WorldWideScience

Sample records for visibility level implications

  1. Low level cloud motion vectors from Kalpana-1 visible images

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . In this paper, an attempt has been made to retrieve low-level cloud motion vectors using Kalpana-1 visible (VIS) images at every half an hour. The VIS channel provides better detection of low level clouds, which remain obscure in thermal IR ...

  2. Expanding the Visibility of Women's Work: Policy Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messias, DeAnne K. Hilfinger; Regev, Hanna; Im, Eun-Ok; Spiers, Judith A.; Van, Paulina; Meleis, Afaf Ibrahim

    1997-01-01

    Social conceptualization and media images of women's work affect health and social policy formation. Nurses can expand the visibility of women's work and promote gender-sensitive policies within and outside the profession. (SK)

  3. A Study of Visible Tattoos in Entry-Level Dental Hygiene Education Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search, Kathryn R; Tolle, Susan L; McCombs, Gayle B; Arndt, Aaron

    2018-02-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to survey entry-level dental hygiene program directors in the United States (U.S.) to assess their perceptions of dental hygienists with visible tattoos as well as to determine current policies related to dress codes in U.S. dental hygiene programs. Methods: Data was collected with an online survey emailed to 340 dental hygiene program directors yielding a 43% (n=141) response rate. Participants indicated their opinions of visible tattoos on the basis of professionalism and school policy satisfaction. Results: Eighty percent of respondents reported their program as having dress code policies on visible tattoos, with the majority (97%) requiring visible tattoos to be covered. Results revealed both students (M=5.57, phygiene faculty should discuss the impact of visible tattoos on future employment opportunities, and that the community would view the school as less professional if students had visible tattoos (pPersonal tolerance toward tattoos (phygiene program dress code included policy on visible tattoos. Conclusion: Study results showed that visible tattoos were not perceived favorably and that personal perceptions of dental hygiene program directors may have influenced school dress code polices regarding visible tattoos. These findings provide evidence based information for dental hygienists, students, faculty, administrators and hiring managers for formulating policies relating to body art. Copyright © 2018 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  4. The levels of perceptual processing and the neural correlates of increasing subjective visibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Marek; Gociewicz, Krzysztof; Windey, Bert; Koculak, Marcin; Finc, Karolina; Nikadon, Jan; Derda, Monika; Cleeremans, Axel

    2017-10-01

    According to the levels-of-processing hypothesis, transitions from unconscious to conscious perception may depend on stimulus processing level, with more gradual changes for low-level stimuli and more dichotomous changes for high-level stimuli. In an event-related fMRI study we explored this hypothesis using a visual backward masking procedure. Task requirements manipulated level of processing. Participants reported the magnitude of the target digit in the high-level task, its color in the low-level task, and rated subjective visibility of stimuli using the Perceptual Awareness Scale. Intermediate stimulus visibility was reported more frequently in the low-level task, confirming prior behavioral results. Visible targets recruited insulo-fronto-parietal regions in both tasks. Task effects were observed in visual areas, with higher activity in the low-level task across all visibility levels. Thus, the influence of level of processing on conscious perception may be mediated by attentional modulation of activity in regions representing features of consciously experienced stimuli. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Venus O2 visible and IR nightglow: Implications for lower thermosphere dynamics and chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougher, S. W.; Borucki, W. J.

    1994-01-01

    The National Center for Atmospheric Research thermospheric general circulation model for the Venus thermosphere is modified to examine two observed night airglow features, both of which serve as sensitive tracers of the thermospheric circulation. New O2 nightglow data from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) star tracker (O2 Herzberg II at 400-800 nm) and ground-based telescopes (O2 IR at 1.27 microns) yield additional model constraints for estimating Venus winds over 100-130 km. Atomic oxygen, produced by dayside CO2 photolysis peaking near 110 km, and transported to the nightside by the global wind system, is partially destroyed through three-body recombination, yielding the O2 Herzberg II visible nightglow. This emission is very sensitive to horizontal winds at altitudes between 100 and 130 km. Other trace species catalytic reactions also contribute to the production of the very strong nightside infrared (1.27 microns) emission. This paper examines the dynamical and chemical implications of these new data using the Venus thermospheric general circulation model (VTGCM) as an analysis tool. Three-dimensional calculations are presented for both solar maximum and solar medium conditions, corresponding to early PVO (1979-1981) and PVO entry (mid-1992) time periods. Very distinct periods are identified in which zonal winds are alternately weak and strong in the Venus lower thermosphere. VTGCM sensitivity studies are conducted to assess the impacts of potential changes in thermospheric zonal and day-to-night winds, and eddy diffusion on the corresponding nightglow intensities. It appears that cyclostrophic balance extends above 80 km periodically, owing to a reversal of the upper mesosphere latitudinal temperature gradient, and thereby producing strong zonal winds and correspondingly modified O2 nightglow distributions that are observed.

  6. Does the visibility of a congenital anomaly affect maternal-infant attachment levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boztepe, Handan; Ay, Ayşe; Kerimoğlu Yıldız, Gizem; Çınar, Sevil

    2016-10-01

    To determine whether congenital anomaly visibility affects maternal-infant attachment levels. The study population consisted of mothers who had infants with cleft lip/palate or congenital heart anomalies who were receiving treatment in a university hospital. The data were collected using the Structured Questionnaire Form and the Maternal Attachment Inventory. Statistically significant differences in maternal-infant attachment levels were observed between infants with cleft lips/palates and healthy infants and between infants with congenital heart anomalies and healthy infants. It is important to apply appropriate nursing interventions for these mothers during the postpartum period. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Non-invasive prediction of hematocrit levels by portable visible and near-infrared spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Kato, Yukiko Hakariya; Kuratsune, Hirohiko; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2009-10-01

    After blood donation, in some individuals having polycythemia, dehydration causes anemia. Although the hematocrit (Ht) level is closely related to anemia, the current method of measuring Ht is performed after blood drawing. Furthermore, the monitoring of Ht levels contributes to a healthy life. Therefore, a non-invasive test for Ht is warranted for the safe donation of blood and good quality of life. A non-invasive procedure for the prediction of hematocrit levels was developed on the basis of a chemometric analysis of visible and near-infrared (Vis-NIR) spectra of the thumbs using portable spectrophotometer. Transmittance spectra in the 600- to 1100-nm region from thumbs of Japanese volunteers were subjected to a partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis and leave-out cross-validation to develop chemometric models for predicting Ht levels. Ht levels of masked samples predicted by this model from Vis-NIR spectra provided a coefficient of determination in prediction of 0.6349 with a standard error of prediction of 3.704% and a detection limit in prediction of 17.14%, indicating that the model is applicable for normal and abnormal value in Ht level. These results suggest portable Vis-NIR spectrophotometer to have potential for the non-invasive measurement of Ht levels with a combination of PLSR analysis.

  8. Forty-year (1971-2010) semiquantitative observations of visibility-cloud-precipitation in Korea and its implication for aerosol effects on regional climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo-Jung; Kang, Jeong-Eon; Kim, Cheol-Hee

    2015-07-01

    Forty-year (1971-2010) observations of cloud cover and types have been analyzed, and implications on the effects of aerosol-cloud feedback were explored. Cloud cover and types have been observed over Korea on the basis of visible (human-eye) attributes without any change in official observing instructions. Visibility has been used as an ongoing proxy measure of aerosol concentrations, and observed meteorological variables such as sunshine duration and precipitation have been employed to analyze aerosol causes and implications for urban and regional climate. The analysis revealed persistent decade-long patterns in Korea: steadily reduced visibility (-0.37 km/yr), consistently decreasing sunshine duration (-0.06 %/hr), and declining occurrence of light precipitation. Spatial distributions of sunshine duration and visibility exhibited more localized variations in the early period (1971-1990), and tended to be more uniform throughout Korea over more recent years (1991-2010), implying the recent regional-scale impact of cloud change over northeast Asia. Cloud analysis results showed that the five most common types were stratocumulus (Sc), cirrus (Ci), altostratus (As), stratus (St), and nimbostratus (Ns), with occurrences of 33%, 17%, 17%, 9%, and 8%, respectively. Occurrence of rarely precipitating or nonprecipitating low-level Sc clouds showed an increasing (+0.34%/yr), but no (or only minor) effects of aerosols on heavy precipitation such as cumulus cloud types were found. Cloud cover in the range of 6/10 to 8/10 units has increased by 31.5±6.5%, and occurrences of both cloud-free (~2/10 units) and overcast (~8/10 units) conditions have decreased. Aerosol-cloud-precipitations interaction is highly nonlinear due to feedback mechanisms. One reason for our poor understanding of the aerosol-cloud feedback study is the variety of cloud types with their complicated responses to variations of the aerosol. Our study on the response of precipitation-cloud to long

  9. Controversy among giants: Young's experiment and loss of fringe visibility at low photon-count levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, William T.

    2011-09-01

    An ideal beam splitter model for an absorber presented by Leonhardt in his book Measuring the Quantum State of Light (Cambridge University Press, 1997) has intriguing implications for the simple Young's fringe experiment in the photon-counting regime. Specifically, it suggests that different results will be obtained depending on whether the light forming the fringes is attenuated at the source or at the slits.

  10. Narcissistic leaders: An asset or a liability? Leader visibility, follower responses, and group-level absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevicka, Barbara; Van Vianen, Annelies E M; De Hoogh, Annebel H B; Voorn, Bart C M

    2018-03-19

    Although narcissists often emerge as leaders, research has thus far shown inconsistent results on the relationship between leader narcissism and effectiveness in the eyes of followers. Here we draw on leader distance theory (Shamir, 1995) and implicit leader theory (Lord & Maher, 1991) to propose that followers' assessment of a narcissistic leader and followers' overall job attitudes depend on the leader's visibility to the followers. The more opportunities followers have to observe narcissistic leaders the more they will experience these leaders' toxic behavior (e.g., exploitativeness) and the less they will perceive the leader as effective. To test our hypotheses we collected multisource, longitudinal data from 175 retail stores and obtained subjective (followers' perceptions of leader effectiveness and their overall job attitudes) as well as objective (leaders' organizational experience at time of hire, employee absenteeism trends) indices of leader functionality. Results showed that narcissistic leaders had less organizational experience at the time they were hired. Moreover, when followers had fewer opportunities to observe their leader, leader narcissism was positively related to perceived leadership effectiveness and job attitudes. However, when followers had more opportunity to observe their leader, the positive relationship disappeared. Finally, leader narcissism was neither positively nor negatively associated with absenteeism, whereas absenteeism declined over time under non-narcissistic leaders. These findings advance our knowledge of how followers respond to narcissistic leaders and how these leaders function in organizational settings where they have legitimate positions of power. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. GHRSST Level 2P 1 m Depth Global Sea Surface Temperature from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi NPP satellite (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A global Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 2P dataset based on retrievals from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS)....

  12. An epidemiological assessment of stomatal ozone flux-based critical levels for visible ozone injury in Southern European forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sicard, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.sicard@acri-he.fr [ACRI-HE, 260 route du Pin Montard, BP 234, 06904 Sophia Antipolis cedex (France); De Marco, Alessandra [ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development), 76, Lungotevere Thaon de Revel, Rome (Italy); Dalstein-Richier, Laurence [GIEFS (Groupe International d' Etudes des Forêts Sud-européennes), 60, Avenue des Hespérides, 06300 Nice (France); Tagliaferro, Francesco [IPLA (Istituto per le Piante da Legno e l‘Ambiente), Corso Casale 476, 10132 Turin (Italy); Renou, Camille [ACRI-HE, 260 route du Pin Montard, BP 234, 06904 Sophia Antipolis cedex (France); Paoletti, Elena [IPSP-CNR (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche — Istituto per la Protezione Sostenibile delle Piante), Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Florence) (Italy)

    2016-01-15

    Southern forests are at the highest ozone (O{sub 3}) risk in Europe where ground-level O{sub 3} is a pressing sanitary problem for ecosystem health. Exposure-based standards for protecting vegetation are not representative of actual field conditions. A biologically-sound stomatal flux-based standard has been proposed, although critical levels for protection still need to be validated. This innovative epidemiological assessment of forest responses to O{sub 3} was carried out in 54 plots in Southeastern France and Northwestern Italy in 2012 and 2013. Three O{sub 3} indices, namely the accumulated exposure AOT40, and the accumulated stomatal flux with and without an hourly threshold of uptake (POD1 and POD0) were compared. Stomatal O{sub 3} fluxes were modeled (DO3SE) and correlated to measured forest-response indicators, i.e. crown defoliation, crown discoloration and visible foliar O{sub 3} injury. Soil water content, a key variable affecting the severity of visible foliar O{sub 3} injury, was included in DO3SE. Based on flux–effect relationships, we developed species-specific flux-based critical levels (CLef) for forest protection against visible O{sub 3} injury. For O{sub 3} sensitive conifers, CLef of 19 mmol m{sup −2} for Pinus cembra (high O{sub 3} sensitivity) and 32 mmol m{sup −2} for Pinus halepensis (moderate O{sub 3} sensitivity) were calculated. For broadleaved species, we obtained a CLef of 25 mmol m{sup −2} for Fagus sylvatica (moderate O{sub 3} sensitivity) and of 19 mmol m{sup −2} for Fraxinus excelsior (high O{sub 3} sensitivity). We showed that an assessment based on PODY and on real plant symptoms is more appropriated than the concentration-based method. Indeed, POD0 was better correlated with visible foliar O{sub 3} injury than AOT40, whereas AOT40 was better correlated with crown discoloration and defoliation (aspecific indicators). To avoid an underestimation of the real O{sub 3} uptake, we recommend the use of POD0 calculated for

  13. Implication for second primary cancer from visible oral and oropharyngeal premalignant lesions in betel-nut chewing related oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shyun-Yu; Feng, I-Jung; Wu, Yu-Wei; Chen, Ching-Yuan; Hsiung, Chao-Nan; Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Lin, Che-Yi; Chang, Min-Te; Yu, Hsi-Chien; Lee, Sheng-Yang; Yen, Ching-Yu

    2017-07-01

    Visible oral and oropharyngeal premalignant lesions may be used to monitor for a second primary oral cancer. To control for bias, we focused on the visible oral and oropharyngeal premalignant lesions of patients with oral cancer with a positive betel-nut chewing habit. Visible oral and oropharyngeal premalignant lesions that can predict second primary oral cancers were studied. Nine hundred ninety-seven patients with positive betel-nut chewing habits and oral cancer were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study. We analyzed the relevance of their visible oral and oropharyngeal premalignant lesion incidence and relative clinicopathological variables to the development of a second primary oral cancer. Second primary oral cancer risk was significantly higher in patients with positive visible oral and oropharyngeal premalignant lesions (P oral and oropharyngeal premalignant lesions make it a potentially valuable marker in follow-ups of patients with a positive betel-nut chewing habit with oral cancer, especially young patients with heterogeneous leukoplakia. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. TRAVEL PLANNING PROPOSALS SKI AREA IN NORTH OLTENIA TO INCREASE VISIBILITY AT NATIONAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSTANŢA ENEA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mountain tourism potential is complex and varied in structure, size and spatial distribution, which is related to massive expansion, differentiation altitude, geological composition, configuration and specific geological landforms, fragmentation, vegetation cover and peculiarities of the river system, etc. Therefore under the mountain in northern Oltenia highlights some differences in the regions in terms of structure, volume, value, capitalizing on opportunities in tourism mountain tourism potential. Mountain tourism is one of the traditional forms of tourism in affirming Romanian tourism internationally, both through natural potential available by the low level of degradation of landscapes and through investment efforts that were made in the specific offer. European alpine countries (France, Switzerland, Austria, Italy, etc. attaches great importance to the potential of mountain tourism available and submitted in this regard, special efforts for the development of mountain resorts attract millions of tourists annually amateur ski of sports winter mountain in general. Romania has a great value ski area that can compete successfully with the ski areas of central and Western Europe. What are the strengths and weaknesses of Romanian mountain tourism potential in comparability with famous country ski area for winter sports will see throughout this paper.

  15. Entrepreneurship Education at Tertiary Education Level: Implication to Historical Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salahu Mohammed Lawal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria is richly endowed with both human and material resources that when well utilized can make her one of the richest and developed nation in the world.  But poor utilization of the resources, corruption and dwindling fortune in her education system made her among the first twenty five poorest nations in the world.  Similarly, report shows that 26% of the employable population remained unemployed.  This called for the need for entrepreneurship education most especially at tertiary level where high level manpower is supposed to be trained.  It is on this premise that the paper attempts to examine entrepreneurship education and its implication to history students and graduates.

  16. A visible Chinese human-combined Monte Carlo simulation study on low-level light therapy of stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengbo; Pan, Boan; Zhong, Fulin; Li, Ting

    2017-02-01

    Stroke is a devastating disease, which is the third leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Although the incidence of stroke increases progressively with age, morbidity among young and middle-aged adults is increasing annually. Medications nevertheless remain the bulwarks of stroke. The treatment is ineffective, speculative and has a long treatment cycle. The function of acupuncture and moxibustion, which are potential therapeutic tools for stroke, is still controversial. Recently, Low-level light therapy (LLLT) has been demonstrated potent in vivo efficacy for treatment of ischemic conditions of acute myocardial infraction and stroke in multiple validated animal models. Optimum LLLT treatment has a dominant influence on therapy of stroke. While more than a thousand clinical trials have been halted, only a few trials on animals have been reported. We addressed this issue by simulating near-infrared light propagation with accurate visible Chinese human head by Monte Carlo modeling. The visible human head embody region of atherosclerotic plaques in head. Through comparing the light propagation of different light illumination, we can get a precise, optimized and straightforward treatment. Here, we developed a LLLT helmet for treating stroke depend on near-infrared light. There are more than 30 LED arrays in in multi-layered 3D printed helmet. Each LED array has independent water-cooling module and can be adjusted to touch the head of different subjects based on Electro pneumatic module. Moreover, the software provides the setup of illumination parameters and 3D distribution of light fluence rate distribution in human brain.

  17. Use of historic images as a tool for estimating haze levels-natural visibility and the role of fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon Andersson

    2007-01-01

    The Regional Haze rule addresses visibility impairment in 156 Federal Class I areas. The goal of the rule is to remove all anthropogenic air pollution from the National Parks and Wilderness areas. Determining natural visibility conditions is an interesting and complicated problem. There is a large archive of pre- and early-settlement narratives, landscape paintings,...

  18. Near-opposition martian limb-darkening: Quantification and implication for visible-near-infrared bidirectional reflectance studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Grenier, Muriel; Pinet, Patrick C.

    1995-06-01

    A nearly global coverage of the martian eastern hemisphere, acquired under small phase angles and varying observational geometries conditions, has been produced from 1988 opposition by spectral (0.5-1 μm) imaging data obtained at the Pic du Midi Observatory in France. From this data set, the methodology presented here permits a systematic analysis of martian photometric behavior at a regional scale of 100-300 km in the visible and near-infrared. The quantification of limb-darkening as a function of wavelength and surface albedo gives access in martian regional properties as a function of wavelength and surface albedo and results in the production of visible and near-infrared geometric albedo maps. A linear relation between the limb darkening parameter k and geometric albedo exists in the near infrared. Based on laboratory studies, it suggests a spectral response of particulate type for the martian soil. Conversely, in the visible, the value of k parameter is 0.6 independent of albedo and is consistent with a single scattering photometric behavior in the surface layer. However, the observed change in the martian photometry from single to multiple scattering may be partially due to a large contribution of atmospheric scattering above 0.7 μm. In the absence of a multitemporal dataset analysis, it must be emphasized that the present results are a priori only pertinent to the atmospheric and surface conditions existing on Mars at the time of observation. However, this analysis may contribute to characterize some physical properties, such as surface roughness. In the near-infrared, for bright terrains, k tends to 0.8 and agrees with the presence of very fine particulate materials. Photometry of dark areas is more irregular (0.48 duricrust. Finally, we evaluate the influence of reflectance geometrical effects on the multispectral and spectroscopic data of the martian surface.

  19. Visible-light-induced photocatalysis of low-level methyl-tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and trichloroethylene (TCE) using element-doped titanium dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Wan-Kuen; Yang, Chang-Hee [Department of Environmental Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Sankeokdong, Bukgu, Daegu 702-701 (Korea)

    2010-04-15

    While the photocatalytic degradation of various volatile organic compounds in conjunction with UV light has been widely reported, visible-light-induced photocatalytic degradation of low-levels of the pollutants MTBE and TCE, which have been linked to potential adverse health effects, is rarely reported. The present study examined whether visible-light-activated S- or N-doped TiO{sub 2} photocatalytic technology can be used to control indoor concentrations of MTBE and TCE. This study consists of the characterization of the doped TiO{sub 2} powders, as well as an investigation of their photocatalytic activities. In regards to both powders, a shift of the absorbance spectrum towards the visible light region was observed. An activity test suggested that these photocatalysts exhibited reasonably high degradation efficiencies towards MTBE and TCE under visible light irradiation. The degradation efficiencies of MTBE and TCE by S- and N-doped photocatalysts exceeded 75 and 80%, respectively, at input concentrations (IC) of 0.1 ppm. Degradation efficiency was dependent on both IC and relative humidity. TCE could enhance the degradation efficiency of MTBE even under visible-light irradiation. The estimated mineralization efficiencies (MEs) were comparable to those of previous studies conducted with UV/TiO{sub 2} systems. Similar to the relative degradation efficiencies, the ME of TCE was higher in comparison to that of MTBE. The CO production measured during the photocatalytic processes represented a negligible addition to indoor CO levels. These results suggest that visible-light-activated S- and N-doped TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts may prove a useful tool in the effort to improve indoor air quality. (author)

  20. Visible-near infrared spectra of hydrous carbonates, with implications for the detection of carbonates in hyperspectral data of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harner, Patrick L.; Gilmore, Martha S.

    2015-04-01

    We present visible-near infrared (VNIR, 0.35-5 μm) spectra for a suite of hydrous carbonates that may be relevant to the surface of Mars. This includes VNIR spectra for ikaite, nesquehonite, synthetic monohydrocalcite and lansfordite over the 0.35-2.5 μm range that are new to the literature. The spectral features of the hydrous carbonates are dominated by absorptions at ∼1.0, 1.2, 1.4-1.5, 1.9 and 2.8 μm that are due to overtones and combinations of fundamental water and hydroxyl vibrations. Absorptions due to (CO3)2-, Mg-OH, Fe-OH, and/or water are seen at ∼2.3-2.5, 3.4, and 3.9 μm in hydrous Mg and Mg-Fe3+ carbonates containing hydroxyl groups, but are weaker than in the common anhydrous carbonates. When present in the hydrous carbonates, the positions of the centers of the 2.3 μm and/or 2.5 μm absorptions are often shifted relative to the anhydrous carbonates, which may be diagnostic. Some or all of the (CO3)2- absorptions typical of anhydrous carbonates are weak to absent in the hydrous carbonates, and thus this group may be difficult to distinguish from other hydrous minerals like sulfates, phyllosilicates or chlorides in Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) data using standard spectral search parameters for anhydrous carbonates. We present strategies for recognizing hydrous carbonates in CRISM data using combinations of spectral parameters that measure the intensity and shape of the water-related absorptions in these minerals.

  1. Surface-Enhanced Resonance Raman Scattering and Visible Extinction Spectroscopy of Copper Chlorophyllin: An Upper Level Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzer, Cheryl S.; Reim, Candace Lawson; Sirois, John J.; House, Paul G.

    2010-01-01

    Advanced chemistry students are introduced to surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) by studying how sodium copper chlorophyllin (CuChl) adsorbs onto silver colloids (CuChl/Ag) as a function of pH. Using both SERRS and visible extinction spectroscopy, the extent of CuChl adsorption and colloidal aggregation are monitored. Initially at…

  2. Detection of silver nanoparticles in seawater at ppb levels using UV-visible spectrophotometry with long path cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodeiro, Pablo; Achterberg, Eric P; El-Shahawi, Mohammad S

    2017-03-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are emerging contaminants that are difficult to detect in natural waters. UV-visible spectrophotometry is a simple technique that allows detection of AgNPs through analysis of their characteristic surface plasmon resonance band. The detection limit for nanoparticles using up to 10cm path length cuvettes with UV-visible spectrophotometry is in the 0.1-10ppm range. This detection limit is insufficiently low to observe AgNPs in natural environments. Here we show how the use of capillary cells with an optical path length up to 200cm, forms an excellent technique for rapid detection and quantification of non-aggregated AgNPs at ppb concentrations in complex natural matrices such as seawater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Analyzing Visibility Configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachsbacher, C

    2011-04-01

    Many algorithms, such as level of detail rendering and occlusion culling methods, make decisions based on the degree of visibility of an object, but do not analyze the distribution, or structure, of the visible and occluded regions across surfaces. We present an efficient method to classify different visibility configurations and show how this can be used on top of existing methods based on visibility determination. We adapt co-occurrence matrices for visibility analysis and generalize them to operate on clusters of triangular surfaces instead of pixels. We employ machine learning techniques to reliably classify the thus extracted feature vectors. Our method allows perceptually motivated level of detail methods for real-time rendering applications by detecting configurations with expected visual masking. We exemplify the versatility of our method with an analysis of area light visibility configurations in ray tracing and an area-to-area visibility analysis suitable for hierarchical radiosity refinement. Initial results demonstrate the robustness, simplicity, and performance of our method in synthetic scenes, as well as real applications.

  4. LEVEL SOCIAL SELF CONCEPT AND IMPLICATION IN GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Kartika Sari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Teenager consider themselves based on the perception others and one of the element which affecting the maturation in self concept is how the assessment and social environment revenue toward it self .This study purpose to describe the self concept of teens and the implications in guidance and counseling .The research type descriptive quantitative methods. The Research was done to teenagers of simple  orphanage in  bengkulu with a population about 103 teenagers .The total of the  research about 82 survey youth to the sample used purposive sampling techniqul  instrument was used  the closed of  scale likert model  with validity 0.873 , reliability ( 0,931 self concept .The findings of this research shows that: ( 1 self concept as of teens tend to be low category. (2  implications finding for service counseling guidance the basic of arranging the guidance counseling program service which can formed  and improved the self concept of teens positively.

  5. Elementary migration around the Oklo nuclear reactors. Implications for high level radioactive wastes storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menet-Dressayre, C.; Menager, M.T.

    1993-01-01

    The study of Uranium and rare earths near the reactors has displayed the radioelements transfer in the reactors neighbourhood. The main implications for high level radioactive wastes disposal in geological formations are discussed. 12 refs

  6. Surface drainage in leveled land: Implication of slope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoniony S. Winkler

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the lowlands of Rio Grande do Sul, land leveling is mostly carried out with no slope for the purpose of rice production. In this environment, soils with a low hydraulic conductivity are predominant owing to the presence of a practically impermeable B-horizon near the surface. Land leveling leads to soil accommodation resulting in the formation of depressions where water accumulates after heavy rainfalls, subsequently leading to problems with crops implanted in succession to rice, such as soybeans. The objective of this research was to quantify the areas and volumes of water accumulation in soil as a function of the slope of land leveling. Five typical leveled lowland areas were studied as a part of this research. The original areas presented slopes of 0, 0.20, 0.25, 0.28 and 0.40%, which were used to generate new digital elevation models with slopes between 0 and 0.5%. These newly generated digital models were used to map the depressions with surface water storage. In conclusion, land leveling with slopes higher than 0.1% is recommended to minimize problems with superficial water storage in rice fields.

  7. Implications of Sea Level Rise on Coastal Flood Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeber, V.; Li, N.; Cheung, K.; Lane, P.; Evans, R. L.; Donnelly, J. P.; Ashton, A. D.

    2012-12-01

    Recent global and local projections suggest the sea level will be on the order of 1 m or higher than the current level by the end of the century. Coastal communities and ecosystems in low-lying areas are vulnerable to impacts resulting from hurricane or large swell events in combination with sea-level rise. This study presents the implementation and results of an integrated numerical modeling package to delineate coastal inundation due to storm landfalls at future sea levels. The modeling package utilizes a suite of numerical models to capture both large-scale phenomena in the open ocean and small-scale processes in coastal areas. It contains four components to simulate (1) meteorological conditions, (2) astronomical tides and surge, (3) wave generation, propagation, and nearshore transformation, and (4) surf-zone processes and inundation onto dry land associated with a storm event. Important aspects of this package are the two-way coupling of a spectral wave model and a storm surge model as well as a detailed representation of surf and swash zone dynamics by a higher-order Boussinesq-type wave model. The package was validated with field data from Hurricane Ivan of 2005 on the US Gulf coast and applied to tropical and extratropical storm scenarios respectively at Eglin, Florida and Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. The results show a nonlinear increase of storm surge level and nearshore wave energy with a rising sea level. The exacerbated flood hazard can have major consequences for coastal communities with respect to erosion and damage to infrastructure.

  8. Responding to changes in sea level: engineering implications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council Staff; Marine Board; Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; National Research Council

    1987-01-01

    ... Mean Sea Level Marine Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council National Academy Press Washington, D.C. 1987 Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created publication files XML from other this and of recom...

  9. Enhanced Photocatalytic Efficiency of N–F-Co-Embedded Titania under Visible Light Exposure for Removal of Indoor-Level Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Ho Shin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available N–F-co-embedded titania (N–F–TiO2 photocatalysts with varying N:F ratios were synthesized and tested for their ability to photocatalyze the degradation of pollutants present at indoor air levels using visible light. The synthesis was achieved using a solvothermal process with tetrabutyl titanate, urea and ammonium fluoride as sources of Ti, N and F, respectively. Three selected volatile organic compounds (toluene, ethyl benzene and o-xylene were selected as the test pollutants. The prepared composites were characterized using X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Ultra-violet (UV-visible spectroscopy. The photocatalytic degradation efficiencies of N–F–TiO2 composites were higher than those obtained using pure TiO2 and N–TiO2. Moreover, these efficiencies increased as the N:F ratio decreased from sixteen to eight, then decreased as it dropped further to three, indicating the presence of an optimal N:F ratio. Meanwhile, as retention time decreased from 12.4 to 0.62 s, the average photocatalytic efficiencies decreased from 65.4% to 21.7%, 91.5% to 37.8% and 95.8% to 44.7% for toluene, ethyl benzene and o-xylene, respectively. In contrast, the photocatalytic reaction rates increased as retention time decreased. In consideration of all of these factors, under optimized operational conditions, the prepared N–F–TiO2 composites could be utilized for the degradation of target pollutants at indoor air levels using visible light.

  10. Informatization Level Assessment Framework and Educational Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Sekulovska; Pece Mitrevski

    2018-01-01

    Seeing the informatization as a measure of the educational policy, we propose an informatization level assessment framework and introduce a composite indicator – Education Informatization Index, calculated as a weighted sum by applying the Rank-Order Centroid method for weight designation. Although it is made up of only two main categories (Educational Policy Implementation subindex and Educational Policy Creation subindex) and a total of six individual indicators, it captures well all the so...

  11. Mercury in the nation's streams - Levels, trends, and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentz, Dennis A.; Brigham, Mark E.; Chasar, Lia C.; Lutz, Michelle A.; Krabbenhoft, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury is a potent neurotoxin that accumulates in fish to levels of concern for human health and the health of fish-eating wildlife. Mercury contamination of fish is the primary reason for issuing fish consumption advisories, which exist in every State in the Nation. Much of the mercury originates from combustion of coal and can travel long distances in the atmosphere before being deposited. This can result in mercury-contaminated fish in areas with no obvious source of mercury pollution.Three key factors determine the level of mercury contamination in fish - the amount of inorganic mercury available to an ecosystem, the conversion of inorganic mercury to methylmercury, and the bioaccumulation of methylmercury through the food web. Inorganic mercury originates from both natural sources (such as volcanoes, geologic deposits of mercury, geothermal springs, and volatilization from the ocean) and anthropogenic sources (such as coal combustion, mining, and use of mercury in products and industrial processes). Humans have doubled the amount of inorganic mercury in the global atmosphere since pre-industrial times, with substantially greater increases occurring at locations closer to major urban areas.In aquatic ecosystems, some inorganic mercury is converted to methylmercury, the form that ultimately accumulates in fish. The rate of mercury methylation, thus the amount of methylmercury produced, varies greatly in time and space, and depends on numerous environmental factors, including temperature and the amounts of oxygen, organic matter, and sulfate that are present.Methylmercury enters aquatic food webs when it is taken up from water by algae and other microorganisms. Methylmercury concentrations increase with successively higher trophic levels in the food web—a process known as bioaccumulation. In general, fish at the top of the food web consume other fish and tend to accumulate the highest methylmercury concentrations.This report summarizes selected stream studies

  12. Decreased plasma prorenin levels in primary aldosteronism: potential diagnostic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Constance; Courand, Pierre-Yves; Harbaoui, Brahim; Paget, Vinciane; Khettab, Fouad; Bricca, Giampiero; Fauvel, Jean-Pierre; Lantelme, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Primary aldosteronism could exert a negative feedback on prorenin secretion, of possibly different magnitude, whether it is related to an aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) or an idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA). The objectives of this study were to evaluate the level of prorenin in three subgroups: APA, IHA, and essential hypertension; and the performance of the aldosterone-to-prorenin ratio (APR) for the diagnosis of an APA. Seven hundred and forty-six hypertensive patients with a standardized work-up, including a prorenin measurement, were considered. Ninety-six patients without neutral treatment and 38 patients with other forms of secondary hypertension were excluded. APA and IHA were categorized according to computed tomography scan, adrenal venous sampling, pathological analysis and improvement of hypertension after surgery. Thirty-five patients had a diagnosis of APA, 57 of IHA and 504 of essential hypertension. Prorenin was lower in APA and IHA than in essential hypertension (32.9, 40.4 and 50.3  pg/ml, respectively; P < 0.001). APR was higher in patients with APA and IHA than in those with essential hypertension (24.0, 11.8, and 4.0  pmol/l per pg/ml, respectively; P < 0.001). The APR was more discriminant than the aldosterone-to-renin ratio to identify APA compared to IHA (area under the receiver operating curve at 0.750 and 0.639, respectively; P = 0.04). The optimal cut-off values were 22  pmol/l per pg/ml for APR (sensitivity 57.0%, specificity 93.0%) and 440  pmol/l per pg/ml for aldosterone-to-renin ratio (sensitivity 54.3%, specificity 82.5%). Primary aldosteronism and particularly its most caricatural form, that is APA, seems associated with a lower level of prorenin than essential hypertension. The APR could be included in the diagnostic strategy of APA.

  13. Population levels of sport participation: implications for sport policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Eime

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Participation in sport can contribute to health-enhancing levels of leisure-time physical activity. There are recent reports that participation in sport in Australia is decreasing. However, these studies are limited to ages 15 years and over. Methods This study integrates sports club membership data from five popular team sports and investigates sport participation across the lifespan (4–100 years by sex and region (metropolitan/non-metropolitan. Results Overall participant numbers per annum increased from 414,167 in 2010 to 465,403 in 2012 corresponding to a rise in the proportion of Victorian’s participating in these sports from 7.5 % in 2010 to 8.3 % in 2012. The highest proportion of participants was in the 10–14 year age range, with participation rates of 36 % in 2010 and 40 % in 2012. There was a considerably lower participation rate in the 15–19 year age group compared to the 10–14 age group, in all three years studied, and the decline continued progressively with increasing age. Male and female age profiles of participation were generally similar in shape, but the female peak at age 10–14 was sharper than for the males, and conversely there were very few 4 year old female participants. Participation rates were generally higher in non-metropolitan than metropolitan areas; the difference increased with increasing age from 4 to 34 years, then steadily declined, reaching parity at around 60 years of age. Conclusions It is a positive sign that participation in these popular sports increased by over 50,000 participants from 2010 to 2012. Large proportions of the population aged 5–14 participate in club based sport. Participation rates decline sharply in late adolescence, particularly for females, and while this may not be a concern from a broad health perspective so long as they transition into other forms of physical activity, it is certainly a matter of concern for the sport sector. It is recommended

  14. Associations of types of pain with crack-level, tooth-level and patient-level characteristics in posterior teeth with visible cracks: Findings from the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Thomas J; Funkhouser, Ellen; Ferracane, Jack L; Gordan, Valeria V; Huff, Kevin D; Barna, Julie; Mungia, Rahma; Marker, Timothy; Gilbert, Gregg H

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine which patient traits, behaviors, external tooth and/or crack characteristics correlate with the types of symptoms that teeth with visible cracks exhibit, namely pain on biting, pain due to cold stimuli, or spontaneous pain. Dentists in the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network enrolled a convenience sample of subjects each of whom had a single, vital posterior tooth with at least one observable external crack (cracked teeth); 2858 cracked teeth from 209 practitioners were enrolled. Data were collected at the patient-, tooth-, and crack-level. Generalized estimating equations were used to obtain significant (p cracked teeth had one or more symptoms. Pain to cold was the most common symptom, which occurred in 37% of cracked teeth. Pain on biting (16%) and spontaneous pain (11%) were less common. Sixty-five percent of symptomatic cracked teeth had only one type of symptom, of these 78% were painful only to cold. No patient-, tooth- or crack-level characteristic was significantly associated with pain to cold alone. Positive associations for various combinations of pain symptoms were present with cracks that: (1) were on molars; (2) were in occlusion; (3) had a wear facet through enamel; (4) had caries; (5) were evident on a radiograph; (6) ran in more than one direction; (7) blocked transilluminated light; (8) connected with another crack; (9) extended onto the root; (10) extended in more than one direction; or (11) were on the distal surface. Persons who were cracks or exposed roots, or in non-Hispanic whites. Although pain to cold was the most commonly noted pain associated with symptomatic cracked teeth, no patient-, tooth- or crack-level characteristic was significantly associated with pain to cold alone. Characteristics were only associated with pain on biting and/or spontaneous pain with or without pain to cold. Although often considered the most reliable diagnosis for a cracked tooth, pain on biting is not

  15. Detection of wine grape nutrient levels using visible and near infrared 1nm spectral resolution remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Grant; van Aardt, Jan; Bajorski, Peter; Vanden Heuvel, Justine

    2016-05-01

    The grape industry relies on regular crop assessment to aid in the day-to-day and seasonal management of their crop. More specifically, there are six key nutrients of interest to viticulturists in the growing of wine grapes, namely nitrogen, potassium, phosphorous, magnesium, zinc and boron. Traditional methods of determining the levels of these nutrients are through collection and chemical analysis of petiole samples from the grape vines themselves. We collected ground-level observations of the spectra of the grape vines, using a hyperspectral spectrometer (0.4-2.5um), at the same time that petioles samples were harvested. We then interpolated the data into a consistent 1 nm spectral resolution before comparing it to the nutrient data collected. This nutrient data came from both the industry standard petiole analysis, as well as an additional leaf-level analysis. The data were collected for two different grape cultivars, both during bloom and veraison periods to provide variability, while also considering the impact of temporal/seasonal change. A narrow-band NDI (Normalized Difference Index) approach, as well as a simple ratio index, was used to determine the correlation of the reflectance data to the nutrient data. This analysis was limited to the silicon photodiode range to increase the utility of our approach for wavelength-specific cameras (via spectral filters) in a low cost drone platform. The NDI generated correlation coefficients were as high as 0.80 and 0.88 for bloom and veraison, respectively. The ratio index produced correlation coefficient results that are the same at two decimal places with 0.80 and 0.88. These results bode well for eventual non-destructive, accurate and precise assessment of vineyard nutrient status.

  16. Making Invisible Forces Visible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene Gad

    2013-01-01

    their 'true' attitudes and values. The paper draws on theories of affect as well as actor-network theory to analyse three incidents where managers turn their interpretations of teachers' emotions into such information. These incidents suggest that the efforts to render employees' attitudes and values visible...... install a normative emotional scale where an ideal employee displays emotional investment and self-control. This has implications, not only for employees who are expected to exhibit the 'right' emotions, but also for management, which comes to depend on transient emotions and co-presence in situations...

  17. Geometric Accuracy Investigations of SEVIRI High Resolution Visible (HRV Level 1.5 Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Kocaman Aksakal

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available GCOS (Global Climate Observing System is a long-term program for monitoring the climate, detecting the changes, and assessing their impacts. Remote sensing techniques are being increasingly used for climate-related measurements. Imagery of the SEVIRI instrument on board of the European geostationary satellites Meteosat-8 and Meteosat-9 are often used for the estimation of essential climate variables. In a joint project between the Swiss GCOS Office and ETH Zurich, geometric accuracy and temporal stability of 1-km resolution HRV channel imagery of SEVIRI have been evaluated over Switzerland. A set of tools and algorithms has been developed for the investigations. Statistical analysis and blunder detection have been integrated in the process for robust evaluation. The relative accuracy is evaluated by tracking large numbers of feature points in consecutive HRV images taken at 15-minute intervals. For the absolute accuracy evaluation, lakes in Switzerland and surroundings are used as reference. 20 lakes digitized from Landsat orthophotos are transformed into HRV images and matched via 2D translation terms at sub-pixel level. The algorithms are tested using HRV images taken on 24 days in 2008 (2 days per month. The results show that 2D shifts that are up to 8 pixels are present both in relative and absolute terms.

  18. Coupling of sea level and tidal range changes, with implications for future water levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Adam T; Jay, David A; Talke, Stefan A; Zaron, Edward D; Pan, Jiayi; Lin, Hui

    2017-12-05

    Are perturbations to ocean tides correlated with changing sea-level and climate, and how will this affect high water levels? Here, we survey 152 tide gauges in the Pacific Ocean and South China Sea and statistically evaluate how the sum of the four largest tidal constituents, a proxy for the highest astronomical tide (HAT), changes over seasonal and interannual time scales. We find that the variability in HAT is significantly correlated with sea-level variability; approximately 35% of stations exhibit a greater than ±50 mm tidal change per meter sea-level fluctuation. Focusing on a subset of three stations with long records, probability density function (PDF) analyses of the 95% percentile exceedance of total sea level (TSL) show long-term changes of this high-water metric. At Hong Kong, the increase in tides significantly amplifies the risk caused by sea-level rise. Regions of tidal decrease and/or amplification highlight the non-linear response to sea-level variations, with the potential to amplify or mitigate against the increased flood risk caused by sea-level rise. Overall, our analysis suggests that in many regions, local flood level determinations should consider the joint effects of non-stationary tides and mean sea level (MSL) at multiple time scales.

  19. Assessment of Microcirculatory Hemoglobin Levels in Normal and Diabetic Subjects using Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy in the Visible Region — a Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujatha, N.; Anand, B. S. Suresh; Nivetha, K. Bala; Narayanamurthy, V. B.; Seshadri, V.; Poddar, R.

    2015-07-01

    Light-based diagnostic techniques provide a minimally invasive way for selective biomarker estimation when tissues transform from a normal to a malignant state. Spectroscopic techniques based on diffuse reflectance characterize the changes in tissue hemoglobin/oxygenation levels during the tissue transformation process. Recent clinical investigations have shown that changes in tissue oxygenation and microcirculation are observed in diabetic subjects in the initial and progressive stages. In this pilot study, we discuss the potential of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) in the visible (Vis) range to differentiate the skin microcirculatory hemoglobin levels between normal and advanced diabetic subjects with and without neuropathy. Average concentration of hemoglobin as well as hemoglobin oxygen saturation within the probed tissue volume is estimated for a total of four different sites in the foot sole. The results indicate a statistically significant decrease in average total hemoglobin and increase in hemoglobin oxygen saturation levels for diabetic foot compared with a normal foot. The present study demonstrates the ability of reflectance spectroscopy in the Vis range to determine and differentiate the changes in tissue hemoglobin and hemoglobin oxygen saturation levels in normal and diabetic subjects.

  20. Implications of ammonia emissions for fine aerosol formation and visibility impairment. A case study from the Lower Fraser Valley, British Columbia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthelmie, R.J.; Pryor, S.C.

    1998-01-01

    of nitrogen and sulphur oxides over agricultural areas in the eastern and central valley with higher ammonia emissions favours subsequent ammonium nitrate and sulphate formation. This leads to higher fine mass concentrations and lowest visibility in the predominantly agricultural regions of the valley. (C...

  1. On characterizing terrain visibility graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Evans

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A terrain is an $x$-monotone polygonal line in the $xy$-plane. Two vertices of a terrain are mutually visible if and only if there is no terrain vertex on or above the open line segment connecting them. A graph whose vertices represent terrain vertices and whose edges represent mutually visible pairs of terrain vertices is called a terrain visibility graph. We would like to find properties that are both necessary and sufficient for a graph to be a terrain visibility graph; that is, we would like to characterize terrain visibility graphs.Abello et al. [Discrete and Computational Geometry, 14(3:331--358, 1995] showed that all terrain visibility graphs are “persistent”. They showed that the visibility information of a terrain point set implies some ordering requirements on the slopes of the lines connecting pairs of points in any realization, and as a step towards showing sufficiency, they proved that for any persistent graph $M$ there is a total order on the slopes of the (pseudo lines in a generalized configuration of points whose visibility graph is $M$.We give a much simpler proof of this result by establishing an orientation to every triple of vertices, reflecting some slope ordering requirements that are consistent with $M$ being the visibility graph, and prove that these requirements form a partial order. We give a faster algorithm to construct a total order on the slopes. Our approach attempts to clarify the implications of the graph theoretic properties on the ordering of the slopes, and may be interpreted as defining properties on an underlying oriented matroid that we show is a restricted type of $3$-signotope.

  2. Effects of wavelength, beam type and size on cerebral low-level laser therapy by a Monte Carlo study on visible Chinese human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-level laser therapy (LLLT has been clinically utilized for many indications in medicine requiring protection from cell/tissue death, stimulation of healing and repair of injuries, pain reduction, swelling and inflammation. Presently, the use of LLLT to treat stroke, traumatic brain injury and cognitive dysfunction are attracting growing interest. Near-infrared light is capable of penetrating into the cerebral cortex, allowing noninvasive treatments to be carried out with few treatment-related adverse events. Optimization of LLLT treatment effect is a crucial issue of this field; however, only a few experimental tests on mice for wavelength selection have been reported. We addressed this issue by low-cost, straightforward and quantitative comparisons on light dosage distribution within visible Chinese human head by Monte Carlo modeling of near-infrared light propagation. Optimized selection in wavelength, beam type and size were given based on comparisons among frequently used setups (i.e., wavelengths: 660, 810 and 980 nm; beam type: Gaussian and flat beam; beam diameter: 2, 4 and 6 cm. This study provided an efficient way for guiding the optimization of LLLT setup and selection on wavelength, beam type and size for clinical brain LLLT.

  3. GHRSST Level 2P Global Sea Surface Temperature from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi NPP satellite (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Visible and Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is a multi-disciplinary instrument that is being flown on the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) series of...

  4. Social media visibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie

    2018-01-01

    of activists remains under-researched. This article examines BP’s surveillance of activists who criticise the company’s corporate social responsibility (CSR) programme as ‘greenwashing’. In this way, it goes beyond corporations’ uses of big data and instead explores how they monitor and discuss strategies......As activists move from alternative media platforms to commercial social media platforms, they face increasing challenges in protecting their online security and privacy. While government surveillance of activists is well-documented in scholarly research and the media, corporate surveillance...... for responding to the activities of individual activists in social media. It shows that while social media afford an unprecedented level of visibility for activists, it comes with the risk of being monitored by corporations. Theoretically, it draws on conceptions of visibility in social sciences and media...

  5. mRNA levels of enzymes and receptors implicated in arachidonic acid metabolism in gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Armas, Rafael; Durand, Karine; Guillaudeau, Angélique; Weinbreck, Nicolas; Robert, Sandrine; Moreau, Jean-Jacques; Caire, François; Acosta, Gisela; Pebet, Matias; Chaunavel, Alain; Marin, Benoît; Labrousse, François; Denizot, Yves

    2010-07-01

    Gliomas are tumors of the central nervous system derived from glial cells. They show cellular heterogeneity and lack specific diagnostic markers. Although a possible role for the eicosanoid cascade has been suggested in glioma tumorigenesis, the relationship between enzymes and receptors implicated in arachidonic acid metabolism, with histological tumor type has not yet been determined. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed to measure and compare transcript levels of enzymes and receptors implicated in both lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase pathways between oligodendrogliomas, astrocytomas, glioblastomas and mixed oligoastrocytomas. Arachidonic acid metabolism-related enzymes and receptor transcripts (i) were underexpressed in classical oligodendrogliomas compared to astrocytomas and/or glioblastomas, (ii) differed between astrocytomas and glioblastomas and (iii) had an intermediate expression in mixed oligoastrocytomas. mRNA levels of enzymes and receptors implicated both in lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase pathways differed significantly in gliomas according to the histological type. Copyright 2010 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. An Estimate of the Pixel-Level Connection between Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite Day/Night Band (VIIRS DNB Nighttime Lights and Land Features across China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Ma

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Satellite-derived nighttime light images are increasingly used for various studies in relation to demographic, socioeconomic and urbanization dynamics because of the salient relationships between anthropogenic lighting signals at night and statistical variables at multiple scales. Owing to a higher spatial resolution and fewer over-glow and saturation effects, the new generation of nighttime light data derived from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS day/night band (DNB, which is located on board the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (Suomi-NPP satellite, is expected to facilitate the performance of nocturnal luminosity-based investigations of human activity in a spatially explicit manner. In spite of the importance of the spatial connection between the VIIRS DNB nighttime light radiance (NTL and the land surface type at a fine scale, the crucial role of NTL-based investigations of human settlements is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the pixel-level relationship between the VIIRS DNB-derived NTL, a Landsat-derived land-use/land-cover dataset, and the map of point of interest (POI density over China, especially with respect to the identification of artificial surfaces in urban land. Our estimates suggest that notable differences in the NTL between urban (man-made surfaces and other types of land surfaces likely allow us to spatially identify most of the urban pixels with relatively high radiance values in VIIRS DNB images. Our results also suggest that current nighttime light data have a limited capability for detecting rural residential areas and explaining pixel-level variations in the POI density at a large scale. Moreover, the impact of non-man-made surfaces on the partitioned results appears inevitable because of the spatial heterogeneity of human settlements and the nature of remotely sensed nighttime light data. Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve-based analysis, we obtained

  7. Sea-level rise caused by climate change and its implications for society

    Science.gov (United States)

    MIMURA, Nobuo

    2013-01-01

    Sea-level rise is a major effect of climate change. It has drawn international attention, because higher sea levels in the future would cause serious impacts in various parts of the world. There are questions associated with sea-level rise which science needs to answer. To what extent did climate change contribute to sea-level rise in the past? How much will global mean sea level increase in the future? How serious are the impacts of the anticipated sea-level rise likely to be, and can human society respond to them? This paper aims to answer these questions through a comprehensive review of the relevant literature. First, the present status of observed sea-level rise, analyses of its causes, and future projections are summarized. Then the impacts are examined along with other consequences of climate change, from both global and Japanese perspectives. Finally, responses to adverse impacts will be discussed in order to clarify the implications of the sea-level rise issue for human society. PMID:23883609

  8. Sea-level rise caused by climate change and its implications for society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, Nobuo

    2013-01-01

    Sea-level rise is a major effect of climate change. It has drawn international attention, because higher sea levels in the future would cause serious impacts in various parts of the world. There are questions associated with sea-level rise which science needs to answer. To what extent did climate change contribute to sea-level rise in the past? How much will global mean sea level increase in the future? How serious are the impacts of the anticipated sea-level rise likely to be, and can human society respond to them? This paper aims to answer these questions through a comprehensive review of the relevant literature. First, the present status of observed sea-level rise, analyses of its causes, and future projections are summarized. Then the impacts are examined along with other consequences of climate change, from both global and Japanese perspectives. Finally, responses to adverse impacts will be discussed in order to clarify the implications of the sea-level rise issue for human society.(Communicated by Kiyoshi HORIKAWA, M.J.A.).

  9. The transport implications of siting policies for the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, I.A.

    1986-01-01

    This report has been produced to be complementary to the previously issued report ''The Transport Implications of Regional Policies for The Disposal of Intermediate Level Radioactive Wastes''. The same combinations of disposal facilities have been used so that direct comparison with intermediate waste results can be made. Low level wastes and short-lived intermediate level wastes for near-surface disposal are assumed to share a common infrastructure on the rail system and hence a methodology of separating total costs between these two waste types has been derived. Two transport modes, road and rail have been analysed. Hybrid transport, a combination of road and rail systems, has not been examined since no site is considered to produce sufficient waste to justify a dedicated rail service. Sellafield, has not been included in this examination since it is assumed to be served by its own disposal site at Drigg. (author)

  10. Achieving population-level violence declines: implications of the international crime drop for prevention programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Manuel; Nivette, Amy; Murray, Aja Louise; Krisch, Maria

    2016-09-01

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) adopted by the United Nations for the period 2016-2030 aim to achieve a substantial reduction of interpersonal violence. An increasing body of evidence of what works, emerging from randomized controlled trials, can inform public health policy decisions. However, there is very limited evidence on the kinds of mechanisms that lead to sustained declines in interpersonal violence at the population level. We discuss the implications of what is known about recent major declines in violence to guide violence-reduction policies.

  11. Coupling of narrow and wide band-gap semiconductors on uniform films active in bacterial disinfection under low intensity visible light: implications of the interfacial charge transfer (IFCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rtimi, S; Sanjines, R; Pulgarin, C; Houas, A; Lavanchy, J-C; Kiwi, J

    2013-09-15

    This study reports the design, preparation, testing and surface characterization of uniform films deposited by sputtering Ag and Ta on non-heat resistant polyester to evaluate the Escherichia coli inactivation by TaON, TaN/Ag, Ag and TaON/Ag polyester. Co-sputtering for 120 s Ta and Ag in the presence of N₂ and O₂ led to the faster E. coli inactivation by a TaON/Ag sample within ∼40 min under visible light irradiation. The deconvolution of TaON/Ag peaks obtained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) allowed the assignment of the Ta₂O₅ and Ag-species. The shifts observed for the XPS peaks have been assigned to AgO to Ag₂O and Ag(0), and are a function of the applied sputtering times. The mechanism of interfacial charge transfer (IFCT) from the Ag₂O conduction band (cb) to the lower laying Ta₂O₅ (cb) is discussed suggesting a reaction mechanism. The optical absorption of the TaON and TaON/Ag samples found by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) correlated well with the kinetics of E. coli inactivation. The TaON/Ag sample microstructure was characterized by contact angle (CA) and by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Self-cleaning of the TaON/Ag polyester after each disinfection cycle enabled repetitive E. coli inactivation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Coupling of narrow and wide band-gap semiconductors on uniform films active in bacterial disinfection under low intensity visible light: Implications of the interfacial charge transfer (IFCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rtimi, S.; Sanjines, R.; Pulgarin, C.; Houas, A.; Lavanchy, J.-C.; Kiwi, J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Design, preparation, testing and characterization of uniform sputtered films. • Interfacial charge transfer from the Ag 2 O (cb) to the lower laying Ta 2 O 5 (cb). • The optical absorption of TaON and TaON/Ag was proportional to E. coli inactivation. • Self-cleaning of the TaON/Ag polyester enables repetitive E. coli inactivation. -- Abstract: This study reports the design, preparation, testing and surface characterization of uniform films deposited by sputtering Ag and Ta on non-heat resistant polyester to evaluate the Escherichia coli inactivation by TaON, TaN/Ag, Ag and TaON/Ag polyester. Co-sputtering for 120 s Ta and Ag in the presence of N 2 and O 2 led to the faster E. coli inactivation by a TaON/Ag sample within ∼40 min under visible light irradiation. The deconvolution of TaON/Ag peaks obtained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) allowed the assignment of the Ta 2 O 5 and Ag-species. The shifts observed for the XPS peaks have been assigned to AgO to Ag 2 O and Ag 0 , and are a function of the applied sputtering times. The mechanism of interfacial charge transfer (IFCT) from the Ag 2 O conduction band (cb) to the lower laying Ta 2 O 5 (cb) is discussed suggesting a reaction mechanism. The optical absorption of the TaON and TaON/Ag samples found by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) correlated well with the kinetics of E. coli inactivation. The TaON/Ag sample microstructure was characterized by contact angle (CA) and by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Self-cleaning of the TaON/Ag polyester after each disinfection cycle enabled repetitive E. coli inactivation

  13. Coupling of narrow and wide band-gap semiconductors on uniform films active in bacterial disinfection under low intensity visible light: Implications of the interfacial charge transfer (IFCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rtimi, S., E-mail: sami.rtimi@epfl.ch [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, EPFL-SB-ISIC-GPAO, Station 6, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); UR Catalyse/Matériaux pour l‘Environnement et les Procédés (URCMEP), Faculté des Sciences de Gabès, Université de Gabès, 6072 Gabès (Tunisia); Sanjines, R. [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, EPFL-SB-IPMC-LNNME, Bat PH, Station 3, CH1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Pulgarin, C., E-mail: cesar.pulgarin@epfl.ch [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, EPFL-SB-ISIC-GPAO, Station 6, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Houas, A. [UR Catalyse/Matériaux pour l‘Environnement et les Procédés (URCMEP), Faculté des Sciences de Gabès, Université de Gabès, 6072 Gabès (Tunisia); Lavanchy, J.-C. [Université de Lausanne, IMG, Centre d’Analyse Minérale, Bat Anthropole, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Kiwi, J. [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, EPFL-SB-ISIC-LPI, Bat Chimie, Station 6, CH1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Design, preparation, testing and characterization of uniform sputtered films. • Interfacial charge transfer from the Ag{sub 2}O (cb) to the lower laying Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} (cb). • The optical absorption of TaON and TaON/Ag was proportional to E. coli inactivation. • Self-cleaning of the TaON/Ag polyester enables repetitive E. coli inactivation. -- Abstract: This study reports the design, preparation, testing and surface characterization of uniform films deposited by sputtering Ag and Ta on non-heat resistant polyester to evaluate the Escherichia coli inactivation by TaON, TaN/Ag, Ag and TaON/Ag polyester. Co-sputtering for 120 s Ta and Ag in the presence of N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} led to the faster E. coli inactivation by a TaON/Ag sample within ∼40 min under visible light irradiation. The deconvolution of TaON/Ag peaks obtained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) allowed the assignment of the Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} and Ag-species. The shifts observed for the XPS peaks have been assigned to AgO to Ag{sub 2}O and Ag{sup 0}, and are a function of the applied sputtering times. The mechanism of interfacial charge transfer (IFCT) from the Ag{sub 2}O conduction band (cb) to the lower laying Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} (cb) is discussed suggesting a reaction mechanism. The optical absorption of the TaON and TaON/Ag samples found by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) correlated well with the kinetics of E. coli inactivation. The TaON/Ag sample microstructure was characterized by contact angle (CA) and by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Self-cleaning of the TaON/Ag polyester after each disinfection cycle enabled repetitive E. coli inactivation.

  14. Visibility and Haze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haze forms when sunlight encounters particle pollution. It reduces visibility in cities and scenic areas. This web area provides regulatory information and progress towards improving visibility through EPA’s regional haze program.

  15. Visible Human Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cryosections are associated with anatomical terminology. AnatLine : A prototype system consisting of an anatomical image database and ... further information is available Publications VHJOE: Visible Human Journal of Endoscopy. NLM's Current Bibliographies in Medicine, Visible ...

  16. Visibly Pushdown Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srba, Jiri

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of (bi)simulation-like preorder/equivalence checking on the class of visibly pushdown automata and its natural subclasses visibly BPA (Basic Process Algebra) and visibly one-counter automata. We describe generic methods for proving complexity upper and lower bounds...... for a number of studied preorders and equivalences like simulation, completed simulation, ready simulation, 2-nested simulation preorders/equivalences and bisimulation equivalence. Our main results are that all the mentioned equivalences and preorders are EXPTIME-complete on visibly pushdown automata, PSPACE......-complete on visibly one-counter automata and P-complete on visibly BPA. Our PSPACE lower bound for visibly one-counter automata improves also the previously known DP-hardness results for ordinary one-counter automata and one-counter nets. Finally, we study regularity checking problems for visibly pushdown automata...

  17. Effect of oxygen levels on the physiology of dendritic cells: implications for adoptive cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futalan, Diahnn; Huang, Chien-Tze; Schmidt-Wolf, Ingo G H; Larsson, Marie; Messmer, Davorka

    2011-01-01

    Dendritic cell (DC)-based adoptive tumor immunotherapy approaches have shown promising results, but the incidence of tumor regression is low and there is an evident call for identifying culture conditions that produce DCs with a more potent Th1 potential. Routinely, DCs are differentiated in CO(2) incubators under atmospheric oxygen conditions (21% O(2)), which differ from physiological oxygen levels of only 3-5% in tissue, where most DCs reside. We investigated whether differentiation and maturation of DCs under physiological oxygen levels could produce more potent T-cell stimulatory DCs for use in adoptive immunotherapy. We found that immature DCs differentiated under physiological oxygen levels showed a small but significant reduction in their endocytic capacity. The different oxygen levels did not influence their stimuli-induced upregulation of cluster of differentiation 54 (CD54), CD40, CD83, CD86, C-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CCR7), C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR or the secretion of interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-10 in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or a cytokine cocktail. However, DCs differentiated under physiological oxygen level secreted higher levels of IL-12(p70) after exposure to LPS or CD40 ligand. Immature DCs differentiated at physiological oxygen levels caused increased T-cell proliferation, but no differences were observed for mature DCs with regard to T-cell activation. In conclusion, we show that although DCs generated under atmospheric or physiological oxygen conditions are mostly similar in function and phenotype, DCs differentiated under physiological oxygen secrete larger amounts of IL-12(p70). This result could have implications for the use of ex vivo-generated DCs for clinical studies, since DCs differentiated at physiological oxygen could induce increased Th1 responses in vivo.

  18. Family environmental and dietary implications for low-level prenatal lead exposure in Wujiang City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jin; Gao, Zhenyan; Wang, Ju; Ma, Wenjuan; Ying, Xiaolan; Zhou, Cancan; Yan, Chonghuai

    2018-05-01

    To explore the potential environmental and dietary factors during pregnancy affecting low-level prenatal lead exposure, we conducted a longitudinal study in Wujiang City, China. A total of 1976 mother-infant pairs were included from 2009 to 2010. An interviewed questionnaire was conducted and cord blood samples were collected. The geometric means of cord blood lead level was 30.3 μg/L (95% CI, 29.8-30.8) with 99.24% below 100 μg/L. Maternal age, passive smoking, and living in the countryside were significantly associated with cord blood lead concentrations. Multiple logistic models showed that some family environmental factors including using firewood and electricity as kitchen fuel were positively correlated with increased cord blood lead levels. Among dietary sources recorded in this study, meat consumption (> 3 times/week), fish consumption (1-3 times/week), vegetables consumption (> 1 times/day), and fruit intake (> 1 times/day) had inverse relationship with cord blood lead levels. In general, our findings may have important implications for family environmental and dietary direction during pregnancy to decrease prenatal lead exposure.

  19. Facet personality and surface-level diversity as team mental model antecedents: implications for implicit coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, David M; Bell, Suzanne T; Dierdorff, Erich C; Belohlav, James A

    2012-07-01

    Team mental models (TMMs) have received much attention as important drivers of effective team processes and performance. Less is known about the factors that give rise to these shared cognitive structures. We examined potential antecedents of TMMs, with a specific focus on team composition variables, including various facets of personality and surface-level diversity. Further, we examined implicit coordination as an important outcome of TMMs. Results suggest that team composition in terms of the cooperation facet of agreeableness and racial diversity were significantly related to team-focused TMM similarity. TMM similarity was also positively predictive of implicit coordination, which mediated the relationship between TMM similarity and team performance. Post hoc analyses revealed a significant interaction between the trust facet of agreeableness and racial diversity in predicting TMM similarity. Results are discussed in terms of facilitating the emergence of TMMs and corresponding implications for team-related human resource practices. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Groundwater-level trends and implications for sustainable water use in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.; Taher, Mohammad R.

    2013-01-01

    The Kabul Basin, which includes the city of Kabul, Afghanistan, with a population of approximately 4 million, has several Afghan, United States, and international military installations that depend on groundwater resources for a potable water supply. This study examined groundwater levels in the Kabul Basin from 2004 to 2012. Groundwater levels have increased slightly in rural areas of the Kabul Basin as a result of normal precipitation after the drought of the early 2000s. However, groundwater levels have decreased in the city of Kabul due to increasing water use in an area with limited recharge. The rate of groundwater-level decrease in the city is greater for the 2008–2012 period (1.5 meters per year (m/yr) on average) than for the 2004–2008 period (0–0.7 m/yr on average). The analysis, which is corroborated by groundwater-flow modeling and a non-governmental organization decision-support model, identified groundwater-level decreases and associated implications for groundwater sustainability in the city of Kabul. Military installations in the city of Kabul (the Central Kabul subbasin) are likely to face water management challenges resulting from long-term groundwater sustainability concerns, such as the potential drying of shallow water-supply wells. Installations in the northern part of the Kabul Basin may have fewer issues with long-term water sustainability. Groundwater-level monitoring and groundwater-flow simulation can be valuable tools for assessing groundwater management options to improve the sustainability of water resources in the Kabul Basin.

  1. Climate uncertainty and implications for U.S. state-level risk assessment through 2050.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loose, Verne W.; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Stamber, Kevin Louis; Kelic, Andjelka; Backus, George A.; Warren, Drake E.; Zagonel, Aldo A.; Ehlen, Mark Andrew; Klise, Geoffrey T.; Vargas, Vanessa N.

    2009-10-01

    Decisions for climate policy will need to take place in advance of climate science resolving all relevant uncertainties. Further, if the concern of policy is to reduce risk, then the best-estimate of climate change impacts may not be so important as the currently understood uncertainty associated with realizable conditions having high consequence. This study focuses on one of the most uncertain aspects of future climate change - precipitation - to understand the implications of uncertainty on risk and the near-term justification for interventions to mitigate the course of climate change. We show that the mean risk of damage to the economy from climate change, at the national level, is on the order of one trillion dollars over the next 40 years, with employment impacts of nearly 7 million labor-years. At a 1% exceedance-probability, the impact is over twice the mean-risk value. Impacts at the level of individual U.S. states are then typically in the multiple tens of billions dollar range with employment losses exceeding hundreds of thousands of labor-years. We used results of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report 4 (AR4) climate-model ensemble as the referent for climate uncertainty over the next 40 years, mapped the simulated weather hydrologically to the county level for determining the physical consequence to economic activity at the state level, and then performed a detailed, seventy-industry, analysis of economic impact among the interacting lower-48 states. We determined industry GDP and employment impacts at the state level, as well as interstate population migration, effect on personal income, and the consequences for the U.S. trade balance.

  2. Saltmarsh boundary modulates dispersal of mangrove propagules: implications for mangrove migration with sea-level rise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Peterson

    Full Text Available Few studies have empirically examined the suite of mechanisms that underlie the distributional shifts displayed by organisms in response to changing climatic condition. Mangrove forests are expected to move inland as sea-level rises, encroaching on saltmarsh plants inhabiting higher elevations. Mangrove propagules are transported by tidal waters and propagule dispersal is likely modified upon encountering the mangrove-saltmarsh ecotone, the implications of which are poorly known. Here, using an experimental approach, we record landward and seaward dispersal and subsequent establishment of mangrove propagules that encounter biotic boundaries composed of two types of saltmarsh taxa: succulents and grasses. Our findings revealed that propagules emplaced within saltmarsh vegetation immediately landward of the extant mangrove fringe boundary frequently dispersed in the seaward direction. However, propagules moved seaward less frequently and over shorter distances upon encountering boundaries composed of saltmarsh grasses versus succulents. We uniquely confirmed that the small subset of propagules dispersing landward displayed proportionately higher establishment success than those transported seaward. Although impacts of ecotones on plant dispersal have rarely been investigated in situ, our experimental results indicate that the interplay between tidal transport and physical attributes of saltmarsh vegetation influence boundary permeability to propagules, thereby directing the initial phase of shifting mangrove distributions. The incorporation of tidal inundation information and detailed data on landscape features, such as the structure of saltmarsh vegetation at mangrove boundaries, should improve the accuracy of models that are being developed to forecast mangrove distributional shifts in response to sea-level rise.

