WorldWideScience

Sample records for vinca rosea linn

  1. Origin and development of plasma membrane derived invaginations in Vinca rosea l.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlberg, P.; Walkinshaw, C.; Olson, K.

    1971-01-01

    The occurrence, morphology, and possible ontogeny of plasma-membrane-related structures are described which can develop into invaginations or intravacuolar formations. An underlying study of meristematic tissues from the shoot of Vinca rosea supports the interpretation that endocytosis does occur in plant cells and that it is appropriate to refer to these structures as endocytoses. The function of these invaginations or their content remains to be elucidated.

  2. The distribution of inole alkaloids in different organs of Catharanthus roseus G. Don. (Vinca rosea L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ebrahimzadeh

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of alkaloid extract of the leaf of Vinca rosea by TLC showed the existence of 13 bands, 7 bands of them were: Serpentine, Vincristine, Vinblastine, Ajmaline, Catharantine, Vindoline and Ajmalicine. The existence of these 7 alkaloids was confirmed in the young leaves, old leaves and the roots of the plant by HPLC. Furthermore, two alkaloids with the short retention times and one alkaloid with the medium retention time in the young leaf, three alkaloids with the short retention time and one alkaloid with long retention time in the old leaf, and one alkaioid with the short retention time and two other alkaloids with the long retention times in the root, were observed."nThe study of absorption spectrum of alkaloid extract and its comparison with absorption spectrum of ajmalicine showed that the latter can be used for drawing a standard curve and detecting the amount of total alkaloids. The total alkaloids in fresh root, old leaf and young leaf were 2.1 mg , 1.3 mg and 0.9 mg/g respectively, Vindoline and Catharantine were major alkaloids in all of them. However, their amount were more in the root (1.2 mg/ g of fresh material, 0.85 in the old leaf and 0.38 in the young leaf. Vinblastine existed in all three samples but its amount was more in the root {0.22 mg per gramme of the fresh material in the root, 0.26 in the young leaf and 0.003 in the old leaf."nAjmalicine was detected only in the leaf and its amount was more in young leaf than the old leaf (0.141 mg/g of the fresh material in the young leaf and 0.013 in the old leaf. Serpentine was seen in all of the studied organs but its amount was more in the young leaf than other organs (0.192 mg/ g of the fresh material in the young leaf, 0.11 in the root and 0.07 in the old leaf. Ajmaline existed in all of the organs in minute amount but in the old leaf was more (0 .07 mg/g of the fresh material in the old !eaf,0.044 in the young leaf and 0.04 in the root . The percentage of unknown

  3. Rationale of using Vinca minor Linne dry extract phytocomplex as a vincamine's oral bioavailability enhancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasa, Dritan; Perissutti, Beatrice; Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Chierotti, Michele R; Gobetto, Roberto; Grabnar, Iztok; Cepek, Cinzia; Voinovich, Dario

    2013-05-01

    Vincamine is a poorly soluble potent neuroprotector and cerebral vasodilator, used for the treatment for CNS disorders. In some cases, the bioavailability of pure compounds is strongly influenced by the co-administration of other constituents, and in some cases, the so called 'phytocomplex' may act as enhancer of absorption of selected phytochemicals. In this paper, the oral bioavailability of vincamine when administered as a standardised Vinca minor L. leaf dry extract rather than pure indole alkaloid is demonstrated to be higher. The chosen alkaloid-enriched and standardised dry extract was widely characterised by means of HPLC-MS, PXRD, DSC, XPS, (13)C and (15)N solid-state NMR (SSNMR) using pure vincamine as a matter of comparison. Then, the in vitro dissolution performances of the two products and their in vivo bioavailability in rats were evaluated. The sevenfold improvement in oral bioavailability of the dry extract with respect to the pure vincamine was ascribed to interactions between the indole alkaloid and the corollary of ingredients of the dry extract, giving rise to the protonation of the alkaloid vincamine, thus enhancing its dissolution in physiological fluids. Present data demonstrate that alkaloid vincamine administered as a whole plant extract has a higher bioavailability compared to the pure chemical compound. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Vinca Alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Moudi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vinca alkaloids are a subset of drugs obtained from the Madagascar periwinkle plant. They are naturally extracted from the pink periwinkle plant, Catharanthus roseus G. Don and have a hypoglycemic as well as cytotoxic effects. They have been used to treat diabetes, high blood pressure and have been used as disinfectants. The vinca alkaloids are also important for being cancer fighters. There are four major vinca alkaloids in clinical use: Vinblastine (VBL, vinorelbine (VRL, vincristine (VCR and vindesine (VDS. VCR, VBL and VRL have been approved for use in the United States. Vinflunine is also a new synthetic vinca alkaloid, which has been approved in Europe for the treatment of second-line transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium is being developed for other malignancies. Vinca alkaloids are the second-most-used class of cancer drugs and will stay among the original cancer therapies. Different researches and studies for new vinca alkaloid applications will be carried out in this regard.

  5. Neuroprotective effect of Rhodiola rosea Linn against MPTP induced cognitive impairment and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Reenu; Nalini, G; Chidambaranathan, N

    2013-04-01

    Ageing and age-related neurodegenerative changes including Parkinson's disease are characterized by an important role of reactive oxygen species. It is characterized by signs of major oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage in the pars compacta of substantia nigra. Present study was designed to investigate whether Rhodiola rosea extract would prevent MPTP induced neurotoxicity in Male wistar rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into following five groups: Group I received vehicle (saline (10 ml/kg for 21 days) orally); Group II received Rhodiola rosea extract (250 mg/kg for 21 days) orally; Group III was treated with 20 mg/kg MPTP i.p. for 21 days; Group IV received 20 mg/kg MPTP, i.p. along with 100 mg/kg Rhodiola rosea orally for 21 days. Group V received 20 mg/kg MPTP i.p. along with 250 mg/kg Rhodiola rosea orally for 21 days. MPTP induced rats showed behavioral alterations in elevated plus maze testing. Group III rats elicited significant increase in lipid hydroperoxide along with reduction in level of glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase and total antioxidants. Histological evidence revealed that MPTP treated rats shown pathological changes like cellular inflammation and vascular degeneration in brain tissue. The oxidative stress and related biochemical alteration by MPTP were attenuated by Rhodiola rosea treatment. However, further studies may be necessary to elucidate the precise mechanism to support the clinical use of a plant source as antiparkinsonism drug.

  6. Effect of diesel generator exhaust pollutants on growth of Vinca ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of exhaust pollutants of generator on root and shoot length, root and shoot weight, number of leaflets and leaf area, leaf and total plant dry weight of Vinca rosea and Ruellia tuberosa were studied. The treatment of exhaust pollutants produced significant effects on root, shoot growth, number of leaflet and leaf ...

  7. Pityriasis Rosea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ribbon Commands Skip to main content Turn off Animations Turn on Animations Our Sponsors Log in | Register Menu Log in | ... Rosea Is Diagnosed Physical examination and thorough medical history, plus KOH prep, in which a tiny sample ...

  8. Alternative extraction of alkaloid anticarcinogens from Brazilian "vinca rosea" using Ion exchange chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Freire de Carvalhaes

    Full Text Available Extracts in ethanol and ethanol-ammonia of dried leaves from Catharanthus roseus, gathered at Rio de Janeiro state, were adsorbed in a strongly acidic cation exchange resin with sulfonic acid group, using the finite bath method, resulting in an alkaloid retained fraction and an acidic and neutral unretained fraction. High Performance Liquid Chromatography showed the isolation of the alkaloid fraction to be highly selective and with good performance, with an absence of alkaloids in the unretained fraction, while the retained fraction presented 1,54-6,35 mg/g of vindoline and 0,12-0,91 mg/g of vinblastine, common for an alkaloid-rich concentrate, usually obtained by classic extraction with several steps using solvents.

  9. Does pityriasis rosea Koebnerise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwabudike Lawrence Chukwudi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Koebner phenomenon or isomorphic phenomenon is described in dermatology texts as the production of lesions of the original disease, in clinically uninvolved skin, following trauma. The lesions are located at the site of trauma and evidence of a traumatic causation is the linear arrangement of some of the lesions, such as in the case of lichen planus. Other disorders known to exhibit the Koebner phenomenon include psoriasis and vitiligo. A number of other diseases are associated with the Koebner phenomenon. Pathergy is a phenomenon of pustule production following trauma, which occurs in certain disorders such as Pyoderma gangrenosum and Behçet?s disease. In some disorders such as impetigo and verruca vulgaris, inoculation may give the appearance of the Koebner phenomenon. A case of pityriasis rosea and Koebner phenomenon at the site of routine blood assay is described in this work. This author has not thus far encountered any description of the Koebner reaction in relation to pityriasis rosea in the literature, but, perhaps, with this report, other physicians will be more open to this possibility and actually uncover similar cases.

  10. Olematu linn / Nicola Desiderio

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Desiderio, Nicola

    2006-01-01

    10. Veneetsia arhitektuuribiennaalist (kuraator Richard Burdett). Näitusest "Linn, arhitektuur ja ühiskond". Itaalia paviljoni väljapanekust "Uus linn. Itaalia 2026. Kutse Vemasse" (kuraator Franco Purini), lühidalt Belgia väljapanekust ja Saksa paviljoni ekspositsioonist "Muundatav linn"

  11. New insights into Vinca alkaloids resistance mechanism and circumvention in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Yang, Shao-Hui; Guo, Xiu-Li

    2017-10-13

    Nowadays, lung cancer, as a health problem in worldwide, has high mortality both in men and women. Despite advances in diagnosis and surgical techniques of lung cancer in recent decades, chemotherapy is still a fundamentally and extensively useful strategy. Vinca alkaloids are a class of important and widely used drugs in the treatment of lung cancer, targeting on the Vinca binding site at the exterior of microtubule plus ends. Either intrinsic or acquired resistance to chemotherapy of Vinca alkaloids has been a major obstacle to the treatment of lung cancer, which arose great interests in studies of understanding and overcoming resistance. In this review, we focused on the application and resistance mechanisms of the Vinca alkaloids such as vinblastine, vincristine, vinorelbine and vinflunine in lung cancer. We reviewed characteristic resistance mechanisms in lung cancer including over-expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters P-glycoprotein and structural, functional or expression alterations of β-tubulin (βII, βIII, βIV) which may devote to the development of acquired resistance to the Vinca alkaloids; multidrug-resistance proteins (MRP1, MRP2, MRP3) and RLIP76 protein have also been identified that probably play a significant role in intrinsic resistance. Lung resistance-related protein (LRP) is contributed to lung cancer therapy resistance, but is not deal with the Vinca alkaloids resistance in lung cancer. Understanding the principle of the Vinca alkaloids in clinical application and mechanisms of drug resistance will support individualized lung cancer therapy and improve future therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. [Rhodiola rosea and its neuropsychotropic effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juřica, Jan; Koupá, Tereza

    2016-01-01

    The paper reviews the neuropsychotropic effects of Rhodiola rosea, a succulent perennial plant which is native to dry, high-altitude regions of the northern hemisphere. The most valued part of the plant is its rhizome, which has a rose-like fragrance. In the available literature, there is a large number of mentions of its healing properties; nonetheless, only few of them are based on reliable scientific evidence. Of the neuropsychotropic effects, there are mentions of anxiolytic, antidepressant, neuroprotective and pro- cognitive properties and nonspecific "adaptogenic" effects. These effects are well established according to the preclinical studies; nonetheless many of clinical studies have serious drawbacks in design or interpretation of results. Extracts of R. rosea are well tolerated in general and thus regarded as safe. On the other hand, some pharmacokinetic interactions at the level of cytochrome P450 enzymes cannot be omitted. The extracts of R. rosea, are considered, according to the regulation of the Ministry of Health, as food supplements. According to the long standing use of R. rosea, it may be used for traditional treatment of symptoms of fatigue or mental weakness, but it seems that there is not enough evidence for general recommendation of use of R. rosea extracts in clinical practice.Key words: Rhodiola rosea neuropsychotropic effects phytomedicine.

  13. Jumala linn / Margus Paju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paju, Margus

    2004-01-01

    Tallinna VIII Pimedate Ööde Filmifestivali filme - Ladina-Ameerika mängufilmid "Jumala linn" ("Cidade de Deus") : režissöörid Fernando Meirelles, Katia Lund : Brasiilia - Prantsusmaa - Ameerika Ühendriigid 2002

  14. First report of Tomato chlorotic spot virus on Annual Vinca (Catharanthus roseus) in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato chlorotic spot virus was identified in the ornamental crop Catharanthus roseus (commonly known as vinca) in south Florida, the first report of this virus naturally infecting this species. Genetic diversity of the virus was characterized. This report provides an overview of this emerging vir...

  15. Herbicide treatment of invasive Vinca major growing with endangered Galium buxifolium, an island endemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachern, Kathryn; Chess, Katie; Flagg, Karen; Niessen, Ken; Owen,; Thompson,

    2010-01-01

    Galium buxifolium E. Greene [Rubiaceae] (sea-cliff bedstraw) is a small shrub restricted to San Miguel and Santa Cruz Islands, in the California Channel Islands. Almost all of the 26 known populations grow on vertical north-facing sea cliffs in native scrub, sandwiched between the sea below and non-native annual grasslands on the terraces above. A notable exception is a popula?tion at Pelican Bay on Santa Cruz Island, growing on the cliff and on thin terrace soils above the cliff in a stand of coastal bluff scrub that is recovering from more than a century of sheep grazing (Figure 1). Ironically, this stand is near the location of the historic Eaton Resort, a charismatic inn frequented by Hollywood glitterati in the early 1900s. Several landscape ornamentals planted there persist today in the area of the Galium population. Italian stone pine (Pinus pinaea) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp.) tower over the site while the invasive groundcover Vinca major L. [Apocynaceae] (greater periwinkle) forms dense mats at the cliff edge that are spreading into the developing native plant stand. Wherever the Galium is found it is intermixed with other native scrub plants in dense communities on moist ocean bluffs. Historic notes and herbarium collections indicate that it may have been more widespread on nearshore terraces adjacent to sea-cliff populations before conversion to grassland. Since Pelican Bay is the only site that we know of where Galium is spreading onto the nearby terrace, we wanted to know whether the Vinca posed a roadblock to upslope population expansion. In 2005 we mapped Vinca and Galium at the site. We also measured Galium individuals to see where the smaller, younger plants were to better understand where the population is expanding. We observed that 1) both the Galium and the Vinca appear to be spreading from the cliff face upslope onto a series of rock outcrops, stone walls and benches, 2) the native scrub community is recovering at the site and 3) the Vinca

  16. Effect of sintering temperature and vinca petals extract on structural and magnetic properties of delafossite CuFeO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhruv, Preksha N.; Solanki, Neha; Kulkarni, Shailja; Jotania, R. B.

