WorldWideScience

Sample records for visibility assessment scoping

  1. Making Intercultural Language Learning Visible and Assessable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, Robyn; Harbon, Lesley

    2010-01-01

    While languages education (Liddicoat, 2002) is being transformed by intercultural language learning theory, there is little illustration of either how students are achieving intercultural learning or how to assess it. This article reports on a study of high school language students in Sydney, Australia. Its findings make visible student…

  2. The Visible Hand of Research Performance Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Far from allowing a governance of universities by the invisible hand of market forces, research performance assessments do not just measure differences in research quality, but yield themselves visible symptoms in terms of a stratification and standardization of disciplines. The article illustrates this with a case study of UK history departments…

  3. 40 CFR 194.32 - Scope of performance assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope of performance assessments. 194... Containment Requirements § 194.32 Scope of performance assessments. (a) Performance assessments shall consider... of the regulatory time frame. Performance assessments shall assume that mineral deposits of those...

  4. Assessing Visibility of Individual Transmission Errors in Networked Video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korhonen, Jari; Mantel, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, subjective video quality is assessed by user experiments involving quality ratings, pairwise comparisons, or rank ordering, based on the overall impression of quality. Less attention has been paid on assessing the visibility of individual defects. However, many practical applications...

  5. BLIND CONTRAST ENHANCEMENT ASSESSMENT BY GRADIENT RATIOING AT VISIBLE EDGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Hautière

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The contrast of outdoor images acquired under adverse weather conditions, especially foggy weather, is altered by the scattering of daylight by atmospheric particles. As a consequence, differentmethods have been designed to restore the contrast of these images. However, there is a lack of methodology to assess the performances of the methods or to rate them. Unlike image quality assessment or image restoration areas, there is no easy way to have a reference image, which makes the problem not straightforward to solve. In this paper, an approach is proposed which consists in computing the ratio between the gradient of the visible edges between the image before and after contrast restoration. In this way, an indicator of visibility enhancement is provided based on the concept of visibility level, commonly used in lighting engineering. Finally, the methodology is applied to contrast enhancement assessment and to the comparison of tone-mapping operators.

  6. Scope and precision of sustainability assessment approaches to food systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schader

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available With sustainability within food systems becoming an increasingly important issue, several approaches that claim to assess the sustainability of farms, farming systems, and supply chains have been developed. Looking more closely at these sustainability impact assessment approaches, we discerned considerable differences between them in terms of scope, the level of assessment, and the precision of indicators used for impact assessment. Our aim was to classify and analyze a range of available sustainability impact assessment approaches with respect to scope and precision. From a total of 35 sustainability assessment approaches, we selected 6 for a detailed comparison. From our analysis, we concluded that there are 3 different types of trade-offs in these approaches: between different kinds of scope, between different indicators for precision and trade-offs, and between the scope and precision. Thus, one-size-fits-all solutions, with respect to tool selection, are rarely feasible. Furthermore, as indicator selection determines the assessment results, different and inconsistent indicators can lead to contradictory assessment results that may not be comparable. To overcome these shortcomings, sustainability impact assessments should include a precise definition of the notion of "sustainability" along with a description of the methodological approach and the indicator sets and should aim for harmonization of indicators and assumptions. Global initiatives such as the Sustainability Assessment in Food and Agriculture Systems (SAFA Guidelines are a helpful step toward shedding light on the differences of these approaches and making the assessment results more comparable.

  7. Scope and precision of sustainability assessment approaches to food systems

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Schader; Jan Grenz; Matthias S. Meier; Matthias Stolze

    2014-01-01

    With sustainability within food systems becoming an increasingly important issue, several approaches that claim to assess the sustainability of farms, farming systems, and supply chains have been developed. Looking more closely at these sustainability impact assessment approaches, we discerned considerable differences between them in terms of scope, the level of assessment, and the precision of indicators used for impact assessment. Our aim was to classify and analyze a range of available sus...

  8. Assessing Idaho Rural Family Physician Scope of Practice Over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, David; Baker, Ed; MacKenzie, Lisa; Kinney, Logan; Epperly, Ted

    2015-01-01

    An important consideration determining health outcomes is to have an adequate supply of physicians to address the health needs of the community. The purpose of this investigation was to assess scope of practice factors for Idaho rural family physicians in 2012 and to compare these results to findings from a 2007 study. The target population in this study was rural family physicians in Idaho counties with populations of fewer than 50,000. Identical surveys and methods were utilized in both 2007 and 2012. The physician survey was mailed to 252 rural physicians and was returned by 89 for a response rate of 35.3%. Parametric and nonparametric statistical analyses were conducted to analyze the 2012 results and to assess changes in scope of practice across the time periods. The percentage of rural family physicians in Idaho in 2012 who provided prenatal care, vaginal deliveries, and nursing home care was significantly lower than the results from the 2007 survey. Female physicians were more likely to provide prenatal care and vaginal deliveries than males in 2012. Male physicians were more likely to provide emergency room coverage and esophagogastroduodenoscopy or colonoscopy services than females in 2012. Younger physicians were found to be more likely to provide inpatient admissions and mental health services in 2012 than older physicians. Employed physicians were more likely to provide cesarean delivery, other operating room services and emergency room coverage in 2012 than nonemployed physicians. Further research is needed to assess the root causes of these changes. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.

  9. 76 FR 24874 - Initiation of Scoping for an Environmental Assessment (EA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Initiation of Scoping for an Environmental Assessment (EA) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... Assessment (EA) to analyze the potential environmental impacts related to the reissuance of the National...

  10. 78 FR 68835 - Initiation of Scoping for an Environmental Assessment (EA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Initiation of Scoping for an Environmental Assessment (EA) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... Assessment (EA) to analyze the potential environmental impacts related to the reissuance of the National...

  11. Scoping review of pediatric tonsillectomy quality of life assessment instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Stephen Shih-Teng; Peters, Micah D J; Dharmawardana, Nuwan; Stew, Benjamin; Ooi, Eng Hooi

    2017-10-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing or recurrent tonsillitis have detrimental effects on the child's physical health and quality of life. Tonsillectomy is commonly performed to treat these common conditions and improve the child's quality of life. This scoping review aims to present a comprehensive and descriptive analysis of quality of life questionnaires as a resource for clinicians and researchers when deciding which tool to use when assessing the quality of life effects after tonsillectomy. A comprehensive search strategy was undertaken across MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, Embase, and Cochrane CENTRAL. Quality of life questionnaires utilized in studies investigating pediatric patients undergoing tonsillectomy for chronic tonsillitis or sleep-disordered breathing were included. Methodological quality and data extraction were conducted as per Joanna Briggs Institute methodology. Ten questionnaires were identified, consisting of six generic and four disease-specific instruments. The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory was the most commonly utilized generic questionnaire. The Obstructive Sleep Apnea-18 was the most commonly utilized disease-specific questionnaire. This review identified a range of generic and disease-specific quality of life questionnaires utilized in pediatric patients who have undergone tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy for sleep-disordered breathing or chronic tonsillitis. Important aspects of each questionnaire have been summarized to aid researchers and clinicians in choosing the appropriate questionnaire when evaluating the quality of life effects of tonsillectomy. NA Laryngoscope, 127:2399-2406, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  12. Scope of practice review: providers for triage and assessment of spine-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boakye, Omenaa; Birney, Arden; Suter, Esther; Phillips, Leah Adeline; Suen, Victoria Ym

    2016-01-01

    This study explored which health care providers could be involved in centralized intake for patients with nonspecific low back pain to enhance access, continuity, and appropriateness of care. We reviewed the scope of practice regulations for a range of health care providers. We also conducted telephone interviews with 17 individuals representing ten provincial colleges and regulatory bodies to further understand providers' legislated scopes of practice. Activities relevant to triaging and assessing patients with low back pain were mapped against professionals' scope of practice. Family physicians and nurse practitioners have the most comprehensive scopes and can complete all restricted activities for spine assessment and triage, while the scope of registered nurses and licensed practical nurses are progressively narrower. Chiropractors, occupational therapists, physiotherapists, and athletic therapists are considered experts in musculoskeletal assessments and appear best suited for musculoskeletal specific assessment and triage. Other providers may play a complementary role depending on the individual patient needs. These findings indicate that an interprofessional assessment and triage team that includes allied health professionals would be a feasible option to create a centralized intake model. Implementation of such teams would require removing barriers that currently prevent providers from delivering on their full scope of practice.

  13. UV Blocking Glass: Low Cost Filters for Visible Light Photocatalytic Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles W. Dunnill

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of commercially available art protection products have been compared and assessed for their suitability as UV blocking filters in the application of “visible light” photocatalytic research. Many groups claiming visible light photocatalytic success employ filters to block out stray UV radiation in order to justify that their photocatalysts are indeed visible light photocatalysts and not UV light photocatalysts. These filters come in varying degrees of ability and price and many authors fail to correctly characterise their filters in individual papers. The use of effective filters to prevent both false positive and false negative results is important to maintain scientific rigor and create accurate understanding of the subject. The optimum UV filter would have the highest UV blocking properties (<390 nm and simultaneously the highest visible light transmission (390–750 nm. Single and double layers of each of the glass products were assessed as well as laminate products. The conclusions show an inexpensive and highly effective setup for the conduction of visible light photochemistry that should be incorporated as a standard part in any researcher’s work where the claim of visible light activity is made.

  14. Scope and frequency of fluconazole trailing assessed using EUCAST in invasive Candida spp. isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos-Zambrano, Laura Judith; Escribano, Pilar; Sánchez-Carrillo, Carlos; Bouza, Emilio; Guinea, Jesús

    2016-10-01

    Trailing is a well-known phenomenon that is defined as reduced but persistent visible growth of Candida spp. at fluconazole concentrations above the MIC. Trailing is commonly detected using the CLSI M27-A3 method, although little is known about its frequency when investigated with EUCAST. We assessed the frequency and scope of fluconazole trailing after using EUCAST EDef 7.2. against a large number of Candida spp. isolates from patients with candidemia. We studied 639 fluconazole-susceptible non-krusei Candida spp. isolates from 570 patients admitted to Gregorio Marañón Hospital. Isolates were tested in vitro for fluconazole susceptibility according to the EUCAST EDef 7.2 procedure; trailing was defined as the presence of any residual growth in wells containing fluconazole concentrations above the MIC. According to the mean percentage of trailing observed, isolates were classified as residual trailers (0.1-5%), slight trailers (6%-10%), moderate trailers (11%-15%), and heavy trailers (>15%). The relationship between trailing and genotyping was assessed. The mean overall percentage of trailing was 6.8%, with C. albicans and C. tropicalis showing the highest percentages (9.75% and 9.29%, respectively; P 15%). Trailing was not genotype-specific. Fluconazole trailing was observed frequently when EUCAST was used for antifungal susceptibility testing, particularly in isolates of C. albicans and C. tropicalis The cut-off proposed enabled us to classify the isolates according to the degree of trailing and can be used as the basis for future studies to evaluate the clinical impact of this phenomenon. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Rapid quantitative assessment of visible injury to vegetation and visual amenity effects of fluoride air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doley, D

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative measures of visible injury are proposed for the protection of the aesthetic acceptability and health of ecosystems. Visible indications of air pollutant injury symptoms can be assessed rapidly and economically over large areas of mixed species such as native ecosystems. Reliable indication requires close attention to the criteria for assessment, species selection, and the influence of other environmental conditions on plant response to a pollutant. The estimation of fluoride-induced visible injury in dicotyledonous species may require techniques that are more varied than the measurement of necrosis in linear-leaved monocotyledons and conifers. A scheme is described for quantitative estimates of necrosis, chlorosis and deformation of leaves using an approximately geometric series of injury categories that permits rapid and sufficiently consistent determination and recognises degrees of aesthetic offence associated with foliar injury to plants.

  16. Scope of practice review: providers for triage and assessment of spine-related disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boakye O

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Omenaa Boakye,1 Arden Birney,1 Esther Suter,1 Leah Adeline Phillips,2 Victoria YM Suen3 1Workforce Research and Evaluation, Alberta Health Services, Calgary, 2College of Licensed Practical Nurses of Alberta, Edmonton, 3Addiction and Mental Health SCN, Alberta Health Services, Edmonton, AB, Canada Purpose: This study explored which health care providers could be involved in centralized intake for patients with nonspecific low back pain to enhance access, continuity, and appropriateness of care. Methods: We reviewed the scope of practice regulations for a range of health care providers. We also conducted telephone interviews with 17 individuals representing ten provincial colleges and regulatory bodies to further understand providers' legislated scopes of practice. Activities relevant to triaging and assessing patients with low back pain were mapped against professionals' scope of practice. Results: Family physicians and nurse practitioners have the most comprehensive scopes and can complete all restricted activities for spine assessment and triage, while the scope of registered nurses and licensed practical nurses are progressively narrower. Chiropractors, occupational therapists, physiotherapists, and athletic therapists are considered experts in musculoskeletal assessments and appear best suited for musculoskeletal specific assessment and triage. Other providers may play a complementary role depending on the individual patient needs. Conclusion: These findings indicate that an interprofessional assessment and triage team that includes allied health professionals would be a feasible option to create a centralized intake model. Implementation of such teams would require removing barriers that currently prevent providers from delivering on their full scope of practice. Keywords: scope of practice review, low back pain, integrated service model, centralized intake, interprofessional team

  17. Assessing values of air quality and visibility at risk from wildland fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue A. Ferguson; Steven J. McKay; David E. Nagel; Trent Piepho; Miriam L. Rorig; Casey Anderson; Lara. Kellogg

    2003-01-01

    To assess values of air quality and visibility at risk from wildland fire in the United States, we generated a 40-year database that includes twice daily values of wind, mixing height, and a ventilation index that is the product of windspeed and mixing height. The database provides the first nationally consistent map of surface wind and ventilation index. In addition,...

  18. Making Intercultural Communicative Competence and Identity-Development Visible for Assessment Purposes in Foreign Language Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Stephanie Ann

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on an action research case study conducted at a university in Japan, which explored how student identity-development can be made visible in potentially assessable ways through materials design in intercultural communicative competence (ICC)-oriented foreign language education. It suggests that identity-development can be…

  19. Making Student Thinking Visible through a Concept Map in Computer-Based Assessment of Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Yigal; Tager, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Major educational initiatives in the world place great emphasis on fostering rich computer-based environments of assessment that make student thinking and reasoning visible. Using thinking tools engages students in a variety of critical and complex thinking, such as evaluating, analyzing, and decision making. The aim of this study was to explore…

  20. Prioritizing health: a systematic approach to scoping determinants in health impact assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay McCallum

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The determinants of health are those factors that have the potential to affect health, either positively or negatively, and include a range of personal, social, economic, and environmental factors. In the practice of Health Impact Assessment (HIA, the stage at which the determinants of health are considered for inclusion is during the scoping step. The scoping step is intended to identify how the HIA will be carried out and to set the boundaries (e.g., temporal and geographical for the assessment. There are several factors that can help to inform the scoping process, many of which are considered in existing HIA tools and guidance; however, a systematic method of prioritizing determinants was found to be lacking. In order to analyze existing HIA scoping tools that are available, a systematic literature review was conducted including both primary and grey literature. A total of 10 HIA Scoping tools met the inclusion/exclusion criteria and were carried forward for comparative analysis. The analysis focused on minimum elements and practice standards of HIA scoping that have been established in the field. The analysis determined that existing approaches lack a clear, systematic method of prioritization of health determinants for inclusion in HIA. This finding led to the development of a Systematic HIA Scoping tool that addressed this gap. The decision matrix tool uses factors such as impact, public concern and data availability to prioritize health determinants. Additionally, the tool allows for identification of data gaps and provides a transparent method for budget allocation and assessment planning. In order to increase efficiency and improve utility, the tool was programmed into Microsoft Excel. Future work in the area of HIA methodology development is vital to the ongoing success of the practice and utilization of HIA as a reliable decision-making tool.

  1. Prioritizing Health: A Systematic Approach to Scoping Determinants in Health Impact Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, Lindsay C; Ollson, Christopher A; Stefanovic, Ingrid L

    2016-01-01

    The determinants of health are those factors that have the potential to affect health, either positively or negatively, and include a range of personal, social, economic, and environmental factors. In the practice of health impact assessment (HIA), the stage at which the determinants of health are considered for inclusion is during the scoping step. The scoping step is intended to identify how the HIA will be carried out and to set the boundaries (e.g., temporal and geographical) for the assessment. There are several factors that can help to inform the scoping process, many of which are considered in existing HIA tools and guidance; however, a systematic method of prioritizing determinants was found to be lacking. In order to analyze existing HIA scoping tools that are available, a systematic literature review was conducted, including both primary and gray literature. A total of 10 HIA scoping tools met the inclusion/exclusion criteria and were carried forward for comparative analysis. The analysis focused on minimum elements and practice standards of HIA scoping that have been established in the field. The analysis determined that existing approaches lack a clear, systematic method of prioritization of health determinants for inclusion in HIA. This finding led to the development of a Systematic HIA Scoping tool that addressed this gap. The decision matrix tool uses factors, such as impact, public concern, and data availability, to prioritize health determinants. Additionally, the tool allows for identification of data gaps and provides a transparent method for budget allocation and assessment planning. In order to increase efficiency and improve utility, the tool was programed into Microsoft Excel. Future work in the area of HIA methodology development is vital to the ongoing success of the practice and utilization of HIA as a reliable decision-making tool.

  2. Pain assessment tools in critical patients with oral communication difficulties: a scope review

    OpenAIRE

    Kawagoe, Camila Kaory; Matuoka, Jessica Yumi; Salvetti, Marina de Góes

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pain is a frequent experience in intensive care units and its assessment and handling are challenging to healthcare professionals. The objective of this study was to identify and analyze the available tools to assess pain in patients with oral communication difficulties in intensive care units. CONTENTS: Scope review of the literature in six databases that identified four observational tools to assess pain in critical patients: Behavioral Pain Scale, Crit...

  3. Scoping assessment on medical isotope production at the Fast Flux Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, S.W.

    1997-08-29

    The Scoping Assessment addresses the need for medical isotope production and the capability of the Fast Flux Test Facility to provide such isotopes. Included in the discussion are types of isotopes used in radiopharmaceuticals, which types of cancers are targets, and in what way isotopes provide treatment and/or pain relief for patients.

  4. Community participation in Health Impact Assessment. A scoping review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeder, den Lea; Uiters, Ellen; Have, ten Wim; Wagemakers, Annemarie; Schuit, Albertine Jantine

    2017-01-01

    Currently, the engagement of local communities in Health Impact Assessment is becoming more and more important. A scoping review was performed to take stock of visions, methods and experiences in this field. A combined Scopus and Medline search yielded 100 articles in scientific journals. The

  5. Scope Definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Owsianiak, Mikołaj; Laurent, Alexis

    2017-01-01

    The scope definition is the second phase of an LCA. It determines what product systems are to be assessed and how this assessment should take place. This chapter teaches how to perform a scope definition. First, important terminology and key concepts of LCA are introduced. Then, the nine items ma...

  6. Assessment of indoor air in Austrian apartments with and without visible mold growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, D.; Habib, J.; Galler, H.; Buzina, W.; Schlacher, R.; Marth, E.; Reinthaler, F. F.

    Fungal spores are transported across great distances in the outdoor air and are also regularly found indoors. Building conditions and behavior-related problems in apartments may lead to massive growth of mold within a very short period of time. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the visible growth of mold indoors influences the concentration of fungal spores in the air as well as the variety of their species. Samples were collected from 66 households in Austria. For each sampling, the corresponding outdoor air was measured as reference value. The size of the visible mold growth was categorized in order to correlate the extent of mold growth with the concentration of airborne spores as well as the fungal genera. In order to determine fungal spore concentrations in the air, the one-stage MAS-100 ® air sampler was used. Malt extract agar (MEA) and dichloran glycerol agar (DG18) plates were used as culture media. The total colony forming units (CFU) per m 3 were determined. The fungi were identified from the isolated colonies. The results show that in apartments visibly affected by mold, the median values were significantly higher than those of apartments without visible mold growth. The extent of visible mold growth is significantly correlated with both concentration of fungal spores ( p<0.001) as well as the predominance of Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus sp. ( p<0.001) in indoor air. The total fungal concentration of Penicillium and Aspergillus in the air of apartments is recommended for assessing fungal exposure.

  7. Scope Definition on End-of-Life Chain Performance Assessment: Recycling Rate and French E-Waste Chain Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    ARDUIN, Rachel Horta; LEAL, Jorge Martinez; GRIMAUD, Guilhem; CHARBUILLET, Carole; Pompidou, Stéphane; LARATTE, Bertrand; PERRY, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Efficiency indicators have been frequently used to assess end-of-life chain performance. While legislations give a standard definition, sometimes stakeholders redefine them to fit their own scopes and objectives. It is therefore necessary to fully understand the indicators calculation scope in order to accurately interpret the results during a decision-making process. This work discusses the influence of scope definition when establishing performance rates using the Fr...

  8. Effect of extended scope physiotherapists assessments in orthopaedic diagnostic setting: a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trøstrup, Jeanette; Juhl, Carsten Bogh; Mikkelsen, Lone Ramer

    2017-01-01

    orthopaedic clinic where a diagnostic assessment had been conducted by an ESP. Data extraction Data were extracted using a customised data extraction sheet. Two reviewers using checklists evaluated methodological independently. Results We included one randomised controlled trial and 31 observational studies...... and satisfaction. However, the methodological quality was generally too low to determine the clear effectiveness of ESP assessment, and more high quality studies are needed.......Background Patients with musculoskeletal diseases can potentially be assessed by an extended scope physiotherapist (ESP) instead of by an orthopaedic surgeon (OS). Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of the diagnostic musculoskeletal assessment performed by ESP compared to OS. Data sources...

  9. Quantitative assessment of perceived visibility enhancement with image processing for single face images: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Ming; Leat, Susan J

    2009-09-01

    To develop a method to quantitatively assess the visibility enhancement of single face images gained with digital filters for people with maculopathy. To apply this method to obtaining preliminary results of visibility enhancement with subjectively preferred filters for people with maculopathy. Six subjects with normal vision and two with maculopathy were required to recognize seven facial expressions of single face images with different display durations of 2 seconds, 1 second, and 0.73 second. As a result, four facial expressions (anger, disgust, fear, and sadness) and a display duration of 0.73 second were chosen to measure single face image visibility enhancement with subjectively preferred digital filters. Finally, nine subjects with maculopathy viewed 30 images with four facial expressions that were either unfiltered or filtered with subjectively preferred digital filters. Each subject was required to identify the facial expression in a four-alternative, forced-choice paradigm. The errors with original and filtered images were calculated. The method with four facial expressions and display duration of 0.73 second prevented a ceiling effect. The nine subjects with maculopathy made significantly fewer errors with the filtered images than with the original ones images (P = 0.004). The developed method was effective in objective (quantitative) measurement of the enhancement in image visibility with digital filtering for people with maculopathy. There is a measurable improvement in facial expression recognition with subjectively preferred filters. The facial expression recognition task developed and validated in the present study is recommended as a method to be used in future studies of enhancement of face images.

  10. Scope Definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Owsianiak, Mikołaj; Laurent, Alexis

    2017-01-01

    making up a scope definition are elaborately explained: (1) Deliverables. (2) Object of assessment, (3) LCI modelling framework and handling of multifunctional processes, (4) System boundaries and completeness requirements, (5) Representativeness of LCI data, (6) Preparing the basis for the impact...... assessment, (7) Special requirements for system comparisons, (8) Critical review needs and (9) Planning reporting of results. The instructions relate both to the performance and reporting of a scope definition and are largely based on ILCD.......The scope definition is the second phase of an LCA. It determines what product systems are to be assessed and how this assessment should take place. This chapter teaches how to perform a scope definition. First, important terminology and key concepts of LCA are introduced. Then, the nine items...

  11. 76 FR 44603 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment and Scoping for an Evaluation of Alternatives To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... National Park Service Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment and Scoping for an Evaluation of... Assessment (EA) for an evaluation of alternatives to revitalize the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial....140) state that an `` * * * environmental assessment prepared in support of an individual proposed...

  12. Sensorimotor interventions and assessments for the hand and wrist: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes, Kristin; Naughton, Nancy; Algar, Lori

    2014-01-01

    Scoping review. Sensorimotor deficits can impair function and may be present in individuals with common upper extremity conditions. To provide clinicians with an understanding of the usefulness of the assessments to evaluate sensorimotor function and the interventions reported in the literature to effect positive change in our patients with sensorimotor deficits affecting the hand and wrist. A systematic search produced seventeen studies involving sensorimotor retraining and assessment of sensorimotor performance for the upper extremity. Sensorimotor interventions and assessments found in the literature vary in regards to their effectiveness in restoring sensorimotor function in subjects with a number of conditions that affect hand and wrist function. There is a potential value of sensorimotor interventions for individuals with specific upper extremity conditions. There is a need for further studies to improve treatment of sensorimotor deficits and understanding of sensorimotor interventions. Copyright © 2014 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of knowledge and skills in information literacy instruction for rehabilitation sciences students: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boruff, Jill T; Harrison, Pamela

    2018-01-01

    This scoping review investigates how knowledge and skills are assessed in the information literacy (IL) instruction for students in physical therapy, occupational therapy, or speech-language pathology, regardless of whether the instruction was given by a librarian. The objectives were to discover what assessment measures were used, determine whether these assessment methods were tested for reliability and validity, and provide librarians with guidance on assessment methods to use in their instruction in evidence-based practice contexts. A scoping review methodology was used. A systematic search strategy was run in Ovid MEDLINE and adapted for CINAHL; EMBASE; Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) (EBSCO); Library and Information Science Abstracts (LISA); Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts (LISTA); and Proquest Theses and Dissertations from 1990 to January 16, 2017. Forty articles were included for data extraction. Three major themes emerged: types of measures used, type and context of librarian involvement, and skills and outcomes described. Thirty-four measures of attitude and thirty-seven measures of performance were identified. Course products were the most commonly used type of performance measure. Librarians were involved in almost half the studies, most frequently as instructor, but also as author or assessor. Information literacy skills such as question formulation and database searching were described in studies that did not involve a librarian. Librarians involved in instructional assessment can use rubrics such as the Valid Assessment of Learning in Undergraduate Education (VALUE) when grading assignments to improve the measurement of knowledge and skills in course-integrated IL instruction. The Adapted Fresno Test could be modified to better suit the real-life application of IL knowledge and skills.

  14. Receptive and expressive English language assessments used for young children: a scoping review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Laureen J; Hellsten, Laurie-Ann M; Bidonde, Julia; Boden, Catherine; Doi, Carolyn

    2017-04-04

    The majority of a child's language development occurs in the first 5 years of life when brain development is most rapid. There are significant long-term benefits to supporting all children's language and literacy development such as maximizing their developmental potential (i.e., cognitive, linguistic, social-emotional), when children are experiencing a critical period of development (i.e., early childhood to 9 years of age). A variety of people play a significant role in supporting children's language development, including parents, guardians, family members, educators, and/or speech-language pathologists. Speech-language pathologists and educators are the professionals who predominantly support children's language development in order for them to become effective communicators and lay the foundation for later developing literacy skills (i.e., reading and writing skills). Therefore, these professionals need formal and informal assessments that provide them information on a child's understanding and/or use of the increasingly complex aspects of language in order to identify and support the receptive and expressive language learning needs of diverse children during their early learning experiences (i.e., aged 1.5 to 9 years). However, evidence on what methods and tools are being used is lacking. The authors will carry out a scoping review of the literature to identify studies and map the receptive and expressive English language assessment methods and tools that have been published and used since 1980. Arksey and O'Malley's (2005) six-stage approach to conducting a scoping review was drawn upon to design the protocol for this investigation: (1) identifying the research question; (2) identifying relevant studies; (3) study selection; (4) charting the data; (5) collating, summarizing, and reporting the results; and (6) consultation. This information will help these professionals identify and select appropriate assessment methods or tools that can be used to support

  15. Paddy soil nutrient assessment using visible and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholizadeh, A.; Saberioon, M. M.; Amin, M. S. M.

    The ability of obtaining soil properties estimations from time and cost efficient remotely sensed techniques has been identified as a valuable technique as there is a great demand for larger amounts of good quality and inexpensive soil data to be used in environmental monitoring, modelling and precision agriculture. Visible (Vis) and Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy provides a good alternative that may be used to enhance or replace conventional methods of soil analysis. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the abilities of Vis (350-700 nm) and near infrared (700-2500 nm) for prediction of soil nutrients. In this instance we implemented Savitzky-Golay algorithm and Stepwise Multiple Linear Regression (SMLR) to construct calibration models. The soil nutrients examined were soil Total Nitrogen (N), Available Phosphorus (P) and Exchangeable Potassium (K). Our results revealed the accuracy of SMLR prediction in each of the Vis and NIR spectral regions. The NIR produced more accurate predictions for N and K; however, higher significant correlation was obtained using the Vis for available P. This work demonstrated Vis and NIR spectroscopy could be considered as a good tool to assess soil nutrients in Malaysian paddy fields.

  16. External Cooling of the BWR Mark I and II Drywell Head as a Potential Accident Mitigation Measure – Scoping Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robb, Kevin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    This report documents a scoping assessment of a potential accident mitigation action applicable to the US fleet of boiling water reactors with Mark I and II containments. The mitigation action is to externally flood the primary containment vessel drywell head using portable pumps or other means. A scoping assessment of the potential benefits of this mitigation action was conducted focusing on the ability to (1) passively remove heat from containment, (2) prevent or delay leakage through the drywell head seal (due to high temperatures and/or pressure), and (3) scrub radionuclide releases if the drywell head seal leaks.

  17. An assessment of the visibility of MeSH-indexed medical web catalogs through search engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweigenbaum, P; Darmoni, S J; Grabar, N; Douyère, M; Benichou, J

    2002-01-01

    Manually indexed Internet health catalogs such as CliniWeb or CISMeF provide resources for retrieving high-quality health information. Users of these quality-controlled subject gateways are most often referred to them by general search engines such as Google, AltaVista, etc. This raises several questions, among which the following: what is the relative visibility of medical Internet catalogs through search engines? This study addresses this issue by measuring and comparing the visibility of six major, MeSH-indexed health catalogs through four different search engines (AltaVista, Google, Lycos, Northern Light) in two languages (English and French). Over half a million queries were sent to the search engines; for most of these search engines, according to our measures at the time the queries were sent, the most visible catalog for English MeSH terms was CliniWeb and the most visible one for French MeSH terms was CISMeF.

  18. The inclusion of migrants in health impact assessments: A scoping review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benkhalti Jandu, Maria, E-mail: mbenkhal@uottawa.ca [University of Ottawa, Institute of Population Health, 1 Stewart Street, Suite 201, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Canuto de Medeiros, Bruno, E-mail: aporo@hotmail.com [University of Ottawa, Institute of Population Health, 1 Stewart Street, Suite 201, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Bourgeault, Ivy, E-mail: Ivy.Bourgeault@uottawa.ca [University of Ottawa, Interdisciplinary School of Health Sciences, 1 Stewart Street, Suite 207, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Tugwell, Peter, E-mail: Tugwell.BB@uottawa.ca [University of Ottawa, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, K1H 8M5 Ottawa (Canada); Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Clinical Epidemiology Program, K1Y 4E9 Ottawa (Canada); University of Ottawa, Department of Epidemiology and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, K1H 8M5 Ottawa (Canada); Institute of Population Health, University of Ottawa, K1N 6N5 Ottawa (Canada)

    2015-01-15

    This article reports the findings of a scoping review assessing the extent and ways in which migrants have been included in health impact assessments (HIAs) and HIA evaluations worldwide. A total of 117 HIAs and two HIA evaluations were included. Only 14% of hand-searched HIAs mentioned migrants, 5% analysed migrants and only 2% included them in their recommendations. Nonetheless, migrants would be expected to be part of the analysis based on the reasons for which migrants were most commonly mentioned. Although the majority of HIAs included in the review mentioned migrants in baseline conditions and impact analysis steps, migrants were seldom included in recommendations. Furthermore, the use of frameworks or tools guiding the completion of an HIA was negatively associated with the inclusion of migrants in recommendations. This is a pivotal risk of frameworks not mentioning migrants. Although workshops and stakeholder engagement were a frequent way of including migrants in HIAs, this usually involved organizations representing migrants, and only seldom included members of the migrant community themselves. The main barriers to including migrants in the HIA impact analysis were the lack of available data on migrants and the significant additional resources required to gather and analyse additional data on migrants. Guidance is needed on ways to optimally include migrants in HIAs and ensure that recommendations for mitigation measures are optimal. - Highlights: • Scoping review found 14% of hand-searched HIAs mentioned migrants • Migrants are seldom mentioned in recommendations even when analysed • Guiding frameworks can hinder the inclusion of migrants if not explicitly mentioned • Often migrants organizations are the ones included in engagement • Main barriers to including migrants are available data and resources required.

  19. Analysis of visible and near infrared spectral reflectance for assessing metals in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, Paresh H; Müller, Ingo; Van der Meer, Freek D; de Smeth, Boudewijn

    2015-10-01

    Visible and near infrared reflectance (VNIR; 350-2500 nm) spectroscopy has greatly been used in soils, especially for studying variability in spectrally active soil components (e.g., organic carbon, clays, and Fe/Al oxides) based on their diagnostic spectral features. In recent years, this technique has also been applied to assess soil metallic ions. In this research, the feasibility of VNIR spectroscopy for determination of soil metals was investigated with two soil data sets: (i) artificially metal-spiked and (ii) in situ metal-contaminated soils. Results showed that reflectance spectra of neither metal-spiked soils with Cd, As, and Pb even at their higher concentrations of 20, 900, and 1200 mg kg(-1), respectively, nor in situ metal-contaminated soils (with concentrations of 30 mg Cd, 3019 mg As, and 5725 mg Pb kg(-1) soil) showed any recognized absorption peaks that correspond to soil metal concentrations. We observed variations in reflectance intensity for in situ metal-contaminated soils only, showing higher reflectance across the entire spectrum for strongly and lower for less metal-contaminated soils. A significant correlation was found between surface soil metals' concentrations and continuum removed spectra, while soil metals were also found significantly associated with soil organic matter and total Fe. A partial least square regression with cross-validation approach produced an acceptable prediction of metals (R (2) = 0.58-0.94) for both soil data sets, metal-spiked and in situ metal-contaminated soils. However, high values of root mean square error ruled out practical application of the achieved prediction models.

  20. Assessing market competition and vendors' size and scope on AlphaBay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquet-Clouston, Masarah; Décary-Hétu, David; Morselli, Carlo

    2018-01-30

    Since 2011, drug market participants have traded illegal drugs through cryptomarkets, a user-friendly infrastructure in which drug market participants can conduct business transactions. This study assesses market competition and the size and scope of drug vendors' activities on one of the largest cryptomarkets, AlphaBay, in order to better understand the challenges that drug vendors face when selling on this venue. Relying on data collected from AlphaBay, we calculate the degree of competition within the drug market using the Herfindhal-Hirshmann Index (HHI). We then follow a micro analytical approach and assess the size and scope of vendors' accounts. This is done by evaluating each vendor's market share over time using a group-based trajectory model (GBTM). Results from the GBTM are then used to assess vendors' exposure, diversity and experience based on their selling position in the market. The HHI scores demonstrate that cryptomarkets offer a highly competitive environment that fits in a top-heavy market structure. However, the distribution of vendors' market share trajectories shows that only a small portion of vendors (referred to as high-level vendors) succeed in generating regular sales, whereas the majority of vendors are relegated to being mere market spectators with almost zero sales. This inequality is exacerbated by the aggressive advertising of high-level vendors who post many listings. Overall, product diversity and experience is limited for all market participants regardless of their level of success. We interpret these results through Reuter's work on traditional illegal markets, e-commerce studies and the growing field of cryptomarket research. We conclude that, while offering a new venue for illegal drug transactions, in many ways, the economics of cryptomarkets for drug dealing are consistent with Reuter's classic assessment of illegal markets and the consequences of product illegality that underlie it. Cryptomarkets conflicting features, a

  1. Scoping assessment of groundwater doses to biota at the Sellafield site, UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, P.; Gleizon, P.; Coleman, I.A.; Watts, S.J.; Batlle, L.V.; Smith, A.D.

    2008-07-01

    In the current climate of investigating the impact of discharges from the nuclear industry on non-human biota, much attention has been given to biota in marine and terrestrial environments in receipt of authorised discharges of liquid and gaseous effluent. Relatively little attention to date has been given to the exposure of biota to groundwater containing man-made radio-nuclides. This area of interest is growing especially in the field of nuclear waste repositories. A scoping assessment has been performed here to determine the impacts due to radiological contamination on organisms living within or coming into contact with groundwater at the Sellafield site, UK. The following potential exposure routes to biota were identified: 1) Organisms living within groundwater; 2) Groundwater discharges to the surface at beach springs (i.e. emerging above the low water line; 3) Groundwater discharges to nearby surface water bodies (e.g. rivers); 4) Groundwater discharges directly to the Irish Sea.. In order to evaluate impacts on organisms living within, contacting or ingesting groundwater, it was necessary to determine the activity concentration of radio-nuclides in the groundwater. For time periods up to 2120, modeling of contaminant release from in-ground inventories and transport in groundwater was carried out for this scoping study using a relatively simple assessment methodology with the MONDRIAN modeling suite. Screening assessments of radiological impacts upon wildlife have been performed for liquid discharges to groundwater from the Sellafield Ltd reprocessing plant at Sellafield, Cumbria. Impacts have been considered for biota at sites within reach of the groundwater flow network. Most calculated total weighted absorbed doses appear to be of no radiological significance whatsoever in relation to the new Environment Agency freshwater ecosystem trigger level (40 microGy h-1), thereby obviating the need to conduct further investigations. The one exception to this is for

  2. A Nationwide Assessment of the Scope and Impact of Agricultural Leadership Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, Jonathan J.; McKim, Aaron J.; Moore, Lori L.; Stephens, Carrie A.

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural leadership education is an important component of agricultural education programs across the country; yet, a national study of the scope and types of programs offered has not been conducted since 2003. The purpose of the current study was to provide national and timely data regarding the scope and type of opportunities offered in…

  3. [Challenges for clinical trials in oncology within the scope of early benefit assessment of drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Until May 31, 2015 the German Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) conducted 108 assessments for various diseases on the basis of 103 dossiers within the scope of the early benefit assessment of drugs pursuant to the Act on the Reform of the Market for Medicinal Products (AMNOG). 29 of these assessments (28 dossiers) referred to advanced stages of oncologic (including neoplastic-hematologic) diseases. In 21 of these 29 assessments (72%), IQWiG found an added benefit for at least one subpopulation or subgroup, compared to 33% with non-oncologic diseases. For oncologic diseases, the extent of benefit was classified as "major" in six assessments (21%), compared to 5% for non-oncologic disorders. In contrast, the conclusions of the oncologic studies were less certain: only one assessment provided proof (of an added benefit); for non-oncologic diseases, this was the case in eight assessments. A distinctive methodological feature of the available oncologic studies is that, as a rule, treatment switching was planned in the event of progression (normally on the basis of imaging or laboratory findings) and that shortly afterwards the follow-up of important endpoints (adverse events and patient-reported outcomes) was normally discontinued. In particular, the pre-specified option in the study protocol allowing the control group to switch treatment to the experimental intervention after progression ("protocol-permitted treatment switches") makes it extremely difficult to interpret the results beyond the outcome "progression" (or progression-free survival). This treatment switching is mostly justified by reference to ethical necessity. This, however, alleges that the experimental intervention (i. e., the new drug) is superior to the control intervention, which means that circular reasoning is unavoidable. But despite this, oncologic studies are better than their reputation. Hence, so far the results of the early benefit assessment of new drugs (regarding

  4. Intraoperative assessment of microperfusion with visible light spectroscopy for prediction of anastomotic leakage in colorectal anastomoses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karliczek, A.; Benaron, D. A.; Baas, P. C.; Zeebregts, C. J.; Wiggers, T.; van Dam, G. M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Anastomotic leakage is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. However, there is no accurate tool to predict its occurrence. We evaluated the predictive value of visible light spectroscopy (VLS), a novel method to measure tissue oxygenation [saturated O(2) (StO(2))], for

  5. Development of an Assessment Method for Building Materials Under Euratom Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de With, Govert

    2017-11-01

    In 2013, the European Commission published its basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionizing radiation (Council Directive 2013/59/Euratom)-also known as EU-BSS. As a result, the use of raw materials with potentially elevated activity concentrations such as fly ash, phosphogypsum, and slags will now fall under EU-BSS scope when applied in building materials. In light of this new policy, a variety of tools are available to assess compliance with the 1-mSv y reference level for building materials. At the heart of these tools is a gamma-spectrometric determination of the naturally occurring radionuclides Ra, Th, and K in the material of concern. As a large number of construction products contain a certain amount of the raw material that falls under the scope of the EU regulation, this policy will lead to substantial measurement of building materials that pose little radiation risk. For this reason, a method is developed to enable assessment against the 1-mSv value not on the basis of gamma-spectrometric analysis but rather based on the product's material composition. The proposed method prescribes a maximum permitted content of raw materials with potentially elevated activity concentrations in terms of a weight percentage of the end product, where the raw materials of concern are defined as those listed in Annex XIII of the EU-BSS. The permitted content is a function of the product's surface density. Therefore, a product with a low surface density of up to 25 kg m can consist of nearly 100% raw materials with potentially elevated activity concentrations, and this percentage drops to around 15% for products with a surface density of around 500 kg m. Building materials that comply with these requirements on product composition are exempt from testing, while products that do not comply must perform regular gamma-spectrometric analysis. A full validation and testing of the method is provided. In addition, the paper discusses

  6. A scoping review of bereavement risk assessment measures: Implications for palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealey, Margaret; Breen, Lauren J; O'Connor, Moira; Aoun, Samar M

    2015-07-01

    Palliative care standards and policies recommend that bereavement support be provided to family caregivers, yet uncertainty surrounds whether support currently offered by palliative care services throughout developed countries meets caregiver needs. The public health model of bereavement support, which aligns bereavement support needs with intervention, may address this gap between policy and practice. The aim was to review the literature to identify bereavement risk assessment measures appropriate for different points in the caring and bereavement trajectories, evaluate their psychometric properties and assess feasibility for use in palliative care. A scoping review was systematically undertaken following Arksey and O'Malley's methodological framework. PsycINFO, CINAHL, PubMed and Cochrane Reviews databases, as well as grey literature including Internet searches of Google, World Health Organization, CareSearch, the Grey Literature Report and OAIster were searched. Bereavement organisations and palliative care websites, reference lists in obtained articles and grief and bereavement handbooks were also scrutinised. Of 3142 records screened, 356 records yielded 70 grief measures. In all, 19 measures published between 1982 and 2014 were identified for inclusion in this review, and categorised for use with family caregivers at three points in time - before the patient's death (n = 5), in the period following the death (n = 10) and for screening of prolonged or complex grief (n = 4). The majority had acceptable psychometric properties; feasibility for use in palliative care varied substantially. This review is an important preliminary step in improving the assessment of bereavement risk and, consequently, better bereavement outcomes for palliative care family caregivers. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. A multi-centre, prospective, clinical in-market evaluation to assess the performance of Opsite™ Post-Op Visible dressings.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, Gillian

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the performance of Opsite™ Post-Op Visible as a post-surgical dressing in a typical clinical setting. In this multi-centre clinical evaluation, patients who underwent clean surgery were treated with Opsite Post-Op Visible dressing. Duration of dressing wear, visibility through the dressing and ability to handle exudate were assessed and the product was rated in comparison with those normally used. A total of 64 patients were recruited. Mean wear time was 4·5 days. Exudate management was rated very good or good at 96% of assessments. Visibility of the incision site was rated as very good or good at 72%, and as acceptable at 24%, of assessments. Patient comfort was rated very comfortable (63%) or comfortable (37%) at all assessments. Dressings were generally rated as satisfactory or exceeding expectations with clinicians stating that the Opsite Post-Op Visible dressing was better than the dressing they routinely used for 92% of patients. Opsite Post-Op Visible dressing is an innovative dressing combining good visibility with exudate management and patient comfort. It was found to have adequate wear time, visibility and exudate management properties making it suitable for use on a variety of surgical incision sites.

  8. Visible spectroscopy as a tool for the assessment of storage conditions of fresh pork packaged in modified atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanos, Dimitrios; Christensen, Mette; Ann Tørngren, Mari

    2016-01-01

    The storage conditions of fresh meat are known to impact its colour and microbial shelf life. In the present study, visible spectroscopy was evaluated as a method to assess meat storage conditions and its optimisation. Fresh pork steaks (longissimus thoracis et lumborum and semimembranosus) were...... placed in modified atmosphere packaging using gas mixtures containing 0, 40, 50, and 80% oxygen, and stored with or without light for up to 9days. Principal component analysis of visible reflectance spectra (400-700nm) showed that the colour of the different meat cuts was affected by presence of oxygen......, illumination, and storage time. Differences in the oxygen levels did not contribute to the observed variance. Predictive models based on partial least squares regression-discriminant analysis exhibited high potency in the classification of the storage parameters of meat cuts packaged in modified atmosphere...

  9. Assessing soil water repellency of a sandy field with visible near infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knadel, Maria; Masís Meléndez, Federico; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen

    2016-01-01

    Soil water repellency (WR) is a widespread phenomenon caused by aggregated organic matter (OM) and layers of hydrophobic organic substances coating the surface of soil particles. These substances have a very low surface free energy, reducing a soil's water attraction. There is focus on WR due...... to its effects on germination, root growth, liquid-vapour dynamics, surface erosion and leaching of chemicals through fingered flow paths. However, common techniques for measuring WR are time-consuming and expensive. Meanwhile, it is well established that visible near infrared (vis-NIR) spectroscopy...... models (r2 = 0.85) were generated for WR. The majority of bands important in the vis-NIR region of WR models were related to different components of OM indicating that, across the investigated field, WR was related to specific hydrophobic components of soil OM rather than to the total amount of carbon...

  10. Updates to Information Presented in the Scope and Methods Plans for the Ozone NAAQS Health and Welfare Risk and Exposure Assessments, May 2012 Memo

    Science.gov (United States)

    This memorandum provides an overview of changes to the scope and methods plan, and reasons for them, to inform the CASAC Ozone Panel and the public as they prepare to review the first drafts of the Risk and Exposure Assessments.

  11. Assessing the Scope and Feasibility of First-Year Students' Research Paper Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinto, Erin; Bowles-Terry, Melissa; Santos, Ariel J.