  3. Saltmarsh boundary modulates dispersal of mangrove propagules: implications for mangrove migration with sea-level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jennifer M; Bell, Susan S

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have empirically examined the suite of mechanisms that underlie the distributional shifts displayed by organisms in response to changing climatic condition. Mangrove forests are expected to move inland as sea-level rises, encroaching on saltmarsh plants inhabiting higher elevations. Mangrove propagules are transported by tidal waters and propagule dispersal is likely modified upon encountering the mangrove-saltmarsh ecotone, the implications of which are poorly known. Here, using an experimental approach, we record landward and seaward dispersal and subsequent establishment of mangrove propagules that encounter biotic boundaries composed of two types of saltmarsh taxa: succulents and grasses. Our findings revealed that propagules emplaced within saltmarsh vegetation immediately landward of the extant mangrove fringe boundary frequently dispersed in the seaward direction. However, propagules moved seaward less frequently and over shorter distances upon encountering boundaries composed of saltmarsh grasses versus succulents. We uniquely confirmed that the small subset of propagules dispersing landward displayed proportionately higher establishment success than those transported seaward. Although impacts of ecotones on plant dispersal have rarely been investigated in situ, our experimental results indicate that the interplay between tidal transport and physical attributes of saltmarsh vegetation influence boundary permeability to propagules, thereby directing the initial phase of shifting mangrove distributions. The incorporation of tidal inundation information and detailed data on landscape features, such as the structure of saltmarsh vegetation at mangrove boundaries, should improve the accuracy of models that are being developed to forecast mangrove distributional shifts in response to sea-level rise.

  4. The clinical implications of hydronephrosis and the level of ureteral obstruction in stage IIIB cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, K.S. Clifford; Leung, W.-M.; Grigsby, Perry W.; Mutch, David G.; Herzog, Thomas; Perez, Carlos A.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: There are two criteria for the diagnosis of Stage IIIB cervical cancer in the FIGO staging system: tumor fixation to the pelvic side wall and/or the presence of hydronephrosis due to tumor. However, we often encounter hydronephrosis without tumor fixed to the pelvic side wall or the level of ureteral obstruction not corresponding to the main tumor mass in the pelvis. The clinical implication of these phenomena remains unclear. We investigated the Stage IIIB population treated at the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology and hypothesized that, if hydronephrosis presents without tumor fixation to the pelvic side wall or if the level of ureteral obstruction is above the main pelvic tumor mass, it most likely resulted from external compression of ureter(s) by enlarged lymph nodes and, consequently, a worse outcome is expected. Methods and Materials: From 1959 to 1989, there were 297 patients with Stage IIIB cervical cancer who received definitive radiation therapy at the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology and were assessable for the presence of hydronephrosis and the level of ureteral obstruction. There were 281 patients who presented with tumor fixed to the pelvic side wall, and 62 of them were associated with concurrent hydronephrosis. An additional 16 patients presented with hydronephrosis without tumor fixation to the pelvic side wall. Among these 78 documented cases of hydronephrosis, the level of ureteral obstruction was above the true pelvis in 39 patients, and below the true pelvis in the other 39. Radiation therapy was individualized according to tumor extension and configuration; para-aortic lymph nodes were not routinely treated except in patients with clinical evidence of nodal metastasis. Results: The progression-free survival (PFS) at 5 years was 35% in 62 patients with hydronephrosis and tumor fixed to the pelvic side wall vs. 43% in 213 patients with tumor fixed to the pelvic side wall only (p 0.12). However, PFS at 5 years decreased to 23% in

  5. Visibility and Citation Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahim, Nader Ale; Salehi, Hadi; Embi, Mohamed Amin; Tanha, Farid Habibi; Gholizadeh, Hossein; Motahar, Seyed Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The number of publications is the first criteria for assessing a researcher output. However, the main measurement for author productivity is the number of citations, and citations are typically related to the paper's visibility. In this paper, the relationship between article visibility and the number of citations is investigated. A case study of…

  6. Viewer Makes Radioactivity "Visible"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, L. I.

    1983-01-01

    Battery operated viewer demonstrates feasibility of generating threedimensional visible light simulations of objects that emit X-ray or gamma rays. Ray paths are traced for two pinhold positions to show location of reconstructed image. Images formed by pinholes are converted to intensified visible-light images. Applications range from radioactivity contamination surveys to monitoring radioisotope absorption in tumors.

  7. Shock, stress or signal? Implications of freshwater flows for a top-level estuarine predator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Taylor

    Full Text Available Physicochemical variability in estuarine systems plays an important role in estuarine processes and in the lifecycles of estuarine organisms. In particular, seasonality of freshwater inflow to estuaries may be important in various aspects of fish lifecycles. This study aimed to further understand these relationships by studying the movements of a top-level estuarine predator in response to physicochemical variability in a large, temperate south-east Australian estuary (Shoalhaven River. Mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus, 47-89 cm total length were surgically implanted with acoustic transmitters, and their movements and migrations monitored over two years via fixed-position VR2W acoustic receivers configured in a linear array along the length of the estuary. The study period included a high degree of abiotic variability, with multiple pulses (exponentially high flows over a short period of time in fresh water to the estuary, as well as broader seasonal variation in flow, temperature and conductivity. The relative deviation of fish from their modal location in the estuary was affected primarily by changes in conductivity, and smaller fish (n = 4 tended to deviate much further downstream from their modal position in the estuary than larger fish (n = 8. High-flow events which coincided with warmer temperatures tended to drive mature fish down the estuary and potentially provided a spawning signal to stimulate aggregation of adults near the estuary mouth; however, this relationship requires further investigation. These findings indicate that pulse and press effects of freshwater inflow and associated physicochemical variability play a role in the movements of mulloway, and that seasonality of large freshwater flows may be important in spawning. The possible implications of river regulation and the extraction of freshwater for consumptive uses on estuarine fishes are discussed.

  8. Visible spectroscopy on ASDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, J.V.

    1991-12-01

    In this report visible spectroscopy and impurity investigations on ASDEX are reviewed and several sets of visible spectra are presented. As a basis for identification of metallic impurity lines during plasma discharges spectra from a stainless steel - Cu arc have been recorded. In a next step a spectrum overview of ASDEX discharges is shown which reveals the dominating role of lines from light impurities like carbon and oxygen throughout the UV and visible range (2000 A ≤ λ ≤ 8000 A). Metallic impurity lines of neutrals or single ionized atoms are observed near localized surfaces. The dramatic effect of impurity reduction by boronization of the vessel walls is demonstrated in a few examples. In extension to some ivesti-gations already published, further diagnostic applications of visible spectroscopy are presented. Finally, the hardware and software system used on ASDEX are described in detail. (orig.)

  9. Grading A-Level Double Subject Mathematicians and the Implications for Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbould, Charles A.

    1981-01-01

    Test data were used to compare the grading of two forms of double mathematics: pure and applied math, and regular and advanced math. Results confirm expectations that in the former system, the grading is comparable, and in the latter, it is not necessarily comparable. Implications for student admission are discussed. (MSE)

  10. Beyond Interdisciplinary Teaming: Findings and Implications of the NASSP National Middle Level Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackmann, Donald G.; Petzko, Vicki N.; Valentine, Jerry W.; Clark, Donald C.; Nori, John R.; Lucas, Stephen E.

    2002-01-01

    Reports trends and implications of interdisciplinary teaming practices in middle schools, based on findings from a national survey. Noting that nearly 80 percent of schools currently implement teaming, challenges principals and teachers to move beyond simple formation of teams to the creation of an infrastructure that supports high-performing…

  11. Predicting visibility of aircraft.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Watson

    Full Text Available Visual detection of aircraft by human observers is an important element of aviation safety. To assess and ensure safety, it would be useful to be able to be able to predict the visibility, to a human observer, of an aircraft of specified size, shape, distance, and coloration. Examples include assuring safe separation among aircraft and between aircraft and unmanned vehicles, design of airport control towers, and efforts to enhance or suppress the visibility of military and rescue vehicles. We have recently developed a simple metric of pattern visibility, the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO. In this report we examine whether the SSO can predict visibility of simulated aircraft images. We constructed a set of aircraft images from three-dimensional computer graphic models, and measured the luminance contrast threshold for each image from three human observers. The data were well predicted by the SSO. Finally, we show how to use the SSO to predict visibility range for aircraft of arbitrary size, shape, distance, and coloration.

  12. Measuring visibility using smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Jan; Bialon, Raphael; Claßen, Christoph; Graffi, Kalman

    2017-04-01

    Spatial information on fog density is an important parameter for ecohydrological studies in cloud forests. The Dhofar cloud forest in Southern Oman exhibits a close interaction between the fog, trees, and rainfall. During the three month monsoon season the trees capture substantial amounts of horizontal precipitation from fog which increases net precipitation below the tree canopy. As fog density measurements are scarce, a smartphone app was designed to measure visibility. Different smartphone units use a variety of different parts. It is therefore important to assess the developed visibility measurement across a suite of different smartphones. In this study we tested five smartphones/ tablets (Google/ LG Nexus 5X, Huawei P8 lite, Huawei Y3, HTC Nexus 9, and Samsung Galaxy S4 mini) against digital camera (Sony DLSR-A900) and visual visibility observations. Visibility was assessed from photos using image entropy, from the number of visible targets, and from WiFi signal strength using RSSI. Results show clear relationships between object distance and fog density, yet a considerable spread across the different smartphone/ tablet units is evident.

  13. UVISS preliminary visibility analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part of the w......The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part...... of the work is also to setup the kernel of a software tool for the visibility analysis thatshould be easily expandable to consider more complex strucures for future activities.This analysis is part of the UVISS assessment study and it is meant to provide elementsfor the definition and the selection...

  14. Making Invisible Forces Visible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene Gad

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates managerial tactics of visualisation when a need to know and manage employees' values and attitudes is expressed. Using the Danish public school as a case study, we explore how school managers use teachers' emotions to render visible presumably invisible information about...... their 'true' attitudes and values. The paper draws on theories of affect as well as actor-network theory to analyse three incidents where managers turn their interpretations of teachers' emotions into such information. These incidents suggest that the efforts to render employees' attitudes and values visible...

  15. Making Invisible Histories Visible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Ana Maria

    2012-01-01

    This article features Omaha Public Schools' "Making Invisible Histories Visible" program, or MIHV. Omaha's schools have a low failure rate among 8th graders but a high one among high school freshmen. MIHV was created to help at-risk students "adjust to the increased demands of high school." By working alongside teachers and…

  16. Visible Solid State Lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hikmet, R.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Diode lasers can be found in various applications most notably in optical communication and optical storage. Visible lasers were until recently were all based on IR diode lasers. Using GaN, directly blue and violet emitting lasers have also been introduced to the market mainly in the area of optical

  17. Plasma oxalate levels in prevalent hemodialysis patients and potential implications for ascorbic acid supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuguan; Weisberg, Lawrence S; Langman, Craig B; Logan, Amanda; Hunter, Krystal; Prasad, Deepali; Avila, Jose; Venkatchalam, Thaliga; Berns, Jeffrey S; Handelman, Garry J; Sirover, William D

    2016-10-01

    Ascorbic acid (AA) supplementation may increase hemoglobin levels and decrease erythropoiesis-stimulating agent dose requirement in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD). While plasma AA levels >100μM may be supratherapeutic, levels of at least 30μM may be needed to improve wound healing and levels may need to reach 70μM to optimize erythropoiesis. Of concern, oxalate (Ox), an AA metabolite, can accumulate in ESRD. Historically, if plasma Ox levels remain ≥30μM, oxalosis was of concern. Contemporary hemodialysis (HD) efficiencies may decrease the risk of oxalosis by maintaining pre-HD Ox levels HD patients. A prospective, observational study of 197 HD patients with pre-HD AA levels and pre-HD and post-HD Ox levels. Mean plasma Ox levels decreased 71% during the intradialytic period (22.3±11.1μM to 6.4±3.2μM, PHD plasma AA levels ≤100μM were not associated with a pre-HD plasma Ox level≥30μM, even if ferritin levels were increased. Pre-HD plasma Ox levels ≥20 or ≥30μM were not associated with lower cumulative 4-year survival. Pre-HD plasma AA levels up to 100μM in HD patients do not appear to be associated with an increased risk of developing secondary oxalosis, as the corresponding pre-HD plasma Ox level appears to be maintained at tolerable levels. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Making Heat Visible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodhew, Julie; Pahl, Sabine; Auburn, Tim; Goodhew, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Householders play a role in energy conservation through the decisions they make about purchases and installations such as insulation, and through their habitual behavior. The present U.K. study investigated the effect of thermal imaging technology on energy conservation, by measuring the behavioral effect after householders viewed images of heat escaping from or cold air entering their homes. In Study 1 (n = 43), householders who received a thermal image reduced their energy use at a 1-year follow-up, whereas householders who received a carbon footprint audit and a non-intervention control demonstrated no change. In Study 2 (n = 87), householders were nearly 5 times more likely to install draught proofing measures after seeing a thermal image. The effect was especially pronounced for actions that addressed an issue visible in the images. Findings indicate that using thermal imaging to make heat loss visible can promote energy conservation. PMID:26635418

  19. Paradoxes of Visibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarnay László

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates two possible critical arguments following the pictorial turn. The first is formulated within ocularcentrism, the dominance of sight, and starts with the right to visibility as a general principle that governs today’s digital culture but gets twisted in special cases like the Auschwitz photos of the Shoa, the Abu Ghraib prison videos, or recently the website called Yolocaust. The second is conceived outside the visual culture and is meant to vindicate the other senses vis-à-vis the eyes. However, the argument is truncated here only to highlight the boomerang effect of the other senses: haptic vision. It is the case of visual perception when (a there is a lack of things to see and (b indeterminate synaesthesia: when vision intensifies the other senses in the embodied viewer. The two arguments converge upon a dialectic of the visible and the imaginable, which is formulated here as two paradoxes that the discussed examples transcend. By enforcing visibility at all costs where there is hardly anything recognizable to see, they lead to two diverging results. On the one hand, the meaning of “image” is extended toward the unimaginable, the traumatic experience, on the other hand, it is extended toward the invisible, the encounter with the radical Other.

  20. The benefits of visibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupnick, A.; DeWitt, D.

    1994-01-01

    The benefits of visibility improvement (or the damages with additional degradation) refer to increases (or decreases) in utility obtained in three different dimensions. The first of these is associated with the nature of the visibility change. Visual range may be improved so that features of an area become more distinct or the sky becomes clearer. Alternatively, normal features of an area may be marred, say by the site of a power plant or its plume (called plume blight). The second dimension is the location of the change: in an urban area, in a rural setting, or in a recreational area or area of particular beauty, such as the Grand Canyon. The third dimension is the type of value: use or non-use. Thus, a person who visits the Grand Canyon (or may visit it in the future) may hold use values for improving his view of the Canyon or its surroundings and may also old non-use values for improved visibility (whether for altruistic or other reasons) irrespective of present or planned visits. In all, therefore, there are 12 possible combinations of the elements in these three dimension, each of which is logically distinct from the others and which demands attention in the literature to derive willingness to pay (WTP)

  1. The benefits of visibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupnick, A; DeWitt, D

    1994-07-01

    The benefits of visibility improvement (or the damages with additional degradation) refer to increases (or decreases) in utility obtained in three different dimensions. The first of these is associated with the nature of the visibility change. Visual range may be improved so that features of an area become more distinct or the sky becomes clearer. Alternatively, normal features of an area may be marred, say by the site of a power plant or its plume (called plume blight). The second dimension is the location of the change: in an urban area, in a rural setting, or in a recreational area or area of particular beauty, such as the Grand Canyon. The third dimension is the type of value: use or non-use. Thus, a person who visits the Grand Canyon (or may visit it in the future) may hold use values for improving his view of the Canyon or its surroundings and may also old non-use values for improved visibility (whether for altruistic or other reasons) irrespective of present or planned visits. In all, therefore, there are 12 possible combinations of the elements in these three dimension, each of which is logically distinct from the others and which demands attention in the literature to derive willingness to pay (WTP)

  2. Leader Narcissism and Outcomes in Organizations: A Review at Multiple Levels of Analysis and Implications for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Narcissists often pursue leadership and are selected for leadership positions by others. At the same time, they act in their own best interest, putting the needs and interests of others at risk. While theoretical arguments clearly link narcissism and leadership, the question whether leader narcissism is good or bad for organizations and their members remains unanswered. Narcissism seems to have two sides, a bright and a dark one. This systematic literature review seeks to contribute to the ongoing academic discussion about the positive or negative impact of leader narcissism in organizations. Forty-five original research articles were categorized according to outcomes at three levels of analysis: the dyadic level (focusing on leader-follower relationships), the team level (focusing on work teams and small groups), and the organizational level. On this basis, we first summarized the current state of knowledge about the impact that leader narcissism has on outcomes at different levels of analysis. Next, we revealed similarities and contradictions between research findings within and across levels of analysis, highlighting persistent inconsistencies concerning the question whether leader narcissism has positive or negative consequences. Finally, we outlined theoretical and methodological implications for future studies of leader narcissism. This multi-level perspective ascertains a new, systematic view of leader narcissism and its consequences for organizations and their stakeholders. The article demonstrates the need for future research in the field of leader narcissism and opens up new avenues for inquiry. PMID:28579967

  3. Leader Narcissism and Outcomes in Organizations: A Review at Multiple Levels of Analysis and Implications for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Braun

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Narcissists often pursue leadership and are selected for leadership positions by others. At the same time, they act in their own best interest, putting the needs and interests of others at risk. While theoretical arguments clearly link narcissism and leadership, the question whether leader narcissism is good or bad for organizations and their members remains unanswered. Narcissism seems to have two sides, a bright and a dark one. This systematic literature review seeks to contribute to the ongoing academic discussion about the positive or negative impact of leader narcissism in organizations. Forty-five original research articles were categorized according to outcomes at three levels of analysis: the dyadic level (focusing on leader-follower relationships, the team level (focusing on work teams and small groups, and the organizational level. On this basis, we first summarized the current state of knowledge about the impact that leader narcissism has on outcomes at different levels of analysis. Next, we revealed similarities and contradictions between research findings within and across levels of analysis, highlighting persistent inconsistencies concerning the question whether leader narcissism has positive or negative consequences. Finally, we outlined theoretical and methodological implications for future studies of leader narcissism. This multi-level perspective ascertains a new, systematic view of leader narcissism and its consequences for organizations and their stakeholders. The article demonstrates the need for future research in the field of leader narcissism and opens up new avenues for inquiry.

  4. Leader Narcissism and Outcomes in Organizations: A Review at Multiple Levels of Analysis and Implications for Future Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Narcissists often pursue leadership and are selected for leadership positions by others. At the same time, they act in their own best interest, putting the needs and interests of others at risk. While theoretical arguments clearly link narcissism and leadership, the question whether leader narcissism is good or bad for organizations and their members remains unanswered. Narcissism seems to have two sides, a bright and a dark one. This systematic literature review seeks to contribute to the ongoing academic discussion about the positive or negative impact of leader narcissism in organizations. Forty-five original research articles were categorized according to outcomes at three levels of analysis: the dyadic level (focusing on leader-follower relationships), the team level (focusing on work teams and small groups), and the organizational level. On this basis, we first summarized the current state of knowledge about the impact that leader narcissism has on outcomes at different levels of analysis. Next, we revealed similarities and contradictions between research findings within and across levels of analysis, highlighting persistent inconsistencies concerning the question whether leader narcissism has positive or negative consequences. Finally, we outlined theoretical and methodological implications for future studies of leader narcissism. This multi-level perspective ascertains a new, systematic view of leader narcissism and its consequences for organizations and their stakeholders. The article demonstrates the need for future research in the field of leader narcissism and opens up new avenues for inquiry.

  5. Interspecific variation in egg testosterone levels: implications for the evolution of bird song.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garamszegi, L Z; Biard, C; Eens, M; Møller, A P; Saino, N

    2007-05-01

    Although interspecific variation in maternal effects via testosterone levels can be mediated by natural selection, little is known about the evolutionary consequences of egg testosterone for sexual selection. However, two nonexclusive evolutionary hypotheses predict an interspecific relationship between egg testosterone levels and the elaboration of sexual traits. First, maternal investment may be particularly enhanced in sexually selected species, which should generate a positive relationship. Secondly, high prenatal testosterone levels may constrain the development of sexual characters, which should result in a negative relationship. Here we investigated these hypotheses by exploring the relationship between yolk testosterone levels and features of song in a phylogenetic study of 36 passerine species. We found that song duration and syllable repertoire size were significantly negatively related to testosterone levels in the egg, even if potentially confounding factors were held constant. These relationships imply that high testosterone levels during early development of songs may be detrimental, thus supporting the developmental constraints hypothesis. By contrast, we found significant evidence that song-post exposure relative to the height of the vegetation is positively related to egg testosterone levels. These results support the hypothesis that high levels of maternal testosterone have evolved in species with intense sexual selection acting on the location of song-posts. We found nonsignificant effects for intersong interval and song type repertoire size, which may suggest that none of the above hypothesis apply to these traits, or they act simultaneously and have opposing effects.

  6. Stimulus Type, Level of Categorization, and Spatial-Frequencies Utilization: Implications for Perceptual Categorization Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Assaf; Bentin, Shlomo

    2009-01-01

    The type of visual information needed for categorizing faces and nonface objects was investigated by manipulating spatial frequency scales available in the image during a category verification task addressing basic and subordinate levels. Spatial filtering had opposite effects on faces and airplanes that were modulated by categorization level. The…

  7. Job crafting at the team and individual level: Implications for work engagement and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tims, M.; Bakker, A.B.; Derks, D.; Rhenen, van W.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research suggests that employee job crafting is positively related to job performance through employee work engagement. The present study expands this individual-level perspective to the team level by hypothesizing that team job crafting relates positively to team performance through team

  8. High Level Manpower and Technological Change in the Steel Industry: Implications for Corporate Manpower Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiestand, Dale L.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role that high level manpower plays in the establishment of new technologies at the plant and industry level. The steel industry was selected as an appropriate industry to approach these questions due to: its considerable technological changes; its straightforward, easier-to-understand technology; its…

  9. Interpretation of changes in water level accompanying fault creep and implications for earthquake prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    Quantitative calculations for the effect of a fault creep event on observations of changes in water level in wells provide an approach to the tectonic interpretation of these phenomena. For the pore pressure field associated with an idealized creep event having an exponential displacement versus time curve, an analytic expression has been obtained in terms of exponential-integral functions. The pore pressure versus time curves for observation points near the fault are pulselike; a sharp pressure increase (or decrease, depending on the direction of propagation) is followed by more gradual decay to the normal level after the creep event. The time function of the water level change may be obtained by applying the filter - derived by A.G.Johnson and others to determine the influence of atmospheric pressure on water level - to the analytic pore pressure versus time curves. The resulting water level curves show a fairly rapid increase (or decrease) and then a very gradual return to normal. The results of this analytic model do not reproduce the steplike changes in water level observed by Johnson and others. If the procedure used to obtain the water level from the pore pressure is correct, these results suggest that steplike changes in water level are not produced by smoothly propagating creep events but by creep events that propagate discontinuously, by changes in the bulk properties of the region around the well, or by some other mechanism.-Author

  10. Implications in estimation of indoor thoron levels: season and ventilation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, R.P.; Amit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of radon and thoron in dwellings and workplaces are most important for general public health point. Due to short half life of thoron, sometimes its contribution to radiation doses is assumed to be negligible, but their role is important for areas containing higher thorium content in soil and building materials. The thoron levels in dwellings were determined by various SSNTD detector using different cup geometry and dimensions along with bare mode in past at National and International level. These exercises were carried out in dwellings constructed with different building materials, different ventilation rates and seasons. Most of the times the results of radon and thoron levels were found same in spite of having different diffusion length in air due to different half life. This causes increase in uncertainty in measurement of thoron levels in different season and ventilation. Thus the problem of relative variation of thoron levels in different season and ventilation still exist in radiation field. In this work the measurement of indoor thoron levels from some selected dwelling having different ventilation and in different seasons using Pin hole based radon thoron dosimeters are reported. The results show that indoor thoron value is slightly lower in case of dwellings with poor ventilation, which is contrary to the results published in literature. An effort was made to explain the variation of thoron level under different season and ventilation. Some protocol suggestions are also given at the end of this work for future reference to carry out the measurement and mapping of indoor thoron. (author)

  11. Social networks usage implications at the level of medical services consumption in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Adrian Gardan

    2017-03-01

    The research results reveal key issues from the perspective of emotional involvement within consumption for the patients and the influence of key variables such as level of education, personality and lifestyle within social networks usage context.

  12. Higher Levels of Psychopathy Predict Poorer Motor Control: Implications for Understanding the Psychopathy Construct

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Michael D.; Bresin, Konrad

    2014-01-01

    A review of the literature suggests that higher levels of psychopathy may be linked to less effective behavioral control. However, several commentators have urged caution in making statements of this type in the absence of direct evidence. In two studies (total N = 142), moment-to-moment accuracy in a motor control task was examined as a function of dimensional variations in psychopathy in an undergraduate population. As hypothesized, motor control was distinctively worse at higher levels of ...

  13. Soluble thrombomodulin levels in plasma of multiple sclerosis patients and their implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festoff, Barry W; Li, Chaoyang; Woodhams, Barry; Lynch, Sharon

    2012-12-15

    Thrombomodulin (TM) on the cell-surface of cerebrovascular endothelial cells (CECs) is released into blood upon CEC damage. TM promotes activation of protein C (APC), an anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective molecule that protects CECs and impedes inflammatory cell migration across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with CEC damage and BBB dysfunction. We evaluated soluble TM (sTM) levels as a biomarker of BBB integrity and whether glatiramer acetate (GA) influenced sTM levels in MS patients. sTM levels quantified by 2-site ELISA from sera of healthy controls and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients (CEC-damage positive control) were compared with levels from patients with relapsing-remitting (RRMS) or secondary-progressive MS (SPMS), stratified as: RRMS/GA/no relapse, RRMS/GA/in relapse, RRMS no GA/no relapse, RRMS/no GA/in relapse; and SPMS/no GA. Additionally, soluble endothelial protein C receptor (sEPCR) levels were assessed in the non-stratified MS group, SLE patients, and controls. sTM levels were highest in RRMS patients taking GA with or without relapse, followed in decreasing order by SLE, RRMS/no GA/in relapse, SPMS, RRMS/no GA/no relapse, healthy controls. sEPCR levels were highest in MS patients, then SLE, then controls. sTM may be a useful biomarker of BBB integrity in RRMS patients. Further evaluation of sEPCR is needed. The finding that the highest sTM levels were in RRMS patients taking GA is interesting and warrants further investigation. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Assessing the level of elder abuse knowledge preprofessionals possess: implications for the further development of university curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policastro, Christina; Payne, Brian K

    2014-01-01

    Elder abuse is a multifaceted problemthat requires interdisciplinary prevention and intervention strategies. An important question that arises is whether professionals are adequately prepared to address elder abuse in this collaborative network. Unfortunately, no studies have been conducted to assess the varying levels of knowledge that preprofessionals enrolled in university courses possess with regard to elder abuse. To fill this void, this study assesses the levels of elder abuse awareness among social work, nursing, health professions, and criminal justice students. Specific attention is given to determining whether there are differences in the amount of exposure to elder abuse literature across the disciplines. The study involves the analysis of survey data collected from 202 students enrolled in health and human sciences classes at a large university. Results show that none of the preprofessional groups, on average, reported knowing enough about elder abuse. Implications for future practice and research are provided.

  15. The Red Sea during the Last Glacial Maximum: implications for sea level reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildor, H.; Biton, E.; Peltier, W. R.

    2006-12-01

    The Red Sea (RS) is a semi-enclosed basin connected to the Indian Ocean via a narrow and shallow strait, and surrounded by arid areas which exhibits high sensitivity to atmospheric changes and sea level reduction. We have used the MIT GCM to investigate the changes in the hydrography and circulation in the RS in response to reduced sea level, variability in the Indian monsoons, and changes in atmospheric temperature and humidity that occurred during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The model results show high sensitivity to sea level reduction especially in the salinity field (increasing with the reduction in sea level) together with a mild atmospheric impact. Sea level reduction decreases the stratification, increases subsurface temperatures, and alters the circulation pattern at the Strait of Bab el Mandab, which experiences a transition from submaximal flow to maximal flow. The reduction in sea level at LGM alters the location of deep water formation which shifts to an open sea convective site in the northern part of the RS compared to present day situation in which deep water is formed from the Gulf of Suez outflow. Our main result based on both the GCM and on a simple hydraulic control model which takes into account mixing process at the Strait of Bab El Mandeb, is that sea level was reduced by only ~100 m in the Bab El Mandeb region during the LGM, i.e. the water depth at the Hanish sill (the shallowest part in the Strait Bab el Mandab) was around 34 m. This result agrees with the recent reconstruction of the LGM low stand of the sea in this region based upon the ICE-5G (VM2) model of Peltier (2004).

  16. Implications of Glutathione Levels in the Plasmodium berghei Response to Chloroquine and Artemisinin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Vega-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Malaria is one of the most devastating parasitic diseases worldwide. Plasmodium drug resistance remains a major challenge to malaria control and has led to the re-emergence of the disease. Chloroquine (CQ and artemisinin (ART are thought to exert their anti-malarial activity inducing cytotoxicity in the parasite by blocking heme degradation (for CQ and increasing oxidative stress. Besides the contribution of the CQ resistance transporter (PfCRT and the multidrug resistant gene (pfmdr, CQ resistance has also been associated with increased parasite glutathione (GSH levels. ART resistance was recently shown to be associated with mutations in the K13-propeller protein. To analyze the role of GSH levels in CQ and ART resistance, we generated transgenic Plasmodium berghei parasites either deficient in or overexpressing the gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase gene (pbggcs encoding the rate-limiting enzyme in GSH biosynthesis. These lines produce either lower (pbggcs-ko or higher (pbggcs-oe levels of GSH than wild type parasites. In addition, GSH levels were determined in P. berghei parasites resistant to CQ and mefloquine (MQ. Increased GSH levels were detected in both, CQ and MQ resistant parasites, when compared to the parental sensitive clone. Sensitivity to CQ and ART remained unaltered in both pgggcs-ko and pbggcs-oe parasites when tested in a 4 days drug suppressive assay. However, recrudescence assays after the parasites have been exposed to a sub-lethal dose of ART showed that parasites with low levels of GSH are more sensitive to ART treatment. These results suggest that GSH levels influence Plasmodium berghei response to ART treatment.

  17. A new method to estimate global mass transport and its implication for sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, S.; Heki, K.

    2017-12-01

    Estimates of changes in global land mass by using GRACE observations can be achieved by two methods, a mascon method and a forward modeling method. However, results from these two methods show inconsistent secular trend. Sea level budget can be adopted to validate the consistency among observations of sea level rise by altimetry, steric change by the Argo project, and mass change by GRACE. Mascon products from JPL, GSFC and CSR are compared here, we find that all these three products cannot achieve a reconciled sea level budget, while this problem can be solved by a new forward modeling method. We further investigate the origin of this difference, and speculate that it is caused by the signal leakage from the ocean mass. Generally, it is well recognized that land signals leak into oceans, but it also happens the other way around. We stress the importance of correction of leakage from the ocean in the estimation of global land masses. Based on a reconciled sea level budget, we confirmed that global sea level rise has been accelerating significantly over 2005-2015, as a result of the ongoing global temperature increase.

  18. Framing the national nuclear legacy at the local level: Implications for the future of federal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrone, Michele; Basta, Tania B.; Somerville, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    There are several major federal nuclear facilities located in small towns and rural areas of the United States. While many of these facilities were developed in the 1950s to support national defense, in the 1960s and 1970s, some of these shifted their mission to focus on national energy infrastructure. Now, many of these facilities are in a clean-up phase, and local communities are becoming increasingly engaged in influencing decisions about the future of the sites. Communicating with the public in rural communities is challenging when it involves a complicated environmental issue that could have widespread economic impacts. The local media reflect public understanding, so getting a sense of how these media frame issues can be a crucial first step to developing an effective community engagement strategy. A media content analysis of one local newspaper was completed in relation to a major federal nuclear facility. The content analysis is compared to the results of a telephone survey in the region served by the paper and the results suggest that there is a relationship between how the facility is portrayed in local media and public concern. This study has important implications for other nuclear facilities because of the role of local citizens in decision-making. - Highlights: ► Decisions about federal nuclear facilities include local citizen participation. ► Local media can play an important role in public perception of environmental risk. ► Local print media rely on a limited number in of sources for their stories. ► Effective risk communication should begin by understanding local public concerns.

  19. On court interpreters' visibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubslaff, Friedel; Martinsen, Bodil

    of the service they receive. Ultimately, the findings will be used for training purposes. Future - and, for that matter, already practising - interpreters as well as the professional users of interpreters ought to take the reality of the interpreters' work in practice into account when assessing the quality...... on the interpreter's interpersonal role and, in particular, on signs of the interpreter's visibility, i.e. active co-participation. At first sight, the interpreting assignment in question seems to be a short and simple routine task which would not require the interpreter to deviate from the traditional picture...

  20. Respirometry increases cortisol levels in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss: implications for measurements of metabolic rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, L.; Rennie, M. D.; Svendsen, Jon Christian

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the extent to which chasing, handling and confining Oncorhynchus mykiss to a small respirometer chamber during respirometric experiments is stressful and affects metabolic measurements. The study observed increased cortisol levels in animals tested using a chase protocol...

  1. Levels of Stress among Secondary School Administrators and Its Implication in Education Management in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngari, S. M.; Ndungu, A.; Mwonya, R.; Ngumi, O.; Mumiukha, C.; Chepchieng, M.; Kariuki, M.

    2013-01-01

    Stress significantly affects performance and service delivery of workers. Given the important role that education plays in the society, coupled with the dynamic nature of the education sector there has been an increased social pressure on the education system in general and school administrators in particular. This influences their levels of…

  2. Holocene submarine terraces on the western continental shelf of India; implications for sea-level changes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wagle, B.G.; Vora, K.H.; Karisiddaiah, S.M.; Veerayya, M.; Almeida, F.

    and the shelf break, being more common between 11~' and 20~'N. The terraces are prominent between water depths of 50 and 115 m and occur at six distinct levels: (1) 55-60 m, (2) 65-70 m, (3) 75-80 m, (4) 85-90 m, (5) 95-100 m and (6) 110-115 m...

  3. Entry Level Skills for the Event Management Profession: Implications for Curriculum Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Donna; Dunn, Julie; Prince, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    The rapid growth of the event industry has resulted in a world-wide demand for education and training programs in event management. While the professional associations in event management have provided providing quality training and credentialing for their members, the 140 colleges and universities preparing students for entry level positions in…

  4. Clinical implications of plasma Nogo-A levels in patients with coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yu; Gao, Bei-Bei; Zhou, Liang; Ye, Xian-Hua; Li, Hong; Lai, Lei; Huang, Jin-Yu

    2017-06-01

    Nogo-A is an important neurite growth-regulatory protein in the adult and developing nervous system. Recently, increasing evidence has shown that Nogo-A plays important roles in cardiac development and may act as a potential indicator for heart failure. In addition, increased oxidative stress has been found in individuals with cardiovascular diseases. However, not much is known regarding the expression levels of Nogo-A and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Therefore, we sought to investigate the relationship between Nogo-A, ROS levels and CHD. The plasma Nogo-A and ROS concentrations of 122 acute coronary syndrome (ACS), 101 unstable angina pectoris (UAP), and 21 acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients and 56 healthy controls were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We further generated a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to assess the diagnostic accuracy of Nogo-A and ROS in CHD. The Nogo-A and ROS levels were significantly higher in patients with CHD than those in healthy controls. In addition, multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the level of Nogo-A (odds ratio (OR) = 1.624, 95% confidence interval: 1.125-2.293, p = 0.009) is a risk factor for prediction of CHD. Nogo-A has diagnostic value, with an optimal threshold of 5.466 ng/ml for maximized diagnostic performance (59% sensitivity and 78.6% specificity, area under curve, p < 0.05). However, ROS concentration is not a risk factor for prediction of CHD (OR = 0.999, 95% confidence interval: 0.997-1.001, p = 0.320). Increased plasma Nogo-A level may be associated with CHD.

  5. Serum N-terminal-pro-brain natriuretic peptide level and its clinical implications in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Mei; Yang, Jiefu; Li, Yingying

    2009-12-01

    Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is increasingly being used for screening and monitoring of congestive heart failure. However, the role of BNP in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and normal left ventricular function has not been determined. This study investigates serum N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) level and its clinical implications in patients with AF. Serum NT-proBNP levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and transthoracic echocardiography was performed in 136 subjects (90 cases with AF and 46 cases with sinus rhythm [SR]). Subjects were excluded if they had a history of myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathy, rheumatic heart disease, or hyperthyroidism that preceded the onset of AF. Controls (n = 30) were from a healthy outpatient primary care population. Potential determinants of serum NT-proBNP levels were identified by univariate and multivariate analyses. Individuals with AF had higher serum NT-proBNP levels (689.56 +/- 251.87 fmol/ml) than those with SR (456.11 +/- 148.14 fmol/ml, P NT-proBNP levels (P > 0.05). The regression model of serum NT-proBNP levels and clinical predictors showed that presence of AF, older age, and larger right atrial diameter were independently predictive of higher serum NT-proBNP values. Patients with AF were associated with increased serum NT-proBNP levels. Examining the change of serum NT-proBNP levels is helpful to evaluate the cardiac function in patients with AF. Copyright 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. GHRSST Level 3C Atlantic sub-skin Sea Surface Temperature from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) on MSG at 0 degree longitude (GDS V2) produced by OSI SAF (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the Eastern Atlantic Region from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI)...

  7. Mass loss of the Greenland Ice Sheet since the Little Ice Age, implications on sea level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, K. K.; Bjork, A. A.; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas

    The impact of mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) on 20th Century sea level rise (SLR) has long been subject to intense discussions. While globally distributed tide gauges suggest a global mean SLR of 15-20 cm, quantifying the separate components is of great concern - in particular...... for modeling sea level projections into the 21st Century. Estimates of the past GrIS contribution to SLR have been derived using a number of different approaches, e.g. surface mass balance (SMB) calculations combined with estimates of ice discharge found by in correlating SMB anomalies and calving rates. Here......-2010, NASA's Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) from 2003-2009, and NASA's Land, Vegetation, and Ice Sensor (LVIS) from 2010, to estimate mass loss throughout the 20th and early 21st Century. We present mass balance estimates of the GrIS since retreat commence from the maximum extent...

  8. A marine to freshwater sediment succession from Kowhai Beach wetland, Northland : implications for Holocene sea level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, H.; Nichol, S.L.

    2007-01-01

    An infilled wetland located behind coastal dunes in north-east Northland is used to reconstruct a local history of environmental change spanning early Holocene (c. 7000 yr BP) to modern time. Proxy indicators (sediment texture, diatoms and pollen) provide evidence for a transition from marginal marine- to brackish- to freshwater-conditions in the wetland. Radiocarbon ages constrain the chronology of this succession to 7880-7430 cal. yr BP for the early period of marine conditions, 3570-3210 cal. yr BP for the latter brackish phase and 1060-800 cal. yr BP for the change to freshwater conditions. Within this succession, the diatom record preserves a strong brackish signal at core depths above the limit of the modern tidal range. This is presented as preliminary evidence for a mid-Holocene sea level highstand for northern New Zealand of approximately 1.2 m above present mean sea level. (author). 40 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  9. The transport implications of regional policies for the disposal of intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, I.A.

    1985-09-01

    This report aims to evaluate transport parameters and logistics associated with the disposal of intermediate-level radioactive wastes, as generated by CEGB, SSEB, UKAEA and BNFL. The assumed power scenario is DoE Scheme 3, which approximates to a moderate power generation scenario, with a 15 GWe PWR programme commissioned between 1991 and 2010, existing Magnox and AGR stations are assumed to have a 30 year lifespan. Three transport options are again assumed, namely; road, rail and a hybrid system, as is consistent with previous studies. These three options will be used in investigating regional policies of disposal, initially at the national level and then progressively disaggregating to a system of three regional depositories serving their respective catchment areas. (author)

  10. [Regional health and autonomy conferences (CRSAs): the implications for medical democracy at a regional level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devictor, Bernadette

    2010-01-01

    The HPST law seeks to reorganize the governance of healthcare at a regional level and to maintain the existence of regional health conferences, now known as regional health and autonomy conferences (CRSAs). The purpose of this article is to examine the new duties attributed to the CRSAs and to consider the various issues raised by their practice. The article also provides an analysis of the preconditions required for the successful implementation of medical democracy at a regional level, ie.: the involvement of the CRSAs in the assessment of regional healthcare policies, the mobilization of funds, the composition of the CRSAs (including the full range of healthcare areas), the importance of providing adequate support for territorial conferences, and the elaboration of a communicative space for fostering exchanges between CRSAs.

  11. Effects of sea-level rise on barrier island groundwater system dynamics: ecohydrological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Fienen, Michael N.; Thieler, E. Robert; Gesch, Dean B.; Gutierrez, Benjamin T.; Plant, Nathaniel G.

    2014-01-01

    We used a numerical model to investigate how a barrier island groundwater system responds to increases of up to 60 cm in sea level. We found that a sea-level rise of 20 cm leads to substantial changes in the depth of the water table and the extent and depth of saltwater intrusion, which are key determinants in the establishment, distribution and succession of vegetation assemblages and habitat suitability in barrier islands ecosystems. In our simulations, increases in water-table height in areas with a shallow depth to water (or thin vadose zone) resulted in extensive groundwater inundation of land surface and a thinning of the underlying freshwater lens. We demonstrated the interdependence of the groundwater response to island morphology by evaluating changes at three sites. This interdependence can have a profound effect on ecosystem composition in these fragile coastal landscapes under long-term changing climatic conditions.

  12. Dioxins and PCBs in ostrich meat and eggs: levels and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskorska-Pliszczynska, Jadwiga; Strucinski, Pawel; Mikolajczyk, Szczepan; Pajurek, Marek; Maszewski, Sebastian; Pietron, Wojciech

    2017-12-01

    Although consumption of eggs is an essential part of our diet, limited information is available for table eggs other than those laid by hens. The aim of our study was to determine concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like (DL-) and non-dioxin-like (NDL) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in ostrich eggs and meat available on the Polish market, in order to obtain baseline information on the current status of these pollutants in comparison to poultry products. Obtained data were compared with the binding EU limits set for chicken eggs and meat. The levels of individual PCDD/Fs and PCBs congeners varied considerably. The percentage share of total WHO toxic equivalency factor (WHO-TEQ) content indicates the dominant role of PCDD/Fs. High concentrations of PCDD/F and DL-PCBs, in the range of 0.85-74.48 pg WHO-TEQ g -1 fat, were found in ostrich eggs; this exceeds the maximum level permitted for chicken eggs by a factor of up to 15. Eight of the 11 egg samples exceeded the action level for hen eggs. Although the ostrich meat concentrations of PCDD/Fs do not exceed the limit established for poultry muscle (1.75 pg g -1 fat), average contents of PCDD/Fs exceeded almost four times the levels in chicken and turkey muscle. Human exposure was evaluated and the resulting risk was characterised. Taking into account the low average consumption of ostrich eggs, the resulting exposure to dioxins for the general population can be considered as negligibly low. However, the individuals who frequently consume such eggs may be at risk of elevated exposure. Although ostrich products are not consumed frequently, such data are nevertheless useful for food safety purposes.

  13. Eutrophic lichens respond to multiple forms of N: implications for critical levels and critical loads research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah Jovan; Jennifer Riddell; Pamela E Padgett; Thomas Nash

    2012-01-01

    Epiphytic lichen communities are highly sensitive to excess nitrogen (N), which causes the replacement of native floras by N-tolerant, ‘‘weedy’’ eutrophic species. This shift is commonly used as the indicator of ecosystem ‘‘harm’’ in studies developing empirical critical levels (CLE) for ammonia (NH3) and critical loads (CLO) for N. To be most...

  14. The impact of climate change and emissions control on future ozone levels: Implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, Jennifer D; Kim, Young-Min; Gao, Yang; Fu, Joshua S; Chang, Howard H; Liu, Yang

    2017-11-01

    Overwhelming evidence has shown that, from the Industrial Revolution to the present, human activities influence ground-level ozone (O 3 ) concentrations. Past studies demonstrate links between O 3 exposure and health. However, knowledge gaps remain in our understanding concerning the impacts of climate change mitigation policies on O 3 concentrations and health. Using a hybrid downscaling approach, we evaluated the separate impact of climate change and emission control policies on O 3 levels and associated excess mortality in the US in the 2050s under two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). We show that, by the 2050s, under RCP4.5, increased O 3 levels due to combined climate change and emission control policies, could contribute to an increase of approximately 50 premature deaths annually nationwide in the US. The biggest impact, however, is seen under RCP8.5, where rises in O 3 concentrations are expected to result in over 2,200 additional premature deaths annually. The largest increases in O 3 are seen in RCP8.5 in the Northeast, the Southeast, the Central, and the West regions of the US. Additionally, when O 3 increases are examined by climate change and emissions contributions separately, the benefits of emissions mitigation efforts may significantly outweigh the effects of climate change mitigation policies on O 3 -related mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Atmospheric PCDD/F and PCB levels implicated by pine (Cedrus deodara) needles at Dalian, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jingwen; Zhao Huimin; Gao Lina; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2006-01-01

    Dalian is a seaside city situated in the northeastern monsoon area of China. For the first time, levels of PCDD/F and PCB congeners in pine (Cedrus deodara) needles of Dalian urban areas were investigated. Two sampling campaigns with 17 sampling points were performed in 2002. The summation of tetra- to octachlorinated PCDD/Fs and summation of 209 PCB congeners in Dalian pine needles averaged 127 ± 40 ng/kg (dry) and 4389 ± 1575 ng/kg (dry), respectively. Average toxic equivalence (TEQ) for PCDD/Fs and PCBs are 2.1 and 0.4 ng/kg (dry), respectively. The pine needles can differentiate spatial variation of the pollutants. The PCDD/F and PCB levels in Dalian pine needles are low or comparable with other international regions that were not impacted by evident point sources. The data can serve as a base for long-term spatial and temporal studies of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in China. - Levels of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in pine needles sampled from Dalian, China, were investigated for the first time

  16. Aminostratigraphic correlations and paleotemperature implications, Pliocene-Pleistocene high-sea-level deposits, northwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Darrell S.; Brigham-Grette, Julie

    Multiple periods of Late Pliocene and Pleistocene high sea level are recorded by surficial deposits along the coastal plains of northwestern Alaska. Analyses of the extent of amino acid epimerization in fossil molluscan shells from the Nome coastal plain of the northern Bering Sea coast, and from the Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain of the Chukchi and Beaufort Sea coasts, allow recognition of at least five intervals of higher-than-present relative sea level. Three Late Pliocene transgressions are represented at Nome by the complex and protracted Beringian transgression, and on the Arctic Coastal Plain by the Colvillian, Bigbendian, and Fishcreekian transgressions. These were followed by a lengthy period of non-marine deposition during the Early Pleistocene when sea level did not reach above its present position. A Middle Pleistocene high-sea-level event is represented at Nome by the Anvilian transgression, and on the Arctic Coastal Plain by the Wainwrightian transgression. Anvilian deposits at the type locality are considerably younger than previously thought, perhaps as young as Oxygen-Isotope Stage 11 (˜410,000 BP). Finally, the last interglacial Pelukian transgression is represented discontinuously along the shores of northwestern Alaska. Amino acid epimerization data, together with previous paleomagnetic measurements, radiometric-age determinations, and paleontologic evidence provide geochronological constraints on the sequence of marine deposits. They form the basis of regional correlations and offer a means of evaluating the post-depositional thermal history of the high-sea-level deposits. Provisional correlations between marine units at Nome and the Artic Coastal Plain indicate that the temperature difference that separates the two sites today had existed by about 3.0 Ma. Since that time, the effective diagenetic temperature was lowered by about 3-4°C at both sites, and the mean annual temperature was lowered considerably more. This temperature decrease was

  17. Implications of sea-level rise in a modern carbonate ramp setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokier, Stephen W.; Court, Wesley M.; Onuma, Takumi; Paul, Andreas

    2018-03-01

    This study addresses a gap in our understanding of the effects of sea-level rise on the sedimentary systems and morphological development of recent and ancient carbonate ramp settings. Many ancient carbonate sequences are interpreted as having been deposited in carbonate ramp settings. These settings are poorly-represented in the Recent. The study documents the present-day transgressive flooding of the Abu Dhabi coastline at the southern shoreline of the Arabian/Persian Gulf, a carbonate ramp depositional system that is widely employed as a Recent analogue for numerous ancient carbonate systems. Fourteen years of field-based observations are integrated with historical and recent high-resolution satellite imagery in order to document and assess the onset of flooding. Predicted rates of transgression (i.e. landward movement of the shoreline) of 2.5 m yr- 1 (± 0.2 m yr- 1) based on global sea-level rise alone were far exceeded by the flooding rate calculated from the back-stepping of coastal features (10-29 m yr- 1). This discrepancy results from the dynamic nature of the flooding with increased water depth exposing the coastline to increased erosion and, thereby, enhancing back-stepping. A non-accretionary transgressive shoreline trajectory results from relatively rapid sea-level rise coupled with a low-angle ramp geometry and a paucity of sediments. The flooding is represented by the landward migration of facies belts, a range of erosive features and the onset of bioturbation. Employing Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Church et al., 2013) predictions for 21st century sea-level rise, and allowing for the post-flooding lag time that is typical for the start-up of carbonate factories, it is calculated that the coastline will continue to retrograde for the foreseeable future. Total passive flooding (without considering feedback in the modification of the shoreline) by the year 2100 is calculated to likely be between 340 and 571 m with a flooding rate of 3

  18. Compliance with the annual NO 2 air quality standard in Athens. Required NO x levels and expected health implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaloulakou, A.; Mavroidis, I.; Gavriil, I.

    Recent risk assessment studies have shown that high outdoor NO 2 levels observed in residential areas contribute to increased respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and mortality. Detailed information on present NO 2 levels as well as predictions of NO 2 concentrations corresponding to reduced NO x levels in urban areas are very useful to decision and policy makers in order to protect the public health. In the present paper, monitoring stations of the Athens network are initially classified into two main groups, traffic affected and urban background, using effectively a criterion based on the ratio of annual mean NO:NO 2 concentrations. Two empirical methodologies are then considered and compared for assessing the effect of different NO x levels on the attainment of the annual NO 2 air quality standard at urban-background locations in the Athens area. An interesting finding is that these two methodologies, one more general and one both year and site dependent, give similar results for the specific study area and can be applied alternatively based on the length of available concentration time series. The results show that in order to meet the EU annual mean NO 2 objective at all the urban-background locations of the Athens area, annual NO x concentrations should be reduced to approximately 60 μg m -3, requiring NO x emission reductions of up to 30%. An analysis of the health implications of the currently observed NO 2 levels is conducted, based on a dose-response relationship, and is coupled with available health-related data for the Athens area. This analysis suggests that if NO 2 concentrations were reduced to the levels of the annual EU air quality standard, then a decrease of hospital admissions of up to 2.6% would be observed, depending on the levels of NO 2 measured at different monitoring sites of the Athens conurbation.

  19. Tides and lake-level variations in the great Patagonian lakes: Observations, modelling and geophysical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marderwald, Eric; Richter, Andreas; Horwath, Martin; Hormaechea, Jose Luis; Groh, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In Patagonia, the glacial-isostatic adjustment (GIA) to past ice-mass changes (Ivins & James 2004; Klemann et al. 2007) is of particular interest in the context of the determination of the complex regional rheology related to plate subduction in a triple-junction constellation. To further complicate the situation, GIA is overlaid with load deformation not only due to present ice mass changes but also due to water-level changes in the lakes surrounding the icefields and the ocean surrounding Patagonia. These elastic deformations affect the determination of glacial-isostatic uplift rates from GPS observations (Dietrich et al. 2010; Lange et al. 2014). Observations of lake tides and their comparison with the theoretical tidal signal have been used previously to validate predictions of ocean tidal loading and have revealed regional deviations from conventional global elastic earth models (Richter et al. 2009). In this work we investigate the tides and lake-level variations in Lago Argentino, Lago Viedma, Lago San Martín/O'Higgins and Lago Buenos Aires/General Carrera. This allows us to test, among other things, the validity of tidal loading models. We present pressure tide-gauge records from two sites in Lago Argentino extending over 2.5 years (Richter et al. 2015). These observations are complemented by lake-level records provided by the Argentine National Hydrometeorological Network. Based on these lake-level time series the principal processes affecting the lake level are identified and quantified. Lake-level changes reflecting variations in lake volume are dominated by a seasonal cycle exceeding 1 m in amplitude. Lake-volume changes occur in addition with a daily period in response to melt water influx from surrounding glaciers. In Lago Argentino sporadic lake-volume jumps are caused by bursting of the ice dam of Perito Moreno glacier. Water movements in these lakes are dominated by surface seiches reaching 20 cm in amplitude. A harmonic tidal analysis of the lake-level

  20. High levels of miticides and agrochemicals in North American apiaries: implications for honey bee health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, Christopher A; Frazier, Maryann; Frazier, James L; Ashcraft, Sara; Simonds, Roger; Vanengelsdorp, Dennis; Pettis, Jeffery S

    2010-03-19

    Recent declines in honey bees for crop pollination threaten fruit, nut, vegetable and seed production in the United States. A broad survey of pesticide residues was conducted on samples from migratory and other beekeepers across 23 states, one Canadian province and several agricultural cropping systems during the 2007-08 growing seasons. We have used LC/MS-MS and GC/MS to analyze bees and hive matrices for pesticide residues utilizing a modified QuEChERS method. We have found 121 different pesticides and metabolites within 887 wax, pollen, bee and associated hive samples. Almost 60% of the 259 wax and 350 pollen samples contained at least one systemic pesticide, and over 47% had both in-hive acaricides fluvalinate and coumaphos, and chlorothalonil, a widely-used fungicide. In bee pollen were found chlorothalonil at levels up to 99 ppm and the insecticides aldicarb, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos and imidacloprid, fungicides boscalid, captan and myclobutanil, and herbicide pendimethalin at 1 ppm levels. Almost all comb and foundation wax samples (98%) were contaminated with up to 204 and 94 ppm, respectively, of fluvalinate and coumaphos, and lower amounts of amitraz degradates and chlorothalonil, with an average of 6 pesticide detections per sample and a high of 39. There were fewer pesticides found in adults and brood except for those linked with bee kills by permethrin (20 ppm) and fipronil (3.1 ppm). The 98 pesticides and metabolites detected in mixtures up to 214 ppm in bee pollen alone represents a remarkably high level for toxicants in the brood and adult food of this primary pollinator. This represents over half of the maximum individual pesticide incidences ever reported for apiaries. While exposure to many of these neurotoxicants elicits acute and sublethal reductions in honey bee fitness, the effects of these materials in combinations and their direct association with CCD or declining bee health remains to be determined.

  1. Models of governance in multihospital systems. Implications for hospital and system-level decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morlock, L L; Alexander, J A

    1986-12-01

    This study utilizes data from a national survey of 159 multihospital systems in order to describe the types of governance structures currently being utilized, and to compare the policy making process for various types of decisions in systems with different approaches to governance. Survey results indicate that multihospital systems most often use one of three governance models. Forty-one percent of the systems (including 33% of system hospitals) use a parent holding company model in which there is a system-wide corporate governing board and separate governing boards for each member hospital. Twenty-two percent of systems in the sample (but 47% of all system hospitals) utilize what we have termed a modified parent holding company model in which there is one system-wide governing board, but advisory boards are substituted for governing boards at the local hospital level. Twenty-three percent of the sampled systems (including 11% of system hospitals) use a corporate model in which there is one system-wide governing board but no other governing or advisory boards at either the divisional, regional or local hospital levels. A comparison of systems using these three governance approaches found significant variation in terms of system size, ownership and the geographic proximity of member hospitals. In order to examine the relationship between alternative approaches to governance and patterns of decision-making, the three model types were compared with respect to the percentages of systems reporting that local boards, corporate management and/or system-wide corporate boards have responsibility for decision-making in a number of specific issue areas. Study results indicate that, regardless of model type, corporate boards are most likely to have responsibility for decisions regarding the transfer, pledging and sale of assets; the formation of new companies; purchase of assets greater than $100,000; changes in hospital bylaws; and the appointment of local board members. In

  2. The determinants of vulnerability and adaptive capacity at the national level and the implications for adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, N.; Adger, W.N.; Kelly, P.M. [University of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom). School of Environmental Sciences

    2005-07-01

    We present a set of indicators of vulnerability and capacity to adapt to climate variability, and by extension climate change, derived using a novel empirical analysis of data aggregated at the national level on a decadal timescale. The analysis is based on a conceptual framework in which risk is viewed in terms of outcome, and is a function of physically defined climate hazards and socially constructed vulnerability. Climate outcomes are represented by mortality from climate-related disasters, using the emergency events database data set, statistical relationships between mortality and a shortlist of potential proxies for vulnerability are used to identify key vulnerability indicators. We find that 11 key indicators exhibit a strong relationship with decadally aggregated mortality associated with climate-related disasters. Validation of indicators, relationships between vulnerability and adaptive capacity, and the sensitivity of subsequent vulnerability assessments to different sets of weightings are explored using expert judgement data, collected through a focus group exercise. The data are used to provide a robust assessment of vulnerability to climate-related mortality at the national level, and represent an entry point to more detailed explorations of vulnerability and adaptive capacity. They indicate that the most vulnerable nations are those situated in sub-Saharan Africa and those that have recently experienced conflict. Adaptive capacity - one element of vulnerability - is associated predominantly with governance, civil and political rights, and literacy. (author)

  3. Heavy Metals in Seafood and Farm Produce from Uyo, Nigeria; Levels and health implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orish E. Orisakwe

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to obtain representative data on the levels of heavy metals in seafood and farm produce consumed by the general population in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, a region known for the exploration and exploitation of crude oil. Methods: In May 2012, 25 food items, including common types of seafood, cereals, root crops and vegetables, were purchased in Uyo or collected from farmland in the region. Dried samples were ground, digested and centrifuged. Levels of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, nickel, cobalt and chromium were analysed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Average daily intake and target hazard quotients (THQ were estimated. Results: Eight food items (millet, maize, periwinkle, crayfish, stock fish, sabina fish, bonga fish and pumpkin leaf had THQ values over 1.0 for cadmium, indicating a potential health risk in their consumption. All other heavy metals had THQ values below 1.0, indicating insignificant health risks. The total THQ for the heavy metals ranged from 0.389 to 2.986. There were 14 items with total THQ values greater than 1.0, indicating potential health risks in their consumption. Conclusion: The regular consumption of certain types of farm produce and seafood available in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, is likely adding to the body burden of heavy metals among those living in this region.

  4. Integrative curriculum reform, domain dependent knowing, and teachers` epistemological theories: Implications for middle-level teaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, R.R. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States). College of Education

    1998-12-01

    Integrative curriculum as both a theoretical construct and a practical reality, and as a theme-based, problem-centered, democratic way of schooling, is becoming more widely considered as a feasible alternative to traditional middle-level curricula. Importantly for teaching and learning, domain dependence requires teachers to view one area of knowledge as fully interdependent with other areas of knowledge during the learning process. This requires teachers to adopt personal epistemological theories that reflect integrative, domain dependent knowing. This study explored what happened when teachers from highly traditional domain independent school settings encountered an ambitious college-level curriculum project that was designed to help the teachers understand the potential that integrative, domain dependent teaching holds for precollege settings. This study asked: What influence does an integrative, domain dependent curriculum project have on teachers` domain independent, epistemological theories for teaching and learning? Finding an answer to this question is essential if we, as an educational community, are to understand how integrative curriculum theory is transformed by teachers into systemic curriculum reform. The results suggest that the integrative curriculum project that teachers participated in did not explicitly alter their classroom practices in a wholesale manner. Personal epistemological theories of teachers collectively precluded teachers from making any wholesale changes in their individual classroom teaching. However, teachers became aware of integrative curriculum as an alternative, and they expressed interest in infusing integrative practices into their classrooms as opportunities arise.

  5. The determinants of vulnerability and adaptive capacity at the national level and the implications for adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, N.; Adger, W.N.; Kelly, P.M.

    2005-01-01

    We present a set of indicators of vulnerability and capacity to adapt to climate variability, and by extension climate change, derived using a novel empirical analysis of data aggregated at the national level on a decadal timescale. The analysis is based on a conceptual framework in which risk is viewed in terms of outcome, and is a function of physically defined climate hazards and socially constructed vulnerability. Climate outcomes are represented by mortality from climate-related disasters, using the emergency events database data set, statistical relationships between mortality and a shortlist of potential proxies for vulnerability are used to identify key vulnerability indicators. We find that 11 key indicators exhibit a strong relationship with decadally aggregated mortality associated with climate-related disasters. Validation of indicators, relationships between vulnerability and adaptive capacity, and the sensitivity of subsequent vulnerability assessments to different sets of weightings are explored using expert judgement data, collected through a focus group exercise. The data are used to provide a robust assessment of vulnerability to climate-related mortality at the national level, and represent an entry point to more detailed explorations of vulnerability and adaptive capacity. They indicate that the most vulnerable nations are those situated in sub-Saharan Africa and those that have recently experienced conflict. Adaptive capacity - one element of vulnerability - is associated predominantly with governance, civil and political rights, and literacy. (author)

  6. Salinity tolerances and use of saline environments by freshwater turtles: implications of sea level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Mickey; Ennen, Joshua R; Bower, Deborah S; Nowakowski, A Justin; Sweat, Sarah C; Todd, Brian D

    2018-03-25

    The projected rise in global mean sea levels places many freshwater turtle species at risk of saltwater intrusion into freshwater habitats. Freshwater turtles are disproportionately more threatened than other taxa; thus, understanding the role of salinity in determining their contemporary distribution and evolution should be a research priority. Freshwater turtles are a slowly evolving lineage; however, they can adapt physiologically or behaviourally to various levels of salinity and, therefore, temporarily occur in marine or brackish environments. Here, we provide the first comprehensive global review on freshwater turtle use and tolerance of brackish water ecosystems. We link together current knowledge of geographic occurrence, salinity tolerance, phylogenetic relationships, and physiological and behavioural mechanisms to generate a baseline understanding of the response of freshwater turtles to changing saline environments. We also review the potential origins of salinity tolerance in freshwater turtles. Finally, we integrate 2100 sea level rise (SLR) projections, species distribution maps, literature gathered on brackish water use, and a phylogeny to predict the exposure of freshwater turtles to projected SLR globally. From our synthesis of published literature and available data, we build a framework for spatial and phylogenetic conservation prioritization of coastal freshwater turtles. Based on our literature review, 70 species (∼30% of coastal freshwater turtle species) from 10 of the 11 freshwater turtle families have been reported in brackish water ecosystems. Most anecdotal records, observations, and descriptions do not imply long-term salinity tolerance among freshwater turtles. Rather, experiments show that some species exhibit potential for adaptation and plasticity in physiological, behavioural, and life-history traits that enable them to endure varying periods (e.g. days or months) and levels of saltwater exposure. Species that specialize on

  7. Non-renewable water use on the globe and its implication to sea level change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, T.; Pokhrel, Y. N.; Hanasaki, N.; Koirala, S.; Kanae, S.

    2012-12-01

    The real hydrological cycles on the Earth are not natural anymore. Global hydrological model simulations of the water cycle and available water resources should have an ability to consider the effects of human interventions on hydrological cycles. Anthropogenic activity modules, such as reservoir operation, crop growth and water demand in croplands, and environmental flows, were incorporated into a land surface model to form a new model, MAT-HI. Total terrestrial water storages (TWS) in large river basins were estimated using the new model by off-line simulation, and compared with the TWS observed by GRACE for 2002-2007. MAT-HI was further coupled with a module representing the ground water level fluctuations, and consists a new land surface scheme HiGW-MAT (Human Intervention and Ground Water coupled MATSIRO). HiGW-MAT is also associated with a scheme tracing the origin and flow path with the consideration on the sources of water withdrawal from stream flow, medium-size reservoirs and nonrenewable groundwater in addition to precipitation to croplands which enabled the assessment of the origin of water producing major crops. Areas highly dependent on nonrenewable groundwater are detected in the Pakistan, Bangladesh, Western part of India, north and western parts of China, some regions in the Arabian Peninsula, and the western part of the United States through Mexico. Cumulative nonrenewable groundwater withdrawals estimated by the model are corresponding fairly well with the country statistics of total groundwater withdrawals. Ground water table depletions in large aquifers in US estimated by HiGW-MAT were compared with in-situ observational data, and the correspondences are very good. Mean global exploitation of ground water for 2000 estimated by HiGW-MAT is 360 km3/y as an excess of ground water withdrawal over natural recharge into aquifer. This unsustainable groundwater use, together with artificial reservoir water impoundment, climate-driven changes in

  8. Are physical activity levels linked to nutrient adequacy? Implications for cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csizmadi, Ilona; Kelemen, Linda E; Speidel, Thomas; Yuan, Yan; Dale, Laura C; Friedenreich, Christine M; Robson, Paula J

    2014-01-01

    Cancer prevention guidelines recommend a healthy body mass index, physical activity, and nutrient intake from food rather than supplements. Sedentary individuals may restrict energy intake to prevent weight gain and in so doing may compromise nutritional intake. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis to determine if adequacy of micronutrients is linked to physical activity levels (PALs) in healthy-weight adults. Tomorrow Project participants in Alberta, Canada (n = 5333), completed past-year diet and physical activity questionnaires. The percent meeting Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) was reported across low and high PAL groups, and the relation between PAL and percent achieved DRI was determined using multiple linear regression analyses. Overall, genders (P physical activity to include having a more favorable impact on nutrient adequacy.

  9. Gastrointestinal Motility Variation and Implications for Plasma Level Variation: Oral Drug Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talattof, Arjang; Price, Judy C; Amidon, Gordon L

    2016-02-01

    The oral route of administration is still by far the most ubiquitous method of drug delivery. Development in this area still faces many challenges due to the complexity and inhomogeneity of the gastrointestinal environment. In particular, dosing unpredictably relative to motility phase means the gastrointestinal environment is a random variable within a defined range. Here, we present a mass balance analysis that captures this variation and highlights the effects of gastrointestinal motility, exploring what impacts it ultimately has on plasma levels and the relationship to bioequivalence for high solubility products with both high and low permeability (BCS I and III). Motility-dependent compartmental absorption and transit (MDCAT) mechanistic analysis is developed to describe the underlying fasted state cyclical motility and how the contents of the gastrointestinal tract are propelled.

