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Sample records for virus pnrsv prune

  1. Analysis of intra-host genetic diversity of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) using amplicon next generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoti, Wycliff M; Constable, Fiona E; Nancarrow, Narelle; Plummer, Kim M; Rodoni, Brendan

    2017-01-01

    PCR amplicon next generation sequencing (NGS) analysis offers a broadly applicable and targeted approach to detect populations of both high- or low-frequency virus variants in one or more plant samples. In this study, amplicon NGS was used to explore the diversity of the tripartite genome virus, Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) from 53 PNRSV-infected trees using amplicons from conserved gene regions of each of PNRSV RNA1, RNA2 and RNA3. Sequencing of the amplicons from 53 PNRSV-infected trees revealed differing levels of polymorphism across the three different components of the PNRSV genome with a total number of 5040, 2083 and 5486 sequence variants observed for RNA1, RNA2 and RNA3 respectively. The RNA2 had the lowest diversity of sequences compared to RNA1 and RNA3, reflecting the lack of flexibility tolerated by the replicase gene that is encoded by this RNA component. Distinct PNRSV phylo-groups, consisting of closely related clusters of sequence variants, were observed in each of PNRSV RNA1, RNA2 and RNA3. Most plant samples had a single phylo-group for each RNA component. Haplotype network analysis showed that smaller clusters of PNRSV sequence variants were genetically connected to the largest sequence variant cluster within a phylo-group of each RNA component. Some plant samples had sequence variants occurring in multiple PNRSV phylo-groups in at least one of each RNA and these phylo-groups formed distinct clades that represent PNRSV genetic strains. Variants within the same phylo-group of each Prunus plant sample had ≥97% similarity and phylo-groups within a Prunus plant sample and between samples had less ≤97% similarity. Based on the analysis of diversity, a definition of a PNRSV genetic strain was proposed. The proposed definition was applied to determine the number of PNRSV genetic strains in each of the plant samples and the complexity in defining genetic strains in multipartite genome viruses was explored.

  2. Analysis of intra-host genetic diversity of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV using amplicon next generation sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wycliff M Kinoti

    Full Text Available PCR amplicon next generation sequencing (NGS analysis offers a broadly applicable and targeted approach to detect populations of both high- or low-frequency virus variants in one or more plant samples. In this study, amplicon NGS was used to explore the diversity of the tripartite genome virus, Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV from 53 PNRSV-infected trees using amplicons from conserved gene regions of each of PNRSV RNA1, RNA2 and RNA3. Sequencing of the amplicons from 53 PNRSV-infected trees revealed differing levels of polymorphism across the three different components of the PNRSV genome with a total number of 5040, 2083 and 5486 sequence variants observed for RNA1, RNA2 and RNA3 respectively. The RNA2 had the lowest diversity of sequences compared to RNA1 and RNA3, reflecting the lack of flexibility tolerated by the replicase gene that is encoded by this RNA component. Distinct PNRSV phylo-groups, consisting of closely related clusters of sequence variants, were observed in each of PNRSV RNA1, RNA2 and RNA3. Most plant samples had a single phylo-group for each RNA component. Haplotype network analysis showed that smaller clusters of PNRSV sequence variants were genetically connected to the largest sequence variant cluster within a phylo-group of each RNA component. Some plant samples had sequence variants occurring in multiple PNRSV phylo-groups in at least one of each RNA and these phylo-groups formed distinct clades that represent PNRSV genetic strains. Variants within the same phylo-group of each Prunus plant sample had ≥97% similarity and phylo-groups within a Prunus plant sample and between samples had less ≤97% similarity. Based on the analysis of diversity, a definition of a PNRSV genetic strain was proposed. The proposed definition was applied to determine the number of PNRSV genetic strains in each of the plant samples and the complexity in defining genetic strains in multipartite genome viruses was explored.

  3. Mutational analysis of the RNA-binding domain of the Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) movement protein reveals its requirement for cell-to-cell movement

    OpenAIRE

    Herranz, M. Carmen; Sánchez Navarro, Jesús A.; Saurí Peris, Ana; Mingarro Muñoz, Ismael; Pallás Benet, Vicente

    2005-01-01

    The movement protein (MP) of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) is required for cell-to-cell movement. MP subcellular localization studies using a GFP fusion protein revealed highly punctate structures between neighboring cells, believed to represent plasmodesmata. Deletion of the RNA-binding domain (RBD) of PNRSV MP abolishes the cell-to-cell movement. A mutational analysis on this RBD was performed in order to identify in vivo the features that govern viral transport. Loss of positive c...

  4. Comparison of ELISA and RT-PCR for the detection of Prunus necrotic ring spot virus and prune dwarf virus in almond (Prunus dulcis).

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    Mekuria, Genet; Ramesh, Sunita A; Alberts, Evita; Bertozzi, Terry; Wirthensohn, Michelle; Collins, Graham; Sedgley, Margaret

    2003-12-01

    A technique based on the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has been developed to detect the presence of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) and prune dwarf virus (PDV) simultaneously in almond. This paper presents the results of a 3-year study comparing both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and RT-PCR for the detection of PNRSV and PDV using 175 almond leaf samples. Multiplex RT-PCR was found to be more sensitive than ELISA, especially when followed by nested PCR for the detection of PDV. The RT-PCR technique has the added advantage that plant material can be tested at any time throughout the growing season.

  5. Studies on Parameters Influencing the Performance of Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR in Detecting Prunus Necrotic Ringpot Virus (PNRSV

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    M. Usta

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to have a more detailed understanding of the various factors influencing a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, a number of important parameters such as Mg+2, primer, enzyme concentration and others were optimized for the detection of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV. Using a PNRSV isolate with a pair of primers, complementary DNA of viral genome as template, and an appropriate enzyme together with magnesium chloride, the following optimal conditions were identified: primer concentration between 0.2 and 0.0002 pmol µl-1 and 0.06–2 units µl-1 for Taq DNA polymerase enzyme for a 50 µl reaction volume when other parameters were optimum; magnesium chloride concentration less than 2.5 mM; dNTP concentration between 1 and 10 mM. The optimum cDNA amount should be ~360 ng for a 50 µl reaction mixture. When these optimized concentrations and/or values of the main PCR parameters were brought together for a new RT-PCR, a clear and a reliable PNRSV detection having no background was performed from both growth-chamber and field-grown PNRSV-infected plants.

  6. Virus Diseases Infecting Almond Germplasm in Lebanon

    OpenAIRE

    Adeeb Saad; Yusuf Abou-Jawdah; Zahi Kanaan-Atallah

    2000-01-01

    Cultivated and wild almond species were surveyed for virus diseases. Four viruses infected cultivated almonds (Prunus dulcis): Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV), Prune dwarf virus (PDV), Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) and Apple mosaic virus (ApMV). Only ACLSV and ApMV were detected on wild almonds, (Prunus orientalis and P. korschinskii). The occurence of PNRSV or PDV on seeds used for the production of rootstocks, on seedlings in nurseries, and on mother plants reve...

  7. Mutational analysis of the RNA-binding domain of the Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) movement protein reveals its requirement for cell-to-cell movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmen Herranz, Ma; Sanchez-Navarro, Jesús-Angel; Saurí, Ana; Mingarro, Ismael; Pallás, Vicente

    2005-08-15

    The movement protein (MP) of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) is required for cell-to-cell movement. MP subcellular localization studies using a GFP fusion protein revealed highly punctate structures between neighboring cells, believed to represent plasmodesmata. Deletion of the RNA-binding domain (RBD) of PNRSV MP abolishes the cell-to-cell movement. A mutational analysis on this RBD was performed in order to identify in vivo the features that govern viral transport. Loss of positive charges prevented the cell-to-cell movement even though all mutants showed a similar accumulation level in protoplasts to those observed with the wild-type (wt) MP. Synthetic peptides representing the mutants and wild-type RBDs were used to study RNA-binding affinities by EMSA assays being approximately 20-fold lower in the mutants. Circular dichroism analyses revealed that the secondary structure of the peptides was not significantly affected by mutations. The involvement of the affinity changes between the viral RNA and the MP in the viral cell-to-cell movement is discussed.

  8. Mutational analysis of the RNA-binding domain of the Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) movement protein reveals its requirement for cell-to-cell movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmen Herranz, Ma; Sanchez-Navarro, Jesus-Angel; Sauri, Ana; Mingarro, Ismael; Pallas, Vicente

    2005-01-01

    The movement protein (MP) of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) is required for cell-to-cell movement. MP subcellular localization studies using a GFP fusion protein revealed highly punctate structures between neighboring cells, believed to represent plasmodesmata. Deletion of the RNA-binding domain (RBD) of PNRSV MP abolishes the cell-to-cell movement. A mutational analysis on this RBD was performed in order to identify in vivo the features that govern viral transport. Loss of positive charges prevented the cell-to-cell movement even though all mutants showed a similar accumulation level in protoplasts to those observed with the wild-type (wt) MP. Synthetic peptides representing the mutants and wild-type RBDs were used to study RNA-binding affinities by EMSA assays being approximately 20-fold lower in the mutants. Circular dichroism analyses revealed that the secondary structure of the peptides was not significantly affected by mutations. The involvement of the affinity changes between the viral RNA and the MP in the viral cell-to-cell movement is discussed

  9. Engineering cherry rootstocks with resistance to Prunus necrotic ring spot virus through RNAi-mediated silencing.

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    Song, Guo-qing; Sink, Kenneth C; Walworth, Aaron E; Cook, Meridith A; Allison, Richard F; Lang, Gregory A

    2013-08-01

    Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) is a major pollen-disseminated ilarvirus that adversely affects many Prunus species. In this study, an RNA interference (RNAi) vector pART27-PNRSV containing an inverted repeat (IR) region of PNRSV was transformed into two hybrid (triploid) cherry rootstocks, 'Gisela 6' (GI 148-1) and 'Gisela 7'(GI 148-8)', which are tolerant and sensitive, respectively, to PNRSV infection. One year after inoculation with PNRSV plus Prune Dwarf Virus, nontransgenic 'Gisela 6' exhibited no symptoms but a significant PNRSV titre, while the transgenic 'Gisela 6' had no symptoms and minimal PNRSV titre. The nontransgenic 'Gisela 7' trees died, while the transgenic 'Gisela 7' trees survived. These results demonstrate the RNAi strategy is useful for developing viral resistance in fruit rootstocks, and such transgenic rootstocks may have potential to enhance production of standard, nongenetically modified fruit varieties while avoiding concerns about transgene flow and exogenous protein production that are inherent for transformed fruiting genotypes. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Sour and duke cherry viruses in South-West Europe

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    Rodrigo PÉREZ-SÁNCHEZ

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the phytosanitary status of sour and duke cherry genetic resources in the Iberian Peninsula, and the incidence and leaf symptoms induced by the Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV, Prune dwarf virus (PDV and Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV. Young leaf samples were taken from 204 sour and duke cherry trees belonging to ten cultivars, and were assayed by DAS-ELISA. Samples positive for any of the three viruses were also tested by RT-PCR. To associate the leaf symptoms with virus presence, 50 mature leaves from each infected tree were visually inspected during the summer. The ELISA and RT-PCR results indicated that 63% of the cherry trees were infected by at least one of these viruses. PNRSV occurred in all cultivars sampled and presented the highest infection rate (46%, followed by PDV (31% and ACLSV (6%. Many trees, (60 to 100%, were asymptomatic while harbouring single and mixed virus infections. The leaf symptoms associated with the viruses included chlorotic and dark brown necrotic ringspots on secondary veins and interveinal regions, for PNRSV, generalized chlorosis around the midveins, for PDV, chlorotic and reddish necrotic ringspots, for ACLSV, and generalized interveinal chlorosis, for mixed PNRSV and PDVinfections.

  11. Main viruses in sweet cherry plantations of Central-Western Spain

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    Rodrigo Pérez Sánchez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sweet cherry trees (Prunus avium L. are susceptible to a range of diseases, but there have been no studies to date about the viral infection of sweet cherry trees in Spain. To determine the phytosanitary status of Spanish sweet cherry plantations, the incidence and leaf symptoms induced by Prune dwarf (PDV, Prunus necrotic ringspot (PNRSV and Apple chlorotic leaf spot (ACLSV viruses were investigated during 2009. Young leaf samples were taken from 350 sweet cherry trees, corresponding to 17 cultivars, and were analysed by double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA. To associate the leaf symptoms with the virus, 50 mature leaves from each infected tree were visually inspected during the summer. The ELISA results revealed that 72 % of sweet cherry trees were infected by at least one of the viruses. PDV occurred in all sampled cultivars and presented the highest infection rate, followed by ACLSV and PNRSV. A high number of trees showed asymptomatic, in both single and mixed infections. The leaf symptoms associated with the viruses involved generalized chlorosis around the midvein (PDV, chlorotic and dark brown necrotic ringspots on both secondary veins and intervein regions (PNRSV, chlorotic and reddish necrotic ringspots (ACLSV and generalized interveinal chlorosis (PDV-PNRSV.

  12. Elimination of PPV and PNRSV through thermotherapy and meristem-tip culture in nectarine.

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    Manganaris, G A; Economou, A S; Boubourakas, I N; Katis, N I

    2003-10-01

    The plum pox virus (PPV) and prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) cause serious disease problems in stone-fruit trees. In this work, the possibility of obtaining plant material free from these viruses through thermotherapy and meristem-tip culture from infected nectarine shoots (Prunus persica var. nectarina Max, cv. 'Arm King') was studied. In addition, the detection of these viruses in in vitro cultures and young acclimatized plantlets with double antibody sandwich-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) and multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was studied. Meristem-tip explants (0.8-1.3 mm) derived from sprouted buds of winter wood and spring shoots from field grown plants had a 2-5% regeneration response. However, application of thermotherapy to potted nectarine trees (3 weeks at a maximum temperature of 35 degrees C) facilitated excision of longer meristem tips (1.3-2.0 mm) that resulted in a significantly higher regeneration response (38%) in woody plant medium (WPM) without plant growth regulators. Such explants formed multiple shoots with the addition of 8 microM benzylaminopurine and 0.8 microM indoleacetic acid. When they were tested for the presence of PPV and PNRSV, 86% and 81% were found to be virus-free as detected by DAS-ELISA and multiplex RT-PCR, respectively. Individual shoots excised from virus-free cultures readily rooted in vitro (half-strength WPM plus 2 microM indolebutyric acid) and grew to plantlets. The combination of an efficient protocol for virus elimination and the establishment of highly sensitive diagnostics resulted in the production of nectarine plants free from PPV and PNRSV.

  13. Pruning Shrubs

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    French, Sue (Sue C.); Appleton, Bonnie Lee, 1948-2012

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the "natural habit" or "shape" of shrubs will help you determine how to prune them. This publication explores how and when to prune, maintenance and rejuvenation pruning, and the growth habit of shrubs.

  14. VIRAL TESTING USING BIOLOGICAL AND SEROLOGICAL ASSAY FOR MOST IMPORTANT VIRUSES TO PLUM

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    Catita Plopa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Establishing an accurate diagnosis in terms of viral for propagation of fruit tree is very important, it represents the most effective method of protection against viruses. Based on these considerations the primary objective of this study is to detect viruses with the highest incidence in plum by biological and ELISA serological methods, to a number of 85 samples taken from 17 varieties. Serologic testing on DAS-ELISA diagnosed 3 positive samples to Plum pox virus (PPV, 2 positives sample to Prunus necrotic ring spot virus (PNRSV and one positive sample to Prune dwarf virus (PDV. There were not positive samples to Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV. The tests conducted on woody indicator plants by grafting on protect conditions and after 3-24 months assured of diagnosis for PPV, PDV, PNRSV and ACLSV viruses. The biological indicators: ‘GF 305’, ‘Tuleu dulce’ and ‘Vânăt de Italia’, have shown symptoms for PNRSV for two samples.On biological indicator ‘Vânăt de Italia’ and ‘Tuleu dulce’ not appeared symptoms for ‘Centenar’variety tested for PPV, although the symptoms were obvious on ‘GF 305’ indicator, but viral infection was confirmed by ELISA test. Symptoms that indicate the presence of PDV occurred by ‘Vânăt de Italia’ biological indicator.

  15. Whole-Genome Characterization of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus Infecting Sweet Cherry in China.

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    Wang, Jiawei; Zhai, Ying; Zhu, Dongzi; Liu, Weizhen; Pappu, Hanu R; Liu, Qingzhong

    2018-03-01

    Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) causes yield loss in most cultivated stone fruits, including sweet cherry. Using a small RNA deep-sequencing approach combined with end-genome sequence cloning, we identified the complete genomes of all three PNRSV strands from PNRSV-infected sweet cherry trees and compared them with those of two previously reported isolates. Copyright © 2018 Wang et al.

  16. Recognition of cis-acting sequences in RNA 3 of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus by the replicase of Alfalfa mosaic virus.

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    Aparicio, F; Sánchez-Navarro, J A; Olsthoorn, R C; Pallás, V; Bol, J F

    2001-04-01

    Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) belong to the genera ALFAMOVIRUS: and ILARVIRUS:, respectively, of the family BROMOVIRIDAE: Initiation of infection by AMV and PNRSV requires binding of a few molecules of coat protein (CP) to the 3' termini of the inoculum RNAs and the CPs of the two viruses are interchangeable in this early step of the replication cycle. CIS:-acting sequences in PNRSV RNA 3 that are recognized by the AMV replicase were studied in in vitro replicase assays and by inoculation of AMV-PNRSV RNA 3 chimeras to tobacco plants and protoplasts transformed with the AMV replicase genes (P12 plants). The results showed that the AMV replicase recognized the promoter for minus-strand RNA synthesis in PNRSV RNA 3 but not the promoter for plus-strand RNA synthesis. A chimeric RNA with PNRSV movement protein and CP genes accumulated in tobacco, which is a non-host for PNRSV.

  17. Molecular characterization and intermolecular interaction of coat protein of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus: implications for virus assembly.

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    Kulshrestha, Saurabh; Hallan, Vipin; Sharma, Anshul; Seth, Chandrika Attri; Chauhan, Anjali; Zaidi, Aijaz Asghar

    2013-09-01

    Coat protein (CP) and RNA3 from Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV-rose), the most prevalent virus infecting rose in India, were characterized and regions in the coat protein important for self-interaction, during dimer formation were identified. The sequence analysis of CP and partial RNA 3 revealed that the rose isolate of PNRSV in India belongs to PV-32 group of PNRSV isolates. Apart from the already established group specific features of PV-32 group member's additional group-specific and host specific features were also identified. Presence of methionine at position 90 in the amino acid sequence alignment of PNRSV CP gene (belonging to PV-32 group) was identified as the specific conserved feature for the rose isolates of PNRSV. As protein-protein interaction plays a vital role in the infection process, an attempt was made to identify the portions of PNRSV CP responsible for self-interaction using yeast two-hybrid system. It was found (after analysis of the deletion clones) that the C-terminal region of PNRSV CP (amino acids 153-226) plays a vital role in this interaction during dimer formation. N-terminal of PNRSV CP is previously known to be involved in CP-RNA interactions, but our results also suggested that N-terminal of PNRSV CP represented by amino acids 1-77 also interacts with C-terminal (amino acids 153-226) in yeast two-hybrid system, suggesting its probable involvement in the CP-CP interaction.

  18. Identification of Cherry green ring mottle virus on Sweet Cherry Trees in Korea

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    In-Sook Cho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the 2012 growing season, 154 leaf samples were collected from sweet cherry trees in Hwaseong, Pyeongtaek, Gyeongju, Kimcheon, Daegu, Yeongju and Eumseong and tested for the presence of Cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV. PCR products of the expected size (807 bp were obtained from 6 samples. The PCR products were cloned and sequenced. The nucleotide sequences of the clones showed over 88% identities to published coat protein sequences of CGRMV isolates in the GenBank database. The sequences of CGRMV isolates, CGR-KO 1−6 shared 98.8 to 99.8% nucleotide and 99.6 to 100% amino acid similarities. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Korean CGRMV isolates belong to the group II of CGRMV coat protein genes. The CGRMV infected sweet cherry trees were also tested for Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV, Apple mosaic virus (ApMV, Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV, Cherry mottle leaf virus (CMLV, Cherry rasp leaf virus (CRLV, Cherry leafroll virus (CLRV, Cherry virus A (CVA, Little cherry virus 1 (LChV1, Prune dwarf virus (PDV and Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV by RT-PCR. All of the tested trees were also infected with ACLSV.

  19. Simultaneous detection of six stone fruit viruses by non-isotopic molecular hybridization using a unique riboprobe or 'polyprobe'.

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    Herranz, M Carmen; Sanchez-Navarro, Jesus A; Aparicio, Frederic; Pallás, Vicente

    2005-03-01

    A new strategy for the simultaneous detection of plant viruses by molecular hybridization has been developed. Two, four or six viral sequences were fused in tandem and transcribed to render unique riboprobes and designated as 'polyprobes'. The 'polyprobe four' (poly 4) covered the four ilarviruses affecting stone fruit trees including apple mosaic virus (ApMV), prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV), prune dwarf virus (PDV), and American plum line pattern virus (APLPV) whereas the 'polyprobe two' (poly 2) was designed to detect simultaneously, plum pox virus (PPV) and apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), the two more important viruses affecting these trees. Finally, a 'polyprobe six' (poly 6) was generated to detect any of the six viruses. The three polyprobes were comparable to the individual riboprobes in terms of end-point dilution limit and specificity. The validation of the new simultaneous detection strategy was confirmed by the analysis of 46 field samples from up to seven different hosts collected from 10 different geographical areas.

  20. Better marking means cheaper pruning.

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    Kenneth R. Eversole

    1953-01-01

    Careful selection of trees to be pruned can make the difference between profit and loss on the pruning investment, especially in stands where no thinning is contemplated. Expert marking is required to make sure that the pruned trees will grow rapidly. The most important variable influencing the cost of clear wood produced by pruning is growth rate. For example, at 3...

  1. Evolutionary relationships in the ilarviruses: nucleotide sequence of prunus necrotic ringspot virus RNA 3.

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    Sánchez-Navarro, J A; Pallás, V

    1997-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of an isolate of prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) RNA 3 has been determined. Elucidation of the amino acid sequence of the proteins encoded by the two large open reading frames (ORFs) allowed us to carry out comparative and phylogenetic studies on the movement (MP) and coat (CP) proteins in the ilarvirus group. Amino acid sequence comparison of the MP revealed a highly conserved basic sequence motif with an amphipathic alpha-helical structure preceding the conserved motif of the '30K superfamily' proposed by Mushegian and Koonin [26] for MP's. Within this '30K' motif a strictly conserved transmembrane domain is present in all ilarviruses sequenced so far. At the amino-terminal end, prune dwarf virus (PDV) has an extension not present in other ilarviruses but which is observed in all bromo- and cucumoviruses, suggesting a common ancestor or a recombinational event in the Bromoviridae family. Examination of the N-terminus of the CP's of all ilarviruses revealed a highly basic region, part of which resembles the Arg-rich motif that has been characterized in the RNA-binding protein family. This motif has also been found in the other members of the Bromoviridae family, suggesting its involvement in a structural function. Furthermore this region is required for infectivity in ilarviruses. The similarities found in this Arg-rich motif are discussed in terms of this process known as genome activation. Finally, phylogenetic analysis of both the MP and CP proteins revealed a higher relationship of A1MV to PNRSV, apple mosaic virus (ApMV) and PDV than any other member of the ilarvirus group. In that sense, A1MV should be considered as a true ilarvirus instead of forming a distinct group of viruses.

  2. Prune belly syndrome

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    Eagle-Barrett syndrome; Triad syndrome ... The exact causes of prune belly syndrome are unknown. The condition affects mostly boys. While in the womb, the developing baby's abdomen swells with fluid. Often, the cause is ...

  3. Prunus necrotic ringspot virus Early Invasion and Its Effects on Apricot Pollen Grain Performance.

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    Amari, Khalid; Burgos, Lorenzo; Pallas, Vicente; Sanchez-Pina, María Amelia

    2007-08-01

    ABSTRACT The route of infection and the pattern of distribution of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) in apricot pollen were studied. PNRSV was detected both within and on the surface of infected pollen grains. The virus invaded pollen during its early developmental stages, being detected in pollen mother cells. It was distributed uniformly within the cytoplasm of uni- and bicellular pollen grains and infected the generative cell. In mature pollen grains, characterized by their triangular shape, the virus was located mainly at the apertures, suggesting that PNRSV distribution follows the same pattern as the cellular components required for pollen tube germination and cell wall tube synthesis. PNRSV also was localized inside pollen tubes, especially in the growth zone. In vitro experiments demonstrated that infection with PNRSV decreases the germination percentage of pollen grains by more than half and delays the growth of pollen tubes by approximately 24 h. However, although PNRSV infection affected apricot pollen grain performance during germination, the presence of the virus did not completely prevent fertilization, because the infected apricot pollen tubes, once germinated, were able to reach the apricot embryo sacs, which, in the climatic conditions of southeastern Spain, mature later than in other climates. Thus, infected pollen still could play an important role in the vertical transmission of PNRSV in apricot.

  4. Pruning devices in 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutikainen, A.

    1995-01-01

    This bulletin describes the market situation in April 1995 in Finland concerning devices suitable for silvicultural pruning in forestry. The review is based on the responses to a questionnaire sent to manufacturers and importers. Manually operated pruning devices, relying entirely on muscle power, were manufactured by six companies. There were four models each of branch saws and branch cutters and two models of branch blades. Motorised pruning devices, with the branch-severing power supplied by a combustion engine, battery or a power unit were manufactured by five companies. There were twelve models in all. The amount of pruning done in Finland has diminished year by year from the peak years of 1988-1989 when ca. 13000 hectares were pruned. In 1993 the corresponding figure was 5290 hectares of which 3930 hectares applied to private, non-industrial forestry. One contributing factor to this fall may be seen in the changes that have occurred in forest improvement regulations. The annual target set in the Forest 2000 program is for 20000 hectares to be pruned. (author)

  5. Differentiation among isolates of prunus necrotic ringspot virus by transcript conformation polymorphism.

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    Rosner, A; Maslenin, L; Spiegel, S

    1998-09-01

    A method based on differences in electrophoretic mobility of RNA transcripts made from polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products was used for differentiation among virus isolates. A T7 RNA polymerase promoter was attached to amplified prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) sequences by PCR. The PCR products then served as a template for transcription. Single-stranded transcripts originated from different PNRSV isolates varied in electrophoretic mobility in polyacrylamide gels, presumably because of transcript conformation polymorphism (TCP). This procedure was applied for the differentiation of PNRSV isolates.

  6. 7 CFR 993.7 - French prunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false French prunes. 993.7 Section 993.7 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.7 French prunes. French prunes means: (a) Prunes produced from plums of the following varieties of plums: French (Prune d'Agen, Petite Prune d'Agen), Coates (Cox...

  7. Prune Belly Syndrome

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    Koyye Ravindranath Tagore

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prune belly syndrome is a rare congenital disorder of the urinary system, characterized by a triad of abnormalities. The aetiology is not known. Many infants are either stillborn or die within the first few weeks of life from severe lung or kidney problems, or a combination of congenital anomalies.

  8. Sodium sulphite inhibition of potato and cherry polyphenolics in nucleic acid extraction for virus detection by RT-PCR.

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    Singh, R P; Nie, X; Singh, M; Coffin, R; Duplessis, P

    2002-01-01

    Phenolic compounds from plant tissues inhibit reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Multiple-step protocols using several additives to inhibit polyphenolic compounds during nucleic acid extraction are common, but time consuming and laborious. The current research highlights that the inclusion of 0.65 to 0.70% of sodium sulphite in the extraction buffer minimizes the pigmentation of nucleic acid extracts and improves the RT-PCR detection of Potato virus Y (PVY) and Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers and Prune dwarf virus (PDV) and Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) in leaves and bark in the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) tree. Substituting sodium sulphite in the nucleic acid extraction buffer eliminated the use of proteinase K during extraction. Reagents phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-Tween 20 and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were also no longer required during RT or PCR phase. The resultant nucleic acid extracts were suitable for both duplex and multiplex RT-PCR. This simple and less expensive nucleic acid extraction protocol has proved very effective for potato cv. Russet Norkotah, which contains a high amount of polyphenolics. Comparing commercially available RNA extraction kits (Catrimox and RNeasy), the sodium sulphite based extraction protocol yielded two to three times higher amounts of RNA, while maintaining comparable virus detection by RT-PCR. The sodium sulphite based extraction protocol was equally effective in potato tubers, and in leaves and bark from the cherry tree.

  9. Vertical transmission of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus: hitch-hiking from gametes to seedling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amari, Khalid; Burgos, Lorenzo; Pallás, Vicente; Sánchez-Pina, Maria Amelia

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this work was to follow Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) infection in apricot reproductive tissues and transmission of the virus to the next generation. For this, an analysis of viral distribution in apricot reproductive organs was carried out at different developmental stages. PNRSV was detected in reproductive tissues during gametogenesis. The virus was always present in the nucellus and, in some cases, in the embryo sac. Studies within infected seeds at the embryo globular stage revealed that PNRSV infects all parts of the seed, including embryo, endosperm and testa. In the torpedo and bent cotyledon developmental stages, high concentrations of the virus were detected in the testa and endosperm. At seed maturity, PNRSV accumulated slightly more in the embryo than in the cotyledons. In situ hybridization showed the presence of PNRSV RNA in embryos obtained following hand-pollination of virus-free pistils with infected pollen. Interestingly, tissue-printing from fruits obtained from these pistils showed viral RNA in the periphery of the fruits, whereas crosses between infected pistils and infected pollen resulted in a total invasion of the fruits. Taken together, these results shed light on the vertical transmission of PNRSV from gametes to seedlings.

  10. Survey of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus in Rose and Its Variability in Rose and Prunus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moury, B; Cardin, L; Onesto, J P; Candresse, T; Poupet, A

    2001-01-01

    ABSTRACT A survey for viruses in rose propagated in Europe resulted in detection of only Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) among seven viruses screened. Four percent of cut-flower roses from different sources were infected with PNRSV. Progression of the disease under greenhouse conditions was very slow, which should make this virus easy to eradicate through sanitary selection. Comparison of the partial coat protein gene sequences for three representative rose isolates indicated that they do not form a distinct phylogenetic group and show close relations to Prunus spp. isolates. However, a comparison of the reactivity of monoclonal antibodies raised against these isolates showed that the most prevalent PNRSV serotype in rose was different from the most prevalent serotype in Prunus spp. All of the 27 rose isolates tested infected P. persica seedlings, whereas three of the four PNRSV isolates tested from Prunus spp. were poorly infectious in Rosa indica plants. These data suggest adaptation of PNRSV isolates from Prunus spp., but not from rose, to their host plants. The test methodologies developed here to evaluate PNRSV pathogenicity in Prunus spp. and rose could also help to screen for resistant genotypes.

  11. Molecular characterization of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus isolated from rose in Brazil.

    OpenAIRE

    FAJARDO, T. V. M.; NASCIMENTO, M. B.; EIRAS, M.; NICKEL, O.; PIO-RIBEIRO, G.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: There is no molecular characterization of Brazilian isolates of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV), except for those infecting peach. In this research, the causal agent of rose mosaic was determined and the movement (MP) and coat (CP) protein genes of a PNRSV isolate from rose were molecularly characterized for the first time in Brazil. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of MP and CP complete genes were aligned and compared with other isolates. Molecular analysis of...

  12. Rapid Detection of Prunus Necrotic Ringspot Virus by Reverse Transcription-cross-priming Amplification Coupled with Nucleic Acid Test Strip Cassette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Ya-Yun; Li, Gui-Fen; Qiu, Yan-Hong; Li, Wei-Min; Zhang, Yong-Jiang

    2017-11-23

    Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) is one of the most devastating viruses to Prunus spp. In this study, we developed a diagnostic system RT-CPA-NATSC, wherein reverse transcription-cross-priming amplification (RT-CPA) is coupled with nucleic acid test strip cassette (NATSC), a vertical flow (VF) visualization, for PNRSV detection. The RT-CPA-NATSC assay targets the encoding gene of the PNRSV coat protein with a limit of detection of 72 copies per reaction and no cross-reaction with the known Prunus pathogenic viruses and viroids, demonstrating high sensitivity and specificity. The reaction is performed on 60 °C and can be completed less than 90 min with the prepared template RNA. Field sample test confirmed the reliability of RT-CPA-NATSC, indicating the potential application of this simple and rapid detection method in routine test of PNRSV.

  13. In vitro evidence for RNA binding properties of the coat protein of prunus necrotic ringspot ilarvirus and their comparison to related and unrelated viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallás, V; Sánchez-Navarro, J A; Díez, J

    1999-01-01

    The RNA binding properties of the prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) coat protein (CP) were demonstrated by northwestern and dot-blot analyses. The capability to bind PNRSV RNA 4 was compared with viruses representing three different interactions prevailing in the assembly and architecture of virions. The results showed that cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and PNRSV CPs, which stabilise their virions mainly through RNA-protein interactions bound PNRSV RNA 4 even at very high salt concentrations. The CP of cherry leaf roll nepovirus, whose virions are predominantly stabilised by protein-protein interactions did not bind even at the lowest salt concentration tested. Finally the CP of carnation mottle carmovirus, that has an intermediate position in which both RNA-protein and protein-protein interactions are equally important showed a salt-dependent RNA binding.

  14. Implication of the C terminus of the Prunus necrotic ringspot virus movement protein in cell-to-cell transport and in its interaction with the coat protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Frederic; Pallás, Vicente; Sánchez-Navarro, Jesús

    2010-07-01

    The movement protein (MP) of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) is required for viral transport. Previous analysis with MPs of other members of the family Bromoviridae has shown that the C-terminal part of these MPs plays a critical role in the interaction with the cognate coat protein (CP) and in cell-to-cell transport. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation and overlay analysis confirm an interaction between the C-terminal 38 aa of PNRSV MP and its cognate CP. Mutational analysis of the C-terminal region of the PNRSV MP revealed that its C-terminal 38 aa are dispensable for virus transport, however, the 4 aa preceding the dispensable C terminus are necessary to target the MP to the plasmodesmata and for the functionality of the protein. The capacity of the PNRSV MP to use either a CP-dependent or a CP-independent cell-to-cell transport is discussed.

  15. Rapid detection of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus using magnetic nanoparticle-assisted reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Xiaojuan; Wang, Wenwen; Wei, Hairong; Wang, Jiawei; Chen, Xin; Xu, Li; Zhu, Dongzi; Tan, Yue; Liu, Qingzhong

    2014-11-01

    Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) has seriously reduced the yield of Prunus species worldwide. In this study, a highly efficient and specific two-step reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) was developed to detect PNRSV. Total RNA was extracted from sweet cherry leaf samples using a commercial kit based on a magnetic nanoparticle technique. Transcripts were used as the templates for the assay. The results of this assay can be detected using agarose gel electrophoresis or by assessing in-tube fluorescence after adding SYBR Green I. The assay is highly specific for PNRSV, and it is more sensitive than reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Restriction enzyme digestion verified further the reliability of this RT-LAMP assay. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the application of RT-LAMP to PNRSV detection in Prunus species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Incidence of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Salem

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV incidence in Jordan stone-fruit growing areas was conducted during 2000–2002. A total of 2552 samples were collected from 72 commercial orchards, a mother block, 15 nurseries, and a varietal collection. A total of 208 almond, 451 apricot, 149 cherry, 250 nectarine, 1016 peach, and 478 plum trees were tested individually for PNRSV by the double-antibody sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA. Around 15% of tested samples were infected with PNRSV. The virus incidence in almond, nectarine, plum, peach, cherry, and apricot was 24, 16, 16, 14, 13, and 10% of tested trees respectively. The level of viral infection was highest in the mother block (19%, and lowest in the samples from the nurseries (10%.

  17. RNA-binding properties and mapping of the RNA-binding domain from the movement protein of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herranz, M Carmen; Pallás, Vicente

    2004-03-01

    The movement protein (MP) of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) is involved in intercellular virus transport. In this study, putative RNA-binding properties of the PNRSV MP were studied. The PNRSV MP was produced in Escherichia coli using an expression vector. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) using DIG-labelled riboprobes demonstrated that PNRSV MP bound ssRNA cooperatively without sequence specificity. Two different ribonucleoprotein complexes were found to be formed depending on the molar MP : PNRSV RNA ratio. The different responses of the complexes to urea treatment strongly suggested that they have different structural properties. Deletion mutagenesis followed by Northwestern analysis allowed location of a nucleic acid binding domain to aa 56-88. This 33 aa RNA-binding motif is the smallest region delineated among members of the family Bromoviridae for which RNA-binding properties have been demonstrated. This domain is highly conserved within all phylogenetic subgroups previously described for PNRSV isolates. Interestingly, the RNA-binding domain described here and the one described for Alfamovirus are located at the N terminus of their corresponding MPs, whereas similar domains previously characterized in members of the genera Bromovirus and Cucumovirus are present at the C terminus, strongly reflecting their corresponding phylogenetic relationships. The evolutionary implications of this observation are discussed.

  18. Development of a Grapevine Pruning Algorithm for Using in Pruning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M Hosseini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Great areas of the orchards in the world are dedicated to cultivation of the grapevine. Normally grape vineyards are pruned twice a year. Among the operations of grape production, winter pruning of the bushes is the only operation that still has not been fully mechanized while it is known as the most laborious jobs in the farm. Some of the grape producing countries use various mechanical machines to prune the grapevines, but in most cases, these machines do not have a good performance. Therefore intelligent pruning machine seems to be necessary in this regard and this intelligent pruning machines can reduce the labor required to prune the vineyards. It this study in was attempted to develop an algorithm that uses image processing techniques to identify which parts of the grapevine should be cut. Stereo vision technique was used to obtain three dimensional images from the bare bushes whose leaves were fallen in autumn. Stereo vision systems are used to determine the depth from two images taken at the same time but from slightly different viewpoints using two cameras. Each pair of images of a common scene is related by a popular geometry, and corresponding points in the images pairs are constrained to lie on pairs of conjugate popular lines. Materials and Methods Photos were taken from gardens of the Research Center for Agriculture and Natural Resources of Fars province, Iran. At first, the distance between the plants and the cameras should be determined. The distance between the plants and cameras can be obtained by using the stereo vision techniques. Therefore, this method was used in this paper by two pictures taken from each plant with the left and right cameras. The algorithm was written in MATLAB. To facilitate the segmentation of the branches from the rows at the back, a blue plate with dimensions of 2×2 m2 were used at the background. After invoking the images, branches were segmented from the background to produce the binary

  19. Prune-Belly Sendromu: Olgu Sunumu

    OpenAIRE

    BELET, N.; PAKSU, Ş.; BELET, Ü.; KÜÇÜKÖDÜK, Ş.

    2010-01-01

    Prune belly sendromu abdominal kasların yokluğu, kriptorşidizm ve obstruktif üropati tri-adından oluşur. Bu yazıda nadir görülmesi nedeniyle prune belly sendromlu bir hasta sunulmuş, literatür bilgileri gözden geçirilmiştir. The Prune-Belly Syndrome: A Case Report The Prune belly syndrome consists of the triad absence of abdominal muscles, cryptorchidism and obstructive uropathy. A rare case of Prune belly syndrome was presented and the literature was reviewed.

  20. Seasonal variation of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus concentration in almond, peach, and plum cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Salem

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Levels of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV infection in almond, peach, and plum cultivars over the course of an entire year were determined by testing different plant parts of naturally infected trees, using the double antibody sandwich-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA. The data showed that spring was the best time of year for PNRSV detection in flowers, active growing buds, and young leaves. PNRSV detection was less reliable during the summer months. Young leaves of all cultivars were the most reliable source for distinguishing between healthy and infected plants, while flowers and buds yielded high values in some cultivars but not in others. Seasonal fluctuations in virus concentration did not follow the same pattern in all cultivars. It is therefore impossible to distinguish between infected and healthy trees on the basis of one single sampling time for all cultivars.

  1. Molecular characterization of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus isolated from rose in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thor Vinícius Martins Fajardo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: There is no molecular characterization of Brazilian isolates of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV, except for those infecting peach. In this research, the causal agent of rose mosaic was determined and the movement (MP and coat (CP protein genes of a PNRSV isolate from rose were molecularly characterized for the first time in Brazil. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of MP and CP complete genes were aligned and compared with other isolates. Molecular analysis of the MP and CP nucleotide sequences of a Brazilian PNRSV isolate from rose and others from this same host showed highest identities of 96.7% and 98.6%, respectively, and Rose-Br isolate was classified in PV32 group.

  2. Molecular characterization of two prunus necrotic ringspot virus isolates from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hongguang; Hong, Ni; Wang, Guoping; Wang, Aiming

    2012-05-01

    We determined the entire RNA1, 2 and 3 sequences of two prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) isolates, Chr3 from cherry and Pch12 from peach, obtained from an orchard in the Niagara Fruit Belt, Canada. The RNA1, 2 and 3 of the two isolates share nucleotide sequence identities of 98.6%, 98.4% and 94.5%, respectively. Their RNA1- and 2-encoded amino acid sequences are about 98% identical to the corresponding sequences of a cherry isolate, CH57, the only other PNRSV isolate with complete RNA1 and 2 sequences available. Phylogenetic analysis of the coat protein and movement protein encoded by RNA3 of Pch12 and Chr3 and published PNRSV isolates indicated that Chr3 belongs to the PV96 group and Pch12 belongs to the PV32 group.

  3. Prune belly syndrome associated with incomplete VACTERL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghritlaharey R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A Prune Belly syndrome with VATER/VACTERL association is an extremely rare. They are either stillborn or die within few days of life, only few such cases have been reported in literature. We are presenting here a male neonate of Prune Belly syndrome associated with incomplete VACTERL with brief review of literature.

  4. Oxidative stress induction by Prunus necrotic ringspot virus infection in apricot seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amari, Khalid; Díaz-Vivancos, Pedro; Pallás, Vincente; Sánchez-Pina, María Amelia; Hernández, José Antonio

    2007-10-01

    Prunus necrotic ringspot rvirus (PNRSV) was able to invade the immature apricot seed including the embryo. The amount of virus was very high inside the embryo compared with that present in the cotyledons. PNRSV infection produced an oxidative stress in apricot seeds as indicated by the increase in lipid peroxidation, measured as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. This lipid peroxidation increase was parallelled with an imbalance in the seed antioxidant enzymes. A significant decrease in the ascorbate-GSH cycle enzymes as well as in peroxidase (POX) activity took place in infected seeds, suggesting a low capability to eliminate H2O2. No changes in superoxide dismutase (SOD) or catalase activity were observed. A significant decrease in polyphenoloxidase (PPO) activity was also observed. Native PAGE revealed the presence of three different SOD activity bands in apricot seeds: a Mn-containing SOD and two CuZn-containing SODs. Only an isozyme with catalase, glutathione reductase (GR) or PPO activity was detected in both healthy and infected apricot seeds. Regarding POX staining, three bands with POX activity were detected in native gels in both healthy and infected seeds. The gel results emphasise that the drop detected in POX, GR and PPO activities in PNRSV-infected apricot seeds by kinetic analyses was also evident from the results obtained by native PAGE. The oxidative stress and the imbalance in the antioxidant systems from PNRSV-infected apricot seeds resemble the hypersensitive response observed in some virus-host interactions. This defence mechanism would inactivate PNRSV during seed formation and/or the storage period or even during seed germination. Those results can explain the decrease in seed germination and the low transmission of PNRSV by seeds in apricot trees.

  5. 7 CFR 993.6 - Non-French prunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Non-French prunes. 993.6 Section 993.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.6 Non-French prunes. Non-French prunes means prunes commonly...

  6. A review of pruning fruit trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Koc, A. B.; Wang, X. N.; Jiang, Y. X.

    2018-05-01

    The focus of this review is to present the results of studies and articles about ways to prune fruit trees. Pruning should be done in late winter or early spring so that the infection risk can be significantly decreased. This review will also offer an overview of methods to prevent infections and speed up recovery on the trees. The following is an interpretation of why high-power ultrasonic assisted pruning in the fruits trees is needed and will elaborate on the efficiency, labor costs, and safety, as well as space, location, and some environmental issues.

  7. Genetic diversity of the movement and coat protein genes of South American isolates of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Nicola; Fajardo, Thor V M; Prodan, Simona; Herranz, María Carmen; Aparicio, Frederic; Montealegre, Jaime; Elena, Santiago F; Pallás, Vicente; Sánchez-Navarro, Jesús

    2008-01-01

    Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) is distributed worldwide, but no molecular data have been previously reported from South American isolates. The nucleotide sequences corresponding to the movement (MP) and coat (CP) proteins of 23 isolates of PNRSV from Chile, Brazil, and Uruguay, and from different Prunus species, have been obtained. Phylogenetic analysis performed with full-length MP and CP sequences from all the PNRSV isolates confirmed the clustering of the isolates into the previously reported PV32-I, PV96-II and PE5-III phylogroups. No association was found between specific sequences and host, geographic origin or symptomatology. Comparative analysis showed that both MP and CP have phylogroup-specific amino acids and all of the motifs previously characterized for both proteins. The study of the distribution of synonymous and nonsynonymous changes along both open reading frames revealed that most amino acid sites are under the effect of negative purifying selection.

  8. Rootstock-to-scion transfer of transgene-derived small interfering RNAs and their effect on virus resistance in nontransgenic sweet cherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dongyan; Song, Guo-qing

    2014-12-01

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are silencing signals in plants. Virus-resistant transgenic rootstocks developed through siRNA-mediated gene silencing may enhance virus resistance of nontransgenic scions via siRNAs transported from the transgenic rootstocks. However, convincing evidence of rootstock-to-scion movement of siRNAs of exogenous genes in woody plants is still lacking. To determine whether exogenous siRNAs can be transferred, nontransgenic sweet cherry (scions) was grafted on transgenic cherry rootstocks (TRs), which was transformed with an RNA interference (RNAi) vector expressing short hairpin RNAs of the genomic RNA3 of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV-hpRNA). Small RNA sequencing was conducted using bud tissues of TRs and those of grafted (rootstock/scion) trees, locating at about 1.2 m above the graft unions. Comparison of the siRNA profiles revealed that the PNRSV-hpRNA was efficient in producing siRNAs and eliminating PNRSV in the TRs. Furthermore, our study confirmed, for the first time, the long-distance (1.2 m) transfer of PNRSV-hpRNA-derived siRNAs from the transgenic rootstock to the nontransgenic scion in woody plants. Inoculation of nontransgenic scions with PNRSV revealed that the transferred siRNAs enhanced PNRSV resistance of the scions grafted on the TRs. Collectively, these findings provide the foundation for 'using transgenic rootstocks to produce products of nontransgenic scions in fruit trees'. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Prune belly syndrome. A focused physical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Amanda G; Brandon, Debra H

    2007-06-01

    Prune belly syndrome, a rare congenital anomaly, exists almost exclusively in males and consists of genital and urinary abnormalities with partial or complete absence of abdominal wall musculature. The syndrome, caused by urethral obstruction early in development, is the result of massive bladder distention and urinary ascites, leading to degeneration of the abdominal wall musculature and failure of testicular descent. The impaired elimination of urine from the bladder leads to oligohydramnios, pulmonary hypoplasia, and Potter's facies. The syndrome has a broad spectrum of affected anatomy with different levels of severity. The exact etiology of prune belly syndrome is unknown, although several embryologic theories attempt to explain the anomaly. With advances in prenatal screening techniques, the diagnosis and possible treatment of prune belly syndrome can occur before birth, although controversy exists on the proper management of prune belly syndrome. This article explores the theories behind the pathophysiology and embryology of prune belly syndrome and its multisystemic effects on the newborn infant. Specific attention is paid to presentation, clinical features, head-to-toe physical assessment, family support, and nursing care of infants with prune belly syndrome.

  10. Abdominoplasty in Prune Belly Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dénes, F T; Park, R; Lopes, R I; Moscardi, P R M; Srougi, M

    2015-10-01

    Many patients with Prune Belly Syndrome (PBS) require abdominoplasty alone or in combination with correction of any urogenital abnormalities. This video presents a simplified technique with which to treat the abdominal flaccidity in PBS. A longitudinal xypho-pubic fusiform figure is drawn on the abdomen, based on the area of skin and subcutaneous tissue to be removed. This is performed with preservation of the musculo-fascial layer and the umbilicus. A lateral elliptical single xypho-pubic line is drawn in the most lax side of the fascia, which is incised along this line. After urinary tract reconstruction and orchidopexy, closure is initiated by suturing the medial edge of the wider fascial flap laterally to the peritoneal side of the contralateral flap. Next, the now outer fascial flap is laid over the inner flap, and a buttonhole is made to expose the umbilicus. The subcutaneous tissue of the inner flap is laterally undermined to gain extra distance for the suture of the outer flap over the inner flap. The subcutaneous tissue and skin are sutured in the midline, incorporating the umbilicus. In a 30-year period, 43 PBS patients underwent this procedure with good cosmetic and long-term functional results. This abdominoplasty technique is simple and presents good functional and cosmetic results in PBS patients. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Replication of alfalfa mosaic virus RNA 3 with movement and coat protein genes replaced by corresponding genes of Prunus necrotic ringspot ilarvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Navarro, J A; Reusken, C B; Bol, J F; Pallás, V

    1997-12-01

    Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) are tripartite positive-strand RNA plant viruses that encode functionally similar translation products. Although the two viruses are phylogenetically closely related, they infect a very different range of natural hosts. The coat protein (CP) gene, the movement protein (MP) gene or both genes in AMV RNA 3 were replaced by the corresponding genes of PNRSV. The chimeric viruses were tested for heterologous encapsidation, replication in protoplasts from plants transformed with AMV replicase genes P1 and P2 (P12 plants) and for cell-to-cell transport in P12 plants. The chimeric viruses exhibited basic competence for encapsidation and replication in P12 protoplasts and for a low level of cell-to-cell movement in P12 plants. The potential involvement of the MP gene in determining host specificity in ilarviruses is discussed.

  12. Induction of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase and phenylpropanoids in virus-infected cucumber and melon plants.

    OpenAIRE

    Belles Albert, José Mª; López-Gresa, María Pilar; Fayos, J.; Pallás Benet, Vicente; Rodrigo Bravo, Ismael; Conejero Tomás, Vicente

    2008-01-01

    [EN] In the present work, we have looked for the nature of the phenylpropanoids biosynthesized during the plant-pathogen reaction of two systems, Cucumis sativus and Cucumis melo infected with either prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) or melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV), respectively. An accumulation of p-coumaric, caffeic and/or ferulic acids was observed in infected plant extracts hydrolysed with P-glucosidase or esterase. Analysis of undigested samples by HPLC/ESI revealed that these c...

  13. Prune belly syndrome with pouch colon with scaphoid megalourethra

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We here report a rare association of megalourethra with pouch colon with prune belly syndrome. We also provide a newer embryological and prognostic perspective to this association. Keywords: megalourethra, prune belly syndrome pouch colon, scaphoid ...

  14. Composability-Centered Convolutional Neural Network Pruning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Xipeng [North Carolina State University; Guan, Hui [North Carolina State University; Lim, Seung-Hwan [ORNL; Patton, Robert M. [ORNL

    2018-02-01

    This work studies the composability of the building blocks ofstructural CNN models (e.g., GoogleLeNet and Residual Networks) in thecontext of network pruning. We empirically validate that a networkcomposed of pre-trained building blocks (e.g. residual blocks andInception modules) not only gives a better initial setting fortraining, but also allows the training process to converge at asignificantly higher accuracy in much less time. Based on thatinsight, we propose a {\\em composability-centered} design for CNNnetwork pruning. Experiments show that this new scheme shortens theconfiguration process in CNN network pruning by up to 186.8X forResNet-50 and up to 30.2X for Inception-V3, and meanwhile, the modelsit finds that meet the accuracy requirement are significantly morecompact than those found by default schemes.

  15. Preparation of recombinant coat protein of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrzik, K; Mráz, I; Kubelková, D

    2001-02-01

    The coat protein (CP) gene of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) was cloned into pET 16b vector and expressed in Escherichia coli. CP-enriched fractions were prepared from whole cell lysate by differential centrifugation. The fraction sedimenting at 20,000 x g for 30 mins was used for preparation of a rabbit antiserum to CP. This antiserum had a titer of 1:2048 and reacted in a double-antibody sandwich ELISA (DAS-ELISA).

  16. Detection of selected plant viruses by microarrays

    OpenAIRE

    HRABÁKOVÁ, Lenka

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this master thesis was the simultaneous detection of four selected plant viruses ? Apple mosaic virus, Plum pox virus, Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and Prune harf virus, by microarrays. The intermediate step in the process of the detection was optimizing of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

  17. Pruning Boltzmann networks and hidden Markov models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten With; Stork, D.

    1996-01-01

    We present sensitivity-based pruning algorithms for general Boltzmann networks. Central to our methods is the efficient calculation of a second-order approximation to the true weight saliencies in a cross-entropy error. Building upon previous work which shows a formal correspondence between linear...... Boltzmann chains and hidden Markov models (HMMs), we argue that our method can be applied to HMMs as well. We illustrate pruning on Boltzmann zippers, which are equivalent to two HMMs with cross-connection links. We verify that our second-order approximation preserves the rank ordering of weight saliencies...

  18. A Case of Prune Belly Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Prune belly syndrome (PBS is a rare congenital disorder characterized by deficient abdominal wall muscles, urinary tract malformation, and, in males, cryptorchidism. We present a case of PBS in China. The patient was a newborn baby boy who had wrinkled, “prune-like” abdominal skin, bilateral cryptorchidism, and urinary system malformation, complicated with hypoplasia of the lung and branch of the coronary artery–right ventricular fistula. His kidney function was inadequate. The patient subsequently died at age 28 days due to septicemia from a severe urinary tract infection.

  19. A case of prune belly syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Wu, Hui; Wang, Dong-Xuan; Mu, Zhi-Hong

    2015-06-01

    Prune belly syndrome (PBS) is a rare congenital disorder characterized by deficient abdominal wall muscles, urinary tract malformation, and, in males, cryptorchidism. We present a case of PBS in China. The patient was a newborn baby boy who had wrinkled, "prune-like" abdominal skin, bilateral cryptorchidism, and urinary system malformation, complicated with hypoplasia of the lung and branch of the coronary artery-right ventricular fistula. His kidney function was inadequate. The patient subsequently died at age 28 days due to septicemia from a severe urinary tract infection. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. 21 CFR 146.187 - Canned prune juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned prune juice. 146.187 Section 146.187 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Beverages § 146.187 Canned prune juice. (a) Canned prune juice is the food prepared from a water extract of...

  1. 7 CFR 993.149 - Receiving of prunes by handlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DRIED... certifies that the dehydration process of the prunes being certified resulted in prunes eligible to be... conditioning by further drying or dehydration: Provided, That such prunes shall be identified and kept separate...

  2. Molecular adaptation within the coat protein-encoding gene of Tunisian almond isolates of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulila, Moncef; Ben Tiba, Sawssen; Jilani, Saoussen

    2013-04-01

    The sequence alignments of five Tunisian isolates of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) were searched for evidence of recombination and diversifying selection. Since failing to account for recombination can elevate the false positive error rate in positive selection inference, a genetic algorithm (GARD) was used first and led to the detection of potential recombination events in the coat protein-encoding gene of that virus. The Recco algorithm confirmed these results by identifying, additionally, the potential recombinants. For neutrality testing and evaluation of nucleotide polymorphism in PNRSV CP gene, Tajima's D, and Fu and Li's D and F statistical tests were used. About selection inference, eight algorithms (SLAC, FEL, IFEL, REL, FUBAR, MEME, PARRIS, and GA branch) incorporated in HyPhy package were utilized to assess the selection pressure exerted on the expression of PNRSV capsid. Inferred phylogenies pointed out, in addition to the three classical groups (PE-5, PV-32, and PV-96), the delineation of a fourth cluster having the new proposed designation SW6, and a fifth clade comprising four Tunisian PNRSV isolates which underwent recombination and selective pressure and to which the name Tunisian outgroup was allocated.

  3. Plant virus cell-to-cell movement is not dependent on the transmembrane disposition of its movement protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Gil, Luis; Sánchez-Navarro, Jesús A; Cruz, Antonio; Pallás, Vicente; Pérez-Gil, Jesús; Mingarro, Ismael

    2009-06-01

    The cell-to-cell transport of plant viruses depends on one or more virus-encoded movement proteins (MPs). Some MPs are integral membrane proteins that interact with the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum, but a detailed understanding of the interaction between MPs and biological membranes has been lacking. The cell-to-cell movement of the Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) is facilitated by a single MP of the 30K superfamily. Here, using a myriad of biochemical and biophysical approaches, we show that the PNRSV MP contains only one hydrophobic region (HR) that interacts with the membrane interface, as opposed to being a transmembrane protein. We also show that a proline residue located in the middle of the HR constrains the structural conformation of this region at the membrane interface, and its replacement precludes virus movement.

  4. Plant Virus Cell-to-Cell Movement Is Not Dependent on the Transmembrane Disposition of Its Movement Protein▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Gil, Luis; Sánchez-Navarro, Jesús A.; Cruz, Antonio; Pallás, Vicente; Pérez-Gil, Jesús; Mingarro, Ismael

    2009-01-01

    The cell-to-cell transport of plant viruses depends on one or more virus-encoded movement proteins (MPs). Some MPs are integral membrane proteins that interact with the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum, but a detailed understanding of the interaction between MPs and biological membranes has been lacking. The cell-to-cell movement of the Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) is facilitated by a single MP of the 30K superfamily. Here, using a myriad of biochemical and biophysical approaches, we show that the PNRSV MP contains only one hydrophobic region (HR) that interacts with the membrane interface, as opposed to being a transmembrane protein. We also show that a proline residue located in the middle of the HR constrains the structural conformation of this region at the membrane interface, and its replacement precludes virus movement. PMID:19321624

  5. 21 CFR 145.190 - Canned prunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of a mixture of brown sugar and honey, an appropriate statement would be “___ sirup of brown sugar... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned prunes. 145.190 Section 145.190 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...

  6. Enhanced Context Recognition by Sensitivity Pruned Vocabularies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Rasmus Elsborg; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    a latent semantic indexing representation and a probabilistic neural network classifier. Pruning the vocabularies to approximately 20% of the original size, we find consistent context recognition enhancement for two mid size data-sets for a range of training set sizes. We also study the applicability...

  7. 7 CFR 993.5 - Prunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Food Technology Division, College of Agriculture, University of California, for the specialty pack... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prunes. 993.5 Section 993.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and...