    2016-01-01

    This study applied a content analysis methodology in two ways to evaluate first-year students' research topics: a rubric to examine proposed topics in terms of scope, development, and the "researchability" of the topic, as well as textual analysis, using ATLAS.ti, to provide an overview of the types of subjects students select for a…

  12. Considerations on Visible Light Communication security by applying the Risk Matrix methodology for risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabadan, Jose; Perez-Jimenez, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    Visible Light Communications (VLC) is a cutting edge technology for data communication that is being considered to be implemented in a wide range of applications such as Inter-vehicle communication or Local Area Network (LAN) communication. As a novel technology, some aspects of the implementation of VLC have not been deeply considered or tested. Among these aspects, security and its implementation may become an obstacle for VLCs broad usage. In this article, we have used the well-known Risk Matrix methodology to determine the relative risk that several common attacks have in a VLC network. Four examples: a War Driving, a Queensland alike Denial of Service, a Preshared Key Cracking, and an Evil Twin attack, illustrate the utilization of the methodology over a VLC implementation. The used attacks also covered the different areas delimited by the attack taxonomy used in this work. By defining and determining which attacks present a greater risk, the results of this work provide a lead into which areas should be invested to increase the safety of VLC networks. PMID:29186184

  13. Proton radiation damage assessment of a CCD for use in a Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, J. P. D.; Mason, J.; Leese, M.; Hathi, B.; Patel, M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the radiation environment and radiation damage analysis performed for the Nadir and Occultation for MArs Discovery (NOMAD) Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVIS) channel launched onboard the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) in 2016. The aim of the instrument is to map the temporal and spatial variation of trace gases such as ozone and dust/cloud aerosols in the atmosphere of Mars. The instrument consists of a set of two miniature telescope viewing optics which allow for selective input onto the optical bench, where an e2v technologies CCD30-11 will be used as the detector. A Geometry Description Markup Language model of the spacecraft and instrument box was created and through the use of ESA's SPace ENVironment Information System (SPENVIS) an estimate of the 10 MeV equivalent proton fluence was made at a number of radiation sensitive regions within NOMAD, including that of the CCD30-11 which is the focus of this paper. The end of life 10 MeV equivalent proton fluence at the charge coupled device was estimated to be 4.7 × 109 protons.cm-2 three devices were irradiated at different levels up a 10 MeV equivalent fluence of 9.4 × 109 protons.cm-2. The dark current, charge transfer inefficiency, charge storage, and cosmetic quality of the devices was investigated pre- and post-irradiation, determining that the devices will continue to provide excellent science throughout the mission.

  14. UV-Visible Spectroscopic Method and Models for Assessment and Monitoring of Harmful Algal Blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, B. Greg

    2000-01-01

    The development of an enhanced predictive and early warning capability for the occurrence and impact of harmful algal blooms (HABs) would be of great benefit to coastal communities. A critical issue for early detection and monitoring of HABs is the need to detect harmful algal species within a mixed-species phytoplankton assemblage. Possession of UV-absorbing compounds called mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) may be one factor that allows HAB species to out-compete their phytoplankton neighbors. Possession of MAAs, which we believe can be inferred from strong UV-absorption signals in phytoplankton absorption coefficients, can be used as a flag for potential HAB outbreak. The goal of this project was to develop a solar simulating UV-visible incubator to grow HAB dinoflagellates, to begin MAA analysis of samples collected on global cruises, and to carry out initial experiments on HAB dinoflagellate species in pure culture. Our scientific objectives are to quantify MAA production and spectral induction mechanisms in HAB species, to characterize spectral absorption of MAAs, and to define the ecological benefit of MAAs (i.e. photoprotection). Data collected on cruises to the global oceans will be used to parameterize phytoplankton absorption in the UV region, and this parameterization could be incorporated into existing models of seawater optical properties in the UV spectral region. Data collected in this project were used for graduate fellowship applications by Elizabeth Frame. She has been awarded an EPA STAR fellowship to continue the work initiated by this project.

  15. Visibility and Citation Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahim, Nader Ale; Salehi, Hadi; Embi, Mohamed Amin; Tanha, Farid Habibi; Gholizadeh, Hossein; Motahar, Seyed Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The number of publications is the first criteria for assessing a researcher output. However, the main measurement for author productivity is the number of citations, and citations are typically related to the paper's visibility. In this paper, the relationship between article visibility and the number of citations is investigated. A case study of…

  16. Detailed assessment of diesel spray atomization models using visible and X-ray extinction measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnotti, G.M.; Genzale, C.L. (GIT)

    2017-12-01

    The physical mechanisms characterizing the breakup of a diesel spray into droplets are still unknown. This gap in knowledge has largely been due to the challenges of directly imaging this process or quantitatively measuring the outcomes of spray breakup, such as droplet size. Recent x-ray measurements by Argonne National Laboratory, utilized in this work, provide needed information about the spatial evolution of droplet sizes in selected regions of the spray under a range of injection pressures (50–150 MPa) and ambient densities (7.6–22.8 kg/m3) relevant for diesel operating conditions. Ultra-small angle x-ray scattering (USAXS) measurements performed at the Advanced Photon Source are presented, which quantify Sauter mean diameters (SMD) within optically thick regions of the spray that are inaccessible by conventional droplet sizing measurement techniques, namely in the near-nozzle region, along the spray centerline, and within the core of the spray. To quantify droplet sizes along the periphery of the spray, a complementary technique is proposed and introduced, which leverages the ratio of path-integrated x-ray and visible laser extinction (SAMR) measurements to quantify SMD. The SAMR and USAXS measurements are then utilized to evaluate current spray models used for engine computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations. We explore the ability of a carefully calibrated spray model, premised on aerodynamic wave growth theory, to capture the experimentally observed trends of SMD throughout the spray. The spray structure is best predicted with an aerodynamic primary and secondary breakup process that is represented with a slower time constant and larger formed droplet size than conventionally recommended for diesel spray models. Additionally, spray model predictions suggest that droplet collisions may not influence the resultant droplet size distribution along the spray centerline in downstream regions of the spray.

  17. An epidemiological assessment of stomatal ozone flux-based critical levels for visible ozone injury in Southern European forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sicard, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.sicard@acri-he.fr [ACRI-HE, 260 route du Pin Montard, BP 234, 06904 Sophia Antipolis cedex (France); De Marco, Alessandra [ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development), 76, Lungotevere Thaon de Revel, Rome (Italy); Dalstein-Richier, Laurence [GIEFS (Groupe International d' Etudes des Forêts Sud-européennes), 60, Avenue des Hespérides, 06300 Nice (France); Tagliaferro, Francesco [IPLA (Istituto per le Piante da Legno e l‘Ambiente), Corso Casale 476, 10132 Turin (Italy); Renou, Camille [ACRI-HE, 260 route du Pin Montard, BP 234, 06904 Sophia Antipolis cedex (France); Paoletti, Elena [IPSP-CNR (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche — Istituto per la Protezione Sostenibile delle Piante), Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Florence) (Italy)

    2016-01-15

    Southern forests are at the highest ozone (O{sub 3}) risk in Europe where ground-level O{sub 3} is a pressing sanitary problem for ecosystem health. Exposure-based standards for protecting vegetation are not representative of actual field conditions. A biologically-sound stomatal flux-based standard has been proposed, although critical levels for protection still need to be validated. This innovative epidemiological assessment of forest responses to O{sub 3} was carried out in 54 plots in Southeastern France and Northwestern Italy in 2012 and 2013. Three O{sub 3} indices, namely the accumulated exposure AOT40, and the accumulated stomatal flux with and without an hourly threshold of uptake (POD1 and POD0) were compared. Stomatal O{sub 3} fluxes were modeled (DO3SE) and correlated to measured forest-response indicators, i.e. crown defoliation, crown discoloration and visible foliar O{sub 3} injury. Soil water content, a key variable affecting the severity of visible foliar O{sub 3} injury, was included in DO3SE. Based on flux–effect relationships, we developed species-specific flux-based critical levels (CLef) for forest protection against visible O{sub 3} injury. For O{sub 3} sensitive conifers, CLef of 19 mmol m{sup −2} for Pinus cembra (high O{sub 3} sensitivity) and 32 mmol m{sup −2} for Pinus halepensis (moderate O{sub 3} sensitivity) were calculated. For broadleaved species, we obtained a CLef of 25 mmol m{sup −2} for Fagus sylvatica (moderate O{sub 3} sensitivity) and of 19 mmol m{sup −2} for Fraxinus excelsior (high O{sub 3} sensitivity). We showed that an assessment based on PODY and on real plant symptoms is more appropriated than the concentration-based method. Indeed, POD0 was better correlated with visible foliar O{sub 3} injury than AOT40, whereas AOT40 was better correlated with crown discoloration and defoliation (aspecific indicators). To avoid an underestimation of the real O{sub 3} uptake, we recommend the use of POD0 calculated for

  18. Assessment of the severity of visible blood in the stool using a cluster of neonatal cases -a quality improvement study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S; Suresh, G S; Paes, B; Shivananda, S

    2015-01-01

    Non-availability of an established validated tool to assess and monitor the severity of visible blood in a stool (VBS) specimen over time, prevents effective decision making about discontinuation of contact precautions and hospital discharge. To determine the impact of implementing a VBS investigation, parent apprisal template and Visible Blood in the Stool -Assessment Tool (VBS-AT) on standardized reporting and the evaluation of clinical improvement. A prospective quality improvement cohort study was conducted in a tertiary, neonatal unit. All infants with isolated VBS without clinical signs, radiological pneumatosis and abnormal laboratory results were included. The template and VBS-AT instrument were implemented at the bedside. Criteria for discontinuation of contact precautions and readiness for discharge home were defined apriori. Eight infants developed VBS during the cluster lasting ten days. Seventy-four (78%) of the 98 episodes were graded by the VBS-AT. Five of the six infants had a maximum VBS grade of 3. The duration of VBS and contact precautions ranged from 4-38 days. All six infants with a VBS grade ≤2 for 4 consecutive days did not deteriorate beyond grade ≥3 or develop gastrointestinal complications during the ten week period following the end of the cluster. Consistent objective reporting of the severity of VBS and consistent evaluation of infants' progress over time contained the cluster effectively and facilitated discharge of stable infants. Implementation of a tool to standardize, investigate and objectively monitor the severity of VBS is feasible and improves effectiveness of care at no extra cost.

  19. Being visible: PhotoVoice as assessment for children in a school-based psychiatric setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Vanessa; Lambert, Heather Christine; Park, Melissa

    2017-05-01

    Recovery-oriented mental health services empower all clients, including youth and their families, to be actively involved in directing their own care. In order to develop person-driven interventions, clinicians must understand what matters from their perspective. Thus, recovery-oriented assessments need self-report measures that adequately capture the domains and content that matter to a range of particular persons. This study examined if and how PhotoVoice, a participatory research method used to empower and highlight the unique experiences of vulnerable groups, could be used as a recovery-oriented self-report measure for children with a mental health disorder. We used PhotoVoice to engage four children with mental health related disorders at a day hospital program for severe behavioural disorders. The children, as co-researchers in this participatory approach, created life books from photographs and images of what mattered to them across nine sessions. To examine the PhotoVoice process, we used ethnographic methods, including child interviews and participant observations in their classes and at recess before, during and after the weekly sessions. Our overarching narrative-phenomenological theoretical framework focused data collection and analysis on what mattered most to the children. The PhotoVoice method engaged and empowered the children in articulating what mattered in their everyday lives from their perspective that resulted in a novel, child-generated domain of 'mattering to others' for future self-report measures, and facilitated changes that generalized outside of the group. We illustrate these results by drawing a particularly illustrative case example from the study. The PhotoVoice method foregrounded children's perspectives on what matters more explicitly than clinical or parent perspective on function. The participatory philosophy and methods of PhotoVoice provides a viable approach to recovery-oriented self-report measures as well as an occupation

  20. Assessing hemlock decline using visible and near-infrared spectroscopy: indices comparison and algorithm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontius, Jennifer; Hallett, Richard; Martin, Mary

    2005-06-01

    Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy was evaluated for its effectiveness at predicting pre-visual decline in eastern hemlock trees. An ASD FieldSpec Pro FR field spectroradiometer measuring 2100 contiguous 1-nm-wide channels from 350 nm to 2500 nm was used to collect spectra from fresh hemlock foliage. Full spectrum partial least squares (PLS) regression equations and reduced stepwise linear regression equations were compared. The best decline predictive model was a 6-term linear regression equation (R2= 0.71, RMSE = 0.591) based on: Carter Miller Stress Index (R694/R760), Derivative Chlorophyll Index (FD705/FD723), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index ((R800 - R680)/(R800 + R680)), R950, R1922, and FD1388. Accuracy assessment showed that this equation predicted an 11-class decline rating with a 1-class tolerance accuracy of 96% and differentiated healthy trees from those in very early decline with 72% accuracy. These results indicate that narrow-band sensors could be developed to detect very early stages of hemlock decline, before visual symptoms are apparent. This capability would enable land managers to identify early hemlock woolly adelgid infestations and monitor forest health over large areas of the landscape.

  1. Emerging Use of Early Health Technology Assessment in Medical Product Development: A Scoping Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    IJzerman, Maarten J; Koffijberg, Hendrik; Fenwick, Elisabeth; Krahn, Murray

    2017-07-01

    Early health technology assessment is increasingly being used to support health economic evidence development during early stages of clinical research. Such early models can be used to inform research and development about the design and management of new medical technologies to mitigate the risks, perceived by industry and the public sector, associated with market access and reimbursement. Over the past 25 years it has been suggested that health economic evaluation in the early stages may benefit the development and diffusion of medical products. Early health technology assessment has been suggested in the context of iterative economic evaluation alongside phase I and II clinical research to inform clinical trial design, market access, and pricing. In addition, performing early health technology assessment was also proposed at an even earlier stage for managing technology portfolios. This scoping review suggests a generally accepted definition of early health technology assessment to be "all methods used to inform industry and other stakeholders about the potential value of new medical products in development, including methods to quantify and manage uncertainty". The present review also aimed to identify recent published empirical studies employing an early-stage assessment of a medical product. With most included studies carried out to support a market launch, the dominant methodology was early health economic modeling. Further methodological development is required, in particular, by combining systems engineering and health economics to manage uncertainty in medical product portfolios.

  2. Questionnaires used to assess barriers of clinical guideline use among physicians are not comprehensive, reliable, or valid: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, Melina L; Vernooij, Robin W M; Gagliardi, Anna R

    2017-06-01

    This study described the number and characteristics of questionnaires used to assess barriers of guideline use among physicians. A scoping review was conducted. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched from 2005 to June 2016. English-language studies that administered a questionnaire to assess barriers of guideline use among practicing physicians were eligible. Summary statistics were used to report study and questionnaire characteristics. Questionnaire content was assessed with a checklist of 57 known barriers. Each of the 178 included studies administered a unique questionnaire. The number of questionnaires increased yearly from 2005 to 2015. Few were pilot-tested (50, 28.1%) or tested for psychometric properties (3, 1.7%). Two were based on theory. None probed for the full range of known barriers. Ten included a free-text option. The majority assessed professional barriers (177, 99.4%) but few of the 14 factors within this domain. Questionnaire characteristics did not change over time. Organizations administered questionnaires that were not reliable or valid and did not comprehensively assess barriers and may have selected interventions unlikely to promote guideline use. Research is needed to construct a questionnaire that is practical, adaptable, and robust and leads to the selection of interventions that support guideline use. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of the scope and practice of evaluation among medical donation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenny, Alisa M; Li, Meng; Ashbourne, Elizabeth; Aldrink, Myron; Funk, Christine; Stergachis, Andy

    2016-11-04

    Medical donation programs for drugs, other medical products, training and other supportive services can improve access to essential medicines in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and provide emergency and disaster relief. The scope and extent to which medical donation programs evaluate their impact on recipients and health systems is not well documented. We conducted a survey of the member organizations of the Partnership for Quality Medical Donations (PQMD), a global alliance of non-profit and corporate organizations, to identify evaluations conducted in conjunction with donation programs. Twenty-five out of the 36 PQMD organizations that were members at the time of the survey participated in the study, for a response rate of 69 %. PQMD members provided information on 34 of their major medical donation programs. Half of the donation programs reported conducting trainings as a part of their donation program. Twenty-six (76 %) programs reported that they conduct routine monitoring of their donation programs. Less than 30 % of donation programs were evaluated for their impact on health. Lack of technical staff and lack of funding were reported as key barriers to conducting impact evaluations. Member organizations of PQMD provide a broad range of medical donations, targeting a wide range of public health issues and events. While some level of monitoring and evaluation was conducted in nearly 80 % of the donation programs, a program's impact was infrequently evaluated. Opportunities exist to develop consistent metrics for medical donation programs, develop a common framework for impact evaluations, and advocate for data collection and analysis plans that collect meaningful metrics.

  4. Visibility Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildgaard, Lorna Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Research production, which earns universities money, is accredited publications in peer-reviewed journals and books. Increasing research productivity is one policy amongst many used by management to boost growth and income. It is time for a pat on the back, the growth of knowledge and visibility...

  5. Assessing Sensory Processing Dysfunction in Adults and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, Denise; Lymer, Erin; Gibson, Barbara E; Desarkar, Pushpal; Nalder, Emily

    2017-08-19

    Sensory reactivity is a diagnostic criterion for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and has been associated with poorer functional outcomes, behavioral difficulties, and autism severity across the lifespan. Yet, there is little consensus on best practice approaches to assessing sensory processing dysfunction in adolescents and adults with ASD. Despite growing evidence that sensory symptoms persist into adolescence and adulthood, there is a lack of norms for older age groups, and pediatric assessments may not target appropriate functional outcomes or environments. This review identified approaches used to measure sensory processing in the scientific literature, and to describe and compare these approaches to current best practice guidelines that can be incorporated into evidence-based practice. Method and Analysis: A search of scientific databases and grey literature (professional association and ASD society websites), from January 1987-May 2017, uncovered 4769 articles and 12 clinical guidelines. Study and sample characteristics were extracted, charted, and categorized according to assessment approach. There were 66 articles included after article screening. Five categories of assessment approaches were identified: Self- and Proxy-Report Questionnaires, Psychophysical Assessment, Direct Behavioral Observation, Qualitative Interview Techniques, and Neuroimaging/EEG. Sensory research to date has focused on individuals with high-functioning ASD, most commonly through the use of self-report questionnaires. The Adolescent and Adult Sensory Profile (AASP) is the most widely used assessment measure ( n = 22), however, a number of other assessment approaches may demonstrate strengths specific to the ASD population. Multi-method approaches to assessment (e.g., combining psychophysical or observation with questionnaires) may have clinical applicability to interdisciplinary clinical teams serving adolescents and adults with ASD. Contribution: A comprehensive knowledge of

  6. UVISS preliminary visibility analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part of the w......The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part...... of the work is also to setup the kernel of a software tool for the visibility analysis thatshould be easily expandable to consider more complex strucures for future activities.This analysis is part of the UVISS assessment study and it is meant to provide elementsfor the definition and the selection...

  7. Assessment of rice leaf chlorophyll content using visible bands at different growth stages at both the leaf and canopy scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberioon, M. M.; Amin, M. S. M.; Anuar, A. R.; Gholizadeh, A.; Wayayok, A.; Khairunniza-Bejo, S.

    2014-10-01

    Nitrogen is an important variable for paddy farming management. The objectives of this study were to develop and test a new method to determine the status of nitrogen and chlorophyll content in rice leaf by analysing and considering all visible bands derived from images captured using a conventional digital camera. The images from the 6-pannel leaf colour chart were acquired using Basler Scout scA640-70fc under light-emitting diode lighting, in which principal component analysis was used to retain the lower order principal component to develop a new index. Digital photographs of the upper most collared leaf of rice (Oriza sativa L.), grown over a range of soils with different nitrogen treatments, were processed into 11 indices and IPCA through six growth stages. Also a conventional digital camera mounted to an unmanned aerial vehicle was used to acquire images over the rice canopy for the purpose of verification. The result indicated that the conventional digital camera at the both leaf (r = -0.81) and the canopy (r = 0.78) scale could be used as a sensor to determine the status of chlorophyll content in rice plants through different growth stages. This indicates that conventional low-cost digital cameras can be used for determining chlorophyll content and consequently for monitoring nitrogen content of the growing rice plant, thus offering a potentially inexpensive, fast, accurate and suitable tool for rice growers. Additionally, results confirmed that a low cost LARS system would be well suited for high spatial and temporal resolution images and data analysis for proper assessment of key nutrients in rice farming in a fast, inexpensive and non-destructive way.

  8. The screening and scoping of environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment of carbon capture and storage in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornneef, J.M.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Turkenburg, W.C.

    2008-01-01

    The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) are procedural tools which have as goal to assess and evaluate possible environmental effects of, respectively, a proposed project or policy plan. The goal of this article is to explore possible bottlenecks in

  9. Expanding the scope of environmental risk assessment to better include differential vulnerability and susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Joel; Bellinger, David; Glass, Thomas

    2011-12-01

    The central paradigm of the Environmental Protection Agency is risk assessment. We examined how differential responses across population groups could be better integrated into the environmental risk assessment process, providing tools to achieve greater equity in health status in addition to risk reduction. Such integration was difficult with paradigms like reference dose and was easier with consideration of dose-response curves, which incorporated nontrivial effects observed at low doses for common exposures. We identified 6 assumptions implicit in standard chemical risk assessments that should changed: (1) risk independence, (2) risk averaging, (3) risk nontransferability, (4) risk synchrony, (5) risk accumulation and chaining, and (6) quantification of numbers of persons above certain thresholds or limit values sufficient to characterize risk.

  10. Human Health Risk Assessment Applied to Rural Populations Dependent on Unregulated Drinking Water Sources: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Lorelei; Bharadwaj, Lalita; McLeod, Lianne; Waldner, Cheryl

    2017-07-28

    Safe drinking water is a global challenge for rural populations dependent on unregulated water. A scoping review of research on human health risk assessments (HHRA) applied to this vulnerable population may be used to improve assessments applied by government and researchers. This review aims to summarize and describe the characteristics of HHRA methods, publications, and current literature gaps of HHRA studies on rural populations dependent on unregulated or unspecified drinking water. Peer-reviewed literature was systematically searched (January 2000 to May 2014) and identified at least one drinking water source as unregulated (21%) or unspecified (79%) in 100 studies. Only 7% of reviewed studies identified a rural community dependent on unregulated drinking water. Source water and hazards most frequently cited included groundwater (67%) and chemical water hazards (82%). Most HHRAs (86%) applied deterministic methods with 14% reporting probabilistic and stochastic methods. Publications increased over time with 57% set in Asia, and 47% of studies identified at least one literature gap in the areas of research, risk management, and community exposure. HHRAs applied to rural populations dependent on unregulated water are poorly represented in the literature even though almost half of the global population is rural.

  11. [Hospital-at-home in older patients: a scoping review on opportunities of developing comprehensive geriatric assessment based services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, Miquel Àngel; Santaeugènia, Sebastià

    2015-01-01

    This scoping review focused on the opportunity of developing new hospital-at-home schemes in our health systems adapted to older patients with complex conditions due to acute illness. A review was conducted on articles including, randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews and meta-analysis in PubMed and Cochrane Library, from January 1990 to July 2013. Search terms were: hospital-at-home, Early Supported Discharge, hospital in the home and home hospitalization. An analysis was performed to include: the intervention model (admission avoidance or early discharge), age, diagnosis, main inclusion criteria and intervention characteristics (disciplines involved, duration of intervention, main outcomes and objectives). It is concluded that there are several models of hospital-at-home care, with favorable clinical outcomes. The majority of teams in our country focused on acute health care in the less elderly with chronic diseases. Other schemes based on comprehensive geriatric assessment and interdisciplinary teams specialized in complex interventions are also highlighted. The development of comprehensive geriatric assessment based hospital-at-home care by teams led by geriatricians is an opportunity to develop alternatives to conventional hospitalization interventions tailored to older patients. Copyright © 2014 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Nutritional and Anthropometric Assessment of the Scope for Dietary Optimization During Staging Prior to Pancreaticoduodenectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Kolitha S Goonetilleke; Harsha R Hathurusinghe; Sorrell Burden; Siriwardena, Ajith K

    2008-01-01

    Context Although several studies have examined peri-operative nutritional supplementation in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy all provided support at various timepoints with a variety of protocols. Objective This study undertakes a detailed nutritional and anthropometric assessment of patients due to undergo pancreaticoduodenectomy with particular reference to pre-operative nutritional status and perioperative outcome. Patients Twenty-six patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy...

  13. Measuring visibility using smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Jan; Bialon, Raphael; Claßen, Christoph; Graffi, Kalman

    2017-04-01

    Spatial information on fog density is an important parameter for ecohydrological studies in cloud forests. The Dhofar cloud forest in Southern Oman exhibits a close interaction between the fog, trees, and rainfall. During the three month monsoon season the trees capture substantial amounts of horizontal precipitation from fog which increases net precipitation below the tree canopy. As fog density measurements are scarce, a smartphone app was designed to measure visibility. Different smartphone units use a variety of different parts. It is therefore important to assess the developed visibility measurement across a suite of different smartphones. In this study we tested five smartphones/ tablets (Google/ LG Nexus 5X, Huawei P8 lite, Huawei Y3, HTC Nexus 9, and Samsung Galaxy S4 mini) against digital camera (Sony DLSR-A900) and visual visibility observations. Visibility was assessed from photos using image entropy, from the number of visible targets, and from WiFi signal strength using RSSI. Results show clear relationships between object distance and fog density, yet a considerable spread across the different smartphone/ tablet units is evident.

  14. Assessing the relationship between the alternative metrics of visibility and social bookmarking with citation index in PLOS Altmetrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeideh Ebrahimy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to measure the relationship between metrics of visibility and bookmarking in social platforms (Citeulike, Mendeley and Figshare with citation counts in Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed central and Crossref. Current study is original in terms of objective and the data gathering scheme is descriptive of correlation type with a citation analysis approach. The population in this study is consists of 90,728 research papers which published in PLOS between 2009 and 2013. A sample of 1892 samples was chosen based on Cochran formula. The results showed that the visibility, Citeulike and Mendeley bookmarking counts have significant positive correlation with citations in all of the investigated systems. Conversely, social bookmarking counts on Figshare showed significant negative correlation with citations. Visibility metric has significant positive correlation with bookmarking counts in Citeulike and Mendeley, while it does not correlate with social bookmarking metric on Figshare. The results of this study suggest sharing scientific publications in social networks such as Mendeley, may increases the visibility and the future citations.

  15. Applying value engineering and modern assessment tools in managing NEPA: Improving effectiveness of the NEPA scoping and planning process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ECCLESTON, C.H.

    1998-09-03

    While the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) implementing regulations focus on describing ''What'' must be done, they provide surprisingly little direction on ''how'' such requirements are to be implemented. Specific implementation of these requirements has largely been left to the discretion of individual agencies. More than a quarter of a century after NEPA's enactment, few rigorous tools, techniques, or methodologies have been developed or widely adopted for implementing the regulatory requirements. In preparing an Environmental Impact Statement, agencies are required to conduct a public scoping process to determine the range of actions, alternatives, and impacts that will be investigated. Determining the proper scope of analysis is an element essential in the successful planning and implementation of future agency actions. Lack of rigorous tools and methodologies can lead to project delays, cost escalation, and increased risk that the scoping process may not adequately capture the scope of decisions that eventually might need to be considered. Recently, selected Value Engineering (VE) techniques were successfully used in managing a prescoping effort. A new strategy is advanced for conducting a pre-scoping/scoping effort that combines NEPA with VE. Consisting of five distinct phases, this approach has potentially wide-spread implications in the way NEPA, and scoping in particular, is practiced.

  16. Scope of problem assessed at IVO. The zebra mussel`s campaign of world conquest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvonen, J.; Oesch, P. [ed.

    1998-07-01

    The migrating shell - or `zebra mussel` as it is called on account of its black and white stripes - was originally a fresh-water mussel, but has since also adapted to brackish waters. As a result of human activity the species has spread quickly and widely from its native habitat. Operators of power plants and water treatment plants in particular have not been very happy about this. During its larval stage the zebra mussel can enter the cooling water systems; fasten itself to the pipes and - in the worst case - clog the system. The Environmental Protection Division of IVO has been assessing the spread of the zebra mussel and the resulting problems with the aid of reference literature and the assistance of Finnish researchers

  17. Predicting Visibility of Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew; Ramirez, Cesar V.; Salud, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Visual detection of aircraft by human observers is an important element of aviation safety. To assess and ensure safety, it would be useful to be able to be able to predict the visibility, to a human observer, of an aircraft of specified size, shape, distance, and coloration. Examples include assuring safe separation among aircraft and between aircraft and unmanned vehicles, design of airport control towers, and efforts to enhance or suppress the visibility of military and rescue vehicles. We have recently developed a simple metric of pattern visibility, the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO). In this report we examine whether the SSO can predict visibility of simulated aircraft images. We constructed a set of aircraft images from three-dimensional computer graphic models, and measured the luminance contrast threshold for each image from three human observers. The data were well predicted by the SSO. Finally, we show how to use the SSO to predict visibility range for aircraft of arbitrary size, shape, distance, and coloration. PMID:19462007

  18. Visible-light-mediated Sr-Bi2O3 photocatalysis of tetracycline: kinetics, mechanisms and toxicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Junfeng; Ding, Shiyuan; Zhang, Liwen; Zhao, Jinbo; Feng, Chenghong

    2013-09-01

    Photodegradation of tetracycline (TC) was investigated in aqueous solution by visible-light-driven photocatalyst Sr-doped β-Bi2O3 (Sr-Bi2O3) prepared via solvothermal synthesis. The decomposition of TC by Sr-Bi2O3 under visible light (λ>420nm) irradiation followed pseudo-first-order kinetics, and the removal ratio reached 91.2% after 120min of irradiation. Sr-Bi2O3 photocatalysis is able to break the naphthol ring of TC which decomposes to m-cresol via dislodging hydroxyl group step by step by photogenerated electron. This mechanism was verified by electron spin resonance measurement, the addition of radical scavengers and the intermediate product analysis, indicating that the photogenerated electron acts as a reductant and can be the key to the degradation process. In contrast, in TiO2 photocatalysis the naphthol ring is broken via oxidation by hydroxyl radical, while in direct photolysis the ring remains intact. In addition, the toxicity of photodegradation products was analyzed by bioluminescence inhibition. After 120min of irradiation by Sr-Bi2O3, the toxicity decreases by 90.6%, which is more substantial than direct photolysis (70%) and TiO2 photocatalysis (80%), indicating that the Sr-Bi2O3 photocatalysis is more eco-friendly than the other two methods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhanced Gender Recognition System Using an Improved Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG) Feature from Quality Assessment of Visible Light and Thermal Images of the Human Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dat Tien; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2016-07-21

    With higher demand from users, surveillance systems are currently being designed to provide more information about the observed scene, such as the appearance of objects, types of objects, and other information extracted from detected objects. Although the recognition of gender of an observed human can be easily performed using human perception, it remains a difficult task when using computer vision system images. In this paper, we propose a new human gender recognition method that can be applied to surveillance systems based on quality assessment of human areas in visible light and thermal camera images. Our research is novel in the following two ways: First, we utilize the combination of visible light and thermal images of the human body for a recognition task based on quality assessment. We propose a quality measurement method to assess the quality of image regions so as to remove the effects of background regions in the recognition system. Second, by combining the features extracted using the histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) method and the measured qualities of image regions, we form a new image features, called the weighted HOG (wHOG), which is used for efficient gender recognition. Experimental results show that our method produces more accurate estimation results than the state-of-the-art recognition method that uses human body images.

  20. Enhanced Gender Recognition System Using an Improved Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG) Feature from Quality Assessment of Visible Light and Thermal Images of the Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dat Tien; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2016-01-01

    With higher demand from users, surveillance systems are currently being designed to provide more information about the observed scene, such as the appearance of objects, types of objects, and other information extracted from detected objects. Although the recognition of gender of an observed human can be easily performed using human perception, it remains a difficult task when using computer vision system images. In this paper, we propose a new human gender recognition method that can be applied to surveillance systems based on quality assessment of human areas in visible light and thermal camera images. Our research is novel in the following two ways: First, we utilize the combination of visible light and thermal images of the human body for a recognition task based on quality assessment. We propose a quality measurement method to assess the quality of image regions so as to remove the effects of background regions in the recognition system. Second, by combining the features extracted using the histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) method and the measured qualities of image regions, we form a new image features, called the weighted HOG (wHOG), which is used for efficient gender recognition. Experimental results show that our method produces more accurate estimation results than the state-of-the-art recognition method that uses human body images. PMID:27455264

  1. Quantitative assessment of Heart Rate Dynamics during meditation: An ECG based study with Multi-fractality and visibility graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban eBhaduri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Abstract: The cardiac dynamics during meditation is explored quantitatively with two chaos-based non-linear techniques viz. multi-fractal detrended fluctuation analysis and visibility network analysis techniques. The data used are the instantaneous heart rate (in beats/minute of subjects performing Kundalini Yoga and Chi meditation from PhysioNet. The results show consistent differences between the quantitative parameters obtained by both the analysis techniques. This indicates an interesting phenomenon of change in the complexity of the cardiac dynamics during meditation supported with quantitative parameters.The results also produce a preliminary evidence that these techniques can be used as a measure of physiological impact on subjects performing meditation.

  2. Rural Idaho Family Physicians' Scope of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ed; Schmitz, David; Epperly, Ted; Nukui, Ayaka; Miller, Carissa Moffat

    2010-01-01

    Context: Scope of practice is an important factor in both training and recruiting rural family physicians. Purpose: To assess rural Idaho family physicians' scope of practice and to examine variations in scope of practice across variables such as gender, age and employment status. Methods: A survey instrument was developed based on a literature…

  3. Measuring research impact in Australia's medical research institutes: a scoping literature review of the objectives for and an assessment of the capabilities of research impact assessment frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeming, Simon; Searles, Andrew; Reeves, Penny; Nilsson, Michael

    2017-03-21

    Realising the economic potential of research institutions, including medical research institutes, represents a policy imperative for many Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development nations. The assessment of research impact has consequently drawn increasing attention. Research impact assessment frameworks (RIAFs) provide a structure to assess research translation, but minimal research has examined whether alternative RIAFs realise the intended policy outcomes. This paper examines the objectives presented for RIAFs in light of economic imperatives to justify ongoing support for health and medical research investment, leverage productivity via commercialisation and outcome-efficiency gains in health systems, and ensure that translation and impact considerations are embedded into the research process. This paper sought to list the stated objectives for RIAFs, to identify existing frameworks and to evaluate whether the identified frameworks possessed the capabilities necessary to address the specified objectives. A scoping review of the literature to identify objectives specified for RIAFs, inform upon descriptive criteria for each objective and identify existing RIAFs. Criteria were derived for each objective. The capability for the existing RIAFs to realise the alternative objectives was evaluated based upon these criteria. The collated objectives for RIAFs included accountability (top-down), transparency/accountability (bottom-up), advocacy, steering, value for money, management/learning and feedback/allocation, prospective orientation, and speed of translation. Of the 25 RIAFs identified, most satisfied objectives such as accountability and advocacy, which are largely sufficient for the first economic imperative to justify research investment. The frameworks primarily designed to optimise the speed of translation or enable the prospective orientation of research possessed qualities most likely to optimise the productive outcomes from research. However

  4. On court interpreters' visibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubslaff, Friedel; Martinsen, Bodil

    of the service they receive. Ultimately, the findings will be used for training purposes. Future - and, for that matter, already practising - interpreters as well as the professional users of interpreters ought to take the reality of the interpreters' work in practice into account when assessing the quality...... in by the participants almost immediately after the interrogations and supplemented by interviews. The main objective of the project is to explore the interpreters' own perception of the quality of the service they render as well as the professional users´ and the other language users' perception of the quality...... of the interpreter as an invisible language switcher. However, a closer look at the data shows that, even in a less complex constellation like the one analysed here, there is clear evidence of the interpreter's visibility. We shall identify various forms of visibility based on the discourse data...

  5. Visible, near infrared, mid infrared or combined diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for simultaneous assessment of various soil properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viscarra Rossel, R.A.; Walvoort, D.J.J.; McBratney, A.B.; Janik, L.J.; Skjemstad, J.O.

    2006-01-01

    Historically, our understanding of the soil and assessment of its quality and function has been gained through routine soil chemical and physical laboratory analysis. There is a global thrust towards the development of more time- and cost-efficient methodologies for soil analysis as there is a great

  6. Assessment of the ozone sensitivity of 22 native plant species from Mediterranean annual pastures based on visible injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo, V.; Gimeno, B. S.; Sanz, J.; de la Torre, D.; Gil, J. M.

    Ozone (O 3) phytototoxicity has been reported on a wide range of plant species, inducing the appearance of specific foliar injury or increasing leaf senescence. No information regarding the sensitivity of plant species from dehesa Mediterranean grasslands has been provided in spite of their great biological diversity. A screening study was carried out in open-top chambers (OTCs) to assess the O 3-sensitivity of 22 representative therophytes of these ecosystems based on the appearance and extent of foliar injury. A distinction was made between specific O 3 injury and non-specific discolorations. Three O 3 treatments (charcoal-filtered air, non-filtered air and non-filtered air supplemented with 40 nl l -1 O 3 during 5 days per week) and three OTCs per treatment were used. The Papilionaceae species were more sensitive to O 3 than the Poaceae species involved in the experiment since ambient levels induced foliar symptoms in 67% and 27%, respectively, of both plant families. An O 3-sensitivity ranking of the species involved in the assessment is provided, which could be useful for bioindication programmes in Mediterranean areas. The assessed Trifolium species were particularly sensitive since foliar symptoms were apparent in association with O 3 accumulated exposures well below the current critical level for the prevention of this kind of effect. The exposure indices involving lower cut-off values (i.e. 30 nl l -1) were best related with the extent of O 3-induced injury on these species.

  7. Comprehensive assessment of the effective scope of modernization of thermal power plants to substantiate the rational structure of the generating capacities for the future until 2035

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselov, F. V.; Erokhina, I. V.; Makarova, A. S.; Khorshev, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    The article deals with issues of technical and economic substantiation of priorities and scopes of modernizing the existing thermal power plants (TPPs) in Russia to work out long-term forecasts of the development of the industry. The current situation in the TPP modernization trends is analyzed. The updated initial figures of the capital and operation costs are presented and the obtained estimates of the comparative efficiency of various investment decisions on modernization and equipment replacement at gas-and-oil-burning and coal-fired TPPs with regard to the main zones of the national Unified Power System (UPS) of Russia are cited. The results of optimization of the generating capacity structure underlie a study of alternative TPP modernization strategies that differ in the scope of switching to new technologies, capital intensity, and energy efficiency (decrease in the average heat rate). To provide an integral economic assessment of the above strategies, the authors modified the traditional approach based on determination of the overall discounted costs of power supply (least-cost planning) supplemented with a comparison by the weighted average wholesale price of the electricity. A method for prediction of the wholesale price is proposed reasoning from the direct and dual solutions of the optimization problem. The method can be adapted to various combinations of the mechanisms of payment for the electricity and the capacity on the basis of marginal and average costs. Energy and economic analysis showed that the opposite effects of reduction in the capital investment and fuel saving change in a nonlinear way as the scope of the switch to more advanced power generation technologies at the TPPs increases. As a consequence, a strategy for modernization of the existing power plants rational with respect to total costs of the power supply and wholesale electricity prices has been formulated. The strategy combines decisions on upgrade and replacement of the equipment

  8. The scope of practice of hand surgery within plastic surgery: the ACAPS national survey to assess current practice and develop educational guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifchez, Scott D; Friedrich, Jeffrey B; Hultman, C Scott

    2015-01-01

    There is no consensus among plastic surgeons regarding what constitutes the scope of hand surgery practice. Due to this lack, there is a wide variability in what hand surgery procedures plastic surgery resident will see and participate in during the course of training. We assessed what faculty members of plastic surgery training programs felt were contained within the scope of practice of hand surgery. A survey was sent to all members of the American Council of Academic Plastic Surgeons. Respondents reported size of department, faculty fellowship training, hand surgery call coverage, and amount of elective hand surgery within their training program. They also identified what procedures were within the scope of hand surgery. Ninety-three responses were received. Thirty-five respondents were certified or eligible for the surgery of the hand examination. Twenty-five respondents had 0 or 1 surgery-of-the-hand surgeon among their faculty. Thirty-nine departments/divisions performed 10 or fewer elective hand surgeries per week. Seventy-eight percent of groups taking hand call reported that all faculty members took hand call regardless of whether they had hand fellowship training. Although nearly all cover hand and wrist infections, only 49% provide care for distal radius fractures. In many residency programs, hand surgery exposure is in the setting of trauma and emergencies. The inclusion of complex elective hand surgeries within a plastic surgery practice and residency program allows residents to see the full spectrum of hand surgery. This allows them to make an informed decision regarding whether to seek subspecialty training and continue the participation of plastic surgeons in the full spectrum of hand surgery.

  9. Visibly Pushdown Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srba, Jiri

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of (bi)simulation-like preorder/equivalence checking on the class of visibly pushdown automata and its natural subclasses visibly BPA (Basic Process Algebra) and visibly one-counter automata. We describe generic methods for proving complexity upper and lower bounds...... for a number of studied preorders and equivalences like simulation, completed simulation, ready simulation, 2-nested simulation preorders/equivalences and bisimulation equivalence. Our main results are that all the mentioned equivalences and preorders are EXPTIME-complete on visibly pushdown automata, PSPACE......-complete on visibly one-counter automata and P-complete on visibly BPA. Our PSPACE lower bound for visibly one-counter automata improves also the previously known DP-hardness results for ordinary one-counter automata and one-counter nets. Finally, we study regularity checking problems for visibly pushdown automata...

  10. Evaluation of visible and near-infrared spectroscopy as a tool for assessing fiber fineness during mechanical preparation of dew-retted flax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, H S S; Reinard, N

    2004-12-01

    Flax fiber must be mechanically prepared to improve fineness and homogeneity of the sliver before chemical processing and wet-spinning. The changes in fiber characteristics are monitored by an airflow method, which is labor intensive and requires 90 minutes to process one sample. This investigation was carried out to develop robust visible and near-infrared calibrations that can be used as a rapid tool for quality assessment of input fibers and changes in fineness at the doubling (blending), first, second, third, and fourth drawing frames, and at the roving stage. The partial least squares (PLS) and principal component regression (PCR) methods were employed to generate models from different segments of the spectra (400-1100, 1100-1700, 1100-2498, 1700-2498, and 400-2498 nm) and a calibration set consisting of 462 samples obtained from the six processing stages. The calibrations were successfully validated with an independent set of 97 samples, and standard errors of prediction of 2.32 and 2.62 dtex were achieved with the best PLS (400-2498 nm) and PCR (1100-2498 nm) models, respectively. An optimized PLS model of the visible-near-infrared (vis-NIR) spectra explained 97% of the variation (R(2) = 0.97) in the sample set with a standard error of calibration (SEC) of 2.45 dtex and a standard error of cross-validation (SECV) of 2.51 dtex R(2) = 0.96). The mean error of the reference airflow method was 1.56 dtex, which is more accurate than the NIR calibration. The improvement in fiber fineness of the validation set obtained from the six production lines was predicted with an error range of -6.47 to +7.19 dtex for input fibers, -1.44 to +5.77 dtex for blended fibers at the doubling, and -4.72 to +3.59 dtex at the drawing frame stages. This level of precision is adequate for wet-spinners to monitor fiber fineness of input fibers and during the preparation of fibers. The advantage of visNIR spectroscopy is the potential capability of the technique to assess fineness and

  11. [ISO 9001 certification of innovation and clinical research departments: Extending the scope of health assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambou, C; Guillemaut, S; Morelle, M; Achache, A; Le Corroller, A-G; Perol, D; Perrier, L

    2017-04-01

    The International organization for standardization (ISO) is the world leader in providing industrial and commercial standards and certifications. Beyond medical devices, four French clinical research and innovation departments have received an ISO 9001 certification (the standard for quality management). Simultaneously, medico-economic studies have become increasingly important in the public decision process. Using the clinical research and innovation department from the Léon-Bérard Cancer Center as an example, the purpose of this article is to show how the scope of the ISO 9001 certification has been extended to cover medico-economic studies. All of the processes, procedures, operating modes, documents, and indicators used by the clinical research and innovation department of the Léon-Bérard center were investigated. Literature searches were conducted using Medline keywords. The recommendations from the French national authority for health and other organizations, such as the International society for pharmacoeconomics and outcomes research (ISPOR), were also considered, as well as the recommendations of the General inspectorate of social affairs. In accordance with the national and international recommendations, two procedures were created and four procedures were revised at this center. Five indicators of quality and an evaluation chart were developed. By adopting the ISO 9001 certification into its medico-economic studies, the clinical research and innovation department of the Léon-Bérard center has used an innovative approach in the context of the growing importance of economic studies in decision-making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. The Visibility Complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pocchiola, Michel; Vegter, Gert

    1993-01-01

    We introduce the visibility complex of a collection O of n pairwise disjoint convex objects in the plane. This 2–dimensional cell complex may be considered as a generalization of the tangent visibility graph of O. Its space complexity k is proportional to the size of the tangent visibility graph. We

  13. Assessment of Refueling Hose Visibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    order to make inteligent decisions regarding hose replacement or hose cleaning one needs to look at the individual reflection coefficients not just... artificial lighting used to illuminate the hose does not satisfy the specular reflection geometry for the pilot’s view angle of the hose. Also, from

  14. Retrospective assessment of macrophytic communities in southern Lake Garda (Italy from in situ and MIVIS (Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Giardino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In situ and hyperspectral MIVIS (Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer images acquired over a period of 13 years are used to assess changes in macrophyte colonization patterns in the coastal zones of the Sirmione Peninsula in the southern part of Lake Garda (Italy. In situ data (abundance, cover density and diversity of macrophyte communities and MIVIS-derived maps of colonized substrates are analyzed by considering the variability of the main hydrological and physicochemical variables in order to indicate the main factors that explain the spatiotemporal variability of macrophyte communities. The results show a considerable modification in terms of macrophyte structural complexity and colonized areas. Almost 98% of macrophyte meadows (in particular communities with a density of over 70% are lost and subsequently replaced by moderate to extremely rare communities with density from 10% to 40%. Well-established submerged macrophytes are replaced by de-structured communities characterized by moderate to scarce density: on average lower than 30%. The study indicates that macrophyte distribution along the littoral zone of the Sirmione Peninsula is certainly linked to water transparency and water level fluctuation. The results also indicate that the worsening of eutrophication may be associated with the gradual disappearance of macrophyte meadows, but may also be accelerated by herbivorous aquatic birds grazing there. Lastly, the increasing frequency and number of catamaran tours could be considered a threat for the stability of these valuable communities.

  15. Organizational scope of practice: assessing the primary care and public health activities of health centers and health departments in Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Brad; Ugwi, Patience; Nice, Andrew J

    2015-04-01

    The objective was to understand how Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) and local health departments (LHDs) address their shared mission of improving population health by determining the scope of primary care and public health activities each provides in their community. A brief mail survey was designed and fielded among executive directors at all 14 FQHCs in Iowa, and 13 LHDs in Iowa representing counties with and without an FQHC. This survey contained a mixture of questions adapted from previously validated primary care and public health survey instruments. Using survey responses, each FQHC and LHD was given 2 scores (each ranging from 0-100) measuring the extent of their primary care and public health activities, respectively. The overall response rate was 85.2%; the response rate was 78.6% within FQHCs and 91.7% within LHDs. Overall, FQHCs had higher scores (73.8%) compared to LHDs (27.3%) on total primary care services, while both LHDs (79.3%) and FQHCs (70.9%) performed particularly well on public health services. FQHCs and LHDs in Iowa address a variety of public health and primary care issues, including but not limited to screening for chronic diseases, nutrition counseling, immunizations, and behavioral health. However, FQHCs provide a higher amount of primary care services and nearly as many public health services when compared to LHDs. In a value-based health care delivery system, integrating to improve population health is a wise strategy to maximize efficiency, but this will require maximizing coordination and minimizing duplication of services across different types of safety net providers.

