weight of kernels plant−1, but applying of metribuzin treatment gave the highest values of total oil percentage of grain maize when the foliar enrichment was used.

  19. Effect of Rhizobium inoculation of seeds and foliar fertilization on productivity of Pisum sativum L.

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    Tadeusz Zając

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Pea (Pisum sativum L. is the second most important grain legume crop in the world which has a wide array of uses for human food and fodder. One of the major factors that determines the use of field pea is the yield potential of cultivars. Presently, pre-sowing inoculation of pea seeds and foliar application of microelement fertilizers are prospective solutions and may be reasonable agrotechnical options. This research was undertaken because of the potentially high productivity of the 'afila' morphotype in good wheat complex soils. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of vaccination with Rhizobium and foliar micronutrient fertilization on yield of the afila pea variety. The research was based on a two-year (2009–2010 controlled field experiment, conducted in four replicates and carried out on the experimental field of the Bayer company located in Modzurów, Silesian region. experimental field soil was Umbrisol – slightly degraded chernozem, formed from loess. Nitragina inoculant, as a source of symbiotic bacteria, was applied before sowing seeds. Green area index (GAI of the canopy, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI were determined at characteristic growth stages. The presented results of this study on symbiotic nitrogen fixation by leguminous plants show that the combined application of Nitragina and Photrel was the best combination for productivity. Remote measurements of the pea canopy indexes indicated the formation of the optimum leaf area which effectively used photosynthetically active radiation. The use of Nitragina as a donor of effective Rhizobium for pea plants resulted in slightly higher GAI values and the optimization of PAR and NDVI. It is not recommended to use foliar fertilizers or Nitragina separately due to the slowing of pea productivity.

  20. Foliar Absorption, Translocation and Utilization of Zn-65 by Mango Seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, F.A.; Sharaf, A.N.M.; Awad, S.M.; Abu EL Azm, S.K.

    2001-01-01

    Greenhouse experiment was designed using ZnSO 4 at rates of 0.125,0.25 and 0.50%. Solutions were adjusted to ph 6.0 and Tween-20 was added as a surfactant. The prepared solutions were labelled with carrier-free Zn-65. Six-month old mango seedlings were arranged in a complete block design to study the foliar absorption,translocation and percentage use of Zn-65 as influenced by soil application of phosphorus. The total absorption of Zn-65 by mango leaves was affected by spraying treatment of Zn-65 and soil application of phosphorus. In this respect increasing the rates of labelled Zn solution resulted in a great increment in the total absorption of in total absorption of Zn-65 by mango leaves was observed due to increasing P rates as a soil application from 0.0 up to 100 ppm. Translocation of the absorbed Zn-65 either in upward or downward direction was positively related to the absorbed amount. The percentage use of Zn-65 by mango leaves was reduced by increasing foliar Zn rates. On the contrary, it was slightly increased as a result of increasing soil application rate of P. Generally, the percentage use of Zn-65 mango leaves was ranged between 8.7 and 16.87 under the conditions of this experiment. Therefore, foliar application of ZnSO 4 could be recommended as a good source of Zn for mango nutrition in particular with addition of high rates of phosphorus as a soil application

  1. Paragliding injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger-Franke, M; Siebert, C H; Pförringer, W

    1991-06-01

    Regulations controlling the sport of paragliding were issued in April 1987 by the German Department of Transportation. The growing popularity of this sport has led to a steady increase in the number of associated injuries. This study presents the incidence, localization and degree of injuries associated with paragliding documented in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The 283 injuries suffered by 218 paragliders were documented in the period 1987-1989: 181 occurred during landing, 28 during starting procedures and nine during flight. The mean patient age was 29.6 years. There were 34.9% spinal injuries, 13.4% upper extremity injuries and 41.3% lower limb injuries. Over half of these injuries were treated surgically and in 54 instances permanent disability remained. In paragliding the lower extremities are at greatest risk of injury during landing. Proper equipment, especially sturdy footwear, exact training in landing techniques as well as improved instruction in procedures during aborted or crash landings is required to reduce the frequency of these injuries.

  2. Foliar or root exposures to smelter particles: Consequences for lead compartmentalization and speciation in plant leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreck, Eva; Dappe, Vincent; Sarret, Géraldine; Sobanska, Sophie; Nowak, Dorota; Nowak, Jakub; Stefaniak, Elżbieta Anna; Magnin, Valérie; Ranieri, Vincent; Dumat, Camille

    2014-01-01

    In urban areas with high fallout of airborne particles, metal uptake by plants mainly occurs by foliar pathways and can strongly impact crop quality. However, there is a lack of knowledge on metal localization and speciation in plants after pollution exposure, especially in the case of foliar uptake. In this study, two contrasting crops, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and rye-grass (Lolium perenne L.), were exposed to Pb-rich particles emitted by a Pb-recycling factory via either atmospheric or soil application. Pb accumulation in plant leaves was observed for both ways of exposure. The mechanisms involved in Pb uptake were investigated using a combination of microscopic and spectroscopic techniques (electron microscopy, laser ablation, Raman microspectroscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy). The results show that Pb localization and speciation are strongly influenced by the type of exposure (root or shoot pathway) and the plant species. Foliar exposure is the main pathway of uptake, involving the highest concentrations in plant tissues. Under atmospheric fallouts, Pb-rich particles were strongly adsorbed on the leaf surface of both plant species. In lettuce, stomata contained Pb-rich particles in their apertures, with some deformations of guard cells. In addition to PbO and PbSO 4 , chemical forms that were also observed in pristine particles, new species were identified: organic compounds (minimum 20%) and hexagonal platy crystals of PbCO 3 . In rye-grass, the changes in Pb speciation were even more egregious: Pb–cell wall and Pb–organic acid complexes were the major species observed. For root exposure, identified here as a minor pathway of Pb transfer compared to foliar uptake, another secondary species, pyromorphite, was identified in rye-grass leaves. Finally, combining bulk and spatially resolved spectroscopic techniques permitted both the overall speciation and the minor but possibly highly reactive lead species to be determined in order to better

  3. Gaseous release of radioactive iodine from decaying plants. I. Release following foliar and root uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saas, Arsene; Grauby, Andre

    1975-12-01

    Iodine uptake by plants is a significant link in the contamination of the food chain. Long half-live iodine was studied considering foliar and root uptake, loss by rain scavenging, residue decay or outgassing in order to assess two aspects of the problem: the importance of outgassing and the effect of the route of transfer on iodine losses. It appeared that iodine release was a function of the vegetal type, there were differences according to the pattern of absorption (via leaf or root) and the processes of iodine release were usually related to biochemical mechanisms [fr

  4. Foliar Application of Potassium Fertilizer to Reduce the Effects of Salinity in Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Molahoseini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The potato of commerce (Solanum tuberosum L. is an annual dicot species. It is an autotetraploid with 4x=48 chromosomes. In Iran the consumption per capita of potato is over the 35 kg. Potato production is usually done without reducing yield in the irrigation water salinity 1-2 dS m-1, but 4.2 dS m-1 salinity reduces yield by 26 percent. 10, 25 and 50 percent yield reduction have been reported in soil electrical conductivity 2.5, 3.8 and 5.9 dS m-1, respectively . Between the ability of plant species to maintain potassium levels and their tolerance to salinity is positive correlation and on this basis nutritional irregularity due to increased salinity can be compensated by increasing of potassium fertilizer. In tolerant plant species, during times of increased salinity, selective absorption of potassium increased. The ability of plants to maintain a certain level of K/Na within the cell is essential for salt tolerance and sometimes of these ratios is used as indicators of salinity tolerance. Potato yield in response to salt stress, according to a variety of uses, can be reduced from 20 to 85 percent. Harmful effects of salinity in the beginning stages of tubers and tuber growth stage are important, therefore, tuber number and tuber size are two important components of yield which may reduce in the effect of salinity. Accelerate the aging process of the shoot, unwanted earliness, are of the reasons for the reduction in tuber size. Materials and Methods A field experiment was conducted in the agricultural and natural resources research center (31° 32´ N, 51° 51´ E, Isfahan, Islamic Republic of Iran. According to twenty years statistics, rainfall and temperature means for experiment location were 110 mm and 25 °C, respectively. The experiment was conducted as a factorial in a completely randomized block design with four replications. The treatments were three levels of foliar K application (control, K sulphate 10 ppm, and 2.5 ppm

  5. Selenium supplementation of Portuguese wheat cultivars through foliar treatment in actual field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catarina Galinha; Pacheco, A.M.G.; Maria do Carmo Freitas; Jose Coutinho; Benvindo Macas; Ana Sofia Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is a trace element essential to the well-being and health quality of humankind. Plant-derived foodstuffs, namely cereals, are the major dietary sources of Se in most countries throughout the world, even if Se contents are strongly dependent upon the corresponding levels in cereal-growing soils. Therefore, wheat is one of the staple crops that appears as an obvious candidate for Se biofortification, considering its gross-tonnage production and nutritional relevance worldwide. The present paper focuses on the ability of bread and durum wheat-Triticum aestivum L. and Triticum durum Desf., respectively-to accumulate Se after supplementation via a foliar-addition procedure. Two of the most representative wheat cultivars in Portugal - Jordao (bread) and Marialva (durum) - have been selected for supplementation trials, following the same agronomic practices and field schedules as the regular (non-supplemented) crops of those varieties (sowing: November 2010; harvesting: July 2011). Foliar additions were performed at the booting and grain-filling stages, using sodium selenate and sodium selenite solutions at three different Se concentrations-equivalent to field supplementation rates of 4, 20 and 100 g of Se per ha-with and without potassium iodide. Selenium contents in wheat grains obtained under foliar application are compared to data from regular wheat samples (field blanks) grown at the same soil/season, yet devoid of any Se supplementation. Total Se in all field samples was determined by cyclic neutron activation analysis (CNAA), via the short-lived nuclide 77m Se (half-life time: 17.5 s), in the Portuguese Research Reactor (RPI; CTN-IST, Sacavem). Quality control of the analytical procedure was asserted through concurrent analyses of NIST-SRM R 1567a (Wheat Flour). Results show that foliar additions can increase Se contents in mature grains up to 15 and 40 times for Marialva and Jordao, respectively, when compared to non-supplemented crops. Jordao and

  6. Foliar or root exposures to smelter particles: Consequences for lead compartmentalization and speciation in plant leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreck, Eva [Université de Toulouse, INP, UPS, EcoLab (Laboratoire Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Environnement), ENSAT, Avenue de l' Agrobiopole, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); CNRS, EcoLab, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); Géosciences Environnement Toulouse (GET), Observatoire Midi Pyrénées, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, IRD, 14 Avenue E. Belin, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Dappe, Vincent [LASIR (UMR CNRS 8516), Université de Lille 1, Bât. C5, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Sarret, Géraldine [ISTerre, UMR 5275, Université Grenoble I, CNRS, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Sobanska, Sophie [LASIR (UMR CNRS 8516), Université de Lille 1, Bât. C5, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Nowak, Dorota; Nowak, Jakub; Stefaniak, Elżbieta Anna [Department of Chemistry, John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Al. Kraśnicka 102, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); Magnin, Valérie [ISTerre, UMR 5275, Université Grenoble I, CNRS, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Ranieri, Vincent [CEA-INAC, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Dumat, Camille, E-mail: camille.dumat@ensat.fr [Université de Toulouse, INP, UPS, EcoLab (Laboratoire Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Environnement), ENSAT, Avenue de l' Agrobiopole, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); CNRS, EcoLab, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France)

    2014-04-01

    In urban areas with high fallout of airborne particles, metal uptake by plants mainly occurs by foliar pathways and can strongly impact crop quality. However, there is a lack of knowledge on metal localization and speciation in plants after pollution exposure, especially in the case of foliar uptake. In this study, two contrasting crops, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and rye-grass (Lolium perenne L.), were exposed to Pb-rich particles emitted by a Pb-recycling factory via either atmospheric or soil application. Pb accumulation in plant leaves was observed for both ways of exposure. The mechanisms involved in Pb uptake were investigated using a combination of microscopic and spectroscopic techniques (electron microscopy, laser ablation, Raman microspectroscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy). The results show that Pb localization and speciation are strongly influenced by the type of exposure (root or shoot pathway) and the plant species. Foliar exposure is the main pathway of uptake, involving the highest concentrations in plant tissues. Under atmospheric fallouts, Pb-rich particles were strongly adsorbed on the leaf surface of both plant species. In lettuce, stomata contained Pb-rich particles in their apertures, with some deformations of guard cells. In addition to PbO and PbSO{sub 4}, chemical forms that were also observed in pristine particles, new species were identified: organic compounds (minimum 20%) and hexagonal platy crystals of PbCO{sub 3}. In rye-grass, the changes in Pb speciation were even more egregious: Pb–cell wall and Pb–organic acid complexes were the major species observed. For root exposure, identified here as a minor pathway of Pb transfer compared to foliar uptake, another secondary species, pyromorphite, was identified in rye-grass leaves. Finally, combining bulk and spatially resolved spectroscopic techniques permitted both the overall speciation and the minor but possibly highly reactive lead species to be determined in order to

  7. Evaluación de fertilizantes foliares sobre la producción en café (Coffea arabica L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Omar A. Sosa-M.; Alveiro Salamanca-J.

    2011-01-01

    En  la subestación experimental Paraguaicito de Cenicafé, ubicada en el municipio de Buenavista, departamento del Quindío,  se  realizó un ensayo con  fertilizantes  foliares, en café variedad Colombia de 24 meses de edad, con una distancia de siembra de 2 x 1 m. Las aplicaciones foliares se realizaron 58 ý 88 días después del pico de floración principal, con el fin de evaluar su efecto sobre la producción, el factor de conversión y el rendimiento en  trilla. Los  fertilizantes  foliares util...

  8. Vine-shoot waste aqueous extract applied as foliar fertilizer to grapevines: Effect on amino acids and fermentative volatile content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Gómez, R; Garde-Cerdán, T; Zalacain, A; Garcia, R; Cabrita, M J; Salinas, M R

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar applications of different wood aqueous extracts on the amino acid content of musts and wines from Airén variety; and to study their relationship with the volatile compounds formed during alcoholic fermentation. For this purpose, the foliar treatments proposed were a vine-shoot aqueous extract applied in one and two times, and an oak extract which was only applied once. Results obtained show the potential of Airén vine-shoot waste aqueous extracts to be used as foliar fertilizer, enhancing the wine amino acid content especially when they were applied once. Similar results were observed with the aqueous oak extract. Regarding wine fermentative volatile compounds, there is a close relationship between musts and their wines amino acid content allowing us to discuss about the role of proline during the alcoholic fermentation and the generation of certain volatiles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of elevated CO2 and nitrogen fertilization on foliar elemental composition in a short rotation poplar plantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinari, Sara; Calfapietra, Carlo; De Angelis, Paolo; Mugnozza, Giuseppe Scarascia; Grego, Stefano

    2007-01-01

    The experiment was carried out on a short rotation coppice culture of poplars (POP-EUROFACE, Central Italy), growing in a free air carbon dioxide enriched atmosphere (FACE). The specific objective of this work was to study whether elevated CO 2 and fertilization (two CO 2 treatments, elevated CO 2 and control, two N fertilization treatments, fertilized and unfertilized), as well as the interaction between treatments caused an unbalanced nutritional status of leaves in three poplar species (P. x euramericana, P. nigra and P. alba). Finally, we discuss the ecological implications of a possible change in foliar nutrients concentration. CO 2 enrichment reduced foliar nitrogen and increased the concentration of magnesium; whereas nitrogen fertilization had opposite effects on leaf nitrogen and magnesium concentrations. Moreover, the interaction between elevated CO 2 and N fertilization amplified some element unbalances such as the K/N-ratio. - CO 2 enrichment reduced foliar nitrogen and increased the magnesium concentration in poplar

  10. Relationships between net photosynthesis and foliar nitrogen concentrations in a loblobby pine forest ecosystem grown in elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Springer, C. J.; Thomas, R. B.; Delucia, E. H.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentration on the relationship between light-saturated net photosynthesis and area-based foliar nitrogen concentration in the canopy of a loblobby pine forest at the Duke Forest FACE experiment was examined. Two overstory and four understory tree species were examined at their growth carbon dioxide concentrations during the early summer and late summer of 1999, 2001 and 2002. Light-saturated net photosynthesis and foliar nitrogen relationship were compared to determine if the stimulatory effects of elevated carbon dioxide on net photosynthesis had declined. Results at all three sample times showed no difference in either the slopes, or in the y-intercepts of the net photosynthesis-foliar nitrogen relationship when measured at common carbon dioxide concentrations. Net photosynthesis was also unaffected by growth in elevated carbon dioxide, indicating that these overstory and understory trees continued to show strong stimulation of photosynthesis by elevated carbon dioxide. 46 refs., 6 tabs., 3 figs

  11. Rain-Induced Wash-Off of Chemical Warfare Agent (VX) from Foliar Surfaces of Living Plants Maintained in a Surety Hood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    RAIN-INDUCED WASH-OFF OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENT (VX) FROM FOLIAR SURFACES OF LIVING PLANTS MAINTAINED IN A...Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) May 2014 – Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Rain-Induced Wash-Off of Chemical Warfare Agent (VX) from Foliar...galli Foliage Chemical warfare agent (CWA) O-ethyl-S-(2

  12. Effects of Foliar Application of Nitrogen, Zinc and Manganese on Yield, Yield Components and Grain Quality of Chickpea in Two Growing Seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Shirani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of foliar application of zinc, manganese and nitrogen on yield, yield components and grain quality of chickpea (Cicer arientinum L. two experiments, one in autumn and the other in spring were conducted at Research Farm, Shahrekord University in 2009-2010 growing season each as a randomized complete block design with three replications. The treatments were foliar application of zinc sulfate, manganese sulfate zinc sulfate and manganese sulfate mixture, nitrogen and distilled water (as control. The results showed that planting season had a significant effect on plant height, 100-seed weight and seed yield. All measured traits, except plant height, increased in winter compared to spring growing season. This increase was more than 12% for grain yield. Foliar application of nutrients significantly affected seed yield and seed yield components. Foliar application of nitrogen, presumably, through significant increase in number of pods per plant, number of seeds per plant and 100-seed weight, increased the grain yield by 6.2% compared to control. Foliar application × planting season interactions were significant for plant height and number of pods per plant. Foliar application of nitrogen caused a significant increase in grain yield and protein content. Foliar application of zinc sulphate significantly increased Zn content of grains however it did not affect seed yield. In conclusion, foliar application of nitrogen could be suggested for increasing protein and grain yield in chickpea under similar conditions to that of the present study.

  13. Visible light broadband perfect absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, X. L.; Meng, Q. X.; Yuan, C. X.; Zhou, Z. X.; Wang, X. O., E-mail: wxo@hit.edu.cn [School of Science, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2016-03-15

    The visible light broadband perfect absorbers based on the silver (Ag) nano elliptical disks and holes array are studied using finite difference time domain simulations. The semiconducting indium silicon dioxide thin film is introduced as the space layer in this sandwiched structure. Utilizing the asymmetrical geometry of the structures, polarization sensitivity for transverse electric wave (TE)/transverse magnetic wave (TM) and left circular polarization wave (LCP)/right circular polarization wave (RCP) of the broadband absorption are gained. The absorbers with Ag nano disks and holes array show several peaks absorbance of 100% by numerical simulation. These simple and flexible perfect absorbers are particularly desirable for various potential applications including the solar energy absorber.

  14. Comportamento da área foliar da videira “Isabel” submetida a diferentes tipos e doses de biofertilizantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivânia dos Santos Nascimento

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se verificar o efeito da aplicação de diferentes tipos e doses de biofertilizante, na área foliar da videira ‘Isabel’ em cultivo orgânico nas condições edafoclimáticas de Catolé do Rocha-PB. Estudou-se os efeitos de 5 tipos de biofertilizante biofertilizante e 8 doses na área foliar da videira ‘Isabel’ após a primeira poda de produção. O experimento foi conduzido sob condições de campo, em área pertencente à Universidade Estadual da Paraíba, Campus IV. O delineamento adotado foi o de blocos casualizados, com 40 tratamentos, no esquema fatorial 5 x 8, com 4  repetições, totalizando 160 parcelas experimentais, os tratamentos consistiram em aplicações crescentes de diferentes biofertilizante, aplicados de forma independente. O valor da área foliar unitária da videira Isabel aumentou com o incremento da dose do biofertilizante B1 até um limite ótimo de 0,93 L/planta/aplicação; o valor da área foliar unitária diminuiu com o aumento da dose do biofertilizante B1 acima do limite ótimo de 0,93 L/planta/aplicação; a utilização de biofertilizante enriquecido com farinha de rocha e leguminosa (B3 proporcionou maior área foliar unitária e área foliar da planta da videira Isabel.

  15. Accounting for the effect of temperature in clarifying the response of foliar nitrogen isotope ratios to atmospheric nitrogen deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chongjuan; Li, Jiazhu; Wang, Guoan; Shi, Minrui

    2017-12-31

    Atmospheric nitrogen deposition affects nitrogen isotope composition (δ 15 N) in plants. However, both negative effect and positive effect have been reported. The effects of climate on plant δ 15 N have not been corrected for in previous studies, this has impeded discovery of a true effect of atmospheric N deposition on plant δ 15 N. To obtain a more reliable result, it is necessary to correct for the effects of climatic factors. Here, we measured δ 15 N and N contents of plants and soils in Baiwangshan and Mount Dongling, north China. Atmospheric N deposition in Baiwangshan was much higher than Mount Dongling. Generally, however, foliar N contents showed no difference between the two regions and foliar δ 15 N was significantly lower in Baiwangshan than Mount Dongling. The corrected foliar δ 15 N after accounting for a predicted value assumed to vary with temperature was obviously more negative in Baiwangshan than Mount Dongling. Thus, this suggested the necessity of temperature correction in revealing the effect of N deposition on foliar δ 15 N. Temperature, soil N sources and mycorrhizal fungi could not explain the difference in foliar δ 15 N between the two regions, this indicated that atmospheric N deposition had a negative effect on plant δ 15 N. Additionally, this study also showed that the corrected foliar δ 15 N of bulk data set increased with altitude above 1300m in Mount Dongling, this provided an another evidence for the conclusion that atmospheric N deposition could cause 15 N-depletion in plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Ozone sensitivity of Fagus sylvatica and Fraxinus excelsior young trees in relation to leaf structure and foliar ozone uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerosa, Giacomo; Marzuoli, Riccardo; Bussotti, Filippo; Pancrazi, Marica; Ballarin-Denti, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    The difference in ozone sensitivity between Fagus sylvatica and Fraxinus exclesior is explained by their different stomatal ozone uptake and by their different foliar structure. - During the summer of 2001, 2-year-old Fraxinus excelsior and Fagus sylvatica plants were subjected to ozone-rich environmental conditions at the Regional Forest Nursery at Curno (Northern Italy). Atmospheric ozone concentrations and stomatal conductance were measured, in order to calculate the foliar fluxes by means of a one-dimensional model. The foliar structure of both species was examined (thickness of the lamina and of the individual tissues, leaf mass per area, leaf density) and chlorophyll a fluorescence was determined as a response parameter. Stomatal conductance was always greater in Fraxinus excelsior, as was ozone uptake, although the highest absorption peaks did not match the peaks of ozone concentration in the atmosphere. The foliar structure can help explain this phenomenon: Fraxinus excelsior has a thicker mesophyll than Fagus sylvatica (indicating a greater photosynthesis potential) and a reduced foliar density. This last parameter, related to the apoplastic fraction, suggests a greater ability to disseminate the gases within the leaf as well as a greater potential detoxifying capacity. As foliar symptoms spread, the parameters relating to chlorophyll a fluorescence also change. PI (Performance Index, Strasser, A., Srivastava, A., Tsimilli-Michael, M., 2000. The fluorescence transient as a tool to characterize and screen photosynthetic samples. In: Yunus, M., Pathre, U., Mohanty, P., (Eds.) Probing Photosynthesis: Mechanisms, Regulation and Adaptation. Taylor and Francis, London, UK, pp. 445-483.) has proved to be a more suitable index than Fv/Fm (Quantum Yield Efficiency) to record the onset of stress conditions

  17. Visible nulling coronagraph testbed results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Richard G.; Clampin, Mark; Woodruff, Robert A.; Vasudevan, Gopal; Thompson, Patrick; Petrone, Peter; Madison, Timothy; Rizzo, Maxime; Melnick, Gary; Tolls, Volker

    2009-08-01

    We report on our recent laboratory results with the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Visible Nulling Coronagraph (VNC) testbed. We have experimentally achieved focal plane contrasts of 1 x 108 and approaching 109 at inner working angles of 2 * wavelength/D and 4 * wavelength/D respectively where D is the aperture diameter. The result was obtained using a broadband source with a narrowband spectral filter of width 10 nm centered on 630 nm. To date this is the deepest nulling result with a visible nulling coronagraph yet obtained. Developed also is a Null Control Breadboard (NCB) to assess and quantify MEMS based segmented deformable mirror technology and develop and assess closed-loop null sensing and control algorithm performance from both the pupil and focal planes. We have demonstrated closed-loop control at 27 Hz in the laboratory environment. Efforts are underway to first bring the contrast to > 109 necessary for the direct detection and characterization of jovian (Jupiter-like) and then to > 1010 necessary for terrestrial (Earth-like) exosolar planets. Short term advancements are expected to both broaden the spectral passband from 10 nm to 100 nm and to increase both the long-term stability to > 2 hours and the extent of the null out to a ~ 10 * wavelength / D via the use of MEMS based segmented deformable mirror technology, a coherent fiber bundle, achromatic phase shifters, all in a vacuum chamber at the GSFC VNC facility. Additionally an extreme stability textbook sized compact VNC is under development.

  18. Whiplash injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanga, Gerard; Peter, Jason

    2005-10-01

    Whiplash injuries are very common and usually are associated with rear-end collisions. However, a whiplash injury can be caused by any event that results in hyperextension and flexion of the cervical spine. These injuries are of serious concern to all consumers due to escalating cost of diagnosis, treatment, insurance, and litigation. Most acute whiplash injury cases respond well to conservative treatments, which result in resolution of symptoms usually within weeks to a few months after the injury occurred. Chronic whiplash injuries often are harder to diagnose and treat and often result in poor outcomes. Current research shows that various structures in the cervical spine receive nociceptive innervation and potentially may be the cause of chronic pain symptoms. One potential pain generator showing promise is the facet or zygapophyseal joints. Various researchers have proven that these joints are injured during whiplash injuries and that diagnosis and temporary pain relief can be obtained with facet joint injections. The initial evaluation of any patient should follow an organized and stepwise approach, and more serious causes of neck pain must first be ruled out through the history, physical examination, and diagnostic testing. Treatment regimens should be evidence-based, focusing on treatments that have proven to be effective in treating acute and chronic whiplash injuries.

  19. Ocular Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... trauma can happen at home, school, play or sports. Most common injuries are scratches to the cornea or blunt trauma. Approved and tested eye and face protection is essential to prevent injuries. Sports such as hockey, baseball, racquet ball, squash, and ...

  20. Rowing Injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thornton, Jane S; Vinther, Anders; Wilson, Fiona

    2017-01-01

    understanding in pre-participation screening, training load, emerging concepts surrounding back and rib injury, and relative energy deficiency in sport. Through a better understanding of the nature of the sport and mechanisms of injury, physicians and other healthcare providers will be better equipped to treat...