  8. A remarkable synergistic effect at the transcriptomic level in peach fruits doubly infected by prunus necrotic ringspot virus and peach latent mosaic viroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herranz, Mari Carmen; Niehl, Annette; Rosales, Marlene; Fiore, Nicola; Zamorano, Alan; Granell, Antonio; Pallas, Vicente

    2013-05-28

    Microarray profiling is a powerful technique to investigate expression changes of large amounts of genes in response to specific environmental conditions. The majority of the studies investigating gene expression changes in virus-infected plants are limited to interactions between a virus and a model host plant, which usually is Arabidopsis thaliana or Nicotiana benthamiana. In the present work, we performed microarray profiling to explore changes in the expression profile of field-grown Prunus persica (peach) originating from Chile upon single and double infection with Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) and Peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd), worldwide natural pathogens of peach trees. Upon single PLMVd or PNRSV infection, the number of statistically significant gene expression changes was relatively low. By contrast, doubly-infected fruits presented a high number of differentially regulated genes. Among these, down-regulated genes were prevalent. Functional categorization of the gene expression changes upon double PLMVd and PNRSV infection revealed protein modification and degradation as the functional category with the highest percentage of repressed genes whereas induced genes encoded mainly proteins related to phosphate, C-compound and carbohydrate metabolism and also protein modification. Overrepresentation analysis upon double infection with PLMVd and PNRSV revealed specific functional categories over- and underrepresented among the repressed genes indicating active counter-defense mechanisms of the pathogens during infection. Our results identify a novel synergistic effect of PLMVd and PNRSV on the transcriptome of peach fruits. We demonstrate that mixed infections, which occur frequently in field conditions, result in a more complex transcriptional response than that observed in single infections. Thus, our data demonstrate for the first time that the simultaneous infection of a viroid and a plant virus synergistically affect the host transcriptome in

  9. Genomic segments RNA1 and RNA2 of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus codetermine viral pathogenicity to adapt to alternating natural Prunus hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hongguang; Hong, Ni; Wang, Guoping; Wang, Aiming

    2013-05-01

    Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) affects Prunus fruit production worldwide. To date, numerous PNRSV isolates with diverse pathological properties have been documented. To study the pathogenicity of PNRSV, which directly or indirectly determines the economic losses of infected fruit trees, we have recently sequenced the complete genome of peach isolate Pch12 and cherry isolate Chr3, belonging to the pathogenically aggressive PV32 group and mild PV96 group, respectively. Here, we constructed the Chr3- and Pch12-derived full-length cDNA clones that were infectious in the experimental host cucumber and their respective natural Prunus hosts. Pch12-derived clones induced much more severe symptoms than Chr3 in cucumber, and the pathogenicity discrepancy between Chr3 and Pch12 was associated with virus accumulation. By reassortment of genomic segments, swapping of partial genomic segments, and site-directed mutagenesis, we identified the 3' terminal nucleotide sequence (1C region) in RNA1 and amino acid K at residue 279 in RNA2-encoded P2 as the severe virulence determinants in Pch12. Gain-of-function experiments demonstrated that both the 1C region and K279 of Pch12 were required for severe virulence and high levels of viral accumulation. Our results suggest that PNRSV RNA1 and RNA2 codetermine viral pathogenicity to adapt to alternating natural Prunus hosts, likely through mediating viral accumulation.

  10. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Testing of Shoots Grown In Vitro and the Use of Immunocapture-Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction Improve the Detection of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus in Rose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moury, B; Cardin, L; Onesto, J P; Candresse, T; Poupet, A

    2000-05-01

    We developed and evaluated two different methods to improve the detection of the most prevalent virus of rose in Europe, Prunus necrotic ring-spot virus (PNRSV). Immunocapture-reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was estimated to be about 100 times more sensitive than double-antibody sandwich-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) and showed an equivalent specificity. Based on the observation that PNRSV multiplies actively in young growing tissues (axillary shoots and cuttings), an in vitro culture method allowing rapid (about 15 days) and homogeneous development of dormant axillary buds with high virus titers was standardized. ELISA tests of these young shoots showed, in some cases, a 10(4) to 10(5) increase in sensitivity in comparison to adjacent leaf tissues from the rose mother plants. Between 21 and 98% (depending on the season) more samples were identified as positive by using ELISA on samples from shoot tips grown in vitro rather than on leaves collected directly from the PNRSV-infected mother plants. This simple method of growing shoot tips in vitro improved the confidence in the detection of PNRSV and eliminated problems in sampling appropriate tissues.

  11. Virulence and molecular polymorphism of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, R W; Crosslin, J M

    1998-07-01

    Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) occurs as numerous strains or isolates that vary widely in their pathogenic, biophysical and serological properties. Prior attempts to distinguish pathotypes based upon physical properties have not been successful; our approach was to examine the molecular properties that may distinguish these isolates. The nucleic acid sequence was determined from 1.65 kbp RT-PCR products derived from RNA 3 of seven distinct isolates of PNRSV that differ serologically and in pathology on sweet cherry. Sequence comparisons of ORF 3a (putative movement protein) and ORF 3b (coat protein) revealed single nucleotide and amino acid differences with strong correlations to serology and symptom types (pathotypes). Sequence differences between serotypes and pathotypes were also reflected in the overall phylogenetic relationships between the isolates.

  12. 7 CFR 993.109 - Modified definition of non-French prunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Modified definition of non-French prunes. 993.109... definition of non-French prunes. The definition of non-French prunes set forth in § 993.6 is modified to read as follows: Non-French Prunes means prunes commonly known as Imperial, Sugar, Robe de Sargent, Burton...

  13. Vocabulary Pruning for Improved Context Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Rasmus Elsborg; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    Language independent `bag-of-words' representations are surprisingly effective for text classification. The representation is high dimensional though, containing many non-consistent words for text categorization. These non-consistent words result in reduced generalization performance of subsequent...... of term relevancy, when pruning the vocabularies. With reduced vocabularies documents are classified using a latent semantic indexing representation and a probabilistic neural network classifier. Reducing the bag-of-words vocabularies with 90%-98%, we find consistent classification improvement using two...

  14. Fast Parsing using Pruning and Grammar Specialization

    OpenAIRE

    Rayner, Manny; Carter, David

    1996-01-01

    We show how a general grammar may be automatically adapted for fast parsing of utterances from a specific domain by means of constituent pruning and grammar specialization based on explanation-based learning. These methods together give an order of magnitude increase in speed, and the coverage loss entailed by grammar specialization is reduced to approximately half that reported in previous work. Experiments described here suggest that the loss of coverage has been reduced to the point where ...

  15. The use of short and long PCR products for improved detection of prunus necrotic ringspot virus in woody plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, A; Maslenin, L; Spiegel, S

    1997-09-01

    The reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used for detection of prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) in dormant peach and almond trees by the application of two different pairs of primers yielding a short and a long product, respectively. The relative amount of the short (200 base pair, bp) product was higher than the longer (785 bp) product. PNRSV was detected better in plant tissues with a low virus concentration (e.g. dormant trees) by amplification of the short PCR product, whereas the long product was product was produced at higher virus titers. Simultaneous amplification of both short and long products was demonstrated using a three-primer mixture in a single reaction tube. In this assay, amplification of either PCR product indicated the presence of PNRSV-specific sequences in the plant tissue examined, thus covering a wide range of virus concentrations in a single test. Dilution of the RNA extracted from infected plant material resulted in a steep decline in the amplification of both short and long PCR products. In contrast, serial dilutions of the intermediate cDNA template differentially affected the amplification patterns: the relative amount of the short product increased whereas that of the long product decreased. These results may explain the preferential amplification of the short PCR product observed in samples containing low virus concentrations.

  16. Prune Belly Syndrome in Adolescence: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Mylarappa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Prune Belly syndrome also known as Eagle Barret syndrome is a rare disorder. We report a rare case of Prune Belly syndrome in 17 year old boy. Patient presented with complains of absence of both testis in scrotum since birth. On examination patient was found to have lax abdominal wall. Patient was further evaluated and found to have shrunken small right kidney and left hydroureteronephrosis and the diagnosis of Prune Belly Syndrome was made. Prune Belly Syndrome represents a wide spectrum of disease. Each patient must be dealt with on an individual basis. A course of watchful waiting with selective surgical intervention has also been successful.

  17. Síndrome de Prune Belly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roni Leonardo Teixeira

    Full Text Available Prune Belly Syndrome is a fetal uropathy of unknown etiology with incidence of 1/35000 to 1/50000 alive been born, characterized by a classical triad: abdominal musculature congenital deficiency, bilateral criptorquidia and urinary tract malformations. The authors present a case of this rare pathology associated with a patent urachus. After complementary exams confirmed urinary tract alterations (bilateral ureterohidronefrosis and vesicoureteral reflux degree 5, besides urinary infection, the surgical approach was vesicostomy to decrease urinary infections and sepsis. Definitve surgery should be accomplished around the 12th month of life. Nowadays, the child is asymptomatic , with follow-up every two months, with return consultation bimonthly.

  18. RECONSTRUCTION OF THE URINARY TRACT IN PRUNE BELLY SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    竹内, 秀雄; 小松, 洋輔; 友吉, 唯夫; 吉田, 修

    1981-01-01

    Three of five patients with prune belly syndrome which we experienced had constructive surgery of the urinary tract and had good results. In the Japanese literatures, 23 of 56 cases which had been reported up to date died. More proper treatment should be done in prune belly syndrome.

  19. Respiratory function in the prune-belly syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, C H; MacLusky, I B; Geary, D F

    1993-01-01

    Respiratory function was evaluated in 11 patients with prune-belly syndrome. Nine had evidence of gas trapping and six of restrictive lung disease. These abnormalities of lung function appear to be secondary to the musculoskeletal disorder associated with prune-belly syndrome rather than parenchymal lung disease. PMID:8503677

  20. Respiratory function in the prune-belly syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Crompton, C H; MacLusky, I B; Geary, D F

    1993-01-01

    Respiratory function was evaluated in 11 patients with prune-belly syndrome. Nine had evidence of gas trapping and six of restrictive lung disease. These abnormalities of lung function appear to be secondary to the musculoskeletal disorder associated with prune-belly syndrome rather than parenchymal lung disease.

  1. Prune Belly Syndrome | Hammond | South African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two cases of prune belly syndrome in Black infants are presented. The prune belly syndrome, or congenital absence of abdominal muscles, is accompanied by hydro-ureter, hydronephrosis, megalocystis and usually undescended testes. Other associated congenital defects occur, of which orthopaedic defects appear to be ...

  2. 7 CFR 52.3182 - Varietal types of dried prunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Dried Prunes Product Description, Varietal Types, Sizes, Grades § 52.3182 Varietal types of dried prunes. (a) Type I. French; or Robe; or a mixture of French and Robe. (b) Type II. Italian. (c) Type III. Imperial; or Sugar; or a mixture of Imperial...

  3. Iterative Mixture Component Pruning Algorithm for Gaussian Mixture PHD Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxi Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As far as the increasing number of mixture components in the Gaussian mixture PHD filter is concerned, an iterative mixture component pruning algorithm is proposed. The pruning algorithm is based on maximizing the posterior probability density of the mixture weights. The entropy distribution of the mixture weights is adopted as the prior distribution of mixture component parameters. The iterative update formulations of the mixture weights are derived by Lagrange multiplier and Lambert W function. Mixture components, whose weights become negative during iterative procedure, are pruned by setting corresponding mixture weights to zeros. In addition, multiple mixture components with similar parameters describing the same PHD peak can be merged into one mixture component in the algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed iterative mixture component pruning algorithm is superior to the typical pruning algorithm based on thresholds.

  4. An efficient viral vector for functional genomic studies of Prunus fruit trees and its induced resistance to Plum pox virus via silencing of a host factor gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hongguang; Wang, Aiming

    2017-03-01

    RNA silencing is a powerful technology for molecular characterization of gene functions in plants. A commonly used approach to the induction of RNA silencing is through genetic transformation. A potent alternative is to use a modified viral vector for virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) to degrade RNA molecules sharing similar nucleotide sequence. Unfortunately, genomic studies in many allogamous woody perennials such as peach are severely hindered because they have a long juvenile period and are recalcitrant to genetic transformation. Here, we report the development of a viral vector derived from Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV), a widespread fruit tree virus that is endemic in all Prunus fruit production countries and regions in the world. We show that the modified PNRSV vector, harbouring the sense-orientated target gene sequence of 100-200 bp in length in genomic RNA3, could efficiently trigger the silencing of a transgene or an endogenous gene in the model plant Nicotiana benthamiana. We further demonstrate that the PNRSV-based vector could be manipulated to silence endogenous genes in peach such as eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E isoform (eIF(iso)4E), a host factor of many potyviruses including Plum pox virus (PPV). Moreover, the eIF(iso)4E-knocked down peach plants were resistant to PPV. This work opens a potential avenue for the control of virus diseases in perennial trees via viral vector-mediated silencing of host factors, and the PNRSV vector may serve as a powerful molecular tool for functional genomic studies of Prunus fruit trees. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Prune Belly syndrome: A rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, Sunil Kumar; Rathod, Setu

    2015-01-01

    Prune Belly syndrome (PBS) is a rare congenital anomaly of uncertain etiology almost exclusive to males. We report a case of term male baby born to a 39-year-old grand multipara with previous four normal vaginal births. There was no history of genetic or congenital anomaly in her family. Examination of the baby revealed hypotonia, deficient abdominal muscle, cryptorchidism, palpable kidney, and bladder. Ultrasound examination of the abdomen revealed bilateral gross hydronephrosis and megaureter. Provisional diagnosis of PBS was made and the baby was admitted in neonatal intensive care units for further management. Routine antenatal care with ultrasonography will help in detecting renal anomalies, which can be followed postnatally. Early diagnosis of this syndrome and determining its optimal treatment are very important in helping to avoid its fatal course.

  6. Rare association of prune belly syndrome with pouch colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ragavan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available M Ragavan1, U Haripriya1, PV Pradeep1, J Sarvavinothini21Department of Endocrine Surgery, 2Department of Anaesthesia, Narayana Medical College and Superspeciality Hospital, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, IndiaAbstract: Prune belly syndrome is a triad characterized by abdominal wall musculature deficiency, cryptorchidism and urinary tract abnormalities, and is often associated with other anomalies. Although associated anorectal anomalies have been reported with this syndrome, only two cases of pouch colon, a rare type of anorectal malformation, have been reported. We report a case of prune belly syndrome with pouch colon presenting with retention of urine.Keywords: prune belly, triad syndrome, pouch colon, anorectal malformation

  7. Prune belly syndrome in an adult Nigerian: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salako, A A; Takure, A O; Olajide, A O; Aarowolo, O A; Egberongbe, A A

    2009-12-01

    Prune Belly Syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by deficient anterior abdominal wall musculature, bilateral cryptorchidism, bilateral megaureters and often unilateral or bilateral vesico-ureteric junction obstruction. The report of prune belly syndrome in the adult is scanty. We report a case of prune belly syndrome in a 24 year old Nigerian who presented with 3 year history of recurrent right loin pain. Examination showed wrinkled abdominal skin, bilateral undescended testes and an hypoplastic rectus abdominis, below the umbilicus. Further evaluation revealed enlarged bladder, bilateral megaureters and right intra-abdominal testis. A diagnosis of Prune Belly Syndrome was made. The challenges in the diagnosis and management of this rare condition are highlighted in this presentation.

  8. Efficient Pruning Method for Ensemble Self-Generating Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Inoue

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, multiple classifier systems (MCS have been used for practical applications to improve classification accuracy. Self-generating neural networks (SGNN are one of the suitable base-classifiers for MCS because of their simple setting and fast learning. However, the computation cost of the MCS increases in proportion to the number of SGNN. In this paper, we propose an efficient pruning method for the structure of the SGNN in the MCS. We compare the pruned MCS with two sampling methods. Experiments have been conducted to compare the pruned MCS with an unpruned MCS, the MCS based on C4.5, and k-nearest neighbor method. The results show that the pruned MCS can improve its classification accuracy as well as reducing the computation cost.

  9. Phylogeny of isolates of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus from the Ilarvirus Ringtest and identification of group-specific features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, R W

    2003-06-01

    Isolates of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) were examined to establish the level of naturally occurring sequence variation in the coat protein (CP) gene and to identify group-specific genome features that may prove valuable for the generation of diagnostic reagents. Phylogenetic analysis of a 452 bp sequence of 68 virus isolates, 20 obtained from the European Union Ilarvirus Ringtest held in October 1998, confirmed the clustering of the isolates into three distinct groups. Although no correlation was found between the sequence and host or geographic origin, there was a general trend for severe isolates to cluster into one group. Group-specific features have been identified for discrimination between virus strains.

  10. A one-step multiplex RT-PCR assay for simultaneous detection of four viruses that infect peach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Y; Zhao, Z; Jiang, D; Wu, Z; Li, S

    2013-10-01

    A multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (mRT-PCR) assay was developed to enable the simultaneous detection and differentiation of four viruses that infect peach, namely Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), Cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV), Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) and Apricot pseudo-chlorotic leaf spot virus (APCLSV). In this study, four pairs of primers, one specific for each virus, were designed; the corresponding PCR products were 632, 439, 346 and 282 bp in length for ACLSV, CGRMV, PNRSV and APCLSV, respectively, and the fragments could be distinguished clearly by agarose gel electrophoresis. The sensitivity and specificity of the method were tested using individual RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the identity of the RT-PCR amplification products was also confirmed by DNA sequencing. The results of RT-PCR and ELISA, along with batch detection using samples collected from peach orchards, revealed that this rapid and simple technique is an effective way to identify the four viruses simultaneously. The mRT-PCR assay described in this study was developed for the simultaneous detection of four peach viruses from infected peach samples is reliable and sensitive. In contrast to conventional uniplex RT-PCR, mRT-PCR is more efficient, reducing costs, time and handling when testing large numbers of samples. This rapid and simple method is useful for large-scale surveys of viruses that infect peach. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. DANNP: an efficient artificial neural network pruning tool

    KAUST Repository

    Alshahrani, Mona

    2017-11-06

    Background Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are a robust class of machine learning models and are a frequent choice for solving classification problems. However, determining the structure of the ANNs is not trivial as a large number of weights (connection links) may lead to overfitting the training data. Although several ANN pruning algorithms have been proposed for the simplification of ANNs, these algorithms are not able to efficiently cope with intricate ANN structures required for complex classification problems. Methods We developed DANNP, a web-based tool, that implements parallelized versions of several ANN pruning algorithms. The DANNP tool uses a modified version of the Fast Compressed Neural Network software implemented in C++ to considerably enhance the running time of the ANN pruning algorithms we implemented. In addition to the performance evaluation of the pruned ANNs, we systematically compared the set of features that remained in the pruned ANN with those obtained by different state-of-the-art feature selection (FS) methods. Results Although the ANN pruning algorithms are not entirely parallelizable, DANNP was able to speed up the ANN pruning up to eight times on a 32-core machine, compared to the serial implementations. To assess the impact of the ANN pruning by DANNP tool, we used 16 datasets from different domains. In eight out of the 16 datasets, DANNP significantly reduced the number of weights by 70%–99%, while maintaining a competitive or better model performance compared to the unpruned ANN. Finally, we used a naïve Bayes classifier derived with the features selected as a byproduct of the ANN pruning and demonstrated that its accuracy is comparable to those obtained by the classifiers trained with the features selected by several state-of-the-art FS methods. The FS ranking methodology proposed in this study allows the users to identify the most discriminant features of the problem at hand. To the best of our knowledge, DANNP (publicly

  12. Energy potential of fruit tree pruned biomass in Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilandzija, N.; Voca, N.; Kricka, T.; Martin, A.; Jurisic, V.

    2012-11-01

    The world's most developed countries and the European Union (EU) deem that the renewable energy sources should partly substitute fossil fuels and become a bridge to the utilization of other energy sources of the future. This paper will present the possibility of using pruned biomass from fruit cultivars. It will also present the calculation of potential energy from the mentioned raw materials in order to determine the extent of replacement of non-renewable sources with these types of renewable energy. One of the results of the intensive fruit-growing process, in post pruning stage, is large amount of pruned biomass waste. Based on the calculated biomass (kg ha{sup 1}) from intensively grown woody fruit crops that are most grown in Croatia (apple, pear, apricots, peach and nectarine, sweet cherry, sour cherry, prune, walnut, hazelnut, almond, fig, grapevine, and olive) and the analysis of combustible (carbon 45.55-49.28%, hydrogen 5.91-6.83%, and sulphur 0.18-0.21%) and non-combustible matters (oxygen 43.34-46.6%, nitrogen 0.54-1.05%, moisture 3.65-8.83%, ashes 1.52-5.39%) with impact of lowering the biomass heating value (15.602-17.727 MJ kg{sup 1}), the energy potential of the pruned fruit biomass is calculated at 4.21 PJ. (Author) 31 refs.

  13. DANNP: an efficient artificial neural network pruning tool

    KAUST Repository

    AlShahrani, Mona; Soufan, Othman; Magana-Mora, Arturo; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2017-01-01

    Although the ANN pruning algorithms are not entirely parallelizable, DANNP was able to speed up the ANN pruning up to eight times on a 32-core machine, compared to the serial implementations. To assess the impact of the ANN pruning by DANNP tool, we used 16 datasets from different domains. In eight out of the 16 datasets, DANNP significantly reduced the number of weights by 70%–99%, while maintaining a competitive or better model performance compared to the unpruned ANN. Finally, we used a naïve Bayes classifier derived with the features selected as a byproduct of the ANN pruning and demonstrated that its accuracy is comparable to those obtained by the classifiers trained with the features selected by several state-of-the-art FS methods. The FS ranking methodology proposed in this study allows the users to identify the most discriminant features of the problem at hand. To the best of our knowledge, DANNP (publicly available at www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/dannp) is the only available and on-line accessible tool that provides multiple parallelized ANN pruning options. Datasets and DANNP code can be obtained at www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/dannp/data.php and https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1001086.

  14. [Prune-Belly Syndrome: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattoli, Fabio; De Prisco, Ornella; Gherzi, Maurizio; Falconi, Daniela; Marazzi, Federico; Marengo, Marita; Serra, Ilaria; Tamagnone, Michela; Formica, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Prune-Belly Syndrome (PBS) is a rare congenital syndrome characterized by the absence of abdominal muscles, anomalies in the urinary tract, megaureter, cryptorchidism or testicular agenesis, hypertension and worsening chronic kidney disease (CKD). The incidence is estimated between 1 out of 35,000 and 1 out of 50,000 born alive, and it affects males in prevalence (97%). In the present study we describe the case of a 38 year old male patient (followed since May 2011) affected by PBS, CKD, one functional kidney at the scintigraphy, pediatric testicular implants, bladder surgery and correction of pectus excavatum. At the beginning of the observation, renal function was deteriorated, with a creatinine 3.3 mg/dl, GFR calculated at MDRD 23 ml/min, proteinuria in nephrotic range (4 g/day), high blood pressure, anemia and hyperparathyroidism. In the following examinations renal function framework worsened, despite the adoption of a low-protein diet. Due to the functional trend, the patient was prescribed hemodialysis as substitute treatment. In January 2013 a first attempt of artero-venous fistula (AVF) did not succeed, while a new AVF in March 2013 resulted effective. In July hemodialysis was started. In the future, we expect to insert the patient in the Kidney Transplant List (since surgical feasibility has already been positively evaluated). Our case is quite peculiar due to the late beginning of substitute treatment. Further, SPB represents a challenge that, in the absence of a prompt and effective treatment, inevitably it leads to terminal uremia; nevertheless, given a proper treatment, a transplant with good chances of success can be envisaged.

  15. Effect of Time and Level of Pruning on Vegetative Growth, Flowering, Yield, and Quality of Guava

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adhikari, Shiva; Kandel, Tanka Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Poor quality fruit production in the rainy season and failure to manipulate production periods are common problems for guava production in India and Nepal. As a possible management to overcome these problems, a field experiment was conducted to understand the effect of time and level of pruning...... (%) of fruits increased with the increased level of pruning in both seasons irrespective of timing of pruning, but fruit acidity was not affected by both treatments. In conclusion, pruning plants at a 20 cm pruning level in early May was the most effective management to reduce yield in the rainy season...... on growth, flowering, yield, and quality of guava. An experiment was laid out with split-pot design allocating three pruning times (mid-April, early May, and mid-May) and four pruning levels (0-, 10-, 20-, and 30-cm tip removal) with three replications in each treatment. Increased level of pruning in early...

  16. Differentiation of closely related but biologically distinct cherry isolates of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus by polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, R W; Crosslin, J M; Pasini, R; Howell, W E; Mink, G I

    1999-07-01

    Prunus necrotic ringspot ilarvirus (PNRSV) exists as a number of biologically distinct variants which differ in host specificity, serology, and pathology. Previous nucleotide sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis of cloned reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) products of several biologically distinct sweet cherry isolates revealed correlations between symptom type and the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the 3a (putative movement protein) and 3b (coat protein) open reading frames. Based upon this analysis, RT-PCR assays have been developed that can identify isolates displaying different symptoms and serotypes. The incorporation of primers in a multiplex PCR protocol permits rapid detection and discrimination among the strains. The results of PCR amplification using type-specific primers that amplify a portion of the coat protein gene demonstrate that the primer-selection procedure developed for PNRSV constitutes a reliable method of viral strain discrimination in cherry for disease control and will also be useful for examining biological diversity within the PNRSV virus group.

  17. Comparative expression profiling of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves systemically infected with three fruit tree viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardick, Christopher

    2007-08-01

    Plant viruses cause a wide array of disease symptoms and cytopathic effects. Although some of these changes are virus specific, many appear to be common even among diverse viruses. Currently, little is known about the underlying molecular determinants. To identify gene expression changes that are concomitant with virus symptoms, we performed comparative expression profiling experiments on Nicotiana benthamiana leaves infected with one of three different fruit tree viruses that produce distinct symptoms: Plum pox potyvirus (PPV; leaf distortion and mosaic), Tomato ringspot nepovirus (ToRSV; tissue necrosis and general chlorosis), and Prunus necrotic ringspot ilarvirus (PNRSV; subtle chlorotic mottling). The numbers of statistically significant genes identified were consistent with the severity of the observed symptoms: 1,082 (ToRSV), 744 (PPV), and 89 (PNRSV). In all, 56% of the gene expression changes found in PPV-infected leaves also were altered by ToRSV, 87% of which changed in the same direction. Both PPV- and ToRSV-infected leaves showed widespread repression of genes associated with plastid functions. PPV uniquely induced the expression of large numbers of cytosolic ribosomal genes whereas ToRSV repressed the expression of plastidic ribosomal genes. How these and other observed expression changes might be associated with symptom development are discussed.

  18. Grafting, pruning, and the antipodal map on measured laminations

    OpenAIRE

    Dumas, David

    2006-01-01

    Grafting a measured lamination on a hyperbolic surface defines a self-map of Teichmuller space, which is a homeomorphism by a result of Scannell and Wolf. In this paper we study the large-scale behavior of pruning, which is the inverse of grafting. Specifically, for each conformal structure $X \\in \\T(S)$, pruning $X$ gives a map $\\ML(S) \\to \\T(S)$. We show that this map extends to the Thurston compactification of $\\T(S)$, and that its boundary values are the natural antipodal involution relat...

  19. Partial prune belly syndrome: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Pratap Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Prune belly syndrome (PBS is characterized by deficient development of abdominal muscles that causes the skin of the abdomen to wrinkle like a prune, bilateral cryptorchidism, abnormalities of the urinary tract. The etiology of PBS is unclear and possible familial genetic inheritance was reported in some of the studies. We are presenting here a case with the absence of the muscle in the right side of the abdomen as hernia, thinning of the muscle on left side with bilateral cryptorchidism, and abnormalities of the urinary tract. It is the partial presentation of the PBS.

  20. Influence of coffee pruning on the severity of frost damage

    OpenAIRE

    Androcioli Filho,Armando; Caramori,Paulo Henrique

    2000-01-01

    Frost damages in a field experiment of pruning types and systems for the cultivars of Coffea arabica Catuaí and Mundo Novo, were evaluated at Londrina (23º22’S, 52º10´W), State of Parana, southern Brazil, during the winter of 1990 and 1994. Pruning types evaluated were ‘esqueletamento’ (cutting off all plagiotropic branches at 20-30 cm from the orthotropic branch), ‘decote’ (cutting off the orthotropic branch at 1.5 m and 2.0 m above ground) and ‘recepa’ (cutting off the orthotropic branch at...

  1. Familial prune belly syndrome in a Nigerian family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibadin, Michael Okoeguale; Ademola, Ade Adeyekun; Ofovwe, Gabriel Egberue

    2012-03-01

    A case of Prune Belly Syndrome in an infant, the second in a middle class family with both parents in their late thirties, is presented because of its rarity. Constraints in the management are discussed and relevant literature reviewed. This is intended to awaken interest and sharpen indices of suspicion that would facilitate early diagnosis, enhance management, and mitigate prejudices.

  2. Prune belly syndrome: A report of 15 cases from Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheir, Abdelmoneim E M; Ali, Eltigani M A; Medani, Safaa A; Maaty, Huda S

    2017-01-01

    Prune belly syndrome is a rare congenital malformation of unknown aetiology, composed of a triad of deficient abdominal wall muscle, cryptorchidism and urinary tract anomalies. The majority of patients have associated pulmonary, skeletal, cardiac, and gastrointestinal defects. This was a prospective, case finding study that was conducted in the main paediatric hospitals in Khartoum state, during the period December 2015 to September 2016. A total of 15 patients with prune belly syndrome were collected. Patients' characteristics were noted including socio-demographic data, laboratory and radiological investigations and any medical or surgical intervention. There were 12 males and 3 females with a male to female ratio of 4:1. Most of the patients (80%) had hydronephrosis and hydroureter. The study revealed that 60% of the patients had associated anomalies, there were 4 (26.6%) with cardiac defects, 3 (20%) with orthopaedic defects one patient with small bowel volvulus and one patient with cleft lip. 6 (40%) patients received medical intervention and 8 (53%) patients underwent surgical procedures. At the last follow up visit, 2 (13.4%) patients had normal renal function tests, 8 (53.3%) ended with chronic kidney disease, and 5 died with a mortality rate of 33.3%. Prune belly syndrome is a rare entity with wide variability in severity and clinical manifestations. The mortality in prune belly syndrome remains high despite medical and surgical interventions.

  3. Prune Belly Syndrome: A case Report | Ezeaka | Nigerian Quarterly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Prune Belly Syndrome (PBS) is a anomaly. It comprises of a lax abdominal wall musculature, urinary tract anomalies, and cryptorchidism. Our patients had urinary tract infection and renal failure. These are well described consequences of the syndrome and are poor prognostic indices. This case report was undertaken ...

  4. Prune belly syndrome: Early management outcome of nine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Prune belly syndrome (PBS) is a rare congenital malformation of unclear etiology. The disease progress and outcome in developing countries are not clear as most reports are isolated case reports. Materials and Methods: A review of 9 patients managed for PBS in 5 years. Results: There were 7 males and 2 ...

  5. On the use of a pruning prior for neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Cyril

    1996-01-01

    We address the problem of using a regularization prior that prunes unnecessary weights in a neural network architecture. This prior provides a convenient alternative to traditional weight-decay. Two examples are studied to support this method and illustrate its use. First we use the sunspots...

  6. 7 CFR 52.3188 - Work sheet for dried prunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for dried prunes. Size and kind of container Container mark or identification Label or brand Varietal... fermentation, scars, heat damage, insect injury, other means, mold, dirt, foreign material, insect infestation... fermentation, scars, heat damage, insect injury, other means, mold, dirt, foreign material, insect infestation...

  7. 7 CFR 457.133 - Prune crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... roadside stand, farmer's market, and permitting the general public to enter the field for the purpose of... (except where otherwise provided in the Special Provisions); (d) That are grown in an orchard that, if... not been controlled or pruning debris has not been removed from the orchard; (3) Wildlife; (4...

  8. TREE CANOPY PRUNING DOES NOT REGULATE BIENNIAL BEARING IN ”ELSTAR” APPLE (Malus domestica Borkh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Pavičić

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Four alternative pruning strategies (A– 25 generative buds, B– 50 generative buds, C– 75 generative buds and D–100 generative buds per tree for Elstar apple cultivar and their possible impact on improvement in productivity were examined in 1999 and 2000. Year was significant factor for all traits, except yield. The pruning strategy is significant for number of fruits per flower cluster and fruit mass. Interaction year and pruning strategy is significant only for number of fruits per flower cluster. Fruit mass was larger for pruning strategy A compared to the pruning strategies C and D. Yield efficiency and biennial bearing index were not affected by pruning strategies. The biennial bearing index variance was the lowest for the pruning strategy B. Trunk cross sectional area (TCSA had negative impact on fruit mass in pruning strategy C. Correlation between the flower and crop density was positive in pruning strategy A. Flower density was in positive correlation with yield in pruning strategy C. The research shows that tree pruning alone will not result in adequate yield regulation in ‘Elstar’ apple.

  9. Characterization of apple stem grooving virus and apple chlorotic leaf spot virus identified in a crab apple tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongqiang; Deng, Congliang; Bian, Yong; Zhao, Xiaoli; Zhou, Qi

    2017-04-01

    Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), and prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) were identified in a crab apple tree by small RNA deep sequencing. The complete genome sequence of ACLSV isolate BJ (ACLSV-BJ) was 7554 nucleotides and shared 67.0%-83.0% nucleotide sequence identity with other ACLSV isolates. A phylogenetic tree based on the complete genome sequence of all available ACLSV isolates showed that ACLSV-BJ clustered with the isolates SY01 from hawthorn, MO5 from apple, and JB, KMS and YH from pear. The complete nucleotide sequence of ASGV-BJ was 6509 nucleotides (nt) long and shared 78.2%-80.7% nucleotide sequence identity with other isolates. ASGV-BJ and the isolate ASGV_kfp clustered together in the phylogenetic tree as an independent clade. Recombination analysis showed that isolate ASGV-BJ was a naturally occurring recombinant.

  10. Unusual presentation of prune belly syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demisse, Abayneh Girma; Berhanu, Ashenafi; Tadesse, Temesgen

    2017-12-04

    Prune belly syndrome is a rare congenital malformation of unknown etiology, with the following triad of findings: abdominal muscle wall weakness, undescended testes, and urinary tract abnormalities. In most cases, detection of prune belly syndrome occurs during neonatal or infancy period. In this case report, we describe a 12-year-old boy from Ethiopia with the triad of findings of prune belly syndrome along with skeletal malformations. We are unaware of any previous report of prune belly syndrome in Ethiopia. A 12-year-old Amhara boy from the Northwest Gondar Amhara regional state presented to our referral hospital with a complaint of swelling over his left flank for the past 3 months. Maternal pregnancy course and medical history were noncontributory, and he had an attended birth at a health center. He has seven siblings, none of whom had similar symptoms. On examination he had a distended abdomen, asymmetric with bulging left flank, visible horizontal line, upward umbilical slit, and absent rectus abdominis muscles. His abdomen was soft with a tender cystic, bimanually palpable mass on the left flank measuring 13 × 11 cm. Both testes were undescended and he also has developmental dysplasia of the hips. An abdominal ultrasound revealed a large cystic mass in his left kidney area with echo debris and a hip X-ray showed bilateral developmental dysplasia of the hip. Intraoperative findings were cystic left kidney, both testes were intraperitoneal, tortuous left renal vein, enlarged bladder reaching above umbilicus, and left megaureter. bilateral orchidectomy and left nephrectomy were done. He was given intravenously administered antibiotics for treatment of pyelonephritis and discharged home with an appointment for follow up and possible abdominoplasty. In the current report delayed presentation contributed to testicular atrophy and decision for orchidectomy. Furthermore, he will be at potential risk for sex hormone abnormality. Therefore, diagnosis of prune

  11. Influence of coffee pruning on the severity of frost damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Androcioli Filho

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Frost damages in a field experiment of pruning types and systems for the cultivars of Coffea arabica Catuaí and Mundo Novo, were evaluated at Londrina (23º22’S, 52º10´W, State of Parana, southern Brazil, during the winter of 1990 and 1994. Pruning types evaluated were ‘esqueletamento’ (cutting off all plagiotropic branches at 20-30 cm from the orthotropic branch, ‘decote’ (cutting off the orthotropic branch at 1.5 m and 2.0 m above ground and ‘recepa’ (cutting off the orthotropic branch at 0.8 m above ground, performed on all rows and on alternate rows, and on different sections of the plant. Results indicated that frost damage could increase according to the type and height of pruning. The pruning type ‘esqueletamento’ and prunings at higher levels were more suitable for regions with frost risk. Under severe frost condition, pruning type did not affect the damage in anyone of the treatments evaluated.Foram avaliados os danos causados pelas geadas ocorridas em 1990 e 1994 em cafeeiros de duas cultivares de Coffea arabica L., Catuaí e Mundo Novo, conduzidos em Londrina-PR. Os tipos e sistemas de podas aplicados foram o esqueletamento a 20-30 cm do tronco, decote a 1,5 m e 2,0 m de altura e recepa a 0,80 m de altura. As podas foram feitas em área total e em linhas alternadas e em diferentes partes da planta. Os dados obtidos indicaram que os danos por geada podem ser intensificados em função do tipo e altura da poda. A poda do tipo esqueletamento e as podas altas são mais indicadas para o manejo das lavouras nas regiões mais sujeitas ao fenômeno de geada. No caso de geada severa, todos os cafeeiros foram afetados, independente do tipo de poda.

  12. Oral manifestations associated with systemic complications of prune belly syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, Larissa; Galvão, Virgilio

    2013-01-01

    Prune belly syndrome (PBS) is a rare congenital malformation of unknown etiology characterized by congenital abnormalities including abdominal wall flaccidity, urinary tract alterations, and bilateral cryptorchidism. The incidence of the syndrome is between 1/35000 and 1/50000 live births and there is little information about the oral findings. The present case describes the oral manifestations of a 15-year-old boy diagnosed with PBS. The findings include enamel hypoplasia associated with generalized hypocalcemic dental lines. In the radiographic exam, pronounced demineralization of the trabecular bone of the jaws, loss of lamina dura in all the teeth, and discontinuity of the mandibular cortical bone were observed. Prune belly syndrome is a rare disease, whose clinical dental aspects are not pathognomonic of the syndrome. The comprehension of the systemic mechanism of PBS and its comorbidities enable an understanding of the systemic etiologic factors associated with oral manifestations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Dynamic abdominoplasty for the treatment of prune belly syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, Jeffrey A; Varkarakis, George

    2012-09-01

    The deficient abdominal wall musculature associated with prune belly syndrome often results in numerous functional disabilities, including diminished cough, impaired bladder and bowel function, and poor posture and balance. Traditional abdominoplasties focus on static fascial excisions or plications. The authors sought to assess their preliminary experience with a new abdominoplasty technique that incorporates standard fascial tightening with bilateral pedicled rectus femoris muscle transfers. This case series review included all patients treated with prune belly syndrome at the authors' center. Physical presentation, operative procedures, hospitalization, complications, and postoperative functional status were assessed, and a systematic analysis of published surgical series was performed. Over a 16-year period, the authors treated 13 patients with prune belly syndrome. All underwent standard "vest over pants" fascial plications, with 11 of 13 undergoing additional rectus femoris muscle transpositions at a mean age of 4 years (range, 12 months to 13 years). Hospitalization averaged 9.3 days, and the average follow-up was over 1.5 years. The authors identified three minor complications (chylous leak, fungal urinary tract infection, and partial umbilical necrosis), yielding a complication rate similar to those identified in our systematic analysis of published standard abdominoplasties. Postoperatively, all transposed muscles were palpably functional, one patient was successfully weaned off a ventilator, and all demonstrated improvements with balance and ambulation. The authors' preliminary review suggests that this new procedure, which supplements the standard prune belly abdominoplasty with bilateral rectus femoris transposition flaps, is not associated with substantially higher complication rates yet does appear to have the potential to provide functional improvements.

  14. Familial prune belly syndrome in a Nigerian family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Okoeguale Ibadin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of Prune Belly Syndrome in an infant, the second in a middle class family with both parents in their late thirties, is presented because of its rarity. Constraints in the manage-ment are discussed and relevant literature reviewed. This is intended to awaken interest and sharpen indices of suspicion that would facilitate early diagnosis, enhance management, and mitigate prejudices.

  15. Stock Picking via Nonsymmetrically Pruned Binary Decision Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Anton Andriyashin

    2008-01-01

    Stock picking is the field of financial analysis that is of particular interest for many professional investors and researchers. In this study stock picking is implemented via binary classification trees. Optimal tree size is believed to be the crucial factor in forecasting performance of the trees. While there exists a standard method of tree pruning, which is based on the cost-complexity tradeoff and used in the majority of studies employing binary decision trees, this paper introduces a no...

  16. Radiation processing of fruits: application to strawberries and prunes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levillain, M.

    1986-10-01

    Extending the shelf-life of fresh fruit by means of low-dose irradiation (radurization) is not a new idea: experiments in that field started in the early sixties. These experiments have actually proved that, in some cases, irradiation can achieve shelf-life extension, either through a delay in ripening (bananas), or through rot inhibition (soft cherries, apricots, tomatoes, strawberries). Alas, they have also highlighted the intolerance showed by a number of fruits when radurized: irradiation is apt to have them ripen more rapidly (peaches, nectarines) or to soften them too much (pears, table grapes, oranges, apples, plums, grapefruit, melons, honeydew melons). Even in those cases where irradiation results in a benefit, this benefit varies depending on the variety of fruit involved, as can be seen from a deep survey of the irradiation of strawberries. Preservation of dehydrated fruit is a different matter. Prunes, for instance, would be contamined by molds, wasn't it for the addition of sorbic acid during the fabrication process. Ionization of prunes can allow producers to avoid the use of a chemical, and to keep the prunes at a greater degree of humidity [fr

  17. Effect of Root Pruning and Irrigation Regimes on Yield and Physiology of Pear Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yufei

    Clara Frijs’ is the dominant pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivar in Denmark. It is vigorous with long annual shoots, and therefore can be difficult to prune. Root pruning has been widely used to control the canopy size of fruit trees including pears. However, root pruned trees are more likely......, it was concluded that root pruning not only decreases water uptake but also nutrient uptake, and both have contributed to the reduced canopy growth. Supplemental irrigation partially improved the tree water status and nitrogen uptake without stimulating additional shoot growth in the root pruned trees....... A combination of root pruning and irrigation could be a promising practice to control tree size and secure a stable fruit yield in pear orchard....

  18. Genetic basis of prune belly syndrome: screening for HNF1β gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granberg, Candace F; Harrison, Steven M; Dajusta, Daniel; Zhang, Shaohua; Hajarnis, Sachin; Igarashi, Peter; Baker, Linda A

    2012-01-01

    Although the cause of prune belly syndrome is unknown, familial evidence suggests a genetic component. Recently 2 nonfamilial cases of prune belly syndrome with chromosome 17q12 deletions encompassing the HNF1β gene have made this a candidate gene for prune belly syndrome. To date, there has been no large-scale screening of patients with prune belly syndrome for HNF1β mutations. We assessed the role of HNF1β in prune belly syndrome by screening for genomic mutations with functional characterization of any detected mutations. We studied patients with prune belly syndrome who were prospectively enrolled in our Pediatric Genitourinary DNA Repository since 2001. DNA from patient samples was amplified by polymerase chain reaction, sequenced for coding and splice regions of the HNF1β gene, and compared to control databases. We performed functional assay testing of the ability of mutant HNF1β to activate a luciferase construct with an HNF1β DNA binding site. From 32 prune belly syndrome probands (30 males, 2 females) HNF1β sequencing detected a missense mutation (V61G) in 1 child with prune belly syndrome. Absent in control databases, V61G was previously reported in 2 patients without prune belly syndrome who had congenital genitourinary anomalies. Functional testing showed similar luciferase activity compared to wild-type HNF1β, suggesting the V61G substitution does not disturb HNF1β function. One genomic HNF1β mutation was detected in 3% of patients with prune belly syndrome but found to be functionally normal. Thus, functionally significant HNF1β mutations are uncommon in prune belly syndrome, despite case reports of HNF1β deletions. Further genetic study is necessary, as identification of the genetic basis of prune belly syndrome may ultimately lead to prevention and improved treatments for this rare but severe syndrome. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Multipl Konjenital Anomalilerin Eşlik Ettiği Bir Prune-Belly Sendromu Olgusu

    OpenAIRE

    YILDIZ, L.; AYDIN, O.; BORAN, Ç.; KANDEMİR, B.; ALPER, T.

    2010-01-01

    A Case of Prune-Belly Syndrome Associated with Multiple Congenital Anomalies Abdominal muscle deficiency, urinary tract abnormalities and cryptoorchidism are the three major features of the Prune-belly syndrome. Massive acites and intraabdominal urine accumulation had produced abdominal wall atrophy. A functional or anatomic urethral obstruction may detect on cases. As an addition classic triad of Prune-belly syndrome our case has polydactily, cleft lip and palate. Chromosomal analysis cou...

  20. Source-Sink Relations in Fruits VII. Effects of Pruning in Sour Cherry and Plum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo; Hansen, P.

    1993-01-01

    Sour cherries cv. 'Stevnsbær' and plums cv. 'Victoria' were heavily pruned in 1987. Fruit samples were collected during the growing season and concentrations of different quality components were determined. Pruning resulted in a small increase in fruit size, the effect being greater on the older...... trees (sour cherries) or at the lower crop load (plum). Additionally, pruning decreased the con­centrations of total and soluble dry matter and of anthocya­nins ('Stevnsbær'), while titratable acids showed an increas­ing tendency. The effects of pruning are discussed based on influences on root...

  1. PHENOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF GENOTYPES FROM CATTLEY GUAVA AND GUAVA TREES SUBMITTED TO FRUCTIFICATION PRUNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CINTIA APARECIDA BREMENKAMP

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Psidium cattleianum Sabine is a species from the Myrtaceae family that serves as an option for the native fruits cultivation, besides being considered a source of resistance to the Meloidogyne enterolobii nematode. Although cattley guava trees from this species produce flower buds in young branches, there are no reports of response to fructification pruning or phenological synchronism with the guava tree. The objective of this paper was the comparative evaluation of the genotype response of strawberry guava trees and guava cultivars to fructification pruning, thus, describing the phenology of both species under the same cultivation conditions. The experiment was conducted under an entirely randomized outline, in 7x2 factorial scheme, being evaluated seven genotypes (three from strawberry guava and four from guava trees, and with pruning performed in two seasons (May 2012 and March 2013, with three repetitions. Fructification pruning was executed by a lopping on all mature branches, from the last growth flow in the woody branch region. Were evaluated budding characteristics and fruit harvesting, as well as number of days from pruning to the observation of the phenological event. Cattley guava tree pruning stimulated fructification of all three genotypes after pruning done on May and two genotypes after the March’s pruning. There has been a sync between the guava cultivars’ flowering and both strawberry guava trees genotypes, when those were pruned on May.

  2. Spinal motor neuron involvement in a patient with homozygous PRUNE mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacomino, Michele; Fiorillo, Chiara; Torella, Annalaura; Severino, Mariasavina; Broda, Paolo; Romano, Catia; Falsaperla, Raffaele; Pozzolini, Giulia; Minetti, Carlo; Striano, Pasquale; Nigro, Vincenzo; Zara, Federico

    2018-05-01

    In the last few years, whole exome sequencing (WES) allowed the identification of PRUNE mutations in patients featuring a complex neurological phenotype characterized by severe neurodevelopmental delay, microcephaly, epilepsy, optic atrophy, and brain or cerebellar atrophy. We describe an additional patient with homozygous PRUNE mutation who presented with spinal muscular atrophy phenotype, in addition to the already known brain developmental disorder. This novel feature expands the clinical consequences of PRUNE mutations and allow to converge PRUNE syndrome with previous descriptions of neurodevelopmental/neurodegenerative disorders linked to altered microtubule dynamics. Copyright © 2017 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The molecular variability analysis of the RNA 3 of fifteen isolates of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus sheds light on the minimal requirements for the synthesis of its subgenomic RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Frederic; Pallás, Vicente

    2002-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of the RNA 3 of fifteen isolates of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) varying in the symptomatology they cause in six different Prunus spp. were determined. Analysis of the molecular variability has allowed, in addition to study the phylogenetic relationships among them, to evaluate the minimal requirements for the synthesis of the subgenomic RNA in Ilarvirus genus and their comparison to other members of the Bromoviridae family. Computer assisted comparisons led recently to Jaspars (Virus Genes 17, 233-242, 1998) to propose that a hairpin structure in viral minus strand RNA is required for subgenomic promoter activity of viruses from at least two, and possibly all five, genera in the family of Bromoviridae. For PNRSV and Apple mosaic virus two stable hairpins were proposed whereas for the rest of Ilarviruses and the other four genera of the Bromoviridae family only one stable hairpin was predicted. Comparative analysis of this region among the fifteen PNRSV isolates characterized in this study revealed that two of them showed a 12-nt deletion that led to the disappearance of the most proximal hairpin to the initiation site. Interestingly, the only hairpin found in these two isolates is very similar in primary and secondary structure to the one previously shown in Brome mosaic virus to be required for the synthesis of the subgenomic RNA. In this hairpin, the molecular diversity was concentrated mostly at the loop whereas compensatory mutations were observed at the base of the stem strongly suggesting its functional relevance. The evolutionary implications of these observations are discussed.

  4. Molecular Variability Among Isolates of Prunus Necrotic Ringspot Virus from Different Prunus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, F; Myrta, A; Di Terlizzi, B; Pallás, V

    1999-11-01

    ABSTRACT Viral sequences amplified by polymerase chain reaction from 25 isolates of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV), varying in the symptomatology they cause in six different Prunus spp., were analyzed for restriction fragment polymorphisms. Most of the isolates could be discriminated by using a combination of three different restriction enzymes. The nucleotide sequences of the RNA 4 of 15 of these isolates were determined. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses of the RNA 4 and coat proteins (CPs) revealed that all of the isolates clustered into three different groups, represented by three previously sequenced PNRSV isolates: PV32, PE5, and PV96. The PE5-type group was characterized by a 5' untranslated region that was clearly different from that of the other two groups. The PV32-type group was characterized by an extra hexanucleotide consisting of a duplication of the six immediately preceding nucleotides. Although most of the variability was observed in the first third of the CP, the amino acid residues in this region, which were previously thought to be functionally important in the replication cycle of the virus, were strictly conserved. No clear correlation with the type of symptom or host specificity could be observed. The validity of this grouping was confirmed when other isolates recently characterized by other authors were included in these analyses.

  5. Effect of Shoot Pruning and Flower Thinning on Quality and Quantity of Semi-Determinate Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

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    Abdolali HESAMI

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available There are many constraints of space, light and availability of fruits to harvest in tomatoes greenhouse. Therefore, two experiments were carried out to determine the effect of shoot pruning and flower thinning on quality and quantity of fruits of semi-determinate tomato in a greenhouse of the Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Persian Gulf University of Bushehr. Experimental design was randomized complete block designs in which the effect of shoot pruning (single branch pruning, double branch pruning, pyramidal pruning and control or flower thinning (Cluster with 4 and 5 remained flowers and control were studied separately. Results showed that, leaf area and plants yield were higher in treatments which were pruned than control. Yields from pyramidal pruning and cluster thinning with 5 remaining flowers were significantly higher than other treatments. On the other hand, qualitative study identified that pyramidal pruning increases vitamin C in fruits, but had no significant effect on total soluble solids.

  6. Hepatoblastoma and prune belly syndrome: a potential association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becknell, Brian; Pais, Priya; Onimoe, Grace; Rangarajan, Hemalatha; Schwaderer, Andrew L; McHugh, Kirk; Ranalli, Mark A; Hains, David S

    2011-08-01

    Prune belly syndrome (PBS) is a congenital anomaly characterized by the clinical triad of lax abdominal musculature, bilateral cryptorchidism, and abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract. Previous reports of malignancy in patients with PBS have been limited to germ cell tumors. Hepatoblastoma (HBL) is the most common hepatic malignancy of childhood, affecting approximately 100 children each year in the USA. We describe a set of 4 pediatric patients with PBS and HBL. All individuals were born after 2002. These subjects lacked genetic, natal, or environmental factors known to confer risk of HBL. The occurrence of PBS and HBL in these patients constitutes a novel potential association.

  7. Pregnancy outcome in a woman with prune belly syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, R Tyler; Garabedian, Matthew James; Wallerstein, Robert J

    2012-11-30

    Prune belly syndrome is a rare congenital syndrome that primarily affects male fetuses. Affected men are universally infertile; however, there is a paucity of information published on the reproductive potential of affected women. Pregnancy outcomes in affected women have not been described in the literature. We describe the case of pregnancy in an affected woman. Her pregnancy progressed without complication. Her fetus had no stigmata of the syndrome. Her labour and delivery were, however, complicated by a prolonged second stage of labour and need for vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery.

  8. Prune belly syndrome with pouch colon and absent dermatome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Aejaz A; Hussain, Syed A; Shera, Altaf H; Patnaik, Rekha

    2010-01-01

    Prune belly syndrome (PBS) is a rare congenital constellation of defects in pediatric surgical practice. Although anorectal anomalies have been reported in association with PBS, only few case of pouch colon with PBS has been reported. [1] In addition, our patient had deficient abdominal wall with absent dermatome in left upper quadrant, which has never been reported in the English literature. This association with abdominal wall deficiency and absent dermatome not only strengthens the theory of mesodermal arrest in the etiology of PBS but also points towards a defect in the ectodermal development.

  9. Prune belly syndrome with pouch colon and absent dermatome

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    Baba Aejaz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Prune belly syndrome (PBS is a rare congenital constellation of defects in pediatric surgical practice. Although anorectal anomalies have been reported in association with PBS, only few case of pouch colon with PBS has been reported. [1] In addition, our patient had deficient abdominal wall with absent dermatome in left upper quadrant, which has never been reported in the English literature. This association with abdominal wall deficiency and absent dermatome not only strengthens the theory of mesodermal arrest in the etiology of PBS but also points towards a defect in the ectodermal development.

  10. Simultaneous detection and identification of four cherry viruses by two step multiplex RT-PCR with an internal control of plant nad5 mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorani, Md Salik; Awasthi, Prachi; Sharma, Maheshwar Prasad; Ram, Raja; Zaidi, Aijaz Asgar; Hallan, Vipin

    2013-10-01

    A multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (mRT-PCR) was developed and standardized for the simultaneous detection of four cherry viruses: Cherry virus A (CVA, Genus; Capillovirus), Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV, unassigned species of the Betaflexiviridae), Little cherry virus 1 (LChV-1, Genus; Closterovirus) and Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV, Genus; Ilarvirus) with nad5 as plant internal control. A reliable and quick method for total plant RNA extraction from pome and stone fruit trees was also developed. To minimize primer dimer formation, a single antisense primer for CVA and CNRMV was used. A mixture of random hexamer and oligo (dT) primer was used for cDNA synthesis, which was highly suited and economic for multiplexing. All four viruses were detected successfully by mRT-PCR in artificially created viral RNA mixture and field samples of sweet cherry. The identity of the viruses was confirmed by sequencing. The assay could detect above viruses in diluted cDNA (10(-4)) and RNA (10(-3), except PNRSV which was detected only till ten times lesser dilution). The developed mRT-PCR will not only be useful for the detection of viruses from single or multiple infections of sweet cherry plants but also for other stone and pome fruits. The developed method will be therefore quite helpful for virus indexing, plant quarantine and certification programs. This is the first report for the simultaneous detection of four cherry viruses by mRT-PCR. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. It's not All Doom and Gloom: Prune Belly Syndrome Associated with VACTERL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Karim; Lall, Anupam

    2016-01-01

    Prune belly syndrome is a rare abnormality; its association with VACTERL is even rarer. This association has been reported in literature a few times since first reported in 1993 and so far the majority have either been stillbirths or died shortly after birth. We present a case of Prune belly syndrome associated with VACTERL who is now one year old.

  12. Suspected Urine Leak in a Pediatric Renal Transplant Patient With Prune Belly Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Kaplan, Summer L; Zhuang, Hongming

    2016-03-01

    Patients with prune belly syndrome usually have tortuous ureters, which can cause difficulty in the interpretation of renal scan used to evaluate possible urine leak after renal transplant. We reported a renal scan finding in a pediatric renal transplant patient with prune belly syndrome. The radioactivity in the dilated ureter, which was lateral to the renal transplant, appears to be urine leak.

  13. Prune belly syndrome associated with bilateral multicystic dysplastic kidneys and urethral obstruction: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Akdag

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Prune belly syndrome is a rare congenital disorder defined by a characteristic clinical triad: Abdominal muscle deficiency, severe urinary tract abnormalities, and bilateral cryptorchidism. We describe a preterm neonate of Prune Belly syndrome who had abdominal muscle deficiency, multicystic dysplastic kidney, urethral hypoplasia and pulmonary hypoplasia. We presented this rare case with the data gathered from the literatüre.

  14. An Integrated Pruning Criterion for Ensemble Learning Based on Classification Accuracy and Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Bin; Wang, Zhihai; Pan, Rong

    2013-01-01

    be further considered while designing a pruning criterion is presented, and then an effective definition of diversity is proposed. The experimental results have validated that the given pruning criterion could single out the subset of classifiers that show better performance in the process of hill...