  16. Use of the International Pharmaceutical Federation's Basel Statements to Assess and Advance Hospital Pharmacy Practice: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penm, Jonathan; Chaar, Betty; Moles, Rebekah J

    2016-01-01

    The Basel statements of the International Pharmaceutical Federation, which provide the first global, unified vision for the hospital pharmacy profession, have recently been revised. Originally released in 2008, the Basel statements have since been made available in 21 languages, and thus have the potential for great impact around the world. To conduct a scoping review to examine the extent and nature of research activity related to the Basel statements. Google Scholar, PubMed, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts were searched using the key term "Basel statements" for relevant research articles. From each included study, data were extracted on geographic location, study design, study outcomes, and use of the Basel statements. The search strategy generated 113 results. Further refinement resulted in 14 English-language articles that met the inclusion criteria. Four of these articles focused on adapting the Basel statements to European practice, an initiative of the European Association of Hospital Pharmacists that led to development of the European statements of Hospital Pharmacy. Six studies focused on monitoring hospital pharmacy practice in Uganda, the Pacific island countries, and the Western Pacific Region. These studies provide valuable baseline data to measure and track the development of hospital pharmacy practices in their respective countries and regions. The remaining 4 studies used qualitative methods to explore the barriers to and facilitators of implementation of the Basel statements in South Africa, China, and Australia. The Basel statements have led to multiple initiatives around the world, involving more than 70 countries. The European and Western Pacific regions have been the most active. Current initiatives should be continued to ensure identification and resolution of issues related to sustaining their use over time.

  17. Use of the International Pharmaceutical Federation’s Basel Statements to Assess and Advance Hospital Pharmacy Practice: A Scoping Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penm, Jonathan; Chaar, Betty; Moles, Rebekah J

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Basel statements of the International Pharmaceutical Federation, which provide the first global, unified vision for the hospital pharmacy profession, have recently been revised. Originally released in 2008, the Basel statements have since been made available in 21 languages, and thus have the potential for great impact around the world. Objective: To conduct a scoping review to examine the extent and nature of research activity related to the Basel statements. Methods: Google Scholar, PubMed, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts were searched using the key term “Basel statements” for relevant research articles. From each included study, data were extracted on geographic location, study design, study outcomes, and use of the Basel statements. Results: The search strategy generated 113 results. Further refinement resulted in 14 English-language articles that met the inclusion criteria. Four of these articles focused on adapting the Basel statements to European practice, an initiative of the European Association of Hospital Pharmacists that led to development of the European statements of Hospital Pharmacy. Six studies focused on monitoring hospital pharmacy practice in Uganda, the Pacific island countries, and the Western Pacific Region. These studies provide valuable baseline data to measure and track the development of hospital pharmacy practices in their respective countries and regions. The remaining 4 studies used qualitative methods to explore the barriers to and facilitators of implementation of the Basel statements in South Africa, China, and Australia. Conclusion: The Basel statements have led to multiple initiatives around the world, involving more than 70 countries. The European and Western Pacific regions have been the most active. Current initiatives should be continued to ensure identification and resolution of issues related to sustaining their use over time. PMID:27168634

  18. Active transport and obesity prevention - A transportation sector obesity impact scoping review and assessment for Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, V; Moodie, M; Mantilla Herrera, A M; Veerman, J L; Carter, R

    2017-03-01

    Given the alarming prevalence of obesity worldwide and the need for interventions to halt the growing epidemic, more evidence on the role and impact of transport interventions for obesity prevention is required. This study conducts a scoping review of the current evidence of association between modes of transport (motor vehicle, walking, cycling and public transport) and obesity-related outcomes. Eleven reviews and thirty-three primary studies exploring associations between transport behaviours and obesity were identified. Cohort simulation Markov modelling was used to estimate the effects of body mass index (BMI) change on health outcomes and health care costs of diseases causally related to obesity in the Melbourne, Australia population. Results suggest that evidence for an obesity effect of transport behaviours is inconclusive (29% of published studies reported expected associations, 33% mixed associations), and any potential BMI effect is likely to be relatively small. Hypothetical scenario analyses suggest that active transport interventions may contribute small but significant obesity-related health benefits across populations (approximately 65 health adjusted life years gained per year). Therefore active transport interventions that are low cost and targeted to those most amenable to modal switch are the most likely to be effective and cost-effective from an obesity prevention perspective. The uncertain but potentially significant opportunity for health benefits warrants the collection of more and better quality evidence to fully understand the potential relationships between transport behaviours and obesity. Such evidence would contribute to the obesity prevention dialogue and inform policy across the transportation, health and environmental sectors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. 75 FR 2922 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment and Request for Public Scoping Comments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment and Request for...: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an Environmental Assessment and... National Parks Air Tour Management Act of 2000 (Public Law 106-181) and its implementing regulations (14...

  20. A scoping review on the conduct and reporting of scoping reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricco, Andrea C; Lillie, Erin; Zarin, Wasifa; O'Brien, Kelly; Colquhoun, Heather; Kastner, Monika; Levac, Danielle; Ng, Carmen; Sharpe, Jane Pearson; Wilson, Katherine; Kenny, Meghan; Warren, Rachel; Wilson, Charlotte; Stelfox, Henry T; Straus, Sharon E

    2016-02-09

    Scoping reviews are used to identify knowledge gaps, set research agendas, and identify implications for decision-making. The conduct and reporting of scoping reviews is inconsistent in the literature. We conducted a scoping review to identify: papers that utilized and/or described scoping review methods; guidelines for reporting scoping reviews; and studies that assessed the quality of reporting of scoping reviews. We searched nine electronic databases for published and unpublished literature scoping review papers, scoping review methodology, and reporting guidance for scoping reviews. Two independent reviewers screened citations for inclusion. Data abstraction was performed by one reviewer and verified by a second reviewer. Quantitative (e.g. frequencies of methods) and qualitative (i.e. content analysis of the methods) syntheses were conducted. After searching 1525 citations and 874 full-text papers, 516 articles were included, of which 494 were scoping reviews. The 494 scoping reviews were disseminated between 1999 and 2014, with 45% published after 2012. Most of the scoping reviews were conducted in North America (53%) or Europe (38%), and reported a public source of funding (64%). The number of studies included in the scoping reviews ranged from 1 to 2600 (mean of 118). Using the Joanna Briggs Institute methodology guidance for scoping reviews, only 13% of the scoping reviews reported the use of a protocol, 36% used two reviewers for selecting citations for inclusion, 29% used two reviewers for full-text screening, 30% used two reviewers for data charting, and 43% used a pre-defined charting form. In most cases, the results of the scoping review were used to identify evidence gaps (85%), provide recommendations for future research (84%), or identify strengths and limitations (69%). We did not identify any guidelines for reporting scoping reviews or studies that assessed the quality of scoping review reporting. The number of scoping reviews conducted per year

  1. A SCOPING STUDY: Development of Probabilistic Risk Assessment Models for Reactivity Insertion Accidents During Shutdown In U.S. Commercial Light Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Khericha

    2011-06-01

    This report documents the scoping study of developing generic simplified fuel damage risk models for quantitative analysis from inadvertent reactivity insertion events during shutdown (SD) in light water pressurized and boiling water reactors. In the past, nuclear fuel reactivity accidents have been analyzed both mainly deterministically and probabilistically for at-power and SD operations of nuclear power plants (NPPs). Since then, many NPPs had power up-rates and longer refueling intervals, which resulted in fuel configurations that may potentially respond differently (in an undesirable way) to reactivity accidents. Also, as shown in a recent event, several inadvertent operator actions caused potential nuclear fuel reactivity insertion accident during SD operations. The set inadvertent operator actions are likely to be plant- and operation-state specific and could lead to accident sequences. This study is an outcome of the concern which arose after the inadvertent withdrawal of control rods at Dresden Unit 3 in 2008 due to operator actions in the plant inadvertently three control rods were withdrawn from the reactor without knowledge of the main control room operator. The purpose of this Standardized Plant Analysis Risk (SPAR) Model development project is to develop simplified SPAR Models that can be used by staff analysts to perform risk analyses of operating events and/or conditions occurring during SD operation. These types of accident scenarios are dominated by the operator actions, (e.g., misalignment of valves, failure to follow procedures and errors of commissions). Human error probabilities specific to this model were assessed using the methodology developed for SPAR model human error evaluations. The event trees, fault trees, basic event data and data sources for the model are provided in the report. The end state is defined as the reactor becomes critical. The scoping study includes a brief literature search/review of historical events, developments of

  2. Stability and reproducibility of semi-quantitative risk assessment methods within the occupational health and safety scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, F; Melo, R B

    2015-01-01

    In many enterprises the semi-quantitative approach turns out to be the available and most suitable technique to perform a risk assessment. Despite its advantages, we cannot disregard the existing gap in terms of validation of this type of applications. This paper reports a study about risk assessments' reliability, namely both inter-coder (reproducibility) and intra-coder (stability) reliability of the semi-quantitative approach. This study comprised 4 fundamental stages. Data collection relied on free and systematized observations and made use of video recording, documental research, analysis grids and questionnaires specifically developed for this purpose. A set of different analysts were asked to use four semi-quantitative risk assessment methods (in two different moments) to estimate and assess six risks identified in two tasks accomplished to produce Airbags. The Krippendorff's Alpha Coefficient (α K) was the agreement measure selected to evaluate both inter-coder and intra-coder consensus. The preliminary results revealed a general low concordance (α K risk assessment results obtained by individuals with different levels of experience or expertise. This study revealed that the use of the semi-quantitative approach should be done with caution.

  3. Soil organic carbon content assessment in a heterogeneous landscape: comparison of digital soil mapping and visible and near Infrared spectroscopy approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michot, Didier; Fouad, Youssef; Pascal, Pichelin; Viaud, Valérie; Soltani, Inès; Walter, Christian

    2017-04-01

    This study aims are: i) to assess SOC content distribution according to the global soil map (GSM) project recommendations in a heterogeneous landscape ; ii) to compare the prediction performance of digital soil mapping (DSM) and visible-near infrared (Vis-NIR) spectroscopy approaches. The study area of 140 ha, located at Plancoët, surrounds the unique mineral spring water of Brittany (Western France). It's a hillock characterized by a heterogeneous landscape mosaic with different types of forest, permanent pastures and wetlands along a small coastal river. We acquired two independent datasets: j) 50 points selected using a conditioned Latin hypercube sampling (cLHS); jj) 254 points corresponding to the GSM grid. Soil samples were collected in three layers (0-5, 20-25 and 40-50cm) for both sampling strategies. SOC content was only measured in cLHS soil samples, while Vis-NIR spectra were measured on all the collected samples. For the DSM approach, a machine-learning algorithm (Cubist) was applied on the cLHS calibration data to build rule-based models linking soil carbon content in the different layers with environmental covariates, derived from digital elevation model, geological variables, land use data and existing large scale soil maps. For the spectroscopy approach, we used two calibration datasets: k) the local cLHS ; kk) a subset selected from the regional spectral database of Brittany after a PCA with a hierarchical clustering analysis and spiked by local cLHS spectra. The PLS regression algorithm with "leave-one-out" cross validation was performed for both calibration datasets. SOC contents for the 3 layers of the GSM grid were predicted using the different approaches and were compared with each other. Their prediction performance was evaluated by the following parameters: R2, RMSE and RPD. Both approaches led to satisfactory predictions for SOC content with an advantage for the spectral approach, particularly as regards the pertinence of the variation

  4. A quest for the right order : biodegradation rates in the scope of environmental risk assessment of chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, Johan

    2001-01-01

    The biodegradation of chemicals in sewage treatment plants is a key issue of environmental risk assessment. To predict the residual concentration the rate of the biodegradation process has to be estimated. This rate is the result of microbial adaptation of the micro-flora in the system. Therefore

  5. Viewer Makes Radioactivity "Visible"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, L. I.

    1983-01-01

    Battery operated viewer demonstrates feasibility of generating threedimensional visible light simulations of objects that emit X-ray or gamma rays. Ray paths are traced for two pinhold positions to show location of reconstructed image. Images formed by pinholes are converted to intensified visible-light images. Applications range from radioactivity contamination surveys to monitoring radioisotope absorption in tumors.

  6. Visible Human Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NLM Mobile Gallery Site Navigation Home The Visible Human Project ® Overview The Visible Human Project ® is an outgrowth of the NLM's 1986 ... dimensional representations of the normal male and female human bodies. Acquisition of transverse CT, MR and cryosection ...

  7. Assessment of the knowledge of diabetes mellitus among school teachers within the scope of the managing diabetes at school program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aycan, Zehra; Önder, Aşan; Çetinkaya, Semra; Bilgili, Hatice; Yıldırım, Nurdan; Baş, Veysel Nijat; Peltek Kendirci, Havva Nur; Ağladıoğlu, Sebahat Yılmaz

    2012-12-01

    Training teachers and education professionals on diabetes is crucial for full-time monitoring of diabetic children in schools. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge on diabetes in a group of school teachers in Turkey. Between November 2010 and November 2011, 1054 teachers from three regions of Ankara were given a questionnaire to assess their knowledge on diabetes. The mean age of the group (27% males, 73% females) was 38.8±8 years. 61.7% of the participants were class teachers, 23.3% were school counselors, and the rest were physical education teachers and administrators. A fair percentage (47.6%) of the participants had a moderate knowledge level on diabetes and 32.4% expressed a lower level of knowledge. A large proportion (94%) gave an accurate definition of diabetes. Of the total group of 1054 teachers, 625 were aware that blood glucose level might decrease in diabetic children during follow-up. Also, 75% believed that diabetic children were eligible for physical education classes. 52.8% of these teachers had no diabetic child in their classes and teachers with a diabetic patient in their family had better knowledge of diabetes compared to their counterparts. Our study results indicate that school teachers have limited knowledge on diabetes. We believe that their knowledge levels can be improved by widespread training programs.

  8. Validation of the stomatal flux approach for the assessment of ozone visible injury in young forest trees. Results from the TOP (transboundary ozone pollution) experiment at Curno, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerosa, G., E-mail: giacomo.gerosa@unicatt.i [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Catholic University, via dei Musei 41, 25125 Brescia (Italy); Marzuoli, R. [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Catholic University, via dei Musei 41, 25125 Brescia (Italy); Desotgiu, R.; Bussotti, F. [Department of Plant Biology, University of Florence, Piazzale delle Cascine 28, 50144 Florence (Italy); Ballarin-Denti, A. [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Catholic University, via dei Musei 41, 25125 Brescia (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    This paper summarises some of the main results of a two-year experiment carried out in an Open-Top Chambers facility in Northern Italy. Seedlings of Populus nigra, Fagus sylvatica, Quercus robur and Fraxinus excelsior have been subjected to different ozone treatments (charcoal-filtered and non-filtered air) and soil moisture regimes (irrigated and non-irrigated plots). Stomatal conductance models were applied and parameterised under South Alpine environmental conditions and stomatal ozone fluxes have been calculated. The flux-based approach provided a better performance than AOT40 in predicting the onset of foliar visible injuries. Critical flux levels, related to visible leaf injury, are proposed for P. nigra and F. sylvatica (ranging between 30 and 33 mmol O{sub 3} m{sup -2}). Soil water stress delayed visible injury appearance and development by limiting ozone uptake. Data from charcoal-filtered treatments suggest the existence of an hourly flux threshold, below which may occur a complete ozone detoxification. - The stomatal uptake of ozone is an important factor to evaluate visible injury appearance and evolution in plants.

  9. Clinical Interventions for Hyperacusis in Adults: A Scoping Review to Assess the Current Position and Determine Priorities for Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Fackrell

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is no universally accepted definition for hyperacusis, but in general it is characterised by decreased sound tolerance to ordinary environmental sounds. Despite hyperacusis being prevalent and having significant clinical implications, much remains unknown about current management strategies. Purpose. To establish the current position of research on hyperacusis and identify research gaps to direct future research. Design and Sample. Using an established methodological framework, electronic and manual searches of databases and journals identified 43 records that met our inclusion criteria. Incorporating content and thematic analysis approaches, the definitions of hyperacusis, management strategies, and outcome measures were catalogued. Results. Only 67% of the studies provided a definition of hyperacusis, such as “reduced tolerance” or “oversensitivity to sound.” Assessments and outcome measures included Loudness Discomfort Levels, the Hyperacusis Questionnaire, and Tinnitus Retraining Therapy (TRT interview. Management strategies reported were Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, TRT, devices, pharmacological therapy, and surgery. Conclusions. Management strategies were typically evaluated in patients reporting hyperacusis as a secondary complaint or as part of a symptom set. As such the outcomes reported only provided an indication of their effectiveness for hyperacusis. Randomised Controlled Trials are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies for patients experiencing hyperacusis.

  10. In Situ UV-Visible Assessment of Iron-Based High-Temperature Water-Gas Shift Catalysts Promoted with Lanthana: An Extent of Reduction Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basseem B. Hallac

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The extent of reduction of unsupported iron-based high-temperature water-gas shift catalysts with small (<5 wt % lanthana contents was studied using UV-visible spectroscopy. Temperature- programmed reduction measurements showed that lanthana content higher than 0.5 wt % increased the extent of reduction to metallic Fe, while 0.5 wt % of lanthana facilitated the reduction to Fe3O4. In situ measurements on the iron oxide catalysts using mass and UV-visible spectroscopies permitted the quantification of the extent of reduction under temperature-programmed reduction and high-temperature water-gas shift conditions. The oxidation states were successfully calibrated against normalized absorbance spectra of visible light using the Kubelka-Munk theory. The normalized absorbance relative to the fully oxidized Fe2O3 increased as the extent of reduction increased. XANES suggested that the average bulk iron oxidation state during the water-gas shift reaction was Fe+2.57 for the catalyst with no lanthana and Fe+2.54 for the catalysts with 1 wt % lanthana. However, the UV-vis spectra suggest that the surface oxidation state of iron would be Fe+2.31 for the catalyst with 1 wt % lanthana if the oxidation state of iron in the catalyst with 0 wt % lanthana were Fe+2.57. The findings of this paper emphasize the importance of surface sensitive UV-visible spectroscopy for determining the extent of catalyst reduction during operation. The paper highlights the potential to use bench-scale UV-visible spectroscopy to study the surface chemistry of catalysts instead of less-available synchrotron X-ray radiation facilities.

  11. Evaluations of training programs to improve human resource capacity for HIV, malaria, and TB control: a systematic scoping review of methods applied and outcomes assessed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shishi; Roychowdhury, Imara; Khan, Mishal

    2017-01-01

    Owing to the global health workforce crisis, more funding has been invested in strengthening human resources for health, particularly for HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria control; however, little is known about how these investments in training are evaluated. This paper examines how frequently HIV, malaria, and TB healthcare provider training programs have been scientifically evaluated, synthesizes information on the methods and outcome indicators used, and identifies evidence gaps for future evaluations to address. We conducted a systematic scoping review of publications evaluating postgraduate training programs, including in-service training programs, for HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria healthcare providers between 2000 and 2016. Using broad inclusion criteria, we searched three electronic databases and additional gray literature sources. After independent screening by two authors, data about the year, location, methodology, and outcomes assessed was extracted from eligible training program evaluation studies. Training outcomes evaluated were categorized into four levels (reaction, learning, behavior, and results) based on the Kirkpatrick model. Of 1473 unique publications identified, 87 were eligible for inclusion in the analysis. The number of published articles increased after 2006, with most (n = 57, 66%) conducted in African countries. The majority of training evaluations (n = 44, 51%) were based on HIV with fewer studies focused on malaria (n = 28, 32%) and TB (n = 23, 26%) related training. We found that quantitative survey of trainees was the most commonly used evaluation method (n = 29, 33%) and the most commonly assessed outcomes were knowledge acquisition (learning) of trainees (n = 44, 51%) and organizational impacts of the training programs (38, 44%). Behavior change and trainees' reaction to the training were evaluated less frequently and using less robust methods; costs of training were also rarely assessed. Our study found

  12. Synthesis of visibility detection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Visibility is a critical component to the task of driving on all types of roads. The visibility detection and warning systems provide real-time, automated detection as well as appropriate responses to counteract reduced visibility conditions due to f...

  13. Assessments of Coronary Artery Visibility and Radiation Dose in Infants with Congenital Heart Disease on Cardiac 128-slice CT and on Cardiac 64-slice CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Y; Huang, M; Zheng, J; Li, J; Liu, H; Liang, C

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the coronary artery visibility and radiation dose in infants with CHD on cardiac 128-slice CT and on cardiac 64-slice CT. The images of 200 patients were analyzed in this study, 100 patients were selected randomly from a group of 789 infants (coronary artery segments was graded on a four-point scale. The coronary arteries were considered to be detected or visible when grade was 2 or higher. The visibility of the coronary artery segments and the radiation dose was compared between the two groups. Except for the rate of LM (96 vs. 99%), the detection rates of the total, LAD, LCX, RCA, and the proximal segment of the RCA in the 256-slice CT group were significantly higher than those in the 64-slice CT group (51.7, 53.33, 33.67, 53.33, and 99 vs. 34.8, 34.33, 18, 30.67, and 75%, respectively). The counts of visibility score (4/3/2/1) for the LM and the proximal segment of the RCA were 62/22/12/4 and 56/20/17/7, respectively, in the 128-slice CT group and 17/42/30/1 and 9/30/38/25, respectively, in the 64-slice CT group. There were significant differences, especially for score 4 and 3, between the two groups. The radiation dose in the 128-slice CT group was significantly decreased than those in the 64-slice CT group (CTDIvol 1.88 ± 0.51 vs. 5.61 ± 0.63 mGy; SSDE 4.48 ± 1.15 vs. 13.97 ± 1.52 mGy; effective radiation dose 1.36 ± 0.44 vs. 4.06 ± 0.7 mSv). With reduced radiation dose, the visibility of the coronary artery in infants with CHD via prospective ECG-triggered mode on a 128-slice CT is superior to that of the 64-slice CT using retrospective ECG-gated spiral mode.

  14. Default values for assessment of potential dermal exposure of the hands to industrial chemicals in the scope of regulatory risk assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquart, H.; Warren, N.D.; Laitinen, J.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2006-01-01

    Dermal exposure needs to be addressed in regulatory risk assessment of chemicals. The models used so far are based on very limited data. The EU project RISKOFDERM has gathered a large number of new measurements on dermal exposure to industrial chemicals in various work situations, together with

  15. Between visibility and surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie

    As activists move from alternative media platforms to commercial social media platforms they face increasing challenges in protecting their online security and privacy. While government surveillance of activists is well-documented in both scholarly research and the media, corporate surveillance...... of activists remains under-researched. This presentation explores visibility as a prerequisite and an obstacle to political participation. The dual capacity of visibility in social media enables both surveillance and counter-surveillance by making not only the surveilled actor, but also the surveilling actor......’ surveillance of anti-capitalist activists in social media....

  16. Making Invisible Forces Visible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene; Pors, Justine Grønbæk

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates managerial tactics of visualisation when a need to know and manage employees' values and attitudes is expressed. Using the Danish public school as a case study, we explore how school managers use teachers' emotions to render visible presumably invisible information about...... their 'true' attitudes and values. The paper draws on theories of affect as well as actor-network theory to analyse three incidents where managers turn their interpretations of teachers' emotions into such information. These incidents suggest that the efforts to render employees' attitudes and values visible...

  17. Big moving day for biodiversity? A macroecological assessment of the scope for assisted colonization as a conservation strategy under global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenning, Jens-Christian; Fløjgaard, Camilla; Morueta-Holme, Naia; Lenoir, Jonathan; Normand, Signe; Skov, Flemming

    2009-11-01

    Future climate change constitutes a major threat to Earth's biodiversity. If anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions continue unabated, 21st century climate change is likely to exceed the natural adaptive capacity of many natural ecosystems and a large proportion of species may risk extinction. A recurrent finding is that the degree of negative impact depends strongly on the dispersal potential of the species. However, there is a growing realization that many, if not most species would be unlikely to disperse as fast and far as required. As a consequence, it has been proposed that species at risk should be actively translocated into unoccupied, but environmentally suitable areas that are likely to stay suitable over the next 100 or more years (assisted colonization or assisted migration). This solution is controversial, though, reflecting negative experiences with introduced exotics and probably also the traditional emphasis in conservation management on preserving a certain local, often historical situation with a static species composition, and a tendency among ecologists to think of biological communities as generally saturated with species. Using the European flora as a case study, we here estimate the main environmental controls of plant species richness, assess how the maximum observed species richness depends on these environmental controls, and based here on estimate how many species could at least be added to an area before further species additions would perhaps inevitably lead to corresponding losses locally. Our results suggest that there is substantial room for additional plant species across most areas of Europe, indicating that there is considerable scope for implementing assisted colonization as a proactive conservation strategy under global warming without necessarily implicating negative effects on the native flora in the areas targeted for establishment of translocated populations. Notably, our results suggest that 50% of the cells in Northern

  18. The visibility complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pocchiola, M; Vegter, G

    We introduce the visibility complex (rr 2-dimensional regular cell complex) of a collection of n pairwise disjoint convex obstacles in the plane. It can be considered as a subdivision of the set of free rays (i.e., rays whose origins lie in free space, the complement of the obstacles). Its cells

  19. Visible Solid State Lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hikmet, R.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Diode lasers can be found in various applications most notably in optical communication and optical storage. Visible lasers were until recently were all based on IR diode lasers. Using GaN, directly blue and violet emitting lasers have also been introduced to the market mainly in the area of optical

  20. Visible but Unseen?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torkilsheyggi, Arnvør Martinsdóttir á; Hertzum, Morten

    2015-01-01

    to support awareness in a setting where the users are (locally) mobile, specifically in regard to information that requires continuous monitoring. We do however also find that the whiteboard safeguarded the work with blood tests against some risks by making blood-test information socially visible....

  1. Evaluation of Visible Plumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Thomas

    Developed for presentation at the 12th Conference on Methods in Air Pollution and Industrial Hygiene Studies, University of Southern California, April, 1971, this outline discusses plumes with contaminants that are visible to the naked eye. Information covers: (1) history of air pollution control regulations, (2) need for methods of evaluating…

  2. Target visibility for multiple maneuvering target tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabordo, Madeleine G.; Aboutanios, Elias

    2015-05-01

    We present a recursion of the probability of target visibility and its applications to analysis of track life and termination in the context of Global Nearest Neighbour (GNN) approach and Probability Hypothesis Density (PHD) filter. In the presence of uncertainties brought about by clutter; decisions to retain a track, terminate it or initialise a new track are based on probability, rather than on distance criterion or estimation error. The visibility concept is introduced into a conventional data-association-oriented multitarget tracker, the GNN; and a random finite set based-tracker, the PHD filter, to take into account instances when targets become invisible or occluded by obstacles. We employ the natural logarithmof the Dynamic Error Spectrum to assess the performance of the trackers with and without probability of visibility incorporated. Simulation results show that the performance of the GNN tracker with visibility concept incorporated is significantly enhanced.

  3. Studies in Atmospheric Chemistry. I. Assessing Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke. I. Sulfur Oxides Chemistry Related to PM(10) Formation and Visibility Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caka, Fern M.

    I. Data from four DC-10 flights and forty-eight DC-9 flights are used to evaluate a model which predicts concentrations of ETS onboard commercial aircraft. A first order rate of penetration (decay) is shown to predict concentrations well. II. Two studies were conducted in Utah Valley and the Grand Canyon region. Annular diffusion denuders, impingers and real-time instruments were used to collect and measure sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide species, ammonia, particulate acidity, and various oxidants. The data provided information on the distribution between gas and particulate phase species as a function of time, location and meteorology. Trends in the data sets which shed light on the factors which may contribute to atmospheric particulate conversion and the effect on PM_{10} formation and visibility degradation are presented.

  4. An assessment of the contribution of NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) regulatory growth to nuclear plant cost growth using engineering scope changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, S.

    1987-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the contribution of NRC regulations to the growth in nuclear power plant capital costs using the case study method. The two plants selected for the case studies are Florida Power and Light Company's (FP and L) St. Lucie Unit 1 (SL1) and St. Lucie Unit 2 (SL2). SL1 was constructed in the early 1970s and was granted an operating license in 1976. SL2 was constructed in the late 1970s and early 1980s, and was granted an operating license in 1983. The information bases were the amendments to the contracts between FP and L and its architect-engineer/constructor, i.e., the ''scope changes''. These were examined and analyzed for causation, i.e., NRC-initiated or utility-initiated, and all of the costs associated with scope changes of each type were aggregated to determine the contribution of each. Although the scope changes accounted for only a small fraction of the total cost growth for either plant, they were still used to determine the relative contribution of regulatory growth to cost growth. Unexpectedly, a significantly higher percentage of out-of-scope work (approximately 84%) was attributable to NRC regulatory requirements for SL1 than SL2 (approximately 47%). These results were unexpected because SL2 was constructed during a period in which regulation was considered to be particularly unstable. However, a more detailed analysis of causation indicates that a shift occurred from an ad-hoc mode of regulation in the early 1970s to a more prescriptive process in the late 1970s. Thus the number of formal NRC requirements may not be a valid measure of regulatory stability.

  5. Assessment of the scope of practice of physicians participating in the Mais Médicos (More Doctors) Program, and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi, Sábado Nicolau; Carvalho, Cristiana Leite; Pierantoni, Célia Regina; Costa, Juliana de Oliveira; Stralen, Ana Cristina de Sousa van; Lauar, Thaís Viana; David, Renata Bernardes

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the scope of practice of physicians working in primary healthcare participating in the Mais Médicos (More Doctors) Program ('PMM') and investigate the factors associated with execution of a larger number of clinical activities. It is an exploratory study carried over January to March 2016, through a self-applied questionnaire containing a list of 49 procedures, activities and actions carried out in primary healthcare. A total of 1,241 physicians took part in the study, most of them female, between age 40 and 49, and of Cuban nationality. The physicians carried out an average of 22.8 ± 8.2 procedures; they reported knowing how to carry out a larger number of procedures. Factors associated with executing a larger number of procedures were: being male, having graduated more recently, two years or less practicing in their primary healthcare unit, practicing in the North or South geographical regions, in small towns and more distant from the regional health headquarters. The main reason for not carrying out the procedures and activities that they reported knowing how to do was the lack of materials and inadequate infrastructure. The results show that the scope of practice of the physicians of the PMM is lower than their capacities, and that interventions with the intention of widening their scope are necessary.

  6. Making Heat Visible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodhew, Julie; Pahl, Sabine; Auburn, Tim; Goodhew, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Householders play a role in energy conservation through the decisions they make about purchases and installations such as insulation, and through their habitual behavior. The present U.K. study investigated the effect of thermal imaging technology on energy conservation, by measuring the behavioral effect after householders viewed images of heat escaping from or cold air entering their homes. In Study 1 (n = 43), householders who received a thermal image reduced their energy use at a 1-year follow-up, whereas householders who received a carbon footprint audit and a non-intervention control demonstrated no change. In Study 2 (n = 87), householders were nearly 5 times more likely to install draught proofing measures after seeing a thermal image. The effect was especially pronounced for actions that addressed an issue visible in the images. Findings indicate that using thermal imaging to make heat loss visible can promote energy conservation. PMID:26635418

  7. Social media visibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie

    2017-01-01

    As activists move from alternative media platforms to commercial social media platforms, they face increasing challenges in protecting their online security and privacy. While government surveillance of activists is well-documented in scholarly research and the media, corporate surveillance...... for responding to the activities of individual activists in social media. It shows that while social media afford an unprecedented level of visibility for activists, it comes with the risk of being monitored by corporations. Theoretically, it draws on conceptions of visibility in social sciences and media...... studies as well as literature on activism and political participation in media studies. Empirically, it draws on files from BP on specific civil society individuals obtained through Subject Access Requests under the UK Data Protection Act 1998 as well as press responses from BP....

  8. Visibility graph motifs

    CERN Document Server

    Iacovacci, Jacopo

    2015-01-01

    Visibility algorithms transform time series into graphs and encode dynamical information in their topology, paving the way for graph-theoretical time series analysis as well as building a bridge between nonlinear dynamics and network science. In this work we introduce and study the concept of visibility graph motifs, smaller substructures that appear with characteristic frequencies. We develop a theory to compute in an exact way the motif profiles associated to general classes of deterministic and stochastic dynamics. We find that this simple property is indeed a highly informative and computationally efficient feature capable to distinguish among different dynamics and robust against noise contamination. We finally confirm that it can be used in practice to perform unsupervised learning, by extracting motif profiles from experimental heart-rate series and being able, accordingly, to disentangle meditative from other relaxation states. Applications of this general theory include the automatic classification a...

  9. Networked Microgrids Scoping Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backhaus, Scott N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dobriansky, Larisa [General MicroGrids, San Diego, CA (United States); Glover, Steve [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Liu, Chen-Ching [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Looney, Patrick [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Mashayekh, Salman [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Pratt, Annabelle [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schneider, Kevin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stadler, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Starke, Michael [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Jianhui [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yue, Meng [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-12-05

    Much like individual microgrids, the range of opportunities and potential architectures of networked microgrids is very diverse. The goals of this scoping study are to provide an early assessment of research and development needs by examining the benefits of, risks created by, and risks to networked microgrids. At this time there are very few, if any, examples of deployed microgrid networks. In addition, there are very few tools to simulate or otherwise analyze the behavior of networked microgrids. In this setting, it is very difficult to evaluate networked microgrids systematically or quantitatively. At this early stage, this study is relying on inputs, estimations, and literature reviews by subject matter experts who are engaged in individual microgrid research and development projects, i.e., the authors of this study The initial step of the study gathered input about the potential opportunities provided by networked microgrids from these subject matter experts. These opportunities were divided between the subject matter experts for further review. Part 2 of this study is comprised of these reviews. Part 1 of this study is a summary of the benefits and risks identified in the reviews in Part 2 and synthesis of the research needs required to enable networked microgrids.

  10. Interferometric visibility and coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Tanmoy; García Díaz, María; Winter, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    Recently, the basic concept of quantum coherence (or superposition) has gained a lot of renewed attention, after Baumgratz et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 140401. (doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.140401)), following Åberg (http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0612146), have proposed a resource theoretic approach to quantify it. This has resulted in a large number of papers and preprints exploring various coherence monotones, and debating possible forms for the resource theory. Here, we take the view that the operational foundation of coherence in a state, be it quantum or otherwise wave mechanical, lies in the observation of interference effects. Our approach here is to consider an idealized multi-path interferometer, with a suitable detector, in such a way that the visibility of the interference pattern provides a quantitative expression of the amount of coherence in a given probe state. We present a general framework of deriving coherence measures from visibility, and demonstrate it by analysing several concrete visibility parameters, recovering some known coherence measures and obtaining some new ones.

  11. Evacuation under limited visibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Guillermo A.; Dorso, Claudio O.

    2015-06-01

    A multiplicity of situations can trigger off an evacuation of a room under panic conditions. For "normal" (with "normal" meaning absence of obstacles, perfect visibility, etc.) environmental conditions, the "faster is slower" effect dominates the dynamics of this process. It states that as the pedestrians desire to reach the exit increases, the clogging phenomena delays the time to get out of the room. But, environmental conditions are usually far from "normal." In this work, we consider that pedestrians have to find their way out under low visibility conditions. Some of them might switch to a herding-like behavior if they do not remember where the exit was. Others will just trust on their memory. Our investigation handles the herding and memory effects on the evacuation of a single exit room with no obstacles. We also include a section on how signaling devices affect the evacuation process. Unexpectedly, some low visibility situations may enhance the evacuation performance. This can be resumed as a second paradoxical result, since we demonstrated in an earlier investigation that "clever is not always better" G. A. Frank and C. O. Dorso, Physica A 390, 2135 (2011).

  12. Paradoxes of Visibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarnay László

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates two possible critical arguments following the pictorial turn. The first is formulated within ocularcentrism, the dominance of sight, and starts with the right to visibility as a general principle that governs today’s digital culture but gets twisted in special cases like the Auschwitz photos of the Shoa, the Abu Ghraib prison videos, or recently the website called Yolocaust. The second is conceived outside the visual culture and is meant to vindicate the other senses vis-à-vis the eyes. However, the argument is truncated here only to highlight the boomerang effect of the other senses: haptic vision. It is the case of visual perception when (a there is a lack of things to see and (b indeterminate synaesthesia: when vision intensifies the other senses in the embodied viewer. The two arguments converge upon a dialectic of the visible and the imaginable, which is formulated here as two paradoxes that the discussed examples transcend. By enforcing visibility at all costs where there is hardly anything recognizable to see, they lead to two diverging results. On the one hand, the meaning of “image” is extended toward the unimaginable, the traumatic experience, on the other hand, it is extended toward the invisible, the encounter with the radical Other.

  13. Scope Management of Non-Functional Requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassab, M.; Daneva, Maia; Ormandjieva, O.; Mueller, P.; Lyggesmeyer, P.; Maehle, E.

    2007-01-01

    In order to meet commitments in software projects, a realistic assessment must be made of project scope. Such an assessment relies on the availability of knowledge on the user-defined project requirements and their effort estimates and priorities, as well as their risk. This knowledge enables

  14. RADAR PPI Scope Overlay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — RADAR PPI Scope Overlays are used to position a RADAR image over a station at the correct resolution. The archive maintains several different RADAR resolution types,...

  15. Regimes of Language Skill and Competency Assessment in an Age of Migration: The In/Visibility of Social Relations and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Tara

    2015-01-01

    This paper draws on ethnographic research to discuss the textual practices and social relations of language assessment. It examines the tensions that language educators and assessment practitioners encounter while making decisions about immigrant professionals' language competence. It also analyzes the role of other social actors in constituting…

  16. EDITORIAL: New scope for Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics New scope for Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Olivia; Margaritondo, Giorgio

    2011-10-01

    surface and interface science—and much of condensed matter physics—towards nanoscience. We are sure this merged section will bring the authors' work in both of these sections to a broader audience. All sections have seen some additions to, and removals from, the scope. A full copy of the new scope can be found at the end of this editorial. Some of the areas from which we are particularly keen to receive more papers include: photovoltaics, terahertz science and technology, plasmonics, spintronics, bulk magnetic materials, biomagnetism, graphene, plasma medicine and plasma propulsion. Many others are closely monitored as potential developments and we will act rapidly whenever necessary to avoid missing opportunities. As part of these changes, we will be asking all authors to explain their choice of journal section within the new scope. We will also ask authors to submit a short statement of the applications or potential applications of their work. This will allow us to assess the suitability of the research for the journal but will also allow us to highlight the most exciting research we publish, ensuring it gets the highest possible visibility. We would like to take this opportunity to thank our hard-working and dedicated publishing team and Editorial Board. We would also like to thank the authors and referees of JPhysD, without whom the journal could not exist. We believe these changes will allow further strengthening, development and growth of the journal and we look forward to a positive future for JPhysD.

  17. JPEG ringing artifact visibility evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Sirui; Pizlo, Zygmunt; Allebach, Jan P.

    2014-01-01

    To achieve high perceptual quality of compressed images, many objective image quality metrics for compression artifacts evaluation and reduction have been developed based on characterization of local image features. However, it is the end user who is judging the image quality in various applications, so the validation of how well these metrics predict human perception is important and necessary. In this paper, we present a preliminary psychophysics experiment method to capture human perception of local ringing artifacts in JPEG images with different severity levels. Observers are asked to annotate the compressed image where they perceive artifacts along the edges, directly on the screen using an interactive tablet display. They are asked to catalog the severity of artifacts into one of the three levels: Strong, Medium, and Light. We process the hand-marked data into a ringing visibility edge map showing a ringing severity mean opinion score (MOS) at every edge pixel. The perceptual information captured in this experiment, enables us to study the correlation between human perception and local image features, which is an important step towards the goal of developing a non-reference (NR) objective metric to predict the visibility of JPEG ringing artifacts in alignment with the assessments of human observers.

  18. Big moving day for biodiversity? A macroecological assessment of the scope for assisted colonization as a conservation strategy under global warming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenning, J.-C.; Fløjgaard, Camilla; Morueta-Holme, Naia

    2009-01-01

    to corresponding losses locally. Our results suggest that there is substantial room for additional plant species across most areas of Europe, indicating that there is considerable scope for implementing assisted colonization as a proactive conservation strategy under global warming without necessarily implicating......Future climate change constitutes a major threat to Earth's biodiversity. If anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions continue unabated, 21st century climate change is likely to exceed the natural adaptive capacity of many natural ecosystems and a large proportion of species may risk extinction...

  19. The visible ear simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Mads Solvsten; Mosegaard, Jesper; Mikkelsen, Peter Trier

    2009-01-01

    material.Virtual training often requires the purchase of a program, a customized computer, and expensive peripherals dedicated exclusively to this purpose. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Visible Ear freeware library of digital images from a fresh-frozen human temporal bone was segmented, and real-time volume......, 2D, or optional anaglyph stereoscopic 3D was achieved on a standard Core 2 Duo personal computer with a GeForce 8,800 GTX graphics card, and surgical interaction was provided through a relatively inexpensive (approximately $2,500) Phantom Omni haptic 3D pointing device. CONCLUSION: This prototype...

  20. WWW visibility in marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Ollila, T.

    2013-01-01

    Social media is a vital channel for marketers nowadays. Customers are more empowered today than ever before and the Internet is accelerating the trend toward greater customer empowerment. In few years Web 2.0 has become a highly important media and it has changed the Web into platform where individuals can communicate, assemble and organize data. Web 2.0 also offers a variety of different “tools” for companies to be used in marketing. Because companies and products are visible and discussed i...

  1. Quenching of singlet oxygen by natural and synthetic antioxidants and assessment of electronic UV/Visible absorption spectra for alleviating or enhancing the efficacy of photodynamic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaneez Fatima

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT is one of the methods involved in cancer therapy exploiting singlet oxygen as a weapon to kill cancer cells. Singlet oxygen, a bizarre reactive oxygen species as it is not related to electron transfer to O2 but it is one of the most active intermediate involved in biochemical reactions as it directly reacts with all the major macromolecules like DNA, protein, lipids etc, various photosensitized oxidations and in the photodegradation of dyes and polymers. Recent studies about the usage of antioxidant along with the photo-sensitizer involved in photodynamic therapy have shown concentration- dependent dual behavior like usually it retards the efficacy of PDT but at a higher dose mostly, it actually enhances the damaging effect of PDT. The natural and synthetic antioxidants are being used in our day to day life in order to increase the shelf life of various food ingredients and processed foods. In this paper, we have compared natural and synthetic antioxidants along with the known singlet oxygen quencher (DABCO in order to understand the quenching potential of singlet oxygen (1O2 which is lowest electronically excited state of molecular oxygen. The singlet oxygen can be artificially generated through various methods such as sunlight, phosphate, ozonides, NaOCl and H2O2 etc. We have studied the mechanisms of the few antioxidant effects on the bleaching of RNO linked with the energy decay of 1O2 produced by the Mallet reaction (H2O2+HOCl and #8200; and #8594; and #8200;HCl+H2O+1O2. beta-Carotene, and #945;-Tocopherol, Ascorbic acid and Quercetin exhibited best dose-dependent singlet quenching ranging from 92.3 to 56.5 % at 100 and #956;M among others. Overall singlet oxygen is a major concern of light-related properties so we have analyzed the theoretical aspect of electronic UV/visible absorption spectra of the antioxidants studied through ZINDO CI semi-empirical Hamiltonian method. We have compared only the first singlet

  2. 60 years of UK visibility measurements: impact of meteorology and atmospheric pollutants on visibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajit; Bloss, William J.; Pope, Francis D.

    2017-02-01

    Reduced visibility is an indicator of poor air quality. Moreover, degradation in visibility can be hazardous to human safety; for example, low visibility can lead to road, rail, sea and air accidents. In this paper, we explore the combined influence of atmospheric aerosol particle and gas characteristics, and meteorology, on long-term visibility. We use visibility data from eight meteorological stations, situated in the UK, which have been running since the 1950s. The site locations include urban, rural and marine environments. Most stations show a long-term trend of increasing visibility, which is indicative of reductions in air pollution, especially in urban areas. Additionally, the visibility at all sites shows a very clear dependence on relative humidity, indicating the importance of aerosol hygroscopicity on the ability of aerosol particles to scatter radiation. The dependence of visibility on other meteorological parameters, such as wind speed and wind direction, is also investigated. Most stations show long-term increases in temperature which can be ascribed to climate change, land-use changes (e.g. urban heat island effects) or a combination of both; the observed effect is greatest in urban areas. The impact of this temperature change upon local relative humidity is discussed. To explain the long-term visibility trends and their dependence on meteorological conditions, the measured data were fitted to a newly developed light-extinction model to generate predictions of historic aerosol and gas scattering and absorbing properties. In general, an excellent fit was achieved between measured and modelled visibility for all eight sites. The model incorporates parameterizations of aerosol hygroscopicity, particle concentration, particle scattering, and particle and gas absorption. This new model should be applicable and is easily transferrable to other data sets worldwide. Hence, historical visibility data can be used to assess trends in aerosol particle

  3. Oxidizer Scoping Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chancellor, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-11-07

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of the acceptable knowledge (AK) review of oxidizers present in active waste streams, provide a technical analysis of the oxidizers, and report the results of the scoping study testing. This report will determine the fastest burning oxidizer to be used in the development of a Test Plan for Preparation and Testing of Sorbents Mixed with Oxidizer found in Transuranic Waste (DWT-TP-001). The companion report, DWT-RPT-002, Sorbent Scoping Studies, contains similar information for sorbents identified during the AK review of TRU waste streams. The results of the oxidizer and sorbent scoping studies will be used to inform the QL1 test plan. The QL1 test results will support the development of a basis of knowledge document that will evaluate oxidizing chemicals and sorbents in TRU waste and provide guidance for treatment.

  4. Scoping Memo Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, Noah [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Stewart, Jeff [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lamont, Alan [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dube, Evi [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gansemer, Jim [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-06-25

    What follows is a response to the questions posed in the May 21, 2010 document "Assigned Commissioner's Ruling and Scoping Memo, Phase 1", pertaining to Rulemaking 09-11-014, also referred to as the "Scoping Memo". The questions refer to the specific components of the CPUC Energy Efficiency (EE) Evaluation, Measurement, and Verification (EM&V) program, currently in its 2010-2012 cycle. In the Scoping Memo, there was reference to the need to update the policy and methodological framework of EM&V, due to changes in law (AB32), policy (California Long Term Energy Efficiency Strategic Plan), the availability of new data, and challenges to previous EM&V cycles.

  5. Temperature variability, intensity of wind speed and visibility during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the connections between temperature variability, intensity of wind speed and their effect on visibility of Makurdi town during the harmattan season. Data on mean monthly temperature of harmattan months of November, December, January and February (2001 to 2011), Wind speed and visibility records ...