    2016-05-01

    Delafossite CuFeO2 multiferroic powder was synthesized using Sol-Gel auto combustion method. Influence of vinca flower petals extract on structural and magnetic property of CuFeO2 were investigated. X-ray analysis of normal samples (synthesized without presence of vinca petals extract) shows formation of hematite and ferrite phases while the sample synthesized in presence of vinca petals extract show only mono phase. The absorption bands in FTIR spectra present between 510-460 cm-1 in both the samples are due to stretching of Fe-O vibrations. VSM analysis shows that the squareness ratio (Mr/Ms) of the sample prepared using vinca petals extract obtains value of squareness ratio < 0.5, which attributes multi domain formation of samples.

  17. Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. (Bishkhapra)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivhare, Manoj K.; Singour, P. K.; Chaurasiya, P. K.; Pawar, Rajesh S.

    2012-01-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended that traditional health and folk medicine systems are proved to be more effective in health problems worldwide. Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. is a herb used in Ayurvedic medicine. The principal constituent of T. portulacastrum Linn. is ecdysterone and the other constituents are trianthenol, 3-acetylaleuritolic acid, 5,2’-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-6,8-dimethylflavone, leptorumol, 3,4-dimethoxy cinnamic acid, 5-hydroxy-2-methoxybenzaldehyde, p-methoxybenzoic acid, and beta cyanin. Different parts of Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. are traditionally used as analgesic, stomachic, laxative, treatment of blood disease, anemia, inflammation, and night blindness. Laboratory investigations on extracts of the plant have demonstrated significant pharmacological activities, such as antioxidant, diuretic, analgesic, hepatoprotective, and anticarcinogenic. This article compiles all updated information related to T. portulacastrum Linn. Scientifically proved activities are co-related with traditional concepts. Scientific evidence exists with respect to their major and minor constituents. The novelty and applicability of T. portulacastrum are hidden. Such things should be overcome through modern scientific concepts. PMID:23055639

  18. Development of 18 polymorphic microsatellite markers for Vinca minor (Apocynaceae) via 454 pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Sina; Wöhrmann, Tina; Huettel, Bruno; Weising, Kurt

    2015-05-01

    Polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed in Vinca minor (Apocynaceae) to evaluate the level of clonality, population structure, and genetic diversity of the species within its native and introduced range. A total of 1371 microsatellites were found in 43,565 reads from 454 pyrosequencing of genomic V. minor DNA. Additional microsatellite loci were mined from publicly available cDNA sequences. After several rounds of screening, 18 primer pairs flanking di-, tri-, or tetranucleotide repeats were identified that revealed high levels of genetic diversity in two native Italian populations, with two to 11 alleles per locus. Clonal growth predominated in two populations from the introduced range in Germany. Five loci successfully cross-amplified in three additional Vinca species. The novel polymorphic microsatellite markers are promising tools for studying clonality and population genetics of V. minor and for assessing the historical origin of Central European populations.

  19. GREEN SYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES USING VINCA ROSEUS LEAF EXTRACT AND EVALUATION OF THEIR ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES

    OpenAIRE

    M. Bhanu Prakash; Subhankar Paul

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, silver nanoparticles were rapidly green synthesized from AgNO3 solution using leaf extract of Vinca Roseus at room temperature. The green synthesized Silver Nanoparticles were characterized by UV–Visible absorption spectroscopy and further by analytical techniques such as, DLS, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and SEM. X-ray diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscope analysis studies confirmed the formation of welldispersed silver nanoparticles with average particle size to be ...

  20. Rhodiola rosea for physical and mental fatigue: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishaque Sana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhodiola rosea (R. rosea is grown at high altitudes and northern latitudes. Due to its purported adaptogenic properties, it has been studied for its performance-enhancing capabilities in healthy populations and its therapeutic properties in a number of clinical populations. To systematically review evidence of efficacy and safety of R. rosea for physical and mental fatigue. Methods Six electronic databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs and controlled clinical trials (CCTs, evaluating efficacy and safety of R. rosea for physical and mental fatigue. Two reviewers independently screened the identified literature, extracted data and assessed risk of bias for included studies. Results Of 206 articles identified in the search, 11 met inclusion criteria for this review. Ten were described as RCTs and one as a CCT. Two of six trials examining physical fatigue in healthy populations report R. rosea to be effective as did three of five RCTs evaluating R. rosea for mental fatigue. All of the included studies exhibit either a high risk of bias or have reporting flaws that hinder assessment of their true validity (unclear risk of bias. Conclusion Research regarding R. rosea efficacy is contradictory. While some evidence suggests that the herb may be helpful for enhancing physical performance and alleviating mental fatigue, methodological flaws limit accurate assessment of efficacy. A rigorously-designed well reported RCT that minimizes bias is needed to determine true efficacy of R. rosea for fatigue.

  1. Antihyperalgesic Activity of Rhodiola rosea in a Diabetic Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Déciga-Campos, Myrna; González-Trujano, Maria Eva; Ventura-Martínez, Rosa; Montiel-Ruiz, Rosa Mariana; Ángeles-López, Guadalupe Esther; Brindis, Fernando

    2016-02-01

    Preclinical Research Rhodiola rosea L. (Crassulaceae) is used for enhancing physical and mental performance. Recent studies demonstrated that R. rosea had anti-inflammatory activity in animal models, for example, carrageenan- and nystatin-induced edema in rats, possibly by inhibiting phospholipase A2 and cyclooxygenases-1 and -2. In addition, R. rosea had antinociceptive activity in thermal and chemical pain tests as well as mechanical hyperalgesia. The purpose of the present study was to assess the antihyperalgesic effect of an ethanol extract of Rhodiola rosea (R. rosea) in a diabetic rat model. Rats were administered a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ; 50 mg/kg, i.p.) and hyperalgesia was evaluated four weeks later. Formalin-evoked (0.5%) flinching was increased in diabetic rats compared with nondiabetic controls Systemic (1-100 mg/kg, i.p.) and local (0.1-10 mg/paw into the dorsal surface of the right hind paw) administration of R. rosea ethanol extract dose-dependently reduced formalin-induced hyperalgesia in diabetic rats. The antihyperalgesic effect of R. rosea was compared with gabapentin. These results suggest that R. rosea ethanol extract may have potential as a treatment for diabetic hyperalgesia. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Rhodiola rosea for physical and mental fatigue: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaque, Sana; Shamseer, Larissa; Bukutu, Cecilia; Vohra, Sunita

    2012-05-29

    Rhodiola rosea (R. rosea) is grown at high altitudes and northern latitudes. Due to its purported adaptogenic properties, it has been studied for its performance-enhancing capabilities in healthy populations and its therapeutic properties in a number of clinical populations. To systematically review evidence of efficacy and safety of R. rosea for physical and mental fatigue. Six electronic databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs), evaluating efficacy and safety of R. rosea for physical and mental fatigue. Two reviewers independently screened the identified literature, extracted data and assessed risk of bias for included studies. Of 206 articles identified in the search, 11 met inclusion criteria for this review. Ten were described as RCTs and one as a CCT. Two of six trials examining physical fatigue in healthy populations report R. rosea to be effective as did three of five RCTs evaluating R. rosea for mental fatigue. All of the included studies exhibit either a high risk of bias or have reporting flaws that hinder assessment of their true validity (unclear risk of bias). Research regarding R. rosea efficacy is contradictory. While some evidence suggests that the herb may be helpful for enhancing physical performance and alleviating mental fatigue, methodological flaws limit accurate assessment of efficacy. A rigorously-designed well reported RCT that minimizes bias is needed to determine true efficacy of R. rosea for fatigue.

  3. Rhodiola rosea L. as a putative botanical antidepressant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsterdam, Jay D; Panossian, Alexander G

    2016-06-15

    Rhodiola rosea (R. rosea) is a botanical adaptogen with putative anti-stress and antidepressant properties. Evidence-based data supporting the effectiveness of R. rosea for depression in adults is limited, and therefore a comprehensive review of available animal and human studies suggesting a putative antidepressant action is warranted. A review of the literature was undertaken to ascertain studies of possible antidepressant mechanisms of action and studies of the safety and effectiveness of R. rosea extracts in animals and adult humans. A search of MEDLINE and the Russian state library database was conducted (up to October 2015) on R. rosea. R. rosea extracts and its purified constituent, salidroside, has been shown to produce a variety of mediator interactions with several molecular networks of neuroendocrine-immune and neurotransmitter receptor systems likely to be involved in the pathophysiology of depression. A wide variety of preclinical in vivo and ex vivo studies with laboratory animals suggests the presence of several biochemical and pharmacological antidepressant-like actions. Clinical assessment of R. rosea L. rhizome extracts in humans with various depressive syndromes is based upon results from two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of 146 subjects with major depressive disorder and seven open-label studies totaling 714 individuals with stress-induced mild depression (diagnosed as asthenic syndrome or psychoneurosis). Overall, results of these studies suggests a possible antidepressant action for R. rosea extract in adult humans. In contrast to most conventional antidepressants, R. rosea extract appears to be well-tolerated in short-term studies with a favorable safety profile. R. rosea demonstrates multi-target effects on various levels of the regulation of cell response to stress, affecting various components of the neuroendocrine, neurotransmitter receptor and molecular networks associated with possible beneficial effects on mood

  4. Anti-Fatigue Effects of Fermented Rhodiola rosea Extract in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Dong-Zhou; Hong, Hee-Do; Kim, Kyung-Im; CHOI, Sang Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Rhodiola rosea is a perennial plant which grows in the alpine regions of Europe and Asia. Although the protective effects of R. rosea extract from fatigue due to exercise stress have been reported, studies on fermented R. rosea extract remain insufficient to date. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the protective effects of fermented R. rosea extract against fatigue and exercise stress. As a result, fermented R. rosea extract was found to significantly increase swimming time, hepa...

  5. Immune-Stimulatory Effects of Althaea rosea Flower Extracts through the MAPK Signaling Pathway in RAW264.7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yon-Suk Kim

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Althaea rosea (Linn. is a medicinal plant from China and Korea that has been traditionally used to control inflammation, to stop bedwetting and as a mouthwash in cases of bleeding gums. Its flowers are employed medicinally for their emollient, demulcent and diuretic properties, which make them useful in chest complaints. Furthermore, a flower extract decoction is used to improve blood circulation, for the treatment of constipation, dysmenorrhoea, haemorrhages, etc. However, the possible mechanisms of the immune-stimulatory effect remains to be elucidated. Therefore, we investigated the role of Althaea rosea flower (ARF extracts in the immune-stimulatory effect of macrophages and the underlying mechanisms of action. ARF water extract (ARFW could dose-dependently increase NO production and cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α. We also found that ARFW significantly increased the expression of iNOS and COX-2 proteins in RAW264.7 cells. Consistent with these results, MAPK protein (JNK, ERK, p38 expression levels were induced after treatment with ARFW. Additionally, ARFW showed a marked increase in the phosphorylation level of IκBα and subsequent IκBα degradation allowing NF-κB nuclear translocation. These results suggest that the immune-stimulatory effect of A. rosea flower extracts is mediated through the translocation of NF-κB p65 subunit into the nucleus from the cytoplasm and subsequent activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α and other mediators (iNOS and COX-2, which occurs mainly through MAPK signalling pathway. Thus, we suggest that ARFW could be considered as a potential therapeutic agent useful in the development of immune-stimulatory compounds.

  6. Chronic Rhodiola rosea extract supplementation enforces exhaustive swimming tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Fang-Tsai; Kuo, Tz-Yin; Liou, Shaw-Yih; Chien, Chiang-Ting

    2009-01-01

    We explored the effects and mechanisms of Rhodiola rosea extract supplementation on swimming-induced fatigue in rats. The concentrations of active components in Rhodiola rosea have been determined by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer. The Rhodiola rosea extract supplementation in water for 2-4 weeks was evaluated in male Wistar rats with 90-min unloaded swimming exercise and 5% body weight loaded swimming up to fatigue. We measured the fatigue biomarkers, including blood urea nitrogen (BUN), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), hepatic glycogen content, the activity of fat metabolism enzymes, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) and fatty acid synthase (FAS), the tissue oxygen content and ratio of red and white skeletal muscle fibers in rats. Rhodiola rosea significantly increased liver glycogen, SREBP-1, FAS, heat shock protein 70 expression, Bcl-2/Bax ratio and oxygen content before swimming. Rhodiola rosea supplementation significantly increased the swimming time in a dose-dependent manner and reduced swimming-enhanced serum BUN, GOT and GPT levels. The ratio of red and white muscle fibers was not altered after chronic Rhodiola rosea extract supplementation. Chronic Rhodiola rosea supplementation significantly improved exhaustive swimming-induced fatigue by the increased glycogen content, energy supply of lipogenic enzyme expressions and protective defense mechanisms.

  7. Panax ginseng, Rhodiola rosea and Schisandra chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Shun-Wan

    2012-03-01

    Panax ginseng (Ginseng), Rhodiola rosea (Hong Jing Tian) and Schisandra chinensis (Wu Wei Zi) are well-known herbs in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Recently, there have been a number of studies on these three herbs. This review discusses their active components and major pharmacological effects. For P. ginseng, it has been shown to have an anti-inflammatory activity, affects pulmonary function and erectile dysfunction, improves cognition in patients with Alzheimer's disease and promotes sexual arousal in menopausal women as well as prevents cancer. For R. rosea, its effectiveness in alleviating depression and reducing fatigue is summarized in this review. Additionally, anti-cancer and other clinical effects of S. chinensis are also discussed. These three herbs are considered as adaptogens as they bear multiple functions and their effects were found to be very different in patients depending on the circumstances (age, gender, environment, diet, season, etc.). Thus, in most cases, the art of the TCM practitioner is to prescribe these herbs after a complete evaluation of overall heath status of the patients.

  8. An Atypical Case of Pityriasis Rosea Gigantea after Influenza Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Papakostas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pityriasis rosea is a common erythematosquamous eruption, typically presenting along the cleavage lines of the skin. A wide spectrum of atypical manifestations may challenge even the most experienced physician. Here we report a rare case of a suberythrodermic pityriasis rosea with gigantic plaques after an influenza vaccination, and we discuss the possible triggers of atypical manifestations of such a common dermatological disease in the setting of an altered immunity.