  15. Comparative analysis among the small RNA populations of source, sink and conductive tissues in two different plant-virus pathosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herranz, Mari Carmen; Navarro, Jose Antonio; Sommen, Evelien; Pallas, Vicente

    2015-02-22

    In plants, RNA silencing plays a fundamental role as defence mechanism against viruses. During last years deep-sequencing technology has allowed to analyze the sRNA profile of a large variety of virus-infected tissues. Nevertheless, the majority of these studies have been restricted to a unique tissue and no comparative analysis between phloem and source/sink tissues has been conducted. In the present work, we compared the sRNA populations of source, sink and conductive (phloem) tissues in two different plant virus pathosystems. We chose two cucurbit species infected with two viruses very different in genome organization and replication strategy; Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV) and Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV). Our findings showed, in both systems, an increase of the 21-nt total sRNAs together with a decrease of those with a size of 24-nt in all the infected tissues, except for the phloem where the ratio of 21/24-nt sRNA species remained constant. Comparing the vsRNAs, both PNRSV- and MNSV-infected plants share the same vsRNA size distribution in all the analyzed tissues. Similar accumulation levels of sense and antisense vsRNAs were observed in both systems except for roots that showed a prevalence of (+) vsRNAs in both pathosystems. Additionally, the presence of overrepresented discrete sites along the viral genome, hot spots, were identified and validated by stem-loop RT-PCR. Despite that in PNRSV-infected plants the presence of vsRNAs was scarce both viruses modulated the host sRNA profile. We compare for the first time the sRNA profile of four different tissues, including source, sink and conductive (phloem) tissues, in two plant-virus pathosystems. Our results indicate that antiviral silencing machinery in melon and cucumber acts mainly through DCL4. Upon infection, the total sRNA pattern in phloem remains unchanged in contrast to the rest of the analyzed tissues indicating a certain tissue-tropism to this polulation. Independently of the

  16. Síndrome de prune belly: presentación de caso Prune belly syndrome: a case report

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    María Elena Toledo Lamela

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de prune belly es una rara enfermedad congénita de causa desconocida. Se presenta el caso de un recién nacido a término, del sexo masculino y de un día de nacido, que fue remitido al servicio de urología pediátrica por presentar ausencia de los músculos de la pared anterior del abdomen (rectos anteriores, criptorquidia bilateral y gran globo vesical. A partir de los hallazgos del examen físico se planteó el diagnóstico de síndrome de prune belly. Se encontraron anomalías asociadas como escoliosis y agenesia del pie derecho. En el estudio radiológico del tracto urinario se confirmaron malformaciones congénitas como valva de uretra posterior y megavejiga con uretero-hidronefrosis bilateral. Los análisis de laboratorio confirmaron la afectación de la función renal y una infección urinaria asociada. Se practicó una cistostomía a cielo abierto. El paciente falleció a los 10 días a causa de las complicaciones de la insuficiencia renalThe prune belly syndrome is a congenital rare disease of unknown origin. The case of a one-day-old full- term male newborn infant that was referred to the pediatric urology service for presenting absence of the muscles of the anterior abdomen wall (anterior rectus muscle, bilateral cryptochordism and big vesical globe, was presented. Starting from the findings of the physical examination, the prune belly syndrome was diagnosed. Associated abnormalities such as scoliosis and agenesis of the right leg were found. In the radiological study of the urinary tract, congenital malformations as posterior urethra valve and megabladder with bilateral ureterohydronephrosis were confirmed. The lab tests corroborated the affectation of the renal function and an associated urinary infection. The patient died at 10 days as a result of the complications of renal failure

  17. A Pruning Neural Network Model in Credit Classification Analysis

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    Yajiao Tang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, credit classification models are widely applied because they can help financial decision-makers to handle credit classification issues. Among them, artificial neural networks (ANNs have been widely accepted as the convincing methods in the credit industry. In this paper, we propose a pruning neural network (PNN and apply it to solve credit classification problem by adopting the well-known Australian and Japanese credit datasets. The model is inspired by synaptic nonlinearity of a dendritic tree in a biological neural model. And it is trained by an error back-propagation algorithm. The model is capable of realizing a neuronal pruning function by removing the superfluous synapses and useless dendrites and forms a tidy dendritic morphology at the end of learning. Furthermore, we utilize logic circuits (LCs to simulate the dendritic structures successfully which makes PNN be implemented on the hardware effectively. The statistical results of our experiments have verified that PNN obtains superior performance in comparison with other classical algorithms in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency.

  18. Chemical composition of biomass generated in the guava tree pruning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarena-Tello, Julio César; Rocha-Guzmán, Nuria Elizabeth; Gallegos-Infante, José Alberto; González-Laredo, Rubén Francisco; Pedraza-Bucio, Fabiola Eugenia; López-Albarrán, Pablo; Herrera-Bucio, Rafael; Rutiaga-Quiñones, José Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae) is a native plant of Central America and is now widely cultivated in many tropical regions of the world for the fruit production. In Mexico, in the guava orchards common practices to control fruit production are: water stress, defoliation and pruning. In this study, we report the chemical composition of the biomass (branches and leaves) generated in the pruning practices. The results ranged as follows: pH (4.98-5.88), soda solubility (39.01-70.49 %), ash (1.87-8.20 %); potassium and calcium were the major inorganic elements in ash. No heavy metals were detected in the studied samples; total solubility (15.21-46.60 %), Runkel lignin (17.77-35.26 %), holocellulose (26.56 -69.49 %), α-cellulose (15.53-35.36 %), hemicelluloses (11.02-34.12 %), tannins in aqueous extracts (3.81-9.06 %), and tannins in ethanolic extracts (3.42-15.24 %). PMID:26417359

  19. Unique features of prune belly syndrome in laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Amulya K; Brinkmann, Olaf A

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the laparoscopic abdominal access modifications in children with prune belly syndrome undergoing a first stage Fowler-Stephens procedure. Eleven consecutive boys underwent a transperitoneal laparoscopic bilateral first stage Fowler-Stephens procedure. Patient age ranged from 1.5 to 3 years (mean age 2.2 years). In these patients, the floppy abdominal wall required a modified approach with regard to access technique, insufflation pressures, and work port stabilization methods. Duration of the procedures and intraoperative technical challenges encountered were prospectively documented. Mean operative time was 40 minutes (range 30 to 75 minutes), and all procedures were completed without any complications. Forceful insertion of ports was not possible, and all ports were introduced under complete open access. Larger volumes of carbon dioxide were used in the initial part of our series, when the ports were not sutured to the abdominal wall. An abdominal pressure of 8 mmHg was maintained in all patients and was considered optimal for the procedures. Short laparoscopy instruments (240 mm) were unsuitable for the procedures and had to be replaced by longer instruments (310 mm or 430 mm). Technical modifications are required to the approach in laparoscopic abdominal access to overcome the challenges posed by the floppy abdominal wall in prune belly patients. Open access, suture fixation of the optic and work ports, use of threaded sleeve ports, and use of proper length of laparoscopy instruments are valuable modifications to overcome the technical hurdles posed by these patients.

  20. Immunocapture reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction combined with nested PCR greatly increases the detection of Prunus necrotic ring spot virus in the peach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helguera, P R; Taborda, R; Docampo, D M; Ducasse, D A

    2001-06-01

    A detection system based on nested PCR after IC-RT-PCR (IC-RT-PCR-Nested PCR) was developed to improve indexing of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus in peach trees. Inhibitory effects and inconsistencies of the standard IC-RT-PCR were overcome by this approach. IC-RT-PCR-Nested PCR improved detection by three orders of magnitude compared with DAS-ELISA for the detection of PNRSV in leaves. Several different tissues were evaluated and equally consistent results were observed. The main advantages of the method are its consistency, high sensitivity and easy application in quarantine programs.

  1. First steps in translating human cognitive processes of cane pruning grapevines into AI rules for automated robotic pruning

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    Saxton Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cane pruning of grapevines is a skilled task for which, internationally, there is a dire shortage of human pruners. As part of a larger project developing an automated robotic pruner, we have used artificial intelligence (AI algorithms to create an expert system for selecting new canes and cutting off unwanted canes. A domain and ontology has been created for AI, which reflects the expertise of expert human pruners. The first step in the creation of an expert system was to generate virtual vines, which were then ‘pruned’ by human pruners and also by the expert system in its infancy. Here we examined the decisions of 12 human pruners, for consistency of decision, on 60 virtual vines. 96.7% of the 12 pruners agreed on at least one cane choice after which there was diminishing agreement on which further canes to select for laying. Our results indicate that techniques developed in computational intelligence can be used to co-ordinate and synthesise the expertise of human pruners into a best practice format. This paper describes first steps in this knowledge elicitation process, and discusses the fit between cane pruning expertise and the expertise that can be elicited using AI based expert system techniques.

  2. Effect of main stem pruning and fruit thinning on the postharvest conservation of melon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaella M. de A. Ferreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Main stem pruning and fruit thinning are cultivation practices that can influence the yield and quality of the fruit. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of main stem pruning and fruit thinning on the postharvest conservation of Charentais Banzai melons. In the field, the plants were subjected to main stem pruning and fruit thinning, with harvesting done 74 days after sowing (DAS. The fruits were transported to the laboratory where they were cleaned, characterized, and stored in a cold chamber (5 °C and 90 ± 2% RH. In the field, the experiment was designed as a split-plot using a 2 × 4 + 1 factorial design, with two levels of main stem pruning (pruned and unpruned, four levels of thinning times (42, 45, 48, and 51 DAS, and a control (unpruned and unthinned. The sub-plot consisted of storage times (0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days, with four blocks. The preharvest treatments did not significantly influence the production characteristics of the Banzai hybrid. The treatment without pruning increased the titratable acidity of fruit, and the thinning at 51 days after sowing (DAS reduced soluble sugars. There was a decline in pulp firmness, titratable acidity, reducing sugars, and an increase in soluble solids, total soluble sugar, and non-reducing sugars during storage. Pruning the main melon stem reduced the weight loss of the fruit after 28 days of storage.

  3. Effects of pruning in Monterey pine plantations affected by Fusarium circinatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezos, D.; Lomba, J. M.; Martinez-Alvarez, P.; Fernandez, M.; Diez, J. J.

    2012-07-01

    Fusarium circinatum Nirenberg and O'Donnell (1998) is the causal agent of Pitch Canker Disease (PCD) in Pinus species, producing damage to the main trunk and lateral branches as well as causing branch dieback. The disease has been detected recently in northern Spain in Pinus spp. seedlings at nurseries and in Pinus radiata D. Don adult trees in plantations. Fusarium circinatum seems to require a wound to enter the tree, not only that as caused by insects but also that resulting from damage by humans, i.e. mechanical wounds. However, the effects of pruning on the infection process have yet to be studied. The aim of the present study was to know how the presence of mechanical damage caused by pruning affects PCD occurrence and severity in P. radiata plantations. Fifty P. radiata plots (pruned and unpruned) distributed throughout 16 sites affected by F. circinatum in the Cantabria region (northern Spain) were studied. Symptoms of PCD presence, such as dieback, oozing cankers and trunk deformation were evaluated in 25 trees per plot and related to pruning effect. A significant relationship between pruning and the number of cankers per tree was observed, concluding that wounds caused by pruning increase the chance of pathogen infection. Other trunk symptoms, such as the presence of resin outside the cankers, were also higher in pruned plots. These results should be taken into account for future management of Monterey Pine plantations. (Author) 36 refs.

  4. Structural study of gubernaculum testis in fetuses with prune belly syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Suelen F; Costa, Waldemar S; Sampaio, Francisco J B; Favorito, Luciano A

    2015-05-01

    We compared and contrasted the structure of the gubernaculum testis in fetuses with prune belly syndrome and normal controls. We studied a total of 6 gubernacula from 3 male fetuses with prune belly syndrome and a total of 14 from 7 male fetuses without an anomaly. Gubernacular specimens were cut into 5 μm sections and stained with Masson trichrome to quantify connective tissue and smooth muscle cells, with Weigert stain to observe elastic fibers and with picrosirius red with polarization to observe collagen. Immunohistochemical analysis was done with tubulin to observe the nerves. Images were captured with a BX51 microscope and DP70 camera (Olympus®). Stereological analysis was done with Image-Pro and ImageJ (MediaCybernetics®) using a grid to determine volumetric density. Means were statistically compared with the Mann-Whitney test. All tests were 2-sided with p Prune belly syndrome fetuses were at 17 to 31 weeks of gestation and control fetuses were at 12 to 35 weeks of gestation. Quantitative analysis showed no difference in the volumetric density of smooth muscle cells in prune belly syndrome vs control gubernacula (mean 15.70% vs 19%, p = 0.2321). Collagen fiber analysis revealed a predominance of green areas in prune belly syndrome gubernacula, suggesting collagen type III, and a predominance of red areas in control gubernacula, suggesting collagen type I. Elastic fibers were significantly smaller in prune belly syndrome gubernacula than in control gubernacula (mean 14.06% vs 24.6%, p = 0.0190). Quantitative analysis demonstrated no difference in the volumetric density of nerves in prune belly syndrome or control gubernacula (mean 5.200% vs 3.158%, p = 0.2302). The gubernaculum in fetuses with prune belly syndrome had altered concentrations of collagen and elastic fibers. These structural alterations could be one of the factors involved in cryptorchidism in prune belly syndrome. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. The RNA 5 of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus is a biologically inactive copy of the 3'-UTR of the genomic RNA 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Terlizzi, B; Skrzeczkowski, L J; Mink, G I; Scott, S W; Zimmerman, M T

    2001-01-01

    In addition to the four RNAs known to be encapsidated by Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) and Apple mosaic virus (ApMV), an additional small RNA (RNA 5) was present in purified preparations of several isolates of both viruses. RNA 5 was always produced following infection of a susceptible host by an artificial mixture of RNAs 1, 2, 3, and 4 indicating that it was a product of viral replication. RNA 5 does not activate the infectivity of mixtures that contain the three genomic RNAs (RNA 1 + RNA 2 + RNA 3) nor does it appear to modify symptom expression. Results from hybridization studies suggested that RNA 5 had partial sequence homology with RNAs 1, 2, 3, and 4. Cloning and sequencing the RNA 5 of isolate CH 57/1-M of PNRSV, and the 3' termini of the RNA 1, RNA 2 and RNA 3 of this isolate indicated that it was a copy of the 3' untranslated terminal region (3'-UTR) of the genomic RNA 3.

  6. The complete nucleotide sequence of RNA 3 of a peach isolate of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, R W; Crosslin, J M

    1995-04-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of RNA 3 of the PE-5 peach isolate of Prunus necrotic ringspot ilarvirus (PNRSV) was obtained from cloned cDNA. The RNA sequence is 1941 nucleotides and contains two open reading frames (ORFs). ORF 1 consisted of 284 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 31,729 Da and ORF 2 contained 224 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 25,018 Da. ORF 2 corresponds to the coat protein gene. Expression of ORF 2 engineered into a pTrcHis vector in Escherichia coli results in a fusion polypeptide of approximately 28 kDa which cross-reacts with PNRSV polyclonal antiserum. Analysis of the coat protein amino acid sequence reveals a putative "zinc-finger" domain at the amino-terminal portion of the protein. Two tetranucleotide AUGC motifs occur in the 3'-UTR of the RNA and may function in coat protein binding and genome activation. ORF 1 homologies to other ilarviruses and alfalfa mosaic virus are confined to limited regions of conserved amino acids. The translated amino acid sequence of the coat protein gene shows 92% similarity to one isolate of apple mosaic virus, a closely related member of the ilarvirus group of plant viruses, but only 66% similarity to the amino acid sequence of the coat protein gene of a second isolate. These relationships are also reflected at the nucleotide sequence level. These results in one instance confirm the close similarities observed at the biophysical and serological levels between these two viruses, but on the other hand call into question the nomenclature used to describe these viruses.

  7. Prune belly syndrome--report of 47 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, C R; Ransley, P G; Innes-Williams, D

    1982-01-01

    Forty-seven cases of prune belly syndrome in children born between 1948 and 1977 are described. They have been classified into three groups according to the state of the urinary tract in the neonatal period. The results achieved in these cases form the basis of our present management. In group I, the most severely affected, early death is inevitable. In group 2 the children are ill as neonates; high diversion is often required and later reconstruction may be possible. Group 3 patients are healthy as neonates and little reconstructive surgery is required. The prognosis in groups 2 and 3 is good. Half the group 2 children and three-quarters of the group 3 children grew up normally with satisfactory renal function and health. It is important to establish free drainage of the urinary tract and avoid infection. Images Figure PMID:6128960

  8. Associated rare anomalies in prune belly syndrome: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Fette

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The triad of deficient abdominal wall musculature, undescended testes and urinary tract anomalies characterizes the Prune Belly Syndrome (PBS. PBS can be associated with other comorbid urological and non urological conditions. But the full pathogenesis and best treatment is still a matter of debate. A term newborn with a classical PBS (Woodhouse Group 2, Smith and Woodard Group 2 plus lung hypoplasia and funnel chest deformity, a megapenis with a tight phimosis and an obturated anterior urethra is presented. Unfortunately, the baby died in urosepsis and renal failure in his 3rd week of life, despite urine drainage surgery and peritoneal dialysis undertaken. According to the best of our knowledge, this is an unique combination of rare anomalies in PBS patients.

  9. Pruning high-value Douglas-fir can reduce dwarf mistletoe severity and increase longevity in central Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffei, Helen M; Filip, Gregory M; Gruelke, Nancy E; Oblinger, Brent W; Margolis, Ellis; Chadwick, Kristen L

    2016-01-01

    Mid- to very large-sized Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menzieseii var. menziesii) that were lightly- to moderately-infected by dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium douglasii) were analyzed over a 14-year period to evaluate whether mechanical pruning could eradicate mistletoe (or at least delay the onset of severe infection) without significantly affecting tree vitality and by inference, longevity. Immediate and longterm pruning effects on mistletoe infection severity were assessed by comparing pruned trees (n = 173) to unpruned trees (n = 55) with respect to: (1) percentage of trees with no visible infections 14 years post-pruning, (2) Broom Volume Rating (BVR), and (3) rate of BVR increase 14 years postpruning. Vitality/longevity (compared with unpruned trees) was assessed using six indicators: (1) tree survival, (2) the development of severe infections, (3) the development of dead tops, (4) tree-ring width indices, (5) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from high-resolution multi-spectral imagery, and (6) live-crown ratio (LCR) and increment. Twenty-four percent of the pruned trees remained free of mistletoe 14 years post-pruning. Pruning is most likely to successfully eradicate mistletoe in lightly infected trees (BVR 1 or 2) without infected neighbors. Pruning significantly decreased mean BVR in the pruned versus the unpruned trees. However, the subsequent average rate of intensification (1.3–1.5 BVR per decade) was not affected, implying that a single pruning provides ~14 years respite in the progression of infection levels. Post-pruning infection intensification was slower on dominant and co-dominants than on intermediate or suppressed trees. The success of mistletoe eradication via pruning and need for follow-up pruning should be evaluated no sooner than 14 years after pruning to allow for the development of detectable brooms. Based on six indicators, foliage from witches brooms contribute little to long-term tree vitality since removal appears to have

  10. Síndrome de Prune Belly- Relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Catarina Rocha Ferreira

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A Síndrome de Prune Belly (SPB é caracterizada por sintomas que se organizam em uma tríade baseada pela ausência, deficiência ou hipoplasia congênita de toda musculatura abdominal além de alterações do trato urinário acompanhada de criptorquidia bilateral.  O objetivo deste estudo foi relatar um caso clínico desta grave síndrome e apresentar um breve protocolo de atendimento Fisioterapêutico. O caso relatado é de um paciente de 03 anos, sexo masculino com criptorquidia bilateral, mal- formação da musculatura abdominal e dificuldade respiratória fazendo uso de traqueostomia e sonda nasoenteral, foi investigado na Faculdade de Ciências e Educação Sena Aires em Valparaiso de Goiás, onde foi submetido a um protocolo fisioterapêutico. Por ser uma síndrome grave é necessário um diagnóstico eficaz para uma rápida intervenção fisioterapêutica, pois assim será possível conhecer as limitações desses pacientes e prestar um atendimento eficaz com o objetivo de melhorar a qualidade de vida e sua inserção na sociedade promovendo o bem-estar da criança, além de servir como norteador de novas pesquisas na área, sobretudo aquelas com poucas evidências. Descritores: Síndrome de Prune Belly; Anormalidades congênitas; Parede abdominal; Criptorquidismo.

  11. Síndrome de Prune Belly: Presentación de un caso y revisión de la literatura Prune Belly Syndrome: Case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Franz Guerrero

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El síndrome de Prune Belly (SPB, también conocido como el síndrome de Eagle Barrett, se caracteriza por una triada de anomalías que incluye grados variables de hipoplasia de la musculatura abdominal, anomalías del tracto urinario y criptorquidia bilateral. Objetivo: Se describe el caso de un paciente masculino con Síndrome de Prune Belly y se realiza una revisión de la literatura sobre esta rara enfermedad. Conclusión: La característica arrugada del abdomen similar a una ciruela pasa, le da el nombre al síndrome. Además, puede estar asociado a alteraciones cardiovasculares, respiratorias, ortopédicas y gastrointestinales. Salud UIS 2010; 42: 78-85Introduction: Prune-belly syndrome, also known as Eagle-Barrett syndrome is characterized by a triad of anomalies that include varying degrees of abdominal musculature hypoplasia, urinary tract anomalies, and bilateral cryptorchidism. Objective: We describe the case of a male patient with Prune Belly Syndrome and we review the literature on this rare disease. Conclusions: The characteristic wrinkled, prune-like abdomen, gives the name to the syndrome. Can also be associated with cardiovascular, respiratory, orthopedic and gastrointestinal anomalies. Salud UIS 2010; 42: 78-85.

  12. Using Multi-Spectral UAV Imagery to Extract Tree Crop Structural Properties and Assess Pruning Effects

    KAUST Repository

    Johansen, Kasper; Raharjo, Tri; McCabe, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) provide an unprecedented capacity to monitor the development and dynamics of tree growth and structure through time. It is generally thought that the pruning of tree crops encourages new growth, has a positive effect

  13. 7 CFR 944.350 - Safeguard procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes for processing; (3) Olives for processing into oil; (4) Grapefruit for animal feed; or (5) Avocados for seed shall obtain an “Importer's Exempt Commodity Form” (FV-6...

  14. Factors affecting branch wound occlusion and associated decay following pruning – a case study with wild cherry (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Sheppard

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pruning wild cherry (Prunus avium L. is a common silvicultural practice carried out to produce valuable timber at a veneer wood quality. Sub-optimal pruning treatments can permit un-occluded pruning wounds to develop devaluing decay. The aim of this study is to determine relevant branch, tree and pruning characteristics affecting the occlusion process of pruning wounds. Important factors influencing occlusion time for an optimised pruning treatment for valuable timber production utilising wild cherry are derived. 85 artificially pruned branches originating from ten wild cherry trees were retrospectively analysed. Branch stub length, branch diameter and radial stem increment during occlusion were found to be significant predictors for occlusion time. From the results it could be concluded that for the long term success of artificial pruning of wild cherry it is crucial to (i keep branch stubs short (while avoiding damage to the branch collar, (ii to enable the tree to maintain significant radial growth after pruning, (iii to avoid large pruning wounds (>2.5 cm by removing steeply angled and fast growing branches at an early stage.

  15. Regulating mineralization rates of Tithonia diversifolia and Lantana camara prunings to improve phosphorus availability in calcareous soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Nuraini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of mixing of Tithonia diversifolia and Lantana camara prunings to improve synchronization between P released from the prunings with crop demand for P was studied in a laboratory and in a glasshouse. Tithonia diversifolia prunings (Td, Lantana camara prunings (Lc, and farmyard manure (Pk were thoroughly mixed with the proportion (% of dry weight of; 25Td +75 Lc ; 50Td +50 Lc ; 75Td +25 Lc ; 90Lc +10 Pk ; 45Td +45 +10 Lc Pk ; 100Td and 100Lc, and then mixed with 100 g of air-dried soil with a rate equivalent to 100 kg P / ha. Results of the study showed that the pruning mixtures decomposed and mineralized faster than that of Lantana camara pruning only, but slower than that of Tithonia diversifolia pruning only. The amount of P released from the pruning mixtures increased with increasing proportion of Tithonia diversifolia pruning in the mixtures. Increasing proportion of Tithonia diversifolia pruning in the mixture applied to the soil increased the amount of P taken up by maize.

  16. Congenital megalourethra in 2 weeks old boy associated with Prune-Belly syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawal Barau Abdullahi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The megalourethra is a rare congenital anomaly of the penile urethra. It is characterized by the congenital absence of the corpus spongiosum and/or corpus cavernosum. It is especially common associated with Prune-Belly syndrome, and with upper tract abnormalities. We present a 2 weeks old boy with congenital megalourethra because of its association with the Prune-Belly syndrome.

  17. Loss of mTOR-Dependent Macroautophagy Causes Autistic-like Synaptic Pruning Deficits

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Guomei; Gudsnuk, Kathryn; Kuo, Sheng-Han; Cotrina, Marisa L.; Rosoklija, Gorazd; Sosunov, Alexander; Sonders, Mark S.; Kanter, Ellen; Castagna, Candace; Yamamoto, Ai; Yue, Zhenyu; Arancio, Ottavio; Peterson, Bradley S.; Champagne, Frances; Dwork, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental alterations of excitatory synapses are implicated in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Here, we report increased dendritic spine density with reduced developmental spine pruning in layer V pyramidal neurons in postmortem ASD temporal lobe. These spine deficits correlate with hyperactivated mTOR and impaired autophagy. In Tsc2+/- ASD mice where mTOR is constitutively overactive, we observed postnatal spine pruning defects, blockade of autophagy, and ASD-like social...

  18. Unified commutation-pruning technique for efficient computation of composite DFTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Palazuelos, David E.; Medina-Melendrez, Modesto Gpe.; Torres-Roman, Deni L.; Shkvarko, Yuriy V.

    2015-12-01

    An efficient computation of a composite length discrete Fourier transform (DFT), as well as a fast Fourier transform (FFT) of both time and space data sequences in uncertain (non-sparse or sparse) computational scenarios, requires specific processing algorithms. Traditional algorithms typically employ some pruning methods without any commutations, which prevents them from attaining the potential computational efficiency. In this paper, we propose an alternative unified approach with automatic commutations between three computational modalities aimed at efficient computations of the pruned DFTs adapted for variable composite lengths of the non-sparse input-output data. The first modality is an implementation of the direct computation of a composite length DFT, the second one employs the second-order recursive filtering method, and the third one performs the new pruned decomposed transform. The pruned decomposed transform algorithm performs the decimation in time or space (DIT) data acquisition domain and, then, decimation in frequency (DIF). The unified combination of these three algorithms is addressed as the DFTCOMM technique. Based on the treatment of the combinational-type hypotheses testing optimization problem of preferable allocations between all feasible commuting-pruning modalities, we have found the global optimal solution to the pruning problem that always requires a fewer or, at most, the same number of arithmetic operations than other feasible modalities. The DFTCOMM method outperforms the existing competing pruning techniques in the sense of attainable savings in the number of required arithmetic operations. It requires fewer or at most the same number of arithmetic operations for its execution than any other of the competing pruning methods reported in the literature. Finally, we provide the comparison of the DFTCOMM with the recently developed sparse fast Fourier transform (SFFT) algorithmic family. We feature that, in the sensing scenarios with

  19. Evaluation of soil carbon pools after the addition of prunings in subtropical orchards placed in terraces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez San Emeterio, Layla; Martín Reyes, Marino Pedro; Ortiz Bernad, Irene; Fernández Ondoño, Emilia; Sierra Aragón, Manuel

    2017-04-01

    The amount of carbon that can be stored in a soil depends on many factors, such as the type of soil, the chemical composition of plant rests and the climate, and is also highly affected by land use and soil management. Agricultural ecosystems are proved to absorb a large amount of CO2 from the atmosphere through several sustainable management practices. In addition, organic materials such as leaves, grass, prunings, etc., comprise a significant type of agricultural practices as a result of waste recycling. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of the addition of different organic prunings on the potential for carbon sequestration in agricultural soils placed in terraces. Three subtropical orchards were sampled in Almuñécar (Granada, S Spain): mango (Mangifera indica L.), avocado (Persea americana Mill.) and cherimoya (Annonacherimola Mill.). The predominant climate is Subtropical Mediterranean and the soil is an Eutric Anthrosol. The experimental design consisted in the application of prunings from avocado, cherimoya and mango trees, placed on the surface soil underneath their correspondent trees, as well as garden prunings from the green areas surrounding the town center on the surface soils under the three orchard trees. Control experiences without the addition of prunings were also evaluated. These experiences were followed for three years. Soil samples were taken at4 cm depth. They were dried for 3-4 days and then sieved (<2 mm).Total soil organic C, water-soluble soil organic C, mineral-associated organic C and non-oxidable C were analyzed and expressed as carbon pools (Mg C ha-1for total soil organic C, or Kg C ha-1for the others). The results showed an increase of all organic carbon pools in all pruning treatments compared to the control experiences. Differences in total organic carbon pool were statistically significant between soils under avocado prunings and their control soil, and between soils under garden prunings with cherimoya and

  20. Thinning effect on plant growth of pruned eucalypt clone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Correa Ramos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A pruned stand of eucalypt clone underwent five thinning treatments with the removal of different proportion of the planted trees, at different ages: a 0% - unthinned, b 35% at 55 months, c 35% at 81 months, d 70% at 81 months, removing sprouts in the thinned plant stumps and, e 70% at 81 months, without coppice sprouts removal. By the age of 141 months, the Weibull distribution showed higher number of trees in the smallest diameter classes for the unthinned treatment. The 70% thinning, with thinned coppice sprouts removal, presented higher number of individuals in the largest diameter classes. Height and yield were the smallest with the removal of 70% of the trees at 81 months, maintaining coppice sprouts. The afterthinning periodic annual increment was greater by thinning 35% of the trees at 55 months resulting in greater number of trees in the largest diameter classes as compared to the other treatments. Yield was higher for the unthinned treatment. The results of this study indicated that thinning 70% of the trees at the age of 81 months, with coppice sprout removal, could be recommended to obtain trees of larger diameter for multiproduct.

  1. Prune-belly syndrome: an autopsy case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Marcela Arruda Pereira Silva; de Lima, Patricia Picciarelli

    2014-01-01

    Prune-belly syndrome (PBS) is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by a spectrum of mild-to-severe presentations of urinary tract malformations, deficient abdominal wall musculature, and cryptorchidism in male newborns or genital abnormalities in the female newborns. Currently, antenatal diagnosis is feasible with ultrasound examination, and treatment is based on case report experience. More recently, intrauterine management has been undertaken with encouraging results. The authors report a case of PBS diagnosed at the seventeenth gestation week, when ultrasonographic examination revealed the presence of ascites, distended bladder, thickened bladder wall and posterior urethral valve. The fetus was submitted to an intrauterine intervention at the nineteenth gestational week. Delivery occurred at 34 weeks of gestation and the newborn examination was consistent with PBS. On the second day of life, the newborn was submitted to abdominoplasty, colostomy, and orchiopexy. However, the outcome was unfavorable with respiratory failure and death on the fifteenth day of life. The autopsy confirmed the diagnosis of PBS, but the immediate cause of death was attributed to aspiration pneumonia.

  2. [Prune Belly syndrome: epidemiologic, clinic and therapeutic aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, B; Diallo, Y; Fall, P A; Ngom, G; Fall, B; Ndoye, A K; Fall, I; Ba, M; Ndoye, M; Diagne, B A

    2008-07-01

    Prune Belly syndrome (PBS) is a rare complex malformation with male predominance. His pathogeny is not yet completely elucidated. The goal of this work is to analyze the epidemiological, anatomoclinical and treatment aspects of a retrospective trial in Aristide-Le-Dantec Hospital. We carried out a retrospective study about 22 cases collected in the departments of urology-andrology and pediatric surgery in Aristide-Le-Dantec Hospital between April 1995 and November 2004. The mean age of the patients was 15 months with extremes of one day and 10 years. The somatic examination revealed 20 cases of complete abdominal muscle aplasia, one right partial form and the last case had a left partial form. Nineteen patients were managed with conservative treatment and three patients benefited a surgical act for urinary abnormalities. The Montfort intervention was performed in two patients respectively aged eight and 10 years. The orchidopexy, stage 1, by Fowler-Stephens technique was performed in 13 cases. Five cases of death and nine cases of testicular atrophy after orchidopexy occurred. The followings were satisfactory in the three operated patients for urinary abnormalities. The renal failure is the main cause of death. The management of the urinary tract abnormalities must be performed individually. The testis descending should be performed in newborn period to enhance the fertility chances. The abdominoplasty also should be done early for aesthetic reason and to improve pulmonary, defecation, and voiding functions.

  3. Prune-belly syndrome: an autopsy case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Arruda Pereira Silva Vasconcelos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Prune-belly syndrome (PBS is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by a spectrum of mild-to-severe presentations of urinary tract malformations, deficient abdominal wall musculature, and cryptorchidism in male newborns or genital abnormalities in the female newborns. Currently, antenatal diagnosis is feasible with ultrasound examination, and treatment is based on case report experience. More recently, intrauterine management has been undertaken with encouraging results. The authors report a case of PBS diagnosed at the seventeenth gestation week, when ultrasonographic examination revealed the presence of ascites, distended bladder, thickened bladder wall and posterior urethral valve. The fetus was submitted to an intrauterine intervention at the nineteenth gestational week. Delivery occurred at 34 weeks of gestation and the newborn examination was consistent with PBS. On the second day of life, the newborn was submitted to abdominoplasty, colostomy, and orchiopexy. However, the outcome was unfavorable with respiratory failure and death on the fifteenth day of life. The autopsy confirmed the diagnosis of PBS, but the immediate cause of death was attributed to aspiration pneumonia.

  4. Study of Testicular Structure in Fetuses with Prune Belly Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favorito, Luciano A; Costa, Suelen F; Costa, Waldemar S; Vieiralves, Rodrigo; Bernardo, Fabio O; Sampaio, Francisco J B

    2017-01-01

    To compare the structure of the testis in fetuses with prune belly syndrome (PBS) to normal controls. We studied 6 testes obtained from 3 fetuses with PBS and 14 testes from 7 male fetuses. The testicular specimens were cut into 5- μ m thick sections and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE), to observe the seminiferous tubules; Weigert's solution to observe elastic fibers; and picrosirius red to observe collagen. The images were captured with an Olympus BX51 microscope and Olympus DP70 camera. The stereological analysis was done with the Image Pro and Image J programs. Means were statistically compared using the Mann-Whitney U test ( p < 0.005). Quantitative analysis documented no differences ( p = 0.4) in number of seminiferous tubules (ST) in PBS testes (mean = 8.87%, SD = 1.59), when compared to the control (mean = 11.4%, SD = 2.99) and no differences ( p = 0.8) in diameter of ST in PBS testes (mean = 52.85  μ m, SD = 1.58) when compared to the control group (mean = 53.17  μ m, SD = 1.55), but we did observe a lower number ( p = 0.0002) of Leydig cells in the PBS testes (mean = 67.03% and SD = 3.697) when compared to the control group (mean = 90.1% and SD = 2.986). Our study showed a lower concentration of Leydig cells in the triad syndrome fetuses.

  5. Prune belly syndrome, splenic torsion, and malrotation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Sifrance; Grossman, Eric; Barsness, Katherine A

    2013-02-01

    An 18 year old male with a history of prune belly syndrome (PBS) presented with acute abdominal pain and palpable left upper quadrant mass. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen revealed a medialized spleen with a "whirl sign" in the splenic vessels, consistent with splenic torsion. Coincidentally, the small bowel was also noted to be on the right side of the abdomen, while the colon was located on the left, indicative of malrotation. Emergent diagnostic laparoscopy confirmed splenic torsion and intestinal malrotation. Successful laparoscopic reduction of the splenic torsion was achieved, however, conversion to an open procedure by a vertical midline incision was necessary owing to the patient's unique anatomy. Open splenopexy with a mesh sling and Ladd's procedure were subsequently performed. Malrotation and wandering spleen are known, rare associated anomalies in PBS; however, both have not been reported concurrently in a patient with PBS in the literature. In patients with PBS, acute abdominal pain, and an abdominal mass, high clinical suspicion for gastrointestinal malformations and prompt attention can result in spleen preservation and appropriate malrotation management. We present a case of a teenager who presented with a history of PBS, acute abdominal pain, and a palpable abdominal mass. The patient was found to have splenic torsion and intestinal malrotation. The clinical findings, diagnostic imaging, and surgical treatment options of splenic torsion are reviewed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Unwinding the hairball graph: Pruning algorithms for weighted complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianati, Navid

    2016-01-01

    Empirical networks of weighted dyadic relations often contain "noisy" edges that alter the global characteristics of the network and obfuscate the most important structures therein. Graph pruning is the process of identifying the most significant edges according to a generative null model and extracting the subgraph consisting of those edges. Here, we focus on integer-weighted graphs commonly arising when weights count the occurrences of an "event" relating the nodes. We introduce a simple and intuitive null model related to the configuration model of network generation and derive two significance filters from it: the marginal likelihood filter (MLF) and the global likelihood filter (GLF). The former is a fast algorithm assigning a significance score to each edge based on the marginal distribution of edge weights, whereas the latter is an ensemble approach which takes into account the correlations among edges. We apply these filters to the network of air traffic volume between US airports and recover a geographically faithful representation of the graph. Furthermore, compared with thresholding based on edge weight, we show that our filters extract a larger and significantly sparser giant component.

  7. Dictionary Pruning with Visual Word Significance for Medical Image Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Song, Yang; Cai, Weidong; Hauptmann, Alexander G; Liu, Sidong; Pujol, Sonia; Kikinis, Ron; Fulham, Michael J; Feng, David Dagan; Chen, Mei

    2016-02-12

    Content-based medical image retrieval (CBMIR) is an active research area for disease diagnosis and treatment but it can be problematic given the small visual variations between anatomical structures. We propose a retrieval method based on a bag-of-visual-words (BoVW) to identify discriminative characteristics between different medical images with Pruned Dictionary based on Latent Semantic Topic description. We refer to this as the PD-LST retrieval. Our method has two main components. First, we calculate a topic-word significance value for each visual word given a certain latent topic to evaluate how the word is connected to this latent topic. The latent topics are learnt, based on the relationship between the images and words, and are employed to bridge the gap between low-level visual features and high-level semantics. These latent topics describe the images and words semantically and can thus facilitate more meaningful comparisons between the words. Second, we compute an overall-word significance value to evaluate the significance of a visual word within the entire dictionary. We designed an iterative ranking method to measure overall-word significance by considering the relationship between all latent topics and words. The words with higher values are considered meaningful with more significant discriminative power in differentiating medical images. We evaluated our method on two public medical imaging datasets and it showed improved retrieval accuracy and efficiency.

  8. Yield and crop cycle time of peaches cultivated in subtropical climates and subjected to different pruning times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Augusto Ferraz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of peaches in regions of subtropical and tropical climate is currently achieved through a set of practices such as using less demanding cultivars in cold conditions, applying plant growth regulators to break dormancy, and performing specific pruning, like production and renewal pruning. Research on the climate adaptation of cultivars is of great importance in establishing a crop in a given region. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the agronomic performance of three cultivars subjected to different production pruning times in Botucatu/SP, where 2-year old peach trees were evaluated, grown at a spacing of 6.0 x 4.0 meters. The experimental design was a split plot design with four blocks, using the cultivars Douradão, BRS Kampai and BRS Rubimel, and the subplots corresponded to pruning times in May, June, July and August. Ten plants were used per plot, with the four central plants considered useful and the remaining considered as margins. Pruning in June and July showed the best results in terms of percentage of fruit set and production. The cultivar BRS Rubimel showed the best percentage of fruit set when pruned in June (44.96%, and best fruit production when pruned in July (18.7 kg plant-1. Pruning in May anticipated the harvest of cultivar BRS Rubimel by 13 days whereas pruning carried out in July and August provided late harvests for cultivars Douradão and BRS Kampai.

  9. EVALUATION OF TEMPORALVARIATIONS IN MOISTURE AND CALORIFIC VALUE OF VINE AND OLIVE PRUNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Riccardo Porceddu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In Italy arboreal crops, in particular vine and olive, cover a surface area of around 19.6×109 m2 from which about 4.6×109 kg of pruning are cut. These by-products are currently ploughed into the soil or else harvested and burned in open fields. On the other hand such materials would be more useful as an energy source. If these materials are to be used as fuel, it is important to know their calorific value. The calorific value is significantly influenced by the moisture content of wood. This work has evaluated the changes in moisture content and calorific value with time for different harvesting and storage systems of vine and olive pruning. The observed decrease in the moisture content of the vine and olive pruning depended on the storage system utilized, in particular on the product compression ratio and air circulation. Some differences were observed between the results obtained for vine and olive pruning. The time required for these materials to obtain their best energetic performance was identified at 32 weeks from their harvesting. Harvesting with balers and forwarding costs are about 6.21×10-2 €/kg for vine pruning and 4.64×10-2 €/kg for olive pruning. They are very similar to the price currently offered for energy biomass in Italy (5.00×10-2 €/kg. While the cost actually paid to plough pruning into the soil amounts to about 2.50×10-2 €/kg. Therefore the energy chain encourages a cost-and-benefit analysis.

  10. Cover crops and pruning in Bobal and Tempranillo vineyards have little influence on grapevine nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Pérez-Bermúdez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cover crops may improve vineyard soil properties, grapevine nutrient status and berry composition, however, factors such as cover crop type, annual rainfall, climate and irrigation may change their effects on vineyards. From 2008 to 2011, the effects of a non-permanent cover crop and two pruning techniques on soil as well as vine nutrients and grapevine performance of two vineyards (cv. Tempranillo and cv. Bobal were evaluated. For that purpose, two legumes were sown in inter-rows of hand-pruned vines in February and were tilled at flowering. Soil tillage, or cover cropping, was combined with either light pruning or severe pruning to study foliar nutrient variations. Soil N, P, K and total organic carbon (TOC were determined in samples taken from the Ap1 horizon in January prior to vine pruning. Foliar N, P, K contents were measured in leaves sampled upon grape veraison. The differences between vineyards with cover cropping and bare soils suggest that legumes positively affected soil N (1.55 vs. 1.68 g kg−1 and 1.49 vs. 1.76 g kg−1 in Bobal and Tempranillo vineyards, respectively and soil organic matter (SOM (12.5 vs. 15.5 g kg−1 and 12.9 vs. 17.2 g kg−1 in Bobal and Tempranillo vineyards, respectively. The use of cover crops did not affect grapevine yields nor quality of Bobal and Tempranillo berry . Cover crops, or light pruning, did not alter the foliar N, P, K contents of both cultivars since their concentrations were similar to those found in the leaves from vineyards with soil tillage or severe pruning.

  11. Density based pruning for identification of differentially expressed genes from microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Motivation Identification of differentially expressed genes from microarray datasets is one of the most important analyses for microarray data mining. Popular algorithms such as statistical t-test rank genes based on a single statistics. The false positive rate of these methods can be improved by considering other features of differentially expressed genes. Results We proposed a pattern recognition strategy for identifying differentially expressed genes. Genes are mapped to a two dimension feature space composed of average difference of gene expression and average expression levels. A density based pruning algorithm (DB Pruning is developed to screen out potential differentially expressed genes usually located in the sparse boundary region. Biases of popular algorithms for identifying differentially expressed genes are visually characterized. Experiments on 17 datasets from Gene Omnibus Database (GEO with experimentally verified differentially expressed genes showed that DB pruning can significantly improve the prediction accuracy of popular identification algorithms such as t-test, rank product, and fold change. Conclusions Density based pruning of non-differentially expressed genes is an effective method for enhancing statistical testing based algorithms for identifying differentially expressed genes. It improves t-test, rank product, and fold change by 11% to 50% in the numbers of identified true differentially expressed genes. The source code of DB pruning is freely available on our website http://mleg.cse.sc.edu/degprune

  12. Pruning management of Chardonnay grapevines at high altitude in Brazilian southeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania dos Reis Mendonça

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The agronomical responses of Chardonnay, a variety indicated for sparkling wine production, is influenced by the vineyard management and the edaphoclimatic conditions of the region. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of two pruning types (Royat and double Guyot on vegetative and reproductive development of Chardonnay vine growing at high altitude in the Brazilian southeastern region. The experiment was carried out in a commercial vineyard located at 1,280 m of altitude in Divinolândia, São Paulo State, Brazil. The Chardonnay vines (clone 96, grafted onto 1103 Paulsen rootstock and trained in a vertical shoot positioning trellis system, were assessed. Vegetative vigor, bud fruitfulness, production and physicochemical composition of grapes were evaluated during 2014 and 2015 growing seasons. The Royat pruning induced higher vegetative vigor and increased the bud fruitfulness, the cluster number and the productivity of Chardonnay vine when compared to Guyot pruning. Even though the increase on yield was observed, there was no effect of pruning type on grape final quality. Therefore, the choice of pruning method in function of variety genetic characteristics and their interaction with environment can optimize the vineyard profitability. In the Brazilian southeast, the Royat system is the most suitable one to grow Chardonnay for sparkling wines production.

  13. Modified abdominoplasty for patients with the Prune Belly syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dénes, Francisco Tibor; Lopes, Roberto Iglesias; Oliveira, Lorena Marçalo; Tavares, Alessandro; Srougi, Miguel

    2014-02-01

    To present the results of a new technique for abdominoplasty in patients with the Prune Belly syndrome (PBS). Since 1985, 46 children with PBS underwent surgical treatment that included urinary tract reconstruction (UTR), orchidopexy, and abdominoplasty. In 41 patients, we performed the abdominoplasty as follows: (1) fusiform longitudinal resection of the mid-abdominal skin and subcutaneous tissue, with preservation of the musculo-aponeurotic fascia (MAF) and umbilicus, (2) ellipsoid unilateral longitudinal incision of the MAF in the most weakened side of the abdomen, producing 2 flaps, with the umbilicus being kept intact in the widest flap, (3) after UTR and bilateral orchiopexy, suture fixation of the widest MAF layer to the inner side of the contralateral abdominal wall, creating an inner MAF layer, (4) lateral suture fixation of the other flap over the inner layer, creating an outer MAF layer with a buttonhole exposing the umbilicus, that is sutured to the outer layer, and (5) approximation of the skin edges with incorporation of the umbilicus in the suture. Skin coaptation was excellent in all patients, and no trimming was necessary in incision extremities. There was no dehiscence or skin necrosis and all patients presented immediate improvement of the abdominal tonus and appearance. Further improvement with growth was observed in all except 4 patients, 2 requiring secondary abdominoplasties. We conclude that this technique is applicable in all forms of weakened abdomen typical of PBS, even in asymmetrical cases, requiring only 1 MAF incision, with good cosmetic and functional results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Study of Testicular Structure in Fetuses with Prune Belly Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano A. Favorito

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare the structure of the testis in fetuses with prune belly syndrome (PBS to normal controls. Materials and Methods. We studied 6 testes obtained from 3 fetuses with PBS and 14 testes from 7 male fetuses. The testicular specimens were cut into 5-μm thick sections and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE, to observe the seminiferous tubules; Weigert’s solution to observe elastic fibers; and picrosirius red to observe collagen. The images were captured with an Olympus BX51 microscope and Olympus DP70 camera. The stereological analysis was done with the Image Pro and Image J programs. Means were statistically compared using the Mann–Whitney U test (p<0.005. Results. Quantitative analysis documented no differences (p=0.4 in number of seminiferous tubules (ST in PBS testes (mean = 8.87%, SD=1.59, when compared to the control (mean = 11.4%, SD=2.99 and no differences (p=0.8 in diameter of ST in PBS testes (mean = 52.85 μm, SD=1.58 when compared to the control group (mean = 53.17 μm, SD=1.55, but we did observe a lower number (p=0.0002 of Leydig cells in the PBS testes (mean = 67.03% and SD=3.697 when compared to the control group (mean = 90.1% and SD=2.986. Conclusions. Our study showed a lower concentration of Leydig cells in the triad syndrome fetuses.

  15. Prune belly syndrome: early management outcome of nine consecutive cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekwunife, O H; Ugwu, J O; Modekwe, V

    2014-01-01

    Prune belly syndrome (PBS) is a rare congenital malformation of unclear etiology. The disease progress and outcome in developing countries are not clear as most reports are isolated case reports. A review of 9 patients managed for PBS in 5 years. There were 7 males and 2 females, aged 30 min-11 days (median = 5 days) at the time of presentation (a child presented as neonate, defaulted from follow-up and represented at 10 years of life). Their weights on admission were 2.5-4.2 kg (median = 3 kg). Maternal age range was 26-37 years (median = 32 years), with five mothers being above 30 years. Seven mothers had febrile illness in the first trimester and took antimalarial drugs or antibiotics. Intestinal malrotation was the most common associated anomaly. The degree of the anterior abdominal wall and the urinary tract morphology varies from patient to patient. Urinary tract anomalies were initially managed conservatively. Two infants however later had cutaneous ureterostomy due to worsening renal function and recalcitrant urinary tract infection (UTI). Four infants had abdominoplasty at the 2 nd week, 6 th week, 3 rd year and 10 th year of life. Seven orchiopexies were done. Four were done by Fowler-Stephen's method while the rest were via the inguinal route. Of the former, 3 testicles have normal volume 6 months after, whereas one atrophied. Post abdominoplasty, there was a significant reduction in the frequency of respiratory tract infection (RTI), UTI and post void urine volume in three infants. In addition, there was improved peer interaction and academic performance in the 10-year-old child. One infant died of pulmonary hypoplasia and two others from worsening urosepsis and progressive renal failure. PBS presents with a spectrum of features. Initial conservative management of the urinary tract was beneficial. Abdominoplasty and orchiopexy have both physiological and improved quality of life benefits. Early Parental education helped in reducing defaults from follow-up.

  16. Rare copy number variants identified in prune belly syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boghossian, Nansi S; Sicko, Robert J; Giannakou, Andreas; Dimopoulos, Aggeliki; Caggana, Michele; Tsai, Michael Y; Yeung, Edwina H; Pankratz, Nathan; Cole, Benjamin R; Romitti, Paul A; Browne, Marilyn L; Fan, Ruzong; Liu, Aiyi; Kay, Denise M; Mills, James L

    2018-03-01

    Prune belly syndrome (PBS), also known as Eagle-Barrett syndrome, is a rare congenital disorder characterized by absence or hypoplasia of the abdominal wall musculature, urinary tract anomalies, and cryptorchidism in males. The etiology of PBS is largely unresolved, but genetic factors are implicated given its recurrence in families. We examined cases of PBS to identify novel pathogenic copy number variants (CNVs). A total of 34 cases (30 males and 4 females) with PBS identified from all live births in New York State (1998-2005) were genotyped using Illumina HumanOmni2.5 microarrays. CNVs were prioritized if they were absent from in-house controls, encompassed ≥10 consecutive probes, were ≥20 Kb in size, had ≤20% overlap with common variants in population reference controls, and had ≤20% overlap with any variant previously detected in other birth defect phenotypes screened in our laboratory. We identified 17 candidate autosomal CNVs; 10 cases each had one CNV and four cases each had two CNVs. The CNVs included a 158 Kb duplication at 4q22 that overlaps the BMPR1B gene; duplications of different sizes carried by two cases in the intron of STIM1 gene; a 67 Kb duplication 202 Kb downstream of the NOG gene, and a 1.34 Mb deletion including the MYOCD gene. The identified rare CNVs spanned genes involved in mesodermal, muscle, and urinary tract development and differentiation, which might help in elucidating the genetic contribution to PBS. We did not have parental DNA and cannot identify whether these CNVs were de novo or inherited. Further research on these CNVs, particularly BMP signaling is warranted to elucidate the pathogenesis of PBS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Composting sewage sludge with green waste from tree pruning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Mello Leite Moretti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sewage sludge (SS has been widely used as organic fertilizer. However, its continuous use can cause imbalances in soil fertility as well as soil-water-plant system contamination. The study aimed to evaluate possible improvements in the chemical and microbiological characteristics of domestic SS, with low heavy metal contents and pathogens, through the composting process. Two composting piles were set up, based on an initial C/N ratio of 30:1, with successive layers of tree pruning waste and SS. The aeration of piles was performed by mechanical turnover when the temperature rose above 65 ºC. The piles were irrigated when the water content was less than 50 %. Composting was conducted for 120 days. Temperature, moisture content, pH, electrical conductivity (EC, carbon and nitrogen contents, and fecal coliforms were monitored during the composting. A reduction of 58 % in the EC of the compost (SSC compared with SS was observed and the pH reduced from 7.8 to 6.6. There was an increase in the value of cation exchange capacity/carbon content (CEC/C and carbon content. Total nitrogen remained constant and N-NO3- + N-NH4+ were immobilised in organic forms. The C/N ratio decreased from 25:1 to 12:1. Temperatures above 55 ºC were observed for 20 days. After 60 days of composting, fecal coliforms were reduced from 107 Most Probable Number per gram of total solids (MPN g−1 to 104 MPN g−1. I one pile the 103 MPN g−1 reached after 90 days in one pile; in another, there was recontamination from 105 to 106 MPN g−1. In SSC, helminth eggs were eliminated, making application sustainable for agriculture purposes.

  18. REM sleep selectively prunes and maintains new synapses in development and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Ma, Lei; Yang, Guang; Gan, Wen-Biao

    2017-03-01

    The functions and underlying mechanisms of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep remain unclear. Here we show that REM sleep prunes newly formed postsynaptic dendritic spines of layer 5 pyramidal neurons in the mouse motor cortex during development and motor learning. This REM sleep-dependent elimination of new spines facilitates subsequent spine formation during development and when a new motor task is learned, indicating a role for REM sleep in pruning to balance the number of new spines formed over time. Moreover, REM sleep also strengthens and maintains newly formed spines, which are critical for neuronal circuit development and behavioral improvement after learning. We further show that dendritic calcium spikes arising during REM sleep are important for pruning and strengthening new spines. Together, these findings indicate that REM sleep has multifaceted functions in brain development, learning and memory consolidation by selectively eliminating and maintaining newly formed synapses via dendritic calcium spike-dependent mechanisms.

  19. An Artificial Neural Network Modeling for Force Control System of a Robotic Pruning Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hashemi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there has been an increasing application of pruning robots for planted forests due to the growing concern on the efficiency and safety issues. Power consumption and working time of agricultural machines have become important issues due to the high value of energy in modern world. In this study, different multi-layer back-propagation networks were utilized for mapping the complex and highly interactive of pruning process parameters and to predict power consumption and cutting time of a force control equipped robotic pruning machine by knowing input parameters such as: rotation speed, stalk diameter, and sensitivity coefficient. Results showed significant effects of all input parameters on output parameters except rotational speed on cutting time. Therefore, for reducing the wear of cutting system, a less rotational speed in every sensitivity coefficient should be selected.

  20. Effect of root pruning and irrigation regimes on leaf water relations and xylem ABA and ionic concentrations in pear trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yufei; Bertelsen, Marianne G.; Petersen, Karen Koefoed

    2014-01-01

    relation characteristics, stomatal conductance and xylem sap abscisic acid (ABA) and ionic concentrations. Results showed that leaf water potential, leaf turgor and stomatal conductance of root pruning (RP) treatment was significantly lower than those of non-root pruning (NP) treatment indicating that root...

  1. Longleaf Pine Root System Development and Seedling Quality in Response to Copper Root Pruning and Cavity Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Anne Sword Sayer; Shi-Jean Susana Sung; James D. Haywood

    2011-01-01

    Cultural practices that modify root system structure in the plug of container-grown seedlings have the potential to improve root system function after planting. Our objective was to assess how copper root pruning affects the quality and root system development of longleaf pine seedlings grown in three cavity sizes in a greenhouse. Copper root pruning increased seedling...

  2. Field performance of Quercus bicolor established as repeatedly air-root-pruned container and bareroot planting stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.W." Jerry" Van Sambeek; Larry D. Godsey; William D. Walter; Harold E. Garrett; John P. Dwyer

    2016-01-01

    Benefits of repeated air-root-pruning of seedlings when stepping up to progressively larger containers include excellent lateral root distribution immediately below the root collar and an exceptionally fibrous root ball. To evaluate long-term field performance of repeatedly air-root-pruned container stock, three plantings of swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor...

  3. Pruning for crop regulation in high density guava (Psidium guajava L.) plantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakre, M.; Lal, S.; Uniyal, S.; Goswami, A.K. Prakash. P.

    2016-11-01

    High density management and crop regulation are two important aspects in guava (Psidium guajava L.) production. Therefore, to find out the economic way of managing high density planting and crop regulation, the present work was carried out on 6-year-old guava trees of cv. Pant Prabhat under double-hedge row system of planting during 2009-10 and 2010-11. Seven different forms of pruning [FBT: flower bud thinning by hand, FBTT: flower bud thinning by hand followed by removal of terminal one leaf pair, RLFO: removal of leaves and flower buds by hand, retaining one leaf pair at the top, RLF: removal of all leaves and flowers by hand, OLPS: one leaf pair shoot pruning, FSP: full shoot pruning, OLPF: one leaf pair pruning of fruited shoots only] were studied along with control (C).Minimum annual increase in tree volume (6.764 m3) was recorded with the treatment OLPF, which was 2.31 times less than the control (15.682 m3). Highest yield during winter season (55.30 kg/tree) and total yield (59.87 kg/tree) was obtained from treatment OLPF. One leaf pair pruning of fruited shoots only (OLPF) was also found profitable among other treatments by recording cost:benefit ratio of 1:2.96. This treatment also recorded the highest return distributed in rainy as well as in winter season. On the basis of findings it can be concluded that one leaf pair pruning of fruited shoots only is suitable for profitable high density management as well as crop regulation of guava in farmer friendly manner. (Author)

  4. Pruning for crop regulation in high density guava (Psidium guajava L. plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhubala Thakre

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available High density management and crop regulation are two important aspects in guava (Psidium guajava L. production. Therefore, to find out the economic way of managing high density planting and crop regulation, the present work was carried out on 6-year-old guava trees of cv. Pant Prabhat under double-hedge row system of planting during 2009-10 and 2010-11. Seven different forms of pruning [FBT: flower bud thinning by hand, FBTT: flower bud thinning by hand followed by removal of terminal one leaf pair, RLFO: removal of leaves and flower buds by hand, retaining one leaf pair at the top, RLF: removal of all leaves and flowers by hand, OLPS: one leaf pair shoot pruning, FSP: full shoot pruning, OLPF: one leaf pair pruning of fruited shoots only] were studied along with control (C.Minimum annual increase in tree volume (6.764 m3 was recorded with the treatment OLPF, which was 2.31 times less than the control (15.682 m3. Highest yield during winter season (55.30 kg/tree and total yield (59.87 kg/tree was obtained from treatment OLPF. One leaf pair pruning of fruited shoots only (OLPF was also found profitable among other treatments by recording cost:benefit ratio of 1:2.96. This treatment also recorded the highest return distributed in rainy as well as in winter season. On the basis of findings it can be concluded that one leaf pair pruning of fruited shoots only is suitable for profitable high density management as well as crop regulation of guava in farmer friendly manner.

  5. Evaluation of biocontrol agents for grapevine pruning wound protection against trunk pathogen infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charl KOTZE

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Trunk diseases of grapevine are caused by numerous pathogens, including Eutypa lata, Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, and species of Botryosphaeriaceae (incl. Botryosphaeria and aggregate genera, Phomopsis and Phaeoacremonium. Since infections occur mainly through pruning wounds, that have been shown by previous research to stay susceptible for up to 16 weeks after pruning, long-term pruning wound protection is required for prevention of infection. This study evaluated several biocontrol agents against a range of trunk disease pathogens in dual plate laboratory trials to determine macroscopic and microscopic interactions. The biocontrol agents had a substantial effect on all the pathogens, with a wide range of macroscopic and microscopic interactions observed. The best performing biocontrol agents were tested in two field trials. Fresh pruning wounds were treated with benomyl, Trichoderma products (Biotricho®, Vinevax® and ECO 77® and isolates (USPP-T1 and -T2, identified as T. atroviride and Bacillus subtilis. Seven days after treatment the pruning wounds were inoculated by spraying with spore suspensions of Neofusicoccum australe, N. parvum, Diplodia seriata, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Eutypa lata, Phaeomoniella chlamydospora or Phomopsis viticola. Eight months after inoculation, the treatments were evaluated by isolation onto potato dextrose agar. The efficacy of the biocontrol agents was in most cases similar or superior to that observed for benomyl. Isolate USPP-T1, in particular, was very effective, reducing incidence of Ph. viticola, E. lata, Pa. chlamydospora, N. australe, N. parvum, D. seriata and L. theobromae by 69, 76, 77, 78, 80, 85 and 92%, respectively. This is the first report of biological protection of grapevine pruning wounds against this group of grapevine trunk disease pathogens.