  6. Cosmetology: Scope and Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    This scope and sequence guide, developed for a cosmetology vocational education program, represents an initial step in the development of a systemwide articulated curriculum sequence for all vocational programs within the Metropolitan Nashville Public School System. It was developed as a result of needs expressed by teachers, parents, and the…

  7. Insensitivity to Scope in Contingent Valuation Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Rikke; Lindholt, Jes Sanddal; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte

    2012-01-01

    Background: The credibility of contingent valuation studies has been questioned because of the potential occurrence of scope insensitivity, i.e. that respondents do not react to higher quantities or qualities of a good. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the extent of scope insensiti......Background: The credibility of contingent valuation studies has been questioned because of the potential occurrence of scope insensitivity, i.e. that respondents do not react to higher quantities or qualities of a good. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the extent of scope...... insensitivity and to assess the relevance of potential explanations that may help to shed light on how to appropriately handle this problem in contingent valuation studies. Methods: We surveyed a sample of 2004 men invited for cardiovascular disease screening. Each respondent had three contingent valuation...... was overall found to be sensitive to scope, testing at the conventional sample-mean level. At the individual respondent level, however, more than half of the respondents failed the tests. Potential determinants for failing the tests were examined in alternative regression models but few consistent...

  8. Prioritising Project Scope Definition Elements in Public Building Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed K Fageha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A complete definition of the scope of a project upfront during early stages ensures smooth and successful implementation during the project execution. This research identifies and prioritises project scope definition elements for public buildings in Saudi Arabia. Elements that could significantly contribute to complete project scope definition package at pre-project planning stage are identified and their interrelationship determined and prioritised. Using the Project Definition Rating Index (PDRI as a basis, the study uses analytical network process (ANP technique based on data obtained from project managers who have been involved in public sector projects in Saudi Arabia. Data collection and analysis was conducted in three steps. The first step involved identification of scope definition elements while the second involved an investigation into interrelationships among the elements. In the third step, ANP was used to determine the weight of the elements’ importance in terms of contribution to project scope definition completeness. Finally, Pareto analysis was used to prioritise and assess the distribution pattern of the elements. The outcome from this research is the prioritisation of project scope definition elements for public building projects in Saudi Arabia. The prioritised list developed indicates the importance of project scope definition elements. It should help project management teams identify elements to consider when evaluating project scope definition for completeness at the pre-project planning stage. Keywords: Project scope definition, pre-project planning, prioritising, public building projects, Saudi Arabia, Analytical Network Process (ANP

  9. Direct digital radiography versus conventional radiography - assessment of visibility of file length placed in the root canal: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaiyapuri Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Objective: To compare conventional and direct digital radiography (DDR in working length measurement of the root canal and to assess the significance of the different enhancement modes provided by the software to visualize the file length. Materials and Methods: Access cavities were prepared in 30 extracted maxillary central incisors. Size 15 k-file was introduced into the canal till it was flush with the apical foramen. The working length was calculated as 0.5 mm less than the vernier caliper measured length of each file. The files were then sealed with resin at their respective lengths. Intraoral periapical radiographs and direct digital radiographs were taken. Vernier caliper was used to measure the file length in the periapical radiographs, and standard, positive conversion, and colorize modes were used with the CDR system. A multiple regression analysis was conducted to give an accurate analysis between the actual file length and the different groups. Results: There was no statistical significance between the different groups tested. The multiple regression analysis test showed that the positive and colorize modes more accurately corresponded to the actual file length. Conclusion: Both conventional radiography and DDR can be reliably used for working length determination. The positive and colorize modes enhancement features of DDR greatly improve the visual perception, leading to more accurate measurements.

  10. ATST visible broadband imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, William R.; Wöger, Friedrich; Hegwer, Steve L.; Ferayorni, Andrew; Gregory, B. Scott

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) is a 4 meter class telescope for observation of the solar atmosphere currently in the construction phase. The Visible Broadband Imager (VBI) is a diffraction limited imaging instrument planned to be the first-light instrument in the ATST instrumentation suite. The VBI is composed of two branches, the "VBI blue" and the "VBI red", and uses state-of-the-art narrow bandwidth interference filters and two custom designed high speed filter wheels to take bursts of images that will be re-constructed using a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) optimized near-real-time speckle image reconstruction engine. At first light, the VBI instrument will produce diffraction-limited movies of solar activity at eight discrete wavelengths with a field of view of 2 arc minutes square. In this contribution, the VBI design team will discuss the capabilities of the VBI and describe the design of the instrument, highlighting the unique challenges faced in the development of this unique instrument.

  11. DYNAMICALLY MAINTAINING THE VISIBILITY GRAPH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VEGTER, G

    1991-01-01

    An algorithm is presented to maintain the visibility graph of a set of N line segments in the plane in O(log2 N + K log N) time, where K is the total number of arcs of the visibility graph that are destroyed or created upon insertion or deletion of a line segment. The line segments should be

  12. Revisiting visibility in the plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkinson, Bryan Thomas

    Abstract We consider two closely related problems: computing the region visible from a point amid simple polygonal obstacles and computing the lower envelope of a set of disjoint segments. Visibility problems such as these were proposed and promptly solved in the late'80s and early'90s before...

  13. Non-Euclidean visibility problems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We prove a visibility criterion and study orchard problem and the cardinality of visible points in large circles. Author Affiliations. Fernando Chamizo1. Departamento de Matemáticas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain. Dates. Manuscript received: 14 November 2005. Proceedings ...

  14. Visible Jovian Aurora

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Jupiter's aurora on the night side of the planet is seen here at five different wavelengths. Jupiter's bright crescent, which is about half illuminated, is out of view to the right. North is at the top. The images are centered at 57 degrees north and 184 degrees West and were taken on April 2, 1997 at a range of 1.7 million kilometers (1.05 million miles) by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) camera system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft.Although Jupiter's aurora had been imaged from Earth in the ultraviolet and infrared, these are the first images at visible wavelengths, where most of the emission takes place. CLR stands for clear (no filter) and shows the integrated brightness at all wavelengths. The other panels show the violet, green, red, and 889 nanometer-wavelength filtered images. The brightness of the aurora is roughly independent of wavelength, at least at the spectral resolution obtainable with these filters.As on Earth, the aurora is caused by electrically charged particles striking the upper atmosphere, causing the molecules of the atmosphere to glow. The brightness in the different filters contains information about the energy of the impinging particles and the composition of the upper atmosphere. If atomic hydrogen were the only emitter, the light would be much stronger in the red filter, which is not consistent with the observed distribution.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at: http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at: http:/ /www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo.

  15. Sorbent Scoping Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chancellor, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Carlsbad, NM (United States). Difficult Waste Team

    2016-11-14

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory–Carlsbad Operations (LANL-CO) office was tasked by the DOE CBFO, Office of the Manager to perform a review of the acceptable knowledge (AK) to identify the oxidizers and sorbents in transuranic (TRU) waste streams, to conduct scoping studies on the oxidizers and sorbents identified in AK review to inform the Quality Level 1 (QL1) testing, and to conduct a series of QL1 tests to provide the scientific data to support a basis of knowledge document for determining the criteria for (1) accepting waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) without treatment, (2) determining waste that will require treatment, and (3) if treatment is required, how the treatment must be performed. The purpose of this report is to present the results of the AK review of sorbents present in active waste streams, provide a technical analysis of the sorbent list, report the results of the scoping studies for the fastest-burning organic sorbent, and provide the list of organic and inorganic sorbents to be used in the development of a Test Plan for Preparation and Testing of Sorbents Mixed with Oxidizer found in Transuranic Waste (DWT-TP-001). The companion report, DWT-RPT-001, Oxidizer Scoping Studies, has similar information for oxidizers identified during the AK review of TRU waste streams. The results of the oxidizer and sorbent scoping studies will be used to inform the QL1 test plan. The QL1 test results will support the development of a basis of knowledge document that will evaluate oxidizing chemicals and sorbents in TRU waste and provide guidance for treatment.

  16. Scoping endangered futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Anders

    2017-01-01

    -media events, drawing on scientific, artistic, and mass media registers, and embodied in what Karin Knorr Cetina call scoping devices of information and visualization, involving particular ‘fateful’ time transactions. These conceptual suggestions are illustrated and elaborated by drawing on auto......-ethnographic observations during a particular event of intense futurity, that of the international COP15 climate change conference held in Copenhagen during December of 2009....

  17. Scope of Practice Among Recent Family Medicine Residency Graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiff, M Patrice; Hollander-Rodriguez, Joyce; Skariah, Joe; Young, Richard; Waller, Elaine; Dexter, Eve; O'Neill, Thomas R; Peabody, Michael R; Green, Larry A; Carney, Patricia A

    2017-09-01

    The scope of practice among primary care providers varies, and studies have shown that family physicians' scope may be shrinking. We studied the scope of practice among graduates of residencies associated with Preparing the Personal Physician for Practice (P4) and how length of training and individualized education innovations may influence scope. We surveyed graduates 18 months after residency between 2008 and 2014. The survey measured self-reported practice characteristics, scope of practice and career satisfaction. We assessed scope using individual practice components (25 clinical activities, 30 procedures) and a scaled score (P4-SOP) that measured breadth of practice scope. We conducted subgroup analyses according to exposure to innovations over the project period and exposure to specific innovations. No significant differences were found in mean P4-SOP scores between the Pre and Full P4 groups. Compared to national data, P4 graduates reported higher rates for vaginal deliveries (19.3% vs 9.2%), adult inpatient care (48.5% vs 33.7%) and nursing home care (25.4 vs 11.7%) in practice. Graduates exposed to innovations that lengthened training, compared to standard training length, were more likely to include adult hospital care (58.2% vs 38.5%, P=0.002), adult ICU care (30.6% vs 19.2%, P=0.047) and newborn resuscitation (25.6% vs 14%, P=0.028) in their practice and performed 19/30 procedures at higher rates. Graduates of programs with individualized training innovations reported no significant differences in scope compared to graduates without this innovation. Graduates of residencies engaged in significant educational redesign report a broad scope of practice. Innovations around the length of training may broaden scope and individualized education appears not to constrict scope.

  18. On characterizing terrain visibility graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Evans

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A terrain is an $x$-monotone polygonal line in the $xy$-plane. Two vertices of a terrain are mutually visible if and only if there is no terrain vertex on or above the open line segment connecting them. A graph whose vertices represent terrain vertices and whose edges represent mutually visible pairs of terrain vertices is called a terrain visibility graph. We would like to find properties that are both necessary and sufficient for a graph to be a terrain visibility graph; that is, we would like to characterize terrain visibility graphs.Abello et al. [Discrete and Computational Geometry, 14(3:331--358, 1995] showed that all terrain visibility graphs are “persistent”. They showed that the visibility information of a terrain point set implies some ordering requirements on the slopes of the lines connecting pairs of points in any realization, and as a step towards showing sufficiency, they proved that for any persistent graph $M$ there is a total order on the slopes of the (pseudo lines in a generalized configuration of points whose visibility graph is $M$.We give a much simpler proof of this result by establishing an orientation to every triple of vertices, reflecting some slope ordering requirements that are consistent with $M$ being the visibility graph, and prove that these requirements form a partial order. We give a faster algorithm to construct a total order on the slopes. Our approach attempts to clarify the implications of the graph theoretic properties on the ordering of the slopes, and may be interpreted as defining properties on an underlying oriented matroid that we show is a restricted type of $3$-signotope.

  19. Measuring Visible Space to Assess Landscape Openness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weitkamp, Gerd; Bregt, Arnold; Van Lammeren, Ron

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses a procedure for measuring landscape openness, which is an important characteristic of the visual landscape. The procedure aims to ensure the quality of descriptions of landscape openness while being flexible enough to produce descriptions suitable for various

  20. Measuring visible space to assess landscape openness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weitkamp, S.G.; Bregt, A.K.; Lammeren, van R.J.A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses a procedure for measuring landscape openness, which is an important characteristic of the visual landscape. The procedure aims to ensure the quality of descriptions of landscape openness while being flexible enough to produce descriptions suitable for various

  1. Study on breast carcinoma Her2/neu and hormonal receptors status assessed by automated images analysis systems: ACIS III (Dako and ScanScope (Aperio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Staniszewski

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Her-2/neu is overexpressed in 20-30% of breast cancer patients and is associated with a more aggressive disease. Identification of Her-2/c-erbB-2-neu overexpression is based on immunohistochemical [ihc] detection of protein and/or gene amplification in fluorescence in situ hybridization test (FISH. Also Estrogen receptors [ER] and Progesterone receptors [PR] are the prognostic and predictive biomarkers, recently analysed by ihc methods. Subjective, manual scoring of the ihc Her-2/neu expression and expression of the ER/PR reported as the percentage of immunopositive cells are the most common mode of interpretation among pathologists. Automated microscopy and computerised processing have provided increased accuracy in quantification and standardisation. The aims of our study were: to evaluate the scoring reproducibility of Her-2 /neu ihc expression tested by two automated systems: ACIS (Dako and ScanScope (Aperio; to estimate the ER/PR expression in ihc staining methods with different anti-ER/anti-PR antibodies (the monoclonal and the ER/PR pharmDx TM Kit by the ACIS system. Her-2/neu ihc expression was measured in 114 primary invasive breast carcinomas by the manual and the automated scoring (ACIS and Aperio system. 106 slides stained ihc with two types of anti-ER/anti-PR antibodies entered the quantisation. The results of our investigations showed very high reproducibility of Her-2/neu scores in intra- and interobserver analysis by ACIS evaluation. The major concordance was present in strong 3+ ihc cases; very small discordance was shown by cases with low expression of Her-2/neu. The accuracy of scoring by the Aperio was little lower in comparison to ACIS but it might result from the smaller and variable series of samples analysed by Aperio. The concordance in scoring of two automated systems was 86.5% (p<0.0001; gamma=0.887; the discordance was referred only to the lower expression of Her-2/neu. The concordance in manual scoring performed by

  2. Establishment of an Eastern Visibility Fine-Particle Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, E.G.; Fitz-Simons, T.; Lumpkin, T.A.; Barnard, W.F.

    1987-04-01

    A comprehensive assessment of eastern regional haze is being undertaken by EPA's Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory. An Eastern Visibility Fine-Particle Network (EVFPN) is being set up to study the relationships between fine particles and visibility. A long-term data base will be established to aid in determining spatial and temporal variations in indicators of visibility degradation in the Eastern United States. A further refinement of the visibility/particulate components relationships, with emphasis given to the nonsulfate components such as carbon and nitrate, will be developed. The monitoring strategy used to obtain optical properties, aerosol characteristics, and the characteristics of a scene are discussed along with the general overview of the Eastern Visibility Fine-Particle Network.

  3. Incremental Visualizer for Visible Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukauskas, Linas; Bøhlen, Michael Hanspeter

    path. IVVO is the novel solution which allows data to be visualized and loaded on the fly from the database and which regards visibilities of objects. We run a set of experiments to convince that IVVO is feasible in terms of I/O operations and CPU load. We consider the example of data which uses......This paper discusses the integration of database back-end and visualizer front-end into a one tightly coupled system. The main aim which we achieve is to reduce the data pipeline from database to visualization by using incremental data extraction of visible objects in a fly-through scenarios. We...... also argue that passing only relevant data from the database will substantially reduce the overall load of the visualization system. We propose the system Incremental Visualizer for Visible Objects (IVVO) which considers visible objects and enables incremental visualization along the observer movement...

  4. vysmaw: Fast visibility stream muncher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorny, Martin; Law, Casey J.

    2017-10-01

    The vysmaw client library facilitates the development of code for processes to tap into the fast visibility stream on the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's Very Large Array correlator back-end InfiniBand network.

  5. Visible neutrino decay at DUNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coloma, Pilar [Fermilab; Peres, Orlando G. [ICTP, Trieste

    2017-05-09

    If the heaviest neutrino mass eigenstate is unstable, its decay modes could include lighter neutrino eigenstates. In this case part of the decay products could be visible, as they would interact at neutrino detectors via mixing. At neutrino oscillation experiments, a characteristic signature of such \\emph{visible neutrino decay} would be an apparent excess of events at low energies. We focus on a simple phenomenological model in which the heaviest neutrino decays as $\

  6. Computing Visible-Surface Representations,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    of applications. @ Massachusetts Institute of Technology 1985 "’ki report dcs;crihrs rccarch done at the Arificial lInelligence lhaboratory of the...411FO111 OIMMI bm tpal) IS. SUPPLEMENTARY MOTES None A IS~~~1. KEY WORS (Co~me 01 reerseea ............ MIngUfy ySek It Vision Variational principles...perception of visible surfaces. The explicit representation of visible surfaces, an intermediate goal of computational vision , has since attracted

  7. Assessment of the roles of reactive oxygen species in the UV and visible light photocatalytic degradation of cyanotoxins and water taste and odor compounds using C-TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotiou, Theodora; Triantis, Theodoros M; Kaloudis, Triantafyllos; O'Shea, Kevin E; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; Hiskia, Anastasia

    2016-03-01

    Visible light (VIS) photocatalysis has large potential as a sustainable water treatment process, however the reaction pathways and degradation processes of organic pollutants are not yet clearly defined. The presence of cyanobacteria cause water quality problems since several genera can produce potent cyanotoxins, harmful to human health. In addition, cyanobacteria produce taste and odor compounds, which pose serious aesthetic problems in drinking water. Although photocatalytic degradation of cyanotoxins and taste and odor compounds have been reported under UV-A light in the presence of TiO2, limited studies have been reported on their degradation pathways by VIS photocatalysis of these problematic compounds. The main objectives of this work were to study the VIS photocatalytic degradation process, define the reactive oxygen species (ROS) involved and elucidate the reaction mechanisms. We report carbon doped TiO2 (C-TiO2) under VIS leads to the slow degradation of cyanotoxins, microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and cylindrospermopsin (CYN), while taste and odor compounds, geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol, were not appreciably degraded. Further studies were carried-out employing several specific radical scavengers (potassium bromide, isopropyl alcohol, sodium azide, superoxide dismutase and catalase) and probes (coumarin) to assess the role of different ROS (hydroxyl radical OH, singlet oxygen (1)O2, superoxide radical anion [Formula: see text] ) in the degradation processes. Reaction pathways of MC-LR and CYN were defined through identification and monitoring of intermediates using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for VIS in comparison with UV-A photocatalytic treatment. The effects of scavengers and probes on the degradation process under VIS, as well as the differences in product distributions under VIS and UV-A, suggested that the main species in VIS photocatalysis is [Formula: see text] , with OH and (1)O2 playing minor roles in the degradation

  8. Comparison of Intended Scope of Practice for Family Medicine Residents With Reported Scope of Practice Among Practicing Family Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Anastasia J; Cochrane, Anneli; Stelter, Keith; Phillips, Robert L; Peterson, Lars E

    2015-12-08

    Narrowing of the scope of practice of US family physicians has been well documented. Proposed reasons include changing practice patterns as physicians age, employer restrictions, or generational choices. Determining components of care that remain integral to the practice of family medicine may be informed by assessing gaps between the intended scope of practice of residents and actual scope of practice of family physicians. To compare intended scope of practice for American Board of Family Medicine (ABFM) initial certifiers at residency completion with self-reported actual scope of practice of recertifying family physicians. Cross-sectional data were collected from a practice demographic questionnaire completed by all individuals applying to take the ABFM Maintenance of Certification for Family Physicians examination. Initial certifiers reported intentions and recertifiers reported actual provision of specific clinical activities. All physicians who registered for the 2014 ABFM Maintenance of Certification for Family Physicians examination were included: 3038 initial certifiers and 10,846 recertifiers. Initially certifying physicians vs recertifying physicians. The Scope of Practice for Primary Care score (scope score), a psychometric scale, was calculated for each physician and ranged from 0 to 30, with higher numbers equating to broader scope of practice. Recertifiers were categorized by decades in practice. The final sample included 13,884 family physicians and, because the questionnaire was a required component of the examination application, there was a 100% response rate. Mean scope score was significantly higher for initial certifier intended practice compared with recertifying physicians' reported actual practices (17.7 vs 15.5; difference, 2.2 [95% CI, 2.1-2.3]; P practice for only 1 to 10 years. In this study of family physicians taking ABFM examinations, graduating family medicine residents reported an intention to provide a broader scope of practice

  9. Prague-Ruzyne airport visibility data processing results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvicera, Vaclav; Grabner, Martin; Vasicek, Jiri

    2010-05-01

    Experimental research in the Department of Frequency Engineering in the Czech Metrology Institute (CMI) in Prague, the Czech Republic, is focused on stability of received signal on terrestrial radio and optical communication links. A free space optical (FSO) communication system can provide a high bandwidth solution to last mile broadband access. Dense fog events can cause serious attenuation of optical waves. The availability performances of FSO links are seriously affected by lower atmospheric visibility. Fog seems to be the most important impairment factor for FSO communication links. Therefore, our experimental research is also focused on processing meteorological data to obtain basic information for the assessment of availability performances of FSO links. The visibility measured at airports provides a good estimate for the assessment of fog impairment. The visibility data that is measured and stored in meteorological stations or airports is usually used for the calculation of specific attenuation due to fog in accordance with either the relevant ITU-R Recommendation or other common methods. Fog visibility data obtained by the Vaisala transmissometer at the Prague-Ruzyne airport from January 1996 to December 2008 (13 years of observation) was statistically processed over the individual years, the individual months and the individual hours and the following cumulative distributions (CDs) of visibility were obtained: 1) CDs of visibility for individual years, 2) CDs of visibility for individual months over the whole period of processing, 3) CDs of visibility for the worst hour over the whole period of processing, and 4) CDs of visibility for the average year and the average worst month over the entire 13 year period of processing. It can be concluded that the frequency of fog events shows a great year-to-year variability in accordance with the frequency of individual synoptic situations occurring during the year. Fog occurred most frequently in November and

  10. The assessment and management of chemotherapy-related toxicities in patients with breast cancer, colorectal cancer, and Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Patricia; Darley, Andrew; Furlong, Eileen; Miaskowski, Christine; Patiraki, Elisabeth; Armes, Jo; Ream, Emma; Papadopoulou, Constantina; McCann, Lisa; Kearney, Nora; Maguire, Roma

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of the eSMART (Electronic Symptom Management using the Advanced Symptom Management System (ASyMS) Remote Technology) study is to evaluate the use of mobile phone technology to manage chemotherapy-related toxicities (CRTs) in people with breast cancer (BC), colorectal cancer (CRC), Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL)) across multiple European sites. One key objective was to review the published and grey literature on assessment and management of CRTs among patients receiving primary chemotherapy for BC, CRC, HL, and NHL to ensure that ASyMS remained evidence-based and reflected current and local practice. Three electronic databases were searched for English papers, with abstracts available from 01/01/2004-05/04/2014. For the grey literature, relevant clinical practice guidelines (CPGs)/evidence-based resources (EBRs) from the main international cancer organisations were reviewed as were symptom management (SM) protocols from the sites. After full-text screening, 27 publications were included. The majority (n = 14) addressed fatigue and focused on BC patients. Relevant CPGs/EBRs were found for fatigue (n = 4), nausea/vomiting (n = 5), mucositis (n = 4), peripheral neuropathy (n = 3), diarrhoea (n = 2), constipation (n = 2), febrile neutropenia/infection (n = 7), palmar plantar erythrodysesthesia (PPE) (n = 1), and pain (n = 4). SM protocols were provided by >40% of the clinical sites. A need exists for empirical research on SM for PPE, diarrhoea, and constipation. Research is needed on the efficacy of self-care strategies in patients with BC, CRC, HL, and NHL. In general, consistency exists across CPGs/EBRs and local guidelines on the assessment and management of common CRTs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Visibility of natural tertiary rainbows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Raymond L; Laven, Philip

    2011-10-01

    Naturally occurring tertiary rainbows are extraordinarily rare and only a handful of reliable sightings and photographs have been published. Indeed, tertiaries are sometimes assumed to be inherently invisible because of sun glare and strong forward scattering by raindrops. To analyze the natural tertiary's visibility, we use Lorenz-Mie theory, the Debye series, and a modified geometrical optics model (including both interference and nonspherical drops) to calculate the tertiary's (1) chromaticity gamuts, (2) luminance contrasts, and (3) color contrasts as seen against dark cloud backgrounds. Results from each model show that natural tertiaries are just visible for some unusual combinations of lighting conditions and raindrop size distributions.

  12. Categorization of Scope 3 emissions for streamlined enterprise carbon footprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y Anny; Weber, Christopher L; Matthews, H Scott

    2009-11-15

    Many organizations look to carbon footprint protocols for guidance on measuring their greenhouse gas emissions, or carbon footprint. Existing protocols generally require estimation of direct emissions (Scope 1) and emissions from direct purchases of energy (Scope 2), but focus less on indirect emissions upstream and downstream of the supply chain (optional Scope 3). Because on average more than 75% of an industry sector's carbon footprint is attributed to Scope 3 sources, better knowledge of Scope 3 footprints can help organizations pursue emissions mitigation projects not just within their own plants but also across their supply chain. In this work, Scope 3 footprints of U.S. economic sectors are categorized using an Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA) model to identify upstream emission sources that are likely to contribute significantly to different sectors' footprints. The portions of the upstream footprint captured by the sector's top-10 upstream suppliers are estimated at 3 different levels of specificity: general economy-wide, industry specific, and sector specific. The results show that enterprises can capture a large portion of their total upstream carbon footprint by collecting full emissions information from only a handful of direct suppliers, and Scope 3 footprint capture rates can be improved considerably by sector-specific categorization. Employee commuting and air transportation may be more important (7%-30%) for the services industries, but should not be a focus of detailed Scope 3 footprint estimates for the manufacturing industries (<1% of the total analyzed footprint). Protocol organizations should actively make more specific Scope 3 guidelines available for their constituents by developing sector-specific categorizations for as many sectors as they feasibly can and create broader industry-specific protocols for others.

  13. Visibility Management and the Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasser, Jon; Wicker, Nichole

    2008-01-01

    The authors employed grounded theory to explore the high school experiences of gay, lesbian, and bisexual students in Central Texas. The central phenomenon that emerged from the study was Visibility Management, or decisions made regarding the disclosure of invisible traits. This article reviews the results of this research with an emphasis on the…

  14. Early Learning Theories Made Visible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloglovsky, Miriam; Daly, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Go beyond reading about early learning theories and see what they look like in action in modern programs and teacher practices. With classroom vignettes and colorful photographs, this book makes the works of Jean Piaget, Erik Erikson, Lev Vygotsky, Abraham Maslow, John Dewey, Howard Gardner, and Louise Derman-Sparks visible, accessible, and easier…

  15. Visible fluorescent proteins for FRET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremers, G.J.; Goedhart, J.; Gadella, T.W.J.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter discusses the use of Visible fluorescent proteins (VFPs) for FRET studies, a comprehensive table with Förster radii of VFP pairs is presented and recommendations for choosing the right pairs are made. The chapter discusses VFPs that are used for studies that use fluorescence resonance

  16. Economies of scope in Danish primary care practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Troels; Rose Olsen, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Aim: We analyze total operating costs and activities in Danish General Practice units to assess whether there are unexploited economies of scope in the production of primary care services. Methods: We apply stochastic frontier analysis to derive cost functions and associated cost complementarities...... between GP services and overall economies of scope. Data: Cross-section data for a sample of 331 primary care practices with 1-8 GPs from the year 2006. This is a unique combined dataset consisting of survey and register data. Results: We find a trend towards cost complementarities between the production...... economies of scope in the production of GP services. Conclusions: Our preliminary results show that there were overall economies of scope associated with the joint production of a) standard consultations, b) email/phone consultations and c) home visits. Cost complementarities between standard consultations...

  17. Visible and Infrared Optical Design for the ITER Upper Ports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasnier, C; Seppala, L; Morris, K; Groth, M; Fenstermacher, M; Allen, S; Synakowski, E; Ortiz, J

    2007-03-01

    This document contains the results of an optical design scoping study of visible-light and infrared optics for the ITER upper ports, performed by LLNL under contract for the US ITER Project Office. ITER is an international collaboration to build a large fusion energy tokamak with a goal of demonstrating net fusion power for pulses much longer than the energy confinement time. At the time of this report, six of the ITER upper ports are planned to each to contain a camera system for recording visible and infrared light, as well as other diagnostics. the performance specifications for the temporal and spatial resolution of this system are shown in the Section II, Functional Specifications. They acknowledge a debt to Y. Corre and co-authors of the CEA Cadarache report ''ITER wide-angle viewing and thermographic and visible system''. Several of the concepts used in this design are derived from that CEA report. The infrared spatial resolution for optics of this design is diffraction-limited by the size of the entrance aperture, at lower resolution than listed in the ITER diagnostic specifications. The size of the entrance aperture is a trade-off between spatial resolution, optics size in the port, and the location of relay optics. The signal-to-noise ratio allows operation at the specified time resolutions.

  18. Radar Plan Position Indicator Scope

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Radar Plan Position Indicator Scope is the collection of weather radar imagery for the period prior to the beginning of the Next Generation Radar (NEXRAD) system...

  19. In situ continuous visible and near-infrared spectroscopy of an alpine snowpack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Marie; Arnaud, Laurent; Picard, Ghislain; Libois, Quentin; Lejeune, Yves; Nabat, Pierre; Voisin, Didier; Morin, Samuel

    2017-05-01

    Snow spectral albedo in the visible/near-infrared range has been continuously measured during a winter season at Col de Porte alpine site (French Alps; 45.30° N, 5.77° E; 1325 m a.s.l.). The evolution of such alpine snowpack is complex due to intensive precipitation, rapid melt events and Saharan dust deposition outbreaks. This study highlights that the resulting intricate variations of spectral albedo can be successfully explained by variations of the following snow surface variables: specific surface area (SSA) of snow, effective light-absorbing impurities content, presence of liquid water and slope. The methodology developed in this study disentangles the effect of these variables on snow spectral albedo. The presence of liquid water at the snow surface results in a spectral shift of the albedo from which melt events can be identified with an occurrence of false detection rate lower than 3.5 %. Snow SSA mostly impacts spectral albedo in the near-infrared range. Impurity deposition mostly impacts the albedo in the visible range but this impact is very dependent on snow SSA and surface slope. Our work thus demonstrates that the SSA estimation from spectral albedo is affected by large uncertainties for a tilted snow surface and medium to high impurity contents and that the estimation of impurity content is also affected by large uncertainties, especially for low values below 50 ng g-1 black carbon equivalent. The proposed methodology opens routes for retrieval of SSA, impurity content, melt events and surface slope from spectral albedo. However, an exhaustive accuracy assessment of the snow black properties retrieval would require more independent in situ measurements and is beyond the scope of the present study. This time series of snow spectral albedo nevertheless already provides a new insight into our understanding of the evolution of snow surface properties.

  20. ACQUIRING SCOPE: A LONGITUDINAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao-Ling Hsieh

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the spontaneous data of a Chinese-speaking child collected from 1 year old up to 4+ years old, this study focuses on the development of his scope by examining the scope interaction between negation and quantified NPs that occur in preverbal positions. It is found that the child is sensitive to scope at 3;2, an age much earlier than the age reported in other studies (e.g., age of 6 in Lee 1991. Further evidence shows that the child has mastered scope of negation and scope in general at the age of 4. First, starting from age 4;3, the child has managed to mark universal quantifiers and wh-phrases as well as duration phrases occurring in the preverbal position with scope markers such as dou ‘all’ and you ‘have’. Second, by the age of 4;5, the child has placed duration phrases in target positions in relation to negation.

  1. Ultraviolet, Visible, and Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, Michael H.

    Spectroscopy in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) range is one of the most commonly encountered laboratory techniques in food analysis. Diverse examples, such as the quantification of macrocomponents (total carbohydrate by the phenol-sulfuric acid method), quantification of microcomponents, (thiamin by the thiochrome fluorometric procedure), estimates of rancidity (lipid oxidation status by the thiobarbituric acid test), and surveillance testing (enzyme-linked immunoassays), are presented in this text. In each of these cases, the analytical signal for which the assay is based is either the emission or absorption of radiation in the UV-Vis range. This signal may be inherent in the analyte, such as the absorbance of radiation in the visible range by pigments, or a result of a chemical reaction involving the analyte, such as the colorimetric copper-based Lowry method for the analysis of soluble protein.

  2. Book Review: Making Thinking Visible

    OpenAIRE

    ROYAL, KENNETH; Hardie, Lizette

    2015-01-01

    Recent trends in medical education emphasize the importance of producing well-rounded graduates who not only possess a sufficient fund of medical knowledge but who can think clearly and deeply. Unfortunately, many medical educators struggle with what exactly it means to ?think? and do not know where to begin when asked to teach ?thinking.? We believe the book Making Thinking Visible, though written for K-12, will be of great interest to medical educators. The book describes different types of...

  3. VISIBILITY AND INTERNATIONALIZATOIN OF SOUTHERN BRAZILIAN NURSING MAGAZINE: PERSPECTIVES AND CHALLENGES

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira Crossetti, Maria da Graça; UFRGS; Cammarano RIBEIRO, Aline; Oliveira de GOES, Marta Georgina

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been noteworthy movement on the part of Brazilian scientific periodicals in pursuit of visibility and internationalization. It is a subject that has been central to discussions by scientific editor forums gathering together different disciplines.(1) Among other aspects, they have been focused on how to promote the international impact of Brazilian scientific production, considering the national and international scope and relevance of the research and subsequent con...

  4. Visibility of halos and rainbows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedzelman, S D

    1980-09-15

    A theory for the visibility of halos and rainbows is presented. The light reaching the observer's eye from the direction of the halo or rainbow is assumed to consist of two parts: (1) a beam of singly scattered sunlight (or moonlight) from a cloud of ice crystals or a rainswath, which, in turn, has suffered depletion by scattering or absorption in its passage to the observer, and (2) the general background brightness. The model is able to account for several long-known qualitative observations concerning halos, namely, that the brightest halos are produced by optically thin cirrostratus clouds (i.e., for which the cloud optical depth tau(c), rainbow the brightness of the beam increases monotonically with the optical depth tau(R) of the sunlit part of the rainswath, but the increase is quite small for tau(R) >/=1. On the other hand, the brightness of the background increases more rapidly with tau(R) for tau(R)> 1 so that the rainbow appears most easily visible for tau(R) less, similar1. This implies that the most easily visible rainbows are produced by light or moderate showers rather than heavy downpours. Finally, suggestions are made for applying the theory to other atmospheric optical phenomena, such as coronas and glories.

  5. Visibility of medical informatics regarding bibliometric indices and databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreckelsen, Cord; Deserno, Thomas M; Spitzer, Klaus

    2011-04-15

    The quantitative study of the publication output (bibliometrics) deeply influences how scientific work is perceived (bibliometric visibility). Recently, new bibliometric indices and databases have been established, which may change the visibility of disciplines, institutions and individuals. This study examines the effects of the new indices on the visibility of Medical Informatics. By objective criteria, three sets of journals are chosen, two representing Medical Informatics and a third addressing Internal Medicine as a benchmark. The availability of index data (index coverage) and the aggregate scores of these corpora are compared for journal-related (Journal impact factor, Eigenfactor metrics, SCImago journal rank) and author-related indices (Hirsch-index, Egghes G-index). Correlation analysis compares the dependence of author-related indices. The bibliometric visibility depended on the research focus and the citation database: Scopus covers more journals relevant for Medical Informatics than ISI/Thomson Reuters. Journals focused on Medical Informatics' methodology were negatively affected by the Eigenfactor metrics, while the visibility profited from an interdisciplinary research focus. The correlation between Hirsch-indices computed on citation databases and the Internet was strong. The visibility of smaller technology-oriented disciplines like Medical Informatics is changed by the new bibliometric indices and databases possibly leading to suitably changed publication strategies. Freely accessible author-related indices enable an easy and adequate individual assessment.

  6. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of Bi2WO6/TiO2 composite coated polyester fabric under visible light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zoufei; Cheng, Cheng; Tan, Lin; Lan, Jianwu; Jiang, Shouxiang; Zhao, Ludan; Guo, Ronghui

    2018-03-01

    In this study, a visible-light-driven photocatalyst Bi2WO6/TiO2 composite was reported using one-step hydrothermal method and then coated on the polyester fabric. The samples were systematically characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, UV-vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). The photocatalytic activity of Bi2WO6/TiO2 coated polyester fabric was evaluated by degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and Methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation. The self-cleaning property of the fabrics was assessed through removing red wine stain. The results reveal that the Bi2WO6/TiO2 composites with irregular shape are coated on the polyester fabric successfully. The UV-vis absorption spectra show a broad absorption band in the visible region, which extends the scope of absorption spectrum and helps to improve the photocatalytic degradation efficiency. Photocatalytic activities of the Bi2WO6/TiO2 composite polyester fabric are associated with the content of TiO2. Bi2WO6/15%TiO2 coated polyester fabric exhibits the degradation efficiency for RhB and MB up to 98% and 95.1%, respectively, which is much higher than that of pure Bi2WO6 and TiO2 coated polyester fabric. Moreover, Bi2WO6/15%TiO2 coated polyester fabric shows good cycle stability toward continuous three cycles of photocatalytic experiment for dyes degradation. In addition, the Bi2WO6/TiO2 coated polyester fabric shows good self-cleaning property. This work could be extended to design of other composite photocatalyst coating on the fabric for enhancing activity by coupling suitable wide and narrow band-gap semiconductors.

  7. Global trends in visibility: implications for dust sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Mahowald

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a large uncertainty in the relative roles of human land use, climate change and carbon dioxide fertilization in changing desert dust source strength over the past 100 years, and the overall sign of human impacts on dust is not known. We used visibility data from meteorological stations in dusty regions to assess the anthropogenic impact on long term trends in desert dust emissions. We did this by looking at time series of visibility derived variables and their correlations with precipitation, drought, winds, land use and grazing. Visibility data are available at thousands of stations globally from 1900 to the present, but we focused on 357 stations with more than 30 years of data in regions where mineral aerosols play a dominant role in visibility observations. We evaluated the 1974 to 2003 time period because most of these stations have reliable records only during this time. We first evaluated the visibility data against AERONET aerosol optical depth data, and found that only in dusty regions are the two moderately correlated. Correlation coefficients between visibility-derived variables and AERONET optical depths indicate a moderate correlation (0.47, consistent with capturing about 20% of the variability in optical depths. Two visibility-derived variables appear to compare the best with AERONET observations: the fraction of observations with visibility less than 5 km (VIS5 and the surface extinction (EXT. Regional trends show that in many dusty places, VIS5 and EXT are statistically significantly correlated with the Palmer drought severity index (based on precipitation and temperature or surface wind speeds, consistent with dust temporal variability being largely driven by meteorology. This is especially true for North African and Chinese dust sources, but less true in the Middle East, Australia or South America, where there are not consistent patterns in the correlations. Climate indices such as El Nino or the North Atlantic

  8. Beyond Language Equivalence on Visibly Pushdown Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srba, Jiri

    2009-01-01

    We study (bi)simulation-like preorder/equivalence checking on the class of visibly pushdown automata and its natural subclasses visibly BPA (Basic Process Algebra) and visibly one-counter automata. We describe generic methods for proving complexity upper and lower bounds for a number of studied...... preorders and equivalences like simulation, completed simulation, ready simulation, 2-nested simulation preorders/equivalences and bisimulation equivalence. Our main results are that all the mentioned equivalences and preorders are EXPTIME-complete on visibly pushdown automata, PSPACE-complete on visibly...... one-counter automata and P-complete on visibly BPA. Our PSPACE lower bound for visibly one-counter automata improves also the previously known DP-hardness results for ordinary one-counter automata and one-counter nets. Finally, we study regularity checking problems for visibly pushdown automata...

  9. Motivation Moderates the Effects of Social Support Visibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zee, Katherine S; Cavallo, Justin V; Flores, Abdiel J; Bolger, Niall; Higgins, E Tory

    2018-01-29

    Social support can sometimes have negative consequences for recipients. One way of circumventing these negative effects is to provide support in an 'invisible' or indirect manner, such that recipients do not construe the behavior as a supportive act. However, little is known about how recipients' motivational states influence when visible (direct) support or invisible support is more beneficial. Using the framework of Regulatory Mode Theory, we predicted that recipients motivated to engage in critical evaluation (i.e., those with a predominant assessment motivation) would find invisible support more beneficial than visible support, whereas recipients motivated to initiate action (i.e., those with a predominant locomotion motivation) would find visible support more beneficial than invisible support. Findings from one 2 × 2 experiment (Study 1), two laboratory experiments (Studies 2-3), one dyadic study involving support conversations between friends (Study 4), and a meta-analysis aggregating data from all four studies supported these hypotheses. As predicted, support outcomes were better for assessment predominant recipients following invisible support, but were better for locomotion predominant recipients following visible support. Results indicate that support attempts could be made more effective by considering both support visibility and recipient motivation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Visibility and invisibility in chronic illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppe, S.

    2010-01-01

    Does the visibility of a condition necessarily lead to stigmatization? Is it easier to suffer from an invisible than a visible condition? And what are the consequences of living with an invisible or visible illness? In this article the author draws on the concepts of stigma and concealability to

  11. Residential ventilation standards scoping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-10-01

    The goals of this scoping study are to identify research needed to develop improved ventilation standards for California's Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards. The 2008 Title 24 Standards are the primary target for the outcome of this research, but this scoping study is not limited to that timeframe. We prepared this scoping study to provide the California Energy Commission with broad and flexible options for developing a research plan to advance the standards. This document presents the findings of a scoping study commissioned by the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) program of the California Energy Commission to determine what research is necessary to develop new residential ventilation requirements for California. This study is one of three companion efforts needed to complete the job of determining the ventilation needs of California residences, determining the bases for setting residential ventilation requirements, and determining appropriate ventilation technologies to meet these needs and requirements in an energy efficient manner. Rather than providing research results, this scoping study identifies important research questions along with the level of effort necessary to address these questions and the costs, risks, and benefits of pursuing alternative research questions. In approaching these questions and corresponding levels of effort, feasibility and timing were important considerations. The Commission has specified Summer 2005 as the latest date for completing this research in time to update the 2008 version of California's Energy Code (Title 24).

  12. Visible spectrum of stable sonoluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Joseph T.

    1992-12-01

    Synchronous emissions of picosecond pulses of light are observed to originate from a bubble trapped at the pressure antinode of a resonant sound field. The spectrum has been measured using a single slit spectrometer equipped with a linear array CCD detector. Spectra from differing solutions of water and glycerin are compared to the visible blackbody spectrum distribution. Assuming a blackbody model, apparent temperatures of 18,900 Kelvins are observed in pure water. Increasing glycerin concentration appears to correlate with cooler blackbody temperatures. The spectrum is also found to continually change with time, independent of input parameters.

  13. Book Review: Making Thinking Visible

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth Royal; Lizette Hardie

    2015-01-01

    Recent trends in medical education emphasize the importance of producing well-rounded graduates who not only possess a sufficient fund of medical knowledge but who can think clearly and deeply. Unfortunately, many medical educators struggle with what exactly it means to “think” and do not know where to begin when asked to teach “thinking.” We believe the book Making Thinking Visible, though written for K-12, will be of great interest to medical educators. The book describes different types of...

  14. Book Review: Making Thinking Visible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Royal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent trends in medical education emphasize the importance of producing well-rounded graduates who not only possess a sufficient fund of medical knowledge but who can think clearly and deeply. Unfortunately, many medical educators struggle with what exactly it means to “think” and do not know where to begin when asked to teach “thinking.” We believe the book Making Thinking Visible, though written for K-12, will be of great interest to medical educators. The book describes different types of thinking and presents more than 20 teaching routines that can help engage learners and improve learning to think.

  15. Book Review: Making Thinking Visible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Kenneth; Hardie, Lizette

    2015-01-01

    Recent trends in medical education emphasize the importance of producing well-rounded graduates who not only possess a sufficient fund of medical knowledge but who can think clearly and deeply. Unfortunately, many medical educators struggle with what exactly it means to “think” and do not know where to begin when asked to teach “thinking.” We believe the book Making Thinking Visible, though written for K-12, will be of great interest to medical educators. The book describes different types of thinking and presents more than 20 teaching routines that can help engage learners and improve learning to think.

  16. Scope of practice decision making: findings from a national survey of Irish nurses and midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fealy, Gerard; Casey, Mary; Rohde, Daniela; Brady, Anne-Marie; Hegarty, Josephine; Kennedy, Catriona; McNamara, Martin; O'Reilly, Pauline; Prizeman, Geraldine

    2015-10-01

    The aim was to examine and describe aspects of the current scope of practice among nurses and midwives in Ireland. The objective was to describe practitioners' decision making associated with the scope of practice. Regulatory frameworks on the scope of practice describe the roles and activities an individual registrant is permitted to undertake in the course of professional practice. Research into the scope of practice has examined practitioners' perspectives on particular frameworks or their experiences of practice expansion, and suggests that frameworks are helpful in guiding practitioners; however, local circumstances and practitioner competence often determine scope of practice. A national postal survey of registered nurses and midwives was conducted to elicit self-reports of current scope of practice. A stratified random sample of 2354 registered nurses and midwives in Ireland were surveyed using the Scope-Q, a 64-item self-report questionnaire. While over half of the respondents consulted others when making scope of practice decisions, the majority relied on their own professional judgement, acted only when they believed that they were competent to act, and recognised the limitations of their own competence. Although a small number of statistically significant associations were observed between respondents' age and self-reported scope of practice, respondents' current scope of practice was independent of either grade or gender. When making a decision about scope of practice, practitioners may consult other resources, including published frameworks, professional colleagues and line managers; however, most particularly, older, more experienced practitioners, rely on their own professional judgement when making scope of practice decisions. While published scope of practice frameworks guide practitioners on how they may act in circumstances of uncertainty, regulatory authorities should continue to emphasise individual accountability and self-reliance in everyday

  17. Multiculturalism and Equal Treatment: Scope and Limits of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, I examine the scope and limits of Brian Barry's uniform treatment approach to cultural differences through a critical assessment of its two main arguments. The first maintains that under a regime of institutions serving legitimate public purposes, equal opportunity is an objective state of affairs, and religious or ...

  18. 42 CFR 441.450 - Basis, scope, and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....450 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... assistance services (PAS) option through a State Plan. (b) Scope. A self-directed PAS option is designed to... the community. The service plan is developed based on the assessment of need using a person-centered...

  19. Multidominance, ellipsis, and quantifier scope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temmerman, Tanja Maria Hugo

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation provides a novel perspective on the interaction between quantifier scope and ellipsis. It presents a detailed investigation of the scopal interaction between English negative indefinites, modals, and quantified phrases in ellipsis. One of the crucial observations is that a negative

  20. Diesel Mechanics: Scope and Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    This scope and sequence guide, developed for a diesel mechanics vocational education program, represents an initial step in the development of a systemwide articulated curriculum sequence for all vocational programs within the Metropolitan Nashville Public School System. It was developed as a result of needs expressed by teachers, parents, and the…

  1. 78 FR 32372 - Notice of Scope Rulings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    .... Requestor: Signtex Lighting, Inc.; aluminum mounting plates are within the scope of the antidumping duty and... refrigerator/freezer trim kits are within the scope of the antidumping duty and countervailing duty orders...