  9. Rhodiola rosea L. and Alzheimer's Disease: From Farm to Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Braidy, Nady; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Badiee, Arash; Daglia, Maria; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2016-04-01

    Rhodiola rosea L. (roseroot) is a common member of the family Crassulaceae, known as one of the most important popular medicinal plants in the northern region of Europe. The roots of R. rosea possess a wide range of pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, antiinflammatory, anticancer, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective effects that are because of the presence of different phytochemicals such as phenols and flavonoids. In addition, the presence of salidroside, rosavins, and p-tyrosol are responsible for its beneficial effects for the treatment of on depression, fatigue, and cognitive dysfunction. A plethora of studies report that R. rosea has potent neuroprotective effects through the suppression of oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and excitotoxicity in brain tissues and antagonism of oncogenic p21-activated kinase. However, to our knowledge, no review articles have been published addressing the neuroprotective effects of R. rosea. Therefore, the present article aims at critically reviewing the available literature on the beneficial effects of R. rosea on as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases where oxidative stress plays a major role in disease development and progression. We also discuss the cultivation, phytochemistry, clinical impacts, and adverse effects of R. rosea to provide a broader insight on the therapeutic potential for this plant. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Gestational Pityriasis Rosea: Suggestions for Approaching Affected Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monastirli, Alexandra; Pasmatzi, Efstathia; Badavanis, George; Tsambaos, Dionysios

    2016-12-01

    Dear Editor, Pityriasis rosea is a common, acute, and self-limiting dermatosis, which is associated with the endogenous systemic reactivation of human herpesvirus (HHV)-6 and/or HHV-7 (1). It predominantly affects individuals of both sexes in their second or third decade of life and is clinically characterized by the occurrence of an initial erythematosquamous plaque followed by the appearance of disseminated similar but smaller lesions one or two weeks later. Several patients develop systemic symptoms such as nausea, anorexia, malaise, headache, fever, arthralgia, and lymphadenopathy that may precede or accompany the eruption; the latter follows the cleavage lines of the trunk creating the configuration of a Christmas tree and spontaneously resolves within 4 to 8 weeks. Mainly based on the nature of the underlying viral reactivation, pityriasis rosea is classified into five different forms (2): 1) Classic and 2) Relapsing (characterized by sporadic and relapsing HHV-6/7 systemic reactivation, respectively), 3) Persistent (persistence of HHV-6/7 viremia), 4) Pediatric (longer activity of HHV-6/7 infection; recent primary infection) and 5) Gestational (HHV-6/7 reactivation and possible intrauterine transmission). Clearly, the inevitable impairment of immune response in pregnancy favors viral reactivation and possibly also the intrauterine transmission of HHV-6/7. Indeed, it is well known and documented that pityriasis rosea more frequently occurs in pregnant women (18%) as compared to the general population (6%) (3). However, the literature concerning the possible effect of pityriasis rosea on the outcome of pregnancy is surprisingly sparse. Only an Italian group, Drago et al (4,5), has systematically investigated the impact of this disorder on pregnant women. They found that 22 out of 61 women (36%) who developed pityriasis rosea during pregnancy had unfavorable outcomes, whereas 8 others miscarried (13%). None of the latter had any risk factors, other than

  11. Characterization of the anxiolytic activity of Nunavik Rhodiola rosea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayer, Christian; Ahmed, Fida; Filion, Vicky; Saleem, Ammar; Cuerrier, Alain; Allard, Marc; Rochefort, Guy; Merali, Zul; Arnason, John T

    2013-10-01

    Rhodiola rosea is a medicinal plant used by the indigenous Inuit people of Nunavik and Nunatsiavut, Eastern Canada, as a mental and physical rejuvenating agent. This traditional use led to the present investigation of R. rosea in the context of anxiety disorders. An alcohol extract of R. rosea roots was characterized phytochemically and orally administered for three consecutive days to Sprague-Dawley rats at 8 mg/kg, 25 mg/kg, and 75 mg/kg body weight. The rats were subjected to three behavioral paradigms of anxiety, including the elevated plus maze, social interaction, and contextual conditioned emotional response tests. Rhodiola rosea showed dose-dependent anxiolytic activity in the elevated plus maze and conditioned emotional response tests, with moderate effects in the higher-anxiety SI test. The active dose varied according to the anxiety test. In order to elucidate a mechanism, the extract was further tested in an in vitro GABAA-benzodiazepine receptor-binding assay, where it demonstrated low activity. This study provides the first comparative assessment of the anxiolytic activity of Nunavik R. rosea in several behaviour models and suggests that anxiolytic effects may be primarily mediated via pathways other than the GABAA-benzodiazepine site of the GABAA receptor. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Anti-Fatigue Effects of Fermented Rhodiola rosea Extract in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dong-Zhou; Hong, Hee-Do; Kim, Kyung-Im; Choi, Sang Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Rhodiola rosea is a perennial plant which grows in the alpine regions of Europe and Asia. Although the protective effects of R. rosea extract from fatigue due to exercise stress have been reported, studies on fermented R. rosea extract remain insufficient to date. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the protective effects of fermented R. rosea extract against fatigue and exercise stress. As a result, fermented R. rosea extract was found to significantly increase swimming time, hepatic superoxide dismutase content, and serum lactate dehydrogenase in mice, while decreasing serum blood urea nitrogen content compared to R. rosea extract. Given the above results, it is considered that fermented R. rosea extract effectively protects against fatigue caused by strenuous exercise. PMID:25866748

  13. Anti-Fatigue Effects of Fermented Rhodiola rosea Extract in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dong-Zhou; Hong, Hee-Do; Kim, Kyung-Im; Choi, Sang Yoon

    2015-03-01

    Rhodiola rosea is a perennial plant which grows in the alpine regions of Europe and Asia. Although the protective effects of R. rosea extract from fatigue due to exercise stress have been reported, studies on fermented R. rosea extract remain insufficient to date. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the protective effects of fermented R. rosea extract against fatigue and exercise stress. As a result, fermented R. rosea extract was found to significantly increase swimming time, hepatic superoxide dismutase content, and serum lactate dehydrogenase in mice, while decreasing serum blood urea nitrogen content compared to R. rosea extract. Given the above results, it is considered that fermented R. rosea extract effectively protects against fatigue caused by strenuous exercise.

  14. Pharmacokinetic interaction between losartan and Rhodiola rosea in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanakis, M; Vizirianakis, I S; Batzias, G; Niopas, I

    2013-01-01

    The study investigates the potential interaction of the herbal medicinal product of Rhodiola rosea on the pharmacokinetics of losartan and its active metabolite EXP3174 after concurrent oral administration to rabbits. We conducted a randomized, single-dose, two-treatment, two-period, two-sequence, cross-over pharmacokinetic study on 6 healthy female New Zealand rabbits, after concurrent oral administration of losartan (5 mg/kg) and the herbal medicinal product of R. rosea (50 mg/kg). Quantification of losartan and its main active metabolite EXP3174 was achieved using a validated HPCL/UV method. Pharmacokinetic and statistical analysis was performed using the EquivTest/PK software. Administration of the herbal medicinal product of R. rosea resulted in a statistically significant increase of the following pharmacokinetic parameters for losartan: the maximum plasma concentration (C(max)), the area under the curve (AUC) and the apparent total body clearance (CL/F). An almost 2-fold increase in the AUC of losartan was observed after concurrent administration of the herbal medicinal product of R. rosea. No statistically significant alteration was observed in the pharmacokinetic parameters of the active metabolite of losartan EXP3174. The data of this study suggest that R. rosea significantly alters the pharmacokinetic properties of losartan after concurrent oral administration to rabbits. A study in humans should be conducted to assess the clinical significance of a possible herb-drug interaction between the herbal medicinal products of R. rosea and drugs such as losartan, which are substrates of both CYPs and P-gp. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Rhodiola rosea L extract shows protective activity against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the protective effect of Rhodiola rosea L. extract (RRLE) against Alzheimer's disease in 3xTg-AD mice. Methods: The cognitive function of 3xTg-AD mice was assessed using Morris water maze test. The levels of amyloid beta deposits and NeuN in the hippocampus were evaluated by.

  16. Wound healing properties of stem bark extract of Tabebuia rosea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The wound healing properties of the methanol stem bark extract of Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae) were evaluated in rats using the excision wound model. Extraction of the powdered plant material by continuous extraction in a soxhlet afforded 5.73% w/w of the Tabebuia methanol extract (TME). Phytochemical analysis and ...

  17. [The interaction of Rhodiola rosea and antidepressants. A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniscalco, Ignazio; Toffol, Elda; Giupponi, Giancarlo; Conca, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Rhodiola rosea (Russian Rhodiola/Golden Root) is a high mountain plant from the arctic regions of Europe and Asia which has the active substance phenylpropanoide. It has sedative, anti-depressive, drive-enhancing and stress-modulated properties stimulating the distribution of dopamine and serotonin; in combination with other drugs, an increase of side effects and risk profile has to be expected. A case report is presented in order to illustrate the interaction between Rhodiola rosea and antidepressants. We report the case of a 68-year-old female patient with recurrent moderate depressive disorder with somatic syndrome (ICD-10 F33.11) who developed vegetative syndrome, restlessness feeling and trembling since she began to ingest Rhodiola rosea in addition to paroxetine. Prescribing Rhodiola rosea with paroxetine, pharmacokinetic and -dynamic interactions have to be assumed. The symptoms of the patient can be interpreted as a serotonergic syndrome. Because of its different effects, the plant is widely used. An increase of clinical relevant risks should be considered in the add-on treatments.

  18. Rhodiola rosea L extract shows protective activity against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the protective effect of Rhodiola rosea L. extract (RRLE) against Alzheimer's disease in 3xTg-AD mice. Methods: The cognitive function of 3xTg-AD mice was assessed using Morris water maze test. The levels of amyloid beta deposits and NeuN in the hippocampus were evaluated by ...

  19. The authenticity and quality of Rhodiola rosea products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Anthony; Jalil, Banaz; Frommenwiler, Debora; Reich, Eike; Zhai, Lixiang; Kulic, Zarko; Heinrich, Michael

    2016-06-15

    Rhodiola rosea L. Crassulaceae, root (Golden Root, Arctic Root) is a high-value herbal medicinal product, registered in the UK for the treatment of stress-induced fatigue, exhaustion and anxiety based on traditional use and used throughout Europe as a herbal medicinal product for similar indications. Numerous unregistered supplements are also available. There are several Chinese species used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), including Rhodiola crenulata (Hook.f. & Thomoson) that is believed to be a common adulterant in the R. rosea value chain. The project is embedded in a larger study aiming to investigate the diverse value chains that lead to the production of R. rosea as an herbal medicinal product or supplement. Here we focus on a comparison of the quality of the finished products and assess any phytochemical variation between products registered under the Traditional Herbal Medicine Products Directive (THMPD) and products obtained from the market without any registration (i.e. generally unlicensed supplements). Our key aim is to establish the extent of the problem in terms of adulteration of consumer products claiming to contain R. rosea (or R. crenulata). Approximately 40 commercial products (granulated powders and extracts) were sourced from different suppliers. We analysed these samples using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), mass spectrometry (MS) and (1)H NMR spectroscopy coupled with multi-variate analysis software following a method previously developed by our group for the analysis of turmeric products. We investigate the phytochemistry of the different species and assess the potential of R. crenulata as an adulterant at the end of the R. rosea value chains. The consistency of the products varies significantly. Approximately one fifth of commercial products that claimed to be R. rosea did not contain rosavin (the key reference markers used to distinguish R. rosea from related species). Moreover some products appeared not to

  20. Insights on the evolution of mycoparasitism from the genome of Clonostachys rosea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Magnus; Durling, Mikael Brandström; Choi, Jaeyoung

    2015-01-01

    lifestyle. The genome of C. rosea is estimated to 58.3 Mbp, and contains 14268 predicted genes. A phylogenomic analysis shows that C. rosea clusters as sister taxon to plant pathogenic Fusarium species, with mycoparasitic/saprotrophic Trichoderma species in an ancestral position. A comparative analysis......Clonostachys rosea is a mycoparasitic fungus that can control several important plant diseases. Here we report on the genome sequencing of C. rosea and a comparative genome analysis, in order to resolve the phylogenetic placement of C. rosea and to study the evolution of mycoparasitism as a fungal......, the fungicide Boscalid or metabolites from the biocontrol bacterium Pseudomonas chlororaphis. The data suggests that tolerance towards secondary metabolites is a prominent feature in the biology of C. rosea....

  1. RHODIOLA ROSEA: STATUS OF RESEARCH AND POSSIBILITIES FOR COSMECEUTICAL AND DERMATOLOGICAL DRUGS PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    E. F. Stepanova; B. Shirzad; S. B. Evseeva

    2016-01-01

    Rhodiola rosea is one of the most popular adaptogene agents. Apart from adaptogene, it has the whole range of other pharmaceutical properties: antioxidant, nootropic, antidepressant, immunomodulatory, and other. Russian industry manufactures liquid extract of Rhodiola rosea, as well as food BAS based on the Rhodiola rosea, but there are no dosage forms for external use.The purpose of this work is to analyze scientific information about general characteristics of the pharmacological activity a...

  2. Rhodiola rosea extends lifespan and improves stress tolerance in silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cong; Song, Jiangbo; Chen, Min; Li, Zhiquan; Tong, Xiaoling; Hu, Hai; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Lu, Cheng; Dai, Fangyin

    2016-04-01

    The root of Rhodiola rosea is widely used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The extract from R. rosea is reported to extend the lifespan of yeast, nematode, and fruit fly. However, the molecular mechanism is not fully understood. Here, we tested whether R. rosea extends the lifespan of the silkworm. An aqueous extract of R. rosea significantly prolonged the lifespan of the silkworm, without affecting its daily food intake, body weight, or fecundity, suggesting that R. rosea did not exhibit obvious side effects. Rhodiola rosea extract also enhanced the stress resistance in the silkworm, against heat stress (37 °C) and starvation. The R. rosea extract increased the activity of the major antioxidant enzymes, glutathione S-transferase and catalase, and altered the content of glutathione and malondialdehyde. Rhodiola rosea increased the expression of BmFoxO, which is a downstream regulator of insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) pathway in the silkworm. Our results showed that R. rosea extends lifespan, in which IIS pathway might be involved, and enhances stress resistance in the silkworm. Thus, the silkworm might be used as a novel animal model for lifespan study and efficacy evaluation of Traditional Chinese Medicines.

  3. Nomenclature of drug-induced pityriasis rosea-like rashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuh AAT

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Antonio AT Chuh1Prince of Wales Hospital, Hospital Authority, 2The Jockey Club School of Public Health and Primary Care, Faculty of Medicine, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong KongI read with admiration an article published in your prestigious journal on the rare adverse effects of clozapine (CLZ.1I write to address a specific issue in this article. In the second paragraph of the section “Dermatological adverse effects”, it was stated that a 54-year-old patient with schizophrenia treated for 28 days with CLZ developed a generalized rash compatible with pityriasis rosea (skin rash that usually begins as one large circular or oval spot on your chest, abdomen, or back.I wish to point out certain problems for coining pityriasis rosea (PR as the diagnostic label in the patient concerned.View original paper by De Fazio and colleagues.