  1. Trampoline injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nysted, M; Drogset, J O

    2006-12-01

    To describe the mechanism, location and types of injury for all patients treated for trampoline-associated injuries at St Olav's University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway, from March 2001to October 2004. Patients were identified from a National Injury Surveillance System. All patients were asked to complete a standard questionnaire at their first visit at the hospital. Most data were recorded prospectively, but data on the mechanism of injury, the number of participants on the trampoline at the time of injury, adult supervision and whether the activity occurred at school or in another organised setting were collected retrospectively. A total of 556 patients, 56% male and 44% female, were included. The mean age of patients was 11 (range 1-62) years. 77% of the injuries occurred on the body of the trampoline, including falls on to the mat, collisions with another jumper, falls on to the frame or the springs, and performing a somersault, whereas 22% of the people fell off the trampoline. In 74% of the cases, more than two people were on the trampoline, with as many as nine trampolinists noted at the time of injury. For children Trampolining can cause serious injuries, especially in the neck and elbow areas of young children. The use of a trampoline is a high-risk activity. However, a ban is not supported. The importance of having safety guidelines for the use of trampolines is emphasised.

  2. Influence of foliar fertilization with manganese on germination, vigor and storage time of RR soybean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Leonardo Ignácio

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study aimed to evaluate the influence of foliar fertilizer doses containing Mn of phenological stages of suggested application in RR soybeans, to recover management damages with glyphosate at postemergence application on seed vigor in post-harvest and post six months storage. The seeds originated from a field experiment conducted , which included two applications of glyphosate, concomitant with foliar fertilizer in growth stages V4 and V6, with 0.00, 113.50 and 227.00 mg ha-1doses of Mn2+. Germination, GSI (Germination Speed Index, electrical conductivity tests and the first count of seeds were conducted. The application of Mn did not affect the physiological quality of RR soy in postharvest. However, in post-storage, higher doses of Mn had a negative effect on tests of abnormal seedlings, GSI and electrical conductivity. The applications of Mn, regardless of the developmental stage, did not interfere in the germination and first count tests, with and without storage. The electrical conductivity test showed a higher correlation with the seed germination test in the post-harvest treatment.

  3. PERFORMANCE DE FERTILIZANTES FOLIARES E CORRELAÇÕES LINEARES EM COMPONENTES DO RENDIMENTO DA SOJA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Jardel Szareski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar a resposta de diferentes fertilizantes foliares aplicados na cultura da soja e as associações lineares entre os componentes do rendimento de grãos, nas condições edafoclimáticas da Região do Alto Uruguai, RS. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Os tratamentos testados foram: T1: sem aplicação de bioestimulantes; T2: aplicação de NITAMIN®; T3: aplicação de BIOZIME®; T4: aplicação de Bioamino Extra®; T5: Aplicação de NIPHOKAN®, onde avaliou-se os componentes do rendimento de grãos da soja. A aplicação de micronutrientes e bioestimulantes via foliar não acarreta em aumento no rendimento de grãos da soja, para as condições edafoclimáticas da Região do Alto Uruguai. O rendimento de grãos apresenta correlação positiva com o número de ramificações, número de legumes nas ramificações, número total de legumes, número de grãos por planta e massa de mil grãos.

  4. Foliar Potassium Fertilizer Additives Affect Soybean Response and Weed Control with Glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A. Nelson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in 2004 and 2005 determined the effects of foliar-applied K-fertilizer sources (0-0-62-0 (%N-%P2O5-%K2O-%S, 0-0-25-17, 3-18-18-0, and 5-0-20-13 and additive rates (2.2, 8.8, and 17.6 kg K ha−1 on glyphosate-resistant soybean response and weed control. Field experiments were conducted at Novelty and Portageville with high soil test K and weed populations and at Malden with low soil test K and weed populations. At Novelty, grain yield increased with fertilizer additives at 8.8 kg K ha−1 in a high-yield, weed-free environment in 2004, but fertilizer additives reduced yield up to 470 kg ha−1 in a low-yield year (2005 depending on the K source and rate. At Portageville, K-fertilizer additives increased grain yield from 700 to 1160 kg ha−1 compared to diammonium sulfate, depending on the K source and rate. At Malden, there was no yield response to K sources. Differences in leaf tissue K (P=0.03, S (P=0.03, B (P=0.0001, and Cu (P=0.008 concentrations among treatments were detected 14 d after treatment at Novelty and Malden. Tank mixtures of K-fertilizer additives with glyphosate may provide an option for foliar K applications.

  5. 110mAg root and foliar uptake in vegetables and its migration in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang, Z.R.; Leung, J.K.C.

    2003-01-01

    110m Ag, as a radionuclide of corrosion products in water-cooled nuclear reactors, was detected in the liquid effluents of Guangdong Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station (GNPS) of Daya Bay under normal operation conditions. Experiments on a simulated terrestrial agricultural ecosystem were carried out using the pot experiment approach. The most common plants in Hong Kong and the South China vegetable gardens such as lettuce, Chinese spinach, kale, carrot, pepper, eggplant, bean, flowering cabbage, celery, European onion and cucumber were selected for 110m Ag root and foliar uptake tests. The results show that carrot, kale and flowering cabbage have the greatest values of soil to plant transfer factor among the vegetables, while 110m Ag can be transferred to Chinese spinach via foliar uptake. Flowering cabbage, the most popular leafy vegetable locally, could be used as a biomonitor for the radioisotope contamination in vegetables. Soil column and adsorption tests were also carried out to study the leaching ability and distributio coefficient (K d ) of 110m Ag in the soil. The results show that most of the radionuclide was adsorbed in the top 1 cm of soil regardless of the pH value. The K d was also determined

  6. Nanoparticle synthesis and delivery by an aerosol route for watermelon plant foliar uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Weining; Tarafdar, Jagadish C.; Biswas, Pratim

    2013-01-01

    An aerosol process was developed for synthesis and delivery of nanoparticles for living watermelon plant foliar uptake. This is an efficient technique capable of generating nanoparticles with controllable particle sizes and number concentrations. Aerosolized nanoparticles were easily applied to leaf surfaces and enter the stomata via gas uptake, avoiding direct interaction with soil systems, eliminating potential ecological risks. The uptake and transport of nanoparticles inside the watermelon plants were investigated systematically by various techniques, such as elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and plant anatomy by transmission electron microscopy. The results revealed that certain fractions of nanoparticles (d p < 100 nm) generated by the aerosol process could enter the leaf following the stomatal pathway, then pass through the stem, and reach the root of the watermelon plants. The particle size and number concentration played an important role in nanoparticle translocation inside the plants. In addition, the nanoparticle application method, working environment, and leaf structure are also important factors to be considered for successful plant foliar uptake.

  7. Influência da época seca na qualidade do aporte foliar em floresta semidecidual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Nogueira Scoriza

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A serrapilheira apresenta uma importante função na ciclagem de nutrientes florestais, sendo as folhas as principais transportadoras desses nutrientes. Como a dinâmica da Floresta Estacional Semidecidual é fortemente demarcada pelos fatores climáticos, o objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar a influência temporal da temperatura e precipitação no aporte de carbono (C e nitrogênio (N foliares em fragmentos florestais. O estudo foi desenvolvido em cinco fragmentos florestais em Sorocaba, SP, onde foram demarcadas dez parcelas de 100m2, sendo instalados três coletores cônicos de 0,25m2 em cada. A coleta da serrapilheira foi feita de março a julho de 2008, onde o material foliar foi separado do restante da serrapilheira. Para a avaliação do teor de C e N foram sorteadas cinco amostras por mês, sendo estas moídas e analisadas. O teor e a quantidade de C e N apresentaram diferenças entre os meses. O carbono esteve diretamente relacionado com a quantidade de folhas aportadas enquanto que o nitrogênio esteve relacionado diretamente com a temperatura e a precipitação.

  8. Detecting terrestrial nutrient limitation: a global meta-analysis of foliar nutrient concentrations after fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca eOstertag

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Examining foliar nutrient concentrations after fertilization provides an alternative method for detecting nutrient limitation of ecosystems, which is logistically simpler to measure than biomass change. We present a meta-analysis of response ratios of foliar nitrogen and phosphorus (RRN, RRP after addition of fertilizer of nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, or the two elements in combination, in relation to climate, ecosystem type, life form, family, and methodological factors. Results support other meta-analyses using biomass, and demonstrate there is strong evidence for nutrient limitation in natural communities. However, because N fertilization experiments greatly outnumber P fertilization trials, it is difficult to discern the absolute importance of N vs. P vs. co-limitation across ecosystems. Despite these caveats, it is striking that results did not follow conventional wisdom that temperate ecosystems are N-limited and tropical ones are P-limited. In addition, the use of ratios of N-to-P rather than response ratios also are a useful index of nutrient limitation, but due to large overlap in values, there are unlikely to be universal cutoff values for delimiting N vs. P limitation. Differences in RRN and RRP were most significant across ecosystem types, plant families, life forms, and between competitive environments, but not across climatic variables.

  9. Copper Oxide Nanoparticle Foliar Uptake, Phytotoxicity, and Consequences for Sustainable Urban Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, TianTian; Dumat, Camille; Dappe, Vincent; Vezin, Hervé; Schreck, Eva; Shahid, Muhammad; Pierart, Antoine; Sobanska, Sophie

    2017-05-02

    Throughout the world, urban agriculture supplies fresh local vegetables to city populations. However, the increasing anthropogenic uses of metal-containing nanoparticles (NPs) such as CuO-NPs in urban areas may contaminate vegetables through foliar uptake. This study focused on the CuO-NP transfer processes in leafy edible vegetables (i.e., lettuce and cabbage) to assess their potential phytotoxicity. Vegetables were exposed via leaves for 5, 10, or 15 days to various concentrations of CuO-NPs (0, 10, or 250 mg per plant). Biomass and gas exchange values were determined in relation to the Cu uptake rate, localization, and Cu speciation within the plant tissues. High foliar Cu uptake occurred after exposure for 15 days for lettuce [3773 mg (kg of dry weight) -1 ] and cabbage [4448 mg (kg of dry weight) -1 ], along with (i) decreased plant weight, net photosynthesis level, and water content and (ii) necrotic Cu-rich areas near deformed stomata containing CuO-NPs observed by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Analysis of the CuO-NP transfer rate (7.8-242 μg day -1 ), translocation of Cu from leaves to roots and Cu speciation biotransformation in leaf tissues using electron paramagnetic resonance, suggests the involvement of plant Cu regulation processes. Finally, a potential health risk associated with consumption of vegetables contaminated with CuO-NPs was highlighted.

  10. Foliar application with nano-silicon alleviates Cd toxicity in rice seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shihua; Wang, Fayuan; Gao, Shuangcheng

    2015-02-01

    Nanofertilizers may be more effective than regular fertilizers in improving plant nutrition, enhancing nutrition use efficiency, and protecting plants from environmental stress. A hydroponic pot experiment was conducted to study the role of foliar application with 2.5 mM nano-silicon in alleviating Cd stress in rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L. cv Youyou 128) grown in solution added with or without 20 μM CdCl2. The results showed that Cd treatment decreased the growth and the contents of Mg, Fe, Zn, chlorophyll a, and glutathione (GSH), accompanied by a significant increase in Cd accumulation. However, foliar application with nano-Si improved the growth, Mg, Fe, and Zn nutrition, and the contents of chlorophyll a of the rice seedlings under Cd stress and decreased Cd accumulation and translocation of Cd from root to shoot. Cd treatment produced oxidative stress to rice seedlings indicated by a higher lipid peroxidation level (as malondialdehyde (MDA)) and higher activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT), and a lower GSH content. However, those nano-Si-treated plants had lower MDA but higher GSH content and different antioxidant enzyme activities, indicating a higher Cd tolerance in them. The results suggested that nano-Si application alleviated Cd toxicity in rice by decreasing Cd accumulation, Cd partitioning in shoot and MDA level and by increasing content of some mineral elements (Mg, Fe, and Zn) and antioxidant capacity.

  11. Foliar leaching, translocation, and biogenic emission of 35S in radiolabeled loblolly pines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garten, C.T. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Foliar leaching, basipetal (downward) translocation, and biogenic emission of sulfur (S), as traced by 35 S, were examined in a field study of loblolly pines. Four trees were radiolabeled by injection with amounts of 35 S in the 6-8 MBq range, and concentrations in needle fall, stemflow, throughfall, and aboveground biomass were measured over a period of 15-20 wk after injection. The contribution of dry deposition to sulfate-sulfur (SO 4 2- -S) concentrations in net throughfall (throughfall SO 4 2- -S concentration minus that in incident precipitation) beneath all four trees was > 90%. Calculations indicated that about half of the summertime SO 2 dry deposition flux to the loblolly pines was fixed in the canopy and not subsequently leached by rainfall. Based on mass balance calculations, 35 S losses through biogenic emissions from girdled trees were inferred to be 25-28% of the amount injected. Estimates based on chamber methods and mass balance calculations indicated a range in daily biogenic S emission of 0.1-10 μg/g dry needles. Translocation of 35 S to roots in nongirdled trees was estimated to be between 14 and 25% of the injection. It is hypothesized that biogenic emission and basipetal translocation of S (and not foliar leaching) are important mechanisms by which forest trees physiologically adapt to excess S in the environment

  12. Foliar uptake of radioisotopes and its consequences for the contamination of agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proehl, G.

    1982-07-01

    The contamination of nutritional parts of plants via radionuclides taken up through the leaves depends on the mobility of the radionuclides in the plant. The alkaline metals, iodine and technetium for example, are considered as mobile; due to the migration in the interior of the plant, these nuclides cause the highest food contamination after foliar uptake of radionuclides. The alkaline earth metals, cerium, ruthenium and plutonium are considered as immobile; the contamination by these elements is almost exclusively induced by direct nuclide deposition on the nutritional parts of the plants. Cobalt, zinc, manganese and iron have a certain middle position with regard to radionuclide migration. Gaseous iodine is taken up through slit-like apertures. The uptake may be very effective; under humid conditions the uptake is higher than under arid conditions. Due to the short half-time period only the meadow-cow-milk-path is relevant for the exposure to iodine 131, for other paths however, the longeval iodine 129 is important. The development of the specific activity of meadow grass after one single deposition can be described with a massdependent interceptory factor and two subsequent meteorologic half-times of 14 and 28 d. Model estimations show that after nuclear disorders in the middle of the year for some radionuclides and important nutritients the human activity supply via foliar uptake will exceed the activity supply via soil - root migration by up to 2 magnitudes during the next 50 years. (orig./MG) [de

  13. {sup 110m}Ag root and foliar uptake in vegetables and its migration in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shang, Z.R.; Leung, J.K.C. E-mail: jkcleung@hku.hk

    2003-07-01

    {sup 110m}Ag, as a radionuclide of corrosion products in water-cooled nuclear reactors, was detected in the liquid effluents of Guangdong Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station (GNPS) of Daya Bay under normal operation conditions. Experiments on a simulated terrestrial agricultural ecosystem were carried out using the pot experiment approach. The most common plants in Hong Kong and the South China vegetable gardens such as lettuce, Chinese spinach, kale, carrot, pepper, eggplant, bean, flowering cabbage, celery, European onion and cucumber were selected for {sup 110m}Ag root and foliar uptake tests. The results show that carrot, kale and flowering cabbage have the greatest values of soil to plant transfer factor among the vegetables, while{sup 110m}Ag can be transferred to Chinese spinach via foliar uptake. Flowering cabbage, the most popular leafy vegetable locally, could be used as a biomonitor for the radioisotope contamination in vegetables. Soil column and adsorption tests were also carried out to study the leaching ability and distributio coefficient (K{sub d}) of {sup 110m}Ag in the soil. The results show that most of the radionuclide was adsorbed in the top 1 cm of soil regardless of the pH value. The K{sub d} was also determined.

  14. Foliar uptake of 137Cs from the water column by aquatic macrophytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, M.S.; Pinder, J.E. III

    1996-01-01

    A transplant experiment was performed to determine the relative importances of root uptake from the sediments and foliar uptake from the water column in determining the accumulation of 137 Cs by aquatic macrophytes. Uncontaminated individuals of three species, Brasenia schreberi, Nymphaea odorata and Nymphoides cordata, were transplanted into pots containing either contaminated sediments (i.e. 1.2 Bq 137 Cs g -1 dry mass) or uncontaminated sediments (i.e. -1 dry mass) and immersed in Pond B, a former reactor cooling pond where 137 Cs concentrations in surface waters range from 0.4 to 0.8 Bq liter -1 . The plants is uncontaminated sediments rapidly accumulated 137 Cs from the water column and after 35 days of immersion had 137 Cs concentrations in leaves that were: (1) not statistically significantly different from those for plants in contaminated sediments; and (2) similar to those for the same species growing naturally in Pond B. The similarity in 137 Cs concentrations between naturally-occurring plants and those in pots with uncontaminated sediments suggests that foliar uptake from the water column is the principal mode of Cs accumulation by these species in Pond B. (author)

  15. Foliar uptake of 134Cs and 85Sr in strawberry as function by leaf age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortunati, P.; Brambilla, M.; Speroni, F.; Carini, F.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper a study of the foliar uptake and translocation of 134 Cs and 85 Sr in a herbaceous fruit plant is presented. In particular, absorption, translocation and loss of these radionuclides in strawberry plants have been studied in relation to the age of contaminated leaves. Strawberry plants were contaminated by distributing droplets of an aqueous solution containing 134 CsCl and 85 SrCl 2 on the surface of two leaves per plant. One half of the plants was contaminated through two young leaves, a second half through two old leaves. Sets of plants were collected 1 day, 7 days and 15 days after contamination. One half of them was rinsed with double distilled water before gamma analysis. Rinsing contaminated leaves removes on average 55% of the applied 134 Cs and 45% of 85 Sr. The activity removed decreases during the 15 days of the experimental study, both for 134 Cs and for 85 Sr, suggesting an increase in foliar absorption during this period. The activity removed does not differ between old and young leaves. 'External loss' is lower for young than old contaminated leaves. 'Internal loss' through translocation occurs mainly for 134 Cs. Translocation coefficients from contaminated leaves to fruits are two orders of magnitude higher for 134 Cs (4.0%), than for 85 Sr (0.05%). Leaf to fruit translocation coefficients for 134 Cs are higher from young leaves (5.8%), than from old leaves (2.3%)

  16. Physiological responses of Tillandsia albida (Bromeliaceae) to long-term foliar metal application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kováčik, Jozef; Klejdus, Bořivoj; Stork, František; Hedbavny, Josef

    2012-11-15

    The impact of 2-month foliar application of cadmium, nickel and their combination (10 μM) on Tillandsia albida was studied. Cadmium caused damage of tissue but assimilation pigments were depressed in Cd+Ni variant only. Stress-related parameters (ROS and peroxidase activities) were elevated by Cd and Cd+Ni while MDA content remained unaffected. Free amino acids accumulated the most in Ni alone but soluble proteins were not influenced. Among phenolic acids, mainly vanillin contributed to increase of their sum in all variants while soluble phenols even decreased in Cd+Ni and flavonols slightly increased in Cd variants. Phenolic enzymes showed negligible responses to almost all treatments. Mineral nutrients (K, Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, and Zn) were not affected by metal application but N content increased. Total Cd or Ni amounts reached over 400 μg g(-1) DW and were not affected if metal alone and combined treatment is compared while absorbed content differed (ca. 50% of total Cd was absorbed while almost all Ni was absorbed). These data indicate tolerance of T. albida to foliar metal application and together with strong xerophytic morphology, use for environmental studies is recommended. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Foliar copper uptake by maize plants: effects on growth and yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Hidalgo Barbosa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A slight increase in the levels of a certain nutrient can cause a significant increase in crop yield or can cause phytotoxicity symptoms. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of foliar application of copper (Cu on the growth and yield of DG-501 maize. The experiment was carried out between December 2009 and April 2010 in conventional tillage. When plants were with six to eight leaves, Cu (0, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600g ha-1 was applied to the leaves. Treatments were arranged in randomized complete block with five replications. When 50% of the plants were in flowering, it was evaluated the plant height, culm diameter, height of the first ear insertion, leaf area, and chlorophyll content. At harvest, it was evaluated diameter and length of the ear, yield and thousand grain weight. There was a linear reduction in the plant height and in the height of the first ear insertion with increasing Cu doses. On the other hand, chlorophyll content, leaf area, diameter and length of ear, thousand grain weight and yield increased at doses up to 100g ha-1 Cu, however, decreased at higher doses. Therefore, foliar Cu application at doses higher than 100g ha-1 has toxic effect in maize plants with losses in growth and yield.

  18. Foliar application of ascorbic acid mitigates sodium chloride induced stress in eggplant (solanum melongena l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, S.; Hamayun, M.

    2016-01-01

    The current work was designed to test the effect of sodium chloride on germination, seedling establishment, vegetative growth, yield, chemical contents and ionic composition of eggplant. The consequences of foliar application of ascorbic acid (AA) on mitigation of adverse effects of sodium chloride were also tested. The seeds of Solanum melongena were germinated using NaCl (60 mM, 100 mM) and ascorbic acid (100 and 200 mM). High levels of salinity significantly affected the seed germination and seedling fresh and dry weights. Plants grown under salinity stress with foliar application of ascorbic acid showed significant increase in germination percentage and seedlings growth as compare to control plants. Sodium chloride stress showed adverse effects on plant height, root length, number of leaves, leaf area, fresh and dry biomass, total chlorophyll, carbohydrates and proteins as compared to untreated plants. The relative water content, electrolyte leakage were increased and Na+ and K+ ions balance was disturbed in different plant parts. Ascorbic acid (100 and 200ppm) enhanced all the growth parameters affected adversely by sodium chloride stress. (author)

  19. Pattern of zinc-65 incorporation into soybean seeds by root absorption, stem injection, and foliar application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.; Weaver, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    The pattern of 65 Zn incorporation into soybean seeds of plants grown hydroponically and intrinsically labeled with 65 Zn by root absorption, stem injection, and foliar application was studied. Stem injection resulted in the greatest (64.5% of dose) accumulation of 65 Zn while incorporation of 65 Zn through root absorption was the least (23.4%) and through foliar application was intermediate (37.5%). Regardless of the labeling techniques, approximately 40-45% of the seed 65 Zn was associated with the subcellular organelles. The pattern of zinc incorporation did not change appreciably as a result of the labeling technique. The major portion of the soluble zinc was not associated with the major proteins (11S and 7S) of soybeans but either was free or was associated with very low molecular weight amino acids, peptides, or their complexes with phytic acid. Zinc in soybean seems to be ionically bound, and this association is affected by the pH of the extracting buffer

  20. A novel Botrytis species is associated with a newly emergent foliar disease in cultivated Hemerocallis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert T Grant-Downton

    Full Text Available Foliar tissue samples of cultivated daylilies (Hemerocallis hybrids showing the symptoms of a newly emergent foliar disease known as 'spring sickness' were investigated for associated fungi. The cause(s of this disease remain obscure. We isolated repeatedly a fungal species which proved to be member of the genus Botrytis, based on immunological tests. DNA sequence analysis of these isolates, using several different phyogenetically informative genes, indicated that they represent a new Botrytis species, most closely related to B. elliptica (lily blight, fire blight which is a major pathogen of cultivated Lilium. The distinction of the isolates was confirmed by morphological analysis of asexual sporulating cultures. Pathogenicity tests on Hemerocallis tissues in vitro demonstrated that this new species was able to induce lesions and rapid tissue necrosis. Based on this data, we infer that this new species, described here as B. deweyae, is likely to be an important contributor to the development of 'spring sickness' symptoms. Pathogenesis may be promoted by developmental and environmental factors that favour assault by this necrotrophic pathogen. The emergence of this disease is suggested to have been triggered by breeding-related changes in cultivated hybrids, particularly the erosion of genetic diversity. Our investigation confirms that emergent plant diseases are important and deserve close monitoring, especially in intensively in-bred plants.

  1. Endohyphal bacterium enhances production of indole-3-acetic acid by a foliar fungal endophyte.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele T Hoffman

    Full Text Available Numerous plant pathogens, rhizosphere symbionts, and endophytic bacteria and yeasts produce the important phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, often with profound effects on host plants. However, to date IAA production has not been documented among foliar endophytes -- the diverse guild of primarily filamentous Ascomycota that live within healthy, above-ground tissues of all plant species studied thus far. Recently bacteria that live within hyphae of endophytes (endohyphal bacteria have been detected, but their effects have not been studied previously. Here we show not only that IAA is produced in vitro by a foliar endophyte (here identified as Pestalotiopsis aff. neglecta, Xylariales, but that IAA production is enhanced significantly when the endophyte hosts an endohyphal bacterium (here identified as Luteibacter sp., Xanthomonadales. Both the endophyte and the endophyte/bacterium complex appear to rely on an L-tryptophan dependent pathway for IAA synthesis. The bacterium can be isolated from the fungus when the symbiotic complex is cultivated at 36°C. In pure culture the bacterium does not produce IAA. Culture filtrate from the endophyte-bacterium complex significantly enhances growth of tomato in vitro relative to controls and to filtrate from the endophyte alone. Together these results speak to a facultative symbiosis between an endophyte and endohyphal bacterium that strongly influences IAA production, providing a new framework in which to explore endophyte-plant interactions.

  2. Spatial estimation of foliar phosphorus in different species of the genus Coffea based on soil properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel de Assis Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Information underlying analyses of coffee fertilization systems should consider both the soil and the nutritional status of plants. This study investigated the spatial relationship between phosphorus (P levels in coffee plant tissues and soil chemical and physical properties. The study was performed using two arabica and one canephora coffee variety. Sampling grids were established in the areas, and the points georeferenced. The assessed properties of the soil were levels of available phosphorus (P-Mehlich, remaining phosphorus (P-rem and particle size, and of the plant tissue, phosphorus levels (foliar P. The data were subjected to descriptive statistical analysis, correlation analysis, cluster analysis, and probability tests. Geostatistical and trend analyses were only performed for pairs of variables with significant linear correlation. The spatial variability for foliar P content was high for the variety Catuai and medium for the other evaluated plants. Unlike P-Mehlich, the variability in P-rem of the soil indicated the nutritional status of this nutrient in the plant.

  3. DESEMPENHO DA APLICAÇÃO FOLIAR DE ZINCO EM FEIJOEIRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Alexandre Coelho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional requirements of crops, in general, becomes more intense with the beginning of the reproductive phase, being more critical at the time of seed formation, when considerable amounts of nutrients are they translocation, this requirement should be increased to the fact that nutrients are essential to training and development of new bodies of booking. This study aimed to evaluate the agronomic efficiency of foliar application of zinc (zinc oxide Zn 700 g L-1 in bean plant, compared to leaf application of zinc sulphate (ZnSO4 and control (without application of Zn. The experiment was installed in the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences - UNESP / Campus de Botucatu-SP. Was placed in containers with a capacity of 20L of soil and leaf applications encompassing four schemes and two of rain, with 5 replicates per treatment, a total of 40 vessels. The results for the factorial design did not show in general, significantly different answers when evaluated on the simulation of rain or the lack of simulation. The treatment (700g L-1 of ZnO has demonstrated agronomic efficiency as its foliar application, with results equal or exceed the application of ZnSO4 and control when applied at the same dose of Zn.

  4. Nanoparticle synthesis and delivery by an aerosol route for watermelon plant foliar uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Weining [Washington University in St. Louis, Aerosol and Air Quality Research Laboratory, Department of Energy, Environmental and Chemical Engineering (United States); Tarafdar, Jagadish C. [Central Arid Zone Research Institute (India); Biswas, Pratim, E-mail: pbiswas@wustl.edu [Washington University in St. Louis, Aerosol and Air Quality Research Laboratory, Department of Energy, Environmental and Chemical Engineering (United States)

    2013-01-15

    An aerosol process was developed for synthesis and delivery of nanoparticles for living watermelon plant foliar uptake. This is an efficient technique capable of generating nanoparticles with controllable particle sizes and number concentrations. Aerosolized nanoparticles were easily applied to leaf surfaces and enter the stomata via gas uptake, avoiding direct interaction with soil systems, eliminating potential ecological risks. The uptake and transport of nanoparticles inside the watermelon plants were investigated systematically by various techniques, such as elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and plant anatomy by transmission electron microscopy. The results revealed that certain fractions of nanoparticles (d{sub p} < 100 nm) generated by the aerosol process could enter the leaf following the stomatal pathway, then pass through the stem, and reach the root of the watermelon plants. The particle size and number concentration played an important role in nanoparticle translocation inside the plants. In addition, the nanoparticle application method, working environment, and leaf structure are also important factors to be considered for successful plant foliar uptake.