  2. MR-Visible Lipids and the Tumor Microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delikatny, E. James; Chawla, Sanjeev; Leung, Daniel-Joseph; Poptani, Harish

    2013-01-01

    MR-visible lipids or mobile lipids are defined as lipids that are observable using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in cells and in tissues. These MR-visible lipids are composed of triglycerides and cholesterol esters that accumulate in intracellular neutral lipid droplets, where their MR visibility is conferred as a result of the increased molecular motion available in this unique physical environment. This review will discuss factors that lead to the biogenesis of MR-visible lipids in cancer cells and in other cell types such as immune cells and fibroblasts. We focus on the accumulations of mobile lipids that are inducible in cultured cells by a number of stresses, including culture conditions and in response to activating stimuli or apoptotic cell death induced by anticancer drugs. This is compared with animal tumor models, where increases in mobile lipids are observed in response to chemo and radiotherapy, and to human tumors where mobile lipids are observed predominantly in high-grade brain tumors and in regions of necrosis. Conducive conditions for mobile lipid formation in the tumor microenvironment will be discussed including low pH, oxygen availability and the presence of inflammatory cells. It is concluded that MR-visible lipids appear in cancer cells and human tumors as a stress response. Mobile lipids stored as neutral lipid droplets may play a role in detoxification of the cell or act as an alternate energy source, especially in cancer cells, which often grow in ischemic/hypoxic environments. The role of MR-visible lipids in cancer diagnosis and assessment of treatment response both in animal models of cancer as well as human brain tumors will also be discussed. Although technical limitations exist in the accurate detection of intratumoral mobile lipids, early increases in mobile lipids after therapeutic interventions may be used as a potential biomarker for assessing treatment response in cancer. PMID:21538631

  3. Visibility of sutures of the orbit and periorbital region using multidetector computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gufler, Hubert; Preis, Markus; Koesling, Sabrina [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    Knowledge of cranial suture morphology is crucial in emergency medicine, forensic medicine, and maxillofacial reconstructive surgery. This study assessed the visibility of sutures of the orbit and periorbital region on multidetector computed tomography. Multidetector computed tomography scans of 200 patients (127 males, 73 females; mean age 51.3 years; range, 6-92 years) were evaluated retrospectively. The slice thicknesses varied from 0.5 to 1 mm, and the tube current from 25 to 370 mAs, depending on the CT indication. The visibility of sutures was estimated according to a 4-point scale from 'not visible to well visible' The chi-squared test was used to test the association of the visibility of sutures with the slice thickness, tube current, and age of patients. Statistical significance was assumed at p < 0.05. Overall, best visibility was found for the sutura frontozygomatica (98%), sutura frontonasalis (88.5%), and sutura sphenozygomatica (71.5%), followed by the sutura zygomaticomaxillaris (65.8%), sutura temporozygomatica (41.8%), sutura frontomaxillaris (44.5%), and sutura sphenofrontalis (31%). Poor visibility was found for the sutura frontolacrimalis (16.8%) and sutura frontoethmoidalis (1.3%). The sutura ethmoidomaxillaris, sutura lacrimomaxillaris, and sutura ethmoidolacrimalis were not visible. Although the sutures of the superior, lateral, and inferior orbit are well visible, those of the medial orbit are poorly visible on CT scans.

  4. 77 FR 9893 - Notice of Scope Rulings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... oven racks that fit within size parameters of the scope of the antidumping duty order are subject to... not fit within the size parameters of the scope (i.e. shelving and racks with dimensions ranging from... blanket is not within the scope of the antidumping duty order; April 14, 2011. Japan A-588-804: Ball...

  5. How low can we go? An assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from the UK food system and the scope reduction by 2050. Report for the WWF and Food Climate Research Network

    OpenAIRE

    Audsley, Eric; Brander, M.; Chatterton, Julia C.; Murphy-Bokern, Donal; Webster, C.; Williams, Adrian G.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The overall aim of this study was to develop a set of scenarios that explore how greenhouse gas emissions from the UK food system may be reduced by 70% by the year 2050. The work is focused on all emissions from the supply chains and systems, not just the emissions from the UK food chain that arise in the UK. The study comprises an audit of the greenhouse gas emissions arising from the UK food economy and an examination of the scope for substantial reductions of thes...

  6. Rendering Visible: Painting and Sexuate Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Linda

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, I examine Luce Irigaray's aesthetic of sexual difference, which she develops by extrapolating from Paul Klee's idea that the role of painting is to render the non-visible rather than represent the visible. This idea is the premise of her analyses of phenomenology and psychoanalysis and their respective contributions to understanding…

  7. Generation of correlated UV and visible rainbows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guang; Li, Wenxue; Wu, E; Zeng, Heping

    2010-01-18

    We demonstrate concurrent frequency up-conversion and down-conversion in a quadratic nonlinear medium for the generation of correlated ultraviolet and visible rainbows with one-to-one angular and spectral correspondence, facilitating generation of continuously tunable and photon-momentum-dependent multi-wavelength UV and visible twin photons.

  8. No-visible-scar cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz M. Wróblewski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS is a laparoscopic method providing a good cosmetic effect,but requiring the application of special ports and instruments enabling the surgeon to perform the procedure.We report three-ports cholecystectomy through umbilical and suprapubic incisions performed with typical laparos -copic instruments which calls no-visible-scar cholecystectomy (NVSC.Material and methods: Twenty patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis were qualified for NVSC. Typical CO2 pneumoperitoneumwas done after umbilical skin incision. Two ports of 5 mm were inserted in the maximum externaledges of this incision. After cystic duct and cystic artery dissection the right one was exchanged for a port of 11 mm.The second incision for the 11-mm trocar for the laparoscope was done in the suprapubic median line within the hairarea.Results: Cholecystectomies were performed without any conversion to classical laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LCHor open surgery. They were not technically identical due to the gradual improvement in the access and manipulationof instruments. The time of the intervention ranged from 2 hours during the introduction of the new method to 50 minfor the last procedures. No postoperative complications were observed and all patients were discharged not later thanafter conventional LCH.Conclusions: NVSC is a three-port laparoscopic intervention performed with typical laparoscopic instruments. It ismore convenient for the surgeon than single incision LCH, because the placement of the optic in the suprapubic regiongives more space for the instruments. It also provides a very good cosmetic effect of the intervention. The describedprocedure is easy to learn and in case of technical problems additional ports can be applied (as in typical LCH.

  9. Glasses for seeing beyond visible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, XiangHua; Bureau, Bruno; Lucas, Pierre; Boussard-Pledel, Catherine; Lucas, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    Conventional glasses based on oxides have a transparency limited by phonon absorption in the near IR region and have a limited interest for analyzing information located far beyond the visible. The IR spectral domain is nevertheless of prime interest, since it covers fundamental wavelength ranges used for thermal imaging as well as molecular vibrational signatures. Besides spectacular advances in the field of IR detectors, the main significant progresses are related to the development of IR glass optics, such as lenses or IR optical fibres. The field of IR glasses is almost totally dominated by glasses formed from heavy atoms such as the chalcogens S, Se and Te. Their transparency extends up to 12, 16 and 28 microm for sulfide-, selenide- and the new generation of telluride-based glasses, respectively. They cover the atmospheric transparency domains, 3-5 and 8-13 microm, respectively, at which the IR radiation can propagate allowing thermal imaging and night-vision operations through thick layers of atmosphere. The development of new glass compositions will be discussed on the basis of structural consideration with the objective of moulding low-cost lenses for IR cameras used, for instance, in car-driving assistance. Additionally, multimode, single-index, optical fibres operating in the 3 to 12 microm window developed for in situ remote evanescent-wave IR spectroscopy will also be mentioned. The detection of molecular IR signatures is applied to environmental monitoring for investigating the pollution of underground water with toxic molecules. The extension of this technique to the investigation of biomolecules in three different studies devoted to liver tissues analysis, bio-film formation, and cell metabolism will also be discussed. Finally we will mention the developments in the field of single-mode fibres operating around 10 mum for the Darwin space mission, which is aiming at discovering, signs of biological life in telluric earth-like exoplanets throughout

  10. Sequential motif profile of natural visibility graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovacci, Jacopo; Lacasa, Lucas

    2016-11-01

    The concept of sequential visibility graph motifs—subgraphs appearing with characteristic frequencies in the visibility graphs associated to time series—has been advanced recently along with a theoretical framework to compute analytically the motif profiles associated to horizontal visibility graphs (HVGs). Here we develop a theory to compute the profile of sequential visibility graph motifs in the context of natural visibility graphs (VGs). This theory gives exact results for deterministic aperiodic processes with a smooth invariant density or stochastic processes that fulfill the Markov property and have a continuous marginal distribution. The framework also allows for a linear time numerical estimation in the case of empirical time series. A comparison between the HVG and the VG case (including evaluation of their robustness for short series polluted with measurement noise) is also presented.

  11. Comparison between two visible biofilm indices in the primary dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Ana Paula Pires; Soviero, Vera Mendes

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare two visible biofilm indices in the primary dentition. The sample consisted of 90 children of both sexes, aged up to 4 years old outpatients of the University Hospital of the Rio de Janeiro State University. A single examiner, aided by an assistant, performed the children's dental examination for biofilm assessment. A simplified visible biofilm index (BF1), which classifies biofilm as absent, thin or thick, in anterior and/or posterior teeth, and provides a score for the patient and not for each tooth, was compared to a conventional visible biofilm index, the visible plaque index, (BF2), which classifies biofilm as absent or present and provides scores for three surfaces of each tooth. A statistically significant association and a strong positive correlation between BF1 and BF2 was found (Kruskal-Wallis p biofilm index is feasible in the primary dentition as it showed similar findings when compared to a conventional one, besides being more practical and quicker.

  12. A Carpet Cloak Device for Visible Light

    CERN Document Server

    Gharghi, Majid; Zentgraf, Thomas; Liu, Yongmin; Yin, Xiaobo; Valentine, Jason; Zhang, Xiang

    2011-01-01

    We report an invisibility carpet cloak device, which is capable of making an object undetectable by visible light. The cloak is designed using quasi conformal mapping and is fabricated in a silicon nitride waveguide on a specially developed nano-porous silicon oxide substrate with a very low refractive index. The spatial index variation is realized by etching holes of various sizes in the nitride layer at deep subwavelength scale creating a local effective medium index. The fabricated device demonstrates wideband invisibility throughout the visible spectrum with low loss. This silicon nitride on low index substrate can also be a general scheme for implementation of transformation optical devices at visible frequency.

  13. IDC Reengineering Phase 2 Project Scope.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, James M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This report provides a brief description of the scope of the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 project. It describes the goals and objectives of reengineering, the system definition, and the technical scope of the system. REVISIONS Version Date Author/Team Revision Description Authorized by 1.0 9/25/2014 SNL IDC Reengineering Team Unlimited Release for I2 M. Harris 1.1 28/01/2015 IDC Reengineering Team Align with previous IDC scope document E. Tomuta.

  14. Visibility of noisy point cloud data

    KAUST Repository

    Mehra, Ravish

    2010-06-01

    We present a robust algorithm for estimating visibility from a given viewpoint for a point set containing concavities, non-uniformly spaced samples, and possibly corrupted with noise. Instead of performing an explicit surface reconstruction for the points set, visibility is computed based on a construction involving convex hull in a dual space, an idea inspired by the work of Katz et al. [26]. We derive theoretical bounds on the behavior of the method in the presence of noise and concavities, and use the derivations to develop a robust visibility estimation algorithm. In addition, computing visibility from a set of adaptively placed viewpoints allows us to generate locally consistent partial reconstructions. Using a graph based approximation algorithm we couple such reconstructions to extract globally consistent reconstructions. We test our method on a variety of 2D and 3D point sets of varying complexity and noise content. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Visible Light Dye-Sensitized Photosensititve Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fang Gao; Yong-yuan Yang

    2000-01-01

      The visible light dyes were employed to sensitized o-Cl-Hexaarylbiimidazole (o-Cl-HABI). The obtained results suggested that o-Cl-HABI displayed a efficient sensitized photocleavage when exposed to Xenon lamp...

  16. Crisis Management- Operational Logistics & Asset Visibility Technologies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Braunbeck, Richard A; Mastria, Michael F

    2006-01-01

    .... Recent crisis response operations that would have benefited from improved asset visibility include the Indian Ocean tsunami, the Pakistani earthquake, Hurricane Katrina and those related to the Global War on Terror...

  17. Solar Synthesis: Prospects in Visible Light Photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Danielle M.; Yoon, Tehshik P.

    2015-01-01

    Chemists have long aspired to synthesize molecules the way that plants do — using sunlight to facilitate the construction of complex molecular architectures. Nevertheless, the use of visible light in photochemical synthesis is fundamentally challenging because organic molecules tend not to interact with the wavelengths of visible light that are most strongly emitted in the solar spectrum. Recent research has begun to leverage the ability of visible light absorbing transition metal complexes to catalyze a broad range of synthetically valuable reactions. In this review, we highlight how an understanding of the mechanisms of photocatalytic activation available to these transition metal complexes, and of the general reactivity patterns of the intermediates accessible via visible light photocatalysis, has accelerated the development of this diverse suite of reactions. PMID:24578578

  18. White LED visible light communication technology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao

    2017-03-01

    Visible light communication is a new type of wireless optical communication technology. White LED to the success of development, the LED lighting technology is facing a new revolution. Because the LED has high sensitivity, modulation, the advantages of good performance, large transmission power, can make it in light transmission light signal at the same time. Use white LED light-emitting characteristics, on the modulation signals to the visible light transmission, can constitute a LED visible light communication system. We built a small visible optical communication system. The system composition and structure has certain value in the field of practical application, and we also research the key technology of transmitters and receivers, the key problem has been resolved. By studying on the optical and LED the characteristics of a high speed modulation driving circuit and a high sensitive receiving circuit was designed. And information transmission through the single chip microcomputer test, a preliminary verification has realized the data transmission function.

  19. Researchers’ use of social network sites : a scoping review

    OpenAIRE

    Kjellberg, Sara; Haider, Jutta; Sundin, Olof

    2016-01-01

    The study is a scoping review of 80 research articles in LIS and related fields (2004-2014) on the use of social network sites by researchers. The results show that social network sites are used as part of scholarly life, yet with disciplinary differences. It is also shown that the area lacks methodological, theoretical and empirical coherence and theoretical stringency. The most salient strands of research (General uptake, Outreach, Special tools/cases, Assessing impact, Practices/new modes ...

  20. A Scoping Review of Scoping Reviews: Advancing the Approach and Enhancing the Consistency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Mai T.; Rajic, Andrijana; Greig, Judy D.; Sargeant, Jan M.; Papadopoulos, Andrew; McEwen, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The scoping review has become an increasingly popular approach for synthesizing research evidence. It is a relatively new approach for which a universal study definition or definitive procedure has not been established. The purpose of this scoping review was to provide an overview of scoping reviews in the literature. Methods: A…

  1. The challenge of improving visibility in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. H. Zhang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The "Blue Sky Project" was proposed in 1998 to investigate by how much emissions should be reduced to increase blue sky frequency in Beijing, which hosted the Summer Olympics in 2008. This paper focuses on the temporal variation of visibility and its dependence on meteorological conditions and suspended particles at Beijing using the hourly observed visibility data at Beijing Capital International Airport (BCIA from 1999 to 2007. It has been found that about 47.8% (24.2% of the hours in Beijing are "bad" ("good" hours with visibility below 10 km (equal or higher than 20 km between 1999 and 2007. Due to the high Relative Humidity (RH, summer is the season with the lowest mean visibility in a year. Although PM10 index was reported in a decreasing trend (Chan and Yao, 2008, the increase of RH has resulted in a decreasing trend of visibility over BCIA in the summer from 1999 to 2007. To ensure blue sky ("good" visibility for Olympics 2008, daily mean PM10 index should have been reduced from 81 to 44. This requires that not only vehicle emissions, but also other emissions should be limited. Observations verify that blue-sky-hour rate increased significantly after mean PM10 index was reduced to 53 during Olympics 2008, however, the visibility of 2009 returned to the mean level from 1999 to 2007 during the period 8−24 August. RH (aerosol contribute 24% (76% of the improvement of visibility during August 2008.

  2. Horizon Detection In The Visible Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    techniques can also recognize star patterns in star trackers for satellite attitude determination. Horizon detection in the visible spectrum was largely...analysis of visual imagery from low-earth orbit was conducted to develop a horizon brightness transition model, which allows for consistent and...vision techniques can also recognize star patterns in star trackers for satellite attitude determination. Horizon detection in the visible spectrum was

  3. Mutagenesis by near-visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubitschek, H E

    1967-03-24

    Mutants resistant to bacter iophage T5 were produced both in continuous and in stationary cultures of Escherichia coli by near-visible light, 320 to 400 millimicrons, at rates greatly exceeding spontaneous rates in the ab sence of light. Aerobic mutation rates were about twice anaerobic rates, which shows that mutations were induced in either of at least two different proces ses. Mutations induced by near-visible light involve different photochemical processes than those induced by ul traviolet light.

  4. The absent Rurbano. Media visibility and invisibility

    OpenAIRE

    Cimadevilla, Gustavo; Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto; Demarchi, Paola; Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto; Galimberti, Silvina; Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto

    2011-01-01

    The work deals with analyzing how the media gives visibility to a social sector that meets your trash tasting existence through the use of chariots and horses in the city of Rio Cuarto. The cart drivers, rag pickers and recyclers, among other names, focus here Rurbano actors. The text shows that particularly the local tv and the press make visible some features over others and paying certain stigmatization. In this regard, we discuss the budgets that support that view and offer different inte...

  5. 76 FR 2095 - Notice of Public Scoping Meetings for the Hawai'i Interisland Renewable Energy Program: ’Wind...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... of Public Scoping Meetings for the Hawai'i Interisland Renewable Energy Program: 'Wind Programmatic... Islands to receive comments on the scope of the Hawai`i Interisland Renewable Energy Program: Wind.... The EIS will assess the foreseeable environmental impacts that may arise from wind energy development...

  6. Comparison of visibility measurement techniques for forklift truck design factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chin-Bong; Park, Peom; Kim, Young-Ho; Susan Hallbeck, M; Jung, Myung-Chul

    2009-03-01

    This study applied the light bulb shadow test, a manikin vision assessment test, and an individual test to a forklift truck to identify forklift truck design factors influencing visibility. The light bulb shadow test followed the standard of ISO/DIS 13564-1 for traveling and maneuvering tests with four test paths (Test Nos. 1, 3, 4, and 6). Digital human and forklift truck models were developed for the manikin vision assessment test with CATIA V5R13 human modeling solutions. Six participants performed the individual tests. Both employed similar parameters to the light bulb shadow test. The individual test had better visibility with fewer numbers and a greater distribution of the shadowed grids than the other two tests due to eye movement and anthropometric differences. The design factors of load backrest extension, lift chain, hose, dashboard, and steering wheel should be the first factors considered to improve visibility, especially when a forklift truck mainly performs a forward traveling task in an open area.

  7. Transgastric organ resection solely with the prototype R-scope and the self-approximating transluminal access technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Matthew T; Haluck, Randy S; Gopal, Jegan; Pauli, Eric M; Mathew, Abraham

    2010-07-01

    The self-approximating transluminal access technique (STAT) has been demonstrated to provide safe transluminal access and in-line endoscope positioning to target abdominal organs during natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES). To date, organ resection with NOTES has typically required percutaneous assistance. We hypothesized that the in-line positioning and partial stability provided by STAT would allow single-access NOTES procedures if a multiarticulated endoscope could be used. Assessment of single-site NOTES, using STAT and a prototype, multi-articulated endoscope. Animal survival study. Penn State Hershey Medical Center Research Laboratories. Thirteen pigs underwent NOTES using a prototype endoscope with 2 articulated channels, a grasping forceps, and an insulated-tip needle-knife. The gallbladder was dissected using a fundus down technique, and hemoclips and a detachable loop were placed on the cystic duct and artery before removal. After a 2- to 3-week observation period, animals were euthanized and necropsy performed. All target organs were successfully resected without laparoscopic assistance. Significant complications were 2 perforations (1 caused by a prototype duodenal occlusion device and 1 caused by enterotomy during cholecystectomy) and 1 entrapment of the small bowel with an endoloop. Postoperatively, all animals gained weight appropriately with 1 killed on postoperative day 12 because of lethargy (cystic duct leak/biloma). This is a limited animal survival study without control arm. The combination of the R-scope and STAT does allow effective, single-site NOTES procedures; however, although the R-scope provides improved tissue manipulation and visibility, the complications incurred here suggest that further improvements in devices and technique will be required for safe and effective single-site NOTES procedures. Copyright 2010 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. 19 CFR 123.0 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope. 123.0 Section 123.0 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO § 123.0 Scope. This part contains special regulations pertaining to Customs...

  9. 48 CFR 2942.1501 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 2942.1501 Section 2942.1501 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Contractor Performance Information 2942.1501 Scope. This subpart provides...

  10. 12 CFR 1412.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope. 1412.1 Section 1412.1 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION PAYMENTS § 1412.1 Scope. (a) This part limits and/or prohibits, in certain circumstances, the ability of Farm Credit System...

  11. 21 CFR 336.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope. 336.1 Section 336.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE ANTIEMETIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE General Provisions § 336.1 Scope. (a) An over-the-counter...

  12. 32 CFR 173.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 173.1 Section 173.1 National Defense... CERTIFICATE AND PROFIT REDUCTION CLAUSE § 173.1 Scope. (a) The purpose of the Competitive Information Certificate is to provide the Contracting Officer sufficient information and assurance to support award of a...

  13. 10 CFR 95.3 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope. 95.3 Section 95.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... RESTRICTED DATA General Provisions § 95.3 Scope. The regulations in this part apply to licensees, certificate..., transported, or handled in connection with a license or certificate or an application for a license or...

  14. 44 CFR 151.02 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Definitions § 151.02 Scope. Fire services, in any State, may file claims for reimbursement under section 11... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 151.02 Section 151.02 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

  15. 21 CFR 866.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope. 866.1 Section 866.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND... MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 866.1 Scope. (a) This part sets forth the classification of immunology and microbiology devices intended for human use that are in commercial distribution. (b) The...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope. 862.1 Section 862.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND... CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 862.1 Scope. (a) This part sets forth the classification of clinical chemistry and clinical toxicology devices intended for human use that are in...

  17. Common Cause Abduction : Its Scope and Limits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dziurosz-Serafinowicz, Patryk

    2012-01-01

    Patryk Dziurosz-Serafmowicz, Common Cause Abduction: Its Scope and Limits This article aims to analyze the scope and limits of common cause abduction which is a version of explanatory abduction based on Hans Reichenbach's Principle of the Common Cause. First, it is argued that common cause abduction

  18. 48 CFR 1804.470-1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Safeguarding Classified Information Within Industry 1804.470-1 Scope. This section... information and information systems. Federal policies include the Federal Information System Management Act... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Scope. 1804.470-1 Section...

  19. 10 CFR 707.2 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope. 707.2 Section 707.2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES General Provisions § 707.2 Scope. (a) This part applies to... authority of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended: (1) Management and operating contracts; and (2...

  20. 47 CFR 95.801 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 218-219 MHz Service General Provisions § 95.801 Scope. This subpart sets out the regulations governing the licensing and operation of a 218-219 MHz system. This subpart supplements part 1, subpart F of... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 95.801 Section 95.801 Telecommunication...

  1. 40 CFR 21.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 21.1 Section 21.1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL SMALL BUSINESS § 21.1 Scope. This part establishes procedures for the issuance by EPA of the statements, referred to in section 7(g) of the Small Business Act...

  2. 16 CFR 316.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope. 316.1 Section 316.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CAN-SPAM RULE § 316.1 Scope... (“CAN-SPAM Act”), 15 U.S.C. 7701-7713. ...

  3. 21 CFR 341.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE General Provisions § 341.1 Scope. (a) An over-the-counter cold, cough, allergy, bronchodilator, or antiasthmatic drug... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope. 341.1 Section 341.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  4. Assessment of clinical effects and safety of an oral supplement based on marine protein, vitamin C, grape seed extract, zinc, and tomato extract in the improvement of visible signs of skin aging in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa A

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Adilson Costa,1,2 Elisangela Samartin Pegas Pereira,1 Elvira Cancio Assumpção,1 Felipe Borba Calixto dos Santos,1 Fernanda Sayuri Ota,1 Margareth de Oliveira Pereira,1 Maria Carolina Fidelis,1 Raquel Fávaro,1 Stephanie Selma Barros Langen,1 Lúcia Helena Favaro de Arruda,1 Eva Nydal Abildgaard3 1Department of Dermatology, Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil; 2KOLderma Clinical Trials Institute, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Pfizer Consumer Healthcare, Nutritional Sciences, Copenhagen, Denmark Background: Skin aging is a natural process that may be aggravated by environmental factors. Topical products are the conventional means to combat aging; however, the use of oral supplements is on the rise to assist in the management of aged skin.Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the effects and safety of an oral supplement containing (per tablet marine protein (105 mg, vitamin C (27 mg, grape seed extract (13.75 mg, zinc (2 mg, and tomato extract (14.38 mg in the improvement of skin aging in men.Methods: This single-center, open-label, quasi-experimental clinical study enrolled 47 male subjects, aged 30–45 years, with phototypes I–IV on the Fitzpatrick scale. Subjects received two tablets of the oral supplement for 180 consecutive days. Each subject served as their own control. Clinical assessments were made by medical personnel and by the subjects, respectively. Objective assessments were carried out through pH measurements, sebumetry, corneometry, ultrasound scanning, skin biopsies, and photographic images.Results: Forty-one subjects (87% completed the study. Clinical improvements on both investigator- and subject-rated outcomes were found for the following parameters: erythema, hydration, radiance, and overall appearance (P<0.05. The objective measurements in the facial skin showed significant improvements from baseline in skin hydration (P<0.05, dermal ultrasound density (P<0.001, and

  5. Scope of practice: freedom within limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuiling, K D; Slager, J

    2000-01-01

    "Scope of practice" has a variety of meanings amongst midwives, other health professionals, health organizations, and consumers of midwifery care. For some, it refers to the Standards for the Practice of Midwifery; for others, it encompasses the legal base of practice; still others equate it with the components of the clinical parameters of practice. Because "scope of practice" is dynamic and parameters of practice can be impacted by many variables, succinctly defining "scope of practice" is difficult. This article provides a comprehensive discussion of the concept "scope of practice." Clinical scenarios are provided as case exemplars. The aim of this paper is to provide both new and experienced midwives with a substantive definition of the concept "scope of practice."

  6. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Scope of Practice in Nutrition and Dietetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The goal of credentialed dietetics practitioners(RDs and DTRs) is to provide safe,culturally competent, quality care. Within the flexible and broad boundaries of the profession of nutrition and dietetics, RDs and DTRs assume accountability and responsibility for safe, ethical, and competent practice that achieves desirable outcomes. RDs and DTRs engage in continuing education and training to maintain currency,demonstrate competence, and advance their careers. The Academy developed this Scope of Practice in Nutrition and Dietetics overview document, as well as other resources, such as the Scope of Practice for the Registered Dietitian and the Scope of Practice for the Dietetic Technician, Registered to aid RDs and DTRs in assessing their individual scope of practice and, if applicable, statutory scope of practice,and to support RDs and DTRs in providing safe, quality food and nutrition services.The Scope of Practice Decision Tool,which is an online, interactive tool, assists RDs and DTRs in examining his or her individual scope of practice activities to meet the needs of quality food and nutrition services.

  7. A Scoping Review on Studies of Cyberbullying Prevalence Among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochado, Sandra; Soares, Sara; Fraga, Sílvia

    2017-12-01

    This descriptive scoping aims to understand how the prevalence of cyberbullying has been estimated across studies. A systematic scoping review of cyberbullying empirical studies was conducted by using three bibliographic databases to search for papers published between January 2004 and August 2014. A protocol was defined to identify the relevant papers. Papers selected were included in a data sheet developed by the authors to record specific findings. In total, 159 studies were included in the scoping review. Most of the prevalence studies were conducted in the last 4 years, mainly in North America ( n = 77) and in Europe ( n = 65). High methodological heterogeneity was found among the studies, which may contribute to explain variability in prevalence estimates. Cyberbullying experiences were assessed through several different perspectives: focused only on victims, focused only on perpetrators, or focused on both victims and perpetrators (without differentiating between if they are victims or perpetrators). Most of the studies tend to assess cybervictimization experiences. However, even considering the same perspective, the same country, and the same recall period, a high variability in the estimates was observed. As a main conclusion, the way in which the prevalence of cyberbullying is estimated is influenced by methodological research options.

  8. The Duality of Visibility: Does Visibility Increase or Decrease the Fear of Crime in Schools′ Exterior Environments?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Soyeon; Ha, Mikyoung

    2015-01-01

    .... Spots where children felt fear in exterior areas of elementary schools were aggregated, and their characteristics were analyzed with two visibility dimensions of visual connectivity with no visible...

  9. The Disappearing Audience and Reflexive Visibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Girginova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to popular opinion and some academic writing that celebrates the renewed visibility of new media audiences, this essay argues that they are increasingly going into retreat. To understand how new media audiences “disappear” from view of one another, I borrow from Brighenti’s typology of visibility and develop the idea of “reflexive visibility.” The latter describes the ability to socially orient ourselves in a digital environment through the textual and contextual cues of others—an activity that is of utmost importance not only to researchers wishing to “see” various audiences but also for audiences writ large, wishing to know themselves.

  10. Query Load Balancing For Visible Object Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukauskas, Linas; Bøhlen, Michael Hanspeter

    2004-01-01

    Interactive visual data explorations impose rigid real-time requirements on the extraction of visible objects. Often these requirements are met by deploying powerful hardware that maintains the entire data set in huge main memory structures. In this paper we propose an approach that retrieves the...... point path method minimizes the number of queries by permitting larger query results. The experimental results show that our implementation reduces the number of I/O operations significantly, is stable, and does not depend on the initial number of path points....... the visible data on demand and is based on a tight integration of the database and visualization systems. We propose to incrementally adjust the observer path by adding and dropping path points. The result is an optimal path that minimizes the interaction with the database system and retrieves all visible...

  11. SCOPE – An Integrated Framework for Multi-Attribute Decision Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    2004-01-01

    This article presents an integrated framework for multi‐attribute decision making named SCOPE (System for Combined Planning and Evaluation) that was developed to assess infrastructure policy initiatives—in complex decision environments. The framework comprises scanning as well as assessment issue...... is redefined as being a systemic endeavour embedded in multi‐methodology and reflection‐in‐practice. The article addresses the purpose, background and principles of systemic planning, and exemplifies the SCOPE process with reference to the Øresund Fixed Link.......This article presents an integrated framework for multi‐attribute decision making named SCOPE (System for Combined Planning and Evaluation) that was developed to assess infrastructure policy initiatives—in complex decision environments. The framework comprises scanning as well as assessment issues...

  12. The Scope of Numeracy after Five Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.L. Vacher

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this editorial is to provide an efficient way for readers and potential authors to see (a what type of papers are published in this journal and (b what subjects are appropriate. The editorial consists mainly of about a dozen pages of tables including live links to the papers’ access/abstract pages to facilitate easy browsing. In the first table, the 85 papers that have been published in the journal’s first five years are classified into: review papers; research papers; case studies; essays; book reviews; columns; and editorials about the journal. In the second table, the papers are inventoried into overlapping sets on: assessment; QL and writing; the construct of QL; focused QL courses and curricula; QL across the curriculum; QL centers; algebra and calculus education; statistics education; intersections with science and engineering; intersections with social sciences; financial numeracy; health numeracy; math anxiety; and cognition. Browsing these links confirms what we said in the first editorial: the scope of Numeracy is huge.

  13. Advancing scoping study methodology: a web-based survey and consultation of perceptions on terminology, definition and methodological steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kelly K; Colquhoun, Heather; Levac, Danielle; Baxter, Larry; Tricco, Andrea C; Straus, Sharon; Wickerson, Lisa; Nayar, Ayesha; Moher, David; O'Malley, Lisa

    2016-07-26

    assessment of included studies, and an optional consultation phase. We offer considerations for the conduct and reporting of scoping studies for researchers, clinicians and knowledge users engaging in this methodology. Lack of consensus on scoping terminology, definition and methodological steps persists. Reasons for this may be attributed to diversity of disciplines adopting this methodology for differing purposes. Further work is needed to establish guidelines on the reporting and methodological quality assessment of scoping studies.

  14. Green ergonomics: definition and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that the goals of ergonomics (i.e. effectiveness, efficiency, health, safety and usability) are closely aligned with the goals of design for environmental sustainability. In this paper, the term 'green ergonomics' is conceptualised to specifically describe ergonomics interventions with a pro-nature emphasis. Green ergonomics is focused on the bi-directional connections between human systems and nature. This involves looking at (1) how ergonomics design and evaluation might be used to conserve, preserve, and restore nature and (2) how ecosystem services might be harnessed to facilitate the improved wellbeing and effectiveness of human systems. The paper proposes the scope of green ergonomics based on these bi-directional relationships in the areas of the design of low resource systems and products, the design of green jobs, and the design for behaviour change. Suggestions for further work in the green ergonomics domain are also made. Given the enormous environmental challenges facing modern industrial society, this paper encourages ergonomics science to embrace a pro-nature understanding of work design and research. This paper sets out the role for green ergonomics based on an appreciation of the human-nature connections that have been integrated with our understanding of ergonomics science and practice.

  15. A Carpet Cloak for Visible Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    of transformation optical devices at visible frequencies. KEYWORDS:Optical metamaterials , invisibility cloak , transformation optics, nanofabrication...Berkeley, California 94720, United States Invisibility cloaks , a family of optical illusion devices that routeelectromagnetic (EM) waves around an object...EM properties, known as metamaterials ,1,2 have been used to control the propagation of EM waves. Metamaterials have been applied to cloaking using the

  16. Improving the visibility of bicycle infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fabriek, E.; De Waard, D.; Schepers, P.

    2012-01-01

    The visual characteristics of road infrastructure play a major role in a substantial number of single-bicycle crashes. The focus of this research was on finding the most common situations that result in a poorly visible bicycle infrastructure, and investigating how to improve these conditions for

  17. Digital Vigilantism as Weaponisation of Visibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Trottier (Daniel)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis paper considers an emerging practice whereby citizen’s use of ubiquitous and domesticated technologies enable a parallel form of criminal justice. Here, weaponised visibility supersedes police intervention as an appropriate response. Digital vigilantism is a user-led violation of

  18. Visible Counterterrorism Measures in Urban Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja; Laisen, Jesper; Wandorf, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Many scholars working within the tradition of critical studies are sceptical of the presence of visible security measures in urban spaces, arguing that they cause fear and facilitate the political control of citizens. A study carried out in Denmark in 2011 sought to capture, describe, and rank...

  19. Class and Pedagogies: Visible and Invisible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Basil

    This paper defines the "invisible pedagogy," a teaching model used in British infant schools, and discusses its relationship to middle class culture, working class culture, and "visible" pedagogy. The invisible pedagogy is characterized by several features including (1) implicit rather than explicit control over the child by…

  20. Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopic Evaluation of Complexation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some complexes of crude methanol extract of Loranthus micranthus Linn parasitic on Kola acuminata were evaluated using ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrophotometry. The crude methanol extract was complexed with ferric chloride solution, borate mixture, methanolic aluminum nitrate and aluminum chloride solutions ...

  1. Training Procedure to Evaluate Visible Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West Virginia Air Pollution Control Commission, Charleston.

    Described in this pamphlet is a procedure used by the West Virginia Air Pollution Control Commission to train personnel in evaluating visible emissions. For this purpose a "Smoke Observer's Training Unit" has been designed, a machine capable of generating both gray/black plumes for training in the use of Ringlemann readings and white plumes for…

  2. 47 CFR 95.1101 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES Wireless Medical Telemetry Service (WMTS) General Provisions § 95.1101 Scope. This subpart sets out the regulations governing the operation of Wireless Medical Telemetry Devices in the 608-614 MHz...

  3. Expanding Scope of Practice for Ontario Optometrists

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Emily Bray; Ivy Bourgault

    2017-01-01

    In 2011, The Optometry Act, 1991 was amended to include The Designated Drugs and Standards of Practice Regulation which expanded the scope of practice for Ontario optometrists to include prescribing...

  4. 46 CFR 162.050-1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Pollution Prevention Equipment § 162.050-1 Scope. (a) This subpart contains... facility authorized to conduct approval tests; (5) Marking requirements; and (6) Factory inspection...

  5. 78 FR 42934 - Notice of Scope Rulings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... Corporation; Stone paper notebooks are within the scope of the antidumping duty order; February 27, 2013. A...-origin jumbo rolls and/or cut sheets of tissue paper are circumventing the antidumping duty order...

  6. 12 CFR 303.220 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the FDI Act (Consent to Service of Persons Convicted of Certain Criminal Offenses) § 303.220 Scope. This subpart covers applications under section 19 of the FDI Act (12 U.S.C. 1829). Pursuant to section...

  7. 48 CFR 22.1800 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Employment Eligibility Verification 22.1800 Scope. This subpart prescribes policies and procedures requiring contractors to utilize the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), United States Citizenship and Immigration Service's employment eligibility verification...

  8. 77 FR 32568 - Notice of Scope Rulings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... Machinery International, Inc.; its agricultural hub units are within the scope of the antidumping duty order... From India and the People's Republic of China Requestor: Nation Ford Chemical Co., and Sun Chemical...

  9. 16 CFR 701.2 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... conditions of written warranties on consumer products actually costing the consumer more than $15.00. ...-MOSS WARRANTY ACT DISCLOSURE OF WRITTEN CONSUMER PRODUCT WARRANTY TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 701.2 Scope...

  10. Scope of nanotechnology in modern textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review article demonstrates the scope and applications of nanotechnology towards modification and development of advanced textile fibers, yarns and fabrics and their processing techniques. Basically, it summarizes the recent advances made in nanotechnology and its applications to cotton textil...

  11. Accuracy of visible plaque identification by pediatric clinicians during well-child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, S Amanda; Weaver, Katelynn E; Park, Seo Young; Polk, Deborah E; Weyant, Robert J; Bogen, Debra L

    2013-07-01

    Assess pediatric providers' ability to identify visible plaque on children's teeth. Pediatric providers (residents, nurse practitioners, and attendings) conducting well-child care on 15-month to 5-year-olds in an academic practice examined children's maxillary incisors for visible plaque (recorded yes/no). A dental hygienist then examined the children and recorded the degree of visible plaque present. The children's mean age was 34 months (±15 months), and 50% had visible plaque. Providers (n = 28) identified visible plaque on 39% of children (n = 118), with 55% sensitivity and 80% specificity, and agreement with hygienist measured as a κ score was 0.34. Subgroup analyses (based on provider training level, exam experience, child age, and plaque scores) did not appreciably improve sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, or κ scores. Visible plaque exams performed during well-child care may not be accurate. To comply with caries-risk assessment guidelines, providers require further education in oral exams.

  12. Alcohol consumption, smoking and development of visible age-related signs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Anne L; Mølbak, Marie-Louise; Schnor, Peter

    2017-01-01

    and earlobe crease, but not xanthelasmata. CONCLUSIONS: High alcohol consumption and smoking predict development of visible age-related signs. This is the first prospective study to show that heavy alcohol use and smoking are associated with generally looking older than one's actual age.......BACKGROUND: Visible age-related signs indicate biological age, as individuals that appear old for their age are more likely to be at poor health, compared with people that appear their actual age. The aim of this study was to investigate whether alcohol and smoking are associated with four visible...... age-related signs (arcus corneae, xanthelasmata, earlobe crease and male pattern baldness). METHODS: We used information from 11 613 individuals in the Copenhagen City Heart Study (1976-2003). Alcohol intake, smoking habits and other lifestyle factors were assessed prospectively and visible age...

  13. Improved low visibility forecasts at Amsterdam Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijngaard, J.; Vogelezang, D.; Maat, N.; van Bruggen, H.

    2009-09-01

    Accurate, reliable and unambiguous information concerning the actual and expected (low) visibility conditions at Amsterdam Airport Schiphol is very important for the available operational flow capacity. Therefore visibility forecast errors can have a negative impact on safety and operational expenses. KNMI has performed an update of the visibility forecast system in close collaboration with the main users of the forecasts (Air Traffic Control, the airport authorities and KLM airlines). This automatic forecasting system consists of a Numerical Weather Prediction Model (Hirlam) with a statistical post processing module on top of it. Output of both components is supplied to a human forecaster who issues a special probabilistic forecast bulletin. This bulletin is tailored to the specific requirements of the airport community. The improvements made to the forecast system are twofold: 1) In addition to the Meteorological Optical Range (MOR) values, RVR (Runway Visual Range) is forecasted. Since RVR depends on both MOR and the local Background Luminance, a (deterministic) statistical forecast for the latter has been developed. 2) Another improvement was achieved by calculating joint probabilities for specific combinations of visibility and cloud base height for thresholds which have direct impact on the flow capacity at the airport. The development of this new visibility forecast will be presented briefly. Also a few verification results will be shown to demonstrate the improvements made. Finally, the importance of explaining the user the use of the forecast information, in relation to their decision making process, will be discussed. For that reason, a simple guideline model to make a cost-optimal choice will be introduced.

  14. Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gehan Elassal; Mona Elsheikh; Abdel Gawad Abu Zeid

    2014-01-01

    .... Subjects and methods: 80 COPD patients were assessed using SCID for establishing psychiatric diagnosis, Beck depression inventory for assessment of the severity of depressive symptoms, Hamilton anxiety scale...

  15. 48 CFR 36.302 - Scope of work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope of work. 36.302... Scope of work. The agency shall develop, either in-house or by contract, a scope of work that defines the project and states the Government's requirements. The scope of work may include criteria and...

  16. Scope, completeness, and accuracy of drug information in Wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauson, Kevin A; Polen, Hyla H; Boulos, Maged N Kamel; Dzenowagis, Joan H

    2008-12-01

    With the advent of Web 2.0 technologies, user-edited online resources such as Wikipedia are increasingly tapped for information. However, there is little research on the quality of health information found in Wikipedia. To compare the scope, completeness, and accuracy of drug information in Wikipedia with that of a free, online, traditionally edited database (Medscape Drug Reference [MDR]). Wikipedia and MDR were assessed on 8 categories of drug information. Questions were constructed and answers were verified with authoritative resources. Wikipedia and MDR were evaluated according to scope (breadth of coverage) and completeness. Accuracy was tracked by factual errors and errors of omission. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the components. Fisher's exact test was used to compare scope and paired Student's t-test was used to compare current results in Wikipedia with entries 90 days prior to the current access. Wikipedia was able to answer significantly fewer drug information questions (40.0%) compared with MDR (82.5%; p Wikipedia performed poorly regarding information on dosing, with a score of 0% versus the MDR score of 90.0%. Answers found in Wikipedia were 76.0% complete, while MDR provided answers that were 95.5% complete; overall, Wikipedia answers were less complete than those in Medscape (p Wikipedia, whereas 4 answers in Medscape conflicted with the answer key; errors of omission were higher in Wikipedia (n = 48) than in MDR (n = 14). There was a marked improvement in Wikipedia over time, as current entries were superior to those 90 days prior (p = 0.024). Wikipedia has a more narrow scope, is less complete, and has more errors of omission than the comparator database. Wikipedia may be a useful point of engagement for consumers, but is not authoritative and should only be a supplemental source of drug information.

  17. Scoping review protocol: education initiatives for medical psychiatry collaborative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Nelson; Sockalingam, Sanjeev; Abi Jaoude, Alexxa; Bailey, Sharon M; Bernier, Thérèse; Freeland, Alison; Hawa, Aceel; Hollenberg, Elisa; Woldemichael, Bethel; Wiljer, David

    2017-09-03

    The collaborative care model is an approach providing care to those with mental health and addictions disorders in the primary care setting. There is a robust evidence base demonstrating its clinical and cost-effectiveness in comparison with usual care; however, the transitioning to this new paradigm of care has been difficult. While there are efforts to train and prepare healthcare professionals, not much is known about the current state of collaborative care training programmes. The objective of this scoping review is to understand how widespread these collaborative care education initiatives are, how they are implemented and their impacts. The scoping review methodology uses the established review methodology by Arksey and O'Malley. The search strategy was developed by a medical librarian and will be applied in eight different databases spanning multiple disciplines. A two-stage screening process consisting of a title and abstract scan and a full-text review will be used to determine the eligibility of articles. To be included, articles must report on an existing collaborative care education initiative for healthcare providers. All articles will be independently assessed for eligibility by pairs of reviewers, and all eligible articles will be abstracted and charted in duplicate using a standardised form. The extracted data will undergo a 'narrative review' or a descriptive analysis of the contextual or process-oriented data and simple quantitative analysis using descriptive statistics. Research ethics approval is not required for this scoping review. The results of this scoping review will inform the development of a collaborative care training initiative emerging from the Medical Psychiatry Alliance, a four-institution philanthropic partnership in Ontario, Canada. The results will also be presented at relevant national and international conferences and published in a peer-reviewed journal. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in

  18. Thermal and Visible Satellite Image Fusion Using Wavelet in Remote Sensing and Satellite Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrari, A. H.; Kiavarz, M.; Hasanlou, M.; Marofi, M.

    2017-09-01

    Multimodal remote sensing approach is based on merging different data in different portions of electromagnetic radiation that improves the accuracy in satellite image processing and interpretations. Remote Sensing Visible and thermal infrared bands independently contain valuable spatial and spectral information. Visible bands make enough information spatially and thermal makes more different radiometric and spectral information than visible. However low spatial resolution is the most important limitation in thermal infrared bands. Using satellite image fusion, it is possible to merge them as a single thermal image that contains high spectral and spatial information at the same time. The aim of this study is a performance assessment of thermal and visible image fusion quantitatively and qualitatively with wavelet transform and different filters. In this research, wavelet algorithm (Haar) and different decomposition filters (mean.linear,ma,min and rand) for thermal and panchromatic bands of Landast8 Satellite were applied as shortwave and longwave fusion method . Finally, quality assessment has been done with quantitative and qualitative approaches. Quantitative parameters such as Entropy, Standard Deviation, Cross Correlation, Q Factor and Mutual Information were used. For thermal and visible image fusion accuracy assessment, all parameters (quantitative and qualitative) must be analysed with respect to each other. Among all relevant statistical factors, correlation has the most meaningful result and similarity to the qualitative assessment. Results showed that mean and linear filters make better fused images against the other filters in Haar algorithm. Linear and mean filters have same performance and there is not any difference between their qualitative and quantitative results.

  19. Innovation Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    I label innovation assessment, to steer polities through periods of disruptive technological change, during which innovations have taken concrete forms and are beginning to diffuse, but still exhibit much scope for rapid, unexpected change and alternative trajectories of development. By juxtaposing...