  4. Rhodiola rosea in vitro culture - phytochemical analysis and antioxidant action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosława Furmanowa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Various Rhodiola rosea organs and tissues from in vitro culture were studied in two areas: searching for the biological active four phenolic compounds and measurement of antioxidant activity of dry residues of EtOH-extracts soluble in PBS using chemiluminescence method. For phytochemical investigation HPLC method was used. Salidroside was typical for organs of intact plant, rosavin for roots of different origin and shoots of intact plants, triandrin was more typical for tissue cultured in vitro, but it was found in all studied samples. Caffeic acid was detected mainly in green and yellow lines of callus, less in other Rhodiola rosea plant material. The highest antioxidant activity showed the extract from 1,5-years-old callus of green and yellow line, which contained caffeic acid and triandrin. Further observations are in progress.

  5. Prevention of torsion-induced testicular injury by Rhodiola rosea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyeturk, Ugur; Terzi, E Hakan; Gucuk, Adnan; Kemahli, Eray; Ozturk, Hayrettin; Tosun, Mehmet

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of Rhodiola rosea (R. rose) extract in terms of preventing tissue injury induced by testicular torsion and subsequent ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Twenty-one Wistar albino male rats were divided into 3 groups: group 1 = control group, group 2 = I/R group, and group 3 = I/R + extract group. After 2 hours of ischemia and 4 hours of reperfusion, testes were removed and evaluated histologically by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Apoptosis in spermatogonial cells of seminiferous tubules was determined by transferase biotin-2'-deoxyuridine, 5'-triphosphate nick end labeling (TUNEL). To assess oxidative damage, serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels were measured. Median MDA and GSH levels were, respectively, 12 ± 3 pmol/mL and 24.8 ± 3.8 μM in group 1, 38 ± 11 pmol/mL and 10.3 ± 1.7 μM in group 2, and 19 ± 5 pmol/mL and 17.6 ± 1.3 μM in group 3 (P rosea extract was shown to have partially preventive effects on testicular injury induced by torsion in this rat model. The mechanism by which R. rosea extract cause these effects merits further investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Monoamine oxidase inhibition by Rhodiola rosea L. roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Diermen, Daphne; Marston, Andrew; Bravo, Juan; Reist, Marianne; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain; Hostettmann, Kurt

    2009-03-18

    Rhodiola rosea L. (Crassulaceae) is traditionally used in Eastern Europe and Asia to stimulate the nervous system, enhance physical and mental performance, treat fatigue, psychological stress and depression. In order to investigate the influence of Rhodiola rosea L. roots on mood disorders, three extracts were tested against monoamine oxidases (MAOs A and B) in a microtitre plate bioassay. Methanol and water extracts gave the highest inhibitory activity against MAOs. Twelve compounds were then isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation using chromatographic methods. The structures were determined by 1H, 13C NMR and HR-MS. The methanol and water extracts exhibited respectively inhibitions of 92.5% and 84.3% on MAO A and 81.8% and 88.9% on MAO B, at a concentration of 100 microg/ml. The most active compound (rosiridin) presented an inhibition over 80% on MAO B at a concentration of 10(-5) M (pIC50=5.38+/-0.05). The present investigation demonstrates that Rhodiola rosea L. roots have potent anti-depressant activity by inhibiting MAO A and may also find application in the control of senile dementia by their inhibition of MAO B.

  7. Melitofilia em Canavalia rosea (Sw. DC. (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Verçoza

    2010-11-01

    Abstract. This work aimed to study the floral biology and the pollination’s ecology of Canavalia rosea (Sw. DC. (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae by bees in the sandbank vegetation of the Grumari Environmental Protection Area (EPA , located in the western zone of Rio de Janeiro’s city. The study was developed between the months of June of 2008 to June of 2009. Sampling on morphology, color and odor of the flowers of the species were made. The number of open flowers per day in each individual was recorded, as well as the opening steps, determining the period of anthesis. The occurrence of floral visitors was recorded through the observation of the visit’s time, of the adaptability for pollination, of the ease of access to the reward and of the intra-floral behavior played. C. rosea occurs in psamophily communities and in post-beach sandbank of Grumari’s EPA. It presents typical characteristics of mellitophily (pollination by bees and the flowers are pollinated by Xylocopa frontalis Oliver. It also receives visits from Tetragonisca angustula Latreille, Trigona spinipes Fabricius and Apis mellifera Linnaeus, which collects pollen without pollinating the flowers. X. frontalis proved to be the only effective pollinator of C. rosea in the Grumari sandbank, making the plant directly dependent on this species for fruit and seed’s production in this location.

  8. Kõige tõsisem taim vähktõve vastu : [roosa lõunahali

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Roosa lõunahali (Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don. Sünonüümid: Ammocallis rosea (L.) Small, Lochnera rosea (L.) Rchb., Vinca rosea L. Kasutamisest rahvameditsiinis ja farmakoteraapias (ravimpreparaadid vinblastiin, vinkristiin)

  9. Loranthus micranthus Linn.: Biological Activities and Phytochemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, Soheil; Hajrezaei, Maryam; Abdul Kadir, Habsah; Zandi, Keivan

    2013-01-01

    Loranthus micranthus Linn. is a medicinal plant from the Loranthaceae family commonly known as an eastern Nigeria species of the African mistletoe and is widely used in folkloric medicine to cure various ailments and diseases...

  10. Chemical compounds from Chenopodium album Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei

    2017-06-01

    Bioactive components from Chenopodium album Linn. were isolated and identified in this research. Light petroleum, dichloromethane and n-BuOH were firstly applied to partition the 75% EtOH extract of Chenopodium album Linn. which were then subjected to normal-phase silica, ODS silica gel column chromatography and semi-preparative HPLC chromatography. By the employment of NMR method in this study, chemical structures of the compounds were elucidated. Three known compounds were isolated from Chenopodium album Linn., and identified as Isolariciresinol 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), (7’S, 8R, 8’R)-Isolariciresinol (2) and (7’S, 8R, 8’S)-Isolariciresinol (3) by comparison of their spectral data with references. This is the first time that isolation of the compounds mentioned above from Chenopodium album Linn. was achieved.

  11. Võru linn ja turism / Anu Kikas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kikas, Anu

    2009-01-01

    Autori hinnangul ei kasuta Võru linn piisavalt ära oma olemasolevaid ressursse turismi edendamiseks, turismialane areng on aga pidurdunud info liikumatuse ning rahvusvaheliste transpordiliinide puudumise ja kauguse tõttu

  12. The effects of an acute dose of Rhodiola rosea on endurance exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Eric E; Buckley, James G; Lewis, Stephanie L; Brandauer, Josef; Stuempfle, Kristin J

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an acute oral dose of 3 mg·kg(-1) of Rhodiola rosea on endurance exercise performance, perceived exertion, mood, and cognitive function. Subjects (n = 18) ingested either R. rosea or a carbohydrate placebo 1 hour before testing in a double-blind, random crossover manner. Exercise testing consisted of a standardized 10-minute warm-up followed by a 6-mile time trial (TT) on a bicycle ergometer. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was measured every 5 minutes during the TT using a 10-point Borg scale. Blood lactate concentration, salivary cortisol, and salivary alpha amylase were measured before warm-up, 2 minutes after warm-up, and 2 minutes after TT (n = 15). A Profile of Mood States questionnaire and a Stroop Color Test were completed before warm-up and after TT. Testing was repeated 2-7 days later with the other condition. Rhodiola rosea ingestion significantly decreased heart rate during the standardized warm-up (R. rosea = 136 ± 17 b·min(-1); placebo = 140 ± 17 b·min(-1); mean ± SD; p = 0.001). Subjects completed the TT significantly faster after R. rosea ingestion (R. rosea = 25.4 ± 2.7 minutes; placebo = 25.8 ± 3.0 minutes; p = 0.037). The mean RPE was lower in the R. rosea trial (R. rosea = 6.0 ± 0.9; placebo = 6.6 ± 1.0; p = 0.04). This difference was even more pronounced when a ratio of the RPE relative to the workload was calculated (R. rosea = 0.048 ± 0.01; placebo = 0.057 ± 0.02; p = 0.007). No other statistically significant differences were observed. Acute R. rosea ingestion decreases heart rate response to submaximal exercise and appears to improve endurance exercise performance by decreasing the perception of effort.

  13. Carl Linné sidemed Baltimaadega / Linda Kongo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kongo, Linda, 1929-

    2007-01-01

    Carl Linné sidemed Baltimaadega on loonud tema õpilased ja õpilaste õpilased, kes siirdusid kuulama tema loenguid Uppsala Ülikoolis. Mitmed Baltimaadelt pärit loodusteadlased täiendasid end Linné õpilase Johann Andreas Murray juures. Tartu Ülikooli raamatukogus on hoiul üks Linné kiri

  14. TrpA1 activation in peripheral sensory neurons underlies the ionic basis of pain hypersensitivity in response to vinca alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiko, Nina; Medrano, Geraldo; Montano, Elizabeth; Jiang, Nan; Williams, Claire R; Madungwe, Ngonidzashe B; Bopassa, Jean C; Kim, Charles C; Parrish, Jay Z; Hargreaves, Kenneth M; Stockand, James D; Eaton, Benjamin A

    2017-01-01

    Chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN), a side effect of many anti-cancer drugs including the vinca alkaloids, is characterized by a severe pain syndrome that compromises treatment in many patients. Currently there are no effective treatments for this pain syndrome except for the reduction of anti-cancer drug dose. Existing data supports the model that the pain associated with CIPN is the result of anti-cancer drugs augmenting the function of the peripheral sensory nociceptors but the cellular mechanisms underlying the effects of anti-cancer drugs on sensory neuron function are not well described. Studies from animal models have suggested a number of disease etiologies including mitotoxicity, axonal degeneration, immune signaling, and reduced sensory innervations but these outcomes are the result of prolonged treatment paradigms and do not necessarily represent the early formative events associated with CIPN. Here we show that acute exposure to vinca alkaloids results in an immediate pain syndrome in both flies and mice. Furthermore, we demonstrate that exposure of isolated sensory neurons to vinca alkaloids results in the generation of an inward sodium current capable of depolarizing these neurons to threshold resulting in neuronal firing. These neuronal effects of vinca alkaloids require the transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TrpA1) channel, and the hypersensitization to painful stimuli in response to the acute exposure to vinca alkaloids is reduced in TrpA1 mutant flies and mice. These findings demonstrate the direct excitation of sensory neurons by CIPN-causing chemotherapy drugs, and identify TrpA1 as an important target during the pathogenesis of CIPN.

  15. TrpA1 activation in peripheral sensory neurons underlies the ionic basis of pain hypersensitivity in response to vinca alkaloids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Boiko

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN, a side effect of many anti-cancer drugs including the vinca alkaloids, is characterized by a severe pain syndrome that compromises treatment in many patients. Currently there are no effective treatments for this pain syndrome except for the reduction of anti-cancer drug dose. Existing data supports the model that the pain associated with CIPN is the result of anti-cancer drugs augmenting the function of the peripheral sensory nociceptors but the cellular mechanisms underlying the effects of anti-cancer drugs on sensory neuron function are not well described. Studies from animal models have suggested a number of disease etiologies including mitotoxicity, axonal degeneration, immune signaling, and reduced sensory innervations but these outcomes are the result of prolonged treatment paradigms and do not necessarily represent the early formative events associated with CIPN. Here we show that acute exposure to vinca alkaloids results in an immediate pain syndrome in both flies and mice. Furthermore, we demonstrate that exposure of isolated sensory neurons to vinca alkaloids results in the generation of an inward sodium current capable of depolarizing these neurons to threshold resulting in neuronal firing. These neuronal effects of vinca alkaloids require the transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TrpA1 channel, and the hypersensitization to painful stimuli in response to the acute exposure to vinca alkaloids is reduced in TrpA1 mutant flies and mice. These findings demonstrate the direct excitation of sensory neurons by CIPN-causing chemotherapy drugs, and identify TrpA1 as an important target during the pathogenesis of CIPN.

  16. Brain abscess by Kocuria rosea: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Esteban Muñoz Montoya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Brain abscess is one of the most serious complications of head and neck infections (Tunkel, 2010 [1]. Defined as a focal intracranial infection that is initiated as an area of cerebritis and evolves into a collection of pus surrounded by a vascularized capsule (Tunkel and Scheld, 2011 [2]. The infectious agents depend on the pathogenesis of the infection and the presence of various predisposing conditions, however, in general: Streptococcus sp. is the most frequent microorganism (Tunkel and Scheld, 2011 [2]: Greenberg, 2010 [3]. In this article we report a case of brain abscess caused by Kocuria rosea, an entity that has not been reported previously in literature.

  17. Pityriasis rosea-like eruptions due to mustard oil application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zawar Vijay

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A young man employed in a construction company, presented with cutaneous lesions clinically simulating pityriasis rosea. Satisfactory and complete response to corticosteroids and antihistamines was followed by recurrence. Multiple recurrences within a short span of time arose a suspicion of alternative diagnosis. Site visit helped us to rule out occupational contact dermatitis. Further history taking revealed that he was recently using mustard oil for body massage. Subsequent patch testing confirmed contact hypersensitivity to mustard oil. Avoidance of the contact with mustard oil arrested appearance of further skin lesions. We stress the importance of taking a good history in clinical practice in disclosing a possible contactant.

  18. Analysis of Clonostachys rosea-induced resistance to tomato gray mold disease in tomato leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Dalcantara Ongouya Mouekouba

    Full Text Available Tomato gray mold disease, caused by Botrytis cinerea, is a serious disease in tomato. Clonostachys rosea is an antagonistic microorganism to B. cinerea. To investigate the induced resistance mechanism of C. rosea, we examined the effects of these microorganisms on tomato leaves, along with changes in the activities of three defense enzymes (PAL, PPO, GST, second messengers (NO, H2O2, O2(- and phytohormones (IAA, ABA, GA3, ZT, MeJA, SA and C2H4. Compared to the control, all treatments induced higher levels of PAL, PPO and GST activity in tomato leaves and increased NO, SA and GA3 levels. The expression of WRKY and MAPK, two important transcription factors in plant disease resistance, was upregulated in C. rosea- and C. rosea plus B. cinerea-treated samples. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis showed that two abundant proteins were present in the C. rosea plus B. cinerea-treated samples but not in the other samples. These proteins were determined (by mass spectrum analysis to be LEXYL2 (β-xylosidase and ATP synthase CF1 alpha subunit. Therefore, C. rosea plus B. cinerea treatment induces gray mold resistance in tomato. This study provides a basis for elucidating the mechanism of C. rosea as a biocontrol agent.