  5. Leaf optical properties shed light on foliar trait variability at individual to global scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiklomanov, A. N.; Serbin, S.; Dietze, M.

    2017-12-01

    Recent syntheses of large trait databases have contributed immensely to our understanding of drivers of plant function at the global scale. However, the global trade-offs revealed by such syntheses, such as the trade-off between leaf productivity and resilience (i.e. "leaf economics spectrum"), are often absent at smaller scales and fail to correlate with actual functional limitations. An improved understanding of how traits vary among communities, species, and individuals is critical to accurate representations of vegetation ecophysiology and ecological dynamics in ecosystem models. Spectral data from both field observations and remote sensing platforms present a rich and widely available source of information on plant traits. Here, we apply Bayesian inversion of the PROSPECT leaf radiative transfer model to a large global database of over 60,000 field spectra and plant traits to (1) comprehensively assess the accuracy of leaf trait estimation using PROSPECT spectral inversion; (2) investigate the correlations between optical traits estimable from PROSPECT and other important foliar traits such as nitrogen and lignin concentrations; and (3) identify dominant sources of variability and characterize trade-offs in optical and non-optical foliar traits. Our work provides a key methodological contribution by validating physically-based retrieval of plant traits from remote sensing observations, and provides insights about trait trade-offs related to plant acclimation, adaptation, and community assembly.

  6. Ecophysiological and foliar nitrogen concentration responses of understorey Acacia spp. and Eucalyptus sp. to prescribed burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ling; Rao, Xingquan; Lu, Ping; Bai, Shahla Hosseini; Xu, Zhihong; Chen, Xiaoyang; Blumfield, Timothy; Xie, Jun

    2015-07-01

    Eucalyptus spp. is a dominant tree genus in Australia and most Eucalyptus spp. are canopy dominant species. In Australian natural forests, Eucalyptus spp. commonly are associated with understorey legumes which play a crucial role for ecological restoration owing to their nitrogen (N) fixing ability for replenishing the soil N lost after frequent prescribed burning. This study aimed to explore to what extent physiological responses of these species differ 7 and 12 years after last fire. Two most common understorey Acacia spp., Acacia leiocalyx and A. disparrima, as well as one non-leguminous Eucalyptus resinifera, were studied due to their dominance in the forest. Both A. leiocalyx and A. disparrima showed higher carbon (C) assimilation capacity, maximum photosynthetic capacity, and moderate foliar C/N ratio compared with E. resinifera. A. leiocalyx showed various advantages compared to A. disparrima such as higher photosynthetic capacity, adaptation to wider light range and higher foliar total N (TNmass). A. leiocalyx also relied on N2-fixing ability for longer time compared to A. disparrima. The results suggested that the two Acacia spp. were more beneficial to C and N cycles for the post burning ecosystem than the non-N2-fixing species E. resinifera. A. leiocalyx had greater contribution to complementing soil N cycle long after burning compared to A. disparrima.

  7. Efeito do sombreamento na anatomia foliar de plantas jovens de andiroba (Carapa guianensis Aubl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayse de Souza Aragão

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A capacidade de utilização da luz varia entre as espécies, e o sucesso de cada indivíduo depende de suas respostas morfoanatômicas. Este estudo avaliou a influência de diferentes intensidades luminosas sobre a anatomia foliar de mudas de Carapa guianensis Aubl. Folhas sadias do segundo e terceiro nós foram coletadas de plantas jovens desenvolvidas em quatro níveis de sombreamento: 30%, 50%, 70% e 0% (pleno sol, durante oito meses de experimento. Análises anatômicas foram feitas sob Microscopia Óptica (MO, a partir de lâminas temporárias e permanentes e sob Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura (MEV. A densidade estomática não apresentou diferenças significativas. As dimensões estomáticas e a espessura dos tecidos da lâmina foliar foram maiores com o aumento da intensidade luminosa. C. guianensis apresenta plasticidade anatômica, possibilitando a sobrevivência na floresta sob distintas condições luminosas.

  8. Drought Impact Is Alleviated in Sugar Beets (Beta vulgaris L.) by Foliar Application of Fullerenol Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borišev, Milan; Borišev, Ivana; Župunski, Milan; Arsenov, Danijela; Pajević, Slobodanka; Ćurčić, Živko; Vasin, Jovica; Djordjevic, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few years, significant efforts have been made to decrease the effects of drought stress on plant productivity and quality. We propose that fullerenol nanoparticles (FNPs, molecular formula C60(OH)24) may help alleviate drought stress by serving as an additional intercellular water supply. Specifically, FNPs are able to penetrate plant leaf and root tissues, where they bind water in various cell compartments. This hydroscopic activity suggests that FNPs could be beneficial in plants. The aim of the present study was to analyse the influence of FNPs on sugar beet plants exposed to drought stress. Our results indicate that intracellular water metabolism can be modified by foliar application of FNPs in drought exposed plants. Drought stress induced a significant increase in the compatible osmolyte proline in both the leaves and roots of control plants, but not in FNP treated plants. These results indicate that FNPs could act as intracellular binders of water, creating an additional water reserve, and enabling adaptation to drought stress. Moreover, analysis of plant antioxidant enzyme activities (CAT, APx and GPx), MDA and GSH content indicate that fullerenol foliar application could have some beneficial effect on alleviating oxidative effects of drought stress, depending on the concentration of nanoparticles applied. Although further studies are necessary to elucidate the biochemical impact of FNPs on plants; the present results could directly impact agricultural practice, where available water supplies are often a limiting factor in plant bioproductivity.

  9. Foliar anatomy and histochemistry in seven species of Eucalyptus Anatomia e histoquímica foliar de sete espécies de Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo David Tuffi Santos

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to describe the foliar anatomy of seven species of Eucalyptus, emphasizing the characterization of secretory structures and the chemical nature of the compounds secreted and /or present in the leaves. Anatomical characterization and histochemical evaluation to determine the nature and localization of the secondary compounds were carried out in fully expanded leaves, according to standard methodology. Anatomical differences were verified among the species studied, especially in E. pyrocarpa. Sub-epidermal cavities were the only secretory structures found in the seven species studied, with higher density in E. pellita and lower in E. pilularis. The following compounds were histochemically detected: lipophilic compounds, specifically lipids of the essential or resin-oil type and sesquiterpene lactones found in the lumen of the cavities of the seven species; and hydrophilic compounds, of the phenolic compound type found in the mesophyll of all the species studied and on the epidermis of some of them. The results confirmed the complexity of the product secreted by the cavities, stressing the homogeneous histochemistry nature of these compounds among the species. However, the phenolic compounds results may be an indication of important variations in adaptations and ecological relations, since they show differences among the species.Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho descrever a anatomia foliar de sete espécies de Eucalyptus, com ênfase na caracterização de estruturas secretoras e da natureza química dos compostos secretados e/ou presentes no limbo foliar. A caracterização anatômica e a avaliação histoquímica para determinação da natureza e localização dos compostos secundários foram realizadas em folhas totalmente expandidas segundo metodologia usual. Houve diferenças anatômicas entre as espécies estudadas, especialmente em E. pyrocarpo. Cavidades subepidérmicas foram as únicas estruturas secretoras encontradas

  10. Efeito da cerosidade foliar na reação de variedades de cebola (Allium cepa L. a herbicidas de pós-emergência Effect of the foliar waxiness of onion varieties (Allium cepa L. in reaction to post-emergence herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V. Ferreira

    1982-12-01

    . The results obtained show that the foliar waxiness is one of the mechanisms of onion resitance against post-emergence herbicide injury.

  11. Micromorfologia foliar na análise da fitotoxidez por glyphosate em Eucalyptus grandis Leaf micromorphology in the analysis of glyphosate toxicity in Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.D. Tuffi Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os efeitos da deriva de formulações comerciais de glyphosate sobre a superfície foliar e o crescimento de clones de eucalipto. Mudas de seis clones foram submetidas a 129,6 g ha-1 de glyphosate das formulações comerciais Scout®, Roundup NA®, Roundup transorb® e Zapp QI®. Entre os clones não foram identificadas diferenças quanto à tolerância ao glyphosate. Plantas expostas à deriva simulada de Roundup transorb® e Zapp QI® apresentaram, respectivamente, a maior e menor porcentagem de intoxicação. Observou-se menor massa seca em plantas expostas ao glyphosate, independentemente da formulação, e menor altura naquelas expostas ao Scout® e ao Roundup transorb®. As características quantitativas da superfície foliar não foram afetadas pelo glyphosate. As alterações micromorfológicas ocorreram na ausência de danos visíveis e foram observadas em ambas as faces da epiderme, em todos os clones avaliados. Danos como erosão e aspecto amorfo das ceras epicuticulares e infestação por hifas fúngicas ocorreram, independentemente da formulação utilizada. A avaliação anatômica da superfície foliar foi relevante para descrição e interpretação dos danos causados pelo glyphosate. Os dados de crescimento e de intoxicação indicam o Zapp QI® como a formulação de menor risco para a cultura do eucalipto quanto aos efeitos indesejáveis da deriva.The effects of commercial glyphosate drift on the leaf surface and growth of eucalypt clones were evaluated. Seedlings of six clones were submitted to 129.6 g ha-1 sub-rate of commercial glyphosate formulations Scout®, Roundup NA®, Roundup transorb® and Zapp QI®. No differences in tolerance to glyphosate were observed among the clones. Plants exposed to simulated drift of Roundup transorb® and Zapp QI® presented the highest and lowest intoxication percentages, respectively. Plants exposed to glyphosate reduced dry biomass, regardless of the formulation, and also

  12. Injury - kidney and ureter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kidney; Ureteral injury; Pre-renal failure - injury, Post-renal failure - injury; Kidney obstruction - injury Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Molitoris BA. Acute kidney injury. In: Goldman ...

  13. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available menu Understanding Spinal Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord Injury Levels of Injury and What They Mean Animated Spinal Cord Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal ...

  14. Repetitive Stress Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Repetitive Stress Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Repetitive Stress Injuries What's ... t had any problems since. What Are Repetitive Stress Injuries? Repetitive stress injuries (RSIs) are injuries that ...

  15. Energy Awareness Displays - Making the Invisible Visible

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Börner, D. (2011). Energy Awareness Displays - Making the Invisible Visible. Presentation given at the Startbijeenkomst SURFnet Innovatieregeling Duurzaamheid & ICT. May, 13, 2011, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

  16. Badminton injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krøner, K; Schmidt, S A; Nielsen, A B; Yde, J; Jakobsen, B W; Møller-Madsen, B; Jensen, J

    1990-01-01

    In a one year period, from 1 January 1986 to 31 December 1986, 4303 patients with sports injuries were treated at Aarhus Amtssygehus and Aarhus Kommunehospital. The mean age was 21.6 years (range 7-72 years) and 2830 were men. Two hundred and seventeen badminton injuries occurred in 208 patients (136 men) with a mean age of 29.6 years (range 7-57 years), constituting 4.1 percent of all sport injuries in Aarhus. Joints and ligaments were injured in 58.5 percent of the patients, most frequently located in the lower limb and significantly more often among patients younger than 30 years of age. Muscle injury occurred in 19.8 percent of the patients. This type of injury was significantly more frequent among patients older than 30 years of age. Most injuries were minor. However, 6.8 percent of the patients were hospitalized and 30.9 percent received additional treatment by a physician. As the risk of injury varies with age, attempts to plan training individually and to institute prophylactic measures should be made. PMID:2078802

  17. Visibility of wavelet quantization noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, A. B.; Yang, G. Y.; Solomon, J. A.; Villasenor, J.

    1997-01-01

    The discrete wavelet transform (DWT) decomposes an image into bands that vary in spatial frequency and orientation. It is widely used for image compression. Measures of the visibility of DWT quantization errors are required to achieve optimal compression. Uniform quantization of a single band of coefficients results in an artifact that we call DWT uniform quantization noise; it is the sum of a lattice of random amplitude basis functions of the corresponding DWT synthesis filter. We measured visual detection thresholds for samples of DWT uniform quantization noise in Y, Cb, and Cr color channels. The spatial frequency of a wavelet is r 2-lambda, where r is display visual resolution in pixels/degree, and lambda is the wavelet level. Thresholds increase rapidly with wavelet spatial frequency. Thresholds also increase from Y to Cr to Cb, and with orientation from lowpass to horizontal/vertical to diagonal. We construct a mathematical model for DWT noise detection thresholds that is a function of level, orientation, and display visual resolution. This allows calculation of a "perceptually lossless" quantization matrix for which all errors are in theory below the visual threshold. The model may also be used as the basis for adaptive quantization schemes.

  18. [Characteristics of foliar delta13C values of common shrub species in various microhabitats with different karst rocky desertification degrees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xue-Lian; Wang, Shi-Jie; Rong, Li

    2011-12-01

    By measuring the foliar delta13C values of 5 common shrub species (Rhamnus davurica, Pyracantha fortuneana, Rubus biflorus, Zanthoxylum planispinum, and Viburnum utile) growing in various microhabitats in Wangjiazhai catchment, a typical karst desertification area in Guizhou Province, this paper studied the spatial heterogeneity of plant water use at niche scale and the response of the heterogeneity to different karst rocky desertification degrees. The foliar delta13C values of the shrub species in the microhabitats followed the order of stony surface > stony gully > stony crevice > soil surface, and those of the majority of the species were more negative in the microhabitat soil surface than in the others. The foliar delta13C values decreased in the sequence of V. utile > R. biflorus > Z. planispinum > P. fortuneana > R. davurica, and the mean foliar delta13C value of the shrubs and that of typical species in various microhabitats all increased with increasing karst rocky desertification degree, differed significantly among different microhabitats. It was suggested that with the increasing degree of karst rocky desertification, the structure and functions of karst habitats were impaired, microhabitats differentiated gradually, and drought degree increased.

  19. Influence of foliar applications of humic acids on yield and fruit quality of table grape cv. Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Ferrara

    2008-06-01

    Significance and impact of study: This study gives new information about the positive effects of foliar application of humic acids, active components of soil and compost organic matter, on yield and fruit quality of table grape. In organic viticulture humic acids may find a valid and appropriate application for a technical and economical use.

  20. Improvement of growth and productivity of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. through foliar applications of naphthalene acetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazia Parveen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth regulators like naphthalene acetic acid (NAA positively affect the growth and yield of crop plants. An experiment was conducted to check the foliar application of NAA on growth and yield components of cotton variety Bt.121 under field condition at research area of agriculture farm near Cholistan Institute of Desert Studies (CIDS, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. The experiment was comprised of foliar application of NAA (1% viz. T0 (control, T1 (One spray of NAA, T2 (Two sprays of NAA, T3 (Three sprays of NAA, T4 (Four sprays of NAA. The first foliar spray was applied at 45 days after sowing (DAS and later on it was continued with 15 days interval with skilled labour by hand pump sprayer. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design and each treatment was replicated three times. Data recorded on growth, chlorophyll contents, yield and yield components showed a significant increase with the application of NAA. Furthermore, earliness index, mean maturity date and production rate index were also influenced with foliar application of NAA. On the basis of growth and yield parameters it can be concluded that four spray of NAA (1% can be applied commercially under field conditions.

  1. Acclimation of foliar respiration and photosynthesis in response to experimental warming in a temperate steppe in northern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggang Chi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thermal acclimation of foliar respiration and photosynthesis is critical for projection of changes in carbon exchange of terrestrial ecosystems under global warming. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A field manipulative experiment was conducted to elevate foliar temperature (Tleaf by 2.07°C in a temperate steppe in northern China. Rd/Tleaf curves (responses of dark respiration to Tleaf, An/Tleaf curves (responses of light-saturated net CO2 assimilation rates to Tleaf, responses of biochemical limitations and diffusion limitations in gross CO2 assimilation rates (Ag to Tleaf, and foliar nitrogen (N concentration in Stipa krylovii Roshev. were measured in 2010 (a dry year and 2011 (a wet year. Significant thermal acclimation of Rd to 6-year experimental warming was found. However, An had a limited ability to acclimate to a warmer climate regime. Thermal acclimation of Rd was associated with not only the direct effects of warming, but also the changes in foliar N concentration induced by warming. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Warming decreased the temperature sensitivity (Q10 of the response of Rd/Ag ratio to Tleaf. Our findings may have important implications for improving ecosystem models in simulating carbon cycles and advancing understanding on the interactions between climate change and ecosystem functions.

  2. Seasonal relationships between foliar moisture content, heat content and biochemistry of lodge pole pine and big sagebrush foliage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi Qi; Matt Jolly; Philip E. Dennison; Rachael C. Kropp

    2016-01-01

    Wildland fires propagate by liberating energy contained within living and senescent plant biomass. The maximum amount of energy that can be generated by burning a given plant part can be quantified and is generally referred to as its heat content (HC). Many studies have examined heat content of wildland fuels but studies examining the seasonal variation in foliar HC...

  3. Preliminary Essay on the Effect of Foliar Treatment with the Fungicide Triadimenol on Barley Culture Infected by Scald

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasraoui, B.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the foliar treatment by the fungicide triadimenol against barley scald. Results have shown that two or three triadimenol treatments have practically stopped the infection evolution. The disease have slightly extended with only one treatment. Moreover, other assessment showed that one, two or three triadimenol treatments were significantly associated to the same increase in the yield.

  4. Effect of Foliar Application of Chitosan on Growth and Biochemical Characteristics of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. under Water Deficit Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    batool mahdavi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of water deficit stress and foliar application of chitosan in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L., a pot experiment was conducted in 2009. Experimental design was a randomized complete block in factorial arrangement with three replications. Experimental factors were water deficit levels (unstressed (control and 70% available water depletion from soil (water deficit stress, chitosan concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.1%, all dissolved in 1% acetic acid along with an additional treatment of distilled water and foliar application times (before and during stem elongation. The results showed that water deficit stress reduced plant height, leaf area, shoot and root dry weight, root height and volume. Whereas, foliar application of chitosan increased mentioned traits. In addition, water deficit stress decreased chlorophyll fluorescence, chlorophyll concentration and relative water content. Carotenoid, proline and malondialdehyde (MDA content were increased in response to stress. Foliar application of chitosan increased chlorophyll fluorescence, relative water content (68.77% and chlorophyll b in the water deficit stressed plants, whereas decreased MDA content. The results of the present study indicate that application of chitosan can reduce the harmful effects of water deficit and improve plant growth.

  5. Combined effects of drought stress and npk foliar spray on growth, physiological processes and nutrient uptake in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabir, R.N.; Waraocj, E.A.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of supplemental foliar nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P) and potassium (K) spray, alone or in various combinations, on physiological processes and nutrients uptake in wheat under water deficit conditions. The study comprised of two phases; during the first phase, ten local wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes were evaluated for their response to PEG-6000 induced osmotic stress. One drought tolerant (Bhakkar-2002) and sensitive (Shafaq-2006) genotype selected from screening experiments were used in the second phase to determine the individual and combined effects of N, P and K foliar spray on physiological mechanisms in wheat under drought stress. The results revealed that limited water supply significantly reduced germination, growth and uptake of N, P and K. Supplemental foliar fertilisation of these macronutrients alone or in different combinations significantly improved the water relations, gas exchange characteristics and nutrient contents in both the genotypes. Bhakkar-2002 maintained higher turgor, net CO/sub 2/ assimilation rate (Pn), transpiration rate (E), stomatal conductance (gs) and accumulated more N, P and K in shoot than Shafaq-2006. The foliar spray of NPK in combination was effective in improving wheat growth under both well-watered and water-deficit conditions. (author)

  6. Eleven-year response of foliar chemistry to chronic nitrogen and sulfur additions at the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose Alexander Elvir; Lindsey Rustad; G. Bruce Wiersma; Ivan Fernandez; Alan S. White; Gregory J. White

    2005-01-01

    The foliar chemistry of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.), and red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) was studied from 1993 to 2003 at the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine (BBWM). The BBWM is a paired-watershed forest ecosystem study, with one watershed treated bimonthly since...

  7. Effect of foliar application of chitosan and salicylic acid on the growth of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanah, Y.; Sembiring, M.

    2018-02-01

    Elicitors such as chitosan and salicylic acid could be used not only to increase isoflavone concentration of soybean seeds, but also to increase the growth and seed yield. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of foliar application of elicitor compounds (i.e. chitosan, and salicylic acid)on the growth of two soybean varieties under dry land conditions. Experimental design was a randomized block design with 2 factors and 3 replications. The first factor was soybean varieties (Wilis and Devon). The second factor was foliar application of elicitors consisted of without elicitor; chitosan at V4 (four trifoliate leaves are fully developed); chitosan at R3 (early podding); chitosan at V4 and R3; salicylic acid at V4; salicylic acid at R3 and salicylic acid at V4 and R3. Parameters observed was plant height at 2-7 week after planting (WAP), shoot dry weight and root dry weight. The results suggest that the Wilis variety had higher plant height 7 WAP than Devon. The foliar application of chitosan increased the plant height at 7 WAP, shoot dry weight and root dry weight. The foliar application of chitosan at V4 and R3 on Devon variety increased shoot dry weight.

  8. Sapwood area as an estimator of leaf area and foliar weight in cherrybark oak and green ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Meadows; John D. Hodges

    2002-01-01

    The relationships between foliar weight/leaf area and four stem dimensions (d.b.h., total stem cross-sectional area, total sapwood area, and current sapwood area at breast height) were investigated in two important bottomland tree species of the Southern United States, cherrybark oak (Quercus falcata var. pagodifolia ...

  9. Spinal injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dallas, TX: American Red Cross; 2016. Kaji AH, Newton EJ, Hockberger RS. Spinal injuries. In: Marx JA, ... member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www. ...

  10. Chilling injury

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ahar

    2013-12-18

    Dec 18, 2013 ... ROS avoidance genes play pivotal role in defense mechanism against chilling injury derived oxidative stress. ... Low temperature storage is a postharvest technology ..... crops is highly dependent on ethylene production and.

  11. Injury Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Power Saws for 2001 05/15/2002 Nail Gun Related Injuries and Deaths Home Maintenance & Construction 05/ ... Information (FOIA) Inspector General No Fear Act Data USA.gov Report an Unsafe Product Contact Us: 800- ...

  12. Electrical injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... RS, Gausche-Hill M, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 134. Price LA, Loiacono LA. Electrical and lightning injury. In: Cameron JL, Cameron AM, eds. Current Surgical ...

  13. Ear Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of different injuries can affect the outer ear. Cauliflower ear (subperichondrial hematoma) A blunt blow to the ... to a deformed ear. This deformity, called a cauliflower ear, is common among wrestlers, boxers, and rugby ...

  14. The management of complex pancreatic injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krige, J E J; Beningfield, S J; Nicol, A J; Navsaria, P

    2005-08-01

    Major injuries of the pancreas are uncommon, but may result in considerable morbidity and mortality because of the magnitude of associated vascular and duodenal injuries or underestimation of the extent of the pancreatic injury. Prognosis is influenced by the cause and complexity of the pancreatic injury, the amount of blood lost, duration of shock, speed of resuscitation and quality and nature of surgical intervention. Early mortality usually results from uncontrolled or massive bleeding due to associated vascular and adjacent organ injuries. Late mortality is a consequence of infection or multiple organ failure. Neglect of major pancreatic duct injury may lead to life-threatening complications including pseudocysts, fistulas, pancreatitis, sepsis and secondary haemorrhage. Careful operative assessment to determine the extent of gland damage and the likelihood of duct injury is usually sufficient to allow planning of further management. This strategy provides a simple approach to the management of pancreatic injuries regardless of the cause. Four situations are defined by the extent and site of injury: (i) minor lacerations, stabs or gunshot wounds of the superior or inferior border of the body or tail of the pancreas (i.e. remote from the main pancreatic duct), without visible duct involvement, are best managed by external drainage; (ii) major lacerations or gunshot or stab wounds in the body or tail with visible duct involvement or transection of more than half the width of the pancreas are treated by distal pancreatectomy; (iii) stab wounds, gunshot wounds and contusions of the head of the pancreas without devitalisation of pancreatic tissue are managed by external drainage, provided that any associated duodenal injury is amenable to simple repair; and (iv) non-reconstructable injuries with disruption of the ampullary-biliary-pancreatic union or major devitalising injuries of the pancreatic head and duodenum in stable patients are best treated by

  15. Metal and metalloid foliar uptake by various plant species exposed to atmospheric industrial fallout: Mechanisms involved for lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreck, E., E-mail: eva.schreck@ensat.fr [Universite de Toulouse (France); INP, UPS (France); EcoLab (Laboratoire Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Environnement) (France); ENSAT, Avenue de l' Agrobiopole, 31326 Castanet Tolosan (France); CNRS (France); EcoLab, 31326 Castanet Tolosan (France); Foucault, Y. [Universite de Toulouse (France); INP, UPS (France); EcoLab (Laboratoire Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Environnement) (France); ENSAT, Avenue de l' Agrobiopole, 31326 Castanet Tolosan (France); CNRS (France); EcoLab, 31326 Castanet Tolosan (France); STCM, Societe de Traitements Chimiques des Metaux, 30 Avenue de Fondeyre 31200 Toulouse (France); Sarret, G. [ISTerre (UMR 5275), Universite J. Fourier and CNRS, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Sobanska, S. [LASIR (UMR CNRS 8516), Universite de Lille 1, Bat. C5, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq cedex (France); Cecillon, L. [ISTerre (UMR 5275), Universite J. Fourier and CNRS, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Castrec-Rouelle, M. [Universite Pierre and Marie Curie (UPMC-Paris 6), Bioemco (Biogeochimie et Ecologie des Milieux Continentaux), Site Jussieu, Tour 56, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05 (France); Uzu, G. [Laboratoire d' Aerologie (UMR 5560), OMP, UPS 14, Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France); GET (UMR 5563), IRD, 14, Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France); Dumat, C. [Universite de Toulouse (France); INP, UPS (France); EcoLab (Laboratoire Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Environnement) (France); ENSAT, Avenue de l' Agrobiopole, 31326 Castanet Tolosan (France); CNRS (France); EcoLab, 31326 Castanet Tolosan (France)

    2012-06-15

    Fine and ultrafine metallic particulate matters (PMs) are emitted from metallurgic activities in peri-urban zones into the atmosphere and can be deposited in terrestrial ecosystems. The foliar transfer of metals and metalloids and their fate in plant leaves remain unclear, although this way of penetration may be a major contributor to the transfer of metals into plants. This study focused on the foliar uptake of various metals and metalloids from enriched PM (Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, Sb, As, and especially lead (Pb)) resulting from the emissions of a battery-recycling factory. Metal and metalloid foliar uptake by various vegetable species, exhibiting different morphologies, use (food or fodder) and life-cycle (lettuce, parsley and rye-grass) were studied. The mechanisms involved in foliar metal transfer from atmospheric particulate matter fallout, using lead (Pb) as a model element was also investigated. Several complementary techniques (micro-X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry) were used to investigate the localization and the speciation of lead in their edible parts, i.e. leaves. The results showed lead-enriched PM on the surface of plant leaves. Biogeochemical transformations occurred on the leaf surfaces with the formation of lead secondary species (PbCO{sub 3} and organic Pb). Some compounds were internalized in their primary form (PbSO{sub 4}) underneath an organic layer. Internalization through the cuticle or penetration through stomata openings are proposed as two major mechanisms involved in foliar uptake of particulate matter. - Graphical abstract: Overall picture of performed observations and mechanisms potentially involved in lead foliar uptake. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Foliar uptake of metallic particulate matter (PM) is of environmental and health concerns. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The leaf morphology influences the adsorption

  16. Response of winter rape (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera Metzg., Sinsk to foliar fertilization and different seeding rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezary A. Kwiatkowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment in growing winter rape was carried out during the period 2009-2011 in a family farm (owned by Mr. M. Bednarczyk located in Jaroszewice (Lublin region, on podzolic soil. Plant biometric features as well as yield and seed qualitative parameters (oil, protein and glucosinolate content were evaluated depending on the following rates of soil NPK fertilizers and on foliar fertilization (autumn spraying with the fertilizer solution: 100% and 75% of NPK as well as urea + nickel chelate + MgSO4H2O; 100% and 75% of NPK as well as urea + Plonvit R + MgSO4H2O. Plots without foliar fertilization (only 100% of NPK were the control treatment. The other experimental factor was the seeding rate (2.5 kg×ha-1 – 30 cm row spacing; 4 kg×ha-1 – 18 cm row spacing. Foliar spraying was done once in the autumn in the second decade of October. Tillage as well as mechanical and chemical control of agricultural pests in the plantation were typical for this plant species and consistent with the recommendations for winter rape protection. A hypothesis was made that the application of foliar fertilizers would have a beneficial effect on winter rape productivity, at the same time maintaining the high quality of raw material. It was also assumed that a reduction in the seeding rate of winter oilseed rape would result in reduced plant lodging and an increased number of siliques per plant; as a consequence, seed and oil productivity would be at a level not lower than that obtained at the higher seeding rate. The present study has proved that foliar fertilization of winter oilseed rape in the autumn period contributes to improved plant winter hardiness and increased productivity. The application of foliar fertilizers also enables the rates of basic mineral NPK fertilizers to be reduced by 25% without detriment to seed yield. Foliar fertilizers have been found to have a weaker effect on changing the chemical composition of rapeseed. The study has shown that

  17. Improved visibility computation on massive grid terrains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fishman, J.; Haverkort, H.J.; Toma, L.; Wolfson, O.; Agrawal, D.; Lu, C.-T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the design and engineering of algorithms for computing visibility maps on massive grid terrains. Given a terrain T, specified by the elevations of points in a regular grid, and given a viewpoint v, the visibility map or viewshed of v is the set of grid points of T that are

  18. Rendering Visible: Painting and Sexuate Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Linda

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, I examine Luce Irigaray's aesthetic of sexual difference, which she develops by extrapolating from Paul Klee's idea that the role of painting is to render the non-visible rather than represent the visible. This idea is the premise of her analyses of phenomenology and psychoanalysis and their respective contributions to understanding…

  19. 40 CFR 52.2179 - Visibility protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.2179 Section 52.2179 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) South Dakota § 52.2179 Visibility protection...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1606 - Visibility protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.1606 Section 52.1606 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New Jersey § 52.1606 Visibility protection...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1236 - Visibility protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.1236 Section 52.1236 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Minnesota § 52.1236 Visibility protection. (a...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1488 - Visibility protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.1488 Section 52.1488 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1488 Visibility protection. (a...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2383 - Visibility protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.2383 Section 52.2383 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Vermont § 52.2383 Visibility protection. (a...