  10. Perspectives on the closed fuel cycle - Implications for high-level waste matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gras, Jean-Marie; Quang, Richard Do; Masson, Herve; Lieven, Thierry; Ferry, Cecile; Poinssot, Christophe; Debes, Michel; Delbecq, Jean-Michel

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear energy accounts for 80% of electricity production in France, generating approximately 1150 t of spent fuel for an electrical output of 420 TWh. Based on a reprocessing-conditioning-recycling strategy, the orientations taken by Electricite de France (EDF) for the mid-term and the far-future are to keep the fleet performances at the highest level, and to maintain the nuclear option fully open by the replacement of present pressurized water reactor (PWR) by new light water reactor (LWR), such as the evolutionary pressurized reactor (EPR) and future Generation IV designs. Adaptations of waste materials to new requirements will come with these orientations in order to meet long-term energy sustainability. In particular, waste materials and spent fuels are expected to meet increased requirements in comparison with the present situation. So the treatment of higher burn-up UO 2 spent fuel and MOX fuel requires determining the performances of glass and other matrices according to several criteria: chemical 'digestibility' (i.e. capacity of glass to incorporate fission products and minor actinides without loss of quality), resistance to alpha self-irradiation, residual power in view of disposal. Considering the long-term evolution of spent MOX fuel in storage, the helium production, the influence of irradiation damages accumulation and the evolution of the microstructure of the fuel pellet need to be known, as well as for the future fuels. Further, the eventual transmutation of minor actinides in fast neutron reactors (FR) of Generation IV, if its interest in optimising high-level waste management is proven, may also raise new challenges about the materials and fuel design. Some major questions in terms of waste materials and spent fuel are discussed in this paper

  11. Organotin levels in seafood and its implications for health risk in high-seafood consumers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerin, T. [Agence francaise de securite sanitaire des aliments - Afssa, Unites CIME et PASER, AFSSA-LERQAP, 23 Av. du G. de Gaulle, 94706 Maisons-Alfort Cedex (France)], E-mail: t.guerin@afssa.fr; Sirot, V.; Volatier, J.-L.; Leblanc, J.-C. [Agence francaise de securite sanitaire des aliments - Afssa, Unites CIME et PASER, AFSSA-LERQAP, 23 Av. du G. de Gaulle, 94706 Maisons-Alfort Cedex (France)

    2007-12-15

    Fish and fishery products are considered as the main source of organotin compounds (OTC). Unfortunately, little national contamination data is available to assess food exposure of organotins from French consumers. To provide a more accurate estimate of risks to human health, the butyltin, phenyltin and octyltin compounds sampling in four French coastal areas were measured in 159 composite samples (96 fresh and frozen fish, 28 mollusks, 14 crustaceans, 1 echinoderm, 11 canned foods, 4 smoked fish, 5 prepared seafood-based dishes) by capillary gas chromatography coupled with a microwave induced plasma atomic-emission spectrometer (CGC-MIP-AES). In these samples, butyltins were usually predominant and the range of the contamination levels was generally below those of earlier studies (fish: mean 5.6; min-max 1.1-23 {mu}g/kg; fishery products: mean 6; min-max 0.8-14 {mu}g/kg). Fish, especially tuna, salmon, mackerel, saithe/coalfish and cod were largely the main contributors (38%) to the total organotin exposure. With the supplementary contribution of great scallop, surimi, squid and oysters, the exposure exceeded 50% in all. However, the utmost OTC exposure was lesser than 47% of the provisional tolerable weekly intake [EFSA (European Food Safety Agency). Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the food chain on a request from the Commission to assess the health risks to consumers associated with exposure to organotins in foodstuffs. (Question N{sup o}EFSA-Q-2003-110). The EFSA Journal, 102, 1-119, 2004. (http://www.efsa.eu.int)]. Nobody would exceed this limit. Finally, as this study has some limitations and since some other sources and health effects have not been clearly evaluated, it appears rational from public health and environmental viewpoints to continue to reduce the OTC levels in the environment.

  12. Physiological response to drought in radiata pine: phytohormone implication at leaf level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Diego, N; Pérez-Alfocea, F; Cantero, E; Lacuesta, M; Moncaleán, P

    2012-04-01

    Pinus radiata D. Don is one of the most abundant species in the north of Spain. Knowledge of drought response mechanisms is essential to guarantee plantation survival under reduced water supply as predicted in the future. Tolerance mechanisms are being studied in breeding programs, because information on such mechanisms can be used for genotype selection. In this paper, we analyze the changes of leaf water potential, hydraulic conductance (K(leaf)), stomatal conductance and phytohormones under drought in P. radiata breeds (O1, O2, O3, O4, O5 and O6) from different climatology areas, hypothesizing that they could show variable drought tolerance. As a primary signal, drought decreased cytokinin (zeatin and zeatin riboside-Z + ZR) levels in needles parallel to K(leaf) and gas exchange. When Z + ZR decreased by 65%, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation started as a second signal and increments were higher for IAA than for ABA. When plants decreased by 80%, Z + ZR and K(leaf) doubled their ABA and IAA levels, the photosystem II yield decreased and the electrolyte leakage increased. At the end of the drought period, less tolerant breeds increased IAA over 10-fold compared with controls. External damage also induced jasmonic acid accumulation in all breeds except in O5 (P. radiata var. radiata × var. cedrosensis), which accumulated salicylic acid as a defense mechanism. After rewatering, only the most tolerant plants recovered their K(leaf,) perhaps due to an IAA decrease and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid maintenance. From all phytohormones, IAA was the most representative 'water deficit signal' in P. radiata.

  13. Reconstructing water level in Hoyo Negro, Quintana Roo, Mexico, implications for early Paleoamerican and faunal access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, S. V.; Reinhardt, E. G.; Rissolo, D.; Chatters, J. C.; Nava Blank, A.; Luna Erreguerena, P.

    2015-09-01

    The skeletal remains of a Paleoamerican (Naia; HN5/48) and extinct megafauna were found at -40 to -43 mbsl in a submerged dissolution chamber named Hoyo Negro (HN) in the Sac Actun Cave System, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. The human remains were dated to between 12 and 13 Ka, making these remains the oldest securely dated in the Yucatan. Twelve sediment cores were used to reconstruct the Holocene flooding history of the now phreatic cave passages and cenotes (Ich Balam, Oasis) that connect to HN. Four facies were found: 1. bat guano and Seed (SF), 2. lime Mud (MF), 3. Calcite Rafts (CRF) and 4. Organic Matter/Calcite Rafts (OM/CRF) which were defined by their lithologic characteristics and ostracod, foraminifera and testate amoebae content. Basal radiocarbon ages (AMS) of aquatic sediments (SF) combined with cave bottom and ceiling height profiles determined the history of flooding in HN and when access was restricted for human and animal entry. Our results show that the bottom of HN was flooded at least by 9850 cal yr BP but likely earlier. We also found, that the pit became inaccessible for human and animal entry at ≈8100 cal yr BP, when water reaching the cave ceiling effectively prevented entry. Water level continued to rise between ≈6000 and 8100 cal yr BP, filling the cave passages and entry points to HN (Cenotes Ich Balam and Oasis). Analysis of cave facies revealed that both Holocene sea-level rise and cave ceiling height determined the configuration of airways and the deposition of floating and bat derived OM (guano and seeds). Calcite rafts, which form on the water surface, are also dependent on the presence of airways but can also form in isolated air domes in the cave ceiling that affect their loci of deposition on the cave bottom. These results indicated that aquatic cave sedimentation is transient in time and space, necessitating extraction of multiple cores to determine a limit after which flooding occurred.

  14. Organotin levels in seafood and its implications for health risk in high-seafood consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerin, T.; Sirot, V.; Volatier, J.-L.; Leblanc, J.-C.

    2007-01-01

    Fish and fishery products are considered as the main source of organotin compounds (OTC). Unfortunately, little national contamination data is available to assess food exposure of organotins from French consumers. To provide a more accurate estimate of risks to human health, the butyltin, phenyltin and octyltin compounds sampling in four French coastal areas were measured in 159 composite samples (96 fresh and frozen fish, 28 mollusks, 14 crustaceans, 1 echinoderm, 11 canned foods, 4 smoked fish, 5 prepared seafood-based dishes) by capillary gas chromatography coupled with a microwave induced plasma atomic-emission spectrometer (CGC-MIP-AES). In these samples, butyltins were usually predominant and the range of the contamination levels was generally below those of earlier studies (fish: mean 5.6; min-max 1.1-23 μg/kg; fishery products: mean 6; min-max 0.8-14 μg/kg). Fish, especially tuna, salmon, mackerel, saithe/coalfish and cod were largely the main contributors (38%) to the total organotin exposure. With the supplementary contribution of great scallop, surimi, squid and oysters, the exposure exceeded 50% in all. However, the utmost OTC exposure was lesser than 47% of the provisional tolerable weekly intake [EFSA (European Food Safety Agency). Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the food chain on a request from the Commission to assess the health risks to consumers associated with exposure to organotins in foodstuffs. (Question N o EFSA-Q-2003-110). The EFSA Journal, 102, 1-119, 2004. (http://www.efsa.eu.int)]. Nobody would exceed this limit. Finally, as this study has some limitations and since some other sources and health effects have not been clearly evaluated, it appears rational from public health and environmental viewpoints to continue to reduce the OTC levels in the environment

  15. Visible but Unseen?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torkilsheyggi, Arnvør Martinsdóttir á; Hertzum, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that whiteboards support much cooper-ative work by for example strengthening awareness, im-proving communication, and reducing mental workload. In line with these predominantly positive findings, an emer-gency department (ED) turned to its whiteboard to improve the coordination...... of its work with blood tests. We investi-gate this use of the whiteboard through observations and informal interviews in the ED and analyze the ability of the whiteboard to support coordination and awareness in the work with blood tests. Our findings show limitations in the ability of the whiteboard...... to support awareness in a setting where the users are (locally) mobile, specifically in regard to information that requires continuous monitoring. We do however also find that the whiteboard safeguarded the work with blood tests against some risks by making blood-test information socially visible....

  16. Comparison of Reflectance Measurements Acquired with a Contact Probe and an Integration Sphere: Implications for the Spectral Properties of Vegetation at a Leaf Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markéta Potůčková

    2016-10-01

    devices, their mean values were in the range of the corresponding standard deviations in the case of broadleaved leaf type. Larger differences in optical leaf properties of spruce needles collected with the CP and ISs are implicated from the different measurement procedure due to needle-like leaf where shoots with spatially oriented needles were measured with the CP and individual needles with the IS. The study shows that a direct comparison between the spectra collected with two devices is not advisable as spectrally dependent offsets may likely exist. We propose that the future studies shall focus on standardisation of measurement procedures so that open access spectral libraries could serve as a reliable input for modelling of optical properties on a leaf level.

  17. Meeting demand for family planning within a generation: prospects and implications at country level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonjoung Choi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In order to track progress towards the target of universal access to sexual and reproductive health care services of the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs, a measure (demand for family planning satisfied with modern contraceptive methods and a benchmark (at least 75% by 2030 in all countries have been recommended. Objectives: The goal of this study was to assess the prospects of reaching the benchmark at the country level. Such information can facilitate strategic planning, including resource allocation at global and country levels. Design: We selected 63 countries based on their status as least developed according to the United Nations or as a priority country in global family planning initiatives. Using United Nations estimates and projections of family planning indicators between 1970 and 2030, we calculated percent demand for family planning satisfied with modern contraceptive methods for each year and country. We then calculated the annual percentage point changes between 2014 and 2030 required to meet the benchmark. The required rates of change were compared to current projections as well as estimates between 1970 and 2010. Results: To reach the benchmark on average across the 63 countries, demand satisfied with modern methods must increase by 2.2 percentage points per year between 2014 and 2030 – more than double current projections. Between 1970 and 2010, such rapid progress was observed in 24 study countries but typically spanning 5–10 years. At currently projected rates, only 9 of the 63 study countries will reach the benchmark. Meanwhile, the gap between projected and required changes is largest in the Central and West African regions, 0.9 and 3.0 percentage points per year, respectively. If the benchmark is achieved, 334 million women across the study countries will use a modern contraceptive method in 2030, compared to 226 million women in 2014. Conclusions: In order to achieve the component of the SDGs

  18. Meeting demand for family planning within a generation: prospects and implications at country level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoonjoung; Fabic, Madeleine Short; Hounton, Sennen; Koroma, Desmond

    2015-01-01

    In order to track progress towards the target of universal access to sexual and reproductive health care services of the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), a measure (demand for family planning satisfied with modern contraceptive methods) and a benchmark (at least 75% by 2030 in all countries) have been recommended. The goal of this study was to assess the prospects of reaching the benchmark at the country level. Such information can facilitate strategic planning, including resource allocation at global and country levels. We selected 63 countries based on their status as least developed according to the United Nations or as a priority country in global family planning initiatives. Using United Nations estimates and projections of family planning indicators between 1970 and 2030, we calculated percent demand for family planning satisfied with modern contraceptive methods for each year and country. We then calculated the annual percentage point changes between 2014 and 2030 required to meet the benchmark. The required rates of change were compared to current projections as well as estimates between 1970 and 2010. To reach the benchmark on average across the 63 countries, demand satisfied with modern methods must increase by 2.2 percentage points per year between 2014 and 2030 - more than double current projections. Between 1970 and 2010, such rapid progress was observed in 24 study countries but typically spanning 5-10 years. At currently projected rates, only 9 of the 63 study countries will reach the benchmark. Meanwhile, the gap between projected and required changes is largest in the Central and West African regions, 0.9 and 3.0 percentage points per year, respectively. If the benchmark is achieved, 334 million women across the study countries will use a modern contraceptive method in 2030, compared to 226 million women in 2014. In order to achieve the component of the SDGs calling for universal access to sexual and reproductive health services

  19. Groundwater geochemistry near the storage sites of low-level radioactive waste: Implications for uranium migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaskova, Olga L.; Boguslavsky, Anatoly E. [Institute of Geology and Mineralogy SB RAS, Ac. Koptyug prosp. 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents results of detailed sampling of groundwater and surface water near the storage sites of radioactive waste from the Electrochemical Plant ECP (Zelenogorsk, Krasnoyarsk region, Russia) and the Angarsk Electrolysis Chemical Complex AEC (Angarsk, Irkutsk region, Russia), both of which have produced enriched uranium since 1960's. The liquid (LRW) and solid (SRW) radioactive wastes belong to the category of low-level activity waste. The main result is that the uranium is below the recommended MPC for drinking waters in all types of groundwater around the sludge of ECP and AEC. But alkaline nitrate solutions have been penetrating and spreading into the aquifers under the LRW sludge pits. According to our calculations, redox conditions in the groundwater influenced by discharge are controlled by the couple NO{sub 3}{sup -}/NO{sub 2}{sup -} that facilitates U(VI) migration. The groundwater under SRW repositories is distinguished by its low mineralization and neutral pH. Co-contaminants, such as Mo, V, and Zr may serve as markers of techno-genous contamination in storage sites of the LRW sludge. (authors)

  20. Implication of low level inflammation in the insulin resistance of adipose tissue at late pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, J; Sevillano, J; Marciniak, J; Rodriguez, R; González-Martín, C; Viana, M; Eun-suk, O H; de Mouzon, S Hauguel; Herrera, E; Ramos, M P

    2011-11-01

    Insulin resistance is a characteristic of late pregnancy, and adipose tissue is one of the tissues that most actively contributes to the reduced maternal insulin sensitivity. There is evidence that pregnancy is a condition of moderate inflammation, although the physiological role of this low-grade inflammation remains unclear. The present study was designed to validate whether low-grade inflammation plays a role in the development of insulin resistance in adipose tissue during late pregnancy. To this end, we analyzed proinflammatory adipokines and kinases in lumbar adipose tissue of nonpregnant and late pregnant rats at d 18 and 20 of gestation. We found that circulating and tissue levels of adipokines, such as IL-1β, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and TNF-α, were increased at late pregnancy, which correlated with insulin resistance. The observed increase in adipokines coincided with an enhanced activation of p38 MAPK in adipose tissue. Treatment of pregnant rats with the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB 202190 increased insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor (IR) and IR substrate-1 in adipose tissue, which was paralleled by a reduction of IR substrate-1 serine phosphorylation and an enhancement of the metabolic actions of insulin. These results indicate that activation of p38 MAPK in adipose tissue contributes to adipose tissue insulin resistance at late pregnancy. Furthermore, the results of the present study support the hypothesis that physiological low-grade inflammation in the maternal organism is relevant to the development of pregnancy-associated insulin resistance.

  1. Low-level maternal methylmercury exposure through rice ingestion and potential implications for offspring health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothenberg, Sarah E., E-mail: rothenberg.sarah@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 46 Guanshui Lu, Guiyang 550002 (China); Feng Xinbin, E-mail: fengxinbin@vip.skleg.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 46 Guanshui Lu, Guiyang 550002 (China); Li Ping [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 46 Guanshui Lu, Guiyang 550002 (China)

    2011-04-15

    Fish consumption is considered the primary pathway for MeHg (MeHg) exposure; however, MeHg exposure also occurs through rice ingestion. Rice is grown in an aquatic environment and although documented MeHg concentrations in rice are lower compared to fish tissue, human exposures exceed international guidelines in some regions where rice is a staple food and rice MeHg levels are elevated. Studies concerning human health exposure to MeHg should also include populations where maternal MeHg exposure occurs through ingestion of rice. Rice does not contain long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are associated with confounding developmental outcomes in offspring. Rice is also a staple food for more than half the world's population; therefore, it is critical to investigate the potential health risks of maternal ingestion of rice to the developing fetus, the most susceptible population to the deleterious effects of MeHg. Data concerning MeHg in rice are reviewed and micronutrients in rice are discussed. - Research highlights: > Maternal methylmercury exposure through rice may be important. > Rice does not contain the same micronutrients as fish, but may contain methylmercury. > Effects to offspring from methylmercury without beneficial micronutrients are unknown. - Studies concerning maternal methylmercury exposure and cognitive outcomes for offspring should include populations where rice ingestion is the primary methylmercury exposure pathway.

  2. Functional outcomes following lesions in visual cortex: Implications for plasticity of high-level vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tina T; Behrmann, Marlene

    2017-10-01

    Understanding the nature and extent of neural plasticity in humans remains a key challenge for neuroscience. Importantly, however, a precise characterization of plasticity and its underlying mechanism has the potential to enable new approaches for enhancing reorganization of cortical function. Investigations of the impairment and subsequent recovery of cognitive and perceptual functions following early-onset cortical lesions in humans provide a unique opportunity to elucidate how the brain changes, adapts, and reorganizes. Specifically, here, we focus on restitution of visual function, and we review the findings on plasticity and re-organization of the ventral occipital temporal cortex (VOTC) in published reports of 46 patients with a lesion to or resection of the visual cortex early in life. Findings reveal that a lesion to the VOTC results in a deficit that affects the visual recognition of more than one category of stimuli (faces, objects and words). In addition, the majority of pediatric patients show limited recovery over time, especially those in whom deficits in low-level vision also persist. Last, given that neither the equipotentiality nor the modularity view on plasticity was clearly supported, we suggest some intermediate possibilities in which some plasticity may be evident but that this might depend on the area that was affected, its maturational trajectory as well as its structural and functional connectivity constraints. Finally, we offer suggestions for future research that can elucidate plasticity further. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Complete decay of radionuclides: Implications for low-level waste disposal in municipal landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meck, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The time required for the complete decay of a radioactive source can be quantified by specifying an acceptable probability and using an original derivation. The physical phenomenon of complete decay may be used as the technical basis to change regulations and permit, with public acceptance, the inexpensive disposal of short half-lived radioactive waste into municipal landfills. Current regulations require isolation of trash form the biosphere for 30 years during the post-closure control period for municipal landfills. Thirty years is sufficient time for complete decay of significant quantities of short-lived radionuclides, and there is a large decay capacity in the nation's landfills. As the major generators of low-level radioactive waste with relatively short half-lives, the academic, medical, and research communities likely would benefit most from such regulatory relief. Disposal of such waste is prohibited or costly. The waste must be specially packaged, stored, transported, and disposed in designated repositories. Regulatory relief can be initiated by citizens since the Administrative Procedures Act gives citizens the right to petition for regulatory change. 10 refs., 2 tabs

  4. Low-level maternal methylmercury exposure through rice ingestion and potential implications for offspring health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothenberg, Sarah E.; Feng Xinbin; Li Ping

    2011-01-01

    Fish consumption is considered the primary pathway for MeHg (MeHg) exposure; however, MeHg exposure also occurs through rice ingestion. Rice is grown in an aquatic environment and although documented MeHg concentrations in rice are lower compared to fish tissue, human exposures exceed international guidelines in some regions where rice is a staple food and rice MeHg levels are elevated. Studies concerning human health exposure to MeHg should also include populations where maternal MeHg exposure occurs through ingestion of rice. Rice does not contain long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are associated with confounding developmental outcomes in offspring. Rice is also a staple food for more than half the world's population; therefore, it is critical to investigate the potential health risks of maternal ingestion of rice to the developing fetus, the most susceptible population to the deleterious effects of MeHg. Data concerning MeHg in rice are reviewed and micronutrients in rice are discussed. - Research highlights: → Maternal methylmercury exposure through rice may be important. → Rice does not contain the same micronutrients as fish, but may contain methylmercury. → Effects to offspring from methylmercury without beneficial micronutrients are unknown. - Studies concerning maternal methylmercury exposure and cognitive outcomes for offspring should include populations where rice ingestion is the primary methylmercury exposure pathway.

  5. Levels of Social Sharing and Clinical Implications for Severe Social Withdrawal in Patients with Personality Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colle, Livia; Pellecchia, Giovanni; Moroni, Fabio; Carcione, Antonino; Nicolò, Giuseppe; Semerari, Antonio; Procacci, Michele

    2017-01-01

    Social sharing capacities have attracted attention from a number of fields of social cognition and have been variously defined and analyzed in numerous studies. Social sharing consists in the subjective awareness that aspects of the self's experience are held in common with other individuals. The definition of social sharing must take a variety of elements into consideration: the motivational element, the contents of the social sharing experience, the emotional responses it evokes, the behavioral outcomes, and finally, the circumstances and the skills which enable social sharing. The primary objective of this study is to explore some of the diverse forms of human social sharing and to classify them according to levels of complexity. We identify four different types of social sharing, categorized according to the nature of the content being shared and the complexity of the mindreading skills required. The second objective of this study is to consider possible applications of this graded model of social sharing experience in clinical settings. Specifically, this model may support the development of graded, focused clinical interventions for patients with personality disorders characterized by severe social withdrawal.

  6. Sorption of strontium on uranyl peroxide: implications for a high-level nuclear waste repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureda, Rosa; Martínez-Lladó, Xavier; Rovira, Miquel; de Pablo, Joan; Casas, Ignasi; Giménez, Javier

    2010-09-15

    Strontium-90 is considered the most important radioactive isotope in the environment and one of the most frequently occurring radionuclides in groundwaters at nuclear facilities. The uranyl peroxide studtite (UO2O2 . 4H2O) has been observed to be formed in spent nuclear fuel leaching experiments and seems to have a relatively high sorption capacity for some radionuclides. In this work, the sorption of strontium onto studtite is studied as a function of time, strontium concentration in solution and pH. The main results obtained are (a) sorption is relatively fast although slower than for cesium; (b) strontium seems to be sorbed via a monolayer coverage of the studtite surface, (c) sorption has a strong dependence on ionic strength, is negligible at acidic pH, and increases at neutral to alkaline pH (almost 100% of the strontium in solution is sorbed above pH 10). These results point to uranium secondary solid phase formation on the spent nuclear fuel as an important mechanism for strontium retention in a high-level nuclear waste repository (HLNW). Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Levels of Social Sharing and Clinical Implications for Severe Social Withdrawal in Patients with Personality Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Colle

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Social sharing capacities have attracted attention from a number of fields of social cognition and have been variously defined and analyzed in numerous studies. Social sharing consists in the subjective awareness that aspects of the self’s experience are held in common with other individuals. The definition of social sharing must take a variety of elements into consideration: the motivational element, the contents of the social sharing experience, the emotional responses it evokes, the behavioral outcomes, and finally, the circumstances and the skills which enable social sharing. The primary objective of this study is to explore some of the diverse forms of human social sharing and to classify them according to levels of complexity. We identify four different types of social sharing, categorized according to the nature of the content being shared and the complexity of the mindreading skills required. The second objective of this study is to consider possible applications of this graded model of social sharing experience in clinical settings. Specifically, this model may support the development of graded, focused clinical interventions for patients with personality disorders characterized by severe social withdrawal.

  8. Socioeconomic impacts of large-scale developments: implications for high-level nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murdock, S.H.; Leistritz, F.L.; Hamm, R.R.

    1983-01-01

    High-level nuclear waste repositories will likely be located in sparsely settled rural areas in the US. These projects will significantly affect the economic, demographic, public service, fiscal, and social (the socioeconomic) dimensions of those rural areas. The impacts and means of mitigating them thus require careful analysis. This paper examines some of the potential socioeconomic impacts likely to occur in rural areas as a result of repository siting and development, and it describes some of the characteristics of mitigation programs that are likely to be necessary, if the impacts are to be addressed. Both (1) standard impacts, those resulting from the fact that, like many other large-scale developments, repositories will involve a substantial number of new workers and residents (relative to the size of existing communities), and (2) special impacts, those resulting from the fact that repositories store radioactive materials, are examined. The discussion indicates that economic, demographic, public service, fiscal, and social impacts (standard and special) of these repositories will be substantial and problematic in many cases. Unless the impacts are effectively addressed with carefully planned and well financed mitigation efforts that insure that high-quality planning information is provided to local residents, and that local residents are involved in impact planning and management throughout the siting and development process, repository siting is unlikely to be effectively and equitably achieved. 44 references

  9. Stomatal conductance of semi-natural Mediterranean grasslands: Implications for the development of ozone critical levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, R.; Bermejo, V.; Sanz, J.; Valls, B.; Elvira, S.; Gimeno, B.S.

    2007-01-01

    Intra-genus and intra-specific variation and the influence of nitrogen enrichment on net assimilation and stomatal conductance of some annual Trifolium species of Mediterranean dehesa grasslands were assessed under experimental conditions. Also gas exchange rates were compared between some Leguminosae and Poaceae species growing in the field in a dehesa ecosystem in central Spain. The results showed that the previously reported different O 3 sensitivity of some Trifolium species growing in pots does not seem to be related to different maximum g s values. In addition, no clear differences on gas exchange rates could be attributed to Leguminosae and Poaceae families growing in the field, with intra-genus variation being more important than differences found between families. Further studies are needed to increase the database for developing a flux-based approach for setting O 3 critical levels for semi-natural Mediterranean species. - The stomatal conductance model incorporated within the EMEP DO 3 SE deposition module needs to be re-parameterised for Mediterranean semi-natural vegetation

  10. Effects of low-level radiation upon the hematopoietic steam cell: implications for leukemogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronkite, E.P.; Bond, V.P.; Carsten, A.L.; Miller, M.E.; Bullis, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    These studies have addressed firstly the effect of single small doses of x-ray upon murine hematopoietic stem cells to obtain a better estimate of the D/sub q/. It is small, of the order of 20 rads. Secondly, a dose fractionation schedule tht does not kill or perturb the kinetics of hemopoietic cell proliferation was sought in order to investigate the leukemogenic potential of low level radiation upon an unperturbed hemopoietic system. The studies reported herein show tht 1.25 rads every other day decrease the CFU-S content of bone marrow by the time 40 rads are accumulated. Studies on the effect of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 rads 3 times per week are under way. Two rads 3 times per week produced a modest decrease in CFU-S content of bone marrow after an accumulation of 68 rads. With 3.0 rads 3 times per week an accumulation of 102 rads produces a significant decrease in CFU-S content of bone marrow. Dose fractionation at 0.5 and 1.0 rad 3 times per week has not produced a CFU-S depression after accumulation of 17 and 34 rads. Radiation leukemogenesis studies published to date have utilized single doses and chronic exposure schedules that probably have significantly perturbed the kinetics of hematopoietic stem cells. Whether radiation will produce leukemia in animal models with dose schedules that do not perturb kinetics of hematopoietic stem cells remains to be seen

  11. Factors That Influence Linkages to HIV Continuum of Care Services: Implications for Multi-Level Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério M. Pinto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV continuum of care involves health promotion providers (e.g., social workers and health educators linking patients to medical personnel who provide HIV testing, primary care, and antiretroviral treatments. Regrettably, these life-saving linkages are not always made consistently and many patients are not retained in care. To design, test and implement effective interventions, we need to first identify key factors that may improve linkage-making. To help close this gap, we used in-depth interviews with 20 providers selected from a sample of 250 participants in a mixed-method longitudinal study conducted in New York City (2012–2017 in order to examine the implementation of HIV services for at-risk populations. Following a sociomedical framework, we identified provider-, interpersonal- and environmental-level factors that influence how providers engage patients in the care continuum by linking them to HIV testing, HIV care, and other support services. These factors occurred in four domains of reference: Providers’ Professional Knowledge Base; Providers’ Interprofessional Collaboration; Providers’ Work-Related Changes; and Best Practices in a Competitive Environment. Of particular importance, our findings show that a competitive environment and a fear of losing patients to other agencies may inhibit providers from engaging in linkage-making. Our results suggest relationships between factors within and across all four domains; we recommend interventions to modify factors in all domains for maximum effect toward improving care continuum linkage-making. Our findings may be applicable in different areas of the globe with high HIV prevalence.

  12. Effects of low level radiation upon the hematopoietic stem cell: Implications for leukemogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronkite, E.P.; Bond, V.P.; Carsten, A.L.; Miller, M.E.; Bullis, J.E.; Inoue, T.; Yokohama City Univ.

    1987-01-01

    These studies have addressed firstly the effect of single small doses of X-rays upon murine hematopoietic stem cells to obtain a better estimate of the D q . It is small, of the order of 20 rad. Secondly, a dose fractionation schedule that does not kill or perturb the kinetcs of hemopoietic cell proliferation was sought in order to investigate the leukemogenic potential of low level radiation upon an unperturbed hemopoietic system. Doses used by others in past radiation leukemogenesis studies clearly perturb hemopoiesis and kill a detectable fraction of stem cells. The studies reported herein show that 1.25 rad every day decrease the CFU-S content of bone marrow by the time 80 rads are accumulated. Higher daily doses as used in published studies on radiation leukemogenesis produce greater effects. Studies on the effect of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 rad 3 times per week are under way. Two rad 3 times per week produced a modest decrease in CFU-S content of bone marrow after an accumulation of 68 rad. With 3.0 rad 3 times per week an accumulation of 102 rad produced a significant decrease in CFU-S content of bone marrow. Dose fractionation at 0.5 and 1.0 rad 3 times per week has not produced a CFU-S depression after accumulation of 17 and 34 rad. Radiation leukemogenesis studies published to date have utilized single doses and chronic exposure schedules that probably have significantly perturbed the kinetcs of hematopoietic stem cells. Whether radiation will produce leukemia in animal models with dose schedules that do not perturb kinetics of hematopoietic stem cells remains to be seen. (orig.)

  13. Effects of low-level radiation upon the haematopoietic stem cell. Implications for leukaemogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronkite, E.P.; Bond, V.P.; Carsten, A.L.; Miller, M.E.; Bullis, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    These studies address first the effect of single small doses of X-rays upon murine haematopoietic stem cells to obtain a better estimate of the Dsub(q). It is small, of the order of 20 rad. Second, a dose fractionation schedule that does not kill or perturb the kinetics of haematopoietic cell proliferation was sought to investigate the leukaemogenic potential of low-level radiation upon an unperturbed haematopoietic system. Doses used by others in past radiation leukaemogenesis studies clearly perturb haematopoiesis and kill a detectable fraction of stem cells. The studies reported in the paper show that 1.25 rad every day decreases the CFU-S content of bone marrow by the time 80 rad are accumulated. Higher daily doses as used in published studies on radiation leukaemogenesis produce greater effects. Studies of the effect of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 rad three times per week are under way. Two rad three times per week produce a modest decrease in CFU-S content of bone marrow after an accumulation of 68 rad. With 3.0 rad three times per week, an accumulation of 102 rad produces a significant decrease in CFU-S content of bone marrow. Dose fractionation at 0.5 and 1.0 rad three times per week has not produced a CFU-S depression after accumulation of 17 and 34 rad. Radiation leukaemogenesis studies published to date have used single doses and chronic exposure schedules that probably have significantly perturbed the kinetics of haematopoietic stem cells. Whether radiation will produce leukaemia in animal models with dose schedules that do not perturb the kinetics of haematopoietic stem cells remains to be seen. (author)

  14. Flower-level developmental plasticity to nutrient availability in Datura stramonium: implications for the mating system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Iván Darío; Nattero, Julieta; Careaga, Sonia A; Núñez-Farfán, Juan

    2017-10-17

    Studies of phenotypic plasticity in plants have mainly focused on (1) the effect of environmental variation on whole-plant traits related to the number of modules rather than on (2) the phenotypic consequences of environmental variation in traits of individual modules. Since environmental and developmental factors can produce changes in traits related to the mating system, this study used the second approach to investigate whether within-individual variation in herkogamy-related traits is affected by the environment during plant development in two populations of Datura stramonium , an annual herb with a hypothesized persistent mixed mating system, and to determine which morphological traits may promote self-fertilization. Full-sib families of two Mexican populations of D. stramonium , with contrasting ecological histories, were grown under low, mid and high nutrient availability to investigate the effects of genetic, environmental and within-plant flower position on flower size, corolla, stamen and pistil lengths, and herkogamy. Populations showed differences in familial variation, plasticity and familial differences in plasticity in most floral traits analysed. In one population (Ticumán), the effect of flower position on trait variation varied among families, whereas in the other (Pedregal) the effect of flower position interacted with the nutrient environment. Flower size varied with the position of flowers, but in the opposite direction between populations in low nutrients; a systematic within-plant trend of reduction in flower size, pistil length and herkogamy with flower position increased the probability of self-fertilization in the Pedregal population. Besides genetic variation in floral traits between and within populations, environmental variation affects phenotypic floral trait values at the whole-plant level, as well as among flower positions. The interaction between flower position and nutrient environment can affect the plant's mating system, and

  15. Deep Uncertainties in Sea-Level Rise and Storm Surge Projections: Implications for Coastal Flood Risk Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddo, Perry C; Lee, Ben S; Garner, Gregory G; Srikrishnan, Vivek; Reed, Patrick M; Forest, Chris E; Keller, Klaus

    2017-09-05

    Sea levels are rising in many areas around the world, posing risks to coastal communities and infrastructures. Strategies for managing these flood risks present decision challenges that require a combination of geophysical, economic, and infrastructure models. Previous studies have broken important new ground on the considerable tensions between the costs of upgrading infrastructure and the damages that could result from extreme flood events. However, many risk-based adaptation strategies remain silent on certain potentially important uncertainties, as well as the tradeoffs between competing objectives. Here, we implement and improve on a classic decision-analytical model (Van Dantzig 1956) to: (i) capture tradeoffs across conflicting stakeholder objectives, (ii) demonstrate the consequences of structural uncertainties in the sea-level rise and storm surge models, and (iii) identify the parametric uncertainties that most strongly influence each objective using global sensitivity analysis. We find that the flood adaptation model produces potentially myopic solutions when formulated using traditional mean-centric decision theory. Moving from a single-objective problem formulation to one with multiobjective tradeoffs dramatically expands the decision space, and highlights the need for compromise solutions to address stakeholder preferences. We find deep structural uncertainties that have large effects on the model outcome, with the storm surge parameters accounting for the greatest impacts. Global sensitivity analysis effectively identifies important parameter interactions that local methods overlook, and that could have critical implications for flood adaptation strategies. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  16. Assessing the Energy and Emissions Implications of Alternative Population Scenarios Using a State-Level Integrated Assessment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, W.; Nolte, C. G.; Loughlin, D. H.; Ou, Y.; Smith, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    We use GCAM-USA to examine the sensitivity of energy demands and resulting pollutant emissions and health impacts to differing population projections. The population projections are based on future fertility, mortality, migration and education assumptions consistent with the five Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) (Jones and O'Neill, 2016). By using a state-level integrated assessment model, we capture the energy and emissions implications of population changes. Additionally, we overlay heating degree days and cooling degree days calculated from climate change projections to assess the individual and combined impacts of population shifts and climate change. A unique aspect of this work is the explicit representation of important regulatory drivers, such as the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule and vehicle efficiency standards. Preliminary results indicate there are significant differences across population scenarios in both U.S. national and state-level emissions. In this presentation, we will examine the influence of underlying factors such as climate, population, and technology changes on emissions and environmental impacts at 2050.

  17. The Impact of Video Length on Learning in a Middle-Level Flipped Science Setting: Implications for Diversity Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slemmons, Krista; Anyanwu, Kele; Hames, Josh; Grabski, Dave; Mlsna, Jeffery; Simkins, Eric; Cook, Perry

    2018-05-01

    Popularity of videos for classroom instruction has increased over the years due to affordability and user-friendliness of today's digital video cameras. This prevalence has led to an increase in flipped, K-12 classrooms countrywide. However, quantitative data establishing the appropriate video length to foster authentic learning is limited, particularly in middle-level classrooms. We focus on this aspect of video technology in two flipped science classrooms at the middle school level to determine the optimal video length to enable learning, increase retention and support student motivation. Our results indicate that while assessments directly following short videos were slightly higher, these findings were not significantly different from scores following longer videos. While short-term retention of material did not seem to be influenced by video length, longer-term retention for males and students with learning disabilities was higher following short videos compared to long as assessed on summative assessments. Students self-report that they were more engaged, had enhanced focus, and had a perceived higher retention of content following shorter videos. This study has important implications for student learning, application of content, and the development of critical thinking skills. This is particularly paramount in an era where content knowledge is just a search engine away.

  18. Climatology of nocturnal low-level jets over North Africa and implications for modeling mineral dust emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, S; Schepanski, K; Heinold, B; Knippertz, P; Tegen, I

    2013-06-27

    [1] This study presents the first climatology for the dust emission amount associated with Nocturnal Low-Level Jets (NLLJs) in North Africa. These wind speed maxima near the top of the nocturnal boundary layer can generate near-surface peak winds due to shear-driven turbulence in the course of the night and the NLLJ breakdown during the following morning. The associated increase in the near-surface wind speed is a driver for mineral dust emission. A new detection algorithm for NLLJs is presented and used for a statistical assessment of NLLJs in 32 years of ERA-Interim reanalysis from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. NLLJs occur in 29% of the nights in the annual and spatial mean. The NLLJ climatology shows a distinct annual cycle with marked regional differences. Maxima of up to 80% NLLJ frequency are found where low-level baroclinicity and orographic channels cause favorable conditions, e.g., over the Bodélé Depression, Chad, for November-February and along the West Saharan and Mauritanian coast for April-September. Downward mixing of NLLJ momentum to the surface causes 15% of mineral dust emission in the annual and spatial mean and can be associated with up to 60% of the total dust amount in specific areas, e.g., the Bodélé Depression and south of the Hoggar-Tibesti Channel. The sharp diurnal cycle underlines the importance of using wind speed information with high temporal resolution as driving fields for dust emission models. Citation: Fiedler, S., K. Schepanski, B. Heinold, P. Knippertz, and I. Tegen (2013), Climatology of nocturnal low-level jets over North Africa and implications for modeling mineral dust emission, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 118, 6100-6121, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50394.

  19. Revisiting visibility in the plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkinson, Bryan Thomas

    Abstract We consider two closely related problems: computing the region visible from a point amid simple polygonal obstacles and computing the lower envelope of a set of disjoint segments. Visibility problems such as these were proposed and promptly solved in the late'80s and early'90s before...

  20. Visibility of wavelet quantization noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, A. B.; Yang, G. Y.; Solomon, J. A.; Villasenor, J.

    1997-01-01

    The discrete wavelet transform (DWT) decomposes an image into bands that vary in spatial frequency and orientation. It is widely used for image compression. Measures of the visibility of DWT quantization errors are required to achieve optimal compression. Uniform quantization of a single band of coefficients results in an artifact that we call DWT uniform quantization noise; it is the sum of a lattice of random amplitude basis functions of the corresponding DWT synthesis filter. We measured visual detection thresholds for samples of DWT uniform quantization noise in Y, Cb, and Cr color channels. The spatial frequency of a wavelet is r 2-lambda, where r is display visual resolution in pixels/degree, and lambda is the wavelet level. Thresholds increase rapidly with wavelet spatial frequency. Thresholds also increase from Y to Cr to Cb, and with orientation from lowpass to horizontal/vertical to diagonal. We construct a mathematical model for DWT noise detection thresholds that is a function of level, orientation, and display visual resolution. This allows calculation of a "perceptually lossless" quantization matrix for which all errors are in theory below the visual threshold. The model may also be used as the basis for adaptive quantization schemes.

  1. [Effect of Charge-Transfer Complex on Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) Absorption Property of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) in Waters of Typical Water-Level Fluctuation Zones of the Three Gorges Reservoir Areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Liang, Jian; Zhang, Mu-xue; Wang, Ding-yong; Wei, Shi-qiang; Lu, Song

    2016-02-15

    As an important fraction of dissolved organic matter (DOM), chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) plays a key role in decision of the optical properties and photogeochemistry of DOM, and further affects pollutant fate and global carbon cycle. These optical properties are ascribed to two chromophoric systems including superposition of individual chromophores and charge-transfer (CT) complexation between electron donor (e.g., phenols and indoles) and acceptor (e.g., quinones and other oxidized aromatics) in DOM structures. Thus in this study, based on the "double-chromophoric system" model, DOM samples from four typical water-level fluctuation zones of Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) areas were selected, to investigate the effect and contribution of charge-transfer complex to ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption property of CDOM. Using NaBH, reduction method, original featureless absorption curve was classified into two independent curves caused by individual chromophoric group, which were derived from a simple superposition of independent chromophore and charge-transfer complex, respectively. Also, the changes in curve properties and specific parameters before and after NaBH4 reduction were compared. The results showed that in all DOM samples from the four sites of TGR, more than 35% of absorption was attributed from CT complex. Shibaozhai of Zhongxian and Zhenxi of Fuling showed the highest proportion ( > 50%). It suggested that the role of CT complex in CDOM property could not be neglected. After removal of CT complex, absorption curve showed blue-shift and CDOM concentration [a (355)] decreased significantly. Meanwhile, because of deforming of bonds by reduction, DOM structures became more dispersive and the molecular size was decreased, resulting in the lower spectral slope (S) observed, which evidentially supported that the supermolecular association structure of DOM was self-assembled through CT complex. Meanwhile, deceasing hydrophobic components led

  2. Petroleum product refining: plant level analysis of costs and competitiveness. Implications of greenhouse gas emission reductions. Vol 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, S.J.; Crandall, G.R.; Houlton, G.A.; Kromm, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    Implications on the Canadian refining industry of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to meet Canada's Kyoto commitment are assessed, based on a plant-level analysis of costs, benefits and economic and competitive impacts. It was determined on the basis of demand estimates prepared by Natural Resources Canada that refining industry carbon dioxide emissions could be as much a 38 per cent higher than 1990 levels in 2010. Achieving a six per cent reduction below 1990 levels from this business-as-usual case is considered a very difficult target to achieve, unless refinery shutdowns occur. This would require higher imports to meet Canada's petroleum products demand, leaving total carbon dioxide emissions virtually unchanged. A range of options, classified as (1) low capital, operating efficiency projects, (2) medium capital, process/utility optimization projects, (3) high capital, refinery specific projects, and (4) high operating cost GHG projects, were evaluated. Of these four alternatives, the low capital or operating efficiency projects were the only ones judged to have the potential to be economically viable. Energy efficiency projects in these four groups were evaluated under several policy initiatives including accelerated depreciation and a $200 per tonne of carbon tax. Result showed that an accelerated depreciation policy would lower the hurdle rate for refinery investments, and could achieve a four per cent reduction in GHG emissions below 1990 levels, assuming no further shutdown of refinery capacity. The carbon tax was judged to be potentially damaging to the Canadian refinery industry since it would penalize cracking refineries (most Canadian refineries are of this type); it would provide further uncertainty and risk, such that industry might not be able to justify investments to reduce emissions. The overall assessment is that the Canadian refinery industry could not meet the pro-rata Kyoto GHG reduction target through implementation of economically

  3. Do biofuel blending mandates reduce gasoline consumption? Implications of state-level renewable fuel standards for energy security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Shinling

    In an effort to keep America's addiction to oil under control, federal and state governments have implemented a variety of policy measures including those that determine the composition of motor gasoline sold at the pump. Biofuel blending mandates known as Renewable Fuel Standards (RFS) are designed to reduce the amount of foreign crude oil needed to be imported as well as to boost the local ethanol and corn industry. Yet beyond looking at changes in gasoline prices associated with increased ethanol production, there have been no empirical studies that examine effects of state-level RFS implementation on gasoline consumption. I estimate a Generalized Least Squares model for the gasoline demand for the 1993 to 2010 period with state and time fixed effects controlling for RFS. States with active RFS are Minnesota, Hawaii, Missouri, Florida, Washington, and Oregon. I find that, despite the onset of federal biofuel mandates across states in 2007 and the lower energy content of blended gasoline, being in a state that has implemented RFS is associated with 1.5% decrease in gasoline consumption (including blended gasoline). This is encouraging evidence for efforts to lessen dependence on gasoline and has positive implications for energy security.

  4. Infrared and visible fusion face recognition based on NSCT domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhihua; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Guodong; Xiong, Jinquan

    2018-01-01

    Visible face recognition systems, being vulnerable to illumination, expression, and pose, can not achieve robust performance in unconstrained situations. Meanwhile, near infrared face images, being light- independent, can avoid or limit the drawbacks of face recognition in visible light, but its main challenges are low resolution and signal noise ratio (SNR). Therefore, near infrared and visible fusion face recognition has become an important direction in the field of unconstrained face recognition research. In this paper, a novel fusion algorithm in non-subsampled contourlet transform (NSCT) domain is proposed for Infrared and visible face fusion recognition. Firstly, NSCT is used respectively to process the infrared and visible face images, which exploits the image information at multiple scales, orientations, and frequency bands. Then, to exploit the effective discriminant feature and balance the power of high-low frequency band of NSCT coefficients, the local Gabor binary pattern (LGBP) and Local Binary Pattern (LBP) are applied respectively in different frequency parts to obtain the robust representation of infrared and visible face images. Finally, the score-level fusion is used to fuse the all the features for final classification. The visible and near infrared face recognition is tested on HITSZ Lab2 visible and near infrared face database. Experiments results show that the proposed method extracts the complementary features of near-infrared and visible-light images and improves the robustness of unconstrained face recognition.

  5. Integrating Operational Energy Implications into System-Level Combat Effects Modeling: Assessing the Combat Effectiveness and Fuel Use of ABCT 2020 and Current ABCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Endy M. Daehner, John Matsumura, Thomas J. Herbert , Jeremy R. Kurz, Keith Walters Integrating Operational Energy Implications into System-Level... George Guthridge, and Megan Corso for their clear guid- ance and assistance throughout the study. We also received valuable information and insights from...helped with processing modeling and simulation outputs. Laura Novacic and Donna Mead provided invaluable administrative assistance and help with

  6. Evolution of Two Urbanized Estuaries: Environmental Change, Legal Framework, and Implications for Sea-Level Rise Vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J. Pinto

    2016-11-01

    even modest rises in sea level. Remaining wetlands are now heavily encroached on their landward side by urban development, which prevents their landward migration. Different legal interpretations of comparable definitions of public trusts and jurisdictions over shorelines may have significant implications for the ability to adapt to sea-level rise.

  7. Diversity among clients of female sex workers in India: comparing risk profiles and intervention impact by site of solicitation. implications for the vulnerability of less visible female sex workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak Suryawanshi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It seems generally accepted that targeted interventions in India have been successful in raising condom use between female sex workers (FSWs and their clients. Data from clients of FSWs have been under-utilised to analyse the risk environments and vulnerability of both partners. METHODS: The 2009 Integrated Biological and Behavioural Assessment survey sampled clients of FSWs at hotspots in Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu (n=5040. The risk profile of clients in terms of sexual networking and condom use are compared across usual pick-up place. We used propensity score matching (PSM to estimate the average treatment effect on treated (ATT of intervention messages on clients' consistent condom use with FSW. RESULTS: Clients of the more hidden sex workers who solicit from home or via phone or agents had more extensive sexual networks, reporting casual female partners as well as anal intercourse with male partners and FSW. Clients of brothel-based sex workers, who were the least educated, reported the fewest number/categories of partners, least anal sex, and lowest condom use (41%. Consistent condom use varied widely by state: 65% in Andhra Pradesh, 36% in Maharashtra and 29% in Tamil Nadu. Exposure to intervention messages on sexually transmitted infections was lowest among men frequenting brothels (58%, and highest among men soliciting less visible sex workers (70%. Exposure had significant impact on consistent condom use, including among clients of home-based sex workers (ATT 21%; p=0.001 and among men soliciting other more hidden FSW (ATT 17%; p=0.001. In Tamil Nadu no impact could be demonstrated. CONCLUSION: Commercial sex happens between two partners and both need to be, and can be, reached by intervention messages. Commercial sex is still largely unprotected and as the sex industry gets more diffuse a greater focus on reaching clients of sex workers seems important given their extensive sexual networks.

  8. Diversity among clients of female sex workers in India: comparing risk profiles and intervention impact by site of solicitation. implications for the vulnerability of less visible female sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawanshi, Dipak; Bhatnagar, Tarun; Deshpande, Sucheta; Zhou, Weiwei; Singh, Pankaj; Collumbien, Martine

    2013-01-01

    It seems generally accepted that targeted interventions in India have been successful in raising condom use between female sex workers (FSWs) and their clients. Data from clients of FSWs have been under-utilised to analyse the risk environments and vulnerability of both partners. The 2009 Integrated Biological and Behavioural Assessment survey sampled clients of FSWs at hotspots in Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu (n=5040). The risk profile of clients in terms of sexual networking and condom use are compared across usual pick-up place. We used propensity score matching (PSM) to estimate the average treatment effect on treated (ATT) of intervention messages on clients' consistent condom use with FSW. Clients of the more hidden sex workers who solicit from home or via phone or agents had more extensive sexual networks, reporting casual female partners as well as anal intercourse with male partners and FSW. Clients of brothel-based sex workers, who were the least educated, reported the fewest number/categories of partners, least anal sex, and lowest condom use (41%). Consistent condom use varied widely by state: 65% in Andhra Pradesh, 36% in Maharashtra and 29% in Tamil Nadu. Exposure to intervention messages on sexually transmitted infections was lowest among men frequenting brothels (58%), and highest among men soliciting less visible sex workers (70%). Exposure had significant impact on consistent condom use, including among clients of home-based sex workers (ATT 21%; p=0.001) and among men soliciting other more hidden FSW (ATT 17%; p=0.001). In Tamil Nadu no impact could be demonstrated. Commercial sex happens between two partners and both need to be, and can be, reached by intervention messages. Commercial sex is still largely unprotected and as the sex industry gets more diffuse a greater focus on reaching clients of sex workers seems important given their extensive sexual networks.

  9. Incremental Visualizer for Visible Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukauskas, Linas; Bøhlen, Michael Hanspeter

    This paper discusses the integration of database back-end and visualizer front-end into a one tightly coupled system. The main aim which we achieve is to reduce the data pipeline from database to visualization by using incremental data extraction of visible objects in a fly-through scenarios. We...... also argue that passing only relevant data from the database will substantially reduce the overall load of the visualization system. We propose the system Incremental Visualizer for Visible Objects (IVVO) which considers visible objects and enables incremental visualization along the observer movement...... path. IVVO is the novel solution which allows data to be visualized and loaded on the fly from the database and which regards visibilities of objects. We run a set of experiments to convince that IVVO is feasible in terms of I/O operations and CPU load. We consider the example of data which uses...

  10. Levels of tritium in soils and vegetation near Canadian nuclear facilities releasing tritium to the atmosphere: implications for environmental models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, P.A.; Kwamena, N.-O.A.; Ilin, M.; Wilk, M.; Clark, I.D.

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of organically bound tritium (OBT) and tritiated water (HTO) were measured over two growing seasons in vegetation and soil samples obtained in the vicinity of four nuclear facilities and two background locations in Canada. At the background locations, with few exceptions, OBT concentrations were higher than HTO concentrations: OBT/HTO ratios in vegetation varied between 0.3 and 20 and values in soil varied between 2.7 and 15. In the vicinity of the four nuclear facilities OBT/HTO ratios in vegetation and soils deviated from the expected mean value of 0.7, which is used as a default value in environmental transfer models. Ratios of the OBT activity concentration in plants ([OBT] plant ) to the OBT activity concentration in soils ([OBT] soil ) appear to be a good indicator of the long-term behaviour of tritium in soil and vegetation. In general, OBT activity concentrations in soils were nearly equal to OBT activity concentrations in plants in the vicinity of the two nuclear power plants. [OBT] plant /[OBT] soil ratios considerably below unity observed at one nuclear processing facility represents historically higher levels of tritium in the environment. The results of our study reflect the dynamic nature of HTO retention and OBT formation in vegetation and soil during the growing season. Our data support the mounting evidence suggesting that some parameters used in environmental transfer models approved for regulatory assessments should be revisited to better account for the behavior of HTO and OBT in the environment and to ensure that modelled estimates (e.g., plant OBT) are appropriately conservative. - Highlights: • We measured tritium in soils and plants near four nuclear facilities in Canada. • OBT/HTO ratios in plants are higher than default value in environmental models. • OBT/HTO ratios in background soils reflect historically higher atmospheric tritium. • Implications for environmental transfer models are discussed

  11. Visible neutrino decay at DUNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coloma, Pilar [Fermilab; Peres, Orlando G. [ICTP, Trieste

    2017-05-09

    If the heaviest neutrino mass eigenstate is unstable, its decay modes could include lighter neutrino eigenstates. In this case part of the decay products could be visible, as they would interact at neutrino detectors via mixing. At neutrino oscillation experiments, a characteristic signature of such \\emph{visible neutrino decay} would be an apparent excess of events at low energies. We focus on a simple phenomenological model in which the heaviest neutrino decays as $\

  12. Perceptions of a photograph of a woman with visible piercings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Sara

    2008-08-01

    To examine perceptions of people with visible piercings 105 undergraduate students from four different courses on campus (85 women, 20 men; M age=20.0 yr., SD=3.4) were randomly assigned to rate a photograph of a women with or without piercings on her eyebrow, ear, lip, and nose on 13 characteristics. Analysis indicated the model with visible piercings was rated less religious and more creative, artistic, and mysterious. These findings differ from previous findings on perception of tattoos. Implications and directions for research with different age groups are discussed.

  13. Impact of Type 2 Myocardial Infarction (MI) on Hospital-Level MI Outcomes: Implications for Quality and Public Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Sameer; Strassle, Paula D; Qamar, Arman; Wheeler, Evan N; Levine, Alexandra L; Misenheimer, Jacob A; Cavender, Matthew A; Stouffer, George A; Kaul, Prashant

    2018-03-26

    The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) coding system does not recognize type 2 myocardial infarction (MI) as a separate entity; therefore, patients with type 2 MI continue to be categorized under the general umbrella of non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). We aim to evaluate the impact of type 2 MI on hospital-level NSTEMI metrics and discuss the implications for quality and public reporting. We conducted a single-center retrospective analysis of 1318 patients discharged with a diagnosis of NSTEMI between July 2013 and October 2014. The Third Universal Definition was used to define type 1 and type 2 MI. Weighted Kaplan-Meier curves were used to analyze risk of mortality and readmission. Overall, 1039 patients met NSTEMI criteria per the Third Universal Definition; of those, 264 (25.4%) had type 2 MI. Patients with type 2 MI were older, were more likely to have chronic kidney disease, and had lower peak troponin levels. Compared with type 1 MI patients, those with type 2 MI had higher inpatient mortality (17.4% versus 4.7%, P <0.0001) and were more likely to die from noncardiovascular causes (71.7% versus 25.0%, P <0.0001). Despite weighting for patient characteristics and discharge medications, patients with type 2 MI had higher mortality at both 30 days (risk ratio: 3.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.67-7.88) and 1 year (risk ratio: 1.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.44-2.73) after discharge. Type 2 MI was also associated with a lower 30-day cardiovascular-related readmission (risk ratio: 0.49; 95% confidence interval, 0.12-2.06). NSTEMI metrics are significantly affected by type 2 MI patients. Type 2 MI patients have distinct etiologies, are managed differently, and have higher mortality compared with patients with type 1 MI. Moving forward, it may be appropriate to exclude type 2 MI data from NSTEMI quality metrics. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  14. Sea-Level Rise Implications for Coastal Protection from Southern Mediterranean to the U.S.A. Atlantic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Nabil; Williams, Jeffress

    2013-04-01

    planning and restoration projects will require a major undertaking by national governments and international institutions. Joint research projects between international organizations such as: USA research centers ( USGS, NOAA, Corps of Engineers), EU sponsored project groups, EU coastal marine centers as well as other world wide coastal research institutes (CoRI, Alexandria) are encouraged to advance the state of the art on managing coasts to adapt to sea level rise employing cost-effective coastal protection technologies. References 1.Williams, S.J.,"Sea-Level Rise Implications for Coastal Regions", Journal of Coastal Research, Vol. 63, 2013. 2.Ismail, N.,Wiegel, R., "Sustainable Solutions for Coastal Zone Management of Lowland and River Delta Coastlines", Proc. International Conference- Littoral 2012, Ostende, Belgium, November 27-29, 2012. 3.Ismail, N., Iskander, M., and El-Sayed, W. "Assessment of Coastal Flooding at Southern Mediterranean with Global Outlook for Lowland Coastal Zones", Proc. International Conference on Coastal Engineering, ASCE, July 1-6, 2012, Santander, Spain. 4.Moser, S. C., Williams,J.S., and Boesch, D. F., " Wicked Challenges at Land's End: Managing Coastal Vulnerability Under Climate Change'', Annual. Review of Environmental Resources, 37:51-78, 2012.

  15. Utilization of Large Scale Surface Models for Detailed Visibility Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caha, J.; Kačmařík, M.

    2017-11-01

    This article demonstrates utilization of large scale surface models with small spatial resolution and high accuracy, acquired from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle scanning, for visibility analyses. The importance of large scale data for visibility analyses on the local scale, where the detail of the surface model is the most defining factor, is described. The focus is not only the classic Boolean visibility, that is usually determined within GIS, but also on so called extended viewsheds that aims to provide more information about visibility. The case study with examples of visibility analyses was performed on river Opava, near the Ostrava city (Czech Republic). The multiple Boolean viewshed analysis and global horizon viewshed were calculated to determine most prominent features and visibility barriers of the surface. Besides that, the extended viewshed showing angle difference above the local horizon, which describes angular height of the target area above the barrier, is shown. The case study proved that large scale models are appropriate data source for visibility analyses on local level. The discussion summarizes possible future applications and further development directions of visibility analyses.

  16. The visibility of high-redshift galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, S.; Davies, J.I.; Disney, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    The most visible galaxies - that is, those which have the largest apparent sizes and isophotal luminosities when seen at a given distance - are those with a particular observed surface brightness. Extending this argument to high-redshift galaxies, it is clear that this optimum surface brightness moves progressively to brighter intrinsic surface brightnesses, so as to counteract the effect of K-corrections and cosmological dimming. Thus the galaxies appearing in faint surveys will be from a population distinctly different from those 'normal' galaxies observed nearby. Galaxies in deep surveys are more likely to be spirals and to be of high surface brightness. This has very important implications for observational studies of galaxy evolution. (author)

  17. Security in Visible Light Communication: Novel Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian ROHNER

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As LED lighting becomes increasingly ubiquitous, Visible Light Communication is attracting the interest of academia and industry as a complement to RF as the physical layer for the Internet of Things. Aside from its much greater spectral availability compared to RF, visible light has several attractive properties that may promote its uptake: its lack of health risks, its opportunities for spatial reuse, its relative immunity to multipath fading, its lack of electromagnetic interference, and its inherently secure nature: differently from RF, light does not penetrate through walls. In this paper, we outline the security implications of Visible Light Communication, review the existing contributions to this under-explored space, and survey the research opportunities that we envision for the near future.

  18. Tsunami deposits at MIS Stages 5e and 9 on Oahu, Hawaii: implications for sea level at interglacial stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurtry, G. M.; Campbell, J. F.; Fryer, G. J.; Tappin, D. R.; Fietzke, J.

    2010-12-01

    Sandy, basalt-coral conglomerates associated with both beachrock and coral reefs are found at high elevations on Oahu, Hawaii. They have been attributed to either brief, sea level high-stands or storms. The Kahe Point conglomerates are at 12.5 m elevation, whereas the main stage MIS-5e reef at this location has a maximum elevation of 8.2 m. They are loosely consolidated and poorly cemented, graded, poorly sorted, and with varying amounts of basalt and coral clasts ranging from cobble to boulder size. Coral in these deposits has been U-series dated by us at between 120-125 ka (n=5). Four distinct beds, with a gently seaward tilt, are recognized in a road cut section, with each bed composed of a few cm-thick topset bed of fine-grained, shelly, calcareous sand to silt. Similar high elevation conglomerates and 5e reefs are also described at Mokapu and Kaena Points on Oahu, indicating an island-wide deposit. Older coral clasts, dated at 130 to 142 ka (n=6; oldest by alpha spectrometry) found in association with the stage 5e corals suggest reworking and incorporation of older low-stand reef material. The coarse grain size of the conglomerates indicates deposition from a high-energy event; thus a high-stand source is ruled out. We also consider that the overall lithology and up to 0.5 m bed thickness not to be the result of storms; a series of high frequency storm events is considered unlikely. The weight of the evidence in our opinion clearly indicates deposition by a series of tsunami waves. If correct, this has implications for “probabilistic” models of sea level peaks at least 6.6 m higher than present at stage 5e that use such data in their models (e. g., Kopp et al., 2009), at least for Oahu. Within about 2 km of the Kahe deposit, in a road cut at Ko Olina, there is another markedly similar high-energy, sandy basalt-bearing coral conglomerate sequence at 21 to 25 m elevation. There are at least two distinct beds about one meter in thickness, both gently seaward

  19. Visible light alters yeast metabolic rhythms by inhibiting respiration

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, James Brian; Davis, Chris R.; Johnson, Carl Hirschie

    2013-01-01

    In some organisms, respiration fluctuates cyclically, and these rhythms can be a sensitive gauge of metabolism. Constant or pulsatile exposure of yeast to visible wavelengths of light significantly alters and/or initiates these respiratory oscillations, revealing a further dimension of the challenges to yeast living in natural environments. Our results also have implications for the use of light as research tools—e.g., for excitation of fluorescence microscopically—even in organisms such as y...

  20. Implications of monitored retrievable storage for geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halstead, R.J.; Kidwell, S.M.; Woodbury, D.

    1986-01-01

    The integral monitored retrievable storage (I-MRS) proposal has major implications for geologic disposal. This paper reviews the positive and negative implications from the standpoint of a potential repository host state. Recommendations for improving the I-MRS proposal include: eliminate provisions restricting I-MRS backup role; add provisions to prevent I-MRS from becoming a permanent disposal facility; optimize reactor-to-I-MRS transportation system; further shift preclosure operations from repository to I-MRS; defer decision on rod consolidation; repeat the I-MRS site selection process; eliminate any potential linkage between I-MRS and nuclear weapons programs; and incorporate I-MRS in the repository siting program

  1. Distribution of uncertainties at the municipality level for flood risk modelling along the river Meuse: implications for policy-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirotton, Michel; Stilmant, Frédéric; Erpicum, Sébastien; Dewals, Benjamin; Archambeau, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Flood risk modelling has been conducted for the whole course of the river Meuse in Belgium. Major cities, such as Liege (200,000 inh.) and Namur (110,000 inh.), are located in the floodplains of river Meuse. Particular attention has been paid to uncertainty analysis and its implications for decision-making. The modelling chain contains flood frequency analysis, detailed 2D hydraulic computations, damage modelling and risk calculation. The relative importance of each source of uncertainty to the overall results uncertainty has been estimated by considering several alternate options for each step of the analysis: different distributions were considered in the flood frequency analysis; the influence of modelling assumptions and boundary conditions (e.g., steady vs. unsteady) were taken into account for the hydraulic computation; two different landuse classifications and two sets of damage functions were used; the number of exceedance probabilities involved in the risk calculation (by integration of the risk-curves) was varied. In addition, the sensitivity of the results with respect to increases in flood discharges was assessed. The considered increases are consistent with a "wet" climate change scenario for the time horizons 2021-2050 and 2071-2100 (Detrembleur et al., 2015). The results of hazard computation differ significantly between the upper and lower parts of the course of river Meuse in Belgium. In the former, inundation extents grow gradually as the considered flood discharge is increased (i.e. the exceedance probability is reduced), while in the downstream part, protection structures (mainly concrete walls) prevent inundation for flood discharges corresponding to exceedance probabilities of 0.01 and above (in the present climate). For higher discharges, large inundation extents are obtained in the floodplains. The highest values of risk (mean annual damage) are obtained in the municipalities which undergo relatively frequent flooding (upper part of the

  2. Understanding and Approaching Muslim Visibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi

    2011-01-01

    Within Western nation-states such as Denmark, Islamic identities are often seen as inherently and divergently visible, an aspect that some argue is detrimental to the secular nation-state. From a research perspective, one way to nuance this position is by focusing on groups of 'invisible' Muslims...

  3. Early Learning Theories Made Visible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloglovsky, Miriam; Daly, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Go beyond reading about early learning theories and see what they look like in action in modern programs and teacher practices. With classroom vignettes and colorful photographs, this book makes the works of Jean Piaget, Erik Erikson, Lev Vygotsky, Abraham Maslow, John Dewey, Howard Gardner, and Louise Derman-Sparks visible, accessible, and easier…

  4. Non-Euclidean visibility problems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    FERNANDO CHAMIZO. Departamento de Matemáticas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain. MS received 14 November 2005. Abstract. We consider the analog of visibility problems in hyperbolic plane (repre- sented by Poincaré half-plane model H), replacing the standard lattice Z ...

  5. Are naked singularities really visible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvani, M [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia; De Felice, F [Alberta Univ., Edmonton (Canada); Nobili, L [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica

    1978-12-09

    The question whether a Kerr naked singularity is actually visible from infinity is investigated; it is shown that in fact any signal which could be emitted from the singularity is infinitely red-shifted. This implies that naked singularities would be indistinguishable from a black hole.

  6. Visible Machine Learning for Biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Michael K; Ma, Jianzhu; Fisher, Jasmin; Kreisberg, Jason F; Raphael, Benjamin J; Ideker, Trey

    2018-06-14

    A major ambition of artificial intelligence lies in translating patient data to successful therapies. Machine learning models face particular challenges in biomedicine, however, including handling of extreme data heterogeneity and lack of mechanistic insight into predictions. Here, we argue for "visible" approaches that guide model structure with experimental biology. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Iron and Lactoferrin Levels Remain Unchanged in Parkin Deficient Mouse Brains: Implications for Parkinson’s Disease Etiology

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Hanan

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease is a devastating neurodegenerative disease in which loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta leads to a variety of motor and non-motor deficits. Mutations in the Park2 or parkin gene have been implicated in familial forms of Parkinson’s disease. Parkin is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that plays a role in mitophagy, the degradation of damaged mitochondria. Defects in parkin are thought to impair mitophagy, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction and an incr...