  20. Visibility graph network analysis of natural gas price: The case of North American market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mei; Wang, Yaqi; Gao, Cuixia

    2016-11-01

    Fluctuations in prices of natural gas significantly affect global economy. Therefore, the research on the characteristics of natural gas price fluctuations, turning points and its influencing cycle on the subsequent price series is of great significance. Global natural gas trade concentrates on three regional markets: the North American market, the European market and the Asia-Pacific market, with North America having the most developed natural gas financial market. In addition, perfect legal supervision and coordinated regulations make the North American market more open and more competitive. This paper focuses on the North American natural gas market specifically. The Henry Hub natural gas spot price time series is converted to a visibility graph network which provides a new direction for macro analysis of time series, and several indicators are investigated: degree and degree distribution, the average shortest path length and community structure. The internal mechanisms underlying price fluctuations are explored through the indicators. The results show that the natural gas prices visibility graph network (NGP-VGN) is of small-world and scale-free properties simultaneously. After random rearrangement of original price time series, the degree distribution of network becomes exponential distribution, different from the original ones. This means that, the original price time series is of long-range negative correlation fractal characteristic. In addition, nodes with large degree correspond to significant geopolitical or economic events. Communities correspond to time cycles in visibility graph network. The cycles of time series and the impact scope of hubs can be found by community structure partition.

  1. Visible-Light Photocatalysis: Does it make a difference in Organic Synthesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzo, Leyre; Pagire, Santhosh K; Reiser, Oliver; König, Burkhard

    2018-02-19

    Visible light photocatalysis has evolved over the last decade into a widely used method in organic synthesis. For many important transformations, such as cross-coupling reactions, alpha-amino functionalizations, cycloadditions, ATRA reactions, or fluorinations, photocatalytic variants have been reported. In this review, we try to compare classical and photocatalytic procedures for selected classes of reactions and highlight their advantages and limitations. In many cases, the photocatalytic reactions proceed at milder reaction conditions, typically at room temperature, and stoichiometric reagents are replaced by simple oxidants or reductants, like air oxygen or amines. This way, besides providing alternative protocols for established transformations that allow a broadening of the substrate scope, also new transformations become possible, especially by merging photocatalysis with organo- or metal catalysis. Does visible light photocatalysis make a difference in organic synthesis? The prospect to shuttle electrons back and forth to substrates and intermediates or to selectively transfer energy through a visible light absorbing photocatalyst holds the promise to improve current protocols in radical chemistry and to open up new avenues by accessing reactive species hitherto unknown. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Scoping Study Investigating PWR Instrumentation during a Severe Accident Scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rempe, J. L. [Rempe and Associates, LLC, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Knudson, D. L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lutz, R. J. [Lutz Nuclear Safety Consultant, LLC, Asheville, NC (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The accidents at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) and Fukushima Daiichi Units 1, 2, and 3 nuclear power plants demonstrate the critical importance of accurate, relevant, and timely information on the status of reactor systems during a severe accident. These events also highlight the critical importance of understanding and focusing on the key elements of system status information in an environment where operators may be overwhelmed with superfluous and sometimes conflicting data. While progress in these areas has been made since TMI-2, the events at Fukushima suggests that there may still be a potential need to ensure that critical plant information is available to plant operators. Recognizing the significant technical and economic challenges associated with plant modifications, it is important to focus on instrumentation that can address these information critical needs. As part of a program initiated by the Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), a scoping effort was initiated to assess critical information needs identified for severe accident management and mitigation in commercial Light Water Reactors (LWRs), to quantify the environment instruments monitoring this data would have to survive, and to identify gaps where predicted environments exceed instrumentation qualification envelop (QE) limits. Results from the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) scoping evaluations are documented in this report. The PWR evaluations were limited in this scoping evaluation to quantifying the environmental conditions for an unmitigated Short-Term Station BlackOut (STSBO) sequence in one unit at the Surry nuclear power station. Results were obtained using the MELCOR models developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-sponsored State of the Art Consequence Assessment (SOARCA) program project. Results from this scoping evaluation indicate that some instrumentation identified to provide critical information would be exposed to conditions that

  3. USAID Construction Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The USAID construction assessment is a survey of the character, scope, value and management of construction activities supported by USAID during the period from June...

  4. Assessment of Refueling Hose Visibility: Post-Cleaning Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    should permit the pilots to detect hose movement and position from the tanker hose / drogue exit. This distance (pilot eye to drogue exit) may...range from approximately 10‘ to 90‘ depending on the type of tanker drogue hose reel retracting / storage system. This statement makes it clear that...and Markings Evaluation Criteria Dex Kalt 14 Sept 2011 1. Requirement Determine optimum aerial refueling hose markings and color on probe drogue

  5. Registered nurse scope of practice and ED complaint-specific protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castner, Jessica; Grinslade, Susan; Guay, Jennifer; Hettinger, A Zach; Seo, Jin Young; Boris, Lenore

    2013-09-01

    The use of complaint-specific protocols (CSPs) by emergency registered nurses (RNs) can improve ED efficiency. However, RN practice is influenced by regulatory environments that may facilitate or inhibit the use of protocols. The purpose of this policy analysis was to explore the language of state boards of nursing scope-of-practice documents related to the use of RN-initiated CSPs in the ED setting. A qualitative descriptive design was used to investigate how the RN's scope of practice relates to the use of CSPs in ED settings across states. Data were collected from state boards of nursing Web site documents. Three major themes emerged: cautiously within scope, intentionally vague/silent, and outside scope. Seven states (Connecticut, Illinois, Kansas, Louisiana, New Jersey, New York, and Oklahoma) were identified where RN-initiated CSPs appear to be currently outside the RN's scope of practice. Therefore 18% of the US population, or 55,973,900 people, resides in states where CSPs are not allowed. State-to-state inconsistencies in the RN's scope of practice may interfere with the implementation of practices that enhance ED efficiency. RNs in all states must ensure that they have the requisite knowledge, skill, and documented competency to implement CSPs, if supported by their employing facility. Efforts to standardize ED RN education and policy are warranted. Continued research is needed assess the impact of RN-initiated CSPs on the efficiency of ED care. Copyright © 2013 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Scope of Practice and Family Medicine Match Rates: Results From a CERA Clerkship Directors' Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, David; White, Jordan; Margo, Katherine; Tarn, Derjung M

    2017-03-01

    Family medicine clerkship directors depend on community preceptors to teach and attract medical students to family medicine. Many community preceptors do not provide the full range of family medicine services, and some are not family physicians. This study aimed to determine the types of practices in which family medicine clerkship students train and whether scope of practice is associated with family medicine Match rates. Data were collected as part of the 2014 Council of Academic Family Medicine Educational Research Alliance (CERA) Family Medicine Clerkship Director Survey. Clerkship directors estimated the percentage of their preceptor sites providing each of nine clinical services and the percentage of students placed with internal medicine physicians for their family medicine rotations. We devised a Scope of Practice Index (SPI) to assess scope of practice and measured the association between a clerkship's SPI and family medicine Match rate. Limited scopes of practice were common. SPI was lowest in the Northeast and highest in the West. In bivariate and multivariable analyses, a lower SPI was associated with lower family medicine Match rates. Preventive gynecological care was the service most highly associated with family medicine Match rates. Family medicine Match rates were lower when programs used internal medicine sites for their family medicine rotations. Many clerkship students are exposed to practices with limited scopes of family medicine practice, and this is associated with lower family medicine Match rates. These findings have implications for the specialty as preceptor scope of practice declines.

  7. Innovative, energy-efficient lighting for New York state roadways : opportunities for incorporating mesopic visibility considerations into roadway lighting practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    The present report outlines activities undertaken to assess the potential for implementing research on visibility at mesopic light levels into lighting practices for roadways in New York State. Through measurements of light levels at several roadway ...

  8. Design for The Indoor Visible Light Communication Application System Based on LED Visible Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian Wenyu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper designs an indoor visible light communication application system based on LED. The system can modulate the original signal one or more times, move to a specific frequency band, transmit on the power line, in the LED terminal use this module to decode, restore the Ethernet signals. This design is applicable to the simplicity of the LED visible light communication applications, which provide the premise and guarantee for the construction of smart home network.

  9. On the visibility of airborne volcanic ash and mineral dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinzierl, B.; Sauer, D. N.; Minikin, A.; Reitebuch, O.; Dahlkötter, F.; Mayer, B. C.; Emde, C.; Tegen, I.; Gasteiger, J.; Petzold, A.; Veira, A.; Kueppers, U.; Schumann, U.

    2012-12-01

    After the eruption of the Eyjafjalla volcano (Iceland) in April 2010 which caused the most extensive restrictions of the airspace over Europe since the end of World War II, the aviation safety concept of avoiding "visible ash", i.e. volcanic ash that can be seen by the human eye, was recommended. However so far, no clear definition of "visible ash" and no relation between the visibility of an aerosol layer and related aerosol mass concentrations are available. The goal of our study is to assess whether it is possible from the pilot's perspective in flight to detect the presence of volcanic ash and to distinguish between volcanic ash and other aerosol layers just by sight. In our presentation, we focus the comparison with other aerosols on aerosol types impacting aviation: Besides volcanic ash, dust storms are known to be avoided by aircraft. We use in-situ and lidar data as well photographs taken onboard the DLR research aircraft Falcon during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiments (SAMUM) in 2006 and 2008 and during the Eyjafjalla volcanic eruption in April/May 2010. We complement this analysis with numerical modelling, using idealized radiative transfer simulations with the 3D Monte Carlo radiative transfer code MYSTIC for a variety of selected viewing geometries. Both aerosol types, Saharan mineral dust and volcanic ash, show an enhanced coarse mode (> 1 μm) aerosol concentration, but volcanic ash aerosol additionally contains a significant number of Aitken mode particles (Volcanic ash is slightly more absorbing than mineral dust, and the spectral behaviour of the refractive index is slightly different. According to our simulations, these differences are not detectable just by human eye. Furthermore, our data show, that it is difficult to define a lower threshold for the visibility of an aerosol layer because the visual detectability depends on many parameters, including the thickness of the aerosol layer, the brightness and color contrast between the airborne

  10. Characterization of internal geometry / covered surface defects with a visible light sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    Previous work has used visible light scanning to detect and characterize defects in 3D printed objects. This paper focuses on assessing the internal structures and external surfaces (that will be later hidden) of complex objects. These features make in-process defect detection far more important than it would be with an object that can be fully assessed with a post-completion scan, as it is required both for in-process correction and end-product quality assurance. This paper presents work on the use of a multi-camera visible light 3D scanning system to identify defects with printed objects' interior and covered / obscured exterior surfaces.

  11. Teal Amber Visible Focal Plane Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Charles R.; Burczewski, Ron

    1981-12-01

    Deep-space surveillance missions have imposed severe demands on existing technology and simulated the search for new, advanced technology developments to provide higher performance. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) sponsored Teal Amber as a visible charge-coupled device (CCD) and associated focal plane signal processing technology development and demonstration program. This paper describes this large-scale, staring-array-sensor concept. The current state of art in the resulting visibled CCD imagers is specified, along with the focal plane signal processor implementation in low power-weight-volume large-scale integrated (LSI) circuitry. Performance requirements and analytic predictions are compared to demonstration system results from an electro-optical test site in White Sands, New Mexico.

  12. Digital/Commercial (In)visibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Anna

    2017-01-01

    This article explores one aspect of digital politics, the politics of videos and more spe- cifically of DAESH recruitment videos. It proposes a practice theoretical approach to the politics of DAESH recruitment videos focused on the re-production of regimes of (in)visibility. The article develops...... an argument demonstrating specifically how digital and commercial logics characterize the aesthetic, circulatory, and infrastructuring practices re-producing the regime of (in)visibility. It shows that digital/commercial logics are at the heart of the combinatorial marketing of multiple, contradictory images...... of the DAESH polity in the videos; that they are core to the participatory, entrepreneurial, individua- lized and affective processes of contagion determining whom the videos reach and involve; and that they shape the sorting, linking, flagging and censoring of the videos that define their accessibility...

  13. High efficiency dielectric metasurfaces at visible wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Devlin, Robert C; Chen, Wei-Ting; Oh, Jaewon; Capasso, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Metasurfaces are planar optical elements that hold promise for overcoming the limitations of refractive and conventional diffractive optics1-3. Dielectric metasurfaces demonstrated thus far4-10 are limited to transparency windows at infrared wavelengths because of significant optical absorption and loss at visible wavelengths. It is critical that new materials and fabrication techniques be developed for dielectric metasurfaces at visible wavelengths to enable applications such as three-dimensional displays, wearable optics and planar optical systems11. Here, we demonstrate high performance titanium dioxide dielectric metasurfaces in the form of holograms for red, green and blue wavelengths with record absolute efficiency (>78%). We use atomic layer deposition of amorphous titanium dioxide that exhibits low surface roughness of 0.738 nm and ideal optical properties. To fabricate the metasurfaces we use a lift-off-like process that allows us to produce highly anisotropic nanofins with shape birefringence. This ...

  14. Transformational leadership: visibility, accessibility, and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavelle, Joanne T

    2012-01-01

    The chief nursing officer of a Magnet® organization is a dynamic, transformational leader who develops and communicates a strong vision for nursing excellence and creates a foundation for exemplary nursing practice and excellent patient care. Transformational leadership is a core component of the Magnet Model®. The 3rd subcomponent--visibility, accessibility, and communication--is the focus of this article.

  15. Efficient Computations and Representations of Visible Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    AS. HSTT NS F EH CABIDEF/ /EFFICIENT COMUTATIONS AND REPRESENTATIONS OF VISIBLE SURFACES. (U) DEC 79 W RICHARDS, X A STEVENS AFOSR79-0020...alone. Although such a solution is not computational optimal, it may be very practical for most natural scenes. UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSIFICATIO1I...in contrast or chromatic content. This reduction can be determined- locally from image information alone. Although such a solution is not

  16. Compression of space for low visibility probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eBorn

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Stimuli briefly flashed just before a saccade are perceived closer to the saccade target, a phenomenon known as perisaccadic compression of space (Ross, Morrone, & Burr, 1997. More recently, we have demonstrated that brief probes are attracted towards a visual reference when followed by a mask, even in the absence of saccades (Zimmermann, Born, Fink, & Cavanagh, 2014. Here, we ask whether spatial compression depends on the transient disruptions of the visual input stream caused by either a mask or a saccade. Both of these degrade the probe visibility but we show that low probe visibility alone causes compression in the absence of any disruption. In a first experiment, we varied the regions of the screen covered by a transient mask, including areas where no stimulus was presented and a condition without masking. In all conditions, we adjusted probe contrast to make the probe equally hard to detect. Compression effects were found in all conditions. To obtain compression without a mask, the probe had to be presented at much lower contrasts than with masking. Comparing mislocalizations at different probe detection rates across masking, saccades and low contrast conditions without mask or saccade, Experiment 2 confirmed this observation and showed a strong influence of probe contrast on compression. Finally, in Experiment 3, we found that compression decreased as probe duration increased both for masks and saccades although here we did find some evidence that factors other than simply visibility as we measured it contribute to compression. Our experiments suggest that compression reflects how the visual system localizes weak targets in the context of highly visible stimuli.

  17. Compression of Space for Low Visibility Probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Sabine; Krüger, Hannah M; Zimmermann, Eckart; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Stimuli briefly flashed just before a saccade are perceived closer to the saccade target, a phenomenon known as perisaccadic compression of space (Ross et al., 1997). More recently, we have demonstrated that brief probes are attracted towards a visual reference when followed by a mask, even in the absence of saccades (Zimmermann et al., 2014a). Here, we ask whether spatial compression depends on the transient disruptions of the visual input stream caused by either a mask or a saccade. Both of these degrade the probe visibility but we show that low probe visibility alone causes compression in the absence of any disruption. In a first experiment, we varied the regions of the screen covered by a transient mask, including areas where no stimulus was presented and a condition without masking. In all conditions, we adjusted probe contrast to make the probe equally hard to detect. Compression effects were found in all conditions. To obtain compression without a mask, the probe had to be presented at much lower contrasts than with masking. Comparing mislocalizations at different probe detection rates across masking, saccades and low contrast conditions without mask or saccade, Experiment 2 confirmed this observation and showed a strong influence of probe contrast on compression. Finally, in Experiment 3, we found that compression decreased as probe duration increased both for masks and saccades although here we did find some evidence that factors other than simply visibility as we measured it contribute to compression. Our experiments suggest that compression reflects how the visual system localizes weak targets in the context of highly visible stimuli.

  18. SINGLE IMAGE DEHAZING FOR VISIBILITY IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhai

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Images captured in foggy weather conditions often suffer from poor visibility, which will create a lot of impacts on the outdoor computer vision systems, such as video surveillance, intelligent transportation assistance system, remote sensing space cameras and so on. In this paper, we propose a new transmission estimated method to improve the visibility of single input image (with fog or haze, as well as the image’s details. Our approach stems from two important statistical observations about haze-free images and the haze itself. First, the famous dark channel prior, a statistics of the haze-free outdoor images, can be used to estimate the thickness of the haze; and second, gradient prior law of transmission maps, which is based on dark channel prior. By integrating these two priors, to estimate the unknown scene transmission map is modeled into a TV-regularization optimization problem. The experimental results show that the proposed approach can effectively improve the visibility and keep the details of fog degraded images in the meanwhile.

  19. Visibly ethnically different families in Denmark & Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    This paper foregounds visibly ethnically different families (Phoenix, 2011) in Denmark. These comprise both.families with parents from two different countries (India and Denmark) and families with transnational adoptees (South Korea). The former are barely scientifically explored due to the domin......This paper foregounds visibly ethnically different families (Phoenix, 2011) in Denmark. These comprise both.families with parents from two different countries (India and Denmark) and families with transnational adoptees (South Korea). The former are barely scientifically explored due...... and poststructuralism in the latter. The results indicate both the possibilities and the limitations involved, highlighting the internal - intersubjective experiences, and the external aspects - the structural factors, other(s) gaze towards the visible differences. Furthermore some parental experiences in transmitting...... racial literacy- identifying racism as a serious problem and preparing children to cope are seen. For the transnational adoptees, inclusion as Danish implies exclusion from categories such as Korean. Also anxiety from the adoptive family regarding exclusion/alienation entails ambivalences and paradoxes...

  20. Photodetector Characteristics in Visible Light Communication

    KAUST Repository

    Ho, Kang-Ting

    2016-04-01

    Typically, in the semiconductor industry pn heterojunctions have been used as either light-emitting diodes (LED) or photodiodes by applying forward current bias or reverse voltage bias, respectively. However, since both devices use the same structure, the light emitting and detecting properties could be combine in one single device, namely LED-based photodetector. Therefore, by integrating LED-based photodetectors as either transmitter or receiver, optical wireless communication could be easily implemented for bidirectional visible light communication networks at low-cost. Therefore, this dissertation focus on the investigation of the photodetection characteristics of InGaN LED-based photodetectors for visible light communication in the blue region. In this regard, we obtain external quantum efficiency of 10 % and photoresponse rise time of 71 μs at 405-nm illumination, revealing high-performance photodetection characteristics. Furthermore, we use orthogonal frequency division multiplexing quadrature amplitude modulation codification scheme to enlarge the operational bandwidth. Consequently, the transmission rate of the communication is efficiently enhanced up to 420 Mbit/s in visible light communication.

  1. Evaluating the visibility of presentation slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Genki; Umezu, Nobuyuki

    2017-03-01

    Presentations using slide software such as PowerPoint are widely performed in offices and schools. The improvement of presentation skills among ordinary people is required because these days such an opportunity of giving presentation is becoming so common. One of the key factors for making successful presentation is the visibility of the slides, as well as the contents themselves. We propose an algorithm to numerically evaluate the visibility of presentation slides. Our method receives a presentation as a set of images and eliminates the background from the slides to extract characters and figures. This algorithm then evaluates the visibility according to the number and size of characters, their colors, and figure layouts. The slide evaluation criteria are based on the series of experiments with 20 participants to parameterize typical values for visual elements in slides. The algorithm is implemented on an iMac and takes 0.5 sec. to evaluate a slide image. The evaluation score is given as a value between 0 and 100 and the users can improve their slide pages with lower scores. Our future work includes a series of experiments with various presentations and extending our method to publish as a web-based rating service for learning presentation skills.

  2. Harry Potter and the sorcerer's scope: latent scope biases in explanatory reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemlani, Sangeet S; Sussman, Abigail B; Oppenheimer, Daniel M

    2011-04-01

    What makes a good explanation? We examine the function of latent scope, i.e., the number of unobserved phenomena that an explanation can account for. We show that individuals prefer narrow latent scope explanations-those that account for fewer unobserved effects-to broader explanations. In Experiments 1a-d, participants found narrow latent scope explanations to be both more satisfying and more likely. In Experiment 2 we directly manipulated base rate information and again found a preference for narrow latent scope explanations. Participants in Experiment 3 evaluated more natural explanations of unexpected observations, and again displayed a bias for narrow latent scope explanations. We conclude by considering what this novel bias tells us about how humans evaluate explanations and engage in causal reasoning.

  3. Efficient Prediction of Low-Visibility Events at Airports Using Machine-Learning Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo-Bueno, L.; Casanova-Mateo, C.; Sanz-Justo, J.; Cerro-Prada, E.; Salcedo-Sanz, S.

    2017-11-01

    We address the prediction of low-visibility events at airports using machine-learning regression. The proposed model successfully forecasts low-visibility events in terms of the runway visual range at the airport, with the use of support-vector regression, neural networks (multi-layer perceptrons and extreme-learning machines) and Gaussian-process algorithms. We assess the performance of these algorithms based on real data collected at the Valladolid airport, Spain. We also propose a study of the atmospheric variables measured at a nearby tower related to low-visibility atmospheric conditions, since they are considered as the inputs of the different regressors. A pre-processing procedure of these input variables with wavelet transforms is also described. The results show that the proposed machine-learning algorithms are able to predict low-visibility events well. The Gaussian process is the best algorithm among those analyzed, obtaining over 98% of the correct classification rate in low-visibility events when the runway visual range is {>}1000 m, and about 80% under this threshold. The performance of all the machine-learning algorithms tested is clearly affected in extreme low-visibility conditions ({algorithm performance in daytime and nighttime conditions, and for different prediction time horizons.

  4. A scoping review of bereavement service outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Donna M; Dhanji, Nurin; Playfair, Robyn; Nayak, Sahana Srinivas; Puplampu, Gideon L; Macleod, Rod

    2017-04-01

    This scoping literature review, through finding and assessing researched bereavement service outcomes, sought to determine the state of bereavement services evaluation, to catalogue service types, and to identify which service or services, if any, demonstrate clear evidence of effectiveness. Our methods included: (1) a literature search for published English-language research articles from 2005-2015; (2) critical appraisal of articles to identify findings; (3) compilation of findings; and (4) determination of the relevance of our findings. Some 38 papers were found, and all were retained to identify the outcomes researched and research findings. Many different outcomes were studied in the 18 quantitative, 11 qualitative, and 9 mixed-methods investigations undertaken worldwide. Ten studies focused on level of grief, six on stress/distress level, six on grief knowledge, six on level of depression, and five on somatization or physical symptoms. Most commonly, a group of bereavement services was evaluated as a whole, followed by group therapy, individual counseling, written information, and other less common services. No group of services or individual service was determined to yield clear and convincing evidence of effectiveness. Regardless, all but one service were shown to have value-most often related to gaining grief information and/or emotional support. Until high-quality research studies have repeatedly revealed evidence of effectiveness, it is possible that the positive outcomes of bereavement services will be largely based on bereaved people receiving helpful educational information and emotional support from organizations and people prepared to help them. This project outlines existing bereavement service types and the state of science in relation to determination of outcomes. It offers suggestions to advance the state of science to validate or refine bereavement services. It brings to light the issue that bereavement service outcomes need to be carefully

  5. First Visibility of the Lunar Crescent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, J. A. R.; Laney, C. D.

    2000-12-01

    Astronomical observatories are often asked to predict the visibility of the young crescent moon by communities (especially Islamic and Karaite) which use traditional lunar calendars. The SAAO has provided such information for many years, but the early 1990s were a watershed of sorts. Astronomical visibility factors in those years created an unusually severe bias against visibility of the Ramadaan and Shawwall crescents from the southern half of the continent, relative to North Africa and the Mideast (to an extent not seen since the 1860s!). The perplexity caused by the resulting delay in sightings ultimately led to a much greater level of communication between astronomers and the crescent-watching community. The SAAO began collecting, systematizing, and propagating the astronomical information available on the crescent visibility issue, the current results of which are summarized here. Les communauté (spécialement islamiques et karaïtes) qui utilisent les calendriers lunaires traditionnels, demandent souvent aux observatoires astronomiques de prédire le moment oú le croissant de lune naissant devient visible. Depuis de nombreuses années le SAAO fournit cette information, mais les années 1990 furent une sorte de tournant. Dans ces années-là les facteurs de visibilité astronomiques créèrent une déviation exceptionnellement grave par rapport à la visibilité des croissants du Ramadan et du Shawal sur la moitié sud du continent relative à l'Afrique du Nord et au Moyen-Orient (dans une mesure jamais atteinte depuis les années 1860!). La perplexité due au retard qui en résulta dans la vision du nouveau croissant, conduisit finalement à renforcer la communication entre les astronomes et la communauté des observateurs du croissant. Le SAAO commença à collecter, systématiser et diffuser l'information astronomique disponible sur la question de la visibilité du croissant dont nous résumons ici les résultats actuels.

  6. Laparoscopic neuromapping in pelvic surgery: scopes of application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneist, Werner; Kauff, Daniel W; Lang, Hauke

    2014-04-01

    New developments in intraoperative electrophysiological neuromonitoring for conventional surgery are providing further insights into functional neuroanatomy and nerve-sparing in the minor pelvis. The aim of this study was to open up potential scopes of application in laparoscopy. Ten patients with different indications for surgery (presacral tumor excision, n = 2; resection rectopexy. n = 2; low anterior rectal resection, n = 2; proctocolectomy. n = 2; abdomino-perineal excision of the rectum, n = 2) were investigated prospectively. The pelvic autonomic nerves were bilaterally mapped by laparoscopic electric stimulation under simultaneous electromyography of the internal anal sphincter and manometry of the bladder. Stimulation results were compared to patients' anorectal and urogenital functional outcome. In all the operations laparoscopic neuromapping (LNM) was technically feasible. Laparoscopy enabled excellent visibility of pelvic neural structures for simple and differentiated electric stimulation. In all cases LNM resulted in significantly evoked electromyographic potentials and intravesical pressure rises. The technique facilitated electrophysiological determination of functional neuroanatomical topography in the minor pelvis. The stimulation results were suitable to confirm laparoscopic nerve-sparing and compatible with patients' anorectal and urogenital functional outcome. LNM is technically feasible and opens up a new dimension for verification of functional nerve integrity. Further developments and investigations are mandatory to evaluate its role for laparoscopic nerve-sparing procedures.

  7. Increasing child pedestrian and cyclist visibility: cluster randomised controlled trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    C A Mulvaney; D Kendrick; M C Watson; C A C Coupland

    2006-01-01

    Study objective: Visibility aids have the potential to reduce child pedestrian and cyclist injury but scarce data exist relating to their use or to interventions for increasing visibility aid use among children...

  8. TCSP GOES VISIBLE AND INFRARED IMAGES V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TCSP GOES Visible and Infrared Images dataset was collected in support of the Tropical Cloud Systems and Processes (TCSP) mission, visible and infrared imagery...

  9. Visible Light Responsive Catalyst for Air Water Purification Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    Investigate and develop viable approaches to render the normally UV-activated TIO2 catalyst visible light responsive (VLR) and achieve high and sustaining catalytic activity under the visible region of the solar spectrum.

  10. Does interest broaden or narrow attentional scope?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Billy; Yih, Jennifer

    2015-08-10

    Theory proposes that interest is a positive emotion that may either broaden attention to facilitate processing of new information, or narrow attention to preserve engagement with new information. To our knowledge, no research has directly examined the effect of interest on attentional scope. Across four experiments, we show that traits associated with the propensity to experience interest-specifically, trait curiosity and internal boredom proneness-are associated with a narrower scope of attention. We also find that, instead of broadening, interest actually narrows attentional scope in comparison to a neutral state and awe. Challenging the conventional notion that all positive emotions broaden cognition and attention, our findings suggest that specific emotions influence attention in ways that extend beyond a general emotional valence effect.

  11. Efficient visibility-driven medical image visualisation via adaptive binned visibility histogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Younhyun; Kim, Jinman; Kumar, Ashnil; Feng, David Dagan; Fulham, Michael

    2016-07-01

    'Visibility' is a fundamental optical property that represents the observable, by users, proportion of the voxels in a volume during interactive volume rendering. The manipulation of this 'visibility' improves the volume rendering processes; for instance by ensuring the visibility of regions of interest (ROIs) or by guiding the identification of an optimal rendering view-point. The construction of visibility histograms (VHs), which represent the distribution of all the visibility of all voxels in the rendered volume, enables users to explore the volume with real-time feedback about occlusion patterns among spatially related structures during volume rendering manipulations. Volume rendered medical images have been a primary beneficiary of VH given the need to ensure that specific ROIs are visible relative to the surrounding structures, e.g. the visualisation of tumours that may otherwise be occluded by neighbouring structures. VH construction and its subsequent manipulations, however, are computationally expensive due to the histogram binning of the visibilities. This limits the real-time application of VH to medical images that have large intensity ranges and volume dimensions and require a large number of histogram bins. In this study, we introduce an efficient adaptive binned visibility histogram (AB-VH) in which a smaller number of histogram bins are used to represent the visibility distribution of the full VH. We adaptively bin medical images by using a cluster analysis algorithm that groups the voxels according to their intensity similarities into a smaller subset of bins while preserving the distribution of the intensity range of the original images. We increase efficiency by exploiting the parallel computation and multiple render targets (MRT) extension of the modern graphical processing units (GPUs) and this enables efficient computation of the histogram. We show the application of our method to single-modality computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance

  12. Psychosocial interventions for adults with visible differences: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyson Norman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Some individuals with visible differences have been found to experience psychosocial adjustment problems that can lead to social anxiety and isolation. Various models of psychosocial intervention have been used to reduce social anxiety and appearance related distress in this population. The objective of this review was to update a previous systematic review assessing the efficacy of psychosocial intervention programs for adults with visible differences. The original review (Bessell & Moss, 2007 identified 12 papers for inclusion.Methods. A search protocol identified studies from 13 electronic journal databases. Methods: Studies were selected in accordance with pre-set inclusion criteria and relevant data were extracted.Results. This update identified an additional four papers that met the inclusion criteria. Two papers provided very limited evidence for the efficacy of a combined cognitive-behavioural and social skills training approach. None of the papers provided sufficient evidence for the optimal duration, intensity or setting of psychosocial interventions for this population.Discussion. The review concluded that a greater number of Randomised Controlled Trials and experimental studies were required to increase the methodological validity of intervention studies.

  13. Department of Energy PEIS scoping session

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badar, L

    1992-12-10

    This is the second programmatic environmental impact statement scoping session held in Durango, Colorado. The purpose was: to present the ground water program so as to build some familiarity and understanding about the issue involved; and to get Durango community's input. Scoping is the collection of information and getting everyone involved and really making a team out of coming up with a proposed action. This report contains the presentations made by the project manager for the Uranium Mill Tailings (UMTRA) program, site manager for the Durango UMTRA site, manager of ground water hydrology, and include comments made by local residents.

  14. 40 CFR 52.26 - Visibility monitoring strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ascribed to them in the Clean Air Act, or in the protection of visibility program (40 CFR 51.301), all as... determine both background visibility conditions and reasonably attributable visibility impairment caused by...) teleradiometers, (iv) nephelometers, (v) human observation, or (vi) other appropriate technology. (4) The...

  15. Use of cameras for monitoring visibility impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, William; Cismoski, Scott; Prenni, Anthony; Peters, Melanie

    2018-02-01

    Webcams and automated, color photography cameras have been routinely operated in many U.S. national parks and other federal lands as far back as 1988, with a general goal of meeting interpretive needs within the public lands system and communicating effects of haze on scenic vistas to the general public, policy makers, and scientists. Additionally, it would be desirable to extract quantifiable information from these images to document how visibility conditions change over time and space and to further reflect the effects of haze on a scene, in the form of atmospheric extinction, independent of changing lighting conditions due to time of day, year, or cloud cover. Many studies have demonstrated a link between image indexes and visual range or extinction in urban settings where visibility is significantly degraded and where scenes tend to be gray and devoid of color. In relatively clean, clear atmospheric conditions, clouds and lighting conditions can sometimes affect the image radiance field as much or more than the effects of haze. In addition, over the course of many years, cameras have been replaced many times as technology improved or older systems wore out, and therefore camera image pixel density has changed dramatically. It is shown that gradient operators are very sensitive to image resolution while contrast indexes are not. Furthermore, temporal averaging and time of day restrictions allow for developing quantitative relationships between atmospheric extinction and contrast-type indexes even when image resolution has varied over time. Temporal averaging effectively removes the variability of visibility indexes associated with changing cloud cover and weather conditions, and changes in lighting conditions resulting from sun angle effects are best compensated for by restricting averaging to only certain times of the day.

  16. New stratospheric UV/visible radiance measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Marceau

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A stratospheric balloon was launched on 12 October 1986 from the "CNES" base at Aire sur l'Adour (France to record twilight radiance in the stratosphere. The near-UV and visible radiances were continuously monitored by a photometer during sunrise. Some observations are presented for different viewing azimuthal planes and viewing elevation angles. They show the influence of aerosols layers and clouds which can be also seen on related photographs. The results as a whole may be used for testing some radiative models, especially for twilight conditions.

  17. Drilling with fiber-transmitted, visible lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kautz, D.D.; Berzins, L.V.; Dragon, E.P.; Werve, M.E.; Warner, B.E.

    1994-02-17

    High power and radiance copper-vapor laser technology developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory shows great promise for many materials processing tasks. The authors recently transmitted the visible light produced by these lasers through fiber optics to perform hole drilling experiments. They found the tolerances on the hole circulatory and cylindricity to be excellent when compared to that produced by conventional optics. This technique lends itself to many applications that are difficult to perform when using conventional optics, including robotic manipulation and hole drilling in non-symmetric parts.

  18. Macroscopic invisibility cloaking of visible light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xianzhong; Luo, Y.; Zhang, Jingjing

    2011-01-01

    invisibility cloaks has been reported at various electromagnetic frequencies. All the invisibility cloaks demonstrated thus far, however, have relied on nano- or micro-fabricated artificial composite materials with spatially varying electromagnetic properties, which limit the size of the cloaked region...... to a few wavelengths. Here, we report the first realization of a macroscopic volumetric invisibility cloak constructed from natural birefringent crystals. The cloak operates at visible frequencies and is capable of hiding, for a specific light polarization, three-dimensional objects of the scale...

  19. New stratospheric UV/visible radiance measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Marceau

    Full Text Available A stratospheric balloon was launched on 12 October 1986 from the "CNES" base at Aire sur l'Adour (France to record twilight radiance in the stratosphere. The near-UV and visible radiances were continuously monitored by a photometer during sunrise. Some observations are presented for different viewing azimuthal planes and viewing elevation angles. They show the influence of aerosols layers and clouds which can be also seen on related photographs. The results as a whole may be used for testing some radiative models, especially for twilight conditions.

  20. 10 CFR 51.26 - Requirement to publish notice of intent and conduct scoping process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... scoping process. 51.26 Section 51.26 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL... Act-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Determinations to Prepare Environmental Impact Statements, Environmental Assessments Or Findings of No Significant Impact, and Related Procedures § 51.26 Requirement to...

  1. Visible light communication applications in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Shoaib; Qasid, Syed Hussain Ahmed; Rehman, Shafia; Rai, Aitzaz Bin Sulltan

    2016-01-01

    With the development in science, methods of communication are also improved, replacing old ones with new advanced ways in an attempt to make data transfer more secure, safer for health, and time as well as cost efficient. One of such methods is Visible Light Communication, as the name implies data is transferred through a light equipment such as incandescent or florescent bulb having speed of 10 Kb/s or LEDs approaching speed of 500 Mb/s [1]. VLC uses visible light between 384 and 789 THz [2,3]. Though range is limitation of VLC, however data transfer up-to distance of 1 to 2 km although at lower transfer rate has been reached.The VLC system comprises of light source like LED and receiver equipment, however, with advancement, now LEDs are used for both sending and receiving data. LED remains on all the time, and there is no change in brightness level during the whole process, making it safe for eyes. Currently, VLC system is facing some serious technical challenges before it could be applied in daily life.

  2. Advances and prospects in visible light communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongda, Chen; Chunhui, Wu; Honglei, Li; Xiongbin, Chen; Zongyu, Gao; Shigang, Cui; Qin, Wang

    2016-01-01

    Visible light communication (VLC) is an emerging technology in optical wireless communication (OWC) that has attracted worldwide research in recent years. VLC can combine communication and illumination together, which could be applied in many application scenarios such as visible light communication local area networks (VLANs), indoor localization, and intelligent lighting. In recent years, pioneering and significant work have been made in the field of VLC. In this paper, an overview of the recent progress in VLC is presented. We also demonstrate our recent experiment results including bidirectional 100 Mbit/s VLAN or Li-Fi system based on OOK modulation without blue filter. The VLC systems that we proposed are good solutions for high-speed VLC application systems with low-cost and low-complexity. VLC technology shows a bright future due to its inherent advantages, shortage of RF spectra and ever increasing popularity of white LEDs. Project supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Nos. 2015AA033303, 2013AA013602, 2013AA013603, 2013AA03A104), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61178051, 61321063, 61335010, 61178048, 61275169), and the National Basic Research Program of China (Nos. 2013CB329205, 2011CBA00608).

  3. Visible and occult microscopic lesions of endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaleque Newaz Khan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is a multifactorial disease mostly affecting women of reproductive age and is associated with chronic pelvic pain and infertility. Even after 300 years, most of the literature claims that pathogenesis and/or pathophysiology of endometriosis is still elusive. Recurrence of pain and lesion continues to occur after effective medical or surgical therapies. Once generated within the pelvis due to retrograde entry of menstrual debris, peritoneal endometriotic lesions time-dependently change their color appearance resulting from certain biochemical change within lesions. A variable pattern of endometriotic lesions within the pelvis can be detected by laparoscopy as visible peritoneal endometriosis. It is generally believed that besides ovarian steroid hormones, the growth of endometriosis can be regulated by the innate immune system in the pelvic microenvironment by their interaction with endometrial cells and immune cells. Even with the careful eyes of an expert surgeon, we may sometimes miss detecting peritoneal lesion within the peritoneal cavity or deep into the peritoneum. In such a case, random collection of normal peritoneum may carry the possibility to identify some hidden endometriotic lesions by microscopy and these lesions can be named as occult (invisible microscopic endometriosis (OME. Here, we discuss the color appearance of peritoneal lesions and activity of these lesions by analysis of a panel of activity markers. Finally we discuss our recent findings on OME, their biological and clinical significance, and try to make a possible link in the origin between visible endometriosis and OME.

  4. Bright visible light emission from graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Duck; Kim, Hakseong; Cho, Yujin; Ryoo, Ji Hoon; Park, Cheol-Hwan; Kim, Pilkwang; Kim, Yong Seung; Lee, Sunwoo; Li, Yilei; Park, Seung-Nam; Yoo, Yong Shim; Yoon, Duhee; Dorgan, Vincent E; Pop, Eric; Heinz, Tony F; Hone, James; Chun, Seung-Hyun; Cheong, Hyeonsik; Lee, Sang Wook; Bae, Myung-Ho; Park, Yun Daniel

    2015-08-01

    Graphene and related two-dimensional materials are promising candidates for atomically thin, flexible and transparent optoelectronics. In particular, the strong light-matter interaction in graphene has allowed for the development of state-of-the-art photodetectors, optical modulators and plasmonic devices. In addition, electrically biased graphene on SiO2 substrates can be used as a low-efficiency emitter in the mid-infrared range. However, emission in the visible range has remained elusive. Here, we report the observation of bright visible light emission from electrically biased suspended graphene devices. In these devices, heat transport is greatly reduced. Hot electrons (∼2,800 K) therefore become spatially localized at the centre of the graphene layer, resulting in a 1,000-fold enhancement in thermal radiation efficiency. Moreover, strong optical interference between the suspended graphene and substrate can be used to tune the emission spectrum. We also demonstrate the scalability of this technique by realizing arrays of chemical-vapour-deposited graphene light emitters. These results pave the way towards the realization of commercially viable large-scale, atomically thin, flexible and transparent light emitters and displays with low operation voltage and graphene-based on-chip ultrafast optical communications.

  5. UV/Visible Telescope with Hubble Disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benford, Dominic J.

    2013-01-01

    Submission Overview: Our primary objective is to convey a sense of the significant advances possible in astrophysics investigations for major Cosmic Origins COR program goals with a 2.4m telescope asset outfitted with one or more advanced UV visible instruments. Several compelling science objectives were identified based on community meetings these science objectives drove the conceptual design of instruments studied by the COR Program Office during July September 2012. This RFI submission encapsulates the results of that study, and suggests that a more detailed look into the instrument suite should be conducted to prove viability and affordability to support the demonstrated scientific value. This study was conducted in the context of a larger effort to consider the options available for a mission to dispose safely of Hubble hence, the overall architecture considered for the mission we studied for the 2.4m telescope asset included resource sharing. This mitigates combined cost and risk and provides naturally for a continued US leadership role in astrophysics with an advanced, general-purpose UV visible space telescope.

  6. 30 CFR 41.10 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... NOTIFICATION OF LEGAL IDENTITY Notification of Legal Identity § 41.10 Scope. Section 109(d) of the Federal Mine... under the act. The regulations in this Subpart B provide for the notification to the Mine Safety and Health Administration of the legal identity of the operator of a coal or other mine and the reporting of...

  7. 29 CFR 1926.750 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection § 1926.750 Scope. (a) This subpart sets... activities include hoisting, laying out, placing, connecting, welding, burning, guying, bracing, bolting...

  8. 32 CFR 516.27 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... proceeding. Examples of civil actions alleging individual liability include the following: a medical... Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Individual Liability § 516.27 Scope. This subpart guidance when DA personnel, as a result of the...

  9. 19 CFR 147.0 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) TRADE FAIRS § 147.0 Scope. This part governs the entry of merchandise intended for exhibition or for use in constructing, installing, or maintaining foreign exhibits at trade fairs which have been so... merchandise, and the disposition of the merchandise after the fair has closed. The entry of articles which may...

  10. 7 CFR 622.2 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... proper utilization of land, flood prevention, agricultural water management including irrigation and... the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES WATERSHED PROJECTS General § 622.2 Scope. (a) To assist sponsors in preparing and...

  11. Two Objections to Wide-Scoping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, Daan

    2011-01-01

    Wide-scopers argue that the detachment of intuitively false ‘ought’ claims from hypothetical imperatives is blocked because ‘ought’ takes wide, as opposed to narrow, scope. I present two arguments against this view. The first questions the premise that natural language conditionals are true just in

  12. 21 CFR 870.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES General Provisions § 870.1 Scope. (a) This part sets forth the classification of cardiovascular... a regulation in this part is not a precise description of every device that is, or will be, subject...

  13. CSIR ScienceScope: Life sciences

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available , manage our unique and fragile ecosystems, and find more sustainable energy alternatives. This edition of ScienceScope features some CSIR research outcomes in life sciences achieved to date, while outlining current and future objectives. L I F E SC...

  14. 40 CFR 240.100 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 240.100 Section 240.100 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL... technological limitation. (d) Pursuant to section 211 of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended, these...

  15. 10 CFR 434.101 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... occupant comfort and sanitation, and which impose thermal loads in excess of 5% of the loads that would... BUILDINGS Administration and Enforcement-General § 434.101 Scope. 101.1 This part provides design requirements for the building envelope, electrical distribution systems and equipment for electric power...

  16. 15 CFR 400.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REGULATIONS OF THE FOREIGN-TRADE ZONES BOARD Scope and Definitions § 400.1... storage, exhibition, assembly, manufacture and processing, without being subject to formal Customs entry... in zones. The Board can deny or limit the use of zone procedures in specific cases on public interest...

  17. Quantifier Scope in Categorical Compositional Distributional Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Sadrzadeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In previous work with J. Hedges, we formalised a generalised quantifiers theory of natural language in categorical compositional distributional semantics with the help of bialgebras. In this paper, we show how quantifier scope ambiguity can be represented in that setting and how this representation can be generalised to branching quantifiers.

  18. 37 CFR 401.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 401.1 Section 401.1 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR TECHNOLOGY POLICY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... from accepting research funding from other sources to expand, to aid in completing or to conduct...

  19. 30 CFR 870.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION ABANDONED MINE RECLAMATION FUND-FEE COLLECTION AND COAL PRODUCTION REPORTING § 870.1 Scope. This Part sets out our procedures to collect fees for the Fund and to report coal production. ...

  20. 46 CFR 58.16-1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-1 Scope. (a) This subpart prescribes standards for the use of liquefied petroleum gas for heating and cooking on inspected vessels, except...

  1. 21 CFR 14.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope. 14.1 Section 14.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND... performance standard for an electronic product by the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards... basis. (iii) A group of experts who are employed by a private company or a trade association which has...

  2. Circuit : The ?SCOPE: A poor man's oscilloscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, R.

    2008-01-01

    The oscilloscope is still one of the most important measurement tools of the electronic engineer. With the advent of the often very reasonably priced USB scopes, such an instrument is now within reach of everybody. Twentyfive years ago that was quite a different story. A (good) oscilloscope was then

  3. 10 CFR 150.2 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope. 150.2 Section 150.2 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... States that have entered into agreements with the Commission or the Atomic Energy Commission pursuant to..., applicant for a license or certificate or quality assurance program approval, holder of a certificate or...

  4. 10 CFR 25.3 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope. 25.3 Section 25.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... licensees, certificate holders, and others who may require access to classified information related to a license, certificate, an application for a license or certificate, or other activities as the Commission...

  5. 48 CFR 223.370-1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Oxidizers; (5) Powdered metals; or (6) Other materials having fire or explosive characteristics. ...-1 Scope. (a) This section applies to all acquisitions involving the use of ammunition and explosives... initiation, propulsion, or detonation as an integral or component part of an explosive, an ammunition, or...

  6. 32 CFR 552.212 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Installation of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland § 552.212 Scope. (a) The provisions of this subpart apply to all elements of U.S. Army Garrison, Aberdeen Proving Ground (USAGAPG), and the supported organizations and activities on the Aberdeen and Edgewood Areas of Aberdeen Proving Ground. (b) The provisions of...

  7. 14 CFR 1274.102 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FIRMS General § 1274.102 Scope. (a) The business relationship between NASA and the recipient of a... higher degree of responsibility for the technical performance outcomes and associated financial costs of... benefit of NASA; (2) Are expected to benefit the general public; (3) Require substantial cost sharing; and...

  8. 41 CFR 60-3.2 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... compliance with Federal law, and is frequently an essential element of any effective affirmative action... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Scope. 60-3.2 Section 60-3.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts OFFICE OF...

  9. 40 CFR 1501.7 - Scoping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... depth in the environmental impact statement. (3) Identify and eliminate from detailed study the issues... required analyses and studies concurrently with, and integrated with, the environmental impact statement as... as practicable after its decision to prepare an environmental impact statement and before the scoping...