  4. 40 CFR 52.2498 - Visibility protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.2498 Section 52.2498 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Washington § 52.2498 Visibility protection...

  5. 40 CFR 52.2304 - Visibility protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.2304 Section 52.2304 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Texas § 52.2304 Visibility protection. (a...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1387 - Visibility protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.1387 Section 52.1387 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1387 Visibility protection. (a...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1831 - Visibility protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.1831 Section 52.1831 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) North Dakota § 52.1831 Visibility protection...

  8. 40 CFR 52.2533 - Visibility protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.2533 Section 52.2533 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) West Virginia § 52.2533 Visibility protection...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1183 - Visibility protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.1183 Section 52.1183 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Michigan § 52.1183 Visibility protection. (a...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1531 - Visibility protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.1531 Section 52.1531 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New Hampshire § 52.1531 Visibility protection...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2452 - Visibility protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.2452 Section 52.2452 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Virginia § 52.2452 Visibility protection. (a...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1033 - Visibility protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.1033 Section 52.1033 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maine § 52.1033 Visibility protection. (a...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1339 - Visibility protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.1339 Section 52.1339 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Missouri § 52.1339 Visibility protection. (a...

  14. Morfologia e distribuição de galhas foliares de Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Scareli-Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Galhas são estruturas que exibem associações específicas entre o indutor e a planta hospedeira, onde são evidenciadas modificações morfológicas, anatômicas e químicas dos tecidos vegetais. Objetivou-se descrever a morfologia e a distribuição de galhas foliares de Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae. Foram coletadas 294 folhas, da porção apical dos ramos, de indivíduos localizados na Universidade Federal do Tocantins - Campus Araguaína, TO. Foram realizadas análises morfológicas utilizando microscópio estereoscópico, paquímetro e bibliografia específica. Determinou-se o número de galhas no limbo foliar seguida da análise de regressão linear entre o número de galhas por limbo e o seu comprimento. Foram observadas galhas do tipo cônico atravessando a lâmina foliar, glabras, de coloração verde quando jovens e vermelho alaranjadas quando maduras, com distribuição isolada/agrupada e aderência total; internamente apresentou um lóculo e uma larva do indutor (Cecidomyiidae. A distribuição das galhas no limbo apresentou diferenças significativas (p<0,001, em ordem decrescente foi observado maior número de galhas entre as nervuras (57,1%, sobre a nervura secundária (35,7%, na margem (6,3% e na nervura central (1,2%; a análise de regressão linear apresentou fracamente positiva (r2= 0,03; coeficiente de Pearson= 0,2025, o que sugere que a oviposição está associada, em parte, com o tamanho do limbo e que outras variáveis podem ser determinantes. Estes são os primeiros registros de galhas em A. occidentale no estado do Tocantins.

  15. Nitrate transporters in leaves and their potential roles in foliar uptake of nitrogen dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbo eHu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available While plant roots are specialized organs for the uptake and transport of water and nutrients, the absorption of gaseous or liquid mineral elements by aerial plant parts has been recognized since more than one century. Nitrogen (N is an essential macronutrient which generally absorbed either as nitrate (NO3- or ammonium (NH4+ by plant roots. Gaseous nitrogen pollutants like N dioxide (NO2 can also be absorbed by plant surfaces and assimilated via the NO3– assimilation pathway. The subsequent NO3– flux may induce or repress the expression of various NO3–-responsive genes encoding for instance, the transmembrane transporters, NO3–/NO2– (nitrite reductase, or assimilatory enzymes involved in N metabolism. Based on the existing information, the aim of this review was to theoretically analyze the potential link between foliar NO2 absorption and N transport and metabolism. For such purpose, an overview of the state of knowledge on the NO3– transporter genes identified in leaves or shoots of various species and their roles for NO3– transport across the tonoplast and plasma membrane, in addition to the process of phloem loading is briefly provided. It is assumed that a NO2-induced ac-cumulation of NO3–/NO2– may alter the expression of such genes, hence linking transmembrane NO3– transporters and foliar uptake of NO2. It is likely that NRT1/NRT2 gene expression and spe-cies-dependent apoplastic buffer capacity may be also related to the species-specific foliar NO2 uptake process. It is concluded that further work focusing on the expression of NRT1 (NRT1.1, NRT1.7, NRT1.11 and NRT1.12, NRT2 (NRT2.1, NRT2.4 and NRT2.5 and chloride channel family genes (CLCa and CLCd may help us elucidate the physiological and metabolic response of plants fumigated with NO2.

  16. Cold injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, R J

    1995-01-01

    There are two categories of cold injury. The first is hypothermia, which is a systemic injury to cold, and the second is frostbite, which is a local injury. Throughout history, entire armies, from George Washington to the Germans on the Russian Front in World War II, have fallen prey to prolonged cold exposure. Cold injury is common and can occur in all seasons if ambient temperature is lower than the core body temperature. In the 1985 Boston Marathon, even though it was 76 degrees and sunny, there were 75 runners treated for hypothermia. In general, humans adapt poorly to cold exposure. Children are at particular risk because of their relatively greater surface area/body mass ratio, causing them to cool even more rapidly than adults. Because of this, the human's best defense against cold injury is to limit his/her exposure to cold and to dress appropriately. If cold injury has occurred and is mild, often simple passive rewarming such as dry blankets and a warm room are sufficient treatment.

  17. Ecosystem, location, and climate effects on foliar secondary metabolites of lodgepole pine populations from central British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Christopher M; Huber, Dezene P W; Lewis, Kathy J

    2011-06-01

    Lodgepole pines, Pinus contorta Douglas ex Louden var. latifolia Engelm. ex S. Watson, are encountering increased abiotic stress and pest activity due to recent increases in temperature and changes in precipitation throughout their range. This tree species counters these threats by producing secondary metabolites, including phenolics and terpenoids. We examined foliar levels of lignin, soluble phenolics, monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, and diterpenoids in 12 stands in British Columbia, Canada. We used these data to assess associations among foliar secondary metabolite levels and ecosystem, geographic, and climatic variables. Regressions were also performed to observe which combinations of variables best explained secondary metabolite variance. Stands of P. c. latifolia in the Coastal Western Hemlock and Interior Cedar/Hemlock biogeoclimatic zones had consistently greater foliar levels of almost all measured secondary metabolites than did other stands. Lignin was present in greater amounts in Boreal White/Black Spruce ecosystem (i.e., northern) stands than in southern stands, suggesting a role for this metabolite in pine survival in the boreal forest. Attempts to develop regression models with geographic and climatic variables to explain foliar secondary metabolite levels resulted in multiple models with similar predictive capability. Since foliar secondary metabolite levels appeared to vary most between stand ecosystem types and not as much due to geographic and climatic variables, metabolic profiles appeared best matched to the stress levels within local environments. It is unknown if differences in secondary metabolite levels are the result of genetic adaptation or phenotypic plasticity, but results from this and other studies suggest that both are important. These results are interpreted in light of ongoing efforts to assist in the migration of certain populations of P. c. latifolia northward in an effort to counter predicted effects of climate change.

  18. Foliar urea application affects nitric oxide burst and glycine betaine metabolism in two maize cultivars under drought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, L.; Zhang, X.; Wang, K.; Zhao, Y.; Zhai, Y.; Gao, M.

    2011-01-01

    Foliar urea has been proved to act a better role in alleviation of the negative effects of drought stress (DS). However, the modulation mechanism of foliar urea are not conclusive in view of nitric oxide (NO) burst and glycine betaine metabolism and their relationship. Two maize ( Zea mays L.) cultivars (Zhengdan 958, JD958, Jundan 20, ZD20) were grown in hydroponic medium, which were treated with spraying of urea concentration of 15 g L/sup -1/ and two water regimes (non-stress and DS simulated by the addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG, 15% w/v, MW 6000). The ten-day DS treatment increased betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) activity, choline content and nitric oxide (NO) content acted as the key enzyme, initial substrate and a nitrogenous signal substance respectively in GB synthesis metabolism, thus, induced to great GB accumulation. The accumulation of NO reached the summit earlier than that of GB. The more positive/less negative responses were recorded in JD958 as compared with ZD20 to DS. Addition of foliar ur ea could increase accumulation of choline and BADH activity as well as NO content, thereby, increase GB accumulation under DS. These positive effects of urea applying foliarly on all parameters measured were more pronounced in cultivar JD20 than those in ZD958 under drought. It is, therefore, concluded that increases of both BADH activity and choline content possibly resulted in enhancement of GB accumulation. Foliar urea application could provoke better GB accumulation by modulation of GB metabolism, possibly mediating by NO burst as a signal molecule during drought, especially in the drought sensitive maize cultivar. (author)

  19. Vector control and foliar nutrition to maintain economic sustainability of bearing citrus in Florida groves affected by huanglongbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansly, Philip A; Arevalo, H Alejandro; Qureshi, Jawwad A; Jones, Moneen M; Hendricks, Katherine; Roberts, Pamela D; Roka, Fritz M

    2014-03-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening is a bacterial disease vectored by the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) causing tree decline, and yield loss. Vector control and foliar nutrition are used in Florida to slow the spread of HLB and mitigate debilitating effects of the disease. A four year replicated field study was initiated February 2008 in a 5.2-ha commercial block of young 'Valencia' orange trees employing a factorial design to evaluate individual and compound effects of vector management and foliar nutrition. Insecticides were sprayed during tree dormancy and when psyllid populations exceeded a nominal threshold. A mixture consisting primarily of micro- and macro-nutrients was applied three times a year corresponding to the principal foliar flushes. Differences in ACP numbers from five- to 13-fold were maintained in insecticide treated and untreated plots. Incidence of HLB estimated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), rose from 30% at the beginning of the study to 95% in only 18 months. Highest yields all four years were seen from trees receiving both foliar nutrition and vector control. Production for these trees in the fourth year was close to the pre-HLB regional average for 10 year old 'Valencia' on 'Swingle'. Nevertheless, at current juice prices, the extra revenue generated from the combined insecticide and nutritional treatment did not cover the added treatment costs. This experiment demonstrated that vector control, especially when combined with enhanced foliar nutrition, could significantly increase yields in a citrus orchard with high incidence of HLB. Economic thresholds for both insecticide and nutrient applications are needed under different market and environmental conditions. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Effect of Grafting Method, Graft Cover and Foliar Spray of some Mineral Elements on Persian Walnut Graft-take and Winter Survival Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Rezaee

    2017-09-01

    the control plot with the damage rate of 29.4%. Moreover, foliar spray statistically increased the concentration of related elements in vegetative tissues of scion. Conclusion: Based on the results, using V-shaped, cleft and bark grating methods covered with moist sawdust were effective for the increase of graft success percentage. Spraying of young grafted trees with Ca, B and Zn was also effective to reduce frost damage and is thus recommended in walnut nurseries. Moreover, there was a significant interaction between grafting method and spraying treatments in terms of balanced scion growth and higher contents of mineral in scion tissues, indicating that choosing an appropriate method of grafting and spraying can be effective in the reduction of frost damage. In this study, the lowest frost injury was observed with cleft grafting and spraying treatments due to relatively reduced scion growth as well as higher content of minerals in scion tissues.

  1. Glands on the foliar surfaces of tribe Cercideae (Caesapiniodeae, Leguminosae: distribution and taxonomic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOAQUIM M. DUARTE-ALMEIDA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Large elongated glands occur on Cercideae leaf surfaces. Leaves of Bauhinia (55 taxa, 53 species, Cercis (1 species, Phanera (1 species, Piliostigma (2 species, Schnella (19 species and Tylosema (1 species were observed to determine location and relative number of glands. They were only observed on the abaxial leaf surface of 42 Bauhinia taxa. The glands were analyzed by light stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscopy. They are large (up to 270 µm long and 115 µm wide and multicellular, containing lipophilic substances, probably volatile oils. Presence or absence and density of the glands in species of Bauhinia may be useful to determine species delimitation or distinction among infraspecific taxa. Higher density of glands is more common in species from "cerrado" (a savanna ecosystem and "caatinga" (a semiarid ecosystem from northeast Brazil areas. Bauhinia species devoid of foliar glands are frequently from humid forests.

  2. Influence of foliar riboflavin applications to vineyard on grape amino acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Santamaría, Rosario; Ruiz-González, Rubén; Nonell, Santi; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Pérez-Álvarez, Eva P

    2018-02-01

    Nitrogen is an important element for grapevine and winemaking, which affects plant development, grape juice fermentation and has a potential effect in modulating wine quality. The aim was to study the influence of foliar applications of riboflavin (vitamin B2) to vineyard on grape nitrogen composition. This vitamin has a reported capacity to protect different plant species, but its application to favor grape and grape juice quality had not previously been studied. This work reports the oenological properties and the effect on amino acid concentration of grape juices obtained from grapes treated with riboflavin at two different doses compared to control. Results showed that probable alcohol, malic acid, color intensity and hue had significant differences when the riboflavin treatments were applied. Most of the amino acids presented the highest concentrations when the lowest riboflavin dose was used. These results are promising in terms of fermentation development and grape juice nitrogen composition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. FOLIAR ANATOMY OF ENDEMICS SPECIES OF Cattleya (ORCHIDACEAE ENDEMIC FROM GUIANA SHIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciene Tomaz Carneiro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was characterize the leaf's anatomical aspects of Cattleya jenmanii Rolfe and e C. lawrenceana Rchb. f., describing its anatomical structures in order to increase the knowledge of this endemic species from the region of the Guiana Shield. Besides, it also intended to identify foliar characters to assist in the anatomical comparison of these species. For anatomical study, the material was fixed in FAA and to make the slides we used the usual cut freehand technique and stained with double staining from Safranin with Blue Astra (Safrablau. C. jenmanii and C. lawrenceana has fleshy leaves covered with a thick cuticle. The mesophyll presented dorsiventral with collateral vascular bundles. A large number of bundles of smaller caliber fibers are distributed in the mesophyll poles. Only the presence of a subepidermal layer of fibers differed C. lawrenceana from C. jenmanii. Keyword: Roraima; Guiana Shield; Cattleya; Amazon Basin.

  4. Effect of foliar application of selenium on its uptake and speciation in carrot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kápolna, Emese; Hillestrøm, Peter René; Laursen, K.H.

    2009-01-01

    Carrot (Daucus carota) shoots were enriched by selenium using foliar application. Solutions of sodium selenite or sodium selenate at 10 and 100 mu g Se ml(-1), were sprayed on the carrot leaves and the selenium content and uptake rate of selenium were estimated by ICP-MS analysis. Anion and cation......(-1) (dry mass) in the carrot root whereas the selenium concentration in the controls was below the limit of detection at 0.045 mu g Se g(-1) (dry mass). Selenate-enriched carrot leaves accumulated as much as 80 mu g Se g(-1) (dry mass), while the selenite-enriched leaves contained approximately 50 mu...... g Se g(-1) (dry mass). The speciation analyses showed that inorganic selenium was present in both roots and leaves. The predominant metabolised organic forms of selenium in the roots were selenomethionine and gamma-glutamyl-selenomethyl-selenocysteine, regardless of which of the inorganic species...

  5. Foliar flavonoids from Tanacetum vulgare var. boreale and their geographical variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Ayumi; Akiyama, Shinobu; Iwashina, Tsukasa

    2015-03-01

    Foliar flavonoids of Tanacetum vulgare var. boreale were isolated. Eight flavonoid glycosides, 7-O-glucosides of apigenin, luteolin, scutellarein and 6- hydroxyluteolin, and 7-O-glucuronides of apigenin, luteolin, chrysoeriol and eriodictyol were identified. Moreover, eight flavonoid aglycones, apigenin, luteolin, hispidulin, nepetin, eupatilin, jaceosidin, pectolinarigenin and axillarin were also isolated and identified. The flavonoid composition of two varieties of T. vulgare, i.e. var. boreale and var. vulgare, were compared. All samples of var. boreale and one sample of var. vulgare had the same flavonoid pattern, and could be distinguished from almost all the samples of var. vulgare. Thus, the occurrence of chemotypes, which are characterized by either the presence or absence of scutellarein 7-O-glucoside, eriodictyol 7-O-glucuronide and pectolinarigenin was shown in T. vulgare sensu lato.

  6. Effect of the counter anion of cesium on foliar uptake and translocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Hidenao [Department of Radioecology, Institute for Environmental Sciences, 1-7, Ienomae, Obuchi, Rokkasho, Kamikita-gun, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan)], E-mail: hhidenao@ies.or.jp; Tsukada, Hirofumi; Kawabata, Hitoshi [Department of Radioecology, Institute for Environmental Sciences, 1-7, Ienomae, Obuchi, Rokkasho, Kamikita-gun, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Chikuchi, Yuki [JGC Plantech Aomori Co. Ltd., Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Takaku, Yuichi; Hisamatsu, Shun' ichi [Department of Radioecology, Institute for Environmental Sciences, 1-7, Ienomae, Obuchi, Rokkasho, Kamikita-gun, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan)

    2009-01-15

    Direct deposition of radioactive material onto crops is one important pathway for safety assessment of radionuclides released from nuclear facilities. Foliar uptake of Cs by radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Redchim) was studied by applying droplets of Cs solution (CsCl or CsNO{sub 3}) on an upper leaf surface. The uptake of Cs was strongly affected by counter anions of Cs in the applied solution. Approximately 80% of Cs was absorbed for CsCl solution, while only 20% was absorbed for CsNO{sub 3}. The partition of absorbed Cs between leaf and root tuber was quite similar for both Cs compounds, which indicated that behavior of the absorbed Cs in radish was the same for both.

  7. Fungos associados ao processo de decomposição foliar: 2 anos de estudo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Kappes Marques

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O processo de decomposição da matéria orgânica em córregos de baixa ordem, realizado em grande parte pelos fungos, é importante para o fornecimento de energia a diversos níveis tróficos neste ecossistema. O presente trabalho avaliou a variação temporal de bolores e leveduras associados ao processo de decomposição foliar em um córrego de baixa ordem no cerrado tocantinense. Detrito vegetal misto foi coletado do aporte vertical da vegetação ripária e colocado em sacos de malha grossa e submersos por 30 dias no córrego Buritizal. O isolamento e contagem dos fungos filamentosos e leveduras foi realizado a partir do macerado de discos foliares em caldo peptonado e semeado em placas de petri contendo meio BDA e YMA incubados por 30 dias. As contagens de leveduras variaram de 1,42 logUFC.gMOF em junho de 2011 a 5,90 logUFC.gMOF em abril de 2012. Os fungos filamentosos variaram de 1,98 logUFC.gMOF em julho de 2011 a 6,27 logUFC.gMOF em março de 2013. As maiores contagens de fungos filamentosos e leveduras ocorreram em ambos períodos chuvosos porém somente os filamentosos apresentam diferença estatisticamente significativa e podem estar associadas as enxurradas, quando há o escoamento da serrapilheira e solo das margens com consequente maior entrada de geofungos e demais sapróbios associados ao aporte horizontal.

  8. Foliar phosphite application has minor phytotoxic impacts across a diverse range of conifers and woody angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Peter; Bader, Martin Karl-Friedrich; Williams, Nari Michelle

    2016-10-01

    Phytophthora plant pathogens cause tremendous damage in planted and natural systems worldwide. Phosphite is one of the only effective chemicals to control broad-scale Phytophthora disease. Little work has been done on the phytotoxic effects of phosphite application on plant communities especially in combination with plant physiological impacts. Here, we tested the phytotoxic impact of phosphite applied as foliar spray at 0, 12, 24 and 48 kg a.i. ha(-1) . Eighteen-month-old saplings of 13 conifer and angiosperm species native to New Zealand, and two exotic coniferous species were treated and the development of necrotic tissue and chlorophyll-a-fluorescence parameters (optimal quantum yield, Fv /Fm ; effective quantum yield of photosystem II, ΦPSII ) were assessed. In addition, stomatal conductance (gs ) was measured on a subset of six species. Significant necrosis assessed by digital image analysis occurred in only three species: in the lauraceous canopy tree Beilschmiedia tawa (8-14%) and the understory shrub Dodonaea viscosa (5-7%) across phosphite concentrations and solely at the highest concentration in the myrtaceous pioneer shrub Leptospermum scoparium (66%). In non-necrotic tissue, Fv /Fm , ΦPSII and gs remained unaffected by the phosphite treatment. Overall, our findings suggest minor phytotoxic effects resulting from foliar phosphite application across diverse taxa and regardless of concentration. This study supports the large-scale use of phosphite as a management tool to control plant diseases caused by Phytophthora pathogens in plantations and natural ecosystems. Long-term studies are required to ascertain potential ecological impacts of repeated phosphite applications. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  9. The weed composition in an orchard as a result of long-term foliar herbicide application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Licznar-Małańczuk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The weed composition and the dominance of individual species occurring in an orchard were assessed at the Research Station of the Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Poland, during the first 10 years after orchard establishment. ‘Ligol’ apple trees were planted in the spring of 2004 (3.5 × 1.2 m. Foliar herbicides were applied in 1 m wide tree rows twice or three times per each vegetation period. In the inter-row spaces, perennial grass was maintained. Ten years of maintenance of herbicide fallow contributed to a change in the weed composition in the orchard. It changed as a result of different responses of the most important weed species to the foliar herbicides. Total suppression of Elymus repens was observed in the first year after planting the trees. Convolvulus arvensis, Cirsium arvense, and other perennial weeds, completely disappeared in the succeeding periods. The maintenance of herbicide fallow did not affect the abundance of Taraxacum officinale. The percentage of the soil surface covered by Trifolium repens and Epilobium adenocaulon, perennial weeds with considerable tolerance to post-emergence herbicides, increased during the fruit-bearing period of the trees. The abundance of these weeds was significantly reduced only in the rows with the stronger growing trees on the semi-dwarf P 2 rootstock. Stellaria media was the dominant annual weed. Senecio vulgaris, Poa annua, Capsella bursa-pastoris, and Lamium spp. were also frequently observed. A significant increase in the abundance of annual and perennial weeds was found in the tree rows as a result of improved water availability after a period of high precipitation.

  10. Improvement of wheat yield grown under drought stress by boron foliar application at different growth stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M.F. Abdel-Motagally

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Two field experiments were conducted to determine the effect of boron foliar application and water stress on yield of wheat plant grown in calcareous soil during 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 seasons. The highest mean values obtained against boron application time were potential contributor to total grains mass by improving the plant height (99.42 and 98.32 cm, spike length (11.86 and 11.72 cm, number of spikelets m−2 (332.65 and 324.35, grain yield plant−1 (21.56 and 20.26 g, 1000-grain weight (35.2 and 37.4 g and grain yield (1.87 and 1.85 ton fed.−1, which were recorded at normal irrigation level (100% from the amount of water consumption for wheat with boron spraying at booting stage (B1 in the first and second seasons, respectively. Furthermore, boron application significantly enhanced all studied growth traits under water stress levels (50% from the amount of water consumption for wheat compared to B-untreated plants. Boron spraying at booting stage enhances also plant pigments contents recording its highest mean values under normal water level (100% from the amount of water consumption for wheat. The reduction in stress markers (proline and H2O2 and the enhancement of plant pigments content under water stress levels (50% from the amount of water consumption for wheat by B spraying suggests an alleviating effect of boron foliar application to water stress in the test plant. This alleviating effect was more pronounced when B applied at booting stage. Therefore, booting stage was found to be the best time for boron application to get higher grains production and consequently, better economic returns of wheat. Keywords: Wheat, Growth stages, Boron application time, Water stress, Crop yield, Plant pigments, Proline, H2O2

  11. Colposcopic imaging using visible-light optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Lian; McRaven, Michael D.; Liu, Wenzhong; Shu, Xiao; Hu, Jianmin; Sun, Cheng; Veazey, Ronald S.; Hope, Thomas J.; Zhang, Hao F.

    2017-05-01

    High-resolution colposcopic optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides key anatomical measures, such as thickness and minor traumatic injury of vaginal epithelium, of the female reproductive tract noninvasively. This information can be helpful in both fundamental investigations in animal models and disease screenings in humans. We present a fiber-based visible-light OCT and two probe designs for colposcopic application. One probe conducts circular scanning using a DC motor, and the other probe is capable of three-dimensional imaging over a 4.6×4.6-mm2 area using a pair of galvo scanners. Using this colposcopic vis-OCT with both probes, we acquired high-resolution images from whole isolated macaque vaginal samples and identified biopsy lesions.