  19. Rhodiola rosea versus sertraline for major depressive disorder: A randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jun J; Xie, Sharon X; Zee, Jarcy; Soeller, Irene; Li, Qing S; Rockwell, Kenneth; Amsterdam, Jay D

    2015-03-15

    We performed a proof of concept trial to evaluate relative safety and efficacy of Rhodiola rosea (R. rosea) versus sertraline for mild to moderate major depressive disorder. We hypothesize that R. rosea would have similar therapeutic effects as sertraline but with less adverse events. Phase II randomized placebo controlled clinical trial. 57 subjects were randomized to 12 weeks of standardized R. rosea extract, sertraline, or placebo. Changes over time in Hamilton Depression Rating (HAM-D), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Clinical Global Impression Change (CGI/C) scores among groups were examined using mixed-effects models. Modest, albeit statistically non-significant, reductions were observed for HAM-D, BDI, and CGI/C scores for all treatment conditions with no significant difference between groups (p = 0.79, p = 0.28, and p = 0.17, respectively). The decline in HAM-D scores was greater for sertraline (-8.2, 95% confidence interval [CI], -12.7 to -3.6) versus R. rosea (-5.1, 95% CI: -8.8 to -1.3) and placebo (-4.6, 95% CI: -8.6 to -0.6). While the odds of improving (versus placebo) were greater for sertraline (1.90 [0.44-8.20]; odds ratio [95% CI]) than R. rosea (1.39 [0.38-5.04]), more subjects on sertraline reported adverse events (63.2%) than R. rosea (30.0%) or placebo (16.7%) (p = 0.012). Although R. rosea produced less antidepressant effect versus sertraline, it also resulted in significantly fewer adverse events and was better tolerated. These findings suggest that R. rosea, although less effective than sertraline, may possess a more favorable risk to benefit ratio for individuals with mild to moderate depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Rhodiola rosea L. extract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doncheva, Nina D; Mihaylova, Anita St; Getova, Damianka P

    2013-01-01

    Rhodiola rosea (golden root) is a unique phytoadaptagen with immunomodulatory, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the alcohol/water extract of Rhodiola rosea roots in rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were used in the study. They were divided in 3 groups (n = 10), treated respectively with saline (controls), Rhodiola rosea extract 50 mg/kg bw and 100 mg/kg bw orally. The antinociceptive effect was evaluated using the hot-plate test, Randall-Sellito test and the formalin test. The hot-plate test evaluates the reaction time of rats which are dropped on a heated surface. The analgesy-meter test exerts a force increased at constant rate. In the formalin test we measured the total time spent in licking the injected paw during the early (0-10 min) and late phase (20-30 min) of test. To study anti-inflammatory effect the carrageenan-induced paw edema was used. The paw volume was measured plethysmometrically at 2, 3 and 4 hours. In the hot-plate test Rhodiola rosea increased in both doses the latency reaction compared with that in the controls. In analgesy-meter test Rhodiola rosea in a dose of 50 mg/kg showed a significant increase of pressure reaction compared with the controls. In the formalin test Rhodiola rosea in a dose of 100 mg/kg significantly decreased the paw licking time during the first phase. In the plethysmometer test Rhodiola rosea extract significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema when compared with the saline-induced edema. The studied extract of Rhodiola rosea exhibited significant analgesic activity in all the pain models used--inhibition of thermal pain, mechanical hyperalgesia and formalin-induced pain behavior. Significant anti-inflammatory activity was observed from Rhodiola rosea extract in carrageenan induced paw edema in rats.

  1. Anti-Inflammatory and Neuroprotective Effects of Constituents Isolated from Rhodiola rosea

    OpenAIRE

    Yeonju Lee; Jae-Chul Jung; Soyong Jang; Jieun Kim; Zulfiqar Ali; Khan, Ikhlas A.; Seikwan Oh

    2013-01-01

    To determine the biological activity of Rhodiola rosea, the protein expression of iNOS and proinflammatory cytokines was measured after the activation of murine microglial BV2 cells by LPS under the exposure of constituents of Rhodiola rosea: crude extract, rosin, rosarin, and salidroside (each 1?50? ? g/mL). The LPS-induced expression of iNOS and cytokines in BV2 cells was suppressed by the constituents of Rhodiola rosea in a concentration-dependent manner. Also the expression of the proinfl...

  2. Pityriasis Rosea in a Woman and Her Husband – Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Lemster

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Pityriasis rosea is an acute, self-limited papulosquamous dermatosis of the trunk and extremities. Many atypical forms of the disease have been reported in the literature [Ahmed et al.: Clin Exp Dermatol 2000;25:624–626; Imamura et al.: Dermatologica 1985;171:474–477]. It is rare to find pityriasis rosea in multiple family members (within a household at the same time. There have been only 4 reported cases where a couple has contracted pityriasis rosea simultaneously [Miller et al.: Arch Derm Syphilol 1941;44:66–68; Niles et al.: Arch Derm Syphilol 1940;41:264].

  3. Processing of Rhodiola rosea and Bergenia crassifolia raw materials for dry extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Siivari, J.; Galambosi, B.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the research was the processing of standardised dry extracts from root yield of Rhodiola rosea and leave yield of Bergenia sp. The plants were cultivated in the experimental field of MTT Mikkeli, Finland during 2002-2006.

  4. PHYTOCOENOLOGICAL, HISTO – ANATOMICAL AND BIOCHIMICAL ASPECTS IN RHODIOLA ROSEA L. SPECIES FROM ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Costica

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available : In this paper the results of morphological, anatomical and biochemical investigation in Rhodiola rosea L. - as important medicinal plant species growing in Rodnei Mountains (Oriental Carpathians - are presented

  5. Overexpression of AmRosea1 Gene Confers Drought and Salt Tolerance in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhu Dou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic expression of the MYB transcription factor of AmROSEA1 from Antirrhinum majus has been reported to change anthocyanin and other metabolites in several species. In this study, we found that overexpression of AmRosea1 significantly improved the tolerance of transgenic rice to drought and salinity stresses. Transcriptome analysis revealed that a considerable number of stress-related genes were affected by exogenous AmRosea1 during both drought and salinity stress treatments. These affected genes are involved in stress signal transduction, the hormone signal pathway, ion homeostasis and the enzymes that remove peroxides. This work suggests that the AmRosea1 gene is a potential candidate for genetic engineering of crops.

  6. RHODIOLA ROSEA: STATUS OF RESEARCH AND POSSIBILITIES FOR COSMECEUTICAL AND DERMATOLOGICAL DRUGS PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. F. Stepanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhodiola rosea is one of the most popular adaptogene agents. Apart from adaptogene, it has the whole range of other pharmaceutical properties: antioxidant, nootropic, antidepressant, immunomodulatory, and other. Russian industry manufactures liquid extract of Rhodiola rosea, as well as food BAS based on the Rhodiola rosea, but there are no dosage forms for external use.The purpose of this work is to analyze scientific information about general characteristics of the pharmacological activity and possible use of Rhodiola rosea in external drugs and cosmetics.Methods. The following resources were used for general characteristic of Rhodiola rosea, its pharmacological properties, particularly the usage of Rhodiola rosea in medical and cosmetic practices, as well prospects of its external use: eLIBRARY, PubMed, Cyberleninca, ResearchGate, information from manufacturers and dealers web-pages.Results. Rhodiola drugs are considered prospective agents for depressions therapy, Parkinson disease treatment, memory, attention defects, for arrhythmia prevention, stamina increase, and stress level decrease in sport and space medicine, for acceptability and efficiency improvement of chemo- and radiotherapy, as immunostimulatory agent. Nowadays in the Russian Federation Rhodiola rosea liquid extract is used as a tonic agent and is prescribed for over-fatigue in healthy persons, and for the sick, weakened as the result of a long-term treatment. Literature has sufficient amount of data about possible effect of biologically active substances of Rhodiola rosea at external use: antioxidant and antimicrobial, bleaching, UV-protective, metabolism stimulating.Conclusion. Thus, the data obtained give evidence about the prospect of Rhodiola use in cosmeceutics and prove the experience of its traditional use for withering and fat skin treatment, as well as acne.

  7. Extension of Drosophila lifespan by Rhodiola rosea through a mechanism independent from dietary restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schriner, Samuel E; Lee, Kevin; Truong, Stephanie; Salvadora, Kathyrn T; Maler, Steven; Nam, Alexander; Lee, Thomas; Jafari, Mahtab

    2013-01-01

    Rhodiola rosea has been extensively used to improve physical and mental performance and to protect against stress. We, and others, have reported that R. rosea can extend lifespan in flies, worms, and yeast. However, its molecular mechanism is currently unknown. Here, we tested whether R. rosea might act through a pathway related to dietary restriction (DR) that can extend lifespan in a range of model organisms. While the mechanism of DR itself is also unknown, three molecular pathways have been associated with it: the silent information regulator 2 (SIR2) proteins, insulin and insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS), and the target of rapamycin (TOR). In flies, DR is implemented through a reduction in dietary yeast content. We found that R. rosea extract extended lifespan in both sexes independent of the yeast content in the diet. We also found that the extract extended lifespan when the SIR2, IIS, or TOR pathways were genetically perturbed. Upon examination of water and fat content, we found that R. rosea decreased water content and elevated fat content in both sexes, but did not sensitize flies to desiccation or protect them against starvation. There were some sex-specific differences in response to R. rosea. In female flies, the expression levels of glycolytic genes and dSir2 were down-regulated, and NADH levels were decreased. In males however, R. rosea provided no protection against heat stress and had no effect on the major heat shock protein HSP70 and actually down-regulated the mitochondrial HSP22. Our findings largely rule out an elevated general resistance to stress and DR-related pathways as mechanistic candidates. The latter conclusion is especially relevant given the limited potential for DR to improve human health and lifespan, and presents R. rosea as a potential viable candidate to treat aging and age-related diseases in humans.

  8. Extension of Drosophila lifespan by Rhodiola rosea through a mechanism independent from dietary restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel E Schriner

    Full Text Available Rhodiola rosea has been extensively used to improve physical and mental performance and to protect against stress. We, and others, have reported that R. rosea can extend lifespan in flies, worms, and yeast. However, its molecular mechanism is currently unknown. Here, we tested whether R. rosea might act through a pathway related to dietary restriction (DR that can extend lifespan in a range of model organisms. While the mechanism of DR itself is also unknown, three molecular pathways have been associated with it: the silent information regulator 2 (SIR2 proteins, insulin and insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS, and the target of rapamycin (TOR. In flies, DR is implemented through a reduction in dietary yeast content. We found that R. rosea extract extended lifespan in both sexes independent of the yeast content in the diet. We also found that the extract extended lifespan when the SIR2, IIS, or TOR pathways were genetically perturbed. Upon examination of water and fat content, we found that R. rosea decreased water content and elevated fat content in both sexes, but did not sensitize flies to desiccation or protect them against starvation. There were some sex-specific differences in response to R. rosea. In female flies, the expression levels of glycolytic genes and dSir2 were down-regulated, and NADH levels were decreased. In males however, R. rosea provided no protection against heat stress and had no effect on the major heat shock protein HSP70 and actually down-regulated the mitochondrial HSP22. Our findings largely rule out an elevated general resistance to stress and DR-related pathways as mechanistic candidates. The latter conclusion is especially relevant given the limited potential for DR to improve human health and lifespan, and presents R. rosea as a potential viable candidate to treat aging and age-related diseases in humans.

  9. [Study on composition, antibiotic activity and antioxidant activity of volatile oils from uyghur medicine Althaea rosea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munira, Abudukeremu; Muheta'er, Tu'erhong; Resalat, Yimin; Xia, Na

    2015-04-01

    Althaea rosea is a type of mallow plant. Its dry flowers are one of common herb in Uyghur medicines and recorded to have several efficacies such as external application for detumescence, moistening lung and arresting cough, sweating and relieving asthma, diminishing swelling and promoting eruption, soothing the nerves and strengthening heart. However, there are only fewer studies on effective components of A. rosea and no literature about its volatile oil and pharmacological activity. In this paper, the volatile oil of A. rosea was obtained by using the chemical distillation and extraction method. The individual chemical components were separated from the volatile oil and identified by the Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer technique (GC-MS). The antioxidant activity against free radicals was detected by the'ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometer method. The antibiotic activity was detected by the filter paper diffusion method. The experimental results showed nearly 70 compounds in the volatile oil, with complex chemical components. With a low content, most of the compounds were aromatic and aliphatic compounds and their derivatives. A. rosea had a better antibiotic activity for common microorganisms, with a wide antibacterial spectrum. According to the results, the volatile oil of A. rosea will have a good application value in medicine, food and cosmetic industries, which provided a scientific basis for the development of natural A. rosea resources.

  10. Antioxidative effects of Cinnamomi cassiae and Rhodiola rosea extracts in liver of diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Hee; Hyun, Sun Hee; Choung, Se Young

    2006-01-01

    Both Cinnamomi cassiae and Rhodiola rosea extracts are used as anti-diabetic folk medicines. Recently, increased oxidative stress was shown to play an important role in the etiology and pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and its complications. This study was designed to examine the effects of Cinnamomi cassiae and Rhodiola rosea extracts on blood glucose, lipid peroxidation, the level of reduced glutathione and its related enzymes (glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase), and the activity of the antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) in the liver of db/db mice. Diabetic C57BL/Ks db/db mice were used as experimental models. Mice were divided into control (n=10), Cinnamomi cassiae (200 mg/kg/day, n=10), and Rhodiola rosea (200 mg/kg/day, n=10) treated groups for 12 weeks of treatment. These type II diabetic mice were used to investigate the effects of Cinnamomi cassiae and Rhodiola rosea on blood glucose, reduced glutathione, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, lipid peroxidation, catalase and superoxide dismutase. Cinnamomi cassiae and Rhodiola rosea extracts significantly decreased on blood glucose, increased levels of reduced glutathione and the activities of glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase in the liver. Extract treatment also significantly decreased lipid peroxidation. Cinnamomi cassiae and Rhodiola rosea extracts may be effective for correcting hyperglycemia and preventing diabetic complications.

  11. Effect of ethanol extract of Rhodiola rosea on the early nephropathy in type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-sen; Gao, Fei; Lu, Fu-er

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the therapeutical effects of Rhodiola rosea extract on rats with type 2 diabetic nephropathy (DN). The rat type 2 DN model was established by high fat and high calorie feeding and intravenous injection of streptozocin (STZ). Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal group, control group, low dose Rhodiola rosea group, high dose Rhodiola rosea group and Captopril group. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed to determine the impairment of glucose tolerance in the established animal model. A series of parameters including fasting blood glucose (FBG), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), creatinine clearance rate (Ccr), 24-h urinary albumin (UA), the ratio of kidney mass/body weight (renal index) and glomerular area were examined after 8 weeks. Moreover, the expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in renal tissues was detected by using immunohistochemisty. At the end of the eighth week, FBG, TC, TG, Ccr, 24-h urinary albumin, the ratio of kidney mass/body weight and glomerular area were significantly reduced in Rhodiola rosea extract treatment groups as compared with those in control group. TGF-β1 expression in renal tissues of Rhodiola rosea extract treatment groups was also significantly decreased as compared with that of control group. These results indicate that Rhodiola rosea extract may have a protective effect on early nephropathy in diabetic rats, which might be related to the decrease of the renal expression of TGF-β1.