  6. Corset Usage for Gastrointestinal and Respiratory Problems in a Newborn with Prune Belly Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satar, Mehmet; Özlü, Ferda; Yapıcıoğlu, Hacer; İskit, Serdar

    2016-07-01

    Prune Belly syndrome (PBS), comprises a triad of anomalies that include abdominal wall flaccidity, urologic anomalies and bilateral cryptorchidism in males. The abdominal musculature hypoplasia predisposes to respiratory problems, respiratory infections secondary to impaired cough mechanism, and cause chronic constipation secondary to ineffective valsalva ability. Here, the authors present a newborn baby with Prune Belly syndrome who had respiratory and gastrointestinal problems which resolved after corset use. To the authors knowledge, this is the first case of corset usage in the treatment of PBS in a newborn infant.

  7. Urachal catheter provides new choice for long-term urinary diversion in prune belly syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I-Lun; Huang, Hsin-Chun; Lee, Shin-Yi; Liu, Chieh-An; Tain, You-Lin; Ou-Yang, Mei-Chen; Chao, Pei-Hsin

    2011-02-01

    Prune belly syndrome has been identified as a clinical triad of abdominal muscle deficiency, bilateral cryptorchidism, and urologic abnormalities. We present the case of a discordant monozygotic twin with prune belly syndrome and voiding dysfunction that was relieved by long-term urinary catheterization by way of the urachus. To the best of our knowledge, this alternative method has not been previously reported. We suggest that for newborn infants with long-term voiding dysfunction, if the urachus retains patency, urinary catheterization through the urachus could be a choice for urine drainage instead of cystostomy, providing a better cosmetic appearance and quality of life. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cane pruning on Chardonnay grapevine in the high-altitude regions of Southern Brazil

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    Filho José Luiz Marcon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High-altitude regions of southern Brazil, located above 900 m above sea level, the cordon training with spur pruning is widely used because of easier application. In these regions, Chardonnay wine grape shows potential to produce quality wines, however, in commercial vineyards, the training system used has not provided productivities that makes economically viable the cultivation of this variety. Given this, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of different cane-pruning systems on the vegetative, productive and enological potential of Chardonnay grapevines grown in the high-altitude region of Southern Brazil. The experiment was conducted in a commercial Chardonnay vineyard, located in São Joaquim – Santa Catarina State (28o17 ′39”S and 49∘ 55′56” W, to 1230 m a.s.l during 2015 and 2016 vintages. Chardonnay vines (grafted on 1103 Paulsen were planted in 2010, with a 3.0 m (row × 1.0 m (vine spacing. The treatments consisted of different cane-pruning systems: Cordon spur-pruning (control; Sylvoz; Cazenave; Capovolto; single Guyot and double Guyot. Pruning was performed in August of each year when the buds were in the green tip developmental stage. Data was analyzed by Scott Knott test (p < 0.05 following a randomized block design with four replicates, each consisting of 12 vines per plot. We observed higher yield in the Cazenave and double Guyot training system with three and two more tons of grapes than spur-pruning respectively. The bud fertility was higher in plants trained in double Guyot. Vines spur-pruned showed higher relation of leaf area: production, with values above 100 cm2 g−1 grape at 2016 vintage. Commercial maturity of grapes (soluble solids, acidity and polyphenols did not differ among training systems studied. The results suggest that cane-pruning systems could be an alternative to increase production efficiency of Chardonnay in high-altitude region of southern Brazil.

  9. Can early thinning and pruning lessen the impact of pine plantations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dwelling insects found in pine tree plantations in Patagonia. We compared the abundance, species richness and composition of the beetle and ant assemblages within 16-year-old pine stands (n = 10) subjected to early pruning and thinning (i.e. ...

  10. Dynamical pruning of static localized basis sets in time-dependent quantum dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCormack, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the viability of dynamical pruning of localized basis sets in time-dependent quantum wave packet methods. Basis functions that have a very small population at any given time are removed from the active set. The basis functions themselves are time independent, but the set of active

  11. Pruning affects the vegetative balance of the wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro José Almanza-Merchán

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Grape cultivation for wine production at altitudes between 2,200 and 2,600 m a.s.l. started in the department of Boyaca in 1982. Quality wines are produced by the AinKarim Vineyard in Ricaurte High. Wine grapes have to possess suitable organoleptic compounds at harvest in order to guarantee quality grape must that can be converted into wine. Therefore, it is necessary to maintain a suitable ratio the sources and the sinks and to guarantee production, quality and vegetative sustainability over time, conserving the equilibrium and benefiting the productive potential of the vineyard. The aim of this study was to evaluate the productive and vegetative balance effect in the wine grape varieties Cabernet Sauvignon and Sauvignon Blanc in Sutamarchan-Boyaca, considering different pruning types (short, long, and mixed. A bifactorial, completely random statistical design was used. At the time of harvest, the fruit production and pruned wood were evaluated. The long-pruned vines showed the best behavior and the most balanced source/sink relationship,, while Sauvignon Blanc demonstrated a better productive yield. Meanwhile, the short and mixed prunings had the better values for the Ravaz index (balance between fruit production and vegetative growth, indicating that they are more suitable for the conditions of the region, allowing for sustainability during the productive cycles of the wine grapes.

  12. An Adaptive Pruning Algorithm for the Discrete L-Curve Criterion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Christian; Jensen, Toke Koldborg; Rodriguez, Giuseppe

    2004-01-01

    SVD or regularizing CG iterations). Our algorithm needs no pre-defined parameters, and in order to capture the global features of the curve in an adaptive fashion, we use a sequence of pruned L-curves that correspond to considering the curves at different scales. We compare our new algorithm...

  13. Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis in a peritoneal dialysis patient with prune-belly syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurts, N; Hubens, G; Wojciechowski, M; Vaneerdeweg, W

    2010-01-01

    This case describes a prune-belly syndrome patient who had a kidney transplantation and was diagnosed with Encapsulating Peritoneal Sclerosis (EPS), a rare but potentially fatal condition, mostly associated with Peritoneal Dialysis (PD). The definition of EPS is based on the clinical findings linked to bowel obstruction and on the demonstration of peritoneal thickening. Surgical treatment is the only established basic treatment for the condition. Prune-belly syndrome is characterized by the triad of deficient abdominal musculature, urinary tract abnormality and cryptorchidism. Because it is often associated with end-stage renal disease, PD is essential in the treatment of patients with prune-belly syndrome. The aetiology of EPS follows a 'two-hit theory': the first 'hit' is peritoneal deterioration, caused by long-time exposure to PD. This causes peritoneal disruption which predisposes the patient to a second hit. In our patient, PD discontinuation and renal transplantation are possible 'second hits' that triggered the development of EPS. This case of prune-belly syndrome has all the necessary elements for the development of EPS, and we felt we should report it as the peroperative diagnosis was unexpected.

  14. The association between prune belly syndrome and dental anomalies: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Maria Daniela; Favretto, Carla Oliveira; Cunha, Robson Frederico

    2012-12-18

    Prune belly syndrome is a rare condition produced by an early mesodermal defect that causes abdominal abnormalities. However, the literature indicates that disturbances related to ectodermal development may also be present. This is the first case report in the literature to suggest that dental abnormalities are part of the broad spectrum of clinical features of prune belly syndrome. Because the syndrome causes many serious medical problems, early diagnosis of abnormalities involving the primary and permanent dentitions are encouraged. The authors report the clinical case of a 4-year-old Caucasian boy with prune belly syndrome. In addition to the triad of abdominal muscle deficiency, abnormalities of the gastrointestinal and urinary tracts, and cryptorchidism, a geminated mandibular right central incisor, agenesis of a mandibular permanent left incisor, and congenitally missing primary teeth (namely, the mandibular right and left lateral incisors) were noted. This original case report about prune belly syndrome highlights the possibility that dental abnormalities are a part of the broad spectrum of clinical features of the syndrome. Therefore, an accurate intra-oral clinical examination and radiographic evaluation are required for patients with this syndrome in order to provide an early diagnosis of abnormalities involving the primary and permanent dentitions.

  15. The association between prune belly syndrome and dental anomalies: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basso Maria Daniela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prune belly syndrome is a rare condition produced by an early mesodermal defect that causes abdominal abnormalities. However, the literature indicates that disturbances related to ectodermal development may also be present. This is the first case report in the literature to suggest that dental abnormalities are part of the broad spectrum of clinical features of prune belly syndrome. Because the syndrome causes many serious medical problems, early diagnosis of abnormalities involving the primary and permanent dentitions are encouraged. Case presentation The authors report the clinical case of a 4-year-old Caucasian boy with prune belly syndrome. In addition to the triad of abdominal muscle deficiency, abnormalities of the gastrointestinal and urinary tracts, and cryptorchidism, a geminated mandibular right central incisor, agenesis of a mandibular permanent left incisor, and congenitally missing primary teeth (namely, the mandibular right and left lateral incisors were noted. Conclusion This original case report about prune belly syndrome highlights the possibility that dental abnormalities are a part of the broad spectrum of clinical features of the syndrome. Therefore, an accurate intra-oral clinical examination and radiographic evaluation are required for patients with this syndrome in order to provide an early diagnosis of abnormalities involving the primary and permanent dentitions.

  16. Prune belly syndrome in an Egyptian infant with Down syndrome: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metwalley Kotb A

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Prune belly syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly of uncertain aetiology almost exclusive to males. The association between prune belly syndrome and Down syndrome is very rare. Case presentation A 4-month-old Egyptian boy was admitted to our institute for management of acute bronchiolitis. He was born at full term by normal vaginal delivery. His mother, a 42-year-Egyptian villager with six other children, had no antenatal or prenatal care. On examination, the boy was found to be hypotonic. In addition to features of Down syndrome, karyotyping confirmed the diagnosis of trisomy 21. Ultrasound examination of the abdomen showed bilateral gross hydronephrosis with megaureter. Micturating cystourethrography showed grade V vesicoureteric reflux bilaterally with no urethral obstruction. Serum creatinine concentration was 90 μmol/litre, serum sodium was 132 mmol/litre and serum potassium was 5.9 mmol/litre. Conclusion We report an Egyptian infant with Down syndrome and prune belly syndrome. The incidence of this association is unknown. Routine antenatal ultrasonography will help in discovering renal anomalies which can be followed postnatally. Postnatal detection of prune belly syndrome necessitates full radiological investigation to detect any renal anomalies. Early diagnosis of this syndrome and determining its optimal treatment are very important in helping to avoid its fatal course.

  17. Surgical tactic of high bilateral abdominal testicular retention in patient with a prune belly syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Panchenko

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral abdominal cryptorchism in combination with other defects of urogenital system and a prune belly syndrome keep within a syndrome of connective tissue dysplasia. In our medical center developed the method of surgical correction of a high bilateral abdominal testicular retention with preservation of vessels.

  18. Surgical tactic of high bilateral abdominal testicular retention in patient with a prune belly syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Panchenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral abdominal cryptorchism in combination with other defects of urogenital system and a prune belly syndrome keep within a syndrome of connective tissue dysplasia. In our medical center developed the method of surgical correction of a high bilateral abdominal testicular retention with preservation of vessels.

  19. Prune belly syndrome in an Egyptian infant with Down syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metwalley, Kotb A; Farghalley, Hekma S; Abd-Elsayed, Alaa A

    2008-10-02

    Prune belly syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly of uncertain aetiology almost exclusive to males. The association between prune belly syndrome and Down syndrome is very rare. A 4-month-old Egyptian boy was admitted to our institute for management of acute bronchiolitis. He was born at full term by normal vaginal delivery. His mother, a 42-year-Egyptian villager with six other children, had no antenatal or prenatal care. On examination, the boy was found to be hypotonic. In addition to features of Down syndrome, karyotyping confirmed the diagnosis of trisomy 21. Ultrasound examination of the abdomen showed bilateral gross hydronephrosis with megaureter. Micturating cystourethrography showed grade V vesicoureteric reflux bilaterally with no urethral obstruction. Serum creatinine concentration was 90 mumol/litre, serum sodium was 132 mmol/litre and serum potassium was 5.9 mmol/litre. We report an Egyptian infant with Down syndrome and prune belly syndrome. The incidence of this association is unknown. Routine antenatal ultrasonography will help in discovering renal anomalies which can be followed postnatally. Postnatal detection of prune belly syndrome necessitates full radiological investigation to detect any renal anomalies. Early diagnosis of this syndrome and determining its optimal treatment are very important in helping to avoid its fatal course.

  20. Type V Pouch Colon, Prune Belly Syndrome, and Congenital Anterior Urethrocutaneous Fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Prince; Birua, Hirendra

    2017-01-01

    Congenital pouch colon (CPC) or short colon syndrome is a rare type of anorectal malformation(ARM). Type V is the rarest form of CPC. We present a 1-day-old male child with type V CPC with prune belly syndrome and congenital anterior urethrocutaneous fistula (CAUF).

  1. Outcomes of renal replacement therapy in boys with prune belly syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yalcinkaya, Fatos; Bonthuis, Marjolein; Erdogan, Beyza Doganay

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As outcome data for prune belly syndrome (PBS) complicated by end-stage renal disease are scarce, we analyzed characteristics and outcomes of children with PBS using the European Society for Pediatric Nephrology/European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association...

  2. Impact of Early Pruning and Thinning on Lumber Grade Yield From Loblolly Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander Clark; Mike Strub; Larry R. Anderson; H. Gwynne Lloyd; Richard F. Daniels; James H. Scarborough

    2004-01-01

    The Sudden Sawlog Study was established in 1954 near Crossett, AR, in a 9-year-old loblolly pine plantation to test the hypothesis that loblolly plantations can produce sawtimber in 30 years. To stimulate diameter and height growth and clear wood production, study plots were heavily thinned, trees pruned to 33 feet by age 24 years, under-story mowed, and growth of...

  3. On failure of the pruning technique in "error repair in shift-reduce parsers"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertsch, E; Nederhof, MJ

    A previous article presented a technique to compute the least-cost error repair by incrementally generating configurations that result from inserting and deleting tokens in a syntactically incorrect input. An additional mechanism to improve the run-time efficiency of this algorithm by pruning some

  4. Air lateral root pruning affects longleaf pine seedling root system morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi-Jean Susana Sung; Dave Haywood

    2016-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) seedlings were cultured with air lateral root pruning (side-vented containers, VT) or without (solid-walled containers, SW). Seedling root system morphology and growth were assessed before planting and 8 and 14 months after planting. Although VT seedlings had greater root collar diameter than the SW before planting,...

  5. Loss of mTOR-dependent macroautophagy causes autistic-like synaptic pruning deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Guomei; Gudsnuk, Kathryn; Kuo, Sheng-Han; Cotrina, Marisa L; Rosoklija, Gorazd; Sosunov, Alexander; Sonders, Mark S; Kanter, Ellen; Castagna, Candace; Yamamoto, Ai; Yue, Zhenyu; Arancio, Ottavio; Peterson, Bradley S; Champagne, Frances; Dwork, Andrew J; Goldman, James; Sulzer, David

    2014-09-03

    Developmental alterations of excitatory synapses are implicated in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Here, we report increased dendritic spine density with reduced developmental spine pruning in layer V pyramidal neurons in postmortem ASD temporal lobe. These spine deficits correlate with hyperactivated mTOR and impaired autophagy. In Tsc2 ± ASD mice where mTOR is constitutively overactive, we observed postnatal spine pruning defects, blockade of autophagy, and ASD-like social behaviors. The mTOR inhibitor rapamycin corrected ASD-like behaviors and spine pruning defects in Tsc2 ± mice, but not in Atg7(CKO) neuronal autophagy-deficient mice or Tsc2 ± :Atg7(CKO) double mutants. Neuronal autophagy furthermore enabled spine elimination with no effects on spine formation. Our findings suggest that mTOR-regulated autophagy is required for developmental spine pruning, and activation of neuronal autophagy corrects synaptic pathology and social behavior deficits in ASD models with hyperactivated mTOR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Prune belly syndrome in uniovular twin: a new finding or a case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of Prune Belly Syndrome associated with High Anorectal Anomaly and Unilateral Lung Cyst occurring in a uniovular twin is hereby presented. The twin brother has no clinical evidence of congenital anomaly in any system. We therefore ask; is this a new finding or a case of improper documentation of data. Keywords: ...

  7. Effects of root pruning in sour cherry (Prunus cersus) "Stevnsbaer"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toldam-Andersen, Torben; Jensen, Nauja Lisa; Dencker, Ivar Blücher

    2007-01-01

    with trees of middle age on rootstock Colt were selected. Three trees with intact root systems were pulled up in each of the orchards. Based on the architecture of the root systems, a pruning distance of 30-35 cm from the trunk was used, removing approximately 30 percent of the roots. The one-sided root...

  8. Nitrogen fixation in Leucaena leucocephala and effects of pruning s on cereal yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekunda, M.

    1998-01-01

    Leucaena leucocephala was interplanted with reference tree species, Cassia siamea and Cassia spectabilis, and estimates of percent N derived from N 2 fixation (%Ndfa) were made, by the isotope-dilution method, at 4, 6, 14, 20 and 30 months after transplanting. The %Ndfa values were low and variable throughout the growth period, except after thinning at 14 months when there was a five-fold increase. The two non-fixing reference species outperformed the N 2 -fixing Leucaena in above-ground vegetative production, and provided different fixed-N estimates. Prunings from the L. leucocephala and C. Siamea trees were applied separately to soil as green manure. Maize was planted to test the effects of the Leucaena green manure on soil fertility, and millet was the test crop for the Cassia. Whether surface-applied or incorporated, the prunings significantly improved yields, which were generally similar among rates and methods of application. The proportions of cereal N obtained from prunings ranged from 8 to 33%, with no cereal-yield correlation. The data indicate that multipurpose tree prunings are of potential use to farmers as organic sources of nutrients, even at relatively low application rates, without need for incorporation into the soil. (author)

  9. Scab severity in relation to hedge pruning pecan trees in the Southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scab is the most damaging disease of pecan in the Southeastern USA. Pecan trees are tall (up to 30+ m), and managing disease in the upper canopy is problematic. Hedge pruning trees to ~12 m is being explored to facilitate efficacy of ground-based fungicide sprays, but resulting vigorous shoot growth...

  10. Prune belly syndrome in a set of twins, a family tragedy: Case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report prune belly syndrome, a rare congenital malformation, in a set of twins delivered to a young couple with a history of three previous first trimester spontaneous abortions, discordant HIV seropositivity and antenatal ultrasound report that indicated renal abnormalities in only one of the twins. The challenges of ...

  11. Sensitivity of directed networks to the addition and pruning of edges and vertices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltsev, A. V.; Timár, G.; Mendes, J. F. F.

    2017-08-01

    Directed networks have various topologically different extensive components, in contrast to a single giant component in undirected networks. We study the sensitivity (response) of the sizes of these extensive components in directed complex networks to the addition and pruning of edges and vertices. We introduce the susceptibility, which quantifies this sensitivity. We show that topologically different parts of a directed network have different sensitivity to the addition and pruning of edges and vertices and, therefore, they are characterized by different susceptibilities. These susceptibilities diverge at the critical point of the directed percolation transition, signaling the appearance (or disappearance) of the giant strongly connected component in the infinite size limit. We demonstrate this behavior in randomly damaged real and synthetic directed complex networks, such as the World Wide Web, Twitter, the Caenorhabditis elegans neural network, directed Erdős-Rényi graphs, and others. We reveal a nonmonotonic dependence of the sensitivity to random pruning of edges or vertices in the case of C. elegans and Twitter that manifests specific structural peculiarities of these networks. We propose the measurements of the susceptibilities during the addition or pruning of edges and vertices as a new method for studying structural peculiarities of directed networks.

  12. Planting and care of fine hardwood seedlings: Fertilizing, pruning, and thinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    James McKenna; Keith Woeste

    2004-01-01

    This publication outlines the cultural operations of pruning, fertilizing, and thinning that can greatly enhance the timber value of a plantation. This summary is based on the findings of many individuals. While there are alternatives to many of the recommended practices and differences of opinion existing among professionals, our purpose is to give the landowner a...

  13. Selective pruning in pineapple plants as means to reduce heterogeneity in fruit quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fassinou Hotegni, V.N.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Struik, P.C.; Agbossou, E.K.

    2015-01-01

    Heterogeneity in fruit quality (size and taste) is a major problem in pineapple production chains. The possibilities were investigated of reducing the heterogeneity in pineapple in the field by pruning slips on selected plants, in order to promote the fruit growth on these plants. Slips are side

  14. Development of epicormic sprouts in Sitka spruce following thinning and pruning in south-east Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Deal; R. James Barbour; Michael H. McClellan; Dean L. Parry

    2003-01-01

    The frequency and size of epicormic sprouts in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) were assessed in five 23-29 year-old mixed Sitka spruce-western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) stands that were uniformly thinned and pruned to 2.4, 3.7 and 5.2 m lift heights. Six to nine years after treatment sprouts were...

  15. MG Travessia: a coffee arabica cultivar productive and responsive to pruning

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Gladyston Rodrigues; Bartholo, Gabriel Ferreira; Pereira, Antônio Alves; Rezende, Juliana Costa de; Botelho, Cesar Elias; Oliveira, Antônio Carlos Baião de; Silva, Felipe Lopes da

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents the results of progeny 1190-1170-2, which was recorded as ‘MGS Travessia’ and selected based on its performance in the state of Minas Gerais. The cultivar has short size, cylindrical canopy, high yield capacity, high vegetative vigor, very satisfactory husk/bean ratio, grain quality compatible to traditional cultivars, and is very responsive to skeleton pruning.

  16. 75 FR 67607 - Dried Prunes Produced in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... Order 12988, Civil Justice Reform. Under the marketing order now in effect, California dried prune... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 993 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-10-0057... Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule increases the assessment rate established...

  17. 76 FR 53813 - Dried Prunes Produced in California; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... Reform. Under the marketing order now in effect, California dried prune handlers are subject to... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 993 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-11-0068... Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule with request for comments. SUMMARY: This rule decreases the...

  18. Decreasing-Rate Pruning Optimizes the Construction of Efficient and Robust Distributed Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saket Navlakha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Robust, efficient, and low-cost networks are advantageous in both biological and engineered systems. During neural network development in the brain, synapses are massively over-produced and then pruned-back over time. This strategy is not commonly used when designing engineered networks, since adding connections that will soon be removed is considered wasteful. Here, we show that for large distributed routing networks, network function is markedly enhanced by hyper-connectivity followed by aggressive pruning and that the global rate of pruning, a developmental parameter not previously studied by experimentalists, plays a critical role in optimizing network structure. We first used high-throughput image analysis techniques to quantify the rate of pruning in the mammalian neocortex across a broad developmental time window and found that the rate is decreasing over time. Based on these results, we analyzed a model of computational routing networks and show using both theoretical analysis and simulations that decreasing rates lead to more robust and efficient networks compared to other rates. We also present an application of this strategy to improve the distributed design of airline networks. Thus, inspiration from neural network formation suggests effective ways to design distributed networks across several domains.

  19. 78 FR 63128 - Dried Prunes Produced in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ...; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This... the Regulatory Flexibility Act (RFA) (5 U.S.C. 601-612), the Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) has... prunes. Dated: October 17, 2013. Rex A. Barnes, Associate Administrator, Agricultural Marketing Service...

  20. Deletion of hepatocyte nuclear factor-1-beta in an infant with prune belly syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeri, Sina; Devers, Patricia L; Kaiser-Rogers, Kathleen A; Moylan, Vincent J; Torchia, Beth S; Horton, Amanda L; Wolfe, Honor M; Aylsworth, Arthur S

    2010-08-01

    Prune belly syndrome is a rare congenital disorder characterized by deficiency of abdominal wall muscles, cryptorchidism, and urinary tract anomalies. We have had the opportunity to study a baby with prune belly syndrome associated with an apparently de novo 1.3-megabase interstitial 17q12 microdeletion that includes the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1-beta gene at 17q12. One previous patient, an adult, has been reported with prune belly syndrome and a hepatocyte nuclear factor-1-beta microdeletion. Hepatocyte nuclear factor-1-beta is a widely expressed transcription factor that regulates tissue-specific gene expression and is expressed in numerous tissues including mesonephric duct derivatives, the renal tubule of the metanephros, and the developing prostate of the mouse. Mutations in hepatocyte nuclear factor-1-beta cause the "renal cysts and diabetes syndrome," isolated renal cystic dysplasia, and a variety of other malformations. Based on its expression pattern and the observation of two affected cases, we propose that haploinsufficiency of hepatocyte nuclear factor-1-beta may be causally related to the production of the prune belly syndrome phenotype through a mechanism of prostatic and ureteral hypoplasia that results in severe obstructive uropathy with urinary tract and abdominal distension. Copyright Thieme Medical Publishers.

  1. Effect of Staking and Pruning on the Growth and Yield of Cucumber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of pruning and staking on the vegetative growth and yield of cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.). The experiment was a 3 x 2 factorial laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with five replications. The results showed that vine length, number of flowers, total ...

  2. Pruning dwarf mistletoe brooms reduces stress on Jeffrey pines, Cleveland National Forest, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Scharpf; Richard S. Smith; Detlev Vogler

    1987-01-01

    Western dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium campylopodum) is a damaging parasite of Jeffrey pines (Pinus jeffreyi) in southern California. Infected branches that develop into brooms are believed to reduce tlee vigor and increase mortality. Brooms were pruned from Jeffrey pines with varying levels of dwarf mistletoe infection and live...

  3. 7 CFR 993.159 - Payments for services performed with respect to reserve tonnage prunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., incidental to acquisition or storage; (ii) Direct labor costs, which include those for weighing, receiving... overhead costs, which include those for supervision, indirect labor, fuel, power and water, taxes and... the costs for necessary services rendered by handlers in connection with reserve prunes. (2) Such...

  4. Outcomes of renal replacement therapy in boys with prune belly syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yalcinkaya, Fatos; Bonthuis, Marjolein; Erdogan, Beyza Doganay

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As outcome data for prune belly syndrome (PBS) complicated by end-stage renal disease are scarce, we analyzed characteristics and outcomes of children with PBS using the European Society for Pediatric Nephrology/European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association (...

  5. The potential of legume tree prunings as organic matters for improving phosphorus availability in an acid soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wahyudi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A study that was aimed to elucidate roles of Gliricidia sepium and Tithonia diversifolia prunings and their extracted humic and fulvic acids on improving phosphorus availability and decreasing aluminum concentration in an Ultisol was conducted in a glasshouse. Thirteen treatments consisting of two prunings, six rates of pruning application (5, 7.5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 t/ha and one control (no added prunings were arranged in a randomized block design with four replicates. Each mixture of prunings and soil was placed in a pot containing 8 kg of soil and maize of Srikandi cultivar was grown on it for 45 days. At harvest, soil pH, P content and aluminium concentration were measured. Results of the glasshouse experiment showed that application of Gliricidia and Tithonia prunings significantly increased soil pH, reduced Alo concentration, increased Alp content, increased P availability, and increased P taken up by maize grown for 45 days. The optimum rate of both Gliricidia and Tithonia pruning should be 40 t/ha. However, at the same rate, optimum production gained by Tithonia would be higher than that of Gliricidia.

  6. Spindle-F Is the Central Mediator of Ik2 Kinase-Dependent Dendrite Pruning in Drosophila Sensory Neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu Lin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available During development, certain Drosophila sensory neurons undergo dendrite pruning that selectively eliminates their dendrites but leaves the axons intact. How these neurons regulate pruning activity in the dendrites remains unknown. Here, we identify a coiled-coil protein Spindle-F (Spn-F that is required for dendrite pruning in Drosophila sensory neurons. Spn-F acts downstream of IKK-related kinase Ik2 in the same pathway for dendrite pruning. Spn-F exhibits a punctate pattern in larval neurons, whereas these Spn-F puncta become redistributed in pupal neurons, a step that is essential for dendrite pruning. The redistribution of Spn-F from puncta in pupal neurons requires the phosphorylation of Spn-F by Ik2 kinase to decrease Spn-F self-association, and depends on the function of microtubule motor dynein complex. Spn-F is a key component to link Ik2 kinase to dynein motor complex, and the formation of Ik2/Spn-F/dynein complex is critical for Spn-F redistribution and for dendrite pruning. Our findings reveal a novel regulatory mechanism for dendrite pruning achieved by temporal activation of Ik2 kinase and dynein-mediated redistribution of Ik2/Spn-F complex in neurons.

  7. Effect of pruning height on the architecture of plants of camu camu (Myrciaria dubia HBK Mc Vaugh in the experimental station of IIAP, Ucayali, Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Abanto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the response camu camu’s plants in plantations initial undergoing training pruning, an experiment was installed in EE - IIAP-Ucayali, under a design randomized complete block, with 3 replications, making use of 20 plants per experimental unit. The pruning treatments were performing at different heights from the base of the stem, it was considered T0 [witness without pruning], T1 [pruning to 10 cm from the base], T2 [pruning to 20 cm from the base] and T3 [pruning to 40 cm from the base] in plants of known provenance. The investigation was directed to evaluate the number of shoots, shoot growth, plant height, basal diameter, crown diameter and number of branches. After of 9 months of evaluation was found significant differences between the variables except in top diameter. In the variable Height, treatment T0 [witness without pruning] outstanding because they were not pruned, among the remaining treatments has similarly behaved, surpassing the control treatment by 267 %. In addition to this, the basal diameter was found that T1 [pruning to 10 cm from the base] has a better performed with an average value of 1.96 cm compared with the control (1.7cm. The pruning had a positive influence in the number of branches, with an average of 13.4 branches compared with T0 that get 3.1 branches on average, its shows that the pruning can increased up the production of branches to 432.3%.

  8. Using Multi-Spectral UAV Imagery to Extract Tree Crop Structural Properties and Assess Pruning Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Johansen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV provide an unprecedented capacity to monitor the development and dynamics of tree growth and structure through time. It is generally thought that the pruning of tree crops encourages new growth, has a positive effect on fruiting, makes fruit-picking easier, and may increase yield, as it increases light interception and tree crown surface area. To establish the response of pruning in an orchard of lychee trees, an assessment of changes in tree structure, i.e., tree crown perimeter, width, height, area and Plant Projective Cover (PPC, was undertaken using multi-spectral UAV imagery collected before and after a pruning event. While tree crown perimeter, width and area could be derived directly from the delineated tree crowns, height was estimated from a produced canopy height model and PPC was most accurately predicted based on the NIR band. Pre- and post-pruning results showed significant differences in all measured tree structural parameters, including an average decrease in tree crown perimeter of 1.94 m, tree crown width of 0.57 m, tree crown height of 0.62 m, tree crown area of 3.5 m2, and PPC of 14.8%. In order to provide guidance on data collection protocols for orchard management, the impact of flying height variations was also examined, offering some insight into the influence of scale and the scalability of this UAV-based approach for larger orchards. The different flying heights (i.e., 30, 50 and 70 m produced similar measurements of tree crown width and PPC, while tree crown perimeter, area and height measurements decreased with increasing flying height. Overall, these results illustrate that routine collection of multi-spectral UAV imagery can provide a means of assessing pruning effects on changes in tree structure in commercial orchards, and highlight the importance of collecting imagery with consistent flight configurations, as varying flying heights may cause changes to tree structural measurements.

  9. Using Multi-Spectral UAV Imagery to Extract Tree Crop Structural Properties and Assess Pruning Effects

    KAUST Repository

    Johansen, Kasper

    2018-04-18

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) provide an unprecedented capacity to monitor the development and dynamics of tree growth and structure through time. It is generally thought that the pruning of tree crops encourages new growth, has a positive effect on fruiting, makes fruit-picking easier, and may increase yield, as it increases light interception and tree crown surface area. To establish the response of pruning in an orchard of lychee trees, an assessment of changes in tree structure, i.e. tree crown perimeter, width, height, area and Plant Projective Cover (PPC), was undertaken using multi-spectral UAV imagery collected before and after a pruning event. While tree crown perimeter, width and area could be derived directly from the delineated tree crowns, height was estimated from a produced canopy height model and PPC was most accurately predicted based on the NIR band. Pre- and post-pruning results showed significant differences in all measured tree structural parameters, including an average decrease in tree crown perimeter of 1.94 m, tree crown width of 0.57 m, tree crown height of 0.62 m, tree crown area of 3.5 m2, and PPC of 14.8%. In order to provide guidance on data collection protocols for orchard management, the impact of flying height variations was also examined, offering some insight into the influence of scale and the scalability of this UAV based approach for larger orchards. The different flying heights (i.e. 30, 50 and 70 m) produced similar measurements of tree crown width and PPC, while tree crown perimeter, area and height measurements decreased with increasing flying height. Overall, these results illustrate that routine collection of multi-spectral UAV imagery can provide a means of assessing pruning effects on changes in tree structure in commercial orchards, and highlight the importance of collecting imagery with consistent flight configurations, as varying flying heights may cause changes to tree structural measurements.

  10. Towards an Efficient Artificial Neural Network Pruning and Feature Ranking Tool

    KAUST Repository

    AlShahrani, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are known to be among the most effective and expressive machine learning models. Their impressive abilities to learn have been reflected in many broad application domains such as image recognition, medical diagnosis, online banking, robotics, dynamic systems, and many others. ANNs with multiple layers of complex non-linear transformations (a.k.a Deep ANNs) have shown recently successful results in the area of computer vision and speech recognition. ANNs are parametric models that approximate unknown functions in which parameter values (weights) are adapted during training. ANN’s weights can be large in number and thus render the trained model more complex with chances for “overfitting” training data. In this study, we explore the effects of network pruning on performance of ANNs and ranking of features that describe the data. Simplified ANN model results in fewer parameters, less computation and faster training. We investigate the use of Hessian-based pruning algorithms as well as simpler ones (i.e. non Hessian-based) on nine datasets with varying number of input features and ANN parameters. The Hessian-based Optimal Brain Surgeon algorithm (OBS) is robust but slow. Therefore a faster parallel Hessian- approximation is provided. An additional speedup is provided using a variant we name ‘Simple n Optimal Brain Surgeon’ (SNOBS), which represents a good compromise between robustness and time efficiency. For some of the datasets, the ANN pruning experiments show on average 91% reduction in the number of ANN parameters and about 60% - 90% in the number of ANN input features, while maintaining comparable or better accuracy to the case when no pruning is applied. Finally, we show through a comprehensive comparison with seven state-of-the art feature filtering methods that the feature selection and ranking obtained as a byproduct of the ANN pruning is comparable in accuracy to these methods.

  11. Towards an Efficient Artificial Neural Network Pruning and Feature Ranking Tool

    KAUST Repository

    AlShahrani, Mona

    2015-05-24

    Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are known to be among the most effective and expressive machine learning models. Their impressive abilities to learn have been reflected in many broad application domains such as image recognition, medical diagnosis, online banking, robotics, dynamic systems, and many others. ANNs with multiple layers of complex non-linear transformations (a.k.a Deep ANNs) have shown recently successful results in the area of computer vision and speech recognition. ANNs are parametric models that approximate unknown functions in which parameter values (weights) are adapted during training. ANN’s weights can be large in number and thus render the trained model more complex with chances for “overfitting” training data. In this study, we explore the effects of network pruning on performance of ANNs and ranking of features that describe the data. Simplified ANN model results in fewer parameters, less computation and faster training. We investigate the use of Hessian-based pruning algorithms as well as simpler ones (i.e. non Hessian-based) on nine datasets with varying number of input features and ANN parameters. The Hessian-based Optimal Brain Surgeon algorithm (OBS) is robust but slow. Therefore a faster parallel Hessian- approximation is provided. An additional speedup is provided using a variant we name ‘Simple n Optimal Brain Surgeon’ (SNOBS), which represents a good compromise between robustness and time efficiency. For some of the datasets, the ANN pruning experiments show on average 91% reduction in the number of ANN parameters and about 60% - 90% in the number of ANN input features, while maintaining comparable or better accuracy to the case when no pruning is applied. Finally, we show through a comprehensive comparison with seven state-of-the art feature filtering methods that the feature selection and ranking obtained as a byproduct of the ANN pruning is comparable in accuracy to these methods.

  12. Nephrogenic adenoma of the bladder in a prune belly syndrome patient: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broecker, Justine S; Steelman, Charlotte K; Broecker, Bruce H; Shehata, Bahig M

    2011-01-01

    Nephrogenic adenoma (NA) is a rare lesion of the urinary tract widely considered to be a metaplastic response to urothelial injury. Herein, we present the case of an 8-year-old male with prune belly syndrome who presented with gross hematuria. Investigation revealed a bladder mass; however, upon cystoscopic examination, multiple polypoid lesions were identified. Microscopic examination revealed NA of the bladder. To our knowledge, this is the second reported case of NA of the bladder in association with prune belly syndrome.

  13. Prune belly anomaly on prenatal ultrasound as a presenting feature of ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting syndrome (EEC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, S; Defoort, P; Vandenbroecke, C; Scheffer, H; Mortier, G

    2008-01-01

    We report on a fetus with prune belly anomaly presenting at 16 weeks gestation. Clinical evaluation after birth revealed other malformations reminiscent of the EEC syndrome. This diagnosis was also suspected in the mother and finally confirmed in both relatives by identification of a heterozygous mutation (p.R204W) in the p63 gene. With this paper we confirm the previously reported occurrence of prune belly anomaly in the EEC syndrome, however here in this family proven by genetic analysis.

  14. Effects of long-term pruning, meristem origin, and branch order on the rooting of Douglas-fir stem cuttings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.L. Copes

    1992-01-01

    The rooting percentages of 14 Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) clones were examined annually from 1974 to 1988. The trees were 10 and 13 years old in 1974 and were pruned to 2.0 m in 1978 and 1979 and then recut annually to 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 m, starting in 1983. The pruned trees showed no evidence of decreased rooting percentage...

  15. Prunus necrotic ringspot ilarvirus: nucleotide sequence of RNA3 and the relationship to other ilarviruses based on coat protein comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, D; Maiss, E; Adam, G; Casper, R

    1995-05-01

    The RNA3 of prunus necrotic ringspot ilarvirus (PNRSV) has been cloned and its entire sequence determined. The RNA3 consists of 1943 nucleotides (nt) and possesses two large open reading frames (ORFs) separated by an intergenic region of 74 nt. The 5' proximal ORF is 855 nt in length and codes for a protein of molecular mass 31.4 kDa which has homologies with the putative movement protein of other members of the Bromoviridae. The 3' proximal ORF of 675 nt is the cistron for the coat protein (CP) and has a predicted molecular mass of 24.9 kDa. The sequence of the 3' non-coding region (NCR) of PNRSV RNA3 showed a high degree of similarity with those of tobacco streak virus (TSV), prune dwarf virus (PDV), apple mosaic virus (ApMV) and also alfalfa mosaic virus (AIMV). In addition it contained potential stem-loop structures with interspersed AUGC motifs characteristic for ilar- and alfamoviruses. This conserved primary and secondary structure in all 3' NCRs may be responsible for the interaction with homologous and heterologous CPs and subsequent activation of genome replication. The CP gene of an ApMV isolate (ApMV-G) of 657 nt has also been cloned and sequenced. Although ApMV and PNRSV have a distant serological relationship, the deduced amino acid sequences of their CPs have an identity of only 51.8%. The N termini of PNRSV and ApMV CPs have in common a zinc-finger motif and the potential to form an amphipathic helix.

  16. Quadratus lumborum block for post-operative pain relief in patient with Prune belly syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Chitra; Khanna, Sangeeta; Mehta, Yatin

    2017-10-01

    Abdominal field blocks are commonly used as part of multimodal analgesia for post-operative pain relief in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Conventionally, transversus abdominis plane block is used, but has the disadvantage of limited spread only to T10-T12 segments, providing only partial pain relief. The new quadratus lumborum (QL) block has the advantage of providing wider sensory block from T6 to L1 and thus has an evolving role in opioid-free anaesthesia. Opioid-induced cough depression, urinary retention, and drowsiness can be problematic in patients with Prune belly syndrome, who have deficient abdominal muscles and myriad of genitourinary problems. We report a case of a young male with Prune belly syndrome, who had a pain-free post-operative period after high inguinal orchidectomy with unilateral QL block.

  17. Prune-belly syndrome in two children and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogart, Megan M; Arnold, Holly E; Greer, Kenneth E

    2006-01-01

    Prune-belly syndrome is a congenital disorder characterized by abdominal wall musculature deficiency, urinary tract anomalies, and bilateral cryptorchidism. Because of the defect in the musculature, the abdominal skin has a peculiar wrinkled appearance. The syndrome is commonly associated with pulmonary, skeletal, cardiac, and gastrointestinal defects. Developmental delays and growth retardation have also been reported. The incidence of prune belly syndrome is approximately 1:40,000 live births. Over 95% of patients are men. Urinary tract disease is the major prognostic factor, with the complications of pulmonary hypoplasia and end stage renal disease resulting in a mortality rate of 60%. Treatment involves surgical correction of the abdominal wall defect and urinary tract abnormalities, early orchiopexy, and supportive management of associated defects.

  18. Quadratus lumborum block for post-operative pain relief in patient with Prune belly syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitra Garg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal field blocks are commonly used as part of multimodal analgesia for post-operative pain relief in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Conventionally, transversus abdominis plane block is used, but has the disadvantage of limited spread only to T10–T12 segments, providing only partial pain relief. The new quadratus lumborum (QL block has the advantage of providing wider sensory block from T6 to L1 and thus has an evolving role in opioid-free anaesthesia. Opioid-induced cough depression, urinary retention, and drowsiness can be problematic in patients with Prune belly syndrome, who have deficient abdominal muscles and myriad of genitourinary problems. We report a case of a young male with Prune belly syndrome, who had a pain-free post-operative period after high inguinal orchidectomy with unilateral QL block.

  19. Combining soft decision algorithms and scale-sequential hypotheses pruning for object recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, V.P.; Manolakos, E.S. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes a system that exploits the synergy of Hierarchical Mixture Density (HMD) estimation with multiresolution decomposition based hypothesis pruning to perform efficiently joint segmentation and labeling of partially occluded objects in images. First we present the overall structure of the HMD estimation algorithm in the form of a recurrent neural network which generates the posterior probabilities of the various hypotheses associated with the image. Then in order to reduce the large memory and computation requirement we propose a hypothesis pruning scheme making use of the orthonormal discrete wavelet transform for dimensionality reduction. We provide an intuitive justification for the validity of this scheme and present experimental results and performance analysis on real and synthetic images to verify our claims.

  20. The improved Apriori algorithm based on matrix pruning and weight analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Zhenhong

    2018-04-01

    This paper uses the matrix compression algorithm and weight analysis algorithm for reference and proposes an improved matrix pruning and weight analysis Apriori algorithm. After the transactional database is scanned for only once, the algorithm will construct the boolean transaction matrix. Through the calculation of one figure in the rows and columns of the matrix, the infrequent item set is pruned, and a new candidate item set is formed. Then, the item's weight and the transaction's weight as well as the weight support for items are calculated, thus the frequent item sets are gained. The experimental result shows that the improved Apriori algorithm not only reduces the number of repeated scans of the database, but also improves the efficiency of data correlation mining.

  1. Degree Associated Edge Reconstruction Number of Graphs with Regular Pruned Graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Anusha Devi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An ecard of a graph $G$ is a subgraph formed by deleting an edge. A da-ecard specifies the degree of the deleted edge along with the ecard. The degree associated edge reconstruction number of a graph $G,~dern(G,$ is the minimum number of da-ecards that uniquely determines $G.$  The adversary degree associated edge reconstruction number of a graph $G, adern(G,$ is the minimum number $k$ such that every collection of $k$ da-ecards of $G$ uniquely determines $G.$ The maximal subgraph without end vertices of a graph $G$ which is not a tree is the pruned graph of $G.$ It is shown that $dern$ of complete multipartite graphs and some connected graphs with regular pruned graph is $1$ or $2.$ We also determine $dern$ and $adern$ of corona product of standard graphs.

  2. Mycotoxin risks and toxigenic fungi in date, prune and dried apricot among Mediterranean crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayrettin OZER

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Dried fruit is fruit that is preserved by removing the original water content naturally, through sun drying or artificially, by the use of specialized dryers or dehydrators. Dried fruit has a long tradition of use dating back to the fourth millennium BC in Mesopotamia and is prized because of its sweet taste, nutritive value and long shelf life. Traditional dried fruits such as raisins, figs, dates, apricots and prunes have been a staple of Mediterranean diets for millennia. The Mediterranean region is very favourable for production of dried fruits, not only with its climatic conditions, but also its exceptional fertile lands. Additionally, proximity to trade routes historically has allowed Mediterranean countries more access to dried fruits than landlocked countries. Today, dried fruit consumption is widespread. Nearly half of the dried fruits sold throughout the world are raisins, followed by dates, prunes (dried plums, figs, apricots, peaches, apples and pears. Dates, prunes, apricots, figs and raisins are the major dried fruits produced in the Mediterranean area. Dried fruits are not perishable but can support mold growth, some of which can produce mycotoxins. Occurence of toxigenic molds and mycotoxins on these dried fruits can be a problem in the Mediterranean basin, as in the other parts of the world, being a health hazard to the population as well as a trade issue for the export of local products. Although the most important mycotoxins occuring in Mediterranean crops are aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2 and ochratoxin A, the type and level of mycotoxins and toxigenic molds vary by crop and also by country and in some cases geographic location within a country. In this review mycotoxin risks and toxigenic fungi in date, prune and dried apricot among Mediterranean crops are reported and discussed.

  3. Two- and three-dimensional prenatal sonographic diagnosis of prune-belly syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lizhu; Cai, Ailu; Wang, Xiaoguang; Wang, Bing; Li, Jingyu

    2010-06-01

    We report the prenatal diagnosis of 6 cases of Prune-belly syndrome in the 2(nd) trimester. The sonographic diagnosis was based on the findings of oligohydramnios, renal anomalies, and a lower abdominal cystic mass representing the abnormal dilatation of the bladder on conventional 2-dimensional sonographic examination. We discuss the role of Doppler imaging and 3-dimensional sonography as complementary methods to conventional sonography. Four of our 6 cases were confirmed with associated defects.

  4. Congenital mydriasis and prune belly syndrome in a child with an ACTA2 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Michael C; Turan, Kadriye Erkan; Khanna, Cheryl L; Patton, Alice; Kirmani, Salman

    2014-08-01

    We report the association of congenital mydriasis with prune belly syndrome and cerebrovascular anomalies in a 9-year-old boy who was found to have an ACTA2 mutation. This case illustrates the spectrum of systemic malformations that are attributable to mutations in ACTA2 and expands the spectrum of cerebrovascular anomalies that are now known to accompany congenital mydriasis. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Prune Belly Syndrome Associated with Full Spectrum of VACTERL in a New Born.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younous, Said; Zarrouki, Youssef; Boutbaoucht, Mustapha; Mouaffak, Youssef; El Idrissi, Kawtar Ennour; Aboussair, Nissrine; Saiad, Mohammed O

    2012-01-01

    Prune belly syndrome (PBS) is a rare congenital anomaly of uncertain etiology. Many associations of PBS with other malformations were previously reported, but only few cases of the association with VACTERL have been described. We report a rare case of a Moroccan new born with PBS and complete VACTERL association. The cause of this association is still unknown, but a common etiology is possible, especially when for the two syndromes, a defect in mesodermal differentiation, in early first trimester, has been suggested.

  6. Megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome associated with prune belly syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Tanveer; Alladi, Anand; Siddappa, O S

    2012-01-01

    Megacystis Microcolon Intestinal Hypoperistalsis Syndrome is a quite rare congenital anomaly that presents with a functional obstruction of the gastrointestinal tract which is usually fatal. It is three to four times more prevalent in females. We present a case of a rare association of a male neonate with Megacystis Microcolon Intestinal Hypoperistalsis Syndrome who in addition had the classical triad of Prune Belly Syndrome and thus suggest a possibility of different spectrums with a common pathogenesis.

  7. The prune belly anomaly: heterogeneity and superficial X-linkage mimicry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccardi, V M; Grum, C M

    1977-01-01

    The genetic, clinical, and necropsy findings of 2 brothers with the prune belly anomaly are presented and the literature reviewed. The combined data emphasise the clinical and genetic heterogeneity of the disorder and show that in at least some instances a heritable component may be the primary insult. The most likely heritable explanation involves a two-step autosomal dominant mutation with sex-limited expression that partially mimics X-linkage. PMID:144797

  8. PRUNE BELLY SYNDROME: CASE REPORT OF A FAILED MANAGEMENT IN A LOWINCOME COUNTRY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Schiavone

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Prune Belly Syndrome (PBS is a rare congenital syndrome characterized by three main features: abdominal wall flaccidity, bilateral intra-abdominal cryptorchidism, and urologic abnormalities. In this study we describe the case of a 2,600 gr baby, born at the Central Hospital of Beira, Mozambique. Our study confirms that in a low-income country only conservative management can be delivered, and therefore prognosis is worse and less effective than high-income countries.

  9. Growth following pruning of young loblolly pine trees: some early results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph L. Amateis; Harold E. Burkhart

    2006-01-01

    In the spring of 2000, a designed experiment was established to study the effects of pruning on juvenile loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) tree growth and the subsequent formation of mature wood. Trees were planted at a 3 m x 3 m square spacing in plots of 6 rows with 6 trees per row, with the inner 16 trees constituting the measurement plot. Among the...

  10. MG Travessia: a coffee arabica cultivar productive and responsive to pruning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladyston Rodrigues Carvalho

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of progeny 1190-1170-2, which was recorded as ‘MGS Travessia’ and selected based on its performance in the state of Minas Gerais. The cultivar has short size, cylindrical canopy, high yield capacity, high vegetative vigor, very satisfactory husk/bean ratio, grain quality compatible to traditional cultivars, and is very responsive to skeleton pruning.

  11. Pruning cycles and nitrogen fertilization of coffee fields conducted in the “safra zero” system

    OpenAIRE

    Japiassú, Leonardo Bíscaro; Fundação Procafé; Garcia, André Luiz Alvarenga; Fundação Procafé; Guimarães, Rubens José; Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA; Padilha, Lílian; Embrapa Café; Carvalho, Carlos Henrique Siqueira; Embrapa Café

    2010-01-01

    Modern, competitive and cost effective coffee production requires plants with high productivity that are more adapted to mechanical and manual harvesting. “Safra Zero” is a cultivation system designed to limit plant height and eliminate the need for expensive harvesting during years of low productivity, which usually follow years of high productivity. This system is based on pruning cycles, nitrogen fertilization and different management methods. To evaluate the “Safra Zero&...

  12. Canopy and leaf composition drive patterns of nutrient release from pruning residues in a coffee agroforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Katherine L; Lawrence, Deborah

    2012-06-01

    In a coffee agroforest, the crop is cultivated under the shade of fruit-bearing and nitrogen (N)-fixing trees. These trees are periodically pruned to promote flowering and fruiting as well as to make nutrients stored in tree biomass available to plants. We investigated the effect of canopy composition and substrate quality on decomposition rates and patterns of nutrient release from pruning residues in a coffee agroforest located in Costa Rica's Central Valley. Initial phosphorus (P) release was enhanced under a canopy composed solely of N-fixing, Erythrina poeppigiana compared to a mixed canopy of Erythrina and Musa acuminata (banana). Both initial and final N release were similar under the two canopy types. However, after five months of decomposition, a higher proportion of initial N had been released under the single canopy. Although patterns of decomposition and nutrient release were not predicted by initial substrate quality, mass loss in leaf mixtures rates were well predicted by mean mass loss of their component species. This study identifies specific pruning regimes that may regulate N and P release during crucial growth periods, and it suggests that strategic pruning can enhance nutrient availability. For example, during the onset of rapid fruit growth, a two-species mixture may release more P than a three-species mixture. However, by the time of the harvest, the two- and three-species mixtures have released roughly the same amount of N and P. These nutrients do not always follow the same pattern, as N release can be maximized in single-species substrates, while P release is often facilitated in species mixtures. Our study indicates the importance of management practices in mediating patterns of nutrient release. Future research should investigate how canopy composition and farm management can also mediate on-farm nutrient losses.

  13. DNA hypomethylation, transient neonatal diabetes, and prune belly sequence in one of two identical twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborie, Lene Bjerke; Mackay, Deborah J G; Temple, I Karen; Molven, Anders; Søvik, Oddmund; Njølstad, Pål Rasmus

    2010-02-01

    One known genetic mechanism for transient neonatal diabetes is loss of methylation at 6q24. The etiology of prune belly sequence is unknown but a genetic defect, affecting the mesoderm from which the triad abdominal muscle hypoplasia, urinary tract abnormalities, and cryptorchidism develop, has been suggested. We investigated a family, including one twin, with transient neonatal diabetes and prune belly sequence. Autoantibody tests excluded type 1 diabetes. Microsatellite marker analysis confirmed the twins being monozygotic. We identified no mutations in ZFP57, KCNJ11, ABCC8, GCK, HNF1A, HNF1B, HNF3B, IPF1, PAX4, or ZIC3. The proband had loss of methylation at the 6q24 locus TNDM and also at the loci IGF2R, DIRAS3, and PEG1, while the other family members, including the healthy monozygotic twin, had normal findings. The loss of methylation on chromosome 6q24 and elsewhere may indicate a generalized maternal hypomethylation syndrome, which accounts for both transient neonatal diabetes and prune belly sequence.

  14. Traceability System for Improved Utilization of Solid Biofuel from Agricultural Prunings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Techane Bosona

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass production and supply for renewable energy generation should be managed well and carried out in a sustainable manner. An effective traceability system (TS is required to provide sufficient information and assure the quality of the biomass. The objective of this study is to define and develop a TS to assure the pruning biomass quality for the production of solid biofuels and to provide guarantee to the final user that the biomass is in good condition according to recommended quality criteria. It is designed for an agricultural pruning supply chain in which farmers, biomass traders, transporters, and end users are major actors. It is based on the biofuel quality requirements required by final users and other standards such as the new European standards EN 14961-1, EN15234:1-2011, and EN14961-1:2010, which describe solid fuel quality parameters. Traceable quality parameters include origin and source of product, traded form, bale dimension, chips size distribution, moisture content, ash content, and density of biomass. In this TS, a unique product label is introduced and integrated into a smart logistics system (SLS. The TS uses information captured at different stages of the product supply chain. It enables the management of the whole pruning biomass supply chain with the support of a centralized web-based information platform, an integral part of the SLS.

  15. Induction and pruning of classification rules for prediction of microseismic hazards in coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, M. [Silesian Technical University, Gliwice (Poland)

    2011-06-15

    The paper presents results of application of a rule induction and pruning algorithm for classification of a microseismic hazard state in coal mines. Due to imbalanced distribution of examples describing states 'hazardous' and 'safe', the special algorithm was used for induction and rule pruning. The algorithm selects optimal parameters' values influencing rule induction and pruning based on training and tuning sets. A rule quality measure which decides about a form and classification abilities of rules that are induced is the basic parameter of the algorithm. The specificity and sensitivity of a classifier were used to evaluate its quality. Conducted tests show that the admitted method of rules induction and classifier's quality evaluation enables to get better results of classification of microseismic hazards than by methods currently used in mining practice. Results obtained by the rules-based classifier were also compared with results got by a decision tree induction algorithm and by a neuro-fuzzy system.

  16. Carbon footprint associated with four disposal scenarios for urban pruning waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Yuri Rommel Vieira; de Góis, Monijany Lins; Junior, Luiz Moreira Coelho; Carvalho, Monica

    2018-01-01

    The inadequate disposal of urban pruning residues can cause significant environmental impacts. The objective of the study presented herein was to quantify the carbon footprint and analyze four disposal scenarios for the urban pruning waste of the city of Joao Pessoa (Northeast Brazil). Software SimaPro was utilized for the quantification of the carbon footprint, with the IPCC 2013 GWP 100y impact evaluation method. The end-of-life treatments considered were sanitary landfilling (with and without collection of methane), simple municipal incineration, and reutilization of wood (transformation into briquettes). The results indicated that simple disposal in sanitary landfill generated 136.34 kg CO 2 /t urban pruning waste collected (highest carbon footprint), sanitary landfill with methane collection emitted 113.43 kg CO 2 /t waste, municipal incineration generated 71.31 kg CO 2 /t waste, and reutilization of woody residues was the scenario with the lowest carbon footprint, with 27.82 kg CO 2 /t waste. This study demonstrated that reutilization of biomass, besides being environmentally viable, presents the potential to contribute to the city's environmental quality, including the possibility of being used to obtain carbon credits.