  12. Chest Injuries Associated with Head Injury

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common cause of mortality and severe morbidity. Although there have been significant advances in management, associated severe injuries, in particular chest injuries, remain a major challenge. Extracranial injuries, especially chest injuries increase mortality in patients with TBI in both short.

  13. Caracterização de isolados de Rhizoctonia associados à queima foliar em Roraima = Characterization of Rhizoctonia isolates associated with foliar blight in Roraima.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Rodrigues Youssef

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi caracterizar isolados do fungo Rhizoctonia associados à queima foliar, obtidos de hospedeiros de importância econômica no estado de Roraima. Os isolados foram obtidos de plantas de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata, soja (Glycine max, seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis, melancia (Citrullus lanatus, alface (Lactuca sativa e feijão-guandu (Cajanus cajan. Os parâmetros utilizados foram números de núcleos, grupo de anastomose e as características culturais da colônia, taxa de crescimento micelial e a formação de escleródios nos meios de cultura: batata dextrose agar (BDA, BDA+asparagina, BDA+extrato de levedura, Czapek Agar, maltose-peptona-agar, soil extract agar, sacarose-yeast-asparagina e V-8. Todos os 10 isolados estudados foram caracterizados como multinucleados e pertencentes à espécie Rhizoctonia solani. Três isolados de feijão-caupi, um de soja e o isolado de melancia foram identificados como AGI-1A e um isolado de feijãocaupi, um de soja e o isolado de feijão-guandu como AGI-1B. O isolado de seringueira não foi identificado como nenhum dos padrões de anastomose utilizado. Para a maioria dos isolados as maiores taxas de crescimento micelialforam obtidas no meio de cultura Soil Extract Agar. Dois tipos de escleródios, característicos do grupo AGI, foram observados: formação de 2-20 tufos placa-1 coloração variável, 1-2 mm e formação de 38-611 microescleródios placa-1, de coloração marrom, medindo 100 μm. A produção e o tipo de escleródio variaram com o isolado e o meio de cultura utilizado.The aim of this work was to characterize Rhizoctonia isolates associated with foliar blight symptom from hosts with economic importance at Roraima state. The isolates were recovered from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, soybean (Glycine max, rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis, watermelon (Citrullus lanatus, lettuce (Lactuca sativa and pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan. The evaluated characteristics were nuclear

  14. Adubação foliar com macro e micronutrientes no crescimento de mudas micropropagadas do abacaxizeiro cv. Gold [Ananas comosus (L. Merrill] em diferentes recipientes Foliar fertilization with macro and micronutrients in the growth of plantlets micropropagated of pineapple cv. Gold [Ananas comosus (L. Merrill] in different containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izaias dos Santos Bregonci

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito da adubação foliar com macro e micronutrientes no crescimento das mudas micropropagadas do abacaxizeiro cv. Gold [Ananas comosus (L. Merrill], em diferentes recipientes. O experimento foi em esquema fatorial 8x3, adubação foliar em 8 níveis e recipientes em 3 níveis, através de um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com 5 repetições. As mudas foram padronizadas com altura média de 7,12 cm. As adubações foliares foram feitas com uréia, cloreto de potássio, ácido bórico, um formulado comercial com macro e micronutrientes e testemunha (pulverização com água e os recipientes: bandeja de isopor com 200 células; tubete pequeno de 115 cm³; e tubete grande com 300 cm³. O substrato utilizado foi o plantmax hortaliças®. Avaliaram-se as características área foliar, altura de planta e massa seca da parte aérea e da raiz, aos 140 dias do transplantio. Os adubos foliares proporcionaram maior crescimento em área foliar, altura e massa seca da parte aérea às mudas do abacaxizeiro, embora com resultados diferentes. Os adubos foliares não aumentaram a massa seca do sistema radicular. A bandeja de isopor apresentou as menores médias, com todos os adubos foliares para área foliar, altura e massa seca da parte aérea das mudas do abacaxizeiro. O tubete pequeno e o tubete grande apresentaram resultados semelhantes com a maioria dos adubos foliares utilizados.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the foliar fertilization with macro and micronutrients on the growth of the plantlets micropropagated of pineapple cv. Gold [Ananas comosus (L. Merrill] in different containers. The experiment was mounted in factorial arrangement 8x3, with foliar fertilization in 8 levels and containers in 3 levels, through a completely randomized design with five repetitions. The plantlets were standardized with average height of 7,12 cm. The foliar fertilization was used in the urea

  15. Variation in Foliar δ13C of Desert Plant Reaumuria soongorica (Pall.) Maxim. among Different Environments in Northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J.; Pendall, E.; Chen, F.

    2008-12-01

    Reaumuria soongorica is a dominant desert shrub species in arid regions of northwest China, it playing an important role in the maintenance of the stability and continuity of desert ecosystem. The objectives of this study were to investigate the distribution characteristics of foliar δ13C value in R. soongorica, establish the correlations between foliar characteristics and environmental factors, and identify the major factor controlling the variations of foliar δ13C among different environments. Leaves of R. soongorica were collected from 21 natural populations in its major distribution area in northwestern China, across a range of mean annual precipitation from 27 to 328 mm, at altitudes from 394 to 1987 m above sea level, at latitudes from 36°N to 45°N and at longitudes from 81°E to 107°E. We measured the leaf nitrogen (LN), phosphorus (LP), potassium content (LK), leaf water content (LWC) and foliar δ13C in leaves of 407 individuals, and the soil physicochemical properties including nitrogen (SN), phosphorus (SP), soil organic matter (SOM), soil water contents (SWC) and total dissolved solids (TDS). Mean annual precipitation (MAP), mean annual temperature (MAT), evaporation, mean relative humidity (MRH) and duration of sunshine (DS), were collected from the Cold and Arid Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences. We observed that the foliar δ13C values increased significantly with the decreasing of MAP (r = -0.623, P = 0.003) and MRH(r = -0.702, P = 0.002), and decreased with decreasing DS and evaporation. No significant correlation with MAT was detected in δ13C values of R. soongorica. The correlations between foliar δ13C value and the soil factors demonstrated that the foliar δ13C values in R. soongorica significantly increased with the decreasing SWC (r = - 0.470, P = 0.037) and increasing TDS (r = 0.507, P = 0.022) in soil. There were no significant correlations between the foliar δ13C values and soil pH, total

  16. Query Load Balancing For Visible Object Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukauskas, Linas; Bøhlen, Michael Hanspeter

    2004-01-01

    Interactive visual data explorations impose rigid real-time requirements on the extraction of visible objects. Often these requirements are met by deploying powerful hardware that maintains the entire data set in huge main memory structures. In this paper we propose an approach that retrieves...... the visible data on demand and is based on a tight integration of the database and visualization systems. We propose to incrementally adjust the observer path by adding and dropping path points. The result is an optimal path that minimizes the interaction with the database system and retrieves all visible...

  17. The Disappearing Audience and Reflexive Visibility

    OpenAIRE

    Katerina Girginova

    2016-01-01

    Contrary to popular opinion and some academic writing that celebrates the renewed visibility of new media audiences, this essay argues that they are increasingly going into retreat. To understand how new media audiences “disappear” from view of one another, I borrow from Brighenti’s typology of visibility and develop the idea of “reflexive visibility.” The latter describes the ability to socially orient ourselves in a digital environment through the textual and contextual cues of others—an ac...

  18. Effect of Nitrogen Foliar Application on Canola Yield (Brassica napus L. and Nitrogen Efficiency across Different Sowing Dates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Doori

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Between oil seeds, from the quality, quantity and nutrition index point of view, canola has the top level . Because of the solubility of N fertilizers, the time of urea application, is very important and one of the main reasons of the reduction in N application efficiency is utilization of urea in an inappropriate time. By precisely foliar application of nitrogen, the efficiency of nitrogen transformation to the grain will be very high because in this method the leaf is considered the main organ of nitrogen uptake and a low amount of absorbed nitrogen was transferred to the root and entered the soil. The more division of N application in growth stages and in accordance with plant need and foliar application result in increasing nitrogen use efficiency. The delay in sowing will result in the reduction of yield and this is due to low LAI, and thus low radiation absorb in vegetable phase and shorter reproductive phase with high temperature in flowering and subsequent stages that result in low prolific silique and make disorder in transferring stored material to grain. In this experiment using N foliar application to decrease the adverse effect of delay in sowing is objective. Materials and Methods The experiment was conducted in 2013-2014 in Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resource University of Khuzestan. Experiment was conducted as split plots in a randomized complete blocks design with three replications. In this experiment sowing date]optimum sowing (27 November, 17 December and late sowing (30 December [were assigned to main plots and several time of N-foliar application with 5 percent density from urea (20 liter per ha, ]TO (control, T1 (foliar N application in rosette stage, T2 (foliar N application in budding stage, T3 (foliar N application in flowering stage[ were placed in sub-plots in randomized way. Fertilizing was based on the results of soil examination. Therefore, 162 kg ha-1 of pure nitrogen (from resource urea in the way

  19. Ozone affects leaf physiology and causes injury to foliage of native tree species from the tropical Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Bárbara Baêsso; Alves, Edenise Segala; Marabesi, Mauro Alexandre; de Souza, Silvia Ribeiro; Schaub, Marcus; Vollenweider, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    In southern Brazil, the recent increase in tropospheric ozone (O 3 ) concentrations poses an additional threat to the biodiverse but endangered and fragmented remnants of the Atlantic Forest. Given the mostly unknown sensitivity of tropical species to oxidative stress, the principal objective of this study was to determine whether the current O 3 levels in the Metropolitan Region of Campinas (MRC), downwind of São Paulo, affect the native vegetation of forest remnants. Foliar responses to O 3 of three tree species typical of the MRC forests were investigated using indoor chamber exposure experiments under controlled conditions and a field survey. Exposure to 70ppb O 3 reduced assimilation and leaf conductance but increased respiration in Astronium graveolens while gas exchange in Croton floribundus was little affected. Both A. graveolens and Piptadenia gonoacantha developed characteristic O 3 -induced injury in the foliage, similar to visible symptoms observed in >30% of trees assessed in the MRC, while C. floribundus remained asymptomatic. The underlying structural symptoms in both O 3 -exposed and field samples were indicative of oxidative burst, hypersensitive responses, accelerated cell senescence and, primarily in field samples, interaction with photo-oxidative stress. The markers of O 3 stress were thus mostly similar to those observed in other regions of the world. Further research is needed, to estimate the proportion of sensitive forest species, the O 3 impact on tree growth and stand stability and to detect O 3 hot spots where woody species in the Atlantic Forest are mostly affected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Estimativa da área foliar do girassol por método não destrutivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Angelo de Aquino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Métodos de fácil execução, rápidos e não destrutivos, que possibilitem estimar a área foliar com precisão, são importantes para avaliar o crescimento das plantas nas condições de campo. Objetivou-se no presente trabalho, ajustar equações para estimar a área do limbo foliar e a área das folhas do girassol, em função das medidas lineares do limbo e do número de folhas por planta, incluindo a verificação da possibilidade de modelos comuns para as cultivares BR-122 e M-734. Seis plantas de cada cultivar nos estádios de início de florescimento e de florescimento pleno foram coletadas. As áreas dos limbos foliares foram determinadas por método direto. Foram medidos o comprimento ao longo da nervura principal e a largura de forma perpendicular à inserção do limbo no pecíolo. Foram ajustados os modelos linear, quadrático, cúbico, exponencial e potencial. Os modelos potenciais Ŷi = 1,6329Xi1,7164 e Ŷi = 0,5405Xi1,0212 com a utilização, respectivamente, das medidas da largura e do produto largura e comprimento são os mais adequados para estimar a área do limbo foliar do girassol. O modelo Ŷi = 5,1014Xi2,4383 permite estimar com precisão a área foliar total do girassol em função do número de folhas por planta. A precisão das equações ajustadas para as estimativas da área do limbo foliar ou de folhas por planta não é reduzida quando se ajustam modelos comuns às cultivares BR-122 e M-734.

  1. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal ... Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal ...

  2. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal ... Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal ...

  3. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, NP How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Nancy Rosenberg, ... Children with Spinal Cord Injury Patricia Mucia, RN Family Life After Pediatric Spinal Injury Dawn Sheaffer, MSW ...

  4. Dealing with Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Dealing With Sports Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Dealing With Sports Injuries ... a long way toward preventing injuries. Types of Sports Injuries Common reasons why teens get injured playing ...

  5. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animated Spinal Cord Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal ... Animated Spinal Cord Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal ...

  6. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury 101 Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David ...

  7. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury 101 Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 ...

  8. White LED visible light communication technology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao

    2017-03-01

    Visible light communication is a new type of wireless optical communication technology. White LED to the success of development, the LED lighting technology is facing a new revolution. Because the LED has high sensitivity, modulation, the advantages of good performance, large transmission power, can make it in light transmission light signal at the same time. Use white LED light-emitting characteristics, on the modulation signals to the visible light transmission, can constitute a LED visible light communication system. We built a small visible optical communication system. The system composition and structure has certain value in the field of practical application, and we also research the key technology of transmitters and receivers, the key problem has been resolved. By studying on the optical and LED the characteristics of a high speed modulation driving circuit and a high sensitive receiving circuit was designed. And information transmission through the single chip microcomputer test, a preliminary verification has realized the data transmission function.

  9. Visibility of noisy point cloud data

    KAUST Repository

    Mehra, Ravish

    2010-06-01

    We present a robust algorithm for estimating visibility from a given viewpoint for a point set containing concavities, non-uniformly spaced samples, and possibly corrupted with noise. Instead of performing an explicit surface reconstruction for the points set, visibility is computed based on a construction involving convex hull in a dual space, an idea inspired by the work of Katz et al. [26]. We derive theoretical bounds on the behavior of the method in the presence of noise and concavities, and use the derivations to develop a robust visibility estimation algorithm. In addition, computing visibility from a set of adaptively placed viewpoints allows us to generate locally consistent partial reconstructions. Using a graph based approximation algorithm we couple such reconstructions to extract globally consistent reconstructions. We test our method on a variety of 2D and 3D point sets of varying complexity and noise content. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of Biopesticides on Foliar Diseases and Japanese Beetle (Popillia japonica) Adults in Roses (Rosa spp.), Oakleaf Hydrangea (Hydrangea quercifolia), and Crapemyrtle (Lagerstroemia indica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated efficacy of biopesticides for reducing foliar diseases and feeding damage from Japanese beetle adults on hybrid T rose (Rosa spp.), oakleaf hydrangea (Hydrangea quercifolia), and crapemyrtle (Lagerstroemia indica). The materials tested included household soaps with Triclosan act...

  11. Estimativa da área foliar de Sida cordifolia e Sida rhombifolia usando dimensões lineares do limbo foliar Estimate of Sida cordifolia and Sida rhombifolia leaf area using leaf blade linear dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bianco

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A estimativa da área foliar pode auxiliar na compreensão de relações de interferência entre plantas daninhas e cultivadas. Com o objetivo de obter uma equação que, por meio de parâmetros lineares dimensionais das folhas, permita a estimativa da área foliar de Sida cordifolia e Sida rhombifolia, estudaram-se as correlações entre área foliar real (Af e parâmetros dimensionais do limbo foliar, como o comprimento (C ao longo da nervura principal e a largura máxima (L perpendicular à nervura principal. Foram analisados 200 limbos foliares de cada espécie, coletados em diferentes agroecossistemas na Universidade Estadual Paulista, campus de Jaboticabal. Os modelos estatísticos utilizados foram linear: Y = a + bx; linear simples: Y = bx; geométrico: Y = ax b; e exponencial: Y = ab x. Todos os modelos analisados podem ser empregados para estimação da área foliar de S. cordifolia e S. rhombifolia. Sugere-se optar pela equação linear simples, envolvendo o produto C*L, considerando-se o coeficiente linear igual a zero, em função da praticidade desta. Desse modo, a estimativa da área foliar de S. cordifolia pode ser obtida pela fórmula Af = 0,7878*(C*L, com coeficiente de determinação de 0,9307, enquanto para S. rhombifolia a estimativa da área foliar pode ser obtida pela fórmula Af = 0,6423*(C*L, com coeficiente de determinação de 0,9711.Leaf area estimate may contribute to understand the relationship of interference between weeds and crops. The objective of this research was to obtain a mathematical equation to estimate Sida cordifolia and Sida rhombifolia leaf area based on linear measures of leaf blade. Correlation studies were conducted between real leaf area (Af and dimensional leaf blade parameters such as leaf length (C and maximum leaf width (L. Around 200 leaf blades of each species were analyzed, collected from several agro-ecosystems at São Paulo State University, in Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil. The statistical

  12. Anatomía foliar y caulinar de Stemodia hassleriana (Scrophulariaceae, una especie endémica del Paraguay Foliar and caulinar anatomy of Stemodia hassleriana (Scrophulariaceae, a species endemic to Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de las Mercedes Sosa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia la anatomía foliar y caulinar de Stemodia hassleriana Chodat, especie endémica del Paraguay. Esta especie se distingue de las restantes Stemodia del Paraguay por presentar el tallo con colénquima y seis costillas notorias. Se describe y compara la estructura anatómica de la hoja y el tallo con la de otras especies del género. Se ilustran algunos caracteres útiles para su reconocimiento.Foliar and caulinar anatomy of Stemodia hassleriana Chodat, a species endemic to Paraguay is studied. This species is distinguished from the remaining species of Stemodia from Paraguay since it presents the stems with collenchyma and six notorious ribs. Stem and leaves anatomical structures are described and compared with other species of the genus. Some useful characters for the recognition of this species are illustrated.

  13. Mutual Visibility by Robots with Persistent Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Bhagat, Subhash; Mukhopadhyaya, Krishnendu

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the mutual visibility problem for a set of semi-synchronous, opaque robots occupying distinct positions in the Euclidean plane. Since robots are opaque, if three robots lie on a line, the middle robot obstructs the visions of the two other robots. The mutual visibility problem asks the robots to coordinate their movements to form a configuration, within finite time and without collision, in which no three robots are collinear. Robots are endowed with a constant bits of pe...

  14. Visible Light Communication Systems Conception and VIDAS

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Navin; Lourenço, Nuno; Spiez, Michal; Aguiar, Rui L

    2008-01-01

    Visible Light Communication (VLC) using LEDs is emerging as a key technology for a ubiquitous communication system, because LED has the advantages of fast switching, long life expectancy, being less expensive and being visible light that is safe for the human body. The VLC system is expected to undergo rapid progress, inspiring numerous indoor and outdoor applications; however, many technical issues need to be addressed, especially in outdoor environment. In order to provide a better understa...

  15. Área foliar de duas trepadeiras infestantes de cana-de-açúcar utilizando dimensões lineares de folhas Foliar area estimate of two sugarcane-infesting weeds using leaf blade linear dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.P. Cardozo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo obter uma equação, por meio de medidas lineares dimensionais das folhas, que permitisse a estimativa da área foliar de Momordica charantia e Pyrostegia venusta. Entre maio e dezembro de 2007, foram estudadas as correlações entre a área folia real (Sf e as medidas dimensionais do limbo foliar, como o comprimento ao longo da nervura principal (C e a largura máxima (L perpendicular à nervura principal. Todas as equações, exponenciais geométricas ou lineares simples, permitiram boas estimativas da área foliar. Do ponto de vista prático, sugere-se optar pela equação linear simples envolvendo o produto C x L, considerando-se o coeficiente linear igual a zero. Desse modo, a estimativa da área foliar de Momordica charantia pode ser feita pela fórmula Sf = 0,4963 x (C x L, e a de Pyrostegia venusta, por Sf = 0,6649 x (C x L.The aim of this study was to obtain a mathematical equation to estimate the leaf area of Momordica charantia and Pyrostegia venusta using linear leaf blade measurements. Correlation studies were conducted involving real leaf area (Sf and leaf length (C, maximum leaf width (L and C x L. The linear and geometric equations involving parameter C provided good leaf area estimates. From a practical viewpoint, the simple linear equation of the regression model is suggested using the C x L parameter, i.e., considering the linear coefficient equal to zero. Thus, leaf area estimate of Momordica charantia can be obtained by using the equation Sf = 0.4963 x (C x L, and that of Pyrostegia venusta by using equation Sf = 0.6649 x (C x L.

  16. Changes in conifer and deciduous forest foliar and forest floor chemistry and basal area tree growth across a nitrogen (N) deposition gradient in the northeastern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnny L. Boggs; Steven G. McNulty; Linda H. Pardo

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated foliar and forest floor chemistry across a gradient of N deposition in the Northeast at 11 red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) sites in 1987/1988 and foliar and forest floor chemistry and basal area growth at six paired spruce and deciduous sites in 1999. The six red spruce plots were a subset of the original 1987/1988 spruce sites. In 1999...

  17. Fingertip Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Fingertip Injury Email to a friend * required fields ...

  18. Musculoskeletal injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gigirey, V

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is about musculoskeletal injuries and the diagnosis of osseous tumors. The use of the radiology, bone scintigraphy, computed tomography and magnetic resonance contribute to detect the localization of the osseous lesions as well as the density (lytic, sclerotic, mixed) and the benign and malignant tumors.

  19. Anatomia foliar de quatro espécies do gênero Cattleya Lindl. (Orchidaceae do Planalto Central Brasileiro Foliar anatomy of four species of genus Cattleya Lindl. (Orchidaceae of the Brazilian Central Planalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Zanenga-Godoy

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available As espécies analisadas (Cattleya araguaiensis Pabst, C. bicolor Lindl., C. nobilior Rchb. e C. walkeriana Gardn. apresentam epiderme uniestratificada em ambas as faces da lâmina foliar, ocorrendo estômatos na face abaxial; deposição de cera epicuticular em crostas, escamas, flocos e plaquetas; em C. araguaiensis ocorrem estegmatas incrustados nas células epidérmicas; em todas as espécies ocorre hipoderme com células de paredes espessadas; mesofilo bifacial, compacto; células paliçádicas atípicas, com barras de espessamento; feixes vasculares colaterais dispostos alternadamente, acompanhados por bainha de fibras; cordões fibrosos acompanhados por estegmatas ocorrem longitudinalmente na lâmina foliar; presença de ráfides. Os aspectos descritos revelam acentuada xeromorfia, em função de economia de água.The analyzed species (Cattleya araguaiensis Pabst, C. bicolor Lindl., C. nobilior Rchb. e C. walkeriana Gardn. present unistratified epidermis at both surfaces with stomata at abaxial surface; deposition of epicuticular wax in crusts, scales, granules and plates; C. araguaiensis presents stegmata at epidermal cells; others characteristics present at all species are: hypodermis cells with thick walls; bifacial and compact mesophyll; atipic cells ofpalisade parenchyma with thichness bars; collateral vascular bundles alternate accompanied by sheath fibers; cordon fibers accompanied by stegmata in the foliar blade; raphids. The described aspects reveal accentuate xeromorphy for water economy.

  20. Comportamento da área foliar da videira “Isabel” submetida a diferentes tipos e doses de biofertilizantes

    OpenAIRE

    Olivânia dos Santos Nascimento; Aldair Souza Medeiros; Atos Tavares Gomes; Fábio Itano dos Santos Alves; José Geraldo Rodrigues dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Objetivou-se verificar o efeito da aplicação de diferentes tipos e doses de biofertilizante, na área foliar da videira ‘Isabel’ em cultivo orgânico nas condições edafoclimáticas de Catolé do Rocha-PB. Estudou-se os efeitos de 5 tipos de biofertilizante biofertilizante e 8 doses na área foliar da videira ‘Isabel’ após a primeira poda de produção. O experimento foi conduzido sob condições de campo, em área pertencente à Universidade Estadual da Paraíba, Campus IV. O delineamento adotado foi o d...

  1. Comparative SEM and LM foliar epidermal and palyno-morphological studies of Amaranthaceae and its taxonomic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Amara Noor; Zafar, Muhammad; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Khan, Raees; Yaseen, Ghulam; Khan, Muhammad Saleem; Nazir, Abdul; Khan, Amir Muhammad; Shaheen, Shabnum

    2018-05-01

    Palynological features as well as comparative foliar epidermal using light and scanning electron microscope (SEM) of 17 species (10genera) of Amaranthaceae have been studied for its taxonomic significance. Different foliar and palynological micro-morphological characters were examined to explain their value in resolving the difficulty in identification. All species were amphistomatic but stomata on abaxial surface were more abundant. Taxonomically significant epidermal character including stomata type, trichomes (unicellular, multicellular, and capitate) and epidermal cells shapes (polygonal and irregular) were also observed. Pollens of this family are Polypantoporate, pores large, spheroidal, mesoporous region is sparsely to scabrate, densely psilate, and spinulose. All these characters can be active at species level for identification purpose. This study indicates that at different taxonomic levels, LM and SEM pollen and epidermal morphology is explanatory and significant to identify species and genera. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Foliar Mn accumulation in eastern Australian herbarium specimens: prospecting for 'new' Mn hyperaccumulators and potential applications in taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Denise R; Guymer, Gordon; Reeves, Roger D; Woodrow, Ian E; Baker, Alan J; Batianoff, George N

    2009-04-01

    The analysis of herbarium specimens has previously been used to prospect for 'new' hyperaccumulators, while the use of foliar manganese (Mn) concentrations as a taxonomic tool has been suggested. On the basis of their geographic and taxonomic affiliations to known Mn hyperaccumulators, six eastern Australian genera from the Queensland Herbarium collection were sampled for leaf tissue analyses. ICP-OES was used to measure Mn and other elemental concentrations in 47 species within the genera Austromyrtus, Lenwebbia, Gossia (Myrtaceae), Macadamia (Proteaceae), Maytenus and Denhamia (Celastraceae). The resulting data demonstrated (a) up to seven 'new' Mn hyperaccumulators, mostly tropical rainforest species; (b) that one of these 'new' Mn hyperaccumulators also had notably elevated foliar Ni concentrations; (c) evidence of an interrelationship between foliar Mn and Al uptake among the Macadamias; (d) considerable variability of Mn hyperaccumulation within Gossia; and (e) the possibility that Maytenus cunninghamii may include subspecies. Gossia bamagensis, G. fragrantissima, G. sankowsiorum, G. gonoclada and Maytenus cunninghamii were identified as 'new' Mn hyperaccumulators, while Gossia lucida and G. shepherdii are possible 'new' Mn hyperaccumulators. Of the three Myrtaceae genera examined, Mn hyperaccumulation appears restricted to Gossia, supporting its recent taxonomic revision. In the context of this present investigation and existing information, a reassesment of the general definition of Mn hyperaccumulation may be warranted. Morphological variation of Maytenus cunninghamii at two extremities was consistent with variation in Mn accumulation, indicating two possible 'new' subspecies. Although caution should be exercised in interpreting the data, surveying herbarium specimens by chemical analysis has provided an effective means of assessing foliar Mn accumulation. These findings should be followed up by field studies.

  3. Equações para a estimativa do índice de área foliar do cafeeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favarin José Laércio

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar a variação temporal do índice de área foliar (IAF da cultura de café, utilizando um método simples e não-destrutivo, foi instalado um experimento no Departamento de Produção Vegetal, da Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz, da Universidade de São Paulo. Utilizou-se a cultivar Mundo Novo IAC 388-17, enxertada sobre a cultivar Apoatã IAC 2258 (de 15 até 35 meses de idade, no espaçamento de 2,5 x 1,0 m. Foram coletadas todas as folhas de duas plantas de café, em intervalos de 60 a 150 dias, para a mensuração da área foliar com o equipamento LI-COR (modelo 3100. Para obter a relação funcional entre IAF e diferentes variáveis de crescimento (altura da planta, número e massa total de folhas e área foliar e arquitetura da copa (área da seção inferior, média e superior do dossel, área lateral do dossel, diâmetro inferior, médio e superior do dossel, volume do dossel da planta e altura do primeiro par de ramos, assumiu-se que a parte aérea do cafeeiro tem a forma cônica. O diâmetro da seção inferior do dossel (primeiro par de ramos e a altura da planta podem ser utilizadas para estimar o índice de área foliar do cafeeiro.

