Mihelj, Matjaž; Beguš, Samo
As virtual reality expands from the imaginary worlds of science fiction and pervades every corner of everyday life, it is becoming increasingly important for students and professionals alike to understand the diverse aspects of this technology. This book aims to provide a comprehensive guide to the theoretical and practical elements of virtual reality, from the mathematical and technological foundations of virtual worlds to the human factors and the applications that enrich our lives: in the fields of medicine, entertainment, education and others. After providing a brief introduction to the topic, the book describes the kinematic and dynamic mathematical models of virtual worlds. It explores the many ways a computer can track and interpret human movement, then progresses through the modalities that make up a virtual world: visual, acoustic and haptic. It explores the interaction between the actual and virtual environments, as well as design principles of the latter. The book closes with an examination of diff...
INSPIRE-00225336; Moyse, Edward; Bianchi, Riccardo Maria
We present ATLASrift - a Virtual Reality application that provides an interactive, immersive visit to ATLAS experiment. We envision it being used in two different ways: first as an educational and outreach tool - for schools, universities, museums and interested individuals, and secondly as an event viewer for ATLAS physicists - for them it will provide a much better spatial awareness of an event, track and jet directions, occupancies and interactions with detector structures. Using it, one can learn about the experiment as a whole, visit individual sub-detectors, view real interactions, or take a scripted walkthrough explaining questions physicists are trying to answer. We briefly describe our platform of choice - OculusRift VR system, the development environment - UnrealEngine, and, in detail, the numerous technically demanding requirements that had to be fulfilled in order to provide a comfortable user experience. Plans for future versions include making the experience social by adding multi-user/virtual p...
Ludlow, Barbara L.
Virtual reality is an emerging technology that has resulted in rapid expansion in the development of virtual immersive environments for use as educational simulations in schools, colleges and universities. This article presents an overview of virtual reality, describes a number of applications currently being used by special educators for…
Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; The ATLAS collaboration
We present ATLASrift - a Virtual Reality application that provides an interactive, immersive visit to ATLAS experiment. We envision it being used in two different ways: first as an educational and outreach tool - for schools, universities, museums and interested individuals, and secondly as an event viewer for ATLAS physicists – for them it will provide a much better spatial awareness of an event, track and jet directions, occupancies and interactions with detector structures. Using it, one can learn about the experiment as a whole, visit individual sub-detectors, view real interactions, or take a scripted walkthrough explaining questions physicists are trying to answer. We briefly describe our platform of choice – OculusRift VR system, the development environment – UnrealEngine, and, in detail, the numerous technically demanding requirements that had to be fulfilled in order to provide a comfortable user experience. Plans for future versions include making the experience social by adding multi-user/vir...
Virtual reality (VR) has become an important and useful tool in science and engineering. VR applications cover a wide range of industrial areas from product design to analysis, from product prototyping to manufacturing. The design and manufacturing of a product can be viewed, evaluated and improved in a virtual environment before its prototype is made, which is an enormous cost saving. Virtual Manufacturing (VM) is the use of computer models and simulations of manufacturing processes to aid in the design and production of manufactured products. VM is the use of manufacturing-based simulations to optimize the design of product and processes for a specific manufacturing goal such as: design for assembly; quality; lean operations; and/or flexibility.
Newby, Gregory B.
Discusses the current state of the art in virtual reality (VR), its historical background, and future possibilities. Highlights include applications in medicine, art and entertainment, science, business, and telerobotics; and VR for information science, including graphical display of bibliographic data, libraries and books, and cyberspace.…
Full Text Available Virtual reality (VR is a powerful multimedia visualization technique offering a range of mechanisms by which many new experiences can be made available. This paper deals with the basic nature of VR, the technologies needed to create it, and its potential, especially for helping disabled people. It also offers an overview of some examples of existing VR systems.
Milheim, William D.
An overview is provided of current trends in virtual reality research and development, including discussion of hardware, types of virtual reality, and potential problems with virtual reality. Implications for education and training are explored. (Author/JKP)
Full Text Available Virtual reality represents simulated three-dimensional environment created by hardware and software, which providing realistic experience and possibility of interaction to the end-user. Benefits provided by immersive virtual reality in educational setting were recognised in the past decades, however mass application was left out due to the lack of development and high price. Intensive development of new platforms and virtual reality devices in the last few years started up with Oculus Rift, and subsequently accelerated in the year 2014 by occurrence of Google Cardboard. Nowadays, for the first time in history, immersive virtual reality is available to millions of people. In the mid 2015 Google commenced developing Expeditions Pioneer Program aiming to massively utilise the Google Cardboard platform in education. Expeditions and other VR apps can enhance geography teaching and learning. Realistic experience acquired by utilisation of virtual reality in teaching process significantly overcome possibilities provided by images and illustrations in the textbook. Besides literature review on usage of virtual reality in education this paper presents suggestion of VR mobile apps that can be used together with the Google Cardboard head mounted displays (HMDs in geography classes, thereby emphasising advantages and disadvantages as well as possible obstacles which may occur in introducing the immersive virtual reality in the educational process.
The features and classifications of Virtual Reality Techniques have been summarized and recommendation of applying Virtual Reality on distance education has been made. Future research is needed on the design and implementation of virtual classroom and courseware.
Xiao, Jian; Zhang, Hui-xia; Liu, Liang
This article reviewed general information, application and progress of the virtual reality (VR) technique. Lectures showed that the VR technique would impact and prompt the teaching, experiment, research and application of forensic pathology with the development of operation guiding system, virtual autopsy, micro-imaging technique. Because of the limitation of software, hardware and the expense, the VR technique needed to be improved and perfected.
Dan L. Lacrãmã
Full Text Available This paper is focused on the presentation of Virtual Reality principles together with the main implementation methods and techniques. An overview of the main development directions is included.
Eichenberg, Christiane, Ed.
This book has an aim to present latest applications, trends and developments of virtual reality technologies in three humanities disciplines: in medicine, psychology and pedagogy. Studies show that people in both educational as well as in the medical therapeutic range expect more and more that modern media are included in the corresponding demand…
Object Manipulation in Immersive Virtual Environments", in the Proceedings of IEEE Virtual Reality Conference, Greenville, SC, March, 2016.  Goyette...Immersive Virtual Reality with Applications to Tele-Operation and Training The proposed project aims to develop a fundamental framework for...establishing an immersive virtual reality environment for robust and scalable human robotics interaction in a cooperative intelligent architecture at the
Pallavicini, Federica; Argenton, Luca; Toniazzi, Nicola; Aceti, Luciana; Mantovani, Fabrizia
Stress Management Training programs are increasingly being adopted in the military field for resilience empowerment and primary stress prevention. In the last several years, advanced technologies (virtual reality in particular) have been integrated in order to develop more innovative and effective stress training programs for military personnel, including soldiers, pilots, and other aircrew professionals. This systematic review describes experimental studies that have been conducted in recent years to test the effectiveness of virtual reality-based Stress Management Training programs developed for military personnel. This promising state-of-the-art technology has the potential to be a successful new approach in empowering soldiers and increasing their resilience to stress. To provide an overview from 2001 to 2016 of the application of virtual reality for Stress Management Training programs developed for the military, a computer-based search for relevant publications was performed in several databases. Databases used in the search were PsycINFO, Web of Science (Web of Knowledge), PubMed, and Medline. The search string was: ("Virtual Reality") AND ("Military") AND ["Stress Training" OR ("Stress Management")]. There were 14 studies that met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. The main observation to be drawn from this review is that virtual reality can provide interactive Stress Management Training to decrease levels of perceived stress and negative affect in military personnel. This technology appears to be a promising tool for assessing individuals' resilience to stress and for identifying the impact that stress can have on physiological reactivity and performance.Pallavicini F, Argenton L, Toniazzi N, Aceti L, Mantovani F. Virtual realtiy applications for stress management training in the military. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2016; 87(12):1021-1030.
Full Text Available In this paper, we present Virtual Touch, a toolkit that allows the development of educational activities through a mixed reality environment such that, using various tangible elements, the interconnection of a virtual world with the real world is enabled. The main goal of Virtual Touch is to facilitate the installation, configuration and programming of different types of technologies, abstracting the creator of educational applications from the technical details involving the use of tangible interfaces and virtual worlds. Therefore, it is specially designed to enable teachers to themselves create educational activities for their students in a simple way, taking into account that teachers generally lack advanced knowledge in computer programming and electronics. The toolkit has been used to develop various educational applications that have been tested in two secondary education high schools in Spain.
Mateu, Juan; Lasala, María José; Alamán, Xavier
In this paper, we present Virtual Touch, a toolkit that allows the development of educational activities through a mixed reality environment such that, using various tangible elements, the interconnection of a virtual world with the real world is enabled. The main goal of Virtual Touch is to facilitate the installation, configuration and programming of different types of technologies, abstracting the creator of educational applications from the technical details involving the use of tangible interfaces and virtual worlds. Therefore, it is specially designed to enable teachers to themselves create educational activities for their students in a simple way, taking into account that teachers generally lack advanced knowledge in computer programming and electronics. The toolkit has been used to develop various educational applications that have been tested in two secondary education high schools in Spain.
Hamacher, Alaric; Kim, Su Jin; Cho, Sung Tae; Pardeshi, Sunil; Lee, Seung Hyun; Eun, Sung-Jong; Whangbo, Taeg Keun
Recent developments in virtual, augmented, and mixed reality have introduced a considerable number of new devices into the consumer market. This momentum is also affecting the medical and health care sector. Although many of the theoretical and practical foundations of virtual reality (VR) were already researched and experienced in the 1980s, the vastly improved features of displays, sensors, interactivity, and computing power currently available in devices offer a new field of applications to the medical sector and also to urology in particular. The purpose of this review article is to review the extent to which VR technology has already influenced certain aspects of medicine, the applications that are currently in use in urology, and the future development trends that could be expected.
Recent developments in virtual, augmented, and mixed reality have introduced a considerable number of new devices into the consumer market. This momentum is also affecting the medical and health care sector. Although many of the theoretical and practical foundations of virtual reality (VR) were already researched and experienced in the 1980s, the vastly improved features of displays, sensors, interactivity, and computing power currently available in devices offer a new field of applications to the medical sector and also to urology in particular. The purpose of this review article is to review the extent to which VR technology has already influenced certain aspects of medicine, the applications that are currently in use in urology, and the future development trends that could be expected. PMID:27706017
Kartiko, Iwan; Kavakli, Manolya; Cheng, Ken
As the technology in computer graphics advances, Animated-Virtual Actors (AVAs) in Virtual Reality (VR) applications become increasingly rich and complex. Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML) suggests that complex visual materials could hinder novice learners from attending to the lesson properly. On the other hand, previous studies have…
Full Text Available Virtual Reality (virtual environment technology, VET has been widely available for twenty years. In that time, the benefits of using virtual environments (VEs have become clear in many areas of application, including assessment and training, education, rehabilitation and psychological research in spatial cognition. The flexibility, reproducibility and adaptability of VEs are especially important, particularly in the training and testing of navigational and way-finding skills. Transfer of training between real and virtual environments has been found to be reliable. However, input device usage can compromise spatial information acquisition from VEs, and distances in VEs are invariably underestimated. The present review traces the evolution of VET, anticipates future areas in which developments are likely to occur, and highlights areas in which research is needed to optimise usage.
Curcio Igor D.D.; Dipace Anna; Norlund Anita
The purpose of this article is to highlight the state of the art of virtual reality, augmented reality, mixed reality technologies and their applications in formal education. We also present a selected list of case studies that prove the utility of these technologies in the context of formal education. Furthermore, as byproduct, the mentioned case studies show also that, although the industry is able to develop very advanced virtual environment technologies, their pedagogical implications are...
Applications (pp. 14-1 – 14-8). Meeting Proceedings RTO-MP-HFM-136, Paper 14. Neuilly-sur-Seine, France : RTO. Available from: http...applications 14.06.2006 Military Air Systems Defence & Security Systems Military Air Systems EADS Eurocopter Military Transport Aircraft SpaceAirbus M B
Hale, Joseph; Oneil, Daniel
Virtual Reality (VR) is a rapidly developing Human/Computer Interface (HCI) technology. The evolution of high-speed graphics processors and development of specialized anthropomorphic user interface devices, that more fully involve the human senses, have enabled VR technology. Recently, the maturity of this technology has reached a level where it can be used as a tool in a variety of applications. This paper provides an overview of: VR technology, VR activities at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), applications of VR to Automated Rendezvous and Capture (AR&C), and identifies areas of VR technology that requires further development.
Li, Lan; Yu, Fei; Shi, Dongquan; Shi, Jianping; Tian, Zongjun; Yang, Jiquan; Wang, Xingsong; Jiang, Qing
The present review discusses the application of virtual reality (VR) technology in clinical medicine, especially in surgical training, pain management and therapeutic treatment of mental illness. We introduce the common types of VR simulators and their operational principles in aforementioned fields. The clinical effects are also discussed. In almost every study that dealt with VR simulators, researchers have arrived at the same conclusion that both doctors and patients could benefit from this novel technology. Moreover, advantages and disadvantages of the utilization of VR technology in each field were discussed, and the future research directions were proposed. PMID:28979666
Virk, Sumandeep; McConville, Kristiina M Valter
Maintaining balance under all conditions is an absolute requirement for humans. Orientation in space and balance maintenance requires inputs from the vestibular, the visual, the proprioceptive and the somatosensory systems. All the cues coming from these systems are integrated by the central nervous system (CNS) to employ different strategies for orientation and balance. How the CNS integrates all the inputs and makes cognitive decisions about balance strategies has been an area of interest for biomedical engineers for a long time. More interesting is the fact that in the absence of one or more cues, or when the input from one of the sensors is skewed, the CNS "adapts" to the new environment and gives less weight to the conflicting inputs . The focus of this paper is a review of different strategies and models put forward by researchers to explain the integration of these sensory cues. Also, the paper compares the different approaches used by young and old adults in maintaining balance. Since with age the musculoskeletal, visual and vestibular system deteriorates, the older subjects have to compensate for these impaired sensory cues for postural stability. The paper also discusses the applications of virtual reality in rehabilitation programs not only for balance in the elderly but also in occupational falls. Virtual reality has profound applications in the field of balance rehabilitation and training because of its relatively low cost. Studies will be conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of virtual reality training in modifying the head and eye movement strategies, and determine the role of these responses in the maintenance of balance.
De Gennaro, Silvano; CERN. Geneva
Virtual Reality for Engineers. Virtual Reality is a very powerful visualization technique for 3D data, which can bring enormous benefits to engineering design. CAD models can be exported to a VR application and used as "Virtual Prototypes". Virtual Prototypes are an ideal replacement for wooden models as they can be generated automatically from most CAD products. They are totally reliable, they can be updated in a matter of minutes, and they allow designers to explore them from inside, on a one-to-one scale and using a 3D-stereo vision. Navigation can be performed using a number of instinctive tools, such as joysticks, spaceballs, VR helmets and 3D mice. The lectures will cover today's Virtual Reality products and methods, and describe how to transform CAD models into Virtual Prototypes. A "hands on" VR experience featuring the LHC detectors models can be organized for people interested.
Full Text Available The measurement of a particular human body member position is extremely important in many applications. The human behavior understanding typically involves the body posture analysis or estimation, as well as the generated corresponding gestures. This behavior characterization allows analyzing, interpreting, and animating human actions and therefore enables us the use of experimental methodologies. Using the virtual reality devices to facilitate people’s lives, they can help to train and improve the actions of an Olympic athlete, for example and imitation of human actions by robotic systems. The systems development to monitor human body members’ movements is a growing interesting area, both in entertainment and in systems to help physically disabled people, as that developing assistive technology. To contribute to this area, this paper presents the experimental development of an instrumented glove prototype of low cost for the recognition of hand inclination movements, using a Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS accelerometer, by virtual reality concepts for demonstration in real time. We present the hardware that was developed, the calibration procedures, the achieved results with their statistical corresponding validation. The results allowed to state that the system is suitable for the inclination measurement in a 2D plan, thus allowing its use in entertainment systems and as an auxiliary device for assistive technology system.
Juan Mateu; María José Lasala; Xavier Alamán
© 2015 by MDPI (http://www.mdpi.org). Reproduction is permitted for noncommercial purposes. In this paper, we present Virtual Touch, a toolkit that allows the development of educational activities through a mixed reality environment such that, using various tangible elements, the interconnection of a virtual world with the real world is enabled. The main goal of Virtual Touch is to facilitate the installation, configuration and programming of different types of technologies, ab...
Curcio Igor D.D.
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to highlight the state of the art of virtual reality, augmented reality, mixed reality technologies and their applications in formal education. We also present a selected list of case studies that prove the utility of these technologies in the context of formal education. Furthermore, as byproduct, the mentioned case studies show also that, although the industry is able to develop very advanced virtual environment technologies, their pedagogical implications are strongly related to a well-designed theoretical framework.
Erren-Wolters, Cathelijne V.; van Dijk, Henk; de Kort, Alexander C.; IJzerman, Maarten Joost; Jannink, M.J.A.
Virtual reality technology is an emerging technology that possibly can address the problems encountered in training (elderly) people to handle a mobility device. The objective of this review was to study different virtual reality training applications as well as their clinical implication for
The use of immersive virtual reality as a research tool is rapidly increasing in numerous scientific disciplines. By combining ecological validity with strict experimental control, immersive virtual reality provides the potential to develop and test scientific theories in rich environments that closely resemble everyday settings. This article introduces the first standardized database of colored three-dimensional (3-D) objects that can be used in virtual reality and augmented reality research and applications. The 147 objects have been normed for name agreement, image agreement, familiarity, visual complexity, and corresponding lexical characteristics of the modal object names. The availability of standardized 3-D objects for virtual reality research is important, because reaching valid theoretical conclusions hinges critically on the use of well-controlled experimental stimuli. Sharing standardized 3-D objects across different virtual reality labs will allow for science to move forward more quickly.
Computer Graphics (CG) and Virtual Reality (VR) are becoming very useful in the mineral industry as tools by which engineers, managers and planners can communicate complex engineering designs to the relevant end users in 3- dimensional (3D) presentations. Although 2-dimensional (2D) presentations of technical ...
So Richard HY; Kiryu Tohru
Abstract Around three years ago, in the special issue on augmented and virtual reality in rehabilitation, the topics of simulator sickness was briefly discussed in relation to vestibular rehabilitation. Simulator sickness with virtual reality applications have also been referred to as visually induced motion sickness or cybersickness. Recently, study on cybersickness has been reported in entertainment, training, game, and medical environment in several journals. Virtual stimuli can enlarge se...
Poeschl, Sandra; Doering, Nicola
Virtual training applications with high levels of immersion or fidelity (for example for social phobia treatment) produce high levels of presence and therefore belong to the most successful Virtual Reality developments. Whereas display and interaction fidelity (as sub-dimensions of immersion) and their influence on presence are well researched, realism of the displayed simulation depends on the specific application and is therefore difficult to measure. We propose to measure simulation realism by using a self-report questionnaire. The German VR Simulation Realism Scale for VR training applications was developed based on a translation of scene realism items from the Witmer-Singer-Presence Questionnaire. Items for realism of virtual humans (for example for social phobia training applications) were supplemented. A sample of N = 151 students rated simulation realism of a Fear of Public Speaking application. Four factors were derived by item- and principle component analysis (Varimax rotation), representing Scene Realism, Audience Behavior, Audience Appearance and Sound Realism. The scale developed can be used as a starting point for future research and measurement of simulation realism for applications including virtual humans.
Syahputra, M. F.; Annisa, T.; Rahmat, R. F.; Muchtar, M. A.
Serdang Sultanate is one of Malay Sultanate in Sumatera Utara. In the 18th century, many Malay Aristocrats have developed in Sumatera Utara. Social revolution has happened in 1946, many sultanates were overthrown and member of PKI (Communist Party of Indonesia) did mass killing on members of the sultanate families. As the results of this incident, many cultural and historical heritage destroyed. The integration of heritage preservation and the digital technology has become recent trend. The digital technology is not only able to record, preserve detailed documents and information of heritage completely, but also effectively bring the value-added. In this research, polygonal modelling techniques from 3D modelling technology is used to reconstruct Darul Arif Palace of Serdang Sultanate. After modelling the palace, it will be combined with virtual reality technology to allow user to explore the palace and the environment around the palace. Virtual technology is simulation of real objects in virtual world. The results in this research is that virtual reality application can run using Head-Mounted Display.
In the present work we study aesthetic consequences of virtual reality. Exploring the fringe between fictional and virtual is one of the key goals, that will be achieved through etymologic and technologic definition of both fiction and virtual reality, fictional and virtual worlds. Both fiction and virtual reality will be then studied from aesthetic distance and aesthetic pleasure point of view. At the end, we will see the main difference as well as an common grounds between fiction and virtu...
Thrush, Emily Austin; Bodary, Michael
Presents a brief examination of the evolution of virtual reality devices that illustrates how the development of this new medium is influenced by emerging technologies and by marketing pressures. Notes that understanding these influences may help prepare for the role of technical communicators in building virtual reality applications for education…
Gomez-Arguello, B.; Gonzalez, F.; Salve, R.
The application of Virtual Reality for training in radiological environments allows the planning analysis and training in tasks which will be performed later in a real environment, saving doses to the real workers. There are many advantages of using VR in the training field comparing with a traditional training based on entries to the radiological areas and 2D studies: The application of the VR to the nuclear industry will provide in a middle period a more efficient training in radiological environments, giving more fidelity to the real world, enforcing the spatial skills and the active learning and allowing the visualization of the radiation field and the more suitable routes. TECNATOM has been working in VR field through several to test the adequacy of this methodology. Specifically, the SIMU2 project has been developed. This is a Virtual Reality highly flexible based software tool which allows for the simulation of human tasks in radiological environments, providing dosimetric information in all the points of the environment as well as the doses received by the workers during the simulated tasks performance. This application can be used as a support tool in training courses, to train the operators who will perform the real operation. Besides, the system allows the trainer to enter comments and explanations for each selected action or for the complete task. (Author) 8 refs.
Rothbaum, BO; Hodges, L; Kooper, R
It has been proposed that virtual reality (VR) exposure may be an alternative to standard in vivo exposure. Virtual reality integrates real-time computer graphics, body tracking devices, visual displays, and other sensory input devices to immerse a participant in a computer- generated virtual environment. Virtual reality exposure is potentially an efficient and cost-effective treatment of anxiety disorders. VR exposure therapy reduced the fear of heights in the first control...
Full Text Available Virtual reality is a relatively new exposure tool that uses three-dimensional computer-graphics-based technologies which allow the individual to feel as if they are physically inside the virtual environment by misleading their senses. As virtual reality studies have become popular in the field of clinical psychology in recent years, it has been observed that virtual-reality-based therapies have a wide range of application areas, especially on anxiety disorders. Studies indicate that virtual reality can be more realistic than mental imagery and can create a stronger feeling of resenceԻ that it is a safer starting point compared to in vivo exposure; and that it can be applied in a more practical and controlled manner. The aim of this review is to investigate exposure studies based on virtual reality in anxiety disorders (specific phobias, panic disorder and agoraphobias, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, posttraumatic stress disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder.
Pilarczyk, Rafal; Skarbek, Władysław
Paper presents virtual reality application framework and application concept for mobile devices. Framework uses Google Cardboard library for Android operating system. Framework allows to create virtual reality 360 video player using standard OpenGL ES rendering methods. Framework provides network methods in order to connect to web server as application resource provider. Resources are delivered using JSON response as result of HTTP requests. Web server also uses Socket.IO library for synchronous communication between application and server. Framework implements methods to create event driven process of rendering additional content based on video timestamp and virtual reality head point of view.
Full Text Available Virtual reality (VR rehabilitation technology is a kind of integrated technology which simulates the real world via computer. It has three characteristics: immersion, interaction and imagination. It is widely used in the field of stroke rehabilitation. This review briefly describes the application of virtual reality rehabilitation technology in upper limb dysfunction after stroke. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2017.04.002
Bing-jie LI; Li, Fang
Virtual reality (VR) rehabilitation technology is a kind of integrated technology which simulates the real world via computer. It has three characteristics: immersion, interaction and imagination. It is widely used in the field of stroke rehabilitation. This review briefly describes the application of virtual reality rehabilitation technology in upper limb dysfunction after stroke. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2017.04.002
Zhou, Y Q; Li, C; Shui, C Y; Cai, Y C; Sun, R H; Zeng, D F; Wang, W; Li, Q L; Huang, L; Tu, J; Jiang, J
Objective: To investigate the application of virtual reality technology in the preoperative evaluation of complex head and neck carcinoma and he value of virtual reality technology in surgical treatment of head and neck carcinoma. Methods: The image data of eight patients with complex head and neck carcinoma treated from December 2016 to May 2017 was acquired. The data were put into virtual reality system to built the three-dimensional anatomical model of carcinoma and to created the surgical scene. The process of surgery was stimulated by recognizing the relationship between tumor and surrounding important structures. Finally all patients were treated with surgery. And two typical cases were reported. Results: With the help of virtual reality, surgeons could adequately assess the condition of carcinoma and the security of operation and ensured the safety of operations. Conclusions: Virtual reality can provide the surgeons with the sensory experience in virtual surgery scenes and achieve the man-computer cooperation and stereoscopic assessment, which will ensure the safety of surgery. Virtual reality has a huge impact on guiding the traditional surgical procedure of head and neck carcinoma.
So Richard HY
Full Text Available Abstract Around three years ago, in the special issue on augmented and virtual reality in rehabilitation, the topics of simulator sickness was briefly discussed in relation to vestibular rehabilitation. Simulator sickness with virtual reality applications have also been referred to as visually induced motion sickness or cybersickness. Recently, study on cybersickness has been reported in entertainment, training, game, and medical environment in several journals. Virtual stimuli can enlarge sensation of presence, but they sometimes also evoke unpleasant sensation. In order to safely apply augmented and virtual reality for long-term rehabilitation treatment, sensation of presence and cybersickness should be appropriately controlled. This issue presents the results of five studies conducted to evaluate visually-induced effects and speculate influences of virtual rehabilitation. In particular, the influence of visual and vestibular stimuli on cardiovascular responses are reported in terms of academic contribution.
Kiryu, Tohru; So, Richard H Y
Around three years ago, in the special issue on augmented and virtual reality in rehabilitation, the topics of simulator sickness was briefly discussed in relation to vestibular rehabilitation. Simulator sickness with virtual reality applications have also been referred to as visually induced motion sickness or cybersickness. Recently, study on cybersickness has been reported in entertainment, training, game, and medical environment in several journals. Virtual stimuli can enlarge sensation of presence, but they sometimes also evoke unpleasant sensation. In order to safely apply augmented and virtual reality for long-term rehabilitation treatment, sensation of presence and cybersickness should be appropriately controlled. This issue presents the results of five studies conducted to evaluate visually-induced effects and speculate influences of virtual rehabilitation. In particular, the influence of visual and vestibular stimuli on cardiovascular responses are reported in terms of academic contribution.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Performs basic and applied research in interactive 3D computer graphics, including visual analytics, virtual environments, and augmented reality (AR). The...
Downham, A.; Abeywickrema, U.; Banerjee, P. P.
Previously, a single CCD camera has been used to record holograms of an object while the object is rotated about a single axis to reconstruct a pseudo-3D image, which does not show detailed depth information from all perspectives. To generate a true 3D image, the object has to be rotated through multiple angles and along multiple axes. In this work, to reconstruct a true 3D image including depth information, a die is rotated along two orthogonal axes, and holograms are recorded using a Mach-Zehnder setup, which are subsequently numerically reconstructed. This allows for the generation of multiple images containing phase (i.e., depth) information. These images, when combined, create a true 3D image with depth information which can be exported to a Microsoft® HoloLens for true 3D virtual reality.
Gavrilović Ljiljana 1
Full Text Available This paper discusses possible application of ethnographic research in the realm of virtual reality, especially in the relationship between cultures in virtual communities. This represents an entirely new area of ethnographic research and therefore many adjustments in the research design are needed for example, a development of a specific method of data gathering and tools for their verification. A virtual, cyber space is a version of social space more or less synchronous with it, but without the, "real", that is, physical presence of the people who create it. This virtual reality, defined and bounded by virtual space, is in fact real - and though we are not able to observe real, physical parameters of its existence, we can perceive its consequences. In sum, an innovative ethnographic research method is fully applicable for exploring the realm of virtual reality; in order to do so we need to expand, in addition to the new research design and methods, the field of science itself.
Serafin, Stefania; Erkut, Cumhur; Kojs, Juraj
The rapid development and availability of low cost technologies has created a wide interest in virtual reality (VR), but how to design and evaluate multisensory interactions in VR remains as a challenge. In this paper, we focus on virtual reality musical instruments, present an overview of our...
Andolsek, Diane L.
Provides an overview of virtual reality from an education perspective. Defines the technology in terms of equipment and participatory experience, examines the potential applications of virtual reality in education and training, and considers the concerns and limitations of the technology. Overall, research indicates that virtual reality offers…
This paper will discuss the use of Virtual Reality (VR) technologies in the rehabilitation of patients with vestibular disorders and in the provision of remote medical consultations for those patients. Patients with a vestibular problem are very common (vertigo is the second most common neurological complaint after headache) and yet there are very few vestibular neurotologists: specialists in their diagnosis and treatment. New treatments for various disorders causing vertigo now exist. This means that appropriate diagnosis can significantly improve patients' well-being. Remote medical diagnosis and treatment facilities could make the few vestibular disorder specialists much more available to patients. An analysis of the technological and economic factors influencing the provision of this service is necessary. The main long term effect of many vestibular disorders is damage to the sensing apparatus of the inner ear. The damage can lead to inappropriate interaction between visually driven orientation sensing and sensing of orientation by the inner ear. The consequence for the patient is vertigo (a sensation of turning), motion sickness and imbalance. Current rehabilitation efforts are intended to drive the nervous system to adapt to the disordered vestibular input. Adaptation appears to occur slowly in many subjects, even those within rehabilitation programs. An appropriately designed VR experience could greatly increase the rate of adaptation in these patients.
Full Text Available This study serves as an introduction to how virtual reality systems could be applied in public administration and what research tasks would be necessary to accomplish a project. E-government solutions began to emerge in public administration approximately a decade ago all over the developed world. Administration service facilities via the Internet did not attract many customers, because of the digital divide. E-government solutions were extended to mobile devices as well, but the expected breakthrough of usage has not ensued. The virtual reality form of public administration services recommended in this study has the most attractive outlay and the simplest navigation tools if compared to ‘traditional’ Internet based e-government. Thus, in accordance with the worldwide amazingly quick spread of the virtual reality systems of Second Life and 3 D types of entertainment, virtual reality applications in public administration could rely on a wide range of acceptance as well.
Muscott, Howard S.; Gifford, Timothy
This article describes virtual reality (VR) technology and discusses its potential application to the teaching of social skills to children and youth with behavior disorders through the use of interactive role plays. Limitations of the current technology and difficulties inherent in modeling simulations of human behavior are noted, as are…
Gonsalves, Atish; Ternier, Stefaan; De Vries, Fred; Specht, Marcus
Gonsalves, A., Ternier, S., De Vries, F., & Specht, M. (2012). Serious games at the UNHCR with ARLearn, a toolkit for mobile and virtual reality applications. In M. Specht, M. Sharples, & J. Multisilta (Eds.), Proceedings of 11th World Conference on Mobile and Contextual Learning (mLearn 2012) (pp.
Gonsalves, Atish; Ternier, Stefaan; De Vries, Fred; Specht, Marcus
Gonsalves, A., Ternier, S., De Vries, F., & Specht, M. (2012, 16-18 October). Serious games at the UNHCR with ARLearn, a toolkit for mobile and virtual reality applications. Presentation given at the 11th World Conference on Mobile and Contextual Learning (mLearn 2012), Helsinki, Finland.
Kageyama, Akira; Masada, Youhei
We developed an application launcher called Multiverse for scientific visualizations in a CAVE-type virtual reality (VR) system. Multiverse can be regarded as a type of three-dimensional (3D) desktop environment. In Multiverse, a user in a CAVE room can browse multiple visualization applications with 3D icons and explore movies that float in the air. Touching one of the movies causes "teleportation" into the application's VR space. After analyzing the simulation data using the application, th...
Oroh, H. N.; Munir, R.; Paseru, D.
Spectral Tarsier is a primitive primate that can only be found in the province of North Sulawesi. To study these primates can be used an e-learning application with Augmented Reality technology that uses a marker to confronted the camera computer to interact with three dimensions Tarsier object. But that application only shows tarsier object in three dimensions without habitat and requires a lot of resources because it runs on a Personal Computer. The same technology can be shown three dimensions’ objects is Virtual Reality to excess can make the user like venturing into the virtual world with Android platform that requires fewer resources. So, put on Virtual Reality technology using the Android platform that can make users not only to view and interact with the tarsiers but also the habitat. The results of this research indicate that the user can learn the Tarsier and habitat with good. Thus, the use of Virtual Reality technology in the e-learning application of tarsiers can help people to see, know, and learn about Spectral Tarsier.
Zhang, Melvyn W B; Ho, Roger C M
There have been rapid advances in technologies over the past decade and virtual reality technology is an area which is increasingly utilized as a healthcare intervention in many disciplines including that of Medicine, Surgery and Psychiatry. In Psychiatry, most of the current interventions involving the usage of virtual reality technology is limited to its application for anxiety disorders. With the advances in technology, Internet addiction and Internet gaming disorders are increasingly prevalent. To date, these disorders are still being treated using conventional psychotherapy methods such as cognitive behavioural therapy. However, there is an increasing number of research combining various other therapies alongside with cognitive behavioural therapy, as an attempt possibly to reduce the drop-out rates and to make such interventions more relevant to the targeted group of addicts, who are mostly adolescents. To date, there has been a prior study done in Korea that has demonstrated the comparable efficacy of virtual reality therapy with that of cognitive behavioural therapy. However, the intervention requires the usage of specialized screens and devices. It is thus the objective of the current article to highlight how smartphone applications could be designed and be utilized for immersive virtual reality treatment, alongside low cost wearables.
Baker, Benjamin; Amin, Kavit; Chan, Adrian; Patel, Ketan; Wong, Jason
The continuing enhancement of the surgical environment in the digital age has led to a number of innovations being highlighted as potential disruptive technologies in the surgical workplace. Augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) are rapidly becoming increasingly available, accessible and importantly affordable, hence their application into healthcare to enhance the medical use of data is certain. Whether it relates to anatomy, intraoperative surgery, or post-operative rehabilitation, applications are already being investigated for their role in the surgeons armamentarium. Here we provide an introduction to the technology and the potential areas of development in the surgical arena. PMID:28090510
Khor, Wee Sim; Baker, Benjamin; Amin, Kavit; Chan, Adrian; Patel, Ketan; Wong, Jason
The continuing enhancement of the surgical environment in the digital age has led to a number of innovations being highlighted as potential disruptive technologies in the surgical workplace. Augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) are rapidly becoming increasingly available, accessible and importantly affordable, hence their application into healthcare to enhance the medical use of data is certain. Whether it relates to anatomy, intraoperative surgery, or post-operative rehabilitation, applications are already being investigated for their role in the surgeons armamentarium. Here we provide an introduction to the technology and the potential areas of development in the surgical arena.
Antonio Valerio Netto
Full Text Available This paper attempts to provide an overview of current market trends in industrial applications of VR (Virtual Reality and VisSim (visual simulation for the next few years. Several market studies recently undertaken are presented and commented. A profile of some companies that are starting to work with these technologies is provided, in an attempt to motivate Brazilian companies into the use of these new technologies by describing successful example applications undertaken by foreign companies.
Brigham, Tara J
Augmented, virtual, and mixed reality applications all aim to enhance a user's current experience or reality. While variations of this technology are not new, within the last few years there has been a significant increase in the number of artificial reality devices or applications available to the general public. This column will explain the difference between augmented, virtual, and mixed reality and how each application might be useful in libraries. It will also provide an overview of the concerns surrounding these different reality applications and describe how and where they are currently being used.
Real time motion tracking hardware has for the most part been cost prohibitive for research to regularly take place until recently. With the release of the Microsoft Kinect in November 2010, researchers now have access to a device that for a few hundred dollars is capable of providing redgreenblue (RGB), depth, and skeleton data. It is also capable of tracking multiple people in real time. For its original intended purposes, i.e. gaming, being used with the Xbox 360 and eventually Xbox One, it performs quite well. However, researchers soon found that although the sensor is versatile, it has limitations in real world applications. I was brought aboard this summer by William Little in the Augmented Virtual Reality (AVR) Lab at Kennedy Space Center to find solutions to these limitations.
Dörner, Ralf; Lok, Benjamin; Broll, Wolfgang
Backed by a large consumer market, entertainment and education applications have spurred developments in the fields of real-time rendering and interactive computer graphics. Relying on Computer Graphics methodologies, Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality benefited indirectly from this; however, there is no large scale demand for VR and AR in gaming and learning. What are the shortcomings of current VR/AR technology that prevent a widespread use in these application areas? What advances in VR/AR will be necessary? And what might future “VR-enhanced” gaming and learning look like? Which role can and will Virtual Humans play? Concerning these questions, this article analyzes the current situation and provides an outlook on future developments. The focus is on social gaming and learning.
Chia-Sui Wang; Ko-Chun Chen; Tsung Han Lee; Kuei-Shu Hsu
A virtual reality (VR) driver tracking verification system is created, of which the application to stereo image tracking and positioning accuracy is researched in depth. In the research, the feature that the stereo vision system has image depth is utilized to improve the error rate of image tracking and image measurement. In a VR scenario, the function collecting behavioral data of driver was tested. By means of VR, racing operation is simulated and environmental (special weathers such as rai...
We developed an application launcher called Multiverse for scientific visualizations in a CAVE-type virtual reality (VR) system. Multiverse can be regarded as a type of three-dimensional (3D) desktop environment. In Multiverse, a user in a CAVE room can browse multiple visualization applications with 3D icons and explore movies that float in the air. Touching one of the movies causes "teleportation" into the application's VR space. After analyzing the simulation data using the application, the user can jump back into Multiverse's VR desktop environment in the CAVE.
Kageyama, Akira; Masada, Youhei
We developed an application launcher called Multiverse for scientific visualizations in a CAVE-type virtual reality (VR) system. Multiverse can be regarded as a type of three-dimensional (3D) desktop environment. In Multiverse, a user in a CAVE room can browse multiple visualization applications with 3D icons and explore movies that float in the air. Touching one of the movies causes "teleportation" into the application's VR space. After analyzing the simulation data using the application, the user can jump back into Multiverse's VR desktop environment in the CAVE.
Riva, G; Gamberini, L
Virtual reality (VR) can be considered as the leading edge of a general evolution of present communication interfaces involving the television, computer, and telephone. The main characteristic of this evolution is the full immersion of the human sensorimotor channels into a vivid and global communication experience. Because telemedicine principally focuses on transmitting medical information, VR has the potential to enhance this function. Particularly, VR can be used in telemedicine as an advanced communication interface, which enables a more intuitive mode of interacting with information, and as a flexible environment that enhances the feeling of physical presence during the interaction. In this article, the state of the art in VR-based telemedicine applications is described. This technology is now used in remote or augmented surgery as well as surgical training, which are critically dependent on eye-hand coordination. Recently, however, different researchers have tried to use virtual environments in medical visualization and for assessment and rehabilitation in neuropsychology. This article also discusses technological, ergonomical, and human factor issues, and specific guidelines are presented for expanding the use of VR in telemedicine.
Johnson, David W.
Virtual realities are a type of human-computer interface (HCI) and as such may be understood from a historical perspective. In the earliest era, the computer was a very simple, straightforward machine. Interaction was human manipulation of an inanimate object, little more than the provision of an explicit instruction set to be carried out without deviation. In short, control resided with the user. In the second era of HCI, some level of intelligence and control was imparted to the system to enable a dialogue with the user. Simple context sensitive help systems are early examples, while more sophisticated expert system designs typify this era. Control was shared more equally. In this, the third era of the HCI, the constructed system emulates a particular environment, constructed with rules and knowledge about 'reality'. Control is, in part, outside the realm of the human-computer dialogue. Virtual reality systems are discussed.
Serafin, Stefania; Erkut, Cumhur; Kojs, Juraj
The rapid development and availability of low-cost technologies have created a wide interest in virtual reality. In the field of computer music, the term “virtual musical instruments” has been used for a long time to describe software simulations, extensions of existing musical instruments......, and ways to control them with new interfaces for musical expression. Virtual reality musical instruments (VRMIs) that include a simulated visual component delivered via a head-mounted display or other forms of immersive visualization have not yet received much attention. In this article, we present a field...... overview of VRMIs from the viewpoint of the performer. We propose nine design guidelines, describe evaluation methods, analyze case studies, and consider future challenges....
Ghiţă, Alexandra; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, José
Alcohol use and misuse have been intensively studied, due to their negative consequences in the general population. Evidence-based literature emphasizes that alcohol craving plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of alcohol-drinking patterns. Many individuals develop Alcohol Use Disorders (AUD); significantly, after treatment many also experience relapses, in which alcohol craving has been repeatedly implicated. Cue-exposure therapy (CET) has been widely used in the treatment of alcohol misuse, but the results are inconsistent. Virtual reality (VR) can add effectiveness to cue-exposure techniques by providing multiple variables and inputs that enable personalized alcohol use assessment and treatment. The aim of this review was to examine the applications of virtual reality in individuals who misuse alcohol. We conducted an exhaustive literature search of the Web of Science, Scopus, Embase, Google Scholar, and PsycInfo databases, using as search items terms such as "alcohol" and its derivates, and virtual reality. We identified 13 studies on alcohol craving that implemented virtual reality as an assessment or treatment tool. The studies that incorporate VR present clear limitations. First, no clinical trials were conducted to explore the efficacy of the VR as a treatment tool; nor were there any studies of the generalization of craving responses in the real world, or of the long-term effects of VR treatment. Despite these limitations, the studies included showed consistent results as regards eliciting and reducing alcohol craving. We suggest that VR shows promise as a tool for the assessment and treatment of craving among individuals with alcohol misuse. Further studies implementing VR in the field of alcohol consumption are now required. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Gordillo, Orlando Enrique
This is my third internship with NASA and my second one at the Johnson Space Center. I work within the engineering directorate in ER7 (Software Robotics and Simulations Division) at a graphics lab called IGOAL. We are a very well-rounded lab because we have dedicated software developers and dedicated 3D artist, and when you combine the two, what you get is the ability to create many different things such as interactive simulations, 3D models, animations, and mobile applications.
Russo, Juan Manuel; Dimov, Fedor; Padiyar, Joy; Coe-Sullivan, Seth
Diffractive optics such as holographic optical elements (HOEs) can provide transparent and narrow band components with arbitrary incident and diffracted angles for near-to-eye commercial electronic products for augmented reality (AR), virtual reality (VR), and smart glass applications. In this paper, we will summarize the operational parameters and general optical geometries relevant for near-to-eye displays, the holographic substrates available for these applications, and their performance characteristics and ease of manufacture. We will compare the holographic substrates available in terms of fabrication, manufacturability, and end-user performance characteristics. Luminit is currently emplacing the manufacturing capacity to serve this market, and this paper will discuss the capabilities and limitations of this unique facility.
Menshikova Galina Ya.; Kovalev Artem I.; Klimova Oxana A.; Barabanschikova Valentina V.
Background. Prolonged exposure to moving images in virtual reality systems can cause virtual reality induced motion sickness (VIMS). The ability to resist motion sickness may be associated with the level of vestibular function development. objective. The aim of the present research is to study the oculomotor characteristics of individuals whose observation of moving virtual environments causes the VIMS effect. We hypothesized that people who have a robust vestibular function as a result of th...