  8. Low energy electron irradiation induced deep level defects in 6H-SiC: The implication for the microstructure of the deep levels E1/E2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, X.D.; Fung, S.; Beling, C.D.; Lui, M.K.; Ling, C.C.; Yang, C.L.; Ge, W.K.; Wang, J.N.; Gong, M.

    2004-01-01

    N-type 6H-SiC samples irradiated with electrons having energies of E e =0.2, 0.3, 0.5, and 1.7 were studied by deep level transient technique. No deep level was detected at below 0.2 MeV irradiation energy while for E e ≥0.3 MeV, deep levels ED1, E 1 /E 2 , and E i appeared. By considering the minimum energy required to displace the C atom or the Si atom in the SiC lattice, it is concluded that generation of the deep levels E 1 /E 2 , as well as ED1 and E i , involves the displacement of the C atom in the SiC lattice

  9. Ultraviolet, Visible, and Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, Michael H.

    Spectroscopy in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) range is one of the most commonly encountered laboratory techniques in food analysis. Diverse examples, such as the quantification of macrocomponents (total carbohydrate by the phenol-sulfuric acid method), quantification of microcomponents, (thiamin by the thiochrome fluorometric procedure), estimates of rancidity (lipid oxidation status by the thiobarbituric acid test), and surveillance testing (enzyme-linked immunoassays), are presented in this text. In each of these cases, the analytical signal for which the assay is based is either the emission or absorption of radiation in the UV-Vis range. This signal may be inherent in the analyte, such as the absorbance of radiation in the visible range by pigments, or a result of a chemical reaction involving the analyte, such as the colorimetric copper-based Lowry method for the analysis of soluble protein.

  10. Chemical lasers in the visible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.R.; Broida, H.P.

    1974-01-01

    Since the beginning of the laser era in 1960, a continuing search for chemical lasers has been carried out. This quest has been influenced by the knowledge that many chemical reactions produce visible chemiluminescence and, therefore, partition some of the reaction products into emitting, electronically excited states. Such luminescence has been observed not only from low-pressure, gas-phase reactions, notably those of alkali metals and halogens, but also from a limited number of liquid-phase reactions. (U.S.)

  11. Computing Visible-Surface Representations,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    Terzopoulos N00014-75-C-0643 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AMC ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT, TASK Artificial Inteligence Laboratory AREA A...Massachusetts Institute of lechnolog,. Support lbr the laboratory’s Artificial Intelligence research is provided in part by the Advanced Rtccarcl Proj...dynamically maintaining visible surface representations. Whether the intention is to model human vision or to design competent artificial vision systems

  12. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Visible and Near Infrared Reflectance from AVHRR, Version 1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The AVHRR visible gains and offsets convert GAC pixel level counts to radiances and are provided for each visible band encompassing TIROS-N, NOAA-6 through NOAA-19...

  13. Potential vulnerability implications of sea level rise for the coastal zones of Cochin, southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.

    scenarios with particular emphasis to the coastal environment, a detailed investigation was carried out in the study region (Dinesh Kumar, 2000). Beach transect data generated in the region were analysed to determine the effects of projected sea level rise... considered valid (Are Kont et al., 2003) as the general projections on average global sea level rise, which is used in the present investigation as the projected sea level rise scenarios. According to the climate change scenario results, the projected values...

  14. [Street Outreach Offices: visibility, invisibility, and enhanced visibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallais, Janaína Alves da Silveira; Barros, Nelson Filice de

    2015-07-01

    This article discusses care for street people from a socio-anthropological perspective, using participant observation conducted with a team from a street outreach project. Based on observations, street people are historically viewed as marginal and rarely obtain access to health services, thus making them invisible to the Brazilian Unified National Health System. Brazil's National Policy for the Homeless provides for their access to health care, but such care is not always guaranteed in practice, because health services and professionals have little experience in dealing with homeless persons. The study concludes that enhanced visibility is needed to ensure care for people living on the street, establishing a therapeutic bond that deconstructs stigmatizing practice.

  15. Beyond Language Equivalence on Visibly Pushdown Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srba, Jiri

    2009-01-01

    We study (bi)simulation-like preorder/equivalence checking on the class of visibly pushdown automata and its natural subclasses visibly BPA (Basic Process Algebra) and visibly one-counter automata. We describe generic methods for proving complexity upper and lower bounds for a number of studied...... preorders and equivalences like simulation, completed simulation, ready simulation, 2-nested simulation preorders/equivalences and bisimulation equivalence. Our main results are that all the mentioned equivalences and preorders are EXPTIME-complete on visibly pushdown automata, PSPACE-complete on visibly...... one-counter automata and P-complete on visibly BPA. Our PSPACE lower bound for visibly one-counter automata improves also the previously known DP-hardness results for ordinary one-counter automata and one-counter nets. Finally, we study regularity checking problems for visibly pushdown automata...

  16. The marketing firm and consumer choice: implications of bilateral contingency for levels of analysis in organizational neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Robert Foxall

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of a conception of the marketing firm (Foxall, 1999a conceived within behavioral psychology and based on a corresponding model of consumer choice, (Foxall, 1990/2004 permits an assessment of the levels of behavioral and organizational analysis amenable to neuroscientific examination. This paper explores the ways in which the bilateral contingencies that link the marketing firm with its consumerate allow appropriate levels of organizational neuroscientific analysis to be specified. Having described the concept of the marketing firm and the model of consumer behavior on which it is based, the paper analyzes bilateral contingencies at the levels of (i market exchange, (ii emotional reward, and (iii neuroeconomics. Market exchange emerges as a level of analysis that lends itself predominantly to the explanation of firm—consumerate interactions in terms of the super-personal level of reinforcing and punishing contingencies: the marketing firm can be treated as a contextual or operant system in its own right. However, the emotional reward and neuroeconomic levels of analysis should be confined to the personal level of analysis represented by individual managers on the one hand and individual consumers on the other. This also entails a level of abstraction but it is one that can be satisfactorily handled in terms of the concept of bilateral contingency.

  17. The marketing firm and consumer choice: implications of bilateral contingency for levels of analysis in organizational neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon R

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of a conception of the marketing firm (Foxall, 1999a) conceived within behavioral psychology and based on a corresponding model of consumer choice, (Foxall, 1990/2004) permits an assessment of the levels of behavioral and organizational analysis amenable to neuroscientific examination. This paper explores the ways in which the bilateral contingencies that link the marketing firm with its consumerate allow appropriate levels of organizational neuroscientific analysis to be specified. Having described the concept of the marketing firm and the model of consumer behavior on which it is based, the paper analyzes bilateral contingencies at the levels of (i) market exchange, (ii) emotional reward, and (iii) neuroeconomics. Market exchange emerges as a level of analysis that lends itself predominantly to the explanation of firm-consumerate interactions in terms of the super-personal level of reinforcing and punishing contingencies: the marketing firm can be treated as a contextual or operant system in its own right. However, the emotional reward and neuroeconomic levels of analysis should be confined to the personal level of analysis represented by individual managers on the one hand and individual consumers on the other. This also entails a level of abstraction but it is one that can be satisfactorily handled in terms of the concept of bilateral contingency.

  18. The marketing firm and consumer choice: implications of bilateral contingency for levels of analysis in organizational neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon R.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of a conception of the marketing firm (Foxall, 1999a) conceived within behavioral psychology and based on a corresponding model of consumer choice, (Foxall, 1990/2004) permits an assessment of the levels of behavioral and organizational analysis amenable to neuroscientific examination. This paper explores the ways in which the bilateral contingencies that link the marketing firm with its consumerate allow appropriate levels of organizational neuroscientific analysis to be specified. Having described the concept of the marketing firm and the model of consumer behavior on which it is based, the paper analyzes bilateral contingencies at the levels of (i) market exchange, (ii) emotional reward, and (iii) neuroeconomics. Market exchange emerges as a level of analysis that lends itself predominantly to the explanation of firm—consumerate interactions in terms of the super-personal level of reinforcing and punishing contingencies: the marketing firm can be treated as a contextual or operant system in its own right. However, the emotional reward and neuroeconomic levels of analysis should be confined to the personal level of analysis represented by individual managers on the one hand and individual consumers on the other. This also entails a level of abstraction but it is one that can be satisfactorily handled in terms of the concept of bilateral contingency. PMID:25071506

  19. Visible light alters yeast metabolic rhythms by inhibiting respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, James Brian; Davis, Chris R; Johnson, Carl Hirschie

    2013-12-24

    Exposure of cells to visible light in nature or in fluorescence microscopy often is considered to be relatively innocuous. However, using the yeast respiratory oscillation (YRO) as a sensitive measurement of metabolism, we find that non-UV visible light has a significant impact on yeast metabolism. Blue/green wavelengths of visible light shorten the period and dampen the amplitude of the YRO, which is an ultradian rhythm of cell metabolism and transcription. The wavelengths of light that have the greatest effect coincide with the peak absorption regions of cytochromes. Moreover, treating yeast with the electron transport inhibitor sodium azide has similar effects on the YRO as visible light. Because impairment of respiration by light would change several state variables believed to play vital roles in the YRO (e.g., oxygen tension and ATP levels), we tested oxygen's role in YRO stability and found that externally induced oxygen depletion can reset the phase of the oscillation, demonstrating that respiratory capacity plays a role in the oscillation's period and phase. Light-induced damage to the cytochromes also produces reactive oxygen species that up-regulate the oxidative stress response gene TRX2 that is involved in pathways that enable sustained growth in bright visible light. Therefore, visible light can modulate cellular rhythmicity and metabolism through unexpectedly photosensitive pathways.

  20. Quantitative Model for Supply Chain Visibility: Process Capability Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngsu Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the intensity of enterprise competition has increased as a result of a greater diversity of customer needs as well as the persistence of a long-term recession. The results of competition are becoming severe enough to determine the survival of company. To survive global competition, each firm must focus on achieving innovation excellence and operational excellence as core competency for sustainable competitive advantage. Supply chain management is now regarded as one of the most effective innovation initiatives to achieve operational excellence, and its importance has become ever more apparent. However, few companies effectively manage their supply chains, and the greatest difficulty is in achieving supply chain visibility. Many companies still suffer from a lack of visibility, and in spite of extensive research and the availability of modern technologies, the concepts and quantification methods to increase supply chain visibility are still ambiguous. Based on the extant researches in supply chain visibility, this study proposes an extended visibility concept focusing on a process capability perspective and suggests a more quantitative model using Z score in Six Sigma methodology to evaluate and improve the level of supply chain visibility.

  1. Core-level XPS studies of Ce and La intermetallic compounds and their implications for the 4f levels of Ce compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freiburg, C.; Fuggle, J.C.; Hillebrecht, F.U.; Zolnierek, Z.; Laesser, R.

    1983-01-01

    The 3d core hole X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) of approximately 30 intermetallic compounds of La and Ce are reported. Transitions to final states with approximately f 0 , f 1 and f 2 character are observed in some Ce compounds (f 0 and f 1 for La compounds). The results are discussed in terms of the current ideas of the influence of f-counts and f-levels hybridization on core level lineshapes. We cannot find an explanatoin of the observed spectra consisted with the ''promotial model'' where the 4f-count varies and 4f electron was thought to be entirely promoted to the Ce 5d6s valence bands in some compounds. There may be some small charge transfer from the f level, however. In conjunction with ideas on screening processes in XPS the observed lineshapes suggest coupling of the 4f electrons to other states is strongest in those compounds previously thought to have f 0 character. This coupling increases despite a large increase in the Ce-Ce distance when Ce is diluted with Ni or Pd. Thus it cannot be due to direct f-f interaction and must be attributed to coupling with the other valence electrons; possibly those centred on the partner sites. (orig./EZ) [de

  2. Inequality and visibility of wealth in experimental social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Akihiro; Shirado, Hirokazu; Rand, David G; Christakis, Nicholas A

    2015-10-15

    Humans prefer relatively equal distributions of resources, yet societies have varying degrees of economic inequality. To investigate some of the possible determinants and consequences of inequality, here we perform experiments involving a networked public goods game in which subjects interact and gain or lose wealth. Subjects (n = 1,462) were randomly assigned to have higher or lower initial endowments, and were embedded within social networks with three levels of economic inequality (Gini coefficient = 0.0, 0.2, and 0.4). In addition, we manipulated the visibility of the wealth of network neighbours. We show that wealth visibility facilitates the downstream consequences of initial inequality-in initially more unequal situations, wealth visibility leads to greater inequality than when wealth is invisible. This result reflects a heterogeneous response to visibility in richer versus poorer subjects. We also find that making wealth visible has adverse welfare consequences, yielding lower levels of overall cooperation, inter-connectedness, and wealth. High initial levels of economic inequality alone, however, have relatively few deleterious welfare effects.

  3. Visible Light Induces Melanogenesis in Human Skin through a Photoadaptive Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhawa, Manpreet; Seo, InSeok; Liebel, Frank; Southall, Michael D.; Kollias, Nikiforos; Ruvolo, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Visible light (400–700 nm) lies outside of the spectral range of what photobiologists define as deleterious radiation and as a result few studies have studied the effects of visible light range of wavelengths on skin. This oversight is important considering that during outdoors activities skin is exposed to the full solar spectrum, including visible light, and to multiple exposures at different times and doses. Although the contribution of the UV component of sunlight to skin damage has been established, few studies have examined the effects of non-UV solar radiation on skin physiology in terms of inflammation, and limited information is available regarding the role of visible light on pigmentation. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of visible light on the pro-pigmentation pathways and melanin formation in skin. Exposure to visible light in ex-vivo and clinical studies demonstrated an induction of pigmentation in skin by visible light. Results showed that a single exposure to visible light induced very little pigmentation whereas multiple exposures with visible light resulted in darker and sustained pigmentation. These findings have potential implications on the management of photo-aggravated pigmentary disorders, the proper use of sunscreens, and the treatment of depigmented lesions. PMID:26121474

  4. Visible Light Induces Melanogenesis in Human Skin through a Photoadaptive Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhawa, Manpreet; Seo, InSeok; Liebel, Frank; Southall, Michael D; Kollias, Nikiforos; Ruvolo, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Visible light (400-700 nm) lies outside of the spectral range of what photobiologists define as deleterious radiation and as a result few studies have studied the effects of visible light range of wavelengths on skin. This oversight is important considering that during outdoors activities skin is exposed to the full solar spectrum, including visible light, and to multiple exposures at different times and doses. Although the contribution of the UV component of sunlight to skin damage has been established, few studies have examined the effects of non-UV solar radiation on skin physiology in terms of inflammation, and limited information is available regarding the role of visible light on pigmentation. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of visible light on the pro-pigmentation pathways and melanin formation in skin. Exposure to visible light in ex-vivo and clinical studies demonstrated an induction of pigmentation in skin by visible light. Results showed that a single exposure to visible light induced very little pigmentation whereas multiple exposures with visible light resulted in darker and sustained pigmentation. These findings have potential implications on the management of photo-aggravated pigmentary disorders, the proper use of sunscreens, and the treatment of depigmented lesions.

  5. Visible Light Induces Melanogenesis in Human Skin through a Photoadaptive Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manpreet Randhawa

    Full Text Available Visible light (400-700 nm lies outside of the spectral range of what photobiologists define as deleterious radiation and as a result few studies have studied the effects of visible light range of wavelengths on skin. This oversight is important considering that during outdoors activities skin is exposed to the full solar spectrum, including visible light, and to multiple exposures at different times and doses. Although the contribution of the UV component of sunlight to skin damage has been established, few studies have examined the effects of non-UV solar radiation on skin physiology in terms of inflammation, and limited information is available regarding the role of visible light on pigmentation. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of visible light on the pro-pigmentation pathways and melanin formation in skin. Exposure to visible light in ex-vivo and clinical studies demonstrated an induction of pigmentation in skin by visible light. Results showed that a single exposure to visible light induced very little pigmentation whereas multiple exposures with visible light resulted in darker and sustained pigmentation. These findings have potential implications on the management of photo-aggravated pigmentary disorders, the proper use of sunscreens, and the treatment of depigmented lesions.

  6. Computing visibility on terrains in external memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkort, H.J.; Toma, L.; Zhuang, Yi

    2007-01-01

    We describe a novel application of the distribution sweeping technique to computing visibility on terrains. Given an arbitrary viewpoint v, the basic problem we address is computing the visibility map or viewshed of v, which is the set of points in the terrain that are visible from v. We give the

  7. Identifying the Physical Fitness, Anthropometric and Athletic Movement Qualities Discriminant of Developmental Level in Elite Junior Australian Football: Implications for the Development of Talent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudion, Sarah L; Doma, Kenji; Sinclair, Wade; Banyard, Harry G; Woods, Carl T

    2017-07-01

    Gaudion, SL, Doma, K, Sinclair, W, Banyard, HG, and Woods, CT. Identifying the physical fitness, anthropometric and athletic movement qualities discriminant of developmental level in elite junior Australian football: implications for the development of talent. J Strength Cond Res 31(7): 1830-1839, 2017-This study aimed to identify the physical fitness, anthropometric and athletic movement qualities discriminant of developmental level in elite junior Australian football (AF). From a total of 77 players, 2 groups were defined according to their developmental level; under 16 (U16) (n = 40, 15.6 to 15.9 years), and U18 (n = 37, 17.1 to 17.9 years). Players performed a test battery consisting of 7 physical fitness assessments, 2 anthropometric measurements, and a fundamental athletic movement assessment. A multivariate analysis of variance tested the main effect of developmental level (2 levels: U16 and U18) on the assessment criterions, whilst binary logistic regression models and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were built to identify the qualities most discriminant of developmental level. A significant effect of developmental level was evident on 9 of the assessments (d = 0.27-0.88; p ≤ 0.05). However, it was a combination of body mass, dynamic vertical jump height (nondominant leg), repeat sprint time, and the score on the 20-m multistage fitness test that provided the greatest association with developmental level (Akaike's information criterion = 80.84). The ROC curve was maximized with a combined score of 180.7, successfully discriminating 89 and 60% of the U18 and U16 players, respectively (area under the curve = 79.3%). These results indicate that there are distinctive physical fitness and anthropometric qualities discriminant of developmental level within the junior AF talent pathway. Coaches should consider these differences when designing training interventions at the U16 level to assist with the development of prospective U18 AF players.

  8. Visible Nulling Coronagraph Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, R. G.; Clampin, M.; Woodruff, R. A.; Vasudevan, G.; Thompson, P.; Petrone, P.; Madison, T.; Rizzo, M.; Melnick, G.; Tolls, V.

    2010-10-01

    We report on recent laboratory results with the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Visible Nulling Coronagraph (VNC) testbed. We have achieved focal plane contrasts of 108 and approaching 109 at inner working angles of 2 λ/D and 4 λ/D, respectively. Results were obtained with a broadband source and 40 nm filter centered on 630 nm. A null control breadboard (NCB) was also developed to assess and quantify MEMS based deformable mirror technology (DM), and to develop and assess closed-loop null control algorithms. We have demonstrated closed-loop performance at 27 Hz.

  9. Analysis on the International Trends in Safe Management of Very Low Level Waste Based upon Graded Approach and Their Implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, Jae Hak

    2011-01-01

    Recently, International Atomic Energy Agency and major leading countries in radioactive waste management tend to subdivide the categories of radioactive waste based upon risk-graded approach. In this context, the category of very low level waste has been newly introduced, or optimized management options for this kind of waste have been pursued in many countries. The application of engineered surface landfill type facilities dedicated to dispose of very low level waste has been gradually expanded, and it was analyzed that their design concept of isolation has been much advanced than those of the old fashioned surface trench-type disposal facilities for low and intermediate level waste, which were usually constructed in 1960's. In addition, the management options for very low level waste in major leading countries are varied depending upon and interfaced with the affecting factors such as: national framework for clearance, legal and practical availability of low and intermediate level waste repository and/or non-nuclear waste landfill, public acceptance toward alternative waste management options, and so forth. In this regard, it was concluded that optimized long-term management options for very low level waste in Korea should be also established in a timely manner through comprehensive review and discussions, in preparation of decommissioning of large nuclear facilities in the future, and be implemented in a systematic manner under the framework of national policy and management plan for radioactive waste management

  10. Visible light communication applications in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Shoaib; Qasid, Syed Hussain Ahmed; Rehman, Shafia; Rai, Aitzaz Bin Sulltan

    2016-01-01

    With the development in science, methods of communication are also improved, replacing old ones with new advanced ways in an attempt to make data transfer more secure, safer for health, and time as well as cost efficient. One of such methods is Visible Light Communication, as the name implies data is transferred through a light equipment such as incandescent or florescent bulb having speed of 10 Kb/s or LEDs approaching speed of 500 Mb/s [1]. VLC uses visible light between 384 and 789 THz [2,3]. Though range is limitation of VLC, however data transfer up-to distance of 1 to 2 km although at lower transfer rate has been reached.The VLC system comprises of light source like LED and receiver equipment, however, with advancement, now LEDs are used for both sending and receiving data. LED remains on all the time, and there is no change in brightness level during the whole process, making it safe for eyes. Currently, VLC system is facing some serious technical challenges before it could be applied in daily life.

  11. Fatty-acid binding protein 4 gene variants and childhood obesity: potential implications for insulin sensitivity and CRP levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharjee Rakesh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Obesity increases the risk for insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in both adults and children. FABP4 is a member of the intracellular lipid-binding protein family that is predominantly expressed in adipose tissue, and plays an important role in maintaining glucose and lipid homeostasis. The purpose of this study was to measure FABP4 plasma levels, assess FABP4 allelic variants, and explore potential associations with fasting glucose and insulin levels in young school-age children with and without obesity. Methods A total of 309 consecutive children ages 5-7 years were recruited. Children were divided based on BMI z score into Obese (OB; BMI z score >1.65 and non-obese (NOB. Fasting plasma glucose, lipids, insulin, hsCRP, and FABP4 levels were measured. HOMA was used as correlate of insulin sensitivity. Four SNPs of the human FABP4 gene (rs1051231, rs2303519, rs16909233 and rs1054135, corresponding to several critical regions of the encoding FABP4 gene sequence were genotyped. Results Compared to NOB, circulating FABP4 levels were increased in OB, as were LDL, hsCRP and HOMA. FABP4 levels correlated with BMI, and also contributed to the variance of HOMA and hsCRP, but not serum lipids. The frequency of rs1054135 allelic variant was increased in OB, and was associated with increased FABP4 levels, while the presence of rs16909233 variant allele, although similar in OB and NOB, was associated with increased HOMA values. Conclusions Childhood obesity is associated with higher FABP4 levels that may promote cardiometabolic risk. The presence of selective SNPs in the FABP4 gene may account for increased risk for insulin resistance or systemic inflammation in the context of obesity.

  12. GHRSST v2 Level 3U Global Skin Sea Surface Temperature from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi NPP satellite created by the NOAA Advanced Clear-Sky Processor for Ocean (ACSPO) (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The ACSPO VIIRS L3U (Level 3 Uncollated) product is a gridded version of the ACSPO VIIRS L2P product Data files are 10min granules in netcdf4 format compliant with...

  13. Implications of sea level rise scenarios on land use /land cover classes of the coastal zones of Cochin, India..

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ManiMurali, R.; DineshKumar, P.K.

    , it’s worth to plan from the ground level involving government, NGO’s, Public and industries. Adaptation to sea level rise situations should go with the improved versions of integrated coastal zone management projects. Mostly, agricultural lands... stream_size 35402 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Environ_Manage_148_124a.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Environ_Manage_148_124a.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Author...

  14. Effect of stimulus parameters and contraction level on inhibitory responses in human jaw-closing muscles: Implications for contingent stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jadidi, F; Wang, K; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2009-01-01

      Objective: Examine the effect of stimulus duration as well as stimulus intensity and level of muscle contraction on the inhibitory responses in human jaw-closing muscles. Design: The inhibitory jaw-reflexes, ES1 and ES2, were recorded in the surface electromyogram (EMG) of masseter and temporal...

  15. Findings on Student Use of Social Media at the Collegiate, Undergraduate, and Graduate Levels: Implications for Post-Secondary Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Tyler W. S.; Remillard, Chaseten; Aucoin, Robert; Takenishi, Akari

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present findings on social media use by students at two institutions in three levels of postsecondary programs. We find that students are almost universally using at least one social network, with Facebook as the most popular, and Instagram second. Many respondents are simultaneously active on several social networks. However,…

  16. Assessing the Lexico-Grammatical Characteristics of a Corpus of College-Level Statistics Textbooks: Implications for Instruction and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagler, Amy E.; Lesser, Lawrence M.; González, Ariel I.; Leal, Luis

    2015-01-01

    A corpus of current editions of statistics textbooks was assessed to compare aspects and levels of readability for the topics of "measures of center," "line of fit," "regression analysis," and "regression inference." Analysis with lexical software of these text selections revealed that the large corpus can…

  17. Folic acid levels in some food staples in Ireland are on the decline: implications for passive folic acid intakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, F; Gibney, E R; Boilson, A; Staines, A; Sweeney, M R

    2016-06-01

    Neural tube defects are largely preventable by the maternal periconceptual consumption of folic acid. The aim of this study was to examine the levels of synthetic folic acid in foods and the range of food stuffs with added folic acid available to consumers in Ireland at the current time. Three audits of fortified foods available in supermarkets in the Republic of Ireland were conducted. Researchers visited supermarkets and obtained folic acid levels from nutrition labels in 2004, 2008 and 2013/4. Levels were compared using MS Excel. The profile of foods fortified with folic acid in 2013/4 has changed since 2004. The percentage of foods fortified with folic acid has decreased as has the level of added folic acid in some food staples, such as fat/dairy spreads. Bread, milk and spreads no longer contain as much folic acid as previously (2004 and 2008). This may contribute to a decrease in folate intake and therefore may contribute to an increase in NTD rates. Research on current blood concentrations of folate status markers is now warranted. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Predicting arsenic concentrations in groundwater of San Luis Valley, Colorado: implications for individual-level lifetime exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Katherine A; Meliker, Jaymie R; Buttenfield, Barbara E; Byers, Tim; Zerbe, Gary O; Hokanson, John E; Marshall, Julie A

    2014-08-01

    Consumption of inorganic arsenic in drinking water at high levels has been associated with chronic diseases. Risk is less clear at lower levels of arsenic, in part due to difficulties in estimating exposure. Herein we characterize spatial and temporal variability of arsenic concentrations and develop models for predicting aquifer arsenic concentrations in the San Luis Valley, Colorado, an area of moderately elevated arsenic in groundwater. This study included historical water samples with total arsenic concentrations from 595 unique well locations. A longitudinal analysis established temporal stability in arsenic levels in individual wells. The mean arsenic levels for a random sample of 535 wells were incorporated into five kriging models to predict groundwater arsenic concentrations at any point in time. A separate validation dataset (n = 60 wells) was used to identify the model with strongest predictability. Findings indicate that arsenic concentrations are temporally stable (r = 0.88; 95 % CI 0.83-0.92 for samples collected from the same well 15-25 years apart) and the spatial model created using ordinary kriging best predicted arsenic concentrations (ρ = 0.72 between predicted and observed validation data). These findings illustrate the value of geostatistical modeling of arsenic and suggest the San Luis Valley is a good region for conducting epidemiologic studies of groundwater metals because of the ability to accurately predict variation in groundwater arsenic concentrations.

  19. Communication: The ground electronic state of Si2C: Rovibrational level structure, quantum monodromy, and astrophysical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, Neil J.; Kokkin, Damian L.; McCarthy, Michael C.; Changala, P. Bryan; Baraban, Joshua H.; Stanton, John F.

    2015-01-01

    We report the gas-phase optical detection of Si 2 C near 390 nm and the first experimental investigation of the rovibrational structure of its 1 A 1 ground electronic state using mass-resolved and fluorescence spectroscopy and variational calculations performed on a high-level ab initio potential. From this joint study, it is possible to assign all observed K a = 1 vibrational levels up to 3800 cm −1 with confidence, as well as a number of levels in the K a = 0, 2,  and 3 manifolds. Dixon-dip plots for the bending coordinate (ν 2 ) allow an experimental determination of a barrier to linearity of 783(48) cm −1 (2σ), in good agreement with theory (802(9) cm −1 ). The calculated (K a , ν 2 ) eigenvalue lattice shows an archetypal example of quantum monodromy (absence of a globally valid set of quantum numbers) that is reflected by the experimentally observed rovibrational levels. The present study provides a solid foundation for infrared and optical surveys of Si 2 C in astronomical objects, particularly in the photosphere of N- and J-type carbon stars where the isovalent SiC 2 molecule is known to be abundant

  20. Status of Job Motivation and Job Performance of Field Level Extension Agents in Ogun State: Implications for Agricultural Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabusoro, E.; Awotunde, J. A.; Sodiya, C. I.; Alarima, C. I.

    2008-01-01

    The field level extension agents (FLEAs) are the lifeline of the agricultural extension system in Nigeria. Their motivation and job performance are therefore important to achieving faster agricultural development in Nigeria. The study identified the factors motivating the FLEAs working with Ogun State Agricultural development programme (OGADEP)…

  1. Number of Salmonella on Chicken Breast Filet at Retail Level and Its Implications for Public Health Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straver, J.M.; Janssen, A.F.W.; Linnemann, A.R.; Boekel, van T.; Beumer, R.R.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize the number of Salmonella on chicken breast filet at the retail level and to evaluate if this number affects the risk of salmonellosis. From October to December 2005, 220 chilled raw filets (without skin) were collected from five local retail outlets in The

  2. Dopamine and serotonin levels following prenatal viral infection in mouse--implications for psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Christine; Reutiman, Teri J; Folsom, Timothy D; Sohr, Reinhard; Wolf, Rainer J; Juckel, Georg; Fatemi, S Hossein

    2008-10-01

    Prenatal viral infection has been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. It has previously been demonstrated that viral infection causes deleterious effects on brain structure and function in mouse offspring following late first trimester (E9) and middle-late second trimester (E18) administration of influenza virus. Neurochemical analysis following infection on E18 using this model has revealed significantly altered levels of serotonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and taurine, but not dopamine. In order to monitor these different patterns of monoamine expression in exposed offspring in more detail and to see if there are changes in the dopamine system at another time point, pregnant C57BL6J mice were infected with a sublethal dose of human influenza virus or sham-infected using vehicle solution on E16. Male offspring of the infected mice were collected at P0, P14, and P56, their brains removed and cerebellum dissected and flash frozen. Dopamine and serotonin levels were then measured using HPLC-ED technique. When compared to controls, there was a significant decrease in serotonin levels in the cerebella of offspring of virally exposed mice at P14. No differences in levels of dopamine were observed in exposed and control mice, although there was a significant decrease in dopamine at P14 and P56 when compared to P0. The present study shows that the serotonergic system is disrupted following prenatal viral infection, potentially modelling disruptions that occur in patients with schizophrenia and autism.

  3. Final deglaciation of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet and implications for the Holocene global sea-level budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzone, Joshua K.; Clark, Peter U.; Carlson, Anders E.; Ullman, David J.; Rinterknecht, Vincent R.; Milne, Glenn A.; Lunkka, Juha-Pekka; Wohlfarth, Barbara; Marcott, Shaun A.; Caffee, Marc

    2016-08-01

    The last deglaciation of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet (SIS) from ∼ 21, 000 to 13,000 yr ago is well-constrained by several hundred 10Be and 14C ages. The subsequent retreat history, however, is established primarily from minimum-limiting 14C ages and incomplete Baltic-Sea varve records, leaving a substantial fraction of final SIS retreat history poorly constrained. Here we develop a high-resolution chronology for the final deglaciation of the SIS based on 79 10Be cosmogenic exposure dates sampled along three transects spanning southern to northern Sweden and Finland. Combining this new chronology with existing 10Be ages on deglaciation since the Last Glacial Maximum shows that rates of SIS margin retreat were strongly influenced by deglacial millennial-scale climate variability and its effect on surface mass balance, with regional modulation of retreat associated with dynamical controls. Ice-volume estimates constrained by our new chronology suggest that the SIS contributed ∼ 8 m sea-level equivalent to global sea-level rise between ∼14.5 ka and 10 ka. Final deglaciation was largely complete by ∼10.5 ka, with highest rates of sea-level rise occurring during the Bølling-Allerød, a 50% decrease during the Younger Dryas, and a rapid increase during the early Holocene. Combining our SIS volume estimates with estimated contributions from other remaining Northern Hemisphere ice sheets suggests that the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS) contributed 14.4 ± 5.9 m to global sea-level rise since ∼13 ka. This new constraint supports those studies that indicate that an ice volume of 15 m or more of equivalent sea-level rise was lost from the AIS during the last deglaciation.

  4. Implications of sea level rise scenarios on land use /land cover classes of the coastal zones of Cochin, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani Murali, R; Dinesh Kumar, P K

    2015-01-15

    Physical responses of the coastal zones in the vicinity of Cochin, India due to sea level rise are investigated based on analysis of inundation scenarios. Quantification of potential habitat loss was made by merging the Land use/Land cover (LU/LC) prepared from the satellite imagery with the digital elevation model. Scenarios were generated for two different rates of sea level rise and responses of changes occurred were made to ascertain the vulnerability and loss in extent. LU/LC classes overlaid on 1 m and 2 m elevation showed that it was mostly covered by vegetation areas followed by water and urban zones. For the sea level rise scenarios of 1 m and 2 m, the total inundation zones were estimated to be 169.11 km(2) and 598.83 km(2) respectively using Geographic Information System (GIS). The losses of urban areas were estimated at 43 km(2) and 187 km(2) for the 1 m and 2 m sea level rise respectively which is alarming information for the most densely populated state of India. Quantitative comparison of other LU/LC classes showed significant changes under each of the inundation scenarios. The results obtained conclusively point that sea level rise scenarios will bring profound effects on the land use and land cover classes as well as on coastal landforms in the study region. Coastal inundation would leave ocean front and inland properties vulnerable. Increase in these water levels would alter the coastal drainage gradients. Reduction in these gradients would increase flooding attributable to rainstorms which could promote salt water intrusion into coastal aquifers and force water tables to rise. Changes in the coastal landforms associated with inundation generate concern in the background that the coastal region may continue to remain vulnerable in the coming decades due to population growth and development pressures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Small Mammal Sequence from the c. 76 - 72 ka Still Bay Levels at Blombos Cave, South Africa - Taphonomic and Palaeoecological Implications for Human Behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turid Hillestad Nel

    Full Text Available The Still Bay, c. 76-72 ka, a prominent techno-tradition during the Middle Stone Age of southern Africa, has yielded innovative technologies, symbolic material culture, and shows evidence of expansion of hunting techniques and subsistence strategies. In this paper we present the results of the first systematic, taphonomic and palaeoenvironmental study of micromammals from the Still Bay levels at Blombos Cave. Our taphonomic analysis indicates that the micromammals were accumulated by avian predators occupying the cave. Post-depositional processes affecting the micromammal assemblage include organic waste decomposition and conditions associated with a limestone cave environment. The palaeoenvironmental reconstruction shows that Marine Isotope Stage (MIS 5a at Blombos Cave had diverse micromammal communities occupying a variety of habitats and with rainfall pattern equal to present. The transition from MIS 5a to 4 is indicated by less diverse micromammal assemblages, increase in grassland and scrub vegetation, shifts in seasonal precipitation, and a decline in shrubs associated with fynbos. The onset of the glacial conditions associated with MIS 4 is visible in the micromammal assemblage. However humans occupying Blombos Cave during this c. 5 ka period showed an ability to cope with changing environmental conditions and were able to adapt and utilise a variety of available resources.

  6. The Small Mammal Sequence from the c. 76 - 72 ka Still Bay Levels at Blombos Cave, South Africa - Taphonomic and Palaeoecological Implications for Human Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, Turid Hillestad; Henshilwood, Christopher Stuart

    2016-01-01

    The Still Bay, c. 76-72 ka, a prominent techno-tradition during the Middle Stone Age of southern Africa, has yielded innovative technologies, symbolic material culture, and shows evidence of expansion of hunting techniques and subsistence strategies. In this paper we present the results of the first systematic, taphonomic and palaeoenvironmental study of micromammals from the Still Bay levels at Blombos Cave. Our taphonomic analysis indicates that the micromammals were accumulated by avian predators occupying the cave. Post-depositional processes affecting the micromammal assemblage include organic waste decomposition and conditions associated with a limestone cave environment. The palaeoenvironmental reconstruction shows that Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5a at Blombos Cave had diverse micromammal communities occupying a variety of habitats and with rainfall pattern equal to present. The transition from MIS 5a to 4 is indicated by less diverse micromammal assemblages, increase in grassland and scrub vegetation, shifts in seasonal precipitation, and a decline in shrubs associated with fynbos. The onset of the glacial conditions associated with MIS 4 is visible in the micromammal assemblage. However humans occupying Blombos Cave during this c. 5 ka period showed an ability to cope with changing environmental conditions and were able to adapt and utilise a variety of available resources.

  7. The serum protein levels of the tPA-BDNF pathway are implicated in depression and antidepressant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, H; Chen, S; Li, C; Lu, N; Yue, Y; Yin, Y; Zhang, Y; Zhi, X; Zhang, D; Yuan, Y

    2017-04-04

    Evidence demonstrates that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). Precursor-BDNF (proBDNF) and mature BDNF (mBDNF) have opposing biological effects in neuroplasticity, and the tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA)/plasmin system is crucial in the cleavage processing of proBDNF to mBDNF. However, very little is known about the role of the tPA-BDNF pathway in MDD. We examined serum protein concentrations in the tPA-BDNF pathway, including tPA, BDNF, tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB), proBDNF and p75NTR, obtained from 35 drug-free depressed patients before and after 8 weeks of escitalopram (mean 12.5 mg per day) or duloxetine (mean 64 mg per day) treatment and 35 healthy controls using sandwich ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) methods. Serum tPA and BDNF and the ratio of BDNF/proBDNF were significantly lower in the MDD patients than in controls, whereas TrkB, proBDNF and its receptor p75NTR were higher. After 8 weeks of treatment, tPA, BDNF and proBDNF and the BDNF/proBDNF ratio were reversed, but p75NTR was higher than baseline, and TrkB was not significantly changed. tPA, BDNF, TrkB, proBDNF and p75NTR all yielded fairly good or excellent diagnostic performance (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) >0.8 or 0.9). Combination of these five proteins demonstrated much better diagnostic effectiveness (AUC: 0.977) and adequate sensitivity and specificity of 88.1% and 92.7%, respectively. Our results suggest that the tPA-BDNF lysis pathway may be implicated in the pathogenesis of MDD and the mechanisms underlying antidepressant therapeutic action. The combination of tPA, BDNF, TrkB, proBDNF and p75NTR may provide a diagnostic biomarker panel for MDD.

  8. Unit-level voluntary turnover rates and customer service quality: implications of group cohesiveness, newcomer concentration, and size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausknecht, John P; Trevor, Charlie O; Howard, Michael J

    2009-07-01

    Despite substantial growth in the service industry and emerging work on turnover consequences, little research examines how unit-level turnover rates affect essential customer-related outcomes. The authors propose an operational disruption framework to explain why voluntary turnover impairs customers' service quality perceptions. On the basis of a sample of 75 work units and data from 5,631 employee surveys, 59,602 customer surveys, and organizational records, results indicate that unit-level voluntary turnover rates are negatively related to service quality perceptions. The authors also examine potential boundary conditions related to the disruption framework. Of 3 moderators studied (group cohesiveness, group size, and newcomer concentration), results show that turnover's negative effects on service quality are more pronounced in larger units and in those with a greater concentration of newcomers.

  9. THE IMPLICATIONS OF GROSS FIXED CAPITAL AND UNEMPLOYMENT RATE ON GENERAL GOVERNMENT DEFICIT. EMPIRICAL STUDY AT THE EUROPEAN LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Carp

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have evaluated the influence of the modification of public investment level and unemployment rate on the general government deficit at the European Union level. We have created a regression model that shows that a sustained and increased investment policy and the reduction of unemployment rate have a favorable effect on the objective of minimizing the budget deficit. In the last years European Union’s countries had to face a difficult problem concerning fiscal policy. They had to make public investments to stimulate economic growth and, in the same time, they had to meet the convergence criteria’s of public deficit. On the other hand, EU has to deal with a higher rate of unemployment. Through our model we try to see how European Union countries should implement their political strategies on unemployment and investment with the main objective of reducing the general government deficit.

  10. Discontinuity surfaces and event stratigraphy of Okha Shell Limestone Member: Implications for Holocene sea level changes, western India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhonde, Uday; Desai, Bhawanisingh G.

    2011-08-01

    The Okha Shell Limestone Member of Chaya Formation is the coarse grained, shell rich deposit commonly recognized as the beach rocks. It has been age bracketed between Late Pleistocene and Holocene. Late Quaternary sea level changes have been studied with beach rocks along the Saurashtra coastal region. The present study has been carried out in the Okhamandal area of the Saurashtra peninsula especially on the Okha Shell Limestone Member as exposed at various locations along the coast from north to south. Temporal and spatial correlations of the observations have revealed three events in the Okha Shell Limestone Member of Chaya Formation that are correlated laterally. The events show depositional breaks represented by discontinuity surfaces, the taphofacies varieties and ichnological variations. The present study in the context of available geochrnological data of the region suggests a prominent depositional break representing low sea level stand (regression) during an Early Holocene during the deposition of Okha Shell Limestone Member.

  11. Emergent Marine Terraces in Cebu Island, Philippines and Their Implications for Relative Sea Level Changes in the Late Quaternary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, N. T.; Sarmiento, K. J. S.; Maxwell, K. V.; Soberano, O. B.; Dimalanta, C. B.

    2017-12-01

    The remarkable preservation and extensive distribution of emergent marine terraces in the Philippines allow us to study relative sea level changes and tectonic processes during the Late Quaternary. While higher uplift rates and possible prehistoric coseismic events are recorded by emergent coral reefs facing subduction zones, the central Philippine islands are reported to reflect vertical tectonic stability as they are distant from trenches. To constrain the coastal tectonics of the central Philippine region, we studied emergent sea level indicators along the coasts of northern Cebu Island in Tabuelan, San Remigio, and Bogo City. Upper steps of marine terraces were interpreted from IFSAR-derived DEMs, in which at least two and seven steps were identified along the west (Tabuelan) and east (Bogo) coasts, respectively. In Tabuelan, two extensive terrace steps (TPT) were interpreted with TPT1 at 5-13 m above mean sea level (amsl) and TPT2 at 27-44 m amsl. Five to possibly seven terrace steps (BPT) were delineated in Bogo City with elevations from lowest (BPT1) to highest (BPT7) at BPT1: 4-6 m, BPT2: 12-18 m, BPT3: 27-33 m, BPT4: 39-46 m, BPT5: 59-71 m, BPT6: 80-92 m, and BPT7: 103-108 m amsl. These upper terraces are inferred to be Late Pleistocene in age based on an initial MIS 5e age reported for a 5-m-high terrace in Mactan Island. At some sites, even lower and narrower terrace surfaces were observed, consisting of cemented coral rubble that surround eroded and attached corals. These lower carbonate steps, with elevations ranging from 1 to 3 m amsl, further provide clues on relative sea level changes and long-term tectonic deformation across Cebu Island.

  12. PCDDs, PCDFs, and coplanar PCBs in albatross from the North Pacific and Southern Oceans: levels, patterns, and toxicological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Shinsuke; Watanabe, Mafumi; Minh, Tu Binh; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Nakanishi, Shigeyuki; Ono, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki

    2004-01-15

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) were determined in five albatross species collected from the North Pacific and Southern Oceans to assess the north-south differences in residue levels, accumulation patterns, and toxic potential. Black-footed and Laysan albatrosses from the North Pacific Ocean contained higher levels of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs than albatrosses from the Southern Ocean, indicating that emission sources of these contaminants were predominant in the northern hemisphere. Residue levels in albatrosses from the remote North Pacific Ocean far from the point source of pollution were comparable to or higher than those in terrestrial and coastal birds from contaminated areas in developed nations, suggesting the specific exposure and accumulation of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs in albatross. The long life span and ingestion of plastic resin pellets by albatrosses could be the plausible explanations for the elevated accumulation of persistent and lipophilic contaminants including PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs in these birds. Relative proportions of PCDFs and coplanar PCBs in albatross were higher than those observed in birds inhabiting terrestrial and coastal areas, suggesting that these toxic chemicals may have higher transportability by air and water than PCDDs. Congener patterns of PCDD/Fs in albatross showed less variability as compared to those in terrestrial species, indicating that contamination patterns of PCDD/Fs were similar within the open ocean environment. Contributions of PCDD/Fs to total TEQs in albatrosses from the open ocean were generally lower than those in terrestrial birds, suggesting different toxic potency of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs on animals inhabiting open ocean and terrestrial environment. Whereas albatrosses from southern oceans retained lower TEQ concentrations, possible adverse effects of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs

  13. Extreme storms, sea level rise, and coastal change: implications for infrastructure reliability in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anarde, K.; Kameshwar, S.; Irza, N.; Lorenzo-Trueba, J.; Nittrouer, J. A.; Padgett, J.; Bedient, P. B.

    2016-12-01

    Predicting coastal infrastructure reliability during hurricane events is important for risk-based design and disaster planning, such as delineating viable emergency response routes. Previous research has focused on either infrastructure vulnerability to coastal flooding or the impact of changing sea level and landforms on surge dynamics. Here we investigate the combined impact of sea level, morphology, and coastal flooding on the reliability of highway bridges - the only access points between barrier islands and mainland communities - during future extreme storms. We forward model coastal flooding for static projections of geomorphic change using ADCIRC+SWAN. First-order parameters that are adjusted include sea level and elevation. These are varied for each storm simulation to evaluate relative impact on the reliability of bridges surrounding Freeport, TX. Simulated storms include both synthetic and historical events, which are classified by intensity using the storm's integrated kinetic energy, a metric for surge generation potential. Reliability is estimated through probability of failure - given wave and surge loads - and time inundated. Findings include that: 1) bridge reliability scales inversely with surge height, and 2) sea level rise reduces bridge reliability due to a monotonic increase in surge height. The impact of a shifting landscape on bridge reliability is more complex: barrier island rollback can increase or decrease inundation times for storms of different intensity due to changes in wind-setup and back-barrier bay interactions. Initial storm surge readily inundates the coastal landscape during large intensity storms, however the draining of inland bays following storm passage is significantly impeded by the barrier. From a coastal engineering standpoint, we determine that to protect critical infrastructure, efforts now implemented that nourish low-lying barriers may be enhanced by also armoring back-bay coastlines and elevating bridge approach

  14. Grass Carp Follisatin: Molecular Cloning, Functional Characterization, Dopamine D1 Regulation at Pituitary Level, and Implication in Growth Hormone Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger S. K. Fung

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Activin is involved in pituitary hormone regulation and its pituitary actions can be nullified by local production of its binding protein follistatin. In our recent study with grass carp, local release of growth hormone (GH was shown to induce activin expression at pituitary level, which in turn could exert an intrapituitary feedback to inhibit GH synthesis and secretion. To further examine the activin/follistatin system in the carp pituitary, grass carp follistatin was cloned and confirmed to be single-copy gene widely expressed at tissue level. At the pituitary level, follistatin signals could be located in carp somatotrophs, gonadotrophs, and lactotrophs. Functional expression also revealed that carp follistatin was effective in neutralizing activin’s action in stimulating target promoter with activin-responsive elements. In grass carp pituitary cells, follistatin co-treatment was found to revert activin inhibition on GH mRNA expression. Meanwhile, follistatin mRNA levels could be up-regulated by local production of activin but the opposite was true for dopaminergic activation with dopamine (DA or its agonist apomorphine. Since GH stimulation by DA via pituitary D1 receptor is well-documented in fish models, the receptor specificity for follistatin regulation by DA was also investigated. Using a pharmacological approach, the inhibitory effect of DA on follistatin gene expression was confirmed to be mediated by pituitary D1 but not D2 receptor. Furthermore, activation of D1 receptor by the D1-specific agonist SKF77434 was also effective in blocking follistatin mRNA expression induced by activin and GH treatment both in carp pituitary cells as well as in carp somatotrophs enriched by density gradient centrifugation. These results, as a whole, suggest that activin can interact with dopaminergic input from the hypothalamus to regulate follistatin expression in carp pituitary, which may contribute to GH regulation by activin/follistatin system

  15. Influence of nutrient levels in Tamarix on Diorhabda sublineata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) survival and fitness with implications for biological control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, D A; Gardner, K T; Thompson, D C

    2011-02-01

    Establishment of the saltcedar leaf beetle (Diorhabda spp.) has been unpredictable when caged or released in the field for saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) biocontrol. It has been observed that one caged tree might be voraciously fed upon by beetles while an adjacent tree in the cage is left untouched. We hypothesized that differences in the nutrient content of individual trees may explain this behavior. We evaluated survival, development rate, and egg production of beetles fed in the laboratory on saltcedar foliage from trees that had been grown under a range of fertilizer treatments. Tissue samples from the experimental trees and from the field were analyzed for percent nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. There was essentially no survival of beetle larvae fed foliage from saltcedar trees at nitrogen levels below 2.0%. At levels above 2.0% N, beetle larvae had corresponding increased survival rates and shorter development times. Multiple regression analyses indicated that nitrogen and phosphorus are important for larval survival and faster development rates. Higher levels of potassium were important for increased egg cluster production. The plant tissue analysis showed that the percentage of nitrogen in the experimental trees reflected the range of trees in the field and also that there is high variability within trees in the field. Our research indicates that if beetles are released on trees with poor nutrient quality, the larvae will not survive. © 2011 Entomological Society of America

  16. Co-inheritance of α0 -thalassemia elevates Hb A2 level in homozygous Hb E: Diagnostic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singha, K; Srivorakun, H; Fucharoen, G; Fucharoen, S

    2017-10-01

    Differentiation of homozygous hemoglobin (Hb) E with and without α 0 -thalassemia is subtle on routine hematological ground. We examined in a large cohort of homozygous Hb E if the level of Hb A 2 is helpful. A total of 592 subjects with homozygous Hb E were recruited from ongoing thalassemia screening program. Additionally, five couples at risk of having fetuses with Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis who were homozygous Hb E were also investigated. Hb analysis was performed using capillary electrophoresis system. Globin genotypes were defined by DNA analysis. Subjects were classified into four groups including pure homozygous Hb E (n=532), homozygous Hb E/α 0 -thalassemia (n=48), Hb Constant Spring EE Bart's disease (n=8), and Hb EE Bart's disease (n=4). The levels of Hb A 2 were found, respectively, to be 4.97±0.69, 6.64±1.02, 4.86±0.87, and 7.60±1.04%. Among five couples at risk, α 0 -thalassemia was identified in three subjects with Hb A 2 >6.0%. Increased Hb A 2 level is a useful marker for differentiation of homozygous Hb E with and without α 0 -thalassemia. This should lead to a significant reduction in number of referral cases of homozygous Hb E for molecular testing of α 0 -thalassemia in routine practice. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Visibility and Invisibility: the Work of Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Alejandra Collado

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The crisis of employment, combined with theories about the end of work, place labor at the center of the agenda. Given this situation, it is found that debates around labor in general (its productive and reproductive spheres, its relation with employment and the visible and invisible forms of conducting work have been approached by one of the most neglected traditions of social thinking: feminism. Feminist thinkers have questioned the meaning of work and non-work in relation to the constant increase of the participation of women in the labor market. Although feminist proposals have different levels of analysis and emphasis, it is necessary to return to their unique production, in order to unveil the situation of greater exploitation and oppression, of workers in general and in particular of women. This situation is facilitated by the apparent “invisibilization” or by the loss of the centrality of labor.

  18. Visible light broadband perfect absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, X. L.; Meng, Q. X.; Yuan, C. X.; Zhou, Z. X.; Wang, X. O., E-mail: wxo@hit.edu.cn [School of Science, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2016-03-15

    The visible light broadband perfect absorbers based on the silver (Ag) nano elliptical disks and holes array are studied using finite difference time domain simulations. The semiconducting indium silicon dioxide thin film is introduced as the space layer in this sandwiched structure. Utilizing the asymmetrical geometry of the structures, polarization sensitivity for transverse electric wave (TE)/transverse magnetic wave (TM) and left circular polarization wave (LCP)/right circular polarization wave (RCP) of the broadband absorption are gained. The absorbers with Ag nano disks and holes array show several peaks absorbance of 100% by numerical simulation. These simple and flexible perfect absorbers are particularly desirable for various potential applications including the solar energy absorber.

  19. Levels and patterns of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) from four different lakes in Tanzania: geographical differences and implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polder, A; Müller, M B; Lyche, J L; Mdegela, R H; Nonga, H E; Mabiki, F P; Mbise, T J; Skaare, J U; Sandvik, M; Skjerve, E; Lie, E

    2014-08-01

    In Tanzania fish is one of the most important protein sources for the rapidly increasing population. Wild fish is threatened by overfishing and pollution from agriculture, industries, mining, household effluents and vector control. To monitor possible implications for public health, the geographical differences of the occurrence and levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in tilapia fish (Oreochromis sp.) from four different Tanzanian lakes were investigated in 2011. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyls (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) were determined in pooled samples of tilapia muscle from Lake (L) Victoria, L. Tanganyika, L. Nyasa (also called L. Malawi) and L. Babati in Tanzania in 2011. Levels of Σ-DDTs (274 ng/g lipid weight (lw)) and sum of 7 indicator PCBs (Σ-7PCBs) (17 ng/g lw) were significantly higher in tilapia from L. Tanganyika compared to the other lakes. The highest levels of Σ-endosulfan (94 ng/g lw) were detected in tilapia from L. Victoria. Toxaphenes were detected in low levels in fish from L. Tanganyika and L. Babati. Results revealed a geographic difference in the use of DDT and endosulfan between L. Victoria and L. Tanganyika. Low ratios of DDE/DDT in tilapia from L. Tanganyika indicated an on-going use of DDT in the area. Median levels of ΣBDEs, including BDE-209, were highest in L. Victoria (19.4 ng/g lw) and BDE-209 was present in 68% of the samples from this lake. The presence of BDE-209 indicates increasing influence of imported products from heavy industrialized countries. The measured POP levels in the studied tilapia were all below MRLs of EU or were lower than recommended levels, and thus the fish is considered as safe for human consumption. They may, however, pose a risk to the fish species and threaten biodiversity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The impact of micro financing on poverty levels of rural women farm households in Abia state, Nigeria; implication for policy intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EZEH Innocent

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the impact of micro-finance on poverty level of rural women farm households in Abia State, Nigeria: Implication for policy intervention. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to +select the local government areas, communities and respondents in the three (Aba, Ohafia and Umuahia agricultural zones of the State. The sample size was 240 (120 a piece for rural women farmer borrowers and non borrowers. Instrument of data collection was a set of structured and pre-tested questionnaire administered on both groups of rural women farmers. The result indicated that incidence of poverty or head count ratio was 0.558 for the rural women farmers borrowers and 0.933 for the rural women farmer non borrowers; poverty gap otherwise known as income short fall was 0.4547 for the rural women farmer borrowers and 0.6995 for the rural women farmer non borrowers. The result of the paired t-test showed that micro-finance impacted significantly on annual farm income, farm size and fertilizer use level of rural women farmer borrowers at given levels of significance. It was however, recommended that increased subsidy policy on agro-inputs and increased funding by the micro-finance will significantly aim at reducing the poverty levels of these women.

  1. A Hierarchical Multiple-Level Approach to the Assessment of Interpersonal Relatedness and Self-Definition: Implications for Research, Clinical Practice, and DSM Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyten, Patrick; Blatt, Sidney J

    2016-01-01

    Extant research suggests there is considerable overlap between so-called 2-polarities models of personality development; that is, models that propose that personality development evolves through a dialectic synergistic interaction between 2 key developmental tasks across the life span-the development of self-definition on the one hand and of relatedness on the other. These models have attracted considerable research attention and play a central role in DSM planning. This article provides a researcher- and clinician-friendly guide to the assessment of these personality theories. We argue that current theoretical models focus on issues of relatedness and self-definition at different hierarchically organized levels of analysis; that is (a) at the level of broad personality features, (b) at the motivational level (i.e., the motivational processes underlying the development of these dimensions), and (c) at the level of underlying internal working models or cognitive affective schemas, and the specific interpersonal features and problems in which they are expressed. Implications for further research and DSM planning are outlined.

  2. Visible nulling coronagraph testbed results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Richard G.; Clampin, Mark; Woodruff, Robert A.; Vasudevan, Gopal; Thompson, Patrick; Petrone, Peter; Madison, Timothy; Rizzo, Maxime; Melnick, Gary; Tolls, Volker

    2009-08-01

    We report on our recent laboratory results with the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Visible Nulling Coronagraph (VNC) testbed. We have experimentally achieved focal plane contrasts of 1 x 108 and approaching 109 at inner working angles of 2 * wavelength/D and 4 * wavelength/D respectively where D is the aperture diameter. The result was obtained using a broadband source with a narrowband spectral filter of width 10 nm centered on 630 nm. To date this is the deepest nulling result with a visible nulling coronagraph yet obtained. Developed also is a Null Control Breadboard (NCB) to assess and quantify MEMS based segmented deformable mirror technology and develop and assess closed-loop null sensing and control algorithm performance from both the pupil and focal planes. We have demonstrated closed-loop control at 27 Hz in the laboratory environment. Efforts are underway to first bring the contrast to > 109 necessary for the direct detection and characterization of jovian (Jupiter-like) and then to > 1010 necessary for terrestrial (Earth-like) exosolar planets. Short term advancements are expected to both broaden the spectral passband from 10 nm to 100 nm and to increase both the long-term stability to > 2 hours and the extent of the null out to a ~ 10 * wavelength / D via the use of MEMS based segmented deformable mirror technology, a coherent fiber bundle, achromatic phase shifters, all in a vacuum chamber at the GSFC VNC facility. Additionally an extreme stability textbook sized compact VNC is under development.

  3. Testosterone Responders to Continuous Androgen Deprivation Therapy Show Considerable Variations in Testosterone Levels on Followup: Implications for Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyid, Rashid K; Sayyid, Abdallah K; Klaassen, Zachary; Fadaak, Kamel; Goldberg, Hanan; Chandrasekar, Thenappan; Ahmad, Ardalanejaz; Leao, Ricardo; Perlis, Nathan; Chadwick, Karen; Hamilton, Robert J; Kulkarni, Girish S; Finelli, Antonio; Zlotta, Alexandre R; Fleshner, Neil E

    2018-01-01

    We determined whether men on continuous androgen deprivation therapy who achieve testosterone less than 0.7 nmol/l demonstrate subsequent testosterone elevations during followup and whether such events predict worse oncologic outcomes. We evaluated a random, retrospective sample of 514 patients with prostate cancer treated with continuous androgen deprivation therapy in whom serum testosterone was less than 0.7 nmol/l at University Health Network between 2007 and 2016. Patients were followed from the date of the first testosterone measurement of less than 0.7 nmol/l to progression to castrate resistance, death or study period end. Study outcomes were the development of testosterone elevations greater than 0.7, greater than 1.1 and greater than 1.7 nmol/l, and progression to a castrate resistant state. Survival curves were constructed to determine the rate of testosterone elevations. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was done to assess whether elevations predicted progression to castrate resistance. Median patient age was 74 years and median followup was 20.3 months. Within 5 years of followup 82%, 45% and 18% of patients had subsequent testosterone levels greater than 0.7, greater than 1.1 and greater than 1.7 nmol/l, respectively. In 96% to 100% of these patients levels less than 0.7 nmol/l were subsequently reestablished within 5 years. No patient baseline characteristic was associated with elevations and elevations were not a significant predictor of progression to a castrate resistant state. Men on continuous androgen deprivation therapy in whom initial testosterone is less than 0.7 nmol/l frequently show subsequent elevations in serum testosterone. Such a development should not trigger an immediate response from physicians as these events are prognostically insignificant with regard to oncologic outcomes. Levels are eventually reestablished at less than 0.7 nmol/l. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by

  4. Increased levels of oxidative DNA damage in pesticide sprayers in Thessaly Region (Greece). Implications of pesticide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koureas, Michalis; Tsezou, Aspasia; Tsakalof, Andreas; Orfanidou, Timoklia; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2014-10-15

    The widespread use of pesticides substances nowadays largely guarantees the protection of crops and people from undesired pests. However, exposure to pesticides was related to a variety of human health effects. The present study was conducted in the region of Thessaly which is characterized by intensive agricultural activities and wide use of pesticides. The study aimed at estimating the oxidative damage to DNA in different subpopulations in Thessaly region (Greece) and investigating its correlation with exposure to pesticides and other potential risk factors. In total, the study involved 80 pesticide sprayers, 85 rural residents and 121 individuals, inhabitants of the city of Larissa. Demographic characteristics, habits, medical history and exposure history of the participants to pesticides were recorded by personal interviews. Blood and urine samples were collected from all participants. For the measurement of exposure to organophosphorus insecticides, dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolites were quantified in urine, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples and the oxidation by-product 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was determined by Enzyme Immuno-Assay. Urinary metabolite concentrations were not associated with 8-OHdG levels but it was found that pesticide sprayers had significantly higher levels of 8-OHdG (p=0.007) in comparison to the control group. Last season's exposure to insecticides and fungicides, expressed as total area treated multiplied by the number of applications, showed a statistically significant association with the risk of having high 8-OHdG levels [RR: 2.19 (95%CI:1.09-4.38) and RR: 2.32 (95% CI:1.16-4.64) respectively]. Additionally, from the subgroups of pesticides examined, seasonal exposure to neonicotinoid insecticides [RR: 2.22 (95% CI:1.07-4.63)] and glufosinate ammonium [RR: 3.26 (95% CI:1.38-7.69)] was found to have the greater impact on 8-OHdG levels. This study produced findings

  5. Persistent organic pollutant levels in human visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue in obese individuals—Depot differences and dysmetabolism implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestana, Diogo, E-mail: diogopestana@gmail.com [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Centro de Investigação Médica, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); CINTESIS—Center for Research in Health Technologies and Information Systems, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); Faria, Gil [General Surgery Department, S. João Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); Sá, Carla [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Centro de Investigação Médica, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); Fernandes, Virgínia C. [Chemistry Investigation Centre (CIQ), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Requimte—Instituto Superior de Engenharia, Instituto Politécnico do Porto, P-4200-072 Porto (Portugal); Teixeira, Diana; Norberto, Sónia [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Centro de Investigação Médica, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); Faria, Ana [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Centro de Investigação Médica, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); Chemistry Investigation Centre (CIQ), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Porto, P-4200-465 Porto (Portugal); and others

    2014-08-15

    Background: The role of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with endocrine disrupting activity in the aetiology of obesity and other metabolic dysfunctions has been recently highlighted. Adipose tissue (AT) is a common site of POPs accumulation where they can induce adverse effects on human health. Objectives: To evaluate the presence of POPs in human visceral (vAT) and subcutaneous (scAT) adipose tissue in a sample of Portuguese obese patients that underwent bariatric surgery, and assess their putative association with metabolic disruption preoperatively, as well as with subsequent body mass index (BMI) reduction. Methods: AT samples (n=189) from obese patients (BMI ≥35) were collected and the levels of 13 POPs were determined by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). Anthropometric and biochemical data were collected at the time of surgery. BMI variation was evaluated after 12 months and adipocyte size was measured in AT samples. Results: Our data confirm that POPs are pervasive in this obese population (96.3% of detection on both tissues), their abundance increasing with age (R{sub S}=0.310, p<0.01) and duration of obesity (R{sub S}=0.170, p<0.05). We observed a difference in AT depot POPs storage capability, with higher levels of ΣPOPs in vAT (213.9±204.2 compared to 155.1±147.4 ng/g of fat, p<0.001), extremely relevant when evaluating their metabolic impact. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between POP levels and the presence of metabolic syndrome components, namely dysglycaemia and hypertension, and more importantly with cardiovascular risk (R{sub S}=0.277, p<0.01), with relevance for vAT (R{sub S}=0.315, p<0.01). Finally, we observed an interesting relation of higher POP levels with lower weight loss in older patients. Conclusion: Our sample of obese subjects allowed us to highlight the importance of POPs stored in AT on the development of metabolic dysfunction in a context of obesity, shifting the focus to their

  6. Persistent organic pollutant levels in human visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue in obese individuals—Depot differences and dysmetabolism implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestana, Diogo; Faria, Gil; Sá, Carla; Fernandes, Virgínia C.; Teixeira, Diana; Norberto, Sónia; Faria, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Background: The role of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with endocrine disrupting activity in the aetiology of obesity and other metabolic dysfunctions has been recently highlighted. Adipose tissue (AT) is a common site of POPs accumulation where they can induce adverse effects on human health. Objectives: To evaluate the presence of POPs in human visceral (vAT) and subcutaneous (scAT) adipose tissue in a sample of Portuguese obese patients that underwent bariatric surgery, and assess their putative association with metabolic disruption preoperatively, as well as with subsequent body mass index (BMI) reduction. Methods: AT samples (n=189) from obese patients (BMI ≥35) were collected and the levels of 13 POPs were determined by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). Anthropometric and biochemical data were collected at the time of surgery. BMI variation was evaluated after 12 months and adipocyte size was measured in AT samples. Results: Our data confirm that POPs are pervasive in this obese population (96.3% of detection on both tissues), their abundance increasing with age (R S =0.310, p<0.01) and duration of obesity (R S =0.170, p<0.05). We observed a difference in AT depot POPs storage capability, with higher levels of ΣPOPs in vAT (213.9±204.2 compared to 155.1±147.4 ng/g of fat, p<0.001), extremely relevant when evaluating their metabolic impact. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between POP levels and the presence of metabolic syndrome components, namely dysglycaemia and hypertension, and more importantly with cardiovascular risk (R S =0.277, p<0.01), with relevance for vAT (R S =0.315, p<0.01). Finally, we observed an interesting relation of higher POP levels with lower weight loss in older patients. Conclusion: Our sample of obese subjects allowed us to highlight the importance of POPs stored in AT on the development of metabolic dysfunction in a context of obesity, shifting the focus to their metabolic effects

  7. Contrast Enhancement in Poor Visibility Conditions Using Guided Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, extraction of atmospheric veil is proposed to enhance the contrast of the images captured under poor visibility conditions. The method based on guided filtering can accurately recover hidden edges, maintain structural similarity (SSIM to input image and it is effective for both color and gray level images. The proposed algorithm works without prior information about the scene and its complexity is linear function of the input image size. Experimental comparisons with state of the art algorithms demonstrate that our approach can significantly enhance the contrast and restore the visibility in fine details.