  4. Foliar exposure of the crop Lactuca sativa to silver nanoparticles: Evidence for internalization and changes in Ag speciation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larue, Camille, E-mail: camille.larue@rub.de [ISTerre, Université Grenoble 1, CNRS, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Castillo-Michel, Hiram, E-mail: castillo@esrf.fr [ESRF, Beamline ID21, Grenoble (France); Sobanska, Sophie, E-mail: sophie.sobanska@univ-lille1.fr [LASIR, UMR CNRS 8516, Université Lille 1, Bât C5, 59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France); Cécillon, Lauric, E-mail: lauric.cecillon@irstea.fr [ISTerre, Université Grenoble 1, CNRS, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Bureau, Sarah, E-mail: sarah.bureau@ujf-grenoble.fr [ISTerre, Université Grenoble 1, CNRS, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Barthès, Véronique, E-mail: veronique.barthes@cea.fr [CEA/LITEN/DTNM/L2T, CEA Grenoble, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Ouerdane, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.ouerdane@univ-pau.fr [LCABIE/IPREM-UMR 5254, Université de Pau et des Pays de l‘Adour, 64053 Pau Cedex 9 (France); Carrière, Marie, E-mail: marie.carriere@cea.fr [UMR E3 CEA-UJF/LAN, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Sarret, Géraldine, E-mail: geraldine.sarret@ujf-grenoble.fr [ISTerre, Université Grenoble 1, CNRS, F-38041 Grenoble (France)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Ag-NPs are internalized inside lettuce leaves after foliar exposure to a suspension of Ag-NPs. • A classical washing process is inefficient at decreasing significantly Ag content. • Ag-NPs in plants undergo oxidation, and resulting ionic Ag are complexed with organic compounds including thiol-containing molecules. • Foliar exposure to Ag-NPs does not lead to detectable phytotoxicity symptoms. -- Abstract: The impact of engineered nanomaterials on plants, which act as a major point of entry of contaminants into trophic chains, is little documented. The foliar pathway is even less known than the soil-root pathway. However, significant inputs of nanoparticles (NPs) on plant foliage may be expected due to deposition of atmospheric particles or application of NP-containing pesticides. The uptake of Ag-NPs in the crop species Lactuca sativa after foliar exposure and their possible biotransformation and phytotoxic effects were studied. In addition to chemical analyses and ecotoxicological tests, micro X-ray fluorescence, micro X-ray absorption spectroscopy, time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and electron microscopy were used to localize and determine the speciation of Ag at sub-micrometer resolution. Although no sign of phytotoxicity was observed, Ag was effectively trapped on lettuce leaves and a thorough washing did not decrease Ag content significantly. We provide first evidence for the entrapment of Ag-NPs by the cuticle and penetration in the leaf tissue through stomata, for the diffusion of Ag in leaf tissues, and oxidation of Ag-NPs and complexation of Ag{sup +} by thiol-containing molecules. Such type of information is crucial for better assessing the risk associated to Ag-NP containing products.

  5. Insecticidal activity of floral, foliar, and root extracts of Tagetes minuta (Asterales: Asteraceae) against adult mexican bean weevils (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    David K. Weaver; Carl D. Wells; Florence V. Dunkel; Wolfgang Bertsch; Sharlene E. Sing; Shobha Sriharan

    1994-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine speed of action and toxicities of extracts of Tagetes minuta L., a source of naturally occurring insecticidal compounds. LC50 values for male and female Mexican bean weevils, Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman), were determined for floral, foliar, and root extracts of T. minuta. The 24-h LC50 values ranged from 138 μ g/cm2 for males...

  6. Foliar Mn accumulation in eastern Australian herbarium specimens: prospecting for ‘new’ Mn hyperaccumulators and potential applications in taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Denise R.; Guymer, Gordon; Reeves, Roger D.; Woodrow, Ian E.; Baker, Alan J.; Batianoff, George N.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims The analysis of herbarium specimens has previously been used to prospect for ‘new’ hyperaccumulators, while the use of foliar manganese (Mn) concentrations as a taxonomic tool has been suggested. On the basis of their geographic and taxonomic affiliations to known Mn hyperaccumulators, six eastern Australian genera from the Queensland Herbarium collection were sampled for leaf tissue analyses. Methods ICP-OES was used to measure Mn and other elemental concentrations in 47 species within the genera Austromyrtus, Lenwebbia, Gossia (Myrtaceae), Macadamia (Proteaceae), Maytenus and Denhamia (Celastraceae). Key Results The resulting data demonstrated (a) up to seven ‘new’ Mn hyperaccumulators, mostly tropical rainforest species; (b) that one of these ‘new’ Mn hyperaccumulators also had notably elevated foliar Ni concentrations; (c) evidence of an interrelationship between foliar Mn and Al uptake among the Macadamias; (d) considerable variability of Mn hyperaccumulation within Gossia; and (e) the possibility that Maytenus cunninghamii may include subspecies. Conclusions Gossia bamagensis, G. fragrantissima, G. sankowsiorum, G. gonoclada and Maytenus cunninghamii were identified as ‘new’ Mn hyperaccumulators, while Gossia lucida and G. shepherdii are possible ‘new’ Mn hyperaccumulators. Of the three Myrtaceae genera examined, Mn hyperaccumulation appears restricted to Gossia, supporting its recent taxonomic revision. In the context of this present investigation and existing information, a reassesment of the general definition of Mn hyperaccumulation may be warranted. Morphological variation of Maytenus cunninghamii at two extremities was consistent with variation in Mn accumulation, indicating two possible ‘new’ subspecies. Although caution should be exercised in interpreting the data, surveying herbarium specimens by chemical analysis has provided an effective means of assessing foliar Mn accumulation. These findings should be

  7. Foliar exposure of the crop Lactuca sativa to silver nanoparticles: Evidence for internalization and changes in Ag speciation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larue, Camille; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Sobanska, Sophie; Cécillon, Lauric; Bureau, Sarah; Barthès, Véronique; Ouerdane, Laurent; Carrière, Marie; Sarret, Géraldine

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Ag-NPs are internalized inside lettuce leaves after foliar exposure to a suspension of Ag-NPs. • A classical washing process is inefficient at decreasing significantly Ag content. • Ag-NPs in plants undergo oxidation, and resulting ionic Ag are complexed with organic compounds including thiol-containing molecules. • Foliar exposure to Ag-NPs does not lead to detectable phytotoxicity symptoms. -- Abstract: The impact of engineered nanomaterials on plants, which act as a major point of entry of contaminants into trophic chains, is little documented. The foliar pathway is even less known than the soil-root pathway. However, significant inputs of nanoparticles (NPs) on plant foliage may be expected due to deposition of atmospheric particles or application of NP-containing pesticides. The uptake of Ag-NPs in the crop species Lactuca sativa after foliar exposure and their possible biotransformation and phytotoxic effects were studied. In addition to chemical analyses and ecotoxicological tests, micro X-ray fluorescence, micro X-ray absorption spectroscopy, time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and electron microscopy were used to localize and determine the speciation of Ag at sub-micrometer resolution. Although no sign of phytotoxicity was observed, Ag was effectively trapped on lettuce leaves and a thorough washing did not decrease Ag content significantly. We provide first evidence for the entrapment of Ag-NPs by the cuticle and penetration in the leaf tissue through stomata, for the diffusion of Ag in leaf tissues, and oxidation of Ag-NPs and complexation of Ag + by thiol-containing molecules. Such type of information is crucial for better assessing the risk associated to Ag-NP containing products

  8. Evaluación de fertilizantes foliares sobre la producción en café (Coffea arabica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar A. Sosa-M.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available En  la subestación experimental Paraguaicito de Cenicafé, ubicada en el municipio de Buenavista, departamento del Quindío,  se  realizó un ensayo con  fertilizantes  foliares, en café variedad Colombia de 24 meses de edad, con una distancia de siembra de 2 x 1 m. Las aplicaciones foliares se realizaron 58 ý 88 días después del pico de floración principal, con el fin de evaluar su efecto sobre la producción, el factor de conversión y el rendimiento en  trilla. Los  fertilizantes  foliares utilizados  fueron: Úrea, MAP, Nitrato de Calcio  al 1%, KCl, Kelatex Calcio, Kelatex Magnesio al 0,25%, Borosol al 0,3%, Nitrato de potasio al 4%, Kelatex calcio (0,25% + Borosol (0,3% y Úrea  (1% + KCl  (0,25% + MAP  (1%. Los  resultados obtenidos no mostraron diferencias estadísticas sobre la producción de la primera cosecha de 2007, ya que la aplicación foliar de los fertilizantes no influyó sobre el factor de conversión, el cual presentó un valor promedio de 5,17, que se puede considerar aceptable con  respecto al promedio nacional. El  rendimiento en  trilla no presentó diferencias  significativas  entre  tratamientos,  aunque presentó un factor promedio de 88,68kg (cps; valor por debajo  de  la  línea de comercialización  nacional  que actualmente es de 92,8kg (cps.

  9. A climatology of visible surface reflectance spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoogman, Peter; Liu, Xiong; Chance, Kelly; Sun, Qingsong; Schaaf, Crystal; Mahr, Tobias; Wagner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We present a high spectral resolution climatology of visible surface reflectance as a function of wavelength for use in satellite measurements of ozone and other atmospheric species. The Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) instrument is planned to measure backscattered solar radiation in the 290–740 nm range, including the ultraviolet and visible Chappuis ozone bands. Observation in the weak Chappuis band takes advantage of the relative transparency of the atmosphere in the visible to achieve sensitivity to near-surface ozone. However, due to the weakness of the ozone absorption features this measurement is more sensitive to errors in visible surface reflectance, which is highly variable. We utilize reflectance measurements of individual plant, man-made, and other surface types to calculate the primary modes of variability of visible surface reflectance at a high spectral resolution, comparable to that of TEMPO (0.6 nm). Using the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Bidirection Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF)/albedo product and our derived primary modes we construct a high spatial resolution climatology of wavelength-dependent surface reflectance over all viewing scenes and geometries. The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment–2 (GOME-2) Lambertian Equivalent Reflectance (LER) product provides complementary information over water and snow scenes. Preliminary results using this approach in multispectral ultraviolet+visible ozone retrievals from the GOME-2 instrument show significant improvement to the fitting residuals over vegetated scenes. - Highlights: • Our goals was visible surface reflectance for satellite trace gas measurements. • Captured the range of surface reflectance spectra through EOF analysis. • Used satellite surface reflectance products for each given scene to anchor EOFs. • Generated a climatology of time/geometry dependent surface reflectance spectra. • Demonstrated potential to

  10. Adubação foliar com micronutrientes em arroz irrigado, em área sistematizada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchezan Enio

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da aplicação de micronutrientes em arroz irrigado, em área de várzea após a sistematização. Foi realizado durante três anos agrícolas em PLANOSSOLO Hidromórfico eutrófico arênico, instalado em local de onde foi retirada uma camada de solo de cerca de 30cm de profundidade. A adubação com N, P e K foi realizada de acordo com a recomendação técnica para a cultura. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições, constituído de um tratamento denominado "completo", contendo os micronutrientes boro (H3BO3, cobre (CuSO4, ferro (FeSO4, manganês (MnCl2, molibdênio (Na2MoO4 e zinco (ZnSO4 e de seis outros formados pela omissão de um micronutriente de cada vez, além de testemunha sem micronutrientes. Em 1996/97, foram aplicados 70g ha-1 Zn, 70g ha-1 Mn, 40g ha-1 Fe, 50g ha-1 B, 12,5g ha-1 Cu e 4g ha-1 Mo, via foliar, no perfilhamento e no início da formação do primórdio floral das plantas de arroz. Em 1997/98, foram utilizadas as mesmas soluções, porém com aplicação apenas no perfilhamento. Em 1998/99, as doses dos micronutrientes foram alteradas para 35g ha-1 Zn, 35g ha-1 Mn, 100g ha-1 B, 20g ha-1 Cu e 12g ha-1 Mo, aplicados no perfilhamento, não sendo utilizado o ferro no tratamento completo nem na composição dos demais tratamentos. A sistematização da área causou redução no teor de matéria orgânica, macro e micronutrientes, exceto o boro e aumento de alumínio no solo. Verificou-se que não houve efeito da aplicação foliar de micronutrientes no rendimento de grãos de arroz irrigado.

  11. MORFOANATOMÍA FOLIAR DE ALVARADOA AMORPHOIDES LIEBM. DEL ESTADO DE MORELOS, MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Teresa Jaramillo-Pérez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Se describen las características anatómicas y morfológicas de la hojas compuestas deAlvaradoaamorphoidesLiebm.procedentede una selva baja caducifolia ubicada en el municipio deTlaquiltenango, Morelos, México. Las hojas se fijaron y se prepararon para obtener secciones transversales, longitudinales yparadermalesen un criostatoLeicaa -20°C. Se tiñeron con safranina-azulalcianoy azul de toluidina; se deshidrataron y montaron con resina. Se siguieron los protocolos dediafanizaciónpara describir la arquitectura foliar. Para las descripciones anatómicas y morfológicas se midieron: los pecíolos ypeciólulos, la lámina, los pelos, las células epidérmicas y los parénquimas en empalizada y esponjoso. A los caracteres mensurables se les aplicaron los siguientes análisis: de varianzas de una vía o en su caso pruebas no paramétricas. Se registraron datos deΨxy valores de conductancia estomática. Los resultados muestran: hojas compuestas y pubescentes imparipinnadas confilotaxishelicoidal, con venaciónbroquidódromafestonada. Hojasbifaciadashipostomáticas, con estomasanomocíticosy hundidos en cámaras pre-estomáticas con células epidérmicas modificadas en papilas. Elpecióluloes móvil, presenta parénquima cortical con drusas y depósitos de origenpolifenólico. Los valores deΨhfueron del orden de -3.29 y -2.01MParegistrados en junio y septiembre respectivamente. Se observó que aunque la morfología de la epidermis y el movimiento foliar reducen el área de exposición de la hoja a la radiación solar directa, los espacios intercelulares delmesófilopermiten el desarrollo de unainterfaselíquido-vapor que logra valores hasta de 313mmol/m2sdegsen promedio, lo que sugiere el continuo abastecimientode una capa límite que evita un posible sobrecalentamiento de las hojas.

  12. Causal correlation of foliar biochemical concentrations with AVIRIS spectra using forced entry linear regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Terence P.; Curran, Paul J.; Kupiec, John A.

    1995-01-01

    A major goal of airborne imaging spectrometry is to estimate the biochemical composition of vegetation canopies from reflectance spectra. Remotely-sensed estimates of foliar biochemical concentrations of forests would provide valuable indicators of ecosystem function at regional and eventually global scales. Empirical research has shown a relationship exists between the amount of radiation reflected from absorption features and the concentration of given biochemicals in leaves and canopies (Matson et al., 1994, Johnson et al., 1994). A technique commonly used to determine which wavelengths have the strongest correlation with the biochemical of interest is unguided (stepwise) multiple regression. Wavelengths are entered into a multivariate regression equation, in their order of importance, each contributing to the reduction of the variance in the measured biochemical concentration. A significant problem with the use of stepwise regression for determining the correlation between biochemical concentration and spectra is that of 'overfitting' as there are significantly more wavebands than biochemical measurements. This could result in the selection of wavebands which may be more accurately attributable to noise or canopy effects. In addition, there is a real problem of collinearity in that the individual biochemical concentrations may covary. A strong correlation between the reflectance at a given wavelength and the concentration of a biochemical of interest, therefore, may be due to the effect of another biochemical which is closely related. Furthermore, it is not always possible to account for potentially suitable waveband omissions in the stepwise selection procedure. This concern about the suitability of stepwise regression has been identified and acknowledged in a number of recent studies (Wessman et al., 1988, Curran, 1989, Curran et al., 1992, Peterson and Hubbard, 1992, Martine and Aber, 1994, Kupiec, 1994). These studies have pointed to the lack of a physical

  13. Edge effects on foliar stable isotope values in a Madagascan tropical dry forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke E Crowley

    Full Text Available Edge effects represent an inevitable and important consequence of habitat loss and fragmentation. These effects include changes in microclimate, solar radiation, or temperature. Such abiotic effects can, in turn, impact biotic factors. They can have a substantial impact on species, communities, and ecosystems. Here we examine clinal variations in stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values for trees along an edge-interior gradient in the dry deciduous forest at Ankarafantsika National Park. We predicted that soil respiration and differences in solar irradiance would result in stratified δ¹³C values where leaves collected close to the forest floor would have lower δ¹³C values than those growing higher up in the canopy. We also anticipated that plants growing at the savannah-forest boundary would have higher δ¹³C and δ¹⁵N values than plants growing in the forest interior. As expected, we detected a small but significant canopy effect. Leaves growing below 2 m from the forest floor exhibit δ¹³C values that are, on average, 1.1‰ lower than those growing above this threshold. We did not, however, find any relationship between foliar δ¹³C and distance from the edge. Unpredictably, we detected a striking positive relationship between foliar δ¹⁵N values and increasing distance into the forest interior. Variability in physiology among species, anthropogenic influence, organic input, and rooting depth cannot adequately explain this trend. Instead, this unexpected relationship most likely reflects decreasing nutrient or water availability, or a shift in N-sources with increasing distance from the savannah. Unlike most forest communities, the trees at Ampijoroa are growing in nutrient-limited sands. In addition to being nutrient poor, these well-drained soils likely decrease the amount of soil water available to forest vegetation. Continued research on plant responses to edge effects will improve our understanding of the conservation

  14. Assessment of ozone visible symptoms in the field: perspectives of quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussotti, F.; Schaub, M.; Cozzi, A.; Kraeuchi, N.; Ferretti, M.; Novak, K.; Skelly, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Observers need to be trained in how to assess ozone symptoms before field surveys are conducted. - The second UN/ECE ICP-Forests Intercalibration Course on the Assessment of Ozone Injury on European Tree Species was carried out in August 2001 at Lattecaldo (Canton Ticino, CH) and Moggio (Lombardy, I). Forty-eight experts from several European countries participated in the exercises and assessed visible symptoms of ozone injury both in open-top chambers (OTC) (Lattecaldo) and under open field (Moggio) conditions. Evaluation of the results indicated a large variability among the teams and call for adequate training of the observers prior to symptom assessment for quality assurance purposes. Highest variability was found for the species developing unclear symptoms which could be confused with senescence processes; such species should not be used in the field. The authors provide suggestions to improve the reliability of the ozone injury assessment on forest plant species

  15. Effect of two doses of urea foliar application on leaves and grape nitrogen composition during two vintages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Álvarez, Eva P; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; García-Escudero, Enrique; Martínez-Vidaurre, José María

    2017-06-01

    Nitrogen affects grapevine growth and also yeast metabolism, which have a direct influence on fermentation kinetics and the formation of different volatile compounds. Throughout the grapevine cycle, soil nitrogen availability and grape nitrogen composition can vary because of different factors. Nitrogen foliar applications can contribute toward enhancing grapevine nitrogen status and minimize the problem of leaching that traditional nitrogen-soil applications can provoke. The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of urea foliar applications on grapevine nitrogen status and grape amino acid content. Accordingly, two different doses of urea were applied over the leaves of a 'Tempranillo' vineyard. The highest urea doses affected nitrogen content on blade leaf tissues after veraison. Must amino acid profiles were modified by urea application and some of the compounds increased their concentrations. The effect of year on the increase of must total amino acid concentrations was more important than the effect of the doses applied. Urea foliar applications can be an interesting tool for decreasing grapevine nitrogen deficiencies. This method of nitrogen implementation in the vineyard could avoid sluggish fermentation problems during winemaking, enhance must nitrogen composition, and contribute to improving wine quality. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Distribution, Seasonal Variations and Ecological Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Foliar Dust of Nanjing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Yan; Zhang, Yinlong; Ma, Zilong; Tang, Jie; Sun, Kai

    2018-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of concern for both ecosystem and human health due to their potential teratogenic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties. The concentration of ∑ 16 PAHs in foliar dust ranged from 49.4 to 19,018.1 µg kg -1 , with a mean value of 7074.5 µg kg -1 . There were significant seasonal variations in the concentration of ∑ 16 PAHs, with the concentration in winter being almost twice as high as in summer. Similarly, the differences between PAH profiles in different seasons indicated that they had common sources, which were attributed to the combined effect of regional transport and local emissions. The diagnostic ratios of indicator compounds indicated that PAHs detected in foliar dust originated from a mixture of gasoline vehicle emissions, biomass, and coal combustion in Nanjing. According to the ecological risk classification of ∑ 16 PAHs, the ecological risk caused by PAHs was high since the value of RQ ∑16PAHs(MPCs) was ≥ 1 and RQ ∑16PAHs(NCs) were ≥ 800. The mean values for RQ∑ 16 PAHs (MPCs) and RQ∑ 16 PAHs (NCs) were 14.8 and 2368.9, which indicated a relatively high ecological risks of PAHs in foliar dust in Nanjing.

  17. Uptake of soil-, foliar-and pod-applied nitrogen and phosphorus by rape (Brassica napus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qinzheng; Xi Haifu; Lang Xianhua

    1992-01-01

    Uptake of soil-applied and foliar-and pod applied N, P by rape was studied by using 32 P and 15 N labelled fertilizer under pot culture condition. Application of phosphorus fertilizer to purplish clayey paddy soil which was poor in available P had influence on utilization of basal-dressed NH 4 HCO 3 by rape and subsequently on its growth and seed yield. Utilization rate of applied N in whole plant and seeds were 3.66 and 5.13 fold respectively as compared with control when 187.5 kg/ha of superphosphate were applied and increased with increasing application of superphosphate (187.5-562.5 kg/ha). Application of P fertilizer not only increased uptake of N but also promoted transportation of N from vegetative organs to seeds. Rape plant uptook 69.09% of foliar-and pod-applied N in form of 2% solution of urea after flowering and transported the N to seeds in greater proportion than that of soil-applied N. In the same period, 60% of foliar- and pod-applied P in form of 0.2% KH 2 PO 4 was absorbed by rape plant, most of which was in leaves. Uptake of N and P by rape increased 17.89% and 27.78% respectively when urea and phosphate was applied together compared with using urea and phosphate alone. Uptake of basal-dressed P by rape plant was 6% at early growing stage

  18. Foliar nitrogen and potassium applications improve photosynthetic activities and water relations in sunflower under moisture deficit condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, R.A.; Ahmad, R.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of foliar supplementation of nitrogen (N) potassium (K) and their combination on photosynthetic activities, physiological indices and water relations of two sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) hybrids Hysen-33 and LG-5551 under water deficit condition. Studies were conducted in a wire-house at Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology, Faisalabad, Pakistan. Treatments were two water stress levels [100 (control) and 60% field capacity (water deficit)], six levels of foliar spray (no spray, water spray, 1% N, 1% K, 0.5% N + 0.5% K and 1% N + 1% K) and each treatment was replicated three times. Results showed that water stress reduced the photosynthetic activities: Pn (photosynthetic rate), E (rate of tanspiration) and gs (stomatal conductance) and water relations i.e., pie w (water potential), pie s (osmotic potential) and pie p (turgor potential) . Soil moisture deficit also significantly reduced the plant height, root length, fresh and dry matter which consequently affected the plant height stress tolerance index (PHSI), root length stress tolerance index (RLSI) and dry matter stress tolerance index (DMSI) in both sunflower hybrids. However, foliar supplementation with N and K or N+K improved the photosynthetic activities, water relations and physiological indices of both the sunflower hybrids. The findings of present study suggest that application of N+K is necessary to have high plant productivity. (author)

  19. Foliar uptake of fog water and transport belowground alleviates drought effects in the cloud forest tree species, Drimys brasiliensis (Winteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, Cleiton B; Lima, Aline L; Oliveira, Rafael S

    2013-07-01

    Foliar water uptake (FWU) is a common water acquisition mechanism for plants inhabiting temperate fog-affected ecosystems, but the prevalence and consequences of this process for the water and carbon balance of tropical cloud forest species are unknown. We performed a series of experiments under field and glasshouse conditions using a combination of methods (sap flow, fluorescent apoplastic tracers and stable isotopes) to trace fog water movement from foliage to belowground components of Drimys brasiliensis. In addition, we measured leaf water potential, leaf gas exchange, leaf water repellency and growth of plants under contrasting soil water availabilities and fog exposure in glasshouse experiments to evaluate FWU effects on the water and carbon balance of D. brasiliensis saplings. Fog water diffused directly through leaf cuticles and contributed up to 42% of total foliar water content. FWU caused reversals in sap flow in stems and roots of up to 26% of daily maximum transpiration. Fog water transported through the xylem reached belowground pools and enhanced leaf water potential, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and growth relative to plants sheltered from fog. Foliar uptake of fog water is an important water acquisition mechanism that can mitigate the deleterious effects of soil water deficits for D. brasiliensis. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Absorption and transport of manganese of different labelled sources with 54b Mn applied via foliar in citrus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boaretto, Rodrigo Marcelli; Boaretto, Antonio Enedi; Muraoka, Takashi; Roque, Marcio Lucio

    2000-01-01

    Foliar fertilization is considered an efficient way to feed the plants, mainly with micronutrients. Studies on foliar absorption and transport of Mn have been necessary as well as on comparing different sources of this micronutrient solution applied on the leaves. The objective of the experiment was to study the Mn absorption from four sources by orange leaves and transport of the leaf absorbed Mn to the other parts of the plant. Orange plants were grown in greenhouse and some of their leaves received solution with a Mn concentration of 0.06% (MnSO 4 , MnCl 2 , lignin sulfonate-Mn and EDTA-Mn). The fertilizer solutions were labeled with 54 Mn. After 3, 6, 12, 24 hours and 2, 5, 15, 30, 60, 120 days from Mn application to the leaves, the plants were harvested. The leaves which received the Mn solution were separated from the other parts of the plants and washed in sequence with detergent solution (0.1%), distilled water, HCl solution (3%) and distilled water in order to remove the Mn remaining on the leaf surface. The 54 Mn activity of the samples was determined by monochannel gamma spectrometry. Chloride was the most efficient Mn source for foliar fertilization, followed by sulfate and lignin sulfonate; EDTA was the least efficient source. Only 10% of 54 Mn absorbed by the leaves was translocated to the other parts of the plant. (author)

  1. Correlation of epiphyllous bud differentiation with foliar senescence in crassulacean succulent Kalanchoe pinnata as revealed by thidiazuron and ethrel application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Sarita; Sawhney, Sudhir

    2006-05-01

    Leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata have crenate margins with each notch bearing a dormant bud competent to develop into a healthy plantlet. Leaf detachment is a common signal for inducing two contrastingly different leaf-based processes, i.e. epiphyllous bud development into plantlet and foliar senescence. To investigate differentiation of bud and its correlation, if any, with foliar senescence, thidiazuron (TDZ), having cytokinin activity and ethrel (ETH), an ethylene releasing compound, were employed. The experimental system was comprised of marginal leaf discs, each harbouring an epiphyllous bud. Most of the growth characteristics of plantlet developing from the epiphyllous bud were significantly inhibited by TDZ but promoted by ETH. The two regulators modulated senescence in a manner different for leaf discs and plantlet leaves. Thus, TDZ caused a complete retention whereas ETH a complete loss of chlorophyll in the leaf discs. In contrast, the former resulted in a complete depletion of chlorophyll from the plantlet leaves producing an albino effect, while the latter reduced it by 50% only. In combined dispensation of the two regulators, the effect of TDZ was expressed in majority of responses studied. The results presented in this investigation clearly show that the foliar processes of epiphyllous bud differentiation and senescence are interlinked as TDZ that delayed senescence inhibited epiphyllous bud differentiation and ETH that hastened senescence promoted it. A working hypothesis to interpret responsiveness of the disc-bud composite on lines of a source-sink duo, has been proposed.