  12. Effect of salidroside, active principle of Rhodiola rosea extract, on binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifani, Carlo; Micioni Di B, Maria Vittoria; Vitale, Giovanni; Ruggieri, Valentina; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Massi, Maurizio

    2010-12-02

    Stress is a key determinant of binge eating (BE). Since Rhodiola rosea is known to modulate stress responses, its effect in a model of BE was investigated. BE for highly palatable food (HPF) was evoked in female rats by three 8-day cycles of food restriction/re-feeding (for 4days 66% of the usual chow intake; for 4days food ad libitum) and acute stress on the test day (day 25). R. rosea dry extract (3% rosavin, 3.12% salidroside) or its active principles were given by gavage 1h before access to HPF. Only rats exposed to both food restrictions and stress exhibited BE in the first 15-60min after the stressful procedure. R. rosea extract 10mg/kg significantly reduced and 20mg/kg abolished the BE episode. R. rosea extract 20mg/kg abolished also stress-induced increase in serum corticosterone levels. The R. rosea active principle salidroside, but not rosavin, at doses present in the extract, dose-dependently reduced or abolished BE for the period in which it was elicited. In conclusion results indicate that R. rosea extracts may have therapeutic properties in bingeing-related eating disorders and that salidroside is the active principle responsible for this effect. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Anti-Inflammatory and Neuroprotective Effects of Constituents Isolated from Rhodiola rosea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeonju; Jung, Jae-Chul; Jang, Soyong; Kim, Jieun; Ali, Zulfiqar; Khan, Ikhlas A; Oh, Seikwan

    2013-01-01

    To determine the biological activity of Rhodiola rosea, the protein expression of iNOS and proinflammatory cytokines was measured after the activation of murine microglial BV2 cells by LPS under the exposure of constituents of Rhodiola rosea: crude extract, rosin, rosarin, and salidroside (each 1-50  μ g/mL). The LPS-induced expression of iNOS and cytokines in BV2 cells was suppressed by the constituents of Rhodiola rosea in a concentration-dependent manner. Also the expression of the proinflammatory factors iNOS, IL-1 β , and TNF- α in the kidney and prefrontal cortex of brain in mice was suppressed by the oral administration of Rhodiola rosea crude extract (500 mg/kg). To determine the neuroprotective effect of constituents of Rhodiola rosea, neuronal cells were activated by L-glutamate, and neurotoxicity was analyzed. The L-glutamate-induced neurotoxicity was suppressed by the treatment with rosin but not by rosarin. The level of phosphorylated MAPK, pJNK, and pp38 was increased by L-glutamate treatment but decreased by the treatment with rosin and salidroside. These results indicate that Rhodiola rosea may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of inflammation and neurodegenerative disease.

  14. Anti-Inflammatory and Neuroprotective Effects of Constituents Isolated from Rhodiola rosea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonju Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the biological activity of Rhodiola rosea, the protein expression of iNOS and proinflammatory cytokines was measured after the activation of murine microglial BV2 cells by LPS under the exposure of constituents of Rhodiola rosea: crude extract, rosin, rosarin, and salidroside (each 1–50 μg/mL. The LPS-induced expression of iNOS and cytokines in BV2 cells was suppressed by the constituents of Rhodiola rosea in a concentration-dependent manner. Also the expression of the proinflammatory factors iNOS, IL-1β, and TNF-α in the kidney and prefrontal cortex of brain in mice was suppressed by the oral administration of Rhodiola rosea crude extract (500 mg/kg. To determine the neuroprotective effect of constituents of Rhodiola rosea, neuronal cells were activated by L-glutamate, and neurotoxicity was analyzed. The L-glutamate-induced neurotoxicity was suppressed by the treatment with rosin but not by rosarin. The level of phosphorylated MAPK, pJNK, and pp38 was increased by L-glutamate treatment but decreased by the treatment with rosin and salidroside. These results indicate that Rhodiola rosea may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of inflammation and neurodegenerative disease.

  15. Serotonin involvement in Rhodiola rosea attenuation of nicotine withdrawal signs in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannucci, C; Navarra, M; Calzavara, E; Caputi, A P; Calapai, G

    2012-09-15

    Rhodiola rosea has been used for centuries in the traditional medicine to stimulate nervous system, to enhance physical and mental performance and to treat fatigue. It is known that administration of Rhodiola rosea extract elicits antidepressant activity, but the mechanism of action still remains unclear. Evidence from animal models and human studies show that nicotine reduces symptoms of depression and that nicotine cessation induces depressive-like symptoms. We investigated the effects of Rhodiola rosea on nicotine withdrawal signs. Nicotine dependence was induced by subcutaneous nicotine injection (2 mg/kg, four times daily) for 14 days. Another group of animals treated with nicotine (for 14 days) and successively with Rhodiola rosea extract was co-administered with selective 5-HT receptorial antagonist WAY 100635 (1 mg/kg). After nicotine withdrawal animals were evaluated for behavioural parameters (locomotor activity, abstinence signs, marble burying test), diencephalic serotonin metabolism and serotonin receptor-1A expression. Results show a significant increase of 5-HT content in N treated with R. rosea, with a significant increase of serotonin receptor 1A, suggesting an involvement of serotonin in beneficial effects of R. rosea on suffering produced by nicotine withdrawal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Protection of human cultured cells against oxidative stress by Rhodiola rosea without activation of antioxidant defenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schriner, Samuel E; Avanesian, Agnesa; Liu, Yanxia; Luesch, Hendrik; Jafari, Mahtab

    2009-09-01

    Rhodiola rosea root has been long used in traditional medical systems in Europe and Asia as an adaptogen to increase an organism's resistance to physical stress. Recent research has demonstrated its ability to improve mental and physical stamina, to improve mood, and to help alleviate high-altitude sickness. We have also recently found that R. rosea is able to extend the life span of Drosophila melanogaster. The mode of action of R. rosea is currently unknown; it has been suggested by some to act as an antioxidant, whereas others have argued that it may actually be a pro-oxidant and act through a hormetic mechanism. We found that R. rosea supplementation could protect cultured cells against ultraviolet light, paraquat, and H(2)O(2). However, it did not alter the levels of the major antioxidant defenses nor did it markedly activate the antioxidant response element or modulate heme-oxygenase-1 expression levels at relevant concentrations. In addition, R. rosea extract was not able to significantly degrade H(2)O(2) in vitro. These results suggest that in human cultured cells R. rosea does not act as an antioxidant and that its mode of action cannot be sufficiently explained through a pro-oxidant hormetic mechanism.

  17. Effects of chronic Rhodiola Rosea supplementation on sport performance and antioxidant capacity in trained male: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, A; Tranchita, E; Duranti, G; Ciminelli, E; Quaranta, F; Ceci, R; Cerulli, C; Borrione, P; Sabatini, S

    2010-03-01

    Rhodiola Rosea, is an adaptogen plant which has been reported to promote fatty acids utilisation, to ameliorate antioxidant function, and to improve body resistance to physical strenuous efforts. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects on physical performance as well as on the redox status of a chronic Rhodiola Rosea supplementation in a group of competitive athletes during endurance exercise. Following a chronic supplementation with Rhodiola Rosea for 4 weeks, 14 trained male athletes underwent a cardio-pulmonary exhaustion test and blood samples to evaluate their antioxidant status and other biochemical parameters. These data were compared with those coming from the same athletes after an intake of placebo. The evaluation of physical performance parameters showed that HR Max, Borg Scale level, VO(2) max and duration of the test were essentially unaffected by Rhodiola Rosea assumption. On the contrary, Rhodiola Rosea intake reduced, in a statistically significative manner, plasma free fatty acids levels. No effect on blood glucose was found. Blood antioxidant status and inflammatory parameters resulted unaffected by Rhodiola Rosea supplementation. Blood lactate and plasma creatine kinase levels were found significantly lower (PRhodiola Rosea treated subjects when compared to the placebo treated group. Chronic Rhodiola Rosea supplementation is able to reduce both lactate levels and parameters of skeletal muscle damage after an exhaustive exercise session. Moreover this supplementation seems to ameliorate fatty acid consumption. Taken together those observation confirm that Rhodiola Rosea may increase the adaptogen ability to physical exercise.

  18. Cuminum cyminum Linn (Apiaceae) extract attenuates MPTP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the protective effects of Cuminum cyminum Linn (Apiaceae, CCY) against 1- methyl-4 phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced oxidative stress and behavioral impairments in mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods: MPTP-intoxicated mice model of PD was used for evaluating ...

  19. Linn - sajandi suur armastus / Katrin Kivimaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivimaa, Katrin, 1969-

    2001-01-01

    Tate Modern'is avatud näitusest "Sajandi linn : kunst ja kultuur modernses metropolis". Pariisi, Viini, Moskva, Lagose, Rio de Janeiro, Tokyo, New Yorgi, Londoni ja Bombay väljapanekutest. Järgneb 20. apr. 2002, lk. 8

  20. Olea europaea Linn (Oleaceae) Fruit Pulp Exhibits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the hypocholesterolemic and hepatoprotective effects of Olea europaea Linn. (Oleaceae) fruit pulp (OFP-EA) extract in experimental rats. Methods: Sprague–Dawley rats were fed with a normal diet, a high-cholesterol diet or high-cholesterol diets supplemented with OFP-EA extract (100 or 300 ...

  1. Anethum Graveolens Linn (Umbelliferae) Extract Attenuates Stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anethum Graveolens Linn (Umbelliferae) Extract Attenuates Stress-induced Urinary Biochemical Changes and Improves Cognition in Scopolamineinduced Amnesic Rats. ... Conclusion: The aqueous extract of A. graveolens exhibited significant anti-stress, antioxidant and memory enhancing activities. The study provides a ...

  2. Antibacterial evaluation of Anacardium occidentale (Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibacterial evaluation of Anacardium occidentale (Linn) (Anacardiaceae) in semiarid Brazil. Francianne Oliveira Santos, Elissandra Couras Angélico, José Galberto Martins da Costa, Fabíola FG Rodrigues, Onaldo Guedes Rodrigues, Rosália Severo de Medeiros ...

  3. Hepatoprotective Effect of Clerodendrum inerme Linn. Ethanolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nx 6110

    Further biochemical parameters like lipid peroxidation, total protein, albumin and histopathological studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism of hepatoprotective action of C. inerme Linn. REFERENCES. [1]. K.M. Nadkarni, A.K. Nadkarni and R.N.. Chopra, The Indian Materia Medica,. Popular Prakashan Ltd. Mumbai.

  4. Evaluation of anticonvulsant, antimicrobial and hemolytic activity of Aitchisonia rosea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Rasool

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anticonvulsant, antimicrobial and hemolytic effect of Aitchisonia rosea. The anticonvulsant effect was studied at doses 400 and 800 mg/kg against pentylenetetrazole, strychnine and picrotoxin-induced seizures in albino mice. The antimicrobial assay was conducted by disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration. Hemolytic effect was analyzed by reported method. Phenolic compounds present in the n-butanol fraction of the plant were estimated by HPLC. The plant showed maximum response against drug-induced convulsions and provided protection to animals at both doses. It also showed maximum zone of inhibition and highly significant MIC against all bacterial and fungal strains. The plant protected the RBCs from hemolysis. The highest amount of phenolics found was caffeic acid (7.5 ± 0.04.

  5. Protective effect of Rhodiola rosea polysaccharides on cryopreserved boar sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shen-Min; Wang, Ting; Wen, Duan-Gai; Hou, Jian-Quan; Li, Hai-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Cryopreservation brings sublethal damage to sperm, resulting in reduced fertile life of sperm. Rhodiola rosea polysaccharides (RPs) have antiviral, antioxidant and antitumor activities. In the present study, the cryoprotective effect of RPs on boar sperm quality parameters after frozen-thawed process was investigated. Boar sperm was cryopreserved in the extender with RPs added at concentrations of 0 (used as control), 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10mg/L and their effects on the quality of frozen-thawed boar sperm were assessed. Addition of RPs significantly improved sperm motility, mitochondrial activity, acrosomal integrity, plasma membrane integrity, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity and decreased sperm malonaldehyde level (p<0.05). The results indicated that the addition of RPs to the freezing extender decreased the cryodamage to the boar sperm. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Xanthophyll cycle pigment localization and dynamics during exposure to low temperatures and light stress in vinca major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven; Adams; Demmig-Adams; Croce; Bassi

    1999-07-01

    The distribution of xanthophyll cycle pigments (violaxanthin plus antheraxanthin plus zeaxanthin [VAZ]) among photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes was examined in Vinca major before, during, and subsequent to a photoinhibitory treatment at low temperature. Four pigment-protein complexes were isolated: the core of photosystem (PS) II, the major light-harvesting complex (LHC) protein of PSII (LHCII), the minor light-harvesting proteins (CPs) of PSII (CP29, CP26, and CP24), and PSI with its LHC proteins (PSI-LHCI). In isolated thylakoids 80% of VAZ was bound to protein independently of the de-epoxidation state and was found in all complexes. Plants grown outside in natural sunlight had higher levels of VAZ (expressed per chlorophyll), compared with plants grown in low light in the laboratory, and the additional VAZ was mainly bound to the major LHCII complex, apparently in an acid-labile site. The extent of de-epoxidation of VAZ in high light and the rate of reconversion of Z plus A to V following 2.5 h of recovery were greatest in the free-pigment fraction and varied among the pigment-protein complexes. Photoinhibition caused increases in VAZ, particularly in low-light-acclimated leaves. The data suggest that the photoinhibitory treatment caused an enrichment in VAZ bound to the minor CPs caused by de novo synthesis of the pigments and/or a redistribution of VAZ from the major LHCII complex.

  7. Rhodiola rosea Exerts Antiviral Activity in Athletes Following a Competitive Marathon Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Maryam; Henson, Dru A; Sanderson, Matthew C; Nieman, David C; Zubeldia, Jose M; Shanely, R Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Rhodiola rosea, a medicinal plant with demonstrated adaptogenic properties, has recently been reported to contain active compounds with antimicrobial activity. The goal of this study was to measure the antiviral and antibacterial properties of the bioactive metabolites of Rhodiola rosea in the serum of experienced marathon runners following supplementation. Marathon runners, randomly divided into two groups, ingested 600 mg/day of Rhodiola rosea (n = 24, 6 female, 18 male) or placebo (n = 24, 7 females, 17 males) for 30 days prior to, the day of, and 7 days post-marathon. Blood serum samples were collected the day before, 15 min post-, and 1.5 h post-marathon. Serum from Rhodiola rosea-supplemented runners collected after marathon running did not attenuate the marathon-induced susceptibility of HeLa cells to killing by vesicular stomatitis virus. However, the use of Rhodiola rosea induced antiviral activity at early times post-infection by delaying an exercise-dependent increase in virus replication (P = 0.013 compared to placebo). Serum from both groups collected 15 min post-marathon significantly promoted the growth of Escherichia coli in culture as compared to serum collected the day before the marathon (P = 0.003, all subjects). Furthermore, the serum from subjects ingesting Rhodiola rosea did not display antibacterial properties at any time point as indicated by a lack of group differences immediately (P = 0.785) or 1.5 h (P = 0.633) post-marathon. These results indicate that bioactive compounds in the serum of subjects ingesting Rhodiola rosea may exert protective effects against virus replication following intense and prolonged exercise by inducing antiviral activity.