Stasieńko Agnieszka; Sarzyńska-Długosz Iwona
This article includes current information on the use of modern IT solutions and virtual-reality (VR)-based technologies in medical rehabilitation. A review of current literature on VR-based interventions and their indications, benefits and limitations in patients with nervous system diseases was conducted. The popularity of VR-based training as a tool used for rehabilitation of patients with acute and chronic deficits in both sensory-motor and cognitive disorders is increasing. Still, there i...
Livatino, Salvatore; Koeffel, Christina
Virtual reality (VR) applications are spreading and attract industries since VR technologies are becoming more affordable, powerful and robust. VR applications inherently call for human-computer interaction, which in turn calls for system and usability evaluations, typically through measurement...
Full Text Available Abstract Virtual Reality (VR offers a blend of attractive attributes for rehabilitation. The most exploited is its ability to create a 3D simulation of reality that can be explored by patients under the supervision of a therapist. In fact, VR can be defined as an advanced communication interface based on interactive 3D visualization, able to collect and integrate different inputs and data sets in a single real-like experience. However, "treatment is not just fixing what is broken; it is nurturing what is best" (Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi. For rehabilitators, this statement supports the growing interest in the influence of positive psychological state on objective health care outcomes. This paper introduces a bio-cultural theory of presence linking the state of optimal experience defined as "flow" to a virtual reality experience. This suggests the possibility of using VR for a new breed of rehabilitative applications focused on a strategy defined as transformation of flow. In this view, VR can be used to trigger a broad empowerment process within the flow experience induced by a high sense of presence. The link between its experiential and simulative capabilities may transform VR into the ultimate rehabilitative device. Nevertheless, further research is required to explore more in depth the link between cognitive processes, motor activities, presence and flow.
Riva, Giuseppe; Mantovani, Fabrizia; Gaggioli, Andrea
Virtual Reality (VR) offers a blend of attractive attributes for rehabilitation. The most exploited is its ability to create a 3D simulation of reality that can be explored by patients under the supervision of a therapist. In fact, VR can be defined as an advanced communication interface based on interactive 3D visualization, able to collect and integrate different inputs and data sets in a single real-like experience.However, "treatment is not just fixing what is broken; it is nurturing what is best" (Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi). For rehabilitators, this statement supports the growing interest in the influence of positive psychological state on objective health care outcomes.This paper introduces a bio-cultural theory of presence linking the state of optimal experience defined as "flow" to a virtual reality experience. This suggests the possibility of using VR for a new breed of rehabilitative applications focused on a strategy defined as transformation of flow. In this view, VR can be used to trigger a broad empowerment process within the flow experience induced by a high sense of presence.The link between its experiential and simulative capabilities may transform VR into the ultimate rehabilitative device. Nevertheless, further research is required to explore more in depth the link between cognitive processes, motor activities, presence and flow.
Watkins, Christopher D
Virtual Reality Excursions with Programs in C provides the history, theory, principles and an account of the milestones in the development of virtual reality technology.The book is organized into five chapters. The first chapter explores the applications in the vast field of virtual reality. The second chapter presents a brief history of the field and its founders. Chapter 3 discusses human perception and how it works. Some interesting notes and much of the hot debate in the field are covered in Chapter 4. The fifth chapter describes many of the complexities involved in implementing virtual en
Full Text Available Abstract Virtual Reality (VR provides a unique medium suited to the achievement of several requirements for effective rehabilitation intervention. Specifically, therapy can be provided within a functional, purposeful and motivating context. Many VR applications present opportunities for individuals to participate in experiences, which are engaging and rewarding. In addition to the value of the rehabilitation experience for the user, both therapists and users benefit from the ability to readily grade and document the therapeutic intervention using various systems. In VR, advanced technologies are used to produce simulated, interactive and multi-dimensional environments. Visual interfaces including desktop monitors and head-mounted displays (HMDs, haptic interfaces, and real-time motion tracking devices are used to create environments allowing users to interact with images and virtual objects in real-time through multiple sensory modalities. Opportunities for object manipulation and body movement through virtual space provide frameworks that, in varying degrees, are perceived as comparable to similar opportunities in the real world. This paper reviews current work on motor rehabilitation using virtual environments and virtual reality and where possible, compares outcomes with those achieved in real-world applications.
Virtual Reality (VR) provides a unique medium suited to the achievement of several requirements for effective rehabilitation intervention. Specifically, therapy can be provided within a functional, purposeful and motivating context. Many VR applications present opportunities for individuals to participate in experiences, which are engaging and rewarding. In addition to the value of the rehabilitation experience for the user, both therapists and users benefit from the ability to readily grade and document the therapeutic intervention using various systems. In VR, advanced technologies are used to produce simulated, interactive and multi-dimensional environments. Visual interfaces including desktop monitors and head-mounted displays (HMDs), haptic interfaces, and real-time motion tracking devices are used to create environments allowing users to interact with images and virtual objects in real-time through multiple sensory modalities. Opportunities for object manipulation and body movement through virtual space provide frameworks that, in varying degrees, are perceived as comparable to similar opportunities in the real world. This paper reviews current work on motor rehabilitation using virtual environments and virtual reality and where possible, compares outcomes with those achieved in real-world applications.
Alaraj, Ali; Lemole, Michael G; Finkle, Joshua H; Yudkowsky, Rachel; Wallace, Adam; Luciano, Cristian; Banerjee, P Pat; Rizzi, Silvio H; Charbel, Fady T
Over years, surgical training is changing and years of tradition are being challenged by legal and ethical concerns for patient safety, work hour restrictions, and the cost of operating room time. Surgical simulation and skill training offer an opportunity to teach and practice advanced techniques before attempting them on patients. Simulation training can be as straightforward as using real instruments and video equipment to manipulate simulated "tissue" in a box trainer. More advanced virtual reality (VR) simulators are now available and ready for widespread use. Early systems have demonstrated their effectiveness and discriminative ability. Newer systems enable the development of comprehensive curricula and full procedural simulations. A PubMed review of the literature was performed for the MESH words "Virtual reality, "Augmented Reality", "Simulation", "Training", and "Neurosurgery". Relevant articles were retrieved and reviewed. A review of the literature was performed for the history, current status of VR simulation in neurosurgery. Surgical organizations are calling for methods to ensure the maintenance of skills, advance surgical training, and credential surgeons as technically competent. The number of published literature discussing the application of VR simulation in neurosurgery training has evolved over the last decade from data visualization, including stereoscopic evaluation to more complex augmented reality models. With the revolution of computational analysis abilities, fully immersive VR models are currently available in neurosurgery training. Ventriculostomy catheters insertion, endoscopic and endovascular simulations are used in neurosurgical residency training centers across the world. Recent studies have shown the coloration of proficiency with those simulators and levels of experience in the real world. Fully immersive technology is starting to be applied to the practice of neurosurgery. In the near future, detailed VR neurosurgical modules
Lindberg, Frank; Pettersson, Michael
The development of ITC has increased focus onto distance learning programs worldwide. Most universities today offer distance learning programs that are based on the Internet. This development represents a fundamental change in the very logic of being a university. It is no longer enough to rely...... characteristics of the program, however, it is particularly interesting to investigate the role that virtual studying serves in the construction of reality and meaning. Furthermore, as it is assumed that experiences cannot be separated from who one is (being-in-the world), the process of human change during...
Full Text Available This article includes current information on the use of modern IT solutions and virtual-reality (VR-based technologies in medical rehabilitation. A review of current literature on VR-based interventions and their indications, benefits and limitations in patients with nervous system diseases was conducted. The popularity of VR-based training as a tool used for rehabilitation of patients with acute and chronic deficits in both sensory-motor and cognitive disorders is increasing. Still, there is a need for large randomized trials to evaluate the efficacy and safety of VR-based rehabilitation techniques in different disease entities. .
Full Text Available This paper presents a novel virtual reality navigation (VRN input device, called the VRNChair, offering an intuitive and natural way to interact with virtual reality (VR environments. Traditionally, VR navigation tests are performed using stationary input devices such as keyboards or joysticks. However, in case of immersive VR environment experiments, such as our recent VRN assessment, the user may feel kinetosis (motion sickness as a result of the disagreement between vestibular response and the optical flow. In addition, experience in using a joystick or any of the existing computer input devices may cause a bias in the accuracy of participant performance in VR environment experiments. Therefore, we have designed a VR navigational environment that is operated using a wheelchair (VRNChair. The VRNChair translates the movement of a manual wheelchair to feed any VR environment. We evaluated the VRNChair by testing on 34 young individuals in two groups performing the same navigational task with either the VRNChair or a joystick; also one older individual (55 years performed the same experiment with both a joystick and the VRNChair. The results indicate that the VRNChair does not change the accuracy of the performance; thus removing the plausible bias of having experience using a joystick. More importantly, it significantly reduces the effect of kinetosis. While we developed VRNChair for our spatial cognition study, its application can be in many other studies involving neuroscience, neurorehabilitation, physiotherapy, and/or simply the gaming industry.
Byagowi, Ahmad; Mohaddes, Danyal; Moussavi, Zahra
This paper presents a novel virtual reality navigation (VRN) input device, called the VRNChair, offering an intuitive and natural way to interact with virtual reality (VR) environments. Traditionally, VR navigation tests are performed using stationary input devices such as keyboards or joysticks. However, in case of immersive VR environment experiments, such as our recent VRN assessment, the user may feel kinetosis (motion sickness) as a result of the disagreement between vestibular response and the optical flow. In addition, experience in using a joystick or any of the existing computer input devices may cause a bias in the accuracy of participant performance in VR environment experiments. Therefore, we have designed a VR navigational environment that is operated using a wheelchair (VRNChair). The VRNChair translates the movement of a manual wheelchair to feed any VR environment. We evaluated the VRNChair by testing on 34 young individuals in two groups performing the same navigational task with either the VRNChair or a joystick; also one older individual (55 years) performed the same experiment with both a joystick and the VRNChair. The results indicate that the VRNChair does not change the accuracy of the performance; thus removing the plausible bias of having experience using a joystick. More importantly, it significantly reduces the effect of kinetosis. While we developed VRNChair for our spatial cognition study, its application can be in many other studies involving neuroscience, neurorehabilitation, physiotherapy, and/or simply the gaming industry.
Azarnoush, Hamed; Siar, Samaneh; Sawaya, Robin; Zhrani, Gmaan Al; Winkler-Schwartz, Alexander; Alotaibi, Fahad Eid; Bugdadi, Abdulgadir; Bajunaid, Khalid; Marwa, Ibrahim; Sabbagh, Abdulrahman Jafar; Del Maestro, Rolando F
OBJECTIVE Virtual reality simulators allow development of novel methods to analyze neurosurgical performance. The concept of a force pyramid is introduced as a Tier 3 metric with the ability to provide visual and spatial analysis of 3D force application by any instrument used during simulated tumor resection. This study was designed to answer 3 questions: 1) Do study groups have distinct force pyramids? 2) Do handedness and ergonomics influence force pyramid structure? 3) Are force pyramids dependent on the visual and haptic characteristics of simulated tumors? METHODS Using a virtual reality simulator, NeuroVR (formerly NeuroTouch), ultrasonic aspirator force application was continually assessed during resection of simulated brain tumors by neurosurgeons, residents, and medical students. The participants performed simulated resections of 18 simulated brain tumors with different visual and haptic characteristics. The raw data, namely, coordinates of the instrument tip as well as contact force values, were collected by the simulator. To provide a visual and qualitative spatial analysis of forces, the authors created a graph, called a force pyramid, representing force sum along the z-coordinate for different xy coordinates of the tool tip. RESULTS Sixteen neurosurgeons, 15 residents, and 84 medical students participated in the study. Neurosurgeon, resident and medical student groups displayed easily distinguishable 3D "force pyramid fingerprints." Neurosurgeons had the lowest force pyramids, indicating application of the lowest forces, followed by resident and medical student groups. Handedness, ergonomics, and visual and haptic tumor characteristics resulted in distinct well-defined 3D force pyramid patterns. CONCLUSIONS Force pyramid fingerprints provide 3D spatial assessment displays of instrument force application during simulated tumor resection. Neurosurgeon force utilization and ergonomic data form a basis for understanding and modulating resident force
Alaraj, Ali; Lemole, Michael G.; Finkle, Joshua H.; Yudkowsky, Rachel; Wallace, Adam; Luciano, Cristian; Banerjee, P. Pat; Rizzi, Silvio H.; Charbel, Fady T.
Background: Over years, surgical training is changing and years of tradition are being challenged by legal and ethical concerns for patient safety, work hour restrictions, and the cost of operating room time. Surgical simulation and skill training offer an opportunity to teach and practice advanced techniques before attempting them on patients. Simulation training can be as straightforward as using real instruments and video equipment to manipulate simulated “tissue” in a box trainer. More advanced virtual reality (VR) simulators are now available and ready for widespread use. Early systems have demonstrated their effectiveness and discriminative ability. Newer systems enable the development of comprehensive curricula and full procedural simulations. Methods: A PubMed review of the literature was performed for the MESH words “Virtual reality, “Augmented Reality”, “Simulation”, “Training”, and “Neurosurgery”. Relevant articles were retrieved and reviewed. A review of the literature was performed for the history, current status of VR simulation in neurosurgery. Results: Surgical organizations are calling for methods to ensure the maintenance of skills, advance surgical training, and credential surgeons as technically competent. The number of published literature discussing the application of VR simulation in neurosurgery training has evolved over the last decade from data visualization, including stereoscopic evaluation to more complex augmented reality models. With the revolution of computational analysis abilities, fully immersive VR models are currently available in neurosurgery training. Ventriculostomy catheters insertion, endoscopic and endovascular simulations are used in neurosurgical residency training centers across the world. Recent studies have shown the coloration of proficiency with those simulators and levels of experience in the real world. Conclusion: Fully immersive technology is starting to be applied to the practice of
Wozniak, Peter; Vauderwange, Oliver; Mandal, Avikarsha; Javahiraly, Nicolas; Curticapean, Dan
Practical exercises are a crucial part of many curricula. Even simple exercises can improve the understanding of the underlying subject. Most experimental setups require special hardware. To carry out e. g. a lens experiments the students need access to an optical bench, various lenses, light sources, apertures and a screen. In our previous publication we demonstrated the use of augmented reality visualization techniques in order to let the students prepare with a simulated experimental setup. Within the context of our intended blended learning concept we want to utilize augmented or virtual reality techniques for stationary laboratory exercises. Unlike applications running on mobile devices, stationary setups can be extended more easily with additional interfaces and thus allow for more complex interactions and simulations in virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR). The most significant difference is the possibility to allow interactions beyond touching a screen. The LEAP Motion controller is a small inexpensive device that allows for the tracking of the user's hands and fingers in three dimensions. It is conceivable to allow the user to interact with the simulation's virtual elements by the user's very hand position, movement and gesture. In this paper we evaluate possible applications of the LEAP Motion controller for simulated experiments in augmented and virtual reality. We pay particular attention to the devices strengths and weaknesses and want to point out useful and less useful application scenarios.
Dutta, Pramit, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Rastogi, Naveen; Gotewal, Krishan Kumar
Highlights: • Evaluation of Virtual Reality (VR) in design and operation phases of Remote Handling (RH) equipment for tokamak. • VR based centralized facility, to cater RH development and operation, is setup at Institute for Plasma Research, India. • The VR facility system architecture and components are discussed. • Introduction to various VR applications developed for design and development of tokamak RH equipment. - Abstract: A tokamak is a plasma confinement device that can be used to achieve magnetically confined nuclear fusion within a reactor. Owing to the harsh environment, Remote Handling (RH) systems are used for inspection and maintenance of the tokamak in-vessel components. As the number of in-vessel components requiring RH maintenance is large, physical prototyping of all strategies becomes a major challenge. The operation of RH systems poses further challenge as all equipment have to be controlled remotely within very strict accuracy limits with minimum reliance on the available camera feedback. In both design and operation phases of RH equipment, application of Virtual Reality (VR) becomes imperative. The scope of this paper is to introduce some applications of VR in the design and operation cycle of RH, which are not available commercially. The paper discusses the requirement of VR as a tool for RH equipment design and operation. The details of a comprehensive VR facility that has been established to support the RH development for Indian tokamaks are also presented. Further, various cases studies are provided to highlight the utilization of this VR facility within phases of RH development and operation.
Askay, Shelley Wiechman; Patterson, David R; Sharar, Sam R
Scientific evidence for the viability of hypnosis as a treatment for pain has flourished over the past two decades (Rainville, Duncan, Price, Carrier and Bushnell, 1997; Montgomery, DuHamel and Redd, 2000; Lang and Rosen, 2002; Patterson and Jensen, 2003). However its widespread use has been limited by factors such as the advanced expertise, time and effort required by clinicians to provide hypnosis, and the cognitive effort required by patients to engage in hypnosis.The theory in developing virtual reality hypnosis was to apply three-dimensional, immersive, virtual reality technology to guide the patient through the same steps used when hypnosis is induced through an interpersonal process. Virtual reality replaces many of the stimuli that the patients have to struggle to imagine via verbal cueing from the therapist. The purpose of this paper is to explore how virtual reality may be useful in delivering hypnosis, and to summarize the scientific literature to date. We will also explore various theoretical and methodological issues that can guide future research.In spite of the encouraging scientific and clinical findings, hypnosis for analgesia is not universally used in medical centres. One reason for the slow acceptance is the extensive provider training required in order for hypnosis to be an effective pain management modality. Training in hypnosis is not commonly offered in medical schools or even psychology graduate curricula. Another reason is that hypnosis requires far more time and effort to administer than an analgesic pill or injection. Hypnosis requires training, skill and patience to deliver in medical centres that are often fast-paced and highly demanding of clinician time. Finally, the attention and cognitive effort required for hypnosis may be more than patients in an acute care setting, who may be under the influence of opiates and benzodiazepines, are able to impart. It is a challenge to make hypnosis a standard part of care in this environment
Tossavainen, Timo; Toppila, Esko; Pyykkö, Ilmari; Forsman, Pia M; Juhola, Martti; Starck, Jukka
Balance dysfunctions are common, especially among elderly people. Present methods for the diagnosis and evaluation of severity of dysfuntion have limited value. We present a system that makes it easy to implement different visual and mechanical perturbations for clinical investigations of balance and visual-vestibular interaction. The system combines virtual reality visual stimulation with force platform posturography on a moving platform. We evaluate our contruction's utility in a classification task between 33 healthy controls and 77 patients with Ménière's disease, using a series of tests with different visual and mechanical stimuli. Responses of patients and controls differ significantly in parameters computed from stabilograms. We also show that the series of tests achieves a classification accuracy slightly over 80% between controls and patients.
Recent biotechnological advances, including three-dimensional microscopy and endoscopy, virtual reality, surgical simulation, surgical robotics, and advanced neuroimaging, have continued to mold the surgeon-computer relationship. For developing neurosurgeons, such tools can reduce the learning curve, improve conceptual understanding of complex anatomy, and enhance visuospatial skills. We explore the current and future roles and application of virtual reality and simulation in neurosurgical training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Widdowson, Christopher; Ganhotra, Jatin; Faizal, Mohammed; Wilko, Marissa; Parikh, Saurin; Adhami, Zainulabidin; Hernandez, Manuel E
Falls are a leading cause of injury and mortality among adults over the age of 65 years. Given the strong relation between fear of falling and fall risk, identification of the mechanisms that underlie anxiety-related changes in postural control may pave the way to the development of novel therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing fall risk in older adults. First, we review potential mechanisms underlying anxiety-mediated changes in postural control in older adults with and without neurological conditions. We then present a system that allows for the simultaneous recording of neural, physiological, and behavioral data in an immersive virtual reality (VR) environment while implementing sensory and mechanical perturbations to evaluate alterations in sensorimotor integration under conditions with high postural threat. We also discuss applications of VR in minimizing falls in older adults and potential future studies.
Botella, Cristina; Quero, Soledad; Baños, Rosa M; Perpiñá, Conxa; García Palacios, Azucena; Riva, Giuseppe
Virtual Reality (VR) is a new technology consisting on a graphic environment in which the user, not only has the feeling of being physically present in a virtual world, but he/she can interact with it. The first VR workstations were designed for big companies in order to create environments that simulate certain situations to train professionals. However, at this moment a great expansion of this technology is taking place in several fields, including the area of health. Especially interesting for us is the use of VR as a therapeutic tool in the treatment of psychological disorders. Compared to the traditional treatments, VR has many advantages (e.g., it is a protected environment for the patient, he/she can re-experience many times the feared situation, etc.). There are already data on the effectiveness of this technology in the treatment of different psychological disorders; here anxiety disorders, eating disorders and sexual disorders are reviewed. Finally, this chapter ends with some words about the limitations of VR and future perspectives.
Golda, G.; Kampa, A.; Paprocka, I.
Modern trends in development of computer aided techniques are heading toward the integration of design competitive products and so-called "digital manufacturing and logistics", supported by computer simulation software. All phases of product lifecycle: starting from design of a new product, through planning and control of manufacturing, assembly, internal logistics and repairs, quality control, distribution to customers and after-sale service, up to its recycling or utilization should be aided and managed by advanced packages of product lifecycle management software. Important problems for providing the efficient flow of materials in supply chain management of whole product lifecycle, using computer simulation will be described on that paper. Authors will pay attention to the processes of acquiring relevant information and correct data, necessary for virtual modeling and computer simulation of integrated manufacturing and logistics systems. The article describes possibilities of use an applications of virtual reality software for modeling and simulation the production and logistics processes in enterprise in different aspects of product lifecycle management. The authors demonstrate effective method of creating computer simulations for digital manufacturing and logistics and show modeled and programmed examples and solutions. They pay attention to development trends and show options of the applications that go beyond enterprise.
Menshikova G. Ya.
Full Text Available Background. Prolonged exposure to moving images in virtual reality systems can cause virtual reality induced motion sickness (VIMS. The ability to resist motion sickness may be associated with the level of vestibular function development. objective. The aim of the present research is to study the oculomotor characteristics of individuals whose observation of moving virtual environments causes the VIMS effect. We hypothesized that people who have a robust vestibular function as a result of their professional activity, are less susceptible to VIMS than people who have no such professional abilities. The differences in people’s abilities to resist the effects of the virtual environment may be revealed in the oculomotor characteristics registered during their interaction with a virtual environment. Design. Figure skaters, football players, wushu fighters, and non-trained people were tested. e CAVE virtual reality system was used to initiate the VIMS effect. three virtual scenes were constructed consisting of many bright balls moving as a whole around the observer. e scenes differed in the width of the visual field; all balls subtended either 45°, 90° or 180°. Results. The results showed more active eye movements for athletes compared to non-trained people, i.e. an increase in blink, fixation, and saccade counts. A decrease in saccadic amplitudes was revealed for figure skaters. These characteristics were considered specific indicators of the athletes’ ability to resist motion sickness. Conclusions. It was found that the strength of the VIMS effect increased with the increasing width of the visual field. The effectiveness of virtual reality and eye-tracking technologies to test the VIMS effect was demonstrated.
The geological sciences are the ideal candidate for the application of Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR). Digital data collection techniques such as laser scanning, digital photogrammetry and the increasing use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) or Small Unmanned Aircraft (SUA) technology allow us to collect large datasets efficiently and evermore affordably. This linked with the recent resurgence in VR and AR technologies make these 3D digital datasets even more valuable. These advances in VR and AR have been further supported by rapid improvements in graphics card technologies, and by development of high performance software applications to support them. Visualising data in VR is more complex than normal 3D rendering, consideration needs to be given to latency, frame-rate and the comfort of the viewer to enable reasonably long immersion time. Each frame has to be rendered from 2 viewpoints (one for each eye) requiring twice the rendering than for normal monoscopic views. Any unnatural effects (e.g. incorrect lighting) can lead to an uncomfortable VR experience so these have to be minimised. With large digital outcrop datasets comprising 10's-100's of millions of triangles this is challenging but achievable. Apart from the obvious "wow factor" of VR there are some serious applications. It is often the case that users of digital outcrop data do not appreciate the size of features they are dealing with. This is not the case when using correctly scaled VR, and a true sense of scale can be achieved. In addition VR provides an excellent way of performing quality control on 3D models and interpretations and errors are much more easily visible. VR models can then be used to create content that can then be used in AR applications closing the loop and taking interpretations back into the field.
Górski, Filip; Bun, Pawel; Wichniarek, Radoslaw; Zawadzki, Przemyslaw; Hamrol, Adam
Effective medical and biomedical engineering education is an important problem. Traditional methods are difficult and costly. That is why Virtual Reality is often used for that purpose. Educational medical VR is a well-developed IT field, with many available hardware and software solutions. Current solutions are prepared without methodological…
This article covers the application of virtual reality (VR) to training and lifelong learning. A number of considerations concerning the design of VR applications are included. The introduction is dedicated to the more general aspects of applying VR to training. From multiple perspectives, we will provide an overview of existing applications with…
Crompton, H.; De Paor, D. G.; Whitmeyer, S. J.; Bentley, C.
Mobile devices are playing an increasing role in geoscience education. Affordances include instructor-student communication and class management in large classrooms, virtual and augmented reality applications, digital mapping, and crowd-sourcing. Mobile technologies have spawned the sub field of mobile learning or m-learning, which is defined as learning across multiple contexts, through social and content interactions. Geoscientists have traditionally engaged in non-digital mobile learning via fieldwork, but digital devices are greatly extending the possibilities, especially for non-traditional students. Smartphones and tablets are the most common devices but smart glasses such as Pivothead enable live streaming of a first-person view (see for example, https://youtu.be/gWrDaYP5w58). Virtual reality headsets such as Google Cardboard create an immersive virtual field experience and digital imagery such as GigaPan and Structure from Motion enables instructors and/or students to create virtual specimens and outcrops that are sharable across the globe. Whereas virtual reality (VR) replaces the real world with a virtual representation, augmented reality (AR) overlays digital data on the live scene visible to the user in real time. We have previously reported on our use of the AR application called FreshAiR for geoscientific "egg hunts." The popularity of Pokémon Go demonstrates the potential of AR for mobile learning in the geosciences.
Lahiri, Uttama; Trewyn, Adam; Warren, Zachary; Sarkar, Nilanjan
Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder are often characterized by deficits in social communication skills. While evidence suggests that intensive individualized interventions can improve aspects of core deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorder, at present numerous potent barriers exist related to accessing and implementing such interventions. Researchers are increasingly employing technology to develop more accessible, quantifiable, and individualized intervention tools to address core vulnerabilities related to autism. The present study describes the development and preliminary application of a Virtual Reality technology aimed at facilitating improvements in social communication skills for adolescents with autism. We present preliminary data from the usability study of this technological application for six adolescents with autism and discuss potential future development and application of adaptive Virtual Reality technology within an intervention framework.
Cornell, Richard; Bailey, Dan
Virtual Reality (VR) is a new medium which allows total stimulation of one's senses through human/computer interfaces. VR has applications in training simulators, nano-science, medicine, entertainment, electronic technology, and manufacturing. This paper focuses on some current and potential problems of virtual reality and virtual environments…
Full Text Available A virtual reality (VR driver tracking verification system is created, of which the application to stereo image tracking and positioning accuracy is researched in depth. In the research, the feature that the stereo vision system has image depth is utilized to improve the error rate of image tracking and image measurement. In a VR scenario, the function collecting behavioral data of driver was tested. By means of VR, racing operation is simulated and environmental (special weathers such as raining and snowing and artificial (such as sudden crossing road by pedestrians, appearing of vehicles from dead angles, roadblock variables are added as the base for system implementation. In addition, the implementation is performed with human factors engineered according to sudden conditions that may happen easily in driving. From experimental results, it proves that the stereo vision system created by the research has an image depth recognition error rate within 0.011%. The image tracking error rate may be smaller than 2.5%. In the research, the image recognition function of stereo vision is utilized to accomplish the data collection of driver tracking detection. In addition, the environmental conditions of different simulated real scenarios may also be created through VR.
Winkler-Schwartz, Alexander; Bajunaid, Khalid; Mullah, Muhammad A S; Marwa, Ibrahim; Alotaibi, Fahad E; Fares, Jawad; Baggiani, Marta; Azarnoush, Hamed; Zharni, Gmaan Al; Christie, Sommer; Sabbagh, Abdulrahman J; Werthner, Penny; Del Maestro, Rolando F
acquisition, development, and maintenance of psychomotor skills. Technical abilities customized training programs that maximize individual resident bimanual psychomotor training dependant on continuously updated and validated metrics from virtual reality simulation studies should be explored. Copyright Â© 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective To investigate the value of virtual reality (VR technique in the surgical planning for anterior circulation aneurysms of Willis circle. Methods A total of 50 patients with 57 aneurysms confirmed by CT angiography in the anterior circle of Willis were enrolled in this study. In preoperative Hunt-Hess scale, grade Ⅰ was designated in 7 patients, grade Ⅱ in 22, grade Ⅲ in 17, grade Ⅳ in 3, grade Ⅴ in 1 patient. Among the aneurysms, 16 were small (≤5mm in diameter, 28 medium (5-15mm, 10 large (15-25mm and 3 giant (≥25mm in size. The thin-slice head scanning data were achieved by 64-slice spiral CT machine. These data was then transferred into Dextroscope image workstation. The virtual imaging system generated clear and vivid virtual images. We compared the findings between simulation surgical operation and actual operation. Results VR system make the operator felt "personally on the scene" and was able to communicate with the imaging. It could not only visually display the anatomical structures in three dimensions, but also could simulate some surgical procedures, which basically simulated the same outcome of actual operation. All the 50 patients were successfully treated by microsurgical clipping of main aneurysmal or contributory aneurysmal necks. Conclusions The surgeons is able to be more confident, and the identification for the complex vascular abnormality is improved by planning operative procedure in virtual-reality environment. The virtual-reality system makes the actual operative procedure more concise, thus it is of positive value in surgery for intracranial aneurysm.
Lehmann, K S; Gröne, J; Lauscher, J C; Ritz, J-P; Holmer, C; Pohlen, U; Buhr, H-J
Training and simulation are gaining importance in surgical education. Today, virtual reality surgery simulators provide sophisticated laparoscopic training scenarios and offer detailed assessment methods. This also makes simulators interesting for the application in surgical skills courses. The aim of the current study was to assess the suitability of a virtual surgery simulator for training and assessment in an established surgical training course. The study was conducted during the annual "Practical Course for Visceral Surgery" (Warnemuende, Germany). 36 of 108 course participants were assigned at random for the study. Training was conducted in 15 sessions over 5 days with 4 identical virtual surgery simulators (LapSim) and 2 standardised training tasks. The simulator measured 16 individual parameters and calculated 2 scores. Questionnaires were used to assess the test persons' laparoscopic experience, their training situation and the acceptance of the simulator training. Data were analysed with non-parametric tests. A subgroup analysis for laparoscopic experience was conducted in order to assess the simulator's construct validity and assessment capabilities. Median age was 32 (27 - 41) years; median professional experience was 3 (1 - 11) years. Typical laparoscopic learning curves with initial significant improvements and a subsequent plateau phase were measured over 5 days. The individual training sessions exhibited a rhythmic variability in the training results. A shorter night's sleep led to a marked drop in performance. The participants' different experience levels could clearly be discriminated ( ≤ 20 vs. > 20 laparoscopic operations; p ≤ 0.001). The questionnaire showed that the majority of the participants had limited training opportunities in their hospitals. The simulator training was very well accepted. However, the participants severely misjudged the real costs of the simulators that were used. The learning curve on the
The benefits of using virtual environments (VEs) in psychology arise from the fact that movements in virtual space, and accompanying perceptual changes, are treated by the brain in much the same way as those in equivalent real space. The research benefits of using VEs, in areas of psychology such as spatial learning and cognition, include…
A.E. van den Bosch (Annemien); A.H.J. Koning (Anton); F.J. Meijboom (Folkert); J.S. Vletter-McGhie (Jackie); M.L. Simoons (Maarten); P.J. van der Spek (Peter); A.J.J.C. Bogers (Ad)
textabstractBACKGROUND: This pilot study was performed to evaluate whether virtual reality is applicable for three-dimensional echocardiography and if three-dimensional echocardiographic 'holograms' have the potential to become a clinically useful tool. METHODS: Three-dimensional echocardiographic
Kaufmann, Hannes; Meyer, Bernd
We present an immersive virtual reality (VR) application for physics education. It utilizes a recent physics engine developed for the PC gaming market to simulate physical experiments correctly and accurately. Students are enabled to actively build their own experiments and study them. A variety of tools are provided to analyze forces, mass, paths…
McGreevy, Michael W.
Exploring planetary environments is central to NASA's missions and goals. A new computing technology called Virtual Reality has much to offer in support of planetary exploration. This technology augments and extends human presence within computer-generated and remote spatial environments. Historically, NASA has been a leader in many of the fundamental concepts and technologies that comprise Virtual Reality. Indeed, Ames Research Center has a central role in the development of this rapidly emerging approach to using computers. This ground breaking work has inspired researchers in academia, industry, and the military. Further, NASA's leadership in this technology has spun off new businesses, has caught the attention of the international business community, and has generated several years of positive international media coverage. In the future, Virtual Reality technology will enable greatly improved human-machine interactions for more productive planetary surface exploration. Perhaps more importantly, Virtual Reality technology will democratize the experience of planetary exploration and thereby broaden understanding of, and support for, this historic enterprise.
Berg, T.W. van den; Smeenk, R.J.M.; Mazy, A.; Jacques, P.; Argüello, L.; Mills, S.
The activity "Virtual Reality applied to Teletesting" is related to a wider European Space Agency (ESA) initiative of cost reduction, in particular the reduction of test costs. Reduction of costs of space related projects have to be performed on test centre operating costs and customer company
Lewis, Joan E.
Describes the development and current status of virtual reality (VR) and VR research. Market potentials for VR are discussed, including the entertainment industry, health care and medical training, flight and other simulators, and educational possibilities. A glossary of VR-related terms is included. (LRW)
Lutz Otto Hans-Martin
Full Text Available Using eye-tracking to assess visual attention in head-mounted devices (HMD opens up many possibilities for virtual reality (VR-based therapy. Existing therapy concepts where attention plays a major role can be transferred to VR. Furthermore, they can be expanded to a precise real-time attention assessment, which can serve as a foundation for new therapy approaches. Utilizing HMDs and eye-tracking in a clinical environment is challenging because of hygiene issues and requirements of patients with heterogeneous cognitive and motor impairments. In this paper, we provide an overview of those challenges, discuss possible solutions and present preliminary results of a study with patients.
Laver, Kate E; Lange, Belinda; George, Stacey; Deutsch, Judith E; Saposnik, Gustavo; Crotty, Maria
Virtual reality and interactive video gaming have emerged as recent treatment approaches in stroke rehabilitation with commercial gaming consoles in particular, being rapidly adopted in clinical settings. This is an update of a Cochrane Review published first in 2011 and then again in 2015. Primary objective: to determine the efficacy of virtual reality compared with an alternative intervention or no intervention on upper limb function and activity.Secondary objectives: to determine the efficacy of virtual reality compared with an alternative intervention or no intervention on: gait and balance, global motor function, cognitive function, activity limitation, participation restriction, quality of life, and adverse events. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (April 2017), CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and seven additional databases. We also searched trials registries and reference lists. Randomised and quasi-randomised trials of virtual reality ("an advanced form of human-computer interface that allows the user to 'interact' with and become 'immersed' in a computer-generated environment in a naturalistic fashion") in adults after stroke. The primary outcome of interest was upper limb function and activity. Secondary outcomes included gait and balance and global motor function. Two review authors independently selected trials based on pre-defined inclusion criteria, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. A third review author moderated disagreements when required. The review authors contacted investigators to obtain missing information. We included 72 trials that involved 2470 participants. This review includes 35 new studies in addition to the studies included in the previous version of this review. Study sample sizes were generally small and interventions varied in terms of both the goals of treatment and the virtual reality devices used. The risk of bias present in many studies was unclear due to poor reporting. Thus, while there are a large
The Presentation concerns with an overview of Image Based Rendering approaches and their use on Virtual Reality, including Virtual Photography and Cinematography, and Mobile Robot Navigation.......The Presentation concerns with an overview of Image Based Rendering approaches and their use on Virtual Reality, including Virtual Photography and Cinematography, and Mobile Robot Navigation....
Pastura, Valéria da F. e S.; Mol, Antonio Carlos de A. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Siqueira, Ana Paula L. de, E-mail: email@example.com, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, E-mail: email@example.com [Centro Universitário Carioca (UniCarioca), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
The activities developed in the units which organize the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) are present in various sectors of the Brazilian society, being them in medicine, industry, electricity generation, mining, and among the others. Based on the assumption that the employees are CNEN's mayor differential and the training programs play an important role in the process of organizational development, because they align the professionals with the strategies of the institution properly. Focusing on these matters, this master thesis aimed to evaluate the training programs which are applied by CNEN, in order to propose and evaluate the use of the Virtual Reality (VR) expertise as a new method to be applied in the training programs. To accomplish this purpose, we performed two methodological approaches through questionnaires. And from the analysis of the results obtained, we could realize that there was no efficient training program which is systematically applied by CNEN, and the use of the VR technique improves the training programs in the understanding of themes whose assimilation is challengeable, such as those related to nuclear power. In this sense, for a better functional performance, the training programs adopted by CNEN must be structured so as to enable the development of each server's skills as well as abilities and, it is actually hoped that the virtual reality tools could be inserted in these programs to pursue only this purpose. (author). (author)
This paper discusses client service issues to be considered when transitioning to a virtual library situation. Themes related to the transitional nature of society in the knowledge era are presented, including: paradox and a contradictory nature; blurring of boundaries; networks, systems, and holistic thinking; process/not product, becoming/not…
Papstel, Jyri; Saks, Alo
SMEs play an important role in manufacturing industry. But from time to time there is a shortage in resources to complete the particular order in time. Number of systems is introduced to produce digital information in order to support product and process development activities. Main problem is lack of opportunity for direct data transition within design system modules when needed temporary extension of design capacity (virtuality) or to implement integrated concurrent product development principles. The planning experience in the field is weakly used as well. The concept of virtual manufacturing is a supporting idea to solve this problem. At the same time a number of practical problems should be solved like information conformity, data transfer, unified technological concepts acceptation etc. In the present paper the proposed ways to solve the practical problems of virtual manufacturing are described. General objective is to introduce the knowledge-based CAPP system as missing module for Virtual Manufacturing in the selected product domain. Surface-centered planning concept based on STEP- based modeling principles, and knowledge-based process planning methodology will be used to gain the objectives. As a result the planning module supplied by design data with direct access, and supporting advising environment is expected. Mould producing SME would be as test basis.
Zygouris, Stelios; Giakoumis, Dimitrios; Votis, Konstantinos; Doumpoulakis, Stefanos; Ntovas, Konstantinos; Segkouli, Sofia; Karagiannidis, Charalampos; Tzovaras, Dimitrios; Tsolaki, Magda
Recent research advocates the potential of virtual reality (VR) applications in assessing cognitive functions highlighting the possibility of using a VR application for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) screening. The aim of this study is to investigate whether a VR cognitive training application, the virtual supermarket (VSM), can be used as a screening tool for MCI. Two groups, one of healthy older adults (n = 21) and one of MCI patients (n = 34), were recruited from day centers for cognitive disorders and administered the VSM and a neuropsychological test battery. The performance of the two groups in the VSM was compared and correlated with performance in established neuropsychological tests. At the same time, the effectiveness of a combination of traditional neuropsychological tests and the VSM was examined. VSM displayed a correct classification rate (CCR) of 87.30% when differentiating between MCI patients and healthy older adults, while it was unable to differentiate between MCI subtypes. At the same time, the VSM correlates with various established neuropsychological tests. A limited number of tests were able to improve the CCR of the VSM when combined with the VSM for screening purposes. VSM appears to be a valid method of screening for MCI in an older adult population though it cannot be used for MCI subtype assessment. VSM's concurrent validity is supported by the large number of correlations between the VSM and established tests. It is considered a robust test on its own as the inclusion of other tests failed to improve its CCR significantly.
Kim, Youngjun; Kim, Hannah; Kim, Yong Oock
Recently, virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) have received increasing attention, with the development of VR/AR devices such as head-mounted displays, haptic devices, and AR glasses. Medicine is considered to be one of the most effective applications of VR/AR. In this article, we describe a systematic literature review conducted to investigate the state-of-the-art VR/AR technology relevant to plastic surgery. The 35 studies that were ultimately selected were categorized into 3 representative topics: VR/AR-based preoperative planning, navigation, and training. In addition, future trends of VR/AR technology associated with plastic surgery and related fields are discussed.
Virtual Reality interfaces offer several advantages for scientific visualization such as the ability to perceive three-dimensional data structures in a natural way. The focus of this chapter is direct manipulation, the ability for a user in virtual reality to control objects in the virtual environment in a direct and natural way, much as objects are manipulated in the real world. Direct manipulation provides many advantages for the exploration of complex, multi-dimensional data sets, by allowing the investigator the ability to intuitively explore the data environment. Because direct manipulation is essentially a control interface, it is better suited for the exploration and analysis of a data set than for the publishing or communication of features found in that data set. Thus direct manipulation is most relevant to the analysis of complex data that fills a volume of three-dimensional space, such as a fluid flow data set. Direct manipulation allows the intuitive exploration of that data, which facilitates the discovery of data features that would be difficult to find using more conventional visualization methods. Using a direct manipulation interface in virtual reality, an investigator can, for example, move a data probe about in space, watching the results and getting a sense of how the data varies within its spatial volume.
Botella, C.; Osma, J.; Palacios, A. Garcia; Guillen, V.; Banos, R.
This is the first work exploring the application of new technologies, concretely virtual reality, to facilitate emotional processing in the treatment of Complicated Grief. Our research team has designed a virtual reality environment (EMMA's World) to foster the expression and processing of emotions. In this study the authors present a description…
Piszczek, Marek; Maciejewski, Marcin; Pomianek, Mateusz; Szustakowski, Mieczysław
Solutions in the field of virtual reality are very strongly associated with optoelectronic technologies. This applies to both process design and operation of VR applications. Technologies such as 360 cameras and 3D scanners significantly improve the design work. What is more, HMD displays with high field of view or optoelectronic Motion Capture systems and 3D cameras guarantee an extraordinary experience in immersive VR applications. This article reviews selected technologies from the perspective of their use in a broadly defined process of creating and implementing solutions for virtual reality. There is also the ability to create, modify and adapt new approaches that show team own work (SteamVR tracker). Most of the introduced examples are effectively used by authors to create different VR applications. The use of optoelectronic technology in virtual reality is presented in terms of design and operation of the system as well as referring to specific applications. Designers and users of VR systems should take a close look on new optoelectronics solutions, as they can significantly contribute to increased work efficiency and offer completely new opportunities for virtual world reception.
Jain, Lakhmi; Anderson, Paul
There is a tremendous interest among researchers for the development of virtual, augmented reality and games technologies due to their widespread applications in medicine and healthcare. To date the major applications of these technologies include medical simulation, telemedicine, medical and healthcare training, pain control, visualisation aid for surgery, rehabilitation in cases such as stroke, phobia, and trauma therapies. Many recent studies have identified the benefits of using Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, or serious games in a variety of medical applications. This research volume on Virtual, Augmented Reality and Serious Games for Healthcare 1 offers an insightful introduction to the theories, development and applications of virtual, augmented reality and digital games technologies in medical and clinical settings and healthcare in general. It is divided into six sections: section one presents a selection of applications in medical education and healthcare management; Section two relates to th...