  8. The APOE ε4 Allele Is Associated with Lower Selenium Levels in the Brain: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R Cardoso, Bárbara; Hare, Dominic J; Lind, Monica; McLean, Catriona A; Volitakis, Irene; Laws, Simon M; Masters, Colin L; Bush, Ashley I; Roberts, Blaine R

    2017-07-19

    The antioxidant activity of selenium, which is mainly conferred by its incorporation into dedicated selenoproteins, has been suggested as a possible neuroprotective approach for mitigating neuronal loss in Alzheimer's disease. However, there is inconsistent information with respect to selenium levels in the Alzheimer's disease brain. We examined the concentration and cellular compartmentalization of selenium in the temporal cortex of Alzheimer's disease and control brain tissue. We found that Alzheimer's disease was associated with decreased selenium concentration in both soluble (i.e., cytosolic) and insoluble (i.e., plaques and tangles) fractions of brain homogenates. The presence of the APOE ε4 allele correlated with lower total selenium levels in the temporal cortex and a higher concentration of soluble selenium. Additionally, we found that age significantly contributed to lower selenium concentrations in the peripheral membrane-bound and vesicular fractions. Our findings suggest a relevant interaction between APOE ε4 and selenium delivery into brain, and show changes in cellular selenium distribution in the Alzheimer's disease brain.

  9. Job Characteristics and Their Implications on the Satisfaction Levels of Call Center Employees: a study on a large telecommunications company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina dos Anjos Grilo Pinto de Sá

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Standardization of answers and cost reduction efforts have provided a specific relevance to call centers in the commercial strategy of many service companies. The aim of this research is to analyze to what extent job characteristics, as identified by Hackman and Oldham (1980, are essential determinants for the level of satisfaction of the contact employee in a call center. Indeed, literature clearly suggests that job characteristics have a huge influence on employees´ work performance, their level of satisfaction, and, as a consequence, on the quality of services provided to the customers. In order to answer these questions, we have performed a case study, based on a questionnaire survey. Findings reveal that employees feel that their jobs are highly structured and that they are being closely monitored, what might worsen their performance regarding the contact with the customer, mainly in what concerns customization, flexibility and adequate answer in a single contact. In order to increase frontline employees’ performance, a proposal that enhances job autonomy and values intrinsic satisfaction is made. The research suggests the need to change the way companies view contact employee’s job, in a call center context, not always perceived and designed as strategic or determinant for customers’ satisfaction, which calls for additional institutional investment in the redesign of such job.

  10. A survey of present levels of radiocesium in Swedish pulp mill liquors and the implications for wood radiocesium transfer factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravila, A.; Holm, E.

    1998-01-01

    Assessments of the impact from radioactive fallout on the pulp industry and the accumulation processes for radionuclides in such industries, using wood and water as primary raw materials, have been conducted in previous studies. Hitherto, there is a general lack of data on present levels of radioactivity in pulp mill liquors apart from the few mills studied by [NILSSON (1992)] [RAVILA AND HOLM (1992)] [MANJON ET AL. (1996) and [KROSSHAVN ET AL. (1997)]. A survey was therefore initiated to describe and compare the present activity levels in pulp mill liquors from various mill locations in Sweden. The 137 Cs activity in pulp mill liquors were compared with the mill location and the deposition pattern of the Chernobyl fallout and nuclear weapons fallout. The large input of wood (approx. 2500 m 3 day -1 ) to an average Nordic Kraft mill and the relatively long-term retention time for radiocesium in the Kraft mill recovery cycle enables representative sampling of substances directly related to the activity concentration in wood

  11. Structural changes in irreversibly densified fused silica: implications for the chemical resistance of high level nuclear waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susman, S.; Volin, K.J.; Liebermann, R.C.; Gwanmesia, G.D.; Yanbin Wang

    1990-01-01

    Energetic photons and energetic particles create changes in the structure of nuclear waste glasses. These can be observed as changes in the average bulk physical properties. For example, exposure of fused silica to high doses of neutron bombardment leads to a maximum average compaction of 3%. However, this does not reveal the true extent of the densification that takes place at a microscopic level. Recent advances in high pressure technology have yielded large samples of fused silica which have been permanently densified under pressure and whose bulk density has been increased by 20%. These specimens have an overall structure that replicates the microstructure of a radiation damaged glass. Measurements have been made for the first time of the structural changes in this pressure densified vitreous silica using neutron diffraction and infrared absorption spectrometry. Extensive alterations in intermediate range order have been observed with consequent anticipated changes in chemical reactivity. The resistance of high level waste glasses to leaching by groundwater must be considered in light of these experimental findings. (author)

  12. Changes in ice cover thickness and lake level of Lake Hoare, Antarctica - Implications for local climatic change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharton, Robert A., Jr.; Mckay, Christopher P.; Clow, Gary D.; Andersen, Dale T.; Simmons, George M., Jr.; Love, F. G.

    1992-01-01

    Results are reported from 10 years of ice-thickness measurements at perennially ice-covered Lake Hoare in southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. The ice cover of this lake had been thinning steadily at a rate exceeding 20 cm/yr during the last decade but seems to have recently stabilized at a thickness of 3.3 m. Data concerning lake level and degree-days above freezing are presented to show the relationship between peak summer temperatures and the volume of glacier-derived meltwater entering Lake Hoare each summer. From these latter data it is inferred that peak summer temperatures have been above 0 C for a progressively longer period of time each year since 1972. Possible explanations for the thinning of the lake ice are considered. The thickness of the ice cover is determined by the balance between freezing during the winter and ablation that occurs all year but maximizes in summer. It is suggested that the term most likely responsible for the change in the ice cover thickness at Lake Hoare is the extent of summer melting, consistent with the rising lake levels.

  13. Health implications of radionuclide levels in cattle raised near U mining and milling facilities in Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapham, S.C.; Millard, J.B.; Samet, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine radionuclide tissue levels in cattle raised near U mining and milling facilities. Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, has been the site of extensive U mining for 30 y and contains several underground U mines, a processing mill, and two large U tailings piles. Ten cows were purchased from two grazing areas in Ambrosia Lake and ten control animals were purchased from Crownpoint, New Mexico. Muscle, liver, kidney, and bone tissue taken from these animals, and environmental samples, including water, grasses and soil collected from the animals' grazing areas, were analyzed for 238 U, 234 U, 230 Th, 226 Ra, 210 Pb, and 210 Po. Mean radionuclide levels in cattle tissue and environmental samples from Ambrosia Lake were higher in almost every comparison than those found in respective controls. Liver and kidney tissues were particularly elevated in 226 Ra and 210 Po. Radiation dose commitments from eating cattle tissue with these radionuclide concentrations were calculated. We concluded that the health risk to the public from eating exposed cattle is minimal, unless large amounts of this tissue, especially liver and kidney, are ingested

  14. Geochemical and γ ray characterization of Pennsylvanian black shales: Implications for elevated home radon levels in Vanderburgh County, Indiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheller, Kent W.; Elliott, William S.

    2015-01-01

    Radon ( 222 Rn) is a radioactive gas that results from the decay of uranium ( 238 U) in the Earth's crust. This study characterizes the presence and relative quantity of radon precursors in the Pennsylvanian black shales of southwest Indiana. Cores were drilled on the campus of the University of Southern Indiana to a depth of 237.7 m (780 ft) during exploration for coal-bed methane. Gamma ray logs were taken to measure radioactive activity as a function of depth in the bore hole. Activity readings of 270, 467, 555, and 388 GAPI (American Petroleum Institute γ ray units) were measured at depths of 124.3 m (408 ft), 154.0 m (505 ft), 187.1 m (614 ft) and 214.0 m (702 ft) in four separate shale layers of the Pennsylvanian stratigraphic column. GAPI units are used in the petroleum industry when drilling to represent the relative intensities of γ radiation from 40 K, 232 Th, and 238 U in bore holes (Belknap et al., 1959). For purposes of this study, the high activity readings on the gamma ray logs were used only to identify at which depths further gamma ray spectroscopy of the cores would be completed in the laboratory. Gamma ray spectroscopic studies of these cores were conducted with a large volume NaI crystal detector to observe γ rays of specific energies. Characteristic γ rays from various isotopes were identified confirming the presence and relative quantity of radon precursors in core samples. Geochemical analysis of cores was also conducted to measure presence and quantity of trace metals and radon precursors. Of 744 homes tested in Vanderburgh County from 2007 to 2013, 169 homes (22.7 percent) had elevated radon levels greater than 148 mBq L −1 (4.0 pCi L −1 ). Additionally, 246 homes (33.1 percent) had measured radon levels of 74–145 mBq L −1 (2.0–3.9 pCi L −1 ). About 80 percent of elevated radon levels greater than 148 mBq L −1 (4.0 pCi L −1 ) are located in proximity to depositional contacts between the Dugger

  15. Efficient visibility encoding for dynamic illumination in direct volume rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronander, Joel; Jönsson, Daniel; Löw, Joakim; Ljung, Patric; Ynnerman, Anders; Unger, Jonas

    2012-03-01

    We present an algorithm that enables real-time dynamic shading in direct volume rendering using general lighting, including directional lights, point lights, and environment maps. Real-time performance is achieved by encoding local and global volumetric visibility using spherical harmonic (SH) basis functions stored in an efficient multiresolution grid over the extent of the volume. Our method enables high-frequency shadows in the spatial domain, but is limited to a low-frequency approximation of visibility and illumination in the angular domain. In a first pass, level of detail (LOD) selection in the grid is based on the current transfer function setting. This enables rapid online computation and SH projection of the local spherical distribution of visibility information. Using a piecewise integration of the SH coefficients over the local regions, the global visibility within the volume is then computed. By representing the light sources using their SH projections, the integral over lighting, visibility, and isotropic phase functions can be efficiently computed during rendering. The utility of our method is demonstrated in several examples showing the generality and interactive performance of the approach.

  16. Reduced miR-659-3p levels correlate with progranulin increase in hypoxic conditions: implications for frontotemporal dementia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola ePiscopo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Progranulin (PGRN is a secreted protein expressed ubiquitously throughout the body, including the brain, where it localizes in neurons and activated microglia. Loss-of-function mutations in the GRN gene are an important cause of familial Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD. PGRN has a neurotrophic and anti-inflammatory activity, and it is neuroprotective in several injury conditions, such as oxygen or glucose deprivation, oxidative injury, and hypoxic stress. Indeed, we have previously demonstrated that hypoxia induces the up-regulation of GRN transcripts. Several studies have shown microRNAs involvement in hypoxia. Moreover, in FTLD patients with a genetic variant of GRN (rs5848, the reinforcement of miR-659-3p binding site has been suggested to be a risk factor. Here, we report that miR-659-3p interacts directly with GRN 3’UTR as shown by luciferase assay in HeLa cells and ELISA and Western Blot analysis in HeLa and Kelly cells. Moreover, we demonstrate the physical binding between GRN mRNA and miR-659-3p employing a miRNA capture-affinity technology in SK-N-BE and Kelly cells. In order to study miRNAs involvement in hypoxia-mediated up-regulation of GRN, we evaluated miR-659-3p levels in SK-N-BE cells after 24h of hypoxic treatment, finding them inversely correlated to GRN transcripts. Furthermore, we analyzed an animal model of asphyxia, finding that GRN mRNA levels increased at post-natal day (pnd 1 and pnd 4 in rat cortices subjected to asphyxia in comparison to control rats and miR-659-3p decreased at pnd 4 just when GRN reached the highest levels. Our results demonstrate the interaction between miR-659-3p and GRN transcript and the involvement of miR-659-3p in GRN up-regulation mediated by hypoxic/ischemic insults.

  17. Synthesizing qualitative and quantitative evidence on non-financial access barriers: implications for assessment at the district level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Thomas S; Bedford, K Juliet A; Thiede, Michael; McIntyre, Di

    2015-06-09

    A key element of the global drive to universal health coverage is ensuring access to needed health services for everyone, and to pursue this goal in an equitable way. This requires concerted efforts to reduce disparities in access through understanding and acting on barriers facing communities with the lowest utilisation levels. Financial barriers dominate the empirical literature on health service access. Unless the full range of access barriers are investigated, efforts to promote equitable access to health care are unlikely to succeed. This paper therefore focuses on exploring the nature and extent of non-financial access barriers. We draw upon two structured literature reviews on barriers to access and utilization of maternal, newborn and child health services in Ghana, Bangladesh, Vietnam and Rwanda. One review analyses access barriers identified in published literature using qualitative research methods; the other in published literature using quantitative analysis of household survey data. We then synthesised the key qualitative and quantitative findings through a conjoint iterative analysis. Five dominant themes on non-financial access barriers were identified: ethnicity; religion; physical accessibility; decision-making, gender and autonomy; and knowledge, information and education. The analysis highlighted that non-financial factors pose considerable barriers to access, many of which relate to the acceptability dimension of access and are challenging to address. Another key finding is that quantitative research methods, while yielding important findings, are inadequate for understanding non-financial access barriers in sufficient detail to develop effective responses. Qualitative research is critical in filling this gap. The analysis also indicates that the nature of non-financial access barriers vary considerably, not only between countries but also between different communities within individual countries. To adequately understand access barriers as a

  18. Seasonal and spatial variations in Rn-222 and Rn-220 in soil gas, and implications for indoor radon levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharman, G.

    1992-01-01

    Rn-222 enters dwellings as a component of soil gas drawn from the soil by mass flow driven by the pressure difference between the house and soil beneath. In a site on Northampton Sand Ironstone (Aalenian), a preferred path of emanation (hotspot) was found. A difference of 63 Bq L -1 Rn-222 was recorded in July between this point and another 3 m away. Rn-222 in this hotspot shows 12% less variation annually than the surrounding rock. During winter, Rn-222 values within 1.6 m of the house were 44% lower than those at more than 4 m away. Rn-222 showed a 99.5% negative correlation with wind run, showing that on this soil wind pressure can significantly reduce radon in the soil at 500 mm depth. Rn-220 in soil gas correlated positively at the 99.5% level with grass and air temperatures. Rn-220 was not associated with the hotspot. (Author)

  19. Economy-wide estimates of the implications of climate change: A joint analysis for sea level rise and tourism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigano, A. [Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, Venice (Italy)]|[Ricerche per l' Economia e la Finanza, Milan (Italy); Bosello, F.; Roson, R. [Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, Venice (Italy)]|[Ca' Foscari Univ. of Venice (Italy); Tol, R.S.J. [Hamburg Univ. and Centre for Marine and Atmospheric Science, Hamburg (Germay). Research Unit Sustainability and Global Change]|[Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Inst. for Environmental Studies]|[Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Climate change impacts of human life have well defined and different origins. Nevertheless in the determination of their final effects, especially those involving social-economic responses, interactions among impacts are likely to play an important role. This paper is one of the first attempts to disentangle and highlight the role of these interactions. It focuses on the economic assessment of two specific climate change impacts: sea-level rise and changes in tourism flows. By using a CGE model the two impacts categories are first analyzed separately and then jointly. Comparing the results it is shown that, even though qualitatively joint effects follow the outcomes of the disjoint exercises, quantitatively impact interaction do play a significant role. Moreover it has also been possible to disentangle the relative contribution of each single impact category to the final result. In the case under scrutiny demand shocks induced by changes in tourism flows outweigh the supply side shock induced by the loss of coastal land.

  20. Modeled Sea Level Rise Impacts on Coastal Ecosystems at Six Major Estuaries on Florida's Gulf Coast: Implications for Adaptation Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geselbracht, Laura L; Freeman, Kathleen; Birch, Anne P; Brenner, Jorge; Gordon, Doria R

    2015-01-01

    The Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM) was applied at six major estuaries along Florida's Gulf Coast (Pensacola Bay, St. Andrews/Choctawhatchee Bays, Apalachicola Bay, Southern Big Bend, Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor) to provide quantitative and spatial information on how coastal ecosystems may change with sea level rise (SLR) and to identify how this information can be used to inform adaption planning. High resolution LiDAR-derived elevation data was utilized under three SLR scenarios: 0.7 m, 1 m and 2 m through the year 2100 and uncertainty analyses were conducted on selected input parameters at three sites. Results indicate that the extent, spatial orientation and relative composition of coastal ecosystems at the study areas may substantially change with SLR. Under the 1 m SLR scenario, total predicted impacts for all study areas indicate that coastal forest (-69,308 ha; -18%), undeveloped dry land (-28,444 ha; -2%) and tidal flat (-25,556 ha; -47%) will likely face the greatest loss in cover by the year 2100. The largest potential gains in cover were predicted for saltmarsh (+32,922 ha; +88%), transitional saltmarsh (+23,645 ha; na) and mangrove forest (+12,583 ha; +40%). The Charlotte Harbor and Tampa Bay study areas were predicted to experience the greatest net loss in coastal wetlands The uncertainty analyses revealed low to moderate changes in results when some numerical SLAMM input parameters were varied highlighting the value of collecting long-term sedimentation, accretion and erosion data to improve SLAMM precision. The changes predicted by SLAMM will affect exposure of adjacent human communities to coastal hazards and ecosystem functions potentially resulting in impacts to property values, infrastructure investment and insurance rates. The results and process presented here can be used as a guide for communities vulnerable to SLR to identify and prioritize adaptation strategies that slow and/or accommodate the changes underway.

  1. Activation of somatostatin 2 receptors in the brain and the periphery induces opposite changes in circulating ghrelin levels: functional implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eStengel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Somatostatin is an important modulator of neurotransmission in the central nervous system and acts as a potent inhibitor of hormone and exocrine secretion and regulator of cell proliferation in the periphery. These pleiotropic actions occur through interaction with five G-protein coupled somatostatin receptor subtypes (sst1-5 that are widely expressed in the brain and peripheral organs. The characterization of somatostatin’s effects can be investigated by pharmacological or genetic approaches using newly developed selective sst agonists and antagonists and mice lacking specific sst subtypes. Recent evidence points towards a divergent action of somatostatin in the brain and in the periphery to regulate circulating levels of ghrelin, an orexigenic hormone produced by the endocrine X/A-like cells in the gastric mucosa. Somatostatin interacts with the sst2 in the brain to induce an increase in basal ghrelin plasma levels and counteracts the visceral stress-related decrease in circulating ghrelin in rats. By contrast, stimulation of peripheral somatostatin-sst2 signaling results in the inhibition of basal ghrelin release and mediates the postoperative decrease in circulating ghrelin in rats. The peripheral sst2-mediated reduction of plasma ghrelin is likely to involve a paracrine action of D-cell derived somatostatin acting on sst2 bearing X/A-like ghrelin cells in the gastric mucosa. The other member of the somatostatin family, named cortistatin, in addition to binding to sst1-5 also directly interacts with the ghrelin receptor and therefore may simultaneously modulate ghrelin release and actions at target sites bearing ghrelin receptors representing a link between the ghrelin and somatostatin systems.

  2. Correlation between total vitamin D levels and psychotic psychopathology in patients with schizophrenia: therapeutic implications for add-on vitamin D augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Rabia Nazik; Altunsoy, Neslihan; Tikir, Baise; Cingi Külük, Merve; Unal, Kubranur; Goka, Sema; Aydemir, Cigdem; Goka, Erol

    2014-12-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is one of the implicated factors in ethio-pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Low serum vitamin D levels have been reported in many schizophrenia studies. However, the question is still not answered: Is there a correlation between disease activity and serum vitamin D levels? This is the first study evaluating the relationship between serum total vitamin D levels and disease activity, by comparing total vitamin D levels in two schizophrenia groups abruptly different in terms of disease activity. 41 patients with schizophrenia in remission, 40 patients with schizophrenia those in an acute episode and 40 age- and sex -matched controls with no major psychopatology were recruited in this study. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Clinical Global Impression - Severety scale (CGI-S) were used to evaluate disease activity. A demographic data form that included entries on age, gender, ethnicity, weight, skin color, daily duration of sun exposure and nutritional assessment were used. Blood samples were taken from all patients and controls. Total vitamin D (D2+D3), calcium, phosphor, parathyroid hormone values were measured. Patients in an acute episode had significantly lower vitamin D levels compared to patients in remission and to healthy controls (in terms of median values respectively, 7.18, 15.03, 15.02, p vitamin D levels and CGI scores (r = -0.624, p vitamin D levels and PANNS scores (r = -0.508, p vitamin D levels. Even though important factors for vitamin D synthesis were similar, there was severe vitamin D deficiency in patients presenting with an acute episode, significantly different from those in remission. Is vitamin D deficiency the result or the cause of an acute episode? Our results contribute to the idea that vitamin D deficiency and schizophrenia may have interactions with an unknown pathway. Present data points out a possible influence at a genomic level. Future trials may investigate this association with longer follow up

  3. Adaptation Reactions of Siderophilic Cyanobacteria to High and Low Levels Of Environmental Iron: Implications for Biosphere History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I. I.; Bryant, D.; Sarkisova, S.; Shen, G.; Garrison, D.; McKay, D. S.

    2009-01-01

    Of all extant environments, iron-depositing hot springs may constitute the most appropriate natural models (Pierson and Parenteau, 2000) for analysis of the ecophysiology of ancient cyanobacteria (CB) which may have emerged in association with hydrothermal activity (Brown et al., 2007) and elevated levels of environmental Fe (Rouxel et al., 2005). Elevated environmental Fe2+ posed a significant challenge to the first oxygenic phototrophs - CB - because reduced Fe2+ induces toxic Fenton reactions (Wiedenheft et al., 2005). Ancient CB could have also been stressed by occasional migrations from the Fe2+-rich Ocean to the basaltic land which was almost devoid of dissolved Fe2+. That is why the study of the adaptation reactions of siderophilic CB, which inhabit iron-depositing hot springs, to up and down shifts in levels of dissolved Fe may shed light on the paleophysiology of ancient oxygenic prokaryotes. Methods. Siderophilic CB (Brown et al., 2007) were cultivated in media with different concentrations of added Fe3+. In some cases basaltic rocks were used as a source of Fe and trace elements. The processes of Fe mineralization and rock dissolution were studied using TEM, SEM and EDS techniques. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used for checking chlorophyll-protein complexes. Results. It was found that five siderophilic isolates Chroogloeocystis siderophila, JSC-1, JSC-3, JSC-11 and JSC-12 precipitated Fe-bearing phases on the exopolymeric sheaths of their cells if [Fe3+] was approx. 400-600 M (high Fe). Same [Fe3+] was most optimal one for the cultures proliferation rate (Brown et al., 2005; Brown et al., 2007). Higher concentrations of Fe3+ repressed the growth of some siderophilic CB (Brown et al., 2005). No mineralized Fe3+ was observed on the sheath of freshwater isolates Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and Phormidium aa. Scanning TEM in conjunction with thin-window energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) revealed intracellular Fe-rich phases within all three isolates

  4. The legacy of attack: implications of high phloem resin monoterpene levels in lodgepole pines following mass attack by mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, E L; Huber, D P W; Carroll, A L

    2012-04-01

    The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is the most serious pest of pines (Pinus) in western North America. Host pines protect themselves from attack by producing a complex mixture of terpenes in their resin. We sampled lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta variety latifolia) phloem resin at four widely separated locations in the interior of British Columbia, Canada, both just before (beginning of July) and substantially after (end of August) the mountain pine beetle dispersal period. The sampled trees then were observed the next spring for evidence of survival, and the levels of seven resin monoterpenes were compared between July and August samples. Trees that did not survive consistently had significantly higher phloem resin monoterpene levels at the end of August compared with levels in July. Trees that did survive mainly did not exhibit a significant difference between the two sample dates. The accumulation of copious defense-related secondary metabolites in the resin of mountain pine beetle-killed lodgepole pine has important implications for describing the environmental niche that the beetle offspring survive in as well as that of parasitoids, predators, and other associates.

  5. Implication of the level mixing concept on the possibility of Moessbauer absorption on isotopes with a long lived excited state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coussement, R.; Scheveneels, G.; Hardeman, F.; Boolchand, P.

    1988-01-01

    In proposals and designs of possible γ-lasers, called grasers, the resonant absorption of γ-rays, called Moessbauer absorption, plays a dominant role. However two conflicting requirements on the lifetime of the isomeric state result in poor perspectives. In order to achieve the inversion of population that is necessary for the laser working, a long lived state is preferred so that the inverted system could be prepared by radiochemical means. However a long lived state implies a very small natural linewidth. At the other hand one needs a linewidth that is at least of the same order of magnitude as the inhomogeneous energy spread due to imperfections in the crystalline surrounding or due to dipole-dipole interactions with the nearest neighbours. One can circumvent the stringent requirement on the natural linewidth, when the effective lifetime is much shorter than the radiative one. The effective lifetime is in fact nothing else than the coherence time of the quantum state. If this coherence is only broke by the radiative decay, one obtains the natural linewidth. If, however, the nucleus is strongly coupled to the reservoir of its surrounding, it makes frequent phase and energy jumps. Its correlation time becomes very short and the associated linewidth becomes strongly but homogeneously broadened. To couple the nucleus with its neighbours and with the reservoir we use the principles of resonant level mixing. We will describe and illustrate this method with the case of 109m Ag. (orig./BHO)

  6. A Python Implementation of an Intermediate-Level Tropical Circulation Model and Implications for How Modeling Science is Done

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J. W. B.

    2015-12-01

    Historically, climate models have been developed incrementally and in compiled languages like Fortran. While the use of legacy compiledlanguages results in fast, time-tested code, the resulting model is limited in its modularity and cannot take advantage of functionalityavailable with modern computer languages. Here we describe an effort at using the open-source, object-oriented language Pythonto create more flexible climate models: the package qtcm, a Python implementation of the intermediate-level Neelin-Zeng Quasi-Equilibrium Tropical Circulation model (QTCM1) of the atmosphere. The qtcm package retains the core numerics of QTCM1, written in Fortran, to optimize model performance but uses Python structures and utilities to wrap the QTCM1 Fortran routines and manage model execution. The resulting "mixed language" modeling package allows order and choice of subroutine execution to be altered at run time, and model analysis and visualization to be integrated in interactively with model execution at run time. This flexibility facilitates more complex scientific analysis using less complex code than would be possible using traditional languages alone and provides tools to transform the traditional "formulate hypothesis → write and test code → run model → analyze results" sequence into a feedback loop that can be executed automatically by the computer.

  7. The implications of RCRA [Resource Conservation and Recovery Act] regulation for the disposal of transuranic and high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigmon, C.F.; Sharples, F.E.; Smith, E.D.

    1988-01-01

    In May of 1987 the Department of Energy (DOE) published a rule interpreting the definition of ''byproduct'' under the Atomic Energy Act. This byproduct rule clarified the role of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in the regulation of DOE's radioactive waste management activities. According to the rule, only the radioactive portion of DOE's mixed radioactive and hazardous waste (mixed waste), including mixed transuranic (TRU) and high-level waste (HLW), is exempt from RCRA under the byproduct exemption. The portion of a waste that is hazardous as defined by RCRA is subject to full regulation under RCRA. Because the radioactive and hazardous portions of m any, if not most, DOE wastes are likely to be inseparable, the rule in effect makes most mixed wastes subject to dual regulation. The potential application of RCRA to facilities such as the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and the HLW repository creates unique challenges for both the DOE and regulatory authorities. Strategies must be developed to assure compliance with RCRA without either causing excessive administrative burdens or abandoning the goal of minimizing radiation exposure. This paper will explore some of the potential regulatory options for and recent trends in the regulation of TRU and HLW under RCRA

  8. Energy Awareness Displays - Making the Invisible Visible

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Börner, D. (2011). Energy Awareness Displays - Making the Invisible Visible. Presentation given at the Startbijeenkomst SURFnet Innovatieregeling Duurzaamheid & ICT. May, 13, 2011, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

  9. Scale-dependent behavior of the foredune: Implications for barrier island response to storms and sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, Chris; Wernette, Phil; Weymer, Bradley A.

    2018-02-01

    The impact of storm surge on a barrier island tends to be considered from a single cross-shore dimension, dependent on the relative elevations of the storm surge and dune crest. However, the foredune is rarely uniform and can exhibit considerable variation in height and width at a range of length scales. In this study, LiDAR data from barrier islands in Texas and Florida are used to explore how shoreline position and dune morphology vary alongshore, and to determine how this variability is altered or reinforced by storms and post-storm recovery. Wavelet analysis reveals that a power law can approximate historical shoreline change across all scales, but that storm-scale shoreline change ( 10 years) and dune height exhibit similar scale-dependent variations at swash and surf zone scales (< 1000 m). The in-phase nature of the relationship between dune height and storm-scale shoreline change indicates that areas of greater storm-scale shoreline retreat are associated with areas of smaller dunes. It is argued that the decoupling of storm-scale and historical shoreline change at swash and surf zone scales is also associated with the alongshore redistribution of sediment and the tendency of shorelines to evolve to a more diffusive (or straight) pattern with time. The wavelet analysis of the data for post-storm dune recovery is also characterized by red noise at the smallest scales characteristic of diffusive systems, suggesting that it is possible that small-scale variations in dune height can be repaired through alongshore recovery and expansion if there is sufficient time between storms. However, the time required for dune recovery exceeds the time between storms capable of eroding and overwashing the dune. Correlation between historical shoreline retreat and the variance of the dune at swash and surf zone scales suggests that the persistence of the dune is an important control on transgression through island migration or shoreline retreat with relative sea-level rise.

  10. Levels of tritium in soils and vegetation near Canadian nuclear facilities releasing tritium to the atmosphere: implications for environmental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, P A; Kwamena, N-O A; Ilin, M; Wilk, M; Clark, I D

    2015-02-01

    Concentrations of organically bound tritium (OBT) and tritiated water (HTO) were measured over two growing seasons in vegetation and soil samples obtained in the vicinity of four nuclear facilities and two background locations in Canada. At the background locations, with few exceptions, OBT concentrations were higher than HTO concentrations: OBT/HTO ratios in vegetation varied between 0.3 and 20 and values in soil varied between 2.7 and 15. In the vicinity of the four nuclear facilities OBT/HTO ratios in vegetation and soils deviated from the expected mean value of 0.7, which is used as a default value in environmental transfer models. Ratios of the OBT activity concentration in plants ([OBT]plant) to the OBT activity concentration in soils ([OBT]soil) appear to be a good indicator of the long-term behaviour of tritium in soil and vegetation. In general, OBT activity concentrations in soils were nearly equal to OBT activity concentrations in plants in the vicinity of the two nuclear power plants. [OBT]plant/[OBT]soil ratios considerably below unity observed at one nuclear processing facility represents historically higher levels of tritium in the environment. The results of our study reflect the dynamic nature of HTO retention and OBT formation in vegetation and soil during the growing season. Our data support the mounting evidence suggesting that some parameters used in environmental transfer models approved for regulatory assessments should be revisited to better account for the behavior of HTO and OBT in the environment and to ensure that modelled estimates (e.g., plant OBT) are appropriately conservative. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Neurotoxicity of low bisphenol A (BPA) exposure for young male mice: Implications for children exposed to environmental levels of BPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yuanxiu; Wang, Zhouyu; Xia, Minghan; Zhuang, Siyi; Gong, Xiaobing; Pan, Jianwen; Li, Chuhua; Fan, Ruifang; Pang, Qihua; Lu, Shaoyou

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the neuron toxicities of low-dose exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) in children, mice were used as an animal model. We examined brain cell damage and the effects of learning and memory ability after BPA exposure in male mice (4 weeks of age) that were divided into four groups and chronically received different BPA treatments for 8 weeks. The comet assay and hippocampal neuron counting were used to detect the brain cell damage. The Y-maze test was applied to test alterations in learning and memory ability. Long term potentiation induction by BPA exposure was performed to study the potential mechanism of performance. The percentages of tail DNA, tail length and tail moment in brain cells increased with increasing BPA exposure concentrations. Significant differences in DNA damage were observed among the groups, including between the low-dose and control groups. In the Y-maze test, the other three groups qualified for the learned standard one day earlier than the high-exposed group. Furthermore, the ratio of qualified mice in the high-exposed group was always the lowest among the groups, indicating that high BPA treatment significantly altered the spatial memory performance of mice. Different BPA treatments exerted different effects on the neuron numbers of different regions in the hippocampus. In the CA1 region, the high-exposed group had a significant decrease in neuron numbers. A non-monotonic relationship was observed between the exposure concentrations and neuron quantity in the CA3 region. The hippocampal slices in the control and medium-exposed groups generated long-term potentiation after induction by theta burst stimulation, but the low-exposed group did not. A significant difference was observed between the control and low-exposed groups. In conclusion, chronic exposure to a low level of BPA had adverse effects on brain cells and altered the learning and memory ability of adolescent mice. - Highlights: • Low dose BPA exposure could lead to DNA

  12. Metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 7 ablation causes dysregulation of the HPA axis and increases hippocampal BDNF protein levels: implications for stress-related psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsukawa, Kayo; Mombereau, Cedric; Lötscher, Erika; Uzunov, Doncho P; van der Putten, Herman; Flor, Peter J; Cryan, John F

    2006-06-01

    Regulation of neurotransmission via group-III metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR4, -6, -7, and -8) has recently been implicated in the pathophysiology of affective disorders, such as major depression and anxiety. For instance, mice with a targeted deletion of the gene for mGluR7 (mGluR7-/-) showed antidepressant and anxiolytic-like effects in a variety of stress-related paradigms, including the forced swim stress and the stress-induced hyperthermia tests. Deletion of mGluR7 reduces also amygdala- and hippocampus-dependent conditioned fear and aversion responses. Since the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulates the stress response we investigate whether parameters of the HPA axis at the levels of selected mRNA transcripts and endocrine hormones are altered in mGluR7-deficient mice. Over all, mGluR7-/- mice showed only moderately lower serum levels of corticosterone and ACTH compared with mGluR7+/+ mice. More strikingly however, we found strong evidence for upregulated glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-dependent feedback suppression of the HPA axis in mice with mGluR7 deficiency: (i) mRNA transcripts of GR were significantly upregulated in the hippocampus of mGluR7-/- animals, (ii) similar increases were seen with 5-HT1A receptor transcripts, which are thought to be directly controlled by the transcription factor GR and finally (iii) mGluR7-/- mice showed elevated sensitivity to dexamethasone-induced suppression of serum corticosterone when compared with mGluR7+/+ animals. These results indicate that mGluR7 deficiency causes dysregulation of HPA axis parameters, which may account, at least in part, for the phenotype of mGluR7-/- mice in animal models for anxiety and depression. In addition, we present evidence that protein levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor are also elevated in the hippocampus of mGluR7-/- mice, which we discuss in the context of the antidepressant-like phenotype found in those animals. We conclude that genetic ablation of m

  13. Cannabidiol normalizes caspase 3, synaptophysin, and mitochondrial fission protein DNM1L expression levels in rats with brain iron overload: implications for neuroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Vanessa Kappel; de Freitas, Betânia Souza; da Silva Dornelles, Arethuza; Nery, Laura Roesler; Falavigna, Lucio; Ferreira, Rafael Dal Ponte; Bogo, Maurício Reis; Hallak, Jaime Eduardo Cecílio; Zuardi, Antônio Waldo; Crippa, José Alexandre S; Schröder, Nadja

    2014-02-01

    We have recently shown that chronic treatment with cannabidiol (CBD) was able to recover memory deficits induced by brain iron loading in a dose-dependent manner in rats. Brain iron accumulation is implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's, and has been related to cognitive deficits in animals and human subjects. Deficits in synaptic energy supply have been linked to neurodegenerative diseases, evidencing the key role played by mitochondria in maintaining viable neural cells and functional circuits. It has also been shown that brains of patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases have increased expression of apoptosisrelated proteins and specific DNA fragmentation. Here, we have analyzed the expression level of brain proteins involved with mitochondrial fusion and fission mechanisms (DNM1L and OPA1), the main integral transmembrane protein of synaptic vesicles (synaptophysin), and caspase 3, an apoptosis-related protein, to gain a better understanding of the potential of CBD in restoring the damage caused by iron loading in rats. We found that CBD rescued iron-induced effects, bringing hippocampal DNM1L, caspase 3, and synaptophysin levels back to values comparable to the control group. Our results suggest that iron affects mitochondrial dynamics, possibly trigging synaptic loss and apoptotic cell death and indicate that CBD should be considered as a potential molecule with memory-rescuing and neuroprotective properties to be used in the treatment of cognitive deficits observed in neurodegenerative disorders.

  14. Improved visibility computation on massive grid terrains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fishman, J.; Haverkort, H.J.; Toma, L.; Wolfson, O.; Agrawal, D.; Lu, C.-T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the design and engineering of algorithms for computing visibility maps on massive grid terrains. Given a terrain T, specified by the elevations of points in a regular grid, and given a viewpoint v, the visibility map or viewshed of v is the set of grid points of T that are

  15. Rendering Visible: Painting and Sexuate Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Linda

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, I examine Luce Irigaray's aesthetic of sexual difference, which she develops by extrapolating from Paul Klee's idea that the role of painting is to render the non-visible rather than represent the visible. This idea is the premise of her analyses of phenomenology and psychoanalysis and their respective contributions to understanding…

  16. 40 CFR 52.2179 - Visibility protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.2179 Section 52.2179 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) South Dakota § 52.2179 Visibility protection...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1606 - Visibility protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.1606 Section 52.1606 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New Jersey § 52.1606 Visibility protection...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1236 - Visibility protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.1236 Section 52.1236 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Minnesota § 52.1236 Visibility protection. (a...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1488 - Visibility protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.1488 Section 52.1488 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1488 Visibility protection. (a...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2383 - Visibility protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.2383 Section 52.2383 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Vermont § 52.2383 Visibility protection. (a...

  1. 40 CFR 52.2498 - Visibility protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.2498 Section 52.2498 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Washington § 52.2498 Visibility protection...

  2. 40 CFR 52.2304 - Visibility protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.2304 Section 52.2304 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Texas § 52.2304 Visibility protection. (a...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1387 - Visibility protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.1387 Section 52.1387 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1387 Visibility protection. (a...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1831 - Visibility protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.1831 Section 52.1831 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) North Dakota § 52.1831 Visibility protection...

  5. 40 CFR 52.2533 - Visibility protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.2533 Section 52.2533 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) West Virginia § 52.2533 Visibility protection...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1183 - Visibility protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.1183 Section 52.1183 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Michigan § 52.1183 Visibility protection. (a...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1531 - Visibility protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.1531 Section 52.1531 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New Hampshire § 52.1531 Visibility protection...

  8. 40 CFR 52.2452 - Visibility protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.2452 Section 52.2452 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Virginia § 52.2452 Visibility protection. (a...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1033 - Visibility protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.1033 Section 52.1033 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maine § 52.1033 Visibility protection. (a...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1339 - Visibility protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.1339 Section 52.1339 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Missouri § 52.1339 Visibility protection. (a...

  11. Wage Implications at EU Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miron Dumitrescu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In all conditions of time and space, economic activity necessarily involves active work as a determinant factor of production and beneficiary of its results. In the market economy, labor services are provided to production, as with the other factors of production, through market transactions. This article aims labor factor, the role and characteristics of labor as a production factor and the employment in the EU. As a secondary market, labor market is influenced by other markets and generates, in turn, effects that are found in all other structures of the market economy system

  12. Hybrid Analysis of Blue Water Consumption and Water Scarcity Implications at the Global, National, and Basin Levels in an Increasingly Globalized World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ranran; Zimmerman, Julie

    2016-05-17

    As the fifth global water footprint assessment, this study enhanced previous estimates of national blue water consumption (including fresh surface and groundwater) and main economic activities with (1) improved spatial and sectoral resolution and (2) quantified the impacts of virtual water trade on water use and water stress at both the national and basin level. In 2007, 1194 Gm(3) of blue water was consumed globally for human purposes. The consuming (producing) of primary and manufactured goods and services from the sectors of "Primary Crops and Livestock", "Primary Energy and Minerals", "Processed Food and Beverages", "Non-food Manufactured Products", "Electricity", "Commercial and Public Services", and "Households" accounted for 33% (91%), ∼ 0% (1%), 37% (water consumption, respectively. The considerable differences in sectoral water consumption accounted for by the two perspectives (consumption- vs production-based) highlight the significance of the water consumed indirectly, upstream in the supply chain (i.e., > 70% of total blue water consumption) while offering additional insights into the water implications of critical interconnected economic activities, such as the water-energy nexus. With 145 Gm(3) (12%) of the blue water consumption embedded in the goods and services traded internationally, 89 countries analyzed were net blue water importers at the national level. On the basin level, the impacts of virtual water trade on water stress were statistically significant for basins across the world and within 104 countries; virtual water trade mitigated water stress for the basins within 85 of the 104 countries, including all of those where there are moderate and greater water stress countrywide (except Italy).

  13. Sea level and shoreline reconstructions for the Red Sea: isostatic and tectonic considerations and implications for hominin migration out of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambeck, Kurt; Purcell, Anthony; Flemming, Nicholas. C.; Vita-Finzi, Claudio; Alsharekh, Abdullah M.; Bailey, Geoffrey N.

    2011-12-01

    The history of sea level within the Red Sea basin impinges on several areas of research. For archaeology and prehistory, past sea levels of the southern sector define possible pathways of human dispersal out of Africa. For tectonics, the interglacial sea levels provide estimates of rates for vertical tectonics. For global sea level studies, the Red Sea sediments contain a significant record of changing water chemistry with implications on the mass exchange between oceans and ice sheets during glacial cycles. And, because of its geometry and location, the Red Sea provides a test laboratory for models of glacio-hydro-isostasy. The Red Sea margins contain incomplete records of sea level for the Late Holocene, for the Last Glacial Maximum, for the Last Interglacial and for earlier interglacials. These are usually interpreted in terms of tectonics and ocean volume changes but it is shown here that the glacio-hydro-isostatic process is an additional important component with characteristic spatial variability. Through an iterative analysis of the Holocene and interglacial evidence a separation of the tectonic, isostatic and eustatic contributions is possible and we present a predictive model for palaeo-shorelines and water depths for a time interval encompassing the period proposed for migrations of modern humans out of Africa. Principal conclusions include the following. (i) Late Holocene sea level signals evolve along the length of the Red Sea, with characteristic mid-Holocene highstands not developing in the central part. (ii) Last Interglacial sea level signals are also location dependent and, in the absence of tectonics, are not predicted to occur more than 1-2 m above present sea level. (iii) For both periods, Red Sea levels at 'expected far-field' elevations are not necessarily indicative of tectonic stability and the evidence points to a long-wavelength tectonic uplift component along both the African and Arabian northern and central sides of the Red Sea. (iv) The

  14. From words to action: visibility of management in supporting interdisciplinary team working in an acute rehabilitative geriatric hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttigieg, Sandra C; Cassar, Vincent; Scully, Judy W

    2013-01-01

    The following case study aims to explore management's, health professionals' and patients' experiences on the extent to which there is visibility of management support in achieving effective interdisciplinary team working, which is explicitly declared in the mission statement of a 60-bed acute rehabilitative geriatric hospital in Malta. A total of 21 semi-structured interviews were conducted with the above-mentioned key stakeholders. Three main distinct yet interdependent themes emerged as a result of thematic analysis: "managing a team-friendly hospital", "interdisciplinary team components", and "interdisciplinary team processes". The findings show that visibility of management support and its alignment with the process and content levels of interdisciplinary teamwork are key to integrated care for acute rehabilitative geriatric patients. The emerging phenomena may not be reproducible in a different context; although many of the emerging themes could be comfortably matched with the existing literature. The implications are geared towards raising the consciousness and conscientiousness of good practice in interdisciplinary teamwork in hospitals, as well as in emphasizing organizational and management support as crucial factors for team-based organizations. Interdisciplinary teamwork in acute rehabilitative geriatrics provides optimal quality and integrated health care delivery with the aim that the older persons are successfully discharged back to the community. The authors draw on solid theoretical frameworks--the complexity theory, team effectiveness model and the social identity theory--to support their major finding, namely the alignment of organizational and management support with intra-team factors at the process and content level.

  15. Query Load Balancing For Visible Object Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukauskas, Linas; Bøhlen, Michael Hanspeter

    2004-01-01

    Interactive visual data explorations impose rigid real-time requirements on the extraction of visible objects. Often these requirements are met by deploying powerful hardware that maintains the entire data set in huge main memory structures. In this paper we propose an approach that retrieves...... the visible data on demand and is based on a tight integration of the database and visualization systems. We propose to incrementally adjust the observer path by adding and dropping path points. The result is an optimal path that minimizes the interaction with the database system and retrieves all visible...

  16. The Disappearing Audience and Reflexive Visibility

    OpenAIRE

    Katerina Girginova

    2016-01-01

    Contrary to popular opinion and some academic writing that celebrates the renewed visibility of new media audiences, this essay argues that they are increasingly going into retreat. To understand how new media audiences “disappear” from view of one another, I borrow from Brighenti’s typology of visibility and develop the idea of “reflexive visibility.” The latter describes the ability to socially orient ourselves in a digital environment through the textual and contextual cues of others—an ac...

  17. A review of low-level air pollution and adverse effects on human health: implications for epidemiological studies and public policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmo, Neide Regina Simões; do Nascimento Saldiva, Paulo Hilário; Braga, Alfésio Luís Ferreira; Lin, Chin An; de Paula Santos, Ubiratan; Pereira, Luiz Alberto Amador

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review original scientific articles describing the relationship between atmospheric pollution and damage to human health. We also aimed to determine which of these studies mentioned public policy issues. Original articles relating to atmospheric pollution and human health published between 1995 and 2009 were retrieved from the PubMed database and analyzed. This study included only articles dealing with atmospheric pollutants resulting primarily from vehicle emissions. Three researchers were involved in the final selection of the studies, and the chosen articles were approved by at least two of the three researchers. Of the 84 non-Brazilian studies analyzed, 80 showed an association between atmospheric pollution and adverse effects on human health. Moreover, 66 showed evidence of adverse effects on human health, even at levels below the permitted emission standards. Three studies mentioned public policies aimed at changing emission standards. Similarly, the 29 selected Brazilian studies reported adverse associations with human health, and 27 showed evidence of adverse effects even at levels below the legally permitted emission standards. Of these studies, 16 mentioned public policies aimed at changing emission standards. Based on the Brazilian and non-Brazilian scientific studies that have been conducted, it can be concluded that, even under conditions that are compliant with Brazilian air quality standards, the concentration of atmospheric pollutants in Brazil can negatively affect human health. However, as little discussion of this topic has been generated, this finding demonstrates the need to incorporate epidemiological evidence into decisions regarding legal regulations and to discuss the public policy implications in epidemiological studies. PMID:21655765

  18. Catadioptric lenses in Visible Light Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Marquez, J.; Valencia, J. C.; Perez, H.; Topsu, S.

    2015-04-01

    Since few years ago, visible light communications (VLC) have experience an accelerated interest from a research point of view. The beginning of this decade has seen many improvements in VLC at an electronic level. High rates of transmission at low bit error ratios (BER) have been reported. A few numbers of start-ups have initiated activities to offer a variety of applications ranging from indoor geo-localization to internet, but in spite of these advancements, some other problems arise. Long-range transmissions mean a high BER which reduce the number of applications. In this sense, new redesigned optical collectors or in some cases, optical reflectors must be considered to ensure a low BER at higher distance transmissions. Here we also expose a preliminary design of a catadioptric and monolithical lens for a LI-FI receiver with two rotationally symmetrical main piecewise surfaces za and zb. These surfaces are represented in a system of cylindrical coordinates with an anterior surface za with a central and refractive sector surrounded by a peripheral reflective sector and a back piecewise surface zb with a central refractive sector and a reflective sector, both characterized as ideal for capturing light within large acceptance angles.

  19. Optical Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access for Visible Light Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Marshoud, Hanaa; Muhaidat, Sami; Sofotasios, Paschalis C.; Hussain, Sajjad; Imran, Muhammad Ali; Sharif, Bayan S.

    2017-01-01

    The proliferation of mobile Internet and connected devices, offering a variety of services at different levels of performance, represents a major challenge for the fifth generation wireless networks and beyond. This requires a paradigm shift towards the development of key enabling techniques for the next generation wireless networks. In this respect, visible light communication (VLC) has recently emerged as a new communication paradigm that is capable of providing ubiquitous connectivity by c...

  20. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Sensor Data Record (SDR) from IDPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sensor Data Records (SDRs), or Level 1b data, from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) are the calibrated and geolocated radiance and reflectance...

  1. White LED visible light communication technology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao

    2017-03-01

    Visible light communication is a new type of wireless optical communication technology. White LED to the success of development, the LED lighting technology is facing a new revolution. Because the LED has high sensitivity, modulation, the advantages of good performance, large transmission power, can make it in light transmission light signal at the same time. Use white LED light-emitting characteristics, on the modulation signals to the visible light transmission, can constitute a LED visible light communication system. We built a small visible optical communication system. The system composition and structure has certain value in the field of practical application, and we also research the key technology of transmitters and receivers, the key problem has been resolved. By studying on the optical and LED the characteristics of a high speed modulation driving circuit and a high sensitive receiving circuit was designed. And information transmission through the single chip microcomputer test, a preliminary verification has realized the data transmission function.

  2. Visibility of noisy point cloud data

    KAUST Repository

    Mehra, Ravish

    2010-06-01

    We present a robust algorithm for estimating visibility from a given viewpoint for a point set containing concavities, non-uniformly spaced samples, and possibly corrupted with noise. Instead of performing an explicit surface reconstruction for the points set, visibility is computed based on a construction involving convex hull in a dual space, an idea inspired by the work of Katz et al. [26]. We derive theoretical bounds on the behavior of the method in the presence of noise and concavities, and use the derivations to develop a robust visibility estimation algorithm. In addition, computing visibility from a set of adaptively placed viewpoints allows us to generate locally consistent partial reconstructions. Using a graph based approximation algorithm we couple such reconstructions to extract globally consistent reconstructions. We test our method on a variety of 2D and 3D point sets of varying complexity and noise content. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mutual Visibility by Robots with Persistent Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Bhagat, Subhash; Mukhopadhyaya, Krishnendu

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the mutual visibility problem for a set of semi-synchronous, opaque robots occupying distinct positions in the Euclidean plane. Since robots are opaque, if three robots lie on a line, the middle robot obstructs the visions of the two other robots. The mutual visibility problem asks the robots to coordinate their movements to form a configuration, within finite time and without collision, in which no three robots are collinear. Robots are endowed with a constant bits of pe...

  4. Visible Light Communication Systems Conception and VIDAS

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Navin; Lourenço, Nuno; Spiez, Michal; Aguiar, Rui L

    2008-01-01

    Visible Light Communication (VLC) using LEDs is emerging as a key technology for a ubiquitous communication system, because LED has the advantages of fast switching, long life expectancy, being less expensive and being visible light that is safe for the human body. The VLC system is expected to undergo rapid progress, inspiring numerous indoor and outdoor applications; however, many technical issues need to be addressed, especially in outdoor environment. In order to provide a better understa...

  5. Cultural Transmission on the Taskscape: Exploring the Effects of Taskscape Visibility on Cultural Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premo, L S; Tostevin, Gilbert B

    2016-01-01

    Culturally transmitted behavior can be structured in its performance both geographically and temporally, in terms of where and when implements are made and used on the landscape (what Ingold calls "the taskscape"). Yet cultural transmission theory has not yet explored the consequences of behaviors transmitted differently due to their enactment at different taskscape locations, what Tostevin calls "taskscape visibility." Here, we use computer simulations to explore how taskscape visibility and forager mobility affect the diversity of two selectively neutral culturally transmitted traits within a single population of social learners. The trait that can be transmitted from residential bases only (lower taskscape visibility) shows greater diversity than the trait that can be transmitted from residential bases and logistical camps (higher taskscape visibility). In addition, increased logistical mobility has a positive effect on the diversity of the trait with the lower taskscape visibility while it generally shows little to no effect on the diversity of the trait with higher taskscape visibility. Without an appreciation for the ways in which taskscape visibility and mobility can structure cultural transmission in space and through time, the difference in the observed equilibrium diversity levels of the two traits might be incorrectly interpreted as resulting from qualitatively different forms of biased cultural transmission. The results of our simulation experiment suggest that researchers may need to take the taskscape visibility into account when inferring cultural transmission from archaeological data.

  6. A climatology of visible surface reflectance spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoogman, Peter; Liu, Xiong; Chance, Kelly; Sun, Qingsong; Schaaf, Crystal; Mahr, Tobias; Wagner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We present a high spectral resolution climatology of visible surface reflectance as a function of wavelength for use in satellite measurements of ozone and other atmospheric species. The Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) instrument is planned to measure backscattered solar radiation in the 290–740 nm range, including the ultraviolet and visible Chappuis ozone bands. Observation in the weak Chappuis band takes advantage of the relative transparency of the atmosphere in the visible to achieve sensitivity to near-surface ozone. However, due to the weakness of the ozone absorption features this measurement is more sensitive to errors in visible surface reflectance, which is highly variable. We utilize reflectance measurements of individual plant, man-made, and other surface types to calculate the primary modes of variability of visible surface reflectance at a high spectral resolution, comparable to that of TEMPO (0.6 nm). Using the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Bidirection Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF)/albedo product and our derived primary modes we construct a high spatial resolution climatology of wavelength-dependent surface reflectance over all viewing scenes and geometries. The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment–2 (GOME-2) Lambertian Equivalent Reflectance (LER) product provides complementary information over water and snow scenes. Preliminary results using this approach in multispectral ultraviolet+visible ozone retrievals from the GOME-2 instrument show significant improvement to the fitting residuals over vegetated scenes. - Highlights: • Our goals was visible surface reflectance for satellite trace gas measurements. • Captured the range of surface reflectance spectra through EOF analysis. • Used satellite surface reflectance products for each given scene to anchor EOFs. • Generated a climatology of time/geometry dependent surface reflectance spectra. • Demonstrated potential to

  7. Visibility graph approach to the analysis of ocean tidal records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telesca, Luciano; Lovallo, Michele; Pierini, Jorge O.

    2012-01-01

    By using the recent method of the visibility graph, three time series of oceanic tide level in central Argentina were investigated. The degree distributions show a rich structure; in particular the maximum is due to the main periodic oscillations at 24 hours and 12 hours and higher harmonics. The degree distributions of the residuals (obtained removing from the original signals the cyclic components) suggest that the local effects, linked with the particular coastal conditions of the sites, are discernible for the degree k 100. Although a relationship between the spectral exponent α and the exponent of the degree distribution γ of tidal signals can be recognized, this cannot be simply stated due to the very rich and complex structure of time dynamics of tides. The present study, even if still preliminary, show the importance of the visibility graph method in investigating the complex time dynamics of observational and experimental signals.

  8. Simulating Visibility Under Reduced Acuity and Contrast Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, William B.; Legge, Gordon E.; Kersten, Daniel J.; Shakespeare, Robert A.; Lei, Quan

    2017-01-01

    Architects and lighting designers have difficulty designing spaces that are accessible to those with low vision, since the complex nature of most architectural spaces requires a site-specific analysis of the visibility of mobility hazards and key landmarks needed for navigation. We describe a method that can be utilized in the architectural design process for simulating the effects of reduced acuity and contrast on visibility. The key contribution is the development of a way to parameterize the simulation using standard clinical measures of acuity and contrast sensitivity. While these measures are known to be imperfect predictors of visual function, they provide a way of characterizing general levels of visual performance that is familiar to both those working in low vision and our target end-users in the architectural and lighting design communities. We validate the simulation using a letter recognition task. PMID:28375328

  9. Quantifying Pilot Visual Attention in Low Visibility Terminal Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Kyle K.; Arthur, J. J.; Latorella, Kara A.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Shelton, Kevin J.; Norman, Robert M.; Prinzel, Lawrence J.

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying pilot visual behavior allows researchers to determine not only where a pilot is looking and when, but holds implications for specific behavioral tracking when these data are coupled with flight technical performance. Remote eye tracking systems have been integrated into simulators at NASA Langley with effectively no impact on the pilot environment. This paper discusses the installation and use of a remote eye tracking system. The data collection techniques from a complex human-in-the-loop (HITL) research experiment are discussed; especially, the data reduction algorithms and logic to transform raw eye tracking data into quantified visual behavior metrics, and analysis methods to interpret visual behavior. The findings suggest superior performance for Head-Up Display (HUD) and improved attentional behavior for Head-Down Display (HDD) implementations of Synthetic Vision System (SVS) technologies for low visibility terminal area operations. Keywords: eye tracking, flight deck, NextGen, human machine interface, aviation

  10. [VISIBLE LIGHT AND HUMAN SKIN (REVIEW)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsibadze, A; Chikvaidze, E; Katsitadze, A; Kvachadze, I; Tskhvediani, N; Chikviladze, A

    2015-09-01

    Biological effect of a visible light depends on extend of its property to penetrate into the tissues: the greater is a wavelength the more is an effect of a radiation. An impact of a visible light on the skin is evident by wave and quantum effects. Quanta of a visible radiation carry more energy than infrared radiation, although an influence of such radiation on the skin is produced by the light spectrum on the boarder of the ultraviolet and the infrared rays and is manifested by thermal and chemical effects. It is determined that large doses of a visible light (405-436 nm) can cause skin erythema. At this time, the ratio of generation of free radicals in the skin during an exposure to the ultraviolet and the visible light range from 67-33% respectively. Visible rays of 400-500 nm length of wave cause an increase of the concentration of oxygen's active form and mutation of DNA and proteins in the skin. The urticaria in 4-18% of young people induced by photodermatosis is described. As a result of a direct exposure to sunlight photosensitive eczema is more common in elderly. Special place holds a hereditary disease - porphyria, caused by a visible light. In recent years, dermatologists widely use phototherapy. The method uses polychromatic, non-coherent (wavelength of 515-1200 nm) pulsating beam. During phototherapy/light treatment a patient is being exposed to sunlight or bright artificial light. Sources of visible light are lasers, LEDs and fluorescent lamps which have the full range of a visible light. Phototherapy is used in the treatment of acne vulgaris, seasonal affective disorders, depression, psoriasis, eczema and neurodermities. LED of the red and near infrared range also is characterized by the therapeutic effect. They have an ability to influence cromatophores and enhance ATP synthesis in mitochondria. To speed up the healing of wounds and stimulate hair growth light sources of a weak intensity are used. The light of blue-green spectrum is widely used for

  11. Implicative Algebras

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tadesse

    In this paper we introduce the concept of implicative algebras which is an equivalent definition of lattice implication algebra of Xu (1993) and further we prove that it is a regular Autometrized. Algebra. Further we remark that the binary operation → on lattice implicative algebra can never be associative. Key words: Implicative ...

  12. Visibility, Power and Citizen Intervention: The Five Eyes and New Zealand’s Southern Cross Cable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCrow-Young, Ally

    2017-01-01

    government, as part of the Five Eyes intelligence community, had been collecting data on the population by tapping the Southern Cross Cable. ‘If you live in New Zealand,’ Snowden wrote, ‘you are being watched.’ This article examines the relationship between power and visibility; specifically how creative...... citizen engagement can serve to reveal structures of power surrounding global politics and surveillance. Visibility is a central concept, extending beyond issues of local visibility at the micro level, into the networked, global environment through online media. The significance of the cable landing point...

  13. Psychophysical thresholds of face visibility during infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelskov, Sofie; Kouider, Sid

    2010-01-01

    The ability to detect and focus on faces is a fundamental prerequisite for developing social skills. But how well can infants detect faces? Here, we address this question by studying the minimum duration at which faces must appear to trigger a behavioral response in infants. We used a preferential...... looking method in conjunction with masking and brief presentations (300 ms and below) to establish the temporal thresholds of visibility at different stages of development. We found that 5 and 10 month-old infants have remarkably similar visibility thresholds about three times higher than those of adults....... By contrast, 15 month-olds not only revealed adult-like thresholds, but also improved their performance through memory-based strategies. Our results imply that the development of face visibility follows a non-linear course and is determined by a radical improvement occurring between 10 and 15 months....

  14. Visibility graph approach to exchange rate series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Wang, Jianbo; Yang, Huijie; Mang, Jingshi

    2009-10-01

    By means of a visibility graph, we investigate six important exchange rate series. It is found that the series convert into scale-free and hierarchically structured networks. The relationship between the scaling exponents of the degree distributions and the Hurst exponents obeys the analytical prediction for fractal Brownian motions. The visibility graph can be used to obtain reliable values of Hurst exponents of the series. The characteristics are explained by using the multifractal structures of the series. The exchange rate of EURO to Japanese Yen is widely used to evaluate risk and to estimate trends in speculative investments. Interestingly, the hierarchies of the visibility graphs for the exchange rate series of these two currencies are significantly weak compared with that of the other series.

  15. Digital/Commercial (In)visibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Anna

    2017-01-01

    an argument demonstrating specifically how digital and commercial logics characterize the aesthetic, circulatory, and infrastructuring practices re-producing the regime of (in)visibility. It shows that digital/commercial logics are at the heart of the combinatorial marketing of multiple, contradictory images......This article explores one aspect of digital politics, the politics of videos and more spe- cifically of DAESH recruitment videos. It proposes a practice theoretical approach to the politics of DAESH recruitment videos focused on the re-production of regimes of (in)visibility. The article develops...... on the internet. The theoretical and political cost of overlooking these digital and commercial characteristics of DAESH visibility practices are high. It perpetuates misconceptions of how the videos work and what their politics are and it reinforces the digital Orientalism/Occidentalism in which...

  16. The Disappearing Audience and Reflexive Visibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Girginova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to popular opinion and some academic writing that celebrates the renewed visibility of new media audiences, this essay argues that they are increasingly going into retreat. To understand how new media audiences “disappear” from view of one another, I borrow from Brighenti’s typology of visibility and develop the idea of “reflexive visibility.” The latter describes the ability to socially orient ourselves in a digital environment through the textual and contextual cues of others—an activity that is of utmost importance not only to researchers wishing to “see” various audiences but also for audiences writ large, wishing to know themselves.

  17. Near infrared and visible face recognition based on decision fusion of LBP and DCT features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhihua; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Guodong; Xiong, Jinquan

    2018-03-01

    Visible face recognition systems, being vulnerable to illumination, expression, and pose, can not achieve robust performance in unconstrained situations. Meanwhile, near infrared face images, being light- independent, can avoid or limit the drawbacks of face recognition in visible light, but its main challenges are low resolution and signal noise ratio (SNR). Therefore, near infrared and visible fusion face recognition has become an important direction in the field of unconstrained face recognition research. In order to extract the discriminative complementary features between near infrared and visible images, in this paper, we proposed a novel near infrared and visible face fusion recognition algorithm based on DCT and LBP features. Firstly, the effective features in near-infrared face image are extracted by the low frequency part of DCT coefficients and the partition histograms of LBP operator. Secondly, the LBP features of visible-light face image are extracted to compensate for the lacking detail features of the near-infrared face image. Then, the LBP features of visible-light face image, the DCT and LBP features of near-infrared face image are sent to each classifier for labeling. Finally, decision level fusion strategy is used to obtain the final recognition result. The visible and near infrared face recognition is tested on HITSZ Lab2 visible and near infrared face database. The experiment results show that the proposed method extracts the complementary features of near-infrared and visible face images and improves the robustness of unconstrained face recognition. Especially for the circumstance of small training samples, the recognition rate of proposed method can reach 96.13%, which has improved significantly than 92.75 % of the method based on statistical feature fusion.

  18. Visible imaging of edge turbulence in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweben, S.; Maqueda, R.; Hill, K.; Johnson, D.

    2000-01-01

    Edge plasma turbulence in tokamaks and stellarators is believed to cause the radical heat and particle flux across the separatrix and into the scrape-off-layers of these devices. This paper describes initial measurements of 2-D space-time structure of the edge density turbulence made using a visible imaging diagnostic in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The structure of the edge turbulence is most clearly visible using a method of gas puff imaging to locally illuminate the edge density turbulence

  19. Visible imaging of edge turbulence in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. Zweben; R. Maqueda; K. Hill; D. Johnson; S. Kaye; H. Kugel; F. Levinton; R. Maingi; L. Roquemore; S. Sabbagh; G. Wurden

    2000-01-01

    Edge plasma turbulence in tokamaks and stellarators is believed to cause the radial heat and particle flux across the separatrix and into the scrape-off-layers of these devices. This paper describes initial measurements of 2-D space-time structure of the edge density turbulence made using a visible imaging diagnostic in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The structure of the edge turbulence is most clearly visible using a method of ''gas puff imaging'' to locally illuminate the edge density turbulence

  20. Concentration levels of alpha emitting radionuclides in natural waters. Implications in the use of various radionuclides of reference for the determination of total alpha activity index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbacho, J. A.; Baeza, A.; Guillen, J.; Valles, I.; Serrano, I.; Camacho, A.; Montana, M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was carried out a statistical evaluation of the natural radioactive contents of a large number of water samples collected at different points of the Spanish geography, in order to meet its controlling radioactive composition and assessing the implications of total alpha activity index can have in this type of samples. (Author)

  1. 60 years of UK visibility measurements: impact of meteorology and atmospheric pollutants on visibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajit; Bloss, William J.; Pope, Francis D.

    2017-02-01

    Reduced visibility is an indicator of poor air quality. Moreover, degradation in visibility can be hazardous to human safety; for example, low visibility can lead to road, rail, sea and air accidents. In this paper, we explore the combined influence of atmospheric aerosol particle and gas characteristics, and meteorology, on long-term visibility. We use visibility data from eight meteorological stations, situated in the UK, which have been running since the 1950s. The site locations include urban, rural and marine environments. Most stations show a long-term trend of increasing visibility, which is indicative of reductions in air pollution, especially in urban areas. Additionally, the visibility at all sites shows a very clear dependence on relative humidity, indicating the importance of aerosol hygroscopicity on the ability of aerosol particles to scatter radiation. The dependence of visibility on other meteorological parameters, such as wind speed and wind direction, is also investigated. Most stations show long-term increases in temperature which can be ascribed to climate change, land-use changes (e.g. urban heat island effects) or a combination of both; the observed effect is greatest in urban areas. The impact of this temperature change upon local relative humidity is discussed. To explain the long-term visibility trends and their dependence on meteorological conditions, the measured data were fitted to a newly developed light-extinction model to generate predictions of historic aerosol and gas scattering and absorbing properties. In general, an excellent fit was achieved between measured and modelled visibility for all eight sites. The model incorporates parameterizations of aerosol hygroscopicity, particle concentration, particle scattering, and particle and gas absorption. This new model should be applicable and is easily transferrable to other data sets worldwide. Hence, historical visibility data can be used to assess trends in aerosol particle

  2. Making Intercultural Language Learning Visible and Assessable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, Robyn; Harbon, Lesley

    2010-01-01

    While languages education (Liddicoat, 2002) is being transformed by intercultural language learning theory, there is little illustration of either how students are achieving intercultural learning or how to assess it. This article reports on a study of high school language students in Sydney, Australia. Its findings make visible student…

  3. The Visible Hand of Research Performance Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Far from allowing a governance of universities by the invisible hand of market forces, research performance assessments do not just measure differences in research quality, but yield themselves visible symptoms in terms of a stratification and standardization of disciplines. The article illustrates this with a case study of UK history departments…

  4. Visibility of noisy point cloud data

    KAUST Repository

    Mehra, Ravish; Tripathi, Pushkar; Sheffer, Alla; Mitra, Niloy J.

    2010-01-01

    for the points set, visibility is computed based on a construction involving convex hull in a dual space, an idea inspired by the work of Katz et al. [26]. We derive theoretical bounds on the behavior of the method in the presence of noise and concavities

  5. Visible light reduces C. elegans longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Magalhaes Filho, C Daniel; Henriquez, Brian; Seah, Nicole E; Evans, Ronald M; Lapierre, Louis R; Dillin, Andrew

    2018-03-02

    The transparent nematode Caenorhabditis elegans can sense UV and blue-violet light to alter behavior. Because high-dose UV and blue-violet light are not a common feature outside of the laboratory setting, we asked what role, if any, could low-intensity visible light play in C. elegans physiology and longevity. Here, we show that C. elegans lifespan is inversely correlated to the time worms were exposed to visible light. While circadian control, lite-1 and tax-2 do not contribute to the lifespan reduction, we demonstrate that visible light creates photooxidative stress along with a general unfolded-protein response that decreases the lifespan. Finally, we find that long-lived mutants are more resistant to light stress, as well as wild-type worms supplemented pharmacologically with antioxidants. This study reveals that transparent nematodes are sensitive to visible light radiation and highlights the need to standardize methods for controlling the unrecognized biased effect of light during lifespan studies in laboratory conditions.