  17. Nitrogen fixation and effects of pruning on Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liyanage, M.S. de

    1998-01-01

    This 7-year study examined genetic variability in N 2 fixation by Gliricidia sepium and the N 2 -fixing capacity in G. sepium and Leucaena leucocephala as influenced by frequency of pruning, age, and shade from coconut. The 15 N-dilution method was used with the non-nodulating tree legume Senna siamea as the non-fixing reference. There were significant differences in total dry matter, N yield and N 2 -fixation capacity among four G. sepium provenances. Gliricidia had higher values than Leucaena for dry matter, N yield, and amount of N fixed; %Ndfa was comparable in both species (47-55%). A substantial amount (18%) of fixed N 2 was present in the roots of both species. In a long-term study aimed at comparing the effect of pruning practices and age of trees, G. sepium grown under coconut outperformed L. leucocephala in terms of dry matter, N yield and amounts of N 2 fixation. Coconut saplings supplied with G. sepium and L. leucocephala prunings as green manure grew better than those supplied with S. siamea; the fraction of coconut-sapling N obtained from Gliricidia and Leucaena was 40 and 36%, respectively. These results suggest that G. sepium, which demonstrated a high potential for biomass production and N 2 fixation, is appropriate for interplanting with coconut palms. Also, S. Siamea was found to be a suitable reference species. (author)

  18. Combustion of a Pb(II)-loaded olive tree pruning used as biosorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronda, A; Della Zassa, M; Martín-Lara, M A; Calero, M; Canu, P

    2016-05-05

    The olive tree pruning is a specific agroindustrial waste that can be successfully used as adsorbent, to remove Pb(II) from contaminated wastewater. Its final incineration has been studied in a thermobalance and in a laboratory flow reactor. The study aims at evaluating the fate of Pb during combustion, at two different scales of investigation. The flow reactor can treat samples approximately 10(2) larger than the conventional TGA. A detailed characterization of the raw and Pb(II)-loaded waste, before and after combustion is presented, including analysis of gas and solids products. The Pb(II)-loaded olive tree pruning has been prepared by a previous biosorption step in a lead solution, reaching a concentration of lead of 2.3 wt%. Several characterizations of the ashes and the mass balances proved that after the combustion, all the lead presents in the waste remained in ashes. Combustion in a flow reactor produced results consistent with those obtained in the thermobalance. It is thus confirmed that the combustion of Pb(II)-loaded olive tree pruning is a viable option to use it after the biosorption process. The Pb contained in the solid remained in the ashes, preventing possible environmental hazards. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of fungicides to protect pruning wounds from Botryosphaeriaceae species infections on almond trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego OLMO

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In vitro efficacy of ten fungicides was evaluated against four Botryosphaeriaceae spp. (Diplodia seriata, Neofusicoccum luteum, N. mediterraneum and N. parvum associated with branch cankers on almond trees. Cyproconazole, pyraclostrobin, tebuconazole, and thiophanate-methyl were effective for the inhibition of mycelial growth of most of these fungi. An experiment on 3-year-old almond trees evaluated boscalid, mancozeb, thiophanate-methyl, pyraclostrobin and tebuconazole for preventative ability against infections caused by the four pathogens. Five months after pruning and fungicide application, lesion length measurements and isolation percentages showed no significant differences among the four pathogens after they were inoculated onto the trees, and also between the two inoculation times tested (1 or 7 d after fungicide application. Thiophanate-methyl was the most effective fungicide, resulting in the shortest lesion lengths and the lowest isolation percentages from artificially inoculated pruning wounds. This chemical is therefore a candidate for inclusion in integrated disease management, to protect pruning wounds from infections caused by species of Botryosphaeriaceae. This study represents the first approach to development of chemical control strategies for the management of canker diseases caused by Botryosphaeriaceae fungi on almond trees. 

  20. Jatropha curcas, L. Pruning Residues for Energy: Characteristics of an Untapped By-Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Pari

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha (Jatropha curcas, L. is an energy crop mainly cultivated for the oil-seed, and the oil is usually used as bio-fuel. However, few studies have reported information about the utilization of the wood as a fuel for boiler heating systems. With 2500 jatropha trees per hectare, it is possible to produce about 3 t·ha−1·y−1 of woody biomass from pruning. In addition, jatropha trees are commonly cut down to a height of 45 cm once every 10 years, with a production of 80 t·ha−1 of dry matter of woody biomass. The use of this biomass has not yet been investigated. During the European project JatroMed, woody biomass from jatropha pruning was collected in Morocco. Chemical and physical characteristics of the wood were conducted according to UNI EN ISO standards. The following jatropha wood characteristics have been analyzed: Moisture and ash contents, the ash melting point, heating value, and concentrations of C, H, N, and S. This research focused on the evaluation of the potential use of jatropha pruning for energy production, and the results represent critical data that is useful for future studies and business potential.

  1. The effects of pruning and nodal adventitious roots on polychlorinated biphenyl uptake by Cucurbita pepo grown in field conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, Jennifer E.; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, PO Box 17000 Station Forces, Kingston, ON, K7K 7B4 (Canada); Rutter, Allison [School of Environmental Studies, Rm 0626 Biosciences Complex, Queen' s University, 116 Barrie St., Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6 (Canada); Zeeb, Barbara A., E-mail: zeeb-b@rmc.ca [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, PO Box 17000 Station Forces, Kingston, ON, K7K 7B4 (Canada)

    2011-03-15

    Two cultivation techniques (i-pruning and ii-nodal adventitious root encouragement) were investigated for their ability to increase PCB phytoextraction by Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo cv. Howden (pumpkin) plants in situ at a contaminated industrial site in Ontario (Aroclor 1248, mean soil [PCB] = 5.6 {mu}g g{sup -1}). Pruning was implemented to increase plant biomass close to the root where PCB concentration is known to be highest. This treatment was found to have no effect on final shoot biomass or PCB concentration. However, material pruned from the plant is not included in the final shoot biomass. The encouragement of nodal adventitious roots at stem nodes did significantly increase the PCB concentration in the primary stem, while not affecting shoot biomass. Both techniques are easily applied cultivation practices that may be implemented to decrease phytoextraction treatment time. - Research highlights: > Presence of nodal adventitious roots do increase phytoextraction efficiency. > Pruning may increase the biomass of pumpkin plants during phytoextraction. > [Aroclor 1248] decreases in plant tissue with increasing distance from the root. - The application of cultivation practices (pruning and nodal adventitious root encouragement) increases phytoextraction of PCBs in C. pepo.

  2. The effects of pruning and nodal adventitious roots on polychlorinated biphenyl uptake by Cucurbita pepo grown in field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, Jennifer E.; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L.; Rutter, Allison; Zeeb, Barbara A.

    2011-01-01

    Two cultivation techniques (i-pruning and ii-nodal adventitious root encouragement) were investigated for their ability to increase PCB phytoextraction by Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo cv. Howden (pumpkin) plants in situ at a contaminated industrial site in Ontario (Aroclor 1248, mean soil [PCB] = 5.6 μg g -1 ). Pruning was implemented to increase plant biomass close to the root where PCB concentration is known to be highest. This treatment was found to have no effect on final shoot biomass or PCB concentration. However, material pruned from the plant is not included in the final shoot biomass. The encouragement of nodal adventitious roots at stem nodes did significantly increase the PCB concentration in the primary stem, while not affecting shoot biomass. Both techniques are easily applied cultivation practices that may be implemented to decrease phytoextraction treatment time. - Research highlights: → Presence of nodal adventitious roots do increase phytoextraction efficiency. → Pruning may increase the biomass of pumpkin plants during phytoextraction. → [Aroclor 1248] decreases in plant tissue with increasing distance from the root. - The application of cultivation practices (pruning and nodal adventitious root encouragement) increases phytoextraction of PCBs in C. pepo.

  3. Using a pruned, nondirect product basis in conjunction with the multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree (MCTDH) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wodraszka, Robert, E-mail: Robert.Wodraszka@chem.queensu.ca; Carrington, Tucker, E-mail: Tucker.Carrington@queensu.ca [Department of Chemistry, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada)

    2016-07-28

    In this paper, we propose a pruned, nondirect product multi-configuration time dependent Hartree (MCTDH) method for solving the Schrödinger equation. MCTDH uses optimized 1D basis functions, called single particle functions, but the size of the standard direct product MCTDH basis scales exponentially with D, the number of coordinates. We compare the pruned approach to standard MCTDH calculations for basis sizes small enough that the latter are possible and demonstrate that pruning the basis reduces the CPU cost of computing vibrational energy levels of acetonitrile (D = 12) by more than two orders of magnitude. Using the pruned method, it is possible to do calculations with larger bases, for which the cost of standard MCTDH calculations is prohibitive. Pruning the basis complicates the evaluation of matrix-vector products. In this paper, they are done term by term for a sum-of-products Hamiltonian. When no attempt is made to exploit the fact that matrices representing some of the factors of a term are identity matrices, one needs only to carefully constrain indices. In this paper, we develop new ideas that make it possible to further reduce the CPU time by exploiting identity matrices.

  4. Bonsai trees in your head: how the pavlovian system sculpts goal-directed choices by pruning decision trees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin J M Huys

    Full Text Available When planning a series of actions, it is usually infeasible to consider all potential future sequences; instead, one must prune the decision tree. Provably optimal pruning is, however, still computationally ruinous and the specific approximations humans employ remain unknown. We designed a new sequential reinforcement-based task and showed that human subjects adopted a simple pruning strategy: during mental evaluation of a sequence of choices, they curtailed any further evaluation of a sequence as soon as they encountered a large loss. This pruning strategy was Pavlovian: it was reflexively evoked by large losses and persisted even when overwhelmingly counterproductive. It was also evident above and beyond loss aversion. We found that the tendency towards Pavlovian pruning was selectively predicted by the degree to which subjects exhibited sub-clinical mood disturbance, in accordance with theories that ascribe Pavlovian behavioural inhibition, via serotonin, a role in mood disorders. We conclude that Pavlovian behavioural inhibition shapes highly flexible, goal-directed choices in a manner that may be important for theories of decision-making in mood disorders.

  5. Axon Termination, Pruning, and Synaptogenesis in the Giant Fiber System of Drosophila melanogaster Is Promoted by Highwire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgen, Melissa; Rowland, Kimberly; Boerner, Jana; Lloyd, Brandon; Khan, Aruna; Murphey, Rodney

    2017-03-01

    The ubiquitin ligase Highwire has a conserved role in synapse formation. Here, we show that Highwire coordinates several facets of central synapse formation in the Drosophila melanogaster giant fiber system, including axon termination, axon pruning, and synaptic function. Despite the similarities to the fly neuromuscular junction, the role of Highwire and the underlying signaling pathways are distinct in the fly's giant fiber system. During development, branching of the giant fiber presynaptic terminal occurs and, normally, the transient branches are pruned away. However, in highwire mutants these ectopic branches persist, indicating that Highwire promotes axon pruning. highwire mutants also exhibit defects in synaptic function. Highwire promotes axon pruning and synaptic function cell-autonomously by attenuating a mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway including Wallenda, c-Jun N-terminal kinase/Basket, and the transcription factor Jun. We also show a novel role for Highwire in non-cell autonomous promotion of synaptic function from the midline glia. Highwire also regulates axon termination in the giant fibers, as highwire mutant axons exhibit severe overgrowth beyond the pruning defect. This excessive axon growth is increased by manipulating Fos expression in the cells surrounding the giant fiber terminal, suggesting that Fos regulates a trans -synaptic signal that promotes giant fiber axon growth. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  6. Should Pruning be a Pre-Processor of any Linear System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Syamal K.; Ramakrishnan, Suja; Agarwal, Ravi P.; Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2011-01-01

    There are many real-world problems whose mathematical models turn out to be linear systems Ax = b, where A is an m x n matrix. Each equation of the linear system is an information. An information, in a physical problem, such as 4 mangoes, 6 bananas, and 5 oranges cost $10, is mathematically modeled as an equation 4x(sub 1) + 6x(sub 2) + 5x(sub 3) = 10 , where x(sub 1), x(sub 2), x(sub 3) are each cost of one mango, that of one banana, and that of one orange, respectively. All the information put together in a specified context, constitutes the physical problem and need not be all distinct. Some of these could be redundant, which cannot be readily identified by inspection. The resulting mathematical model will thus have equations corresponding to this redundant information and hence are linearly dependent and thus superfluous. Consequently, these equations once identified should be better pruned in the process of solving the system. The benefits are (i) less computation and hence less error and consequently a better quality of solution and (ii) reduced storage requirements. In literature, the pruning concept is not in vogue so far although it is most desirable. It is assumed that at least one information, i.e. one equation is known to be correct and which will be our first equation. In a numerical linear system, the system could be slightly inconsistent or inconsistent of varying degree. If the system is too inconsistent, then we should fall back on to the physical problem (PP), check the correctness of the PP derived from the material universe, modify it, if necessary, and then check the corresponding mathematical model (MM) and correct it. In nature/material universe, inconsistency is completely nonexistent. If the MM becomes inconsistent, it could be due to error introduced by the concerned measuring device and/or due to assumptions made on the PP to obtain an MM which is relatively easily solvable or simply due to human error. No measuring device can usually

  7. Pseudo Prune Belly Syndrome: Diagnosis Revealed by Imaging – A Case Report and Brief Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Hemal; Sethi, Sanjay; Garg, Jatin; Ahluwalia, Amrit Pal

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Prune Belly Syndrome (PBS) is a rare entity, usually found in male neonates. It comprises complex urinary tract anomalies, bilateral undescended testis and absence of anterior abdominal wall muscles. Patients with unilateral abdominal wall deficiency, unilateral undescended testis and female neonates with abdominal wall laxity are classified as Pseudo Prune Belly syndrome (PPBS). Reports on PPBS do not highlight the radiological and imaging characteristics of this syndrome and the current literature on the role of newer imaging modalities, such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), remains relatively sparse. We describe a new case of PPBS and emphasize the role of imaging, especially ultrasound and MRI in the process of diagnosis and briefly review the subject. Case Report A male infant of four months of age was referred for evaluation of left-sided cryptorchidism. Clinical examination revealed laxity of the left abdominal wall. Ultrasound examination of the abdomen, pelvis and scrotum was performed together with routine laboratory tests. Ultrasound examination was followed by intravenous urography, voiding cysto-urethrography and MRI of the abdomen. On ultrasound, the left testis was located in the inguinal canal, the right kidney was slightly enlarged and the left kidney could not be localized. Ultrasound appearances suggested chronic obstruction in the urinary bladder. Intravenous urography, voiding cysto-urethrography and MRI confirmed the ultrasound diagnosis and also revealed a left dysplastic kidney with a dilated, tortuous ureter. Clinical and imaging features were consistent with pseudo prune belly syndrome (PPBS). Conclusions We report a new occurrence of PPBS, a rare entity. The imaging approach for a comprehensive evaluation of the renal system in PPBS, especially with MRI, is emphasized. PMID:28580040

  8. Pseudo Prune Belly Syndrome: Diagnosis Revealed by Imaging - A Case Report and Brief Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Hemal; Sethi, Sanjay; Garg, Jatin; Ahluwalia, Amrit Pal

    2017-01-01

    Prune Belly Syndrome (PBS) is a rare entity, usually found in male neonates. It comprises complex urinary tract anomalies, bilateral undescended testis and absence of anterior abdominal wall muscles. Patients with unilateral abdominal wall deficiency, unilateral undescended testis and female neonates with abdominal wall laxity are classified as Pseudo Prune Belly syndrome (PPBS). Reports on PPBS do not highlight the radiological and imaging characteristics of this syndrome and the current literature on the role of newer imaging modalities, such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), remains relatively sparse. We describe a new case of PPBS and emphasize the role of imaging, especially ultrasound and MRI in the process of diagnosis and briefly review the subject. A male infant of four months of age was referred for evaluation of left-sided cryptorchidism. Clinical examination revealed laxity of the left abdominal wall. Ultrasound examination of the abdomen, pelvis and scrotum was performed together with routine laboratory tests. Ultrasound examination was followed by intravenous urography, voiding cysto-urethrography and MRI of the abdomen. On ultrasound, the left testis was located in the inguinal canal, the right kidney was slightly enlarged and the left kidney could not be localized. Ultrasound appearances suggested chronic obstruction in the urinary bladder. Intravenous urography, voiding cysto-urethrography and MRI confirmed the ultrasound diagnosis and also revealed a left dysplastic kidney with a dilated, tortuous ureter. Clinical and imaging features were consistent with pseudo prune belly syndrome (PPBS). We report a new occurrence of PPBS, a rare entity. The imaging approach for a comprehensive evaluation of the renal system in PPBS, especially with MRI, is emphasized.

  9. Combustion of a Pb(II)-loaded olive tree pruning used as biosorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronda, A., E-mail: alirg@ugr.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Della Zassa, M. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Padua, 35131 Padova (Italy); Martín-Lara, M.A.; Calero, M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Canu, P. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Padua, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2016-05-05

    Highlights: • The fate of Pb during combustion at two scales of investigation was studied. • Results from combustion in a flow reactor and in the thermobalance were consistent. • The Pb contained in the solid remained in the ashes. • The Pb does not interfere in the use of OTP as fuel. • The combustion of Pb(II)-loaded OTP does not cause environmental hazards. - Abstract: The olive tree pruning is a specific agroindustrial waste that can be successfully used as adsorbent, to remove Pb(II) from contaminated wastewater. Its final incineration has been studied in a thermobalance and in a laboratory flow reactor. The study aims at evaluating the fate of Pb during combustion, at two different scales of investigation. The flow reactor can treat samples approximately 10{sup 2} larger than the conventional TGA. A detailed characterization of the raw and Pb(II)-loaded waste, before and after combustion is presented, including analysis of gas and solids products. The Pb(II)-loaded olive tree pruning has been prepared by a previous biosorption step in a lead solution, reaching a concentration of lead of 2.3 wt%. Several characterizations of the ashes and the mass balances proved that after the combustion, all the lead presents in the waste remained in ashes. Combustion in a flow reactor produced results consistent with those obtained in the thermobalance. It is thus confirmed that the combustion of Pb(II)-loaded olive tree pruning is a viable option to use it after the biosorption process. The Pb contained in the solid remained in the ashes, preventing possible environmental hazards.

  10. Ebola Virus and Marburg Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebola virus and Marburg virus Overview Ebola virus and Marburg virus are related viruses that cause hemorrhagic fevers — illnesses marked by severe bleeding (hemorrhage), organ failure and, in many ...

  11. Colonic volvulus detected by CT scan in a case with mental retardation and prune belly syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Yoichiro; Masumoto, Kouji; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Iwasaki, Akinori

    2011-10-01

    Colonic volvulus is a rare disease in children. Delayed diagnosis of the condition can often be fatal, especially in pediatric patients with mental retardation. We herein present the case of a female pediatric patient with colonic volvulus, prune belly syndrome, and mental retardation. Preoperative CT scans showed the characteristic signs of this disease. The volvulus occurred in the proximal colon of the colostomy. The release of the colonic volvulus and reconstruction of the colostomy were performed without the resection of the ischemic colon. The postoperative clinical course was uneventful. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Colonic volvulus detected by CT scan in a case with mental retardation and prune belly syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichiro Oka

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Colonic volvulus is a rare disease in children. Delayed diagnosis of the condition can often be fatal, especially in pediatric patients with mental retardation. We herein present the case of a female pediatric patient with colonic volvulus, prune belly syndrome, and mental retardation. Preoperative CT scans showed the characteristic signs of this disease. The volvulus occurred in the proximal colon of the colostomy. The release of the colonic volvulus and reconstruction of the colostomy were performed without the resection of the ischemic colon. The postoperative clinical course was uneventful.

  13. Combustion behaviour of Olive pruning/animal manure blends in a fluidized bed combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despina Vamvuka

    2017-09-01

    Both fuels burned mostly within the bed. The maximum temperature of animal manure was 50 °C lower than that of olive pruning, however efficiency was nearly 99%. CO emissions were low, SO2 emissions were negligible, whereas NOx emissions of blends exceeded legislation limits, when excess air ratio was over 1.4. Decreasing excess air from 50 to 30%, or reducing reactor loading, resulted in improved burnout. The optimum performance for the blends was achieved when the feed rate was 0.6 kg/h and excess air was 30%.

  14. On-line identification of hybrid systems using an adaptive growing and pruning RBF neural network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alizadeh, Tohid

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces an adaptive growing and pruning radial basis function (GAP-RBF) neural network for on-line identification of hybrid systems. The main idea is to identify a global nonlinear model that can predict the continuous outputs of hybrid systems. In the proposed approach, GAP......-RBF neural network uses a modified unscented kalman filter (UKF) with forgetting factor scheme as the required on-line learning algorithm. The effectiveness of the resulting identification approach is tested and evaluated on a simulated benchmark hybrid system....

  15. Survival of FUngi Associated with Grapevine Decline in Pruned Wood after Composting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lecomte

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Recycling vine wood pruned in winter in the vineyard, after grinding and composting, might pose a risk of recontamination with fungi associated with grapevine decline. The survival of four ascomycete fungi (Botryosphaeria obtusa, Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, Phaeoacremonium aleophilum and Eutypa lata in composted material was investigated in a 3-year study conducted in the Bordeaux area. Naturally and artificially infested material was examined before and after composting using classical isolation procedures. Results clearly showed that a composting process can eradicate the four target fungi efficiently.

  16. Repair of pectus excavatum in a toddler with Prune Belly syndrome and left bronchus compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn T. Liechty

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy with prune-belly syndrome and severe pectus excavatum experienced recurrent pulmonary infections. A CT scan of the chest demonstrated compression of the left mainstem bronchus and leftward shift of the heart. The bronchial compression resulted in left upper lobe collapse and left lower lobe air-trapping requiring two hospitalizations for respiratory distress and pneumonia. The child underwent minimally invasive repair of his pectus excavatum and has not experienced any further pulmonary events. The pectus bar was removed 3 years post-operatively and at seven years following surgery he has a sustained repair.

  17. Application of the pessimistic pruning to increase the accuracy of C4.5 algorithm in diagnosing chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslim, M. A.; Herowati, A. J.; Sugiharti, E.; Prasetiyo, B.

    2018-03-01

    A technique to dig valuable information buried or hidden in data collection which is so big to be found an interesting patterns that was previously unknown is called data mining. Data mining has been applied in the healthcare industry. One technique used data mining is classification. The decision tree included in the classification of data mining and algorithm developed by decision tree is C4.5 algorithm. A classifier is designed using applying pessimistic pruning in C4.5 algorithm in diagnosing chronic kidney disease. Pessimistic pruning use to identify and remove branches that are not needed, this is done to avoid overfitting the decision tree generated by the C4.5 algorithm. In this paper, the result obtained using these classifiers are presented and discussed. Using pessimistic pruning shows increase accuracy of C4.5 algorithm of 1.5% from 95% to 96.5% in diagnosing of chronic kidney disease.

  18. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation and yield of Pachyrhizus Erosus (L) urban cultivars and Pachyrhizus Ahipa (WEDD) parodi landraces as affected by flower pruning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castellanos, J.Z.; Zapata, F.; Badillo, V.

    1997-01-01

    biomass without N fertiliser application. In some climatic regions P. erosus is reproductively pruned in order to obtain economic yields, but little is known about how the pruning influences the capacity of these tuber legumes to fix nitrogen. Two experiments were carried out to investigate the effect...

  19. Effects of root pruning on the growth and rhizosphere soil characteristics of short-rotation closed-canopy poplar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Z. Y.; Xing, S. J.; Ma, B. Y.; Liu, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Wang, Q. H.

    2012-11-01

    When poplar trees planted at a high density are canopy-closed in plantation after 4-5 years of growth, the roots of adjacent trees will inevitably intermingle together, which possibly restricts the nutrient uptake by root system. Root pruning might stimulate the emergence of fine roots and benefit the tree growth of short-rotation poplar at the stage of canopy closing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of root pruning on DBH (diameter at breast height, 1.3 m), tree height, nutrients (N, P and K) and hormones (indoleacetic acid and cytokinin) in poplar leaves, gas exchange variables (photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance), and rhizosphere soil characteristics. Field experiment was carried out with four-yearold poplar (Populus × euramericana cv. ‘Neva’) planted in a fluvo-aquic loam soil in Shandong province, China in early April, 2008. Three root pruning treatments (severe, moderate and light degree) were conducted at the distances of 6, 8 and 10 times DBH on both inter-row sides of the trees to the depth of 30 cm, respectively. The results showed that the growth performance was obtained in the following order of treatments: moderate > light = control > severe. In the rhizophere soil, moderate and light pruning increased the microbial populations, enzymatic activities, and the concentrations of available N, P, K and organic matter. Generally, root pruning to improve tree growth and rhizosphere soil fertility can be recommended in canopy-closed poplar plantation. The appropriate selection of root pruning intensity is a pivotal factor for the effectiveness of this technique. (Author) 35 refs.

  20. Effect of pruning history on growth and dry mass partitioning of jatropha on a plantation site in Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajaona, Arisoa M.; Brueck, Holger; Asch, Folkard

    2011-01-01

    While technical aspects of oil processing of seeds of jatropha are under intensive investigation, comparably little is known about the performance of jatropha in the field. We investigated the effects of water availability (rainfed versus irrigated) and pruning-induced differences in plant stature on growth, biomass partitioning, and canopy size at a plantation site in Madagascar in 2010. Plants of different pruning types differed in trunk height (43 versus 29 cm) and primary branches total length (171 versus 310 cm). The two pruning types had effects on dry mass formation and leaf area projection (LAP) during the vegetation period. Trees which had a shorter trunk and longer lateral branches produced more biomass and had a higher LAP. Total dry mass formation varied from 489 to 912 g m −2 and LAP from 3.26 to 7.37. Total aboveground biomass increased from 2.3 ± 0.5 to 4.89 ± 1.4 kg tree −1 and from 4.6 ± 1.8 to 8.9 ± 1.0 kg tree −1 for the pruning types with shorter and longer lateral branches, respectively. Growth of twigs and leaves was positively correlated with total length of branches. Relative dry mass allocation to branches, twigs and leaves, length of twigs per cm of branches and specific leaf area (13.57 ± 0.72 m 2 kg −1 ) were not affected by pruning and water supply. Trees with shorter branches had higher LAD. Results indicate that pruning type should be considered as a management tool to optimize biomass production. Detailed studies on effects of canopy size and shape on radiation interception and growth are required to improve the productivity of jatropha. -- Highlights: ▶ Correlation between branch length and newly formed twigs and leaves. ▶ Comparison of LAI and leaf area density in the field. ▶ Twigs per unit length of branches.

  1. A favorable outcome following 32 vesicocentesis and amnioinfusion procedures in a fetus with severe prune belly syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galati, Vincenzo; Beeson, James H; Confer, Stephen D; Frimberger, Dominic; Campbell, Jeffrey B; Ramji, Faridali G; Kropp, Bradley P

    2008-04-01

    Patients with severe prune belly syndrome rarely survive beyond the first days of life. We present a case of prune belly syndrome that initially presented with severe oligohydramnios, megacystis and associated poor urine biochemistries. Due to an anteriorly located placenta the patient was referred to three major centers, but was turned down because of the unfavorable prognostic findings. Therefore, fetal intervention was performed with 32 vesicocentesis and amnioinfusion procedures. Despite the unfavorable prenatal findings, and having undergone numerous fetal interventions, the birth resulted in a viable infant.

  2. Recurrent nephrogenic adenoma in a 10-year-old boy with prune belly syndrome : a case presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemulakonda, Vijaya M; Kopp, Ryan P; Sorensen, Mathew D; Grady, Richard W

    2008-05-01

    Nephrogenic adenoma is a rare benign lesion of the urinary tract that is associated with a history of irritation or injury of the urothelium. Predisposing factors include infection, calculi, surgery, trauma, and renal transplantation. Nephrogenic adenoma commonly presents with lower urinary tract symptoms or hematuria. We present the case of recurrent nephrogenic adenoma in a 10-year-old boy with a history of prune belly syndrome and discuss management of this disease in the pediatric population. To our knowledge this represents the first reported case of recurrent nephrogenic adenoma associated with prune belly syndrome.

  3. Involvements of PCD and changes in gene expression profile during self-pruning of spring shoots in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-Zhi; Zhao, Kun; Ai, Xiao-Yan; Hu, Chun-Gen

    2014-10-13

    Citrus shoot tips abscise at an anatomically distinct abscission zone (AZ) that separates the top part of the shoots into basal and apical portions (citrus self-pruning). Cell separation occurs only at the AZ, which suggests its cells have distinctive molecular regulation. Although several studies have looked into the morphological aspects of self-pruning process, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, the hallmarks of programmed cell death (PCD) were identified by TUNEL experiments, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and histochemical staining for reactive oxygen species (ROS) during self-pruning of the spring shoots in sweet orange. Our results indicated that PCD occurred systematically and progressively and may play an important role in the control of self-pruning of citrus. Microarray analysis was used to examine transcriptome changes at three stages of self-pruning, and 1,378 differentially expressed genes were identified. Some genes were related to PCD, while others were associated with cell wall biosynthesis or metabolism. These results strongly suggest that abscission layers activate both catabolic and anabolic wall modification pathways during the self-pruning process. In addition, a strong correlation was observed between self-pruning and the expression of hormone-related genes. Self-pruning plays an important role in citrus floral bud initiation. Therefore, several key flowering homologs of Arabidopsis and tomato shoot apical meristem (SAM) activity genes were investigated in sweet orange by real-time PCR and in situ hybridization, and the results indicated that these genes were preferentially expressed in SAM as well as axillary meristem. Based on these findings, a model for sweet orange spring shoot self-pruning is proposed, which will enable us to better understand the mechanism of self-pruning and abscission.

  4. Long-term follow-up of total abdominal wall reconstruction for prune belly syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesavoy, Malcolm A; Chang, Eric I; Suliman, Ahmed; Taylor, Jason; Taylor, James; Kim, Sara E; Ehrlich, Richard M

    2012-01-01

    Prune belly syndrome is a rare, congenital condition that consists of a major deficiency or hypoplasia of the abdominal wall musculature, bilateral cryptorchidism, and genitourinary tract malformations. Reconstruction of the abdominal wall in these patients has presented a challenge to plastic surgeons throughout the years. The authors previously described a technique for total abdominal wall reconstruction that permitted simultaneous urinary tract reconstruction and bilateral orchiopexy. This innovative procedure used medial advancement of the fascia in a "double-breasted" fashion with preservation of the umbilicus. The authors reviewed their experience with this particular technique in one of the largest series of patients in the literature and the series with the longest follow-up. Twenty patients underwent total abdominal wall reconstruction with simultaneous urinary tract reconstruction and orchiopexy with a mean follow-up of 20.4 years. There were no major complications noted during this period, and all patients were extremely satisfied with their postoperative result. Total abdominal wall reconstruction using the double-breasted technique in patients with prune belly syndrome is a safe and durable procedure that achieves excellent cosmetic results. Therapeutic, IV.

  5. The Prune Belly syndrome: urological aspects and long-term outcomes of a rare disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zugor, Vahudin; Schott, Günter E; Labanaris, Apostolos P

    2012-04-02

    Prune-Belly syndrome is a disorder characterized by the following triad of symptoms: deficiency of the abdominal muscles, malformations of the urinary tract and bilateral cryptorchidism. This study included a total of 16 patients. The findings included clinical characteristics, diagnostics, therapy and long-term clinical outcomes. All patients were asked to complete a questionnaire and, in some cases, were given further examination. All patients were diagnosed with congenital aplasia of the abdominal wall and a variety of urogenital malformations. Cryptorchidism was present in 11 patients (68.8%), malformations of the prostate in 3 (18.8%), urethral malformations in 8 (50%) and mega-ureter in 14 patients (87.5%). A mega-bladder was observed in 13 patients (81.3%). Distinctive renal malformations, such as renal dysplasia, in 3 patients (18.8%) and hydronephrosis in 9 patients (56.3%), respectively. Abdominoplasty was performed on 4 patients (25%). Urethral surgery was performed in 10 patients (62.5%). Seven patients (43.8%) required ureter surgery, most of which involved re-implantation of the ureter and, in some cases, additional ureter modeling. Renal surgery was performed on 5 patients. Four patients with non-functioning kidneys with hydronephrosis underwent a nephrectomy and one patient pyeloplasty. We demonstrate that successful treatment is possible even in cases of serious and complex malformations, such as those of the Prune-Belly syndrome. Treatment must be tailored to the individual patient. The severity of the renal dysplasia is the main prognostic factor.

  6. Concordant posterior urethral valves in male monochorionic twins with secondary prune belly syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouaili, Emira Ben Hamida; Chaouachi, Sihem; Nouira, Faouzi; Benmassoud, Ines; Laabidi, Kamel; Chaouachi, Beji; Marrakchi, Zahra

    2008-12-01

    Posterior urethral valves (PUVs), the most common congenital cause of lower urinary tract obstruction, have been described to occur in identical and nonidentical twins. Until now, reports have been published on 15 cases of PUVs. We report a new case of concordant PUVs in one set of male monochorionic twins with secondary Prune Belly Syndrome. The twins were born by elective cesarean section at 38 weeks of gestation to a 36-year-old mother, gravida 6, para 6. On ultrasound perfomed at 18 weeks's gestation, both fetuses showed signs of PUVs. At birth, physical examination of both revealed a secondary Prune Belly Syndrome (PBS). Postnatal renal ultrasound confirmed the diagnosis of PUV. The two infants underwent transurethral resection of the valves after a cystoscopic evaluation of the urethra. Since this procedure, their voiding has been unremarkable with stable renal function and sterile urine until their discharge. We have documented a rare association between VUP and PBS in two monochiorionic twins. More studies are needed to throw light on the significance of the present associated anomalies.

  7. Production of fuel ethanol from steam-explosion pretreated olive tree pruning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristobal Cara; Encarnacion Ruiz; Mercedes Ballesteros; Paloma Manzanares; Ma Jose Negro; Eulogio Castro [University of Jaen, Jaen (Spain). Department of Chemical, Environmental and Materials Engineering

    2008-05-15

    This work deals with the production of fuel ethanol from olive tree pruning. This raw material is a renewable, low cost, largely available, and lacking of economic alternatives agricultural residue. Olive tree pruning was submitted to steam explosion pre-treatment in the temperature range 190-240{sup o}C, with or without previous impregnation by water or sulphuric acid solutions. The influence of both pre-treatment temperature and impregnation conditions on sugar and ethanol yields was investigated by enzymatic hydrolysis and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation on the pretreated solids. Results show that the maximum ethanol yield (7.2 g ethanol/100 g raw material) is obtained from water impregnated, steam pretreated residue at 240{sup o}C. Nevertheless if all sugars solubilized during pre-treatment are taken into account, up to 15.9 g ethanol/100 g raw material may be obtained (pre-treatment conditions: 230{sup o}C and impregnation with 1% w/w sulphuric acid concentration), assuming theoretical conversion of these sugars to ethanol. 29 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. EVALUATION OF THE WORK CONDITIONS OF ACTIVITIES OF URBAN TREE PRUNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton César Fiedler

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available this work analyzed the work environment in the trees pruning activities in the urban arborization, comparison with the values of the legislation and the practical application of results to provide a better comfort, security, health, welfare to workers, and also a better efficiency and quality of the work. The weather conditions, the noise levels, the light conditions and vibration were analyzed using suitable ergonomic methods. The weather conditions in the work environment were according the permissible values in the legislation (NR15 for index of humid bulb and globe thermometer (IBUTG of 25°C for the activities of pruning, with exception of the schedule to twelve hours (26,2°C, the hours of working should be of 30 minutes of work and 30 minutes of rest. The noise levels found in the activities of cut were 105,7 dB (A and bucking were 103.9 dB (A, above the level permited by legislation (NR15. The minimum light conditions values were acceptable for legislation (NBR 5413/92, but the global indices were too high being able to cause problems to the worker health. The vibration conditions were acceptable.

  9. Classification Based on Pruning and Double Covered Rule Sets for the Internet of Things Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhongmei; Wang, Weiping

    2014-01-01

    The Internet of things (IOT) is a hot issue in recent years. It accumulates large amounts of data by IOT users, which is a great challenge to mining useful knowledge from IOT. Classification is an effective strategy which can predict the need of users in IOT. However, many traditional rule-based classifiers cannot guarantee that all instances can be covered by at least two classification rules. Thus, these algorithms cannot achieve high accuracy in some datasets. In this paper, we propose a new rule-based classification, CDCR-P (Classification based on the Pruning and Double Covered Rule sets). CDCR-P can induce two different rule sets A and B. Every instance in training set can be covered by at least one rule not only in rule set A, but also in rule set B. In order to improve the quality of rule set B, we take measure to prune the length of rules in rule set B. Our experimental results indicate that, CDCR-P not only is feasible, but also it can achieve high accuracy. PMID:24511304

  10. Classification based on pruning and double covered rule sets for the internet of things applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shasha; Zhou, Zhongmei; Wang, Weiping

    2014-01-01

    The Internet of things (IOT) is a hot issue in recent years. It accumulates large amounts of data by IOT users, which is a great challenge to mining useful knowledge from IOT. Classification is an effective strategy which can predict the need of users in IOT. However, many traditional rule-based classifiers cannot guarantee that all instances can be covered by at least two classification rules. Thus, these algorithms cannot achieve high accuracy in some datasets. In this paper, we propose a new rule-based classification, CDCR-P (Classification based on the Pruning and Double Covered Rule sets). CDCR-P can induce two different rule sets A and B. Every instance in training set can be covered by at least one rule not only in rule set A, but also in rule set B. In order to improve the quality of rule set B, we take measure to prune the length of rules in rule set B. Our experimental results indicate that, CDCR-P not only is feasible, but also it can achieve high accuracy.

  11. Pruning high-value Douglas-fir can reduce dwarf mistletoe severity and increase longevity in Central Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helen M. Maffei; Gregory M. Filip; Nancy E. Grulke; Brent W. Oblinger; Ellis Q. Margolis; Kristen L. Chadwick

    2016-01-01

    Mid- to very large-sized Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menzieseii var. menziesii) that were lightly- to moderately-infected by dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium douglasii) were analyzed over a 14-year period to evaluate whether mechanical pruning could eradicate mistletoe (or at least delay the onset of severe infection) without...

  12. 75 FR 43039 - Fresh Prunes Grown in Designated Counties in Washington and in Umatilla County, OR; Suspension of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... marketing of fresh prunes over the past four years. Based on its analysis, the Committee has determined that... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 924 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-10-0054...; Suspension of Reporting and Assessment Requirements AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION...

  13. Effect of irradiation, pruning and removal of in vitro formed roots on ex vitro growth in micropropagated grape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbaji, T.; Ayyoubi, Z.

    2002-06-01

    In vitro rootstock (Ru 140) and Helwani variety were cultured on DSD1 media, were irradiated at low doses of gamma irradiation before acclimatization. Ru 140 were exposed to 0-5 Gy, while Helwani was exposed to 0-7 Gy. Then, the plants were divided into three different groups: in the first group the plant roots were pruned, in the second the plant roots were completely removed and in the third group the plant roots were kept intact (control). The ex vitro plants were observed after 45 days of planting. Shoots groeth, leaf number and dry weight of Ru 140 were significantly higher than those of the control when roots were pruned and 5 Gy was applied. Those parameters were negatively affected by root removal. Gamma irradiation had a positive effect on the control comparing to unirradiated plants. Root pruning had positive effects on shoot growth, leaf number and dry weight of helwani veriety, while root removal had a contrary effect on this variety. Gamma irradiation positively affected shoot growth and dry weight of control comparing to unirradiated plants, similar effect was observed on leaf number of control and pruned plant of Helwani. (author)

  14. Prune belly anomaly on prenatal ultrasound as a presenting feature of ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting syndrome (EEC).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, S.; Defoort, P.; Vandenbroecke, C.; Scheffer, H.; Mortier, G.

    2008-01-01

    We report on a fetus with prune belly anomaly presenting at 16 weeks gestation. Clinical evaluation after birth revealed other malformations reminiscent of the EEC syndrome. This diagnosis was also suspected in the mother and finally confirmed in both relatives by identification of a heterozygous

  15. Feasibility and early outcomes of robotic-assisted laparoscopic Mitrofanoff appendicovesicostomy in patients with prune belly syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, Mark A; Jayram, Gautam; Gundeti, Mohan S

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and report our initial experience with Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Mitrofanoff Appendicovesicostomy (RALMA) in patients with prune belly syndrome. The Mitrofanoff appendicovesicostomy procedure uses the appendix to create an easily accessible continent, catheterizable channel into the urinary bladder. Historically, the procedure is performed by an open surgical approach in prune belly patients. We describe our initial experience herein. Between October 2008 and February 2010 three patients with prune belly syndrome underwent RALMA. The appendicovesicostomy anastomosis was performed on the anterior bladder wall and the stoma was brought to the umbilical site or right lower quadrant. At least 4 cm of detrusor backing was ensured. The appendicovesicostomy stent was left in place for 4 weeks postoperatively before initiation of catheterization. Mean age at surgery was 9.7 years (range 5-14 years). Blood loss volume was 20 mL in each case. Overall mean operative time was 352 min (range 319-402 min). There were no intraoperative complications and no open conversions. There was one postoperative complication in the form of wound infection. All patients are catheterizing their stomas and are continent at an average follow-up of 14.7 months (range 5-21 months). In our initial experience, RALMA is a feasible option with encouraging early experience for creating a continent catheterizable channel into the urinary bladder in patients with prune belly syndrome. © 2011 THE AUTHORS. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2011 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  16. Outcomes of renal replacement therapy in boys with prune belly syndrome: findings from the ESPN/ERA-EDTA Registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yalcinkaya, Fatos; Bonthuis, Marjolein; Erdogan, Beyza Doganay; van Stralen, Karlijn J.; Baiko, Sergey; Chehade, Hassib; Maxwell, Heather; Montini, Giovanni; Rönnholm, Kai; Sørensen, Søren Schwartz; Ulinski, Tim; Verrina, Enrico; Weber, Stefanie; Harambat, Jérôme; Schaefer, Franz; Jager, Kitty J.; Groothoff, Jaap W.

    2018-01-01

    As outcome data for prune belly syndrome (PBS) complicated by end-stage renal disease are scarce, we analyzed characteristics and outcomes of children with PBS using the European Society for Pediatric Nephrology/European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association (ESPN/ERA-EDTA)

  17. 76 FR 21618 - Fresh Prunes Grown in Designated Counties in Washington and in Umatilla County, OR; Termination...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ... marketing order is no longer an effective marketing tool for the fresh prune industry, and that termination... operation of the marketing order. DATES: Effective Date: April 19, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT....64 of Marketing Agreement and Order No. 924, both as amended (7 CFR part 924), effective under the...

  18. Thyroid hormone is required for pruning, functioning and long-term maintenance of afferent inner hair cell synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaresan, Srividya; Kong, Jee-Hyun; Fang, Qing; Salles, Felipe T; Wangsawihardja, Felix; Ricci, Anthony J; Mustapha, Mirna

    2016-01-01

    Functional maturation of afferent synaptic connections to inner hair cells (IHCs) involves pruning of excess synapses formed during development, as well as the strengthening and survival of the retained synapses. These events take place during the thyroid hormone (TH)-critical period of cochlear development, which is in the perinatal period for mice and in the third trimester for humans. Here, we used the hypothyroid Snell dwarf mouse (Pit1(dw)) as a model to study the role of TH in afferent type I synaptic refinement and functional maturation. We observed defects in afferent synaptic pruning and delays in calcium channel clustering in the IHCs of Pit1(dw) mice. Nevertheless, calcium currents and capacitance reached near normal levels in Pit1(dw) IHCs by the age of onset of hearing, despite the excess number of retained synapses. We restored normal synaptic pruning in Pit1(dw) IHCs by supplementing with TH from postnatal day (P)3 to P8, establishing this window as being critical for TH action on this process. Afferent terminals of older Pit1(dw) IHCs showed evidence of excitotoxic damage accompanied by a concomitant reduction in the levels of the glial glutamate transporter, GLAST. Our results indicate that a lack of TH during a critical period of inner ear development causes defects in pruning and long-term homeostatic maintenance of afferent synapses. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Severity of scab and its effects on fruit weight in mechanically hedge-pruned and topped pecan trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scab is the most damaging disease of pecan in the southeastern USA. Pecan trees can attain 44 m in height, so managing disease in the upper canopy is a problem. Fungicide is ordinarily applied using ground-based air-blast sprayers. Although mechanical hedge-pruning and topping of pecan is done for s...

  20. Effect of irradiation, pruning and removal of in vitro formed roots on ex vitro growth in micro propagated grape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbaji, T.; Ayyoubi, Z.

    2003-01-01

    In vitro rootstock (Ru 140) and Helwani variety were cultured on DSD1 media, were irradiated at low doses of gamma irradiation before acclimatization. Ru 140 were exposed to 0-5 Gy, while Helwani was exposed to 0-7 Gy. Then, the plants were divided into three different groups: in the first group the plant roots were pruned, in the second the plant roots were completely removed and in the third group the plant roots were kept intact (control). The ex vitro plants were observed after 45 days of planting. Shoots growth, leaf number and dry weight of Ru 140 were significantly higher than those of the control when roots were pruned and 5 Gy was applied. Those parameters were negatively affected by root removal. Gamma irradiation had a positive effect on the control comparing to unirradiated plants. Root pruning had positive effects on shoot growth, leaf number and dry weight of Helwani variety, while root removal had a contrary effect on this variety. Gamma irradiation positively affected shoot growth and dry weight of control comparing to unirradiated plants, similar effect was observed on leaf number of control and pruned plant of Helwani. (author)

  1. Cavity size and copper root pruning affect production and establishment of container-grown longleaf pine seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marry Anne Sword Sayer; James D. Haywood; Shi-Jean Susana Sung

    2009-01-01

    With six container types, we tested the effects of cavity size (i.e., 60, 93, and 170 ml) and copper root pruning on the root system development of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) seedlings grown in a greenhouse. We then evaluated root egress during a root growth potential test and assessed seedling morphology and root system development 1 year after planting in...

  2. Effect of Irradiation, Pruning and Removal of In Vitro Formed Roots on Ex Vitro Growth in Micropropagated Grape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charabaji, T.; Ayyoubi, Z.; Karajoly, I

    2007-01-01

    In vitro rootstock (Ru 140) and Helwani variety were cultured on DSD1 media, were irradiated at low doses of gamma irradiation before acclimatization. Ru 140 was exposed to 0-5 Gy, while Helwani was exposed to 0-7 Gy. Then, the plants were divided into three different procedures, 1)- the plant roots were pruned, 2)- the plant roots were completely removed, 3)- the plant roots were kept intact (control). The ex vitro plants were observed after 45 days of planting. Shoots growth, leaf number and dry weight of Ru 140 were significantly higher than those of the control when roots were pruned and 5 Gy was applied. Those parameters were negatively affected by root removal. Gamma irradiation had a positive effect on the control comparing to unirradiated plants. Root pruning had positive effects on shoot growth, leaf number and dry weight of Helwani variety, while root removal had a contrary effect on this variety. Gamma irradiation positively affected shoot growth and dry weight of control comparing to unirradiated plants, similar effect was observed on leaf number of control and pruned plant of Helwani.

  3. Influence of Pre- and Postharvest Summer Pruning on the Growth, Yield, Fruit Quality, and Carbohydrate Content of Early Season Peach Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikinci, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Winter and summer pruning are widely applied processes in all fruit trees, including in peach orchard management. This study was conducted to determine the effects of summer prunings (SP), as compared to winter pruning (WP), on shoot length, shoot diameter, trunk cross sectional area (TCSA) increment, fruit yield, fruit quality, and carbohydrate content of two early ripening peach cultivars (“Early Red” and “Maycrest”) of six years of age, grown in semiarid climate conditions, in 2008 to 2010. The trees were grafted on GF 677 rootstocks, trained with a central leader system, and spaced 5 × 5 m apart. The SP carried out after harvesting in July and August decreased the shoot length significantly; however, it increased its diameter. Compared to 2009, this effect was more marked in year 2010. In general, control and winter pruned trees of both cultivars had the highest TCSA increment and yield efficiency. The SP increased the average fruit weight and soluble solids contents (SSC) more than both control and WP. The titratable acidity showed no consistent response to pruning time. The carbohydrate accumulation in shoot was higher in WP and in control than in SP trees. SP significantly affected carbohydrate accumulation; postharvest pruning showed higher carbohydrate content than preharvest pruning. PMID:24737954

  4. Small-Scale Effect of Pine Stand Pruning on Snowpack Distribution in the Pyrenees Observed with a Terrestrial Laser Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Revuelto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Forests in snow-dominated areas have substantial effects on the snowpack and its evolution over time. Such interactions have significant consequences for the hydrological response of mountain rivers. Thus, the impact of forest management actions on the snow distribution, and hence the storage of water in the form of snow during winter and spring, is a major concern. The results of this study provide the first detailed comparison of the small-scale effect of forest characteristics on the snowpack distribution, assessed prior to and following major modification of the structure of the canopy by pruning of the lower branches of the trees to 3 m above the ground. This is a common management practice aimed at reducing the spread of forest fires. The snowpack distribution was determined using terrestrial laser scanning (LiDAR technology at a high spatial resolution (0.25 m over a 1000 m2 study area during 23 survey dates over three snow seasons in a small study area in the central Pyrenees. The pruning was conducted during summer following the snow season in the second year of the study (i.e., the study duration encompassed two seasons prior to canopy pruning and one following. Principal component analysis (PCA was used to identify recurring spatial patterns of snow distribution. The results showed that pruning reduced the average radius of the canopy of trees by 1.2 m, and increased the clearance around the trunks, as all the branches that formerly contacted the ground were removed. However, the impact on the snowpack was moderate. The PCA revealed that the spatial configuration of the snowpack did not change significantly, as the principal components included survey days from different periods of the snow season, and did not discriminate days surveyed prior to and following pruning. Nevertheless, removal of the lower branches reduced the area beneath the canopy by 36%, and led to an average increase in total snow depth of approximately 14%.

  5. Qualidade de frutos da tangerina 'Ponkan' após poda de recuperação Quality of 'Ponkan' tangerine tree after recovering pruning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vander Mendonça

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com esta pesquisa avaliar a qualidade de frutos de tangerineira 'Ponkan' em três safras subseqüentes aos tratamentos: poda de topo no rebaixamento da copa e poda da parte baixa da planta (saia. O experimento foi conduzido na Fazenda Vito Crincoli, localizada no município de Perdões - MG. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 4 x 2, sendo poda do topo (sem poda, poda a 3,0; 2,5 e 2,0 m e poda da saia (sem e com a poda com quatro repetições e três plantas úteis por parcela. Os diferentes tipos de poda não prejudicaram a qualidade de frutos de tangerineira 'Ponkan' nas três safras subseqüente as podas. Após o terceiro ano as plantas que sofreram podas mais severas produziram frutos com peso superiores, demonstrando a viabilidade da poda na recuperação da qualidade dos frutos.This research aimed to test top pruning effect on lowering the top canopy and pruning the lower part of the plant on the recovering of 12 years old 'Ponkan' tangerine tree. Plants were four meters height, 6x4 spacing, grafted on 'Cravo' lemon tree. This experiment was carried out at Vito Crincoli' s Farm in Perdões, MG, Brazil . It was used a randomized block experimental design in a factorial scheme of 4x2, top pruning (without pruning, pruning at 3.0; 2.5 and 2.0m from soil level and circumference pruning (with and without pruning with four replications. The useful plot was constituted of three tangerine plants. After third year of treatment plants that had been under more severe pruning gave higher fruit weight. Indicating the used of pruning to recover fruit quality.

  6. Prune belly syndrome associated with cloacal anomaly, patent urachal remnant, and omphalocele in a female infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Stefano; Vendryes, Christopher; Malhotra, Ajay; Shaul, Donald B; Anselmo, Dean M

    2010-11-01

    Prune belly syndrome (PBS), megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis (MMIH), and omphalocele-exstrophy of the bladder-imperforate anus-spine abnormalities complex (OEIS) are rare congenital malformations of the newborn that lead to incomplete formation of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract systems. To date, incomplete mesodermal development is identified as the cause for all these complex genetic syndromes even if the etiology is still unknown. We present an original case sharing characteristics common to PBS, MMIH, and OEIS complex, without a clear inclination toward any particular one. This case hints toward a common pathway in the creation of the 3 syndromes. We hypothesize that they are a spectrum of malformations based on the time frame when the mesoderm fails to create a normal interaction between infraumbilical mesoderm, urorectal septum, lumbosacral somites in the formation of the abdominal wall and the genitourinary and lower gastrointestinal tracts. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Fuzzy Pruning Based LS-SVM Modeling Development for a Fermentation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weili Xiong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the complexity and uncertainty of microbial fermentation processes, data coming from the plants often contain some outliers. However, these data may be treated as the normal support vectors, which always deteriorate the performance of soft sensor modeling. Since the outliers also contaminate the correlation structure of the least square support vector machine (LS-SVM, the fuzzy pruning method is provided to deal with the problem. Furthermore, by assigning different fuzzy membership scores to data samples, the sensitivity of the model to the outliers can be reduced greatly. The effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach are demonstrated through two numerical examples as well as a simulator case of penicillin fermentation process.

  8. LHCb: Optimising query execution time in LHCb Bookkeeping System using partition pruning and partition wise joins

    CERN Multimedia

    Mathe, Z

    2013-01-01

    The LHCb experiment produces a huge amount of data which has associated metadata such as run number, data taking condition (detector status when the data was taken), simulation condition, etc. The data are stored in files, replicated on the Computing Grid around the world. The LHCb Bookkeeping System provides methods for retrieving datasets based on their metadata. The metadata is stored in a hybrid database model, which is a mixture of Relational and Hierarchical database models and is based on the Oracle Relational Database Management System (RDBMS). The database access has to be reliable and fast. In order to achieve a high timing performance, the tables are partitioned and the queries are executed in parallel. When we store large amounts of data the partition pruning is essential for database performance, because it reduces the amount of data retrieved from the disk and optimises the resource utilisation. This research presented here is focusing on the extended composite partitioning strategy such as rang...

  9. Closing oil palm yield gaps among Indonesian smallholders through industry schemes, pruning, weeding and improved seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, T; Lim, F K S; Lee, J S H; Carrasco, L R

    2016-08-01

    Oil palm production has led to large losses of valuable habitats for tropical biodiversity. Sparing of land for nature could in theory be attained if oil palm yields increased. The efficiency of oil palm smallholders is below its potential capacity, but the factors determining efficiency are poorly understood. We employed a two-stage data envelopment analysis approach to assess the influence of agronomic, supply chain and management factors on oil palm production efficiency in 190 smallholders in six villages in Indonesia. The results show that, on average, yield increases of 65% were possible and that fertilizer and herbicide use was excessive and inefficient. Adopting industry-supported scheme management practices, use of high-quality seeds and higher pruning and weeding rates were found to improve efficiency. Smallholder oil palm production intensification in Indonesia has the capacity to increase production by 26%, an equivalent of 1.75 million hectares of land.

  10. Marjane Satrapi’s Poulet aux Prunes: fetish, desire, and illusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Rimini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Il saggio si propone di individuare e descrivere le sfumature erotiche e sentimentali del film Poulet aux prunes di Marjane Satrapi, felice adattamento dell’omonima graphic novel. Il racconto procede per scarti, ellissi, anticipazioni e flasback, dando luogo a una narrazione labirintica dalla singolare trama arabescante. Le sottili dinamiche seduttive messe in campo dal complesso stile di regia di Satrapi-Paronnaud vengono analizzate alla luce delle categorie feticistiche individuate da Massimo Fusillo, che offrono interessanti modelli di interazione fra desiderio e creatività. L’esito di tale indagine consente di ampliare il dibattito relativo al rapporto di scambio e interferenza fra oggetti, pulsioni e sguardi nel cinema contemporaneo.

  11. The Prune Belly syndrome: urological aspects and long-term outcomes of a rare disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahudin Zugor

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Prune-Belly syndrome is a disorder characterized by the following triad of symptoms: deficiency of the abdominal muscles, malformations of the urinary tract and bilateral cryptorchidism. This study included a total of 16 patients. The findings included clinical characteristics, diagnostics, therapy and long-term clinical outcomes. All patients were asked to complete a questionnaire and, in some cases, were given further examination. All patients were diagnosed with congenital aplasia of the abdominal wall and a variety of urogenital malformations. Cryptorchidism was present in 11 patients (68.8%, malformations of the prostate in 3 (18.8%, urethral malformations in 8 (50% and mega-ureter in 14 patients (87.5%. A mega-bladder was observed in 13 patients (81.3%. Distinctive renal malformations, such as renal dysplasia, in 3 patients (18.8% and hydronephrosis in 9 patients (56.3%, respectively. Abdominoplasty was performed on 4 patients (25%. Urethral surgery was performed in 10 patients (62.5%. Seven patients (43.8% required ureter surgery, most of which involved re-implantation of the ureter and, in some cases, additional ureter modeling. Renal surgery was performed on 5 patients. Four patients with non-functioning kidneys with hydronephrosis underwent a nephrectomy and one patient pyeloplasty. We demonstrate that successful treatment is possible even in cases of serious and complex malformations, such as those of the Prune-Belly syndrome. Treatment must be tailored to the individual patient. The severity of the renal dysplasia is the main prognostic factor.

  12. Prune-belly syndrome detected by ultrasound in the first trimester and the usefulness of vesicocentesis as a modality of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byon, Mina; Kim, Gwang Jun

    2013-07-01

    Prune-belly syndrome may be related to lower urinary tract obstruction (LUTO). LUTO in the early gestational age exacerbates fetal renal function and may require intrauterine intervention. If early developed LUTO causes bladder distension and abdominal musculature deficiency, it will result in prune belly syndrome. Therefore, early detection of the disease and proper treatment before the renal impairment is important. However, there are few literatures concerning the treatment of prune belly syndrome in the first trimester. We report a case of prune belly syndrome diagnosed at 11+6 weeks of gestation and the value of vesicocentesis as a modality of treatment. Ultrasound showed dilated fetal bladder and vesicocentesis was successful in reducing the volume of the bladder. However, the pregnancy was terminated upon request.

  13. Produção da tangerineira 'ponkan' após poda de recuperação Production of 'ponkan' tangerine tree after pruning recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vander Mendonça

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou esta pesquisa testar o efeito da poda de topo no rebaixamento da copa e poda da saia, na recuperação da tangerineira 'Ponkan' com 12 anos de idade, altura de 4 metros, espaçadas de 6 x 4 m e enxertadas sobre limoeiro 'Cravo'. O experimento foi conduzido na Fazenda Vito Crincoli localizada no município de Perdões, MG. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 4 x 2, sendo poda do topo (sem poda, poda a 3,0; 2,5 e 2,0m e poda da saia (sem e com a poda com quatro repetições. A parcela útil foi constituída de três plantas. As podas drásticas de topo prejudicaram a primeira produção, contudo a partir do segundo ano após a poda, as plantas apresentaram boa recuperação. Esse comportamento foi confirmado na terceira colheita, quando os diferentes tipos de podas do topo não se diferenciaram na produtividade, sendo que o tratamento com poda da saia foi superior ao sem poda.This research aimed to test top pruning effect on the lowering of plant canopy, pruning the lower canopy on the recover of 12 years old 'Ponkan' tangerine tree, 4 meters height, 6 x 4 spaced and grafted on 'Cravo' lemon rootstock. This experiment was carried out at Vito Crincoli's Farm in Perdões, MG. It was carried out under randomized plots in a factorial scheme of 4x2, top pruning (without pruning, pruning at 3.0; 2.5 and 2.0 m and skirt pruning (with and without pruning with 4 replications. Plot size was composed by three plants. Heavy pruning of the top canopy lowered the first tree yield, however, and in the begining of the second year, the plants showed a very good recover. The same behavior was seem for the third harvest when several kinds of top pruning did not differ in the yield. Skirt pruning treatment was superior to that without any pruning.