Laver, Kate E; George, Stacey; Thomas, Susie; Deutsch, Judith E; Crotty, Maria
Virtual reality and interactive video gaming have emerged as recent treatment approaches in stroke rehabilitation. In particular, commercial gaming consoles have been rapidly adopted in clinical settings. This is an update of a Cochrane Review published in 2011. To determine the efficacy of virtual reality compared with an alternative intervention or no intervention on upper limb function and activity. To determine the efficacy of virtual reality compared with an alternative intervention or no intervention on: gait and balance activity, global motor function, cognitive function, activity limitation, participation restriction and quality of life, voxels or regions of interest identified via imaging, and adverse events. Additionally, we aimed to comment on the feasibility of virtual reality for use with stroke patients by reporting on patient eligibility criteria and recruitment. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (October 2013), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 11), MEDLINE (1950 to November 2013), EMBASE (1980 to November 2013) and seven additional databases. We also searched trials registries and reference lists. Randomised and quasi-randomised trials of virtual reality ("an advanced form of human-computer interface that allows the user to 'interact' with and become 'immersed' in a computer-generated environment in a naturalistic fashion") in adults after stroke. The primary outcome of interest was upper limb function and activity. Secondary outcomes included gait and balance function and activity, and global motor function. Two review authors independently selected trials based on pre-defined inclusion criteria, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. A third review author moderated disagreements when required. The authors contacted investigators to obtain missing information. We included 37 trials that involved 1019 participants. Study sample sizes were generally small and interventions
Sato, Kenji; Fukumori, Satoshi; Matsusaki, Takashi; Maruo, Tomoko; Ishikawa, Shinichi; Nishie, Hiroyuki; Takata, Ken; Mizuhara, Hiroaki; Mizobuchi, Satoshi; Nakatsuka, Hideki; Matsumi, Masaki; Gofuku, Akio; Yokoyama, Masataka; Morita, Kiyoshi
Chronic pain conditions such as phantom limb pain and complex regional pain syndrome are difficult to treat, and traditional pharmacological treatment and invasive neural block are not always effective. Plasticity in the central nervous system occurs in these conditions and may be associated with pain. Mirror visual feedback therapy aims to restore normal cortical organization and is applied in the treatment of chronic pain conditions. However, not all patients benefit from this treatment. Virtual reality technology is increasingly attracting attention for medical application, including as an analgesic modality. An advanced mirror visual feedback system with virtual reality technology may have increased analgesic efficacy and benefit a wider patient population. In this preliminary work, we developed a virtual reality mirror visual feedback system and applied it to the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome. A small open-label case series. Five patients with complex regional pain syndrome received virtual reality mirror visual feedback therapy once a week for five to eight sessions on an outpatient basis. Patients were monitored for continued medication use and pain intensity. Four of the five patients showed >50% reduction in pain intensity. Two of these patients ended their visits to our pain clinic after five sessions. Our results indicate that virtual reality mirror visual feedback therapy is a promising alternative treatment for complex regional pain syndrome. Further studies are necessary before concluding that analgesia provided from virtual reality mirror visual feedback therapy is the result of reversing maladaptive changes in pain perception.
This article is based on studies of the existing literature, focusing on the states-of-the-arts on virtual reality (VR) and its potential uses in learning. Different platforms have been used to improve the learning effects of VR that offers exciting opportunities in various fields. As more and more students want in a distance, part-time, or want to continue their education, VR has attracted considerable attention in learning, training, and traditional education. VR based learning enables oper...
Stinson, Cheryl Ann
Virtual reality (VR) has been successfully applied to a broad range of training domains; however, to date there is little research investigating its benefits for sport training. In this work we investigated the feasibility and usefulness of using VR for two sport subdomains: sport psychology and sport biomechanics. In terms of sport psychology training, high-fidelity VR systems could be used to display realistic 3D environments to induce anxiety, allowing resilience-training systems to prepar...
While the graphical presentation of computer models signified a quantum leap over presentations limited to text and numbers, it still has the problem of presenting an interface barrier between the human user and the computer model. The user must learn a command language in order to orient themselves in the model. For example, to move left from the current viewpoint of the model, they might be required to type 'LEFT' at a keyboard. This command is fairly intuitive, but if the viewpoint moves far enough that there are no visual cues overlapping with the first view, the user does not know if the viewpoint has moved inches, feet, or miles to the left, or perhaps remained in the same position, but rotated to the left. Until the user becomes quite familiar with the interface language of the computer model presentation, they will be proned to lossing their bearings frequently. Even a highly skilled user will occasionally get lost in the model. A new approach to presenting type type of information is to directly interpret the user's body motions as the input language for determining what view to present. When the user's head turns 45 degrees to the left, the viewpoint should be rotated 45 degrees to the left. Since the head moves through several intermediate angles between the original view and the final one, several intermediate views should be presented, providing the user with a sense of continuity between the original view and the final one. Since the primary way a human physically interacts with their environment should monitor the movements of the user's hands and alter objects in the virtual model in a way consistent with the way an actual object would move when manipulated using the same hand movements. Since this approach to the man-computer interface closely models the same type of interface that humans have with the physical world, this type of interface is often called virtual reality, and the model is referred to as a virtual world. The task of this summer
McMenemy , Karen
A Hitchhiker's Guide to Virtual Reality brings together under one cover all the aspects of graphics, video, audio, and haptics that have to work together to make virtual reality a reality. Like any good guide, it reveals the practical things you need to know, from the viewpoint of authors who have been there. This two-part guide covers the science, technology, and mathematics of virtual reality and then details its practical implementation. The first part looks at how the interface between human senses and technology works to create virtual reality, with a focus on vision, the most important s
Izard, Santiago González; Juanes Méndez, Juan A; Palomera, Pablo Ruisoto
Virtual Reality is becoming widespread in our society within very different areas, from industry to entertainment. It has many advantages in education as well, since it allows visualizing almost any object or going anywhere in a unique way. We will be focusing on medical education, and more specifically anatomy, where its use is especially interesting because it allows studying any structure of the human body by placing the user inside each one. By allowing virtual immersion in a body structure such as the interior of the cranium, stereoscopic vision goggles make these innovative teaching technologies a powerful tool for training in all areas of health sciences. The aim of this study is to illustrate the teaching potential of applying Virtual Reality in the field of human anatomy, where it can be used as a tool for education in medicine. A Virtual Reality Software was developed as an educational tool. This technological procedure is based entirely on software which will run in stereoscopic goggles to give users the sensation of being in a virtual environment, clearly showing the different bones and foramina which make up the cranium, and accompanied by audio explanations. Throughout the results the structure of the cranium is described in detailed from both inside and out. Importance of an exhaustive morphological knowledge of cranial fossae is further discussed. Application for the design of microsurgery is also commented.
Full Text Available The traditional method of residential complex project presentations involves the use of a printed poster or elaborate on which the building is presented by using of two-dimensional drawings and images. The main traditional approach problem is the presentation of three-dimensional space on two-dimensional paper. The main focus of this paper is the development of contemporary, mobile systems for residential complex presentations which will be presented on a case study of “Energoprojekt Sunnyville” using a method of virtual and augmented reality. This approach enables easier and better understanding of all types of architectural objects and urban complex, allowing the user intuitive spatial overview of architectural work.
Recheis, Wolfgang E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Weber, Gerhard W.; Schaefer, Katrin; Knapp, Rudolf; Seidler, Horst; Zur Nedden, Dieter
Since the discovery of the Tyrolean Iceman in 1991 advanced imaging and post processing techniques were successfully applied in anthropology. Specific techniques include spiral computed tomography and 3-dimensional reconstructions including stereolithographic and fused deposition modeling of volume data sets. The Iceman's skull was the first to be reproduced using stereolithography, before this method was successfully applied in preoperative planning. With the advent of high-end graphics workstations and biomedical image processing software packages, 3-dimensional reconstructions were established as a routine tool for analyzing volume data sets. These techniques opened totally new insights in the field of physical anthropology. Computed tomography became the ideal research tool to access the internal structures of various precious fossils without damaging or even touching them. Many of the most precious specimens from the species Autralopithecus (1.8-3.5 Myears), Homo heidelbergensis (200-600 kyears) or Homo neanderthalensis (40-100 kyears) were scanned during the last 5 years. Often the fossils are filled with a stone matrix or other materials. During the postprocessing routines highly advanced algorithms were used to remove virtually these incrustations. Thus it was possible to visualize the morphological structures that lie beneath the matrix. Some specimens were partially destroyed, so the missing parts were reconstructed on computer screen in order to get estimations of the brain volume and endocranial morphology, both major fields of interest in physical anthropology. Moreover the computerized form of the data allows new descriptions of morphologic structures by the means of 'geometric morphometrics'. Some of the results may change aspects and interpretations in human evolution. The introduction of new imaging and post processing techniques created a new field of research: Virtual Anthropology.
This study presents the application of augmented reality technology in food professional education, combining with the current situation of applying virtual reality education, analyzes the problems existing in the virtual reality application in food professional education, puts forward some suggestions and finally prospects the developing trend of the technology of virtual reality now.
Kamel Boulos, Maged N; Lu, Zhihan; Guerrero, Paul; Jennett, Charlene; Steed, Anthony
The latest generation of virtual and mixed reality hardware has rekindled interest in virtual reality GIS (VRGIS) and augmented reality GIS (ARGIS) applications in health, and opened up new and exciting opportunities and possibilities for using these technologies in the personal and public health arenas. From smart urban planning and emergency training to Pokémon Go, this article offers a snapshot of some of the most remarkable VRGIS and ARGIS solutions for tackling public and environmental health problems, and bringing about safer and healthier living options to individuals and communities. The article also covers the main technical foundations and issues underpinning these solutions.
This paper will describe a series of field experiments to develop and demonstrate file use of Telepresence and Virtual Reality systems for controlling rover vehicles on planetary surfaces. In 1993, NASA Ames deployed a Telepresence-Controlled Remotely Operated underwater Vehicle (TROV) into an ice-covered sea environment in Antarctica. The goal of the mission was to perform scientific exploration of an unknown environment using a remote vehicle with telepresence and virtual reality as a user interface. The vehicle was operated both locally, from above a dive hole in the ice through which it was launched, and remotely over a satellite communications link from a control room at NASA's Ames Research center, for over two months. Remote control used a bidirectional Internet link to the vehicle control computer. The operator viewed live stereo video from the TROV along with a computer-gene rated graphic representation of the underwater terrain showing file vehicle state and other related information. Tile actual vehicle could be driven either from within the virtual environment or through a telepresence interface. In March 1994, a second field experiment was performed in which [lie remote control system developed for the Antarctic TROV mission was used to control the Russian Marsokhod Rover, an advanced planetary surface rover intended for launch in 1998. Marsokhod consists of a 6-wheel chassis and is capable of traversing several kilometers of terrain each day, The rover can be controlled remotely, but is also capable of performing autonomous traverses. The rover was outfitted with a manipulator arm capable of deploying a small instrument, collecting soil samples, etc. The Marsokhod rover was deployed at Amboy Crater in the Mojave desert, a Mars analog site, and controlled remotely from Los Angeles. in two operating modes: (1) a Mars rover mission simulation with long time delay and (2) a Lunar rover mission simulation with live action video. A team of planetary
Jonathan Carlos Samaniego Villarroel
Virtual reality is a very interesting topic, but quite far from us apparently the Latin American reality is too far to technological advances and therefore costs us understand how they serve educational purposes...
Maria Teresa Restivo
Full Text Available Haptics can significantly enhance the user's sense of immersion and interactivity. An industrial application of virtual reality and haptics for product assembly is described in this paper, which provides a new and low-cost approach for product assembly design, assembly task planning and assembly operation training. A demonstration of the system with haptics device interaction was available at the session of exp.at'11.
Hannes Kaufmann; Bernd Meyer
We present an immersive virtual reality (VR) application for physics education. It utilizes a recent physics engine developed for the PC gaming market to simulate physical experiments correctly and accurately. Students are enabled to actively build their own experiments and study them. A variety of tools are provided to analyze forces, mass, paths and other properties of objects before, during and after experiments. Innovative teaching content is presented thatexploits the strengths of the 3D...
Augmented and virtual reality are on the advance. In the last twelve months, several interesting devices have entered the market. Since tourism is one of the fastest growing economic sectors in the world and has become one of the major players in international commerce, the aim of this thesis was to examine how tourism could be enhanced with augmented and virtual reality. The differences and functional principles of augmented and virtual reality were investigated, general uses were described ...
The paper discusses virtual reality as a visualization tool such that users could interact with a developed application medium, as if they are inside the virtual environment presenting the application. Virtual reality as a presentational medium offers different views of reality which real estate agents could use to visualize estate ...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The purpose is to research and develop materials through applied virtual reality to enable interactive "materials-by-design." Extensive theoretical and computational...
Levac, Danielle; Glegg, Stephanie M N; Sveistrup, Heidi; Colquhoun, Heather; Miller, Patricia A; Finestone, Hillel; DePaul, Vincent; Harris, Jocelyn E; Velikonja, Diana
Despite increasing evidence for the effectiveness of virtual reality (VR)-based therapy in stroke rehabilitation, few knowledge translation (KT) resources exist to support clinical integration. KT interventions addressing known barriers and facilitators to VR use are required. When environmental barriers to VR integration are less amenable to change, KT interventions can target modifiable barriers related to therapist knowledge and skills. A multi-faceted KT intervention was designed and implemented to support physical and occupational therapists in two stroke rehabilitation units in acquiring proficiency with use of the Interactive Exercise Rehabilitation System (IREX; GestureTek). The KT intervention consisted of interactive e-learning modules, hands-on workshops and experiential practice. Evaluation included the Assessing Determinants of Prospective Take Up of Virtual Reality (ADOPT-VR) Instrument and self-report confidence ratings of knowledge and skills pre- and post-study. Usability of the IREX was measured with the System Usability Scale (SUS). A focus group gathered therapist experiences. Frequency of IREX use was recorded for 6 months post-study. Eleven therapists delivered a total of 107 sessions of VR-based therapy to 34 clients with stroke. On the ADOPT-VR, significant pre-post improvements in therapist perceived behavioral control (p = 0.003), self-efficacy (p = 0.005) and facilitating conditions (p =0.019) related to VR use were observed. Therapist intention to use VR did not change. Knowledge and skills improved significantly following e-learning completion (p = 0.001) and was sustained 6 months post-study. Below average perceived usability of the IREX (19(th) percentile) was reported. Lack of time was the most frequently reported barrier to VR use. A decrease in frequency of perceived barriers to VR use was not significant (p = 0.159). Two therapists used the IREX sparingly in the 6 months following the study. Therapists reported
Ternier, Stefaan; Klemke, Roland; Kalz, Marco; Van Ulzen, Patricia; Specht, Marcus
Ternier, S., Klemke, R., Kalz, M., Van Ulzen, P., & Specht, M. (2012). ARLearn: augmented reality meets augmented virtuality [Special issue]. Journal of Universal Computer Science - Technology for learning across physical and virtual spaces, 18(15), 2143-2164.
A computer vision assisted semi-automatic virtual reality (VR) calibration technology has been developed that can accurately match a virtual environment of graphically simulated three-dimensional (3-D) models to the video images of the real task environment.
Weiss, Patrice L (Tamar); Levin, Mindy F
While virtual reality (VR) has influenced fields as varied as gaming, archaeology, and the visual arts, some of its most promising applications come from the health sector. Particularly encouraging are the many uses of VR in supporting the recovery of motor skills following accident or illness. Virtual Reality for Physical and Motor Rehabilitation reviews two decades of progress and anticipates advances to come. It offers current research on the capacity of VR to evaluate, address, and reduce motor skill limitations, and the use of VR to support motor and sensorimotor function, from the most basic to the most sophisticated skill levels. Expert scientists and clinicians explain how the brain organizes motor behavior, relate therapeutic objectives to client goals, and differentiate among VR platforms in engaging the production of movement and balance. On the practical side, contributors demonstrate that VR complements existing therapies across various conditions such as neurodegenerative diseases, traumatic bra...
A beyond human knowledge and reach, robotics is strongly involved in tackling challenges of new emerging multidisciplinary fields. Together with humans, robots are busy exploring and working on the new generation of ideas and problems whose solution is otherwise impossible to find. The future is near when robots will sense, smell and touch people and their lives. Behind this practical aspect of human-robotics, there is a half a century spanned robotics research, which transformed robotics into a modern science. The Advances in Robotics and Virtual Reality is a compilation of emerging application areas of robotics. The book covers robotics role in medicine, space exploration and also explains the role of virtual reality as a non-destructive test bed which constitutes a premise of further advances towards new challenges in robotics. This book, edited by two famous scientists with the support of an outstanding team of fifteen authors, is a well suited reference for robotics researchers and scholars from related ...
A manual for both designers and users, comprehensively presenting the current state of experts' knowledge on virtual reality (VR) in computer science, mechanics, optics, acoustics, physiology, psychology, ergonomics, ethics, and related area. Designed as a reference book and design guide to help the reader develop a VR project, it presents the reader with the importance of the user's needs and various aspects of the human computer interface (HCI). It further treats technical aspects of VR, hardware and software implementations, and details on the sensory and psycho-sensory interfaces. Providin
Chen, Gang; Yang, Shi-zhong; Wu, Guo-qing; Wang, Yi; Fan, Gui-hua; Tan, Li-wen; Fang, Bin; Zhang, Shao-xiang; Dong, Jia-hong
To explore and develop three-dimension (3D) virtual reality (VR) liver model and convert computed tomography data into a fully 3D VR environment for display, measure and manipulation. 3D-reconstruction of liver was restored from spiral computed tomography (CT) data by using LiVirtue software. Dextrobeam was used to view the 3D model in the VR environment. The liver and its anatomic structure were reconstructed to illuminate the location of the tumor and its related vessels. 3D models of liver, tumor and their relative vessels were reconstructed successfully. These models could be viewed and manipulated in the VR environment on personal computer.38 patients underwent liver resection, including 21 right hemihepatectomy, 14 left hemihepatectomy and 3 extended right hemihepatectomy. The intraoperative contrast with preoperative simulation confirmed the reliability of our 3D operative planning system. The preoperative simulation in 3D VR facilitated liver resection by the ability to view tumor and its relative vessels. This preoperative estimation from 3D model of liver benefits a lot to complicated liver resection.
Rizzo, Albert; Requejo, Phil; Winstein, Carolee J; Lange, Belinda; Ragusa, Gisele; Merians, Alma; Patton, James; Banerjee, Pat; Aisen, Mindy
As persons with disabilities age, progressive declines in health and medical status can challenge the adaptive resources required to maintain functional independence and quality of life . These challenges are further compounded by economic factors, medication side effects, loss of a spouse or caregiver, and psychosocial disorders [1-2]. With the gradual loss of functional independence and increased reliance on others for transportation, access to general medical and rehabilitation care can be jeopardized . The combination of these factors when seen in the context of the average increase in lifespan in industrialized societies has lead to a growing crisis that is truly global in proportion. While research indicates that functional motor capacity can be improved, maintained, or recovered via consistent participation in a motor exercise and rehabilitation regimen , independent adherence to such preventative and/or rehabilitative programming outside the clinic setting is notoriously low . This state of affairs has produced a compelling and ethical motivation to address the needs of individuals who are aging with disabilities by promoting home-based access to low-cost, interactive virtual reality (VR) systems designed to engage and motivate individuals to participate with "game"-driven physical activities and rehabilitation programming. The creation of such systems could serve to enhance, maintain and rehabilitate the sensorimotor processes that are needed to maximize independence and quality of life. This is the theme of the research to be presented at this MMVR workshop.
Ivankov, Petr R.; Ivankov, Nikolay P.
A framework for virtual reality of engineering objects has been developed. This framework may simulate different equipment related to virtual reality. Framework supports 6D dynamics, ordinary differential equations, finite formulas, vector and matrix operations. The framework also supports embedding of external software.
Damgrave, Roy Gerhardus Johannes; Lutters, Diederick; Drukker, J. W.
Comparing the evolvement of the manufacturing industry of the last century to the way virtual reality is used nowadays some remarkable similarities come to light. Current virtual reality equipment requires a high level of craftsmanship to achieve the maximum results, and often equipment is specially
Flanders, Megan; Kavanagh, Richard C.
Mental rotations are among the most difficult of all spatial tasks to perform, and even those with high levels of spatial ability can struggle to visualize the result of compound rotations. This pilot study investigates the use of the virtual reality-based Rotation Tool, created using the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) together with…
Full Text Available Interactive 3D architectural indoor design have been more popular after it benefited from Virtual Reality (VR technologies. VR brings computer-generated 3D content to real life scale and enable users to observe immersive indoor environments so that users can directly modify it. This opportunity enables buyers to purchase a property off-the-plan cheaper through virtual models. Instead of showing property through 2D plan or renders, this visualized interior architecture of an on-sale unbuilt property is demonstrated beforehand so that the investors have an impression as if they were in the physical building. However, current applications either use highly resource consuming software, or are non-interactive, or requires specialist to create such environments. In this study, we have created a real-estate purposed low-cost high quality fully interactive VR application that provides a realistic interior architecture of the property by using free and lightweight software: Sweet Home 3D and Unity. A preliminary study showed that participants generally liked proposed real estate-purposed VR application, and it satisfied the expectation of the property buyers.
Ozacar, K.; Ortakci, Y.; Kahraman, I.; Durgut, R.; Karas, I. R.
Interactive 3D architectural indoor design have been more popular after it benefited from Virtual Reality (VR) technologies. VR brings computer-generated 3D content to real life scale and enable users to observe immersive indoor environments so that users can directly modify it. This opportunity enables buyers to purchase a property off-the-plan cheaper through virtual models. Instead of showing property through 2D plan or renders, this visualized interior architecture of an on-sale unbuilt property is demonstrated beforehand so that the investors have an impression as if they were in the physical building. However, current applications either use highly resource consuming software, or are non-interactive, or requires specialist to create such environments. In this study, we have created a real-estate purposed low-cost high quality fully interactive VR application that provides a realistic interior architecture of the property by using free and lightweight software: Sweet Home 3D and Unity. A preliminary study showed that participants generally liked proposed real estate-purposed VR application, and it satisfied the expectation of the property buyers.
Chen, Jiekang; Huang, Qitai; Guan, Min
Virtual Reality (VR) products serve for human eyes ultimately, and the optical properties of VR optical systems must be consistent with the characteristic of human eyes. The monocular coaxial VR optical system is simulated in ZEMAX. A diffraction grating is added to the optical surface next to the eye, and the lights emitted from the diffraction grating are deflected, which can forming an asymmetrical field of view(FOV). Then the lateral chromatic aberration caused by the diffraction grating was corrected by the chromatic dispersion of the prism. Finally, the aspheric surface was added to further optimum design. During the optical design of the system, how to balance the dispersion of the diffraction grating and the prism is the main problem. The balance was achieved by adjusting the parameters of the grating and the prism constantly, and then using aspheric surfaces finally. In order to make the asymmetric FOV of the system consistent with the angle of the visual axis, and to ensure the stereo vision area clear, the smaller half FOV of monocular system is required to reach 30°. Eventually, a system with asymmetrical FOV of 30°+40° was designed. In addition, the aberration curve of the system was analyzed by ZEMAX, and the binocular FOV was calculated according to the principle of binocular overlap. The results show that the asymmetry of FOV of VR monocular optical system can fit to human eyes and the imaging quality match for the human visual characteristics. At the same time, the diffraction grating increases binocular FOV, which decreases the requirement for the design FOV of monocular system.
Valdés, Julio J; Barton, Alan J
A method for the construction of virtual reality spaces for visual data mining using multi-objective optimization with genetic algorithms on nonlinear discriminant (NDA) neural networks is presented. Two neural network layers (the output and the last hidden) are used for the construction of simultaneous solutions for: (i) a supervised classification of data patterns and (ii) an unsupervised similarity structure preservation between the original data matrix and its image in the new space. A set of spaces are constructed from selected solutions along the Pareto front. This strategy represents a conceptual improvement over spaces computed by single-objective optimization. In addition, genetic programming (in particular gene expression programming) is used for finding analytic representations of the complex mappings generating the spaces (a composition of NDA and orthogonal principal components). The presented approach is domain independent and is illustrated via application to the geophysical prospecting of caves.
Full Text Available Recently, virtual reality (VR and augmented reality (AR have received increasing attention, with the development of VR/AR devices such as head-mounted displays, haptic devices, and AR glasses. Medicine is considered to be one of the most effective applications of VR/AR. In this article, we describe a systematic literature review conducted to investigate the state-of-the-art VR/AR technology relevant to plastic surgery. The 35 studies that were ultimately selected were categorized into 3 representative topics: VR/AR-based preoperative planning, navigation, and training. In addition, future trends of VR/AR technology associated with plastic surgery and related fields are discussed.
Bohil, Corey J; Alicea, Bradly; Biocca, Frank A
Virtual reality (VR) environments are increasingly being used by neuroscientists to simulate natural events and social interactions. VR creates interactive, multimodal sensory stimuli that offer unique advantages over other approaches to neuroscientific research and applications. VR's compatibility with imaging technologies such as functional MRI allows researchers to present multimodal stimuli with a high degree of ecological validity and control while recording changes in brain activity. Therapists, too, stand to gain from progress in VR technology, which provides a high degree of control over the therapeutic experience. Here we review the latest advances in VR technology and its applications in neuroscience research.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Augmanted Reality for android handphone has been a trend among collage students of computer department who join New Media course. To develop this application, the knowladge about visual presentation theory and case study of Augmanted Reality on android phoneneed to be conducted. Learning media through virtual class can facilitate the students’ needs in learning and developing Augmanted Reality. The method of this study in developing virtual class for Augmented Reality learning were: a having preparation to arrange learning unit, b analyzing and developing the content of learning materials, c designing storyboard or scenario of the virtual class, d making website of virtual class, e implementing the website as facility of online learning for Augmanted Reality. The available facilities in virtual class were to check learning units, to choose and download the material in the forms of e-book and presentation slides, to open the relevant website link for material enrichment as well as students’ practice with pre-test and post-test for measuring students’ understanding. By implementing virtual class for Augmanted Reality learning based Android, it is expected to provide alternative learning strategies for students that are interesting and easy to understand. The students are expected to be able to utilize this facility optimally in order to achieve the purposes of learning process and graduates’ competence. Keywords: VirtualClass, Augmented Reality (AR
Pour la raison évidente, mais non rédhibitoire que la réalité virtuelle a la réputation d’être inabordable pour des universités peu argentées, pratiquement aucune investigation n’a été faite dans ce domaine. Après avoir pris part à diverses conférences au Centre Pompidou à Paris et lu Virtual Reality de Howard Rheingold, je pense que nous ne devons plus nous poser le problème de ce que nous pouvons faire, mais de ce que nous voulons faire désormais. De plus, au lieu de nous plaindre de la mau...
Klein, Jonathan; Reuling, Dennis; Grimm, Jan; Pfau, Andreas; Lefloch, Damien; Lambers, Martin; Kolb, Andreas
Volume Rendering applications require sophisticated user interaction for the definition and refinement of transfer functions. Traditional 2D desktop user interface elements have been developed to solve this task, but such concepts do not map well to the interaction devices available in Virtual Reality environments. In this paper, we propose an intuitive user interface for Volume Rendering specifically designed for Virtual Reality environments. The proposed interface allows transfer function d...
Pilia, Arnaud, E-mail: email@example.com; Brun, Cyril; Doceul, Louis; Gargiulo, Laurent; Hatchressian, Jean-Claude; Keller, Delphine; Le, Roland; Poli, Serge; Zago, Bertrand
Highlights: • VR technologies applied to Fusion enable better and faster understanding of integration issues. • Assembly problems are solved and validated on a numerical mockup. • Integration and accessibility issues can be identified in the earliest design on numerical mockup. • Problems are solved and validated on a physical mockup. • VR technologies are very helpful for assembly and maintenance operation simulations. - Abstract: The WEST project (Tungsten (W) Environment in Steady state Tokamak) is an upgrade of the existing fusion machine, Tore Supra. The goal is to equip the tokamak with a fully cooled tungsten divertor and to transform the machine in a test platform open to all ITER partners. The main assembly challenge of this project consists of an implementation of two magnet systems, called divertors, with an accuracy of 1 mm. Indeed, each divertor has about 4 m as diameter and has a heavy weight of 10 tons; also it introduces piece by piece in the original vessel through tight ports then assembled inside. To ensure a perfect fitting between these new components and a very constrained environment, it is necessary to use the latest CAD technologies available. Beyond conventional CAD tools, the virtual reality (VR) room of the institute provides several useful tools. Thanks to the 185″ stereoscopic 3D screen and a force feedback arm linked to clash detection software developed by the CEA LIST, a new way to carry out design and assembly studies was performed. In order to improve VR results, metrology data (3D scan) enhance simulations. Therefore, it becomes possible to be aware of the real size of a component and future difficulties in assembling it. At last, performance of such simulations is evaluated and compared to physical mockup in order to bring enhancement to the VR tools, before to be compared to the real operations on Tore Supra. The aim is to build a design tool that helps the designer since early stage of the design of complex systems
Award Number: N62909-14-l-Nl 19 Exploring Moral Actions Using lmmersive Virtual Reality event LAB Entorns virtuals en neurociencias i tecnologia...Entornos virtua/es en neurociencias y tecnologfa Experimental virtual environments for neuroscience University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
Demir, I.; Villanueva, P.; Sermet, M. Y.
Accurately measuring the surface level of a river is a vital component of environmental monitoring and modeling efforts. Reliable data points are required for calibrating the statistical models that are used for, among other things, flood prediction and model validation. While current embedded monitoring systems provide accurate measurements, the cost to replicate this current system on a large scale is prohibitively expensive, limiting the quantity of data available. In this project, we describe a new method to accurately measure river levels using smartphone sensors. We take three pictures of the same point on the river's surface and perform calculations based on the GPS location and spatial orientation of the smartphone for each picture using projected geometry. Augmented reality is used to improve the accuracy of smartphone sensor readings. This proposed implementation is significantly cheaper than existing water measuring systems while offering similar accuracy. Additionally, since the measurements are taken by sensors that are commonly found in smartphones, crowdsourcing the collection of river measurements to citizen-scientists is possible. Thus, our proposed method leads to a much higher quantity of reliable data points than currently possible at a fraction of the cost. Sample runs and an analysis of the results are included. The presentation concludes with a discussion of future work, including applications to other fields and plans to implement a fully automated system using this method in tandem with image recognition and machine learning.
Full Text Available Interactive motion platforms are intended for vehicle simulators, where the direct interaction of the human body is used for controlling the simulated vehicle (e.g. bicycle, motorbike or other sports vehicles. The second use of interactive motion platforms is for entertainment purposes or fitness. The development of interactive motion platforms reacts to recent calls in the simulation industry to provide a device, which further enhances the virtual reality experience, especially with connection to the new and very fast growing business in virtual reality glasses. The paper looks at the design and control of an interactive motion platform with two degrees of freedom to be used in virtual reality applications. The paper provides the description of the control methods and new problems related to the virtual reality sickness are discussed here.
Samsudin, Khairulanuar; Rafi, Ahmad; Mohamad Ali, Ahmad Zamzuri; Abd. Rashid, Nazre
The aim of this study is to develop and to test a low-cost virtual reality spatial trainer in terms of its effectiveness in spatial training. The researchers adopted three features deriving from the constructivist perspective to guide the design of the trainer, namely interaction, instruction, and support. The no control pre test post test…
The idea of virtual realities has a long and complex historical trajectory, spanning from Plato's concept of the cave and the simulacrum, to artistic styles such as Trompe L'oeil, and more recently developments in 3D film, television and gaming. However, this book will pay particular attention to the time between the 1980s to the 1990s when virtual reality and cyberspace were represented, particularly in fiction, as a wondrous technology that enabled transcendence from the limitations of physical embodiment. The purpose of this critical historical analysis of representations of virtual reality
Mao, Yurong; Chen, Peiming; Li, Le; Huang, Dongfeng
Virtual reality is a new technology that simulates a three-dimensional virtual world on a computer and enables the generation of visual, audio, and haptic feedback for the full immersion of users. Users can interact with and observe objects in three-dimensional visual space without limitation. At present, virtual reality training has been widely used in rehabilitation therapy for balance dysfunction. This paper summarizes related articles and other articles suggesting that virtual reality training can improve balance dysfunction in patients after neurological diseases. When patients perform virtual reality training, the prefrontal, parietal cortical areas and other motor cortical networks are activated. These activations may be involved in the reconstruction of neurons in the cerebral cortex. Growing evidence from clinical studies reveals that virtual reality training improves the neurological function of patients with spinal cord injury, cerebral palsy and other neurological impairments. These findings suggest that virtual reality training can activate the cerebral cortex and improve the spatial orientation capacity of patients, thus facilitating the cortex to control balance and increase motion function. PMID:25368651
Mao, Yurong; Chen, Peiming; Li, Le; Huang, Dongfeng
Virtual reality is a new technology that simulates a three-dimensional virtual world on a computer and enables the generation of visual, audio, and haptic feedback for the full immersion of users. Users can interact with and observe objects in three-dimensional visual space without limitation. At present, virtual reality training has been widely used in rehabilitation therapy for balance dysfunction. This paper summarizes related articles and other articles suggesting that virtual reality training can improve balance dysfunction in patients after neurological diseases. When patients perform virtual reality training, the prefrontal, parietal cortical areas and other motor cortical networks are activated. These activations may be involved in the reconstruction of neurons in the cerebral cortex. Growing evidence from clinical studies reveals that virtual reality training improves the neurological function of patients with spinal cord injury, cerebral palsy and other neurological impairments. These findings suggest that virtual reality training can activate the cerebral cortex and improve the spatial orientation capacity of patients, thus facilitating the cortex to control balance and increase motion function.
Dodd, George G.
A general description of Virtual Reality technology and possible applications was given from publicly available material. A video tape was shown demonstrating the use of multiple large-screen stereoscopic displays, configured in a 10' x 10' x 10' room, to allow a person to evaluate and interact with a vehicle which exists only as mathematical data, and is made only of light. The correct viewpoint of the vehicle is maintained by tracking special glasses worn by the subject. Interior illumination was changed by moving a virtual light around by hand; interior colors are changed by pointing at a color on a color palette, then pointing at the desired surface to change. We concluded by discussing research needed to move this technology forward.
Pantelidis, Veronica S.
Many studies have been conducted on the use of virtual reality in education and training. This article lists examples of such research. Reasons to use virtual reality are discussed. Advantages and disadvantages of using virtual reality are presented, as well as suggestions on when to use and when not to use virtual reality. A model that can be…
Mitrousia, V; Giotakos, O
During the last decade a number of studies have been conducted in order to examine if virtual reality exposure therapy can be an alternative form of therapy for the treatment of mental disorders and particularly for the treatment of anxiety disorders. Imaginal exposure therapy, which is one of the components of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, cannot be easily applied to all patients and in cases like those virtual reality can be used as an alternative or a supportive psychotherapeutic technique. Most studies using virtual reality have focused on anxiety disorders, mainly in specific phobias, but some extend to other disorders such as eating disorders, drug dependence, pain control and palliative care and rehabilitation. Main characteristics of virtual reality therapy are: "interaction", "immersion", and "presence". High levels of "immersion" and "presence" are associated with increased response to exposure therapy in virtual environments, as well as better therapeutic outcomes and sustained therapeutic gains. Typical devices that are used in order patient's immersion to be achieved are the Head-Mounted Displays (HMD), which are only for individual use, and the computer automatic virtual environment (CAVE), which is a multiuser. Virtual reality therapy's disadvantages lie in the difficulties that arise due to the demanded specialized technology skills, devices' cost and side effects. Therapists' training is necessary in order for them to be able to manipulate the software and the hardware and to adjust it to each case's needs. Devices' cost is high but as technology continuously improves it constantly decreases. Immersion during virtual reality therapy can induce mild and temporary side effects such as nausea, dizziness or headache. Until today, however, experience shows that virtual reality offers several advantages. Patient's avoidance to be exposed in phobic stimuli is reduced via the use of virtual reality since the patient is exposed to them as many times as he
Ródenas, J; Zarza, I; Burgos, M C; Felipe, A; Sánchez-Mayoral, M L
Operators in Nuclear Power Plants can receive high doses during refuelling operations. A training programme for simulating refuelling operations will be useful in reducing the doses received by workers as well as minimising operation time. With this goal in mind, a virtual reality application is developed within the framework of the CIPRES project. The application requires doses, both instantaneous and accumulated, to be displayed at all times during operator training. Therefore, it is necessary to set up a database containing dose rates at every point in the refuelling plant. This database is based on radiological protection surveillance data measured in the plant during refuelling operations. Some interpolation routines have been used to estimate doses through the refuelling plant. Different assumptions have been adopted in order to perform the interpolation and obtain consistent data. In this paper, the procedures developed to set up the dose database for the virtual reality application are presented and analysed.
Park, Kyung-Min; Ku, Jeonghun; Choi, Soo-Hee; Jang, Hee-Jeong; Park, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Sun I; Kim, Jae-Jin
Although social skills training (SST) is an effective approach for improving social skills for schizophrenia, the motivational deficit attenuates its efficacy. Virtual reality (VR) applications have allowed individuals with mental disabilities to enhance their motivation for rehabilitation. We compared SST using VR role-playing (SST-VR) to SST using traditional role-playing (SST-TR). This randomized, controlled trial included 91 inpatients with schizophrenia who were assigned to either SST-VR (n=46) or SST-TR (n=45). Both groups were administered over 10 semiweekly group sessions. An experienced, blinded rater assessed vocal, nonverbal and conversational skills. We also obtained data on motivation for SST and various social abilities. Throughout the 10 sessions, the SST-VR group (n=33) showed greater interest in SST and generalization of the skills than the SST-TR group (n=31). After SST, the SST-VR group improved more in conversational skills and assertiveness than the SST-TR group, but less in nonverbal skills. The VR application in role-plays of SST for schizophrenia may be particularly beneficial in terms of improving the conversational skills and assertiveness, possibly through its advantages in enhancing motivation for SST and generalization of the skills, and thus it may be a useful supplement to traditional SST. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Song, Sub Lee; Lee, Byung Il; Park, Seong Jun; Lee, Dewhey; Park, Younwon [BEES Inc., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
The article of Act on Physical Protection and Radiological Emergency (APPRE) was amended as a nuclear licensee shall formulate a radiological emergency exercise plan as prescribed by the Ordinance of the Prime minister and execute such plan with the approval of the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC). Current radiological emergency exercise is basically conducting in the field. The field exercise essentially requires participation of mass population. Due to lack of time, cost, communication and participation, the field exercise necessarily causes several limitations in an aspect of effectiveness. The public participants often misunderstood the situation as real though it is just an exercise so several conflicts are occurring. Furthermore, the exercise program is too ideal to reflect the real accident situation. In this point of view, application of virtual reality (VR) technology is highlighted with its many advantages. VR technology is expected to resolve those existing problems. Our research team is currently developing VR based radiological emergency exercise system. In this paper, the advantages and actual application of VR based training were introduced. With those advantages and improvement of existing disadvantages, our VR based radiological emergency exercise system will be developed. Not only physical interactive features, but also interactive fail-considered real-like scenarios will be adopted in the system. The ultimate goal of the system is safe and perfect evacuation of residents in case of radioactive accident.
Laver, K; George, S; Thomas, S; Deutsch, J E; Crotty, M
Virtual reality and interactive video gaming are innovative therapy approaches in the field of stroke rehabilitation. The primary objective of this review was to determine the effectiveness of virtual reality on motor function after stroke. The impact on secondary outcomes including activities of daily living was also assessed. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials that compared virtual reality with an alternative or no intervention were included in the review. The authors searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, electronic databases, trial registers, reference lists, Dissertation Abstracts, conference proceedings and contacted key researchers and virtual reality manufacturers. Search results were independently examined by two review authors to identify studies meeting the inclusion criteria. Nineteen studies with a total of 565 participants were included in the review. Variation in intervention approaches and outcome data collected limited the extent to which studies could be compared. Virtual reality was found to be significantly more effective than conventional therapy in improving upper limb function (standardised mean difference, SMD) 0.53, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.25 to 0.81)) based on seven studies, and activities of daily living (ADL) function (SMD 0.81, 95% CI 0.39 to 1.22) based on three studies. No statistically significant effects were found for grip strength (based on two studies) or gait speed (based on three studies). Virtual reality appears to be a promising approach however, further studies are required to confirm these findings.
P Iskandar, Yulita Hanum; Gilbert, Lester; Wills, Gary
Latency is a frequently cited shortcoming of Virtual Reality (VR) applications. To compensate for excessive latency, prediction mechanisms may use sophisticated mathematical algorithms, which may not be appropriate for complex virtual teaching applications. This paper suggests that heuristic prediction algorithms could be used to develop more effective and general systems for VR educational applications. A fast synchronization squash simulation illustrates where heuristic prediction can be us...
Like virtual reality, augmented reality is becoming an emerging platform in new application areas for museums, edutainment, home entertainment, research, industry, and the art communities using novel approaches which have taken augmented reality beyond traditional eye-worn or hand-held displays. In this book, the authors discuss spatial augmented reality approaches that exploit optical elements, video projectors, holograms, radio frequency tags, and tracking technology, as well as interactive rendering algorithms and calibration techniques in order to embed synthetic supplements into the real
Experiencing anxiety is essential for virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) to be effective in curing patients suffering from anxiety disorders. However, some patients drop out in VRET due to the lack of feeling anxiety. Presence - which refers to the feeling of being in the virtual environment -
As an emerging technology for learning, virtual reality (VR) dates back four decades, to early work by Ivan Sutherland in the late 1960s. At long last, interactive media are emerging that offer the promise of VR in everyday settings. Quasi-VR already is commonplace in 2-1/2-D virtual environments like Second Life and in massively multiplayer…
Kiss, S.; Williams, A.
The paper presents a virtual reality modeling system based on interactive web technologies. The system's goal is to provide a user-friendly virtual environment for the development of 3D characters with an articulated structure. The interface allows the modeling of both the character's joint
Won, Andrea Stevenson; Bailey, Jakki; Bailenson, Jeremy; Tataru, Christine; Yoon, Isabel A.; Golianu, Brenda
Children must often endure painful procedures as part of their treatment for various medical conditions. Those with chronic pain endure frequent or constant discomfort in their daily lives, sometimes severely limiting their physical capacities. With the advent of affordable consumer-grade equipment, clinicians have access to a promising and engaging intervention for pediatric pain, both acute and chronic. In addition to providing relief from acute and procedural pain, virtual reality (VR) may also help to provide a corrective psychological and physiological environment to facilitate rehabilitation for pediatric patients suffering from chronic pain. The special qualities of VR such as presence, interactivity, customization, social interaction, and embodiment allow it to be accepted by children and adolescents and incorporated successfully into their existing medical therapies. However, the powerful and transformative nature of many VR experiences may also pose some risks and should be utilized with caution. In this paper, we review recent literature in pediatric virtual reality for procedural pain and anxiety, acute and chronic pain, and some rehabilitation applications. We also discuss the practical considerations of using VR in pediatric care, and offer specific suggestions and information for clinicians wishing to adopt these engaging therapies into their daily clinical practice. PMID:28644422
Lee Steven O. Zantua
Full Text Available Virtual Reality is fast becoming a breakthrough in education technology and is headed towards a path where learning has become immersive. Virtual reality (VR offers both learners and educators a great opportunity to bridge gaps in the pedagogical sense. With the emergence of the Google Cardboard (GCB platform, a low-cost, virtual reality gadget comes a wide range of opportunities for educators and institutions to bring about an immersive type of learning environment for the 21st-century learner. Using Grade 6 Middle school students, this research explores the learning outcomes and student reactions using the GCB and Google Expeditions application. The study showed no significant difference in pre-test scores of the control and experimental group. There is however, a significant difference in the scores of the experimental group compared to the control group after post-test. Utilizing t-test in comparing the two groups, it was found that the mean of the post-test scores for Group A (experimental was significantly higher than Group B(control. The result of the independent samples t-test was significant, t(18 = 2.33, p = .032, suggesting that the mean of posttest score was significantly different between Groups A and B. This difference in score performance gives light to how VR can be used as a tool that enhances the learning experience. By using VR technology that is low cost and effective, more institutions will be able to help students learn better.