  6. A feeling of being (in)visible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Bastrup, Lene; Norlyk, Annelise

    Abstract PhD Day 2015 The illness trajectory of spine fusion patients. A feeling of being (in)visible Background Research shows that being a back patient is associated with great personal cost, and that back patients who undergo so-called spine fusion often experience particularly long...

  7. Digital Vigilantism as Weaponisation of Visibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Trottier (Daniel)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis paper considers an emerging practice whereby citizen’s use of ubiquitous and domesticated technologies enable a parallel form of criminal justice. Here, weaponised visibility supersedes police intervention as an appropriate response. Digital vigilantism is a user-led violation of

  8. 40 CFR 52.2781 - Visibility protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.2781 Section 52.2781 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... protection. (a) The requirements of section 169A of the Clean Air Act are not met, because the plan does not...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2132 - Visibility protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.2132 Section 52.2132 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... protection. (a) The requirements of section 169A of the Clean Air Act are not met, because the plan does not...

  10. Visible Counterterrorism Measures in Urban Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja; Laisen, Jesper; Wandorf, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    factors impacting positively or negatively on the feelings of safety of Danish citizens, when being in a crowded place. Surprisingly, the response to security measures like fences, cameras, and uniformed guards was positive. More visible security apparently reinforced feelings of safety. This article...

  11. The Impact of Visibility on Teamwork, Collaborative Communication, and Security in Emergency Departments: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharaveis, Arsalan; Hamilton, D Kirk; Pati, Debajyoti; Shepley, Mardelle

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of visibility on teamwork, collaborative communication, and security issues in emergency departments (EDs). This research explored whether with high visibility in EDs, teamwork and collaborative communication can be improved while the security issues will be reduced. Visibility has been regarded as a critical design consideration and can be directly and considerably impacted by ED's physical design. Teamwork is one of the major related operational outcomes of visibility and involves nurses, support staff, and physicians. The collaborative communication in an ED is another important factor in the process of care delivery and affects efficiency and safety. Furthermore, security is a behavioral factor in ED designs, which includes all types of safety including staff safety, patient safety, and the safety of visitors and family members. This qualitative study investigated the impact of visibility on teamwork, collaborative communication, and security issues in the ED. One-on-one interviews and on-site observation sessions were conducted in a community hospital. Corresponding data analysis was implemented by using computer plan analysis, observation and interview content, and theme analyses. The findings of this exploratory study provided a framework to identify visibility as an influential factor in ED design. High levels of visibility impact productivity and efficiency of teamwork and communication and improve the chance of lowering security issues. The findings of this study also contribute to the general body of knowledge about the effect of physical design on teamwork, collaborative communication, and security.

  12. Development of a Statistical Model for Forecasting Episodes of Visibility Degradation in the Denver Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, P. J.; Barbarick, D. E.; Osterburg, R. D.

    1995-03-01

    In 1990, the State of Colorado implemented a visibility standard of 0.076 km1 of beta extinction for the Denver metropolitan area. Meteorologists with Colorado's Air Pollution Control Division forecast high pollution days associated with visibility impairment as well as those due to high levels of the federal criteria pollutants. Visibility forecasts are made from a few hours up to about 26 h in advance of the period of interest. Here we discuss the key microscale, mesoscale, and synoptic-scale features associated with episodes of visibility impairment. Data from special studies, case studies, and the 22 NOAA Program for Regional Observing and Forecasting Services mesonet sites have been invaluable in identifying patterns associated with extremes in visibility conditions. A preliminary statistical forecast model has been developed using variables that represent many of these patterns. Six variables were selected from an initial pool of 27 to be used in a model based on linear logistic regression. These six variables include forecast measures of snow cover, surface pressures and a surface pressure gradient in eastern Colorado, relative humidity, and 500-mb ridge position. The initial testing of the model has been encouraging. The model correctly predicted 76% of the good visibility days and 67% of the poor visibility days for a test set of 171 days.

  13. Irradiation of skin with visible light induces reactive oxygen species and matrix-degrading enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebel, Frank; Kaur, Simarna; Ruvolo, Eduardo; Kollias, Nikiforos; Southall, Michael D

    2012-07-01

    Daily skin exposure to solar radiation causes cells to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are a primary factor in skin damage. Although the contribution of the UV component to skin damage has been established, few studies have examined the effects of non-UV solar radiation on skin physiology. Solar radiation comprises UV, and thus the purpose of this study was to examine the physiological response of skin to visible light (400-700 nm). Irradiation of human skin equivalents with visible light induced production of ROS, proinflammatory cytokines, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 expression. Commercially available sunscreens were found to have minimal effects on reducing visible light-induced ROS, suggesting that UVA/UVB sunscreens do not protect the skin from visible light-induced responses. Using clinical models to assess the generation of free radicals from oxidative stress, higher levels of free radical activity were found after visible light exposure. Pretreatment with a photostable UVA/UVB sunscreen containing an antioxidant combination significantly reduced the production of ROS, cytokines, and MMP expression in vitro, and decreased oxidative stress in human subjects after visible light irradiation. Taken together, these findings suggest that other portions of the solar spectrum aside from UV, particularly visible light, may also contribute to signs of premature photoaging in skin.

  14. Efficient Geometric Sound Propagation Using Visibility Culling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandak, Anish

    2011-07-01

    Simulating propagation of sound can improve the sense of realism in interactive applications such as video games and can lead to better designs in engineering applications such as architectural acoustics. In this thesis, we present geometric sound propagation techniques which are faster than prior methods and map well to upcoming parallel multi-core CPUs. We model specular reflections by using the image-source method and model finite-edge diffraction by using the well-known Biot-Tolstoy-Medwin (BTM) model. We accelerate the computation of specular reflections by applying novel visibility algorithms, FastV and AD-Frustum, which compute visibility from a point. We accelerate finite-edge diffraction modeling by applying a novel visibility algorithm which computes visibility from a region. Our visibility algorithms are based on frustum tracing and exploit recent advances in fast ray-hierarchy intersections, data-parallel computations, and scalable, multi-core algorithms. The AD-Frustum algorithm adapts its computation to the scene complexity and allows small errors in computing specular reflection paths for higher computational efficiency. FastV and our visibility algorithm from a region are general, object-space, conservative visibility algorithms that together significantly reduce the number of image sources compared to other techniques while preserving the same accuracy. Our geometric propagation algorithms are an order of magnitude faster than prior approaches for modeling specular reflections and two to ten times faster for modeling finite-edge diffraction. Our algorithms are interactive, scale almost linearly on multi-core CPUs, and can handle large, complex, and dynamic scenes. We also compare the accuracy of our sound propagation algorithms with other methods. Once sound propagation is performed, it is desirable to listen to the propagated sound in interactive and engineering applications. We can generate smooth, artifact-free output audio signals by applying

  15. Experiences of HIV stigma: the role of visible symptoms, HIV centrality and community attachment for people living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brener, Loren; Callander, Denton; Slavin, Sean; de Wit, John

    2013-01-01

    For many people living with HIV (PLHIV), disclosure or concealment of their HIV status may be under their personal control; however, for PLHIV with visible symptoms of their illness, disclosure may no longer be a choice. Previous research suggests that those with visible HIV symptoms have poorer mental and physical health than those without visible HIV symptoms. This study aimed to extend these findings and assess the role of perceived centrality of HIV in the lives of PLHIV as well as the role of attachment to an HIV-positive community in understanding the negative effects on health and well-being for PLHIV with visible HIV symptoms. Participants were 697 PLHIV who completed an online survey that assessed symptom visibility, HIV-status disclosure, perceived stigma, health and well-being, how central HIV was to identity and HIV community attachment. Results indicate that those with visible symptoms experienced more HIV-related stigma and had poorer outcomes on a range of psychological and mental health measures than those who were able to conceal their stigma. These effects remained after controlling for length of time since diagnosis, time on HIV treatment, perceived health satisfaction and age. PLHIV with visible symptoms also reported that HIV was more central to their identity and reported greater attachment to an HIV-positive community. Furthermore, findings suggest that while HIV centrality appears to increase the negative effects of having visible symptoms associated with HIV, greater community attachment seems to ameliorate these effects. This suggests the need for a nuanced understanding of the implications of visible HIV symptoms for PLHIV. The study also highlights the potential benefits of HIV-positive community attachment in buffering PLHIV from the negative effect of visible HIV symptoms on their health and well-being.

  16. Predicting catastrophes of non-autonomous networks with visibility graphs and horizontal visibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haicheng; Xu, Daolin; Wu, Yousheng

    2018-05-01

    Prediction of potential catastrophes in engineering systems is a challenging problem. We first attempt to construct a complex network to predict catastrophes of a multi-modular floating system in advance of their occurrences. Response time series of the system can be mapped into an virtual network by using visibility graph or horizontal visibility algorithm. The topology characteristics of the networks can be used to forecast catastrophes of the system. Numerical results show that there is an obvious corresponding relationship between the variation of topology characteristics and the onset of catastrophes. A Catastrophe Index (CI) is proposed as a numerical indicator to measure a qualitative change from a stable state to a catastrophic state. The two approaches, the visibility graph and horizontal visibility algorithms, are compared by using the index in the reliability analysis with different data lengths and sampling frequencies. The technique of virtual network method is potentially extendable to catastrophe predictions of other engineering systems.

  17. Design for The Indoor Visible Light Communication Application System Based on LED Visible Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian Wenyu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper designs an indoor visible light communication application system based on LED. The system can modulate the original signal one or more times, move to a specific frequency band, transmit on the power line, in the LED terminal use this module to decode, restore the Ethernet signals. This design is applicable to the simplicity of the LED visible light communication applications, which provide the premise and guarantee for the construction of smart home network.

  18. Application of visible spectroscopy in waste sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiga, Philippe; Bourely, Antoine

    2011-10-01

    Today, waste recycling, (bottles, papers...), is a mechanical operation: the waste are crushed, fused and agglomerated in order to obtain new manufactured products (e.g. new bottles, clothes ...). The plastics recycling is the main application in the color sorting process. The colorless plastics recovered are more valuable than the colored plastics. Other emergent applications are in the paper sorting, where the main goal is to sort dyed paper from white papers. Up to now, Pellenc Selective Technologies has manufactured color sorting machines based on RGB cameras. Three dimensions (red, green and blue) are no longer sufficient to detect low quantities of dye in the considered waste. In order to increase the efficiency of the color detection, a new sorting machine, based on visible spectroscopy, has been developed. This paper presents the principles of the two approaches and their difference in terms of sorting performance, making visible spectroscopy a clear winner.

  19. Visibility graphlet approach to chaotic time series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutua, Stephen [Business School, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093 (China); Computer Science Department, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 190-50100, Kakamega (Kenya); Gu, Changgui, E-mail: gu-changgui@163.com, E-mail: hjyang@ustc.edu.cn; Yang, Huijie, E-mail: gu-changgui@163.com, E-mail: hjyang@ustc.edu.cn [Business School, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Many novel methods have been proposed for mapping time series into complex networks. Although some dynamical behaviors can be effectively captured by existing approaches, the preservation and tracking of the temporal behaviors of a chaotic system remains an open problem. In this work, we extended the visibility graphlet approach to investigate both discrete and continuous chaotic time series. We applied visibility graphlets to capture the reconstructed local states, so that each is treated as a node and tracked downstream to create a temporal chain link. Our empirical findings show that the approach accurately captures the dynamical properties of chaotic systems. Networks constructed from periodic dynamic phases all converge to regular networks and to unique network structures for each model in the chaotic zones. Furthermore, our results show that the characterization of chaotic and non-chaotic zones in the Lorenz system corresponds to the maximal Lyapunov exponent, thus providing a simple and straightforward way to analyze chaotic systems.

  20. Visible light communications modulation and signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhaocheng; Huang, Wei; Xu, Zhengyuan

    2018-01-01

    This informative new book on state-of-the-art visible light communication (VLC) provides, for the first time, a systematical and advanced treatment of modulation and signal processing for VLC. Visible Light Communications: Modulation and Signal Processing offers a practical guide to designing VLC, linking academic research with commercial applications. In recent years, VLC has attracted attention from academia and industry since it has many advantages over the traditional radio frequency, including wide unregulated bandwidth, high security, and low cost. It is a promising complementary technique in 5G and beyond wireless communications, especially in indoor applications. However, lighting constraints have not been fully considered in the open literature when considering VLC system design, and its importance has been underestimated. That’s why this book—written by a team of experts with both academic research experience and industrial development experience in the field—is so welcome. To help readers u...

  1. Advances and prospects in visible light communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hongda; Wu Chunhui; Li Honglei; Chen Xiongbin; Gao Zongyu; Cui Shigang; Wang Qin

    2016-01-01

    Visible light communication (VLC) is an emerging technology in optical wireless communication (OWC) that has attracted worldwide research in recent years. VLC can combine communication and illumination together, which could be applied in many application scenarios such as visible light communication local area networks (VLANs), indoor localization, and intelligent lighting. In recent years, pioneering and significant work have been made in the field of VLC. In this paper, an overview of the recent progress in VLC is presented. We also demonstrate our recent experiment results including bidirectional 100 Mbit/s VLAN or Li-Fi system based on OOK modulation without blue filter. The VLC systems that we proposed are good solutions for high-speed VLC application systems with low-cost and low-complexity. VLC technology shows a bright future due to its inherent advantages, shortage of RF spectra and ever increasing popularity of white LEDs. (review)

  2. Combined eye-atmosphere visibility model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Y. J.

    1981-01-01

    Existing models of the optical characteristics of the eye are combined with a recent model of optical characteristics of the atmosphere given by its modulation transfer function. This combination results in the combined eye-atmosphere performance given by the product of their modulation transfer functions. An application for the calculation of visibility thresholds in the case of a two-halves field is given.

  3. The visible Smith-Purcell radiation search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernow, R.C.; Kirk, H.G.; Ulc, S. Wang, X.

    1994-03-01

    We report here the results of an experiment at the Accelerator Test Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory to search for the production of visible radiation from the Smith-Purcell effect using a 3 MeV electron beam. After running the experiment under a variety of conditions we were unable to isolate a definite signal from Smith-Parcell effect. Any Smith-Purcell signal present in the measured radiation was less than 10% of the background signal

  4. Visibility and surveillance regime in the age of Digital Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alejandra López Gabrielidis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the link between the hypervisibility regime in which the contemporary subject is immersed in and the new forms of surveillance. Based on an analysis of the work of Hito Steyerl How Not to be Seen: A Fucking Didactic Educational .MOV File (2013 we explore the changes suffered by the traditional form of surveillance with a special highlight on the current features of the cyber-surveillance device. The 21st century is witnessing a socio-technical phenomenon which transforms the subject into an image-data, as a result of what Paul Virilio calls the industrialization and proliferation of “visual machines” (photographic cameras, microscopes, telescopes, drones, the social online habits which tend to self-capture and self-diffusion, and the processes of datification. Nowadays, the subject assumes an active role in the surveillance mechanisms and, hence, is partly responsible of the control that is practiced over him. In this video, Hito Steyerl teaches us about camouflage techniques, confusion and low resolution uses, in order to be less visible before the eyes of the power. However, the excess of visibility and exposure of the subject seems to be a highly difficult situation to counteract in the technical conditions that we live in. As we propose in the last section of the article, in order to solve the surveillance problems in the digital age it is necessary to redefine the concept of privacy starting from the concept of digital identity, with all its implications. Consequently, we must lead the way into new forms of legal authority over data.

  5. Mirage: a visible signature evaluation tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culpepper, Joanne B.; Meehan, Alaster J.; Shao, Q. T.; Richards, Noel

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents the Mirage visible signature evaluation tool, designed to provide a visible signature evaluation capability that will appropriately reflect the effect of scene content on the detectability of targets, providing a capability to assess visible signatures in the context of the environment. Mirage is based on a parametric evaluation of input images, assessing the value of a range of image metrics and combining them using the boosted decision tree machine learning method to produce target detectability estimates. It has been developed using experimental data from photosimulation experiments, where human observers search for vehicle targets in a variety of digital images. The images used for tool development are synthetic (computer generated) images, showing vehicles in many different scenes and exhibiting a wide variation in scene content. A preliminary validation has been performed using k-fold cross validation, where 90% of the image data set was used for training and 10% of the image data set was used for testing. The results of the k-fold validation from 200 independent tests show a prediction accuracy between Mirage predictions of detection probability and observed probability of detection of r(262) = 0:63, p Pearson correlation) and a MAE = 0:21 (mean absolute error).

  6. Photodetector Characteristics in Visible Light Communication

    KAUST Repository

    Ho, Kang-Ting

    2016-04-01

    Typically, in the semiconductor industry pn heterojunctions have been used as either light-emitting diodes (LED) or photodiodes by applying forward current bias or reverse voltage bias, respectively. However, since both devices use the same structure, the light emitting and detecting properties could be combine in one single device, namely LED-based photodetector. Therefore, by integrating LED-based photodetectors as either transmitter or receiver, optical wireless communication could be easily implemented for bidirectional visible light communication networks at low-cost. Therefore, this dissertation focus on the investigation of the photodetection characteristics of InGaN LED-based photodetectors for visible light communication in the blue region. In this regard, we obtain external quantum efficiency of 10 % and photoresponse rise time of 71 μs at 405-nm illumination, revealing high-performance photodetection characteristics. Furthermore, we use orthogonal frequency division multiplexing quadrature amplitude modulation codification scheme to enlarge the operational bandwidth. Consequently, the transmission rate of the communication is efficiently enhanced up to 420 Mbit/s in visible light communication.

  7. Visible Light Responsive Catalyst for Air Water Purification Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    Investigate and develop viable approaches to render the normally UV-activated TIO2 catalyst visible light responsive (VLR) and achieve high and sustaining catalytic activity under the visible region of the solar spectrum.

  8. Visibility of trabecular meshwork by standard and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuno, Yoshiaki; Yamanari, Masahiro; Kawana, Keisuke; Miura, Masahiro; Fukuda, Shinichi; Makita, Shuichi; Sakai, Shingo; Oshika, Tetsuro

    2010-11-01

    Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) is known to be advantageous because of its additional tissue-specific contrast of the anterior eye. So far, this advantage has been shown only qualitatively. We evaluate the improved visibility afforded by 3-D PS corneal and anterior eye segment OCT (PS-CAS-OCT) in visualizing the trabecular meshwork (TM) based on statistical evidences. A total of 31 normal subjects participated in this study. The anterior eye segments of both the eyes of the subjects are scanned using a custom-made PS-CAS-OCT and the standard-scattering OCT (S-OCT) and polarization-sensitive phase-retardation OCT (P-OCT) images are obtained. Three graders grade the visibility of the TM using a four-leveled grading system. The intergrader agreement, intermodality differences, and interquadrant dependence of visibility are statistically examined. All three of three combinations of graders show substantial agreement in visibility with P-OCT (ρ = 0.74, 0.70, and 0.68, Spearman's correlation), while only one of three shows substantial agreement with S-OCT (ρ = 0.72). Significant dependence of the visibility on the modality (S-OCT versus P-OCT) and quadrants are found by the analysis of variance. A subsequent Wilcoxon signed-rank test reveals significantly improved visibility. PS-CAS-OCT may become a useful tool for screening angle-closure glaucoma.

  9. Efficient visibility-driven medical image visualisation via adaptive binned visibility histogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Younhyun; Kim, Jinman; Kumar, Ashnil; Feng, David Dagan; Fulham, Michael

    2016-07-01

    'Visibility' is a fundamental optical property that represents the observable, by users, proportion of the voxels in a volume during interactive volume rendering. The manipulation of this 'visibility' improves the volume rendering processes; for instance by ensuring the visibility of regions of interest (ROIs) or by guiding the identification of an optimal rendering view-point. The construction of visibility histograms (VHs), which represent the distribution of all the visibility of all voxels in the rendered volume, enables users to explore the volume with real-time feedback about occlusion patterns among spatially related structures during volume rendering manipulations. Volume rendered medical images have been a primary beneficiary of VH given the need to ensure that specific ROIs are visible relative to the surrounding structures, e.g. the visualisation of tumours that may otherwise be occluded by neighbouring structures. VH construction and its subsequent manipulations, however, are computationally expensive due to the histogram binning of the visibilities. This limits the real-time application of VH to medical images that have large intensity ranges and volume dimensions and require a large number of histogram bins. In this study, we introduce an efficient adaptive binned visibility histogram (AB-VH) in which a smaller number of histogram bins are used to represent the visibility distribution of the full VH. We adaptively bin medical images by using a cluster analysis algorithm that groups the voxels according to their intensity similarities into a smaller subset of bins while preserving the distribution of the intensity range of the original images. We increase efficiency by exploiting the parallel computation and multiple render targets (MRT) extension of the modern graphical processing units (GPUs) and this enables efficient computation of the histogram. We show the application of our method to single-modality computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance

  10. 40 CFR 49.124 - Rule for limiting visible emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...% opacity limit. (3) The visible emissions from an oil-fired boiler or solid fuel-fired boiler that... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rule for limiting visible emissions. 49... Application to Indian Reservations in Epa Region 10 § 49.124 Rule for limiting visible emissions. (a) What is...

  11. Use of cameras for monitoring visibility impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, William; Cismoski, Scott; Prenni, Anthony; Peters, Melanie

    2018-02-01

    Webcams and automated, color photography cameras have been routinely operated in many U.S. national parks and other federal lands as far back as 1988, with a general goal of meeting interpretive needs within the public lands system and communicating effects of haze on scenic vistas to the general public, policy makers, and scientists. Additionally, it would be desirable to extract quantifiable information from these images to document how visibility conditions change over time and space and to further reflect the effects of haze on a scene, in the form of atmospheric extinction, independent of changing lighting conditions due to time of day, year, or cloud cover. Many studies have demonstrated a link between image indexes and visual range or extinction in urban settings where visibility is significantly degraded and where scenes tend to be gray and devoid of color. In relatively clean, clear atmospheric conditions, clouds and lighting conditions can sometimes affect the image radiance field as much or more than the effects of haze. In addition, over the course of many years, cameras have been replaced many times as technology improved or older systems wore out, and therefore camera image pixel density has changed dramatically. It is shown that gradient operators are very sensitive to image resolution while contrast indexes are not. Furthermore, temporal averaging and time of day restrictions allow for developing quantitative relationships between atmospheric extinction and contrast-type indexes even when image resolution has varied over time. Temporal averaging effectively removes the variability of visibility indexes associated with changing cloud cover and weather conditions, and changes in lighting conditions resulting from sun angle effects are best compensated for by restricting averaging to only certain times of the day.

  12. New stratospheric UV/visible radiance measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Marceau

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A stratospheric balloon was launched on 12 October 1986 from the "CNES" base at Aire sur l'Adour (France to record twilight radiance in the stratosphere. The near-UV and visible radiances were continuously monitored by a photometer during sunrise. Some observations are presented for different viewing azimuthal planes and viewing elevation angles. They show the influence of aerosols layers and clouds which can be also seen on related photographs. The results as a whole may be used for testing some radiative models, especially for twilight conditions.

  13. Visibly ethnically different families in Denmark & Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    to the dominant colorblindness discourse, while later comprise a heated topic challenging poor (global south) adoptee meeting a loving Danish family’ discourse. How do these family members narrate their experiences of societal encounter is the research question, which is answered through two qualitative interview....... Alongside colorblindness, limited/ missing racialisation discussions, the visible bodies of spouses, children in the mixed families and the transnational adoptees are made salient in their everyday lives in interactions with the white majority population through experiences as gaze, curious questions...

  14. Differences between the last two glacial maxima and implications for ice-sheet, δ18O, and sea-level reconstructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohling, Eelco J; Hibbert, Fiona D.; Williams, Felicity H.; Grant, Katharine M; Marino, Gianluca; Foster, Gavin L; Hennekam, Rick|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357286081; de Lange, Gert J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073930962; Roberts, Andrew P.; Yu, Jimin; Webster, Jody M.; Yokoyama, Yusuke

    2017-01-01

    Studies of past glacial cycles yield critical information about climate and sea-level (ice-volume) variability, including the sensitivity of climate to radiative change, and impacts of crustal rebound on sea-level reconstructions for past interglacials. Here we identify significant differences

  15. Capacity and levels of utilization of tourism potentials of Yankari and Cross River National Parks – implications for optimistic ecotourism development in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PC Ngoka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of sustainable tourism constitutes an essential component of Nigeria’s agenda for attaining sustainable development by the year 2020. The level of utilization of existing tourism capacities of national parks can affect the attainment of this goal. The present study examined capacity and levels of utilization of tourism potentials of Yankari National Park (YNP and Cross River National Park (CRNP. Mean visitor holding capacity (MVHC of each park over the period 2002 – 2006 was determined. Further, mean visitation of the parks during the study period was obtained from records of tourism visitation of the parks. From these, capacity utilizations were determined. Cross sectional survey of levels of utilization of attractions in each park was conducted using questionnaire. YNP recorded 49.3% capacity utilization; while CRNP had 3.5%. Both parks witnessed varying levels of utilization of their existing potentials. In YNP, game viewing and warm spring bathing had high levels of utilization (91% and 64% respectively. Old iron smelting sites and Dukkey Wells recorded low levels of utilization (1.0% each. In CRNP, rainforest experience and cave adventure had high utilization levels (93.3% and 68.3% respectively. Neither park had optimum use of its potentials. Updating of parks’ tourism infrastructure and creation of better awareness of the parks as tourist destinations were recommended for beefing up capacity and levels of utilization of the parks.

  16. Testing the Difference between School Level and Academic Mindset in the Classroom: Implications for Developing Student Psycho-Social Skills in Secondary School Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Janet

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between school level and the psychosocial construct of an academic mindset operationalized on the Likert-style Project for "Educational Research That Scales" (PERTS) instrument; widely used in testing academic mindset interventions at the classroom level. Analyses were conducted using existing school…

  17. Cloud Computing Infusion for Generating ESDRs of Visible Spectra Radiances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golpayegani, N.; Halem, M.; Nguyen, P.

    2008-12-01

    The AIRS and AVHRR instruments have been collecting radiances of the Earth in the visible spectrum for over 25 years. These measurements have been used to develop such useful products as NDVI, Snow cover and depth, Outgoing long wave radiation and other products. Yet, no long-term data record of the level 1b visible spectra is available in a grid form to researchers for various climate studies. We present here an Earth System Data Record observed in the visible spectrum as gridded radiance fields of 8kmx10km grid resolution for the six years in the case of AIRS and from 1981 to the present for AVHRR. The AIRS data has four visible channels from 0.41μm to 0.94μm with an IFOV of 1 km and AVHRR has two visible channels in the 0.58μm to 1.00μm range also at 1 km. In order to process such large amounts of data on demand, two components need to be implemented,(i) a processing system capable of gridding TBs of data in a reasonable amount of time and (ii) a download mechanism to access and deliver the data to the processing system. We implemented a cloud computing approach to be able to process such large amounts of data. We use Hadoop, a distributed computation system developed by the Apache Software Foundation. With Hadoop, we are able to store the data in a distributed fashion, taking advantage of Hadoop's distributed file system (dfs). We also take advantage of Hadoop's MapReduce functionality to perform as much computations as is possible on available nodes of the UMBC bluegrit Cell cluster system that contain the data. We make use of the SOAR system developed under the ACCESS program to acquire and process the AIRS and AVHRR observations. Comparisons of the AIRS data witth selected periods of MODIS visible spectral channels on the same sattelite indicate the two instruments have maintained calibration consistency and continuity of their measurements over the six year period. Our download mechanism transfers the data from these instruments into hadoop's dfs. Our

  18. Daily visibility and mortality: assessment of health benefits from improved visibility in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thach, Thuan-Quoc; Wong, Chit-Ming; Chan, King-Pan; Chau, Yuen-Kwan; Chung, Yat-Nork; Ou, Chun-Quan; Yang, Lin; Hedley, Anthony J

    2010-08-01

    Visibility in Hong Kong has deteriorated significantly over 40 years with visibility below 8km in the absence of fog, mist, or precipitation, increasing from 6.6 days in 1968 to 54.1 days in 2007. We assessed the short-term mortality effects of daily loss of visibility. During 1996-2006, we obtained mortality data for non-accidental and cardiorespiratory causes, visibility recorded as visual range in kilometers, temperature, and relative humidity from an urban observatory, and concentrations of four criteria pollutants. A generalized additive Poisson regression model with penalized cubic regression splines was fitted to control for time variant covariates. For non-accidental mortality, an interquartile range (IQR) of 6.5km decrease in visibility at lag0-1 days was associated with an excess risk (ER%) [95% CI] of 1.13 [0.49, 1.76] for all ages and 1.37 [0.65, 2.09] for ages 65 years and over; for cardiovascular mortality of 1.31 [0.13, 2.49] for all ages, and 1.72 [0.44, 3.00] for ages 65 years and over; and for respiratory mortality of 1.92 [0.49, 3.35] for all ages and 1.76 [0.28, 3.25] for ages 65 years and over. The estimated ER% for daily mortality derived from both visibility and air pollutant data were comparable in terms of magnitude, lag pattern, and exposure-response relationships especially when using particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter health risks from ambient air pollutants and a valid approach for the assessment of the public health impacts of air pollution and the benefits of air quality improvement measures in developing countries where pollutant monitoring data are scarce. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. (In)visible Ghosts in the Machine and the Powers that Bind: The Relational Securitization of Anonymous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunn Cavelty, Myriam; Jaeger, Mark Daniel

    2015-01-01

    prerogative to secrecy, and challenging its claim to unrestrained surveillance. At the same time, the state's bases are implicated and reproduced in the way this conflict is constructed. The conflict not only (re)produces and makes visible “the state” as a social entity, but also changes or at least...... designations give rise to the visibility of political entities and agency in the first place. Applying this framework, we can better understand the movement's path from a bunch of anonymous individuals to the collectivity “Anonymous,” posing a threat to certain bases of the state's ontological existence, its...

  20. UV/Visible Telescope with Hubble Disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benford, Dominic J.

    2013-01-01

    Submission Overview: Our primary objective is to convey a sense of the significant advances possible in astrophysics investigations for major Cosmic Origins COR program goals with a 2.4m telescope asset outfitted with one or more advanced UV visible instruments. Several compelling science objectives were identified based on community meetings these science objectives drove the conceptual design of instruments studied by the COR Program Office during July September 2012. This RFI submission encapsulates the results of that study, and suggests that a more detailed look into the instrument suite should be conducted to prove viability and affordability to support the demonstrated scientific value. This study was conducted in the context of a larger effort to consider the options available for a mission to dispose safely of Hubble hence, the overall architecture considered for the mission we studied for the 2.4m telescope asset included resource sharing. This mitigates combined cost and risk and provides naturally for a continued US leadership role in astrophysics with an advanced, general-purpose UV visible space telescope.

  1. Visibility Graph Based Time Series Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Mutua; Gu, Changgui; Yang, Huijie

    2015-01-01

    Network based time series analysis has made considerable achievements in the recent years. By mapping mono/multivariate time series into networks, one can investigate both it's microscopic and macroscopic behaviors. However, most proposed approaches lead to the construction of static networks consequently providing limited information on evolutionary behaviors. In the present paper we propose a method called visibility graph based time series analysis, in which series segments are mapped to visibility graphs as being descriptions of the corresponding states and the successively occurring states are linked. This procedure converts a time series to a temporal network and at the same time a network of networks. Findings from empirical records for stock markets in USA (S&P500 and Nasdaq) and artificial series generated by means of fractional Gaussian motions show that the method can provide us rich information benefiting short-term and long-term predictions. Theoretically, we propose a method to investigate time series from the viewpoint of network of networks.

  2. Visibility Graph Based Time Series Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutua Stephen

    Full Text Available Network based time series analysis has made considerable achievements in the recent years. By mapping mono/multivariate time series into networks, one can investigate both it's microscopic and macroscopic behaviors. However, most proposed approaches lead to the construction of static networks consequently providing limited information on evolutionary behaviors. In the present paper we propose a method called visibility graph based time series analysis, in which series segments are mapped to visibility graphs as being descriptions of the corresponding states and the successively occurring states are linked. This procedure converts a time series to a temporal network and at the same time a network of networks. Findings from empirical records for stock markets in USA (S&P500 and Nasdaq and artificial series generated by means of fractional Gaussian motions show that the method can provide us rich information benefiting short-term and long-term predictions. Theoretically, we propose a method to investigate time series from the viewpoint of network of networks.

  3. Visible and occult microscopic lesions of endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaleque Newaz Khan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is a multifactorial disease mostly affecting women of reproductive age and is associated with chronic pelvic pain and infertility. Even after 300 years, most of the literature claims that pathogenesis and/or pathophysiology of endometriosis is still elusive. Recurrence of pain and lesion continues to occur after effective medical or surgical therapies. Once generated within the pelvis due to retrograde entry of menstrual debris, peritoneal endometriotic lesions time-dependently change their color appearance resulting from certain biochemical change within lesions. A variable pattern of endometriotic lesions within the pelvis can be detected by laparoscopy as visible peritoneal endometriosis. It is generally believed that besides ovarian steroid hormones, the growth of endometriosis can be regulated by the innate immune system in the pelvic microenvironment by their interaction with endometrial cells and immune cells. Even with the careful eyes of an expert surgeon, we may sometimes miss detecting peritoneal lesion within the peritoneal cavity or deep into the peritoneum. In such a case, random collection of normal peritoneum may carry the possibility to identify some hidden endometriotic lesions by microscopy and these lesions can be named as occult (invisible microscopic endometriosis (OME. Here, we discuss the color appearance of peritoneal lesions and activity of these lesions by analysis of a panel of activity markers. Finally we discuss our recent findings on OME, their biological and clinical significance, and try to make a possible link in the origin between visible endometriosis and OME.

  4. Visible high power fiber coupled diode lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Bernd; Drovs, Simon; Stoiber, Michael; Dürsch, Sascha; Kissel, Heiko; Könning, Tobias; Biesenbach, Jens; König, Harald; Lell, Alfred; Stojetz, Bernhard; Löffler, Andreas; Strauß, Uwe

    2018-02-01

    In this paper we report on further development of fiber coupled high-power diode lasers in the visible spectral range. New visible laser modules presented in this paper include the use of multi single emitter arrays @ 450 nm leading to a 120 W fiber coupled unit with a beam quality of 44 mm x mrad, as well as very compact modules with multi-W output power from 405 nm to 640 nm. However, as these lasers are based on single emitters, power scaling quickly leads to bulky laser units with a lot of optical components to be aligned. We also report on a new approach based on 450 nm diode laser bars, which dramatically reduces size and alignment effort. These activities were performed within the German government-funded project "BlauLas": a maximum output power of 80 W per bar has been demonstrated @ 450 nm. We show results of a 200 μm NA0.22 fiber coupled 35 W source @ 450 nm, which has been reduced in size by a factor of 25 compared to standard single emitter approach. In addition, we will present a 200 μm NA0.22 fiber coupled laser unit with an output power of 135 W.

  5. Visibility of minute objects with low contrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Nobuo

    1982-01-01

    Minimum perceptible contrast was obtained with a penetrameter made of aluminum plates, in which 40 very small holes were perforated. An object can be seen when its contrast exceeds the minimum perceptible contrast. Visual threshold contrast ratio offers minimum perceptible diameter (MPD) which is theoretically obtained from an image contrast corresponding to the technique applied. The MPDs were obtained prior to experiment as a function of system speed, beam quality, exposure range and magnification, which resulted in a reasonable agreement with the experimental results. The visibility of small dot-like objects depends on the granularity as its threshold is governed by the surrounding grainy noise. However it was revealed that MTF was as important as granularity. Dot and lineshaped objects were simulated with small glass beads and nylon fibrils, respectively, in order to make ROC analysis on the different radiographic techniques with a CGR Senograph 500T mammographic unit. The 1.5X magnification technique showed the largest advantage on phantom work basis, but clinical evaluation showed the different weight of the affecting physical factors. The results of ROC analysis were extended to entropy analysis. The visibility in actual mammography depends upon the acutance of images as Xeroradiography proved. (Kako, I.)

  6. UV/visible albedos from airborne measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, A.; Kylling, A.; Stromberg, I.

    2003-04-01

    During the INSPECTRO campaign effective surface albedo was measured at UV and visible wavelengths from two airborne platforms, a Cessna light aircraft and a hot air balloon. On board the Cessna was a scanning spectroradiometer measuring from 300 - 500nm at 10nm intervals. The NILU cube, with 6 faces and two UV channels at 312 and 340nm, was suspended beneath the hot air balloon. Flights took place over East Anglia during September, 2002. Balloon flights were made below cloud layers, while the Cessna flew both above and below cloud. The Cessna also flew over Barton Bendish, where surface albedos have been measured for ground truthing of satellite data, and measured the effective albedo at four visible wave- lengths in the centres of the satellite bandpass functions. Results of measurements from the different platforms are compared, and model simulations used to deduce the surface albedo from the effective albedo at altitude, giving, for example, an albedo of 0.02 ± 0.01 at 340nm.

  7. Situated lifestyles: I. How lifestyles change along with the level of urbanization and what the greenhouse gas implications are—a study of Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Jukka; Jalas, Mikko; Juntunen, Jouni K.; Ala-Mantila, Sanna; Junnila, Seppo

    2013-06-01

    An extensive body of literature demonstrates how higher density leads to more efficient energy use and lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from transport and housing. However, our current understanding seems to be limited on the relationships between the urban form and the GHG emissions, namely how the urban form affects the lifestyles and thus the GHGs on a much wider scale than traditionally assumed. The urban form affects housing types, commuting distances, availability of different goods and services, social contacts and emulation, and the alternatives for pastimes, meaning that lifestyles are actually situated instead of personal projects. As almost all consumption, be it services or products, involves GHG emissions, looking at the emissions from transport and housing may not be sufficient to define whether one form would be more desirable than another. In the paper we analyze the urban form-lifestyle relationships in Finland together with the resulting GHG implications, employing both monetary expenditure and time use data to portray lifestyles in different basic urban forms: metropolitan, urban, semi-urban and rural. The GHG implications are assessed with a life cycle assessment (LCA) method that takes into account the GHG emissions embedded in different goods and services. The paper depicts that, while the direct emissions from transportation and housing energy slightly decrease with higher density, the reductions can be easily overridden by sources of indirect emissions. We also highlight that the indirect emissions actually seem to have strong structural determinants, often undermined in studies concerning sustainable urban forms. Further, we introduce a concept of ‘parallel consumption’ to explain how the lifestyles especially in more urbanized areas lead to multiplication of consumption outside of the limits of time budget and the living environment. This is also part I of a two-stage study. In part II we will depict how various other contextual

  8. Situated lifestyles: I. How lifestyles change along with the level of urbanization and what the greenhouse gas implications are—a study of Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinonen, Jukka; Ala-Mantila, Sanna; Junnila, Seppo; Jalas, Mikko; Juntunen, Jouni K

    2013-01-01

    An extensive body of literature demonstrates how higher density leads to more efficient energy use and lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from transport and housing. However, our current understanding seems to be limited on the relationships between the urban form and the GHG emissions, namely how the urban form affects the lifestyles and thus the GHGs on a much wider scale than traditionally assumed. The urban form affects housing types, commuting distances, availability of different goods and services, social contacts and emulation, and the alternatives for pastimes, meaning that lifestyles are actually situated instead of personal projects. As almost all consumption, be it services or products, involves GHG emissions, looking at the emissions from transport and housing may not be sufficient to define whether one form would be more desirable than another. In the paper we analyze the urban form–lifestyle relationships in Finland together with the resulting GHG implications, employing both monetary expenditure and time use data to portray lifestyles in different basic urban forms: metropolitan, urban, semi-urban and rural. The GHG implications are assessed with a life cycle assessment (LCA) method that takes into account the GHG emissions embedded in different goods and services. The paper depicts that, while the direct emissions from transportation and housing energy slightly decrease with higher density, the reductions can be easily overridden by sources of indirect emissions. We also highlight that the indirect emissions actually seem to have strong structural determinants, often undermined in studies concerning sustainable urban forms. Further, we introduce a concept of ‘parallel consumption’ to explain how the lifestyles especially in more urbanized areas lead to multiplication of consumption outside of the limits of time budget and the living environment. This is also part I of a two-stage study. In part II we will depict how various other contextual

  9. The influence that JavaScript(TM has on the visibility of a Website to search engines - a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Weideman

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In this research project, an empirical pilot study on the relationship between JavaScript(TM usage and Website visibility was carried out. The main purpose was to establish whethe JavaScript(TM-based hyperlinks attract or repel crawlers, resulting in an increase or decrease in Website visibility. Method. A literature survey has established that there appears to be contradiction amongst claims by various authors as to whether or not crawlers can parse or interpret JavaScript(TM. The chosen methodology involved the creation of a Website that contains different kinds of links to other pages, where actual data files were stored. Search engine crawler visits to the page pointed to by the different kinds of links were monitored and recorded. Analysis. This experiment took into account the fact that JavaScript(TM can be embedded within the HTML of a Web page or referenced as an external '.js' file. It also considered different ways of specifying links within JavaScript(TM. Results. The results obtained indicated that text links provide the highest level of opportunity for crawlers to discover and index non-homepages. In general, crawlers did not follow Javascript(TM-based links to Web pages blindly. Conclusion. . Most crawlers evade Javascript(TM links, implying that Web pages using forms of this technology, for example in pop-up/pull-down menus, could be jeopardising their chances of achieving high search engine rankings. Certain Javascript(TM links were not followed at all, which has serious implications for designers of e-Commerce Websites.

  10. What's in a Friendship? Partner Visibility Supports Cognitive Collaboration between Friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Allison A; Enns, James T

    2015-01-01

    Not all cognitive collaborations are equally effective. We tested whether friendship and communication influenced collaborative efficiency by randomly assigning participants to complete a cognitive task with a friend or non-friend, while visible to their partner or separated by a partition. Collaborative efficiency was indexed by comparing each pair's performance to an optimal individual performance model of the same two people. The outcome was a strong interaction between friendship and partner visibility. Friends collaborated more efficiently than non-friends when visible to one another, but a partition that prevented pair members from seeing one another reduced the collaborative efficiency of friends and non-friends to a similar lower level. Secondary measures suggested that verbal communication differences, but not psychophysiological arousal, contributed to these effects. Analysis of covariance indicated that females contributed more than males to overall levels of collaboration, but that the interaction of friendship and visibility was independent of that effect. These findings highlight the critical role of partner visibility in the collaborative success of friends.

  11. What’s in a Friendship? Partner Visibility Supports Cognitive Collaboration between Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Allison A.; Enns, James T.

    2015-01-01

    Not all cognitive collaborations are equally effective. We tested whether friendship and communication influenced collaborative efficiency by randomly assigning participants to complete a cognitive task with a friend or non-friend, while visible to their partner or separated by a partition. Collaborative efficiency was indexed by comparing each pair’s performance to an optimal individual performance model of the same two people. The outcome was a strong interaction between friendship and partner visibility. Friends collaborated more efficiently than non-friends when visible to one another, but a partition that prevented pair members from seeing one another reduced the collaborative efficiency of friends and non-friends to a similar lower level. Secondary measures suggested that verbal communication differences, but not psychophysiological arousal, contributed to these effects. Analysis of covariance indicated that females contributed more than males to overall levels of collaboration, but that the interaction of friendship and visibility was independent of that effect. These findings highlight the critical role of partner visibility in the collaborative success of friends. PMID:26619079

  12. Comparative analysis of climate change policy in a trans-Atlantic perspective, The implications of level of governance regarding climate change mitigation effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taminiau, Job

    2010-01-01

    The United States and the European Union address climate change in a fundamentally different manner. The US seems uninterested to address climate change from a federal level, but individual states within the US are definitely moving forward with climate c

  13. Assessment of online visibility of the British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (BAOMS): a strategic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Serriah, M; Wong, L; Dhariwal, D; Banks, R J

    2014-02-01

    The Internet is a powerful method of acquiring and sharing information. In marketing and business, online visibility is vital for publicity and the reputation of an organisation. To our knowledge, the importance of such visibility in medicine in general, and in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (OMFS) services in the UK, has not previously been investigated. We aimed to provide a better understanding of the way that patients use the Internet by asking 450 patients to complete a questionnaire when they attended outpatient OMFS departments at 2 centres. We also assessed the online visibility of the British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (BAOMS) and investigated the correlation between the strength of online visibility and professional reputation. Results from the self-administered, anonymous, validated questionnaires showed that 82% of patients agreed that the Internet was a powerful source of information, and two-thirds associated online visibility with a good reputation. However, the perceived online visibility of the BAOMS was poor (2%). This study mirrors findings in business publications, and confirms the link between online visibility and professional reputation. It also shows that there is a gap between patients' perceptions and the level of uptake of professional resources. We propose various strategies to bridge this gap and to promote the online visibility and professional reputation of the BAOMS and of OMFS services in the UK. Copyright © 2014 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Will Green CSR Enhance Innovation? A Perspective of Public Visibility and Firm Transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weiwei; Liu, Yexin; Chin, Tachia; Zhu, Wenzhong

    2018-02-04

    In response to the asking and requiring of stakeholders to be more environmentally responsible, firms must commit to green corporate social responsibility (CSR). Firms being green and responsible always can acquire intangible resources that are important for firm innovation. Given the scarcity of existing research addressing relevant issues in depth, this paper expands our understanding of green CSR by revealing its antecedent effects on firm innovation performance. We also include public visibility and firm transparency as contingency factors to explore the relationship between green CSR and firm innovation performance. Using data collected from publicly listed firms in China, we find that greater innovation performance is associated with an increase in firm green CSR, and the positive relationship between green CSR and innovation performance is moderated by public visibility and firm transparency. Based on the results, theoretical contributions and practical implications are outlined.

  15. Authentication of virgin olive oil by a novel curve resolution approach combined with visible spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro-González, Marta; Barbero, Gerardo F; Álvarez, José A; Ruiz, Antonio; Palma, Miguel; Ayuso, Jesús

    2017-04-01

    Adulteration of olive oil is not only a major economic fraud but can also have major health implications for consumers. In this study, a combination of visible spectroscopy with a novel multivariate curve resolution method (CR), principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is proposed for the authentication of virgin olive oil (VOO) samples. VOOs are well-known products with the typical properties of a two-component system due to the two main groups of compounds that contribute to the visible spectra (chlorophylls and carotenoids). Application of the proposed CR method to VOO samples provided the two pure-component spectra for the aforementioned families of compounds. A correlation study of the real spectra and the resolved component spectra was carried out for different types of oil samples (n=118). LDA using the correlation coefficients as variables to discriminate samples allowed the authentication of 95% of virgin olive oil samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Accessibility analysis in manufacturing processes using visibility cones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹周平; 丁汉; 熊有伦

    2002-01-01

    Accessibility is a kind of important design feature of products,and accessibility analysis has been acknowledged as a powerful tool for solving computational manufacturing problems arising from different manufacturing processes.After exploring the relations among approachability,accessibility and visibility,a general method for accessibility analysis using visibility cones (VC) is proposed.With the definition of VC of a point,three kinds of visibility of a feature,namely complete visibility cone (CVC),partial visibility cone (PVC) and local visibility cone (LVC),are defined.A novel approach to computing VCs is formulated by identifying C-obstacles in the C-space,for which a general and efficient algorithm is proposed and implemented by making use of visibility culling.Lastly,we discuss briefly how to realize accessibility analysis in numerically controlled (NC) machining planning,coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) inspection planning and assembly sequence planning with the proposed methods.

  17. Efficient resource allocation scheme for visible-light communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woo-Chan; Bae, Chi-Sung; Cho, Dong-Ho; Shin, Hong-Seok; Jung, D. K.; Oh, Y. J.

    2009-01-01

    A visible-light communication utilizing LED has many advantagies such as visibility of information, high SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio), low installation cost, usage of existing illuminators, and high security. Furthermore, exponentially increasing needs and quality of LED have helped the development of visible-light communication. The visibility is the most attractive property in visible-light communication system, but it is difficult to ensure visibility and transmission efficiency simultaneously during initial access because of the small amount of initial access process signals. In this paper, we propose an efficient resource allocation scheme at initial access for ensuring visibility with high resource utilization rate and low data transmission failure rate. The performance has been evaluated through the numerical analysis and simulation results.

  18. Crawling at High Speeds: Steady Level Locomotion in the Spider Cupiennius salei-Global Kinematics and Implications for Centre of Mass Dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Weihmann

    Full Text Available Spiders are an old yet very successful predatory group of arthropods. Their locomotor system differs from those of most other arthropods by the lack of extensor muscles in two major leg joints. Though specific functional characteristics can be expected regarding the locomotion dynamics of spiders, this aspect of movement physiology has been only scarcely examined so far. This study presents extensive analyses of a large dataset concerning global kinematics and the implications for dynamics of adult female specimens of the large Central American spider Cupiennius salei (Keyserling. The experiments covered the entire speed-range of straight runs at constant speeds. The analyses revealed specific characteristics of velocity dependent changes in the movements of the individual legs, as well as in the translational and rotational degrees of freedom of both the centre of mass and the body. In contrast to many other fast moving arthropods, C. salei avoid vertical fluctuations of their centre of mass during fast locomotion. Accordingly, aerial phases were not observed here. This behaviour is most likely a consequence of optimising energy expenditure with regard to the specific requirements of spiders' leg anatomy. A strong synchronisation of two alternating sets of legs appears to play only a minor role in the locomotion of large spiders. Reduced frequency and low centre of mass amplitudes as well as low angular changes of the body axes, in turn, seems to be the result of relatively low leg coordination.

  19. Accounting for Business Models: Increasing the Visibility of Stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Haslam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper conceptualises a firm’s business model employing stakeholder theory as a central organising element to help inform the purpose and objective(s of business model financial reporting and disclosure. Framework: Firms interact with a complex network of primary and secondary stakeholders to secure the value proposition of a firm’s business model. This value proposition is itself a complex amalgam of value creating, value capturing and value manipulating arrangements with stakeholders. From a financial accounting perspective the purpose of the value proposition for a firm’s business model is to sustain liquidity and solvency as a going concern. Findings: This article argues that stakeholder relations impact upon the financial viability of a firm’s business model value proposition. However current financial reporting by function of expenses and the central organising objectives of the accounting conceptual framework conceal firm-stakeholder relations and their impact on reported financials. Practical implications: The practical implication of our paper is that ‘Business Model’ financial reporting would require a reorientation in the accounting conceptual framework that defines the objectives and purpose of financial reporting. This reorientation would involve reporting about stakeholder relations and their impact on a firms financials not simply reporting financial information to ‘investors’. Social Implications: Business model financial reporting has the potential to be stakeholder inclusive because the numbers and narratives reported by firms in their annual financial statements will increase the visibility of stakeholder relations and how these are being managed. What is original/value of paper: This paper’s original perspective is that it argues that a firm’s business model is structured out of stakeholder relations. It presents the firm’s value proposition as the product of value creating, capturing and

  20. Reflectance measurements of leaves for detecting visible and non-visible ozon damage to crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, M.; Weigel, H.-J.; Mejer, G.-J.; Brandes, F.

    1996-01-01

    Spring wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Turbo), white clover (Trifolium repens cv. Karina) and maize (Zea mays cv. Bonny) plants were exposed for 20–30 days in open top chambers to charcoal-filtered air (CF, control) and CF air supplied with O 3 for 8–12 h/per day in the concentration range of 180–240 μg O 3 /m 3 (8–12 h/day treatment mean). At the end of the O 3 treatment spectral reflectance measurements were made on single leaves of all 3 species and on canopies of wheat and clover using a CCD (Charged Coupled Device) camera and wavelength filters with 11 wavelength bands ranging from 450 nm to 950 nm. Different vegetation indices such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the ≪main inflection point≫ (MIP) were calculated. Based on these results it was shown that visible O 3 damages were correlated to the spectral reflectance changes: Both leaves and canopies showed an increased reflectance of visible light after ozone treatment. While clover and maize leaves as well as clover and wheat canopies showed a decreased near infrared (NIR) reflectance, the NIR reflectance of wheat leaves did not change, even if the leaves had visible symptoms. A decreased infrared reflectance was detectable for all clover leaves after O 3 treatment although for part of the leaves no visible foliar damage symptoms could be observed

  1. Visible Lasers and Emerging Color Converters for Lighting and Visible Light Communications

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao

    2017-10-30

    GaN-based lasers are promising for white lighting and visible-light communication (VLC). The advances of III-nitride photonic integration, and the application of YAG crystal and perovskite-based phosphors to lighting and VLC will be discussed.

  2. Visible Lasers and Emerging Color Converters for Lighting and Visible Light Communications

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao

    2017-01-01

    GaN-based lasers are promising for white lighting and visible-light communication (VLC). The advances of III-nitride photonic integration, and the application of YAG crystal and perovskite-based phosphors to lighting and VLC will be discussed.

  3. Temporal variations in the gene expression levels of cyanobacterial anti-oxidant enzymes through geological history: implications for biological evolution during the Great Oxidation Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, M.; Furukawa, R.; Yokobori, S. I.; Tajika, E.; Yamagishi, A.

    2016-12-01

    A significant rise in atmospheric O2 levels during the GOE (Great Oxidation Event), ca. 2.45-2.0 Ga, must have caused a great stress to biosphere, enforcing life to adapt to oxic conditions. Cyanobacteria, oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria that had been responsible for the GOE, are at the same time one of the organisms that would have been greatly affected by the rise of O2 level in the surface environments. Knowledge on the evolution of cyanobacteria is not only important to elucidate the cause of the GOE, but also helps us to better understand the adaptive evolution of life in response to the GOE. Here we performed phylogenetic analysis of an anti-oxidant enzyme Fe-SOD (iron superoxide dismutase) of cyanobacteria, to assess the adaptive evolution of life under the GOE. The rise of O2 level must have increased the level of toxic reactive oxygen species in cyanobacterial cells, thus forced them to change activities or the gene expression levels of Fe-SOD. In the present study, we focus on the change in the gene expression levels of the enzyme, which can be estimated from the promoter sequences of the gene. Promoters are DNA sequences found upstream of protein encoding regions, where RNA polymerase binds and initiates transcription. "Strong" promoters that efficiently interact with RNA polymerase induce high rates of transcription, leading to high levels of gene expression. Thus, from the temporal changes in the promoter sequences, we can estimate the variations in the gene expression levels during the geological time. Promoter sequences of Fe-SOD at each ancestral node of cyanobacteria were predicted from phylogenetic analysis, and the ancestral promoter sequences were compared to the promoters of known highly expressed genes. The similarity was low at the time of the emergence of cyanobacteria; however, increased at the branching nodes diverged 2.4 billon years ago. This roughly coincided with the onset of the GOE, implying that the transition from low to high gene

  4. A cohort study evaluating the implications of biology, weight status and socioeconomic level on global self-esteem competence among female African-American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell-Young, Yolanda M; Zabaleta, Jovanny; Velasco-Gonzalez, Cruz; Sothern, Melinda S

    2013-07-01

    The link between obesity and self-esteem among minority youth has received minimal empirical evaluation. This study aims to describe the magnitude of risk that body mass index, household income, and transitional age have on global self-esteem levels among African-American adolescents. These analyses were conducted on cross-sectional data obtained from 264 urban-dwelling African-American females between 14 and 18 years of age. Survey data on global self-esteem levels, transitory age, and socioeconomic levels were collected using self-administered questionnaires. Measured height and weight values were used to calculate and categorize weight status according to body mass index. Logistic regression models examined the probability of reporting less than average levels of global self-esteem. Adolescent African-American females residing in low-income households were 10 times more likely to report lower global self-esteem scores than those individuals from more affluent households (95% CI: 1.94, 60.19, p self-esteem among participants in this study. Household income appears to be the greatest predictor of global self-esteem levels. Further research in this area is needed to fully elucidate precursors for psychological health vulnerability and facilitate intervention development.

  5. A Cohort Study Evaluating the Implications of Biology, Weight Status and Socioeconomic Level on Global Self-Esteem Competence Among Female African-American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell-Young, Yolanda M.; Zabaleta, Jovanny; Velasco-Gonzalez, Cruz; Sothern, Melinda S.

    2014-01-01

    The link between obesity and self-esteem among minority youth has received minimal empirical evaluation. This study aims to describe the magnitude of risk that body mass index, household income, and transitional age have on global self-esteem levels among African-American adolescents. These analyses were conducted on cross-sectional data obtained from 264 urban-dwelling African-American females between 14 and 18 years of age. Survey data on global self-esteem levels, transitory age, and socioeconomic levels were collected using self-administered questionnaires. Measured height and weight values were used to calculate and categorize weight status according to body mass index. Logistic regression models examined the probability of reporting less than average levels of global self-esteem. Adolescent African-American females residing in low-income households were 10 times more likely to report lower global self-esteem scores than those individuals from more affluent households (95% CI: 1.94, 60.19, p self-esteem among participants in this study. Household income appears to be the greatest predictor of global self-esteem levels. Further research in this area is needed to fully elucidate precursors for psychological health vulnerability and facilitate intervention development. PMID:24218867

  6. Contabilidad, Finanzas Empresariales y Mano Visible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Durán Herrera

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En el ámbito de la Economía y Dirección de la Empresa, la Contabilidad y las Finanzas juegan un papel primordial por cuanto que, prioritariamente, se ocupan de la determinación del valor de la empresa y, respectivamente, de proporcionar y evaluar la información suplementaria necesaria para la formación de expectativas reales sobre el futuro de dicha organización. En la fuerte interdependencia de los programas de investigación de ambas disciplinas -Contabilidad y Finanzas- se entrecruzan los análisis respectivos de la naturaleza de los activos, del gobierno de la empresa como organización y del cálculo de los resultados alcanzados. La investigación contempla los cambios en las circunstancias (instituciones y organizaciones en las que se desarrolla la función financiera y se aplica la contabilidad para medir e informar sobre la realidad de la empresa, evidenciándose el paralelismo, la complementariedad y las diferencias que se producen entre ambas disciplinas. El valor de la empresa como punto de encuentro manifiesta dos aproximaciones: el valor contable basado en datos históricos o en precios corrientes y el valor financiero que estima el valor actualizando los flujos de caja derivados del desarrollo del proyecto empresa. Palabras clave: contabilidad y finanzas empresariales, información contable y decisiones financieras, dirección financiera y contabilidad, mano visible de la empresa. The theory and practice of Accounting and Finance make possible to estimate the value of the firm and, respectively, both provide and evaluate supplementary information that constitudes inputs for the expectations about the nature of organization. The strong interdependence between the researtch programs in both academic disciplines are show in their own analysis about the nature of assets, the governance of the firm and the determination of the profitability of the corporation. The institutional changes influence the research programs of both

  7. Effect of iron deficiency anemia and iron supplementation on HbA1c levels - Implications for diagnosis of prediabetes and diabetes mellitus in Asian Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhu, S V; Raj, Abhishek; Gupta, Stuti; Giri, S; Rusia, Usha

    2017-05-01

    We investigated the effect of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) on levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and to compare its levels before and after iron supplementations. Age and sex matched subjects were enrolled and clustered in 2 groups: IDA (n=62) and healthy controls (HC; n=60). HbA1c levels were estimated by HPLC. Hemogram were estimated by hematology analyser. Serum ferritin (ELISA) and other parameters of iron profile were measured by standard guidelines of ICSH. HbA1c values and iron studies were repeated after 3months of iron supplementation to determine the effect of iron therapy on HbA1c levels. Significantly higher HbA1c levels were observed in IDA subjects compared to HC (5.51±0.696 v/s 4.85±0.461%, pHbA1c and hemoglobin, hematocrit, RBC count, MCH, MCHC and serum ferritin in IDA subjects (r=-0.632, -0.652, -0.384, -0.236, -0.192 and -0.441). Significant decline was noticed in HbA1c levels in IDA subjects after iron supplementation (5.51±0.696 before treatment v/s 5.044±0.603 post-treatment; pHbA1c in pre-diabetes range normalised to normal glucose tolerance (NGT) range and out of 6 patients with pre-treatment HbA1c in diabetes range, 5 reverted to pre-diabetes range while 1 of them reverted to the NGT range. Caution must be exercised in interpreting the results of HbA1c in patients of IDA and iron deficiency must be corrected before diagnosing diabetes and pre-diabetes solely on the basis of HbA1c criteria. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Levels of trace elements, methylmercury and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in foraging green turtles in the South China region and their conservation implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Connie Ka Yan; Lam, James Chung Wah; Zhang, Xiao Hua; Gu, He Xiang; Li, Tsung Hsien; Ye, Min Bin; Xia, Zhong Rong; Zhang, Fei Yan; Duan, Jin Xia; Wang, Wen Xiong; Lam, Isaac Kam Sum; Balazs, George H; Lam, Paul K S; Murphy, Margaret B

    2018-03-01

    Sea turtles are globally endangered and face daily anthropogenic threats, including pollution. However, there is a lack of ecotoxicological information on sea turtles, especially in the Asia-Pacific region. This study aims to determine pollutant levels of foraging green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in South China, including Hong Kong, Guangdong and Taiwan, as a basis for their conservation. Scute, liver and muscle tissues of stranded green turtles were analysed for levels of 17 trace elements and methylmercury (MeHg) (n = 86 for scute and n = 14 for liver) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) (n = 11 for muscle and n = 13 for liver). Ten-fold higher levels of Pb, Ba, V and Tl and 40-fold greater Cd levels were measured in green turtle livers in South China relative to other studies conducted over 10 years ago. Measured PBDE levels were also 27-fold and 50-fold greater than those reported in Australia and Japan. These results warrant further investigation of potential toxicological risks to green turtles in South China and their source rookeries in Malaysia, Micronesia, Indonesia, Marshall Islands, Japan and Taiwan. Research should target monitoring pollutant levels in sea turtles within the West Pacific/Southeast Asia regional management unit spanning East Asia to Southeast Asia to fill in knowledge gaps, in particular in areas such as Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines where less or no data is available and where foraging grounds of sea turtles have been identified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Large differences in publicly visible health behaviours across two neighbourhoods of the same city.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Nettle

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are socioeconomic disparities in the likelihood of adopting unhealthy behaviours, and success at giving them up. This may be in part because people living in deprived areas are exposed to greater rates of unhealthy behaviour amongst those living around them. Conventional self-report surveys do not capture these differences in exposure, and more ethological methods are required in order to do so. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed 12 hours of direct behavioural observation in the streets of two neighbourhoods of the same city which were similar in most regards, except that one was much more socioeconomically deprived than the other. There were large differences in the publicly visible health behaviours observed. In the deprived neighbourhood, we observed 266 more adults smoking (rate ratio 3.44, 53 more adults drinking alcohol (rate ratio not calculable, and 38 fewer adults running (rate ratio 0.23, than in the affluent neighbourhood. We used data from the Health Survey for England to calculate the differences we ought to expect to have seen given the individual-level socioeconomic characteristics of the residents. The observed disparities between the two neighbourhoods were considerably greater than this null model predicted. There were also different patterns of smoking in proximity to children in the two neighbourhoods. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The differences in observed smoking, drinking alcohol, and physical activity between these two neighbourhoods of the same city are strikingly large, and for smoking and running, their magnitude suggests substantial area effects above and beyond the compositional differences between the neighbourhoods. Because of these differences, individuals residing in deprived areas are exposed to substantially more smoking and public drinking, and less physical activity, as they go about their daily lives, than their affluent peers. This may have important implications for the initiation

  10. The susceptibility of the retina to photochemical damage from visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jennifer J; Morgan, Jessica I W; Merigan, William H; Sliney, David H; Sparrow, Janet R; Williams, David R

    2011-01-01

    The photoreceptor/RPE complex must maintain a delicate balance between maximizing the absorption of photons for vision and retinal image quality while simultaneously minimizing the risk of photodamage when exposed to bright light. We review the recent discovery of two new effects of light exposure on the photoreceptor/RPE complex in the context of current thinking about the causes of retinal phototoxicity. These effects are autofluorescence photobleaching in which exposure to bright light reduces lipofuscin autofluorescence and, at higher light levels, RPE disruption in which the pattern of autofluorescence is permanently altered following light exposure. Both effects occur following exposure to visible light at irradiances that were previously thought to be safe. Photopigment, retinoids involved in the visual cycle, and bisretinoids in lipofuscin have been implicated as possible photosensitizers for photochemical damage. The mechanism of RPE disruption may follow either of these paths. On the other hand, autofluorescence photobleaching is likely an indicator of photooxidation of lipofuscin. The permanent changes inherent in RPE disruption might require modification of the light safety standards. AF photobleaching recovers after several hours although the mechanisms by which this occurs are not yet clear. Understanding the mechanisms of phototoxicity is all the more important given the potential for increased susceptibility in the presence of ocular diseases that affect either the visual cycle and/or lipofuscin accumulation. In addition, knowledge of photochemical mechanisms can improve our understanding of some disease processes that may be influenced by light exposure, such as some forms of Leber’s congenital amaurosis, and aid in the development of new therapies. Such treatment prior to intentional light exposures, as in ophthalmic examinations or surgeries, could provide an effective preventative strategy. PMID:22085795

  11. Assessment of activities performed by clinical nurse practitioners and implications for staffing and patient care at primary health care level in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude Igumbor

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The shortage of nurses in public healthcare facilities in South Africa is well documented; finding creative solutions to this problem remains a priority. Objective: This study sought to establish the amount of time that clinical nurse practitioners (CNPs in one district of the Western Cape spend on clinical services and the implications for staffing and skills mix in order to deliver quality patient care. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted across 15 purposively selected clinics providing primary health services in 5 sub-districts. The frequency of activities and time CNPs spent on each activity in fixed and mobile clinics were recorded. Time spent on activities and health facility staff profiles were correlated and predictors of the total time spent by CNPs with patients were identified. Results: The time spent on clinical activities was associated with the number of CNPs in the facilities. CNPs in fixed clinics spent a median time of about 13 minutes with each patient whereas CNPs in mobile clinics spent 3 minutes. Fixed-clinic CNPs also spent more time on their non-core functions than their core functions, more time with patients, and saw fewer patients compared to mobile-clinic CNPs. Conclusions: The findings give insight into the time CNPs in rural fixed and mobile clinics spend with their patients, and how patient caseload may affect consultation times. Two promising strategies were identified – task shifting and adjustments in health workerd eployment – as ways to address staffing and skills mix, which skills mix creates the potential for using healthcare workers fully whilst enhancing the long-term health of these rural communities.

  12. High accuracy wavelength calibration for a scanning visible spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scotti, Filippo; Bell, Ronald E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Spectroscopic applications for plasma velocity measurements often require wavelength accuracies {<=}0.2 A. An automated calibration, which is stable over time and environmental conditions without the need to recalibrate after each grating movement, was developed for a scanning spectrometer to achieve high wavelength accuracy over the visible spectrum. This method fits all relevant spectrometer parameters using multiple calibration spectra. With a stepping-motor controlled sine drive, an accuracy of {approx}0.25 A has been demonstrated. With the addition of a high resolution (0.075 arc sec) optical encoder on the grating stage, greater precision ({approx}0.005 A) is possible, allowing absolute velocity measurements within {approx}0.3 km/s. This level of precision requires monitoring of atmospheric temperature and pressure and of grating bulk temperature to correct for changes in the refractive index of air and the groove density, respectively.