  10. 21 CFR 26.3 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN... Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.3 Scope. (a) The provisions of this subpart... inspections and the good manufacturing practices (GMP's) requirements. (c) Appendix B of this subpart lists...

  11. 29 CFR 1910.331 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Installations of electric conductors and equipment within or on buildings or other structures, and on other... of optical fiber cable where such installations are made along with electric conductors. Note: See... SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Electrical Safety-Related Work Practices § 1910.331 Scope. (a) Covered work...

  12. On the Scope of Egalitarian Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Heath

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available It is not clear whether the social contract is supposed to merely supplement the unequal gains that individuals are able to make through the exercise of their natural endowments with a set of equal gains secured through social cooperation, or whether the social contract must also compensate individuals for the effects of these natural inequalities, so that they literally become all equal. The issue concerns, in effect, whether natural inequality falls within the scope of egalitarian justice. I think it is fair to say that the majority of egalitarians assume that the principle of equality imposes an obligation to redress natural inequality. Yet there is no consensus on this issue. David Gauthier has made the rejection of the principle of redress a central component of his project. It has often escaped notice that John Rawls also rejects the principle of redress. Thus it is not just anti-egalitarians who reject the principle of redress. There is a current of egalitarian thought– which we might call, for lack of a better term, narrow-scope egalitarianism – which also rejects this principle. In this paper, I would like to show that there is considerable wisdom in the narrow-scope egalitarian position. Many of the problems that lead theorists to reject egalitarianism in its entirety are a consequence, not of the principle of equality per se, but rather of the commitment to redress natural inequality. The narrow-scope view avoids all of these difficulties.

  13. 40 CFR 246.100 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: inability to sell the recovered materials due to lack of market, and costs so unreasonably high as to render source separation for materials recovery economically impracticable. (1) The following points are to be... MATERIALS RECOVERY GUIDELINES General Provisions § 246.100 Scope. (a) These guidelines are applicable to the...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1401 - Scope; applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Short Test, flexible-fuel or dual-fuel vehicles will be treated as dedicated gasoline vehicles. This... New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1401 Scope; applicability. (a) This subpart contains CST...

  15. 75 FR 38081 - Notice of Scope Rulings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings from the People's Republic of China Requestor: King Architectural Metals (``King''); King's pipe fittings for structural use in handrails and fencing are within the scope..., 2009. A-570-922: Raw Flexible Magnets from the People's Republic of China Requestor: It's Academic, Inc...

  16. 30 CFR 880.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 880.1 Section 880.1 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND... Energy Policy Act of 1992 (Pub. L. 102-486). ...

  17. 46 CFR 58.30-1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 58.30-1 Section 58.30-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED... propulsion and auxiliary machinery. (7) Lifeboat handling equipment. (8) Controllable pitch propeller system...

  18. 40 CFR 80.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... local governments to control or prohibit any fuel or additive for use in motor vehicles and motor... ADDITIVES General Provisions § 80.1 Scope. (a) This part prescribes regulations for the control and/or prohibition of fuels and additives for use in motor vehicles and motor vehicle engines. These regulations are...

  19. 34 CFR 32.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EMPLOYEES § 32.1 Scope. (a) The Secretary establishes the standards and procedures in... employee of the Department of Education to recover overpayments of pay or allowances. (b) This part does... payment to an employee of the Department of Education which is expressly allowed under statutes other than...

  20. 75 FR 52311 - Notice of Scope Rulings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ..., 2010. A-570-922: Raw Flexible Magnets from the People's Republic of China. Requestor: It's Academic; It's Academic's magnet packages are within the scope of the antidumping duty order; March 4, 2010. A.... Requestor: Academy Sports & Outdoors, (``Academy''); whether Academy's bistro sets, consisting of two chairs...

  1. 40 CFR 25.2 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CONSERVATION AND RECOVERY ACT, THE SAFE DRINKING WATER ACT, AND THE CLEAN WATER ACT § 25.2 Scope. (a) The... under the Clean Water Act and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act; (2) EPA issuance and modification... in Solid Waste Management) will no longer appear in the Code of Federal Regulations; however, they...

  2. 31 CFR 203.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 203.1 Section 203.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE PAYMENT OF FEDERAL TAXES AND THE TREASURY TAX AND LOAN PROGRAM...

  3. 41 CFR 101-39.200 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... participating agencies. These services may be furnished through commercial rental companies, private sector... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Scope. 101-39.200 Section 101-39.200 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System...

  4. 19 CFR 151.0 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope. 151.0 Section 151.0 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... examination, sampling, and testing of certain particular types of merchandise. ...

  5. 19 CFR 351.501 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope. 351.501 Section 351.501 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Identification... subpart E does not expressly deal with a particular type of alleged subsidy, the Secretary will identify...

  6. 19 CFR 191.0 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope. 191.0 Section 191.0 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... specialized provisions applicable to specific types of drawback claims. Additional drawback provisions...

  7. 40 CFR 305.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND... (CERCLA) ADMINISTRATIVE HEARING PROCEDURES FOR CLAIMS AGAINST THE SUPERFUND General § 305.1 Scope. (a)(1) This part governs all administrative proceedings for the total or partial denial of response claims...

  8. 76 FR 10558 - Notice of Scope Rulings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ... Metallurgical Inc.; whether silicon metal exported by Ferro-Alliages et Mineraux Inc. (``Ferro-Alliages'') to... Republic of ] China. Requestor: Stork Craft Manufacturing; whether its infant (baby) changing table is... Chemical Corp.; whether finished carbazole violet pigment exported from Japan is within the scope of the...

  9. 23 CFR 1250.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PROVISIONS POLITICAL SUBDIVISION PARTICIPATION IN STATE HIGHWAY SAFETY PROGRAMS § 1250.1 Scope. This part establishes guidelines for the States to assure their meeting the requirements for 40 percent political subdivision participation in State highway safety programs under 23 U.S.C. 402 (b)(1)(C). ...

  10. 28 CFR 90.60 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN Arrest Policies in Domestic Violence Cases § 90.60 Scope. This subpart sets forth the statutory framework of the Violence Against Women Act's... domestic violence as a serious violation of criminal law. ...

  11. 5 CFR 550.371 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Allotments From Federal Employees Foreign Affairs Agency Organizations § 550.371 Scope. If an agency permits an employee to make an allotment for dues to a foreign affairs agency organization, the agency must... dues withholding agreement between a foreign affairs agency and the organization is terminated or...

  12. 24 CFR 17.1 - Scope; definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope; definitions. 17.1 Section 17.1 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development... and Organizational unit are defined in 24 CFR part 5. Procedures ...

  13. 45 CFR 400.40 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND... Identification of Refugees § 400.40 Scope. This subpart sets forth requirements concerning the immigration status and identification of eligible applicants for assistance under title IV of the Act. ...

  14. 47 CFR 24.10 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 24.10 Section 24.10 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES... also should consult subparts F and G of this part. Other Commission rule parts of importance that may...

  15. 45 CFR 1355.10 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 1355.10 Section 1355.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... financial participation under titles IV-B and IV-E of the Social Security Act. ...

  16. 5 CFR 1208.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... APPEALS UNDER THE UNIFORMED SERVICES EMPLOYMENT AND REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS ACT AND THE VETERANS EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES ACT Jurisdiction and Definitions § 1208.1 Scope. This part governs appeals filed with the Board under the provisions of 38 U.S.C. 4324, as enacted by the Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment...

  17. 10 CFR 140.2 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope. 140.2 Section 140.2 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... production facility or a utilization facility (including an operating license issued under part 50 of this... possess and use plutonium in a plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plant. (4) To each person...

  18. 31 CFR 800.101 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 800.101 Section 800.101 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF INVESTMENT SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO MERGERS, ACQUISITIONS, AND TAKEOVERS BY...

  19. 22 CFR 8.3 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT § 8.3 Scope. (a) The Federal Advisory Committee Act... definition of a committee, as contained in § 8.4 of these regulations, and have all or most of the following characteristics: (1) The purpose, objective or intent is that of providing advice to any officer or organizational...

  20. 15 CFR 0.735-42 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Disciplinary Actions Concerning Post-Employment Conflict of Interest Violations § 0.735-42 Scope. (a) These...-employment restrictions of the conflict of interest laws and regulations set forth in 18 U.S.C. 207 and 5 CFR...

  1. Bonfils fiberscope vs GlideScope for awake intubation in morbidly obese patients with expected difficult airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Mahmoud; Zanaty, Ola M; Ibrahim, Mohamed

    2016-08-01

    To assess the efficacy of both Bonfils and GlideScope in obese patient with difficult airways for bariatric surgery using awake intubation. Comparative study. Operating room. The study was carried out on 60 patients, for laparoscopic bariatric surgery, after approval of the Medical Ethics Committee and having an informed written consent from each patient. Patients were randomly categorized into 2 equal groups 30 patients in each group. Awake intubation with either Retromolar Bonfils or GlideScope. Time to visualize the laryngeal inlet, time of intubation, time of scope manipulation, success rate at each attempt, the lowest oxygen saturation, hemodynamic parameters, and any complication. Regarding intubation criteria, GlideScope achieves shorter times compared with Retromolar for visualization of the vocal cords and intubation, in addition to less intubation attempts, but both without a statistically significant difference. Retromolar shows better patient satisfaction than does GlideScope, with statistically significant difference. Both Bonfils fiberscope and the GlideScope can be successfully used for awake intubation in morbidly obese patients with expected difficult airways. Bonfils intubating fiberscope was more tolerated by patients with statistical difference; on the other hand, GlideScope provided shorter intubation time and less intubation attempts but not statistically significant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mindfulness Interventions in Physical Rehabilitation: A Scoping Review

    OpenAIRE

    Hardison, Mark E.; Roll, Shawn C.

    2016-01-01

    A scoping review of 16 articles suggests that mindfulness interventions within the scope of occupational therapy practice are helpful for patients with musculoskeletal and chronic pain disorders and possibly certain neurological disorders.

  3. 34 CFR 690.1 - Scope and purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PELL GRANT PROGRAM Scope, Purpose and General Definitions § 690.1 Scope and purpose. The Federal Pell Grant Program awards grants to help financially needy students meet the cost of...

  4. Needle tip visibility in 3D ultrasound images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Muhammad; Moelker, Adriaan; van Walsum, Theo

    2017-03-01

    Needle visibility is of crucial importance for ultrasound guided interventional procedures. However, several factors, such as shadowing by bone or gas and tissue echogenic properties similar to needles, may compromise needle visibility. Additionally, small angle between the ultrasound beam and the needle, as well as small gauged needles may reduce visibility. Variety in needle tips design may also affect needle visibility. Whereas several studies have investigated needle visibility in 2D ultrasound imaging, no data is available for 3D ultrasound imaging, a modality that has great potential for image guidance interventions1. In this study, we evaluated needle visibility using a 3D ultrasound transducer. We examined different needles in a tissue mimicking liver phantom at three angles (200, 550 and 900) and quantify their visibility. The liver phantom was made by 5% polyvinyl alcohol solution containing 1% Silica gel particles to act as ultrasound scattering particles. We used four needles; two biopsy needles (Quick core 14G and 18G), one Ablation needle (Radiofrequency Ablation 17G), and Initial puncture needle (IP needle 17G). The needle visibility was quantified by calculating contrast to noise ratio. The results showed that the visibility for all needles were almost similar at large angles. However the difference in visibility at lower angles is more prominent. Furthermore, the visibility increases with the increase in angle of ultrasound beam with needles.

  5. Navajo Generating Station and Air Visibility Regulations: Alternatives and Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurlbut, D. J.; Haase, S.; Brinkman, G.; Funk, K.; Gelman, R.; Lantz, E.; Larney, C.; Peterson, D.; Worley, C.; Liebsch, E.

    2012-01-01

    Pursuant to the Clean Air Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced in 2009 its intent to issue rules for controlling emissions from Navajo Generating Station that could affect visibility at the Grand Canyon and at several other national parks and wilderness areas. The final rule will conform to what EPA determines is the best available retrofit technology (BART) for the control of haze-causing air pollutants, especially nitrogen oxides. While EPA is ultimately responsible for setting Navajo Generating Station's BART standards in its final rule, it will be the U.S. Department of the Interior's responsibility to manage compliance and the related impacts. This study aims to assist both Interior and EPA by providing an objective assessment of issues relating to the power sector.

  6. Informatics competencies for nurse leaders: protocol for a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassam, Iman; Nagle, Lynn; Strudwick, Gillian

    2017-12-14

    Globally, health information technologies are now being used by nurses in a variety of settings. However, nurse leaders often do not have the necessary strategic and tactical informatics competencies to adequately ensure their effective adoption and use. Although informatics competencies and competency frameworks have been identified and developed, to date there has not been review or consolidation of the work completed in this area. In order to address this gap, a scoping review is being conducted. The objectives of this scoping review are to: (1) identify informatics competencies of relevance to nurse leaders, (2) identify frameworks or theories that have been used to develop informatics competencies for nurse leaders, (3) identify instruments used to assess the informatics competencies of nurse leaders and (4) examine the psychometric properties of identified instruments. Using the Arksey and O'Malley five-step framework, a literature review will be conducted using a scoping review methodology. The search will encompass academic and grey literature and include two primary databases and five secondary databases. Identified studies and documents will be independently screened for eligibility by two reviewers. Data from the studies and documents will be extracted and compiled into a chart. Qualitative data will be subject to a thematic analysis and descriptive statistics applied to the quantitative data. Ethical approval was not required for this study. Results will be used to inform a future study designed to validate an instrument used to evaluate informatics competencies for nurse leaders within a Canadian context. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Warm Water Oxidation Verification - Scoping and Stirred Reactor Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braley, Jenifer C.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2011-06-15

    Scoping tests to evaluate the effects of agitation and pH adjustment on simulant sludge agglomeration and uranium metal oxidation at {approx}95 C were performed under Test Instructions(a,b) and as per sections 5.1 and 5.2 of this Test Plan prepared by AREVA. (c) The thermal testing occurred during the week of October 4-9, 2010. The results are reported here. For this testing, two uranium-containing simulant sludge types were evaluated: (1) a full uranium-containing K West (KW) container sludge simulant consisting of nine predominant sludge components; (2) a 50:50 uranium-mole basis mixture of uraninite [U(IV)] and metaschoepite [U(VI)]. This scoping study was conducted in support of the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) Phase 2 technology evaluation for the treatment and packaging of K-Basin sludge. The STP is managed by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) for the U.S. Department of Energy. Warm water ({approx}95 C) oxidation of sludge, followed by immobilization, has been proposed by AREVA and is one of the alternative flowsheets being considered to convert uranium metal to UO{sub 2} and eliminate H{sub 2} generation during final sludge disposition. Preliminary assessments of warm water oxidation have been conducted, and several issues have been identified that can best be evaluated through laboratory testing. The scoping evaluation documented here was specifically focused on the issue of the potential formation of high strength sludge agglomerates at the proposed 95 C process operating temperature. Prior hydrothermal tests conducted at 185 C produced significant physiochemical changes to genuine sludge, including the formation of monolithic concretions/agglomerates that exhibited shear strengths in excess of 100 kPa (Delegard et al. 2007).

  8. Executive functioning: a scoping review of the occupational therapy literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramm, Heidi A; Krupa, Terry M; Missiuna, Cheryl A; Lysaght, Rosemary M; Parker, Kevin H

    2013-06-01

    Increasingly recognized as an important factor in the performance of complex, goal-directed tasks, executive functioning is understood in different ways across disciplines. The aim was to explore the ways in which executive functioning is conceptualized, discussed, described, and implied in the occupational therapy literature. A scoping review of the occupational therapy literature was conducted following Levac, Colquhoun, and O'Brien's (2010) recommended methodology. Executive functioning is described both as a set of performance component skills or processes and as the executive occupational performance inherent in complex occupations. Executive functioning is implicit in occupational performance and engagement, and some health conditions seem to be commonly associated with impaired executive functioning. Assessing executive functioning requires dynamic occupation- and performance-based assessment. Interventions targeting executive functioning are grounded in metacognitive approaches. Executive functioning is a complex construct that is conceptualized with considerable variance within the occupational therapy literature, creating barriers to effective service delivery.

  9. Scaling properties of observed and simulated satellite visible radiances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Howard W.; Qu, Zhipeng; Bélair, Stéphane; Leroyer, Sylvie; Milbrandt, Jason A.; Vaillancourt, Paul A.

    2017-09-01

    Structure functions Sq, which are related to power spectra and used to study turbulence, were computed for GOES-13 visible radiances measured on 16 May 2015 over French Guiana and adjacent Atlantic Ocean. The nested Global Environmental Multiscale (GEM) numerical weather prediction (NWP) model was run for the same time and area. Cloud data generated by GEM over (300 km)2 domains, with one-way nesting ending at horizontal grid-spacing of 0.25 km, were operated on by a 3-D solar radiative transfer model with resulting radiances degraded to GOES-13 resolution ( 1 km) and Sq computed for them, too. For GOES-13 radiances, scaling exponents ζ(2) associated with S2, for separation distances between 5 km and 25 km, were typically >0.6 for deep convective and marine boundary layer clouds and ζ(2) for GEM agreed well with GOES-13 for deep convective clouds. This suggests that the self-organizing properties of deep convection in GEM exhibit realistic geometric features, a potentially important point given the link between cloud structure and precipitation, with the latter being much more difficult to measure and assess than visible radiances. Regarding radiances for GEM's marine boundary layer clouds, their Sq differed markedly from GOES-13's; better resembling fair-weather cumulus. Likewise, GEM's shallow cumuli over land appear to have bypassed the "scattered" fair-weather stage and went straight into more organized convection. Thus, it appears that comparing time series of Sq for geostationary satellite data and corresponding modeled radiances has the potential to benefit assessment of cloud system-resolving models.

  10. Visible Lasers and Emerging Color Converters for Lighting and Visible Light Communications

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao

    2017-10-30

    GaN-based lasers are promising for white lighting and visible-light communication (VLC). The advances of III-nitride photonic integration, and the application of YAG crystal and perovskite-based phosphors to lighting and VLC will be discussed.

  11. Sense-making and Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Ivar

    The poster integrates knowledge about how we make sense of situations into SEA methodology to strengthen the staging of impact assessments and the process of scoping impacts.......The poster integrates knowledge about how we make sense of situations into SEA methodology to strengthen the staging of impact assessments and the process of scoping impacts....

  12. 40 CFR 35.917-4 - Planning scope and detail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Planning scope and detail. 35.917-4... Planning scope and detail. (a) Initially, the geographic scope of step 1 grant assistance shall be based on... Regional Administrator may make the preliminary delineation of the boundaries of the planning area, if the...

  13. 45 CFR 703.3 - Scope of subject matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope of subject matter. 703.3 Section 703.3... AND FUNCTIONS OF STATE ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 703.3 Scope of subject matter. The scope of the subject matter to be dealt with by Advisory Committees shall be those subjects of inquiry or study with which the...

  14. SCOPE : an intelligent maintenance system for supporting crew operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, A.; Breebaart, L.; Neerincx, M.A.; Wolff, M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an intelligent maintenance system for Supporting Crew OPErations (SCOPE). SCOPE supports the astronauts onboard the ISS and helps them to maximize the availability of complex payload systems. SCOPE detects system failures, guides the isolation of the root causes of failure, and

  15. Contabilidad, Finanzas Empresariales y Mano Visible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Durán Herrera

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En el ámbito de la Economía y Dirección de la Empresa, la Contabilidad y las Finanzas juegan un papel primordial por cuanto que, prioritariamente, se ocupan de la determinación del valor de la empresa y, respectivamente, de proporcionar y evaluar la información suplementaria necesaria para la formación de expectativas reales sobre el futuro de dicha organización. En la fuerte interdependencia de los programas de investigación de ambas disciplinas -Contabilidad y Finanzas- se entrecruzan los análisis respectivos de la naturaleza de los activos, del gobierno de la empresa como organización y del cálculo de los resultados alcanzados. La investigación contempla los cambios en las circunstancias (instituciones y organizaciones en las que se desarrolla la función financiera y se aplica la contabilidad para medir e informar sobre la realidad de la empresa, evidenciándose el paralelismo, la complementariedad y las diferencias que se producen entre ambas disciplinas. El valor de la empresa como punto de encuentro manifiesta dos aproximaciones: el valor contable basado en datos históricos o en precios corrientes y el valor financiero que estima el valor actualizando los flujos de caja derivados del desarrollo del proyecto empresa. Palabras clave: contabilidad y finanzas empresariales, información contable y decisiones financieras, dirección financiera y contabilidad, mano visible de la empresa. The theory and practice of Accounting and Finance make possible to estimate the value of the firm and, respectively, both provide and evaluate supplementary information that constitudes inputs for the expectations about the nature of organization. The strong interdependence between the researtch programs in both academic disciplines are show in their own analysis about the nature of assets, the governance of the firm and the determination of the profitability of the corporation. The institutional changes influence the research programs of both

  16. Exploring the feasibility of iris recognition for visible spectrum iris images obtained using smartphone camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trokielewicz, Mateusz; Bartuzi, Ewelina; Michowska, Katarzyna; Andrzejewska, Antonina; Selegrat, Monika

    2015-09-01

    In the age of modern, hyperconnected society that increasingly relies on mobile devices and solutions, implementing a reliable and accurate biometric system employing iris recognition presents new challenges. Typical biometric systems employing iris analysis require expensive and complicated hardware. We therefore explore an alternative way using visible spectrum iris imaging. This paper aims at answering several questions related to applying iris biometrics for images obtained in the visible spectrum using smartphone camera. Can irides be successfully and effortlessly imaged using a smartphone's built-in camera? Can existing iris recognition methods perform well when presented with such images? The main advantage of using near-infrared (NIR) illumination in dedicated iris recognition cameras is good performance almost independent of the iris color and pigmentation. Are the images obtained from smartphone's camera of sufficient quality even for the dark irides? We present experiments incorporating simple image preprocessing to find the best visibility of iris texture, followed by a performance study to assess whether iris recognition methods originally aimed at NIR iris images perform well with visible light images. To our best knowledge this is the first comprehensive analysis of iris recognition performance using a database of high-quality images collected in visible light using the smartphones flashlight together with the application of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) iris recognition methods.

  17. The impact of immigration and visible minority status on psychosis symptom profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Akiah Ottesen; Andreassen, Ole A; Aminoff, Sofie Ragnhild; Romm, Kristin Lie; Hauff, Edvard; Melle, Ingrid

    2014-11-01

    Immigrants have heightened risks of psychotic disorders, and it is proposed that migration influences symptom profiles. The purpose of this study was to investigate if either migration experience and/or visible minority status affected symptom profiles, using a cross-culturally validated five-factor model of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), in patients with broadly defined psychotic disorders. PANSS was assessed in a large catchment area based sample of patients with psychotic disorders verified with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (n = 1,081). Symptom profiles based on Wallwork et al. five-factor model were compared for Norwegians (73 %), white immigrants (10.5 %), and visible minority groups (16.5 %). Visible minorities were significantly younger, had less education, more often a schizophrenia diagnosis and higher PANSS positive, negative and disorganized/concrete factor scores than Norwegians and white immigrants. After controlling for confounders only the items "Delusions" and "Difficulty in abstract thinking" differed between groups. Multivariate analyses indicated that these items were not associated with immigration per se, but rather belonging to a visible minority. We found mostly similarities in psychotic symptoms between immigrants and Norwegians when using a cross-culturally validated five-factor model of the PANSS. Immigration did not directly influence psychotic symptom profiles but visible minority groups had higher levels of "Delusions" and "Difficulty in abstract thinking", both symptoms that are partially context dependent.

  18. Representation and Visibility. Roma in the Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Ratajczak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is divided into three main parts. The first is an overview of the situation of the Roma minorities in Slovenia and Poland. The second part of the article presents minority broadcast media and the main elements of the legal and institutional framework they operate in. Finally, this article focuses on the visibility of Roma in the media. This article draws attention to cultural pluralism and how cultural pluralism is implemented by the public service broadcasters in Poland and Slovenia, particularly in the context of the presence of Roma minorities in the media. The research is based on 15 interviews carried out in Slovenia and Poland between 2006-2009 with journalists, editors, researchers, workers of NGOs, government representatives and Roma minority leaders. This study is also based on policy documents, reports of governments, NGOs and international organisations, academic literature and content analysis of Roma minority media.

  19. PAPR analysis for OFDM visible light communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaheng; Xu, Yang; Ling, Xintong; Zhang, Rong; Ding, Zhi; Zhao, Chunming

    2016-11-28

    Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) is a practical technology in visible light communication (VLC) for high-speed transmissions. However, one of its operational limitations is the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of the transmitted signal. In this paper, we analyze the PAPR distributions of four VLC OFDM schemes, namely DC-biased optical OFDM (DCO-OFDM), asymmetrically clipped optical OFDM (ACO-OFDM), pulse amplitude modulated discrete multitone (PAM-DMT), and Flip-OFDM. Both lower and upper clippings are considered. We analytically derive the complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) of the PAPRs of the clipped VLC OFDM signals, and investigate the impact of lower and upper clippings on PAPR distributions. Our analytical results, as verified by numerical simulations, provide useful insights and guidelines for VLC OFDM system designs.

  20. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy of graphene oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Lai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Dispersions of few-layer (1-3 layers, multi-layer (4-10 layers and thick-layer (>10 layers graphene oxide (GO were prepared by a modified Hummers method with different mass ratios of KMnO4 to graphite. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis spectroscopic data show that few-layer GO dispersions can be distinguished from multi- and thick-layer dispersions by a more intense peak at 230 nm. Atomic force microscopy (AFM images of few-layer GO contain a single peak, those of multi-layer GO exhibit a shoulder and those of thick-layer GO do not contain a peak or shoulder. These findings allow qualitative analysis of GO dispersions. X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS show that the change of UV-vis absorption intensity of GO is caused by a conjugative effect related to chromophore aggregation that influences the π-π* plasmon peak.

  1. Coded source imaging simulation with visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Sheng [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology and School of Physics, IHIP, Peking University, Yiheyuan Lu 5, Beijing 100871 (China); Zou Yubin, E-mail: zouyubin@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology and School of Physics, IHIP, Peking University, Yiheyuan Lu 5, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang Xueshuang; Lu Yuanrong; Guo Zhiyu [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology and School of Physics, IHIP, Peking University, Yiheyuan Lu 5, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2011-09-21

    A coded source could increase the neutron flux with high L/D ratio. It may benefit a neutron imaging system with low yield neutron source. Visible light CSI experiments were carried out to test the physical design and reconstruction algorithm. We used a non-mosaic Modified Uniformly Redundant Array (MURA) mask to project the shadow of black/white samples on a screen. A cooled-CCD camera was used to record the image on the screen. Different mask sizes and amplification factors were tested. The correlation, Wiener filter deconvolution and Richardson-Lucy maximum likelihood iteration algorithm were employed to reconstruct the object imaging from the original projection. The results show that CSI can benefit the low flux neutron imaging with high background noise.

  2. Electrically Injected UV-Visible Nanowire Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, George T.; Li, Changyi; Li, Qiming; Liu, Sheng; Wright, Jeremy Benjamin; Brener, Igal; Luk, Ting -Shan; Chow, Weng W.; Leung, Benjamin; Figiel, Jeffrey J.; Koleske, Daniel D.; Lu, Tzu-Ming

    2015-09-01

    There is strong interest in minimizing the volume of lasers to enable ultracompact, low-power, coherent light sources. Nanowires represent an ideal candidate for such nanolasers as stand-alone optical cavities and gain media, and optically pumped nanowire lasing has been demonstrated in several semiconductor systems. Electrically injected nanowire lasers are needed to realize actual working devices but have been elusive due to limitations of current methods to address the requirement for nanowire device heterostructures with high material quality, controlled doping and geometry, low optical loss, and efficient carrier injection. In this project we proposed to demonstrate electrically injected single nanowire lasers emitting in the important UV to visible wavelengths. Our approach to simultaneously address these challenges is based on high quality III-nitride nanowire device heterostructures with precisely controlled geometries and strong gain and mode confinement to minimize lasing thresholds, enabled by a unique top-down nanowire fabrication technique.

  3. Wire grid polarizers for visible wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joshua Hans

    Detailed analysis of wire-grid (WG) polarizers for visible wavelengths is presented. Rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) is used to model their performance. The optimum choice of metal for the wires is identified, and the effects of different substrate indices of refraction are considered. The polarization properties are considered with changes in the physical parameters, including period, duty cycle, and wire thickness. It is shown that the performance of WG polarizers improves with increasing angle of incidence. The effect of non-square wire profiles is considered, as is the effect of adding additional dielectric layers between the wires and the substrate. The effect of metal oxide layers forming on the wires is also modeled. While most of this work concerns WG polarizers used in transmission, the performance in reflection is also discussed. Several visible-wavelength WG polarizers were fabricated at the Cornell Nanofabrication Facility (CNF) in Ithaca, NY. Electron-beam lithography was used to write the patterns for these devices, and two different methods of pattern transfer were compared. These were the lift-off method and reactive-ion etching (RIE). We found that lift-off could not produce wires thick enough for good polarization properties. RIE could produce much thicker wires with good profiles and was used for all of the experimental work presented here. Two different methods for metal film deposition, evaporation and sputtering were also compared. Films deposited by sputtering were found to have much lower indices of refraction and to not respond to etching as well. Thermally evaporated films performed much better in WG polarizers. Alternative methods for the mass-production of visible-wavelength WG polarizers are also discussed. The performance of the fabricated WG polarizers is compared to theory. When the measured physical parameters are used in RCWA to predict the performance, the measured extinction ratio is found to be much lower than the

  4. Technology Advancement of the Visible Nulling Coronagraph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Richard G.; Clampin, Mark; Petrone, Peter; Thompson, Patrick; Bolcar, Matt; Madison, Timothy; Woodruff, Robert; Noecker, Charley; Kendrick, Steve

    2010-01-01

    The critical high contrast imaging technology for the Extrasolar Planetary Imaging Coronagraph (EPIC) mission concept is the visible nulling coronagraph (VNC). EPIC would be capable of imaging jovian planets, dust/debris disks, and potentially super-Earths and contribute to answering how bright the debris disks are for candidate stars. The contrast requirement for EPIC is 10(exp 9) contrast at 125 milli-arseconds inner working angle. To advance the VNC technology NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, in collaboration with Lockheed-Martin, previously developed a vacuum VNC testbed, and achieved narrowband and broadband suppression of the core of the Airy disk. Recently our group was awarded a NASA Technology Development for Exoplanet Missions to achieve two milestones: (i) 10(exp 8) contrast in narrowband light, and, (ii) 10(ecp 9) contrast in broader band light; one milestone per year, and both at 2 Lambda/D inner working angle. These will be achieved with our 2nd generation testbed known as the visible nulling testbed (VNT). It contains a MEMS based hex-packed segmented deformable mirror known as the multiple mirror array (MMA) and coherent fiber bundle, i.e. a spatial filter array (SFA). The MMA is in one interferometric arm and works to set the wavefront differences between the arms to zero. Each of the MMA segments is optically mapped to a single mode fiber of the SFA, and the SFA passively cleans the sub-aperture wavefront error leaving only piston, tip and tilt error to be controlled. The piston degree of freedom on each segment is used to correct the wavefront errors, while the tip/tilt is used to simultaneously correct the amplitude errors. Thus the VNT controls both amplitude and wavefront errors with a single MMA in closed-loop in a vacuum tank at approx.20 Hz. Herein we will discuss our ongoing progress with the VNT.

  5. THERMAL AND VISIBLE SATELLITE IMAGE FUSION USING WAVELET IN REMOTE SENSING AND SATELLITE IMAGE PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Ahrari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal remote sensing approach is based on merging different data in different portions of electromagnetic radiation that improves the accuracy in satellite image processing and interpretations. Remote Sensing Visible and thermal infrared bands independently contain valuable spatial and spectral information. Visible bands make enough information spatially and thermal makes more different radiometric and spectral information than visible. However low spatial resolution is the most important limitation in thermal infrared bands. Using satellite image fusion, it is possible to merge them as a single thermal image that contains high spectral and spatial information at the same time. The aim of this study is a performance assessment of thermal and visible image fusion quantitatively and qualitatively with wavelet transform and different filters. In this research, wavelet algorithm (Haar and different decomposition filters (mean.linear,ma,min and rand for thermal and panchromatic bands of Landast8 Satellite were applied as shortwave and longwave fusion method . Finally, quality assessment has been done with quantitative and qualitative approaches. Quantitative parameters such as Entropy, Standard Deviation, Cross Correlation, Q Factor and Mutual Information were used. For thermal and visible image fusion accuracy assessment, all parameters (quantitative and qualitative must be analysed with respect to each other. Among all relevant statistical factors, correlation has the most meaningful result and similarity to the qualitative assessment. Results showed that mean and linear filters make better fused images against the other filters in Haar algorithm. Linear and mean filters have same performance and there is not any difference between their qualitative and quantitative results.

  6. Evaluation of the visibility and the course of the mandibular incisive canal and the lingual foramen using cone-beam computed tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makris, N.; Stamatakis, H.; Syriopoulos, K.; Tsiklakis, K.; van der Stelt, P.F.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the visibility and the course of the incisive canal and the visibility and the location of the lingual foramen using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods: In total, 100 CBCT examinations of patients for preoperative planning were used for this study. The examinations

  7. [Visible-NIR spectral feature of citrus greening disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiu-hua; Li, Min-zan; Won Suk, Lee; Reza, Ehsani; Ashish, Ratn Mishra

    2014-06-01

    Citrus greening (Huanglongbing, or HLB) is a devastating disease caused by Candidatus liberibacter which uses psyllids as vectors. It has no cure till now, and poses a huge threat to citrus industry around the world. In order to diagnose, assess and further control this disease, it is of great importance to first find a quick and effective way to detect it. Spectroscopy method, which was widely considered as a fast and nondestructive way, was adopted here to conduct a preliminary exploration of disease characteristics. In order to explore the spectral differences between the healthy and HLB infected leaves and canopies, this study measured the visible-NIR spectral reflectance of their leaves and canopies under lab and field conditions, respectively. The original spectral data were firstly preprocessed with smoothing (or moving average) and cluster average procedures, and then the first derivatives were also calculated to determine the red edge position (REP). In order to solve the multi-peak phenomenon problem, two interpolation methods (three-point Lagrangian interpolation and four-point linear extrapolation) were adopted to calculate the REP for each sample. The results showed that there were, obvious differences at the visible & NIR spectral reflectance between the healthy and HLB infected classes. Comparing with the healthy reflectance, the HLB reflectance was higher at the visible bands because of the yellowish symptoms on the infected leaves, and lower at NIR bands because the disease blocked water transportation to leaves. But the feature at NIR bands was easily affected by environmental factors such as light, background, etc. The REP was also a potential indicator to distinguish those two classes. The average REP was slowly moving toward red bands while the infection level was getting higher. The gap of the average REPs between the healthy and HLB classes reached to a maximum of 20 nm. Even in the dataset with relatively lower variation, the classification

  8. Scale and scope efficiencies through hospital consolidations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preyra, Colin; Pink, George

    2006-11-01

    The hospital sector in the Province of Ontario has recently completed a large scale restructuring marked by wide ranging hospital closures, mergers and program transfers. Given a generally inconclusive economics literature, regulators used an accounting, as opposed to an economic, approach when predicting gains to consolidations. This paper uses an economic cost function to examine economies of scale and scope in the years preceding restructuring, where there was little doubt that economies were possible. Issues relating to output aggregation, functional form, and scale and scope testing are addressed and an equilibrium cost function is derived from an estimated short run function to measure the cost concepts of interest. Using index and direct approaches, we examine a variety of potential reconfigurations and conclude that there were indeed large scale unexploited gains to strategic consolidation in the hospital sector. Furthermore, these gains may not have been detected using standard approaches in the literature.

  9. Latin American forensic pathology: scope and needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel M. Fonseca

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pathology pertains to the study of a disease; from ancient times it has sought to explain the cause of death through postmortem examination. The advancement of science and technology has led to a greater definition of roles and has favored its development through different subspecialties among which we stands out forensic pathology. This discipline has its own characteristics, scope, case series, procedures and terminology. Likewise, although forensic pathology does not differ substantially from clinical pathology, significant differences can be found between the Anglo American approach and the Latin American approach. Beyond semantics of these alleged differences, the article reviews the concepts involved and discusses the scope and requirements needed to qualify experts, in the understanding that globalizing criteria should establish new paradigms and define the specific roles of the specialty.

  10. Nature and scope of public administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uchem, R.O.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The success and survival of any organizations be they government or not is contingent upon group efforts and cooperation to achieve set goals. This paper discusses the nature and scope of public administration to say that in modern day societies, any administration in the public interest transcends beyond government circles and finds expression in other spheres of human endeavors including the church, mosques, postal services as well as international relations and diplomacy, respectively. The paper discusses the concepts of administration and public administration thereby creating a distinction between the two concepts. Furthermore, the understanding of the scope of administration through the various schools of thought have also been captured, the essence of which is to generate a clearer understanding of the discourse under review. The paper ends with conclusions.

  11. Reduced attentional scope in cocaine polydrug users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza S Colzato

    Full Text Available Cocaine is Europe's second preferred recreational drug after cannabis but very little is known about possible cognitive impairments in the upcoming type of recreational cocaine user (monthly consumption. We asked whether recreational use of cocaine impacts early attentional selection processes. Cocaine-free polydrug controls (n = 18 and cocaine polydrug users (n = 18 were matched on sex, age, alcohol consumption, and IQ (using the Raven's progressive matrices, and were tested by using the Global-Local task to measure the scope of attention. Cocaine polydrug users attended significantly more to local aspects of attended events, which fits with the idea that a reduced scope of attention may be associated with the perpetuation of the use of the drug.

  12. Visibility, accessibility and quality of Italian public health institutional websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Chiadò Piat

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Since the large volume of health information available on the Web has the potential to improve health, Public Health institutions must represent a strong Internet presence with accessible and scientific information. The aims of the study were to verify the presence and visibility of Italian Institutions on the Web and to evaluate the accessibility and quality of the information provided.

    Methods: In a focus group setting, 21 keywords were generated, and launched in search-engines Google and MSN. Researchers noted the first 30 results found and determined the position of institutional websites. The accessibility of 303 Public Health websites was assessed in relation to the logo presence and web validation of XHTML, CSS and WAI indicators. Regarding the quality of information, the presence of the HONcode logo in the websites’ homepage was checked.

    Results: A high percentage of the keywords selected did not lead to any institutional website in the first three pages of Google (19.0% and MSN (42.8%. Few institutional websites presented the logo indicator and a full web validation. Considering the XHTML indicator, only for 34.0% of the websites there was concordance between the logo presence/absence and results of direct validation, 50.2% for CSS. The quality level seemed to be extremely low.

    Conclusions:In order to achieve a larger visibility and guarantee accessibility, Public Health websites have to be correctly designed, edited and maintained. Common and strict European laws about health information on the Web have to be arranged, deeply monitored and carefully adjourned in order to guarantee and support the positive role of institutional websites.

  13. Groundwater and climate change research scoping study

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, C.R.; Cheetham, M.; Guha, P.

    2006-01-01

    This scoping study has reviewed much of the published literature in the field of climate change and groundwater research. Whilst it is not exhaustive with regard to groundwater quality issues, most of the published literature relating to climate change and groundwater resources, particularly in the UK, is covered. Further work is required to identify current research needs relating to the effects of climate change on groundwater quality. The study of the effects of climate chan...

  14. Determining the Scope of English Quantifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-06-01

    is attached to a light blue node. As the anaphora becomes more abbreviated, the pragmatic relation between the two nps becomes less explicit and the...Meaning Representation Natural Lanquacje Understanding Semantic Rules Quantifier Scope Anaphora Rules Semantic Interpretation 20 WXn&CT (Continue on...linguistic phenomena. For example, the rules that constrain the translation into Skolem form are shown to constrain definite np anaphora as well. A large body

  15. 46 CFR 164.012-5 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... “Interior Finish” means any coating, overlay, or veneer except standard paint which is applied for decorative or other purpose. It includes not only the visible finish, but all material used in its...) With the exception of nitrocellulose or other highly inflammable or noxious fume-producing paints or...

  16. Visibility graph analysis on heartbeat dynamics of meditation training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Sen; Bian, Chunhua; Ning, Xinbao; Ma, Qianli D. Y.

    2013-06-01

    We apply the visibility graph analysis to human heartbeat dynamics by constructing the complex networks of heartbeat interval time series and investigating the statistical properties of the network before and during chi and yoga meditation. The experiment results show that visibility graph analysis can reveal the dynamical changes caused by meditation training manifested as regular heartbeat, which is closely related to the adjustment of autonomous neural system, and visibility graph analysis is effective to evaluate the effect of meditation.

  17. Lethal effects of short-wavelength visible light on insects

    OpenAIRE

    Hori, Masatoshi; Shibuya, Kazuki; Sato, Mitsunari; Saito, Yoshino

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the lethal effects of visible light on insects by using light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The toxic effects of ultraviolet (UV) light, particularly shortwave (i.e., UVB and UVC) light, on organisms are well known. However, the effects of irradiation with visible light remain unclear, although shorter wavelengths are known to be more lethal. Irradiation with visible light is not thought to cause mortality in complex animals including insects. Here, however, we found that irradiatio...

  18. Biomechanics of fencing sport: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tony Lin-Wei; Wong, Duo Wai-Chi; Wang, Yan; Ren, Sicong; Yan, Fei; Zhang, Ming

    2017-01-01

    The aim of our scoping review was to identify and summarize current evidence on the biomechanics of fencing to inform athlete development and injury prevention. Scoping review. Peer-reviewed research was identified from electronic databases using a structured keyword search. Details regarding experimental design, study group characteristics and measured outcomes were extracted from retrieved studies, summarized and information regrouped under themes for analysis. The methodological quality of the evidence was evaluated. Thirty-seven peer-reviewed studies were retrieved, the majority being observational studies conducted with experienced and elite athletes. The methodological quality of the evidence was "fair" due to the limited scope of research. Male fencers were the prevalent group studied, with the lunge and use of a foil weapon being the principal movement evaluated. Motion capture and pedabarography were the most frequently used data collection techniques. Elite fencers exhibited sequential coordination of upper and lower limb movements with coherent patterns of muscle activation, compared to novice fencers. These elite features of neuromuscular coordination resulted in higher magnitudes of forward linear velocity of the body center of mass and weapon. Training should focus on explosive power. Sex- and equipment-specific effects could not be evaluated based on available research.

  19. Nursing Minimum Data Sets for documenting nutritional care for adults in primary healthcare: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkonsen, Sasja Jul; Pedersen, Preben Ulrich; Bjerrum, Merete; Bygholm, Ann; Peters, Micah D J

    2018-01-01

    To identify all published nutritional screening instruments that have been validated in the adult population in primary healthcare settings and to report on their psychometric validity. Within health care, there is an urgent need for the systematic collection of nursing care data in order to make visible what nurses do and to facilitate comparison, quality assurance, management, research and funding of nursing care. To be effective, nursing records should accurately and comprehensively document all required information to support safe and high quality care of patients. However, this process of documentation has been criticized from many perspectives as being highly inadequate. A Nursing Minimum Data Set within the nutritional area in primary health care could therefore be beneficial in order to support nurses in their daily documentation and observation of patients. The review considered studies that included adults aged over 18 years of any gender, culture, diagnosis and ethnicity, as well as nutritional experts, patients and their relatives. The concepts of interest were: the nature and content of any nutritional screening tools validated (regardless of the type of validation) in the adult population in primary healthcare; and the views and opinions of eligible participants regarding the appropriateness of nutritional assessment were the concept of interest. Studies included must have been conducted in primary healthcare settings, both within home care and nursing home facilities. This scoping review used a two-step approach as a preliminary step to the subsequent development of a Nursing Minimum Data Set within the nutritional area in primary healthcare: i) a systematic literature search of existing nutritional screening tools validated in primary health care; and ii) a systematic literature search on nutritional experts opinions on the assessment of nutritional nursing care of adults in primary healthcare as well as the views of patients and their relatives

  20. Infrared and visible fusion face recognition based on NSCT domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhihua; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Guodong; Xiong, Jinquan

    2018-01-01

    Visible face recognition systems, being vulnerable to illumination, expression, and pose, can not achieve robust performance in unconstrained situations. Meanwhile, near infrared face images, being light- independent, can avoid or limit the drawbacks of face recognition in visible light, but its main challenges are low resolution and signal noise ratio (SNR). Therefore, near infrared and visible fusion face recognition has become an important direction in the field of unconstrained face recognition research. In this paper, a novel fusion algorithm in non-subsampled contourlet transform (NSCT) domain is proposed for Infrared and visible face fusion recognition. Firstly, NSCT is used respectively to process the infrared and visible face images, which exploits the image information at multiple scales, orientations, and frequency bands. Then, to exploit the effective discriminant feature and balance the power of high-low frequency band of NSCT coefficients, the local Gabor binary pattern (LGBP) and Local Binary Pattern (LBP) are applied respectively in different frequency parts to obtain the robust representation of infrared and visible face images. Finally, the score-level fusion is used to fuse the all the features for final classification. The visible and near infrared face recognition is tested on HITSZ Lab2 visible and near infrared face database. Experiments results show that the proposed method extracts the complementary features of near-infrared and visible-light images and improves the robustness of unconstrained face recognition.

  1. Cluster policy and regional development: scale, scope and renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Njøs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Consistent with Marshallian/Porterian theories, the Norwegian cluster policy has been linked to the development of specialized regional industry environments. Cluster projects are relatively sector-specific entities often supporting (already strong regional industries and sectors. Following a review of the current literature on clusters and innovation, and informed by evolutionary thought, we argue that such constellations of specialized clusters may hamper the long-term innovation ability of regions. In a conceptual discussion of cluster evolution and its links to innovation and regional path renewal, we argue that special emphasis – both theoretical and political – has been placed on the geographical scale of clusters, but there has been less emphasis on scope. Accordingly, we present three theory-based strategies for cluster evolution and link these to regional development and innovation by assessing their impact on regional path renewal. We illustrate our argument empirically using examples from the Norwegian Centre of Expertise (NCE cluster programme.

  2. Determinants of Unlawful File Sharing: A Scoping Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Steven James; Zizzo, Daniel John; Fleming, Piers

    2015-01-01

    We employ a scoping review methodology to consider and assess the existing evidence on the determinants of unlawful file sharing (UFS) transparently and systematically. Based on the evidence, we build a simple conceptual framework to model the psychological decision to engage in UFS, purchase legally or do nothing. We identify social, moral, experiential, technical, legal and financial utility sources of the decision to purchase or to file share. They interact in complex ways. We consider the strength of evidence within these areas and note patterns of results. There is good evidence for influences on UFS within each of the identified determinants, particularly for self-reported measures, with more behavioral research needed. There are also indications that the reasons for UFS differ across media; more studies exploring media other than music are required. PMID:26030384

  3. Determinants of unlawful file sharing: a scoping review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven James Watson

    Full Text Available We employ a scoping review methodology to consider and assess the existing evidence on the determinants of unlawful file sharing (UFS transparently and systematically. Based on the evidence, we build a simple conceptual framework to model the psychological decision to engage in UFS, purchase legally or do nothing. We identify social, moral, experiential, technical, legal and financial utility sources of the decision to purchase or to file share. They interact in complex ways. We consider the strength of evidence within these areas and note patterns of results. There is good evidence for influences on UFS within each of the identified determinants, particularly for self-reported measures, with more behavioral research needed. There are also indications that the reasons for UFS differ across media; more studies exploring media other than music are required.