Full Text Available 無This article introduces an ongoing project that integrates Internet virtual reality techniques with situated learning theory, and tries to find out the synthesized application. Based upon the synthesis, the authors develop a set of learning materials that can provide an environment for multiple-user participation and real-time interaction on Internet. A detailed description of the instructional design process is offered, followed by the suggestions for future research in this promising area.
Hermund, Anders; Klint, Lars; Bundgård, Ture Slot
This paper discusses the present and future possibilities of representation models of architecture in new media such as virtual reality, seen in the broader context of tradition, perception, and neurology. Through comparative studies of real and virtual scenarios using eye tracking, the paper...... discusses if the constantly evolving toolset for architectural representation has in itself changed the core values of architecture, or if it is rather the level of skilful application of technology that can inflict on architecture and its quality. It is easy to contemplate virtual reality as an extension...... to the visual field of perception. However, this should not necessarily imply an acceptance of the dominance of vision over the other senses, and the much-criticized retinal architecture with its inherent loss of plasticity. Recent neurology studies indicate that 3D representation models in virtual reality...
Adamovich, Sergei V.; Fluet, Gerard G; Tunik, Eugene; Merians, Alma S
Recent experimental evidence suggests that rapid advancement of virtual reality (VR) technologies has great potential for the development of novel strategies for sensorimotor training in neurorehabilitation. We discuss what the adaptive and engaging virtual environments can provide for massive and intensive sensorimotor stimulation needed to induce brain reorganization. Second, discrepancies between the veridical and virtual feedback can be introduced in VR to facilitate activation of targete...
Slattery, Diana R.
Virtual Reality (VR), especially in a technologically focused discourse, is defined by a class of hardware and software, among them head-mounted displays (HMDs), navigation and pointing devices; and stereoscopic imaging. This presentation examines the experiential aspect of VR. Putting "virtual" in front of "reality" modifies the ontological status of a class of experience-that of "reality." Reality has also been modified [by artists, new media theorists, technologists and philosophers] as augmented, mixed, simulated, artificial, layered, and enhanced. Modifications of reality are closely tied to modifications of perception. Media theorist Roy Ascott creates a model of three "VR's": Verifiable Reality, Virtual Reality, and Vegetal (entheogenically induced) Reality. The ways in which we shift our perceptual assumptions, create and verify illusions, and enter "the willing suspension of disbelief" that allows us entry into imaginal worlds is central to the experience of VR worlds, whether those worlds are explicitly representational (robotic manipulations by VR) or explicitly imaginal (VR artistic creations). The early rhetoric surrounding VR was interwoven with psychedelics, a perception amplified by Timothy Leary's presence on the historic SIGGRAPH panel, and the Wall Street Journal's tag of VR as "electronic LSD." This paper discusses the connections-philosophical, social-historical, and psychological-perceptual between these two domains.
Grossmann, Rafael J.
The new term improved reality (i-Reality) is suggested to include virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR). It refers to a real world that includes improved, enhanced and digitally created features that would offer an advantage on a particular occasion (i.e., a medical act). I-Reality may help us bridge the gap between the high demand for medical providers and the low supply of them by improving the interaction between providers and patients.
Gamito, Pedro; Oliveira, Jorge; Coelho, Carla; Morais, Diogo; Lopes, Paulo; Pacheco, José; Brito, Rodrigo; Soares, Fabio; Santos, Nuno; Barata, Ana Filipa
Use of virtual reality environments in cognitive rehabilitation offers cost benefits and other advantages. In order to test the effectiveness of a virtual reality application for neuropsychological rehabilitation, a cognitive training program using virtual reality was applied to stroke patients. A virtual reality-based serious games application for cognitive training was developed, with attention and memory tasks consisting of daily life activities. Twenty stroke patients were randomly assigned to two conditions: exposure to the intervention, and waiting list control. The results showed significant improvements in attention and memory functions in the intervention group, but not in the controls. Overall findings provide further support for the use of VR cognitive training applications in neuropsychological rehabilitation. Implications for Rehabilitation Improvements in memory and attention functions following a virtual reality-based serious games intervention. Training of daily-life activities using a virtual reality application. Accessibility to training contents.
Tepper, Oren M; Rudy, Hayeem L; Lefkowitz, Aaron; Weimer, Katie A; Marks, Shelby M; Stern, Carrie S; Garfein, Evan S
Virtual reality and augmented reality devices have recently been described in the surgical literature. The authors have previously explored various iterations of these devices, and although they show promise, it has become clear that virtual reality and/or augmented reality devices alone do not adequately meet the demands of surgeons. The solution may lie in a hybrid technology known as mixed reality, which merges many virtual reality and augmented realty features. Microsoft's HoloLens, the first commercially available mixed reality device, provides surgeons intraoperative hands-free access to complex data, the real environment, and bidirectional communication. This report describes the use of HoloLens in the operating room to improve decision-making and surgical workflow. The pace of mixed reality-related technological development will undoubtedly be rapid in the coming years, and plastic surgeons are ideally suited to both lead and benefit from this advance.
Rizzo, Albert A; Bowerly, Todd; Buckwalter, J Galen; Klimchuk, Dean; Mitura, Roman; Parsons, Thomas D
Treatment and rehabilitation of the cognitive, psychological, and motor sequelae of central nervous system dysfunction often relies on assessment instruments to inform diagnosis and to track changes in clinical status. Typically, these assessments employ paper-and-pencil psychometrics, hands-on analog/computer tests, and rating of behavior within the context of real-world functional environments. Virtual reality offers the option to produce and distribute identical "standard" simulation environments in which performance can be measured and rehabilitated. Within such digital scenarios, normative data can be accumulated for performance comparisons needed for assessment/diagnosis and for treatment/rehabilitation purposes. In this manner, reusable archetypic virtual environments constructed for one purpose can also be applied for applications addressing other clinical targets. This article will provide a review of such a retooling approach using a virtual classroom simulation that was originally developed as a controlled stimulus environment in which attention processes could be systematically assessed in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. This system is now being applied to other clinical targets including the development of tests that address other cognitive functions, eye movement under distraction conditions, social anxiety disorder, and the creation of an earthquake safety training application for children with developmental and learning disabilities.
We propose a methodology to design and evaluate environmental sounds for virtual environments. We propose to combine physically modeled sound events with recorded soundscapes. Physical models are used to provide feedback to users’ actions, while soundscapes reproduce the characteristic soundmarks...... of an environment. In this particular case, physical models are used to simulate the act of walking in the botanical garden of the city of Prague, while soundscapes are used to reproduce the particular sound of the garden. The auditory feedback designed was combined with a photorealistic reproduction of the same...
Jones, Ted; Moore, Todd; Choo, James
The treatment of chronic pain could benefit from additional non-opioid interventions. Virtual reality (VR) has been shown to be effective in decreasing pain for procedural or acute pain but to date there have been few studies on its use in chronic pain. The present study was an investigation of the impact of a virtual reality application for chronic pain. Thirty (30) participants with various chronic pain conditions were offered a five-minute session using a virtual reality application called Cool! Participants were asked about their pain using a 0-10 visual analog scale rating before the VR session, during the session and immediately after the session. They were also asked about immersion into the VR world and about possible side effects. Pain was reduced from pre-session to post-session by 33%. Pain was reduced from pre-session during the VR session by 60%. These changes were both statistically significant at the p virtual reality session. All participants (100%) reported a decrease in pain to some degree between pre-session pain and during-session pain. The virtual reality experience was found here to provide a significant amount of pain relief. A head mounted display (HMD) was used with all subjects and no discomfort was experienced. Only one participant noted any side effects. VR seems to have promise as a non-opioid treatment for chronic pain and further investigation is warranted.
Virtual Reality has for many years been a technology which has stagnated in application and software development for games. What was possible and created ten years ago for games in VR environments is still being developed. The applications available for VR environments have increased...
This essay, written in 1998 by an active participant in both virtual reality development and the virtual reality definition debate, discusses the definition of the phrase "Virtual Reality" (VR). I start with history from a personal perspective, concentrating on the debate between the "Virtual Reality" and "Virtual Environment" labels in the late 1980's and early 1990's. Definitions of VR based on specific technologies are shown to be unsatisfactory. I propose the following definition of VR, b...
Osterlund, Jeffrey; Lawrence, Brad
With the advancements in high spatial and temporal resolution graphics, along with advancements in 3D display capabilities to model, simulate, and analyze human-to-machine interfaces and interactions, the world of virtual environments is being used to develop everything from gaming, movie special affects and animations to the design of automobiles. The use of multiple object motion capture technology and digital human tools in aerospace has demonstrated to be a more cost effective alternative to the cost of physical prototypes, provides a more efficient, flexible and responsive environment to changes in the design and training, and provides early human factors considerations concerning the operation of a complex launch vehicle or spacecraft. United Space Alliance (USA) has deployed this technique and tool under Research and Development (R&D) activities on both spacecraft assembly and ground processing operations design and training on the Orion Crew Module. USA utilizes specialized products that were chosen based on functionality, including software and fixed based hardware (e.g., infrared and visible red cameras), along with cyber gloves to ensure fine motor dexterity of the hands. The key findings of the R&D were: mock-ups should be built to not obstruct cameras from markers being tracked; a mock-up toolkit be assembled to facilitate dynamic design changes; markers should be placed in accurate positions on humans and flight hardware to help with tracking; 3D models used in the virtual environment be striped of non-essential data; high computational capable workstations are required to handle the large model data sets; and Technology Interchange Meetings with vendors and other industries also utilizing virtual reality applications need to occur on a continual basis enabling USA to maintain its leading edge within this technology. Parameters of interest and benefit in human spaceflight simulation training that utilizes virtual reality technologies are to
Colmenero Fdez, A.
In this paper, we will expose the process of adapting a high resolution model (laser and photogrammetry) into a virtual reality application for mobile phones. It is a virtual archeology project carried out on the site of Lugo's Mitreo, Spain.
Beigi, Navid; Sangild, Thomas; Terkildsen, Søren Vorre; Deding, Dorthe; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans; Pedersen, Michael
The purpose of this study was to create a 3D visualization of the urinary tract by a novel virtual reality approach, and to evaluate the usefulness of this method for papillary classification as compared with 2D urogram obtained by maximum intensity projection (MIP). In one healthy pig, magnetic resonance urography was performed using a T1-weighted 3D gradient echo pulse sequence. Post-processing was performed by means of an MIP algorithm and by using 3D virtual reality modelling, followed by manual classification of papillae as being either simple or compound. The 2D MIP urogram demonstrated 6 simple and 6 compound papillae, whereas the 3D urogram demonstrated 5 simple and 7 compound papillae. In both urograms, some papillae were unsuccessfully classified. The possibility of using virtual reality devices allowed 3D rotation and offered additional diagnostic information. However, further studies should reveal its feasibility in diseased kidneys.
Full Text Available We propose a methodology to design and evaluate environmental sounds for virtual environments. We propose to combine physically modeled sound events with recorded soundscapes. Physical models are used to provide feedback to users' actions, while soundscapes reproduce the characteristic soundmarks of an environment. In this particular case, physical models are used to simulate the act of walking in the botanical garden of the city of Prague, while soundscapes are used to reproduce the particular sound of the garden. The auditory feedback designed was combined with a photorealistic reproduction of the same garden. A between-subject experiment was conducted, where 126 subjects participated, involving six different experimental conditions, including both uni- and bimodal stimuli (auditory and visual. The auditory stimuli consisted of several combinations of auditory feedback, including static sound sources as well as self-induced interactive sounds simulated using physical models. Results show that subjects' motion in the environment is significantly enhanced when dynamic sound sources and sound of egomotion are rendered in the environment.
It has been observed that every photon is, in a sense, virtual - being emitted and then sooner or later absorbed. As the motif of a quantum radiation state, the photon shares these characteristics of any virtual state: that it is not directly observable; and that it can signify only one of a number of indeterminable intermediates, between matter states that are directly measurable. Nonetheless, other traits of real and virtual behavior are usually quite clearly differentiable. How 'real', the...
Simoons Maarten L
Full Text Available Abstract Background This pilot study was performed to evaluate whether virtual reality is applicable for three-dimensional echocardiography and if three-dimensional echocardiographic 'holograms' have the potential to become a clinically useful tool. Methods Three-dimensional echocardiographic data sets from 2 normal subjects and from 4 patients with a mitral valve pathological condition were included in the study. The three-dimensional data sets were acquired with the Philips Sonos 7500 echo-system and transferred to the BARCO (Barco N.V., Kortrijk, Belgium I-space. Ten independent observers assessed the 6 three-dimensional data sets with and without mitral valve pathology. After 10 minutes' instruction in the I-Space, all of the observers could use the virtual pointer that is necessary to create cut planes in the hologram. Results The 10 independent observers correctly assessed the normal and pathological mitral valve in the holograms (analysis time approximately 10 minutes. Conclusion this report shows that dynamic holographic imaging of three-dimensional echocardiographic data is feasible. However, the applicability and use-fullness of this technology in clinical practice is still limited.
Madan, Atul K; Frantzides, Constantine T; Sasso, Lisa M
Assessment of any surgical skill is time-consuming and difficult. Currently, there are no accepted metrics for most surgical skills, especially laparoscopic skills. Virtual reality has been utilized for laparoscopic training of surgical residents. Our hypothesis is that this technology can be utilized for laparoscopic ability metrics. This study involved medical students with no previous laparoscopic experience. All students were taken into a porcine laboratory in order to assess two operative tasks (measuring a piece of bowel and placing a piece of bowel into a laparoscopic bag). Then they were taken into an inanimate lab with a Minimally Invasive Surgery Trainer-Virtual Reality (MIST-VR). Each student repeatedly performed one task (placing a virtual reality ball into a receptacle). The students' scores and times from the animate lab were compared with average economy of movement and times from the MIST-VR. The MIST-VR scored both hands individually. Thirty-two first- and second-year medical students were included in the study. There was statistically significant (P reality trainer and operative tasks. While not all of the possible relationships demonstrated statistically significant correlation, the majority of the possible relationships demonstrated statistically significant correlation. Virtual reality may be an avenue for measuring laparoscopic surgical ability.
Majgaard, Gunver; Lyk, Patricia
, de skulle have. Fokus. I artiklen er der særligt fokus på hvordan læringscentrede designprocesser og Virtual Reality tilsammen kan understøtte erfaringslæring. Konklusion. Eleverne fik en større forståelse af teknologi og kreative designprocesser ved at fungere som informanter og designpartnere i...... designforløbet. Eleverne fik igennem design af de fysiske modeller og besøget i Virtual Reality formidlet to oplevelser af deres modeller, som styrkede grundlaget for erfaringsbaseret læring. Erfaringsbaseret læring kombinerer oplevelse, refleksion, abstraktion og aktiv eksperimenteren i en proces, som...
Chen, Karen B; Kimmel, Ryan A; Bartholomew, Aaron; Ponto, Kevin; Gleicher, Michael L; Radwin, Robert G
In this study, we compared how users locate physical and equivalent three-dimensional images of virtual objects in a cave automatic virtual environment (CAVE) using the hand to examine how human performance (accuracy, time, and approach) is affected by object size, location, and distance. Virtual reality (VR) offers the promise to flexibly simulate arbitrary environments for studying human performance. Previously, VR researchers primarily considered differences between virtual and physical distance estimation rather than reaching for close-up objects. Fourteen participants completed manual targeting tasks that involved reaching for corners on equivalent physical and virtual boxes of three different sizes. Predicted errors were calculated from a geometric model based on user interpupillary distance, eye location, distance from the eyes to the projector screen, and object. Users were 1.64 times less accurate (p virtual versus physical box corners using the hands. Predicted virtual targeting errors were on average 1.53 times (p virtual targets but not significantly different for close-up virtual targets. Target size, location, and distance, in addition to binocular disparity, affected virtual object targeting inaccuracy. Observed virtual box inaccuracy was less than predicted for farther locations, suggesting possible influence of cues other than binocular vision. Human physical interaction with objects in VR for simulation, training, and prototyping involving reaching and manually handling virtual objects in a CAVE are more accurate than predicted when locating farther objects.
Jeffs, Tara L.
The use of virtual environments for special needs is as diverse as the field of Special Education itself and the individuals it serves. Individuals with special needs often face challenges with attention, language, spatial abilities, memory, higher reasoning and knowledge acquisition. Research in the use of Virtual Learning Environments (VLE)…
Paiva, Paulo Vinícius de Farias; Machado, Liliane dos Santos; Santos,Sérgio Ribeiro dos; Romero, Renata Olívia Gadelha
The main goal of virtual reality is to create three-dimensional environments that users can explore and manipulate with the feeling of being immersed in realistic simulations. VR systems are mainly characterized by a high degree of realism in their simulation of real world experiences or even fictitious situations. Medicine and healthcare are benefiting from VR, especially the collaborative virtual environments for teaching various procedures that enable distance education as well as collabor...
Golubinskaya Anastasia Valerievna
The article is aimed to rethinking the theory of social construction of P. Berger and T. Luckmann in the context of digital society. The conception of virtual reality helps to find new traits of the world in everyday life: intersubjectivity, temporality, schemes of typification and other social-constructivist concepts that receive new meanings. The author proposes to research the way of the world transformation “here and now” in the age of virtualization of social acts, and how these changes ...
Wilson, Andrew S; O'Connor, Jake; Taylor, Lewis; Carruthers, David
Performing eye examinations is an important clinical skill that medical students often find difficult to become proficient in. This paper describes the development and evaluation of an innovative 3D virtual reality (VR) training application to support learning these skills. The VR ophthalmoscope was developed by a clinical team and technologist using the unity game engine, smartphone and virtual reality headset. It has a series of tasks that include performing systematic eye examinations, identifying common eye pathologies and a knowledge quiz. As part of their clinical training, 15 fourth-year medical students were surveyed for their views on this teaching approach. The Technology Acceptance Model was used to evaluate perceived usefulness and ease of use. Data were also collected on the usability of the app, together with the students' written comments about it. Users agreed that the teaching approach improved their understanding of ophthalmoscopy (n = 14), their ability to identify landmarks in the eye (n = 14) and their ability to recognise abnormalities (n = 15). They found the app easy to use (n = 15), the teaching approach informative (n = 13) and that it would increase students' confidence when performing these tasks in future (n = 15). Performing eye examinations is an important clinical skill DISCUSSION: The evaluation showed that a VR app can successfully simulate the processes involved in performing eye examinations. The app was highly rated for all elements of perceived usefulness, ease of use and usability. Medical students stated that they would like to be taught other medical skills in this way in future. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.
Stone, Robert J.
Traces the history of virtual reality (VR), or cyberspace, and describes some of the research and development efforts currently being carried out in the United Kingdom, Europe, and the United States. Applications of VR in interactive computer-aided design (CAD), the military, leisure activities, spaceflight, teleconferencing, and medicine are…
Maule, R. William; Oh, Byron; Check, Rosa
This paper reports on a study that conceptualizes a research framework to aid software design and development for virtual reality (VR) computer applications for instruction in the sciences. The framework provides methodologies for the processing, collection, examination, classification, and presentation of multimedia information within hyperlinked…
Hvass, Jonatan Salling; Larsen, Oliver Stevns; Vendelbo, Kasper Bøgelund
Virtual Reality (VR) has finally entered the homes of consumers, and a large number of the available applications are games. This paper presents a between-subjects study (n=50) exploring if vi-sual realism (polygon count and texture resolution) affects pres-ence during a scenario involving gameplay...
Stets, Jonathan Dyssel; Sun, Yongbin; Greenwald, Scott W.
We present a Virtual Reality (VR) application for labeling and handling point cloud data sets. A series of room-scale point clouds are recorded as a video sequence using a Microsoft Kinect. The data can be played and paused, and frames can be skipped just like in a video player. The user can walk...
Cochrane, Thomas Donald; Cook, Stuart; Aiello, Stephen; Christie, Duncan; Sinfield, David; Steagall, Marcus; Aguayo, Claudio
This paper proposes a design based research (DBR) framework for designing mobile virtual reality learning environments. The application of the framework is illustrated by two design-based research projects that aim to develop more authentic educational experiences and learner-centred pedagogies in higher education. The projects highlight the first…
Several Virtual Reality (VR) applications for the understanding, assessment and treatment of mental health problems have been developed in the last 15 years. Typically, in VR the patient learns to manipulate problematic situations related to his/her problem. In fact, VR can be described as an advanced form of human-computer interface that is able…
As state boards of education and other state policymakers consider the future of schools, sorting fad technology from technology that accelerates learning is key. Virtual reality (VR) is one such technology with promise that seems unlikely to fizzle. Hailed as potentially transformative for education and still in the early stages of application,…
Rebelo, Francisco; Noriega, Paulo; Duarte, Emília; Soares, Marcelo
The aim of this article is to discuss how user experience (UX) evaluation can benefit from the use of virtual reality (VR). UX is usually evaluated in laboratory settings. However, considering that UX occurs as a consequence of the interaction between the product, the user, and the context of use, the assessment of UX can benefit from a more ecological test setting. VR provides the means to develop realistic-looking virtual environments with the advantage of allowing greater control of the experimental conditions while granting good ecological validity. The methods used to evaluate UX, as well as their main limitations, are identified.The currentVR equipment and its potential applications (as well as its limitations and drawbacks) to overcome some of the limitations in the assessment of UX are highlighted. The relevance of VR for UX studies is discussed, and a VR-based framework for evaluating UX is presented. UX research may benefit from a VR-based methodology in the scopes of user research (e.g., assessment of users' expectations derived from their lifestyles) and human-product interaction (e.g., assessment of users' emotions since the first moment of contact with the product and then during the interaction). This article provides knowledge to researchers and professionals engaged in the design of technological interfaces about the usefulness of VR in the evaluation of UX.
Thurman, Richard A.; Mattoon, Joseph S.
Considers the role and effectiveness of virtual reality in simulation-based training. The theoretical and practical implications of verity, integration, and natural versus artificial interface are discussed; a three-dimensional classification scheme for virtual reality is described; and the relationship between virtual reality and other…
This thesis focuses on interactively visualizing, and ultimately simulating, cumulus clouds both in virtual reality (VR) and with a standard desktop computer. The cumulus clouds in question are found in data sets generated by Large-Eddy Simulations (LES), which are used to simulate a small section
Training designed to support and strengthen higher-order mental abilities now often involves immersion in Virtual Reality (VR) where dangerous real world scenarios can be safely replicated. However, despite the growing popularity of VR to train cognitive skills such as decision-making and situation awareness, methods for evaluating their use rely…
Tsang, J S
Shortened trainingtimes duetothe European Working Time Directive (EWTD) and increased public scrutiny of surgical competency have led to a move away from the traditional apprenticeship model of training. Virtual reality (VR) simulation is a fascinating innovation allowing surgeons to develop without the need to practice on real patients and it may be a solution to achieve competency within a shortened training period.
Harmon, Stephen W.; Kenney, Patrick J.
Discusses the contexts where virtual reality (VR) training environments might be appropriate; examines the advantages and disadvantages of VR as a training technology; and presents a case study of a VR training environment used at the NASA Johnson Space Center in preparation for the repair of the Hubble Space Telescope. (AEF)
Mottelson, Aske; Hornbæk, Kasper
virtual reality (VR) studies outside laboratories remains unclear because these studies often use expensive equipment, depend critically on the physical context, and sometimes study delicate phenomena concerning body awareness and immersion. To investigate, we explore pointing, 3D tracing, and body...
Chen, Chwen Jen; Toh, Seong Chong; Ismail, Wan Mohd Fauzy Wan
This study aims to investigate the effects of a virtual reality (VR)-based learning environment on learners with different learning styles. The findings of the aptitude-by-treatment interaction study have shown that learners benefit most from the VR (guided exploration) mode, irrespective of their learning styles. This shows that the VR-based…
In this PhD research a method and software prototype is developed for COLlaborative Architectural Design In VIRtual reality. The method consists of developing versions of a concept for a building and the evaluation of them with criteria. Every team member makes his own versions; otherwise they would
Ausmeier, Natalie J
Full Text Available Virtual Reality (VR) is widely used in training simulators of dangerous or expensive vehicles such as aircraft or heavy mining machinery. The vehicles often have very complicated controls that users need to master before attempting to operate a real...
van Luin, J.; Nijholt, Antinus; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Giagourta, V.; Strintzis, M.G.
We describe our work on designing a natural language accessible navigation agent for a virtual reality (VR) environment. The agent is part of an agent framework, which means that it can communicate with other agents. Its navigation task consists of guiding the visitors in the environment and to
Konge, Lars; Arendrup, Henrik; von Buchwald, Christian
Background: Virtual reality (VR) bronchoscopy simulators have been available for more than a decade, and have been recognized as an important aid in bronchoscopy training. The existing literature has only examined the role of VR simulators in diagnostic bronchoscopy. The aim of this study...
Virtual reality (VR) has the potential to revolutionize education, as it immerses students in their learning more than any other available medium. By blocking out visual and auditory distractions in the classroom, it has the potential to help students deeply connect with the material they are learning in a way that has never been possible before.…
Mottelson, Aske; Hornbæk, Kasper
virtual reality (VR) studies outside laboratories remains unclear because these studies often use expensive equipment, depend critically on the physical context, and sometimes study delicate phenomena concerning body awareness and immersion. To investigate, we explore pointing, 3D tracing, and body...
Full Text Available Virtual reality and visualisation technologies developed over the past thirty years have been readily accessible to the archaeological community since the mid 1990s. Despite the high profile of virtual archaeology (Reilly 1991 both within the media and professional archaeology it has not been taken on board as a generally useful and standard technique by archaeologists. In this article we wish to discuss the technical and other issues which have resulted in a reluctance to adopt virtual archaeology and, more importantly, discuss ways forward that can enable us routinely to benefit from this technology in the diversity of archaeological practice.
Dryer, David A.
The Integrated Data Visualization and Virtual Reality Tool (IDVVRT) Phase II effort was for the design and development of an innovative Data Visualization Environment Tool (DVET) for NASA engineers and scientists, enabling them to visualize complex multidimensional and multivariate data in a virtual environment. The objectives of the project were to: (1) demonstrate the transfer and manipulation of standard engineering data in a virtual world; (2) demonstrate the effects of design and changes using finite element analysis tools; and (3) determine the training and engineering design and analysis effectiveness of the visualization system.
Hartanto, Dwi; Kampmann, Isabel L.; Morina, Nexhmedin; Emmelkamp, Paul G. M.; Neerincx, Mark A.; Brinkman, Willem-Paul
Virtual reality exposure therapy has been proposed as a viable alternative in the treatment of anxiety disorders, including social anxiety disorder. Therapists could benefit from extensive control of anxiety eliciting stimuli during virtual exposure. Two stimuli controls are studied in this study: the social dialogue situation, and the dialogue feedback responses (negative or positive) between a human and a virtual character. In the first study, 16 participants were exposed in three virtual reality scenarios: a neutral virtual world, blind date scenario, and job interview scenario. Results showed a significant difference between the three virtual scenarios in the level of self-reported anxiety and heart rate. In the second study, 24 participants were exposed to a job interview scenario in a virtual environment where the ratio between negative and positive dialogue feedback responses of a virtual character was systematically varied on-the-fly. Results yielded that within a dialogue the more positive dialogue feedback resulted in less self-reported anxiety, lower heart rate, and longer answers, while more negative dialogue feedback of the virtual character resulted in the opposite. The correlations between on the one hand the dialogue stressor ratio and on the other hand the means of SUD score, heart rate and audio length in the eight dialogue conditions showed a strong relationship: r(6) = 0.91, p = 0.002; r(6) = 0.76, p = 0.028 and r(6) = −0.94, p = 0.001 respectively. Furthermore, more anticipatory anxiety reported before exposure was found to coincide with more self-reported anxiety, and shorter answers during the virtual exposure. These results demonstrate that social dialogues in a virtual environment can be effectively manipulated for therapeutic purposes. PMID:24671006
Full Text Available Virtual reality exposure therapy has been proposed as a viable alternative in the treatment of anxiety disorders, including social anxiety disorder. Therapists could benefit from extensive control of anxiety eliciting stimuli during virtual exposure. Two stimuli controls are studied in this study: the social dialogue situation, and the dialogue feedback responses (negative or positive between a human and a virtual character. In the first study, 16 participants were exposed in three virtual reality scenarios: a neutral virtual world, blind date scenario, and job interview scenario. Results showed a significant difference between the three virtual scenarios in the level of self-reported anxiety and heart rate. In the second study, 24 participants were exposed to a job interview scenario in a virtual environment where the ratio between negative and positive dialogue feedback responses of a virtual character was systematically varied on-the-fly. Results yielded that within a dialogue the more positive dialogue feedback resulted in less self-reported anxiety, lower heart rate, and longer answers, while more negative dialogue feedback of the virtual character resulted in the opposite. The correlations between on the one hand the dialogue stressor ratio and on the other hand the means of SUD score, heart rate and audio length in the eight dialogue conditions showed a strong relationship: r(6 = 0.91, p = 0.002; r(6 = 0.76, p = 0.028 and r(6 = -0.94, p = 0.001 respectively. Furthermore, more anticipatory anxiety reported before exposure was found to coincide with more self-reported anxiety, and shorter answers during the virtual exposure. These results demonstrate that social dialogues in a virtual environment can be effectively manipulated for therapeutic purposes.
Kaleja, Pavol; Kozlovská, Mária
We can observe significant potential of information and communication technologies (ICT) in interior designing field, by development of software and hardware virtual reality tools. Using ICT tools offer realistic perception of proposal in its initial idea (the study). A group of real-time visualization, supported by hardware tools like Oculus Rift HTC Vive, provides free walkthrough and movement in virtual interior with the possibility of virtual designing. By improving of ICT software tools for designing in virtual reality we can achieve still more realistic virtual environment. The contribution presented proposal of an innovative approach of interior designing in virtual reality, using the latest software and hardware ICT virtual reality technologies
Jonathan Carlos Samaniego Villarroel
Full Text Available Virtual reality is a very interesting topic, but quite far from us apparently the Latin American reality is too far to technological advances and therefore costs us understand how they serve educational purposes. This paper will seek to publicize what is virtual reality, how the peripherals used to use, works and of course educational implications in ﬁrst world countries, and how we could in our country use these technologies with pilot programs that allow our children and young people supplement their knowledge. What role do smartphones in this concept and how companies like Google and Samsung are playing an important play in the popularization of these tools, although many see them as a game or fad, there is no doubt that within a few years will be very important in the educational ﬁeld.
Melissa M. Terras
Full Text Available The use of computers as an educational resource in museums is becoming increasingly popular as more and more institutions realise that multimedia displays are very successful in imparting a broad variety of information. Although three-dimensional reconstructions of sites and structures have been used in archaeology for many years, the majority of museum computer installations have dealt with two-dimensional media because of the costs, equipment and labour involved in producing interactive 3D scenes. The birth of VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language has changed the way virtual reality is implemented and viewed. As an internet protocol, VRML can be used on most major platforms and implemented by anyone with a word-processing package, an internet browser, and the relevant plug-in. There is no reason why this new technology cannot be adopted by archaeologists and museums to produce virtual reality models of structures, sites and objects to aid the research of specialists and the education of the public. This project (undertaken at the Humanities Advanced Technology and Information Institute, University of Glasgow, Scotland, between May and October 1998 investigated the practicalities involved in using VRML to create a virtual reality model for use in a public space. A model of the Egyptian tomb of Sen-nedjem was developed for installation in the Egyptian Gallery of the Kelvingrove Museum and Art Gallery, Glasgow, in the hope that the introduction of this computer display would encourage the museum visitor's interest in the gallery's existing artefacts. Creation of the model would also investigate the possibility of using VRML to build accurate archaeological reconstructions cheaply and efficiently using publicly available software and existing archaeological resources. A fully functioning virtual reality model of the tomb of Sen-nedjem has been created, incorporating interactive elements, photorealistic representation, and animation, and this
Lei, Liangyu; Liu, Jianjun; Yang, Xiufang
Aseeri, Sahar A.
In this work we aim to implement and evaluate alternative approaches for interacting with virtual environments on mobile devices for navigation, object selection and manipulation. Interaction with objects in virtual worlds using traditional input such as current state-of-the-art devices is often difficult and could diminish the immersion and sense of presence when it comes to 3D virtual environment tasks. We have developed new methods to perform different kinds of interactions using a mobile device (e.g. a smartphone) both as input device, performing selection and manipulation of objects, and as output device, utilizing the screen as an extra view (virtual camera or information display). Our hypothesis is that interaction via mobile devices facilitates simple tasks like the ones described within immersive virtual reality systems. We present here our initial implementation and result. © 2013 IEEE.
Pastura, Valeria da Fonseca e Silva
The activities developed in the units which organize the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) are present in various sectors of the Brazilian society, being them in medicine, industry, electricity generation, mining, and among the others. Based on the assumption that the employees are CNEN's mayor differential and the training programs play an important role in the process of organizational development, because they align the professionals with the strategies of the institution properly. Focusing on these matters, this master's thesis aimed to evaluate the training programs which are applied by CNEN, in order to propose and evaluate the use of the Virtual Reality (VR) expertise as a new method to be applied in the training programs. To accomplish this purpose, we performed two methodological approaches through questionnaires. And from the analysis of the results obtained, we could realize that there was no efficient training program which is systematically applied by CNEN, and the use of the RV technique improves the training programs in the understanding of themes whose assimilation is challengeable, such as those related to nuclear power. In this sense, for a better functional performance, the training programs adopted by CNEN must be structured so as to enable the development of each server's skills as well as abilities and, it is actually hoped that the virtual reality tools could be inserted in these programs to pursue only this purpose. (author)
Ding, D.; Burger, F.; Brinkman, W.P.; Neerincx, M.A.
A number of negotiation training systems have been developed to improve people’s performance in negotiation. They mainly focus on the skills development, and less on negotiation understanding and improving self-efficacy. We propose a virtual reality negotiation training system that exposes users to
Cooper, Rory A.; Ding, Dan; Simpson, Richard; Fitzgerald, Shirley G.; Spaeth, Donald M.; Guo, Songfeng; Koontz, Alicia M.; Cooper, Rosemarie; Kim, Jongbae; Boninger, Michael L.
Some aspects of assistive technology can be enhanced by the application of virtual reality. Although virtual simulation offers a range of new possibilities, learning to navigate in a virtual environment is not equivalent to learning to navigate in the real world. Therefore, virtual reality simulation is advocated as a useful preparation for…
Full Text Available This paper reviews the state of the art on risk communication to the public, with an emphasis on simulation of seismic hazards using VRML. Rapid growth computer technologies, especially the Internet provide human beings new measures to deal with engineering and social problems which were hard to solve in traditional ways. This paper presents a prototype of an application platform based on the Internet using VR (Virtual Reality for civil engineering considering building an information system of risk communication for seismic hazards and at the moment in the case of bridge structure.
Andrews, David L.
It has been observed that every photon is, in a sense, virtual - being emitted and then sooner or later absorbed. As the motif of a quantum radiation state, the photon shares these characteristics of any virtual state: that it is not directly observable; and that it can signify only one of a number of indeterminable intermediates, between matter states that are directly measurable. Nonetheless, other traits of real and virtual behavior are usually quite clearly differentiable. How 'real', then, is the photon? To address this and related questions it is helpful to look in detail at the quantum description of light emission and absorption. A straightforward analysis of the dynamic electric field, based on quantum electro-dynamics, reveals not only the entanglement of energy transfer mechanisms usually regarded as 'radiative' and 'radiationless'; it also gives significant physical insights into several other electromagnetic topics. These include: the propagating and non-propagating character in electromagnetic fields; near-zone and wave-zone effects; transverse and longitudinal character; the effects of retardation, manifestations of quantum uncertainty and issues of photon spin. As a result it is possible to gain a clearer perspective on when, or whether, the terms 'real' and 'virtual' are helpful descriptors of the photon.
Taçgin, Zeynep; Arslan, Ahmet
The purpose of this study is to determine perception of postgraduate Computer Education and Instructional Technologies (CEIT) students regarding the concepts of Augmented Reality (AR), Virtual Reality (VR), Mixed Reality (MR), Augmented Virtuality (AV) and Mirror Reality; and to offer a table that includes differences and similarities between…
Levac, Danielle E; Galvin, Jane
Multiple virtual reality (VR) systems are used to improve motor function in children and youth with neurological impairments. Galvin and Levac developed a classification framework to facilitate clinical decision-making about VR system use. This paper applies the classification framework to identify its strengths and limitations. The classification framework is applied to three case studies where therapists may consider using VR with children involved in paediatric rehabilitation programmes. The classification framework identified VR systems that met each child's individual needs. The relevance of each category to clinical decision-making varied depending on each child's goals. Categories requiring further development and suggestions for additional categories are discussed. The classification framework facilitates child-centred decision-making about the use of VR as a therapeutic intervention. It has shown initial utility but requires further validation with clinicians working in a variety of clinical settings and with a range of client populations.
Atwal, Anita; Money, Arthur; Harvey, Michele
A key role of Occupational Therapists (OTs) is to carry out pre-discharge home visits (PHV) and propose appropriate adaptations to the home environment in order to enable patients to function independently after hospital discharge. However, research shows that more than 50% of specialist equipment installed as part of home adaptations is not used by patients. A key reason for this is that decisions about home adaptations are often made without adequate collaboration and consultation with the patient. Consequently, there is an urgent need to seek out new and innovative uses of technology to facilitate patient/practitioner collaboration, engagement, and shared decision making in the PHV process. Virtual reality interior design applications (VRIDAs) primarily allow users to simulate the home environment and visualize changes prior to implementing them. Customized VRIDAs, which also model specialist occupational therapy equipment, could become a valuable tool to facilitate improved patient/practitioner collaboration, if developed effectively and integrated into the PHV process. The intent of the study was to explore the perceptions of OTs with regard to using VRIDAs as an assistive tool within the PHV process. Task-oriented interactive usability sessions, utilizing the think-aloud protocol and subsequent semi-structured interviews were carried out with seven OTs who possessed significant experience across a range of clinical settings. Template analysis was carried out on the think-aloud and interview data. Analysis was both inductive and driven by theory, centering around the parameters that impact upon the acceptance, adoption, and use of this technology in practice as indicated by the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). OTs' perceptions were identified relating to three core themes: (1) perceived usefulness (PU), (2) perceived ease of use (PEoU), and (3) actual use (AU). Regarding PU, OTs believed VRIDAs had promising potential to increase understanding, enrich
Background A key role of Occupational Therapists (OTs) is to carry out pre-discharge home visits (PHV) and propose appropriate adaptations to the home environment in order to enable patients to function independently after hospital discharge. However, research shows that more than 50% of specialist equipment installed as part of home adaptations is not used by patients. A key reason for this is that decisions about home adaptations are often made without adequate collaboration and consultation with the patient. Consequently, there is an urgent need to seek out new and innovative uses of technology to facilitate patient/practitioner collaboration, engagement, and shared decision making in the PHV process. Virtual reality interior design applications (VRIDAs) primarily allow users to simulate the home environment and visualize changes prior to implementing them. Customized VRIDAs, which also model specialist occupational therapy equipment, could become a valuable tool to facilitate improved patient/practitioner collaboration, if developed effectively and integrated into the PHV process. Objective The intent of the study was to explore the perceptions of OTs with regard to using VRIDAs as an assistive tool within the PHV process. Methods Task-oriented interactive usability sessions, utilizing the think-aloud protocol and subsequent semi-structured interviews were carried out with seven OTs who possessed significant experience across a range of clinical settings. Template analysis was carried out on the think-aloud and interview data. Analysis was both inductive and driven by theory, centering around the parameters that impact upon the acceptance, adoption, and use of this technology in practice as indicated by the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). Results OTs’ perceptions were identified relating to three core themes: (1) perceived usefulness (PU), (2) perceived ease of use (PEoU), and (3) actual use (AU). Regarding PU, OTs believed VRIDAs had promising potential
Norrby, Magnus; Grebner, Christoph; Eriksson, Joakim; Boström, Jonas
Recent advances in interaction design have created new ways to use computers. One example is the ability to create enhanced 3D environments that simulate physical presence in the real world--a virtual reality. This is relevant to drug discovery since molecular models are frequently used to obtain deeper understandings of, say, ligand-protein complexes. We have developed a tool (Molecular Rift), which creates a virtual reality environment steered with hand movements. Oculus Rift, a head-mounted display, is used to create the virtual settings. The program is controlled by gesture-recognition, using the gaming sensor MS Kinect v2, eliminating the need for standard input devices. The Open Babel toolkit was integrated to provide access to powerful cheminformatics functions. Molecular Rift was developed with a focus on usability, including iterative test-group evaluations. We conclude with reflections on virtual reality's future capabilities in chemistry and education. Molecular Rift is open source and can be downloaded from GitHub.
Parsons, Thomas D.; Gaggioli, Andrea; Riva, Giuseppe
The emergence of social neuroscience has significantly advanced our understanding of the relationship that exists between social processes and their neurobiological underpinnings. Social neuroscience research often involves the use of simple and static stimuli lacking many of the potentially important aspects of real world activities and social interactions. Whilst this research has merit, there is a growing interest in the presentation of dynamic stimuli in a manner that allows researchers to assess the integrative processes carried out by perceivers over time. Herein, we discuss the potential of virtual reality for enhancing ecological validity while maintaining experimental control in social neuroscience research. Virtual reality is a technology that allows for the creation of fully interactive, three-dimensional computerized models of social situations that can be fully controlled by the experimenter. Furthermore, the introduction of interactive virtual characters—either driven by a human or by a computer—allows the researcher to test, in a systematic and independent manner, the effects of various social cues. We first introduce key technical features and concepts related to virtual reality. Next, we discuss the potential of this technology for enhancing social neuroscience protocols, drawing on illustrative experiments from the literature. PMID:28420150
Parsons, Thomas D; Gaggioli, Andrea; Riva, Giuseppe
The emergence of social neuroscience has significantly advanced our understanding of the relationship that exists between social processes and their neurobiological underpinnings. Social neuroscience research often involves the use of simple and static stimuli lacking many of the potentially important aspects of real world activities and social interactions. Whilst this research has merit, there is a growing interest in the presentation of dynamic stimuli in a manner that allows researchers to assess the integrative processes carried out by perceivers over time. Herein, we discuss the potential of virtual reality for enhancing ecological validity while maintaining experimental control in social neuroscience research. Virtual reality is a technology that allows for the creation of fully interactive, three-dimensional computerized models of social situations that can be fully controlled by the experimenter. Furthermore, the introduction of interactive virtual characters-either driven by a human or by a computer-allows the researcher to test, in a systematic and independent manner, the effects of various social cues. We first introduce key technical features and concepts related to virtual reality. Next, we discuss the potential of this technology for enhancing social neuroscience protocols, drawing on illustrative experiments from the literature.
Meyer, Catherine; Dunn-Roberts, Richard
Defines virtual reality and explains terminology, theoretical concepts, and enabling technologies. Research and applications are described; limitations of current technology are considered; and future possibilities are discussed, including the use of virtual reality in training for cross-cultural communication. (22 references) (LRW)
Keenaghan, G.; Horvath, I.