  2. Laparoscopic hernia repair and bladder injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalessandri, K M; Bhoyrul, S; Mulvihill, S J

    2001-01-01

    Bladder injury is a complication of laparoscopic surgery with a reported incidence in the general surgery literature of 0.5% and in the gynecology literature of 2%. We describe how to recognize and treat the injury and how to avoid the problem. We report two cases of bladder injury repaired with a General Surgical Interventions (GSI) trocar and a balloon device used for laparoscopic extraperitoneal inguinal hernia repair. One patient had a prior appendectomy; the other had a prior midline incision from a suprapubic prostatectomy. We repaired the bladder injury, and the patients made a good recovery. When using the obturator and balloon device, it is important to stay anterior to the preperitoneal space and bladder. Prior lower abdominal surgery can be considered a relative contraindication to extraperitoneal laparoscopic hernia repair. Signs of gas in the Foley bag or hematuria should alert the surgeon to a bladder injury. A one- or two-layer repair of the bladder injury can be performed either laparoscopically or openly and is recommended for a visible injury. Mesh repair of the hernia can be completed provided no evidence exists of urinary tract infection. A Foley catheter is placed until healing occurs.

  3. [VISIBLE LIGHT AND HUMAN SKIN (REVIEW)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsibadze, A; Chikvaidze, E; Katsitadze, A; Kvachadze, I; Tskhvediani, N; Chikviladze, A

    2015-09-01

    Biological effect of a visible light depends on extend of its property to penetrate into the tissues: the greater is a wavelength the more is an effect of a radiation. An impact of a visible light on the skin is evident by wave and quantum effects. Quanta of a visible radiation carry more energy than infrared radiation, although an influence of such radiation on the skin is produced by the light spectrum on the boarder of the ultraviolet and the infrared rays and is manifested by thermal and chemical effects. It is determined that large doses of a visible light (405-436 nm) can cause skin erythema. At this time, the ratio of generation of free radicals in the skin during an exposure to the ultraviolet and the visible light range from 67-33% respectively. Visible rays of 400-500 nm length of wave cause an increase of the concentration of oxygen's active form and mutation of DNA and proteins in the skin. The urticaria in 4-18% of young people induced by photodermatosis is described. As a result of a direct exposure to sunlight photosensitive eczema is more common in elderly. Special place holds a hereditary disease - porphyria, caused by a visible light. In recent years, dermatologists widely use phototherapy. The method uses polychromatic, non-coherent (wavelength of 515-1200 nm) pulsating beam. During phototherapy/light treatment a patient is being exposed to sunlight or bright artificial light. Sources of visible light are lasers, LEDs and fluorescent lamps which have the full range of a visible light. Phototherapy is used in the treatment of acne vulgaris, seasonal affective disorders, depression, psoriasis, eczema and neurodermities. LED of the red and near infrared range also is characterized by the therapeutic effect. They have an ability to influence cromatophores and enhance ATP synthesis in mitochondria. To speed up the healing of wounds and stimulate hair growth light sources of a weak intensity are used. The light of blue-green spectrum is widely used for

  4. Utilização de Acibenzolar-S-Methyl para controle de doenças foliares da soja Use of Acibenzolar-S-Methyl to control foliar diseases of soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Jose Dallagnol

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available O controle das doenças foliares na cultura da soja pode ser obtido pela utilização de métodos genéticos, culturais e químicos. A utilização de ativadores químicos dos mecanismos de defesa é uma alternativa de controle induzido. Para avaliar o efeito na eficácia com a inclusão de Acibenzolar-S-Methyl (ASM no programa de controle químico das doenças foliares na cultura da soja, um experimento foi instalado com as cultivares IAS 5, CD 201 e RS 10. O efeito do ASM foi avaliada isoladamente e em mistura com Difenoconazole aplicados nos estádios R3, R4 e R5.1 e o Azoxystrobin em R5.1. Os parâmetros avaliados foram a severidade das doenças de final de ciclo (DFC, desfolha, área foliar verde e rendimento de grãos. A inclusão de ASM nos programas de controle químico aumentou, na maioria dos casos, a eficácia dos fungicidas para todos os parâmetros avaliados, porém com variação entre as cultivares. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos com aplicações de Difenoconazole + ASM aplicado em R3 e R4, não sendo verificado efeito na eficácia do Azoxystrobin (R5.1. O incremento no rendimento das cultivares foi influenciado pela tolerância das cultivares as doenças, sendo positivo para as cultivares CD 201 e RS 10 com aplicação de ASM + Difenoconazole em R4.The chemical control of foliar diseases in soybean can be achieved by using genetic, cultural and chemical practices. The use of activators of plant defense mechanisms is an alternative for disease control. An experiment was carried out with the cultivars 'IAS 5', 'CD 201' and 'RS 10' aiming to evaluate the efficacy of the inclusion of Acibenzolar-S-Methyl (ASM to the chemical control program of foliar diseases in soybean. The effect of ASM was evaluated separately and mixture with Difenoconazol sprayed on to plants at the growth stages of R3, R4, R5. 1 Azoxystrobin was sprayed on R5.1. The variables evaluated were diseases severities at the end of the crop, desfoliation, green

  5. Absorção e redistribuição do nitrogênio aplicado via foliar em videiras jovens Uptake and redistribution of nitrogen in foliar application in young grapevines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Brunetto

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação de nitrogênio via foliar antes da senescência das folhas da videira pode ser uma estratégia para aumentar as reservas deste nutriente nas partes perenes, uma vez que as mesmas são disponibilizadas no início do crescimento vegetativo dos órgãos anuais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi de estimar a absorção e a redistribuição do N adicionado via foliar em videiras jovens. O experimento foi instalado em casa de vegetação na EMBRAPA-Uva e Vinho, no município de Bento Gonçalves (RS. Foram utilizadas as variedades Chardonnay e Riesling Itálico com porta-enxerto 101-14 Mgt. Foi cultivada uma planta por vaso contendo 10kg de solo Neossolo Litólico. A aplicação do N via foliar foi parcelada em três vezes, durante três dias sucessivos. Foram aplicados 84,84mg N planta-1 na forma de (15NH42SO4 . As plantas foram colhidas em sete épocas diferentes. Após a colheita, as plantas foram fracionadas em folhas, enxerto, porta-enxerto, raízes grossas (>2mm e raízes finas (The foliar application of nitrogen before the leaves senescence may be a strategy to increase the nutrient reserves in the perennial parts, being available in the beginning of the vegetative growth of the annual parts. The objective of this work was to estimate the uptake and redistribution of N applied by foliar way in young grapevines. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse at EMBRAPA-Grape and Wine, Bento Gonçalves Southern Brazil. The cultivars used were Chardonnay and Riesling Italic grafted on rootstock 101-14 Mgt. It was cultivated one plant by vase with 10kg of soil Udorthent. The foliar application of N was parceled in three times during three successive days. It was applied 84,84mg N plant-1 using (15NH42SO4 . The plants were collected in seven times, during vegetative growth. The plants were fractionated in leaves, graft, carry-graft, thick roots (>2mm and fine roots (<2mm, oven-dried, weighted, and analyzed N-total and 15N contents. The

  6. Litsea glutinosa (Lauraceae: Evaluation of its Foliar Phytochemical Constituents for Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutyala Naidu LAGUDU

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical investigation of the leaves of Litsea glutinosa revealed the presence of secondary metabolites like alkaloids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, saponins, steroids, tannins, terpenoids, volatile compounds, amino acids and carbohiydrates. The antimicrobial activity and minimum inhibition concentration values were determined for these phytochemical constituents as crude extracts using the agar well diffusion and two-fold serial dilution methods. The results indicated that Bacillus subtilis was the most susceptible bacterium with high inhibition zones for the methanol and chloroform extracts of 31 mm and 26 mm, respectively. The MIC values indicated that extracts possess good antimicrobial activity with significant MIC value against Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus pneumoniae at 31.2 µg/ml concentrations. The extracts showed marked antimicrobial activity against both bacteria and fungi. Among the bacterial strains, gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible than the gram-negative. All the 13 microorganisms tested showed dose dependent susceptibility towards the phytochemicals present in the foliar extracts. The study suggests that Litsea glutinosa leaves possess potent antimicrobial activity and can be a good source for the development of new antibiotics.

  7. Foliar phenolic compounds of ten wild species of Verbenacea as antioxidants and specific chemomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Ávila-Reyes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The family Verbenaceae hosts important species used in traditional medicine of many countries. The taxonomic controversies concerning the specific delimitation of several of its species make it difficult to guarantee the botanical origin of herbal preparations based on species of this family. To contribute to the development of both specific chemomarkers and a quality control tool to authenticate the botanical origin of herbal preparations of Verbenacea species, we determined the foliar HPLC-DAD phenolic profiles and the antioxidant properties of 10 wild species of this family occurring in Mexico. The contents of phenols and flavonoids varied significantly among species. Priva mexicana showed the highest levels of total phenolics (53.4 mg g-1 dry tissue and Verbena carolina had the highest levels of flavonoids (17.89 mg g-1 dry tissue. Relevant antioxidant properties revealed by antiradical and reducing power were found for the analyzed species. These properties varied significantly in a species-dependent manner. The phenolic compounds accumulated were flavones and phenolic acids. Flavones were the only type of flavonoids found. The results of a cluster analysis showed that the compounds were accumulated in species-specific profiles. The phenolic profiles are proposed as valuable chemomarkers that can become a useful tool for the quality control concerning the botanical origin of herbal medicinal preparations based on the species analyzed. In addition, phenolic profiles could contribute importantly to solve the taxonomic controversies concerning species delimitation in the family Verbenaceae.

  8. Photoprotection by foliar anthocyanins mitigates effects of boron toxicity in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Marco; Guidi, Lucia; Pardossi, Alberto; Tattini, Massimiliano; Gould, Kevin S

    2014-11-01

    Boron (B) toxicity is an important agricultural problem in arid environments. Excess edaphic B compromises photosynthetic efficiency, limits growth and reduces crop yield. However, some purple-leafed cultivars of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) exhibit greater tolerance to high B concentrations than do green-leafed cultivars. We hypothesised that foliar anthocyanins protect basil leaf mesophyll from photo-oxidative stress when chloroplast function is compromised by B toxicity. Purple-leafed 'Red Rubin' and green-leafed 'Tigullio' cultivars, grown with high or negligible edaphic B, were given a photoinhibitory light treatment. Possible effects of photoabatement by anthocyanins were simulated by superimposing a purple polycarbonate filter on the green leaves. An ameliorative effect of light filtering on photosynthetic quantum yield and on photo-oxidative load was observed in B-stressed plants. In addition, when green protoplasts from both cultivars were treated with B and illuminated through a screen of anthocyanic protoplasts or a polycarbonate film which approximated cyanidin-3-O-glucoside optical properties, the degree of photoinhibition, hydrogen peroxide production, and malondialdehyde content were reduced. The data provide evidence that anthocyanins exert a photoprotective role in purple-leafed basil mesophyll cells, thereby contributing to improved tolerance to high B concentrations.

  9. Effects on grape amino acid concentration through foliar application of three different elicitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Gamboa, G; Portu, J; Santamaría, P; López, R; Garde-Cerdán, T

    2017-09-01

    Elicitors play an important role in the defense against pathogens as an alternative to chemical pesticides by increasing secondary metabolites. Their effect on grape amino acid has been little investigated. Thus, the aim of this research was to study the influence of methyl jasmonate (MeJ), chitosan (CHT), and a yeast extract (YE) on grape amino acid composition, through foliar applications to grapevines. The must amino acid concentration was analyzed by HPLC. The results showed that CHT and YE treatments decreased the must concentration of several amino acids, affecting total amino acid content (from 2364 to 1961, and 1818mg/L, respectively). However, MeJ treatment had a slight effect on grape amino acid content, increasing the concentration of Met (from 8.95 to 12.13mg/L) and Phe (from 7.96 to 9.29mg/L). It seems to be that, the resistance induction through CHT and YE treatments results in physiological costs to grapevines associated with a decrease on grape amino acid concentration. Consequently, MeJ applications, as a viticultural practice, could be a better tool than CHT and YE treatments, because did not affect grape amino acid concentration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Foliar absorption and translocation of Zn-65 in balady orange plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, F.A.; Sharaf, A.N.M.

    1995-01-01

    Greenhouse experiment was designed using Zn So 4 as a single element or in a mixture of 'Zn SO 4 + Fe SO 4 ' at rates of 0.5 and 1.0% of these compounds. Different solutions were adjusted at PH 6.0 and Tween-20 at 0.5% (V/V) was added. The prepared solutions were labelled with carrier-free Zn-65. In a complete randomized design with three replicates orange seedlings two-year old were arranged. Labelled solution, in small droplets, were added onto upper surface of certain leaves (middle leaves) of seedling. Retained Zn-65 in the treated leaves with Zn SO 4 alone was significantly higher than in leaves sprayed with a mixture of Zn, Mn and Fe sulphates. Upward and downward translocation of Zn-65 was highly related to its absorption through treated leaves and the translocation rate of upward direction was more pronounced than downward. Total absorption of Zn-65 was higher with Zn SO 4 than with the mixture. Utilization percent of foliar application of Zn was significantly decreased as the rate of Zn SO 4 increased from 0.5 to 1.0% either alone or in combination with Fe and Mn sulphates. Moreover, it was also reduced due to the presence of and Mn with Zn the spray solution with Zn SO 4 . In particular, 0.5% in soy solution realized the highest utilization and was efficient for supplying for orange plants with Zn. 3 tabs

  11. Estimation of aerial deposition and foliar uptake of xenobiotics: Assessment of current models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, S.O.; Fellows, R.J.; Cataldo, D.A.; Droppo, J.G.; Van Voris, P.

    1987-10-01

    This report reviews existing mathematical and/or computer simulation models that estimate xenobiotic deposition to and transport through (both curricular and stomatal) vegetative surfaces. The report evaluates the potential for coupling the best of those models to the existing Uptake, Translocation, Accumulation, and Biodegradation model to be used for future xenobiotic exposure assessments. Here xenobiotic compounds are defined as airborne contaminants, both organic and gaseous pollutants, that are introduced into the environment by man. Specifically this document provides a detailed review of the state-of-the-art models that addressed aerial deposition of particles and gases to foliage; foliar and cuticular transport, metabolism, and uptake of organic xenobiotics; and stomatal transport of gaseous and volatile organic xenobiotic pollutants. Where detailed information was available, parameters for each model are provided on a chemical by chemical as well as species by species basis. Sufficient detail is provided on each model to assess the potential for adapting or coupling the model to the existing UTAB plant exposure model. 126 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  12. Influence of foliar nutrients on phenol levels in leaves of Eugenia uniflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa M. Santos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Eugenia uniflora L., Myrtaceae, leaves contain high amounts of phenolic compounds which are responsible for several pharmacological activities. In order to evaluate the phenolics seasonal variation leaves were analysed on a monthly basis during the period of two years for the contents of hydrolysable tannins, total phenols, flavonoids, and nutrients (N, P, K, S, Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Cu, and Fe. Results were correlated with climate conditions (rainfall, humidity, and mean temperature by Principal Component and ClusterAnalysis which allowed four groups to be distinguished with respect to the age of the leaves and the content of some metals. Young leaves were characterised by high levels of Zn and nitrogen whereas old leaves contained high levels of Fe and calcium, and both groups had moderate amounts of phenolics. Adult leaves were divided in two groups and results revealed that while one group had the highest levels of all phenols and lowest amounts of Mn and Cu, the other showed opposite quantities. The Canonical Correlation Analysis confirmed a highly significant negative correlation between phenol contents and Mn and Cu. These facts suggested that flavonoids and tannins production depends of the amounts of foliar nutrients, Cu and Mn in particular, which are cofactors of enzymes involved in phenol degradation and lignin biosynthesis. This knowledge can improve this specie cultivation in order to enhance the phenolic compounds concentration.

  13. Trends in Pinus ponderosa foliar pigment concentration due to chronic exposure of ozone and acid rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuman, L.; Houpis, J.; Anderson, P.

    1991-01-01

    To determine the effects of ozone and acid rain on mature Ponderosa pine trees, Lawrence Livermore National Lab. has collaborated with University of California Berkeley, University of California Davis, California State University Chico, and the US Forest Service at the latter's Chico Tree Improvement Center. Foliar tissue from mature grafted scions of Pinus ponderosa were exposed to two times ambient ozone for ten months and to acid rain (3.0 pH) weekly for 10 weeks using branch exposure chambers. Pigment extracts were analyzed spectrophotometrically for concentrations of chlorophylls a and b, and carotenoid pigments, at 662 nm, 644 nm, and 470 nm, respectively. Pigment concentrations were expressed on a surface area basis. Preliminary results revealed that chlorophyll a showed a downward trend due to the ozone treatment. Acid rain caused no effects on these three pigments, however, chlorophyll b showed an upward trend due to the interaction of ozone and acid rain. The carotenoid pigments showed no changes due to the treatments either singly, or in combination

  14. Effect of Early Foliar Disease Control on Wheat Scab Severity (Fusarium graminearum in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge David Mantecón

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat scab is common in Argentina mainly durum wheat and some bread varieties. The epidemics occur every 5 to 7 years. During the 2007, 2008, and 2009 growing seasons, three trials were conducted at the INTA Balcarce Experimental Station. Each plot had six rows of 5 m long, spaced 0.15 m apart and was set up in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Trifloxystrobin plus cyproconazole was sprayed at Z3.1 stage. Treatments were sprayed at Z6.1 stage with tebuconazole, prochloraz, and metconazole to improve scab control. Artificial inoculations were made in Z6.1. Severity of Septoria leaf bloth and leaf rust was assessed in boot stage (Z3.9. Scab severity was rated at early dough stage (Z8.3. Yields were recorded each year. Fungicide only applied at Z3.1 stage did not reduce field scab severity but reduced the seeds infection and increased the yields. Early fungicide spray produced yield increase at about 22% and a decrease in seed infection of up to 40%. Yields increased in a 55.3% and in a 19.6% when compared with the inoculated and not inoculated check, respectively. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of foliar disease control on scab, crop yield, and seed health.

  15. BROCCOLI Spears Yield Affected By GAMMA Rays Irradiated Seeds And Foliar Application Of Some Growth Regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABDALLAH, A.A.; ABO EL-KHEIR, O.H.

    2010-01-01

    Two field experiments were carried out during 2004/2005 and 2005/2006 winter growing seasons at the experimental farm of Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Egypt.The experiments were conducted to study the effect of pre-sowing broccoli seeds (cv. F1 175) irradiated with different doses of gamma rays (2, 3 and 4 Gy). The plants were sprayed with GA3 at rate of 50 ml/liter/fed and 20 ml/liter/fed for NAA. Main spear fresh and dry weight per plant, total spears fresh and dry weight per plant, total spears yield, ascorbic acid, TSS, carbohydrates, total chlorophyll, NPK and total protein content of spears were evaluated. The results showed that broccoli seeds irradiated with gamma rays up to 4 Gy pre-sowing increased the abovementioned parameters with different magnitudes comparing with the non-irradiated control plants except spears N, P and protein contents showed decrease in their values comparing with un-treated plants.It could be concluded that the foliar application of GA3 and NAA on broccoli spears increased all the abovementioned parameters, except spears N, P and protein contents showed decrease in their values.

  16. Effect of foliar applied (Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn) in citrus production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khurshid, F.; Sarwar, S.; Khattak, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the impact of micronutrients (Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn) on sweet orange (Citrus Sinensis L.), blood red var., on farmer's orchard at Khanpur, district Haripur, NWFP, during 2002-03. Micronutrients were applied in foliar sprays over the canopy of each tree. The main effects and interactions of Zinc sulphate (Zn), iron sulphate (Fe), Copper Sulphate (Cu) and Manganese Sulphate (Mn) were studied in factorial combinations. A basal dose of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium was applied at the rate 1.5, 1 and 1 kg tree/sup -1/. Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn were applied alone and in various combinations at the rate 0.115, 0.057, 0.05 and 0.13 kg in 100 liters of water. Application of micronutrients significantly increased Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn concentrations in leaves, compared with control. Zn treatments significantly increased the yield, number of fruit and total sugar. Manganese treatments significantly increased the total soluble solids and reduced the acidity of fruit juice. Other quality parameters, including fruit size, percent peel, percent pulp, sugar as well as total soluble solids, were improved with the application of Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn. (author)

  17. Demografia de Geonoma gamiova em área de extrativismo foliar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia de Fátima Ceccon-Valente

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available As folhas de Geonoma gamiova Barb. Rodr. são importantes recursos para floriculturas, já que são empregradas principalmente nos arranjos fúnebres. Visando a gerar subsídios para o seu extrativismo sustentável, são apresentados resultados de estudo de estrutura populacional dessa espécie. A pesquisa foi realizada em área de Floresta Ombrófila Densa Submontana onde a espécie é submetida ao extrativismo foliar (Comunidade do Rasgadinho, Mun. Guaratuba, Paraná, 25 45'S e 48 46'W, 30 - 100m de altitude. Detectou-se alta densidade de indivíduos, principalmente nas classes mais jovens, caracterizando um padrão populacional J-invertido. Registrou-se estoque de 448 folhas aptas para comercialização em 0,5ha, com histórico de intensa extração de folhas. Evidenciou-se alto potencial de regeneração e padrão de distribuição agregado (Id>1 para a população estudada. Com base nos dados obtidos, discutiu-se a sustentabilidade da atividade extrativista em questão.

  18. Interpretação de confrontos em perícias de crimes violentos baseados em anatomia foliar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Milanello do Amaral

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A megadiversidade de plantas no território brasileiro representa um grande potencial forense. No entanto, conhecimentos botânicos estabelecidos há séculos são esporadicamente empregados em procedimentos forenses. A Botânica Forense, em particular o estudo da morfologia externa e interna (anatomia das plantas, possibilita a caracterização de amostras e a identificação da espécie, oferecendo grande auxílio para o embasamento de linhas investigativas e, em alguns casos, configurando-se como importante prova material. Nas perícias de crimes violentos letais intencionais, como homicídio, execução sumária, estupro e roubo seguido de morte, é comum se encontrarem folhas ou fragmentos foliares aderidos a solas de calçado e tapetes de veículos de suspeitos. Confrontar esses vestígios com as amostras de folhas e fragmentos foliares do local de crime pode representar a única alternativa de materialidade, na falta de impressões dígito-papilares, pegadas ou material biológico humano. Neste estudo de caso, apresentamos três exames de confronto de amostras vegetais em investigações de roubo seguido de morte e execução sumária no Estado de São Paulo. Folhas e fragmentos foliares do local de crime foram comparados com folhas e fragmentos foliares de peças associadas ao(s suspeito(s a partir da observação da morfologia externa e da anatomia. Em todos os casos foi possível obter informações sobre a morfologia externa e, principalmente, sobre a anatomia dos fragmentos foliares, permitindo realizar comparações e apresentar como resultados dois confrontos negativos e um confronto parcialmente positivo. A experiência obtida com esses exames revelou que o planejamento das coletas de amostras botânicas nos locais de crime condiciona a interpretação dos resultados.

  19. Psychophysical thresholds of face visibility during infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelskov, Sofie; Kouider, Sid

    2010-01-01

    The ability to detect and focus on faces is a fundamental prerequisite for developing social skills. But how well can infants detect faces? Here, we address this question by studying the minimum duration at which faces must appear to trigger a behavioral response in infants. We used a preferential...... looking method in conjunction with masking and brief presentations (300 ms and below) to establish the temporal thresholds of visibility at different stages of development. We found that 5 and 10 month-old infants have remarkably similar visibility thresholds about three times higher than those of adults....... By contrast, 15 month-olds not only revealed adult-like thresholds, but also improved their performance through memory-based strategies. Our results imply that the development of face visibility follows a non-linear course and is determined by a radical improvement occurring between 10 and 15 months....

  20. Visibility graph approach to exchange rate series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Wang, Jianbo; Yang, Huijie; Mang, Jingshi

    2009-10-01

    By means of a visibility graph, we investigate six important exchange rate series. It is found that the series convert into scale-free and hierarchically structured networks. The relationship between the scaling exponents of the degree distributions and the Hurst exponents obeys the analytical prediction for fractal Brownian motions. The visibility graph can be used to obtain reliable values of Hurst exponents of the series. The characteristics are explained by using the multifractal structures of the series. The exchange rate of EURO to Japanese Yen is widely used to evaluate risk and to estimate trends in speculative investments. Interestingly, the hierarchies of the visibility graphs for the exchange rate series of these two currencies are significantly weak compared with that of the other series.

  1. Digital/Commercial (In)visibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Anna

    2017-01-01

    an argument demonstrating specifically how digital and commercial logics characterize the aesthetic, circulatory, and infrastructuring practices re-producing the regime of (in)visibility. It shows that digital/commercial logics are at the heart of the combinatorial marketing of multiple, contradictory images......This article explores one aspect of digital politics, the politics of videos and more spe- cifically of DAESH recruitment videos. It proposes a practice theoretical approach to the politics of DAESH recruitment videos focused on the re-production of regimes of (in)visibility. The article develops...... on the internet. The theoretical and political cost of overlooking these digital and commercial characteristics of DAESH visibility practices are high. It perpetuates misconceptions of how the videos work and what their politics are and it reinforces the digital Orientalism/Occidentalism in which...

  2. The Disappearing Audience and Reflexive Visibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Girginova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to popular opinion and some academic writing that celebrates the renewed visibility of new media audiences, this essay argues that they are increasingly going into retreat. To understand how new media audiences “disappear” from view of one another, I borrow from Brighenti’s typology of visibility and develop the idea of “reflexive visibility.” The latter describes the ability to socially orient ourselves in a digital environment through the textual and contextual cues of others—an activity that is of utmost importance not only to researchers wishing to “see” various audiences but also for audiences writ large, wishing to know themselves.

  3. Visible imaging of edge turbulence in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweben, S.; Maqueda, R.; Hill, K.; Johnson, D.