  14. Bioavailability of Compounds Susceptible to Enzymatic Oxidation Enhances Growth of Shiitake Medicinal Mushroom (Lentinus edodes) in Solid-State Fermentation with Vineyard Prunings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Rosina; López-Peña, Damian; Asaff, Ali; Esqueda, Martín; Valenzuela-Soto, Elisa M

    2018-01-01

    Grapes are widely produced in northwestern Mexico, generating many wood trimmings (vineyard prunings) that have no further local use. This makes vineyard prunings a very attractive alternative for the cultivation of white-rot medicinal mushrooms such as Lentinus edodes. This type of wood can also offer a model for the evaluation of oxidative enzyme production during the fermentation process. We tested the effect of wood from vineyard prunings on the vegetative growth of and production of ligninolytic enzymes in L. edodes in solid-state fermentation and with wheat straw as the control substrate. The specific growth rate of the fungus was 2-fold higher on vineyard pruning culture (μM = 0.95 day-1) than on wheat straw culture (μM = 0.47 day-1). Laccase-specific production was 4 times higher in the vineyard prunings culture than on wheat straw (0.34 and 0.08 mU · mg protein-1 · ppm CO2-1, respectively), and manganese peroxidase production was 3.7 times higher on wheat straw culture than on vineyard prunings (2.21 and 0.60 mU · mg protein-1 · ppm CO2-1, respectively). To explain accurately these differences in growth and ligninolytic enzyme activity, methanol extracts were obtained from each substrate and characterized. Resveratrol and catechins were the main compounds identified in vineyard prunings, whereas epigallocatechin was the only one detected in wheat straw. Compounds susceptible to enzymatic oxidation are more bioavailable in vineyard prunings than in wheat straw, and thus the highest L. edodes growth rate is associated with the presence of these compounds.

  15. Biofiltration of composting gases using different municipal solid waste-pruning residue composts: monitoring by using an electronic nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, R; Cabeza, I O; Giráldez, I; Díaz, M J

    2011-09-01

    The concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during the composting of kitchen waste and pruning residues, and the abatement of VOCs by different compost biofilters was studied. VOCs removal efficiencies greater than 90% were obtained using composts of municipal solid waste (MSW) or MSW-pruning residue as biofilter material. An electronic nose identified qualitative differences among the biofilter output gases at very low concentrations of VOCs. These differences were related to compost constituents, compost particle size (2-7 or 7-20mm), and a combination of both factors. The total concentration of VOCs determined by a photoionization analyser and inferred from electronic nose data sets were correlated over an ample range of concentrations of VOCs, showing that these techniques could be specially adapted for the monitoring of these processes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. ECHO virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001340.htm ECHO virus To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that can lead ...

  17. Megacystis-microlon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome in a newborn girl whose brother had Prune Belly syndrome: Common Pathogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, G.; Boechat, M.I.; Fereira, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    A case of Megacystis-Microcolon-Intestinal Hypoperistalsis Syndrome (MMIHS) is presented. There were important findings: a urachal remnant and a brother with Prune Belly Syndrome (PBS). After a review of the literature, many common characteristics of MMIHS and PBS are described: flaccid abdomen, dilatation of the urinary tract, intestinal malrotation, cryptorchidism, urachal remnants and familial incidence. MMIHS and PBS may be manifestations of the same underlying process. (orig.)

  18. Prune belly syndrome with urethral hypoplasia and vesico-cutaneous fistula: A case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama M Sarhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Association between Prune belly syndrome (PBS and urethral hypoplasia is an unusual condition. It is usually fatal unless there is a communication between the fetal bladder and the amniotic sac. We report a case of PBS with urethral hypoplasia and congenital vesico-cutaneous fistula in a male neonate. Patient underwent cutaneous vesicostomy and was discharged for close follow up of his renal function and for future reconstruction.

  19. Prune belly syndrome with urethral hypoplasia and vesico-cutaneous fistula: A case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarhan, Osama M; Al-Ghanbar, Mustafa S; Nakshabandi, Ziad M

    2013-10-01

    Association between Prune belly syndrome (PBS) and urethral hypoplasia is an unusual condition. It is usually fatal unless there is a communication between the fetal bladder and the amniotic sac. We report a case of PBS with urethral hypoplasia and congenital vesico-cutaneous fistula in a male neonate. Patient underwent cutaneous vesicostomy and was discharged for close follow up of his renal function and for future reconstruction.

  20. Megacystis-microlon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome in a newborn girl whose brother had Prune Belly syndrome: Common Pathogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, G.; Boechat, M.I.; Fereira, M.A.

    1983-07-01

    A case of Megacystis-Microcolon-Intestinal Hypoperistalsis Syndrome (MMIHS) is presented. There were important findings: a urachal remnant and a brother with Prune Belly Syndrome (PBS). After a review of the literature, many common characteristics of MMIHS and PBS are described: flaccid abdomen, dilatation of the urinary tract, intestinal malrotation, cryptorchidism, urachal remnants and familial incidence. MMIHS and PBS may be manifestations of the same underlying process.

  1. Highly erodible terrain in agriculture land against chipped pruned branches. Or how to stop the soil erosion with low investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, A.

    2009-04-01

    The session on "Soil erosion and sediment control with vegetation and bioengineering on severely eroded terrain" pays special attention to the severe soil erosion suffered on steep slopes and erodible parent materials and soils. Within the last 20 years, in the Mediterranean lands, the citrus orchards were reallocated on steep slopes due to the urban development and better climatic and management conditions of the new plantations. The lack of vegetation cover on the new slope plantations of citrus resulted in high erosion rates. Those non-sustainable soil losses were measured by means of rainfall simulation experiments, Gerlach collectors, geomorphological transect and topographical measurements. The October 2007 and October 2008 rainy periods resulted in sheet, rill and gully erosion. Some recently planted orchards (2005) had the first pruning season in 2008. The pruned chipped branches reduced the soil losses to 50 % of the expected, although the litter (pruned branches) covered 4.67 % of the soil. This is why a research was developed by means of simulated rainfall experiments to determine the vegetation cover (litter, mainly leaves) to protect the soil to reach a sustainable erosion rate. Rainfall simulation experiments at 43 mm h-1 where performed on 1 m2 plots covered with 0, 3, 7, 15, 30, 45, 60, 80 and 100 % litter cover (pruned chipped branches) to determine the sustainable litter cover to avoid the soil losses. The results show that more that 45 % litter cover almost reduces the soil losses to negligible rates. The results confirm that 4 % of vegetation cover reduces the soil losses to 50 %. Key words: Agriculture land, erodible terrain, land management, citrus, erosion, Spain, Valencia, herbicides. Acknowledgements, We thanks the financial support of the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación by means of the project CGL2008-02879/BTE, "PERDIDA DE SUELO EN NUEVAS EXPLOTACIONES CITRICOLAS EN PENDIENTE. ESTRATEGIAS PARA EL CONTROL DE LA EROSION HIDRICA"

  2. The Effect of Green Pruning on the Yield and Fruit Quality of the Crawling Grape Vines Cultivar Keshmeshy in the Climatic Conditions of Shirvan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sadeghian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Green pruning or summer pruning completes winter pruning, and it is conducted during the growing season. The purpose of green pruning is to maximize yield of high quality grapes. Green pruning in fruit trees improves light penetration and increases the quality of fruits. The objectives of this research were to determine the influence of green pruning on fruit quantitative and qualitative attributes in grapevine cultivar 'keshmeshi'. Materials and Methods: The present research was undertaken in Shirvan, Northern Khorasan province. The vines were highly uniform, 17 years old and all had equal vegetative growth strength.The planting distances were 3 × 3 m. The present study was conducted on cultivar 'Keshmeshi' that is considered to be one of the best grapevine cultivars mostly used for raisin production as well as table fresh fruits. In order to evaluate the effect of green pruning on different quantitative and qualitative attributes of fruits in cultivar "keshmeshi", the experiment was carried out in two way randomized complete block design with 12 treatments and three replications. Vines were pruned three times including full bloom, two weeks after full bloom and veraison (eight weeks after full bloom. Pruning was carried out in three levels including tipping after two, four or six nodes above the final cluster. The characteristics studied were cluster weight, berry weight, cluster length and width, berry length and width, number of cluster and berry, vine yield, leaf area, soluble solid, total acidity, pH, berry color, berry sunscald and number of shot berry. The SAS software (SAS, version 9.1 was used for statistical analysis of the recorded data. The mean comparison was performed based on Duncan's multiple range tests at %5 and %1 levels. Results and Discussion: The results of this study indicate that the severity of green pruning has no significant effect on the number and width of berries. This treatment also had no

  3. 27 years of experience with the comprehensive surgical treatment of prune belly syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, R I; Tavares, A; Srougi, M; Dénes, F T

    2015-10-01

    Prune belly syndrome (PBS) presents with three main features: abdominal wall flaccidity, urological abnormalities and cryptorchidism. As a result, urologists must consider the eventual repair of the abdominal wall flaccidity and urinary tract abnormalities, and the mandatory correction of cryptorchidism, as well as decide whether to perform the procedures in a single comprehensive approach or in multiple steps. To report experiences with comprehensive surgical management of prune belly syndrome. From 1987 to 2014, 46 children with PBS were submitted for comprehensive surgical treatment. According to individual needs, treatment aimed to correct the abdominal flaccidity, reconstruct the urinary tract, and perform bilateral orchiopexy and circumcision, which were performed in one procedure. Urinary tract reconstruction was indicated whenever pyelo-ureteral dilatation with evidence of significant stasis and/or vesicoureteral reflux was associated with recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI). Treatment for this cohort included: 44 abdominoplasties, 40 upper urinary tract reconstructions, 44 cystoplasties associated with three appendico-vesicostomies, 46 bilateral orchiopexies and 36 circumcisions. The median age at surgery was 16 months and children were followed for a median of 143 months. Abdominal appearance and tonus were improved in 90% of the children after the primary surgery and 100% after reoperation. Upper urinary tract reconstruction was performed in most children and long-term follow-up showed functional stabilization of the urinary tract in about 90% of the children, with progression to renal failure in 10%. Lower urinary tract reconstruction was performed in most children (95.6%); on late follow-up, continence was observed in 81% of them, while incontinence was present in 19% and usually associated with polyuria. Adequate bladder emptying was possible in most boys (82.6%), while the remaining required clean intermittent catheterization. Pre-operative UTI

  4. Growth of Gypsophila paniculata According to the Pruning Time and Ridge Position in Sub-alpine Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, D.C.; Lim, H.C.; Song, Y.J.; Park, H.B.

    2008-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the growth of Gypsophila paniculata affected by pruning time (July 10, July 18, and July 25) and ridge position (middle or window side) under south-north oriented plastic house in sub-alpine area. The average night temperature was similar between the two ridges, but the average day temperature and soil temperature were higher at the middle ridge; particularly, there was distinct difference after late October. Also the accumulative solar radiation was higher at the middle ridge than the window side ridge owing to the shading by neighboring plastic house and the structure of plastic house. The root activity, photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate of plants surveyed in late October were inclined to be more increased at the middle than the window side ridge. The flowering traits at the pruning time of July 10 and July 18 were similar between the two ridges, but the flower malformation rate was higher at the middle ridge. On the other hand, in case of the pruning time of July 25, the blooming was advanced by 13 days, and the flowering traits such as flower stalk length and branch number were better; also, the flower malformation and rosette formation rate decreased at the middle ridge, because of its higher air and soil temperature and the accumulative solar radiation

  5. Thyroid hormone is required for the pruning of afferent type II spiral ganglion neurons in the mouse cochlea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaresan, Srividya; Balasubbu, Suganthalakshmi; Mustapha, Mirna

    2015-01-01

    Afferent connections to the sensory inner and outer hair cells in the cochlea refine and functionally mature during the thyroid hormone (TH)- critical period of inner ear development that occurs perinatally in rodents. In this study, we investigated the effects of hypothyroidism on afferent type II innervation to outer hair cells (OHCs) using the Snell dwarf mouse (Pit1dw). Using a transgenic approach to specifically label type II spiral ganglion neurons, we found that a lack of TH causes persistence of excess type II SGN connections to the OHCs, as well as continued expression of the hair cell functional marker, otoferlin, in the OHCs beyond the maturation period. We also observed a concurrent delay in efferent attachment to the OHCs. Supplementing with TH during the early postnatal period from postnatal day (P) 3 to P4 reversed the defect in type II SGN pruning but did not alter otoferlin expression. Our results show that hypothyroidism causes a defect in the large-scale pruning of afferent type II spiral ganglion neurons in the cochlea, and a delay in efferent attachment and the maturation of otoferlin expression. Our data suggest that the state of maturation of hair cells, as determined by otoferlin expression, may not regulate the pruning of their afferent innervation. PMID:26592716

  6. [Peritoneal dialysis in adult patients with prune belly syndrome: an impossible challenge?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musone, Dario; Nicosia, Valentina; D'Alessandro, Riccardo; Treglia, Antonio; Saltarelli, Giuseppe; Montella, Maurizio; Sparagna, Alessandro; Amoroso, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Prune belly syndrome (PBS) is a rare congenital syndrome characterized by hypoplasia of the abdominal muscles, urinary tract malformations, and cryptorchidism in males. The estimated incidence is 1 in 35,000 to 50,000 live births. Chronic renal failure and end-stage renal disease (ESRD), due both to different degrees of renal hypoplasia or dysplasia and infectious complications, develops in 20-30% of patients who survive the neonatal period. No data are available on progression time to ESRD, owing to the variability of the phenotypic features of nephropathy. Nevertheless, PBS is primarily a pathology of pediatric interest as demonstrated, for example, by the reported average age at transplantation which usually does not exceed fifteen years of age. Therefore the need for renal replacement therapy (RRT) in adult patients with PBS is unusual. It is reasonable to suppose that the abdominal muscular defects may represent a limit for peritoneal dialysis (PD) utilization in PBS adult patients in many Kidney Units where, conversely, treatment with hemodialysis would be probably the easier choice. Here we describe the case of a 44 -year- old man with PBS who, at the age of 41, required RRT and was faced with the challenge of accepting PD. After more than three years of nocturnal automated peritoneal dialysis treatment we can safely say, as the following case illustrates, that PD is a feasible option in PBS adult patients.

  7. Three cases of prune belly syndrome at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solarin, Adaobi U; Disu, Elizabeth A; Gbelee, Henry O; Animasahaun, Adeola B; Aremu, Oluwatosin E; Ogbuokiri, Eucharia; Ogunnaike, Gbemisola O; Oladimeji, Alaba

    2018-01-01

    Prune belly syndrome (PBS) is a rare congenital disorder affecting 2.5 to 3.8/100,000 live births worldwide. Our objective of this report is to describe clinical manifestation, laboratory, and radiological characteristics of PBS in our patients, to highlight the limitations to offering appropriate patient care due to parents demanding discharge against medical advice and the need to increase the awareness regarding this rare disease. We report three cases; all referred after birth with lax abdominal wall, congenital anomalies of kidney, and urinary tract. One of the patients had an absent right foot. They all had cryptorchidism, and in one, there was deranged renal function. The reported cases had both medical and radiological interventions to varying degrees. They all had an abdominal ultrasound which revealed varying degrees of hydronephrosis, hydroureters, and bladder changes. Voiding cystourethrogram showed vesicoureteric reflux in one of the reported cases. Urinary tract infections were appropriately treated with antibiotics based on sensitivity. PBS management in our setting remains a challenge because of strong cultural beliefs, and high rate of discharge against medical advice. Focus should be on parent education, early diagnosis, and multidisciplinary management approach.

  8. Three cases of prune belly syndrome at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adaobi U Solarin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Prune belly syndrome (PBS is a rare congenital disorder affecting 2.5 to 3.8/100,000 live births worldwide. Our objective of this report is to describe clinical manifestation, laboratory, and radiological characteristics of PBS in our patients, to highlight the limitations to offering appropriate patient care due to parents demanding discharge against medical advice and the need to increase the awareness regarding this rare disease. We report three cases; all referred after birth with lax abdominal wall, congenital anomalies of kidney, and urinary tract. One of the patients had an absent right foot. They all had cryptorchidism, and in one, there was deranged renal function. The reported cases had both medical and radiological interventions to varying degrees. They all had an abdominal ultrasound which revealed varying degrees of hydronephrosis, hydroureters, and bladder changes. Voiding cystourethrogram showed vesicoureteric reflux in one of the reported cases. Urinary tract infections were appropriately treated with antibiotics based on sensitivity. PBS management in our setting remains a challenge because of strong cultural beliefs, and high rate of discharge against medical advice. Focus should be on parent education, early diagnosis, and multidisciplinary management approach.

  9. Elective appendicovesicostomy in association with monfort abdominoplasty in the treatment of prune belly syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riberto Liguori

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of elective appendicovesicostomy in association with Monfort abdominoplasty to avoid urinary tract infection (UTI and renal damage in the post-operative follow-up of patients with prune belly syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We followed 4 patients operated in our institution (UNIFESP (Monfort, orchidopexy and Mitrofanoff and compared them to 2 patients treated similarly, but without an appendicovesicostomy, in a second institution (UFBA. We evaluated postoperative clinical complications, UTI and preservation of renal parenchyma. Patients were followed as outpatients with urinalysis, ultrasonography (US and occasionally with renal scintigraphy. RESULTS: Mean follow-up was 23.5 months. Immediate post-operative course was uneventful. We observed that only one patient with the Mitrofanoff channel persisted with UTI, while the 2 patients used as controls persisted with recurrent pyelonephritis (> 2 UTI year. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that no morbidity was added by the appendicovesicostomy to immediate postoperative surgical recovery and that this procedure may have a beneficial effect in reducing postoperative UTI events and their consequences by reducing the postvoid residuals in the early abdominoplasty follow-up. However, we recognize that the series is small and only a longer follow-up with a larger number of patients will allow us to confirm our suppositions. We could not make any statistically significant assumptions regarding differences in renal preservation due to the same limitations.

  10. Urethral hydrodistension for management of urethral hypoplasia in prune belly syndrome: long-term results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Rasouli, Mohammad Reza; Dianat, SeyedSaeid; Nezami, Behtash G; Mahboubi, Amir Hassan; Sina, Alireza

    2010-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of urethral hydrodistension for management of urethral hypoplasia in prune belly syndrome (PBS). During a 10-year period, 7 infants with PBS and urethral hypoplasia presented either with open urachus or surgically created urinary diversion referred to our hospital. Five milliliters of normal saline was pushed via a 22-gauge plastic angiocatheter into the urethra with simultaneous finger pressure on the perineum to occlude the proximal urethra that was repeated with higher volumes of the solution (up to 20 mL). The procedure was continued until a 6F or 8F feeding tube catheter confirmed the urethral patency. Hydrodistension was repeated in 3-month intervals till complete patency was confirmed by imaging. Median age of the infants was 6 (1-8) months. All urethral hydrodistension were successful after 1 to 3 sessions. Follow-up imaging studies showed significant improvement in all patients except one. Natural and surgically created urinary diversions were closed in 6 infants. The hydrodistension create an equal and constant pressure into the urethral wall without any urethral damage. This technique can be considered along with the other available methods for management of urethral hypoplasia in selected cases of PBS. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Penerapan Algoritma Alphabeta Pruning Sebagai Kecerdasan Buatan pada Game Pawn Battle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridho Rahman Hariadi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Catur merupakan game strategi. Catur dimainkan oleh dua orang. Ada dua jenis warna bidak pada permainan catur, yaitu: bidak hitam dan bidak putih. Agar dapat memenangkan sebuah permainan catur, pemain harus menguasai strategi-strategi dalam bermain catur. Ada banyak startegi dalam bermain catur yang hanya dapat dipahami dengan banyak bermain dan berlatih. Modul-modul cara bermain catur pada umumnya hanya menjelaskan kejadian yang biasa terjadi dalam permainan catur. Sehingga berlatih merupakan satu-satu nya cara yang dapat digunakan untuk meningkatkan kemampuan dalam bermain catur. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian implementasi yang menggunakan algoritma Alpha Beta Prunnning sebagai kecerdasan buatan dalam permainan catur. Algoritma yang biasanya digunakan dalam permainan catur adalah algoritma Min-Max. Algoritma Min-Max merupakan algoritma yang digunakan untuk menemukan langkah terbaik dalam permainan catur. Sedangkan Algoritma Alpha Beta Pruning adalah algoritma yang digunakan untuk mencegah perluasan cabang/node untuk mendapatkan hasil pencarian langkah yang lebih baik dari sebelumnya. Penelitian ini diharapkan dapat membantu memberikan gambaran penerapan algoritma Alpha Beta Prunning yang digunakan dalam  membangun sebuah kecerdasan buatan pada permainan catur.

  12. Usability-driven pruning of large ontologies: the case of SNOMED CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-García, Pablo; Boeker, Martin; Illarramendi, Arantza; Schulz, Stefan

    2012-06-01

    To study ontology modularization techniques when applied to SNOMED CT in a scenario in which no previous corpus of information exists and to examine if frequency-based filtering using MEDLINE can reduce subset size without discarding relevant concepts. Subsets were first extracted using four graph-traversal heuristics and one logic-based technique, and were subsequently filtered with frequency information from MEDLINE. Twenty manually coded discharge summaries from cardiology patients were used as signatures and test sets. The coverage, size, and precision of extracted subsets were measured. Graph-traversal heuristics provided high coverage (71-96% of terms in the test sets of discharge summaries) at the expense of subset size (17-51% of the size of SNOMED CT). Pre-computed subsets and logic-based techniques extracted small subsets (1%), but coverage was limited (24-55%). Filtering reduced the size of large subsets to 10% while still providing 80% coverage. Extracting subsets to annotate discharge summaries is challenging when no previous corpus exists. Ontology modularization provides valuable techniques, but the resulting modules grow as signatures spread across subhierarchies, yielding a very low precision. Graph-traversal strategies and frequency data from an authoritative source can prune large biomedical ontologies and produce useful subsets that still exhibit acceptable coverage. However, a clinical corpus closer to the specific use case is preferred when available.

  13. Multi-pruning of decision trees for knowledge representation and classification

    KAUST Repository

    Azad, Mohammad

    2016-06-09

    We consider two important questions related to decision trees: first how to construct a decision tree with reasonable number of nodes and reasonable number of misclassification, and second how to improve the prediction accuracy of decision trees when they are used as classifiers. We have created a dynamic programming based approach for bi-criteria optimization of decision trees relative to the number of nodes and the number of misclassification. This approach allows us to construct the set of all Pareto optimal points and to derive, for each such point, decision trees with parameters corresponding to that point. Experiments on datasets from UCI ML Repository show that, very often, we can find a suitable Pareto optimal point and derive a decision tree with small number of nodes at the expense of small increment in number of misclassification. Based on the created approach we have proposed a multi-pruning procedure which constructs decision trees that, as classifiers, often outperform decision trees constructed by CART. © 2015 IEEE.

  14. Ethanol production from olive prunings by autohydrolysis and fermentation with Candida tropicalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Martin, Juan Francisco; Bravo, Vicente [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Granada, Campus Universitario de Fuentenueva, 18071 Granada (Spain); Cuevas, Manuel; Sanchez, Sebastian [Department of Chemical, Environmental and Materials Engineering, University of Jaen, Campus Las Lagunillas, 23071 Jaen (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    Hydrolysates from olive prunings (a renewable, low-cost, easily available, agricultural residue) were fermented with the unconventional yeast Candida tropicalis NBRC 0618 to produce not only ethanol fuel but also xylitol as a by-product, which adds value to the economic viability of the bioprocess. Autohydrolysis took place at 200 C in a stirred stainless-steel tank reactor. The influence of the solid/liquid ratio in the reactor was studied. Fermentation experiments were conducted in a batch-culture reactor at a temperature of 30 C, a stirring rate of 500 rpm and pH values of between 5.0 and 6.5. Under the operating conditions tested the highest yields of ethanol and xylitol were obtained with the hydrolysate fermented at pH 5.0 and solely the airflow that entered via the stirring vortex. Under these conditions, the instantaneous ethanol yield was 0.44 g g{sup -1} and the overall xylitol yield 0.13 g g{sup -1}. (author)

  15. Evaluation of genetic divergence among clones of conilon coffee after scheduled cycle pruning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalcomo, J M; Vieira, H D; Ferreira, A; Lima, W L; Ferrão, R G; Fonseca, A F A; Ferrão, M A G; Partelli, F L

    2015-11-30

    Coffea canephora genotypes from the breeding program of Instituto Capixaba de Pesquisa e Extensão Rural were evaluated, and genetic diversity was estimated with the aim of future improvement strategies. From an initial group of 55 genotypes, 18 from the region of Castelo, ES, were selected, and three clones of the cultivars "Vitória" and "robusta tropical." Upon completion of the scheduled cycle pruning, 17 morphoagronomic traits were measured in the 22 genotypes selected. The principal components method was used to evaluate the contributions relative to the traits. The genetic dissimilarity matrix was obtained through Mahalanobis generalized distance, and genotypes were grouped using the hierarchical method based on the mean of the distances. The most promising clones of Avaliação Castelo were AC02, AC03, AC12, AC13, AC22, AC24, AC26, AC27, AC28, AC29, AC30, AC35, AC36, AC37, AC39, AC40, AC43, and AC46. These methods detected high genetic variability, grouping, by similarity, the genotypes in five groups. The trait that contributed the least to genetic divergence was the number of leaves in plagiotropic branches; however, this was not eliminated, because discarding it altered the groups. There are superior genotypes with potential for use in the next stages of the breeding program, aimed at both the composition of clonal variety and hybridizations.

  16. Multi-pruning of decision trees for knowledge representation and classification

    KAUST Repository

    Azad, Mohammad; Chikalov, Igor; Hussain, Shahid; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    We consider two important questions related to decision trees: first how to construct a decision tree with reasonable number of nodes and reasonable number of misclassification, and second how to improve the prediction accuracy of decision trees when they are used as classifiers. We have created a dynamic programming based approach for bi-criteria optimization of decision trees relative to the number of nodes and the number of misclassification. This approach allows us to construct the set of all Pareto optimal points and to derive, for each such point, decision trees with parameters corresponding to that point. Experiments on datasets from UCI ML Repository show that, very often, we can find a suitable Pareto optimal point and derive a decision tree with small number of nodes at the expense of small increment in number of misclassification. Based on the created approach we have proposed a multi-pruning procedure which constructs decision trees that, as classifiers, often outperform decision trees constructed by CART. © 2015 IEEE.

  17. The importance of pruning to the quality of wine grape fruits (Vitis vinifera L. cultivated under high-altitude tropical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro José Almanza-Merchán

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 1998, the Ain-Karim Vineyard has been growing different grape varieties for the production of high-altitude tropical wines in the municipality of Sutamarchan, located in the Alto Ricaurte region of Boyaca (Colombia. Pruning is used to limit the number and length of branches, generating a suitable balance between plant vigor and production; thereby, regulating fruit quantity and quality and ensuring reserves for the subsequent production. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of three pruning types (short = two buds on two spurs; long = five buds on three spurs and mixed = combination of short and long pruning types on the fruit quality of V. vinifera, Cabernet Sauvignon and Sauvignon Blanc varieties. To accomplish this, a completely randomized two-factor design was used. Physicochemical variables of fruit quality (fresh cluster weight, water content, total soluble solids (TSS, total titratable acidity (TTA, technical maturity index (TMI, and pH were determined at harvest. The long pruning type presented the highest values for the fresh cluster weight and TSS of the fruits from both varieties and a higher TMI in the Cabernet Sauvignon variety. These results indicate that, under the conditions of the vineyard, long pruning is the most suitable.

  18. Fast pairwise structural RNA alignments by pruning of the dynamical programming matrix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob H Havgaard

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available It has become clear that noncoding RNAs (ncRNA play important roles in cells, and emerging studies indicate that there might be a large number of unknown ncRNAs in mammalian genomes. There exist computational methods that can be used to search for ncRNAs by comparing sequences from different genomes. One main problem with these methods is their computational complexity, and heuristics are therefore employed. Two heuristics are currently very popular: pre-folding and pre-aligning. However, these heuristics are not ideal, as pre-aligning is dependent on sequence similarity that may not be present and pre-folding ignores the comparative information. Here, pruning of the dynamical programming matrix is presented as an alternative novel heuristic constraint. All subalignments that do not exceed a length-dependent minimum score are discarded as the matrix is filled out, thus giving the advantage of providing the constraints dynamically. This has been included in a new implementation of the FOLDALIGN algorithm for pairwise local or global structural alignment of RNA sequences. It is shown that time and memory requirements are dramatically lowered while overall performance is maintained. Furthermore, a new divide and conquer method is introduced to limit the memory requirement during global alignment and backtrack of local alignment. All branch points in the computed RNA structure are found and used to divide the structure into smaller unbranched segments. Each segment is then realigned and backtracked in a normal fashion. Finally, the FOLDALIGN algorithm has also been updated with a better memory implementation and an improved energy model. With these improvements in the algorithm, the FOLDALIGN software package provides the molecular biologist with an efficient and user-friendly tool for searching for new ncRNAs. The software package is available for download at http://foldalign.ku.dk.

  19. Health-related Quality of Life in Children With Prune-belly Syndrome and Their Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlen, Angela M; Kirsch, Susan S; Seidel, Natan E; Garcia-Roig, Michael; Smith, Edwin A; Kirsch, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    To compare health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children with prune-belly syndrome (PBS) and their caregivers to healthy controls, as children and adolescents with PBS face numerous potential physical and psychosocial challenges. Study participants completed the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Generic Core Scales (PedsQL) 4.0 generic core scales (children) or Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire Short Form (Q-LES-Q-SF) (caregivers) in an online, anonymous format. The PedsQL 4.0 is a 23-item, age-adjusted, validated questionnaire that assesses physical, emotional, social, and school functioning in pediatric patients. The Q-LES-Q-SF is a validated, self-report measure that assesses various areas of daily functioning in adults. PedsQL 4.0 was completed by 32 children with PBS. Individual physical (66.3 ± 20 vs 84.4 ± 17.3; P < .0001), emotional (68.4 ± 23.4 vs 80.9 ± 19.6; P < .01), social (63.1 ± 21.3 vs 87.4 ± 17.2; P  <  .0001), and school (53 ± 21.7 vs 78.6 ± 20.5; P < .0001) functioning scales were all significantly lower than in healthy children. Nineteen caregivers completed the Q-LES-Q-SF. Caregivers had a mean raw score of 54.8 ± 9.6, which was significantly lower (P  =  .02) than the comparative healthy adult cohort (59.8 ± 11.3). PBS profoundly impacts HRQoL in children, negatively affecting physical, emotional, social, and school functioning. Caregivers of PBS patients also report an overall lower quality of life, highlighting the challenges that families with chronically ill children often face. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Structural study of the bladder in fetuses with prune belly syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julio Junior, Helce R; Costa, Suelen F; Costa, Waldemar S; Barcellos Sampaio, Francisco J; Favorito, Luciano A

    2018-01-01

    To study the bladder structure of fetuses with prune belly syndrome (PBS). We studied three bladders obtained from three male fetuses with PBS and seven bladders from seven male fetuses without anomalies. Each bladder was dissected and embedded in paraffin, from which 5 μm thick sections were obtained and stained with Masson's trichrome (to quantify connective tissue and smooth muscle) and picrosirius red with polarization (to observe collagen). Immunohistochemistry with tubulin (Tubulin, beta III, Mouse Monoclonal Antibody) was applied to observe the bladder nerves. The images were captured with an Olympus BX51 microscope and Olympus DP70 camera. The stereological analysis was done with the Image Pro and Image J programs, using a grid to determine volumetric densities (Vv). Means were statistically compared using the Mann-Whitney test (P < 0.05). Quantitative analysis documented that smooth muscle fibers were significantly smaller (P = 0.04) in PBS fetuses (9.67% to 17.75%, mean = 13.2%) compared to control group (13.33% to 26.56%, mean = 17.43%). The analysis of collagen fibers showed predominance of green in the control group, suggesting collagen type III presence, and predominance of red in the in PBS fetal bladders, suggesting collagen type I presence in this group. The qualitative analysis of the nerves with immunohistochemistry with tubulin showed predominance of nerves in the control group. The bladder in PBS had lower concentrations of smooth muscle fibers, collagen type III, and nerves. These structural alterations can be one of the factors involved in urinary tract abnormality such as distended bladder in patients with PBS. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Contemporary epidemiology and characterization of newborn males with prune belly syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routh, Jonathan C; Huang, Lin; Retik, Alan B; Nelson, Caleb P

    2010-07-01

    Prune belly syndrome (PBS) is a rare condition characterized by the congenital absence or deficiency of the abdominal wall musculature, with associated abnormalities of the genitourinary tract, including hydronephrosis and cryptorchidism. Few population-based epidemiology or mortality data are available. We retrospectively reviewed the Kids' Inpatient Database to evaluate PBS among newborn infants during their initial hospitalization in 2000, 2003, and 2006. The International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes were used to identify patients and to determine the comorbidity status. The PBS incidence, demographics, comorbid conditions, and disposition were assessed. A total of 133 newborn male infants diagnosed with PBS were identified of 1,420,991 live male births, for a weighted incidence estimate of 3.8 cases/100,000 live births. Of the newborns with PBS, 50% were white, 31% black, and 10% were Hispanic. In-hospital mortality was high (39 of 133, 29%). Of the 133 patients with PBS, 55 (41%) were discharged home and 39 (29%) required inpatient transfer or home nursing care. Fifty-seven patients (43%) were born premature; 56% of the PBS deaths occurred in premature infants. Mechanical ventilation was required in 64 newborns (48%), and 33 (24%) had coexisting congenital cardiovascular anomalies. Renal failure was uncommon, occurring in only 5 newborns (4%); none required dialysis. Only 13 patients (10%) underwent urinary diversion (vesicostomy or ureterostomy). The incidence of PBS was 3.8 cases/100,000 live births. Despite advances in care for children with PBS, this condition continues to be associated with high perinatal mortality, likely related to the associated prematurity and pulmonary complications. Renal failure was rare, as was immediate urinary diversion. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Immunoexpression of adrenergic receptors in detrusor from patients with prune belly syndrome: a digital quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider-Monteiro, Edison D; Dénes, Francisco T; Hampel, Christian; Leite, Katia R M; Thüroff, Joachim W; Srougi, Miguel

    2010-06-01

    Prune belly syndrome (PBS) presents with large-capacity bladders, high compliance and post-void residual volumes. Operative and conservative treatments are controversial. When histologically compared to normal bladder, bladder outlet obstruction results in an up- or down-regulation of adrenoceptors. Our goal was to study the immunoexpression of adrenoceptors in detrusor from patients with PBS. Bladder domes from PBS patients (n=14) were studied (PBG). For normal controls, bladder specimens were obtained at adult surgery (n=13) (CG1) and at child autopsy (n=5) (CG2). Staining was performed using antibodies to alpha1a, alpha1b, alpha1d and beta3 adrenoceptors. Five to 10 images were captured on an optic microscope with a digital camera and analysed with Photoshop. The immunocyhistochemical index with arbitrary units was calculated and compared. Mean age was 1.28, 64 and 1.41 years for PBG, CG1 and CG2, respectively. The immunohistochemical index with arbitrary units of alpha1a receptors was 0.06 in PBG, 0.16 in CG1 and 0.14 in CG2 (p=0.008); of alpha1b 0.06, 0.06 and 0.07 (p=0.781); and of alpha1d 0.04, 0.04 and 0.05 (p=0.618). Regarding beta3 the respective values were 0.07, 0.14 and 0.10 (p=0.378). Our results show a decrease in alpha1a-adrenoceptor immunostaining intensity in detrusor from children with PBS. Further in vitro studies are needed to determine whether these observations are physiologically significant. Copyright (c) 2010 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Laparoscopic orchidopexy in boys with prune belly syndrome--outcome and technical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Joe; Mullassery, Dhanya; Craigie, Ross J; Manikandan, Ramaswamy; Kenny, Simon E

    2011-07-01

    Cryptorchidism is an ubiquitous feature in prune belly syndrome (PBS). Laparoscopic orchidopexy allows dissection of the spermatic cord with minimal morbidity. We discuss the technical difficulties and outcome of three boys with PBS who underwent two-stage laparoscopic Fowler-Stephens orchidopexy (F-SO). Three boys, ages 1, 2, and 4, underwent laparoscopic F-SO. All boys had viable testes that were found within 3 cm of the deep inguinal ring. The testicular vessels were either ligated bilaterally with 4/0 polyglactin or monopolar diathermy was used and the vessels divided. Bilateral second-stage F-SO was performed within 6 months in two boys and limited to one side in the third boy. One boy awaits the contralateral second stage. All three boys have adequately sized gonads. Based on our experience, the port incisions should be smaller than routine practice to prevent air leak in PBS. Although the intra-abdominal pressure of 12 mm Hg did not vary from our normal practice, a high flow rate is necessary after initial insufflation (6 L/min) to compensate for inevitable gas leaks because the abdominal wall is so thin. Risk of diathermy injury to the thin abdominal wall and the vessels is significant. Laparoscopy enables easy visualization of the ureter, testes, and testicular vessels and permits complete dissection of testicular vessels. It is easier to maintain integrity of spermatic vessels. Use of radially expanding trocars, small incisions, and high gas flow rates permit this procedure to be performed safely with good outcome and cosmetic results in this challenging group of boys.

  4. From "rest" to language task: Task activation selects and prunes from broader resting-state network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Gaelle E; He, Xiaosong; Sperling, Michael R; Sharan, Ashwini; Tracy, Joseph I

    2017-05-01

    Resting-state networks (RSNs) show spatial patterns generally consistent with networks revealed during cognitive tasks. However, the exact degree of overlap between these networks has not been clearly quantified. Such an investigation shows promise for decoding altered functional connectivity (FC) related to abnormal language functioning in clinical populations such as temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). In this context, we investigated the network configurations during a language task and during resting state using FC. Twenty-four healthy controls, 24 right and 24 left TLE patients completed a verb generation (VG) task and a resting-state fMRI scan. We compared the language network revealed by the VG task with three FC-based networks (seeding the left inferior frontal cortex (IFC)/Broca): two from the task (ON, OFF blocks) and one from the resting state. We found that, for both left TLE patients and controls, the RSN recruited regions bilaterally, whereas both VG-on and VG-off conditions produced more left-lateralized FC networks, matching more closely with the activated language network. TLE brings with it variability in both task-dependent and task-independent networks, reflective of atypical language organization. Overall, our findings suggest that our RSN captured bilateral activity, reflecting a set of prepotent language regions. We propose that this relationship can be best understood by the notion of pruning or winnowing down of the larger language-ready RSN to carry out specific task demands. Our data suggest that multiple types of network analyses may be needed to decode the association between language deficits and the underlying functional mechanisms altered by disease. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2540-2552, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. A case of ultrasound-guided prenatal diagnosis of prune belly syndrome in Papua New Guinea--implications for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ome, Maria; Wangnapi, Regina; Hamura, Nancy; Umbers, Alexandra J; Siba, Peter; Laman, Moses; Bolnga, John; Rogerson, Sheryle; Unger, Holger W

    2013-05-07

    Prune belly syndrome is a rare congenital malformation of unknown aetiology and is characterised by abnormalities of the urinary tract, a deficiency of abdominal musculature and bilateral cryptorchidism in males. We report a case of prune belly syndrome from Papua New Guinea, which was suspected on pregnancy ultrasound scan and confirmed upon delivery. A 26-year-old married woman, Gravida 3 Para 2, presented to antenatal clinic in Madang, Papua New Guinea, at 21(+5) weeks' gestation by dates. She was well with no past medical or family history of note. She gave consent to participate in a clinical trial on prevention of malaria in pregnancy and underwent repeated ultrasound examinations which revealed a live fetus with persistent megacystis and anhydramnios. Both mother and clinicians agreed on conservative management of the congenital abnormality. The mother spontaneously delivered a male fetus weighing 2010 grams at 34 weeks' gestation with grossly abnormal genitalia including cryptorchidism, penile aplasia and an absent urethral meatus, absent abdominal muscles and hypoplastic lungs. The infant passed away two hours after delivery. This report discusses the implications of prenatal detection of severe congenital abnormalities in PNG. This first, formally reported, case of prune belly syndrome from a resource-limited setting in the Oceania region highlights the importance of identifying and documenting congenital abnormalities. Women undergoing antenatal ultrasound examinations must be carefully counseled on the purpose and the limitations of the scan. The increasing use of obstetric ultrasound in PNG will inevitably result in a rise in prenatal detection of congenital abnormalities. This will need to be met with adequate training, referral mechanisms and better knowledge of women's attitudes and beliefs on birth defects and ultrasound. National medicolegal guidance regarding induced abortion and resuscitation of a fetus with severe congenital abnormalities may

  6. A case of ultrasound-guided prenatal diagnosis of prune belly syndrome in Papua New Guinea – implications for management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Prune belly syndrome is a rare congenital malformation of unknown aetiology and is characterised by abnormalities of the urinary tract, a deficiency of abdominal musculature and bilateral cryptorchidism in males. We report a case of prune belly syndrome from Papua New Guinea, which was suspected on pregnancy ultrasound scan and confirmed upon delivery. Case presentation A 26-year-old married woman, Gravida 3 Para 2, presented to antenatal clinic in Madang, Papua New Guinea, at 21+5 weeks’ gestation by dates. She was well with no past medical or family history of note. She gave consent to participate in a clinical trial on prevention of malaria in pregnancy and underwent repeated ultrasound examinations which revealed a live fetus with persistent megacystis and anhydramnios. Both mother and clinicians agreed on conservative management of the congenital abnormality. The mother spontaneously delivered a male fetus weighing 2010 grams at 34 weeks’ gestation with grossly abnormal genitalia including cryptorchidism, penile aplasia and an absent urethral meatus, absent abdominal muscles and hypoplastic lungs. The infant passed away two hours after delivery. This report discusses the implications of prenatal detection of severe congenital abnormalities in PNG. Conclusion This first, formally reported, case of prune belly syndrome from a resource-limited setting in the Oceania region highlights the importance of identifying and documenting congenital abnormalities. Women undergoing antenatal ultrasound examinations must be carefully counseled on the purpose and the limitations of the scan. The increasing use of obstetric ultrasound in PNG will inevitably result in a rise in prenatal detection of congenital abnormalities. This will need to be met with adequate training, referral mechanisms and better knowledge of women’s attitudes and beliefs on birth defects and ultrasound. National medicolegal guidance regarding induced abortion and resuscitation of a

  7. Effects of tree species and wood particle size on the properties of cement-bonded particleboard manufacturing from tree prunings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Ramadan A; Al-Mefarrej, H A; Abdel-Aal, M A; Alshahrani, T S

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the possibility of using the prunings of six locally grown tree species in Saudi Arabia for cement-bonded particleboard (CBP) production. Panels were made using four different wood particle sizes and a constant wood/cement ratio (1/3 by weight) and target density (1200 kg/m3). The mechanical properties and dimensional stability of the produced panels were determined. The interfacial area and distribution of the wood particles in cement matrix were also investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The results revealed that the panels produced from these pruning materials at a target density of 1200 kg m(-3) meet the strength and dimensional stability requirements of the commercial CBP panels. The mean moduli of rupture and elasticity (MOR and MOE) ranged from 9.68 to 11.78 N mm2 and from 3952 to 5667 N mm2, respectively. The mean percent water absorption for twenty four hours (WA24) ranged from 12.93% to 23.39%. Thickness swelling values ranged from 0.62% to 1.53%. For CBP panels with high mechanical properties and good dimensional stability, mixed-size or coarse particles should be used. Using the tree prunings for CBPs production may help to solve the problem of getting rid of these residues by reducing their negative effects on environment, which are caused by poor disposal of such materials through direct combustion process and appearance of black cloud and then the impact on human health or the random accumulation and its indirect effects on the environment.

  8. Further evidence of the etiology of prune belly syndrome provided by a transient massive intraabdominal cyst in a female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesinghe, Uddaka S; Muthucumaru, Mathievathaniy; Beasley, Spencer W

    2016-08-01

    We present a female neonate born with prune belly syndrome (PBS) in whom a large intraabdominal cyst was diagnosed at 12weeks of gestation. Rapid and exponential growth of the cyst caused pressure effects on the intraabdominal organs and stretching of the anterior abdominal wall by 19weeks of gestation. This led to drainage of the massive cyst at 20weeks of gestation to prevent fetal demise. This case provides further clues to the likely etiology of PBS: transient stretching and attenuation of the fetal abdominal wall secondary to gross fetal abdominal distension - from any cause. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Prune belly syndrome with overlapping presentation of partial urorectal septum malformation sequence in a female newborn with absent perineal openings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqui, Azhar; AlAqeel, Alaa; Habib, Zakaria

    2014-01-01

    Prune belly syndrome (PBS) is a rare congenital anomaly characterized in males by a triad of anomalous genitourinary tract, deficient development of abdominal wall muscles, and bilateral cryptorchidism. Although similar anomalies have been reported in females, by definition they do not full fill the classical triad. Urorectal septum malformation sequence (URSM) is a lethal condition characterized by presence of ambiguous genitalia, absent perineal openings (urogenital and anal), and lumbosacral abnormalities. In this original case report, the authors discuss the presentation and management of what would be analogous to a Woodhouse category 1 PBS in a female newborn associated with an overlapping presentation of URSM.

  10. Prune Belly Syndrome with Overlapping Presentation of Partial Urorectal Septum Malformation Sequence in a Female Newborn with Absent Perineal Openings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar Farooqui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prune belly syndrome (PBS is a rare congenital anomaly characterized in males by a triad of anomalous genitourinary tract, deficient development of abdominal wall muscles, and bilateral cryptorchidism. Although similar anomalies have been reported in females, by definition they do not full fill the classical triad. Urorectal septum malformation sequence (URSM is a lethal condition characterized by presence of ambiguous genitalia, absent perineal openings (urogenital and anal, and lumbosacral abnormalities. In this original case report, the authors discuss the presentation and management of what would be analogous to a Woodhouse category 1 PBS in a female newborn associated with an overlapping presentation of URSM.

  11. Chikungunya virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikungunya virus infection; Chikungunya ... Where Chikungunya is Found Before 2013, the virus was found in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Indian and Pacific oceans. In late 2013, outbreaks occurred for the first time in the ...

  12. Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... through blood transfusions. There have been outbreaks of Zika virus in the United States, Africa, Southeast Asia, the ... not travel to areas where there is a Zika virus outbreak. If you do decide to travel, first ...

  13. Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Funding CDC Activities For Healthcare Providers Clinical Evaluation & Disease Sexual Transmission HIV Infection & Zika Virus Testing for Zika Test Specimens – At Time of Birth Diagnostic Tests Understanding Zika Virus Test Results ...

  14. Biomass production and essential oil yield from leaves, fine stems and resprouts using pruning the crown of Aniba canelilla (H.B.K.) (Lauraceae) in the Central Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Manhães,Adriana Pellegrini; Veiga-Júnior,Valdir Florêncio da; Wiedemann,Larissa Silveira Moreira; Fernandes,Karenn Silveira; Sampaio,Paulo de Tarso Barbosa

    2012-01-01

    Aniba canelilla (H.B.K.) Mez. is a tree species from Amazon that produces essential oil. The oil extraction from its leaves and stems can be an alternative way to avoid the tree cutting for production of essential oil. The aim of this study was to analyse factors that may influence the essential oil production and the biomass of resprouts after pruning the leaves and stems of A. canelilla trees. The tree crowns were pruned in the wet season and after nine months the leaves and stems of the re...

  15. Clinical manifestations and management of prune-belly syndrome in a large contemporary pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Natan E; Arlen, Angela M; Smith, Edwin A; Kirsch, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    To review the clinical manifestations and operative management of a large contemporary pediatric cohort of patients with prune-belly syndrome (PBS). PBS patients aged <21 years followed up in our pediatric urology clinic were identified by the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code (756.71). Demographics, concomitant diagnoses, surgical history, imaging studies, and renal or bladder function were evaluated. Data were available for 46 pediatric patients (44 boys and 2 girls). Mean age was 7.6 ± 4.7 years (range, 0.9-20 years). Average length of clinical follow-up was 6.8 ± 5 years. Forty-five children (97.8%) had hydroureteronephrosis, and 36 of them (78.3%) had vesicoureteral reflux. Five patients (10.9%) had significant pulmonary insufficiency, and 2 patients (4.3%) were oxygen dependent. Eighteen children (39.1%) had other congenital malformations, including cardiac in 4 patients (8.7%) and musculoskeletal anomalies in 10 patients (21.7%). Orchidopexy was the most common surgery, with all boys aged ≥3 years having undergone the procedure. Twenty-two patients (47.8%) had a history of ureteral surgery, 22 (47.8%) had bladder surgery, 11 (23.9%) had renal surgery, and 6 (13%) had urethral procedures. Nineteen patients (41.3%) underwent abdominoplasty. Eighteen children (39.1%) had documented chronic kidney disease, and 8 children (17.4%) underwent renal transplantation. Average age at transplantation was 5.1 ± 2.9 years. The mean nadir creatinine level for patients with end-stage renal disease was 1.4 mg/dL compared with 0.4 mg/dL for those not requiring transplantation (P <.001). Children with PBS have significant comorbidities and require frequent operative intervention, with disease heterogeneity necessitating an individualized management approach. Early end-stage renal disease is prevalent, with approximately 15% of children requiring kidney transplantation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact and frequency of extra-genitourinary manifestations of prune belly syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsby, G M; Harrison, S M; Granberg, C F; Bernstein, I H; Baker, L A

    2015-10-01

    Prune belly syndrome (PBS) extra-genitourinary (extra-GU) manifestations are serious comorbidities beyond the genitourinary (GU) anomalies of this disease. We hypothesized an underestimation of the reported frequency and understated impact on quality of life (QOL) of extra-GU comorbidities in PBS survivors beyond the newborn period. To assess this, the frequencies of extra-GU manifestations of PBS in a contemporary cohort of living patients were compared to compiled frequencies from published literature. Second, the impact of extra-GU PBS manifestations on patient/family QOL was assessed via a non-validated open-ended survey. From 2010 to 2013, PBS survivors were prospectively recruited locally or at three PBS Network National Conventions. The family/subject was asked to complete a detailed PBS questionnaire, non-validated QOL survey, and provide medical records for review. Clinical data were extracted from medical records for local patients. The frequencies of extra-GU manifestations were compared between the contemporary, living cohort and a published literature cohort derived from PubMed. Seven of 706 published studies met criteria for frequencies tabulation of extra-GU PBS manifestations. This largest reported living PBS patient cohort (n = 65) was 99% male with mean age 10 years (1 month-45 years). The living PBS cohort had a statistically significantly higher incidence of gastrointestinal (63%), orthopedic (65%), and cardiopulmonary (49%) diagnoses compared to the compiled published cohort (n = 204). Eleven PBS males and 32 family members completed the QOL survey. Of these, 47% listed at least one non-GU problem (i.e. lung disease, skeletal problems, constipation) as negatively affecting their QOL; 42% listed at least one GU problem (i.e. self-catheterization, recurrent UTIs) as negatively affecting their QOL; 56% reported musculoskeletal surgery and 21% reported gastrointestinal surgery/medication as positively impacting their QOL. In this large contemporary

  17. Simultaneous detection of the three ilarviruses affecting stone fruit trees by nonisotopic molecular hybridization and multiplex reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saade, M; Aparicio, F; Sánchez-Navarro, J A; Herranz, M C; Myrta, A; Di Terlizzi, B; Pallás, V

    2000-12-01

    ABSTRACT The three most economically damaging ilarviruses affecting stone fruit trees on a worldwide scale are the related Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV), Prune dwarf virus (PDV), and Apple mosaic virus (ApMV). Nonisotopic molecular hybridization and multiplex reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) methodologies were developed that could detect all these viruses simultaneously. The latter technique was advantageous because it was discriminatory. For RT-PCR, a degenerate antisense primer was designed which was used in conjunction with three virus-specific sense primers. The amplification efficiencies for the detection of the three viruses in the multiplex RT-PCR reaction were identical to those obtained in the single RT-PCR reactions for individual viruses. This cocktail of primers was able to amplify sequences from all of the PNRSV, ApMV, and PDV isolates tested in five Prunus spp. hosts (almond, apricot, cherry, peach, and plum) occurring naturally in single or multiple infections. For ApMV isolates, differences in the electrophoretic mobilities of the PCR products were observed. The nucleotide sequence of the amplified products of two representative ApMV isolates was determined, and comparative analysis revealed the existence of a 28-nucleotide deletion in the sequence of isolates showing the faster electrophoretic mobility. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the simultaneous detection of three plant viruses by multiplex RT-PCR in woody hosts. This multiplex RT-PCR could be a useful time and cost saving method for indexing these three ilarviruses, which damage stone fruit tree yields, and for the analysis of mother plants in certification programs.

  18. R179H mutation in ACTA2 expanding the phenotype to include prune-belly sequence and skin manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richer, J; Milewicz, D M; Gow, R; de Nanassy, J; Maharajh, G; Miller, E; Oppenheimer, L; Weiler, G; O'Connor, M

    2012-03-01

    Mutations in ACTA2 (smooth muscle cell-specific isoform of α-actin) lead to a predisposition to thoracic aortic aneurysms and other vascular diseases. More recently, the ACTA2 R179H mutation has been described in individuals with global smooth muscle dysfunction. We report a patient heterozygous for the mutation in ACTA2 R179H who presented with megacystis at 13 weeks gestational age and, at birth, with prune-belly sequence. He also had deep skin dimples and creases on his palms and soles, a finding not previously described but possibly related to ACTA2. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the R179H mutation in ACTA2 in a child with prune-belly sequence. We think the R179H mutation in ACTA2 should be included in the differential diagnosis of individuals presenting with the sequence without an identified mechanical obstruction. Furthermore, as ACTA2 R179H has been reported in patients with severe vasculomyopathy and premature death, we recommend that molecular testing for this mutation be considered in fetuses presenting with fetal megacystis with a normal karyotype, particularly if the bladder diameter is 15 mm or more, to allow expectant parents to make an informed decision. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. A comparative ecophysiology of ecolly (vitis vinifera l.) under the traditional independent long-stem pruning and crawled cordon training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nan, L.; Zhao, X.; Liu, L.; Wang, H.; Li, H.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the ecophysiology character of Ecolly grape (Vitis vinifera L.) with the new technology-single crawled cordon training (SCCT) and traditional method-independent long-stem pruning (ILSP). The connections among net photosynthesis rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr), instantaneous water utilization efficiency (WUEi), stomatal conductance (Cs) and intercellular CO/sub 2/ concentration (Ci) were always mutual and inextricable in the trial. The leaves in every stage had the highest Pn respectively when growing under the light irradiance of the different period. The ILSP showed a lower total photosynthetic capacity than the SCCT. There was the total semblable Tr for two pruning plants, but lower Tr in ILSP at the every position of the prior stage and riping stage (PS and RS) excluding the growing stage (GS). The WUEi declined because of the net CO/sub 2/ assimilation saturated and the transpiration constantly fleetly increased before the photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) increased to 600 meu mol m/sup -2/ s/sup -1/. The increased WUEis from the first to the second stage deduced that stomatal closure at high irradiance reduced more Tr than Pn, while the values decreased again in the last stage indicated that stomatal opening at low irradiance added more Tr than Pn. These results suggested that it may be possible technology to change trellises in order to obtain better ecophysiology character in this study. The growth variability of vine may be affected by a particular training style. (author)

  20. The prune belly syndrome in a female foetus with urorectal septum malformation sequence: a case report on a rare entity with an unusual association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Dibyajyoti; Kusre, Giriraj; Dutta, Hemonta Kumar; Sarma, Adity

    2013-08-01

    The prune belly syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly which is characterized by the triad of an absent or a deficient development of the abdominal muscle, bilateral cryptorchidism and an anomalous urinary tract. In its full form, this condition occurs only in males. However, a similar condition occurs in females in the absence of cryptorchidism. On the other hand, the urorectal septum malformation sequence is a lethal congenital malformation which is characterized by the development of a phallus like structure, a smooth perineum and the absence of urethral, vaginal and anal openings. We are reporting a case of a female foetus with the prune belly syndrome, which was associated with a urorectal septum malformation sequence. A dead foetus with a protruded abdomen and ambiguous genitalia, was born at 32 weeks of pregnancy. On autopsy, it was found to have female internal genital organs. The left kidney, the urinary bladder and the rectum were absent. The sigmoid colon, the ureters and the fallopian tubes opened into a common cloacal sac. The histopathological examination of the ovary showed the presence of Leydig's cells. The occurrence of the female counterpart of the prune belly syndrome is extremely rare and only few of such cases were found to be discussed in the details in the indexed English literature so far. Hence, we hope that this case report will contribute to the existing knowledge on the prune belly syndrome.

  1. Formulation of an alginate-vineyard pruning waste composite as a new eco-friendly adsorbent to remove micronutrients from agroindustrial effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecino, X; Devesa-Rey, R; Moldes, A B; Cruz, J M

    2014-09-01

    The cellulosic fraction of vineyard pruning waste (free of hemicellulosic sugars) was entrapped in calcium alginate beads and evaluated as an eco-friendly adsorbent for the removal of different nutrients and micronutrients (Mg, P, Zn, K, N-NH4, SO4, TN, TC and PO4) from an agroindustrial effluent (winery wastewater). Batch adsorption studies were performed by varying the amounts of cellulosic adsorbent (0.5-2%), sodium alginate (1-5%) and calcium chloride (0.05-0.9M) included in the biocomposite. The optimal formulation of the adsorbent composite varied depending on the target contaminant. Thus, for the adsorption of cationic contaminants (Mg, Zn, K, N-NH4 and TN), the best mixture comprised 5% sodium alginate, 0.05M calcium chloride and 0.5% cellulosic vineyard pruning waste, whereas for removal of anionic compounds (P, SO4 and PO4), the optimal mixture comprised 1% sodium alginate, 0.9M calcium chloride and 0.5% cellulosic vineyard pruning waste. To remove TC from the winery wastewater, the optimal mixture comprised 3% of sodium alginate, 0.475M calcium chloride and 0.5% cellulosic vineyard pruning waste. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Enzymatic hydrolyses of pretreated eucalyptus residues, wheat straw or olive tree pruning, and their mixtures towards flexible sugar-based biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva-Fernandes, Talita; Marques, Susana; Rodrigues, Rita C. L. B.

    2016-01-01

    Eucalyptus residues, wheat straw, and olive tree pruning are lignocellulosic materials largely available in Southern Europe and have high potential to be used solely or in mixtures in sugar-based biorefineries for the production of biofuels and other bio-based products. Enzymatic hydrolysis...