  13. Intrinsic defect oriented visible region absorption in zinc oxide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhesh, V.; Shankar, Balakrishnan

    2018-05-01

    Zinc Oxide films were deposited on the glass substrate using vacuum arc sputtering technology. Films were prepared in oxygen ambience for 10mA and 15 mA deposition current separately. The UV-Visible spectroscopy of the samples showed that both samples possess sharp absorption near 3.5eV which is the characteristic band gap absorption energy of ZnO films. The absorption coefficient were calculated for the samples and the (αℎϑ)2 vs energy plot is drawn. The plot suggested that in addition to the sharp band edge absorption, the sample prepared at 10mA deposition current showed sharp absorption edge near 1.51eV and that at 15 mA showed absorption edge near 1.47eV. This refers to the presence of an intrinsic defect level which is likely to be deep in the band gap.

  14. Long-term visibility variation in Athens (1931–2013: a proxy for local and regional atmospheric aerosol loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Founda

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the interdecadal variability and trends of surface horizontal visibility at the urban area of Athens from 1931 to 2013, using the historical archives of the National Observatory of Athens (NOA. A prominent deterioration of visibility in the city was detected, with the long-term linear trend amounting to −2.8 km decade−1 (p < 0.001, over the entire study period. This was not accompanied by any significant trend in relative humidity or precipitation over the same period. A slight recovery of visibility levels seems to be established in the recent decade (2004–2013. It was found that very good visibility (>  20 km occurred at a frequency of 34 % before the 1950s, while this percentage drops to just 2 % during the decade 2004–2013. The rapid impairment of the visual air quality in Athens around the 1950s points to the increased levels of air pollution on a local and/or regional scale, related to high urbanization rates and/or increased anthropogenic emissions on a global scale at that period. Visibility was found to be negatively/positively correlated with relative humidity/wind speed, the correlation being statistically valid at certain periods. Wind regime and mainly wind direction and corresponding air mass origin were found to highly control visibility levels in Athens. The comparison of visibility variation in Athens and at a non-urban reference site on Crete island revealed similar negative trends over the common period of observations. This suggests that apart local sources, visibility in Athens is highly determined by aerosol load of regional origin. AVHRR and MODIS satellite-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD retrievals over Athens and surface measurements of PM10 confirmed the relation of visibility to aerosol load.

  15. Visual context enhanced. The joint contribution of iconic gestures and visible speech to degraded speech comprehension.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijvers, L.; Özyürek, A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated whether and to what extent iconic co-speech gestures contribute to information from visible speech to enhance degraded speech comprehension at different levels of noise-vocoding. Previous studies of the contributions of these 2 visual articulators to speech

  16. Visual Context Enhanced: The Joint Contribution of Iconic Gestures and Visible Speech to Degraded Speech Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drijvers, Linda; Ozyurek, Asli

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated whether and to what extent iconic co-speech gestures contribute to information from visible speech to enhance degraded speech comprehension at different levels of noise-vocoding. Previous studies of the contributions of these 2 visual articulators to speech comprehension have only been performed separately. Method:…

  17. Recent progress on doped ZnO nanostructures for visible-light photocatalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samadi, Morasae; Zirak, Mohammad; Naseri, Amene; Khorashadizade, Elham; Moshfegh, Alireza Z.

    2016-01-01

    Global environmental pollution and energy supply demand have been regarded as important concerns in recent years. Metal oxide semiconductor photocatalysts is a promising approach to apply environmental remediation as well as fuel generation from water splitting and carbon dioxide reduction. ZnO nanostructures have been shown promising photocatalytic activities due to their non-toxic, inexpensive, and highly efficient nature. However, its wide band gap hinders photo-excitation for practical photocatalytic applications under solar light as an abundant, clean and safe energy source. To overcome this barrier, many strategies have been developed in the last decade to apply ZnO nanostructured photocatalysts under visible light. In this review, we have classified different approaches to activate ZnO as a photocatalyst in visible-light spectrum. Utilization of various nonmetals, transition metals and rare-earth metals for doping in ZnO crystal lattice to create visible-light-responsive doped ZnO photocatalysts is discussed. Generation of localized energy levels within the gap in doped ZnO nanostructures has played an important role in effective photocatalytic reaction under visible-light irradiation. The effect of dopant type, ionic size and its concentration on the crystal structure, electronic property and morphology of doped ZnO with a narrower band gap is reviewed systematically. Finally, a comparative study is performed to evaluate two classes of metals and nonmetals as useful dopants for ZnO nanostructured photocatalysts under visible light. - Highlights: • Metals and nonmetals used as a dopant to shift ZnO band gap toward visible-light. • Modification of electronic structure played a crucial role in doped ZnO activity. • Correlation between dopant's characteristics and ZnO visible activity was reviewed. • Photo-degradation of doped ZnO was studied and compared for different dopants.

  18. Recent progress on doped ZnO nanostructures for visible-light photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samadi, Morasae; Zirak, Mohammad [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11555-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Naseri, Amene [Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-8639, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khorashadizade, Elham [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11555-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moshfegh, Alireza Z., E-mail: moshfegh@sharif.edu [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11555-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-8639, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-04-30

    Global environmental pollution and energy supply demand have been regarded as important concerns in recent years. Metal oxide semiconductor photocatalysts is a promising approach to apply environmental remediation as well as fuel generation from water splitting and carbon dioxide reduction. ZnO nanostructures have been shown promising photocatalytic activities due to their non-toxic, inexpensive, and highly efficient nature. However, its wide band gap hinders photo-excitation for practical photocatalytic applications under solar light as an abundant, clean and safe energy source. To overcome this barrier, many strategies have been developed in the last decade to apply ZnO nanostructured photocatalysts under visible light. In this review, we have classified different approaches to activate ZnO as a photocatalyst in visible-light spectrum. Utilization of various nonmetals, transition metals and rare-earth metals for doping in ZnO crystal lattice to create visible-light-responsive doped ZnO photocatalysts is discussed. Generation of localized energy levels within the gap in doped ZnO nanostructures has played an important role in effective photocatalytic reaction under visible-light irradiation. The effect of dopant type, ionic size and its concentration on the crystal structure, electronic property and morphology of doped ZnO with a narrower band gap is reviewed systematically. Finally, a comparative study is performed to evaluate two classes of metals and nonmetals as useful dopants for ZnO nanostructured photocatalysts under visible light. - Highlights: • Metals and nonmetals used as a dopant to shift ZnO band gap toward visible-light. • Modification of electronic structure played a crucial role in doped ZnO activity. • Correlation between dopant's characteristics and ZnO visible activity was reviewed. • Photo-degradation of doped ZnO was studied and compared for different dopants.

  19. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy of graphene oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Lai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Dispersions of few-layer (1-3 layers, multi-layer (4-10 layers and thick-layer (>10 layers graphene oxide (GO were prepared by a modified Hummers method with different mass ratios of KMnO4 to graphite. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis spectroscopic data show that few-layer GO dispersions can be distinguished from multi- and thick-layer dispersions by a more intense peak at 230 nm. Atomic force microscopy (AFM images of few-layer GO contain a single peak, those of multi-layer GO exhibit a shoulder and those of thick-layer GO do not contain a peak or shoulder. These findings allow qualitative analysis of GO dispersions. X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS show that the change of UV-vis absorption intensity of GO is caused by a conjugative effect related to chromophore aggregation that influences the π-π* plasmon peak.

  20. Nanoantennas for visible and infrared radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biagioni, Paolo; Huang, Jer-Shing; Hecht, Bert

    2012-01-01

    Nanoantennas for visible and infrared radiation can strongly enhance the interaction of light with nanoscale matter by their ability to efficiently link propagating and spatially localized optical fields. This ability unlocks an enormous potential for applications ranging from nanoscale optical microscopy and spectroscopy over solar energy conversion, integrated optical nanocircuitry, opto-electronics and density-of-states engineering to ultra-sensing as well as enhancement of optical nonlinearities. Here we review the current understanding of metallic optical antennas based on the background of both well-developed radiowave antenna engineering and plasmonics. In particular, we discuss the role of plasmonic resonances on the performance of nanoantennas and address the influence of geometrical parameters imposed by nanofabrication. Finally, we give a brief account of the current status of the field and the major established and emerging lines of investigation in this vivid area of research.

  1. Nanoantennas for visible and infrared radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biagioni, Paolo [CNISM-Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Huang, Jer-Shing [Department of Chemistry and Frontier Research Center on Fundamental and Applied Science of Matters, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Hecht, Bert [Nano-Optics and Biophotonics Group, Department of Experimental Physics 5, Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen Research Center for Complex Material Systems (RCCM), Physics Institute, University of Wuerzburg, Am Hubland, D-97074 Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    Nanoantennas for visible and infrared radiation can strongly enhance the interaction of light with nanoscale matter by their ability to efficiently link propagating and spatially localized optical fields. This ability unlocks an enormous potential for applications ranging from nanoscale optical microscopy and spectroscopy over solar energy conversion, integrated optical nanocircuitry, opto-electronics and density-of-states engineering to ultra-sensing as well as enhancement of optical nonlinearities. Here we review the current understanding of metallic optical antennas based on the background of both well-developed radiowave antenna engineering and plasmonics. In particular, we discuss the role of plasmonic resonances on the performance of nanoantennas and address the influence of geometrical parameters imposed by nanofabrication. Finally, we give a brief account of the current status of the field and the major established and emerging lines of investigation in this vivid area of research.

  2. Common origin of visible and dark universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Peihong; Sarkar, Utpal

    2010-01-01

    Dark matter, baryonic matter, and dark energy have different properties but contribute comparable energy density to the present Universe. We point out that they may have a common origin. As the dark energy has a scale far lower than all known scales in particle physics but very close to neutrino masses, while the excess matter over antimatter in the baryonic sector is probably related to the neutrino-mass generation, we unify the origin of the dark and visible universe in a variant of the seesaw model. In our model (i) the dark matter relic density is a dark matter asymmetry emerged simultaneously with the baryon asymmetry from leptogenesis; (ii) the dark energy is due to a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone-Boson associated with the neutrino-mass generation.

  3. Galactic optical cloaking of visible baryonic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolyaninov, Igor I.

    2018-05-01

    Three-dimensional gravitational cloaking is known to require exotic matter and energy sources, which makes it arguably physically unrealizable. On the other hand, typical astronomical observations are performed using one-dimensional paraxial line of sight geometries. We demonstrate that unidirectional line of sight gravitational cloaking does not require exotic matter, and it may occur in multiple natural astronomical scenarios that involve gravitational lensing. In particular, recently discovered double gravitational lens SDSSJ 0 9 4 6 +1 0 0 6 together with the Milky Way appear to form a natural paraxial cloak. A natural question to ask, then, is how much matter in the Universe may be hidden from view by such natural gravitational cloaks? It is estimated that the total volume hidden from an observer by gravitational cloaking may reach about 1% of the total volume of the visible Universe.

  4. Visible imaging of edge fluctuations in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweben, S.J.; Medley, S.S.

    1989-03-01

    Images of the visible light emission from the inner wall region of TFTR have been made using a rapidly gated, intensified TV camera. Strong ''filamentation'' of the neutral deuterium Dα light is observed when the camera gating time is <100 μsec during neutral-beam-heated discharges. These turbulent filaments vary in position randomly vs. time and have a poloidal wavelength of ∼3-5 cm which is much shorter than their parallel wavelength of ∼100 cm. A second and new type of edge fluctuation phenomenon, which we call a ''merfe,'' is also described. Merfes are a regular poloidal pattern of toroidally symmetric, small-scale marfes which move away from the inner midplane during the current decay after neutral beam injection. Some tentative interpretations of these two phenomena are presented. 27 refs., 8 figs

  5. PAPR analysis for OFDM visible light communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaheng; Xu, Yang; Ling, Xintong; Zhang, Rong; Ding, Zhi; Zhao, Chunming

    2016-11-28

    Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) is a practical technology in visible light communication (VLC) for high-speed transmissions. However, one of its operational limitations is the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of the transmitted signal. In this paper, we analyze the PAPR distributions of four VLC OFDM schemes, namely DC-biased optical OFDM (DCO-OFDM), asymmetrically clipped optical OFDM (ACO-OFDM), pulse amplitude modulated discrete multitone (PAM-DMT), and Flip-OFDM. Both lower and upper clippings are considered. We analytically derive the complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) of the PAPRs of the clipped VLC OFDM signals, and investigate the impact of lower and upper clippings on PAPR distributions. Our analytical results, as verified by numerical simulations, provide useful insights and guidelines for VLC OFDM system designs.

  6. Electrically Injected UV-Visible Nanowire Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, George T.; Li, Changyi; Li, Qiming; Liu, Sheng; Wright, Jeremy Benjamin; Brener, Igal; Luk, Ting -Shan; Chow, Weng W.; Leung, Benjamin; Figiel, Jeffrey J.; Koleske, Daniel D.; Lu, Tzu-Ming

    2015-09-01

    There is strong interest in minimizing the volume of lasers to enable ultracompact, low-power, coherent light sources. Nanowires represent an ideal candidate for such nanolasers as stand-alone optical cavities and gain media, and optically pumped nanowire lasing has been demonstrated in several semiconductor systems. Electrically injected nanowire lasers are needed to realize actual working devices but have been elusive due to limitations of current methods to address the requirement for nanowire device heterostructures with high material quality, controlled doping and geometry, low optical loss, and efficient carrier injection. In this project we proposed to demonstrate electrically injected single nanowire lasers emitting in the important UV to visible wavelengths. Our approach to simultaneously address these challenges is based on high quality III-nitride nanowire device heterostructures with precisely controlled geometries and strong gain and mode confinement to minimize lasing thresholds, enabled by a unique top-down nanowire fabrication technique.

  7. Growth and characterization of visible diode lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shealy, J.R.; Bour, D.P.

    1988-01-01

    The (Al x Ga 1-x )yIn 1-y rho material system, lattice matched to GaAs substrates, has received much attention for use in visible laser diodes emitting in the spectral region λ--650-680 nm. When lattice matched to GaAs (y=0.5), this alloy spans a direct band gap range from --1.85 eV (at x=0) to --2.3 eV (near the T-X crossover at chi--0.7) It was only recently that device quality epitaxial layers have been prepared in this material due to difficulties with liquid phase epitaxial (LPE) and halide vapor phase epitaxial growth.Only organometallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE) and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth techniques have successfully produced AlGainP laser material

  8. Zeff measurements in ATF using visible bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, S.; Richards, R.K.; Horton, L.D.; Isler, R.C.; Crume, E.C. Jr.; Murakami, M.

    1991-04-01

    Measurements of the effective charge Z eff in plasmas with electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and neutral beam injection (NBI) in the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) have been carried out using visible bremsstrahlung. The electron temperature needed for the analysis is calculated from the measured stored energy and electron density. The value of Z eff varies widely depending on experimental conditions. In ECH plasmas it is between 2 and 8. In NBI plasmas, which are subject to radiation collapse, Z eff is between 3 and 5 at the time the stored energy reaches a maximum. However, Z eff is less than 2.5 in quasi-steady medium-density plasmas and is close to 1.2 in the highest-density plasmas, where the average electron density bar n e is of the order of 10 14 cm -3 . 12 refs., 29 figs., 1 tab

  9. Visible digital watermarking system using perceptual models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qiang; Huang, Thomas S.

    2001-03-01

    This paper presents a visible watermarking system using perceptual models. %how and why A watermark image is overlaid translucently onto a primary image, for the purposes of immediate claim of copyright, instantaneous recognition of owner or creator, or deterrence to piracy of digital images or video. %perceptual The watermark is modulated by exploiting combined DCT-domain and DWT-domain perceptual models. % so that the watermark is visually uniform. The resulting watermarked image is visually pleasing and unobtrusive. The location, size and strength of the watermark vary randomly with the underlying image. The randomization makes the automatic removal of the watermark difficult even though the algorithm is known publicly but the key to the random sequence generator. The experiments demonstrate that the watermarked images have pleasant visual effect and strong robustness. The watermarking system can be used in copyright notification and protection.

  10. Visible light emission from porous silicon carbide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Haiyan; Lu, Weifang

    2017-01-01

    Light-emitting silicon carbide is emerging as an environment-friendly wavelength converter in the application of light-emitting diode based white light source for two main reasons. Firstly, SiC has very good thermal conductivity and therefore a good substrate for GaN growth in addition to the small...... lattice mismatch. Secondly, SiC material is abundant, containing no rear-earth element material as commercial phosphor. In this paper, fabrication of porous SiC is introduced, and their morphology and photoluminescence are characterized. Additionally, the carrier lifetime of the porous SiC is measured...... by time-resolved photoluminescence. The ultrashort lifetime in the order of ~70ps indicates porous SiC is very promising for the application in the ultrafast visible light communications....

  11. School and Child Level Predictors of Academic Success for African American Children in Third Grade: Implications for No Child Left behind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Scott

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine correlates of being at expected grade level in reading in the third grade. Participants for this study were a nationally representative sample of African American children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K). Multilevel modeling was conducted to determine significant predictors of academic…

  12. Habitat of in vivo transformation influences the levels of free radical scavengers in Clinostomum complanatum: implications for free radical scavenger based vaccines against trematode infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Atif; Rizvi, Asim; Ahmad, Irshad; Ahmad, Masood

    2014-01-01

    Since free radical scavengers of parasite origin like glutathione-S-transferase and superoxide dismutase are being explored as prospective vaccine targets, availability of these molecules within the parasite infecting different hosts as well as different sites of infection is of considerable importance. Using Clinostomum complanatum, as a model helminth parasite, we analysed the effects of habitat of in vivo transformation on free radical scavengers of this trematode parasite. Using three different animal models for in vivo transformation and markedly different sites of infection, progenetic metacercaria of C. complanatum were transformed to adult ovigerous worms. Whole worm homogenates were used to estimate the levels of lipid peroxidation, a marker of oxidative stress and free radical scavengers. Site of in vivo transformation was found to drastically affect the levels of free radical scavengers in this model trematode parasite. It was observed that oxygen availability at the site of infection probably influences levels of free radical scavengers in trematode parasites. This is the first report showing that habitat of in vivo transformation affects levels of free radical scavengers in trematode parasites. Since free radical scavengers are prospective vaccine targets and parasite infection at ectopic sites is common, we propose that infections at different sites, may respond differently to free radical scavenger based vaccines.

  13. Ultrafine particle levels at an international port of entry between the US and Mexico: exposure implications for users, workers, and neighbors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera, Hector A; Lopez, Mario; Guerrero, Veronica; Garcia, Humberto; Li, Wen-Whai

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to diesel-emitted particles has been linked to increased cancer risk and cardiopulmonary diseases. Because of their size (risks than those associated with larger particles. Seasonal UFP levels at the International Bridge of the Americas, which connects the US and Mexico and has high HDDV traffic demands, were characterized. Hourly average UFP concentrations ranged between 1.7 × 10(3)/cc and 2.9 × 10(5)/cc with a mean of 3.5 × 10(4)/cc. Wind speeds <2 m s(-1) and temperatures <15 °C were associated with particle number concentrations above normal conditions. The presence of HDDV had the strongest impact on local UFP levels. Varying particle size distributions were associated with south- and northbound HDDV traffic. Peak exposure occurred on weekday afternoons. Although in winter, high exposure episodes were also observed in the morning. Particle number concentrations were estimated to reach background levels at 400 m away from traffic. The populations exposed to UFP above background levels include law enforcement officers, street vendors, private commuters, and commercial vehicle drivers as well as neighbors on both sides of the border, including a church and several schools.

  14. Clusters of community exposure to coastal flooding hazards based on storm and sea level rise scenarios—implications for adaptation networks in the San Francisco Bay region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Michelle; Wood, Nathan J.; Schweikert, Amy; Stacey, Mark T.; Jones, Jeanne; Barnard, Patrick L.; Erikson, Li H.

    2018-01-01

    Sea level is projected to rise over the coming decades, further increasing the extent of flooding hazards in coastal communities. Efforts to address potential impacts from climate-driven coastal hazards have called for collaboration among communities to strengthen the application of best practices. However, communities currently lack practical tools for identifying potential partner communities based on similar hazard exposure characteristics. This study uses statistical cluster analysis to identify similarities in community exposure to flooding hazards for a suite of sea level rise and storm scenarios. We demonstrate this approach using 63 jurisdictions in the San Francisco Bay region of California (USA) and compare 21 distinct exposure variables related to residents, employees, and structures for six hazard scenario combinations of sea level rise and storms. Results indicate that cluster analysis can provide an effective mechanism for identifying community groupings. Cluster compositions changed based on the selected societal variables and sea level rise scenarios, suggesting that a community could participate in multiple networks to target specific issues or policy interventions. The proposed clustering approach can serve as a data-driven foundation to help communities identify other communities with similar adaptation challenges and to enhance regional efforts that aim to facilitate adaptation planning and investment prioritization.

  15. PECULIARITIES OF THE EFFECTS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES OF THE VISIBLE RANGE ON LIVING ORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Gulyar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Our experimental studies and a set of the published data allow one to conclude that animals and humans can perceive visible light not only with mediation of the visual sensory system, but also due to the existence of specific extraocular photoreceptors. In the latter system, we can classify three separate stable levels of interaction with exogeneous electromagnetic waves (EMW of the visible range. The first, most simple level is the cellular level (cells possessing sensor proteins reactable to EMW. The next, higher level is based on interaction of EVW with specialized electromagnetoreceptors; acupuncture points and meridians providing the maintenance of electromagnetic homeostasis of the organism cam be considered such a receptor system. Finally, the most complex level involves specialized sensory pathways and central brain structures controlling general homeostasis of the organism with mediation of the processes of metabolism.

  16. Visible Light Communications towards 5G

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zvanovec

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available 5G networks have to offer extremely high capacity for novel streaming applications. One of the most promising approaches is to embed large numbers of co-operating small cells into the macro-cell coverage area. Alternatively, optical wireless based technologies can be adopted as an alternative physical layer offering higher data rates. Visible light communications (VLC is an emerging technology for future high capacity communication links (it has been accepted to 5GPP in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum (~370–780 nm utilizing light-emitting diodes (LEDs simultaneously provide data transmission and room illumination. A major challenge in VLC is the LED modulation bandwidths, which are limited to a few MHz. However, myriad gigabit speed transmission links have already been demonstrated. Non line-of-sight (NLOS optical wireless is resistant to blocking by people and obstacles and is capable of adapting its’ throughput according to the current channel state information. Concurrently, organic polymer LEDs (PLEDs have become the focus of enormous attention for solid-state lighting applications due to their advantages over conventional white LEDs such as ultra-low costs, low heating temperature, mechanical flexibility and large photoactive areas when produced with wet processing methods. This paper discusses development of such VLC links with a view to implementing ubiquitous broadcasting networks featuring advanced modulation formats such as orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM or carrier-less amplitude and phase modulation (CAP in conjunction with equalization techniques. Finally, this paper will also summarize the results of the European project ICT COST IC1101 OPTICWISE (Optical Wireless Communications - An Emerging Technology dealing VLC and OLEDs towards 5G networks.

  17. Technology Advancement of the Visible Nulling Coronagraph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Richard G.; Clampin, Mark; Petrone, Peter; Thompson, Patrick; Bolcar, Matt; Madison, Timothy; Woodruff, Robert; Noecker, Charley; Kendrick, Steve

    2010-01-01

    The critical high contrast imaging technology for the Extrasolar Planetary Imaging Coronagraph (EPIC) mission concept is the visible nulling coronagraph (VNC). EPIC would be capable of imaging jovian planets, dust/debris disks, and potentially super-Earths and contribute to answering how bright the debris disks are for candidate stars. The contrast requirement for EPIC is 10(exp 9) contrast at 125 milli-arseconds inner working angle. To advance the VNC technology NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, in collaboration with Lockheed-Martin, previously developed a vacuum VNC testbed, and achieved narrowband and broadband suppression of the core of the Airy disk. Recently our group was awarded a NASA Technology Development for Exoplanet Missions to achieve two milestones: (i) 10(exp 8) contrast in narrowband light, and, (ii) 10(ecp 9) contrast in broader band light; one milestone per year, and both at 2 Lambda/D inner working angle. These will be achieved with our 2nd generation testbed known as the visible nulling testbed (VNT). It contains a MEMS based hex-packed segmented deformable mirror known as the multiple mirror array (MMA) and coherent fiber bundle, i.e. a spatial filter array (SFA). The MMA is in one interferometric arm and works to set the wavefront differences between the arms to zero. Each of the MMA segments is optically mapped to a single mode fiber of the SFA, and the SFA passively cleans the sub-aperture wavefront error leaving only piston, tip and tilt error to be controlled. The piston degree of freedom on each segment is used to correct the wavefront errors, while the tip/tilt is used to simultaneously correct the amplitude errors. Thus the VNT controls both amplitude and wavefront errors with a single MMA in closed-loop in a vacuum tank at approx.20 Hz. Herein we will discuss our ongoing progress with the VNT.

  18. Prediction of fog/visibility over India using NWP Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aditi; George, John P.; Iyengar, Gopal Raman

    2018-03-01

    Frequent occurrence of fog in different parts of northern India is common during the winter months of December and January. Low visibility conditions due to fog disrupt normal public life. Visibility conditions heavily affect both surface and air transport. A number of flights are either diverted or cancelled every year during the winter season due to low visibility conditions, experienced at different airports of north India. Thus, fog and visibility forecasts over plains of north India become very important during winter months. This study aims to understand the ability of a NWP model (NCMRWF, Unified Model, NCUM) with a diagnostic visibility scheme to forecast visibility over plains of north India. The present study verifies visibility forecasts obtained from NCUM against the INSAT-3D fog images and visibility observations from the METAR reports of different stations in the plains of north India. The study shows that the visibility forecast obtained from NCUM can provide reasonably good indication of the spatial extent of fog in advance of one day. The fog intensity is also predicted fairly well. The study also verifies the simple diagnostic model for fog which is driven by NWP model forecast of surface relative humidity and wind speed. The performance of NWP model forecast of visibility is found comparable to that from simple fog model driven by NWP forecast of relative humidity and wind speed.

  19. Impact of chirano gold mines operations on levels of As, Pb, Hg and Cd in the suraw river and the possible health implications on downstream communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oppong, Kyekyeku

    2011-07-01

    Suraw River water quality awareness and preference survey conducted in five immediate downstream communities indicated that the residents were very much aware of the changes that have occurred since the commencement of active mining by CGML last quarter in 2004. Notwithstanding the residents overwhelming preference for the borehole water for their basic water needs including drinking, some people still rely on the River water when they go to their farms. Suraw River which principally drains the surface waters of Chirano Gold Mines operational area was investigated to assess the levels of As, Cd, Pb and Hg in the River water, bottom sediments and community borehole water using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer and Inductively Coupled Plasma - Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP – OES) for the water and sediments respectively. The results of the study generally showed low to below laboratory detection levels for the four heavy metals under investigation. The occurrence of Arsenic in more than half of the sampling sites in both the Suraw River and the community boreholes and particularly its detection at S1 in the surface water samples are most probably as a result of natural background levels. Except Cadmium which exceeded the Lowest Effect Level (LEL) in the sediment samples, the concentration of As, Pb and Hg were below the LEL of toxicity. The concentration of Cd also exceeded the Threshold Effect and the Probable Effect Levels but lower than the Severe Effect Level of sediment toxicity at five of the six sampling sites. The study has shown that the concentration of the four heavy metals investigated in both the Suraw River and the community borehole water were lower than expected compared with WHO/GWCL Drinking Water Standards and were within acceptable limits for potable water and therefore do not pose any immediate health risk to residents and settler farmers who still depend on the River water for their basic water needs. Apart from the concentration of Cd

  20. Beach-ridge architecture constrained by beach topography and Ground-Penetrating Radar, Itilleq (Lakse Bugt), Disko, Greenland – Implications for sea-level reconstructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerich Souza, Priscila; Kroon, Aart; Nielsen, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Detailed topographical data and high-resolution ground-penetrating radar (GPR) reflection data are presented from the present-day beach and across successive raised beach-ridges at Itilleq (Disko, West Greenland). In the western part of our study area, the present low-tide level is well-marked by......Detailed topographical data and high-resolution ground-penetrating radar (GPR) reflection data are presented from the present-day beach and across successive raised beach-ridges at Itilleq (Disko, West Greenland). In the western part of our study area, the present low-tide level is well...... beach-ridge GPR profiles. Most of them are located at the boundary between a unit with reflection characteristics representing palaeo foreshore deposits, and a deeper and more complex radar unit characterized by diffractions, which, however, is not penetrated to large depths by the GPR signals. Based...

  1. Implications of long-term surface or near-surface storage of intermediate and low-level wastes in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, N.; Vande Putte, D.; Ware, R.J.

    1986-02-01

    Various options for 200 year-long storage of all Low- and Intermediate-Level wastes generated to the year 2030 are considered. On-site storage and centralised storage have been examined and compared. The feasibility of storing some of the wastes in underground facilities that are convertible to repositories has been demonstrated, but it is shown that centralised, surface storage of wastes would be more economical. There appears to be little merit in storing Intermediate Level wastes in separate facilities that could be converted to repositories. Storage is shown to be more expensive than direct disposal, except if future costs are discounted by more than about 10%. With carefully designed stores and remote handling, the collective dose to operators could be limited to about 20-40 man Sv over the whole period of storage. (author)

  2. Before 1979: African American coachmen, visibility, and representation at Colonial Williamsburg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards-Ingram, Ywone

    2014-02-01

    Before the living history museum of Colonial Williamsburg started its concerted interpretation of slavery in 1979, the African American coachmen were already representing the past and implicating black history and slavery in this restored eighteenth-century capital of Virginia. Various records of photographs, postcards, letters, newspaper clippings, oral history accounts, visitor observations, and corporate papers provide awindow to understand the social climates of the museum's period in the 1930s to the 1970s. This body of evidence supports the contention that the coachmen were visible and influenced public history within and outside the museum.

  3. Lessons derived from two high-frequency sea level events in the Atlantic: implications for coastal risk analysis and tsunami detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Pérez-Gómez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The upgrade and enhancement of sea level networks worldwide for integration in sea level hazard warning systems have significantly increased the possibilities for measuring and analyzing high frequency sea level oscillations, with typical periods ranging from a few minutes to a few hours. Many tide gauges now afford 1 min or more frequent sampling and have shown such events to be a common occurrence. Their origins and spatial distribution are diverse and must be well understood in order to correctly design and interpret, for example, the automatic detection algorithms used by tsunami warning centers. Two events recorded recently in European Atlantic waters are analyzed here: possible wave-induced seiches that occurred along the North coast of Spain during the storms of January and February of 2014, and oscillations detected after an earthquake in the mid-Atlantic the 13th of February of 2015. The former caused significant flooding in towns and villages and a huge increase in wave-induced coastal damage that was reported in the media for weeks. The second was a smaller signal present in several tide gauges along the Atlantic coast that, that coincided with the occurrence of this earthquake, leading to a debate on the potential detection of a very small tsunami and how it might yield significant information for tsunami wave modelers and for the development of tsunami detection software. These kinds of events inform us about the limitations of automatic algorithms for tsunami warning and help to improve the information provided to tsunami warning centers, whilst also emphasizing the importance of other forcings in generating extreme sea levels and their associated potential for causing damage to infrastructure.

  4. Delayed recolonization of foraminifera in a suddenly flooded tidal (former freshwater) marsh in Oregon (USA): Implications for relative sea-level reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milker, Yvonne; Horton, Benjamin P.; Khan, Nicole S.; Nelson, Alan R.; Witter, Robert C.; Engelhart, Simon E.; Ewald, Michael; Brophy, Laura; Bridgeland, William T.

    2016-04-01

    Stratigraphic sequences beneath salt marshes along the U.S. Pacific Northwest coast preserve 7000 years of plate-boundary earthquakes at the Cascadia subduction zone. The sequences record rapid rises in relative sea level during regional coseismic subsidence caused by great earthquakes and gradual falls in relative sea level during interseismic uplift between earthquakes. These relative sea-level changes are commonly quantified using foraminiferal transfer functions with the assumption that foraminifera rapidly recolonize salt marshes and adjacent tidal flats following coseismic subsidence. The restoration of tidal inundation in the Ni-les'tun unit (NM unit) of the Bandon Marsh National Wildlife Refuge (Oregon), following extensive dike removal in August 2011, allowed us to directly observe changes in foraminiferal assemblages that occur during rapid "coseismic" (simulated by dike removal with sudden tidal flooding) and "interseismic" (stabilization of the marsh following flooding) relative sea-level changes analogous to those of past earthquake cycles. We analyzed surface sediment samples from 10 tidal stations at the restoration site (NM unit) from mudflat to high marsh, and 10 unflooded stations in the Bandon Marsh control site. Samples were collected shortly before and at 1- to 6-month intervals for 3 years after tidal restoration of the NM unit. Although tide gauge and grain-size data show rapid restoration of tides during approximately the first 3 months after dike removal, recolonization of the NM unit by foraminifera was delayed at least 10 months. Re-establishment of typical tidal foraminiferal assemblages, as observed at the control site, required 31 months after tidal restoration, with Miliammina fusca being the dominant pioneering species. If typical of past recolonizations, this delayed foraminiferal recolonization affects the accuracy of coseismic subsidence estimates during past earthquakes because significant postseismic uplift may shortly follow

  5. The changing concept of competence and categorisation of learning outcomes in Europe: Implications for the design of higher education radiography curricula at the European level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, Joseph; Caruana, Carmel J.; Wainwright, David

    2011-01-01

    The Bologna process has made the qualifications framework of the European Higher Educational Area based on three cycles and on learning outcomes central to curriculum development in higher education in Europe. The Tuning Educational Structures in Europe project recommended that learning outcomes be expressed in terms of competences. The expression of educational programme learning outcomes as inventories of competences has since become the norm at the European level. However, the more recent European Qualifications Framework for lifelong learning utilises a tripartite set of categories of learning outcomes, namely, knowledge, skills and competence. In addition, the definition of competence used though overlapping with that used by Tuning, is however not identical. This article reviews and discusses the changing definition of the concept of competence and changes in categorisation of learning outcomes in Europe and their potential impact on curriculum development in radiography at the European level. It is proposed that the shift in the definition of competence and in the categorisation of learning outcomes should be taken into account in the formulation of new European curricula or the updating of present ones so that they may reference in a more direct manner to the levels of the European Qualifications Framework.

  6. Substantially Modified Ratios of Effector to Regulatory T Cells During Chemotherapy in Ovarian Cancer Patients Return to Pre-Treatment Levels at Completion: Implications for Immunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Anthony; Govindaraj, Chindu; Xiang, Sue D.; Halo, Julene; Quinn, Michael; Scalzo-Inguanti, Karen; Plebanski, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynaecological malignancy. Despite improved detection and treatment options, relapse rates remain high. Combining immunotherapy with the current standard treatments may provide an improved prognosis, however, little is known about how standard chemotherapy affects immune potential (particularly T cells) over time, and hence, when to optimally combine it with immunotherapy (e.g., vaccines). Herein, we assess the frequency and ratio of CD8+ central memory and effector T cells as well as CD4+ effector and regulatory T cells (Tregs) during the first 18 weeks of standard chemotherapy for ovarian cancer patients. In this pilot study, we observed increased levels of recently activated Tregs with tumor migrating ability (CD4+CD25 hi Foxp3+CD127−CCR4+CD38+ cells) in patients when compared to controls. Although frequency changes of Tregs as well as the ratio of effector T cells to Tregs were observed during treatment, the Tregs consistently returned to pre-chemotherapy levels at the end of treatment. These results indicate T cell subset distributions associated with recurrence may be largely resistant to being “re-set” to healthy control homeostatic levels following standard treatments. However, it may be possible to enhance T effector to Treg ratios transiently during chemotherapy. These results suggest personalized immune monitoring maybe beneficial when combining novel immuno-therapeutics with standard treatment for ovarian cancer patients

  7. Electrical conductivity of In2O3 and Ga2O3 after low temperature ion irradiation; implications for instrinsic defect formation and charge neutrality level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vines, L; Bhoodoo, C; von Wenckstern, H; Grundmann, M

    2017-12-13

    The evolution of sheet resistance of n-type In 2 O 3 and Ga 2 O 3 exposed to bombardment with MeV 12 C and 28 Si ions at 35 K is studied in situ. While the sheet resistance of Ga 2 O 3 increased by more than eight orders of magnitude as a result of ion irradiation, In 2 O 3 showed a more complex defect evolution and became more conductive when irradiated at the highest doses. Heating up to room temperature reduced the sheet resistivity somewhat, but Ga 2 O 3 remained highly resistive, while In 2 O 3 showed a lower resistance than as deposited samples. Thermal admittance spectroscopy and deep level transient spectroscopy did not reveal new defect levels for irradiation up to [Formula: see text] cm -2 . A model where larger defect complexes preferentially produce donor like defects in In 2 O 3 is proposed, and may reveal a microscopic view of a charge neutrality level within the conduction band, as previously proposed.

  8. Electrical conductivity of In2O3 and Ga2O3 after low temperature ion irradiation; implications for instrinsic defect formation and charge neutrality level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vines, L.; Bhoodoo, C.; von Wenckstern, H.; Grundmann, M.

    2018-01-01

    The evolution of sheet resistance of n-type In2O3 and Ga2O3 exposed to bombardment with MeV 12C and 28Si ions at 35 K is studied in situ. While the sheet resistance of Ga2O3 increased by more than eight orders of magnitude as a result of ion irradiation, In2O3 showed a more complex defect evolution and became more conductive when irradiated at the highest doses. Heating up to room temperature reduced the sheet resistivity somewhat, but Ga2O3 remained highly resistive, while In2O3 showed a lower resistance than as deposited samples. Thermal admittance spectroscopy and deep level transient spectroscopy did not reveal new defect levels for irradiation up to 2 × 1012 cm-2. A model where larger defect complexes preferentially produce donor like defects in In2O3 is proposed, and may reveal a microscopic view of a charge neutrality level within the conduction band, as previously proposed.

  9. Substantially Modified Ratios of Effector to Regulatory T Cells During Chemotherapy in Ovarian Cancer Patients Return to Pre-Treatment Levels at Completion: Implications for Immunotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Anthony; Govindaraj, Chindu; Xiang, Sue D., E-mail: Sue.Xiang@monash.edu [Department of Immunology, Central Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3004 (Australia); Halo, Julene; Quinn, Michael [Department of Oncology, Royal Women’s Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Scalzo-Inguanti, Karen; Plebanski, Magdalena, E-mail: Sue.Xiang@monash.edu [Department of Immunology, Central Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3004 (Australia)

    2012-06-18

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynaecological malignancy. Despite improved detection and treatment options, relapse rates remain high. Combining immunotherapy with the current standard treatments may provide an improved prognosis, however, little is known about how standard chemotherapy affects immune potential (particularly T cells) over time, and hence, when to optimally combine it with immunotherapy (e.g., vaccines). Herein, we assess the frequency and ratio of CD8+ central memory and effector T cells as well as CD4+ effector and regulatory T cells (Tregs) during the first 18 weeks of standard chemotherapy for ovarian cancer patients. In this pilot study, we observed increased levels of recently activated Tregs with tumor migrating ability (CD4+CD25{sup hi}Foxp3+CD127−CCR4+CD38+ cells) in patients when compared to controls. Although frequency changes of Tregs as well as the ratio of effector T cells to Tregs were observed during treatment, the Tregs consistently returned to pre-chemotherapy levels at the end of treatment. These results indicate T cell subset distributions associated with recurrence may be largely resistant to being “re-set” to healthy control homeostatic levels following standard treatments. However, it may be possible to enhance T effector to Treg ratios transiently during chemotherapy. These results suggest personalized immune monitoring maybe beneficial when combining novel immuno-therapeutics with standard treatment for ovarian cancer patients.

  10. Using signage to promote stair use on a university campus in hidden and visible stairwells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimstvedt, Megan E; Kerr, Jacqueline; Oswalt, Sara B; Fogt, Donovan L; Vargas-Tonsing, Tiffanye M; Yin, Zenong

    2010-03-01

    This study tested the effectiveness of a stair use promotion strategy in visible and hidden stairwells during intervention and post intervention follow up. A quasi-experimental study design was used with a 1 week baseline, a 3 week intervention, and post intervention at 2 and 4 weeks in 4 university buildings in San Antonio, Texas with stairwells varying in visibility. Participants were students, faculty, staff, and visitors to the 4 buildings. A total of 8431 observations were made. The intervention incorporated motivational signs with direction to nearby stairwells placed by elevators to promote stair use. Stair and elevator use was directly observed and recorded. Logistic regression analyses were used to test whether stair versus elevator use varied by intervention phase and stairwell visibility. Stair use increased significantly (12% units) during the intervention period and remained above baseline levels during post intervention follow-up. At baseline, visible stairs were 4 times more likely to be used than hidden stairs; however, the increase in stair use during intervention was similar in both types of stairwells. Motivational and directional signage can significantly increase stair use on a university campus. Furthermore, stairwell visibility is an important aspect of stair use promotion.

  11. High-Performance Visible-Blind UV Phototransistors Based on n-Type Naphthalene Diimide Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Inho; Lee, Seung-Chul; Shang, Xiaobo; Ahn, Jaeyong; Jung, Hoon-Joo; Jeong, Chan-Uk; Kim, Sang-Wook; Yoon, Woojin; Yun, Hoseop; Kwon, O-Pil; Oh, Joon Hak

    2018-04-11

    This study investigates the performance of single-crystalline nanomaterials of wide-band gap naphthalene diimide (NDI) derivatives with methylene-bridged aromatic side chains. Such materials are found to be easily used as high-performance, visible-blind near-UV light detectors. NDI single-crystalline nanoribbons are assembled using a simple solution-based process (without solvent-inclusion problems), which is then applied to organic phototransistors (OPTs). Such OPTs exhibit excellent n-channel transistor characteristics, including an average electron mobility of 1.7 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , sensitive UV detection properties with a detection limit of ∼1 μW cm -2 , millisecond-level responses, and detectivity as high as 10 15 Jones, demonstrating the highly sensitive organic visible-blind UV detectors. The high performance of our OPTs originates from the large face-to-face π-π stacking area between the NDI semiconducting cores, which is facilitated by methylene-bridged aromatic side chains. Interestingly, NDI-based nanoribbon OPTs exhibit a distinct visible-blind near-UV detection with an identical detection limit, even under intense visible light illumination (for example, 10 4 times higher intensity than UV light intensity). Our findings demonstrate that wide-band gap NDI-based nanomaterials are highly promising for developing high-performance visible-blind UV photodetectors. Such photodetectors could potentially be used for various applications including environmental and health-monitoring systems.

  12. Research on the Collinear Equation Model of Visual Positioning Based on Visible Light Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yuqi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A positioning method based on visible light communication is proposed, which receiving visible light information by low-resolution photodiode array and receiving visual information by the front camera of mobile phone. The terminal position is determined by matching spot information provided by photodiode array with visual information and position information provided by visible light communication. A collinear equation model is derived which based on mobile phone front camera. A hardware-in-loop simulation has been conducted to verify the collinear equation. The three-dimensional positioning error is on the level of decimeter. Moreover, the main factors which affect the positioning accuracy are analyzed in order to further improve the positioning accuracy.

  13. Probabilistic Nowcasting of Low-Visibility Procedure States at Vienna International Airport During Cold Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneringer, Philipp; Dietz, Sebastian J.; Mayr, Georg J.; Zeileis, Achim

    2018-04-01

    Airport operations are sensitive to visibility conditions. Low-visibility events may lead to capacity reduction, delays and economic losses. Different levels of low-visibility procedures (lvp) are enacted to ensure aviation safety. A nowcast of the probabilities for each of the lvp categories helps decision makers to optimally schedule their operations. An ordered logistic regression (OLR) model is used to forecast these probabilities directly. It is applied to cold season forecasts at Vienna International Airport for lead times of 30-min out to 2 h. Model inputs are standard meteorological measurements. The skill of the forecasts is accessed by the ranked probability score. OLR outperforms persistence, which is a strong contender at the shortest lead times. The ranked probability score of the OLR is even better than the one of nowcasts from human forecasters. The OLR-based nowcasting system is computationally fast and can be updated instantaneously when new data become available.

  14. 'LDL-C' = LDL-C + Lp(a)-C: implications of achieved ultra-low LDL-C levels in the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 era of potent LDL-C lowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeang, Calvin; Witztum, Joseph L; Tsimikas, Sotirios

    2015-06-01

    The measurement that is termed 'LDL-cholesterol' (LDL-C) includes the cholesterol content of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)-C], which can contribute approximately 30-45% to measured LDL-C levels as a percentage of its mass. We review the implications of achieved very low LDL-C levels in patients treated with potent LDL-C-lowering agents in the context of varying Lp(a) levels. Combination therapy with statins, ezetimibe, and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors can lower LDL-C to unprecedentedly low levels. Recent PCSK9 trials have shown that routine achievement of mean LDL-C less than 50 mg/dl is feasible, along with the modest reductions in Lp(a). Many patients will achieve LDL-C less than 25 mg/dl with concomitantly elevated Lp(a) levels that contribute substantially to the measured 'LDL-C'. Therefore, it is possible that some of these patients may have little to no circulating LDL-C. As the new era of ultralow LDL-C levels ensues, it is imperative to understand the contribution of Lp(a)-C to measured LDL-C and the consequences of achieving ultralow or potentially absent LDL-C in the setting of elevated Lp(a) levels and possibly free apo(a). We review this concept and suggest avenues of research, including analyses of existing datasets in current clinical trials and new research studies, to understand its pathophysiological and clinical significance.

  15. Topological properties of the limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minggang; Vilela, André L. M.; Du, Ruijin; Zhao, Longfeng; Dong, Gaogao; Tian, Lixin; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2018-05-01

    The limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph algorithm was recently introduced to map time series in complex networks. In this work, we extend this algorithm to create a directed-limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph and an image-limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph. We define two algorithms and provide theoretical results on the topological properties of these graphs associated with different types of real-value series. We perform several numerical simulations to check the accuracy of our theoretical results. Finally, we present an application of the directed-limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph to measure real-value time series irreversibility and an application of the image-limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph that discriminates noise from chaos. We also propose a method to measure the systematic risk using the image-limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph, and the empirical results show the effectiveness of our proposed algorithms.

  16. Measurement of infrared optical constants with visible photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterova, Anna; Yang, Hongzhi; An, Chengwu; Kalashnikov, Dmitry; Krivitsky, Leonid

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate a new scheme for infrared spectroscopy with visible light sources and detectors. The technique relies on the nonlinear interference of correlated photons, produced via spontaneous parametric down conversion in a nonlinear crystal. Visible and infrared photons are split into two paths and the infrared photons interact with the sample under study. The photons are reflected back to the crystal, resembling a conventional Michelson interferometer. Interference of the visible photons is observed and it is dependent on the phases of all three interacting photons: pump, visible and infrared. The transmission coefficient and the refractive index of the sample in the infrared range can be inferred from the interference pattern of visible photons. The method does not require the use of potentially expensive and inefficient infrared detectors and sources, it can be applied to a broad variety of samples, and it does not require a priori knowledge of sample properties in the visible range.

  17. Refining and augmenting Central Mediterranean Tephrochronologies using visible and non-visible distal ash layers from the Upper Pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, A.; Trincardi, F.; Blockley, S. P. E.; Lowe, J. J.

    2009-04-01

    The development of long and well dated regional records of environmental change is essential if we are to understand the long term working of the environmental system. The application of volcanic ash layers as time-parallel markers is developing as a tool to link archaeological and geological sequences. This presentation will make a key contribution to the PROMESS 1 European Project - PROfiles across Mediterranean Sedimentary System (http://promess1.pangaea.de/ ). The project aims to understand the sediment systems of Continental Margins by investigating changes in sea level, oceanographic regime and sediment flux. The precise and robust chronological control that is required to address these issues is frequently unavailable using traditional chronological techniques. Tephrochronology offers the potential of isochronous marker horizons that can provide independent age estimates and be used to correlate terrestrial and marine sequences over several glacial-interglacial cycles. Here we will summarise new tephrochronological results for the PROMESS-1 marine core PRAD 1-2, obtained from a water depth of 184m in the central Adriatic. The recovered sediment sequence is 71m long, spans at least 3 glacial-interglacial cycles and analysis of foraminiferal assemblages suggests the sequence extends back to Marine Isotope Stage 10. Current Central Mediterranean tephrochronology schemes are largely or entirely based on analysis of visible tephra layers. Density separation extraction techniques have been developed (Turney 1998; Blockley et al, 2005) which demonstrate that many more non-visible tephra layers exist than have previously been recognised in Mediterranean sequences, greatly enhancing the potential of tephrochronology as an independent dating method. A detailed Adriatic tephrochronology for the last 100kyr will be presented which indicates a more complicated eruptive history than visible tephra layers have previously suggested. 24 discrete and undisturbed non-visible

  18. Sunda epicontinental shelf and Quaternary glacial-interglacial sea level variation and their implications to the regional and global environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soepri Hantoro, Wahyoe

    2018-02-01

    Sunda Epicontinental Shelf occupies a large area between Asia and Indonesian Maritime Continent. This shallow shelf developed soon as stability of this area since Pliocene was achieved. Sedimentation and erosion started, following sea level variation of Milankovitch cycle that changed this area to, partly to entirely become a low lying open land. These changes imply a difference height of about 135 m sea level. Consequence of this changes from shallow sea during interglacial to the exposed low land during glacial period is producing different land cover that might influence to the surrounding area. As the large land surface, this area should be covered by low land tropical forest, savanna to wet coastal plain. This large low-lying land belongs an important river drainage system of South East Asia in the north (Gulf of Thailand) and another system that curved from Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Bangka-Belitung and Kalimantan, named as Palaeo Sunda River. The total area of this land is about 1 million km2, this must bring consequences to the environmental condition. This change belongs to the global change on which the signal may be sent to a distance, then is preserved as geological formation. Being large and flat land, it has a long and winding river valley so this land influences the life of biota as fauna and flora but also human being that may live or just move on the passing through around East Asia. Global sea level changes through time which is then followed by the change of the area of land or water have indeed influenced the hydrology and carbon cycle balance. Through studying the stratigraphy and geology dynamic, based on seismic images and core samples from drilling work, one can be obtained, the better understanding the environmental change and its impact to the regional but could be global scale.

  19. High levels of inactive thymidine kinase 1 polypeptide detected in sera from dogs with solid tumours by immunoaffinity methods: implications for in vitro diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran Kumar, J; Sharif, H; Westberg, S; von Euler, H; Eriksson, S

    2013-09-01

    Determination of serum thymidine kinase 1 (STK1) activity has been used as a proliferation marker for neoplastic diseases in both human and veterinary medicine. The purpose of this study was to determine STK1 activity and enzyme levels in different dog tumours. Serum samples from three dogs with leukaemia, five with lymphoma, 21 with solid tumours and 18 healthy dogs were analyzed for STK1 activity, using an optimized [(3)H]-deoxythymidine (dThd) phosphorylation assay, and for STK1 protein levels using an immunoaffinity/western blot assay. STK1 activity in dogs with haematological tumours was significantly higher than in the solid tumour and healthy dog groups (mean ± standard deviation [SD] = 65 ± 79, 1.1 ± 0.5, and 1.0 ± 0.4 pmol/min/mL, respectively). Serum samples were analyzed after immunoaffinity isolation by western blot and the TK1 26 kDa band intensities quantified revealing that concentrations were significantly higher in dogs with haematological tumours and solid tumours compared to healthy dogs (mean ± SD=33 ± 12, 30 ± 13, and 10 ± 5 ng/mL, respectively). Pre-incubation with the reducing agent dithioerythritol (DTE) showed a decrease in STK1 activity and protein levels in most samples, but an increase of about 20% in sera from healthy dogs and from those with haematological malignancies. Compared to animals with solid tumours, the specific STK1 activity (nmol [(3)H]-deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP)/min/mg of TK1 protein of 26 kDa) was 30-fold higher in haematological malignancies and 2.5-fold higher in healthy dogs, respectively. The results demonstrate that there is a large fraction of inactive TK1 protein, particularly in sera from dogs with solid tumours. The findings are important in the use of STK1 as a biomarker. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is tolerant to higher levels of salinity than previous guidelines indicated: Implications of field and greenhouse studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Daniel H.; Benes, Sharon; Galdi, Giuliano; Hutmacher, Bob; Grattan, Steve

    2017-04-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the most widely grown leguminous forage crop in North America and is valued for high productivity, quality, economic value, and for dairy productivity. Alfalfa has historically been classified as moderately sensitive to saline conditions, with yield declines predicted at >2 dS/m in the saturated soil paste extract. However, greenhouse, sand tank, and field studies over the past five years have confirmed that alfalfa can be grown with limited negative effects at much higher salinity levels. A broad collection of alfalfa varieties has exhibited a range of resistance at irrigation water salinities >5 dS/m ECw in greenhouse trials, with significant variation due to variety. USDA-ARS sand tank studies indicated similar or greater tolerances closer to 8 dS/m in the soil water, in addition to confirmation of significant varietal differences. A three-year field study on clay loam soil with applications of 5-7 dS/m ECw irrigation water indicated normal yields and excellent stand survivability. A second field study in the same soil type with levels from 8-10 dS/m ECw showed yield reductions of 10-15% but economic yields were still achieved at those levels. Field and greenhouse studies were conducted with mixed salt saline sodic waters typical of the San Joaquin Valley of California. Field evaluation of variety performance was subject to greater variation due to secondary salinity-soil interactions including water infiltration and crusting problems, not only salinity per-se. Thus, adequate irrigation water availability to the crop may be as important as salinity in impacting yields under field conditions. Once established, the deep-rooted characteristics of alfalfa enable utilization of deeper subsurface moisture, even at moderate to high salinity levels, as documented by USDA lysimeter studies. Significant advantages to salinity-tolerant varieties have been observed. It will be important to consider specific management factors which may enable

  1. Visibility graph analysis on heartbeat dynamics of meditation training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Sen; Bian, Chunhua; Ning, Xinbao; Ma, Qianli D. Y.

    2013-06-01

    We apply the visibility graph analysis to human heartbeat dynamics by constructing the complex networks of heartbeat interval time series and investigating the statistical properties of the network before and during chi and yoga meditation. The experiment results show that visibility graph analysis can reveal the dynamical changes caused by meditation training manifested as regular heartbeat, which is closely related to the adjustment of autonomous neural system, and visibility graph analysis is effective to evaluate the effect of meditation.

  2. HTLV-1 tax specific CD8+ T cells express low levels of Tim-3 in HTLV-1 infection: implications for progression to neurological complications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lishomwa C Ndhlovu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The T cell immunoglobulin mucin 3 (Tim-3 receptor is highly expressed on HIV-1-specific T cells, rendering them partially "exhausted" and unable to contribute to the effective immune mediated control of viral replication. To elucidate novel mechanisms contributing to the HTLV-1 neurological complex and its classic neurological presentation called HAM/TSP (HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis, we investigated the expression of the Tim-3 receptor on CD8(+ T cells from a cohort of HTLV-1 seropositive asymptomatic and symptomatic patients. Patients diagnosed with HAM/TSP down-regulated Tim-3 expression on both CD8(+ and CD4(+ T cells compared to asymptomatic patients and HTLV-1 seronegative controls. HTLV-1 Tax-specific, HLA-A*02 restricted CD8(+ T cells among HAM/TSP individuals expressed markedly lower levels of Tim-3. We observed Tax expressing cells in both Tim-3(+ and Tim-3(- fractions. Taken together, these data indicate that there is a systematic downregulation of Tim-3 levels on T cells in HTLV-1 infection, sustaining a profoundly highly active population of potentially pathogenic T cells that may allow for the development of HTLV-1 complications.

  3. Water-Level Reconstruction and its Implications for Late Pleistocene Paleontological Site Formation in Hoyo Negro, a Submerged Subterranean Pit in Quintana Roo, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissolo, D.; Reinhardt, E. G.; Collins, S.; Kovacs, S. E.; Beddows, P. A.; Chatters, J. C.; Nava Blank, A.; Luna Erreguerena, P.

    2014-12-01

    A massive pit deep within the now submerged cave system of Sac Actun, located along the central east coast of the Yucatan Peninsula, contains a diverse fossil assemblage of extinct megafauna as well as a nearly complete human skeleton. The inundated site of Hoyo Negro presents a unique and promising opportunity for interdisciplinary Paleoamerican and paleoenvironmental research in the region. Investigations have thus far revealed a range of associated features and deposits which make possible a multi-proxy approach to identifying and reconstructing the natural and cultural processes that have formed and transformed the site over millennia. Understanding water-level fluctuations (both related to, and independent from, eustatic sea level changes), with respect to cave morphology is central to understanding the movement of humans and animals into and through the cave system. Recent and ongoing studies involve absolute dating of human, faunal, macrobotanical, and geological samples; taphonomic analyses; and a characterization of site hydrogeology and sedimentological facies, including microfossil assemblages and calcite raft deposits.

  4. Neuropeptide Kyotorphin (Tyrosyl-Arginine) has Decreased Levels in the Cerebro-Spinal Fluid of Alzheimer's Disease Patients: Potential Diagnostic and Pharmacological Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sara Matos; Garcia-Nimo, Laura; Sá Santos, Sónia; Tavares, Isaura; Cocho, José A; Castanho, Miguel A R B

    2013-01-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), besides the characteristic deterioration of memory, studies also point to a higher pain tolerance in spite of sensibility preservation. A change in the normal tau protein phosphorylation is also characteristic of AD, which contributes to the pathogenesis of the disease and is useful in early diagnosis. Kyotorphin (KTP) is an endogenous analgesic dipeptide (Tyr-Arg) for which there is evidence of eventual neuroprotective and neuromodulatory properties. The objective of this work was to study the possible correlation between KTP and phosphorylated tau protein (p-tau) levels in cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) samples of AD patients. CSF samples were collected from 25 AD patients and 13 age-matched controls (N), where p-tau and KTP levels were measured. We found a statistically significant difference between p-tau/KTP values in AD and N groups with an inverse correlation between p-tau and KTP values in AD samples. These results suggest that in the future KTP may be a candidate biomarker for neurodegeneration and may be a lead compound to be used pharmacologically for neuroprotection.

  5. Impact of the 2008 Global Recession on Air Quality over the United States: Implications for Surface Ozone Levels from Changes in NOx Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Daniel; Pan, Li; Chen, Weiwei; Lamsal, Lok; Lee, Pius; Tang, Youhua; Kim, Hyuncheol; Kondragunta, Shobha; Stajner, Ivanka

    2016-01-01

    Satellite and ground observations detected large variability in nitrogen oxides (NOx) during the 2008 economic recession, but the impact of the recession on air quality has not been quantified. This study combines observed NOx trends and a regional chemical transport model to quantify the impact of the recession on surface ozone (O3) levels over the continental United States. The impact is quantified by simulating O3 concentrations under two emission scenarios: business-as-usual (BAU) and recession. In the BAU case, the emission projection from the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule is used to estimate the would-be NOx emission level in 2011. In the recession case, the actual NO2 trends observed from Air Quality System ground monitors and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument on the Aura satellite are used to obtain realistic changes in NOx emissions. The model prediction with the recession effect agrees better with ground O3 observations over time and space than the prediction with the BAU emission. The results show that the recession caused a 12ppbv decrease in surface O3 concentration over the eastern United States, a slight increase (0.51ppbv) over the Rocky Mountain region, and mixed changes in the Pacific West. The gain in air quality benefits during the recession, however, could be quickly offset by the much slower emission reduction rate during the post-recession period.

  6. Clinical implications of thymidylate synthetase, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase and orotate phosphoribosyl transferase activity levels in colorectal carcinoma following radical resection and administration of adjuvant 5-FU chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Masashi; Miyauchi, Takayuki; Kashiwagi, Yutaka

    2008-01-01

    A number of studies have investigated whether the activity levels of enzymes involved in 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) metabolism are prognostic factors for survival in patients with colorectal carcinoma. Most reports have examined thymidylate synthetase (TS) and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) in unresectable or metastatic cases, therefore it is unclear whether the activity of these enzymes is of prognostic value in colorectal cancer patients treated with radical resection and adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-FU. This study examined fresh frozen specimens of colorectal carcinoma from 40 patients who had undergone curative operation and were orally administered adjuvant tegafur/uracil (UFT) chemotherapy. TS, DPD and orotate phosphoribosyl transferase (OPRT) activities were assayed in cancer tissue and adjacent normal tissue and their association with clinicopathological variables was investigated. In addition, the relationships between TS, DPD and OPRT activities and patient survival were examined to determine whether any of these enzymes could be useful prognostic factors. While there was no clear relationship between pathological findings and TS or DPD activity, OPRT activity was significantly lower in tumors with lymph node metastasis than in tumors lacking lymph node metastasis. Postoperative survival was significantly better in the groups with low TS activity and/or high OPRT activity. TS and OPRT activity levels in tumor tissue may be important prognostic factors for survival in Dukes' B and C colorectal carcinoma with radical resection and adjuvant chemotherapy with UFT

  7. [Time profile of serum THC levels in occasional and chronic marihuana smokers after acute drog use - implication for drivind motor vehicles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balíková, Marie; Hložek, Tomáš; Páleníček, Tomáš; Tylš, Filip; Viktorinová, Michaela; Melicher, Tomáš; Androvičová, Renáta; Tomíček, Pavel; Roman, Michal; Horáček, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Cannabis consumption has individual influence to cognitive and psychomotor functions of drivers and it has been generally accepted that driving under influence is risky in the perspective of traffic safety. However, rules how to assess fitness to drive are not quite clear. The psychoactive compound delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) impairs cognition, psychomotor behaviour and driving performance in a dose-related manner approximately. After a single drug dose, THC blood concentration peaks within minutes, before the end of smoking, with a subsequent rapid decrease to the analytical limit of detection. Peak euphoria is delayed compared to THC peak blood concentration and physiological and behavioural effects return to baseline within 3-5 hours. In chronic users, the lipophilic THC accumulates in fat tissues, where its slow redistribution into blood is the rate limiting process in its terminal elimination. In our experimental study we have attempted to contribute to this discussion with results obtained from human volunteers - cannabis consumers in Czech Republic. Aim of our study was to document the time profile of serum THC level in occasional and chronic cannabis users. The observational interval covered the time immediately after the drug consumption (an own cigarette/joint) till 24 hours after. Our preliminary results have shown that in occasional users, THC serum levels cannot be detected already 4 hours after usual cannabis dose, whereas in chronic users measurable THC concentrations in serum persist longer. Moreover, some chronic consumers were practically with permanent THC detection during our observation period and also the chronic users consumed higher THC doses significantly related to doses in occasional ones. Presented results of the experimental study with human volunteers confirm a great individual variability of the kinetic profile of THC in blood due to complicated redistribution. The practical forensic question is how long the psychotropic

  8. Life-time risk of mortality due to different levels of alcohol consumption in seven European countries: implications for low-risk drinking guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shield, Kevin D; Gmel, Gerrit; Gmel, Gerhard; Mäkelä, Pia; Probst, Charlotte; Room, Robin; Rehm, Jürgen

    2017-09-01

    Low-risk alcohol drinking guidelines require a scientific basis that extends beyond individual or group judgements of risk. Life-time mortality risks, judged against established thresholds for acceptable risk, may provide such a basis for guidelines. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate alcohol mortality risks for seven European countries based on different average daily alcohol consumption amounts. The maximum acceptable voluntary premature mortality risk was determined to be one in 1000, with sensitivity analyses of one in 100. Life-time mortality risks for different alcohol consumption levels were estimated by combining disease-specific relative risk and mortality data for seven European countries with different drinking patterns (Estonia, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy and Poland). Alcohol consumption data were obtained from the Global Information System on Alcohol and Health, relative risk data from meta-analyses and mortality information from the World Health Organization. The variation in the life-time mortality risk at drinking levels relevant for setting guidelines was less than that observed at high drinking levels. In Europe, the percentage of adults consuming above a risk threshold of one in 1000 ranged from 20.6 to 32.9% for women and from 35.4 to 54.0% for men. Life-time risk of premature mortality under current guideline maximums ranged from 2.5 to 44.8 deaths per 1000 women in Finland and Estonia, respectively, and from 2.9 to 35.8 deaths per 1000 men in Finland and Estonia, respectively. If based upon an acceptable risk of one in 1000, guideline maximums for Europe should be 8-10 g/day for women and 15-20 g/day for men. If low-risk alcohol guidelines were based on an acceptable risk of one in 1000 premature deaths, then maximums for Europe should be 8-10 g/day for women and 15-20 g/day for men, and some of the current European guidelines would require downward revision. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. Acrolein produces nitric oxide through the elevation of intracellular calcium levels to induce apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells: implications for smoke angiopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misonou, Yoshiko; Asahi, Michio; Yokoe, Shunichi; Miyoshi, Eiji; Taniguchi, Naoyuki

    2006-03-01

    Acrolein is a highly electrophilic alpha, beta-unsaturated aldehyde, the levels of which are increased in the blood of smokers. To determine if acrolein is involved in the pathology of smoke angiopathy, the effect of acrolein on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) was examined. Intracellular nitric oxide (NO) levels, determined using diaminofluorescein-2 diacetate (DAF-2 DA), an NO sensitive fluorescent dye, were found to be increased after treatment in HUVEC with 10 microM acrolein. The measurement of nitrite with 2,3-diaminonaphthalene and a Western blot analysis revealed that nitrite and S-nitroso-cysteine levels were increased in a dose-dependent manner, confirming that NO production is increased by acrolein. The increase was not reduced by treatment with 10mM N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), an anti-oxidant, but was reduced with 10 microM of the intracellular calcium chelator, 1,2-bis (o-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetra (acetoxymethyl) ester. Acrolein-stimulated NO production was significantly reduced by pretreatment with 1mM N(G)-nitro-l-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME), an NO synthase inhibitor. The cytotoxicity of acrolein was reduced by pretreatment with 10 microM 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl 3-oxide (carboxy-PTIO), an intracellular NO scavenger, or 1mM L-NAME, whereas it was not reduced by 10mM NAC, 20 microM Curcumin, another peroxide scavenger, or 100 microM Mn(III)TMPyP, a superoxide dismutase mimic. Nuclear staining and a Western blot analysis using an anti-cleaved caspase 3 antibody revealed that the reduced viability of HUVEC by acrolein was due to apoptosis, which was reversed after pretreatment with 0.1mM carboxy-PTIO or 1mM L-NAME. Thus, acrolein increases intracellular calcium production to induce intracellular NO production by a calcium-dependent NO synthase, possibly eNOS, and the excess and rapid increase in NO might lead to the apoptosis of HUVEC. These data suggest that acrolein might be

  10. Sn-doped polyhedral In2O3 particles: Synthesis, characterization, and origins of luminous emission in wide visible range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yunqing; Chen Yiqing

    2012-01-01

    Sn-doped octahedronal and tetrakaidecahedronal In 2 O 3 particles were successfully synthesized by simple thermal evaporation of indium grains using SnO as dopant. Structural characterization results demonstrated that the Sn-doped tetrakaidecahedronal In 2 O 3 particle had additional six {001} crystal surfaces compared with the octahedronal one. The luminous properties of both samples were characterized by photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy. A broad visible luminous emission around 570 nm was observed. Studies revealed that the emission consisted of three peaks of 511 nm, 564 nm, and 622 nm, which were attributed to radioactive recombination centers such as single ionized oxygen vacancy, indium interstitial, and antisite oxygen, respectively. We believe that the Sn donor level plays an important role in the visible luminous emission. - Graphical abstract: With more oxygen vacancies and tin doping. ITO particles can exhibit a better CL performance. Sn donor level near the conduction band edge plays an important role in luminous emission in wide visible range. Highlights: ► Polyhedral ITO particles synthesized by thermal evaporation using SnO as dopant. ► Broad visible luminous emission around 570 nm. ► Sn donor level plays an important role in the visible emission. ► ITO particles with more oxygen vacancies have better CL performance in visible range.