This paper reports on our major findings concerning the application of virtual reality technologies in built environment education (BEE). In addition to an analysis of the current trends and developments in current virtual reality technologies and systems, it also evaluates their educational
In the field of human-computer interaction, Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR) have been rapidly growing areas of interest and concerted development effort thanks to both private and public research. At NASA, a number of groups have explored the possibilities afforded by AR and VR technology, among which is the IT Advanced Concepts Lab (ITACL). Within ITACL, the AVR (Augmented/Virtual Reality) Lab focuses on VR technology specifically for its use in command and control. Previous work in the AVR lab includes the Natural User Interface (NUI) project and the Virtual Control Panel (VCP) project, which created virtual three-dimensional interfaces that users could interact with while wearing a VR headset thanks to body- and hand-tracking technology. The Virtual Tablet (VT) project attempts to improve on these previous efforts by incorporating a physical surrogate which is mirrored in the virtual environment, mitigating issues with difficulty of visually determining the interface location and lack of tactile feedback discovered in the development of previous efforts. The physical surrogate takes the form of a handheld sheet of acrylic glass with several infrared-range reflective markers and a sensor package attached. Using the sensor package to track orientation and a motion-capture system to track the marker positions, a model of the surrogate is placed in the virtual environment at a position which corresponds with the real-world location relative to the user's VR Head Mounted Display (HMD). A set of control mechanisms is then projected onto the surface of the surrogate such that to the user, immersed in VR, the control interface appears to be attached to the object they are holding. The VT project was taken from an early stage where the sensor package, motion-capture system, and physical surrogate had been constructed or tested individually but not yet combined or incorporated into the virtual environment. My contribution was to combine the pieces of
Robison, R Aaron; Liu, Charles Y; Apuzzo, Michael L J
To review virtual reality in neurosurgery, including the history of simulation and virtual reality and some of the current implementations; to examine some of the technical challenges involved; and to propose a potential paradigm for the development of virtual reality in neurosurgery going forward. A search was made on PubMed using key words surgical simulation, virtual reality, haptics, collision detection, and volumetric modeling to assess the current status of virtual reality in neurosurgery. Based on previous results, investigators extrapolated the possible integration of existing efforts and potential future directions. Simulation has a rich history in surgical training, and there are numerous currently existing applications and systems that involve virtual reality. All existing applications are limited to specific task-oriented functions and typically sacrifice visual realism for real-time interactivity or vice versa, owing to numerous technical challenges in rendering a virtual space in real time, including graphic and tissue modeling, collision detection, and direction of the haptic interface. With ongoing technical advancements in computer hardware and graphic and physical rendering, incremental or modular development of a fully immersive, multipurpose virtual reality neurosurgical simulator is feasible. The use of virtual reality in neurosurgery is predicted to change the nature of neurosurgical education, and to play an increased role in surgical rehearsal and the continuing education and credentialing of surgical practitioners. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Claire Su-Yeon Park
Full Text Available Virtual Reality (VR technology are entering nursing education at a rapid speed (Foronda et al., 2017. VR has been reported in the nursing literature to significantly improve students’ performance (Jenson & Forsyth, 2012; Park, 2016; Foronda et al., 2017 even though the body of evidence in terms of the number and research quality of peer reviewed research papers is not yet substantial enough to identify VR technology’s effectiveness. However, VR is not actually reality. VR may not actually reflect reality. Young people (and even adults may not perceive the different between reality and VR. They may not yet be mature enough to distinguish the difference. However, VR technology are going much further than traditional educational methods by allowing humans to experience a much higher level of immersion through a virtual image. Even the gap between advances in VR technology and its application to education science is widening, causing serious concern. The advance in VR technology is value-neutral. As with all things, whether something is good or bad depends on how humans use it. VR can be useful, for example, when it enables scholars to attend an international conference without traveling to the physical convention center. VR provides the ability to speak, listen, and discuss in real time. Those using VR can choose to view a featured or real-time image of the other participants as if they were actually at the conference. Further, remote participants can feel touch through electronic sensors attached to their body. How amazing! The problem with VR lies in the fact that we are not ready to cope with any possible harmful influences caused by advances in VR technology. But what is the “Dark Shadow of VR,” and why does it cause concern, particularly in pedagogy? Luc Besson’s 2017 film Valerian and the City of a Thousand Plants showed an exceptional VR world, “Big Market,” a shopping-focused VR platform. But such a world is no longer strictly
Golubinskaya Anastasia Valerievna
Full Text Available The article is aimed to rethinking the theory of social construction of P. Berger and T. Luckmann in the context of digital society. The conception of virtual reality helps to find new traits of the world in everyday life: intersubjectivity, temporality, schemes of typification and other social-constructivist concepts that receive new meanings. The author proposes to research the way of the world transformation “here and now” in the age of virtualization of social acts, and how these changes effect human social nature and reflective processes.
Harm, Deborah; Taylor, L. C.; Reschke, M. F.
Virtual environments offer unique training opportunities, particularly for training astronauts and preadapting them to the novel sensory conditions of microgravity. Two unresolved human factors issues in virtual reality (VR) systems are: 1) potential "cybersickness", and 2) maladaptive sensorimotor performance following exposure to VR systems. Interestingly, these aftereffects are often quite similar to adaptive sensorimotor responses observed in astronauts during and/or following space flight. Active exploratory behavior in a new environment, with resulting feedback and the formation of new associations between sensory inputs and response outputs, promotes appropriate perception and motor control in the new environment. Thus, people adapt to consistent, sustained alterations of sensory input such as those produced by microgravity. Our research examining the effects of repeated exposures to a full field of view dome VR system showed that motion sickness and initial decrements in eye movement and postural control were greatly diminished following three exposures. These results suggest that repeated transitions between VR and the normal environment preflight might be a useful countermeasure for neurosensory and sensorimotor effects of space flight. The range of VR applications is enormous, extending from ground-based VR training for extravehicular activities at NASA, to medical and educational uses. It seems reasonable to suggest that other space related uses of VR should be investigated. For example, 1) use of head-mounted VR on orbit to rehearse/practice upcoming operational activities, and 2) ground-based VR training for emergency egress procedures. We propose that by combining VR designed for operational activities preflight, along with an appropriate schedule to facilitate sensorimotor adaptation and improve spatial orientation would potentially accomplish two important goals for astronauts and cosmonauts, preflight sensorimotor adaption and enhanced operational
Tsap, L V
Important preconditions for wide acceptance of virtual reality (VR) systems include their comfort, ease and naturalness to use. Most existing trackers super from discomfort-related issues. For example, body-based trackers (hand controllers, joysticks, helmet attachments, etc.) restrict spontaneity and naturalness of motion, while ground-based devices (e.g., hand controllers) limit the workspace by literally binding an operator to the ground. There are similar problems with controls. This paper describes using real-time video with registered depth information (from a commercially available camera) for virtual reality navigation. Camera-based setup can replace cumbersome trackers. The method includes selective depth processing for increased speed, and a robust skin-color segmentation for accounting illumination variations.
This paper will summarise the findings from creating and implementing a visually high quality Virtual Reality (VR) experiment as part of an international architecture exhibition. It was the aim to represent the architectural spatial qualities as well as the atmosphere created from combining natural...... and artificial lighting in a prominent not yet built project. The outcome is twofold: Findings concerning the integration of VR in an exhibition space and findings concerning the experience of the virtual space itself. In the exhibition, an important aspect was the unmanned exhibition space, requiring the VR...... and quantitative methods at two different occasions and setups after the exhibition, both showing a high degree of immersion and experience of reality....
Full Text Available The general aim of the development of virtual reality technology for automation applications at the IRF is to provide the framework for Projective Virtual Reality which allows users to "project" their actions in the virtual world into the real world primarily by means of robots but also by other means of automation. The framework is based on a new task-oriented approach which builds on the "task deduction" capabilities of a newly developed virtual reality system and a task planning component. The advantage of this new approach is that robots which work at great distances from the control station can be controlled as easily and intuitively as robots that work right next to the control station. Robot control technology now provides the user in the virtual world with a "prolonged arm" into the physical environment, thus paving the way for a new quality of userfriendly man machine interfaces for automation applications. Lately, this work has been enhanced by a new structure that allows to distribute the virtual reality application over multiple computers. With this new step, it is now possible for multiple users to work together in the same virtual room, although they may physically be thousands of miles apart. They only need an Internet or ISDN connection to share this new experience. Last but not least, the distribution technology has been further developed to not just allow users to cooperate but to be able to run the virtual world on many synchronized PCs so that a panorama projection or even a cave can be run with 10 synchronized PCs instead of high-end workstations, thus cutting down the costs for such a visualization environment drastically and allowing for a new range of applications.
Saxena, Nakul; Kyaw, Bhone M.; Všetečková, Jitka; Dev, Parvati; Paul, Pradeep; Lim, Kenneth Teck Kiat; Kononowicz, Andrezej; Masiello, Italo; Tudor Car, Lorainne; Nikolaou, Charoula K.; Zary, Nabil; Car, Josip
This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To assess the effects of virtual reality environment (VRE)-based educational interventions for health professionals on knowledge, skills, and participants??? attitude towards and satisfaction with the interventions. Additionally, this review will assess the interventions' economic impact (cost and cost effectiveness), patient-related outcomes and unintended adverse effects of VRE-based educational inter...
Slater, Mel; Sánchez-Vives, María Victoria
Cognitive neuroscientists have discovered various experimental setups that suggest that our body representation is surprisingly flexible, where the brain can easily be tricked into the illusion that a rubber hand is your hand or that a manikin body is your body. These multisensory illusions work well in immersive virtual reality (IVR). What is even more surprising is that such embodiment induces perceptual, attitudinal and behavioural changes that are concomitant with the displayed body type....
The Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) and Java provide a standardized, portable and platform-independent way to render dynamic, interactive 3D scenes across the Internet. Integrating two powerful and portable software languages provides interactive 3D graphics plus complete programming capabilities plus network access. Intended for programmers and scene authors, this paper provides a VRML overview, synopsizes the open development history of the specification, provdes a condensed summ...
Kreylos, O.; Bawden, G.; Bernardin, T.; Billen, M.I.; Cowgill, E.S.; Gold, R.D.; Hamann, B.; Jadamec, M.; Kellogg, L.H.; Staadt, O.G.; Sumner, D.Y.
To advance research and improve the scientific return on data collection and interpretation efforts in the geosciences, we have developed methods of interactive visualization, with a special focus on immersive virtual reality (VR) environments. Earth sciences employ a strongly visual approach to the measurement and analysis of geologic data due to the spatial and temporal scales over which such data ranges, As observations and simulations increase in size and complexity, the Earth sciences are challenged to manage and interpret increasing amounts of data. Reaping the full intellectual benefits of immersive VR requires us to tailor exploratory approaches to scientific problems. These applications build on the visualization method's strengths, using both 3D perception and interaction with data and models, to take advantage of the skills and training of the geological scientists exploring their data in the VR environment. This interactive approach has enabled us to develop a suite of tools that are adaptable to a range of problems in the geosciences and beyond. Copyright ?? 2008 by the Association for Computing Machinery, Inc.
Farra, Sharon L; Miller, Elaine T; Hodgson, Eric
Disaster training is crucial to the mitigation of both mortality and morbidity associated with disasters. Just as clinical practice needs to be grounded in evidence, effective disaster education is dependent upon the development and use of andragogic and pedagogic evidence. Educational research findings must be transformed into useable education strategies. Virtual reality simulation is a teaching methodology that has the potential to be a powerful educational tool. The purpose of this article is to translate research findings related to the use of virtual reality simulation in disaster training into education practice. The Ace Star Model serves as a valuable framework to translate the VRS teaching methodology and improve disaster training of healthcare professionals. Using the Ace Star Model as a framework to put evidence into practice, strategies for implementing a virtual reality simulation are addressed. Practice guidelines, implementation recommendations, integration to practice and evaluation are discussed. It is imperative that health educators provide more exemplars of how research evidence can be moved through the various stages of the model to advance practice and sustain learning outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hürst, W.O.; Iwai, Daisuke; Balakrishnan, Prabhakaran
Virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) are expected by many to become the next wave of computing with significant impacts on our daily lives. Motivated by this, we organized a workshop on “Multimodal Virtual and Augmented Reality (MVAR)” at the 18th ACM International Conference on
Yiannakopoulou, Eugenia; Nikiteas, Nikolaos; Perrea, Despina; Tsigris, Christos
Virtual reality simulators provide basic skills training without supervision in a controlled environment, free of pressure of operating on patients. Skills obtained through virtual reality simulation training can be transferred on the operating room. However, relative evidence is limited with data available only for basic surgical skills and for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. No data exist on the effect of virtual reality simulation on performance on advanced surgical procedures. Evidence suggests that performance on virtual reality simulators reliably distinguishes experienced from novice surgeons Limited available data suggest that independent approach on virtual reality simulation training is not different from proctored approach. The effect of virtual reality simulators training on acquisition of basic surgical skills does not seem to be different from the effect the physical simulators. Limited data exist on the effect of virtual reality simulation training on the acquisition of visual spatial perception and stress coping skills. Undoubtedly, virtual reality simulation training provides an alternative means of improving performance in laparoscopic surgery. However, future research efforts should focus on the effect of virtual reality simulation on performance in the context of advanced surgical procedure, on standardization of training, on the possibility of synergistic effect of virtual reality simulation training combined with mental training, on personalized training. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chen, Chih-Hung; Jeng, Ming-Chang; Fung, Chin-Ping; Doong, Ji-Liang; Chuang, Tien-Yow
Whether virtual rehabilitation is beneficial has not been determined. To investigate the psychological benefits of virtual reality in rehabilitation. An experimental group underwent therapy with a virtual-reality-based exercise bike, and a control group underwent the therapy without virtual-reality equipment. Hospital laboratory. 30 patients suffering from spinal-cord injury. A designed rehabilitation therapy. Endurance, Borg's rating-of-perceived-exertion scale, the Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List (AD-ACL), and the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire. The differences between the experimental and control groups were significant for AD-ACL calmness and tension. A virtual-reality-based rehabilitation program can ease patients' tension and induce calm.
Cioc, Alexandru; Djorgovski, S. G.; Donalek, C.; Lawler, E.; Sauer, F.; Longo, G.
Malbos, Eric; Boyer, Laurent; Lançon, Christophe
Virtual reality is a media allowing users to interact in real time with computerized virtual environments. The application of this immersive technology to cognitive behavioral therapies is increasingly exploited for the treatment of mental disorders. The present study is a review of literature spanning from 1992 to 2012. It depicts the utility of this new tool for assessment and therapy through the various clinical studies carried out on subjects exhibiting diverse mental disorders. Most of the studies conducted on tested subjects attest to the significant efficacy of the Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET) for the treatment of distinct mental disorders. Comparative studies of VRET with the treatment of reference (the in vivo exposure component of the cognitive behavioral therapy) document an equal efficacy of the two methods and in some cases a superior therapeutic effect in favor of the VRET. Even though clinical experiments set on a larger scale, extended follow-up and studies about factors influencing presence are needed, virtual reality exposure represents an efficacious, confidential, affordable, flexible, interactive therapeutic method which application will progressively widened in the field of mental health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Virtual reality technology offers the promise of interaction with a computer-based environment that engages visual, auditory, and tactile perception. Three interrelated virtual reality design topics are particularly relevant to visual literacy. The first is the concept of avatars. Avatars are agents that appear in a virtual world representing the…
Full Text Available Applying head-mounted displays (HMDs and virtual reality scenarios in virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET promises to alleviate combat-related post-traumatic stress disorders (among others. Its basic premise is that, through virtual scenarios, patients may re-engage immersively with situations that provoke anxiety, thereby reducing fear and psychosomatic stress. In this context, HMDs and visualizations should be considered not merely as devices for entertainment purposes or tools for achieving pragmatic objectives but also as a means to instruct and guide patients’ imagination and visual perception in triggering traumatic experiences. Under what perceptual and therapeutic conditions is virtual therapy to be considered effective? Who is the “ideal” patient for such therapy regimes, both in terms of his/her therapeutic indications and his/her perceptual readiness to engage with VR scenarios? In short, how are “treatable” patients conceptualized by and within virtual therapy? From a media-theory perspective, this essay critically explores various aspects of the VRET application Bravemind in order to shed light on conditions of virtual exposure therapy and conceptions of subjectivity and traumatic experience that are embodied and replicated by such HMD-based technology.
Soeiro, José; Cláudio, Ana Paula; Carmo, Maria Beatriz; Ferreira, Hugo Alexandre
Augmented and Virtual Reality approaches are getting more and more advanced and consequently their use in various real world areas is increasing. Medicine is one of the fields in which more practical applications are surfacing, mainly approaches that enable new forms of visualization of data obtained from real patients. Our work focuses on providing a new simple, practical and efficient way to visualize the brain of a patient, both in an Augmented Reality and in a Virtual Reality approach, through a smartphone application.
Bekele, E; Bian, D; Peterman, J; Park, S; Sarkar, N
Schizophrenia is a life-long, debilitating psychotic disorder with poor outcome that affects about 1% of the population. Although pharmacotherapy can alleviate some of the acute psychotic symptoms, residual social impairments present a significant barrier that prevents successful rehabilitation. With limited resources and access to social skills training opportunities, innovative technology has emerged as a potentially powerful tool for intervention. In this paper, we present a novel virtual reality (VR)-based system for understanding facial emotion processing impairments that may lead to poor social outcome in schizophrenia. We henceforth call it a VR System for Affect Analysis in Facial Expressions (VR-SAAFE). This system integrates a VR-based task presentation platform that can minutely control facial expressions of an avatar with or without accompanying verbal interaction, with an eye-tracker to quantitatively measure a participants real-time gaze and a set of physiological sensors to infer his/her affective states to allow in-depth understanding of the emotion recognition mechanism of patients with schizophrenia based on quantitative metrics. A usability study with 12 patients with schizophrenia and 12 healthy controls was conducted to examine processing of the emotional faces. Preliminary results indicated that there were significant differences in the way patients with schizophrenia processed and responded towards the emotional faces presented in the VR environment compared with healthy control participants. The preliminary results underscore the utility of such a VR-based system that enables precise and quantitative assessment of social skill deficits in patients with schizophrenia.
Krichenbauer, Max; Yamamoto, Goshiro; Taketom, Takafumi; Sandor, Christian; Kato, Hirokazu
Virtual Reality (VR) Head-Mounted Displays (HMDs) are on the verge of becoming commodity hardware available to the average user and feasible to use as a tool for 3D work. Some HMDs include front-facing cameras, enabling Augmented Reality (AR) functionality. Apart from avoiding collisions with the environment, interaction with virtual objects may also be affected by seeing the real environment. However, whether these effects are positive or negative has not yet been studied extensively. For most tasks it is unknown whether AR has any advantage over VR. In this work we present the results of a user study in which we compared user performance measured in task completion time on a 9 degrees of freedom object selection and transformation task performed either in AR or VR, both with a 3D input device and a mouse. Our results show faster task completion time in AR over VR. When using a 3D input device, a purely VR environment increased task completion time by 22.5 percent on average compared to AR ( ). Surprisingly, a similar effect occurred when using a mouse: users were about 17.3 percent slower in VR than in AR ( ). Mouse and 3D input device produced similar task completion times in each condition (AR or VR) respectively. We further found no differences in reported comfort.
Lisewski, A. M.
We approach the virtual reality phenomenon by studying its relationship to set theory, and we investigate the case where this is done using the wellfoundedness property of sets. Our hypothesis is that non-wellfounded sets (hypersets) give rise to a different quality of virtual reality than do familiar wellfounded sets. We initially provide an alternative approach to virtual reality based on Sommerhoff's idea of first and second order self-awareness; both categories of self-awareness are consi...
Gamito, Pedro; Oliveira, Jorge; Baptista, André; Pereira, Edgar; Morais, Diogo; Saraiva, Tomaz; Santos, Nuno; Soares, Fábio
Several forms of treatment for nicotine dependence that combine the classical smoking cessation strategies with new Virtual Reality (VR) exposure techniques to smoking-related cues are in development. In this line, the main goal of our study was to develop a virtual platform in order to induce cravings in smokers. Sixty undergraduate students were randomly assigned to two different virtual environments (high-arousal cues and low-arousal cues). Both environments were based on a three-room apartment with commercial music playing and virtual characters interacting in a social event. The assessment was carried out before and after exposure through psychophysiological activation and self-report data for craving and nicotine dependence levels. No statistical differences were observed between smokers and non-smokers in psychophysiological activation. As far as self-report data is concerned, smokers revealed a significant increase in craving after the VR exposure to high arousal environments. Overall results were in line with previous studies suggesting the use of virtual environments as a tool for the existing smoking cessation programs.
Adamovich, Sergei V; Fluet, Gerard G; Tunik, Eugene; Merians, Alma S
Recent experimental evidence suggests that rapid advancement of virtual reality (VR) technologies has great potential for the development of novel strategies for sensorimotor training in neurorehabilitation. We discuss what the adaptive and engaging virtual environments can provide for massive and intensive sensorimotor stimulation needed to induce brain reorganization.Second, discrepancies between the veridical and virtual feedback can be introduced in VR to facilitate activation of targeted brain networks, which in turn can potentially speed up the recovery process. Here we review the existing experimental evidence regarding the beneficial effects of training in virtual environments on the recovery of function in the areas of gait,upper extremity function and balance, in various patient populations. We also discuss possible mechanisms underlying these effects. We feel that future research in the area of virtual rehabilitation should follow several important paths. Imaging studies to evaluate the effects of sensory manipulation on brain activation patterns and the effect of various training parameters on long term changes in brain function are needed to guide future clinical inquiry. Larger clinical studies are also needed to establish the efficacy of sensorimotor rehabilitation using VR in various clinical populations and most importantly, to identify VR training parameters that are associated with optimal transfer to real-world functional improvements.
Full Text Available This article explores the notion that the brain is genetically endowed with an innate virtual reality generator that – through experience-dependent plasticity –becomes a generative or predictive model of the world. This model, which is most clearly revealed in rapid eye movement (REM sleep dreaming, may provide the theatre for conscious experience. Functional neuroimaging evidence for brain activations that are time-locked to rapid eye movements endorses the view that waking consciousness emerges from REM sleep – and dreaming lays the foundations for waking perception. In this view, the brain is equipped with a virtual model of the world that generates predictions of its sensations. This model is continually updated and entrained by sensory prediction errors in wakefulness to ensure veridical perception, but not in dreaming. In contrast, dreaming plays an essential role in maintaining and enhancing the capacity to model the world by minimizing model complexity and thereby maximizing both statistical and thermodynamic efficiency. This perspective suggests that consciousness corresponds to the embodied process of inference, realized through the generation of virtual realities (in both sleep and wakefulness. In short, our premise or hypothesis is that the waking brain engages with the sensorium to predict the causes of sensations, while in sleep the brain's generative model is actively refined so that it generates more efficient predictions during waking. We review the evidence in support of this hypothesis – evidence that grounds consciousness in biophysical computations whose neuronal and neurochemical infrastructure has been disclosed by sleep research.
Montoya, R. Jorge
Virtual Reality (VR) is a way for humans to use computers in visualizing, manipulating and interacting with large geometric data bases. This paper describes a VR infrastructure and its application to marketing, modeling, architectural walk through, and training problems. VR integration techniques used in these applications are based on a uniform approach which promotes portability and reusability of developed modules. For each problem, a 3D object data base is created using data captured by hand or electronically. The object's realism is enhanced through either procedural or photo textures. The virtual environment is created and populated with the data base using software tools which also support interactions with and immersivity in the environment. These capabilities are augmented by other sensory channels such as voice recognition, 3D sound, and tracking. Four applications are presented: a virtual furniture showroom, virtual reality models of the North Carolina Global TransPark, a walk through the Dresden Fraunenkirche, and the maintenance training simulator for the National Guard.
Silva, Marcio Henrique da; Legey, Ana Paula; Mol, Antonio Carlos de A., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, E-mail: email@example.com, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
Recently, several applications using concepts related to virtual reality has been proposed to help on solving issues of great interest in Nuclear Engineering. Among them are power plant's control rooms simulators; measurement of the estimated radiation dose in a nuclear power plant; use of game engines to create virtual environments to support evacuation planning of buildings and circulation in areas subjected to radiation; development of a man - machine interface based on speech recognition; virtual control tables for simulation of nuclear power plants; evacuation plans support; security teams training and evaluation of physical protection barriers; ergonomic evaluation of control rooms, and other ones. Many of these applications are developed at Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), having their results published in form of articles in periodicals and conferences. This article presents a review of some of these studies showing the evolution in the use of these concepts, describing some of its results and showing prospects for future applications that can make use of virtual reality technology. (author)
Mantovani, Fabrizia; Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Gaggioli, Andrea; Riva, Giuseppe
Emerging changes in health-care delivery are having a significant impact on the structure of health-care professionals' education. Today it is recognized that medical knowledge doubles every 6-8 years, with new medical procedures emerging everyday. While the half-life of medical information is so short, the average physician practices 30 years and the average nurse 40 years. Continuing education thus represents an important challenge to face. Recent advances in educational technology are offering an increasing number of innovative learning tools. Among these, Virtual Reality represents a promising area with high potential of enhancing the training of health-care professionals. Virtual Reality Training can provide a rich, interactive, engaging educational context, thus supporting experiential learning-by-doing; it can, in fact, contribute to raise interest and motivation in trainees and to effectively support skills acquisition and transfer, since the learning process can be settled within an experiential framework. Current virtual training applications for health-care differ a lot as to both their technological/multimedia sophistication and to the types of skills trained, varying for example from telesurgical applications to interactive simulations of human body and brain, to virtual worlds for emergency training. Other interesting applications include the development of immersive 3D environments for training psychiatrists and psychologists in the treatment of mental disorders. This paper has the main aim of discussing the rationale and main benefits for the use of virtual reality in health-care education and training. Significant research and projects carried out in this field will also be presented, followed by discussion on key issues concerning current limitations and future development directions.
Bideau, Benoit; Kulpa, Richard; Vignais, Nicolas; Brault, Sébastien; Multon, Franck; Craig, Cathy
Improving performance in sports can be difficult because many biomechanical, physiological, and psychological factors come into play during competition. A better understanding of the perception-action loop employed by athletes is necessary. This requires isolating contributing factors to determine their role in player performance. Because of its inherent limitations, video playback doesn't permit such in-depth analysis. Interactive, immersive virtual reality (VR) can overcome these limitations and foster a better understanding of sports performance from a behavioral-neuroscience perspective. Two case studies using VR technology and a sophisticated animation engine demonstrate how to use information from visual displays to inform a player's future course of action.
This volume addresses virtual reality (VR) -- a tantalizing communication medium whose essence challenges our most deeply held notions of what communication is or can be. The editors have gathered an expert team of engineers, social scientists, and cultural theorists for the first extensive treatment of human communication in this exciting medium. The first part introduces the reader to VR's state-of-the-art as well as future trends. In the next section, leading research scientists discuss how knowledge of communication can be used to build more effective and exciting communication applicati
Full Text Available After a stroke many people have serious problems in motion activity, decline in cognitive activity, as well as a number of psychological problems that may accompany the man for many years. Motivational rehabilitation component plays a decisive role in the process of recovery after suffering a stroke. At present one of the most successful methods of rehabilitation is considered to be a recovery through "observation-imitation”, because this method enhances the plasticity of the brain and, as a result, rehabilitation potential. Modern rehabilitation using virtual reality had demonstrated good results to improve motor and cognitive skills, as well as the psychological condition
Green, Joel; Smith, Denise; Smith, Louis Chad; Lawton, Brandon; Lockwood, Alexandra; Jirdeh, Hussein
The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), NASA’s next great observatory launching in spring 2019, will routinely showcase astrophysical concepts that will challenge the public's understanding. Emerging technologies such as virtual reality bring the viewer into the data and the concept in previously unimaginable immersive detail. For example, we imagine a spacefarer inside a protoplanetary disk, seeing the accretion process directly. STScI is pioneering some tools related to JWST for showcasing at AAS, and in local events, which I highlight here. If we develop materials properly tailored to this medium, we can reach more diverse audiences than ever before.
Mottelson, Aske; Hornbæk, Kasper
Many user studies are now conducted outside laboratories to increase the number and heterogeneity of participants. These studies are conducted in diverse settings, with the potential to give research greater external validity and statistical power at a lower cost. The feasibility of conducting...... virtual reality (VR) studies outside laboratories remains unclear because these studies often use expensive equipment, depend critically on the physical context, and sometimes study delicate phenomena concerning body awareness and immersion. To investigate, we explore pointing, 3D tracing, and body...
Konge, Lars; Arendrup, Henrik; von Buchwald, Christian
Background: Virtual reality (VR) bronchoscopy simulators have been available for more than a decade, and have been recognized as an important aid in bronchoscopy training. The existing literature has only examined the role of VR simulators in diagnostic bronchoscopy. The aim of this study...... procedures, each on a VR bronchoscopy simulator. They performed 3 diagnostic bronchoscopies, 2 bronchoalveolar lavages, and 3 procedures in which they used all the available biopsy tools (needle, brush, and forceps) that could be used for tumors of increasing procedural difficulty. After the procedures...
Bharath V. G.
Full Text Available The imperative part of strong displaying in virtual reality framework is to improve the movement of a user with definitive movement control in genuine intelligent condition. In a real environment motion characteristic is based on sensors and servomechanisms where as in virtual reality systems the motion fundamentals are kinematic in nature. To achieve physically correct interactivity suitable dynamic constraints, should be imposed which can be obtained by augmented reality interface. Beyond input and output hardware, the underlying software plays a very important role in virtual reality systems. It is responsible for the managing of input/output devices, analysing incoming data and generating proper feedback. This research paper focusses on movement displaying for connection between CAD models and Virtual Reality Models using 3ds Max 2017 and Unity 3d softwares. The paper portrays different equipment arrangement of sensors and Arduino for virtual reality welding.
Ternier, Stefaan; Klemke, Roland
Ternier, S., & Klemke, R. (2011). ARLearn and StreetLearn software for virtual reality and augmented reality multi user learning games (Version 1.0) [Software Documentation]. Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open Universiteit in the Netherlands.
Ternier, Stefaan; Klemke, Roland
Ternier, S., & Klemke, R. (2011). ARLearn and StreetLearn software for virtual reality and augmented reality multi user learning games (Version 1.0) [Computer software]. Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open Universiteit in the Netherlands.
Ildeberto Aparecido Rodello
Full Text Available The Mixed Reality proposes scenes combining between virtual and real worlds offering to the user an intuitive way of interaction according to a specific application. This tutorial paper aims at presenting the fundamentals concepts of this emergent kind of human-computer interface.
Full Text Available We can observe significant potential of information and communication technologies (ICT in interior designing field, by development of software and hardware virtual reality tools. Using ICT tools offer realistic perception of proposal in its initial idea (the study. A group of real-time visualization, supported by hardware tools like Oculus Rift HTC Vive, provides free walkthrough and movement in virtual interior with the possibility of virtual designing. By improving of ICT software tools for designing in virtual reality we can achieve still more realistic virtual environment. The contribution presented proposal of an innovative approach of interior designing in virtual reality, using the latest software and hardware ICT virtual reality technologies
Verma, D; Wills, D; Verma, M
To develop computer simulation of steps in vitreoretinal surgery using virtual reality technology. A workstation with three-dimensional position tracking stylus was attached to a Pentium II desktop PC with a graphic accelerator. Computer algorithms were developed using Open GL and Microsoft Visual C++ languages to control the interaction and update the visual feedback tracking the instruments. Soft tissue computer modelling was carried out to mimic the removal of a vitreous opacity. Lens touch with the instruments was also detected. Mathematical modelling to allow for lens distortion was taken into account. A virtual reality computer model has been developed that can simulate initial steps of vitreoretinal surgery. Soft tissue modelling of the vitreous opacity and its removal by the vitrector was successfully simulated. The movements of the active and passive instruments in the dummy eye corresponded to the movements on the computer screen. On evaluation of the system, there was a minimal but discernable time lag between the stylus movement and the visual feedback. There was no tactile feedback when the lens touch was simulated. No further complex vitreoretinal surgery simulation was possible at this stage.
Pietraszewski, Noah; Dhillon, Ranbir; Green, Melissa
By viewing fluid dynamic isosurfaces in virtual reality (VR), many of the issues associated with the rendering of three-dimensional objects on a two-dimensional screen can be addressed. In addition, viewing a variety of unsteady 3D data sets in VR opens up novel opportunities for education and community outreach. In this work, the vortex wake of a bio-inspired pitching panel was visualized using a three-dimensional structural model of Q-criterion isosurfaces rendered in virtual reality using the HTC Vive. Utilizing the Unity cross-platform gaming engine, a program was developed to allow the user to control and change this model's position and orientation in three-dimensional space. In addition to controlling the model's position and orientation, the user can ``scroll'' forward and backward in time to analyze the formation and shedding of vortices in the wake. Finally, the user can toggle between different quantities, while keeping the time step constant, to analyze flow parameter relationships at specific times during flow development. The information, data, or work presented herein was funded in part by an award from NYS Department of Economic Development (DED) through the Syracuse Center of Excellence.
Sharma, Rajeev; Molineros, Jose
An important issue in augmented virtual reality is making the virtual world sensitive to the current state of the surrounding real world as the user interacts with it--changing gaze, manipulating an object, etc. For providing the right virtual stimulus at the right position and time, the system needs some sensor to interpret the surrounding scene. Computer vision holds great potential in providing the necessary interpretation of the scene. We present the preliminary design of a computer vision-based augmented reality system for helping a human in assembling an industrial part from its components. The context of assembly helps in keeping the computer vision task simple by exploiting the geometric model of the assembly components for recognition and pose estimation. The augmentation stimuli include labeling of objects in the scene, helping with sequencing using an assembly planner, visualization of assembly at different stages, handling errors by the human operator, etc. Such a system would have potential applications in assembling complex parts, maintenance, and education. We will present an overview of the design of the system and discuss some of the issues involved in computer vision-based augmented reality.
Full Text Available The purpose of this research is based on virtual reality to assisted pick and place tasks. Virtual reality can be utilized to control remote robot for pick and place element. The operator monitored and controlled the situation information of working site by Human Machine Interface. Therefore, we worked in harsh or dangerous environments that thing can be avoided. The procedure to operate mobile robot in virtual reality describes as follow: An experiment site with really experimental equipment is first established. Then, the experimental equipment and scene modeling are input to virtual reality for establishing a environment similar to the reality. Finally, the remote mobile robot is controlled to operate pick and place tasks through wireless communication by the object operation in virtual reality. The robot consists of a movable robot platform and robotic arm. The virtual reality is constructed by EON software; the Human Machine Interface is established by Visual Basic. The wireless connection is equipped the wireless Bluetooth, which is set the PC and PLC controller. With experimental tests to verify the robot in virtual reality and the wireless remote control, the robot could be operated and controlled to successfully complete pick and place tasks in reality by Human Machine Interface.
influence modern design in both theatre and film productions. This paper is of the view that Virtual Reality, as an operational phrase in modern and post- modern theatre and film, has become a .... lights and colour to graphically produce architecture or sculptural images. In a similar development, most current Virtual Reality ...
Brey, Philip A.E.
This essay addresses ethical aspects of the design and use of virtual reality (VR) systems, focusing on the behavioral options made available in such systems and the manner in which reality is represented or simulated in them. An assessment is made of the morality of immoral behavior in virtual
Xu, Xinhao; Ke, Fengfeng
This exploratory study examined the design issues related to a virtual-reality-based, gamelike learning environment (VRGLE) developed via OpenSimulator, an open-source virtual reality server. The researchers collected qualitative data to examine the VRGLE's usability, playability, and content integration for math learning. They found it important…
Zygouris, Stelios; Ntovas, Konstantinos; Giakoumis, Dimitrios; Votis, Konstantinos; Doumpoulakis, Stefanos; Segkouli, Sofia; Karagiannidis, Charalampos; Tzovaras, Dimitrios; Tsolaki, Magda
It has been demonstrated that virtual reality (VR) applications can be used for the detection of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The aim of this study is to provide a preliminary investigation on whether a VR cognitive training application can be used to detect MCI in persons using the application at home without the help of an examiner. Two groups, one of healthy older adults (n = 6) and one of MCI patients (n = 6) were recruited from Thessaloniki day centers for cognitive disorders and provided with a tablet PC with custom software enabling the self-administration of the Virtual Super Market (VSM) cognitive training exercise. The average performance (from 20 administrations of the exercise) of the two groups was compared and was also correlated with performance in established neuropsychological tests. Average performance in terms of duration to complete the given exercise differed significantly between healthy(μ = 247.41 s/ sd = 89.006) and MCI (μ= 454.52 s/ sd = 177.604) groups, yielding a correct classification rate of 91.8% with a sensitivity and specificity of 94% and 89% respectively for MCI detection. Average performance also correlated significantly with performance in Functional Cognitive Assessment Scale (FUCAS), Test of Everyday Attention (TEA), and Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure test (ROCFT). The VR application exhibited very high accuracy in detecting MCI while all participants were able to operate the tablet and application on their own. Diagnostic accuracy was improved compared to a previous study using data from only one administration of the exercise. The results of the present study suggest that remote MCI detection through VR applications can be feasible.
Harpham-Lockyer, Louis; Laskaratos, Faidon-Marios; Berlingieri, Pasquale; Epstein, Owen
Recent advancements in virtual reality graphics and models have allowed virtual reality simulators to be incorporated into a variety of endoscopic training programmes. Use of virtual reality simulators in training programmes is thought to improve skill acquisition amongst trainees which is reflected in improved patient comfort and safety. Several studies have already been carried out to ascertain the impact that usage of virtual reality simulators may have upon trainee learning curves and how this may translate to patient comfort. This article reviews the available literature in this area of medical education which is particularly relevant to all parties involved in endoscopy training and curriculum development. Assessment of the available evidence for an optimal exposure time with virtual reality simulators and the long-term benefits of their use are also discussed. PMID:26675895
Harpham-Lockyer, Louis; Laskaratos, Faidon-Marios; Berlingieri, Pasquale; Epstein, Owen
Recent advancements in virtual reality graphics and models have allowed virtual reality simulators to be incorporated into a variety of endoscopic training programmes. Use of virtual reality simulators in training programmes is thought to improve skill acquisition amongst trainees which is reflected in improved patient comfort and safety. Several studies have already been carried out to ascertain the impact that usage of virtual reality simulators may have upon trainee learning curves and how this may translate to patient comfort. This article reviews the available literature in this area of medical education which is particularly relevant to all parties involved in endoscopy training and curriculum development. Assessment of the available evidence for an optimal exposure time with virtual reality simulators and the long-term benefits of their use are also discussed.
Parsons, Thomas D; Courtney, Christopher G; Arizmendi, Brian; Dawson, Michael
Given the prevalence of traumatic brain injury (TBI), and the fact that many mild TBIs have no external marker of injury, there is a pressing need for innovative assessment technology. The demand for assessment that goes beyond traditional paper-and-pencil testing has resulted in the use of automated cognitive testing for increased precision and efficiency; and the use of virtual environment technology for enhanced ecological validity and increased function-based assessment. To address these issues, a Virtual Reality Stroop Task (VRST) that involves the subject being immersed in a virtual Humvee as Stroop stimuli appear on the windshield was developed. This study is an initial validation of the VRST as an assessment of neurocognitive functioning. When compared to the paper-and-pencil, as well as Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics versions of the Stroop, the VRST appears to have enhanced capacity for providing an indication of a participant's reaction time and ability to inhibit a prepotent response while immersed in a military relevant simulation that presents psychophysiologically arousing high and low threat stimuli.
Grossmann, Rafael J
The new term improved reality (i-Reality) is suggested to include virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR). It refers to a real world that includes improved, enhanced and digitally created features that would offer an advantage on a particular occasion (i.e., a medical act). I-Reality may help us bridge the gap between the high demand for medical providers and the low supply of them by improving the interaction between providers and patients.
Bernacki, Bruce E.; Evans, Allan; Tang, Edward
We present the design of an immersion-type 3D headset suitable for virtual reality applications based upon digital micro-mirror devices (DMD). Our approach leverages silicon micro mirrors offering 720p resolution displays in a small form-factor. Supporting chip sets allow rapid integration of these devices into wearable displays with high resolution and low power consumption. Applications include night driving, piloting of UAVs, fusion of multiple sensors for pilots, training, vision diagnostics and consumer gaming. Our design is described in which light from the DMD is imaged to infinity and the user’s own eye lens forms a real image on the user’s retina.
Neguț, Alexandra; Matu, Silviu-Andrei; Sava, Florin Alin; David, Daniel
Virtual reality-based assessment is a new paradigm for neuropsychological evaluation, that might provide an ecological assessment, compared to paper-and-pencil or computerized neuropsychological assessment. Previous research has focused on the use of virtual reality in neuropsychological assessment, but no meta-analysis focused on the sensitivity of virtual reality-based measures of cognitive processes in measuring cognitive processes in various populations. We found eighteen studies that compared the cognitive performance between clinical and healthy controls on virtual reality measures. Based on a random effects model, the results indicated a large effect size in favor of healthy controls (g = .95). For executive functions, memory and visuospatial analysis, subgroup analysis revealed moderate to large effect sizes, with superior performance in the case of healthy controls. Participants' mean age, type of clinical condition, type of exploration within virtual reality environments, and the presence of distractors were significant moderators. Our findings support the sensitivity of virtual reality-based measures in detecting cognitive impairment. They highlight the possibility of using virtual reality measures for neuropsychological assessment in research applications, as well as in clinical practice.
Serubugo, Sule; Skantarova, Denisa; Evers, Nicolaj
This paper describes our demonstration of a walkable self-overlapping maze and its corresponding map to facilitate asymmetric collaboration for room-scale virtual reality setups in public places.......This paper describes our demonstration of a walkable self-overlapping maze and its corresponding map to facilitate asymmetric collaboration for room-scale virtual reality setups in public places....
Prior to the retirement of the Space Shuttle, many exterior repairs on the International Space Station (ISS) were carried out by shuttle astronauts, trained on the ground and flown to the Station to perform these specific repairs. With the retirement of the shuttle, this is no longer an available option. As such, the need for ISS crew members to review scenarios while on flight, either for tasks they already trained for on the ground or for contingency operations has become a very critical issue. NASA astronauts prepare for Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) or Spacewalks through numerous training media, such as: self-study, part task training, underwater training in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL), hands-on hardware reviews and training at the Virtual Reality Laboratory (VRLab). In many situations, the time between the last session of a training and an EVA task might be 6 to 8 months. EVA tasks are critical for a mission and as time passes the crew members may lose proficiency on previously trained tasks and their options to refresh or learn a new skill while on flight are limited to reading training materials and watching videos. In addition, there is an increased need for unplanned contingency repairs to fix problems arising as the Station ages. In order to help the ISS crew members maintain EVA proficiency or train for contingency repairs during their mission, the Johnson Space Center's VRLab designed an immersive ISS Virtual Reality Trainer (VRT). The VRT incorporates a unique optical system that makes use of the already successful Dynamic On-board Ubiquitous Graphics (DOUG) software to assist crew members with procedure reviews and contingency EVAs while on board the Station. The need to train and re-train crew members for EVAs and contingency scenarios is crucial and extremely demanding. ISS crew members are now asked to perform EVA tasks for which they have not been trained and potentially have never seen before. The Virtual Reality Trainer (VRT
Lucca, Lucia Francesca
To review the rationale, criteria of application, potentialities and limits of the available procedures for upper limb rehabilitation in virtual reality setups. Classification of the available virtual reality setups and comparison among published studies, with focus on the criteria of motor impairment and recovery assessment, rehabilitation procedures, and efficacy. The studies completed to date support application of virtual reality methods in the treatment of the paretic upper limb after stroke, but the superiority of virtual reality methods in comparison with conventional procedures currently in use is still unproven. Larger samples, adequate controlled study design and follow-up, greater homogeneity in the selection criteria and parameters measuring severity of stroke, motor impairment and recovery are necessary.
Cismaru Inescu, Adina; Andrianne, Robert; Triffaux, Jean-Marc
Virtual reality has gained traction as a research, education and treatment tool. Virtual reality is a system that immerses people in virtual worlds and improves clinicians’ traditional treatments for addictive disorders, eating disorders, phobias, and stroke rehabilitation. Sex addiction is a dysregulation of sexual desire, characterized by excessive sexual behavior (between 5-15 sexual activities/day, for more than 6 months, after the age of 15). Hypersexuality highlights disturbances in hum...
Marshall, E.; Seichter, N. D.; D'sa, A.; Werner, L. A.; Yuen, D. A.