  3. How young trees cope with removal of whole or parts of shoots: an analysis of local and distant responses to pruning in 1-year-old apple (Malus xdomestica; Rosaceae) trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumey, Damien; Lauri, Pierre-Éric; Guédon, Yann; Godin, Christophe; Costes, Evelyne

    2011-11-01

    Manipulation of tree architecture by pruning provides an experimental context to analyze architectural plasticity resulting from competition between developing organs. The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of the removal of all or part of shoots through pruning on the redistribution of growth and flowering at spatial and temporal levels. Two types of pruning cuts were applied: (1) heading cuts of either the main stem or laterals and (2) thinning cuts (i.e., complete removal) of laterals. These two types of cuts were applied in summer and winter on 1-yr-old cultivars of Fuji and Braeburn apple trees. Tree topology and geometry were described over 3 years, and responses were analyzed for both local and distant scales. Heading cuts induced quasi-deterministic local responses on pruned axes, whereas responses to thinning cuts were more variable. For the main stem and laterals, responses over greater spatial and temporal scales were highlighted with (1) stronger growth the year after summer pruning and (2) modification of branching and flowering along the unpruned parts after winter pruning. Pruning typically induced growth redistribution toward traumatic reiterations and enhanced growth of the remaining unpruned axes with a concomitant decrease of flowering and cambial growth. Although results could be interpreted in relation to the root-shoot balance, tree responses appeared highly cultivar-specific.

  4. The effects of planting methods and head pruning on seed yield and yield components of medicinal pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo subsp. Pepo convar. Pepo var. styriaca) at low temperature areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, R Nikkhah; Khodadadi, M; Pirivatlo, S Piry; Hassanpanah, D

    2009-03-15

    This experiment carried out to evaluate the effects of planting methods (seed sowing and transplanting) and head pruning (no pruning, pruning after 12th node and pruning after 16th node) on yield and yield components such as number of branches (sub-branches) per plant, fruits per plant, growth, fruit size, weight of fresh fruit, weight of seeds per fruit, number of seeds per fruit and seed yield of medicinal pumpkin. The experiment was carried out based of factorial experiment with Randomized Completely Blocks Design (RCBD) by three replications in Ardabil Agricultural and Natural Resources Researches Station at 2007. Seedlings were grown in heated greenhouse. When the climatic condition became suitable and seedlings were at the four leaves stage, both seeds and seedlings were planted at the same time in the farm. Maintenance operations were done during the growth season. Head pruning treatments were done the forecast time. The results showed that the planting methods had significant effect on the number of ripen fruits per plant, fruits diameter, weight of seeds per fruit, weight of 1000 seeds and seed yield and had no significant effect on the other traits. Also the results indicated that head pruning treatments had significant effects on the number of branches per plant, growth and seed yield and no significant on the other traits. In this experiment the most seed yield (997.8 kg ha(-1)) obtained from transplanting method with head pruning after 12th node and the least seed yield obtained from control.

  5. The Analysis of Alpha Beta Pruning and MTD(f) Algorithm to Determine the Best Algorithm to be Implemented at Connect Four Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommy, Lukas; Hardjianto, Mardi; Agani, Nazori

    2017-04-01

    Connect Four is a two-player game which the players take turns dropping discs into a grid to connect 4 of one’s own discs next to each other vertically, horizontally, or diagonally. At Connect Four, Computer requires artificial intelligence (AI) in order to play properly like human. There are many AI algorithms that can be implemented to Connect Four, but the suitable algorithms are unknown. The suitable algorithm means optimal in choosing move and its execution time is not slow at search depth which is deep enough. In this research, analysis and comparison between standard alpha beta (AB) Pruning and MTD(f) will be carried out at the prototype of Connect Four in terms of optimality (win percentage) and speed (execution time and the number of leaf nodes). Experiments are carried out by running computer versus computer mode with 12 different conditions, i.e. varied search depth (5 through 10) and who moves first. The percentage achieved by MTD(f) based on experiments is win 45,83%, lose 37,5% and draw 16,67%. In the experiments with search depth 8, MTD(f) execution time is 35, 19% faster and evaluate 56,27% fewer leaf nodes than AB Pruning. The results of this research are MTD(f) is as optimal as AB Pruning at Connect Four prototype, but MTD(f) on average is faster and evaluates fewer leaf nodes than AB Pruning. The execution time of MTD(f) is not slow and much faster than AB Pruning at search depth which is deep enough.

  6. Produção da amoreira-preta 'Tupy' sob diferentes épocas de poda Productive of 'Tupy' blackberry under different pruning time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Angelo Campagnolo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A amora-preta é uma opção importante para fruticultura paranaense, porém não há informações a respeito do cultivo dessa frutífera nas condições subtropicais do Estado. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da época de poda na produção da amoreira-preta 'Tupy'. O trabalho foi realizado em um pomar comercial, conduzido em sistema agroecológico. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com quatro blocos e seis tratamentos (podas quinzenais realizadas durante o inverno. Em cada parcela, constituída de três plantas úteis, foram coletados dados fenológicos, produtivos e físico-químicos no ciclo de produção 2008/09 e 2009/10. Podas efetuadas no início de julho são as mais indicadas e podas tardias podem prejudicar o desempenho produtivo das amoreiras-pretas 'Tupy' no oeste do Paraná.The blackberry is an important option to fruit growers in Paraná State. However, there aren't trials performed in subtropical area in that State. The objective of this research was to evaluate the pruning time effects at season production of 'Tupy' blackberry. The research was conducted in a commercial orchard, in an agroecological system. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four blocks and six treatments (pruning time by fifteen days during the winter pruning. In each plot, which was consisted of three plants, it was collected phenological, productive and physical-chemical production cycle in 2008/09 and 2009/10. Pruning made in early July are the most suitable and late pruning can harm the productive performance of blackberry 'Tupy' in western Paraná.

  7. Prenatal diagnosis of prune-belly syndrome at 13 weeks of gestation: case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papantoniou, Nikolaos; Papoutsis, Dimitrios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Chatzipapas, Ioannis; Sindos, Michael; Papaspyrou, Irini; Mesogitis, Spiridon; Antsaklis, Aris

    2010-10-01

    We present a case report of a foetus with Prune-Belly syndrome (PBS) which was diagnosed sonographically during the 13th week of gestation and review of the literature. Sonographic diagnosis was based on abnormally distended urinary bladder and abdomen and absence of 'keyhole sign'. Termination was performed on parental request and post-mortem examination revealed absence of abdominal wall musculature and the distended urinary bladder in a male foetus. Prenatal diagnosis of PBS is based on ultrasound and is usually diagnosed in the second trimester. In the first trimester there are very few reports to date. Prognosis and possible treatment options are herein discussed as well as the underlying mechanisms that may explain the clinical presentation of the syndrome.

  8. Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor M3 Mutation Causes Urinary Bladder Disease and a Prune-Belly-like Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Stefanie; Thiele, Holger; Mir, Sevgi; Toliat, Mohammad Reza; Sozeri, Betül; Reutter, Heiko; Draaken, Markus; Ludwig, Michael; Altmüller, Janine; Frommolt, Peter; Stuart, Helen M; Ranjzad, Parisa; Hanley, Neil A; Jennings, Rachel; Newman, William G; Wilcox, Duncan T; Thiel, Uwe; Schlingmann, Karl Peter; Beetz, Rolf; Hoyer, Peter F; Konrad, Martin; Schaefer, Franz; Nürnberg, Peter; Woolf, Adrian S

    2011-11-11

    Urinary bladder malformations associated with bladder outlet obstruction are a frequent cause of progressive renal failure in children. We here describe a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3 (CHRM3) (1q41-q44) homozygous frameshift mutation in familial congenital bladder malformation associated with a prune-belly-like syndrome, defining an isolated gene defect underlying this sometimes devastating disease. CHRM3 encodes the M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, which we show is present in developing renal epithelia and bladder muscle. These observations may imply that M3 has a role beyond its known contribution to detrusor contractions. This Mendelian disease caused by a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mutation strikingly phenocopies Chrm3 null mutant mice. Copyright © 2011 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Combined laparoscopic and open technique for repair of congenital abdominal hernia: A case report of prune belly syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qinghuang; Chen, Yan; Zhu, Jinhui; Wang, Yuedong

    2017-10-01

    Prune belly syndrome (PBS) is a rare congenital disorder among adults, and the way for repairing abdominal wall musculature has no unified standard. We described combining laparoscopic and open technique in an adult male who presented with PBS. Physical examination and radiological imaging verified the case of PBS. The deficiency of abdominal wall musculature was repaired by combining laparoscopic and open technique using a double-deck complex patch. The patient successfully underwent abdominal wall repair by combining laparoscopic and open technique. Postoperative recovery was uneventful, and improvement in symptom was significant in follow-up after 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. Combining laparoscopic and open technique for repair of deficiency of abdominal wall musculature in PBS was an exploratory way to improve life quality.

  10. Evolutionary pruning of transfer learned deep convolutional neural network for breast cancer diagnosis in digital breast tomosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samala, Ravi K; Chan, Heang-Ping; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M; Helvie, Mark A; Richter, Caleb; Cha, Kenny

    2018-05-01

    Deep learning models are highly parameterized, resulting in difficulty in inference and transfer learning for image recognition tasks. In this work, we propose a layered pathway evolution method to compress a deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) for classification of masses in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). The objective is to prune the number of tunable parameters while preserving the classification accuracy. In the first stage transfer learning, 19 632 augmented regions-of-interest (ROIs) from 2454 mass lesions on mammograms were used to train a pre-trained DCNN on ImageNet. In the second stage transfer learning, the DCNN was used as a feature extractor followed by feature selection and random forest classification. The pathway evolution was performed using genetic algorithm in an iterative approach with tournament selection driven by count-preserving crossover and mutation. The second stage was trained with 9120 DBT ROIs from 228 mass lesions using leave-one-case-out cross-validation. The DCNN was reduced by 87% in the number of neurons, 34% in the number of parameters, and 95% in the number of multiply-and-add operations required in the convolutional layers. The test AUC on 89 mass lesions from 94 independent DBT cases before and after pruning were 0.88 and 0.90, respectively, and the difference was not statistically significant (p  >  0.05). The proposed DCNN compression approach can reduce the number of required operations by 95% while maintaining the classification performance. The approach can be extended to other deep neural networks and imaging tasks where transfer learning is appropriate.

  11. Evolutionary pruning of transfer learned deep convolutional neural network for breast cancer diagnosis in digital breast tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samala, Ravi K.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Helvie, Mark A.; Richter, Caleb; Cha, Kenny

    2018-05-01

    Deep learning models are highly parameterized, resulting in difficulty in inference and transfer learning for image recognition tasks. In this work, we propose a layered pathway evolution method to compress a deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) for classification of masses in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). The objective is to prune the number of tunable parameters while preserving the classification accuracy. In the first stage transfer learning, 19 632 augmented regions-of-interest (ROIs) from 2454 mass lesions on mammograms were used to train a pre-trained DCNN on ImageNet. In the second stage transfer learning, the DCNN was used as a feature extractor followed by feature selection and random forest classification. The pathway evolution was performed using genetic algorithm in an iterative approach with tournament selection driven by count-preserving crossover and mutation. The second stage was trained with 9120 DBT ROIs from 228 mass lesions using leave-one-case-out cross-validation. The DCNN was reduced by 87% in the number of neurons, 34% in the number of parameters, and 95% in the number of multiply-and-add operations required in the convolutional layers. The test AUC on 89 mass lesions from 94 independent DBT cases before and after pruning were 0.88 and 0.90, respectively, and the difference was not statistically significant (p  >  0.05). The proposed DCNN compression approach can reduce the number of required operations by 95% while maintaining the classification performance. The approach can be extended to other deep neural networks and imaging tasks where transfer learning is appropriate.

  12. Phytophthora viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Guohong; Hillman, Bradley I

    2013-01-01

    Phytophthora sp. is a genus in the oomycetes, which are similar to filamentous fungi in morphology and habitat, but phylogenetically more closely related to brown algae and diatoms and fall in the kingdom Stramenopila. In the past few years, several viruses have been characterized in Phytophthora species, including four viruses from Phytophthora infestans, the late blight pathogen, and an endornavirus from an unnamed Phytophthora species from Douglas fir. Studies on Phytophthora viruses have revealed several interesting systems. Phytophthora infestans RNA virus 1 (PiRV-1) and PiRV-2 are likely the first members of two new virus families; studies on PiRV-3 support the establishment of a new virus genus that is not affiliated with established virus families; PiRV-4 is a member of Narnaviridae, most likely in the genus Narnavirus; and Phytophthora endornavirus 1 (PEV1) was the first nonplant endornavirus at the time of reporting. Viral capsids have not been found in any of the above-mentioned viruses. PiRV-1 demonstrated a unique genome organization that requires further examination, and PiRV-2 may have played a role in late blight resurgence in 1980s-1990s. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Schmallenberg Virus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    explore the potential of this infection crossing the species barrier and thereby .... The virus targets mainly the brain of the unborn animal resulting in neurological ... The virus is located in the blood of the adult infected animal or in the central ...

  14. Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Zika Virus Credit: NIAID A female Aedes mosquito. This type of mosquito can transmit Zika, ... transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Zika virus can be transmitted from an infected pregnant woman ...

  15. CHANDIPURA VIRUS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. CHANDIPURA VIRUS. First isolated from a village called Chandipura near Nagpur in 1965 in India. Belongs to rhabdoviridae family. Used as a Model System to study RNA virus multiplication in the infected cell at molecular level. Notes:

  16. The C terminus of the polerovirus p5 readthrough domain limits virus infection to the phloem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Kari A; Gildow, Frederick; Palukaitis, Peter; Gray, Stewart M

    2009-06-01

    Poleroviruses are restricted to vascular phloem tissues from which they are transmitted by their aphid vectors and are not transmissible mechanically. Phloem limitation has been attributed to the absence of virus proteins either facilitating movement or counteracting plant defense. The polerovirus capsid is composed of two forms of coat protein, the major P3 protein and the minor P3/P5 protein, a translational readthrough of P3. P3/P5 is required for insect transmission and acts in trans to facilitate long-distance virus movement in phloem tissue. Specific potato leafroll virus mutants lacking part or all of the P5 domain moved into and infected nonvascular mesophyll tissue when the source-sink relationship of the plant (Solanum sarrachoides) was altered by pruning, with the progeny virus now being transmissible mechanically. However, in a period of months, a phloem-specific distribution of the virus was reestablished in the absence of aphid transmission. Virus from the new phloem-limited infection showed compensatory mutations that would be expected to restore the production of full-length P3/P5 as well as the loss of mechanical transmissibility. The data support our hypothesis that phloem limitation in poleroviruses presumably does not result from a deficiency in the repertoire of virus genes but rather results from P3/P5 accumulation under selection in the infected plant, with the colateral effect of facilitating transmission by phloem-feeding aphid vectors.

  17. The C Terminus of the Polerovirus P5 Readthrough Domain Limits Virus Infection to the Phloem▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Kari A.; Gildow, Frederick; Palukaitis, Peter; Gray, Stewart M.

    2009-01-01

    Poleroviruses are restricted to vascular phloem tissues from which they are transmitted by their aphid vectors and are not transmissible mechanically. Phloem limitation has been attributed to the absence of virus proteins either facilitating movement or counteracting plant defense. The polerovirus capsid is composed of two forms of coat protein, the major P3 protein and the minor P3/P5 protein, a translational readthrough of P3. P3/P5 is required for insect transmission and acts in trans to facilitate long-distance virus movement in phloem tissue. Specific potato leafroll virus mutants lacking part or all of the P5 domain moved into and infected nonvascular mesophyll tissue when the source-sink relationship of the plant (Solanum sarrachoides) was altered by pruning, with the progeny virus now being transmissible mechanically. However, in a period of months, a phloem-specific distribution of the virus was reestablished in the absence of aphid transmission. Virus from the new phloem-limited infection showed compensatory mutations that would be expected to restore the production of full-length P3/P5 as well as the loss of mechanical transmissibility. The data support our hypothesis that phloem limitation in poleroviruses presumably does not result from a deficiency in the repertoire of virus genes but rather results from P3/P5 accumulation under selection in the infected plant, with the colateral effect of facilitating transmission by phloem-feeding aphid vectors. PMID:19297484

  18. Thehe Evaluation of Phytochemical Compounds of Fruits in some Plum and Prune Cultivars and Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zahra falati

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Plums (Prunus spp. as one of the most popular stone fruits, have low calories and high nutritional value. Over the past decades global production of European and Japanese plums reached from 6,110,870 tons in 1990 to 11,528,337 tons in 2013. In the same period plum production in Iran reached from 118,936 tons to 305,262 tons. Great variety of plum fruits caused differences in chemical composition as well. Plum fruits are rich in bioactive compounds or biochemicals such as vitamins (A, C and E, anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds which have high antioxidant activity. Materials and Methods: This research was done in a randomized complete block design with three replications in Horticultural Research Station at College of Agriculture and Natural Resources of Tehran University in 2013-2015. Fruit quality characteristics such as vitamin C content, color traits of the fruit skin and flesh, the content of carotenoids, anthocyanins, total phenolics and antioxidant capacity of 16 plum and prune cultivars and genotypes were evaluated. Results and Discussion: Analysis of variance showed significant differences in terms of all measured factors. The highest L* index (brightness of fruit skin was observed in 'Tanasgol" and "Compooti" and then in "Golden Drop" and "Shams" cultivars and the lowest level of that was measured in "Sugar" and "Gogeh Sabz" cultivars. "Black Star" and "Gogeh Germez" Showed the highest brightness of fruit flesh among examined cultivars and the lowest brightness of fruit flesh was investigated in "Sugar". A* color index of skin and flesh of fruit also showed significant differences among investigated cultivars and the highest level of that in "Ozarak" cultivar was observed. "Gogeh Sabz" and "Golden Drop" also had the lowest level of this index. "Gogeh Germez" had the highest of a*color index of fruit flesh and "Japanese" cultivar was in second place. The lowest level of this index was measured in "Ozarak" and "Shams

  19. Generic Amplicon Deep Sequencing to Determine Ilarvirus Species Diversity in Australian Prunus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoti, Wycliff M; Constable, Fiona E; Nancarrow, Narelle; Plummer, Kim M; Rodoni, Brendan

    2017-01-01

    The distribution of Ilarvirus species populations amongst 61 Australian Prunus trees was determined by next generation sequencing (NGS) of amplicons generated using a genus-based generic RT-PCR targeting a conserved region of the Ilarvirus RNA2 component that encodes the RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene. Presence of Ilarvirus sequences in each positive sample was further validated by Sanger sequencing of cloned amplicons of regions of each of RNA1, RNA2 and/or RNA3 that were generated by species specific PCRs and by metagenomic NGS. Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) was the most frequently detected Ilarvirus , occurring in 48 of the 61 Ilarvirus -positive trees and Prune dwarf virus (PDV) and Apple mosaic virus (ApMV) were detected in three trees and one tree, respectively. American plum line pattern virus (APLPV) was detected in three trees and represents the first report of APLPV detection in Australia. Two novel and distinct groups of Ilarvirus -like RNA2 amplicon sequences were also identified in several trees by the generic amplicon NGS approach. The high read depth from the amplicon NGS of the generic PCR products allowed the detection of distinct RNA2 RdRp sequence variant populations of PNRSV, PDV, ApMV, APLPV and the two novel Ilarvirus -like sequences. Mixed infections of ilarviruses were also detected in seven Prunus trees. Sanger sequencing of specific RNA1, RNA2, and/or RNA3 genome segments of each virus and total nucleic acid metagenomics NGS confirmed the presence of PNRSV, PDV, ApMV and APLPV detected by RNA2 generic amplicon NGS. However, the two novel groups of Ilarvirus -like RNA2 amplicon sequences detected by the generic amplicon NGS could not be associated to the presence of sequence from RNA1 or RNA3 genome segments or full Ilarvirus genomes, and their origin is unclear. This work highlights the sensitivity of genus-specific amplicon NGS in detection of virus sequences and their distinct populations in multiple samples, and the

  20. Generic Amplicon Deep Sequencing to Determine Ilarvirus Species Diversity in Australian Prunus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wycliff M. Kinoti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of Ilarvirus species populations amongst 61 Australian Prunus trees was determined by next generation sequencing (NGS of amplicons generated using a genus-based generic RT-PCR targeting a conserved region of the Ilarvirus RNA2 component that encodes the RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp gene. Presence of Ilarvirus sequences in each positive sample was further validated by Sanger sequencing of cloned amplicons of regions of each of RNA1, RNA2 and/or RNA3 that were generated by species specific PCRs and by metagenomic NGS. Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV was the most frequently detected Ilarvirus, occurring in 48 of the 61 Ilarvirus-positive trees and Prune dwarf virus (PDV and Apple mosaic virus (ApMV were detected in three trees and one tree, respectively. American plum line pattern virus (APLPV was detected in three trees and represents the first report of APLPV detection in Australia. Two novel and distinct groups of Ilarvirus-like RNA2 amplicon sequences were also identified in several trees by the generic amplicon NGS approach. The high read depth from the amplicon NGS of the generic PCR products allowed the detection of distinct RNA2 RdRp sequence variant populations of PNRSV, PDV, ApMV, APLPV and the two novel Ilarvirus-like sequences. Mixed infections of ilarviruses were also detected in seven Prunus trees. Sanger sequencing of specific RNA1, RNA2, and/or RNA3 genome segments of each virus and total nucleic acid metagenomics NGS confirmed the presence of PNRSV, PDV, ApMV and APLPV detected by RNA2 generic amplicon NGS. However, the two novel groups of Ilarvirus-like RNA2 amplicon sequences detected by the generic amplicon NGS could not be associated to the presence of sequence from RNA1 or RNA3 genome segments or full Ilarvirus genomes, and their origin is unclear. This work highlights the sensitivity of genus-specific amplicon NGS in detection of virus sequences and their distinct populations in multiple samples

  1. Putative recombination events and evolutionary history of five economically important viruses of fruit trees based on coat protein-encoding gene sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulila, Moncef

    2010-06-01

    To enhance the knowledge of recombination as an evolutionary process, 267 accessions retrieved from GenBank were investigated, all belonging to five economically important viruses infecting fruit crops (Plum pox, Apple chlorotic leaf spot, Apple mosaic, Prune dwarf, and Prunus necrotic ringspot viruses). Putative recombinational events were detected in the coat protein (CP)-encoding gene using RECCO and RDP version 3.31beta algorithms. Based on RECCO results, all five viruses were shown to contain potential recombination signals in the CP gene. Reconstructed trees with modified topologies were proposed. Furthermore, RECCO performed better than the RDP package in detecting recombination events and exhibiting their evolution rate along the sequences of the five viruses. RDP, however, provided the possible major and minor parents of the recombinants. Thus, the two methods should be considered complementary.

  2. Ganjam virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudeep, A B; Jadi, R S; Mishra, A C

    2009-11-01

    Ganjam virus (GANV), a member of genus Nairovirus of family Bunyavirdae is of considerable veterinary importance in India. Though, predominantly tick borne, GANV was also isolated from mosquitoes, man and sheep. Neutralizing and complement fixing antibodies to GANV have been detected in animal and human sera collected from different parts of the country. Thirty three strains of GANV have been isolated from India, mainly from Haemaphysalis ticks. The virus replicated in certain vertebrate and mosquito cell lines and found pathogenic to laboratory animals. One natural infection and five laboratory-acquired infections in men were also reported. GANV is antigenically related to Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) of Africa, which is highly pathogenic for sheep and goats causing 70-90 per cent mortality among the susceptible population. Recent molecular studies have demonstrated that GANV is an Asian variant of NSDV and both these viruses are related to the dreaded Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) group viruses. The versatility of the virus to replicate in different arthropod species, its ability to infect sheep, goat and man makes it an important zoonotic agent.

  3. Powassan (POW) Virus Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Professionals Related Topics For International Travelers Powassan Virus Disease Basics Download this fact sheet formatted for ... Virus Disease Fact Sheet (PDF) What is Powassan virus? Powassan virus is a tickborne flavivirus that is ...

  4. Frequência e intensidade de poda em pomar jovem de laranjeiras 'Valência' sob manejo orgânico Frequency and intensity of pruning young 'Valencia' orange trees in orchards under organic culture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Santarosa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito da frequência e intensidade de poda sobre a produção e qualidade dos frutos da laranjeira 'Valência', enxertada sobre Poncirus trifoliata, em pomar jovem, sob sistema de manejo orgânico. O plantio foi realizado em agosto de 2001, em espaçamento de 5,0x2,5m, em Montenegro, Rio Grande do Sul (RS. Os tratamentos testados foram: A - Testemunha (sem poda; B - Poda anual de 15%; C - Poda bienal de 15%; D - Poda bienal de 30%; e E - Poda trienal de 30% do volume da copa. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, sendo quatro repetições e quatro plantas por parcela. Nas safras de 2006, 2007 e 2008, foram avaliados: número, massa total de frutos e massa média dos frutos, teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez total titulável (ATT e relação SST/AT do suco dos frutos. Em pomares jovens, com menos de sete anos de idade, durante três safras consecutivas, verificou-se que as podas de frutificação não alteram a produção acumulada, nem a qualidade físico-química dos frutos, mas reduzem a produção no ano subsequente à execução da poda.This study evaluated the influence of frequency and intensity of pruning on young orchards, with organic management system, on the yield and fruit quality of 'Valencia' oranges. The trees were budded on Poncirus trifoliata rootstock and implanted in August, 2001, in Montenegro-RS. The pruning tested was: A - control, without pruning; B - annual pruning of 15%; C - biennial pruning of 15%; D - biennial pruning of 30% and E - three-year 30% pruning of the canopy volume. The experiment had a randomized complete-block design, with four-trees plots and four replications. The total fruit mass production was registered and the average weight fruit in the crops 2006, 2007 and 2008 was determined. The fruit quality, total soluble solids (TSS, total acids concentration (TTA and ratio (TSS/TTA were assessed. In orchards with fewer than seven years old

  5. Épocas e intensidades de poda de frutificação na goiabeira ' Paluma' , em Pinheiros-ES Effect of pruning time and intensity on ' Paluma' guava trees, in Pinheiros, ES, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Lopes Serrano

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos de diferentes intensidades de poda de frutificação realizadas em diferentes épocas do ano sobre a fenologia e a produção da goiabeira 'Paluma', em Pinheiros-ES. As plantas foram submetidas a três intensidades de poda de frutificação (curta, média e longa, em quatro diferentes épocas (25-11-2005, 21-12-2005, 27-01-2006 e 23-02-2006. O ciclo da goiabeira 'Paluma', entre a poda até o início da colheita dos frutos, variou de 189 dias (podas em novembro e dezembro a 203 dias (poda em fevereiro. Independentemente da época de poda, as plantas submetidas à poda longa apresentaram maior emissão de brotos novos e maior número de ramos estabelecidos. As plantas submetidas à poda curta apresentaram menores números de brotos emitidos e de ramos estabelecidos, bem como menor índice de pegamento de frutos, menor número de frutos por planta e, conseqüentemente, menor produção; entretanto produziram frutos de maior peso médio em relação às plantas submetidas à poda longa. A maior produção e o maior número de frutos colhidos por planta ocorreram nas plantas podadas em fevereiro. A época e a intensidade da poda de frutificação afetam a brotação e a produção da goiabeira 'Paluma'.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of different pruning times and intensities on the phenology and yield of 'Paluma' guava trees, in Pinheiros, Espírito Santo State, Brazil. The plants were submitted to three pruning intensities (heavy, medium and light, in four dates (November 25, 2005; December 21, 2005; January 27, 2006 and February 23, 2006. The period between pruning and the beginning of fruit ripening varied from 189 (pruning in November and December to 203 days (pruning in February. Regardless of pruning time, the larger numbers of buds and established branches occurred in plants submitted to light pruning. Plants submitted to heavy pruning produced the smallest numbers of

  6. Hydrothermal Carbonization of Municipal Woody and Herbaceous Prunings: Hydrochar Valorisation as Soil Amendment and Growth Medium for Horticulture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Puccini

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate the suitability of hydrochar, produced at industrial scale by hydrothermal carbonization of municipal woody and herbaceous prunings, to be used as soil amendment and peat substitute in organic growth medium for horticulture. Fresh hydrochar and the products of two different hydrochar post-treatments (i.e., washing and aging were compared in terms of potential phytotoxicity throughout physicochemical characterization and germination tests, performed with a sensitive species (Lactuca sativa. The results showed that the fresh hydrochar obtained from municipal green wastes complies with the Italian regulated parameters for the use as soil amendment. Moreover, hydrochar exhibits biological activity and a high content in organic C, Ca, and other micronutrients (Mg, Zn, Cu, Na, Cl. On the other hand, post-treatments are needed before application of hydrochar as peat substitute in potting mix, since appreciable phytotoxic effects on lettuce seed germination and radicle length of plantlets were observed (e.g., germination percentage of 56% and 54%, with 5 and 10 wt % of hydrochar in the blend, respectively. The inhibition of germination could be mainly attributed to the presence of polyphenols (tannins and volatile fatty acids, which were most effectively removed through the aging post-treatment.

  7. Steam explosion treatment for ethanol production from branches pruned from pear trees by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Chizuru; Okumura, Ryosuke; Asada, Chikako; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the production of ethanol from unutilized branches pruned from pear trees by steam explosion pretreatment. Steam pressures of 25, 35, and 45 atm were applied for 5 min, followed by enzymatic saccharification of the extracted residues with cellulase (Cellic CTec2). High glucose recoveries, of 93.3, 99.7, and 87.1%, of the total sugar derived from the cellulose were obtained from water- and methanol-extracted residues after steam explosion at 25, 35, and 45 tm, respectively. These values corresponded to 34.9, 34.3, and 27.1 g of glucose per 100 g of dry steam-exploded branches. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation experiments were done on water-extracted residues and water- and methanol-extracted residues by Kluyveromyces marxianus NBRC 1777. An overall highest theoretical ethanol yield of 76% of the total sugar derived from cellulose was achieved when 100 g/L of water- and methanol-washed residues from 35 atm-exploded pear branches was used as substrate.

  8. Ethanol and xylitol production by fermentation of acid hydrolysate from olive pruning with Candida tropicalis NBRC 0618.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Soledad; Puentes, Juan G; Moya, Alberto J; Sánchez, Sebastián

    2015-08-01

    Olive tree pruning biomass has been pretreated with pressurized steam, hydrolysed with hydrochloric acid, conditioned and afterwards fermented using the non-traditional yeast Candida tropicalis NBRC 0618. The main aim of this study was to analyse the influence of acid concentration on the hydrolysis process and its effect on the subsequent fermentation to produce ethanol and xylitol. From the results, it could be deduced that both total sugars and d-glucose recovery were enhanced by increasing the acid concentration tested; almost the whole hemicellulose fraction was hydrolysed when 3.77% was used. It has been observed a sequential production first of ethanol, from d-glucose, and then xylitol from d-xylose. The overall ethanol and xylitol yields ranged from 0.27 to 0.38kgkg(-1), and 0.12 to 0.23kgkg(-1) respectively, reaching the highest values in the fermentation of the hydrolysates obtained with hydrochloric acid 2.61% and 1.11%, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Time series modeling with pruned multi-layer perceptron and 2-stage damped least-squares method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voyant, Cyril; Tamas, Wani; Paoli, Christophe; Balu, Aurélia; Muselli, Marc; Nivet, Marie-Laure; Notton, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    A Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) defines a family of artificial neural networks often used in TS modeling and forecasting. Because of its ''black box'' aspect, many researchers refuse to use it. Moreover, the optimization (often based on the exhaustive approach where ''all'' configurations are tested) and learning phases of this artificial intelligence tool (often based on the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm; LMA) are weaknesses of this approach (exhaustively and local minima). These two tasks must be repeated depending on the knowledge of each new problem studied, making the process, long, laborious and not systematically robust. In this paper a pruning process is proposed. This method allows, during the training phase, to carry out an inputs selecting method activating (or not) inter-nodes connections in order to verify if forecasting is improved. We propose to use iteratively the popular damped least-squares method to activate inputs and neurons. A first pass is applied to 10% of the learning sample to determine weights significantly different from 0 and delete other. Then a classical batch process based on LMA is used with the new MLP. The validation is done using 25 measured meteorological TS and cross-comparing the prediction results of the classical LMA and the 2-stage LMA

  10. Influence of process parameters and biomass characteristics on the durability of pellets from the pruning residues of Olea europaea L.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carone, Maria Teresa; Pantaleo, Antonio; Pellerano, Achille [Department of Engineering and Management of the Agricultural, Livestock and Forest Systems, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Bari, Via Amendola, 165/A, 70126 Bari (Italy)

    2011-01-15

    The present work aims to investigate the influence of the main process parameters (pressure and temperature) and biomass characteristics (moisture content and particle size) on some mechanical properties (density and durability) of olive tree pruning residues pellets. By means of a lab scale pellet press, able to control process parameters, the biomass, ground with three different hammer mill screen sizes (1, 2 and 4 mm) and conditioned at different moisture contents (5, 10, 15 and 20% w.b.), was pelletized at various process temperatures (60, 90, 120 and 150 C) and pressures (71, 106, 141 and 176 MPa). Compressed sample dimensions and mass were measured in order to calculate pellet density, while compressive strength tests were carried out to estimate the durability of the final biofuel. The relationships between the factor settings and the responses (density, compression strength and modulus of elasticity) were examined by univariate and multivariate statistical analysis. Temperature resulted the most important variable influencing pellet mechanical properties, followed by the initial moisture content and the particle size of the raw material. In particular, high process temperature, low moisture contents and reduced particle sizes allowed obtaining good quality pellets. The effect of compression force resulted scarcely relevant. (author)

  11. Época de poda da figueira cultivada no estado de São Paulo Pruning time for fig trees in the state of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Rigitano

    1963-01-01

    Full Text Available No Estado de São Paulo as figueiras (Ficus carica L. são anualmente submetidas a um tipo de poda hibernal que consiste na eliminação quase total da copa formada na estação anterior. Com a finalidade de estudar o comportamento de figueiras podadas em diferentes épocas durante o inverno, foi iniciado em 1960, em Campinas, um experimento com cinco épocas de poda no período de 1.° de maio a 1.° de setembro. São apresentados os dados de produção, por tratamento obtidos em 1962 e 1963, relativos ao número e ao pêso de figos, assim como os pesos médios de uma fruta. Os dados de 1963, revelaram diferenças significativas e permitiram várias conclusões. A poda feita em 1.° de agôsto ofereceu os melhores resultados, embora sem diferir significativamente daquela executada em 1.° de julho. Como era esperado, as podas levadas a efeito nas épocas extremas, isto é, em princípios de maio e de setembro, resultaram nas produções mais baixas. Observou-se tendência da obtenção de colheitas mais precoces e figos mais pesados nos tratamentos mais produtivos.With a view to compare the effects on fruit bearing, pruning of fig trees was carried out in Campinas, State of São Paulo, during the dormant season of the plant, at 5 different dates, namely on the 1st day of each of the months of May, June, July, August and September. Pruning was started as soon as the plants became more or less dormant in the fall and was continued until vegetation again appeared at the end of winter. The pruning operation took place for two following years and at the dates mentioned all the new branches were cut back to short stubs. The experimental plot consisted of 30 trees of the variety "Roxo de Valinhos" (San Piero spread apart 7 by 13 feet and was laid out in randomized blocks with 3 replications. The results of this trial can be summarized as follows: a Trees pruned on August 1st gave the highest yield followed by those pruned on July 1st. While the

  12. Teores de carboidratos em pessegueiros submetidos a diferentes intensidades de poda verde em clima tropical Levels of carbohydrates in peaches submitted to different intensity of green pruning in tropical climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rehder da Cunha Borba

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar a partição de assimilados entre a copa e raízes de pessegueiro, duas intensidades de poda verde, após a colheita dos frutos, foram efetuadas em pessegueiros 'Ouromel-2', na região de Piracicaba-SP: poda leve e poda de renovação (poda drástica. Os teores de carboidratos nas raízes e parte aérea foram determinados em vários estágios fenológicos da planta ao longo do ciclo. Verificou-se que existe uma fase de consumo de carboidratos, que vai deste a poda de dormência (poda seca até a maturação dos frutos e uma fase de acúmulo, que vai desde a maturação dos frutos até a queda das folhas. Plantas que sofreram poda leve apresentaram, de maneira geral, maiores teores de carboidratos ao longo do ciclo do que plantas que sofreram poda de renovação, apresentando, assim, maior potencial de produção.With the objective to verify the photosynthate partitioning in roots and canopy of peache trees, two intensity of green pruning: light pruning and renovation pruning (heavy pruning. After fruit harvest were evaluated in 'Ouromel-2' peach in Piracicaba-SP. The carbohydrates levels of roots and canopy were evaluated in several phonological stages of the tree during the crop cycle. It was verified that there is a phase of consumption of carbohydrates, from dormant pruning to the ripening of fruits, and a phase of accumulation of carbohydrates, from the ripening of fruits to the falling of the leaves. In general, plants lightly pruned showed higher levels of carbohydrates during the crop cycle if compared to heavily pruned plants, showing then, higher potential of production.

  13. Ebola Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusha Rangare Lakshman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The disease Ebola takes its name from the Ebola River situated near a village in the Democratic Republic of Congo, where the disease first appeared in 1976. It is caused by a virus from the Filoviridae family (filovirus. The present outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD concerns four countries in West Africa, namely Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Nigeria till date. Further to widespread transmission of the disease, it has been declared as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the World Health Organisation on 8 August 2014. As of 4 August 2014, countries have reported 1,711 cases (1,070 confirmed, 436 probable, 205 suspect, including 932 deaths. This review paper enlightens about the awareness of Ebola virus and its preventive measures. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(3.000: 296-305

  14. SARS virus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... consequence.Protein spike similar. HE gene absent. 2787 nucleotides. Largest genome. Jumps species by genetic deletion. < 300 compounds screened. Glycyrrhizin (liquorics/mullatha) seems attractive. Antivirals not effective. Vaccines – animal model only in monkeys. Killed corona or knockout weakened virus as targets.

  15. Outcomes of renal replacement therapy in boys with prune belly syndrome: findings from the ESPN/ERA-EDTA Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcinkaya, Fatos; Bonthuis, Marjolein; Erdogan, Beyza Doganay; van Stralen, Karlijn J; Baiko, Sergey; Chehade, Hassib; Maxwell, Heather; Montini, Giovanni; Rönnholm, Kai; Sørensen, Søren Schwartz; Ulinski, Tim; Verrina, Enrico; Weber, Stefanie; Harambat, Jérôme; Schaefer, Franz; Jager, Kitty J; Groothoff, Jaap W

    2018-01-01

    As outcome data for prune belly syndrome (PBS) complicated by end-stage renal disease are scarce, we analyzed characteristics and outcomes of children with PBS using the European Society for Pediatric Nephrology/European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association (ESPN/ERA-EDTA) Registry data. Data were available for 88 male PBS patients aged <20 years who started renal replacement therapy (RRT) between 1990 and 2013 in 35 European countries. Patient characteristics, survival, and transplantation outcomes were compared with those of male patients requiring RRT due to congenital obstructive uropathy (COU) and renal hypoplasia or dysplasia (RHD). Median age at onset of RRT in PBS was lower [7.0; interquartile range (IQR) 0.9-12.2 years] than in COU (9.6; IQR: 3.0-14.1 years) and RHD (9.4; IQR: 2.7-14.2 years). Unadjusted 10-year patient survival was 85% for PBS, 94% for COU, and 91% for RHD. After adjustment for country, period, and age, PBS mortality was similar to that of RHD but higher compared with COU [hazard ratio (HR) 1.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-3.74]. Seventy-four PBS patients (84%) received a first kidney transplant after a median time on dialysis of 8.4 (IQR 0.0-21.1) months. Outcomes with respect to time on dialysis before transplantation, chance of receiving a first transplant within 2 years after commencing RRT, and death-censored, adjusted risk of graft loss were similar for all groups. This study in the largest cohort of male patients with PBS receiving RRT to date demonstrates that outcomes are comparable with other congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract, except for a slightly higher mortality risk compared with patients with COU.

  16. Poda e sistemas de condução na produção de figos verdes Pruning and conduction system in the yield of green fig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Alvarenga Gonçalves

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito da época de poda e de sistemas de condução sobre crescimento, produção e qualidade de frutos da figueira cultivada na região norte mineira, sob irrigação. O delineamento utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, e os tratamentos arranjados em esquema fatorial 4x2, tomando por fatores épocas de poda (junho, setembro, dezembro e março e sistemas de condução (com desponte e sem desponte. Em cada parcela, constituída de três plantas úteis, foram coletados dados nos ciclos de produção 2000/2001 e 2001/2002. Não houve interação entre os fatores época de poda e sistema de condução. Houve diferenças de produção entre épocas de poda; plantas podadas em março e junho apresentaram maiores produções. Não houve diferença de produção entre os dois sistemas de condução. Diferentes épocas de poda e sistemas de condução não influíram na qualidade dos frutos em relação a teores de sólidos solúveis totais, pH, acidez total titulável, açúcares totais, glucose, sacarose e amido. A poda da figueira em diferentes épocas do ano pode propiciar produção na entressafra da cultura no norte de Minas Gerais, sem alterar a qualidade dos frutos verdes com padrão para a indústria.The objective of the work was to verify the effect of pruning time and conduction system on growth, yield, and quality of the fig tree fruit grown in the northern Minas Gerais region, under irrigation. The design utilized was randomized blocks with four replicates, and the treatments arranged in a 4x2 factorial scheme, taking as factors pruning times (June, September, December and March and conduction system (with lopping and without lopping. In each plot, made up of three useful plants, data concerning the cropping cycles of 2000/2001 and 2001/2002 were collected. No interaction between the factors pruning time and conduction system was verified. There were yield differences between

  17. The use of pruned chipped branches to increase the soil infiltration capacity and reduce the soil losses on citrus orchards in Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pelayo, Óscar; Llovet, Joan; Giménez-Morera, Antonio; Jordán, Antonio; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; García-Orenes, Fuensanta; Cerdà, Artemi

    2015-04-01

    Soil water erosion is causing problems on the agriculture land of the world. The high erosion rates registered in the agriculture land are due to the lack of a vegetation cover that protects the soil. High erosion rates in agriculture lands are found in Africa, Europe, Asia, and any other continent. Soil erosion on citrus orchards has been researched recently and shown huge erosion rates in the Mediterranean and in China. All this research findings allow us to confirm that the soil erosion rates on citrus orchards are not sustainable and strategies to control the soil erosion should be applied. The increasing erosion rates are due to the bare soils, but also are due to the soil structure degradation and soil organic matter exhaustion. Some authors applied cover on crops to avoid the raindrop impact and the surfaces wash but there is a need to develop new strategies to reduce soil losses and keep sustainable the citrus productions. The agriculture production also results in a large amount of residues than can be a resource to improve the soil cover. This has been done in road embankments, in forest land affected by wildfires and on afforestation. As a consequence of the mechanization of the agriculture, and the reduction of the draft animals (mainly horses, mules, donkeys and oxen), the straw and the pruned branches are being a residue instead of a resource in many developed countries. Straw was used as a forage and the pruned branches as a source of heat and energy but both can be used as a mulch to control the soil erosion. The pruned branches can contribute with a valuable source of nutrients and a good soil protection. The leaves of the trees, and some parts of the plants, once harvest can contribute to reduce the soil losses. Our goal is to test if a residue such as the chipped pruned branches can be transformed as a resource that will help to control the soil erosion rates. Straw has been seen as a very efficient to reduce the water losses in agriculture land

  18. Apex pruning in pumpkin for fruit and seed production=Poda apical para produção de frutos e sementes de abóbora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Toledo Rodrigues Claudio

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The tip pruning stimulates the emission of lateral shoots, thus can produce higher number of flowers, fruits and seeds. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of apex pruning on fruit and seed production in pumpkin. The treatments consisted of plants without pruning, with pruning in the sixth, eighth and tenth node of main stem. The experimental design was a randomized block, with six replications. It was studied a line of pumpkin of the Germplasm Bank of the Universidade Estadual Paulista/Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas. The characteristics evaluated were: number of branches per plant and fruit position in branches of the plant production (number and weight of fruits per plant, fruit yield, fruit average weight, fruit length and diameter, seed weight per fruit, seed yield and quality (germination test, first count, thousand seed weight, emergence, speed of emergence and accelerated aging. There was a significant difference only for number of secondary branches per plant and thousand seed weight, with larger values for plants that have not been pruned. It was obtained high average of germination (94% and good fruit (16.9 t ha-1 and seed (148 kg ha-1 yield. The apex pruning does not influence the production of fruits and seeds, as well as the physiological seed quality in pumpkin =A poda apical estimula a emissão de brotos laterais, com isso pode haver maior formação de flores e frutos e, consequentemente, maior número de sementes. Diante disso, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da poda da haste principal para a produção de frutos e sementes de abóbora. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de plantas sem poda, com poda no sexto, oitavo e décimo nó da haste principal. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com seis repetições. Foi utilizada a linhagem de abóbora do tipo braquítica do Banco de Germoplasma da Universidade Estadual Paulista/Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas. Foram avaliadas as seguintes caracter

  19. Prune-belly syndrome: case series and review of the literature regarding early prenatal diagnosis, epidemiology, genetic factors, treatment, and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonni, Gabriele; Ida, Vito; Alessandro, Ventura; Bonasoni, Maria Paola

    2013-02-01

    Prune-belly syndrome (PBS) is a rare congenital syndrome characterized by deficient abdominal muscles, urinary tract malformation, and in males, cryptorchidism and has an estimated incidence of 1 in 35,000 to 1 in 50,000 live births. The syndrome might be due to severe bladder outlet obstruction or to abdominal muscle deficiency secondary to a migrational defect of the lateral mesoblast between weeks 6 and 7 of pregnancy. The current review of the medical record reports a special focus on epidemiology, genetic factors, early prenatal diagnosis clusters, treatment, and prognosis of PBS.

  20. Eficiência da poda em cafeeiros no controle da Xylella fastidiosa Prune efficiency in the control of Xylella fastidiosa in coffee trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Benetti Queiroz-Voltan

    2006-01-01

    management procedures have attenuated the disease incidence, such as the use of bacteria-free seedlings and insect vector control. Pruning is an important practice for optimization of coffee orchard production. Coffee growers refer to pruning as training; coffee tree training depends on the coffee plant type and environment, using traditional or drastic trimming. This research aimed at evaluating the efficiency of different prune procedures in the control of X. fastidiosa incidence in coffee commercial cultivars Acaiá IAC 474-19 and Catuaí Vermelho IAC 81. Eight plants of each cultivar were submitted to three pruning types (traditional, "skeleton cut" and trunking; and eight plants were not pruned (controls. Prior to pruning, five plant branches were collected for anatomical studies. Thereafter, five other branches from all treatments were collected in October/2004 (rainy period and June/2005 (dry period for the anatomical studies. No significant differences were observed for `Acaiá IAC 474-19' that presented lower proportion of xylem vessel obstruction independent of the prune treatment. Prune treatments in `Catuaí Vermelho IAC 81' were also not significantly different; however, plants submitted to dramatic trimmings such as the "skeleton cut" and trunking showed a trend for lower proportion of xylem vessel obstruction by the bacteria, in both rainy and dry periods. It was suggested that the drastic pruning procedures ("skeleton cut" and trunking might be advantageous for the Xyllela control in situations of high disease incidence.

  1. Effects of late winter pruning at different phenological stages on vine yield components and berry composition in La Rioja, North-central Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zheng

    2017-11-01

    Significance and impact of the study: The outcomes of this research open a door for the winegrowers to realize the yield control in a simple way. Also, for those who only pursue wines of top quality (regardless of production, a very late winter pruning might provide them with high-quality grapes. Moreover, as can be seen obviously from our results, viticulturists could postpone the budburst date to whatever extent they wish thus reducing the risk of spring frost injury to zero, though this point is not our focus in the study.

  2. Influenza (Flu) Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Influenza (Flu) Viruses Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook ... influenza circulate and cause illness. More Information about Flu Viruses Types of Influenza Viruses Influenza A and ...

  3. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your ...

  4. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and ... Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus ...

  5. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus ...

  6. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus ...

  7. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and Pregnancy Page ... Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus if you ...

  8. Computer Viruses: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmion, Dan

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the early history and current proliferation of computer viruses that occur on Macintosh and DOS personal computers, mentions virus detection programs, and offers suggestions for how libraries can protect themselves and their users from damage by computer viruses. (LRW)

  9. Dengue virus receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Hidari, Kazuya I.P.J.; Suzuki, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Dengue virus is an arthropod-borne virus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Dengue virus causes fever and hemorrhagic disorders in humans and non-human primates. Direct interaction of the virus introduced by a mosquito bite with host receptor molecule(s) is crucial for virus propagation and the pathological progression of dengue diseases. Therefore, elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction between dengue virus and its receptor(s) in both humans and mosquitoes is essent...

  10. Computer Virus and Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Tutut Handayani; Soenarto Usna,Drs.MMSI

    2004-01-01

    Since its appearance the first time in the mid-1980s, computer virus has invited various controversies that still lasts to this day. Along with the development of computer systems technology, viruses komputerpun find new ways to spread itself through a variety of existing communications media. This paper discusses about some things related to computer viruses, namely: the definition and history of computer viruses; the basics of computer viruses; state of computer viruses at this time; and ...

  11. Abdominoplasty in prune belly syndrome: Modifications in Monfort technique to address variable patterns of abdominal wall weakness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Edwin A; Srinivasan, Arun; Scherz, Hal C; Tracey, Anthony J; Broecker, Bruce; Kirsch, Andrew J

    2017-10-01

    Abdominoplasty is an important component of the management of children with prune belly syndrome (PBS). While there are features of the abdominal defect in PBS which are common to all patients, there will be differences unique to each patient that should be taken into consideration in surgical planning. Specifically, we have come to realize that although the Monfort procedure assumes a symmetric pattern of abdominal wall laxity, this symmetry is rarely present. The aim of this report is to describe our modifications and review our outcomes for the Monfort procedure which more completely address correction of the abdominal wall laxity including both common and uncommon features while positioning the umbilicus to a more anatomically correct position (Figure). Sixteen male patients with PBS and one female pseudoprune belly syndrome patient, aged 2-9 years, were treated at our institution between 2003 and 2014. Modifications incorporated into the abdominoplasty procedure for PBS applied to this study group included: 1) use of diagnostic laparoscopy to define the topography of the abdominal wall defect, 2) initial midline rather than elliptical skin incision to defer retailoring of the skin coverage until the final step of the procedure, 3) varying the width of the central plate to correct side to side asymmetry in redundancy, 4) plication of the central plate to reduce vertical redundancy and reposition the umbilicus, and 5) plication of focal areas of fascial weakness, most often in the flank region. All patients have improved abdominal wall contour with a more uniform correction of areas of weakness at a mean follow-up of 5.5 years (range 18 months-11.5 years). All patients and parents indicate that they are very satisfied with the outcome of their procedures without any revisions being performed. This study is descriptive in nature and retrospective, with the patient population treated in a relatively uniform fashion that does not allow direct comparison with other

  12. Detailed evaluation of the upper urinary tract in patients with prune belly syndrome using magnetic resonance urography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Roig, M L; Grattan-Smith, J D; Arlen, A M; Smith, E A; Kirsch, A J

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic resonance urography (MRU) has proven to be useful in the setting of complex urologic anatomy. Prune belly syndrome (PBS) patients are known to have malformed and highly variable urinary tract anatomy due to significant dilation and renal dysplasia. To further characterize the renal and ureteral anatomy and renal function in patients with PBS via MRU. Children with PBS undergoing MRU (2006-2011) were identified. Studies were performed to evaluate severe hydronephrosis in all patients. Demographics, previous imaging, and MRU findings were collected. A single radiologist reviewed all studies. MRU was performed on 13 boys, with a median age of 29.3 months (IQR 6-97). Two patients underwent >1 study for ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJ obstruction) and calyceal diverticulum with a solitary kidney, respectively. Hydroureteronephrosis (HUN) was identified in 12 boys (92%), while one (8%) did not have ureteral dilation. All patients demonstrated morphologic abnormalities beyond HUN as follows: five (38%) renal dysplasia; five (38%) scarring; four (31%) calyceal diverticula; and three (23%) thickened bladder. The median renal transit time (RTT) was 6 min (IQR 3.5-10.5), and >8 min (range 8.5-35) in six patients; one patient was ultimately diagnosed with obstruction. The mean serum creatinine was 0.5 ± 0.3 mg/dl. This summary figure is a coronal excretory phase T1 MRU image demonstrating absence of well-defined calyces and a 5-cm calyceal diverticulum (white arrow). This study reports significant anatomic and functional findings on MRU that were not readily apparent when using standard imaging for children with PBS. The high-resolution images and functional data obtained with MRU allowed for visualization of calyceal diverticula and abnormal renal pelvic anatomy not previously described in PBS. In addition, renal dysplasia could be identified with MRU, which is badly characterized in the PBS population outside of renal biopsy studies. Potential limitations

  13. Evaluating Lignin-Rich Residues from Biochemical Ethanol Production of Wheat Straw and Olive Tree Pruning by FTIR and 2D-NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José I. Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lignin-rich residues from the cellulose-based industry are traditionally incinerated for internal energy use. The future biorefineries that convert cellulosic biomass into biofuels will generate more lignin than necessary for internal energy use, and therefore value-added products from lignin could be produced. In this context, a good understanding of lignin is necessary prior to its valorization. The present study focused on the characterization of lignin-rich residues from biochemical ethanol production, including steam explosion, saccharification, and fermentation, of wheat straw and olive tree pruning. In addition to the composition and purity, the lignin structures (S/G ratio, interunit linkages were investigated by spectroscopy techniques such as FTIR and 2D-NMR. Together with the high lignin content, both residues contained significant amounts of carbohydrates, mainly glucose and protein. Wheat straw lignin showed a very low S/G ratio associated with p-hydroxycinnamates (p-coumarate and ferulate, whereas a strong predominance of S over G units was observed for olive tree pruning lignin. The main interunit linkages present in both lignins were β-O-4′ ethers followed by resinols and phenylcoumarans. These structural characteristics determine the use of these lignins in respect to their valorization.

  14. Mining of high utility itemsets of size-2 with pruning strategies and negative item values for B2C companies based on experiential marketing approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Gahlot

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Business to customer (B2C marketing for the retail organisations is the most rapid adoption made by the developed countries, while it has the pitfalls in the developing nations. B2C companies have been continually putting some or the other lucrative offers and schemes on their manufactured products. There happens to be no logical demand of clubbing the sale of two products. The only need of such clubbing is the financial crisis which the company wants to overcome. Information technology can renew and make the competitive advantage for B2C companies. In this paper, a novel way for finding the itemset clubs is proposed, hence extending Apriori algorithm. The proposed methodology aims at finding the combinations of the products which can be sold together with the high levels of utility. This allows for making good profits for the company. Unlike contemporary way of items bearing positive values, negative item values have been looked into. The MHUIS-2wPS algorithm utilises the transactional experiences of the retail stores and outputs the size-2 clubs. The MHUI-NIV algorithm caters for the items with negative item values. The dissertation applies various pruning strategies for the discovery of high utility itemsets. These prunings will help remove the unnecessary formation of the low utility extensions. Later, various datasets have been used to show the essence of the algorithms.

  15. Hygienization and control of Diplodia seriata fungus in vine pruning waste composting and its seasonal variability in open and closed systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matei, Petruta M; Sánchez-Báscones, Mercedes; Bravo-Sánchez, Carmen T; Martín-Ramos, Pablo; Martín-Villullas, M Teresa; García-González, M Cruz; Hernández-Navarro, Salvador; Navas-Gracia, Luis M; Martín-Gil, Jesús

    2016-12-01

    After the ban on sodium arsenite, waste management alternatives to the prevalent burning method, such as the hygienization and biodegradation in solid phase by composting, are required for the pruned material from grapevines affected by various fungi. In this work the dynamics of a fungus associated with vine decay (Diplodia seriata) during the composting process of a mixture of laying hen manure and vine pruning waste (2:1w/w) have been investigated in an open pile and a discontinuous closed biodigester. Through the optimization of the various physical-chemical parameters, hygienization of the infected waste materials was attained, yielding class-A organo-mineral fertilizers. Nevertheless, important differences in the efficiency of each system were observed: whereas in the open pile it took 10days to control D. seriata and 35 additional composting days to achieve full inactivation, in the discontinuous biodigester the fungus was entirely inactivated within the first 3-7days. Finally, the impact of seasonal variability was assessed and summer temperatures shown to have greater significance in the open pile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fenologia da goiabeira 'Paluma' sob diferentes sistemas de cultivos, épocas e intensidades de poda de frutificação Phenology of 'Paluma' guava trees under different cultivation systems, times and intensities of fruit pruning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Lopes Serrano

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos de diferentes épocas e intensidades de poda de frutificação sobre a fenologia da goiabeira 'Paluma', em dois sistemas de cultivo, em Pedro Canário (ES. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, em esquema de parcelas sub-subdivididas. As parcelas foram os sistemas de cultivo irrigado e sequeiro; as subparcelas foram as épocas de poda (10/11/2005, 9/12/2005, 13/1/2006 e 10/2/2006; e as sub-subparcelas foram as intensidades de poda (curta, média e longa. O ciclo da goiabeira 'Paluma', entre a poda até o início da colheita dos frutos, variou de 182 (poda em novembro e dezembro a 203 dias (poda em fevereiro. A queda fisiológica dos frutos ocorreu até os 56 dias após o final do florescimento. A irrigação e a poda longa proporcionaram maior brotação e estabelecimento dos ramos. As plantas submetidas à poda longa em fevereiro produziram maior número de frutos por ramo. Independentemente da época de poda, as plantas submetidas à poda curta apresentaram menor número de frutos por ramo e menor índice de pegamento de frutos. A irrigação e as podas realizadas em dezembro e janeiro favoreceram a produção de frutos maiores.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of different fruit pruning times and intensities on the phenology of 'Paluma' guava trees in two cultivation systems, in Pedro Canário, Espírito Santo State, Brazil. The experimental design was a randomized complete block in a split split plots scheme. The main plots were the cultivation systems (with and without irrigation, the split plots were the pruning times (November 10, 2005; December 9, 2005; January 13, 2006 and February 10, 2006, and the split split plots were the pruning intensities (heavy, medium and light. The period between pruning and the beginning of fruit ripening was between 182 (pruning in November and December to 203 days (pruning in February. Fruit physiologic fall continued for

  17. The coat protein of prunus necrotic ringspot virus specifically binds to and regulates the conformation of its genomic RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Frederic; Vilar, Marçal; Perez-Payá, Enrique; Pallás, Vicente

    2003-08-15

    Binding of coat protein (CP) to the 3' nontranslated region (3'-NTR) of viral RNAs is a crucial requirement to establish the infection of Alfamo- and Ilarviruses. In vitro binding properties of the Prunus necrotic ringspot ilarvirus (PNRSV) CP to the 3'-NTR of its genomic RNA using purified E. coli- expressed CP and different synthetic peptides corresponding to a 26-residue sequence near the N-terminus were investigated by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. PNRSV CP bound to, at least, three different sites existing on the 3'-NTR. Moreover, the N-terminal region between amino acid residues 25 to 50 of the protein could function as an independent RNA-binding domain. Single exchange of some arginine residues by alanine eliminated the RNA-interaction capacity of the synthetic peptides, consistent with a crucial role for Arg residues common to many RNA-binding proteins possessing Arg-rich domains. Circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed that the RNA conformation is altered when amino-terminal CP peptides bind to the viral RNA. Finally, mutational analysis of the 3'-NTR suggested the presence of a pseudoknotted structure at this region on the PNRSV RNA that, when stabilized by the presence of Mg(2+), lost its capability to bind the coat protein. The existence of two mutually exclusive conformations for the 3'-NTR of PNRSV strongly suggests a similar regulatory mechanism at the 3'-NTR level in Alfamo- and Ilarvirus genera.