  11. Implications of theories of asteroid and comet impact for policy options for management of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trask, Newell J.

    1994-01-01

    Concern with the threat posed by terrestrial asteroid and comet impacts has heightened as the catastrophic consequences of such events have become better appreciated. Although the probabilities of such impacts are very small, a reasonable question for debate is whether such phenomena should be taken into account in deciding policy for the management of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The rate at which asteroid or comet impacts would affect areas of surface storage of radioactive waste is about the same as the estimated rate at which volcanic activity would affect the Yucca Mountain area. The Underground Retrievable Storage (URS) concept could satisfactorily reduce the risk from cosmic impact with its associated uncertainties in addition to providing other benefits described by previous authors.

  12. Importance of contouring the cervical spine levels in initial intensity-modulated radiation therapy radiation for head and neck cancers: Implications for re-irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parashar Bhupesh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the maximum differential cervical spinal (C-spine cord dose in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT plans of patients undergoing radiotherapy for treatment of head and neck cancer. Materials and Methods: The C-spine of ten head and neck cancer patients that were planned using IMRT and each cervical vertebral body and the right and left sides was contoured by splitting the cord in the center. Dose-volume histograms (DVH and maximum point doses were obtained for each contour and compared. Results: The dose to the cord varied with the location of the primary tumor but such variation was not consistently seen. This report provides information that is critical for planning reirradiation treatments. We recommend that contouring of the C-spine cord with IMRT should include outlining of each cervical cord level and identification of the right and the left sides of the cord on each plan.

  13. Implications of theories of asteroid and comet impact for policy options for management of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trask, N.J.

    1994-01-01

    Concern with the threat posed by terrestrial asteroid and comet impacts has heightened as the catastrophic consequences of such events have become better appreciated. Although the probabilities of such impacts are very small, a reasonable question for debate is whether such phenomena should be taken into account in deciding policy for the management of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The rate at which asteroid or comet impacts would affect areas of surface storage of radioactive waste is about the same as the estimated rate at which volcanic activity would affect the Yucca Mountain area. The Underground Retrievable Storage (URS) concept could satisfactorily reduce the risk from cosmic impact with its associated uncertainties in addition to providing other benefits described by previous authors

  14. Single-grain 40Ar-39Ar ages of glauconies: implications for the geologic time scale and global sea level variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith; Evensen; York; Odin

    1998-03-06

    The mineral series glaucony supplies 40% of the absolute-age database for the geologic time scale of the last 250 million years. However, glauconies have long been suspected of giving young potassium-argon ages on bulk samples. Laser-probe argon-argon dating shows that glaucony populations comprise grains with a wide range of ages, suggesting a period of genesis several times longer ( approximately 5 million years) than previously thought. An estimate of the age of their enclosing sediments (and therefore of time scale boundaries) is given by the oldest nonrelict grains in the glaucony populations, whereas the formation times of the younger grains appear to be modulated by global sea level.

  15. Numerical sensitivity study of the nocturnal low-level jet over a forest canopy and implications for nocturnal surface exchange of carbon dioxide and other trace gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sogachev, Andrey; Leclerc, M.Y.; Duarte, H.F.

    2010-01-01

    The development of a wind speed maximum in the nocturnal boundary layer, commonly referred to as a low-level jet (LLJ) (Blackadar, 1957), is a common feature of the vertical structure of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) and impacts the meteorology and the local climate of a region. A variety...... and are typically intertwined with other contributing factors, they constitute an important cause of jet formation. This mechanism is the only one that can be simulated by one-dimensional atmospheric boundary-layer model. This mechanism is a strong function of the distribution of surface energy properties which...... in turn depends on the time of day, latitude of location, and underlying surface characteristics. These parameters influence the jet height, maximum speed of the jet, and the duration of the wind speed maximum. The present study uses the numerical model SCADIS described by Sogachev et al. (2002) in its...

  16. Non-state security governances and the implications for local-level citizenship in Danish semi-public city spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Søgaard

    directed at promoting peace and restoring the feel good factor - in public city space in Denmark. What precisely "security" is, what it should mean, and what should be done to guarantee it, has always been contested on an empirically level. The reason for this is that security often deals with social order......, being both the ontological condition of order, in the sense of absence of "real" and culturally constructed dangers, risks, and anxieties, and the political means to ensure this order. Based on a 5 month ethnographic field work among private security guards policing new kinds of public city spaces...... the globalisation and privatisation/commercialisation of security provision and how this development can be explained. Drawing on my own empirical data I hereafter argue that commercial security governance and local understandings of threats to (feelings of) security are not so much shaped by imaginaries...

  17. Fasciola hepatica demonstrates high levels of genetic diversity, a lack of population structure and high gene flow: possible implications for drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesley, Nicola J; Williams, Diana J L; Paterson, Steve; Hodgkinson, Jane

    2017-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica, the liver fluke, is a trematode parasite of considerable economic importance to the livestock industry and is a re-emerging zoonosis that poses a risk to human health in F. hepatica-endemic areas worldwide. Drug resistance is a substantial threat to the current and future control of F. hepatica, yet little is known about how the biology of the parasite influences the development and spread of resistance. Given that F. hepatica can self-fertilise and therefore inbreed, there is the potential for greater population differentiation and an increased likelihood of recessive alleles, such as drug resistance genes, coming together. This could be compounded by clonal expansion within the snail intermediate host and aggregation of parasites of the same genotype on pasture. Alternatively, widespread movement of animals that typically occurs in the UK could promote high levels of gene flow and prevent population differentiation. We identified clonal parasites with identical multilocus genotypes in 61% of hosts. Despite this, 84% of 1579 adult parasites had unique multilocus genotypes, which supports high levels of genotypic diversity within F. hepatica populations. Our analyses indicate a selfing rate no greater than 2%, suggesting that this diversity is in part due to the propensity for F. hepatica to cross-fertilise. Finally, although we identified high genetic diversity within a given host, there was little evidence for differentiation between populations from different hosts, indicating a single panmictic population. This implies that, once those emerge, anthelmintic resistance genes have the potential to spread rapidly through liver fluke populations. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Exposure to a multi-level multi-component childhood obesity prevention community-randomized controlled trial: patterns, determinants, and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trude, Angela Cristina Bizzotto; Kharmats, Anna Yevgenyevna; Jones-Smith, Jessica C; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2018-05-22

    For community interventions to be effective in real-world conditions, participants need to have sufficient exposure to the intervention. It is unclear how the dose and intensity of the intervention differ among study participants in low-income areas. We aimed to understand patterns of exposure to different components of a multi-level multi-component obesity prevention program to inform our future impact analyses. B'more Healthy Communities for Kids (BHCK) was a community-randomized controlled trial implemented in 28 low-income zones in Baltimore in two rounds (waves). Exposure to three different intervention components (corner store/carryout restaurants, social media/text messaging, and youth-led nutrition education) was assessed via post-intervention interviews with 385 low-income urban youths and their caregivers. Exposure scores were generated based on self-reported viewing of BHCK materials (posters, handouts, educational displays, and social media posts) and participating in activities, including taste tests during the intervention. For each intervention component, points were assigned for exposure to study materials and activities, then scaled (0-1 range), yielding an overall BHCK exposure score [youths: mean 1.1 (range 0-7.6 points); caregivers: 1.1 (0-6.7), possible highest score: 13]. Ordered logit regression analyses were used to investigate correlates of youths' and caregivers' exposure level (quartile of exposure). Mean intervention exposure scores were significantly higher for intervention than comparison youths (mean 1.6 vs 0.5, p selection bias may exist affecting causal inference. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02181010 . Retrospectively registered on 2 July 2014.

  19. Petrography and stable isotope geochemistry of Oligocene-Miocene continental carbonates in south Texas: Implications for paleoclimate and paleoenvironment near sea-level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Conan; Fan, Majie; Jesmok, Greg; Upadhyay, Deepshikha; Tripati, Aradhna

    2018-05-01

    Cenozoic sedimentary rocks in the southern Texas Gulf Coastal Plains contain abundant continental carbonates that are useful for reconstructing terrestrial paleoclimate and paleoenvironment in a region near sea-level. Our field observations and thin section characterizations of the Oligocene and Miocene continental carbonates in south Texas identified three types of pedogenic carbonates, including rhizoliths, carbonate nodules, and platy horizons, and two types of groundwater carbonates, including carbonate-cemented beds and carbonate concretions, with distinctive macromorphologic and micromorphologic features. Based on preservations of authigenic microfabrics and variations of carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions, we suggest these carbonates experienced minimal diagenesis, and their stable isotopic compositions reflect paleoclimate and paleoenvironment in south Texas. Our Oligocene and Miocene carbonate clumped isotope temperatures (T(Δ47)) are 23-28 °C, slightly less than or comparable to the range of modern mean annual and mean warm season air temperature (21-27 °C) in the study area. These T(Δ47) values do not show any dependency on carbonate-type, or trends through time suggesting that groundwater carbonates were formed at shallow depths. These data could indicate that air temperature in south Texas was relatively stable since the early Oligocene. The reconstructed paleo-surface water δ18O values are similar to modern surface water which could indicate that meteoric water δ18O values also remained stable since the early Oligocene. Mean pedogenic carbonate δ13C values increased - 4.6‰ during the late Miocene, most likely reflecting an expansion of C4 grassland in south Texas. This study provides the first mid- and late Cenozoic continental records of paleoclimate and paleoecology in a low-latitude, near sea-level region.

  20. Modeled Sea Level Rise Impacts on Coastal Ecosystems at Six Major Estuaries on Florida’s Gulf Coast: Implications for Adaptation Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Anne P.; Brenner, Jorge; Gordon, Doria R.

    2015-01-01

    The Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM) was applied at six major estuaries along Florida’s Gulf Coast (Pensacola Bay, St. Andrews/Choctawhatchee Bays, Apalachicola Bay, Southern Big Bend, Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor) to provide quantitative and spatial information on how coastal ecosystems may change with sea level rise (SLR) and to identify how this information can be used to inform adaption planning. High resolution LiDAR-derived elevation data was utilized under three SLR scenarios: 0.7 m, 1 m and 2 m through the year 2100 and uncertainty analyses were conducted on selected input parameters at three sites. Results indicate that the extent, spatial orientation and relative composition of coastal ecosystems at the study areas may substantially change with SLR. Under the 1 m SLR scenario, total predicted impacts for all study areas indicate that coastal forest (-69,308 ha; -18%), undeveloped dry land (-28,444 ha; -2%) and tidal flat (-25,556 ha; -47%) will likely face the greatest loss in cover by the year 2100. The largest potential gains in cover were predicted for saltmarsh (+32,922 ha; +88%), transitional saltmarsh (+23,645 ha; na) and mangrove forest (+12,583 ha; +40%). The Charlotte Harbor and Tampa Bay study areas were predicted to experience the greatest net loss in coastal wetlands The uncertainty analyses revealed low to moderate changes in results when some numerical SLAMM input parameters were varied highlighting the value of collecting long-term sedimentation, accretion and erosion data to improve SLAMM precision. The changes predicted by SLAMM will affect exposure of adjacent human communities to coastal hazards and ecosystem functions potentially resulting in impacts to property values, infrastructure investment and insurance rates. The results and process presented here can be used as a guide for communities vulnerable to SLR to identify and prioritize adaptation strategies that slow and/or accommodate the changes underway. PMID:26207914

  1. Mitochondrial DNA Variants Mediate Energy Production and Expression Levels for CFH, C3 and EFEMP1 Genes: Implications for Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, M. Cristina; Chwa, Marilyn; Atilano, Shari R.; Pavlis, Janelle M.; Falatoonzadeh, Payam; Ramirez, Claudio; Malik, Deepika; Hsu, Tiffany; Woo, Grace; Soe, Kyaw; Nesburn, Anthony B.; Boyer, David S.; Kuppermann, Baruch D.; Jazwinski, S. Michal; Miceli, Michael V.; Wallace, Douglas C.; Udar, Nitin

    2013-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with the development and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Recent studies using populations from the United States and Australia have demonstrated that AMD is associated with mitochondrial (mt) DNA haplogroups (as defined by combinations of mtDNA polymorphisms) that represent Northern European Caucasians. The aim of this study was to use the cytoplasmic hybrid (cybrid) model to investigate the molecular and biological functional consequences that occur when comparing the mtDNA H haplogroup (protective for AMD) versus J haplogroup (high risk for AMD). Methodology/Principal Findings Cybrids were created by introducing mitochondria from individuals with either H or J haplogroups into a human retinal epithelial cell line (ARPE-19) that was devoid of mitochondrial DNA (Rho0). In cybrid lines, all of the cells carry the same nuclear genes but vary in mtDNA content. The J cybrids had significantly lower levels of ATP and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species production, but increased lactate levels and rates of growth. Q-PCR analyses showed J cybrids had decreased expressions for CFH, C3, and EFEMP1 genes, high risk genes for AMD, and higher expression for MYO7A, a gene associated with retinal degeneration in Usher type IB syndrome. The H and J cybrids also have comparatively altered expression of nuclear genes involved in pathways for cell signaling, inflammation, and metabolism. Conclusion/Significance Our findings demonstrate that mtDNA haplogroup variants mediate not only energy production and cell growth, but also cell signaling for major molecular pathways. These data support the hypothesis that mtDNA variants play important roles in numerous cellular functions and disease processes, including AMD. PMID:23365660

  2. Mitochondrial DNA variants mediate energy production and expression levels for CFH, C3 and EFEMP1 genes: implications for age-related macular degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Cristina Kenney

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with the development and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Recent studies using populations from the United States and Australia have demonstrated that AMD is associated with mitochondrial (mt DNA haplogroups (as defined by combinations of mtDNA polymorphisms that represent Northern European Caucasians. The aim of this study was to use the cytoplasmic hybrid (cybrid model to investigate the molecular and biological functional consequences that occur when comparing the mtDNA H haplogroup (protective for AMD versus J haplogroup (high risk for AMD.Cybrids were created by introducing mitochondria from individuals with either H or J haplogroups into a human retinal epithelial cell line (ARPE-19 that was devoid of mitochondrial DNA (Rho0. In cybrid lines, all of the cells carry the same nuclear genes but vary in mtDNA content. The J cybrids had significantly lower levels of ATP and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species production, but increased lactate levels and rates of growth. Q-PCR analyses showed J cybrids had decreased expressions for CFH, C3, and EFEMP1 genes, high risk genes for AMD, and higher expression for MYO7A, a gene associated with retinal degeneration in Usher type IB syndrome. The H and J cybrids also have comparatively altered expression of nuclear genes involved in pathways for cell signaling, inflammation, and metabolism.Our findings demonstrate that mtDNA haplogroup variants mediate not only energy production and cell growth, but also cell signaling for major molecular pathways. These data support the hypothesis that mtDNA variants play important roles in numerous cellular functions and disease processes, including AMD.

  3. Toward Rational Design of Cu/SSZ-13 Selective Catalytic Reduction Catalysts: Implications from Atomic-Level Understanding of Hydrothermal Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, James [Institute; The; amp, Linda Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Washington State University, P.O. Box 646515, Pullman, Washington 99164, United States; Wang, Yilin [Institute; Walter, Eric D. [Environmental; Washton, Nancy M. [Environmental; Mei, Donghai [Institute; Kovarik, Libor [Environmental; Engelhard, Mark H. [Environmental; Prodinger, Sebastian [Institute; Wang, Yong [Institute; The; amp, Linda Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Washington State University, P.O. Box 646515, Pullman, Washington 99164, United States; Peden, Charles H. F. [Institute; Gao, Feng [Institute

    2017-11-03

    The hydrothermal stability of Cu/SSZ-13 SCR catalysts has been extensively studied, yet atomic level understanding of changes to the zeolite support and the Cu active sites during hydrothermal aging are still lacking. In this work, via the utilization of spectroscopic methods including solid-state 27Al and 29Si NMR, EPR, DRIFTS, and XPS, together with imaging and elemental mapping using STEM, detailed kinetic analyses, and theoretical calculations with DFT, various Cu species, including two types of isolated active sites and CuOx clusters, were precisely quantified for samples hydrothermally aged under varying conditions. This quantification convincingly confirms the exceptional hydrothermal stability of isolated Cu2+-2Z sites, and the gradual conversion of [Cu(OH)]+-Z to CuOx clusters with increasing aging severity. This stability difference is rationalized from the hydrolysis activation barrier difference between the two isolated sites via DFT. Discussions are provided on the nature of the CuOx clusters, and their possible detrimental roles on catalyst stability. Finally, a few rational design principles for Cu/SSZ-13 are derived rigorously from the atomic-level understanding of this catalyst obtained here. The authors gratefully acknowledge the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office for the support of this work. Computing time was granted by a user proposal at the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) and by the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC). The experimental studies described in this paper were performed in the EMSL, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated for the US DOE by Battelle.

  4. Dental magnetic resonance imaging: making the invisible visible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idiyatullin, Djaudat; Corum, Curt; Moeller, Steen; Prasad, Hari S; Garwood, Michael; Nixdorf, Donald R

    2011-06-01

    Clinical dentistry is in need of noninvasive and accurate diagnostic methods to better evaluate dental pathosis. The purpose of this work was to assess the feasibility of a recently developed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique, called SWeep Imaging with Fourier Transform (SWIFT), to visualize dental tissues. Three in vitro teeth, representing a limited range of clinical conditions of interest, imaged using a 9.4T system with scanning times ranging from 100 seconds to 25 minutes. In vivo imaging of a subject was performed using a 4T system with a 10-minute scanning time. SWIFT images were compared with traditional two-dimensional radiographs, three-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scanning, gradient-echo MRI technique, and histological sections. A resolution of 100 μm was obtained from in vitro teeth. SWIFT also identified the presence and extent of dental caries and fine structures of the teeth, including cracks and accessory canals, which are not visible with existing clinical radiography techniques. Intraoral positioning of the radiofrequency coil produced initial images of multiple adjacent teeth at a resolution of 400 μm. SWIFT MRI offers simultaneous three-dimensional hard- and soft-tissue imaging of teeth without the use of ionizing radiation. Furthermore, it has the potential to image minute dental structures within clinically relevant scanning times. This technology has implications for endodontists because it offers a potential method to longitudinally evaluate teeth where pulp and root structures have been regenerated. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A proposed visible FEL Facility at Boeing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowell, D.H.; Adamski, J.L.; Hayward, T.D. [Boeing Defense & Space Group, Seattle, WA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    A 1-kW average power, visible wavelength FEL is described, based on a 120-MeV, 0.1. A macropulse average current linac operating at a duty factor of 0. 6% and having average beam power of 70 kW. The accelerator will employ a demonstrated photoinjector, 18-MeV, 433-MHz linac as an injector, followed by a 1300-MHz longitudinal phase space {open_quotes} linearizer,{close_quotes} a magnetic buncher chicane, and seven 1300-MHz, pulsed traveling wave linac sections. The magnets used to transport the beam from the linac to the FEL centerline, the 5-m THUNDER wiggler, and the optical resonator will be reclaimed from previous FEL demonstration experiments. We expect to attain pulse lengths of 7 ps for 3.5 nC, with minimal distortion of the pulse profile and normalized rms emittance of 7.5 {+-} 2.5 {pi} mm-mr. FELEX projects a laser conversion efficiency of 4.3 %, yielding average output of 3 kW.

  6. Ultraviolet and Visible Emission Mechanisms in Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancil, Phillip C.; Schultz, David R.

    2003-01-01

    The project involved the study of ultraviolet (UV) and visible emission mechanisms in astrophysical and atmospheric environments. In many situations, the emission is a direct consequence of a charge transferring collision of an ion with a neutral with capture of an electron to an excited state of the product ion. The process is also important in establishing the ionization and thermal balance of an astrophysical plasma. As little of the necessary collision data are available, the main thrust of the project was the calculation of total and state-selective charge transfer cross sections and rate coefficients for a very large number of collision systems. The data was computed using modern explicit techniques including the molecular-orbital close-coupling (MOCC), classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC), and continuum distorted wave (CDW) methods. Estimates were also made in some instances using the multichannel Landau-Zener (MCLZ) and classical over-the-barrier (COB) models. Much of the data which has been computed has been formatted for inclusion in a charge transfer database on the World Wide Web (cfadc.phy.ornl.gov/astro/ps/data/). A considerable amount of data has been generated during the lifetime of the grant. Some of it has not been analyzed, but it will be as soon as possible, the data placed on our website, and papers ultimately written.

  7. Metasurface axicon lens design at visible wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyammahi, Saleimah; Zhan, Qiwen

    2017-08-01

    The emerging field of metasurfaces is promising to realize novel optical devices with miniaturized flat format and added functionalities. Metasurfaces have been demonstrated to exhibit full control of amplitude, phase and polarization of electromagnetic waves. Using the metasurface, the wavefront of light can be manipulated permitting new functionalities such as focusing and steering of the beams and imaging. One optical component which can be designed using metasurfaces is the axicon. Axicons are conical lenses used to convert Gaussian beams into nondiffraction Bessel beams. These unique devices are utilized in different applications ranging from optical trapping and manipulation, medical imaging, and surgery. In this work, we study axicon lens design comprising of planar metasurfaces which generate non-diffracting Bessel beams at visible wavelengths. Dielectric metasurfaces have been used to achieve high efficiency and low optical loss. We measured the spot size of the resulted beams at different planes to demonstrate the non-diffraction properties of the resulted beams. We also investigated how the spot size is influenced by the axicon aperture. Furthermore, we examined the achromatic properties of the designed axicon. Comparing with the conventional lens, the metasurface axicon lens design enables the creation of flat optical device with wide range of depth of focus along its optical axis.

  8. Nanopatterned organic semiconductors for visible light communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xilu; Dong, Yurong; Zeng, Pan; Yu, Yan; Xie, Yujun; Gong, Junyi; Shi, Meng; Liang, Rongqing; Ou, Qiongrong; Chi, Nan; Zhang, Shuyu

    2018-03-01

    Visible light communication (VLC) is becoming an important and promising supplement to the existing Wi-Fi network for the coming 5G communications. Organic light-emitting semiconductors present much fast fluorescent decay rates compared to those of conventional colour-converting phosphors, therefore capable of achieving much higher bandwidths. Here we explore how nanopatterned organic semiconductors can further enhance the data rates of VLC links by improving bandwidths and signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and by supporting spatial multiplexing. We first demonstrate a colour-converting VLC system based on nanopatterned hyperbolic metamaterials (HMM), the bandwidth of which is enhanced by 50%. With regard to enhancing SNRs, we achieve a tripling of optical gain by integrating a nanopatterned luminescent concentrator to a signal receiver. In addition, we demonstrate highly directional fluorescent VLC antennas based on nanoimprinted polymer films, paving the way to achieving parallel VLC communications via spatialmultiplexing. These results indicate nanopatterned organic semiconductors provide a promising route to high speed VLC links.

  9. Recent developments with the visible nulling coronagraph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Brian A.; Lyon, Richard G.; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Clampin, Mark; Petrone, Peter; Helmbrecht, Michael A.; Howard, Joseph M.; Miller, Ian J.

    2016-08-01

    A wide array of general astrophysics studies including detecting and characterizing habitable exoplanets could be enabled by a future large segmented telescope with sensitivity in the UV, optical, and infrared bands. When paired with a starshade or coronagraph, such an observatory could enable direct imaging and detailed spectroscopic observations of nearby Earth-like habitable zone planets. Over the past several years, a laboratory-based Visible Nulling Coronagraph (VNC) has evolved to reach requisite contrasts over a 1 nm bandwidth at narrow source angle separation using a segmented deformable mirror in one arm of a Mach-Zehnder layout. More recent efforts targeted broadband performance following the addition of two sets of half-wave Fresnel rhomb achromatic phase shifters (APS) with the goal of reaching 10-9 contrast, at a separation of 2λ/D, using a 40 nm (6%) bandwidth single mode fiber source. Here we present updates on the VNC broadband nulling effort, including approaches to addressing system contrast limitations.

  10. Deuterium abundance, from ultraviolet to visible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebrard, Guillaume

    2000-01-01

    In the frame of the standard Big Bang model, the primordial abundance of deuterium is the most sensitive to the baryonic density of the Universe. It was synthesized only during the primordial nucleosynthesis few minutes after the Big Bang and no other standard mechanism is able to produce any further significant amount. On the contrary, since deuterium is burned up within stars, its abundance D/H decreases along cosmic evolution. Thus, D/H measurements constrain Big Bang and galactic chemical evolution models. There are three samples of deuterium abundances: primordial, proto-solar and interstellar. Each of them is representative of a given epoch, respectively about 15 Gyrs past, 4.5 Gyrs past and present epoch. Although the evolution of the deuterium abundance seems to be qualitatively understood, the measurements show some dispersion. Present thesis works are linked to deuterium interstellar abundance measurements. Such measurements are classically obtained from spectroscopic observations of the hydrogen and deuterium Lyman series in absorption in the ultraviolet spectral range, using space observatories. Results presented here were obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope and FUSE, which has recently been launched. Simultaneously, a new way to observe deuterium has been proposed, in the visible spectral range from ground-based telescopes. This has led to the first detections and the identification of the deuterium Balmer series, in emission in HII regions, using CFHT and VLT telescopes. (author) [fr

  11. Visible Imaging Diagnostic on Tore-Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dachicourt, R.; Monier Garbet, P.; Beaute, A.; Habib-Naiim, M. [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/IRFM, CEA Cadarache (France); Marandet, Y. [PIIM, CNRS-Universite de Provence, Marseille (France)

    2011-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Research for thermonuclear fusion aims at energy production using fusion reactions between deuterium and tritium nuclei. To this end, a deuterium/tritium mixture has to be heated to a very high temperature (about 100 millions degrees). Chemical and physical sputtering erodes the plasma facing components (PFC), leading to an impurity influx to the plasma. Estimating this erosion source is important both for the PFC lifetime and the quality of the confinement. In fact, impurities reaching the plasma core radiate energy and dilute the fuel. In this contribution, we describe an erosion diagnostic operated on the Tore Supra tokamak, consisting in the combination of visible spectroscopy and filtered imaging over a full TPL (Toroidal Pumped Limiter) sector. Quantitative measurements of spectral lines brightness on four spectrometer chords monitoring the TPL top are used to process the corresponding filtered images, namely to remove background emission or unwanted lines. The particle influx from the TPL's vicinity is obtained from photon fluxes measurements [1], which require absolute calibration in intensity of the system. Filtered images provide the spatial pattern of erosion, from which the total eroded carbon flux is reconstructed. The variation of the particle influx with the input power is studied by analyzing a dedicated experimental campaign. References: [1] Behringer K. et al. Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, Vol. 31, No. 14, pp. 2059 to 2099, 1989. (authors)

  12. Population-level effectiveness of PMTCT Option A on early mother-to-child (MTCT) transmission of HIV in South Africa: implications for eliminating MTCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goga, Ameena E; Dinh, Thu-Ha; Jackson, Debra J; Lombard, Carl J; Puren, Adrian; Sherman, Gayle; Ramokolo, Vundli; Woldesenbet, Selamawit; Doherty, Tanya; Noveve, Nobuntu; Magasana, Vuyolwethu; Singh, Yagespari; Ramraj, Trisha; Bhardwaj, Sanjana; Pillay, Yogan

    2016-12-01

    Eliminating mother-to-child transmission of HIV (EMTCT), defined as ≤50 infant HIV infections per 100 000 live births, is a global priority. Since 2011 policies to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) shifted from maternal antiretroviral (ARV) treatment or prophylaxis contingent on CD4 cell count to lifelong maternal ARV treatment (cART). We sought to measure progress with early (4-8 weeks postpartum) MTCT prevention and elimination, 2011-2013, at national and sub-national levels in South Africa, a high antenatal HIV prevalence setting ( ≈ 29%), where early MTCT was 3.5% in 2010. Two surveys were conducted (August 2011-March 2012 and October 2012-May 2013), in 580 health facilities, randomly selected after two-stage probability proportional to size sampling of facilities (the primary sampling unit), to provide valid national and sub-national-(provincial)-level estimates. Data collectors interviewed caregivers of eligible infants, reviewed patient-held charts, and collected infant dried blood spots (iDBS). Confirmed positive HIV enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and positive total HIV nucleic acid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) indicated infant HIV exposure or infection, respectively. Weighted survey analysis was conducted for each survey and for the pooled data. National data from 10 106 and 9120 participants were analyzed (2011-12 and 2012-13 surveys respectively). Infant HIV exposure was 32.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) 30.7-33.6%), in 2011-12 and 33.1% (95% CI 31.8-34.4%), provincial range of 22.1-43.6% in 2012-13. MTCT was 2.7% (95% CI 2.1%-3.2%) in 2011-12 and 2.6% (95% CI 2.0-3.2%), provincial range of 1.9-5.4% in 2012-13. HIV-infected ARV-exposed mothers had significantly lower unadjusted early MTCT (2.0% [2011-12: 1.6-2.5%; 2012-13:1.5-2.6%]) compared to HIV-infected ARV-naive mothers [10.2% in 2011-12 (6.5-13.8%); 9.2% in 2012-13 (5.6-12.7%)]. Pooled analyses demonstrated significantly lower early MTCT among exclusive breastfeeding

  13. Sea-level history during the Last Interglacial complex on San Nicolas Island, California: implications for glacial isostatic adjustment processes, paleozoogeography and tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Daniel R.; Simmons, Kathleen R.; Schumann, R. Randall; Groves, Lindsey T.; Mitrovica, Jerry X.; Laurel, Deanna

    2012-01-01

    San Nicolas Island, California has one of the best records of fossiliferous Quaternary marine terraces in North America, with at least fourteen terraces rising to an elevation of ~270 m above present-day sea level. In our studies of the lowest terraces, we identified platforms at 38-36 m (terrace 2a), 33-28 m (terrace 2b), and 13-8 m (terrace 1). Uranium-series dating of solitary corals from these terraces yields three clusters of ages: ~120 ka on terrace 2a (marine isotope stage [MIS] 5.5), ~120 and ~100 ka on terrace 2b (MIS 5.5 and 5.3), and ~80 ka (MIS 5.1) on terrace 1. We conclude that corals on terrace 2b that date to ~120 ka were reworked from a formerly broader terrace 2a during the ~100 ka sea stand. Fossil faunas differ on the three terraces. Isolated fragments of terrace 2a have a fauna similar to that of modern waters surrounding San Nicolas Island. A mix of extralimital southern and extralimital northern species is found on terrace 2b, and extralimital northern species are on terrace 1. On terrace 2b, with its mixed faunas, extralimital southern species, indicating warmer than present waters, are interpreted to be from the ~120 ka high sea stand, reworked from terrace 2a. The extralimital northern species on terrace 2b, indicating cooler than present waters, are interpreted to be from the ~100 ka sea stand. The abundant extralimital northern species on terrace 1 indicate cooler than present waters at ~80 ka. Using the highest elevations of the ~120 ka platform of terrace 2a, and assuming a paleo-sea level of +6 m based on previous studies, San Nicolas Island has experienced late Quaternary uplift rates of ~0.25-0.27 m/ka. These uplift rates, along with shoreline angle elevations and ages of terrace 2b (~100 ka) and terrace 1 (~80 ka) yield relative (local) paleo-sea level elevations of +2 to +6 m for the ~100 ka sea stand and -11 to -12 m for the ~80 ka sea stand. These estimates are significantly higher than those reported for the ~100 ka and ~80 ka

  14. Growth indices and cost implications of hybro broiler chicks fed with graded levels of fermented wild cocoyam Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott corm meal as a replacement for maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olajide, R

    2014-05-01

    Corms such as wild cocoyam [Colocasia esculenta] have potential to replace maize as a cheaper energy source in poultry rations. A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of graded levels of fermented wild cocoyam [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott] corm (FWCC), as substitutes for maize in the diets of broilers at the starter phase. One hundred and twenty unsexed day-old Hybro broiler chicks were randomly distributed to four dietary treatments in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). There were 3 replicates per dietary treatment with 10 birds per replicate. Diet 1 without FWCC served as the control. Diets 2, 3 and 4 contained 10, 20 and 30% FWCC. Each of the diets represented a treatment. The experimental diets and clean drinking water were supplied ad libitum for 4 weeks (28 days) representing the starter phase of the broiler production. Result of the performance revealed significant (p<0.05) differences in feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio. The economic analysis also showed that cost (Naira58.52) of a kilogram feed was highest (p<0.05) for the control and least (Naira53.10) for 30% FWCC. The least cost (Naira101.24) of feed per kilogram weight gain (p<0.05) was obtained for birds fed 30% FWCC compared to (Naira105.53) for the control. It was concluded that maize can economically be substituted with 30% FWCC in broiler starter diets.

  15. Status of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory new hydrofracture facility: Implications for the disposal of liquid low-level radioactive wastes by underground injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, C.S.; Stow, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    From 1982 to 1984, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) disposed of approximately 2.8 x 10/sup 16/ Bq (7.5 x 10/sup 5/ Ci) of liquid low-level radioactive wastes by underground injection at its new hydrofracture facility. This paper summarizes the regulatory and operational status of that ORNL facility and discusses its future outlook. Operational developments and regulatory changes that have raised major questions about the continued operation and the new hydrofracture facility include: (1) significant /sup 90/Sr contamination of some groundwater in the injection formation; (2) questions about the design of the injection well, completed prior to the application of the underground injection control (UIC) regulations to the ORNL facility; (3) questions about the integrity of the reconfigured injection well put into service following the loss of the initial injection well; and (4) implementation of UIC regulations. Ultimately, consideration of the regulatory and operational factors led to the decision in early 1986 not to proceed with a UIC permit application for the ORNL facility. There are no plans to reactivate the hydrofracture process. Subsequent to the decision not to proceed with a UIC permit application, closure activities were initiated for the ORNL hydrofracture facility. Closure of the facility will occur under both state of Tennessee and federal UIC regulations and under provision 3004(u) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

  16. Evaluation of internal loading and water level changes: implications for phosphorus, algal production, and nuisance blooms in Kabetogama Lake, Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Victoria G.; Maki, Ryan P.; Kiesling, Richard L.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrologic manipulations have the potential to exacerbate or remediate eutrophication in productive reservoirs. Dam operations at Kabetogama Lake, Minnesota, were modified in 2000 to restore a more natural water regime and improve water quality. The US Geological Survey and National Park Service evaluated nutrient, algae, and nuisance bloom data in relation to changes in Kabetogama Lake water levels. Comparison of the results of this study to previous studies indicates that chlorophyll a concentrations have decreased, whereas total phosphorus (TP) concentrations have not changed significantly since 2000. Water and sediment quality data were collected at Voyageurs National Park during 2008–2009 to assess internal phosphorus loading and determine whether loading is a factor affecting TP concentrations and algal productivity. Kabetogama Lake often was mixed vertically, except for occasional stratification measured in certain areas, including Lost Bay in the northeastern part of Kabetogama Lake. Stratification, higher bottom water and sediment nutrient concentrations than in other parts of the lake, and phosphorus release rates estimated from sediment core incubations indicated that Lost Bay is one of several areas that may be contributing to internal loading. Internal loading of TP is a concern because increased TP may cause excessive algal growth including potentially toxic cyanobacteria.

  17. Analysis of optical transmission by 400-500 nm visible light into aesthetic dental biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, D C; Cash, A J

    1994-04-01

    The penetration of visible light into dental biomaterials is an essential factor in photoinitiation of setting reactions and in the optical aspects of dental aesthetics. Light of visible blue wavelengths, 400-500 nm, has been applied at normal angles to 0.2-5.0 mm sections of human dentine and representative ceramic, polymerceramic composites and hybrid glass-polyalkenoate materials. The integrated optical transmission has been determined for each material section. The data have been converted to absorbance values and analysed to check for mathematical conformity to the Beer-Lambert Law. It is found that conformity (typically, P ratio. This factor ranges from 30% to 90% in the materials investigated. It follows that there is a high degree of inefficiency in the transmission of visible light into and through aesthetic biomaterials for the purposes of photoactivation using existing technology. Means by which this limitation and inefficiency may be reduced are discussed. While the reflectivity of aesthetic biomaterials has been perceived by dental practitioners, the magnitude of this effect and its implications in connection with light-cured materials have not been analysed and emphasized hitherto.

  18. Photoreactivity of the occipital cortex measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging-blood oxygenation level dependent in migraine patients and healthy volunteers: pathophysiological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Helena; Sánchez del Río, Margarita; de Silanes, Carlos López; Álvarez-Linera, Juan; Hernández, Juan Antonio; Pareja, Juan A

    2011-01-01

    The brain of migraineurs is hyperexcitable, particularly the occipital cortex, which is probably hypersensitive to light. Photophobia or hypersensitivity to light may be accounted for by an increased excitability of trigeminal, the visual pathways, and the occipital cortex. To study light sensitivity and photophobia by assessing the response to light stimuli with functional magnetic resonance imaging-blood oxygenation level dependent (fMRI-BOLD) of the occipital cortex in migraineurs and in controls. Also, to try to decipher the contribution of the occipital cortex to photophobia and whether the cortical reactivity of migraineurs may be part of a constitutional (defensive) mechanism or represents an acquired (sensitization) phenomenon. Nineteen patients with migraine (7 with aura and 12 without aura) and 19 controls were studied with fMRI-BOLD during 4 increasing light intensities. Eight axial image sections of 0.5 cm that covered the occipital cortex were acquired for each intensity. We measured the extension and the intensity of activation for every light stimuli. Photophobia was estimated according to a 0 to 3 semiquantitative scale of light discomfort. Migraineurs had a significantly higher number of fMRI-activated voxels at low (320.4 for migraineurs [SD = 253.9] and 164.3 for controls [SD = 102.7], P = .027) and medium-low luminance levels (501.2 for migraineurs [SD = 279.5] and 331.1 for controls [SD = 194.3], P = .034) but not at medium-high (579.5 for migraineurs [SD = 201.4] and 510.2 for controls [SD = 239.5], P = .410) and high light stimuli (496.2 for migraineurs [SD = 216.2] and 394.7 for controls [SD = 240], P = .210). No differences were found with respect to the voxel activation intensity (amplitude of the BOLD wave) between migraineurs and controls (8.98 [SD = 2.58] vs 7.99 [SD = 2.57], P = .25; 10.82 [SD = 3.27] vs 9.81 [SD = 3.19], P = .31; 11.90 [SD = 3.18] vs 11.06 [SD = 2.56], P = .62; 11.45 [SD = 2.65] vs 10.25 [SD = 2.22], P = .16). Light

  19. Physiological responses to social and nonsocial stimuli in neurotypical adults with high and low levels of autistic traits: implications for understanding nonsocial drive in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Clarence J; Ashwin, Chris; Brosnan, Mark

    2014-12-01

    Researchers have suggested that the two primary cognitive features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a drive toward nonsocial processing and a reduced drive toward social processing, may be unrelated to each other in the neurotypical (NT) population and may therefore require separate explanations. Drive toward types of processing may be related to physiological arousal to categories of stimuli, such as social (e.g., faces) or nonsocial (e.g., trains). This study investigated how autistic traits in an NT population might relate to differences in physiological responses to nonsocial compared with social stimuli. NT participants were recruited to examine these differences in those with high vs. low degrees of ASD traits. Forty-six participants (21 male, 25 female) completed the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) to measure ASD traits before viewing a series of 24 images while skin conductance response (SCR) was recorded. Images included six nonsocial, six social, six face-like cartoons, and six nonsocial (relating to participants' personal interests). Analysis revealed that those with a higher AQ had significantly greater SCR arousal to nonsocial stimuli than those with a low AQ, and the higher the AQ, the greater the difference between SCR arousal to nonsocial and social stimuli. This is the first study to identify the relationship between AQ and physiological response to nonsocial stimuli, and a relationship between physiological response to both social and nonsocial stimuli, suggesting that physiological response may underlie the atypical drive toward nonsocial processing seen in ASD, and that at the physiological level at least the social and nonsocial in ASD may be related to one another. © 2014 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Origins of intersubject variability of blood oxygenation level dependent and arterial spin labeling fMRI: implications for quantification of brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaxiola-Valdez, Ismael; Goodyear, Bradley G

    2012-12-01

    Accurate localization of brain activity using blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been challenged because of the large BOLD signal within distal veins. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) techniques offer greater sensitivity to the microvasculature but possess low temporal resolution and limited brain coverage. In this study, we show that the physiological origins of BOLD and ASL depend on whether percent change or statistical significance is being considered. For BOLD and ASL fMRI data collected during a simple unilateral hand movement task, we found that in the area of the contralateral motor cortex the centre of gravity (CoG) of the intersubject coefficient of variation (CV) of BOLD fMRI was near the brain surface for percent change in signal, whereas the CoG of the intersubject CV for Z-score was in close proximity of sites of brain activity for both BOLD and ASL. These findings suggest that intersubject variability of BOLD percent change is vascular in origin, whereas the origin of inter-subject variability of Z-score is neuronal for both BOLD and ASL. For longer duration tasks (12 s or greater), however, there was a significant correlation between BOLD and ASL percent change, which was not evident for short duration tasks (6 s). These findings suggest that analyses directly comparing percent change in BOLD signal between pre-defined regions of interest using short duration stimuli, as for example in event-related designs, may be heavily weighted by large-vessel responses rather than neuronal responses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Status of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory new hydrofracture facility: Implications for the disposal of liquid low-level radioactive wastes by underground injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, C.S.; Stow, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    From 1982 to 1984, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) disposed of approximately 2.8 x 10 16 Bq (7.5 x 10 5 Ci) of liquid low-level radioactive wastes by underground injection at its new hydrofracture facility. This paper summarizes the regulatory and operational status of that ORNL facility and discusses its future outlook. Operational developments and regulatory changes that have raised major questions about the continued operation of the new hydrofracture facility include: (1) significant 90 Sr contamination of some groundwater in the injection formation; (2) questions about the design of the injection well, completed prior to the application of the underground injection control (UIC) regulations to the ORNL facility; (3) questions about the integrity of the reconfigured injection well put into service following the loss of the initial injection well; and (4) implementation of UIC regulations. Ultimately, consideration of the regulatory and operational factors led to the decision in early 1986 not to proceed with a UIC permit application for the ORNL facility. Subsequent to the decision not to proceed with a UIC permit application, closure activities were initiated for the ORNL hydrofracture facility. Closure of the facility will occur under both state of Tennessee and federal UIC regulations. The facility also falls under the provisions of part 3004(u) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act pertaining to corrective actions. Nationally, there is an uncertain outlook for the disposal of wastes by underground injection. All wells used for the injection of hazardous wastes (Class I wells) are being reviewed. 8 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Experimental exposure of blue mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) to high levels of benzo[a]pyrene and possible implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speciale, A; Zena, R; Calabrò, C; Bertuccio, C; Aragona, M; Saija, A; Trombetta, D; Cimino, F; Lo Cascio, P

    2018-04-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are lipophilic compounds able to accumulate in the food chain. Mussels showed to bioaccumulate contaminants, such as PAHs, so that recurrent consumption of such contaminated food represents a risk for human health. This study was aimed to elucidate if acute exposure of Mediterranean blue mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis), a bivalve of great economic importance in several countries, to a PAH, benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), at doses able to induce cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) and pathological changes in mussel gills, can produce accumulation in soft tissue. We explored the cytotoxic effects (cell viability, DNA laddering, and glutathione levels) of in vitro exposure of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to organic extracts obtained from blue mussels previously exposed for 12 and 72h via water to B[a]P (0.5-1mg/L). In our experimental conditions, B[a]P induced CYP1A induction and morphological changes in mussel gills and a significant B[a]P accumulation in soft tissue. Conversely, exposing PBMCs to organic extracts obtained from contaminated mussels, resulted in a significant reduction of cell viability and cell glutathione content, and in an increase in DNA laddering. This confirms that consumption of mussels from B[a]P polluted waters might affect human health. Our data lead us to suggest that CYP1A activity in mussel gills may be useful (more than the amount of detected PAHs in the mussel edible tissue) as a marker in assessment of risk for health of consumers exposed to PAHs through ingestion of shellfish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Enhanced transfer of organic matter to higher trophic levels caused by ocean acidification and its implications for export production: A mass balance approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxhammer, Tim; Taucher, Jan; Bach, Lennart T; Achterberg, Eric P; Algueró-Muñiz, María; Bellworthy, Jessica; Czerny, Jan; Esposito, Mario; Haunost, Mathias; Hellemann, Dana; Ludwig, Andrea; Yong, Jaw C; Zark, Maren; Riebesell, Ulf; Anderson, Leif G

    2018-01-01

    Ongoing acidification of the ocean through uptake of anthropogenic CO2 is known to affect marine biota and ecosystems with largely unknown consequences for marine food webs. Changes in food web structure have the potential to alter trophic transfer, partitioning, and biogeochemical cycling of elements in the ocean. Here we investigated the impact of realistic end-of-the-century CO2 concentrations on the development and partitioning of the carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and silica pools in a coastal pelagic ecosystem (Gullmar Fjord, Sweden). We covered the entire winter-to-summer plankton succession (100 days) in two sets of five pelagic mesocosms, with one set being CO2 enriched (~760 μatm pCO2) and the other one left at ambient CO2 concentrations. Elemental mass balances were calculated and we highlight important challenges and uncertainties we have faced in the closed mesocosm system. Our key observations under high CO2 were: (1) A significantly amplified transfer of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus from primary producers to higher trophic levels, during times of regenerated primary production. (2) A prolonged retention of all three elements in the pelagic food web that significantly reduced nitrogen and phosphorus sedimentation by about 11 and 9%, respectively. (3) A positive trend in carbon fixation (relative to nitrogen) that appeared in the particulate matter pool as well as the downward particle flux. This excess carbon counteracted a potential reduction in carbon sedimentation that could have been expected from patterns of nitrogen and phosphorus fluxes. Our findings highlight the potential for ocean acidification to alter partitioning and cycling of carbon and nutrients in the surface ocean but also show that impacts are temporarily variable and likely depending upon the structure of the plankton food web.

  4. Enhanced transfer of organic matter to higher trophic levels caused by ocean acidification and its implications for export production: A mass balance approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Boxhammer

    Full Text Available Ongoing acidification of the ocean through uptake of anthropogenic CO2 is known to affect marine biota and ecosystems with largely unknown consequences for marine food webs. Changes in food web structure have the potential to alter trophic transfer, partitioning, and biogeochemical cycling of elements in the ocean. Here we investigated the impact of realistic end-of-the-century CO2 concentrations on the development and partitioning of the carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and silica pools in a coastal pelagic ecosystem (Gullmar Fjord, Sweden. We covered the entire winter-to-summer plankton succession (100 days in two sets of five pelagic mesocosms, with one set being CO2 enriched (~760 μatm pCO2 and the other one left at ambient CO2 concentrations. Elemental mass balances were calculated and we highlight important challenges and uncertainties we have faced in the closed mesocosm system. Our key observations under high CO2 were: (1 A significantly amplified transfer of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus from primary producers to higher trophic levels, during times of regenerated primary production. (2 A prolonged retention of all three elements in the pelagic food web that significantly reduced nitrogen and phosphorus sedimentation by about 11 and 9%, respectively. (3 A positive trend in carbon fixation (relative to nitrogen that appeared in the particulate matter pool as well as the downward particle flux. This excess carbon counteracted a potential reduction in carbon sedimentation that could have been expected from patterns of nitrogen and phosphorus fluxes. Our findings highlight the potential for ocean acidification to alter partitioning and cycling of carbon and nutrients in the surface ocean but also show that impacts are temporarily variable and likely depending upon the structure of the plankton food web.

  5. Global Systems-Level Analysis of Hfq and SmpB Deletion Mutants in Salmonella: Implications for Virulence and Global Protein Translation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansong, Charles; Yoon, Hyunjin; Porwollik, Steffen; Mottaz-Brewer, Heather; Petritis, Brianne O.; Jaitly, Navdeep; Adkins, Joshua N.; Mcclelland, Michael; Heffron, Fred; Smith, Richard D.

    2009-03-11

    In recent years the profound importance of sRNA-mediated translational/post-transcriptional regulation has been increasingly appreciated. However, the global role played by translational regulation in control of gene expression has never been elucidated in any organism for the simple reason that global proteomics methods required to accurately characterize post-transcriptional processes and the knowledge of translational control mechanisms have only become available within the last few years. The proteins Hfq and SmpB are essential for the biological activity of a range of regulatory sRNAs and thus provide a means to identify potential targets of sRNA regulation. We performed a sample-matched global proteomics and transcriptional analysis to examine the role of Hfq and SmpB in global protein translation and virulence using the Salmonella typhimurium model system. Samples were analyzed from bacteria grown under four different conditions; two laboratory conditions and two that are thought to mimic the intracellular environment. We show that mutants of hfq and smpB directly or indirectly modulate at least 20% and 4% of all Salmonella proteins, respectively, with limited correlation between transcription and protein expression. This is the first report suggesting that SmpB could be a general translational regulator. The broad spectrum of proteins modulated by Hfq was also surprising including central metabolism, LPS biosynthesis, two-component regulatory systems, quorum sensing, SP1-TTSS, oxidative stress, fatty acid metabolism, nucleoside and nucleotide metabolism, envelope stress, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, amino acid biosynthesis, peptide transport, and motility.. The extent of global regulation of translation by Hfq is unexpected, with profound effects in all stages of Salmonella’s life cycle. Our results represent the first global systems-level analysis of translational regulation; the elucidated potential targets of sRNA regulation from our analysis will

  6. Some new possibilities in direct visible and x ray measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gex, J.P.; Sauneuf, R.; Boutot, J.P.; Delmotte, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Subnanosecond photodetection measurements in visible and X ray range with vacuum cell and very thin microchannel plate phototube (coupled with a fast scintillator or not) in conjunction with fast oscilloscope (5 GHz) are presented. They are compared to those given by a visible or a gold photocathode X-ray streak camera (temporal resolution better than 20 ps). (author)

  7. Prediction of Fog/Visibility over India using NWP Model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    54

    fog which is driven by NWP model forecast of surface relative humidity and wind speed. The performance of NWP model forecast of visibility is found comparable to that from simple fog model driven by NWP forecast of relative humidity and wind speed. Keywords: Visibility, Fog, Insat-3D, METARS, NCUM, North India.

  8. Gesturing on the Telephone: Independent Effects of Dialogue and Visibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavelas, Janet; Gerwing, Jennifer; Sutton, Chantelle; Prevost, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    Speakers often gesture in telephone conversations, even though they are not visible to their addressees. To test whether this effect is due to being in a dialogue, we separated visibility and dialogue with three conditions: face-to-face dialogue (10 dyads), telephone dialogue (10 dyads), and monologue to a tape recorder (10 individuals). For the…

  9. High power diode lasers converted to the visible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Hansen, Anders Kragh; Andersen, Peter E.

    2017-01-01

    High power diode lasers have in recent years become available in many wavelength regions. However, some spectral regions are not well covered. In particular, the visible spectral range is lacking high power diode lasers with good spatial quality. In this paper, we highlight some of our recent...... results in nonlinear frequency conversion of high power near infrared diode lasers to the visible spectral region....

  10. Groundwater flow reference model of the Meuse/Haute-Marne region: implications on performance analysis of high and intermediate level and long lived radwaste repository in clay formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benabderrahmane, H.; Plas, F.; Yven, B.; Cornaton, F.; Perrochet, P.; Kerrou, J.; Stucki, J.; Caloz, P.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. An integrated multi-scale hydrogeological conceptual model of the Paris basin and the Meuse/Haute-Marne sector was developed to study the groundwater flow and solute transport behaviour in the multi-layered aquifer system and around the Callovo-Oxfordian clay formation as potential host for the French high and intermediate level and long lived radioactive waste. The Paris basin system (200000 km 2 ) consists of 27 aquiferous and semi-permeable (aquitard) hydrogeological units from Trias to Quaternary affected by 80 regional faults. It produces boundary conditions to the refined aquifer system of the 250 km 2 Meuse/Haute-Marne site, which includes 27 layers from Trias to Portlandian. The Callovo-Oxfordian clay formation is located at a mean depth of 500 m, with a minimum thickness of 130 m and hydraulic conductivity values of the order of 10-14 m/s. The numerical steady-state flow solution is calculated on a finite element mesh of about 3 million 2-D and 3-D linear elements (GEOS-CHYN 2009). At the top surface, the mesh refinement (250 m to 50 m) is locally constrained by the fault lineaments and the river network. At depth, it takes into account the 10 m to 500 m throw of the faults and the vertical flow through semi-permeable units. Triangular elements are used to represent a top surface layer that includes the weathered part of the outcropping formations, and quadrangular elements allow for the representation of the faults planes at depth. The layers are discretized into 6-nodded wedge elements, while 4-nodded tetrahedrons and 5-nodded pyramids are used to handle the pinching and the outcrop of the layers. The flow boundary conditions and source-sink terms are: - Specified hydraulic heads (Dirichlet) along the rivers and elsewhere on the top surface inflow fluxes (Neumann) derived from hydrological balance (with a mean inflow of 240 mm/year). - Specified hydraulic heads (Dirichlet) at the Manche coast side. - No

  11. Indigoid Photoswitches: Visible Light Responsive Molecular Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petermayer, Christian; Dube, Henry

    2018-05-15

    Indigoid photoswitches comprise a class of chromophores that are derived from the parent and well-known indigo dye. Different from most photoswitches their core structures absorb in the visible region of the spectrum in both isomeric states even without substitutions, which makes them especially interesting for applications not tolerant of high-energy UV light. Also different from most current photoswitching systems, they provide highly rigid structures that undergo large yet precisely controllable geometry changes upon photoisomerization. The favorable combination of pronounced photochromism, fast and efficient photoreactions, and high thermal bistability have led to a strongly increased interest in indigoid photoswitches over the last years. As a result, intriguing applications of these chromophores as reversible triggering units in supramolecular and biological chemistry, the field of molecular machines, or smart molecules have been put forward. In this Account current developments in the synthesis, mechanistic understanding of light responsiveness, advantageous properties as phototools, and new applications of indigoid photoswitches are summarized with the focus on hemithioindigo, hemiindigo, and indigo as key examples. Many methods for the synthesis of hemithioindigos are known, but derivatives with a fourth substituent at the double bond could not easily be prepared because of the resulting increased steric hindrance in the products. Recent efforts in our laboratory have provided two different methods to prepare these highly promising photoswitches in very efficient ways. One method is especially designed for the introduction of sterically hindered ketones while the second one allows rapid structural diversification in only three high-yielding synthetic steps. Given the lesser prominence of indigoid photoswitches, mechanistic understanding of their excited state behavior and therefore rational design opportunities for photophysical properties are also much

  12. Eagle-i: Making Invisible Resources, Visible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haendel, M.; Wilson, M.; Torniai, C.; Segerdell, E.; Shaffer, C.; Frost, R.; Bourges, D.; Brownstein, J.; McInnerney, K.

    2010-01-01

    RP-134 The eagle-i Consortium – Dartmouth College, Harvard Medical School, Jackson State University, Morehouse School of Medicine, Montana State University, Oregon Health and Science University (OHSU), the University of Alaska, the University of Hawaii, and the University of Puerto Rico – aims to make invisible resources for scientific research visible by developing a searchable network of resource repositories at research institutions nationwide. Now in early development, it is hoped that the system will scale beyond the consortium at the end of the two-year pilot. Data Model & Ontology: The eagle-i ontology development team at the OHSU Library is generating the data model and ontologies necessary for resource indexing and querying. Our indexing system will enable cores and research labs to represent resources within a defined vocabulary, leading to more effective searches and better linkage between data types. This effort is being guided by active discussions within the ontology community (http://RRontology.tk) bringing together relevant preexisting ontologies in a logical framework. The goal of these discussions is to provide context for interoperability and domain-wide standards for resource types used throughout biomedical research. Research community feedback is welcomed. Architecture Development, led by a team at Harvard, includes four main components: tools for data collection, management and curation; an institutional resource repository; a federated network; and a central search application. Each participating institution will populate and manage their repository locally, using data collection and curation tools. To help improve search performance, data tools will support the semi-automatic annotation of resources. A central search application will use a federated protocol to broadcast queries to all repositories and display aggregated results. The search application will leverage the eagle-i ontologies to help guide users to valid queries via auto

  13. Keeping energy visible? Exploring how householders interact with feedback from smart energy monitors in the longer term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargreaves, Tom; Nye, Michael; Burgess, Jacquelin

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on how, over a 12-month period, UK householders interacted with feedback on their domestic electricity consumption in a field trial of real time displays or smart energy monitors. Drawing on the findings of 11 follow-up qualitative interviews with householders involved in a ‘Visible Energy Trial’, the paper suggests that: (i) over time, smart energy monitors gradually become ‘backgrounded’ within normal household routines and practices; (ii) the monitors do increase householders’ knowledge of and confidence about the amount of electricity they consume; (iii) but, beyond a certain level and for a wide variety of reasons, the monitors do not necessarily encourage or motivate householders to reduce their levels of consumption; and (iv) once equipped with new knowledge and expertise about their levels of electricity consumption, household practices may become harder to change as householders realise the limits to their energy saving potential and become frustrated by the absence of wider policy and market support. The paper concludes by reflecting on the policy and research implications of these findings in relation to future transition pathways to a low-carbon economy. - Highlights: ► We interviewed 11 householders who had used a smart energy monitor for 12 months. ► The monitors did help interviewees learn about their energy use. ► Over time, the monitors became ‘backgrounded’ within normal household routines. ► After early behaviour changes, the monitors did not motivate further energy saving. ► The monitors may ‘harden’ energy use patterns in the absence of wider support.

  14. Closing the gap between socioeconomic and financial implications of residential and community level hydrogen-based energy systems: Incentives needed for a bridge to the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verduzco, Laura E.

    The use of hydrogen as an energy carrier has the potential to decrease the amount of pollutants emitted to the atmosphere, significantly reduce our dependence on imported oil and resolve geopolitical issues related to energy consumption. The current status of hydrogen technology makes it prohibitive and financially risky for most investors to commit the money required for large-scale hydrogen production. Therefore, alternative strategies such as small and medium-scale hydrogen applications should be implemented during the early stages of the transition to the hydrogen economy in order to test potential markets and technology readiness. While many analysis tools have been built to estimate the requirements of the transition to a hydrogen economy, few have focused on small and medium-scale hydrogen production and none has paired financial with socioeconomic costs at the residential level. The computer-based tool (H2POWER) presented in this study calculates the capacity, cost and socioeconomic impact of the systems needed to meet the energy demands of a home or a community using home and neighborhood refueling units, which are systems that can provide electricity and heat to meet the energy demands of either (1) a home and automobile or (2) a cluster of homes and a number of automobiles. The financial costs of the production, processing and delivery sub-systems that conform the refueling units are calculated using cost data of existing technology and normalizing them to calculate capital and net present cost. The monetary value of the externalities (socioeconomic analysis) caused by each system is calculated by H2POWER through a statistical analysis of the cost associated to various externalities. Additionally, H2POWER calculates the financial impact of different penalties and incentives (such as net metering, low interest loans, fuel taxes, and emission penalties) on the cost of the system from the point of view of a developer and a homeowner. In order to assess the

  15. The Eocene-Oligocene sedimentary record in the Chesapeake Bay impact structure: Implications for climate and sea-level changes on the western Atlantic margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, P.; Wade, B.S.; Kontny, A.; ,

    2009-01-01

    other northwest Atlantic margin sections. It could result from a shift to more distal depositional environments and condensed sedimentation during maximum fl ooding, rather than refl ecting a climatic change in the hinterland. The distinct 1% increase of the oxygen isotopes may correspond to the short-term latest Eocene "precursor isotope event." (4) The abrupt increase of sediment grainsize, carbonate content, and abundance of authigenic minerals (glauconite) across the major unconformity that separates Eocene from Oligocene sediments in the Eyreville core refl ects deposition in shallower settings associated with erosion, winnowing, and reworking. Sediments within the central crater were affected by the rapid eustatic sea-level changes associated with the greenhouse-icehouse transition, as well as by an abrupt major uplift event and possibly enhanced current activity on the northwestern Atlantic margin. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  16. Determination of localized visibility in off-axis electron holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLeod, Robert A.; Kupsta, Martin; Malac, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Off-axis electron holography is a wavefront-split interference method for the transmission electron microscope that allows the phase shift and amplitude of the electron wavefront to be separated and quantitatively measured. An additional, third component of the holographic signal is the coherence of the electron wavefront. Historically, wavefront coherence has been evaluated by measurement of the holographic fringe visibility (or contrast) based on the minimum and maximum intensity values. We present a method based on statistical moments is presented that allows allow the visibility to be measured in a deterministic and reproducible fashion suitable for quantitative analysis. We also present an algorithm, based on the Fourier-ratio method, which allows the visibility to be resolved in two-dimensions, which we term the local visibility. The local visibility may be used to evaluate the loss of coherence due to electron scattering within a specimen, or as an aid in image analysis and segmentation. The relationship between amplitude and visibility may be used to evaluate the composition and mass thickness of a specimen by means of a 2-D histogram. Results for a selection of elements (C, Al, Si, Ti, Cr, Cu, Ge, and Au) are provided. All presented visibility metrics are biased at low-dose conditions by the presence of shot-noise, for which we provide methods for empirical normalization to achieve linear response. - Highlights: • Report on a new statistical metric to determine holographic fringe visibility. • Adds new signal to electron holography: measure of electron coherence loss in 2-D. • Provide algorithm to calculate 2-D local visibility map. • Show that amplitude and visibility may be used for compositional analysis and segmentation. • Corrected for data bias such as shot noise

  17. Visible Facebook profiles and e-professionalism in undergraduate medical students in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Setu; Singh, Satendra; Dhaliwal, Upreet

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess medical students' presence on Facebook and the extent of their visible activity, with particular reference to online professionalism. This was a cross-sectional study including all medical students enrolled in the University College of Medical Sciences, University of Delhi, India during the period of the study, which was conducted from 2011 to 2012. After approval by the Institutional Ethical Committee, the full names of all students were obtained from our institution. After creating a fictitious profile, Facebook was searched for students' profiles, and those found were examined for visible content and unprofessional behaviour. Of 611 students, 477 (78.1%) had detectable Facebook profiles. Out of 477 profiles, date of birth, address, email, phone number, religion, and political views were rarely shared; sexual orientation and relationship status were displayed on approximately one third of the profiles; and an identifiable profile picture (80.3%), field of study (51.6%), and institution (86.2%) were commonly shared . The visible content included friend lists (88.7%), photo albums (36.1%), and associations with diverse groups and pages (97.1%). Five profiles (1.05%) displayed unprofessional content, including one profile photograph depicting alcohol consumption, one association with groups relating to excessive alcohol consumption, two profiles containing sexually explicit language, and one association with a sexist page. Most of our students use Facebook's privacy settings to hide some content from others. Unprofessional content was rarely visible from a stranger's profile. However, even when hidden from strangers, unprofessional behaviour is still unprofessional behaviour. As Facebook is an integral part of life, it is important for medical educators and students to understand the implications and importance of e-professionalism. Professionalism curricula should address e-professionalism.

  18. Visible Facebook profiles and e-professionalism in undergraduate medical students in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to assess medical students’ presence on Facebook and the extent of their visible activity, with particular reference to online professionalism. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study including all medical students enrolled in the University College of Medical Sciences, University of Delhi, India during the period of the study, which was conducted from 2011 to 2012. After approval by the Institutional Ethical Committee, the full names of all students were obtained from our institution. After creating a fictitious profile, Facebook was searched for students’ profiles, and those found were examined for visible content and unprofessional behaviour. Results: Of 611 students, 477 (78.1%) had detectable Facebook profiles. Out of 477 profiles, date of birth, address, email, phone number, religion, and political views were rarely shared; sexual orientation and relationship status were displayed on approximately one third of the profiles; and an identifiable profile picture (80.3%), field of study (51.6%), and institution (86.2%) were commonly shared . The visible content included friend lists (88.7%), photo albums (36.1%), and associations with diverse groups and pages (97.1%). Five profiles (1.05%) displayed unprofessional content, including one profile photograph depicting alcohol consumption, one association with groups relating to excessive alcohol consumption, two profiles containing sexually explicit language, and one association with a sexist page. Conclusion: Most of our students use Facebook’s privacy settings to hide some content from others. Unprofessional content was rarely visible from a stranger’s profile. However, even when hidden from strangers, unprofessional behaviour is still unprofessional behaviour. As Facebook is an integral part of life, it is important for medical educators and students to understand the implications and importance of e-professionalism. Professionalism curricula should address e

  19. Visible Facebook profiles and e-professionalism in undergraduate medical students in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setu Gupta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to assess medical students’ presence on Facebook and the extent of their visible activity, with particular reference to online professionalism. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study including all medical students enrolled in the University College of Medical Sciences, University of Delhi, India during the period of the study, which was conducted from 2011 to 2012. After approval by the Institutional Ethical Committee, the full names of all students were obtained from our institution. After creating a fictitious profile, Facebook was searched for students’ profiles, and those found were examined for visible content and unprofessional behaviour. Results: Of 611 students, 477 (78.1% had detectable Facebook profiles. Out of 477 profiles, date of birth, address, email, phone number, religion, and political views were rarely shared; sexual orientation and relationship status were displayed on approximately one third of the profiles; and an identifiable profile picture (80.3%, field of study (51.6%, and institution (86.2% were commonly shared . The visible content included friend lists (88.7%, photo albums (36.1%, and associations with diverse groups and pages (97.1%. Five profiles (1.05% displayed unprofessional content, including one profile photograph depicting alcohol consumption, one association with groups relating to excessive alcohol consumption, two profiles containing sexually explicit language, and one association with a sexist page. Conclusion: Most of our students use Facebook’s privacy settings to hide some content from others. Unprofessional content was rarely visible from a stranger’s profile. However, even when hidden from strangers, unprofessional behaviour is still unprofessional behaviour. As Facebook is an integral part of life, it is important for medical educators and students to understand the implications and importance of e-professionalism. Professionalism curricula should address e-professionalism.

  20. Comparison of Sociometrically High Visibility Rejected and Low Visibility Rejected Children on Teacher, Parent, and Self-Rating Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbor, Jonelle C.

    The study looked at differences between groups of children identified as high visibility rejected (HVR) and low visibility rejected (LVR) on a sociometric measure with 952 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students. Questionnaires were analyzed to determine the number of positive and negative nominations from peers received by each child. HVR…