Pursuits in geological sciences and other branches of quantitative sciences often require data visualization frameworks that are in continual need of improvement and new ideas. Virtual reality is a medium of visualization that has large audiences originally designed for gaming purposes; Virtual reality can be captured in Cave-like environment but they are unwieldy and expensive to maintain. Recent efforts by major companies such as Facebook have focussed more on a large market , The Oculus is the first of such kind of mobile devices The operating system Unity makes it possible for us to convert the data files into a mesh of isosurfaces and be rendered into 3D. A user is immersed inside of the virtual reality and is able to move within and around the data using arrow keys and other steering devices, similar to those employed in XBox.. With introductions of products like the Oculus Rift and Holo Lens combined with ever increasing mobile computing strength, mobile virtual reality data visualization can be implemented for better analysis of 3D geological and mineralogical data sets. As more new products like the Surface Pro 4 and other high power yet very mobile computers are introduced to the market, the RAM and graphics card capacity necessary to run these models is more available, opening doors to this new reality. The computing requirements needed to run these models are a mere 8 GB of RAM and 2 GHz of CPU speed, which many mobile computers are starting to exceed. Using Unity 3D software to create a virtual environment containing a visual representation of the data, any data set converted into FBX or OBJ format which can be traversed by wearing the Oculus Rift device. This new method for analysis in conjunction with 3D scanning has potential applications in many fields, including the analysis of precious stones or jewelry. Using hologram technology to capture in high-resolution the 3D shape, color, and imperfections of minerals and stones, detailed review and
Garvey, Gregory P.
This paper looks at virtual worlds such as Second Life7 (SL) as possible incubators of dissociation disorders as classified by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition3 (also known as the DSM-IV). Depersonalization is where "a person feels that he or she has changed in some way or is somehow unreal." Derealization when "the same beliefs are held about one's surroundings." Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID), previously known as multiple personality disorder fits users of Second Life who adopt "in-world" avatars and in effect, enact multiple distinct identities or personalities (known as alter egos or alters). Select questions from the Structured Clinical Interview for Depersonalization (SCI-DER)8 will be discussed as they might apply to the user's experience in Second Life. Finally I would like to consider the hypothesis that rather than a pathological disorder, dissociation is a normal response to the "artificial reality" of Second Life.
Stowers, John R; Hofbauer, Maximilian; Bastien, Renaud; Griessner, Johannes; Higgins, Peter; Farooqui, Sarfarazhussain; Fischer, Ruth M; Nowikovsky, Karin; Haubensak, Wulf; Couzin, Iain D; Tessmar-Raible, Kristin; Straw, Andrew D
Standard animal behavior paradigms incompletely mimic nature and thus limit our understanding of behavior and brain function. Virtual reality (VR) can help, but it poses challenges. Typical VR systems require movement restrictions but disrupt sensorimotor experience, causing neuronal and behavioral alterations. We report the development of FreemoVR, a VR system for freely moving animals. We validate immersive VR for mice, flies, and zebrafish. FreemoVR allows instant, disruption-free environmental reconfigurations and interactions between real organisms and computer-controlled agents. Using the FreemoVR platform, we established a height-aversion assay in mice and studied visuomotor effects in Drosophila and zebrafish. Furthermore, by photorealistically mimicking zebrafish we discovered that effective social influence depends on a prospective leader balancing its internally preferred directional choice with social interaction. FreemoVR technology facilitates detailed investigations into neural function and behavior through the precise manipulation of sensorimotor feedback loops in unrestrained animals.
Rutkowski, Tomasz M.
The paper reviews nine robotic and virtual reality (VR) brain–computer interface (BCI) projects developed by the author, in collaboration with his graduate students, within the BCI–lab research group during its association with University of Tsukuba, Japan. The nine novel approaches are discussed in applications to direct brain-robot and brain-virtual-reality-agent control interfaces using tactile and auditory BCI technologies. The BCI user intentions are decoded from the brainwaves in realti...
Aleksander E. Voyskunskiy
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of using a new experimental technology of "virtual reality" (VR in psychological research. Methods of virtual reality actively become embedded in tooling of up-to-date experimental psychology. Next in turn there is a task of embedding of VR technologies in various areas of applied psychology like sport psychology. Application of modern computer methods dis¬covers new perspectives for sport psychology.
Zinchenko, Yuri; Menshikova, Galina; Chernorizov, Aleksander; Voyskunskiy, Aleksander
The article is devoted to the problem of using a new experimental technology of "virtual reality" (VR) in psychological research. Methods of virtual reality actively become embedded in tooling of up-to-date experimental psychology. Next in turn there is a task of embedding of VR technologies in various areas of applied psychology like sport psychology. Application of modern computer methods dis¬covers new perspectives for sport psychology.
Fransson, Boel A; Chen, Chi-Ya; Noyes, Julie A; Ragle, Claude A
To determine the construct and concurrent validity of instrument motion metrics for laparoscopic skills assessment in virtual reality and augmented reality simulators. Evaluation study. Veterinarian students (novice, n = 14) and veterinarians (experienced, n = 11) with no or variable laparoscopic experience. Participants' minimally invasive surgery (MIS) experience was determined by hospital records of MIS procedures performed in the Teaching Hospital. Basic laparoscopic skills were assessed by 5 tasks using a physical box trainer. Each participant completed 2 tasks for assessments in each type of simulator (virtual reality: bowel handling and cutting; augmented reality: object positioning and a pericardial window model). Motion metrics such as instrument path length, angle or drift, and economy of motion of each simulator were recorded. None of the motion metrics in a virtual reality simulator showed correlation with experience, or to the basic laparoscopic skills score. All metrics in augmented reality were significantly correlated with experience (time, instrument path, and economy of movement), except for the hand dominance metric. The basic laparoscopic skills score was correlated to all performance metrics in augmented reality. The augmented reality motion metrics differed between American College of Veterinary Surgeons diplomates and residents, whereas basic laparoscopic skills score and virtual reality metrics did not. Our results provide construct validity and concurrent validity for motion analysis metrics for an augmented reality system, whereas a virtual reality system was validated only for the time score. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.
Gatica-Rojas, Valeska; Méndez-Rebolledo, Guillermo
Two key characteristics of all virtual reality applications are interaction and immersion. Systemic interaction is achieved through a variety of multisensory channels (hearing, sight, touch, and smell), permitting the user to interact with the virtual world in real time. Immersion is the degree to which a person can feel wrapped in the virtual world through a defined interface. Virtual reality interface devices such as the Nintendo® Wii and its peripheral nunchuks-balance board, head mounted ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemispatial neglect is a cognitive disorder defined as a lack of attention for stimuli contra-lateral to the brain lesion. The assessment is traditionally done with basic pencil and paper tests and the rehabilitation programs are generally not well adapted. We propose a virtual reality system featuring an eye-tracking device for a better characterization of the neglect that will lead to new rehabilitation techniques. Methods This paper presents a comparison of eye-gaze patterns of healthy subjects, patients and healthy simulated patients on a virtual line bisection test. The task was also executed with a reduced visual field condition hoping that fewer stimuli would limit the neglect. Results We found that patients and healthy simulated patients had similar eye-gaze patterns. However, while the reduced visual field condition had no effect on the healthy simulated patients, it actually had a negative impact on the patients. We discuss the reasons for these differences and how they relate to the limitations of the neglect simulation. Conclusion We argue that with some improvements the technique could be used to determine the potential of new rehabilitation techniques and also help the rehabilitation staff or the patient's relatives to better understand the neglect condition.
Baheux, Kenji; Yoshizawa, Makoto; Yoshida, Yasuko
Hemispatial neglect is a cognitive disorder defined as a lack of attention for stimuli contra-lateral to the brain lesion. The assessment is traditionally done with basic pencil and paper tests and the rehabilitation programs are generally not well adapted. We propose a virtual reality system featuring an eye-tracking device for a better characterization of the neglect that will lead to new rehabilitation techniques. This paper presents a comparison of eye-gaze patterns of healthy subjects, patients and healthy simulated patients on a virtual line bisection test. The task was also executed with a reduced visual field condition hoping that fewer stimuli would limit the neglect. We found that patients and healthy simulated patients had similar eye-gaze patterns. However, while the reduced visual field condition had no effect on the healthy simulated patients, it actually had a negative impact on the patients. We discuss the reasons for these differences and how they relate to the limitations of the neglect simulation. We argue that with some improvements the technique could be used to determine the potential of new rehabilitation techniques and also help the rehabilitation staff or the patient's relatives to better understand the neglect condition.
Rosenthal, Rachel; Schäfer, Juliane; Hoffmann, Henry; Vitz, Martina; Oertli, Daniel; Hahnloser, Dieter
Surgeons' personalities have been described as different from those of the general population, but this was based on small descriptive studies limited by the choice of evaluation instrument. Furthermore, although the importance of the human factor in team performance has been recognized, the effect of personality traits on technical performance is unknown. This study aimed to compare surgical residents' personality traits with those of the general population and to evaluate whether an association exists between their personality traits and technical performance using a virtual reality (VR) laparoscopy simulator. In this study, 95 participants (54 residents with basic, 29 with intermediate laparoscopic experience, and 12 students) underwent personality assessment using the NEO-Five Factor Inventory and performed five VR tasks of the Lap Mentor™ basic tasks module. The residents' personality traits were compared with those of the general population, and the association between VR performance and personality traits was investigated. Surgical residents showed personality traits different from those of the general population, demonstrating lower neuroticism, higher extraversion and conscientiousness, and male residents showed greater openness. In the multivariable analysis, adjusted for gender and surgical experience, none of the personality traits was found to be an independent predictor of technical performance. Surgical residents present distinct personality traits that differ from those of the general population. These traits were not found to be associated with technical performance in a virtual environment. The traits may, however, play an important role in team performance, which in turn is highly relevant for optimal surgical performance.
Liang, Wen Yau; O'Grady, Peter
Computed Tomography (CT) provides a large amount of data but the presentation of the data to a physician can be less than satisfactory. Ideally, the image data should be available to physicians in interactive 3D to allow for improved visualization, planning and diagnosis. A virtual reality representation that not only allows for the manipulation of the image but also allows for the user to, in effect, move inside the image remotely would be ideal. In this paper the research associated with virtual reality is discussed. A formalism is then presented to create, from the CT data, the virtual reality world in the Virtual Reality Modeling Language. An implementation is described of this formalism that uses the Internet to allow for users in remote locations to view and manipulate the virtual worlds.
Recognizing the value of autostereoscopy for 3D displays in public contexts, we pursue the goal of large-scale, high-resolution, immersive virtual reality using lenticular displays. Our contributions include the scalable tiling of lenticular displays to large fields of view and the use of GPU image interleaving and application optimization for real-time performance. In this context, we examine several ways to improve group-viewing by combining user tracking with multi-view displays. Copyright © 2010 by the Association for Computing Machinery, Inc.
Penichet, Victor MR; Gallud, José A
The interaction between a user and a device forms the foundation of today's application design.Covering the following topics: * A suite of five structural principles helping designers to structure their mockups;* An agile method for exploiting desktop eye tracker equipment in combination with mobile devices;* An approach to explore large-scale collections based on classification systems;* A framework based on the use of modeling and components composition techniques to simplify the development of organizational collaborative systems;* A low-cost virtual reality system that provides highly sati
Larsen, Christian R; Soerensen, Jette L; Grantcharov, Teodor P
-14 minutes) and in the control group was 24 (20-29) minutes (Pincreased in a clinically relevant manner using proficiency based virtual reality simulator training. The performance level of novices......OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of virtual reality training on an actual laparoscopic operation. DESIGN: Prospective randomised controlled and blinded trial. SETTING: Seven gynaecological departments in the Zeeland region of Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 24 first and second year registrars specialising...... in gynaecology and obstetrics. INTERVENTIONS: Proficiency based virtual reality simulator training in laparoscopic salpingectomy and standard clinical education (controls). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The main outcome measure was technical performance assessed by two independent observers blinded to trainee...
Phillips, James A.
Virtual Reality (VR) is a set of breakthrough technologies that allow a human being to enter and fully experience a 3-dimensional, computer simulated environment. A true virtual reality experience meets three criteria: (1) it involves 3-dimensional computer graphics; (2) it includes real-time feedback and response to user actions; and (3) it must provide a sense of immersion. Good examples of a virtual reality simulator are the flight simulators used by all branches of the military to train pilots for combat in high performance jet fighters. The fidelity of such simulators is extremely high -- but so is the price tag, typically millions of dollars. Virtual reality teaching and training methods are manifestly effective, but the high cost of VR technology has limited its practical application to fields with big budgets, such as military combat simulation, commercial pilot training, and certain projects within the space program. However, in the last year there has been a revolution in the cost of VR technology. The speed of inexpensive personal computers has increased dramatically, especially with the introduction of the Pentium processor and the PCI bus for IBM-compatibles, and the cost of high-quality virtual reality peripherals has plummeted. The result is that many public schools, colleges, and universities can afford a PC-based workstation capable of running immersive virtual reality applications. My goal this summer was to assemble and evaluate such a system.
Nagendran, Myura; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Loizidou, Marilena; Davidson, Brian R
Standard surgical training has traditionally been one of apprenticeship, where the surgical trainee learns to perform surgery under the supervision of a trained surgeon. This is time-consuming, costly, and of variable effectiveness. Training using a virtual reality simulator is an option to supplement standard training. Virtual reality training improves the technical skills of surgical trainees such as decreased time for suturing and improved accuracy. The clinical impact of virtual reality training is not known. To assess the benefits (increased surgical proficiency and improved patient outcomes) and harms (potentially worse patient outcomes) of supplementary virtual reality training of surgical trainees with limited laparoscopic experience. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Science Citation Index Expanded until July 2012. We included all randomised clinical trials comparing virtual reality training versus other forms of training including box-trainer training, no training, or standard laparoscopic training in surgical trainees with little laparoscopic experience. We also planned to include trials comparing different methods of virtual reality training. We included only trials that assessed the outcomes in people undergoing laparoscopic surgery. Two authors independently identified trials and collected data. We analysed the data with both the fixed-effect and the random-effects models using Review Manager 5 analysis. For each outcome we calculated the mean difference (MD) or standardised mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals based on intention-to-treat analysis. We included eight trials covering 109 surgical trainees with limited laparoscopic experience. Of the eight trials, six compared virtual reality versus no supplementary training. One trial compared virtual reality training versus box-trainer training and versus no supplementary training, and one trial compared
Full Text Available Spaces generated by new media technologies, no matter how abstract they may be, represent a qualitatively new form of the media environment. Moreover, they are integrated into everyday life in a way that they have become the constituents of social reality. Based on dualistic Cartesian understanding of real and virtual space, virtuality still carries a connotation of 'other' world, which is ontologically and phenomenologically different from 'reality'. However, virtuality as a characteristic of new media technologies should neither be equated with illusion, deception or fiction nor set in opposition to reality, given that it embodies real interactions. Instead, we could say that there are different types or levels of reality and that the virtual exists as reality qualitatively different from that of physical reality. Today, when every place on the planet, as well as social, political, and cultural activities, have their digital manifestations, can we still talk about virtual space as an isolated phenomenon? The ubiquitous use of new media technologies such as smartphones or wearables has profoundly transformed the experience of modern man. It is more and more determined by technologically mediated reality, i.e. augmented reality. In this regard, the key issues that will be addressed in this article are the ways technologically mediated spaces redefine not only the social relationships, but also the notions of identity, embodiment, and the self.
Pulijala, Y; Ma, M; Pears, M; Peebles, D; Ayoub, A
Virtual reality (VR) surgery using Oculus Rift and Leap Motion devices is a multi-sensory, holistic surgical training experience. A multimedia combination including 360° videos, three-dimensional interaction, and stereoscopic videos in VR has been developed to enable trainees to experience a realistic surgery environment. The innovation allows trainees to interact with the individual components of the maxillofacial anatomy and apply surgical instruments while watching close-up stereoscopic three-dimensional videos of the surgery. In this study, a novel training tool for Le Fort I osteotomy based on immersive virtual reality (iVR) was developed and validated. Seven consultant oral and maxillofacial surgeons evaluated the application for face and content validity. Using a structured assessment process, the surgeons commented on the content of the developed training tool, its realism and usability, and the applicability of VR surgery for orthognathic surgical training. The results confirmed the clinical applicability of VR for delivering training in orthognathic surgery. Modifications were suggested to improve the user experience and interactions with the surgical instruments. This training tool is ready for testing with surgical trainees. Copyright © 2018 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
D'Apuzzo, Nicola; Maas, Hans-Gerd
Today's consumer market digital camcorders offer features which make them appear quite interesting devices for virtual reality data capture. The paper compares a digital camcorder with an analogue camcorder and a machine vision type CCD camera and discusses the suitability of these three cameras for virtual reality applications. Besides the discussion of technical features of the cameras, this includes a detailed accuracy test in order to define the range of applications. In combination with the cameras, three different framegrabbers are tested. The geometric accuracy potential of all three cameras turned out to be surprisingly large, and no problems were noticed in the radiometric performance. On the other hand, some disadvantages have to be reported: from the photogrammetrists point of view, the major disadvantage of most camcorders is the missing possibility to synchronize multiple devices, limiting the suitability for 3-D motion data capture. Moreover, the standard video format contains interlacing, which is also undesirable for all applications dealing with moving objects or moving cameras. Further disadvantages are computer interfaces with functionality, which is still suboptimal. While custom-made solutions to these problems are probably rather expensive (and will make potential users turn back to machine vision like equipment), this functionality could probably be included by the manufacturers at almost zero cost.
Vincelli, F; Riva, G
Imagination, experience and memory play a central role in psychotherapy. These elements are fundamental in the life of everyone but also in the etiology of many psychological disturbance. Thanks to Virtual Reality (VR) it is possible to transcend the absolute and relative limits linked to individual potential. The imagines re-created through VR may be more vivid and real than the one that most subjects are able to describe through their own imagination and their own memory. In this chapter we focus the attention on imaginative techniques to find new ways of applications in psychotherapy. We will explore the way VR can be used to improve the efficacy of traditional techniques. VR produces a change with respect to the traditional relationship between client and therapist. Virtual experiences is a third way between "in imagination" and "in vivo" techniques in psychotherapy.
Triantafyllou, Konstantinos; Lazaridis, Lazaros Dimitrios; Dimitriadis, George D
The use of simulators as educational tools for medical procedures is spreading rapidly and many efforts have been made for their implementation in gastrointestinal endoscopy training. Endoscopy simulation training has been suggested for ascertaining patient safety while positively influencing the trainees’ learning curve. Virtual simulators are the most promising tool among all available types of simulators. These integrated modalities offer a human-like endoscopy experience by combining virtual images of the gastrointestinal tract and haptic realism with using a customized endoscope. From their first steps in the 1980s until today, research involving virtual endoscopic simulators can be divided in two categories: investigation of the impact of virtual simulator training in acquiring endoscopy skills and measuring competence. Emphasis should also be given to the financial impact of their implementation in endoscopy, including the cost of these state-of-the-art simulators and the potential economic benefits from their usage. Advances in technology will contribute to the upgrade of existing models and the development of new ones; while further research should be carried out to discover new fields of application. PMID:24527175
Triantafyllou, Konstantinos; Lazaridis, Lazaros Dimitrios; Dimitriadis, George D
The use of simulators as educational tools for medical procedures is spreading rapidly and many efforts have been made for their implementation in gastrointestinal endoscopy training. Endoscopy simulation training has been suggested for ascertaining patient safety while positively influencing the trainees' learning curve. Virtual simulators are the most promising tool among all available types of simulators. These integrated modalities offer a human-like endoscopy experience by combining virtual images of the gastrointestinal tract and haptic realism with using a customized endoscope. From their first steps in the 1980s until today, research involving virtual endoscopic simulators can be divided in two categories: investigation of the impact of virtual simulator training in acquiring endoscopy skills and measuring competence. Emphasis should also be given to the financial impact of their implementation in endoscopy, including the cost of these state-of-the-art simulators and the potential economic benefits from their usage. Advances in technology will contribute to the upgrade of existing models and the development of new ones; while further research should be carried out to discover new fields of application.
McCandless, R. S.; Burke, E. D.; McGinley, V. T.
Virtual reality (VR) and related technologies will assist scientists with lunar exploration and public engagement. We will present the future exponential impact of VR on lunar activities over the coming decades.
Realidade virtual e suas aplicações na área de manufatura, treinamento, simulação e desenvolvimento de produto Virtual reality and its applications in manufacturing, training, simulation and product development
Antonio Valerio Netto
Full Text Available A realidade virtual é um ambiente gerado pelo computador em que o usuário tem disponibilidade de controles tridimensionais de maneira altamente interativa, podendo manipular e explorar dados em tempo real. A realidade virtual pode ser aplicada em diversos setores da indústria, desde o planejamento de fábricas, simulação da produção, auxílio na divulgação de produtos, treinamento de funcionários, validação de protótipos. Este artigo visa mostrar a flexibilidade da utilização da realidade virtual dentro das indústrias e dos centros de pesquisas, focando principalmente as áreas relacionadas a manufatura, desenvolvimento de produto e treinamento.Virtual reality is a computer-generated environment with highly interactive three-dimensional controls which allow the user to manipulate and examine data in real time. Virtual reality can be applied in a number of industry sectors, including factory planning, product simulation, product popularization, employee training and prototype validation. This article aims to show the flexibility of virtual reality in industry and in research centers, focussing mainly on areas related to manufacturing, product development and training.
Liarokapis, Fotis; Brujic-Okretic, Vesna; Papakonstantinou, Stelios
In this paper, we propose the use of specific system architecture, based on mobile device, for navigation in urban environments. The aim of this work is to assess how virtual and augmented reality interface paradigms can provide enhanced location based services using real-time techniques in the context of these two different technologies. The virtual reality interface is based on faithful graphical representation of the localities of interest, coupled with sensory information on the location ...
PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA
Dec 1, 2015 ... on a robot. This model is useful for performing operations in dangerous and risky environments such as control of nuclear plants and celestial exploration. Fig. 1: Example of Telepresence VR system. •. Mixed Reality(Augmented Reality). This model involves the seamless merging of real space and virtual ...
Weiss, Patrice L Tamar; Tirosh, Emanuel; Fehlings, Darcy
Virtual reality is the use of interactive simulations to present users with opportunities to perform in virtual environments that appear, sound, and less frequently, feel similar to real-world objects and events. Interactive computer play refers to the use of a game where a child interacts and plays with virtual objects in a computer-generated environment. Because of their distinctive attributes that provide ecologically realistic and motivating opportunities for active learning, these technologies have been used in pediatric rehabilitation over the past 15 years. The ability of virtual reality to create opportunities for active repetitive motor/sensory practice adds to their potential for neuroplasticity and learning in individuals with neurologic disorders. The objectives of this article is to provide an overview of how virtual reality and gaming are used clinically, to present the results of several example studies that demonstrate their use in research, and to briefly remark on future developments. © The Author(s) 2014.
Krijnen, Robbert; Smelik, Ruben; Appleton, Rick; van Maanen, Peter-Paul
Due to their increasing complexity and size, visualization of geological data is becoming more and more important. It enables detailed examining and reviewing of large volumes of geological data and it is often used as a communication tool for reporting and education to demonstrate the importance of the geology to policy makers. In the Netherlands two types of nation-wide geological models are available: 1) Layer-based models in which the subsurface is represented by a series of tops and bases of geological or hydrogeological units, and 2) Voxel models in which the subsurface is subdivided in a regular grid of voxels that can contain different properties per voxel. The Geological Survey of the Netherlands (GSN) provides an interactive web portal that delivers maps and vertical cross-sections of such layer-based and voxel models. From this portal you can download a 3D subsurface viewer that can visualize the voxel model data of an area of 20 × 25 km with 100 × 100 × 5 meter voxel resolution on a desktop computer. Virtual Reality (VR) technology enables us to enhance the visualization of this volumetric data in a more natural way as compared to a standard desktop, keyboard mouse setup. The use of VR for data visualization is not new but recent developments has made expensive hardware and complex setups unnecessary. The availability of consumer of-the-shelf VR hardware enabled us to create an new intuitive and low visualization tool. A VR viewer has been implemented using the HTC Vive head set and allows visualization and analysis of the GSN voxel model data with geological or hydrogeological units. The user can navigate freely around the voxel data (20 × 25 km) which is presented in a virtual room at a scale of 2 × 2 or 3 × 3 meters. To enable analysis, e.g. hydraulic conductivity, the user can select filters to remove specific hydrogeological units. The user can also use slicing to cut-off specific sections of the voxel data to get a closer look. This slicing
Trindade, Jorge; Kirner, Claudio; Fiolhais, Carlos
"Virtual environments seem to facilitate the formation of correct conceptual models. The main contributing factor is interaction. Augmented reality is a new sort of virtual reality with a new form of interaction. We present Orbitário, an augmented reality application for studying atomic orbitals."
Tomasz Maciej Rutkowski
Full Text Available The paper reviews nine robotic and virtual reality (VR brain-computer interface (BCI projects developed by the author, in collaboration with his graduate students, within the BCI-lab research group during its association with University of Tsukuba, Japan. The nine novel approaches are discussed in applications to direct brain-robot and brain-virtual-reality-agent control interfaces using tactile and auditory BCI technologies. The BCI user intentions are decoded from the brainwaves in realtime using a non-invasive electroencephalography (EEG and they are translated to a symbiotic robot or virtual reality agent thought-based only control. A communication protocol between the BCI output and the robot or the virtual environment is realized in a symbiotic communication scenario using an user datagram protocol (UDP, which constitutes an internet of things (IoT control scenario. Results obtained from healthy users reproducing simple brain-robot and brain-virtual-agent control tasks in online experiments support the research goal of a possibility to interact with robotic devices and virtual reality agents using symbiotic thought-based BCI technologies. An offline BCI classification accuracy boosting method, using a previously proposed information geometry derived approach, is also discussed in order to further support the reviewed robotic and virtual reality thought-based control paradigms.
Rutkowski, Tomasz M
The paper reviews nine robotic and virtual reality (VR) brain-computer interface (BCI) projects developed by the author, in collaboration with his graduate students, within the BCI-lab research group during its association with University of Tsukuba, Japan. The nine novel approaches are discussed in applications to direct brain-robot and brain-virtual-reality-agent control interfaces using tactile and auditory BCI technologies. The BCI user intentions are decoded from the brainwaves in realtime using a non-invasive electroencephalography (EEG) and they are translated to a symbiotic robot or virtual reality agent thought-based only control. A communication protocol between the BCI output and the robot or the virtual environment is realized in a symbiotic communication scenario using an user datagram protocol (UDP), which constitutes an internet of things (IoT) control scenario. Results obtained from healthy users reproducing simple brain-robot and brain-virtual-agent control tasks in online experiments support the research goal of a possibility to interact with robotic devices and virtual reality agents using symbiotic thought-based BCI technologies. An offline BCI classification accuracy boosting method, using a previously proposed information geometry derived approach, is also discussed in order to further support the reviewed robotic and virtual reality thought-based control paradigms.
Bioulac, S; de Sevin, E; Sagaspe, P; Claret, A; Philip, P; Micoulaud-Franchi, J A; Bouvard, M P
the opportunity to administer controlled tasks such as the typical neuropsychological tools, but in an environment much more like a standard classroom. The virtual reality classroom offers several advantages compared to classical tools such as more realistic and lifelike environment but also records various measures in standardized conditions. Most of the studies using a virtual classroom have found that children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder make significantly fewer correct hits and more commission errors compared with controls. The virtual classroom has proven to be a good clinical tool for evaluation of attention in ADHD. For eating disorders, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) program enhanced by a body image specific component using virtual reality techniques was shown to be more efficient than cognitive behavioural therapy alone. The body image-specific component using virtual reality techniques boots efficiency and accelerates the CBT change process for eating disorders. Virtual reality is a relatively new technology and its application in child and adolescent psychiatry is recent. However, this technique is still in its infancy and much work is needed including controlled trials before it can be introduced in routine clinical use. Virtual reality interventions should also investigate how newly acquired skills are transferred to the real world. At present virtual reality can be considered a useful tool in evaluation and treatment for child and adolescent disorders. Copyright © 2017 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Riva, G; Alcañiz, M; Anolli, L; Bacchetta, M; Baños, R; Beltrame, F; Botella, C; Galimberti, C; Gamberini, L; Gaggioli, A; Molinari, E; Mantovani, G; Nugues, P; Optale, G; Orsi, G; Perpina, C; Troiañi, R
Many of us grew up with the naive assumption that couches are the best used therapeutic tools in psychotherapy. But tools for psychotherapy are evolving in a much more complex environment than a designer's chaise lounge. In particular, virtual reality (VR) devices have the potential for appearing soon in many consulting rooms. The use of VR in medicine is not a novelty. Applications of virtual environments for health care have been developed in the following areas: surgical procedures (remote surgery or telepresence, augmented or enhanced surgery, and planning and simulation of procedures before surgery); preventive medicine and patient education; medical education and training; visualization of massive medical databases; and architectural design for health care facilities. However, there is a growing recognition that VR can play an important role in clinical psychology, too. To exploit and understand this potential is the main goal of the Telemedicine and Portable Virtual Environment in Clinical Psychology--VEPSY Updated--a European Community-funded research project (IST-2000-25323, http://www.vepsy.com). The project will provide innovative tools-telemedicine and portable-for the treatment of patients, clinical trials to verify their viability, and action plans for dissemination of its results to an extended audience-potential users and influential groups. The project will also develop different personal computer (PC)-based virtual reality modules to be used in clinical assessment and treatment. In particular, the developed modules will address the following pathologies: anxiety disorders; male impotence and premature ejaculation; and obesity, bulimia, and binge-eating disorders.
Full Text Available While many towns and cities have historic origins, the modern urban landscape is often unrecognisable from the past. Over the last two thousand years innumerable changes have occurred, from the Roman period to the Industrial Revolution, culminating in wide scale development and redevelopment of towns and cities during the 19th and 20th centuries. Fragments of the past survive as extant buildings, monuments, and areas, and are offered protection through mechanisms such as the National Heritage List for England. However, these buildings are part of a dynamic and changing environment, and their place within their original landscape not always visible. Meanwhile, the advent of mainstream and accessible immersive virtual reality offers opportunities to recreate and explore the past, and to disseminate a deeper understanding of the history and historic context of our heritage assets to a broader audience via new technologies. This paper discusses a project based on Wolverhampton that aims to create immersive and 360° experiences of the historic city that allows the user or viewer to explore how the city might have been in the past from a ‘first person’ perspective. It uses multiple approaches to gather, verify and validate archival data, records, maps and building style information. The project itself is a work-in-progress, with various approaches being explored. It looks at sources of information used to inform the virtual world; software and methodologies used to create the model; different forms of VR output; potential forms of funding for wider dissemination; and problems encountered so far.
Kalawsky, Roy S.
Visually coupled system developments have led to the concept of a Virtual Cockpit known as the Super Cockpit. Advances in Super Cockpit enabling technologies has resulted in an exciting spin-off called Virtual Environments or Virtual Reality. Press release claim almost limitless possibilities for this technology. Unfortunately the level of technology required to achieve actual Virtual Reality (VR) has still to be realized. Inspection of current VR systems readily reveals several fundamental problems. However, by fully understanding the limitations in VR technology and the complex human factors interface it is possible to apply VR to many applications, especially in training. In order to create virtual reality the technology limitations must be understood and overcome. Whatever solution is eventually derived, it must fully address the complex human factors issue. This paper will review the realities of virtual environments in terms of the limitations in technology and the apparent lack of human factors understanding. The establishment and development of the British Aerospace Virtual Cockpit Facility at Brough, one of the UK's largest Virtual Environmental laboratories has provided an insight into the key issues of virtual reality. These facilities are engaged in the evaluation of fundamental engineering and human factors issues. In order to illustrate the major problems and how they can be overcome, the results of some of these studies are given.
Full Text Available Penerapan teknologi augmented reality kian diminati oleh pihak produsen untuk memasarkan produk yang dihasilkan. Teknologi augmented reality mampu meproyeksikan objek dua dimensi ataupun tiga dimensi kedalam lingkungan nyata. Teknologi virtual reality mampu membawa pengguna masuk kedalam lingkungan virtual sehingga pengguna merasa berada dalam lingkungan virtual. Penelitian ini menggunakan teknologi augmented reality yang mampu memproyeksikan objek tiga dimensi rumah sehingga katalog menjadi lebih nyata, dan teknologi virtual reality yang membuat pengguna berinteraksi langsung dengan objek tiga dimensi rumah dan merasa berada di dalam rumah. Aplikasi yang dibangun memanfaatkan sensor accelerometer yang tertanam dalam perangkat mobile android yang memungkinkan pengguna melihat seisi ruangan dengan memiringkan perangkat mobile android kekiri dan kekanan. Jumlah kamera virtual yang digunakan berjumlah lima yang diletakkan di ruang tamu, ruang keluarga, ruang kamar utama, ruang kamar anak, dan ruang dapur. Aplikasi ini berjalan pada platform android dan menggunakan personal komputer sebagai server yang menyimpan data informasi rumah. Dengan adanya aplikasi ini pengguna dapat merasakan suasana berbeda dalam melihat sebuah katalog. . Kata kunci—Augmentd Reality, Virtual Reality, Katalog, Android
Tanaka, Eduardo H.; Paludo, Juliana A.; Cordeiro, Carlúcio S.; Domingues, Leonardo R.; Gadbem, Edgar V.; Euflausino, Adriana
Usually, distribution electricians are called upon to solve technical problems found in electrical substations. In this project, we apply problem-based learning to a training program for electricians, with the help of a virtual reality environment that simulates a real substation. Using this virtual substation, users may safely practice maneuvers…
Bair, Richard A.
The inclusion of three-dimensional (3D) virtual tools has created a need to communicate the engagement of 3D tools and specify learning gains that educators and the institutions, which are funding 3D tools, can expect. A review of literature demonstrates that specific models and theories for 3D Virtual Reality (VR) learning do not exist "per…
Egges, A.; Papagiannakis, G.; Magnenat-Thalmann, M.
In this paper, we present a simple and robust Mixed Reality (MR) framework that allows for real-time interaction with Virtual Humans in real and virtual environments under consistent illumination. We will look at three crucial parts of this system: interaction, animation and global
Lewis Brooks, Anthony
and the ‘Hermeneutic Action Research Recursive Reflection’ model have emerged from a body of virtual reality research called SoundScapes. The work targets all ages and all abilities through gesture-control of responsive multimedia within Virtual Interactive Space (VIS). VIS is an interactive information environment...
Beach, Jason; Wendt, Jeremy
The purpose of this study was to determine if participants could improve their social interaction skills by participating in a virtual immersive environment. The participants used a developing virtual reality head-mounted display to engage themselves in a fully-immersive environment. While in the environment, participants had an opportunity to…
Piovesan, Sandra Dutra; Passerino, Liliana Maria; Pereira, Adriana Soares
The virtual reality is being more and more used in the education, enabling the student to find out, to explore and to build his own knowledge. This paper presents an Educational Software for presence or distance education, for subjects of Formal Language, where the student can manipulate virtually the target that must be explored, analyzed and…
A non cooperative markov game with several unique characteristics was introduced. Some of these characteristics include: the existence of a single phase multi server queuing model and markovian transition matrix/matrices for each game, introduction of virtual situations (virtual reality) or dummies to improve the chances ...
Fried, Marvin P; Uribe, José I; Sadoughi, Babak
This article reviews the rationale, current status and future directions for the development and implementation of virtual reality surgical simulators as training tools. The complexity of modern surgical techniques, which utilize advanced technology, presents a dilemma for surgical training. Hands-on patient experience - the traditional apprenticeship method for teaching operations - may not apply because of the learning curve for skill acquisition and patient safety expectation. The paranasal sinuses and temporal bone have intricate anatomy with a significant amount of vital structures either within the surgical field or in close proximity. The current standard of surgical care in these areas involves the use of endoscopes, cameras and microscopes, requiring additional hand-eye coordination, an accurate command of fine motor skills, and a thorough knowledge of the anatomy under magnified vision. A surgeon's disorientation or loss of perspective can lead to complications, often catastrophic and occasionally lethal. These considerations define the ideal environment for surgical simulation; not surprisingly, significant research and validation of simulators in these areas have occurred. Virtual reality simulators are demonstrating validity as training and skills assessment tools. Future prototypes will find application for routine use in teaching, surgical planning and the development of new instruments and computer-assisted devices.
Understanding schizophrenia requires consideration of patients' interactions in the social world. Misinterpretation of other peoples' behavior is a key feature of persecutory ideation. The occurrence and intensity of hallucinations is affected by the social context. Negative symptoms such as anhedonia, asociality, and blunted affect reflect difficulties in social interactions. Withdrawal and avoidance of other people is frequent in schizophrenia, leading to isolation and rumination. The use of virtual reality (VR)--interactive immersive computer environments--allows one of the key variables in understanding psychosis, social environments, to be controlled, providing exciting applications to research and treatment. Seven applications of virtual social environments to schizophrenia are set out: symptom assessment, identification of symptom markers, establishment of predictive factors, tests of putative causal factors, investigation of the differential prediction of symptoms, determination of toxic elements in the environment, and development of treatment. The initial VR studies of persecutory ideation, which illustrate the ascription of personalities and mental states to virtual people, are highlighted. VR, suitably applied, holds great promise in furthering the understanding and treatment of psychosis.
Full Text Available For over two decades Virtual Reality has been used as a useful tool in several fields, from medical and psychological treatments, to industrial and military applications. Only in recent years researchers have begun to study the neural correlates that subtend virtual reality experiences. Even if the fMRI brain image technique is the most common and used technique, it suffers several limitations and problems. Here we present a methodology that involves the use of a new and growing brain imaging technique, fNIRS functional Near-infrared Spectroscopy, while participants experience immersive virtual reality. In order to allow a proper fNIRS probe application, a custom-made virtual reality helmet was created. To test the adapted helmet, a virtual version of the line bisection task was used. Participants could bisect the lines in a virtual peripersonal or extrapersonal space, through the manipulation of a Wiimote controller in order for the participants to move a virtual laser pointer. Although no neural correlates of the dissociation between peripersonal and extrapersonal space were found, a significant hemodynamic activity with respect to the baseline was present in the right parietal and occipital areas. Both advantages and disadvantages of the presented methodology are discussed.
Mironov, Sergey F.
Virtual reality systems gained a wide expansion nowadays. They appear as three-dimensional trainers and simulators, video games, various visualization systems, virtual www-spaces and so on. The area of applications for such systems is rapidly expanding that is supported first of all by a quick development of appropriate hardware and software tools. The main problem in the virtual reality systems is allowing a user to be effectively present in the space, navigate through it, and also to interact with the space, objects and characters (intelligent agents) embedded in the created synthetic space. One of the tasks raising on building the virtual reality system is creation of behavioral animation (or simply behavior) of intellectual agents. The behavior represents actions that are usually described with terms of natural speech, having social, psychological or physiological meanings that are not necessarily trivial in reducing to actual animation, i.e. to movement of effectors, skeleton etc.
Virtual reality has moved out of the lab and into our living rooms. With it comes an entire new medium for entertainment, simulation, and social interaction. Its potential impact on humanity, however, is actually far more profound. VR provides not just a new digital content delivery platform. It creates, in literal fact, an entire new class of human experience. A virtual experience is only virtual according to our intellects, but to every other fiber of our perceptual system, the experience i...
Kaleja Pavol; Kozlovská Mária
We can observe significant potential of information and communication technologies (ICT) in interior designing field, by development of software and hardware virtual reality tools. Using ICT tools offer realistic perception of proposal in its initial idea (the study). A group of real-time visualization, supported by hardware tools like Oculus Rift HTC Vive, provides free walkthrough and movement in virtual interior with the possibility of virtual designing. By improving of ICT software tools ...
Paludan, Anders Glud; Elbaek, Jacob; Mortensen, Mathias Helmuth
In virtual reality environments that allow users to walk freely, the area of the virtual environment (VE) is constrained to the size of the tracking area. By using redirection techniques, this problem can be partially circumvented; one of the techniques involves rotating the user more or less...... in the virtual world than in the physical world; this technique is referred to as rotational gain. This paper seeks to further investigate this area, examining the effect of visual density in the VE....
Virtual museum refers to display and simulate the functions of real museum on the Internet in the form of 3 Dimensions virtual reality by applying interactive programs. Based on Virtual Reality Modeling Language, virtual museum building and its effective interaction with the offline museum lie in making full use of 3 Dimensions panorama technique, virtual reality technique and augmented reality technique, and innovatively taking advantages of dynamic environment modeling technique, real-time 3 Dimensions graphics generating technique, system integration technique and other key virtual reality techniques to make sure the overall design of virtual museum.3 Dimensions panorama technique, also known as panoramic photography or virtual reality, is a technique based on static images of the reality. Virtual reality technique is a kind of computer simulation system which can create and experience the interactive 3 Dimensions dynamic visual world. Augmented reality, also known as mixed reality, is a technique which simulates and mixes the information (visual, sound, taste, touch, etc.) that is difficult for human to experience in reality. These technologies make virtual museum come true. It will not only bring better experience and convenience to the public, but also be conducive to improve the influence and cultural functions of the real museum.
Izard, Santiago González; Juanes, Juan A; García Peñalvo, Francisco J; Estella, Jesús Mª Gonçalvez; Ledesma, Mª José Sánchez; Ruisoto, Pablo
Until very recently, we considered Virtual Reality as something that was very close, but it was still science fiction. However, today Virtual Reality is being integrated into many different areas of our lives, from videogames to different industrial use cases and, of course, it is starting to be used in medicine. There are two great general classifications for Virtual Reality. Firstly, we find a Virtual Reality in which we visualize a world completely created by computer, three-dimensional and where we can appreciate that the world we are visualizing is not real, at least for the moment as rendered images are improving very fast. Secondly, there is a Virtual Reality that basically consists of a reflection of our reality. This type of Virtual Reality is created using spherical or 360 images and videos, so we lose three-dimensional visualization capacity (until the 3D cameras are more developed), but on the other hand we gain in terms of realism in the images. We could also mention a third classification that merges the previous two, where virtual elements created by computer coexist with 360 images and videos. In this article we will show two systems that we have developed where each of them can be framed within one of the previous classifications, identifying the technologies used for their implementation as well as the advantages of each one. We will also analize how these systems can improve the current methodologies used for medical training. The implications of these developments as tools for teaching, learning and training are discussed.
Luo, Zhiqiang; Lim, Chee Kian; Chen, I.-Ming; Yeo, Song Huat
This paper presents a virtual reality (VR) system for upper limb rehabilitation. The system incorporates two motion track components, the Arm Suit and the Smart Glove which are composed of a range of the optical linear encoders (OLE) and the inertial measurement units (IMU), and two interactive practice applications designed for driving users to perform the required functional and non-functional motor recovery tasks. We describe the technique details about the two motion track components and the rational to design two practice applications. The experiment results show that, compared with the marker-based tracking system, the Arm Suit can accurately track the elbow and wrist positions. The repeatability of the Smart Glove on measuring the five fingers' movement can be satisfied. Given the low cost, high accuracy and easy installation, the system thus promises to be a valuable complement to conventional therapeutic programs offered in rehabilitation clinics and at home.
Virtual Reality has for many years been a technology which has stagnated in application and software development for games. What was possible and created ten years ago for games in VR environments is still being developed. The applications available for VR environments have increased...... but they mostly remain related to scientific purposes while computer games in VR only show a part of their actual potential. The game industry has begun to see the possibilities of VR games in a near future with the implementation of some popular games to a CAVE system. However, a full immersion VR solution still...... remains uncommon and expensive. This paper aims to demonstrate the potential of VR games, and in particular games for the CAVE, now that affordable solutions are close to reach as more powerful hardware is available at low price. The focus is also on the methodology to be pursued while designing a VR game...