  18. The coat protein of prunus necrotic ringspot virus specifically binds to and regulates the conformation of its genomic RNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aparicio, Frederic; Vilar, Marcal; Perez-Paya, Enrique; Pallas, Vicente

    2003-01-01

    Binding of coat protein (CP) to the 3' nontranslated region (3'-NTR) of viral RNAs is a crucial requirement to establish the infection of Alfamo- and Ilarviruses. In vitro binding properties of the Prunus necrotic ringspot ilarvirus (PNRSV) CP to the 3'-NTR of its genomic RNA using purified E. coli- expressed CP and different synthetic peptides corresponding to a 26-residue sequence near the N-terminus were investigated by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. PNRSV CP bound to, at least, three different sites existing on the 3'-NTR. Moreover, the N-terminal region between amino acid residues 25 to 50 of the protein could function as an independent RNA-binding domain. Single exchange of some arginine residues by alanine eliminated the RNA-interaction capacity of the synthetic peptides, consistent with a crucial role for Arg residues common to many RNA-binding proteins possessing Arg-rich domains. Circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed that the RNA conformation is altered when amino-terminal CP peptides bind to the viral RNA. Finally, mutational analysis of the 3'-NTR suggested the presence of a pseudoknotted structure at this region on the PNRSV RNA that, when stabilized by the presence of Mg 2+ , lost its capability to bind the coat protein. The existence of two mutually exclusive conformations for the 3'-NTR of PNRSV strongly suggests a similar regulatory mechanism at the 3'-NTR level in Alfamo- and Ilarvirus genera

  19. Prune Belly Syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    dramnios are detected is increasingly becoming the norm. However, in resource ... ric ultrasound scan (USG) in the second trimester ... HBsAg, G6PD, retroviral screen and VDRL) was ... stalsis. The baby had normal external male genitalia.

  20. Prune or cut down

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Rojo Arjona, David

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In The Economics of Rights, Co-operation and Welfare (1986), Robert Sugden follows the tradition from Thomas Schelling and David Lewis in ascribing a central role to the notion of salience within his theory of convention. However, against this, Bruno Verbeek (Instrumental rationality...... on coordination problems. It finds that the argument fails to consider at least two candidate theories of salience that may be incorporated into the theory of convention without circularity: cognitive hierarchy theory that iterates Sugden’s notion of psychological salience and Schelling salience. Thus, in the end...

  1. Tests for Transmission of Prunus Necrotic Ringspot and Two Nepoviruses by Criconemella xenoplax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, W Q; Barnett, O W; Westcott, S W; Scott, S W

    1990-10-01

    In two of three trials, detectable color reactions in ELISA for Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) were observed for Criconemella xenoplax handpicked from the root zone of infected peach trees. Criconemella xenoplax (500/pot) handpicked from root zones of peach trees infected with PNRSV failed to transmit the virus to cucumber or peach seedlings. The nematode also failed to transmit tomato ringspot (TomRSV) or tobacco ringspot viruses between cucumbers, although Xiphinema americanum transmitted TomRSV under the same conditions. Plants of peach, cucumber, Chenopodium quinoa, and Catharanthus roseus were not infected by PNRSV when grown in soil containing C. xenoplax collected from root zones of PNRSV-infected trees. Shirofugen cherry scions budded on Mazzard cherry seedling rootstocks remained symptomless when transplanted into root zones of PNRSV-infected trees. Virus transmission was not detected by ELISA when C. xenoplax individuals were observed to feed on cucumber root explants that were infected with PNRSV and subsequently fed on roots of Prunus besseyi in agar cultures. Even if virus transmission by C. xenoplax occurs via contamination rather than by a specific mechanism, it must be rare.

  2. Efeito da poda do tipo decote no controle da xylella fastidiosa em cultivares de cafeeiro "Decote" type pruning effect upon xylella fastidiosa control in coffee cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Benetti Queiroz-Voltan

    2007-01-01

    ' de C. canephora, foram os tratamentos com maior severidade e, novamente no período chuvoso, as diferenças não foram observadas. Concluiu-se, portanto, que a prática da poda do tipo decote não resultou nesse experimento em um controle eficiente da X. fastidiosa em cafeeiros de C. arabica de pé-franco ou enxertados e infectados por esta moléstia.Xylella fastidiosa plant colonization causes damages to the coffee production and nowadays there is no available economic chemical control to this bacterium. Adequate cultivation management as the use of bacteria-free scions and control of the insect vector (cicadas, are practices that may attenuate the disease incidence. Pruning, that has been recommended for citrus and vines for disease control, still does not have its efficiency proved for coffee plants. This research work aimed to quantify the proportion of xylem vessel elements obstructed by the bacteria, as well as to evaluate the disease external symptoms severity after the "decote" type pruning. In June 2003 (dry season, eight months after pruning, it was observed that 4% of the petiole vessel elements were obstructed by X. fastidiosa, 2% of the central vein and 1% of the stem. In the rainy season, 14 months after pruning, the obstruction proportion of vessel elements decreased to 2% in the petiole and to 1% in central vein and stem respectively. Therefore, the pruning practice decreased slightly the xylem vessel obstruction caused by the bacteria in the dry period, once prior to pruning a 6% obstruction in the petiole was observed. The new branches sprouted during the rainy season seemed to compensate obstruction in older branches, thus decreasing vase obstruction proportion. In 2003 there were no differences in the disease symptom severity among treatments in the two periods (dry and rainy season, however, in the dry period of 2004, 'Catuaí Vermelho IAC 81' and 'Mundo Novo IAC 515-20' cultivars, grafted on C. canephora 'Apoatã IAC 2258', presented higher

  3. Epstein - Barr Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Štorkánová, Lenka

    2011-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus Bachelor thesis summarizes the findings of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), its general characteristics, transmission and spread of the virus, symptoms of disease and subsequent therapy and recovery. More specifically, it focuses on infectious mononucleosis, as well as more generally to other diseases, which the Epstein-Barr virus causes. It includes details of the vaccine against EB virus. There are the statistics on the incidence of infectious mononucleosis.

  4. O pessegueiro no sistema de pomar compacto: III. Épocas de poda drástica na diferenciação floral The peach meadow orchards: III. Time of drastic pruning on floral differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Barbosa

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisou-se, na região de Jundiaí, SP (23°8'S, a influência das épocas de poda drástica na diferenciação floral dos pessegueiros Tropical' e 'Aurora-2', conduzidos em alta densidade de plantio (1.667 plantas por hectare. Realizaram-se tais podas em 30 de setembro, 30 de outubro e 30 de novembro de 1986. Coletaram-se as gemas para análise mensalmente, a partir do 30° dia da poda: constatou-se, através de cortes histológicos das gemas, que a poda drástica precoce, de 30 de setembro, não prejudicou a diferenciação floral dos pessegueiros, que se iniciou em fevereiro, a cerca de cinco meses da decepa; em abril, a maioria das gemas de flancos encontrava-se com as sépalas, as pétalas, os estames e o pistilo completamente formados. As demais épocas de poda interferiram no processo de diferenciação floral, reduzindo o número de botões florais e, conseqüentemente, a densidade florífera das plantas. Nos pessegueiros conduzidos com poda normal, a organogênese floral, processada no início do verão (dezembro-janeiro, persistiu até o outono (abril.This paper reports the effect of three different dates of severe pruning on floral differentiation of peach trees of the cultivars Tropical and Aurora-2, conducted on a meadow orchards system. The peach trees were pruned in 1986, at the 30th day of September, October and November. The experimental plots were located at the Experiment Station of Jundiaí, (23º08'S, Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The lateral buds of the peach tree branches were first collected for analysis at the 30th day after pruning and on a monthly basis afterwards. Through histological studies made on longitudinal sections of the buds, it was observed that the severe pruning of September 30th, did not change the peach tree reproductive development The floral differentiation began in February, i. e., five months after pruning and produced sequentially: the petals, sepals, stamens and

  5. The use of chipped pruned branches to control the soil and water losses in citrus plantations in Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Keesstra, Saskia; Jordán, Antonio; Pereira, Paulo; Prosdocimi, Massimo; Ritsema, Coen J.; Burguet, María

    2016-04-01

    Soil erosion is the main cause of soil degradation in agriculture land, which is a world-wide problem (Cerdà et al., 2009; Novara et al., 2011; Biwas et al., 2015, Colazo and Buschiazzo, 2015; Ligonja and Shrestha, 2015). High erosion rates result in the loss of soil and also changes the hydrological, erosional, biological, and geochemical cycles (Keesstra et al., 2012; Berendse et al., 2015; Decock et al., 2015; Brevik et al., 2015; Smith et al., 2015). Thus, there is a need to reduce the soil losses to achieve soil sustainability. However, although some findings show that straw, geotextiles, vegetation cover and tillage reduction are efficient strategies (Gimenez Morera et al., 2010; Cerdà et al., 2015; Lieskovský and Kenderessy, 2014; Taguas et al., 2015) there is still a need to find easy strategies for farmers to adopt in their fields that will protect, and also recover, their soils. Chipped branches are usually burned in many orchards to remove them from the fields. However, when they would be chipped and spread on the fields, they can be a source of organic matter, and in addition this might reduce soil losses and improve the water retention capacity of the soils (Mukherjee et al., 2014; Yazdanpanah et al., 2016). The hypothesis is that the chipped branches reduce soil loss. To test this hypothesis we selected 3 study sites in which chipped branches were applied, and paired sites with bare soil to check the changes introduced by the chipped branches on the soils. We selected 3 sites of the Cànyoles river watershed (Montesa municipality), SW Spain, with 10 plots in each site. At each site, 10 rainfall simulation experiments were carried out. Paired plots were selected in the nearby (less than 10 m in distance) orchard where the pruned branches were removed. Then, 60 rainfall simulation experiments at 55 mm h-1 of rainfall intensity during 1 hour were carried out in small 0.25 m2 plots to determine the soil particle detachment. The results show that in all

  6. Virus-Vectored Influenza Virus Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Ralph A.; Tompkins, S. Mark

    2014-01-01

    Despite the availability of an inactivated vaccine that has been licensed for >50 years, the influenza virus continues to cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. Constant evolution of circulating influenza virus strains and the emergence of new strains diminishes the effectiveness of annual vaccines that rely on a match with circulating influenza strains. Thus, there is a continued need for new, efficacious vaccines conferring cross-clade protection to avoid the need for biannual reformulation of seasonal influenza vaccines. Recombinant virus-vectored vaccines are an appealing alternative to classical inactivated vaccines because virus vectors enable native expression of influenza antigens, even from virulent influenza viruses, while expressed in the context of the vector that can improve immunogenicity. In addition, a vectored vaccine often enables delivery of the vaccine to sites of inductive immunity such as the respiratory tract enabling protection from influenza virus infection. Moreover, the ability to readily manipulate virus vectors to produce novel influenza vaccines may provide the quickest path toward a universal vaccine protecting against all influenza viruses. This review will discuss experimental virus-vectored vaccines for use in humans, comparing them to licensed vaccines and the hurdles faced for licensure of these next-generation influenza virus vaccines. PMID:25105278

  7. Capacidad de recuperación de 23 accesiones de Leucaena spp. después de la poda Recovery capacity of 23 Leucaena spp. accessions after pruning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda B Wencomo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron 23 accesiones de Leucaena spp. durante dos años, con el objetivo de conocer la variabilidad existente en la población en cuanto a la capacidad de recuperación después de la poda. Cuando las plantas sobrepasaban los 2 m, se realizó la poda de uniformidad a un 1 m de altura sobre el nivel del suelo. Las mediciones fueron: el grosor del tallo, el número de rebrotes y su longitud con una frecuencia semanal, a partir de lo cual se calculó la velocidad de crecimiento de cada accesión; además se determinó el rendimiento. El análisis de componentes principales, el de conglomerados y el de regresión lineal simple se realizaron a través del programa estadístico SPSS versión 11.5 para Microsoft Windows®. Se observó variabilidad en los indicadores evaluados (86,11% acumulado en la componente y todos contribuyeron a su explicación. A su vez, el análisis de conglomerados permitió la formación de tres grupos. Se concluye que todas las accesiones presentaron capacidad de recuperación después de la poda, con diferencias entre ellas. Las accesiones Leucaena leucocephala cv. Cunningham, cv. Perú, CIAT-9119, CIAT-9438, CIAT-751, CIAT-7988, CIAT-7384, CIAT-7929, CIAT-17480, cv. Ipil-Ipil y cv. CNIA-250; L. lanceolata CIAT-17255 y CIAT-17501 y L. diversifolia CIAT-17270 fueron las de mayor capacidad de recuperación. Por ello se recomienda, en futuras investigaciones relacionadas con la caracterización, evaluación y selección de estas especies, realizar estudios que incluyan su persistencia en el tiempo bajo condiciones de poda, así como su empleo en el fomento de nuevos sistemas silvopastoriles.Twenty three Leucaena spp. accessions were evaluated for two years, in order to know the variability existing in the population regarding the recovery capacity after pruning. When the plants were higher than 2 m, the uniformity pruning was made at 1 m above the soil level. The measurements were: stem diameter, number of regrowths and

  8. Viruses infecting reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschang, Rachel E

    2011-11-01

    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch's postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  9. Viruses Infecting Reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Marschang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch’s postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  10. Zika virus disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel I Al-Afaleq

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Zika virus is an arbovirus belonging to the virus family Flaviviridae. The virus was isolated in 1947 from a rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest of Uganda. The virus causes sporadic mild human infections in Africa and later in Asia. However, by 2007 a major shift in its infection pattern was noticed and thousands of human infections were reported in the State of Yap and Federated States of Micronesia. In the last 3 years, major outbreaks have continued to occur and the virus has spread to several Pacific and American countries. These outbreaks were mostly asymptomatic; however, there were more severe clinical signs associated with the infections. Those signs included microcephaly and Guillain–Barre syndrome. It is believed that various species of mosquitoes can biologically transmit the virus. However, Aedes aegypti is most widely associated with the Zika virus. Recently, new modes of virus transmission have been reported, including mother-to-fetus, sexual, blood transfusion, animal bites, laboratory exposure and breast milk. Differential diagnosis is very important as some other arboviruses such as yellow fever virus, West Nile virus, dengue virus, and chikungunya virus have similar clinical manifestations to the Zika virus infection as well as relating serologically to some of these viruses. Established laboratory diagnostic tests to detect the Zika virus are limited, with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction being the most widely used test. Taking into consideration the quickness of the spread of infection, size of the infected population and change of the infection severity pattern, the Zika virus infection merits collective efforts on all levels to prevent and control the disease. Limited research work and data, concurrent infection with other arboviruses, involvement of biological vectors, mass crowd events, human and trade movements and lack of vaccines are some of the challenges that we face in our efforts to prevent and

  11. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is a rare and deadly disease ...

  12. Hepatitis virus panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003558.htm Hepatitis virus panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used ...

  13. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, James S.; Heng, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix. PMID:24281093

  14. Zika virus disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... May 2015, the virus was discovered for the first time in Brazil. It has now spread to many territories, states, and countries in: Caribbean Islands Central America Mexico South America Pacific Islands Africa The virus ...

  15. Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Credit: CDC This is the ... the United States. Why Is the Study of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) a Priority for NIAID? In ...

  16. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    RSV; Palivizumab; Respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin; Bronchiolitis - RSV ... Crowe JE. Respiratory syncytial virus. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ...

  17. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, James S.; Heng, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix

  18. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, James S., E-mail: james.lawson@unsw.edu.au; Heng, Benjamin [School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia)

    2010-04-30

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix.

  19. Zika Virus - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Zika Virus URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Zika Virus - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  20. VIRUS FAMILIES – contd

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. VIRUS FAMILIES – contd. Minus strand RNA viruses. Rhabdovirus e.g. rabies. Paramyxovirus e.g. measles, mumps. Orthomyxovirus e.g. influenza. Retroviruses. RSV, HTLV, MMTV, HIV. Notes:

  1. Human Parainfluenza Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... CDC.gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) commonly cause respiratory illnesses in ...

  2. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and Pregnancy Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy ...

  3. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... My ACOG ACOG Departments Donate Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and Pregnancy Page Navigation ▼ ...

  4. [Mumps vaccine virus transmission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otrashevskaia, E V; Kulak, M V; Otrashevskaia, A V; Karpov, I A; Fisenko, E G; Ignat'ev, G M

    2013-01-01

    In this work we report the mumps vaccine virus shedding based on the laboratory confirmed cases of the mumps virus (MuV) infection. The likely epidemiological sources of the transmitted mumps virus were children who were recently vaccinated with the mumps vaccine containing Leningrad-Zagreb or Leningrad-3 MuV. The etiology of the described cases of the horizontal transmission of both mumps vaccine viruses was confirmed by PCR with the sequential restriction analysis.

  5. Nairobi sheep disease virus/Ganjam virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M D, Baron; B, Holzer

    2015-08-01

    Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) is a tick-borne virus which causes a severe disease in sheep and goats, and has been responsible for several outbreaks of disease in East Africa. The virus is also found in the Indian subcontinent, where it is known as Ganjam virus. The virus only spreads through the feeding of competent infected ticks, and is therefore limited in its geographic distribution by the distribution of those ticks, Rhipicephalus appendiculata in Africa and Haemaphysalis intermedia in India. Animals bred in endemic areas do not normally develop disease, and the impact is therefore primarily on animals being moved for trade or breeding purposes. The disease caused by NSDV has similarities to several other ruminant diseases, and laboratory diagnosis is necessary for confirmation. There are published methods for diagnosis based on polymerase chain reaction, for virus growth in cell culture and for other simple diagnostic tests, though none has been commercialised. There is no established vaccine against NSDV, although cell-culture attenuated strains have been developed which show promise and could be put into field trials if it were deemed necessary. The virus is closely related to Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, and studies on NSDV may therefore be useful in understanding this important human pathogen.

  6. What's West Nile Virus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español What's West Nile Virus? KidsHealth / For Kids / What's West Nile Virus? Print en español ¿Qué es el Virus del Nilo Occidental? What exactly is the West ...

  7. Characteristic of pandemic virus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Characteristic of pandemic virus. The virus was highly transmissible. Risk of hospitalization was 2X and risk of death was about 11X more in comparison to seasonal influenza. Virus continues to be susceptible to Osaltamivir, the only drug available. Vaccines are available but ...

  8. Zika Virus Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is caused by a virus transmitted primarily by Aedes mosquitoes. People with Zika virus disease can have symptoms including mild fever, skin ... framework. Q&A: Zika virus and complication ... mosquito from the Aedes genus, mainly Aedes aegypti in tropical regions. Aedes ...

  9. Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum)-Virus Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    At least six viruses have been found in highbush blueberry plantings in the Pacific Northwest: Blueberry mosaic virus, Blueberry red ringspot virus, Blueberry scorch virus, Blueberry shock virus, Tobacco ringspot virus, and Tomato ringspot virus. Six other virus and virus-like diseases of highbush b...

  10. Viruses of asparagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassoli, Laura; Tiberini, Antonio; Vetten, Heinrich-Josef

    2012-01-01

    The current knowledge on viruses infecting asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is reviewed. Over half a century, nine virus species belonging to the genera Ilarvirus, Cucumovirus, Nepovirus, Tobamovirus, Potexvirus, and Potyvirus have been found in this crop. The potyvirus Asparagus virus 1 (AV1) and the ilarvirus Asparagus virus 2 (AV2) are widespread and negatively affect the economic life of asparagus crops reducing yield and increasing the susceptibility to biotic and abiotic stress. The main properties and epidemiology of AV1 and AV2 as well as diagnostic techniques for their detection and identification are described. Minor viruses and control are briefly outlined. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Understanding Ebola Virus Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Judson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An unprecedented number of Ebola virus infections among healthcare workers and patients have raised questions about our understanding of Ebola virus transmission. Here, we explore different routes of Ebola virus transmission between people, summarizing the known epidemiological and experimental data. From this data, we expose important gaps in Ebola virus research pertinent to outbreak situations. We further propose experiments and methods of data collection that will enable scientists to fill these voids in our knowledge about the transmission of Ebola virus.

  12. Protoplasts and plant viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakishi, H.; Lesney, M.S.; Carlson, P.

    1984-01-01

    The use of protoplasts in the study of plant viruses has attracted considerable attention since its inception in the late 1960s. This article is an attempt to assess the current status of protoplasts (primarily) and all cell cultures (in some instances) in studies of virus infection, virus replication, cytopathology, cross-protection, virus resistance, and the use of in vitro methods and genetic engineering to recover virus-resistant plants. These areas of study proved difficult to do entirely with whole plants or plant parts. However, because protoplasts could be synchronously infected with virus, they provided a valuable alternative means of following biochemical and cytological events in relation to the virus growth cycle in a more precise manner than previously possible

  13. The Sleep Elaboration-Awake Pruning (SEAP) theory of memory: long term memories grow in complexity during sleep and undergo selection while awake. Clinical, psychopharmacological and creative implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Bruce G; Andras, Peter

    2009-07-01

    Long term memory (LTM) systems need to be adaptive such that they enhance an organism's reproductive fitness and self-reproducing in order to maintain their complexity of communications over time in the face of entropic loss of information. Traditional 'representation-consolidation' accounts conceptualize memory adaptiveness as due to memories being 'representations' of the environment, and the longevity of memories as due to 'consolidation' processes. The assumption is that memory representations are formed while an animal is awake and interacting with the environment, and these memories are consolidated mainly while the animal is asleep. So the traditional view of memory is 'instructionist' and assumes that information is transferred from the environment into the brain. By contrast, we see memories as arising endogenously within the brain's LTM system mainly during sleep, to create complex but probably maladaptive memories which are then simplified ('pruned') and selected during the awake period. When awake the LTM system is brought into a more intense interaction with past and present experience. Ours is therefore a 'selectionist' account of memory, and could be termed the Sleep Elaboration-Awake Pruning (or SEAP) theory. The SEAP theory explains the longevity of memories in the face of entropy by the tendency for memories to grow in complexity during sleep; and explains the adaptiveness of memory by selection for consistency with perceptions and previous memories during the awake state. Sleep is therefore that behavioural state during which most of the internal processing of the system of LTM occurs; and the reason sleep remains poorly understood is that its primary activity is the expansion of long term memories. By re-conceptualizing the relationship between memory, sleep and the environment; SEAP provides a radically new framework for memory research, with implications for the measurement of memory and the design of empirical investigations in clinical

  14. [The great virus comeback].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forterre, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Viruses have been considered for a long time as by-products of biological evolution. This view is changing now as a result of several recent discoveries. Viral ecologists have shown that viral particles are the most abundant biological entities on our planet, whereas metagenomic analyses have revealed an unexpected abundance and diversity of viral genes in the biosphere. Comparative genomics have highlighted the uniqueness of viral sequences, in contradiction with the traditional view of viruses as pickpockets of cellular genes. On the contrary, cellular genomes, especially eukaryotic ones, turned out to be full of genes derived from viruses or related elements (plasmids, transposons, retroelements and so on). The discovery of unusual viruses infecting archaea has shown that the viral world is much more diverse than previously thought, ruining the traditional dichotomy between bacteriophages and viruses. Finally, the discovery of giant viruses has blurred the traditional image of viruses as small entities. Furthermore, essential clues on virus history have been obtained in the last ten years. In particular, structural analyses of capsid proteins have uncovered deeply rooted homologies between viruses infecting different cellular domains, suggesting that viruses originated before the last universal common ancestor (LUCA). These studies have shown that several lineages of viruses originated independently, i.e., viruses are polyphyletic. From the time of LUCA, viruses have coevolved with their hosts, and viral lineages can be viewed as lianas wrapping around the trunk, branches and leaves of the tree of life. Although viruses are very diverse, with genomes encoding from one to more than one thousand proteins, they can all be simply defined as organisms producing virions. Virions themselves can be defined as infectious particles made of at least one protein associated with the viral nucleic acid, endowed with the capability to protect the viral genome and ensure its

  15. Postmortem stability of Ebola virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Joseph; Bushmaker, Trenton; Fischer, Robert; Miazgowicz, Kerri; Judson, Seth; Munster, Vincent J

    2015-05-01

    The ongoing Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa has highlighted questions regarding stability of the virus and detection of RNA from corpses. We used Ebola virus-infected macaques to model humans who died of Ebola virus disease. Viable virus was isolated <7 days posteuthanasia; viral RNA was detectable for 10 weeks.

  16. Laparoscopic-assisted surgical reconstruction of a rare congenital abdominal wall defect in two children misdiagnosed with prune-belly syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Andrew I; Franco, Israel

    2013-08-01

    Abdominal wall laxity is typically associated with prune-belly syndrome (PBS). Incomplete forms of PBS have been rarely reported with only the abdominal wall laxity. Herein, we describe a rare congenital abdominal wall defect that has been confused with PBS and illustrate the laparoscopic-assisted surgical technique used for reconstruction. Two boys with symmetrical, bilateral absence or hypoplasia of the internal and external oblique muscles and no genitourinary abnormalities underwent a laparoscopic-assisted abdominal wall reconstruction utilizing the technique previously described by Firlit. Each patient had a Ct scan which confirmed the absence of the oblique muscles. In one patient EMG data confirmed no electrical activity of the obliques. Radiologic evaluation of the urinary tracts revealed no abnormalities. The abdominal wall was plicated utilizing bilateral subcostal incisions. Both patients had excellent cosmetic and functional results with no weakness or bulging of the lateral abdominal wall and improvement of associated symptoms. We believe these two cases and their congenital abdominal wall defects are a rare and often misdiagnosed muscular deficiency separate from PBS. The novel laparoscopic-assisted surgical technique illustrated is feasible and highly successful for these and possible other patients with similar rare congenital abdominal wall defects. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Síndrome de Prune Belly: cirugía para mejoría estética y reconstrucción abdominal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. León-Hernández

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El Síndrome de Prune Belly (abdomen en ciruela pasa es una enfermedad congénita rara en la que, además de las manifestaciones genitourinarias, la pared abdominal se ve afectada en todos los pacientes en diferentes grados. Presentamos el caso de un varón con seguimiento de 15 años en el que se realizaron 2 cirugías de pared abdominal: la primera a la edad de 8 años con técnica de Montfort y la última 14 años después para corregir pliegues cutáneos y asimetría abdominal, realizando abdominoplastia con acceso de Grazer con el objetivo de colocar una malla de polipropileno para obtener mejor contención y a la vez mejorar la estética de la pared abdominal. No se presentaron complicaciones en ninguno de los 2 procedimientos y los resultados estéticos obtenidos fueron muy satisfactorios. Ofrecemos una alternativa quirúrgica para el tratamiento de aquellos casos en los que la primera cirugía no resuelve el defecto de pared y la anomalía estética abdominal.

  18. Cellulose nanocrystals from Actinidia deliciosa pruning residues combined with carvacrol in PVA_CH films with antioxidant/antimicrobial properties for packaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzi, Francesca; Fortunati, Elena; Giovanale, Geremia; Mazzaglia, Angelo; Torre, Luigi; Balestra, Giorgio Mariano

    2017-11-01

    Kiwi Actinidia deliciosa pruning residues were here used for the first time as precursors for the extraction of high performing cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) by applying a bleaching treatment followed by an acidic hydrolysis. The resultant cellulosic nanostructures, obtained by an optimize extraction procedure (0.7% wt/v two times of sodium chlorite NaClO 2 ) followed by an hydrolysis step, were then used as reinforcements phases in poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) blended with natural chitosan (CH) based films and also combined, for the first time, with carvacrol used here as active agent. Morphological and optical characteristics, mechanical response, thermal and migration properties, moisture content and antioxidant and antimicrobial assays were conducted. The morphological, optical and colorimetric results underlined that no particular alterations were induced on the transparency and color of PVA and PVA_CH blend by the presence of CNC and carvacrol, while they were able to modulate the mechanical responses, to induce antioxidant activities maintaining the migration levels below the permitted limits and suggesting the possible application in industrial sectors. Finally, inhibitions on bacterial development were detected for multifunctional systems, suggesting their protective function against microorganisms contamination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of shoot pruning and inflorescence thinning on plant growth, yield and fruit quality of greenhouse tomatoes in a tropical climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes F. J. Max

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The combined effects of shoot pruning (one or two stems and inflorescence thinning (five or ten flowers per inflorescence on greenhouse tomato yield and fruit quality were studied during the dry season (DS and rainy season (RS in Central Thailand. Poor fruit set, development of undersized (mostly parthenocarpic fruits, as well as the physiological disorders blossom-end rot (BER and fruit cracking (FC turned out to be the prevailing causes deteriorating fruit yield and quality. The proportion of marketable fruits was less than 10% in the RS and around 65% in the DS. In both seasons, total yield was significantly increased when plants were cultivated with two stems, resulting in higher marketable yields only in the DS. While the fraction of undersized fruits was increased in both seasons when plants were grown with a secondary stem, the proportions of BER and FC were significantly reduced. Restricting the number of flowers per inflorescence invariably resulted in reduced total yield. However, in neither season did fruit load considerably affect quantity or proportion of the marketable yield fraction. Inflorescence thinning tended to promote BER and FC, an effect which was only significant for BER in the RS. In conclusion, for greenhouse tomato production under climate conditions as they are prevalent in Central Thailand, the cultivation with two stems appears to be highly recommendable whereas the measures to control fruit load tested in this study did not proof to be advisable.

  20. Preparation of Activated and Non-Activated Carbon from Conocarpus Pruning Waste as Low-Cost Adsorbent for Removal of Heavy Metal Ions from Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed H. El-Naggar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Conocarpus pruning waste, an agricultural byproduct, was converted into low-cost activated and non-activated carbons and used for the remediation of Cd2+, Cu2+, and Pb2+ from aqueous solutions. The carbonization was carried out at 400 °C, while the activation was carried out in the presence of KOH and ZnCl2. Batch single-solute and multi-solute equilibrium and kinetic experiments were carried out to determine the adsorption capacities of the prepared activated and non-activated carbons, and these were further compared with commercially available activated carbon. The results showed that KOH-activated carbon (CK outperformed the other activated and non-activated carbons in terms of adsorption efficiency. CK removed >50% of the applied Cd2+ and Cu2+ and 100% of Pb2+ at the initial concentration of 40 mg L-1. Interestingly, the performance of Conocarpus-derived non-activated carbon was better than that of the commercial activated carbon, as observed from the Langmuir maximum adsorption capacities of 65.61, 66.12, and 223.05 µmol g-1 for Cd2+, Cu2+, and Pb2+, respectively. The Pb2+ was the metal most easily removed from aqueous solution because of its large ionic radius. The kinetic dynamics were well described by the pseudo-second order and Elovich models.

  1. Evaluation of lignins from side-streams generated in an olive tree pruning-based biorefinery: Bioethanol production and alkaline pulping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, José I; Fillat, Úrsula; Martín-Sampedro, Raquel; Eugenio, María E; Negro, María J; Ballesteros, Ignacio; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Ibarra, David

    2017-12-01

    In modern lignocellulosic-based biorefineries, carbohydrates can be transformed into biofuels and pulp and paper, whereas lignin is burned to obtain energy. However, a part of lignin could be converted into value-added products including bio-based aromatic chemicals, as well as building blocks for materials. Then, a good knowledge of lignin is necessary to define its valorisation procedure. This study characterized different lignins from side-streams produced from olive tree pruning bioethanol production (lignins collected from steam explosion pretreatment with water or phosphoric acid as catalysts, followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process) and alkaline pulping (lignins recovered from kraft and soda-AQ black liquors). Together with the chemical composition, the structure of lignins was investigated by FTIR, 13 C NMR, and 2D NMR. Bioethanol lignins had clearly distinct characteristics compared to pulping lignins; a certain number of side-chain linkages (mostly alkyl-aryl ether and resinol) accompanied with lower phenolic hydroxyls content. Bioethanol lignins also showed a significant amount of carbohydrates, mainly glucose and protein impurities. By contrast, pulping lignins revealed xylose together with a dramatical reduction of side-chains (some resinol linkages survive) and thereby higher phenol content, indicating rather severe lignin degradation during alkaline pulping processes. All lignins showed a predominance of syringyl units. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pougnet, Laurence; Thill, Chloé; Pougnet, Richard; Auvinet, Henri; Giacardi, Christophe; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2016-12-01

    A 21-year old woman from New-Caledonia had 40 ̊C fever with vomiting, arthralgia, myalgia, and measles-like rash. Etiological analyses showed primary infection with Zika virus. Because of severe clinical presentation, she was hospitalized in the intensive care unit of the Brest military Hospital. Zika virus is mainly transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. If they settle in Metropolitan France, Zika virus might also spread there.

  3. Caracterização fenológica da goiabeira 'Pedro Sato' sob diferentes épocas de poda 'Pedro Sato' guava tree phenological characterization in different pruning times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Hissayuki Hojo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo da goiabeira na região de Lavras-MG, vem tendo grande importância, porém não há uma oferta freqüente durante o ano, concentrando muitas vezes a produção em um único período. A prática de podas escalonadas é fundamental para auxiliar o produtor a colher frutos em praticamente todos os meses do ano. Visando a esse escalonamento, objetivou-se a caracterização fenológica da goiabeira 'Pedro Sato', em quatro épocas de poda (setembro, e dezembro de 2003, março e junho de 2004. Foram utilizadas dez plantas, com quatro anos de idade, para cada época de poda. O delineamento foi de blocos casualizados, onde em cada planta foram marcados doze ramos, avaliando-se semanalmente os dados sobre os estádios fenológicos. Com as mensurações, foi possível estabelecer a indicação das diferentes fenofases da cultura, sendo a duração entre a poda e o início da brotação de 30,8 a 39,2 dias; poda ao florescimento de 68,6 a 133 dias; da abertura da flor (floração plena à maturação do fruto de 118,3 a 148,4 dias; e o ciclo poda à colheita foi em média de 214,2, 211,4, 247,8 e 237,3 dias para as podas realizadas em setembro, dezembro, março e junho.Although the guava tree cultivation in the area of Lavras, MG, has had great importance, there is not a frequent offer during the year, concentrating the production in an only period. The practice of staggered prunings is fundamental to aid the producer to pick fruits in practically every month of the year. Seeking that stagger, it was aimed the 'Pedro Sato' guava tree phenological characterization in four pruning times (September and December of 2003, March and June of 2004. Ten four-year-old plants were used for each pruning time in randomized block design, where, in each plant, twelve branches were marked and the data were evaluated weekly on the phenological stages. It was possible to establish the indication of the different phenophases of the culture with the measuring, being

  4. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) What is Ebola Virus Disease? ...

  5. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) What is Ebola Virus Disease? ...

  6. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) What is Ebola Virus Disease? ...

  7. Yeast for virus research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Richard Yuqi

    2017-01-01

    Budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) are two popular model organisms for virus research. They are natural hosts for viruses as they carry their own indigenous viruses. Both yeasts have been used for studies of plant, animal and human viruses. Many positive sense (+) RNA viruses and some DNA viruses replicate with various levels in yeasts, thus allowing study of those viral activities during viral life cycle. Yeasts are single cell eukaryotic organisms. Hence, many of the fundamental cellular functions such as cell cycle regulation or programed cell death are highly conserved from yeasts to higher eukaryotes. Therefore, they are particularly suited to study the impact of those viral activities on related cellular activities during virus-host interactions. Yeasts present many unique advantages in virus research over high eukaryotes. Yeast cells are easy to maintain in the laboratory with relative short doubling time. They are non-biohazardous, genetically amendable with small genomes that permit genome-wide analysis of virologic and cellular functions. In this review, similarities and differences of these two yeasts are described. Studies of virologic activities such as viral translation, viral replication and genome-wide study of virus-cell interactions in yeasts are highlighted. Impacts of viral proteins on basic cellular functions such as cell cycle regulation and programed cell death are discussed. Potential applications of using yeasts as hosts to carry out functional analysis of small viral genome and to develop high throughput drug screening platform for the discovery of antiviral drugs are presented. PMID:29082230

  8. Viruses infecting marine molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzul, Isabelle; Corbeil, Serge; Morga, Benjamin; Renault, Tristan

    2017-07-01

    Although a wide range of viruses have been reported in marine molluscs, most of these reports rely on ultrastructural examination and few of these viruses have been fully characterized. The lack of marine mollusc cell lines restricts virus isolation capacities and subsequent characterization works. Our current knowledge is mostly restricted to viruses affecting farmed species such as oysters Crassostrea gigas, abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta or the scallop Chlamys farreri. Molecular approaches which are needed to identify virus affiliation have been carried out for a small number of viruses, most of them belonging to the Herpesviridae and birnaviridae families. These last years, the use of New Generation Sequencing approach has allowed increasing the number of sequenced viral genomes and has improved our capacity to investigate the diversity of viruses infecting marine molluscs. This new information has in turn allowed designing more efficient diagnostic tools. Moreover, the development of experimental infection protocols has answered some questions regarding the pathogenesis of these viruses and their interactions with their hosts. Control and management of viral diseases in molluscs mostly involve active surveillance, implementation of effective bio security measures and development of breeding programs. However factors triggering pathogen development and the life cycle and status of the viruses outside their mollusc hosts still need further investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Pepino mosaic virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlugt, van der R.A.A.

    2009-01-01

    Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) is a relatively new plant virus that has become a signifi cant agronomical problem in a relatively short period of time. It is a member of the genus Potexvirus within the family Flexiviridae and is readily mechanically transmissible. It is capable of infecting tomato

  10. Avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is type A influenza that is adapted to avian host species. Although the virus can be isolated from numerous avian species, the natural host reservoir species are dabbling ducks, shorebirds and gulls. Domestic poultry species (poultry being defined as birds that are rais...

  11. Hepatitis viruses overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis is major cause of morbidity or mortality worldwide, particularly in the developing world. The major causes of infective hepatitis are hepatitis viruses. A, B, C, D or E. In the acute phase, there are no clinical features that can reliably differentiate between these viruses. Infection may be asymptomatic or can present as.

  12. Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Skall, Helle Frank

    2013-01-01

    This chapter covers the genetics (genotypes and serotypes), clinical signs, host species, transmission, prevalence, diagnosis, control and prevention of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus.......This chapter covers the genetics (genotypes and serotypes), clinical signs, host species, transmission, prevalence, diagnosis, control and prevention of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus....

  13. Tobacco ringspot virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), and its vector, the dagger nematodes (Xiphinema americanum and related species) are widely distributed throughout the world. Cucumber, melon, and watermelon are particularly affected by TRSV. Symptoms can vary with plant age, the strain of the virus, and environment...

  14. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus, or RSV, causes cold-like symptoms but can be serious for infants and older adults. In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Eileen Schneider discusses this common virus and offers tips to prevent its spread.

  15. Viruses in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel, Ellen

    2011-09-21

    The etiology of reptilian viral diseases can be attributed to a wide range of viruses occurring across different genera and families. Thirty to forty years ago, studies of viruses in reptiles focused mainly on the zoonotic potential of arboviruses in reptiles and much effort went into surveys and challenge trials of a range of reptiles with eastern and western equine encephalitis as well as Japanese encephalitis viruses. In the past decade, outbreaks of infection with West Nile virus in human populations and in farmed alligators in the USA has seen the research emphasis placed on the issue of reptiles, particularly crocodiles and alligators, being susceptible to, and reservoirs for, this serious zoonotic disease. Although there are many recognised reptilian viruses, the evidence for those being primary pathogens is relatively limited. Transmission studies establishing pathogenicity and cofactors are likewise scarce, possibly due to the relatively low commercial importance of reptiles, difficulties with the availability of animals and permits for statistically sound experiments, difficulties with housing of reptiles in an experimental setting or the inability to propagate some viruses in cell culture to sufficient titres for transmission studies. Viruses as causes of direct loss of threatened species, such as the chelonid fibropapilloma associated herpesvirus and ranaviruses in farmed and wild tortoises and turtles, have re-focused attention back to the characterisation of the viruses as well as diagnosis and pathogenesis in the host itself.

  16. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simmonds, Peter; Becher, Paul; Bukh, Jens

    2017-01-01

    The Flaviviridae is a family of small enveloped viruses with RNA genomes of 9000-13 000 bases. Most infect mammals and birds. Many flaviviruses are host-specific and pathogenic, such as hepatitis C virus in the genus Hepacivirus. The majority of known members in the genus Flavivirus are arthropod...

  17. ICTV virus taxonomy profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purdy, Michael A.; Harrison, Tim J.; Jameel, S.; Meng, X.J.; Okamoto, H.; Poel, Van Der W.H.M.; Smith, Donald B.; Lefkowitz, Elliot J.; Davison, Andrew J.; Siddell, Stuart G.; Simmonds, Peter; Adams, Michael J.; Smith, Donald B.; Orton, Richard J.; Knowles, Nick J.

    2017-01-01

    The family Hepeviridae includes enterically transmitted small non-enveloped positive-sense RNA viruses. It includes the genera Piscihepevirus, whose members infect fish, and Orthohepevirus, whose members infect mammals and birds. Members of the genus Orthohepevirus include hepatitis E virus, which

  18. Viruses of the Archaea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prangishvili,, David; Basta, Tamara; Garrett, Roger Antony

    2016-01-01

    Viruses infecting members of Archaea, the third domain of life, constitute an integral, yet unique part of the virosphere. Many of these viruses, specifically the species that infect hyperthermophilic hosts, display morphotypes – for example, bottle shaped, spindle shaped, droplet shaped, coil sh...

  19. Strategy as a Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obed Madsen, Søren

    This article is based on virus theory (Røvik, 2007, 2011), and proposes to develop a framework that defines technology as a virus that penetrates the organism of an organization. The framework develops a new vocabulary, which can help in analyzing technologies and their negative effects on actors...... and organizations. In this paper, the virus theory is used to analyze a strategy process in an organization as an example of a technology. It shows how the strategy over time creates a memory loss, where the managers who are exposed to the virus forget their critique of the new strategy concept. The article also...... shows how resistant can be understood as being immune to a virus, since the strategy concepts bears resemblance to a former strategy concept. The article also argues that there should be more focus on the negative impacts of management tool and especially how organizations and managers are dealing...

  20. Abdominoplastia por plicatura anterior longitudinal na síndrome de prune belly: experiência inicial do hospital municipal Jesus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisieux Eyer de Jesus

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar os resultados iniciais com o uso da técnica de abdominoplastia longitudinal anterior por plicatura parietal descrita por Furness et al (1998 no Hospital Municipal Jesus. MÉTODO: Descrevemos as características e resultados dos primeiros pacientes tratados em nosso serviço, inclusive duas modificações adotadas com relação à técnica descrita, a saber, a exploração retroperitoneal sistemática para cura da criptorquia bilateral simultânea à abdominoplastia e a celiotomia "de segurança" para todos os pacientes operados. RESULTADOS: O seguimento dos pacientes foi de 1,5 ano, 15 meses e 10 meses, respectivamente. Foi possível demonstrar que a técnica adotada foi de fácil execução e pequena morbidade, com resultados estéticos satisfatórios, grande melhora das condições psicológicas e do convívio social para os pacientes desde o pós-operatório imediato, melhora da constipação crônica, capacidade aeróbica e postura. Quanto às repercussões urodinâmicas, aguardamos reavaliação a longo prazo, para conclusões mais efetivas. CONCLUSÃO: A abdominoplastia longitudinal anterior é uma técnica de fácil execução e segura para o tratamento da síndrome de prune belly e melhora a capacidade funcional muscular abdominal. Tem conseqüências urodinâmicas, que necessitam de avaliação após longo prazo.

  1. Biomolecules from olive pruning waste in Sierra Mágina - Engaging the energy transition by multi-actor and multidisciplinary analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Marianne; Lepesant, Gilles; Lamari, Farida; Bilodeau, Clelia; Benyei, Petra; Angles, Stéphane; Bouillon, Julien; Bourrand, Kevin; Landoulsi, Ramla; Jaboeuf, Delphine; Alonso-Roldán, Maria; Espadas-Tormo, Isidro; Belandria, Veronica; Silar, Philippe; Dicko, Moussa

    2018-06-15

    The price volatility of fossil resources, the uncertainty of their long-term availability and the environmental, climatic and societal problems posed by their operation lead to the need of an energy transition enabling the development and utilization of other alternative and sustainable resources. Acknowledging that indirect land-use change can increase greenhouse gas emission, the European Union (EU) has reshaped its biofuel policy. It has set criteria for sustainability to ensure that the use of biofuels guarantees real carbon savings and protects biodiversity. From a sustainability perspective, biofuels and bioliquids offer indeed both advantages (e.g., more secure energy supply, emission reductions, reduced air pollution and production of high added-value molecules) as well as risks (monocultures, reduced biodiversity and even higher emissions through land use change). Approaching economic, environmental and social sustainability at the local level and in an integrated way should help to maximize benefits and minimize risks. This approach has been adopted and is described in the present work that combines chemical, biological, social and territorial studies on the management of pruning waste residues from olive trees in the Sierra Mágina in Spain. The biological and social analyses helped to orientate the research towards an attractive chemical process based on extraction and pyrolysis, in which high added value molecules are recovered and in which the residual biochar may be used as pathogen-free fertilizer. In this region where farmers face declining economic margins, the new intended method may both solve greenhouse gas emission problems and provide farmers with additional revenues and convenient fertilizers. Further research with a larger partnership will consolidate the results and tackle issues such as the logistics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of citric acid on metals mobility in pruning wastes and biosolids compost and metals uptake in Atriplex halimus and Rosmarinus officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Y; Eymar, E; Gárate, A; Masaguer, A

    2013-05-01

    To assess metal mobility in pruning waste and biosolids compost (pH 6.9 and total concentration of metals in milligram per kilogram of Cd 1.9, Cu 132, Fe 8,513, Mn 192, Pb 81, and Zn 313), shrubs species Atriplex halimus and Rosmarinus officinalis were transplanted in this substrate and irrigated with citric acid (4 g L(-1), pH 2.9) and nutrient solution daily for 60 days. Citric acid significantly increased the concentrations of soluble Mn and Fe in the nutrient substrate solution measured by suction probes, while other metals did not vary in concentration (Cu and Zn) or were not observed at detectable levels (Cd and Pb). In plants, citric acid significantly increased the concentrations of Cu (2.7 ± 0.1-3.3 ± 0.1 mg kg(-1)), Fe (49.2 ± 5.2-76.8 ± 6.8 mg kg(-1)), and Mn (7.2 ± 1.1-11.4 ± 0.7 mg kg(-1)) in leaves of R. officinalis, whereas the concentration of only Mn (25.4 ± 0.3-42.2 ± 2.9 mg kg(-1)) was increased in A. halimus. Increasing Fe and Mn solubility by citric acid addition indicates the possibility of using it to improve plant nutrition. The mobility of metals in this substrate was influenced for the concentration of the metal, the degree of humification of organic matter and its high Fe content.

  3. Computer Viruses: Pathology and Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, John R.; Lamon, William E.

    1992-01-01

    Explains how computer viruses were originally created, how a computer can become infected by a virus, how viruses operate, symptoms that indicate a computer is infected, how to detect and remove viruses, and how to prevent a reinfection. A sidebar lists eight antivirus resources. (four references) (LRW)

  4. Zika virus infection: a public health emergency!

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Muhammad Salman Haider; Qureshi, Bakhtawar Wajeeha; Khan, Ramsha

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus belongs to the family of Flaviviridae. The Flaviviridae family also includes other human pathogens like West Nile virus (WNV), Yellow fever virus (YFV), mosquito transmitted Dengue virus (DENV), Tick borne encephalitic virus (TBEV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Zika virus is a mosquito-borne disease and is transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquito.

  5. Hepatitis A virus antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, J.; Kselikova, M.; Urbankova, J.

    1980-01-01

    A description is presented of a radioimmunoassay designed to prove the presence of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus (HA Ab, anti-Ha) using an Abbott HAVAB set. This proof as well as the proof of the antibody against the nucleus of the hepatitis B virus is based on competition between a normal antibody against hepatitis A virus and a 125 I-labelled antibody for the binding sites of a specific antigen spread all over the surface of a tiny ball; this is then indirect proof of the antibody under investigation. The method is described of reading the results from the number of impulses per 60 seconds: the higher the titre of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus in the serum examined, the lower the activity of the specimen concerned. The rate is reported of incidence of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus in a total of 68 convalescents after hepatitis A; the antibody was found in 94.1%. The immunoglobulin made from the convalescents' plasma showed the presence of antibodies in dilutions as high as 1:250 000 while the comparable ratio for normal immunoglobulin Norga was only 1:2500. Differences are discussed in the time incidence of the antibodies against the hepatitis A virus, the antibodies against the surface antigen of hepatitis B, and the antibody against the nucleus of the hepatitis V virus. (author)

  6. Ocular Tropism of Respiratory Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Paul A.; Tumpey, Terrence M.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Respiratory viruses (including adenovirus, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, and rhinovirus) cause a broad spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from mild influenza-like symptoms to acute respiratory failure. While species D adenoviruses and subtype H7 influenza viruses are known to possess an ocular tropism, documented human ocular disease has been reported following infection with all principal respiratory viruses. In this review, we describe the anatomical proximity and cellular receptor distribution between ocular and respiratory tissues. All major respiratory viruses and their association with human ocular disease are discussed. Research utilizing in vitro and in vivo models to study the ability of respiratory viruses to use the eye as a portal of entry as well as a primary site of virus replication is highlighted. Identification of shared receptor-binding preferences, host responses, and laboratory modeling protocols among these viruses provides a needed bridge between clinical and laboratory studies of virus tropism. PMID:23471620

  7. Avaliação rebrota da copa das árvores de pau-rosa (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke em sistema de podas sucessivas Evaluation of resprouting of rosewood tree (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke crowns in sucessive prunings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Tarso B. Sampaio

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi conduzido em um plantio de pau-rosa com 36 anos, localizado na Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke, Manaus-AM, Brasil, latitude 03º00' 00 "e 03º08'00" S e longitude 59º52'40 "e 59º58'00" W. Foi determinada a biomassa da rebrota da copa das árvores de pau-rosa (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke, Lauraceae, podadas duas vezes (em 2000 e 2002 e das árvores podadas três vezes (em 1987, 2000 e 20002. Os resultados não indicaram diferenças significativas entre o DAP, altura total, número de brotos/fuste, comprimento e diâmetro dos brotos e peso verde da copa das árvores podadas duas ou três vezes. Os coeficientes de regressão e de correlação de Pearson indicaram que a biomassa da copa das árvores podadas pela terceira vez está fortemente correlacionada com a radiação PAR direta, PAR difusa, PAR total e o índice de área foliar. O elevado número de brotos/fuste revelou boa capacidade da rebrota da copa após sucessivas podas, fato que possibilita o manejo da biomassa das árvores através de podas.This study was carried out in a rosewood plantation (36 years-old located in the Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, latitude 03º00' 00 " to 03º08'00" S and longitude 59º52'40 " to 59º58'00" W. The biomass of sprouts was determined from twice pruned (2000 and 2002 rosewood ( Aniba rosaeodora Ducke, Lauraceae tree crowns, and from those harvested three times (1987, 2000 and 2002. The results show that there are no significant differences in biomass productions between trees harvested two or tree times for the following parameters: DBH, total height, number of sprouts per bole, sprout length and diameter, and fresh canopy fresh weight. The regression and Pearson correlation coefficients showed that crown biomass from the third pruning was strongly correlated with direct PAR, diffuse PAR and total PAR and LAI (leaf area index. The high number of sprouts per bole reveals the crown's resprouting capacity after successive

  8. Influência da densidade de plantio e sistema de podas na produção de café Influence of plant density and pruning system on the yield of coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Vasco de Toledo

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Durante 19 anos, foi conduzido um experimento em Campinas, SP, que objetivou avaliar a influência da variedade, espaçamento, número de plantas na cova e sistema de condução da planta sobre a produção de café (Coffea arabica L.. As variedades Mundo Novo e Caturra foram estudadas com cinco densidades de plantio (1, 2, 3, 5 e 6 m²/cova combinadas com uma ou duas plantas por cova e conduzidas sem podas, decotadas a 2 m de altura e recepadas em esquema predeterminado, tipo Beaumont & Fukunaga. Os resultados de 17 colheitas demonstraram que altas densidades de plantio apresentaram elevadas produções nas primeiras safras, com acentuado decréscimo após sete colheitas; a variedade Mundo Novo manteve o potencial produtivo, enquanto a Caturra diminuiu sensivelmente a produção ao longo dos anos; a adoção de um sistema de podas não influenciou na produção, e em alguns períodos foi prejudicial.An experiment with the objective of evaluating the influence of the number of plants per hole, plant density and pruning system on the yield of the Caturra and Mundo Novo varieties of Coffea arabica L. was carried out in Campinas, SP, Brazil, during 19 years. Five planting densities were evaluated: 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6 m²/hole, combined with one and two plants per hole carried out without pruning; pruning at 2 m from the soil; and, plants lapped close to the soil in a regime pre-determinated by Beaumont & Fukunaga. High planting density showed high yields in the first harvests with pronounced decrease after seven harvests. The Mundo Novo variety kept its yield potential while the Caturra variety highly decreased its yield throughout the years; the adoption of a pruning system did not influence the yield and was even prejudicial in some periods.

  9. VHS virus - present situation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skall, Helle Frank; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    of the worldwide distribution of the disease will be given. Virus evolution: Recent studies indicate that only a few amino acid changes in the structural proteins of VHSV can change the virulence patterns significantly, thereby coming closer to assessing the risk of none to low virulent viruses becoming high...... virulent. Virulence factors both depend on the ability of VHSV to enter a cell and on the speed and efficiencyof virus replication in the cells. Apparently the viral nucleocapsid protein plays a very important role for the later and seems to be the target for determination of a virulence marker....

  10. Zika virus in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veasna Duong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest in Uganda in 1947. In Asia, the virus was isolated in Malaysia from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in 1966, and the first human infections were reported in 1977 in Central Java, Indonesia. In this review, all reported cases of ZIKV infection in Asia as of September 1, 2016 are summarized and some of the hypotheses that could currently explain the apparently low incidence of Zika cases in Asia are explored.

  11. Zika virus in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Veasna Duong; Philippe Dussart; Philippe Buchy

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest in Uganda in 1947. In Asia, the virus was isolated in Malaysia from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in 1966, and the first human infections were reported in 1977 in Central Java, Indonesia. In this review, all reported cases of ZIKV infection in Asia as of September 1, 2016 are summarized and some of the hypotheses that could currently explain the apparently low incidence of...

  12. Zika virus in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Veasna; Dussart, Philippe; Buchy, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest in Uganda in 1947. In Asia, the virus was isolated in Malaysia from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in 1966, and the first human infections were reported in 1977 in Central Java, Indonesia. In this review, all reported cases of ZIKV infection in Asia as of September 1, 2016 are summarized and some of the hypotheses that could currently explain the apparently low incidence of Zika cases in Asia are explored. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Viruses in reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Ellen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The etiology of reptilian viral diseases can be attributed to a wide range of viruses occurring across different genera and families. Thirty to forty years ago, studies of viruses in reptiles focused mainly on the zoonotic potential of arboviruses in reptiles and much effort went into surveys and challenge trials of a range of reptiles with eastern and western equine encephalitis as well as Japanese encephalitis viruses. In the past decade, outbreaks of infection with West Nile virus in human populations and in farmed alligators in the USA has seen the research emphasis placed on the issue of reptiles, particularly crocodiles and alligators, being susceptible to, and reservoirs for, this serious zoonotic disease. Although there are many recognised reptilian viruses, the evidence for those being primary pathogens is relatively limited. Transmission studies establishing pathogenicity and cofactors are likewise scarce, possibly due to the relatively low commercial importance of reptiles, difficulties with the availability of animals and permits for statistically sound experiments, difficulties with housing of reptiles in an experimental setting or the inability to propagate some viruses in cell culture to sufficient titres for transmission studies. Viruses as causes of direct loss of threatened species, such as the chelonid fibropapilloma associated herpesvirus and ranaviruses in farmed and wild tortoises and turtles, have re-focused attention back to the characterisation of the viruses as well as diagnosis and pathogenesis in the host itself. 1. Introduction 2. Methods for working with reptilian viruses 3. Reptilian viruses described by virus families 3.1. Herpesviridae 3.2. Iridoviridae 3.2.1 Ranavirus 3.2.2 Erythrocytic virus 3.2.3 Iridovirus 3.3. Poxviridae 3.4. Adenoviridae 3.5. Papillomaviridae 3.6. Parvoviridae 3.7. Reoviridae 3.8. Retroviridae and inclusion body disease of Boid snakes 3.9. Arboviruses 3.9.1. Flaviviridae 3

  14. BS-virus-finder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Shengjie; Hu, Xuesong; Xu, Fengping

    2018-01-01

    Background: DNA methylation plays a key role in the regulation of gene expression and carcinogenesis. Bisulfite sequencing studies mainly focus on calling SNP, DMR, and ASM. Until now, only a few software tools focus on virus integration using bisulfite sequencing data. Findings: We have developed...... a new and easy-to-use software tool, named BS-virus-finder (BSVF, RRID:SCR_015727), to detect viral integration breakpoints in whole human genomes. The tool is hosted at https://github.com/BGI-SZ/BSVF. Conclusions: BS-virus-finder demonstrates high sensitivity and specificity. It is useful in epigenetic...

  15. Ebola Virus Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast provides general information about Ebola virus disease and the outbreak in West Africa. The program contains remarks from CDC Director Dr. Tom Frieden, as well as a brief description of CDC’s response efforts.

  16. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Donate Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG ... Virus and Pregnancy Infographic Resources & Publications Committee Opinions Practice Bulletins Patient Education Green Journal Clinical Updates Practice ...

  17. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dues Follow us: Women's Health Care Physicians Contact Us My ACOG ACOG Departments Donate Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus ...

  18. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Departments Donate Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ... pregnant. Related: Zika Virus and Pregnancy Infographic Resources & Publications Committee Opinions Practice Bulletins Patient Education Green Journal ...

  19. CLASSIFICATION OF VIRUSES

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. CLASSIFICATION OF VIRUSES. On basis of morphology. On basis of chemical composition. On basis of structure of genome. On basis of mode of replication. Notes:

  20. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ACOG Pregnancy Book Patient Education FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and ... on Patient Safety For Patients Patient FAQs Spanish Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & Governance ...