  8. Rhodiola rosea exerts anti-viral activity in athletes following a competitive marathon race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam eAhmed

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rhodiola rosea, a medicinal plant with demonstrated adaptogenic properties, has recently been reported to contain active compounds with antimicrobial activity. The goal of this study was to measure the antiviral and antibacterial properties of the bioactive metabolites of Rhodiola rosea in the serum of experienced marathon runners following supplementation. Marathon runners, randomly divided into two group, ingested 600mg/day of Rhodiola rosea (n=24, 6 female, 18 male or placebo (n=24, 7 female, 17 male for 30 days prior to, the day of, and seven days post-marathon. Blood serum samples were collected the day before, 15 minutes post- and 1.5 hours post-marathon. Serum from Rhodiola rosea supplemented runners collected after marathon running did not attenuate the marathon-induced susceptibility of HeLa cells to killing by vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV. However, the use of Rhodiola rosea induced antiviral activity at early times post-infection by delaying an exercise-dependent increase in virus replication (P=0.013 compared to placebo. Serum from both groups collected 15 minutes post-marathon significantly promoted the growth of Escherichia coli in culture as compared to serum collected the day before the marathon (P=0.003, all subjects. Furthermore, the serum from subjects ingesting Rhodiola rosea did not display antibacterial properties at any time point as indicated by a lack of group differences immediately (P=0.785 or 1.5 hours (P=0.633 post-marathon. These results indicate that bioactive compounds in the serum of subjects ingesting Rhodiola rosea may exert protective effects against virus replication following intense and prolonged exercise by inducing antiviral activity.

  9. The efficacy of azithromycin in pityriasis rosea: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Pandhi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Macrolides are prescribed in the treatment of pityriasis rosea despite conflicting results of the limited number of studies evaluating their role in its treatment. Aim: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of azithromycin on the clinical course of pityriasis rosea. Methods: Seventy patients of pityriasis rosea were given either azithromycin (n = 35 or placebo (n = 35 and were followed-up at 2, 4 and 6 weeks. Pruritus was assessed in both groups using the visual analogue scale (VAS . Change in the pityriasis rosea severity score (PRSS and in the VAS were recorded as outcome measures and were compared statistically. Results: The decrease in PRSS from baseline through 2, 4 and 6 weeks within both treatment (P < 0.001 and placebo (P < 0.001 arms was found to be statistically significant; however, this change was not significantly different in the two groups (P = 0.179. Similarly, the decrease in VAS was found to be statistically significant within both groups (P < 0.001; however, the change was comparable between the two groups (P < 0.937. Analysis by Fisher′s exact test did not find a significant difference between the two groups for PRSS and VAS. Conclusion: Azithromycin is not effective in pityriasis rosea and the use of macrolides for this disease should not be encouraged in clinical practice.

  10. A description of the naturalised Clusia rosea Jacq. (Clusiaceae populations in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Cheek

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clusia rosea is an ornamental plant that has been cultivated in South Africa since the late 19th century. Ornamental plant species are known to be a source of invasive plants.Objectives: To document the current distribution of C. rosea in South Africa and its naturalisation status.Method: Reports of C. rosea were verified in the field and herbarium vouchers were collected. Coordinates were taken for each plant, their reproductive status was assessed and heights were measured. In addition, the Southern African Plant Invaders Atlas database and five herbaria were checked for records.Results: A total of 284 plants were found outside of cultivation, mostly in the KwaZulu-Natal Coastal Belt Grassland. Clusia rosea appears to be reproducing through apomixis. No records of naturalisation could be found elsewhere in Africa.Conclusion: It is recommended that C. rosea be added to the Species Under Surveillance – Possible Eradication or Containment Targets (SUSPECT list to investigate whether it requires formal legal listing.

  11. Salidroside, a Bioactive Compound of Rhodiola Rosea, Ameliorates Memory and Emotional Behavior in Adult Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeri, Agostino; Mammana, Leonardo; Tropea, Maria Rosaria; Gulisano, Walter; Puzzo, Daniela

    2016-02-26

    Rhodiola Rosea (R. Rosea) is a plant used in traditional popular medicine to enhance cognition and physical performance. R. Rosea medicinal properties have been related to its capability to act as an adaptogen, i.e., a substance able to increase the organism's resistance to a variety of chemical, biological, and physical stressors in a non-specific way. These adaptogen properties have been mainly attributed to the glycoside salidroside, one of the bioactive compounds present in the standardized extracts of R. Rosea. Here, we aimed to investigate whether a single dose of salidroside is able to affect memory and emotional behavior in wild type adult mice. We performed fear conditioning to assess cued and contextual memory, elevated plus maze and open field to evaluate anxiety, and tail suspension test to evaluate depression. Our results showed that a single i.p. administration of salidroside was able to enhance fear memory and exerted an anxiolytic and antidepressant effect. These data confirmed the adaptogenic effect of R. Rosea bioactive compounds in animal models and suggest that salidroside might represent an interesting pharmacological tool to ameliorate cognition and counteract mood disorders.

  12. Chemical composition of the essential oils of Rhodiola rosea L. of three different origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evstatieva, Ljuba; Todorova, Milka; Antonova, Daniela; Staneva, Jordanka

    2010-01-01

    Rhodiola rosea L. (Crassulaceae), or “rose root” is a perennial herbaceous plant, distributed in the Northern Hemisphere. Pharmacological studies have shown that R. rosea exhibits different biological activities – antioxidant, antidepressant, anticancer, etc. The aim of this study was to compare the chemical composition of essential oils from rhizomes of three commercial samples of R. rosea originated from Bulgaria (sample 1), China (sample 2) and India (sample 3). The oils were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Thus, the main volatile component in the Bulgaria and Chinese R. rosea was geraniol, followed by myrthenol in sample 1 or octanol in sample 2. Phenethylalcohol was a principal constituent in the Indian oil. Myrtenol and octanol were in significant amounts too. Aliphatic hydrocarbons were characteristic of the latter sample. It is notable that cinnamyl alcohol, which was present in large concentration in Bulgarian sample, was not detected in the other two samples. The obtained results showed considerable differences in the composition of the studied three origins of R. rosea. PMID:21120024

  13. Pharmacological Properties of Capparis spinosa Linn

    OpenAIRE

    Moufid A; Farid O; Eddouks, M

    2015-01-01

    Capparis spinosa Linn. (Capparaceae) was traditionally used for pharmacological purposes and has potential for use in modern cosmetics. This review aims to assess the current available knowledge of Capparis spinosa and its constituents for management of several diseases. Bibliographic investigation was carried out by scrutinizing classical text books and peer reviewed papers, consulting worldwide accepted scientific databases (SCOPUS, PUBMED, SCIENCE DIRECT, Google Scholar...

  14. Kadunud ja äraneetud linn / Jüri Liim

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liim, Jüri

    2000-01-01

    Paldiski linna kujutavad tõsielufilmid "Äraneetud linn" : režissöör ja operaator Andres Sööt : Eesti Kroonikafilm 1996 ning "Paldiski, kadunud linn" : režissöör Sabine Hackenberg : Hackengerg (Baden-Württembergi filmiakadeemia) 1999

  15. Studies on the antimicrobial effects of garlic ( Allium sativum Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antimicrobial effect in vitro of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and lime (Citrus aurantifolia Linn.) juice were assayed against Staphylococcus aureus; Bacillus spp., Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. All the test organisms were susceptible to undiluted ...

  16. Effects of Spondias mombin Linn (Anacardiaceae) on rat parturition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leaves of Spondias mombin Linn (Anacardiaceae) are used by traditional healers in some parts of Africa to treat dystocia and postpartum hemorrhage. All experiments are performed on albino wistar mature and immature rats. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of Spondias mombin Linn on rat parturition in ...

  17. Kummardus Carl Linnéle / Andres Toode

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Toode, Andres

    2010-01-01

    Suur botaanik ja loodusteadlane Carl Linné soovitas oma sõjalise funktsiooni kaotanud kindlustesse või nende varemetesse ürdiaedu rajada. Narva linnus jätkab seda traditsiooni: linnuse Läänehoovi rajati Carl Linné aed. Konkursist võtsid osa ka Eesti Maaülikooli üliõpilased

  18. Attenuation of long-term Rhodiola rosea supplementation on exhaustive swimming-evoked oxidative stress in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Chung; Lee, Fang-Tsai; Kuo, Tz-Yin; Yang, Joan-Hwa; Chien, Chiang-Ting

    2009-10-31

    Rhodiola rosea improves exercise endurance and fatigue. We hypothesized that ingredients in Rhodiola rosea may increase antioxidant capability against swimming induced oxidative stress. In this study, we have identified the Rhodiola rosea ingredients, p-tyrosol, salidroside, rosin, rosavin and rosarin by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer and evaluated their O2(-)*, H2O2, and HOCl scavenging activities by a chemiluminescence analyzer. We next explored the effect and mechanism of Rhodiola rosea on 90-min swimming-induced oxidative stress in male Wistar rats fed with three doses of Rhodiola rosea extracts in drinking water (5, 25, 125 mg/day/rat) for 4 weeks. Our results showed that the 4 major ingredients (salidroside, rosin, rosavin and rosarin) from Rhodiola rosea extracts scavenged O2(-)*, H2O2, and HOCl activity in a dose-dependent manner. The ninety-min swimming exercise increased the O2(-)* production in the order: liver > skeletal muscle > blood, indicating that liver is the most sensitive target organ. The level of plasma malonedialdehyde, a lipid peroxidation product, was also increased after exercise. Treatment of 4 weeks of Rhodiola rosea extracts significantly inhibited swimming exercise-enhanced O2(-)* production in the blood, liver and skeletal muscle and plasma malonedialdehyde concentration. The expression in Mn-superoxide dismutase Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase, and catalase in livers were all enhanced after 4 weeks of Rhodiola rosea supplementation especially at the dose of 125 mg/day/rat. Treatment of Rhodiola rosea extracts for 4 weeks significantly increased swimming performance. In conclusion, treatment of Rhodiola rosea extracts for 4 weeks could reduce swimming-enhanced oxidative stress possibly via the reactive oxygen species scavenging capability and the enhancement of the antioxidant defense mechanisms.

  19. The effects of formulation and moisture on the stability of a freeze-dried monoclonal antibody-vinca conjugate: a test of the WLF glass transition theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, M L; Pikal, M J; Rickard, E C; Maloney, A M

    1992-01-01

    Deacetylvinblastine (DAVLB) hydrazide, a cytotoxic vinca alkaloid, has been linked to the monoclonal antibody, KS1/4, via aldehyde residues of the oxidized carbohydrate groups on the antibody. The resulting KS1/4-DAVLB hydrazide conjugate is unstable in solution with both the acyl hydrazone linkage and the vinca moiety being subject to significant degradation, even at 5 degrees C. This necessitated the development of a freeze-dried formulation of the antibody-drug conjugate. Formulation factors considered were pH, ionic strength, buffer, excipient types, and excipient ratios. A formulation with equal weight ratios of mannitol, glycine, and conjugate in a low ionic strength phosphate buffer at near neutral pH was selected. Stability was studied at various moisture levels (1.4%, 3.0%, and 4.7%) and temperatures (5 degrees C, 25 degrees C, and 40 degrees C). Degradation was measured by size exclusion HPLC (aggregate formation) and by reverse phase HPLC (hydrolysis of hydrazone linkage and vinca decomposition). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) indicated that all samples were above their glass transition temperatures, Tg, when stored at 40 degrees C. When stored at 25 degrees C, only the highest moisture sample was initially above its Tg. However, due to crystallization of the excipients during storage and the resulting decrease in Tg, samples stored at 25 degrees C were also above their Tg during much of the storage period. The degradation rate, R, increased sharply with increasing temperature and with increasing moisture level. Degradation kinetics obeyed the Williams-Landel-Ferry relationship, R/Rg = exp[k(T-Tg)], where Rg is the degradation rate at Tg. For all three moisture levels and all three degradation pathways, k = 0.143.

  20. The golden root, Rhodiola rosea, prolongs lifespan but decreases oxidative stress resistance in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliak, Maria M; Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2011-11-15

    The effect of aqueous extract from R. rosea root on lifespan and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been studied. The supplementation of the growth medium with R. rosea extract decreased survival of exponentially growing S. cerevisiae cells under H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress, but increased viability and reproduction success of yeast cells in stationary phase. The extract did not significantly affect catalase activity and decreased SOD activity in chronologically aged yeast population. These results suggest that R. rosea acts as a stressor for S. cerevisiae cells, what sensitizes yeast cells to oxidative stress at exponential phase, but induces adaptation in stationary phase cells demonstrating the positive effect on yeast survival without activation of major antioxidant enzymes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. [Evaluating adaptogenic properties of Rhodiola rosea extract in human mononuclear cell culture and rat tissues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, L I; Boĭkova, A A; Nikiforova, D V

    2013-01-01

    The administration of various doses of Rhodiola rosea roots and rhizome spissum with known concentrations of salidroside, n-tyrosol, and rosavine leads to an increase in stress proteins 70 content in human mononuclear cell culture and in tissues of Wistar rats. A one-week peroral administration of Rh. Rosea preparation increases the content of constitutive Hsc70 in liver and the amount of hepatocytes with low succinate dehydrogenase activity. A two-week administration of Rh. Rosea extract leads to an increase in the levels of inducible Hsp70 and constitutive Hsc70 proteins in liver, hippocampus and left heart ventricle. These results are indicative of an increase in nonspecific resistance and the activation of adaptogenic processes.

  2. Pitiríase rósea Pityriasis rosea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Bitencourt Miranda

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Pitiríase rósea é doença inflamatória aguda da pele, que regride espontaneamente, normalmente sem deixar seqüelas, em período que varia de quatro a oito semanas. Clinicamente é caracterizada pelo aparecimento de típicas lesões eritêmato-pápulo-escamosas. Atinge todas as idades, embora seja mais comumente observada entre 10 e 35 anos. Apesar de exaustivas pesquisas, sua etiologia ainda permanece desconhecida. São discutidos alguns aspectos epidemiológicos, anatomoclínicos, diagnósticos diferenciais, doenças associadas, com ênfase no tratamento e etiologia da doença.Pityriasis rosea is a skin disease characterized by acute inflammation that fades away spontaneously without scar tissue formation for an average period of 4 to 8 weeks. Clinically, it is characterized by the occurrence of typical erythematous papulosquamous lesions distributed mainly over the trunk and extremities. It affects people of all ages, but is more often observed in the age range of 10 to 35 years. Even though it is extensively studied, its etiology remains unknown. In this study, the authors analyze some epidemiologic aspects, differential diagnosis, related diseases, and give special attention to treatment and possible etiology.