  4. Determinants of unlawful file sharing: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Steven James; Zizzo, Daniel John; Fleming, Piers

    2015-01-01

    We employ a scoping review methodology to consider and assess the existing evidence on the determinants of unlawful file sharing (UFS) transparently and systematically. Based on the evidence, we build a simple conceptual framework to model the psychological decision to engage in UFS, purchase legally or do nothing. We identify social, moral, experiential, technical, legal and financial utility sources of the decision to purchase or to file share. They interact in complex ways. We consider the strength of evidence within these areas and note patterns of results. There is good evidence for influences on UFS within each of the identified determinants, particularly for self-reported measures, with more behavioral research needed. There are also indications that the reasons for UFS differ across media; more studies exploring media other than music are required.

  5. Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.S. Mohamed

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion, salinity and sodicity hazards are serious problems in the northern west coast of Egypt and lead to reducing the soil quality and increasing the degradation of soil resources. Sidi Barrani and Al-Sallum regions are selected as study areas which are located from a longitude of 25°10′00″ to 26°55′00″East and from a latitude of 31°00′0″ to 31°37′30″ North. Erosion hazard was estimated using the ‘Universal Soil Loss Equation’ (USLE, which is a simple empirical model that is widely used for assessing long-term annual soil loss .The salinity and sodicity hazards were estimated based on FAO method as standard reference. The resultant map of annual soil erosion shows a maximum soil loss of 60 t h−1 y−1 with a close relation to foot slopes and wide units on the steep side-slopes (with high LS value and the erodibility value reached to 0.1 t h−1 y−1. Meanwhile sand beaches and sabkha units are characterized by high environmental hazards of both water erosion, salinity and sodicity, while in the overflow basin units are identified as low environmental hazards. The spatial environmental hazards assessment is conducted by using integrated GIS and RS which can serve as effective inputs in deriving strategies for sustainable land use planning and management.

  6. Invisible Hyperbolic Metamaterial Nanotube at Visible Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Ho; No, You-Shin; Chang, Sehwan; Choi, Jae-Hyuck; Park, Hong-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Subwavelength-scale metal and dielectric nanostructures have served as important building blocks for electromagnetic metamaterials, providing unprecedented opportunities for manipulating the optical response of the matter. Recently, hyperbolic metamaterials have been drawing particular interest because of their unusual optical properties and functionalities, such as negative refraction and hyperlensing of light. Here, as a promising application of a hyperbolic metamaterial at visible frequency, we propose an invisible nanotube that consists of metal and dielectric alternating thin layers. The theoretical study of the light scattering of the layered nanotube reveals that almost-zero scattering can be achieved at a specific wavelength when the transverse-electric- or transverse-magnetic-polarized light is incident to the nanotube. In addition, the layered nanotube can be described as a radial-anisotropic hyperbolic metamaterial nanotube. The low scattering occurs when the effective permittivity of the hyperbolic nanotube in the angular direction is near zero, and thus the invisibility of the layered nanotube can be efficiently obtained by analyzing the equivalent hyperbolic nanotube. Our new method to design and tune an invisible nanostructure represents a significant step toward the practical implementation of unique nanophotonic devices such as invisible photodetectors and low-scattering near-field optical microscopes. PMID:26522815

  7. Catadioptric lenses in Visible Light Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Marquez, J.; Valencia, J. C.; Perez, H.; Topsu, S.

    2015-04-01

    Since few years ago, visible light communications (VLC) have experience an accelerated interest from a research point of view. The beginning of this decade has seen many improvements in VLC at an electronic level. High rates of transmission at low bit error ratios (BER) have been reported. A few numbers of start-ups have initiated activities to offer a variety of applications ranging from indoor geo-localization to internet, but in spite of these advancements, some other problems arise. Long-range transmissions mean a high BER which reduce the number of applications. In this sense, new redesigned optical collectors or in some cases, optical reflectors must be considered to ensure a low BER at higher distance transmissions. Here we also expose a preliminary design of a catadioptric and monolithical lens for a LI-FI receiver with two rotationally symmetrical main piecewise surfaces za and zb. These surfaces are represented in a system of cylindrical coordinates with an anterior surface za with a central and refractive sector surrounded by a peripheral reflective sector and a back piecewise surface zb with a central refractive sector and a reflective sector, both characterized as ideal for capturing light within large acceptance angles.

  8. [Anatomical visibility of the meridian information channels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xi-lang

    2008-12-01

    The "structure imperfectness of signal channel rule" put forward by the author of the present paper may provide a theoretical evidence for the systematicness of meridian information channel. The conclusion that no special structure of the meridian-collateral system has been found is likely to serve as a piece of counterevidence. According to the latest structural view, the development of capillaries, lymphatic vessels and nerves needs target cells-released inducible factors. In the initial phase of the development of the organism, the asymmetry of the interspaces among cells results in the production and arrangement imbalance of the sequential factors which make the capillaries, lymphatic vessels and nerves distribute sequentially in time and space. Meridian-collateral, following the "systemic statistic distribution rule", is a general expression of this distribution pattern. As a systematic structure, the meridian-collateral system distributes in an optimized way in the human body and has both orderly and compatible characteristics. The author thinks that the meridian-collateral information channel is anatomically visible in the time and spatial structure, and in its logical structure and compatibility during the process of growth. Hence, many techniques of delicate anatomy, quantitative anatomy, growth anatomy, comparative anatomy, tridimensional remodeling of living creature and dynamical remodeling of growth all should be used as the important tools for studying the meridian information channel. The theory and the anatomical techniques determine what you would finally find.

  9. A proposed visible FEL Facility at Boeing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowell, D.H.; Adamski, J.L.; Hayward, T.D. [Boeing Defense & Space Group, Seattle, WA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    A 1-kW average power, visible wavelength FEL is described, based on a 120-MeV, 0.1. A macropulse average current linac operating at a duty factor of 0. 6% and having average beam power of 70 kW. The accelerator will employ a demonstrated photoinjector, 18-MeV, 433-MHz linac as an injector, followed by a 1300-MHz longitudinal phase space {open_quotes} linearizer,{close_quotes} a magnetic buncher chicane, and seven 1300-MHz, pulsed traveling wave linac sections. The magnets used to transport the beam from the linac to the FEL centerline, the 5-m THUNDER wiggler, and the optical resonator will be reclaimed from previous FEL demonstration experiments. We expect to attain pulse lengths of 7 ps for 3.5 nC, with minimal distortion of the pulse profile and normalized rms emittance of 7.5 {+-} 2.5 {pi} mm-mr. FELEX projects a laser conversion efficiency of 4.3 %, yielding average output of 3 kW.

  10. Influenza forecasting in human populations: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chretien, Jean-Paul; George, Dylan; Shaman, Jeffrey; Chitale, Rohit A; McKenzie, F Ellis

    2014-01-01

    Forecasts of influenza activity in human populations could help guide key preparedness tasks. We conducted a scoping review to characterize these methodological approaches and identify research gaps. Adapting the PRISMA methodology for systematic reviews, we searched PubMed, CINAHL, Project Euclid, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for publications in English since January 1, 2000 using the terms "influenza AND (forecast* OR predict*)", excluding studies that did not validate forecasts against independent data or incorporate influenza-related surveillance data from the season or pandemic for which the forecasts were applied. We included 35 publications describing population-based (N = 27), medical facility-based (N = 4), and regional or global pandemic spread (N = 4) forecasts. They included areas of North America (N = 15), Europe (N = 14), and/or Asia-Pacific region (N = 4), or had global scope (N = 3). Forecasting models were statistical (N = 18) or epidemiological (N = 17). Five studies used data assimilation methods to update forecasts with new surveillance data. Models used virological (N = 14), syndromic (N = 13), meteorological (N = 6), internet search query (N = 4), and/or other surveillance data as inputs. Forecasting outcomes and validation metrics varied widely. Two studies compared distinct modeling approaches using common data, 2 assessed model calibration, and 1 systematically incorporated expert input. Of the 17 studies using epidemiological models, 8 included sensitivity analysis. This review suggests need for use of good practices in influenza forecasting (e.g., sensitivity analysis); direct comparisons of diverse approaches; assessment of model calibration; integration of subjective expert input; operational research in pilot, real-world applications; and improved mutual understanding among modelers and public health officials.

  11. Influenza Forecasting in Human Populations: A Scoping Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chretien, Jean-Paul; George, Dylan; Shaman, Jeffrey; Chitale, Rohit A.; McKenzie, F. Ellis

    2014-01-01

    Forecasts of influenza activity in human populations could help guide key preparedness tasks. We conducted a scoping review to characterize these methodological approaches and identify research gaps. Adapting the PRISMA methodology for systematic reviews, we searched PubMed, CINAHL, Project Euclid, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for publications in English since January 1, 2000 using the terms “influenza AND (forecast* OR predict*)”, excluding studies that did not validate forecasts against independent data or incorporate influenza-related surveillance data from the season or pandemic for which the forecasts were applied. We included 35 publications describing population-based (N = 27), medical facility-based (N = 4), and regional or global pandemic spread (N = 4) forecasts. They included areas of North America (N = 15), Europe (N = 14), and/or Asia-Pacific region (N = 4), or had global scope (N = 3). Forecasting models were statistical (N = 18) or epidemiological (N = 17). Five studies used data assimilation methods to update forecasts with new surveillance data. Models used virological (N = 14), syndromic (N = 13), meteorological (N = 6), internet search query (N = 4), and/or other surveillance data as inputs. Forecasting outcomes and validation metrics varied widely. Two studies compared distinct modeling approaches using common data, 2 assessed model calibration, and 1 systematically incorporated expert input. Of the 17 studies using epidemiological models, 8 included sensitivity analysis. This review suggests need for use of good practices in influenza forecasting (e.g., sensitivity analysis); direct comparisons of diverse approaches; assessment of model calibration; integration of subjective expert input; operational research in pilot, real-world applications; and improved mutual understanding among modelers and public health officials. PMID:24714027

  12. Classroom Assessment in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shermis, Mark D.; DiVesta, Francis J.

    2011-01-01

    "Classroom Assessment in Action" clarifies the multi-faceted roles of measurement and assessment and their applications in a classroom setting. Comprehensive in scope, Shermis and Di Vesta explain basic measurement concepts and show students how to interpret the results of standardized tests. From these basic concepts, the authors then…

  13. High power diode lasers converted to the visible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Hansen, Anders Kragh; Andersen, Peter E.

    2017-01-01

    High power diode lasers have in recent years become available in many wavelength regions. However, some spectral regions are not well covered. In particular, the visible spectral range is lacking high power diode lasers with good spatial quality. In this paper, we highlight some of our recent...... results in nonlinear frequency conversion of high power near infrared diode lasers to the visible spectral region....

  14. Creating Collection Visibility for School Library Media Centres in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on the importance of creating collection visibility through the use of freely available softwares such as the CDS/ISIS for windows and The Library'Ihing as a strategy for the development of school library media centres in Nigeria. It discusses the benefits of having a visible collection among which is easy ...

  15. Prediction of Fog/Visibility over India using NWP Model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    54

    visibility range 200-500 m) at Amritsar (Fig. 1b). The criteria for classification of fog in different categories based on observed visibility is given in Table 1. The categories are based on International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) definition. Day-1.

  16. Combinatorial Properties and Recognition of Unit Square Visibility Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casel, Katrin; Fernau, Henning; Grigoriev, Alexander; Schmid, Markus L.; Whitesides, Sue; Larsen, Kim G.; Bodlaender, Hans L.; Raskin, Jean-Francois

    2017-01-01

    Unit square (grid) visibility graphs (USV and USGV, resp.) are described by axis-parallel visibility between unit squares placed (on integer grid coordinates) in the plane. We investigate combinatorial properties of these graph classes and the hardness of variants of the recognition problem, i. e.,

  17. Needle Tip Visibility in 3D Ultrasound Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Arif (Muhammad); A. Moelker (Adriaan); T.W. van Walsum (Theo)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractAim: Needle visibility is crucial for effective and safe ultrasound-guided interventional procedures. Several studies have investigated needle visibility in 2D ultrasound imaging, but less information is available for 3D ultrasound imaging, a modality that has great potential for image

  18. Visibility of University of Zululand and Moi University Researchers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reflects on the representation of the University of Zululand (UNIZULU) and Moi University (MU)'s research publications in WoS (Web of Science) and Scopus between 2003 and 2013 as an indicator of active research engagement, quality, and international visibility. Research quality, visibility and collaboration ...

  19. Enhancing research visibility of academics: the role of academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite so many researches stemming from most African academic institutions, not many are visible. This may be attributed to low quality of research works and lack of subscription fees. This article offers suggestions on libraries' role in promoting the quality of research in order to increase its visibility. It also offers a brief on ...

  20. Visible Light Communication Physical Layer Design for Jist Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaš Boris

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Current advances in computer networking consider using visible light spectrum to encode and decode digital data. This approach is relatively non expensive. However, designing appropriate MAC or any other upper layer protocol for Visible Light Communication (VLC requires appropriate hardware. This paper proposes and implements such hardware simulation (physical layer that is compatible with existing network stack.

  1. Utilization of Large Scale Surface Models for Detailed Visibility Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caha, J.; Kačmařík, M.

    2017-11-01

    This article demonstrates utilization of large scale surface models with small spatial resolution and high accuracy, acquired from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle scanning, for visibility analyses. The importance of large scale data for visibility analyses on the local scale, where the detail of the surface model is the most defining factor, is described. The focus is not only the classic Boolean visibility, that is usually determined within GIS, but also on so called extended viewsheds that aims to provide more information about visibility. The case study with examples of visibility analyses was performed on river Opava, near the Ostrava city (Czech Republic). The multiple Boolean viewshed analysis and global horizon viewshed were calculated to determine most prominent features and visibility barriers of the surface. Besides that, the extended viewshed showing angle difference above the local horizon, which describes angular height of the target area above the barrier, is shown. The case study proved that large scale models are appropriate data source for visibility analyses on local level. The discussion summarizes possible future applications and further development directions of visibility analyses.

  2. Lethal effects of short-wavelength visible light on insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Masatoshi; Shibuya, Kazuki; Sato, Mitsunari; Saito, Yoshino

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the lethal effects of visible light on insects by using light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The toxic effects of ultraviolet (UV) light, particularly shortwave (i.e., UVB and UVC) light, on organisms are well known. However, the effects of irradiation with visible light remain unclear, although shorter wavelengths are known to be more lethal. Irradiation with visible light is not thought to cause mortality in complex animals including insects. Here, however, we found that irradiation with short-wavelength visible (blue) light killed eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults of Drosophila melanogaster. Blue light was also lethal to mosquitoes and flour beetles, but the effective wavelength at which mortality occurred differed among the insect species. Our findings suggest that highly toxic wavelengths of visible light are species-specific in insects, and that shorter wavelengths are not always more toxic. For some animals, such as insects, blue light is more harmful than UV light.

  3. Fuzzy decision analysis for project scope change management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Shirazi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available It is very important to manage and control projects with the consideration of the triple constraints; namely time, cost and scope. It is also extremely important to manage the scope and all the procurements needed to complete any project. During the project’s lifecycle many changes take place, either positively or negatively, which should be controlled. If the changes are not controlled we may have scope creep that has negative effect on the project. It is commonly considered a negative incident, and thus, should be kept away from the project. By considering this concept, in this paper, we discuss scope change and managing scope and fuzzy analytical hierarchy process is used in selecting the best strategy to manage scope change in projects.

  4. Revising the Complex Economics of Patent Scope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    Merges and Nelson claim to have provided an empirically grounded argument that pioneer patents of 'broad' scope are used to block technological development. It is widely understood in both law and economics that they have, as they claim, faulted Kitch's 'prospect theory' of patents, a theory...... of the patented technology), when adequate historical context is included in the analysis, the common problem is revealed to be that the patents at issue were not administered, for example by courts or the US Patent Office, to maintain their prospect function i.e, their ability to enable the coordination...

  5. Family Medicine Department Chairs' Opinions Regarding Scope of Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Lars E; Blackburn, Brenna; Phillips, Robert L; Mainous, Arch G

    2015-12-01

    Family physicians are trained broadly to provide the majority of health care across multiple settings; however, their scope of practice has narrowed. Department chairs' role modeling of a broad scope of practice may set the tone for faculty and trainees. In 2013, the authors surveyed family medicine department chairs about their scope of practice, personal and department characteristics, and attitudes and beliefs about scope of practice and role modeling. They used descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses to test for associations between scope of practice, personal and department characteristics, and attitudes and beliefs. They created a Scope of Practice Index by summing the number of services each respondent provided to compare scope of practice across chairs. Of 146 chairs, 88 responded (60.3% response rate); 85 were included in the final analysis. Sixty-five (77.4%) respondents were male; 73 (86.9%) were 51 years or older. Respondents spent a mean of 19.7% of their time in direct patient care and had a mean Scope of Practice Index of 11.9. Fifty-three (62.4%) disagreed that the scope of practice of family medicine was too broad for practicing physicians to keep up in all areas, and 56 (65.9%) believed that faculty should role model the full scope of practice to learners. Responses generally did not vary by respondents' personal scope of practice. Family medicine department chairs believe that role modeling a broad scope of practice increases students' interest in family medicine and encourages residency graduates to provide a wide range of services.

  6. Hardware Support for Safety-critical Java Scope Checks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rios Rivas, Juan Ricardo; Schoeberl, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Memory management in Safety-Critical Java (SCJ) is based on time bounded, non garbage collected scoped memory regions used to store temporary objects. Scoped memory regions may have different life times during the execution of a program and hence, to avoid leaving dangling pointers, it is necessary...... in terms of execution time for applications where cross-scope references are frequent. Our proposal was implemented and tested on the Java Optimized Processor (JOP)....

  7. Rural Curricular Guidelines Based on Practice Scope of Recent Residency Graduates Practicing in Small Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skariah, Joe M; Rasmussen, Carl; Hollander-Rodriguez, Joyce; Carney, Patricia A; Dexter, Eve; Waller, Elaine; Eiff, M Patrice

    2017-09-01

    The optimal curriculum for training family physicians for rural practice within a traditional urban-based residency is not defined. We used the scope of practice among recent family medicine graduates of residencies associated with Preparing the Personal Physician for Practice (P4), practicing in small communities, to identify rural curriculum components. We surveyed graduates 18 months after residency between 2007 and 2014. The survey measured self-reported practice characteristics, including community size, and scope of practice. We compared the subgroups according to practice community size. Compared to graduates in larger communities, those practicing in small communities were more likely to report a broader scope of clinical practice including: adult hospital care (59% vs 35%), vaginal deliveries (23% vs 12%), C sections as primary surgeon (14% vs 5%) and assistant (21% vs 8%), newborn hospital care (45% vs 24%), and procedures such as endometrial biopsy (46% vs 33%), joint injections and aspirations (89% vs 79%), and fracture care (58% vs 42%). Graduates in small communities were also more often engaged in assessing community health needs (78% vs 64%) and developing community interventions (67% vs 51%) compared to graduates in larger communities. In contrast, graduates in small communities were less likely to have integrated behavioral health (26% vs 46%) and case management support (37% vs 52%). A rural practice curriculum should include training toward a broad medical scope of practice as well as skills in community-oriented primary care and integrated behavioral health.

  8. Alcohol consumption, smoking and development of visible age-related signs: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou, Anne L; Mølbak, Marie-Louise; Schnor, Peter; Grønbæk, Morten; Tolstrup, Janne S

    2017-12-01

    Visible age-related signs indicate biological age, as individuals that appear old for their age are more likely to be at poor health, compared with people that appear their actual age. The aim of this study was to investigate whether alcohol and smoking are associated with four visible age-related signs (arcus corneae, xanthelasmata, earlobe crease and male pattern baldness). We used information from 11 613 individuals in the Copenhagen City Heart Study (1976-2003). Alcohol intake, smoking habits and other lifestyle factors were assessed prospectively and visible age-related signs were inspected during subsequent examinations. The risk of developing arcus corneae, earlobe crease and xanthelasmata increased stepwise with increased smoking as measured by pack-years. For alcohol consumption, a high intake was associated with the risk of developing arcus corneae and earlobe crease, but not xanthelasmata. High alcohol consumption and smoking predict development of visible age-related signs. This is the first prospective study to show that heavy alcohol use and smoking are associated with generally looking older than one's actual age. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Impacts of Fog Characteristics, Forward Illumination, and Warning Beacon Intensity Distribution on Roadway Hazard Visibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Bullough

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Warning beacons are critical for the safety of transportation, construction, and utility workers. These devices need to produce sufficient luminous intensity to be visible without creating glare to drivers. Published standards for the photometric performance of warning beacons do not address their performance in conditions of reduced visibility such as fog. Under such conditions light emitted in directions other than toward approaching drivers can create scattered light that makes workers and other hazards less visible. Simulations of visibility of hazards under varying conditions of fog density, forward vehicle lighting, warning beacon luminous intensity, and intensity distribution were performed to assess their impacts on visual performance by drivers. Each of these factors can influence the ability of drivers to detect and identify workers and hazards along the roadway in work zones. Based on the results, it would be reasonable to specify maximum limits on the luminous intensity of warning beacons in directions that are unlikely to be seen by drivers along the roadway, limits which are not included in published performance specifications.

  10. Can visible light impact litter decomposition under pollution of ZnO nanoparticles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jingjing; Zhang, Yuyan; Liu, Lina; Qv, Mingxiang; Lv, Yanna; Yin, Yifei; Zhou, Yinfei; Cui, Minghui; Zhu, Yanfeng; Zhang, Hongzhong

    2017-11-01

    ZnO nanoparticles is one of the most used materials in a wide range including antibacterial coating, electronic device, and personal care products. With the development of nanotechnology, ecotoxicology of ZnO nanoparticles has been received increasing attention. To assess the phototoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles in aquatic ecosystem, microcosm experiments were conducted on Populus nigra L. leaf litter decomposition under combined effect of ZnO nanoparticles and visible light radiation. Litter decomposition rate, pH value, extracellular enzyme activity, as well as the relative contributions of fungal community to litter decomposition were studied. Results showed that long-term exposure to ZnO nanoparticles and visible light led to a significant decrease in litter decomposition rate (0.26 m-1 vs 0.45 m-1), and visible light would increase the inhibitory effect (0.24 m-1), which caused significant decrease in pH value of litter cultures, fungal sporulation rate, as well as most extracellular enzyme activities. The phototoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles also showed impacts on fungal community composition, especially on the genus of Varicosporium, whose abundance was significantly and positively related to decomposition rate. In conclusion, our study provides the evidence for negatively effects of ZnO NPs photocatalysis on ecological process of litter decomposition and highlights the contribution of visible light radiation to nanoparticles toxicity in freshwater ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Psychological burden in adult neurofibromatosis type 1 patients: impact of disease visibility on body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granström, Sofia; Langenbruch, Anna; Augustin, Matthias; Mautner, Victor-Felix

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of disease visibility on psychological stress factors in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and to explore the body image of NF1 patients. 228 adult NF1 patients participated in this cross-sectional survey. The questionnaire assessed perceived disease visibility and patients' body image. Outcome parameters were depression, distress and quality of life. Mediation models were performed to test if body experience mediated the effect of disease visibility on outcome parameters. Adult NF1 patients had a negative body image, expressed by bodily insecurity/uneasiness and fewer feelings of attractiveness and self-confidence. Compared to the body image of patients with other disfiguring diseases, patients with NF1 felt less attractive, displayed less self-confidence (women: p bodies (men: p stress was completely mediated by how patients experienced their bodies. Our study shed light on the importance of how NF1 patients experience and appraise their own bodies. We revealed that body image is an important link between disease visibility and psychological well-being. The body image of patients can be improved with psychotherapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Visible Facebook profiles and e-professionalism in undergraduate medical students in India

    OpenAIRE

    Setu Gupta; Satendra Singh; Upreet Dhaliwal

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to assess medical students’ presence on Facebook and the extent of their visible activity, with particular reference to online professionalism. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study including all medical students enrolled in the University College of Medical Sciences, University of Delhi, India during the period of the study, which was conducted from 2011 to 2012. After approval by the Institutional Ethical Committee, the full names of all students were obtained ...

  13. EarthScope Education and Outreach: Accomplishments and Emerging Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, S.; Ellins, K. K.; Semken, S. C.; Arrowsmith, R.

    2014-12-01

    EarthScope's Education and Outreach (E&O) program aims to increase public awareness of Earth science and enhance geoscience education at the K-12 and college level. The program is distinctive among major geoscience programs in two ways. First, planning for education and public engagement occurred in tandem with planning for the science mission. Second, the NSF EarthScope program includes funding support for education and outreach. In this presentation, we highlight key examples of the program's accomplishments and identify emerging E&O opportunities. E&O efforts have been collaboratively led by the EarthScope National Office (ESNO), IRIS, UNAVCO, the EarthScope Education and Outreach Subcommittee (EEOSC) and PI-driven EarthScope projects. Efforts by the EEOSC, guided by an EarthScope Education and Outreach Implementation Plan that is periodically updated, focus EarthScope E&O. EarthScope demonstrated early success in engaging undergraduate students (and teachers) in its mission through their involvement in siting USArray across the contiguous U.S. Funded E&O programs such as TOTLE, Illinois EarthScope, CEETEP (for K-12), InTeGrate and GETSI (for undergraduates) foster use of freely available EarthScope data and research findings. The Next Generation Science Standards, which stress science and engineering practices, offer an opportunity for alignment with existing EarthScope K-12 educational resources, and the EEOSC recommends focusing efforts on this task. The EEOSC recognizes the rapidly growing use of mobile smart devices by the public and in formal classrooms, which bring new opportunities to connect with the public and students. This will capitalize on EarthScope's already prominent social media presence, an effort that developed to accomplish one of the primary goals of the EarthScope E&O Implementation Plan to "Create a high-profile public identity for EarthScope" and to "Promote science literacy and understanding of EarthScope among all audiences through

  14. 14 CFR 440.1 - Scope of part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY Financial Responsibility for Licensed and Permitted Activities § 440.1 Scope of part. This part establishes financial responsibility and allocation of risk...

  15. The Impact of Consumer Knowledge Bias on Narrow-Scope Trust, Broad-Scope Trust, and Relationship Satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben; Grønholdt, Lars; Josiassen, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates how consumer knowledge bias - defined as knowledge over/underconfidence (O/U) - influences two types of trust (broad-scope trust and narrow-scope trust) and consumer relationship satisfaction. Based on a survey comprising 756 mutual fund investors, the contribution...... of this study to the marketing literature is twofold. First, taking a marketing relationship approach this study suggests and demonstrates that knowledge O/U positively influences relationship satisfaction and narrow-scope trust such that the more knowledge O/U a customer becomes, the higher/lower the level...... of relationship satisfaction and narrow-scope trust. Second, it is proposed and shown that broad-scope trust negatively moderates the relationship between knowledge O/U and relationship satisfaction such that knowledge O/U has a greater positive/negative effect on relationship satisfaction when broad-scope trust...

  16. Assistive technology in resource-limited environments: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matter, Rebecca; Harniss, Mark; Oderud, Tone; Borg, Johan; Eide, Arne H

    2017-02-01

    It is estimated that only 5-15% of people in low and middle income countries (LMICs) who need assistive technologies (AT) have access to them. This scoping review was conducted to provide a comprehensive picture of the current evidence base on AT within LMICs and other resource limited environments. The scoping review involved locating evidence, extracting data, and summarizing characteristics of all included research publications. Of the 252 publications included, over 80% focused on types of AT that address mobility (45.2%) and vision (35.5%) needs, with AT types of spectacles and prosthetics comprising over 50% of all publications. Evidence on AT that addresses hearing, communication, and cognition is the most underrepresented within the existing evidence base. The vast majority of study designs are observational (63%). Evidence on AT in resource-limited environments is limited in quantity and quality, and not evenly distributed across types of AT. To advance this field, we recommend using appropriate evidence review approaches that allow for heterogeneous study designs, and developing a common language by creating a typology of AT research focus areas. Funders and researchers must commit much greater resources to the AT field to ameliorate the paucity of evidence available. Implications for Rehabilitation An increase in the quality and quantity of research is required in resource limited environments, where 80% of the global population of people with disabilities reside. Improved and increased evidence is needed to identify and understand needs, inform policy and practice, and assess progress made in increasing access to and availability of appropriate AT. Over 80% of the existing research publications on assistive technologies in resource limited environments address mobility and vision. More research is needed on AT that address hearing, communication and cognition. The use of a common language would facilitate the advancement of the global AT research field

  17. Visibility of the mandibular canal on cross-sectional CBCT images at impacted mandibular third molar sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Alkhader

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess visibility of the mandibular canal (MC on cross-sectional cone beam CT (CBCT images at impacted mandibular third molar (IMTM sites. CBCT images for 150 IMTMs were selected for the study. The type of tooth impaction (horizontal, vertical, mesial and distal and location of the MC (inferior in contact and superimposed were evaluated on pseudo-panoramic images. Cross-sectional images were generated and two observers evaluated the location of the MC (buccal, lingual, inter-radicular and inferior and its visibility using 3-point scoring scale: (1–3, good–excellent. Kruskal–Wallis test was used to examine the differences in the visibility of the MC according to its location and the type of tooth impaction. The visibility scores of the MC were good, very good and excellent at 3, 25 and 122 IMTM sites, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in the visibility scores of the MC according to its location or the type of tooth impaction (P < 0.05. Therefore, despite the different locations of the MC and different types of tooth impaction at IMTM sites, the visibility of the MC was excellent on most of the cross-sectional CBCT images. CBCT is considered a valuable diagnostic tool for achieving these results.

  18. CMS Phase II Upgrade Scope Document

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, J; Klute, M; Mans, J; Silvestris, L; on behalf of the CMS, Collaboration; CERN. Geneva. The LHC experiments Committee; LHCC

    2015-01-01

    The High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) has been identified as the highest priority program in High Energy Physics by both the European Strategy Group and the US Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel. To fulfil the full potential of this program, which includes the study of the nature of the Higgs boson, the investigation of the properties of any newly discovered particles in the upcoming LHC runs, and the extension of the mass reach for further discoveries, an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1 will have to be accumulated by the end of the program. In preparation for operation at the HL-LHC , CMS has documented the necessary upgrades and their expected costs in a Technical Proposal submitted to the CERN LHC Committee (LHCC) in mid-2015. The material presented in the current “Scope Document” provides additional information to assist the LHCC and the CERN Resource Review Board (RRB) in their review of the CMS upgrade. The document commences with a summary of the process followed to develop the scope of t...

  19. Visible light Laue diffraction from woodpile photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüser, Björn; Staude, Isabelle; von Freymann, Georg; Wegener, Martin; Pietsch, Ullrich

    2012-10-01

    Bragg diffraction is often used as a tool to assess the structural quality of two-dimensional and three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals. However, direct conclusions from the Laue diagrams to the underlying crystals structure cannot be drawn, as multiple scattering due to the high index contrast takes place. Here we systematically study the scattering of visible light by 3D woodpile photonic crystals with varying internal refractive index contrast Δn, to determine the limits of the single (kinematic) scattering approach. We aim to describe the intensity distribution of diffracting Bragg peaks with analytic expressions similarly to x-ray scattering at electronic crystals. Measured scattering curves of selected Bragg reflections are classified in terms of Δn. We find that the kinematic approach describes the shape and intensity distribution of experimental scattering curves in acceptable accuracy as long as Δn<0.15. The transition between single and multiple scattering is observed for Δn≈0.16-0.25 before multiple scattering dominates for larger Δn. The classification of the scattering regimes is confirmed by simulations in terms of numerical solution of Maxwell's equations.

  20. On the Secrecy Capacity of MISO Visible Light Communication Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Arfaoui, Mohamed Amine

    2017-02-07

    We study the secrecy capacity of the multiple- input single-output (MISO) Gaussian wiretap visible light communication (VLC) channel. We study a typical VLC scenario with one transmitter, one legitimate receiver, and one eavesdropper. Specifically, we compute the achievable secrecy rate for various input signaling distributions, including the truncated generalized normal (TGN) and uniform distributions. The transmitter is equipped with multiple light sources, while the legitimate and unauthorized receivers are each equipped with a single photodetector. We analyze the achievable secrecy rates via transmit beamforming and artificial noise. In addition, both zero-forcing beamforming and robust beamforming are considered. In the former case, the location of the eavesdropper is assumed to be known, whereas in the latter case, the location of the eavesdropper is unknown. Our numerical results show that the secrecy rate achieved by the TGN distribution is significantly improved as compared to those achieved by the truncated Gaussian and uniform distributions, for both zero-forcing beamforming and robust beamforming. We also derive an upper bound on the achievable secrecy capacity that we used to assess the closeness of the achievable secrecy rates to the derived bound.

  1. Working practices and success of infection prevention and control teams: a scoping study

    OpenAIRE

    Hale, R; Powell, T; Drey, N.; Gould, D. J.

    2015-01-01

    Little research has been undertaken on how infection prevention and control (IPC) teams operate and how their effectiveness is assessed. This review aimed to explore how IPC teams embed IPC throughout hospitals, balance outbreak management with strategic aspects of IPC work (e.g. education), and how IPC team performance is measured. A scoping exercise was performed combining literature searches, evidence synthesis, and intelligence from expert advisers. Eleven publications were identified. On...

  2. The Development of Visible-Light Photoredox Catalysis in Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlets, Zachary J; Nguyen, John D; Stephenson, Corey R J

    2014-04-01

    Visible-light photoredox catalysis has recently emerged as a viable alternative for radical reactions otherwise carried out with tin and boron reagents. It has been recognized that by merging photoredox catalysis with flow chemistry, slow reaction times, lower yields, and safety concerns may be obviated. While flow reactors have been successfully applied to reactions carried out with UV light, only recent developments have demonstrated the same potential of flow reactors for the improvement of visible-light-mediated reactions. This review examines the initial and continuing development of visible-light-mediated photoredox flow chemistry by exemplifying the benefits of flow chemistry compared with conventional batch techniques.

  3. Website visibility the theory and practice of improving rankings

    CERN Document Server

    Weideman, Melius

    2009-01-01

    The quest to achieve high website rankings in search engine results is a prominent subject for both academics and website owners/coders. Website Visibility marries academic research results to the world of the information practitioner and contains a focused look at the elements which contribute to website visibility, providing support for the application of each element with relevant research. A series of real-world case studies with tested examples of research on website visibility elements and their effect on rankings are reviewed.Written by a well-respected academic and practitioner in the

  4. Visible-light-driven oxidation of primary C-H bonds over CdS with dual co-catalysts graphene and TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min-Quan; Zhang, Yanhui; Zhang, Nan; Tang, Zi-Rong; Xu, Yi-Jun

    2013-11-22

    Selective activation of primary C-H bonds for fine chemicals synthesis is of crucial importance for the sustainable exploitation of available feedstocks. Here, we report a viable strategy to synthesize ternary GR-CdS-TiO2 composites with an intimate spatial integration and sheet-like structure, which is afforded by assembling two co-catalysts, graphene and TiO2, into the semiconductor CdS matrix with specific morphology as a visible light harvester. The GR-CdS-TiO2 composites are able to serve as a highly selective visible-light-driven photocatalyst for oxidation of saturated primary C-H bonds using benign oxygen as oxidant under ambient conditions. This work demonstrates a wide, promising scope of adopting co-catalyst strategy to design more efficient semiconductor-based photocatalyst toward selective activation of C-H bonds using solar light and molecular oxygen.

  5. The activities of a dietitian-led gastroenterology clinic using extended scope of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Dominique; Pelly, Fiona; Purcell, Elizabeth

    2016-10-21

    Extending the scope of practice of allied health professionals has been a strategy adopted in the United Kingdom to address issues within the health system. Australia's health system is currently undermined by similar issues, heightening government interest in adopting the extended scope health care model. The aim of the current study was to describe the activities and outcomes of a dietitian-led gastroenterology clinic which operated under an extended scope of practice model in an outpatient gastroenterology department at a tertiary hospital in regional Queensland, Australia, and to assess patient satisfaction with the initiative. A descriptive, cross-sectional case series undertaken over 50 clinics involving 82 category 2 and 3 patients with suspected/confirmed coeliac disease or inflammatory bowel disease; low haemoglobin; gastroesophageal reflux disease, or; malnutrition. Data was analysed using Microsoft Excel 2010, and presented as descriptive statistics. Sixty out of 82 selected patients (median age 51 years) attended an initial appointment with the dietitian. Twenty-four review appointments were attended. Average waiting period for an initial appointment was 148 days (range 31-308 days). A total of 149 management strategies were provided, and 94 (63 %) of these involved the dietitian utilising extended scope of practice. The dietitian managed 47 (78 %) patients without need for gastroenterologist referral, and 25 (42 %) were discharged after dietetic management. Patients reported high levels of satisfaction with the clinic. Seventy-eight percent of category 2 and 3 patients referred to the gastroenterologist could be managed exclusively in the dietitian-led clinic. This extended scope model of care could potentially benefit the efficiency and acceptability of Australia's public health system.

  6. Economies of scale and scope in publicly funded biomedical and health research: evidence from the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Villafuerte, Karla; Sussex, Jon; Robin, Enora; Guthrie, Sue; Wooding, Steve

    2017-02-02

    Publicly funded biomedical and health research is expected to achieve the best return possible for taxpayers and for society generally. It is therefore important to know whether such research is more productive if concentrated into a small number of 'research groups' or dispersed across many. We undertook a systematic rapid evidence assessment focused on the research question: do economies of scale and scope exist in biomedical and health research? In other words, is that research more productive per unit of cost if more of it, or a wider variety of it, is done in one location? We reviewed English language literature without date restriction to the end of 2014. To help us to classify and understand that literature, we first undertook a review of econometric literature discussing models for analysing economies of scale and/or scope in research generally (not limited to biomedical and health research). We found a large and disparate literature. We reviewed 60 empirical studies of (dis-)economies of scale and/or scope in biomedical and health research, or in categories of research including or overlapping with biomedical and health research. This literature is varied in methods and findings. At the level of universities or research institutes, studies more often point to positive economies of scale than to diseconomies of scale or constant returns to scale in biomedical and health research. However, all three findings exist in the literature, along with inverse U-shaped relationships. At the level of individual research units, laboratories or projects, the numbers of studies are smaller and evidence is mixed. Concerning economies of scope, the literature more often suggests positive economies of scope than diseconomies, but the picture is again mixed. The effect of varying the scope of activities by a research group was less often reported than the effect of scale and the results were more mixed. The absence of predominant findings for or against the existence of

  7. 48 CFR 4.1300 - Scope of subpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope of subpart. 4.1300 Section 4.1300 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Personal Identity Verification 4.1300 Scope of subpart. This subpart provides policy and...

  8. 12 CFR 27.1 - Scope and OMB control number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SYSTEM § 27.1 Scope and OMB control number. (a) Scope. This part applies to the activities of national banks and their subsidiaries, which make home loans for the purpose of purchasing, construction... information requirements contained in this part were approved by the Office of Management and Budget under OMB...

  9. 48 CFR 4.500 - Scope of subpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope of subpart. 4.500 Section 4.500 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Electronic Commerce in Contracting 4.500 Scope of subpart. This subpart provides policy and procedures for the establishment and use of...

  10. 48 CFR 504.500 - Scope of subpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope of subpart. 504.500 Section 504.500 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Electronic Commerce in Contracting 504.500 Scope of subpart. This subpart provides policy and procedure for use of GSA's Electronic...

  11. 34 CFR 35.1 - Scope of regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope of regulations. 35.1 Section 35.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education TORT CLAIMS AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT General § 35.1 Scope... damage to or loss of property or personal injury or death caused by the negligent or wrongful act or...

  12. 29 CFR 99.500 - Scope of audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Scope of audit. 99.500 Section 99.500 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor AUDITS OF STATES, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, AND NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Auditors § 99.500 Scope of audit. (a) General. The audit shall be conducted in accordance with GAGAS. The audit shall cover...

  13. 29 CFR 96.51 - Purpose and scope of subpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Purpose and scope of subpart. 96.51 Section 96.51 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor AUDIT REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS, CONTRACTS, AND OTHER AGREEMENTS Audit Resolution § 96.51 Purpose and scope of subpart. This subpart prescribes standards for resolution of audit...

  14. 7 CFR 1773.38 - Scope of engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope of engagement. 1773.38 Section 1773.38 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... § 1773.38 Scope of engagement. (a) RUS requires that the audit procedures set forth in §§ 1773.39 through...

  15. 12 CFR 1410.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purpose and scope. 1410.1 Section 1410.1 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION PREMIUMS § 1410.1 Purpose and scope. This part sets forth the rules for: (a) The calculation of premiums; (b) The time for payment of the premium...

  16. 12 CFR 1403.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purpose and scope. 1403.1 Section 1403.1 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 1403.1 Purpose and scope. (a) This part is published by the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation pursuant to the...

  17. 50 CFR 300.300 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose and scope. 300.300 Section 300.300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Vessels on IUU Vessel Lists § 300.300 Purpose and scope. (a) This subpart implements internationally...

  18. 42 CFR 412.300 - Scope of subpart and definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope of subpart and definition. 412.300 Section 412.300 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... System for Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs General Provisions § 412.300 Scope of subpart and definition...

  19. 42 CFR 457.300 - Basis, scope, and applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis, scope, and applicability. 457.300 Section 457.300 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... State Plan Requirements: Eligibility, Screening, Applications, and Enrollment § 457.300 Basis, scope...

  20. 50 CFR 300.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose and scope. 300.1 Section 300.1 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS General § 300.1 Purpose and scope. The purpose of this part is to implement the fishery conservation and...

  1. 12 CFR 336.10 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purpose and scope. 336.10 Section 336.10 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY FDIC EMPLOYEES One-Year Restriction on Post-Employment Activities of Senior Examiners § 336.10 Purpose and scope...

  2. 12 CFR 336.2 - Authority, purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority, purpose and scope. 336.2 Section 336.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL... Corporation § 336.2 Authority, purpose and scope. (a) Authority. This part is adopted pursuant to section 12(f...

  3. 29 CFR 4245.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose and scope. 4245.1 Section 4245.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION INSOLVENCY, REORGANIZATION, TERMINATION, AND OTHER RULES APPLICABLE TO MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS NOTICE OF INSOLVENCY § 4245.1 Purpose and scope. (a...

  4. 10 CFR 2.1200 - Scope of subpart L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope of subpart L. 2.1200 Section 2.1200 Energy NUCLEAR... Hearing Procedures for NRC Adjudications § 2.1200 Scope of subpart L. The provisions of this subpart... and request the application of Subpart L procedures, and proceedings for the direct or indirect...

  5. 45 CFR 608.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose and scope. 608.1 Section 608.1 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CLAIMS COLLECTION AND ADMINISTRATIVE OFFSET § 608.1 Purpose and scope. (a) This part sets forth policies and procedures...

  6. 45 CFR 650.1 - Scope of part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope of part. 650.1 Section 650.1 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PATENTS § 650.1 Scope of part. This part contains the policies, procedures, and clauses that govern allocation of rights to inventions...

  7. Scope of Practice in Speech-Language Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Communication Disorders Quarterly, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This statement by a committee of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association defines the scope of practice in speech-language pathology. It covers purpose, a framework for practice, education and qualifications, scope of practice, professional roles and activities, and practice settings. (Contains references.) (DB)

  8. Internationalization of the Counseling Profession: Meaning, Scope and Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kok-Mun; Noonan, Brigid M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study sought to clarify the meaning and delineate the scope of internationalization of the counseling profession. Using a qualitative approach, the study recruited a panel of eight experts to help generate a consensus statement on the meaning of internationalization to the counseling profession and to delineate a five-theme scope of…

  9. 48 CFR 26.400 - Scope of subpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope of subpart. 26.400 Section 26.400 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS OTHER SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS Food Donations to Nonprofit Organizations 26.400 Scope of subpart. This section implements the Federal Food...

  10. 27 CFR 479.81 - Scope of tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope of tax. 479.81... OTHER FIREARMS Transfer Tax § 479.81 Scope of tax. Except as otherwise provided in this part, each transfer of a firearm in the United States is subject to a tax to be represented by an adhesive stamp of...

  11. 28 CFR 80.13 - Scope of FCPA Opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope of FCPA Opinion. 80.13 Section 80.13 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT OPINION PROCEDURE § 80.13 Scope of FCPA Opinion. An FCPA Opinion will state only the Attorney General's opinion as...

  12. 40 CFR 710.4 - Scope of the inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope of the inventory. 710.4 Section... ACT TSCA CHEMICAL INVENTORY REGULATIONS General Provisions § 710.4 Scope of the inventory. (a... is extracted from air by any means, will automatically be included in the inventory under the...

  13. 47 CFR 69.707 - Geographic scope of petition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) ACCESS CHARGES Pricing Flexibility § 69.707 Geographic scope of petition. (a) MSA. (1) A price cap LEC filing a petition for pricing flexibility in an MSA shall include data sufficient to support its petition... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Geographic scope of petition. 69.707 Section 69...

  14. 32 CFR 150.3 - Scope of review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... JUSTICE COURTS OF CRIMINAL APPEALS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE § 150.3 Scope of review. In cases referred to it for review pursuant to Article 66, the Court may act only with respect to the findings and... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope of review. 150.3 Section 150.3 National...

  15. The scope of business ethics | Rossouw | South African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to its multi-disciplinary nature, there are a variety of conceptions about the scope of Business Ethics as an academic field. Confusion about the scope of business ethics can impact detrimentally upon the further development of this field of study. The purpose of this article is to distinguish between various notions of the ...

  16. 36 CFR 230.20 - Scope and authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PRIVATE FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Urban and Community Forestry Assistance Program § 230.20 Scope and authority. The Urban and Community Forestry Assistance Program is authorized by Section 9 of the Cooperative Forestry Assistance Act of 1978, as amended (16 U.S.C. 2105). The scope of this authority includes the...

  17. 21 CFR 1306.01 - Scope of part 1306.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope of part 1306. 1306.01 Section 1306.01 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRESCRIPTIONS General Information § 1306.01 Scope of part 1306. Rules governing the issuance, filling and filing of prescriptions pursuant...

  18. 21 CFR 1304.01 - Scope of part 1304.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope of part 1304. 1304.01 Section 1304.01 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RECORDS AND REPORTS OF REGISTRANTS General Information § 1304.01 Scope of part 1304. Inventory and other records and reports required under...

  19. 21 CFR 1303.01 - Scope of part 1303.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope of part 1303. 1303.01 Section 1303.01 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE QUOTAS General Information § 1303.01 Scope of part 1303. Procedures governing the establishment of production and manufacturing quotas on...

  20. 21 CFR 1308.01 - Scope of part 1308.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope of part 1308. 1308.01 Section 1308.01 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES General Information § 1308.01 Scope of part 1308. Schedules of controlled substances established by...