    2000-01-01

    Edge plasma turbulence in tokamaks and stellarators is believed to cause the radical heat and particle flux across the separatrix and into the scrape-off-layers of these devices. This paper describes initial measurements of 2-D space-time structure of the edge density turbulence made using a visible imaging diagnostic in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The structure of the edge turbulence is most clearly visible using a method of gas puff imaging to locally illuminate the edge density turbulence

  4. Visible imaging of edge turbulence in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. Zweben; R. Maqueda; K. Hill; D. Johnson; S. Kaye; H. Kugel; F. Levinton; R. Maingi; L. Roquemore; S. Sabbagh; G. Wurden

    2000-01-01

    Edge plasma turbulence in tokamaks and stellarators is believed to cause the radial heat and particle flux across the separatrix and into the scrape-off-layers of these devices. This paper describes initial measurements of 2-D space-time structure of the edge density turbulence made using a visible imaging diagnostic in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The structure of the edge turbulence is most clearly visible using a method of ''gas puff imaging'' to locally illuminate the edge density turbulence

  5. Foliar nectar enhances plant-mite mutualisms: the effect of leaf sugar on the control of powdery mildew by domatia-inhabiting mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Marjorie G; Porturas, Laura D; Taylor, Scott A

    2016-09-01

    Mite domatia are small structures on the underside of plant leaves that provide homes for predacious or fungivorous mites. In turn, mites inhabiting domatia defend the plant by consuming leaf herbivores and pathogens, which can result in a domatia-mediated, plant-mite defence mutualism. Several recent studies have suggested that plants receive enhanced benefits when they provide a foliar food source, such as sugars secreted from extrafloral nectaries, to mite mutualists alongside mite domatia. However, the effect of foliar sugar on reducing leaf pathogen load via domatia-inhabiting mites has not been directly investigated. To fill this gap, the links between foliar sugar addition, domatia-inhabiting mite abundance, and pathogen load were experimentally evaluated in wild grape. Furthermore, because the proposed combined benefits of providing food and housing have been hypothesized to select for the evolutionary correlation of extrafloral nectaries and domatia across plant lineages, a literature survey aimed at determining the overlap of mite domatia and extrafloral nectaries across plant groups was also conducted. It was found that leaves with artificial addition of foliar sugar had 58-80 % more mites than leaves without foliar sugar addition, and that higher mite abundances translated to reduced powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) loads on leaves. It was found that mite domatia and extrafloral nectaries occur non-randomly in the same clades across Eudicots. Genera with both traits are reported to highlight candidate lineages for future studies. Together, the results demonstrate that foliar sugar can indeed enhance the efficacy of domatia-mediated plant-mite mutualisms, and suggest that this synergism has the potential to influence the co-distribution of foliar nectar and mite domatia across plants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. 60 years of UK visibility measurements: impact of meteorology and atmospheric pollutants on visibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajit; Bloss, William J.; Pope, Francis D.

    2017-02-01

    Reduced visibility is an indicator of poor air quality. Moreover, degradation in visibility can be hazardous to human safety; for example, low visibility can lead to road, rail, sea and air accidents. In this paper, we explore the combined influence of atmospheric aerosol particle and gas characteristics, and meteorology, on long-term visibility. We use visibility data from eight meteorological stations, situated in the UK, which have been running since the 1950s. The site locations include urban, rural and marine environments. Most stations show a long-term trend of increasing visibility, which is indicative of reductions in air pollution, especially in urban areas. Additionally, the visibility at all sites shows a very clear dependence on relative humidity, indicating the importance of aerosol hygroscopicity on the ability of aerosol particles to scatter radiation. The dependence of visibility on other meteorological parameters, such as wind speed and wind direction, is also investigated. Most stations show long-term increases in temperature which can be ascribed to climate change, land-use changes (e.g. urban heat island effects) or a combination of both; the observed effect is greatest in urban areas. The impact of this temperature change upon local relative humidity is discussed. To explain the long-term visibility trends and their dependence on meteorological conditions, the measured data were fitted to a newly developed light-extinction model to generate predictions of historic aerosol and gas scattering and absorbing properties. In general, an excellent fit was achieved between measured and modelled visibility for all eight sites. The model incorporates parameterizations of aerosol hygroscopicity, particle concentration, particle scattering, and particle and gas absorption. This new model should be applicable and is easily transferrable to other data sets worldwide. Hence, historical visibility data can be used to assess trends in aerosol particle

  7. ORBITAL INJURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Kansky

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Orbit is involved in 40% of all facial fractures. There is considerable variety in severity, ranging from simple nondisplaced to complex comminuted fractures. Complex comminuted fractures (up to 20% are responsible for the majority of complications and unfavorable results. Orbital fractures are classified as internal orbital fractures, zygomatico-orbital fractures, naso-orbito-ethmoidal fractures and combined fractures. The ophtalmic sequelae of midfacial fractures are usually edema and ecchymosis of the soft tissues, subconjuctival hemorrhage, diplopia, iritis, retinal edema, ptosis, enophthalmos, ocular muscle paresis, mechanical restriction of ocular movement and nasolacrimal disturbances. More severe injuries such as optic nerve trauma and retinal detachments have also been reported. Within the wide range of orbital fractures small group of complex fractures causes most of the sequelae. Therefore identification of severe injuries and adequate treatment is of major importance. The introduction of craniofacial techniques made possible a wide exposure even of large orbital wall defects and their reconstruction by bone grafts. In spite of significant progress, repair of complex orbital wall defects remains a problem even for the experienced surgeons.Results. In 1999 121 facial injuries were treated at our department (Clinical Centre Ljubljana Dept. Of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery. Orbit was involved in 65% of cases. Isolated inner orbital fractures presented 4% of all fractures. 17 (14% complex cases were treated, 5 of them being NOE, 5 orbital (frame and inner walls, 3 zygomatico-orbital, 2 FNO and 2 maxillo-orbital fractures.Conclusions. Final result of the surgical treatment depends on severity of maxillofacial trauma. Complex comminuted fractures are responsable for most of the unfavorable results and ocular function is often permanently damaged (up to 75% in these fractures.

  8. Making Intercultural Language Learning Visible and Assessable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, Robyn; Harbon, Lesley

    2010-01-01

    While languages education (Liddicoat, 2002) is being transformed by intercultural language learning theory, there is little illustration of either how students are achieving intercultural learning or how to assess it. This article reports on a study of high school language students in Sydney, Australia. Its findings make visible student…

  9. The Visible Hand of Research Performance Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Far from allowing a governance of universities by the invisible hand of market forces, research performance assessments do not just measure differences in research quality, but yield themselves visible symptoms in terms of a stratification and standardization of disciplines. The article illustrates this with a case study of UK history departments…

  10. Visibility of noisy point cloud data

    KAUST Repository

    Mehra, Ravish; Tripathi, Pushkar; Sheffer, Alla; Mitra, Niloy J.

    2010-01-01

    for the points set, visibility is computed based on a construction involving convex hull in a dual space, an idea inspired by the work of Katz et al. [26]. We derive theoretical bounds on the behavior of the method in the presence of noise and concavities

  11. Visible light reduces C. elegans longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Magalhaes Filho, C Daniel; Henriquez, Brian; Seah, Nicole E; Evans, Ronald M; Lapierre, Louis R; Dillin, Andrew

    2018-03-02

    The transparent nematode Caenorhabditis elegans can sense UV and blue-violet light to alter behavior. Because high-dose UV and blue-violet light are not a common feature outside of the laboratory setting, we asked what role, if any, could low-intensity visible light play in C. elegans physiology and longevity. Here, we show that C. elegans lifespan is inversely correlated to the time worms were exposed to visible light. While circadian control, lite-1 and tax-2 do not contribute to the lifespan reduction, we demonstrate that visible light creates photooxidative stress along with a general unfolded-protein response that decreases the lifespan. Finally, we find that long-lived mutants are more resistant to light stress, as well as wild-type worms supplemented pharmacologically with antioxidants. This study reveals that transparent nematodes are sensitive to visible light radiation and highlights the need to standardize methods for controlling the unrecognized biased effect of light during lifespan studies in laboratory conditions.

  12. A feeling of being (in)visible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Bastrup, Lene; Norlyk, Annelise

    Abstract PhD Day 2015 The illness trajectory of spine fusion patients. A feeling of being (in)visible Background Research shows that being a back patient is associated with great personal cost, and that back patients who undergo so-called spine fusion often experience particularly long...

  13. Digital Vigilantism as Weaponisation of Visibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Trottier (Daniel)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis paper considers an emerging practice whereby citizen’s use of ubiquitous and domesticated technologies enable a parallel form of criminal justice. Here, weaponised visibility supersedes police intervention as an appropriate response. Digital vigilantism is a user-led violation of

  14. 40 CFR 52.2781 - Visibility protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.2781 Section 52.2781 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... protection. (a) The requirements of section 169A of the Clean Air Act are not met, because the plan does not...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2132 - Visibility protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.2132 Section 52.2132 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... protection. (a) The requirements of section 169A of the Clean Air Act are not met, because the plan does not...

  16. Visible Counterterrorism Measures in Urban Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja; Laisen, Jesper; Wandorf, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    factors impacting positively or negatively on the feelings of safety of Danish citizens, when being in a crowded place. Surprisingly, the response to security measures like fences, cameras, and uniformed guards was positive. More visible security apparently reinforced feelings of safety. This article...

  17. Efficient Geometric Sound Propagation Using Visibility Culling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandak, Anish

    2011-07-01

    Simulating propagation of sound can improve the sense of realism in interactive applications such as video games and can lead to better designs in engineering applications such as architectural acoustics. In this thesis, we present geometric sound propagation techniques which are faster than prior methods and map well to upcoming parallel multi-core CPUs. We model specular reflections by using the image-source method and model finite-edge diffraction by using the well-known Biot-Tolstoy-Medwin (BTM) model. We accelerate the computation of specular reflections by applying novel visibility algorithms, FastV and AD-Frustum, which compute visibility from a point. We accelerate finite-edge diffraction modeling by applying a novel visibility algorithm which computes visibility from a region. Our visibility algorithms are based on frustum tracing and exploit recent advances in fast ray-hierarchy intersections, data-parallel computations, and scalable, multi-core algorithms. The AD-Frustum algorithm adapts its computation to the scene complexity and allows small errors in computing specular reflection paths for higher computational efficiency. FastV and our visibility algorithm from a region are general, object-space, conservative visibility algorithms that together significantly reduce the number of image sources compared to other techniques while preserving the same accuracy. Our geometric propagation algorithms are an order of magnitude faster than prior approaches for modeling specular reflections and two to ten times faster for modeling finite-edge diffraction. Our algorithms are interactive, scale almost linearly on multi-core CPUs, and can handle large, complex, and dynamic scenes. We also compare the accuracy of our sound propagation algorithms with other methods. Once sound propagation is performed, it is desirable to listen to the propagated sound in interactive and engineering applications. We can generate smooth, artifact-free output audio signals by applying

  18. Aplicações de fertilizantes foliares na nutrição e na produção do pimentão e do tomateiro Foliar fertilizer applications on nutrition and yield of sweet pepper and tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton S. Pereira

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a eficiência de fertilizantes foliares, contendo Ca e B, na nutrição e produção do pimentão cv. Mayata e do tomate cv. Carmem, cultivados em estufas. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com seis tratamentos, três e quatro repetições, respectivamente, para o tomateiro e pimentão. Os tratamentos foram a água de retortagem de xisto (100; 78; 3,0; 12,5; 3,0; 12,5; 4,0 e 0,2 g.L-1 de N, K, S, Ca, Mg, B, Mn e Mo, respectivamente a 0,1; 0,25; 0,5 e 1%; os sais ácido bórico (170 g.kg-1 de B a 0,15% mais cloreto de cálcio a 0,15% e o quelato de cálcio (200 g.kg-1 de Ca a 0,1% e boro orgânico (10 g.kg-1 de B a 0,15%. A aplicação de água de retortagem de xisto a 0,5% via foliar aumentou em 27,4% a produção de frutos de pimentão e os teores foliares de Mg e S em relação à aplicação desse fertilizante a 0,1%. Para o tomateiro, as pulverizações com água de retortagem de xisto a 0,5 e 1% elevaram em 60,5 e 93,8% a produção de frutos em comparação à menor dose desse fertilizante. Os maiores teores de B nas folhas de pimentão e de tomate foram obtidos com as aplicações de sais e resultaram em sintomas visuais de toxicidade de B no início do desenvolvimento das culturas.The efficiency of foliar fertilizers was evaluated on nutrition and yield of sweet pepper cv. Mayata and tomato cv. Carmem, cultivated in plastic greenhouse. For the two experiments the experimental design consisted of randomized blocks with three and four replications for tomato and sweet pepper, respectively, and six treatments (schist retortage water 0.1; 0.25; 0.5 and 1%; boric acid 0.15% plus clorate calcium 0.15% and quelate Ca 0.1% plus organic B 0.15%. The foliar application of schist retortage water 0.5% increased 27.4% the sweet pepper fruit yield and foliar concentrations of Mg and S compared to this fertilizer 0.1%. For tomato, the application of schist retortage water 0.5 and 1% increased 60.5 and 93.8% the fruit yield

  19. Lysosomes and radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, D.K.

    1975-01-01

    Changes in activities of lysosomal enzymes following whole-body treatment with ionizing radiation have long been recognized (e.g., Douglass and Day 1955, Okada et al., 1957). Attempts to explain nuclear damage by cytoplasmic enzyme attack, concentrated most of the earlier work on DNASE II and acid RNASE. Lysosomal enzymes have subsequently been studied in many tissues following whole-body irradiation. The observations coupled with in vitro results from isolated lysosomes, and u.v. and visible light studies on cells in culture, have led to the presentation of tentative mechanisms of action. General methods of detecting lysosomal damage have utilized the consequent activation or leakage of acid hydrolases. As this is of a temporal nature following irradiation, direct damage to the lysosomal membrane has not as yet been measured and the primary lesion either in the membrane itself or at the hypothetical site of acid hydrolase-membrane attachment has still to be discovered. Despite the accumulating evidence of lysosome disruption subsequent to treatment with radiation of various qualities, the role (if any) of these organelles in cell killing remains obscure. In the following pages a review of the many aspects of radiation damage will be presented and an attempt will be made to correlate the results and to draw general conclusions where possible. A final short section will deal with thecontribution that lysosomal damage may make in cell death and tissue injury and possible implications in radiotherapy

  20. Influência da nutrição mineral foliar sobre doenças da parte aérea da cultura do trigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Gustavo Ferreira Morales

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de fungicida para o controle de doenças foliares na cultura do trigo é prática comum entre os triticultores. Contudo, devido ao impacto ambiental provocado pelo seu uso generalizado, buscam-se alternativas para controle dos fitopatógenos. Sendo assim, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da nutrição mineral foliar sobre as doenças foliares do trigo, bem como seu efeito sobre o desenvolvimento da planta. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições e quatro tratamentos: 1- testemunha; 2- adubação foliar aos 30 dias após a emergência (DAE e aos 75 DAE; 3- fungicida aos 30 e 75 DAE; e 4- adubação foliar aos 30 DAE e adubação foliar mais fungicida aos 75 DAE. Foram realizadas nove avaliações da incidência e da severidade do oídio, cujos dados foram utilizados para o cálculo das áreas abaixo das curvas de progresso da doença; três avaliações da severidade da ferrugem e da mancha da gluma; e duas avaliações da mancha amarela. Foram determinadas a massa de matéria fresca e seca da parte aérea e do sistema radicular e a produtividade da cultura. Foi observada redução da incidência e da severidade de oídio em função da adubação foliar, apenas na primeira avaliação de incidência e nas segunda e quinta avaliações de severidade da doença. O efeito complementar dos nutrientes com o fungicida para redução das doenças foi observado apenas para a mancha amarela, com redução de aproximadamente 11,16 % da severidade. Os maiores valores de produtividade foram observados para os tratamentos apenas com fungicida e, com fungicida mais nutrientes. A adubação foliar proporcionou aumento da massa fresca de raízes e massa seca de raízes. Apesar disso, não houve aumento da massa fresca da parte aérea em função da adubação foliar.

  1. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos ... Home Kim Eberhardt Muir, MS Coping with a New Injury Robin Dorman, PsyD Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Diane M. ...

  2. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... spinal cord injury? play_arrow What kind of surgery is common after a spinal cord injury? play_ ... How soon after a spinal cord injury should surgery be performed? play_arrow Is it common to ...

  3. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... L Sarah Harrison, OT Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury ... a spinal cord injury important? play_arrow What role does “compression” play in a spinal cord injury? ...

  4. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal Experiences ...

  5. Radiotherapy injuries in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalifa, G.; Bennet, J.; Couanet, D.; Masselot, J.

    1985-01-01

    Side effects of radiotherapy in pediatrics are reviewed including bone injuries and radio-induced bone tumors; nervous system injuries with emphasis on hypothalamus, pituitary gland, brain and spinal cord; lung, digestive system and urinary tract injuries [fr

  6. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury ... Jennifer Piatt, PhD David Chen, MD Read Bio Medical Director, Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Program, Rehabilitation Institute ...

  7. Facial Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Facial Sports Injuries Facial Sports Injuries Patient Health Information News ... should receive immediate medical attention. Prevention Of Facial Sports Injuries The best way to treat facial sports ...

  8. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury 101 ... arrow What is the “Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems” program? play_arrow What are the most promising ...

  9. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation ... Rogers, PT Recreational Therapy after Spinal Cord Injury Jennifer Piatt, PhD David Chen, MD Read Bio Medical ...

  10. Preventing Knee Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our Newsletter Donate Blog Skip breadcrumb navigation Preventing Knee Injuries Knee injuries in children and adolescent athletes ... this PDF Share this page: WHAT ARE COMMON KNEE INJURIES? Pain Syndromes One of the most common ...

  11. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Sara Klaas, MSW Transitions for Children with Spinal Cord Injury Patricia Mucia, RN Family Life After Pediatric Spinal Injury Dawn Sheaffer, MSW Rehabilitation ...

  12. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, MD Preventing Pressure Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from Hospital to ... a spinal cord injury? play_arrow Why are high-dose steroids often used right after an injury? ...

  13. Controle de verrugose, melanose e leprose em laranja pera, com fungicidas e acaricida em mistura com adubo foliar Control of citrus scab, melanose and leprosis with fungicides and miticide mixed to foliar fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Bettiol

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Pulverizações com ziram (Rodisan SC, oxicloreto de cobre (Coprantol BR e óxido de fembutatina (Torque 500 SC em dosagens normais e subdosagens, isoladamente ou em mistura com um adubo foliar originário da fermentação glutâmica do melaço, controlaram de forma efetiva a verrugose, melanose e leprose em laranja pera. A aplicação isolada do resíduo da fermentação glutâmica do melaço, base para diversos adubos foliares, nas dosagens de 0,25% e 5% do produto comercial Ajifol, não interferiu na ocorrência de verrugose e melanose. Entretanto, ocasionou um aumento do número de frutos com leprose, do número de lesões de leprose por fruto e do número de ácaros da leprose (Brevipalpus phoenicis Geipsks nas folhas e nos frutos.Normal dosage and tinder-dosage sprays of ziram (Rodisan SC; cooper oxychloride (Coprantol BR and fenbutatin oxide (Torque 500 SC, isolately or in association with Ajifol, a foliar fertilizer from molasses glutamic fermentation, provided efficient control of scab, melanose and leprosis in 'Pera' orange. Sprays of Ajifol at 0.25 and 5% had no effect on the rate of occurrence of scab and melanose, but was correlated with increases in the rates of fruits with symptoms of leprosis, number of leprosis spots per fruit, and the number of leprosis mites (Brevipalpus phoenicis Geijskes on leaves and fruits.

  14. A hybrid model for mapping relative differences in belowground biomass and root: Shoot ratios using spectral reflectance, foliar N and plant biophysical data within coastal marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica L. O'Connell,; Byrd, Kristin B.; Maggi Kelly,

    2015-01-01

    Broad-scale estimates of belowground biomass are needed to understand wetland resiliency and C and N cycling, but these estimates are difficult to obtain because root:shoot ratios vary considerably both within and between species. We used remotely-sensed estimates of two aboveground plant characteristics, aboveground biomass and % foliar N to explore biomass allocation in low diversity freshwater impounded peatlands (Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, CA, USA). We developed a hybrid modeling approach to relate remotely-sensed estimates of % foliar N (a surrogate for environmental N and plant available nutrients) and aboveground biomass to field-measured belowground biomass for species specific and mixed species models. We estimated up to 90% of variation in foliar N concentration using partial least squares (PLS) regression of full-spectrum field spectrometer reflectance data. Landsat 7 reflectance data explained up to 70% of % foliar N and 67% of aboveground biomass. Spectrally estimated foliar N or aboveground biomass had negative relationships with belowground biomass and root:shoot ratio in both Schoenoplectus acutus and Typha, consistent with a balanced growth model, which suggests plants only allocate growth belowground when additional nutrients are necessary to support shoot development. Hybrid models explained up to 76% of variation in belowground biomass and 86% of variation in root:shoot ratio. Our modeling approach provides a method for developing maps of spatial variation in wetland belowground biomass.

  15. Competition between rice (Oryza sativa L.) and (barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv.) as affected by methanol foliar application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeieh, Alireza D; Aminpanah, Hashem; Sadeghi, Seyed M

    2015-01-01

    Pot experiment was conducted in Iran, to evaluate the effect of methanol on competition between rice (Oryza sativa) and barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli). The experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design with a factorial treatment arrangement and three replicates. Factors were two aqueous methanol foliar applications (0, and 14% v/v) and five rice: barnyardgrass ratios (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:6, and 0:100). Replacement series diagrams for aboveground dry weight illustrated that 'Shiroudi' was more competitive than barnyardgrass as averaged across methanol foliar applications. When methanol was not sprayed, the lines for 'Shiroudi' and barnyardgrass intersected at 75:25 rice: barnyardgrass ratio, but when methanol was sprayed at 14% v/v, the lines for 'Shiroudi' and barnyardgrass intersect at the left of the 75:25 rice: barnyardgrass mixture proportion. These indicate that methanol application reduced competitive ability of 'Shiroudi' against barnyardgrass for aboveground biomass accumulation. At the same time, Methanol foliar application significantly reduced the relative crowding coefficient of 'Shiroudi' while simultaneously it significantly increased the relative crowding coefficient of barnyard grass. This indicates that methanol foliar application reduced the competitive ability of 'Shiroudi' against barnyardgrass for shoot biomass accumulation. This experiment illustrated that foliar spray of aqueous methanol can not be recommended for rice under weedy conditions.

  16. Soil and foliar analysis laboratories in Costa Rica: a report of the Comite de Laboratorios de Analisis de Suelos, Plantas y Aguas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrales, Marco; Bertsch, Floria; Bejarano, Jose Antonio

    2005-01-01

    The situation of soils and foliar analysis laboratories in Costa Rica is showed in this job. The characteristics and methodologies of each laboratory are described, as well as the results of the National Exchange Programs, which have been implemented among all of them for the last 6 years, and which are denominated as PINAS for soils and PINAF for foliar. For each determination, soil as well as foliar, achievements in homologation of methodologies are stressed, and estimates obtained on intrinsic variability - resulting from processing control samples - are discussed. With the results of control samples that have been analyzed in 15 national laboratories, the internal variability of each one was evaluated, comparisons among them were made, and estimations of the intrinsic variability shown by each determination were made. At PINAS, more than 60 soil control samples have been processed, with 2 extracting solutions (Modified KCl-Olsen and Mehlich 3), and with 3 to 6 replicates per solution; at PINAF, 16 control foliar samples have been processed, also repeated 3 times in each laboratory. In general, the internal variability of the laboratories is low; for soil determinations, variation among laboratories fluctuated 10-20%, and for foliar the fluctuation was even lower (10-15%). The assessment can be made, that having these variations among results from different laboratories is quite acceptable, yet subject to improvement. (author) [es

  17. Changes in the dynamics of foliar N metabolites in oak saplings by drought and air warming depend on species and soil type.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Hu

    Full Text Available Climate change poses direct or indirect influences on physiological mechanisms in plants. In particular, long living plants like trees have to cope with the predicted climate changes (i.e. drought and air warming during their life span. The present study aimed to quantify the consequences of simulated climate change for foliar N metabolites over a drought-rewetting-drought course. Saplings of three Central European oak species (i.e. Quercus robur, Q. petraea, Q. pubescens were tested on two different soil types (i.e. acidic and calcareous. Consecutive drought periods increased foliar amino acid-N and soluble protein-N concentrations at the expense of structural N in all three oak species. In addition, transient effects on foliar metabolite dynamics were observed over the drought-rewetting-drought course. The lowest levels of foliar soluble protein-N, amino acid-N and potassium cation with a minor response to drought and air warming were found in the oak species originating from the driest/warmest habitat (Q. pubescens compared to Q. robur and Q. petraea. Higher foliar osmolyte-N and potassium under drought and air warming were observed in all oak species when grown on calcareous versus acidic soil. These results indicate that species-specific differences in physiological mechanisms to compensate drought and elevated temperature are modified by soil acidity.

  18. Foliar δ13C Showed No Altitudinal Trend in an Arid Region and Atmospheric Pressure Exerted a Negative Effect on Plant δ13C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zixun Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested foliar δ13C generally increases with altitude. However, some observations reported no changes or even decreased trends in foliar δ13C. We noted that all the studies in which δ13C increased with elevation were conducted in the human regions, whereas those investigations in which δ13C did not vary or decreased were conducted in areas with water stress. Thus, we proposed that the pattern of increasing δ13C with elevation is not a general one, and that δ13C may remain unchanged or decrease in plants grown in arid environments. To test the hypothesis, we sampled plants along altitude gradients on the shady and sunny slopes of Mount Tianshan characterized by arid and semiarid climates. The measurements of foliar δ13C showed no altitudinal trends for the plants grown on either of the slopes. Therefore, this study supported our hypothesis. In addition, the present study addressed the effect of atmospheric pressure on plant δ13C by accounting for the effects of temperature and precipitation on δ13C. This study found that the residual foliar δ13C increased with increasing altitude, suggesting that atmospheric pressure played a negative role in foliar δ13C.

  19. Soil Fauna Affects Dissolved Carbon and Nitrogen in Foliar Litter in Alpine Forest and Alpine Meadow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Shu; Yang, Wanqin; Tan, Yu; Peng, Yan; Li, Jun; Tan, Bo; Wu, Fuzhong

    2015-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) are generally considered important active biogeochemical pools of total carbon and nitrogen. Many studies have documented the contributions of soil fauna to litter decomposition, but the effects of the soil fauna on labile substances (i.e., DOC and TDN) in litter during early decomposition are not completely clear. Therefore, a field litterbag experiment was carried out from 13th November 2013 to 23rd October 2014 in an alpine forest and an alpine meadow located on the eastern Tibetan Plateau. Litterbags with different mesh sizes were used to provide access to or prohibit the access of the soil fauna, and the concentrations of DOC and TDN in the foliar litter were measured during the winter (the onset of freezing, deep freezing and thawing stage) and the growing season (early and late). After one year of field incubation, the concentration of DOC in the litter significantly decreased, whereas the TDN concentration in the litter increased. Similar dynamic patterns were detected under the effects of the soil fauna on both DOC and TDN in the litter between the alpine forest and the alpine meadow. The soil fauna showed greater positive effects on decreasing DOC concentration in the litter in the winter than in the growing season. In contrast, the dynamics of TND in the litter were related to seasonal changes in environmental factors, rather than the soil fauna. In addition, the soil fauna promoted a decrease in litter DOC/TDN ratio in both the alpine forest and the alpine meadow throughout the first year of decomposition, except for in the late growing season. These results suggest that the soil fauna can promote decreases in DOC and TDN concentrations in litter, contributing to early litter decomposition in these cold biomes.

  20. Doenças foliares da alfafa (Medicago sativa L., em Lavras, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Rosana Cristina

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se verificar as doenças foliares que ocorrem na alfafa em Lavras-MG, no período de setembro de 1997 a outubro de 1998. Um ensaio foi conduzido em blocos ao acaso em esquema de parcelas subdivididas. Nas parcelas foram alocadas foram 35 cultivares e nas subparcelas 11 épocas de avaliação. Avaliações foram realizadas aos 28 dias após corte, quando foram coletadas dez hastes de alfafa por parcela para avaliação da desfolha e determinação da severidade das doenças. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e os contrastes entre médias comparados pelo teste de Scott-Knott a 5%. A mancha-de-Leptosphaerulina ocorreu durante o ano todo, porém com maior severidade nos períodos mais frios do ano. A mancha-negra-das-folhas-e-caule apresentou maior severidade no final do verão e início do outono e a ferrugem revelou maior severidade apenas nas avaliações de novembro. As maiores porcentagens de desfolha foram obtidas nos meses mais frios do ano. As cultivares mais resistentes à mancha-de-Leptosphaerulina, cercosporiose e à desfolha foram a Crioula, P30 e Costera SP INTA. As cultivares MH 15 e MH 4 destacaram-se pela maior resistência à ferrugem.