Gavish, Nirit; Gutiérrez, Teresa; Webel, Sabine; Rodríguez, Jorge; Peveri, Matteo; Bockholt, Uli; Tecchia, Franco
The current study evaluated the use of virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) platforms, developed within the scope of the SKILLS Integrated Project, for industrial maintenance and assembly (IMA) tasks training. VR and AR systems are now widely regarded as promising training platforms for complex and highly demanding IMA tasks. However,…
Bergström, Ilias; Kilteni, Konstantina; Slater, Mel
In immersive virtual reality (IVR) it is possible to replace a person’s real body by a life-sized virtual body that is seen from first person perspective to visually substitute their own. Multisensory feedback from the virtual to the real body (such as the correspondence of touch and also movement) can also be present. Under these conditions participants typically experience a subjective body ownership illusion (BOI) over the virtual body, even though they know that it is not their real one. In most studies and applications the posture of the real and virtual bodies are as similar as possible. Here we were interested in whether the BOI is diminished when there are gross discrepancies between the real and virtual body postures. We also explored whether a comfortable or uncomfortable virtual body posture would induce feelings and physiological responses commensurate with the posture. We carried out an experiment with 31 participants in IVR realized with a wide field-of-view head-mounted display. All participants were comfortably seated. Sixteen of them were embodied in a virtual body designed to be in a comfortable posture, and the remainder in an uncomfortable posture. The results suggest that the uncomfortable body posture led to lesser subjective BOI than the comfortable one, but that participants in the uncomfortable posture experienced greater awareness of their autonomic physiological responses. Moreover their heart rate, heart rate variability, and the number of mistakes in a cognitive task were associated with the strength of their BOI in the uncomfortable posture: greater heart rate, lower heart rate variability and more mistakes were associated with higher levels of the BOI. These findings point in a consistent direction—that the BOI over a body that is in an uncomfortable posture can lead to subjective, physiological and cognitive effects consistent with discomfort that do not occur with the BOI over a body in a comfortable posture. PMID:26828365
Müller, W; Grosskopf, S; Hildebrand, A; Malkewitz, R; Ziegler, R
In cooperation with the Max-Delbrück-Centrum/Robert-Rössle-Klinik (MDC/RRK) in Berlin, the Fraunhofer Institute for Computer Graphics is currently designing and developing a scenario for the operating room of the future. The goal of this project is to integrate new analysis, visualization and interaction tools in order to optimize and refine tumor diagnostics and therapy in combination with laser technology and remote stereoscopic video transfer. Hence, a human 3-D reference model is reconstructed using CT, MR, and anatomical cryosection images from the National Library of Medicine's Visible Human Project. Applying segmentation algorithms and surface-polygonization methods a 3-D representation is obtained. In addition, a "fly-through" the virtual patient is realized using 3-D input devices (data glove, tracking system, 6-DOF mouse). In this way, the surgeon can experience really new perspectives of the human anatomy. Moreover, using a virtual cutting plane any cut of the CT volume can be interactively placed and visualized in realtime. In conclusion, this project delivers visions for the application of effective visualization and VR systems. Commonly known as Virtual Prototyping and applied by the automotive industry long ago, this project shows, that the use of VR techniques can also prototype an operating room. After evaluating design and functionality of the virtual operating room, MDC plans to build real ORs in the near future. The use of VR techniques provides a more natural interface for the surgeon in the OR (e.g., controlling interactions by voice input). Besides preoperative planning future work will focus on supporting the surgeon in performing surgical interventions. An optimal synthesis of real and synthetic data, and the inclusion of visual, aural, and tactile senses in virtual environments can meet these requirements. This Augmented Reality could represent the environment for the surgeons of tomorrow.
Myrcha, Julian; Trzciński, Tomasz; Rokita, Przemysław
Analyzing massive amounts of data gathered during many high energy physics experiments, including but not limited to the LHC ALICE detector experiment, requires efficient and intuitive methods of visualisation. One of the possible approaches to that problem is stereoscopic 3D data visualisation. In this paper, we propose several methods that provide high quality data visualisation and we explain how those methods can be applied in virtual reality headsets. The outcome of this work is easily applicable to many real-life applications needed in high energy physics and can be seen as a first step towards using fully immersive virtual reality technologies within the frames of the ALICE experiment.
Dascal, Julieta; Reid, Mark; IsHak, Waguih William; Spiegel, Brennan; Recacho, Jennifer; Rosen, Bradley; Danovitch, Itai
Objective: We evaluated the evidence supporting the use of virtual reality among patients in acute inpatient medical settings. Method: We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials conducted that examined virtual reality applications in inpatient medical settings between 2005 and 2015. We used PsycINFO, PubMed, and Medline databases to identify studies using the keywords virtual reality, VR therapy, treatment, and inpatient.Results: We identified 2,024 citations, among which 11 met criteria for inclusion. Studies addressed three general areas: pain management, eating disorders, and cognitive and motor rehabilitation. Studies were small and heterogeneous and utilized different designs and measures. Virtual reality was generally well tolerated by patients, and a majority of studies demonstrated clinical efficacy. Studies varied in quality, as measured by an evaluation metric developed by Reisch, Tyson, and Mize (average quality score=0.87; range=0.78-0.96). Conclusion: Virtual reality is a promising intervention with several potential applications in the inpatient medical setting. Studies to date demonstrate some efficacy, but there is a need for larger, well-controlled studies to show clinical and cost-effectiveness.
Tichon, Jennifer; Banks, Jasmine
Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) developed using immersive or semi-immersive virtual environments present a usability problem for practitioners. To meet practitioner requirements for lower cost and portability VRET programs must often be ported onto desktop environments such as the personal computer (PC). However, success of VRET has been shown to be linked to presence, and the environment's ability to evoke the same reactions and emotions as a real experience. It is generally accepted that high-end virtual environments (VEs) are more immersive than desktop PCs, but level of immersion does not always predict level of presence. This paper reports on the impact on presence of porting a therapeutic VR application for schizophrenia from the initial research environment of a semi-immersive curved screen to PC. Presence in these two environments is measured both introspectively and across a number of causal factors thought to underlie the experience of presence. Results show that the VR exposure program successfully made users feel they were "present" in both platforms. While the desktop PC achieved higher scores on presence across causal factors participants reported they felt more present in the curved screen environment. While comparison of the two groups was statistically significant for the PQ but not for the IPQ, subjective reports of experiences in the environments should be considered in future research as the success of VRET relies heavily on the emotional response of patients to the therapeutic program.
Full Text Available This paper reviews the move from virtual reality exposure-based therapy (VRET to augmented reality exposure-based therapy (ARET. Unlike virtual reality (VR, which entails a complete virtual environment (VE, augmented reality (AR limits itself to producing certain virtual elements to then merge them into the view of the physical world. Although the general public may only have become aware of AR in the last few years, AR type applications have been around since beginning of the 20th century. Since, then, technological developments have enabled an ever increasing level of seamless integration of virtual and physical elements into one view. Like VR, AR allows the exposure to stimuli which, due to various reasons, may not be suitable for real-life scenarios. As such, AR has proven itself to be a medium through which individuals suffering from specific phobia can be exposed safely to the object(s of their fear, without the costs associated with programming complete virtual environments. Thus, ARET can offer an efficacious alternative to some less advantageous exposure-based therapies. Above and beyond presenting what has been accomplished in ARET, this paper also raises some ARET related issues, and proposes potential avenues to be followed. These include the definition of an AR related term, the type of measures to be used to qualify the user’s experience in an augmented reality environment (ARE, the development of alternative geospatial referencing systems, as well as the potential use of ARET to treat social phobia. Overall, it may be said that the use of ARET, although promising, is still in its infancy but that, given a continued cooperation between clinical and technical teams, ARET has the potential of going well beyond the treatment of small animal phobia.
Full Text Available This essay presents and discusses the developing role of virtual and augmented reality technologies in education. Addressing the challenges in adapting such technologies to focus on improving students’ learning outcomes, the author discusses the inclusion of experiential modes as a vehicle for improving students’ knowledge acquisition. Stakeholders in the educational role of technology include students, faculty members, institutions, and manufacturers. While the benefits of such technologies are still under investigation, the technology landscape offers opportunities to enhance face-to-face and online teaching, including contributions in the understanding of abstract concepts and training in real environments and situations. Barriers to technology use involve limited adoption of augmented and virtual reality technologies, and, more directly, necessary training of teachers in using such technologies within meaningful educational contexts. The author proposes a six-step methodology to aid adoption of these technologies as basic elements within the regular education: training teachers; developing conceptual prototypes; teamwork involving the teacher, a technical programmer, and an educational architect; and producing the experience, which then provides results in the subsequent two phases wherein teachers are trained to apply augmented- and virtual-reality solutions within their teaching methodology using an available subject-specific experience and then finally implementing the use of the experience in a regular subject with students. The essay concludes with discussion of the business opportunities facing virtual reality in face-to-face education as well as augmented and virtual reality in online education.
Max, M L; Gonzalez, J R
Can Virtual Reality (VR) developments in audio navigation for blind persons support therapies for all? Working with Crystal River Engineering we are developing navigable Virtual Reality worlds for blind users, using spatialized audio , . All persons, however, use specialized channels, such as: visual, aural, and kinetic learning senses. Predominantly visual VR worlds and health informatics models from World Wide Webs, may be downloaded, tailored, augmented, and delivered to each of these learning senses using VR. We are also testing a proof of concept system with Boston Dynamics which downloads 3-dimensional, satellite-derived map models from the World Wide Web, and makes them navigable by "feeling" the terrain using haptic (tactual or force feedback to your hand) robotic interfaces. Ultimately, these multi-sensory VR access methods: sight, localization by audio, and "feeling" of data sets could open up the World Wide Web to individuals with sight impairments. This could also, however, benefit government, businesses, universities, and (elementary) education. It could contribute more powerful communications, education, and medical simulation applications on the World Wide Web. This work is part of government technology transfer to telemedicine, (elementary) education, disabilities access to the Web, and new Internet access and productivity efforts under Vice President Gore's National Performance Review.
Pelargos, Panayiotis E; Nagasawa, Daniel T; Lagman, Carlito; Tenn, Stephen; Demos, Joanna V; Lee, Seung J; Bui, Timothy T; Barnette, Natalie E; Bhatt, Nikhilesh S; Ung, Nolan; Bari, Ausaf; Martin, Neil A; Yang, Isaac
Neurosurgery has undergone a technological revolution over the past several decades, from trephination to image-guided navigation. Advancements in virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) represent some of the newest modalities being integrated into neurosurgical practice and resident education. In this review, we present a historical perspective of the development of VR and AR technologies, analyze its current uses, and discuss its emerging applications in the field of neurosurgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sorkin, Anna; Weinshall, Daphna; Peled, Avi
Virtual Reality is an interactive three-dimensional computer generated environment. Providing a complex and multi-modal environment, VR can be particularly useful for the study of complex cognitive functions and brain disorders. Here we used a VR world to measure the distortion in reality perception in schizophrenia patients. 43 schizophrenia patients and 29 healthy controls navigated in a VR environment and were asked to detect incoherencies, such as a cat barking or a tree with red leaves. Whereas the healthy participants reliably detected incoherencies in the virtual experience, 88% of the patients failed in this task. The patients group had specific difficulty in the detection of audio-visual incoherencies; this was significantly correlated with the hallucinations score of the PANSS. By measuring the distortion in reality perception in schizophrenia patients, we demonstrated that Virtual Reality can serve as a powerful experimental tool to study complex cognitive processes.
Sebastian T Koenig
Full Text Available In recent years user-centered design, participatory design and agile development have seen much popularity in the field of software development. More specifically, applying these methods to user groups with cognitive and motor disabilities has been the topic of numerous publications. However, neuropsychological assessment and training require special consideration to include therapists and brain-injured patients into the development cycle. Application goals, development tools and communication between all stakeholders are interdependent and outlined in a framework that promotes elements of agile development. The framework is introduced by example of a virtual reality cognitive assessment for patients with traumatic brain injuries. The assessment has seen a total of 20 iterations over the course of nine months including changes in task content, task difficulty, user interaction and data collection. The framework and development of the cognitive assessment are discussed.
Jensen, Katrine; Bjerrum, Flemming; Hansen, Henrik Jessen
and intermediate experienced thoracic surgeons, but not very useful as a training tool for experienced surgeons. The metric scores were not statistically significant between groups. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to describe a commercially available virtual reality simulator for a VATS lobectomy. More than......OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to develop virtual reality simulation software for video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lobectomy, to explore the opinions of thoracic surgeons concerning the VATS lobectomy simulator and to test the validity of the simulator metrics. METHODS: Experienced...... VATS surgeons worked with computer specialists to develop a VATS lobectomy software for a virtual reality simulator. Thoracic surgeons with different degrees of experience in VATS were enrolled at the 22nd meeting of the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS) held in Copenhagen in June 2014...
Dr. Ubaldo Cuesta Cambra
Full Text Available The European Higher Education Area promotes the integration of new technologies in didactic innovation and it aims to improve skills. It has been requested by students at the Complutense University of Madrid, who have a digital native profile or millennial. This article is a study about implementation of immersive virtual reality in the practical part of the subjects related to business communication. Specifically, it applied in the subject Crisis Communication. The methodology is a survey and three focus groups for professors and students. The conclusions say that the implementation of immersive virtual reality improves the expectations and interest of students. It also improves the skills acquired and the practical part of the subjects of communication improve employment of students of the Degree, which is one of their main causes of dissatisfaction. The full implementation of mobile telephony suggests using virtual reality devices adapted to them rather than “caves” (C.A.V.E. or consoles.
The use of virtual reality to treat anxiety disorders in adults is gaining popularity and its efficacy is supported by numerous outcome studies. Similar research for children is lagging behind. The outcome studies on the use of virtual reality to treat anxiety disorders in children currently address only specific phobias, and all of the available trials are reviewed in this article. Despite the limited number of studies, results are very encouraging for the treatment of school and spider phobias. A study with adolescents suggests that, at least for social anxiety, exposure stimuli would be more effective if they were developed specifically for younger populations. Virtual reality may not increase children's motivation towards therapy unless their fearful apprehension is addressed before initiating the treatment.
Sawaya, Robin; Bugdadi, Abdulgadir; Azarnoush, Hamed; Winkler-Schwartz, Alexander; Alotaibi, Fahad E; Bajunaid, Khalid; AlZhrani, Gmaan A; Alsideiri, Ghusn; Sabbagh, Abdulrahman J; Del Maestro, Rolando F
The force pyramid is a novel visual representation allowing spatial delineation of instrument force application during surgical procedures. In this study, the force pyramid concept is employed to create and quantify dominant hand, nondominant hand, and bimanual force pyramids during resection of virtual reality brain tumors. To address 4 questions: Do ergonomics and handedness influence force pyramid structure? What are the differences between dominant and nondominant force pyramids? What is the spatial distribution of forces applied in specific tumor quadrants? What differentiates "expert" and "novice" groups regarding their force pyramids? Using a simulated aspirator in the dominant hand and a simulated sucker in the nondominant hand, 6 neurosurgeons and 14 residents resected 8 different tumors using the CAE NeuroVR virtual reality neurosurgical simulation platform (CAE Healthcare, Montréal, Québec and the National Research Council Canada, Boucherville, Québec). Position and force data were used to create force pyramids and quantify tumor quadrant force distribution. Force distribution quantification demonstrates the critical role that handedness and ergonomics play on psychomotor performance during simulated brain tumor resections. Neurosurgeons concentrate their dominant hand forces in a defined crescent in the lower right tumor quadrant. Nondominant force pyramids showed a central peak force application in all groups. Bimanual force pyramids outlined the combined impact of each hand. Distinct force pyramid patterns were seen when tumor stiffness, border complexity, and color were altered. Force pyramids allow delineation of specific tumor regions requiring greater psychomotor ability to resect. This information can focus and improve resident technical skills training.
A. K. Fandejeva
Full Text Available The article is devoted to such an ambiguous concept as «virtual reality». The growth of interest in the idea of virtual reality has caused widespread use of the term in different meanings. But it is not developed a unified philosophical concept of this phenomenon still. It is possible to speak about virtuality only contextually. In this paper we study the main stages of formation and development of the «virtual» concept in the field of scientific knowledge from European antiquity to the postmodern era. As a result two tenches of interpretation of a concept of virtus which are based on Plato or Aristotle’s interpretation of the over – empirical one were revealed. In the modern knowledge it was allocated three approaches to the interpretation of virtuality: ontological, privatescientific and approach, shaped by the development of computer and information technologies. Along with it, the retrospective analysis of the Indian philosophical thought for signs ideas virtuality in the ancient texts is carried out. These features were found in the concept of Maya. For the analysis were used the signs of virtual reality developed by N. A. Nosov: porozhdennost (produced by, a relevanced; an autonomy; an integrative.
Crocetta,Tânia Brusque; Oliveira, Sandra Rogéria de; Liz, Carla Maria de; Andrade, Alexandro
Abstract Introduction : Today's society is influenced by Information and Communication Technologies. Toys that were once built by hand have been reinterpreted and have become highly commercialized products. In this context, games using Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR) technologies are present in the everyday lives of children, youth and adults. Objective : To investigate how Physical Education professionals in Brazil have been making use of AR and VR games to benefit their wo...
Ghali Adyo Putra
Full Text Available Virtual Reality is three-dimensional technology and developing rapidly at the moment. Therefore, Virtual Reality technology implementation will be useful for people. One of this implementation is in clinical fields, which is for handling phobia. One of the therapies provided by a therapist to patients is by using flooding technique that faces the patient on the situation that confronts the making of fear until no longer feel anxious. In some cases, the flooding technique for acrophobia almost impossible because of the level of dangerous and the expensive cost.By using game engine Unity and Multimedia Development Life Cycle (MDLC method which has six stages, concept, design, material collection, assembly, testing, and distribution, application development Android-based Virtual Reality will resolve the issue.Based on the results of Black-box method, functions from the application of virtual reality simulation as a tool for the treatment of acrophobia has already worked well. Further research is needed to find out the impact of application in the medical sector. Acrophobia merupakan jenis fobia yang membuat individu merasakan kegelisahan, ketegangan, dan rasa tidak nyaman ketika berada pada ketinggian. Hal itu yang membuat penderita acrophobia tidak bebas melakukan aktivitas sehari-hari. Untuk mengatasinya, dibutuhkan terapi ke psikiater untuk menyembuhkan acrophobia tersebut. Dalam teknik terapi, ada yang dinamakan flooding, yaitu menempatkan penderita ke situasi yang membuat ketakutan sampai penderita tidak merasa cemas. Teknik flooding sangat berbahaya jika diterapkan pada penderita acrophobia. Teknologi Virtual Reality sudah digunakan untuk menangani penderita acrophobia, tetapi teknologi yang ada masih mahal. Maka dari itu diperlukannya teknologi yang murah supaya penderita acrophobia dapat melakukan terapi dengan aman. Dengan menggunakan Multimedia Development Life Cycle sebagai metode pengembangannya, Unity, dan aplikasi berbasis Android
Khaled, W; Ermert, H; Bruhns, O; Boese, H; Baumann, M; Monkman, G J; Egersdoerfer, S; Meier, A; Klein, D; Freimuth, H
Mechanical properties of biological tissue represent important diagnostic information and are of histological relevance (hard lesions, "nodes" in organs: tumors; calcifications in vessels: arteriosclerosis). The problem is, that such information is usually obtained by digital palpation only, which is limited with respect to sensitivity. It requires intuitive assessment and does not allow quantitative documentation. A suitable sensor is required for quantitative detection of mechanical tissue properties. On the other hand, there is also some need for a realistic mechanical display of those tissue properties. Suitable actuator arrays with high spatial resolution and real-time capabilities are required operating in a haptic sensor actuator system with different applications. The sensor system uses real time ultrasonic elastography whereas the tactile actuator is based on electrorheological fluids. Due to their small size the actuator array elements have to be manufactured by micro-mechanical production methods. In order to supply the actuator elements with individual high voltages a sophisticated switching and control concept have been designed. This haptic system has the potential of inducing real time substantial forces, using a compact lightweight mechanism which can be applied to numerous areas including intraoperative navigation, telemedicine, teaching, space and telecommunication.
Virtual Reality (VR) is a rapidly emerging technology which allows participants to experience a virtual environment through stimulation of the participant`s senses. Intuitive and natural interactions with the virtual world help to create a realistic experience. Typically, a participant is immersed in a virtual environment through the use of a 3-D viewer. Realistic, computer-generated environment models and accurate tracking of a participant`s view are important factors for adding realism to a virtual experience. Stimulating a participant`s sense of sound and providing a natural form of communication for interacting with the virtual world are equally important. This paper discusses the advantages and importance of incorporating voice recognition and audio feedback capabilities into a virtual world experience. Various approaches and levels of complexity are discussed. Examples of the use of voice and sound are presented through the description of a research application developed in the VR laboratory at Sandia National Laboratories.
Delgado Gonzalo, Guillem
This thesis addresses the problem of incorporating real world objects into the virtual reality world and its usage inside the gaming community. Using Kinect camera and HTC Vive glasses we recreated a football simulator where the user is able to play with a real ball while watching it in virtual reality. To achieve our goal, we present a mix of image processing algorithms that are be able to track the ball with only depth given by Kinect. Furthermore, a dynamic-link library is generated from t...
Mora, Renzo; Cesarani, Antonio; Meloni, Francesco; Passali, Francesco Maria; Mora, Francesco; Passali, Giulio Cesare; Barbieri, Marco
The aim of our study was to establish a new diagnostic approach, through the use of virtual reality, to the study of the subjective vertical bar in unilateral peripheral vestibular dysfunction. We subjected 174 patients with unilateral peripheral vestibular dysfunction (ages 18-82 years) to vestibular diagnosis with the virtual reality system. We changed the classic configuration of the subjective visual vertical into a subjective visual horizontal bar. This technique revealed values of the subjective visual horizontal outside the normal range in 91% of patients.
Baus, Oliver; Bouchard, Stéphane
This paper reviews the move from virtual reality exposure-based therapy to augmented reality exposure-based therapy (ARET). Unlike virtual reality (VR), which entails a complete virtual environment (VE), augmented reality (AR) limits itself to producing certain virtual elements to then merge them into the view of the physical world. Although, the general public may only have become aware of AR in the last few years, AR type applications have been around since beginning of the twentieth century. Since, then, technological developments have enabled an ever increasing level of seamless integration of virtual and physical elements into one view. Like VR, AR allows the exposure to stimuli which, due to various reasons, may not be suitable for real-life scenarios. As such, AR has proven itself to be a medium through which individuals suffering from specific phobia can be exposed “safely” to the object(s) of their fear, without the costs associated with programing complete VEs. Thus, ARET can offer an efficacious alternative to some less advantageous exposure-based therapies. Above and beyond presenting what has been accomplished in ARET, this paper covers some less well-known aspects of the history of AR, raises some ARET related issues, and proposes potential avenues to be followed. These include the type of measures to be used to qualify the user’s experience in an augmented reality environment, the exclusion of certain AR-type functionalities from the definition of AR, as well as the potential use of ARET to treat non-small animal phobias, such as social phobia. PMID:24624073
Baus, Oliver; Bouchard, Stéphane
This paper reviews the move from virtual reality exposure-based therapy to augmented reality exposure-based therapy (ARET). Unlike virtual reality (VR), which entails a complete virtual environment (VE), augmented reality (AR) limits itself to producing certain virtual elements to then merge them into the view of the physical world. Although, the general public may only have become aware of AR in the last few years, AR type applications have been around since beginning of the twentieth century. Since, then, technological developments have enabled an ever increasing level of seamless integration of virtual and physical elements into one view. Like VR, AR allows the exposure to stimuli which, due to various reasons, may not be suitable for real-life scenarios. As such, AR has proven itself to be a medium through which individuals suffering from specific phobia can be exposed "safely" to the object(s) of their fear, without the costs associated with programing complete VEs. Thus, ARET can offer an efficacious alternative to some less advantageous exposure-based therapies. Above and beyond presenting what has been accomplished in ARET, this paper covers some less well-known aspects of the history of AR, raises some ARET related issues, and proposes potential avenues to be followed. These include the type of measures to be used to qualify the user's experience in an augmented reality environment, the exclusion of certain AR-type functionalities from the definition of AR, as well as the potential use of ARET to treat non-small animal phobias, such as social phobia.
Harrison, A; Derwent, G; Enticknap, A; Rose, F D; Attree, E A
The current paper provides quantitative and qualitative data concerning the application of two virtual environments to the assessment and training of inexperienced powered wheelchair users, both in terms of the ability to control the chair accurately without hitting objects in the environment (manoeuvrability) and in terms of being able to find ones way around a complex environment without becoming lost (route-finding). Six novice powered wheelchair users participated in the project, completing either the manoeuvrability or route finding components of the study. Performance measures were taken in real life pre and post training and throughout virtual reality sessions. Participants also completed a questionnaire regarding the aesthetics of the virtual environments and aspects of the powered wheelchair simulation. The participants rated the aesthetics of the virtual environments positively and engaged well with the virtual system. However, they found the manoeuvrability tasks considerably more difficult in virtual reality (VR) than in real life. Some difficulties with controlling the simulated wheelchair were apparent. Some improvements on virtual and real life manoeuvrability tasks and route finding were noted following conventional and virtual training. The study indicated that the two virtual environments represent a potentially useful means of assessing and training novice powered wheelchair users. The virtual environments however must become less challenging if they are to represent a motivating and effective means of improving performance. Further development of the way in which wheelchair movement is controlled and simulated represents a key element in this multi stage project.
Full Text Available Although virtual reality (VR technology has been implemented as a tool to address the health issues of older adults, its applicability to social connectedness is underrepresented in the literature, and less is known about its efficacy in this area in contributing to overall wellness and well-being in later life. Expanding the VR possibilities beyond traditional entertainment purposes holds considerable potential for the older adult market. Technological tools have been employed in the elder health care field for many years, and cutting-edge developments such as virtual and augmented reality have begun to be used to facilitate optimal wellness in aging. Such technological advances have the potential to significantly impact one of the most important issues that older people face: social isolation and loneliness. This paper will serve as an introductory exploration of what is currently known about the use of virtual reality technology with an older cohort.
Full Text Available A new wave of virtual reality headsets has become available. A potential benefit for the study of human anatomy is the reintroduction of stereopsis and absolute size. We report a randomized controlled trial to assess the contribution of stereopsis to anatomy learning, for students of different visuospatial ability. Sixty-three participants engaged in a one-hour session including a study phase and posttest. One group studied 3D models of the anatomy of the deep neck in full stereoptic virtual reality; one group studied those structures in virtual reality without stereoptic depth. The control group experienced an unrelated virtual reality environment. A post hoc questionnaire explored cognitive load and problem solving strategies of the participants. We found no effect of condition on learning. Visuospatial ability however did impact correct answers at F(1=5.63 and p=.02. No evidence was found for an impact of cognitive load on performance. Possibly, participants were able to solve the posttest items based on visuospatial information contained in the test items themselves. Additionally, the virtual anatomy may have been complex enough to discourage memory based strategies. It is important to control the amount of visuospatial information present in test items.
Bejczy, Antal K.
This presentation focuses on the application of computer graphics or 'virtual reality' (VR) techniques as a human-computer interface tool in the operation of telerobotic systems. VR techniques offer very valuable task realization aids for planning, previewing and predicting robotic actions, operator training, and for visual perception of non-visible events like contact forces in robotic tasks. The utility of computer graphics in telerobotic operation can be significantly enhanced by high-fidelity calibration of virtual reality images to actual TV camera images. This calibration will even permit the creation of artificial (synthetic) views of task scenes for which no TV camera views are available.
Full Text Available BackgroundVirtual reality technology is an exciting and emerging field with vast applications. Our study sets out the viewpoint that virtual reality software could be a new focus of direction in the development of training tools in medical education. We carried out a panel discussion at the Center for Behavior Change 3rd Annual Conference, prompted by the study, “The Responses of Medical General Practitioners to Unreasonable Patient Demand for Antibiotics––A Study of Medical Ethics Using Immersive Virtual Reality” (1.MethodsIn Pan et al.’s study, 21 general practitioners (GPs and GP trainees took part in a videoed, 15-min virtual reality scenario involving unnecessary patient demands for antibiotics. This paper was discussed in-depth at the Center for Behavior Change 3rd Annual Conference; the content of this paper is a culmination of findings and feedback from the panel discussion. The experts involved have backgrounds in virtual reality, general practice, medicines management, medical education and training, ethics, and philosophy.ViewpointVirtual reality is an unexplored methodology to instigate positive behavioral change among clinicians where other methods have been unsuccessful, such as antimicrobial stewardship. There are several arguments in favor of use of virtual reality in medical education: it can be used for “difficult to simulate” scenarios and to standardize a scenario, for example, for use in exams. However, there are limitations to its usefulness because of the cost implications and the lack of evidence that it results in demonstrable behavior change.
N00014-93-C-0279 Fmi Repd - A Vitual Reality -Based Simulation Of Abdominal Surgery Pa A-1 9 June 21,1994 Appendix A - Literature Search Chares J...Leaf Systems, Inc. e ARPA Contract number N00014-93-C-0279 Fmal Report -A Vitual Reality -Base Simuilation Of Abdominal Surgery Page A-22 June 21, 1994...415) 591-7881 In! IhNiI 1 SHORT TITLE: A Virtual Reality -Based Simulation of Abdominal Surgery REPORTING PERIOD: October 31, 1993-June 30, 1994 The
Leon R. Sütfeld
Full Text Available Self-driving cars are posing a new challenge to our ethics. By using algorithms to make decisions in situations where harming humans is possible, probable, or even unavoidable, a self-driving car's ethical behavior comes pre-defined. Ad hoc decisions are made in milliseconds, but can be based on extensive research and debates. The same algorithms are also likely to be used in millions of cars at a time, increasing the impact of any inherent biases, and increasing the importance of getting it right. Previous research has shown that moral judgment and behavior are highly context-dependent, and comprehensive and nuanced models of the underlying cognitive processes are out of reach to date. Models of ethics for self-driving cars should thus aim to match human decisions made in the same context. We employed immersive virtual reality to assess ethical behavior in simulated road traffic scenarios, and used the collected data to train and evaluate a range of decision models. In the study, participants controlled a virtual car and had to choose which of two given obstacles they would sacrifice in order to spare the other. We randomly sampled obstacles from a variety of inanimate objects, animals and humans. Our model comparison shows that simple models based on one-dimensional value-of-life scales are suited to describe human ethical behavior in these situations. Furthermore, we examined the influence of severe time pressure on the decision-making process. We found that it decreases consistency in the decision patterns, thus providing an argument for algorithmic decision-making in road traffic. This study demonstrates the suitability of virtual reality for the assessment of ethical behavior in humans, delivering consistent results across subjects, while closely matching the experimental settings to the real world scenarios in question.
Virtual charter schools have emerged over the last decade as an increasingly popular alternative to traditional public schooling. Unlike their face-to-face counterparts, virtual charter schools educate students through blended or entirely online curricula. They present a host of new policy issues that should be scrutinized in order to ensure that…
Ragazzoni, Luca; Ingrassia, Pier Luigi; Echeverri, Lina; Maccapani, Fabio; Berryman, Lizzy; Burkle, Frederick M; Della Corte, Francesco
Both virtual and hybrid simulation training offer a realistic and effective educational framework and opportunity to provide virtual exposure to operational public health skills that are essential for infection control and Ebola treatment management. This training is designed to increase staff safety and create a safe and realistic environment where trainees can gain essential basic and advanced skills.
Ennakr, Said; Domingues, Christophe; Benchikh, Laredj; Otmane, Samir; Mallem, Malik
A complex system is a system made up of a great number of entities in local and simultaneous interaction. Its design requires the collaboration of engineers of various complementary specialties, so that it is necessary to invent new design methods. Indeed, currently the industry loses much time between the moment when the product model is designed and when the latter is serially produced on the lines of factories. This production is generally ensured by automated and more often robotized means. A deadline is thus necessary for the development of the automatisms and the robots work on a new product model. In this context we launched a study based on the principle of the mechatronics design in Augmented Reality-Virtual Reality. This new approach will bring solutions to problems encountered in many application scopes, but also to problems involved in the distance which separates the offices from design of vehicles and their production sites. This new approach will minimize the differences of errors between the design model and real prototype.
Rothbaum, Barbara O; Rizzo, Albert “Skip”; Difede, JoAnn
... research on virtual reality exposure therapy, a recently emerging treatment for PTSD. Three virtual reality scenarios used to treat PTSD in active duty military and combat veterans and survivors of terrorism are presented...
Jensen, Camilla Gyldendahl
“Virtual reality” adds a new dimension to constructivist problem-based learning (PBL) environments in the architectural and building construction educations, where a realistic and lifelike presence in a building enables students to assess and discuss how the various solutions interact with each...... other. Combined with “Building Information Models” (BIM), “Virtual Reality” provides an entirely new opportunity to innovate and optimize the architecture and construction in its early stages, which creates and iterative learning process. There are several studies where virtual simulation tools based...... on predefined tutorials are tested for their ability to facilitate collaborative processes. This study addresses the problem from a new angle by the virtual universe created through the students' own iterative design of a building. The “Virtual reality” system's narrative tale arises spontaneously through...
Benko, Attila; Cecilia, Sik Lanyi
This chapter presents a general overview about the use of multimedia and virtual reality in rehabilitation and assistive and preventive healthcare. This chapter deals with multimedia, virtual reality applications based AI intended for use by medical doctors, nurses, special teachers and further interested persons. It describes methods how multimedia and virtual reality is able to assist their work. These include the areas how multimedia and virtual reality can help the patients everyday life and their rehabilitation. In the second part of the chapter we present the Virtual Therapy Room (VTR) a realized application for aphasic patients that was created for practicing communication and expressing emotions in a group therapy setting. The VTR shows a room that contains a virtual therapist and four virtual patients (avatars). The avatars are utilizing their knowledge base in order to answer the questions of the user providing an AI environment for the rehabilitation. The user of the VTR is the aphasic patient who has to solve the exercises. The picture that is relevant for the actual task appears on the virtual blackboard. Patient answers questions of the virtual therapist. Questions are about pictures describing an activity or an object in different levels. Patient can ask an avatar for answer. If the avatar knows the answer the avatars emotion changes to happy instead of sad. The avatar expresses its emotions in different dimensions. Its behavior, face-mimic, voice-tone and response also changes. The emotion system can be described as a deterministic finite automaton where places are emotion-states and the transition function of the automaton is derived from the input-response reaction of an avatar. Natural language processing techniques were also implemented in order to establish highquality human-computer interface windows for each of the avatars. Aphasic patients are able to interact with avatars via these interfaces. At the end of the chapter we visualize the
[EN] Human consciousness is always the consciousness toward some thing and our perception of cultural heritage is no exception. Thus, understanding human cognition is closely related to understanding how the perceptible objects are classified in human mind. The perceptible objects include both physical and virtual experiences and thoughts, and it is important and necessary to analyze the types and the effective levels of those objects. With the emergence of Virtual Reality (VR) technologies ...
Jasso, Hector; Triesch, Jochen
We present a virtual reality platform for developing and evaluating embodied models of cognitive development. The platform facilitates structuring of the learning agent, of its visual environment, and of other virtual characters that interact with the learning agent. It allows us to systematically study the role of the visual and social environment for the development of particular cognitive skills in a controlled fashion. We describe how it is currently being used for constructing an embodie...
Fukasaku, K; Negoro, M; Himeno, R
A trial of remote manipulation for micro guidewire is reported. The system had masterslave style. When an operator manipulated the virtual torque device at the master side, a machine at the distant slave side reproduced the manipulation. At the same time, the operator could feel the force feedback from the manipulation at the slave. We could experimentally realize this remote manipulating system using a virtual reality device.
Fukasaku, K.; Negoro, M.; Himeno, R.
A trial of remote manipulation for micro guidewire is reported. The system had master-slave style. When an operator manipulated the virtual torque device at the master side, a machine at the distant slave side reproduced the manipulation. At the same time, the operator could feel the force feedback from the manipulation at the slave. We could experimentally realize this remote manipulating system using a virtual reality device.
Conversation analysis can take the form of a qualitative methodology for the exploration of discursive productions, whose main goal is the formulation of hypotheses for reading psychosocial interaction through descriptive models of interlocution. Therefore, in this study, conversations in a shared Virtual Environment have been analyzed in order to understand the specific structure, dynamics, and phenomenology of Virtual Reality effects on the "interactive micro-chains" that constitute the communicative thread of daily experience.
Alanoud Salem; Sara Musallam; El-Shaimaa Nada; Ahmed Ahmed
Animated movies are excellent virtual environments for creating models in high quality. Animated movies can include 3D models, sounds and lights effects, and detailed maps. In this paper, a virtual reality movie is applied to Al-Haram Expansion stages including the future stage of expansion. 3DMAX program is used to rich the maximum benefits of using 3D modeling. Maps with details are built by using ARCGIS program in order to understand the real difference between the three dif...
Freund, Eckhard; Knoche, Horst; Rossmann, Juergen
Smart man machine interfaces turn out to be a key technology for service robots, for automation applications in industrial environments as well as in future scenarios for applications in space. For either field, the use of virtual reality (VR) techniques showed a great potential. At the IRF a virtual reality system was developed and implemented which allows the intuitive control of a multi-robot system and different automation systems under one unified VR framework. As the developed multi-robot system is also employed for space application, the intuitive commanding of inspection and teleoperation sequences is of great interest. In order to facilitate teleoperation and inspection, we make use of several metaphors and a vision system as an `intelligent sensor'. One major metaphor to be presented in the paper is the `TV-view into reality', where a TV-set is displayed in the virtual world with images of the real world being mapped onto the screen as textures. The user can move the TV-set in the virtual world and, as the image generating camera is carried by a robot, the camera-viewpoint changes accordingly. Thus the user can explore the physical world `behind' the virtual world, which is ideal for inspection and teleoperation tasks. By means of real world images and with different measurement-services provided by the underlying 3D vision system, the user can thus interactively build up or refine the virtual world according to the physical world he is watching through the TV-set.
Nemire, K; Beil, J; Swan, R W
Smoking incidence is rising among adolescents but not adults. Although many prevention programs are effective, there is room for improvement. This pilot project combined the welldocumented benefits of Life Skills Training (LST) with the unique multisensory, 3D qualities of virtual environment (VE) technology to address some of the disadvantages of traditional prevention programs. In an 8-week pilot study, 72 seventh-grade students were randomly assigned to either LST, VE, or nonintervention control groups. The VE system included goggles, synthesized speech, spatial trackers on head and hand, a hand-held controller, and a speech recognition system. Questionnaires measured participants' smoking knowledge, attitudes, and behavior. A bogus pipeline procedure was used to increase reliability of the self-report measures. Pre-exposure data showed no significant differences between groups on the questionnaire. Post-exposure data indicated improvements in attitudes in the LST and VE groups. In addition, the VE group showed more accurate information concerning peer and adult cigarette use and more likelihood of using coping and refusal skills. Usability and acceptability questionnaire data showed ease of use and learning and that participants would use VE technology frequently if it were available to them at school. These data indicated that this VE application is a promising tool for keeping teens healthy.
Full Text Available Virtual reality simulators are becoming an essential part of modern education. The benefits of Virtual reality in dentistry is constantly being assessed as a method or an adjunct to improve fine motor skills, hand-eye coordination in pre-clinical settings and overcome the monetary and intellectual challenges involved with such training. This article, while providing an overview of the virtual reality dental simulators, also looks at the link between virtual reality simulation and current pedagogical knowledge.
Na Jin Seo, PhD; Jayashree Arun Kumar, MS; Pilwon Hur, PhD; Vincent Crocher, PhD; Binal Motawar, PT, MS; Kishor Lakshminarayanan, MS
The emergence of lower-cost motion tracking devices enables home-based virtual reality rehabilitation activities and increased accessibility to patients. Currently, little documentation on patients' expectations for virtual reality rehabilitation is available. This study surveyed 10 people with stroke for their expectations of virtual reality rehabilitation games. This study also evaluated the usability of three lower-cost virtual reality rehabilitation games using a survey and House of Quali...
Roy, Elby; Bakr, Mahmoud M; George, Roy
Virtual reality simulators are becoming an essential part of modern education. The benefits of Virtual reality in dentistry is constantly being assessed as a method or an adjunct to improve fine motor skills, hand-eye coordination in pre-clinical settings and overcome the monetary and intellectual challenges involved with such training. This article, while providing an overview of the virtual reality dental simulators, also looks at the link between virtual reality simulation and current pedagogical knowledge.
Camilla Gyldendahl Jensen
Full Text Available “Virtual reality” adds a new dimension to constructivist problem-based learning (PBL environments in the architectural and building construction educations, where a realistic and lifelike presence in a building enables students to assess and discuss how the various solutions interact with each other. Combined with “Building Information Models” (BIM, “Virtual Reality” provides an entirely new opportunity to innovate and optimize the architecture and construction in its early stages, which creates and iterative learning process. There are several studies where virtual simulation tools based on predefined tutorials are tested for their ability to facilitate collaborative processes. This study addresses the problem from a new angle by the virtual universe created through the students' own iterative design of a building. The “Virtual reality” system's narrative tale arises spontaneously through the dialogue. The result of this study shows that “Virtual Reality”, as a tool, creates some changes in the dialogue conditions which affect the learning process. The use of “Virtual Reality” requires a very precise framing about the system's ability to facilitate a collaborative learning process. The analysis identifies several clear opportunities about incorporating gamification mechanisms known from e.g. video games software.
Aseeri, Sahar A.
With the use of an immersive display system such as CAVE system, the user is able to realize a 3D immersive virtual environment realistically. However, interacting with virtual worlds in CAVE systems using traditional input devices to perform easy operations such as manipulation, object selection, and navigation is often difficult. This difficulty could diminish the immersion and sense of presence when it comes to 3D virtual environment tasks. Our research aims to implement and evaluate alternative approaches of interaction with immersive virtual environments on mobile devices for manipulation and object selection tasks. As many researchers have noted, using a mobile device as an interaction device has a number of advantages, including built-in display, built-in control, and touch screen facility. These advantages facilitate simple tasks within immersive virtual environments. This research proposes new methods using mobile devices like Smart-phones to perform di↵erent kinds of interactions both as an input device, (e.g. performing selection and manipulation of objects) and as an output device (e.g. utilizing the screen as an extra view for a virtual camera or information display). Moreover, we developed a prototype system to demonstrate and informally evaluate these methods. The research conclusion suggests using mobile devices as a 3D-controller. This will be a more intuitive approach to interact within the virtual environment.
Sun, Huey-Min; Cheng, Wen-Lin
Our research explores a virtual reality application based on Web camera (Webcam) input-interface. The interface can replace with the mouse to control direction intention of a user by the method of frame difference. We divide a frame into nine grids from Webcam and make use of the background registration to compute the moving object. In order to…
Hanson, Kami; Shelton, Brett E.
There exists an increasingly attractive lure of using virtual reality applications for teaching in all areas of education, but perhaps the largest detriment to its use is the intimidating nature of VR technology for non-technical instructors. What are the challenges to using VR technology for the design and development of VR-based instructional…
Chuah, Kee Man; Chen, Chwen Jen; Teh, Chee Siong
In recent years, the application of virtual reality (VR) technology in education is rapidly gaining momentum. The educational benefits offered by such technology have prompted many educators as well as instructional designers to investigate ways to create effective and engaging VR learning. Instructional designers have examined widely the…
Phillips, James A.
Virtual Reality (VR) is a set of breakthrough technologies that allow a human being to enter and fully experience a 3-dimensional, computer simulated environment. A true virtual reality experience meets three criteria: (1) It involves 3-dimensional computer graphics; (2) It includes real-time feedback and response to user actions; and (3) It must provide a sense of immersion. Good examples of a virtual reality simulator are the flight simulators used by all branches of the military to train pilots for combat in high performance jet fighters. The fidelity of such simulators is extremely high -- but so is the price tag, typically millions of dollars. Virtual reality teaching and training methods are manifestly effective, and we have therefore implemented a VR trainer for the International Space Welding Experiment. My role in the development of the ISWE trainer consisted of the following: (1) created texture-mapped models of the ISWE's rotating sample drum, technology block, tool stowage assembly, sliding foot restraint, and control panel; (2) developed C code for control panel button selection and rotation of the sample drum; (3) In collaboration with Tim Clark (Antares Virtual Reality Systems), developed a serial interface box for the PC and the SGI Indigo so that external control devices, similar to ones actually used on the ISWE, could be used to control virtual objects in the ISWE simulation; (4) In collaboration with Peter Wang (SFFP) and Mark Blasingame (Boeing), established the interference characteristics of the VIM 1000 head-mounted-display and tested software filters to correct the problem; (5) In collaboration with Peter Wang and Mark Blasingame, established software and procedures for interfacing the VPL DataGlove and the Polhemus 6DOF position sensors to the SGI Indigo serial ports. The majority of the ISWE modeling effort was conducted on a PC-based VR Workstation, described below.
Lau, Kung Wong
Purpose: This study aims to deepen understanding of the use of stereoscopic 3D technology (stereo3D) in facilitating organizational learning. The emergence of advanced virtual technologies, in particular to the stereo3D virtual reality, has fundamentally changed the ways in which organizations train their employees. However, in academic or…
The possible role of virtual reality (VR) in clinical psychology derives prevalently from the central role occupied by the imagination and by memory in psychotherapy. These two elements, which are fundamental in the life of everyone, present absolute and relative limits to individual potential. Thanks to virtual experiences, it is possible to transcend these limits. The re-created world may be more vivid and real at times than the one that most subjects are able to describe through their own imagination and through their own memory. This article focuses on imaginative techniques to find new ways of applications in therapy. In particular, the way VR can be used to improve the efficacy of current techniques is explored. VR produces a change with respect to the traditional relationship between client and therapist. The new configuration of this relationship is based on the awareness of being more skilled in the difficult operations of recovery of past experiences through the memory and of foreseeing future experiences through the imagination. At the same time, subjects undergoing treatment perceive the advantage of being able to recreate and use a real experiential world within the confines of their therapists's clinical offices.
Vincelli, F; Molinari, E
The great potential offered by Virtual Reality (VR) derives prevalently from the central role, in psychotherapy, occupied by the imagination and by memory. These two elements, which are fundamental in the life of every one of us, present absolute and relative limits to individual potential. Thanks to virtual experiences, it is possible to transcend these limits. The re-created world may at times be more vivid and real than the one that most subjects are able to describe through their own imagination and through their own memory. This chapter focuses on imaginative techniques to find new ways of applications in therapy. In particular the chapter analyses in which way VR can be used to improve the efficacy of current techniques. VR produces a change with respect to the traditional relationship between client and therapist. The new configuration of this relationship is based on the awareness of being more skilled in the difficult operations of recovery of past experiences, through the memory, and of foreseeing of future experiences, through the imagination. At the same time, the subject undergoing treatment perceives the advantage of being able to re-create and use a real experiential world within the walls of the clinical office of his own therapist.
Jensen, Camilla Gyldendahl
“Virtual reality” adds a new dimension to constructivist problem-based learning (PBL) environments in the architectural and building construction educations, where a realistic and lifelike presence in a building enables students to assess and discuss how the various solutions interact with each o...... identifies several clear opportunities about incorporating gamification mechanisms known from e.g. video games software.......“Virtual reality” adds a new dimension to constructivist problem-based learning (PBL) environments in the architectural and building construction educations, where a realistic and lifelike presence in a building enables students to assess and discuss how the various solutions interact with each...... other. Combined with “Building Information Models” (BIM), “Virtual Reality” provides an entirely new opportunity to innovate and optimize the architecture and construction in its early stages, which creates and iterative learning process. There are several studies where virtual simulation tools based...
Aas, B.G.; Meyerbröker, K.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.
Virtual realities form a new technical platform, raising scientific questions about the human mind, communication and identity. There is hardly any scientific research on the influence of a virtual reality on the identity perception and the personality of a user of these virtual realities. The
Yellowlees, Peter M.; Cook, James N.
Objective: The authors evaluate an Internet virtual reality technology as an education tool about the hallucinations of psychosis. Method: This is a pilot project using Second Life, an Internet-based virtual reality system, in which a virtual reality environment was constructed to simulate the auditory and visual hallucinations of two patients…
Cheng, Yufang; Huang, Ruowen
The focus of this study is using data glove to practice Joint attention skill in virtual reality environment for people with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD). The virtual reality environment provides a safe environment for PDD people. Especially, when they made errors during practice in virtual reality environment, there is no suffering or…
Milgram, Paul; Takemura, Haruo; Utsumi, Akira; Kishino, Fumio
In this paper we discuss augmented reality (AR) displays in a general sense, within the context of a reality-virtuality (RV) continuum, encompassing a large class of `mixed reality' (MR) displays, which also includes augmented virtuality (AV). MR displays are defined by means of seven examples of existing display concepts in which real objects and virtual objects are juxtaposed. Essential factors which distinguish different MR display systems from each other are presented, first by means of a table in which the nature of the underlying scene, how it is viewed, and the observer's reference to it are compared, and then by means of a three dimensional taxonomic framework comprising: extent of world knowledge, reproduction fidelity, and extent of presence metaphor. A principal objective of the taxonomy is to clarify terminology issues and to provide a framework for classifying research across different disciplines.
Training new users of complex machines is often an expensive and time-consuming process. This is particularly true for special purpose systems, such as those frequently encountered in DOE applications. This paper presents a computer-based training system intended as a partial solution to this problem. The system extends the basic virtual reality (VR) training paradigm by adding a multimedia component which may be accessed during interaction with the virtual environment: The 3D model used to create the virtual reality is also used as the primary navigation tool through the associated multimedia. This method exploits the natural mapping between a virtual world and the real world that it represents to provide a more intuitive way for the student to interact with all forms of information about the system.
Khanal, Prabal; Vankipuram, Akshay; Ashby, Aaron; Vankipuram, Mithra; Gupta, Ashish; Drumm-Gurnee, Denise; Josey, Karen; Tinker, Linda; Smith, Marshall
Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) is a series of team-based, sequential and time constrained interventions, requiring effective communication and coordination of activities that are performed by the care provider team on a patient undergoing cardiac arrest or respiratory failure. The state-of-the-art ACLS training is conducted in a face-to-face environment under expert supervision and suffers from several drawbacks including conflicting care provider schedules and high cost of training equipment. The major objective of the study is to describe, including the design, implementation, and evaluation of a novel approach of delivering ACLS training to care providers using the proposed virtual reality simulator that can overcome the challenges and drawbacks imposed by the traditional face-to-face training method. We compare the efficacy and performance outcomes associated with traditional ACLS training with the proposed novel approach of using a virtual reality (VR) based ACLS training simulator. One hundred and forty-eight (148) ACLS certified clinicians, translating into 26 care provider teams, were enrolled for this study. Each team was randomly assigned to one of the three treatment groups: control (traditional ACLS training), persuasive (VR ACLS training with comprehensive feedback components), or minimally persuasive (VR ACLS training with limited feedback components). The teams were tested across two different ACLS procedures that vary in the degree of task complexity: ventricular fibrillation or tachycardia (VFib/VTach) and pulseless electric activity (PEA). The difference in performance between control and persuasive groups was not statistically significant (P=.37 for PEA and P=.1 for VFib/VTach). However, the difference in performance between control and minimally persuasive groups was significant (P=.05 for PEA and P=.02 for VFib/VTach). The pre-post comparison of performances of the groups showed that control (P=.017 for PEA, P=.01 for VFib/VTach) and
Jense, G.J.; Kuijper, F.
Virtual environmens(VE) technology is expected to make a big impact on future training and simulation systems. Direct stimulation of human senses (eyesight, auditory, tactile) and new paradigms for user input will improve the realism of simulations and thereby the effectiveness of training and simulation systems. After briefly summarising earlier work done at TNO-FEL, a definition of virtual environment simulations is proposed, along with a classification of various types of VE systems. This ...
Broekens, J.; Harbers, M.; Brinkman W.; Jonker, C.; Bosch, K. van den; Meyer, J.J.C.
In this paper we experimentally investigate learning effects of a rigourously set up virtual reality (VR) negotiation training. We discuss the design of the system in detail. Further, we present results of an experiment (between subject; three experimental conditions: control, training once,
Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts; Konge, Lars; Cayé-Thomasen, Per
IMPORTANCE: The ultimate goal of surgical training is consolidated skills with a consistently high performance. However, surgical skills are heterogeneously retained and depend on a variety of factors, including the task, cognitive demands, and organization of practice. Virtual reality (VR) simul...
Luursema, J.M.; Vorstenbosch, M.A.; Kooloos, J.G.M.
A new wave of virtual reality headsets has become available. A potential benefit for the study of human anatomy is the reintroduction of stereopsis and absolute size. We report a randomized controlled trial to assess the contribution of stereopsis to anatomy learning, for students of different
Schreuder, Henk W. R.; Persson, Jan E. U.; Wolswijk, Richard G. H.; Ihse, Ingmar; Schijven, Marlies P.; Verheijen, René H. M.
With the increase in robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery there is a concomitant rising demand for training methods. The objective was to establish face and construct validity of a novel virtual reality simulator (dV-Trainer, Mimic Technologies, Seattle, WA) for the use in training of
As with all classroom innovations intended to improve geographic education, the adoption of virtual reality (VR) poses issues for consideration prior to endorsing its use. Of these, effectiveness, implementation, and safe use need to be addressed. Traditionally, sense of place, geographic knowledge, and firsthand experiences provided by field…
Ausburn, Lynna J.; Ausburn, Floyd B.
Virtual reality (VR) that immerses users in a 3D environment through use of headwear, body suits, and data gloves has demonstrated effectiveness in technical and professional education. Immersive VR is highly engaging and appealing to technically skilled young Net Generation learners. However, technical difficulty and very high costs have kept…
Trelease, Robert B.; Rosset, Antoine
Advances in anatomical informatics, three-dimensional (3D) modeling, and virtual reality (VR) methods have made computer-based structural visualization a practical tool for education. In this article, the authors describe streamlined methods for producing VR "learning objects," standardized interactive software modules for anatomical sciences…
C.M. Verwoerd-Dikkeboom (Christine); A.H.J. Koning (Anton); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); P.J. van der Spek (Peter); N. Exalto (Niek); R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine)
textabstractBackground Innovative imaging techniques, using up-to-date ultrasonic equipment, necessitate specific biometry. The aim of our study was to test the possibility of detailed human embryonic biometry using a virtual reality (VR) technique. Methods In a longitudinal study, three-dimensional
Hoffman, Helene; Vu, Dzung
Virtual reality-based procedural and surgical simulations promise to revolutionize medical training. A wide range of simulations representing diverse content areas and varied implementation strategies are under development or in early use. The new systems will make broad-based training experiences available for students at all levels without risks…
Chen, Chwen Jen
This study aims to investigate the effects of virtual reality (VR)-based learning environment on learners of different spatial visualization abilities. The findings of the aptitude-by-treatment interaction study have shown that learners benefit most from the Guided VR mode, irrespective of their spatial visualization abilities. This indicates that…
Brundage, Shelley B.
Stuttering characteristics, assessment, and treatment principles present challenges to assessment and treatment that can be addressed with virtual reality (VR) technology. This article describes how VR can be used to assist clinicians in meeting some of these challenges with adults who stutter. A review of current VR research at the Stuttering…
Chan, J. C. P.; Leung, H.; Tang, J. K. T.; Komura, T.
In this paper, a new dance training system based on the motion capture and virtual reality (VR) technologies is proposed. Our system is inspired by the traditional way to learn new movements-imitating the teacher's movements and listening to the teacher's feedback. A prototype of our proposed system is implemented, in which a student can imitate…
Dal Corso, Alessandro; Olsen, Mikkel Damgaard; Steenstrup, Kasper Hornbak
VirtualTable is a projection augmented reality installation where users are engaged in an interactive tower defense game. The installation runs continuously and is designed to attract people to a table, which the game is projected onto. Any number of players can join the game for an optional period...
This essay presents and discusses the developing role of virtual and augmented reality technologies in education. Addressing the challenges in adapting such technologies to focus on improving students' learning outcomes, the author discusses the inclusion of experiential modes as a vehicle for improving students' knowledge acquisition.…
C.M. Verwoerd-Dikkeboom (Christine); A.H.J. Koning (Anton); P.J. van der Spek (Peter); N. Exalto (Niek); R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine)
textabstractBACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to demonstrate that Carnegie Stages could be assigned to embryos visualized with a 3D virtual reality system. METHODS: We analysed 48 3D ultrasound scans of 19 IVF/ICSI pregnancies at 7-10 weeks' gestation. These datasets were visualized as 3D
Kozak, Igor; Banerjee, Pat; Luo, Jia; Luciano, Cristian
Operative practice using surgical simulators has become a part of training in many surgical specialties, including ophthalmology. We introduce a virtual reality retina surgery simulator capable of integrating optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans from real patients for practicing vitreoretinal surgery using different pathologic scenarios.
Describes a project which developed a shared electronic environment of virtual reality using satellite telecommunications technologies to create desktop multimedia networking. The origins of the concept of shared electronic space are explained, and the importance for human communication of sharing both audio and visual space simultaneously is…
Parrish, Danielle E.; Oxhandler, Holly K.; Duron, Jacuelynn F.; Swank, Paul; Bordnick, Patrick
Purpose: This study assessed the feasibility of virtual reality (VR) exposure as an assessment and treatment modality for youth with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Methods: Forty-one adolescents, 20 of which were identified as having SAD, were recruited from a community sample. Youth with and without SAD were exposed to two social virtual…
Nickel, Felix; Brzoska, Julia Anja; Gondan, Matthias
Objective: This study compared virtual reality (VR) training with low cost blended learning (BL) in a structured training program. Background: Training of laparoscopic skills outside the operating room is mandatory to reduce operative times and risks. Methods: Laparoscopy-naïve medical students...
Brunner, Iris; Skouen, Jan Sture; Hofstad, Håkon
Objective: To compare the effectiveness of upper extremity virtual reality rehabilitation training (VR) to time-matched conventional training (CT) in the subacute phase after stroke. Methods: In this randomized, controlled, single-blind phase III multicenter trial, 120 participants with upper...
Durl, James; Dietrich, Timo; Pang, Bo; Potter, Leigh-Ellen; Carter, Lewis
Background: The resurgence of interest in virtual reality (VR) in recent years has been exciting for health educators and researchers, yet little is known about VR's effectiveness. This systematic literature review aims to provide an overview of the prevalence of VR in alcohol studies and assess its effectiveness. Methods: Peer-reviewed articles…
The purpose of this study was to explore the user experience of non-specialists viewing and navigating in an architectural native (Revit) BIM model in Virtual Reality (VR) with a head mounted display (HMD). The perceived sense of presence as well as the quality of vision and total VR experience...
Drake-Bridges, Erin; Strelzoff, Andrew; Sulbaran, Tulio
Teaching retailing principles to students is a challenge because although real-world wholesale and retail decision making very heavily depends on dynamic conditions, classroom exercises are limited to abstract discussions and role-playing. This article describes two interlocking class projects taught using the virtual reality of secondlife.com,…
Most technical programs in Nigeria's tertiary institutions lack the desired laboratories to impact technical skills to the students. This has led to the production of pseudo-illustrates as graduates and this accounts for reasons why many employers are saying Nigerian graduates are not employable. Virtual Reality (VR) can ...
Lin, Tsun-Ju; Lan, Yu-Ju
This study investigated the research trends in language learning in a virtual reality environment by conducting a content analysis of findings published in the literature from 2004 to 2013 in four top ranked computer-assisted language learning journals: "Language Learning & Technology," "CALICO Journal," "Computer…
Visualization methods in the analysis of geographical datasets are based on static models, which restrict the visual analysis capabilities. The use of virtual reality, which is a three-dimensional (3D) perspective, gives the user the ability to change viewpoints and models dynamically overcomes the static limitations of ...
Aboulafia, Annette Løw T.; Lövquist, Erik; Shorten, George Declan
The current focus on patient safety and evidence-based medical education has led to an increased interest in utilising virtual reality (VR) for medical training. The development of VR-based systems require experts from different disciplines to collaborate with shared and agreed objectives through...
Full Text Available Virtual reality (VR) has been investigated by SIMRAC and CSIR Miningtek as a means of providing an enhancement to current training methods that will lead to more effective hazard awareness training programmes. A VR training simulator developed under...
van Dongen, K. W.; van der Wal, W. A.; Borel Rinkes, I. H. M.; Schijven, M. P.; Broeders, I. A. M. J.
INTRODUCTION: Virtual reality (VR) simulators have been developed to train basic endoscopic surgical skills outside of the operating room. An important issue is how to create optimal conditions for integration of these types of simulators into the surgical training curriculum. The willingness of
Sullivan, Debra K.; Goetz, Jeannine R.; Gibson, Cheryl A.; Washburn, Richard A.; Smith, Bryan K.; Lee, Jaehoon; Gerald, Stephanie; Fincham, Tennille; Donnelly, Joseph E.
Objective: Compare weight loss and maintenance between a face-to-face (FTF) weight management clinic and a clinic delivered via virtual reality (VR). Methods: Participants were randomized to 3 months of weight loss with a weekly clinic delivered via FTF or VR and then 6 months' weight maintenance delivered with VR. Data were collected at baseline…
Gao, Kenneth; Sulea, Camelia; Wiederhold, Mark D.
Abstract We explored the use of virtual reality distraction techniques for use as adjunctive therapy to treat chronic pain. Virtual environments were specifically created to provide pleasant and engaging experiences where patients navigated on their own through rich and varied simulated worlds. Real-time physiological monitoring was used as a guide to determine the effectiveness and sustainability of this intervention. Human factors studies showed that virtual navigation is a safe and effective method for use with chronic pain patients. Chronic pain patients demonstrated significant relief in subjective ratings of pain that corresponded to objective measurements in peripheral, noninvasive physiological measures. PMID:24892196
Wiederhold, Brenda K; Gao, Kenneth; Sulea, Camelia; Wiederhold, Mark D
We explored the use of virtual reality distraction techniques for use as adjunctive therapy to treat chronic pain. Virtual environments were specifically created to provide pleasant and engaging experiences where patients navigated on their own through rich and varied simulated worlds. Real-time physiological monitoring was used as a guide to determine the effectiveness and sustainability of this intervention. Human factors studies showed that virtual navigation is a safe and effective method for use with chronic pain patients. Chronic pain patients demonstrated significant relief in subjective ratings of pain that corresponded to objective measurements in peripheral, noninvasive physiological measures.
Sikström, Erik; Götzen, Amalia De; Serafin, Stefania
This experiment aimed to investigate whether a user controlling a full body avatar via real time motion tracking in an immersive virtual reality setup, would estimate the weight of the virtual avatar differently if the footstep sounds are manipulated using three different audio filter settings....... The visual appearance of the avatar was available in two sizes. The subjects performed six walks with each audio configuration active once over two ground types. After completing each walk, the participants were asked to estimate the weight of the virtual avatar and the suitability of the audio feedback...
Full Text Available This paper presents a method of constructing a measurable virtual reality environment based on ground (lander/rover panoramic images and orbital imagery. Ground panoramic images acquired by a lander/rover at different azimuth and elevation angles are automatically registered, seamlessly mosaicked and projected onto a cylindrical surface. A specific function is developed for inverse calculation from the panorama back to the original images so that the 3D information associated with the original stereo images can be retrieved or computed. The three-dimensional measurable panorama is integrated into a globe viewer based on NASA World Wind. The techniques developed in this research can be used in visualization of and measuring the orbital and ground images for planetary exploration missions, especially rover missions.
Harm, Deborah L.; Taylor, Laura C.
The overall goal of this study is to examine the extent to which exposure to virtual reality (VR) systems produces motion sickness and disrupts sensorimotor functions. Two of the major problems in using VRs are: 1) potential "cybersickness", a form of motion sickness, and 2) maladaptive sensorimotor coordination following virtual environment (VE) training. It is likely that users will eventually adapt to any unpleasant perceptual experiences in a virtual environment. However the most critical problem for training applications is that sensorimotor coordination strategies learned in the VE may not be similar to the responses required in the real environment. This study will evaluate and compare responses to the two types of VR delivery systems (head-mounted display [HMD] and a dome-projection system [DOME]), two exposure duration periods (30 minutes or 60 minutes), and repeated exposures (3 sessions). Specific responses that we will examine include cybersickness severity and symptom patterns, and several sensorimotor functions (eye-hea.d and eye-head-hand coordination, and postural equilibrium). To date, all hardware and software acquisition, development, integration and testing has been completed. A database has been developed and tested for the input, management and storage of all questionnaire data. All data analysis scripts have been developed and tested. Data was collected from 20 subjects in a pilot study that was conducted to determine the amount of training necessary to achieve a stable performance level. Seven subjects are currently enrolled in the study designed to examine the effects of exposure to VE systems on postural control. Data has been collected from two subjects, and it is expected that the results from ten subjects will be presented.
Civet, François; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Le Menn, Erwan; Beaunay, Stéphanie
2016 has been a year marked by a technological breakthrough : the availability for the first time to the general public of technologically mature virtual reality devices. Virtual Reality consists in visually immerging a user in a 3D environment reproduced either from real and/or imaginary data, with the possibility to move and eventually interact with the different elements. In planetology, most of the places will remain inaccessible to the public for a while, but a fleet of dedicated spacecraft's such as orbiters, landers and rovers allow the possibility to virtually reconstruct the environments, using image processing, cartography and photogrammetry. Virtual reality can then bridge the gap to virtually "send" any user into the place and enjoy the exploration.We are investigating several type of devices to render orbital or ground based data of planetological interest, mostly from Mars. The most simple system consists of a "cardboard" headset, on which the user can simply use his cellphone as the screen. A more comfortable experience is obtained with more complex systems such as the HTC vive or Oculus Rift headsets, which include a tracking system important to minimize motion sickness. The third environment that we have developed is based on the CAVE concept, were four 3D video projectors are used to project on three 2x3m walls plus the ground. These systems can be used for scientific data analysis, but also prove to be perfectly suited for outreach and education purposes.
Full Text Available Scientific visualization in technology of virtual reality is a graphical representation of virtual environment in the form of images or animation that can be displayed with various devices such as Head Mounted Display (HMD or monitors that can view threedimensional world. Research in real time is a desirable capability for scientific visualization and virtual reality in which we are immersed and make the research process easier. In this scientific paper the interaction between the user and objects in the virtual environment аrе in real time which gives a sense of reality to the user. Also, Quest3D VR software package is used and the movement of the user through the virtual environment, the impossibility to walk through solid objects, methods for grabbing objects and their displacement are programmed and all interactions between them will be possible. At the end some critical analysis were made on all of these techniques on various computer systems and excellent results were obtained.
Full Text Available The experience of our environment is based on the informationthat reach us by means of our sensory organs, andwhich are subsequently processed in our brains. Digital interpretationimplemented to mathematical models of the studiedsubjects brings us to the so-called virtual reality that allows us toreplace some natural human senses, in this case the visualones, by computer-generated infonnation. The procedure is expandedto three-dimensional (3D scanning i. e. searching ofthe special form of the obse1ved subject/object, then digital recordingof the space point cloud (pixels which correspond tothe item, then vectorisation of the fonn, rendering and finallyanimation. In this way, by watching the display, the impressionof the virtual environment can be generated in the human perception.Moreover, in this way the human model can be realizedin a characteristic way in such a virtual space. The implementationof this virtual reality, in accordance with the possibilitiesthat it provides, has been the subject of very intensive researchin the world, and in Croatia as well. The work presentssome possibilities of applying virtual reality in the field of ergonomicanalysis of the collision process of two vehicles.
Craig, Alan B
Augmented reality is not a technology. Augmented reality is a medium. Likewise, a book on augmented reality that only addresses the technology that is required to support the medium of augmented reality falls far short of providing the background that is needed to produce, or critically consume augmented reality applications. One reads a book. One watches a movie. One experiences augmented reality. Understanding Augmented Reality addresses the elements that are required to create compelling augmented reality experiences. The technology that supports
Benn, Karen P.
This research project seeks to meet the objective of science training by developing, assessing, and validating virtual reality as a human anatomy training medium. In ideal situations, anatomic models, computer-based instruction, and cadaver dissection are utilized to augment the traditional methods of instruction. At many institutions, lack of financial resources limits anatomy instruction to textbooks and lectures. However, human anatomy is three dimensional, unlike the one dimensional depiction found in textbooks and the two dimensional depiction found on the computer. Virtual reality is a breakthrough technology that allows one to step through the computer screen into a three dimensional world. This technology offers many opportunities to enhance science education. Therefore, a virtual testing environment of the abdominopelvic region of a human cadaver was created to study the placement of body parts within the nine anatomical divisions of the abdominopelvic region and the four abdominal quadrants.
Coelho, Carlos M; Waters, Allison M; Hine, Trevor J; Wallis, Guy
Acrophobia, or fear of heights, is a widespread and debilitating anxiety disorder affecting perhaps 1 in 20 adults. Virtual reality (VR) technology has been used in the psychological treatment of acrophobia since 1995, and has come to dominate the treatment of numerous anxiety disorders. It is now known that virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) regimens are highly effective for acrophobia treatment. This paper reviews current theoretical understanding of acrophobia as well as the evolution of its common treatments from the traditional exposure therapies to the most recent virtually guided ones. In particular, the review focuses on recent innovations in the use of VR technology and discusses the benefits it may offer for examining the underlying causes of the disorder, allowing for the systematic assessment of interrelated factors such as the visual, vestibular and postural control systems.
Virtual Reality (VR) can provide cost effective methods to design and evaluate components and systems for maintenance and refurbishment operations. Marshall SPace Flight Center (MSFC) is begirning to utilize VR for design analysis in the X-34 experimental reusable space vehicle. Analysts at MSFC's Computer Applications and Virtual Environments (CAVE) used Head Mounted Displays (HMD) (pictured), spatial trackers and gesture inputs as a means to animate or inhabit a properly sized virtual human model. These models are used in a VR scenario as a way to determine functionality of space and maintenance requirements for the virtual X-34. The primary functions of the virtual X-34 mockup is to support operations development and design analysis for engine removal, the engine compartment and the aft fuselage. This capability provides general visualization support to engineers and designers at MSFC and to the System Design Freeze Review at Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC).
Mullen, Terence J.
Astronaut training has traditionally been conducted at specific sites with specialized facilities. Because of its size and nature the training equipment is generally not portable. Efforts are now under way to develop training tools that can be taken to remote locations, including into orbit. Two of these efforts are the Field Deployable Trainer and Shared Virtual Reality projects. Field Deployable Trainer NASA has used the recent shuttle mission by astronaut Shannon Lucid to the Russian space station, Mir, as an opportunity to develop and test a prototype of an on-orbit computer training system. A laptop computer with a customized user interface, a set of specially prepared CD's, and video tapes were taken to the Mir by Ms. Lucid. Based upon the feedback following the launch of the Lucid flight, our team prepared materials for the next Mir visitor. Astronaut John Blaha will fly on NASA/MIR Long Duration Mission 3, set to launch in mid September. He will take with him a customized hard disk drive and a package of compact disks containing training videos, references and maps. The FDT team continues to explore and develop new and innovative ways to conduct offsite astronaut training using personal computers. Shared Virtual Reality Training NASA's Space Flight Training Division has been investigating the use of virtual reality environments for astronaut training. Recent efforts have focused on activities requiring interaction by two or more people, called shared VR. Dr. Bowen Loftin, from the University of Houston, directs a virtual reality laboratory that conducts much of the NASA sponsored research. I worked on a project involving the development of a virtual environment that can be used to train astronauts and others to operate a science unit called a Biological Technology Facility (BTF). Facilities like this will be used to house and control microgravity experiments on the space station. It is hoped that astronauts and instructors will ultimately be able to share
Full Text Available In last decade, the virtual reality became a huge trend in the field of visualization not only for simple elements, but also for complex devices, their actions and processes, rooms and entire areas. This contribution focuses on the possibilities of utilization of the elements of virtual reality for educational purposes regarding the potential employees and their OSH (Occupational Safety and Health training at the specialized workplaces. It points to the possibility of using the applications and simulations of the workplaces and the processes for better understanding of potential danger and eventual prevention options. Such an application simulates the real workplace including the technological processes and provides the user with a motion in 3D environment of virtual scene observing and interacting in actual work zones
Borrel, Alexandre; Fourches, Denis
There is a growing interest for the broad use of Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR) in the fields of bioinformatics and cheminformatics to visualize complex biological and chemical structures. AR and VR technologies allow for stunning and immersive experiences, offering untapped opportunities for both research and education purposes. However, preparing 3D models ready to use for AR and VR is time-consuming and requires a technical expertise that severely limits the development of new contents of potential interest for structural biologists, medicinal chemists, molecular modellers and teachers. Herein we present the RealityConvert software tool and associated website, which allow users to easily convert molecular objects to high quality 3D models directly compatible for AR and VR applications. For chemical structures, in addition to the 3D model generation, RealityConvert also generates image trackers, useful to universally call and anchor that particular 3D model when used in AR applications. The ultimate goal of RealityConvert is to facilitate and boost the development and accessibility of AR and VR contents for bioinformatics and cheminformatics applications. http://www.realityconvert.com. email@example.com. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Jense, G.J.; Kuijper, F.
Virtual environmens(VE) technology is expected to make a big impact on future training and simulation systems. Direct stimulation of human senses (eyesight, auditory, tactile) and new paradigms for user input will improve the realism of simulations and thereby the effectiveness of training and
The main issue addressed in this thesis is the degree to which the representation of our body is flexible, and what possible implication this has. By using the virtual hand illusion (VHI) paradigm, we provided evidence for a dissociation between subjective ownership perception and the skin
Wang, Ching-Yi; Hwang, Wen-Juh; Fang, Jing-Jing; Sheu, Ching-Fan; Leong, Iat-Fai; Ma, Hui-Ing
To compare the performance of reaching for stationary and moving targets in virtual reality (VR) and physical reality in persons with Parkinson's disease (PD). A repeated-measures design in which all participants reached in physical reality and VR under 5 conditions: 1 stationary ball condition and 4 conditions with the ball moving at different speeds. University research laboratory. Persons with idiopathic PD (n=29) and age-matched controls (n=25). Not applicable. Success rates and kinematics of arm movement (movement time, amplitude of peak velocity, and percentage of movement time for acceleration phase). In both VR and physical reality, the PD group had longer movement time (Preality, most cueing conditions in VR elicited performance generally similar to those in physical reality. Although slower than the controls when reaching for stationary balls, persons with PD increased movement speed in response to fast moving balls in both VR and physical reality. This suggests that with an appropriate choice of cueing speed, VR is a promising tool for providing visual motion stimuli to improve movement speed in persons with PD. More research on the long-term effect of this type of VR training program is needed. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Olzak, Thomas; Boomer, Jason; Keefer, Robert M
Microsoft Virtualization helps you understand and implement the latest virtualization strategies available with Microsoft products. This book focuses on: Server Virtualization, Desktop Virtualization, Application Virtualization, and Presentation Virtualization. Whether you are managing Hyper-V, implementing desktop virtualization, or even migrating virtual machines, this book is packed with coverage on all aspects of these processes. Written by a talented team of Microsoft MVPs, Microsoft Virtualization is the leading resource for a full installation, migration, or integration of virtual syste
Virtual reality devices integration in scientific visualization software in the VtkVRPN framework; Integration de peripheriques de realite virtuelle dans des applications de visualisation scientifique au sein de la plate-forme VtkVRPN
Journe, G.; Guilbaud, C
A high-quality scientific visualization software relies on ergonomic navigation and exploration. Those are essential to be able to perform an efficient data analysis. To help solving this issue, management of virtual reality devices has been developed inside the CEA 'VtkVRPN' framework. This framework is based on VTK, a 3D graphical library, and VRPN, a virtual reality devices management library. This document describes the developments done during a post-graduate training course. (authors)
García García, Manuel; Arenas Reina, José Manuel; Lite, Alberto Sánchez; Sebastián Pérez, Miguel Ángel
Virtual reality techniques use at industrial processes provides a real approach to product life cycle. For components manual assembly, the use of virtual surroundings facilitates a simultaneous engineering in which variables such as human factors and productivity take a real act. On the other hand, in the actual phase of industrial competition it is required a rapid adjustment to client needs and to market situation. In this work it is analyzed the assembly of the front components of a vehicle using virtual reality tools and following up a product-process design methodology which includes every life service stage. This study is based on workstations design, taking into account productive and human factors from the ergonomic point of view implementing a postural study of every assembly operation, leaving the rest of stages for a later study. Design is optimized applying this methodology together with the use of virtual reality tools. It is also achieved a 15% reduction on time assembly and of 90% reduction in muscle—skeletal diseases at every assembly operation.
Trakunsaranakom, Channarong; Noël, Frédéric; Marin, Philippe,
International audience; The aim of this research is the performance assessment of 3D visualization and interaction devices for designactivities. Experiments are expected to determine the virtual environments that best fit the dedicated activities.Classification of technologies is proposed on the basis of its apparent relevance to reach intuitive support tothe design activity but a method to provide a more complete and objective assessment is proposed. To checkthe proposed assessment method, a...
Ellis, Stephen R.
The visual requirements for augmented reality or virtual environments displays that might be used in real or virtual towers are reviewed with respect to similar displays already used in aircraft. As an example of the type of human performance studies needed to determine the useful specifications of augmented reality displays, an optical see-through display was used in an ATC Tower simulation. Three different binocular fields of view (14deg, 28deg, and 47deg) were examined to determine their effect on subjects ability to detect aircraft maneuvering and landing. The results suggest that binocular fields of view much greater than 47deg are unlikely to dramatically improve search performance and that partial binocular overlap is a feasible display technique for augmented reality Tower applications.
Kin, Taichi; Nakatomi, Hirofumi; Shono, Naoyuki; Nomura, Seiji; Saito, Toki; Oyama, Hiroshi; Saito, Nobuhito
Simulation and planning of surgery using a virtual reality model is becoming common with advances in computer technology. In this study, we conducted a literature search to find trends in virtual simulation of surgery for brain tumors. A MEDLINE search for "neurosurgery AND (simulation OR virtual reality)" retrieved a total of 1,298 articles published in the past 10 years. After eliminating studies designed solely for education and training purposes, 28 articles about the clinical application remained. The finding that the vast majority of the articles were about education and training rather than clinical applications suggests that several issues need be addressed for clinical application of surgical simulation. In addition, 10 of the 28 articles were from Japanese groups. In general, the 28 articles demonstrated clinical benefits of virtual surgical simulation. Simulation was particularly useful in better understanding complicated spatial relations of anatomical landmarks and in examining surgical approaches. In some studies, Virtual reality models were used on either surgical navigation system or augmented reality technology, which projects virtual reality images onto the operating field. Reported problems were difficulties in standardized, objective evaluation of surgical simulation systems; inability to respond to tissue deformation caused by surgical maneuvers; absence of the system functionality to reflect features of tissue (e.g., hardness and adhesion); and many problems with image processing. The amount of description about image processing tended to be insufficient, indicating that the level of evidence, risk of bias, precision, and reproducibility need to be addressed for further advances and ultimately for full clinical application.
Shenai, Mahesh B; Dillavou, Marcus; Shum, Corey; Ross, Douglas; Tubbs, Richard S; Shih, Alan; Guthrie, Barton L
Surgery is a highly technical field that combines continuous decision-making with the coordination of spatiovisual tasks. We designed a virtual interactive presence and augmented reality (VIPAR) platform that allows a remote surgeon to deliver real-time virtual assistance to a local surgeon, over a standard Internet connection. The VIPAR system consisted of a "local" and a "remote" station, each situated over a surgical field and a blue screen, respectively. Each station was equipped with a digital viewpiece, composed of 2 cameras for stereoscopic capture, and a high-definition viewer displaying a virtual field. The virtual field was created by digitally compositing selected elements within the remote field into the local field. The viewpieces were controlled by workstations mutually connected by the Internet, allowing virtual remote interaction in real time. Digital renderings derived from volumetric MRI were added to the virtual field to augment the surgeon's reality. For demonstration, a fixed-formalin cadaver head and neck were obtained, and a carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and pterional craniotomy were performed under the VIPAR system. The VIPAR system allowed for real-time, virtual interaction between a local (resident) and remote (attending) surgeon. In both carotid and pterional dissections, major anatomic structures were visualized and identified. Virtual interaction permitted remote instruction for the local surgeon, and MRI augmentation provided spatial guidance to both surgeons. Camera resolution, color contrast, time lag, and depth perception were identified as technical issues requiring further optimization. Virtual interactive presence and augmented reality provide a novel platform for remote surgical assistance, with multiple applications in surgical training and remote expert assistance.
Cailhol, Simon; Fillatreau, Philippe; Fourquet, Jean-Yves; Zhao, Yingshen
International audience; This work considers Virtual Reality (VR) applications dealing with objects manipulation (such as industrial product assembly, disassembly or maintenance simulation). For such applications, the operator performing the simulation can be assisted by path planning techniques from the robotics research field. A novel automatic path planner involving geometrical, topological and semantic information of the environment is proposed for the guidance of the user through a haptic...
Ray, David M.; Vanchau, Michael N.
To support manned missions to the surface of Mars and missions requiring manipulation of payloads and locomotion in space, a training facility is required to simulate the conditions of both partial and microgravity. A partial gravity simulator (Pogo) which uses pneumatic suspension is being studied for use in virtual reality training. Pogo maintains a constant partial gravity simulation with a variation of simulated body force between 2.2 and 10 percent, depending on the type of locomotion inputs. this paper is based on the concept and application of a virtual environment system with Pogo including a head-mounted display and glove. The reality engine consists of a high end SGI workstation and PC's which drive Pogo's sensors and data acquisition hardware used for tracking and control. The tracking system is a hybrid of magnetic and optical trackers integrated for this application.
Wiederhold, B K; Wiederhold, M D
Virtual environments offer a new method of providing exposure therapy to patients with specific phobias. Although the stimuli (three-dimensional computer simulations) is new, the method of systematically desensitizing the patient to phobic stimuli until habituation occurs is a concept that was formally introduced by Joseph Wolpe over 40 years ago. Our article discusses some of the clinical observations that have been made during nearly 500 virtual reality exposure therapy sessions with patients and research participants who have come to our center in the past 15 months with a fear of flying or driving.
Shen, Ming; Zhang, Xiao-Luo; Yang, De-Lin; Wu, Jin-Song
We present a complicated case of spontaneous cerebrospinal otorrhea, which had not been cured despite undergoing 5 surgical interventions in the past. The disability to identify the location of the fistula was the main crux of the past failures. On this occasion, stereoscopic virtual reality presurgical planning was applied to identify the exact location of the fistula and a surgical simulation was performed, and was later confirmed during the actual operation. Interactive manipulation in a stereoscopic virtual environment makes the decision making process easier in the treatment of cerebrospinal otorrhea.
Atta Idrawani Zaini
Full Text Available Virtual reality (VR is widely being researched within various aspects of real-world applications. As architecture and urban design are very much adhered to evaluating and designing space, physical representations are deemed as incompetent to deliver a full-scale depiction of a space. Similarly, digital models are very much also limited in that sense. VR can deliver a full-scale virtual environment (VE, tricking users to be immersed in the replicated environment. This is an advantage for the aforementioned design disciplines, as more relatable and realistic depiction of a space can be modelled. The notion of its usability has become important to be understood from the perspective of architecture and urban design. This paper measured the respondents’ perceptions of VR’s usability through measuring its quality of use based on several criteria. The criteria established were the ease of use, usefulness, and satisfaction. Different levels of architectural details were decided as a form of control. A total of N=96 randomly selected respondents from various backgrounds participated in the survey as they were divided into four different group of treatments. Each group experienced a different VE with different level of architectural details. The first section of analysis is a one-sample analysis and the second is a group difference analysis. From the first analysis, it was found that the respondents perceived VR as a usable tool for architectural or territorial representation. Using Kruskal-Wallis test, it was found that there was no statistically significant difference between groups, suggesting that the respondents perceived VR as usable regardless of the level of architectural details. As this paper used perception data based on the quality of use alone, the efficiency of VR system was not measured. Thus, this paper recommends further studies to be conducted on the system’s efficiency to reflect its usability in full extent.
Speck, Angela; Ruzhitskaya, L.; Laffey, J.; Ding, N.
We are developing 3D virtual learning environments (VLEs) as learning materials for an undergraduate astronomy course, in which will utilize advances both in technologies available and in our understanding of the social nature of learning. These learning materials will be used to test whether such VLEs can indeed augment science learning so that it is more engaging, active, visual and effective. Our project focuses on the challenges and requirements of introductory college astronomy classes. Here we present our virtual world of the Jupiter system and how we plan to implement it to allow students to learn course material - physical laws and concepts in astronomy - while engaging them into exploration of the Jupiter's system, encouraging their imagination, curiosity, and motivation. The VLE can allow students to work individually or collaboratively. The 3D world also provides an opportunity for research in astronomy education to investigate impact of social interaction, gaming features, and use of manipulatives offered by a learning tool on students’ motivation and learning outcomes. Use of this VLE is also a valuable source for exploration of how the learners’ spatial awareness can be enhanced by working in 3D environment. We will present the Jupiter-system environment along with a preliminary study of the efficacy and usability of our Jupiter 3D VLE.
Full Text Available Human consciousness is always the consciousness toward some thing and our perception of cultural heritage is no exception. Thus, understanding human cognition is closely related to understanding how the perceptible objects are classified in human mind. The perceptible objects include both physical and virtual experiences and thoughts, and it is important and necessary to analyze the types and the effective levels of those objects. With the emergence of Virtual Reality (VR technologies in cultural heritage field, it is necessary to understand how and why different cognitive media such as realor visual reality including VR, are differently recognized by people. This study suggests the philosophical and theoretical frame for the usage of phenomenological classfication and analysis. By using this new classification with the case of Korean built heritage, the role of VR is explained in cultural discourse of the community.
Rose, Kelsey; Pedowitz, Robert
The purpose of this study was to investigate the use and validity of virtual reality modules as part of the educational approach to mastering arthroscopy in a safe environment by assessing the ability to distinguish between experience levels. Additionally, the study aimed to evaluate whether experts have greater ambidexterity than do novices. Three virtual reality modules (Swemac/Augmented Reality Systems, Linkoping, Sweden) were created to test fundamental arthroscopic skills. Thirty participants-10 experts consisting of faculty, 10 intermediate participants consisting of orthopaedic residents, and 10 novices consisting of medical students-performed each exercise. Steady and Telescope was designed to train centering and image stability. Steady and Probe was designed to train basic triangulation. Track and Moving Target was designed to train coordinated motions of arthroscope and probe. Metrics reflecting speed, accuracy, and efficiency of motion were used to measure construct validity. Steady and Probe and Track a Moving Target both exhibited construct validity, with better performance by experts and intermediate participants than by novices (P reality modules developed through task deconstruction. Participants with the most arthroscopic experience performed better and were more consistent than novices on all 3 virtual reality modules. Greater arthroscopic experience correlates with more symmetry of ambidextrous performance. However, further adjustment of the modules may better simulate fundamental arthroscopic skills and discriminate between experience levels. Arthroscopy training is a critical element of orthopaedic surgery resident training. Developing techniques to safely and effectively train these skills is critical for patient safety and resident education. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This essay presents and discusses the developing role of virtual and augmented reality technologies in education. Addressing the challenges in adapting such technologies to focus on improving students’ learning outcomes, the author discusses the inclusion of experiential modes as a vehicle for improving students’ knowledge acquisition. Stakeholders in the educational role of technology include students, faculty members, institutions, and manufacturers. While the benefits of suc...