  3. The Effect of Height, Wing Length, and Wing Symmetry on Tabebuia rosea Seed Dispersal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmeen Moussa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the vertical drop height and the horizontal distance traveled (dispersal ratio was investigated for a sample of fifty Tabebuia rosea seeds by dropping the seeds from five heights ranging from 1.00 to 2.00 meters. The dispersal ratio was found to be a constant 0.16 m/m for these heights. The effects of total seed length and asymmetry of seed wings on dispersal ratio were also measured using separate samples of fifty Tabebuia rosea seeds. It was found that neither seed length nor asymmetry had a significant effect on the dispersal ratio.

  4. Central additive effect of Ginkgo biloba and rhodiola rosea on psychomotor vigilance task and short-term working memory accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hayder M. al-kuraishy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: The present study investigates the effect of combined treatment with Ginkgo biloba and/or rhodiola rosea on psychomotor vigilance task and short-term working memory accuracy. Subjects and Methods: A total number of 112 volunteers was enrolled to study the effect of Ginkgo biloba and rhodiola rosea on psychomotor vigilance task and short-term working memory accuracy as compared to placebo effects,the central cognitive effect was assessed by Critical flicker-fusion frequency (CFFF, Psychomotor vigilance Task (PVT and computerized N-back test. Results: Placebo produced no significant effects on all neurocognitive tests measure p>0.05 in normal healthy volunteers, Ginkgo biloba or Rhodiola rosea improve psychomotor vigilance task and low to moderate working memory accuracy, The combined effect of Rhodiola rosea and Ginkgo biloba leading to more significant effect on psychomotor vigilance task, all levels of short term working memory accuracy and critical fusion versus flicker p<0.01, more than of Ginkgo biloba or Rhodiola rosea when they used alone. Conclusion: The combined effect of Rhodiola rosea and Ginkgo biloba leading to more significant effect on cognitive function than either Ginkgo biloba or Rhodiola rosea when they used alone. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2016; 5(1.000: 7-13

  5. Rhodiola rosea therapy for major depressive disorder: a study protocol for a randomized, double-blind, placebo- controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jun J; Li, Qing S; Soeller, Irene; Xie, Sharon X; Amsterdam, Jay D

    2014-06-20

    Rhodiola rosea (R. rosea), a botanical of both western and traditional Chinese medicine, has been used as a folk remedy for improving stamina and reducing stress. However, few controlled clinical trials have examined the safety and efficacy of R. rosea for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). This study seeks to evaluate the safety and efficacy of R. rosea in a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study design. Subjects with MDD not receiving antidepressant therapy will be randomized to either R. rosea extract 340-1,360 mg daily; sertraline 50-200 mg daily, or placebo for 12 weeks. The primary outcome measure will be change over time in the mean 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating score. Secondary outcome measures will include safety and quality of life ratings. Statistical procedures will include mixed-effects models to assess efficacy for primary and secondary outcomes. This study will provide valuable preliminary information on the safety and efficacy data of R. rosea versus conventional antidepressant therapy of MDD. It will also inform additional hypotheses and study design of future, fully powered, phase III clinical trials with R. rosea to determine its safety and efficacy in MDD.

  6. Central additive effect of Ginkgo biloba and Rhodiola rosea on psychomotor vigilance task and short-term working memory accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kuraishy, Hayder M

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the effect of combined treatment with Ginkgo biloba and/or Rhodiola rosea on psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) and short-term working memory accuracy. A total number of 112 volunteers were enrolled to study the effect of G. biloba and R. rosea on PVT and short-term working memory accuracy as compared to placebo effects, the central cognitive effect was assessed by critical flicker-fusion frequency, PVT, and computerized N-back test. Placebo produced no significant effects on all neurocognitive tests measure P > 0.05 in normal healthy volunteers, G. biloba or R. rosea improve PVT and low to moderate working memory accuracy, The combined effect of R. rosea and G. biloba leading to more significant effect on PVT, all levels of short-term working memory accuracy and critical fusion versus flicker P rosea when they used alone. The combined effect of R. rosea and G. biloba leading to a more significant effect on cognitive function than either G. biloba or R. rosea when they used alone.

  7. Tyrosinase Inhibitory Effect and Antioxidative Activities of Fermented and Ethanol Extracts of Rhodiola rosea and Lonicera japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuh-Shuen Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first study to investigate the biological activities of fermented extracts of Rhodiola rosea L. (Crassulaceae and Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Caprifoliaceae. Alcaligenes piechaudii CC-ESB2 fermented and ethanol extracts of Rhodiola rosea and Lonicera japonica were prepared and the antioxidative activities of different concentrations of samples were evaluated using in vitro antioxidative assays. Tyrosinase inhibition was determined by using the dopachrome method with L-DOPA as substrate. The results demonstrated that inhibitory effects (ED50 values on mushroom tyrosinase of fermented Rhodiola rosea, fermented Lonicera japonica, ethanol extract of Lonicera japonica, and ethanol extract of Rhodiola rosea were 0.78, 4.07, 6.93, and >10 mg/ml, respectively. The DPPH scavenging effects of fermented Rhodiola rosea (ED50 = 0.073 mg/ml and fermented Lonicera japonica (ED50 = 0.207 mg/ml were stronger than effects of their respective ethanol extracts. Furthermore, the scavenging effect increases with the presence of high content of total phenol. However, the superoxide scavenging effects of fermented Rhodiola rosea was less than effects of fermented Lonicera japonica. The results indicated that fermentation of Rhodiola rosea and Lonicera japonica can be considered as an effective biochemical process for application in food, drug, and cosmetics.

  8. Tyrosinase inhibitory effect and antioxidative activities of fermented and ethanol extracts of Rhodiola rosea and Lonicera japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuh-Shuen; Liou, Hua-Chian; Chan, Chin-Feng

    2013-01-01

    This is the first study to investigate the biological activities of fermented extracts of Rhodiola rosea L. (Crassulaceae) and Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Caprifoliaceae). Alcaligenes piechaudii CC-ESB2 fermented and ethanol extracts of Rhodiola rosea and Lonicera japonica were prepared and the antioxidative activities of different concentrations of samples were evaluated using in vitro antioxidative assays. Tyrosinase inhibition was determined by using the dopachrome method with L-DOPA as substrate. The results demonstrated that inhibitory effects (ED50 values) on mushroom tyrosinase of fermented Rhodiola rosea, fermented Lonicera japonica, ethanol extract of Lonicera japonica, and ethanol extract of Rhodiola rosea were 0.78, 4.07, 6.93, and >10 mg/ml, respectively. The DPPH scavenging effects of fermented Rhodiola rosea (ED50 = 0.073 mg/ml) and fermented Lonicera japonica (ED50 = 0.207 mg/ml) were stronger than effects of their respective ethanol extracts. Furthermore, the scavenging effect increases with the presence of high content of total phenol. However, the superoxide scavenging effects of fermented Rhodiola rosea was less than effects of fermented Lonicera japonica. The results indicated that fermentation of Rhodiola rosea and Lonicera japonica can be considered as an effective biochemical process for application in food, drug, and cosmetics.

  9. Evaluation of Clonostachys rosea for Control of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes in Soil and in Roots of Carrot and Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Mudassir; Dubey, Mukesh; McEwan, Kerstin; Menzel, Uwe; Franko, Mikael Andersson; Viketoft, Maria; Jensen, Dan Funck; Karlsson, Magnus

    2018-01-01

    Biological control is a promising approach to reduce plant diseases caused by nematodes. We tested the effect of the fungus Clonostachys rosea strain IK726 inoculation on nematode community composition in a naturally nematode infested soil in a pot experiment, and the effect of C. rosea on plant health. The numbers of plant-parasitic nematode genera extracted from soil and plant roots decreased by 40 to 73% when C. rosea was applied, while genera of nonparasitic nematodes were not affected. Soil inoculation of C. rosea increased fresh shoot weight and shoot length of wheat plants by 20 and 24%, respectively, while only shoot dry weight increased by 48% in carrots. Light microscopy of in vitro C. rosea-nematode interactions did not reveal evidence of direct parasitism. However, culture filtrates of C. rosea growing in potato dextrose broth, malt extract broth and synthetic nutrient broth exhibited toxicity toward nematodes and immobilized 57, 62, and 100% of the nematodes, respectively, within 48 h. This study demonstrates that C. rosea can control plant-parasitic nematodes and thereby improve plant growth. The most likely mechanism responsible for the antagonism is antibiosis through production of nematicidal compounds, rather than direct parasitism.

  10. Environmental impact assessment of the nuclear reactor at Vinca, based on the data on emission of radioactivity from the literature: A modeling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gršić Z.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research activities of Vinca Institite have been based on two heavy water research reactors: 10 MW one, RA and zero power RB. Reactor RA was operational from 1962 to 1982. In 2010, spent fuel have been sent to the country of origin, and reactor now is in decommissioning. During operational phase of the reactor there were no recorded accidental releases into the environment just operational ones. Results of the environmental impact assessment, of the assumed emission of radionuclides, from the ventilation of nuclear reactor "RA" in Vinca, to the atmospheric boundary layer are presented in this paper. Evaluation was done by using the Gaussian straight-line diffusion model and taking into account characteristics of the reactor ventilation system, the assumed emission release of radioactivity (from the literature, site-specific meteorological data for six-year period and local topography around nuclear reactor, and corresponding dose factors for inventory of radionuclides. Based on the described approach, and assuming that the range of appropriate meteorological data for six year period for the application of described mathematical model is enough for this kind of analysis, it can be concluded that the nuclear reactor "RA", in the course of its work from 1962 to 1982, had no influence on the surrounding environment through the air above regulatory limits. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 45003

  11. Putrescine biosensor based on putrescine oxidase from Kocuria rosea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bóka, Beáta; Adányi, Nóra; Szamos, Jenő; Virág, Diána; Kiss, Attila

    2012-10-10

    The novel putrescine oxidase based amperometric biosensor selectively measures putrescine, which can be considered as an indicator of microbial spoilage. Putrescine oxidase (PUOX, EC 1.4.3.10) was isolated from Kocuria rosea (Micrococcus rubens) by an improved and simplified purification process. Cells were grown on brain heart infusion medium supplemented with putrescine. Cell-free extract was prepared in Tris buffer (pH 8.0) by Bead-beater. A newly elaborated step based on three-phase partitioning (TPP) was applied in the purification protocol of PUOX. The purified enzyme was immobilized on the surface of a spectroscopic graphite electrode in redox hydrogel with horseradish peroxidase, Os mediator and poly(ethylene glycol) (400) diglycidyl ether (PEGDGE) as crosslinking agent. This modified working electrode was used in wall-jet type amperometric cell together with the Ag/AgCl (0.1M KCl) reference electrode and a platinum wire as auxiliary electrode in flow injection analysis system (FIA). Hydrogel composition, pH and potential dependence were studied. Optimal working conditions were 0.45 mLmin(-1) flow rate of phosphate buffer (66 mM, pH 8.0) and +50 mV polarizing potential vs. Ag/AgCl. The linear measuring range of the method was 0.01-0.25 mM putrescine, while the detection limit was 5 μM. Beer samples were investigated by the putrescine biosensor and the results were compared by those of HPLC reference method. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Memory-enhancing effect of Rhodiola rosea L extract on aged mice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The memory-enhancing effects of Rhodiola rosea L. extract (RRLE) on normal aged mice were assessed. Methods: In the open-field test, the effect of RRLE (150 and 300 mg/kg) on mouse locomotive activities was evaluated by investigating the extract's influence on CAT and AchE activities in the brain tissue of ...

  13. Identification of mycoparasitism-related genes in Clonostachys rosea 67-1 active against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhan-Bin; Sun, Man-Hong; Li, Shi-Dong

    2015-12-14

    Clonostachys rosea is a mycoparasite that has shown great potential in controlling various plant fungal pathogens. In order to find mycoparasitism-related genes in C. rosea, the transcriptome of the efficient isolate 67-1 in association with sclerotia of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was sequenced and analysed. The results identified 26,351 unigenes with a mean length of 1,102 nucleotides, among which 18,525 were annotated in one or more databases of NR, KEGG, Swiss-Prot, GO and COG. Differentially expressed genes at 8 h, 24 h and 48 h after sclerotial induction were analysed, and 6,890 unigenes were upregulated compared with the control without sclerotia. 713, 1,008 and 1,929 genes were specifically upregulated expressed, while 1,646, 283 and 529 genes were specifically downregulated, respectively. Gene ontology terms analysis indicated that these genes were mainly involved in metabolism of biological process, catalysis of molecular function and cellular component. The expression levels of 12 genes that were upregulated after encountering with S. sclerotiorum were monitored using real-time PCR. The results indicated that the quantitative detection was consistent with the transcriptome analysis. The study provides transcriptional gene expression information on C. rosea parasitizing S. sclerotiorum and forms the basis for further investigation of mycoparasitism-related genes of C. rosea.

  14. Three encochitinase-encoding genes identified in the biocontrol fungus Clonostachys rosea are differentially expressed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamarabadi, Mojtaba; Jensen, Birgit; Lübeck, Mette

    2008-01-01

    . rosea were made by disruption of the endochitinase genes via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and their biocontrol activity was evaluated. While in planta bioassays showed no significant difference in biocontrol efficacy between the disruptants and the wildtype, the real time RT-PCR analysis showed...

  15. Approaches of Rhodiola kirilowii and Rhodiola rosea field cultivation in Poland and their potential health benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Grech-Baran

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Numerous researches have been carried out on plants of the Rhodiola species, especially Rhodiola kirilowii (Regel Maxim. and Rhodiola rosea. Various compounds have been reported to be isolated from R. kirilowii and R. rosea, including cyanogenic glycosides, monoterpene alcohols and their glycosides, aryl glycosides, phenylethanoids, phenylpropanoids and their glycosides (salidroside and rosavins respectively, as well as flavonoids, flavonlignans, proanthocyanidins and gallic acid derivatives and the latter have free radical scavenging capacity. The benefits claimed for Rhodiola include adapogenic, neuroprotective, anti-depresive anti-tumour and cardioprotective activities. Currently, the adaptogenic activity of Rhodiola compounds are properties evaluated mainly in human clinical trials. The mechanism of the action of Rhodiola extracts include affecting the levels of cortisol and NO by interactions with glucocorticoid receptors directly or via the c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK pathway. However, the natural populations of R. rosea in Poland are threatened; therefore, the cultivation of R. rosea and alternative species R. kirilowii might be a possible solution for producing these kinds of plants in Poland in sufficient quantities and quality for pharmaceutical purposes. Lack of proven interaction with other drugs and no confirmed adverse effects during clinical trials encourages further investigation. These herb preparations ought to be studied extensively to establish their position as potential drugs for a variety of diseases.

  16. Evaluation of Rhodiola rosea L. extract on affective and physical signs of nicotine withdrawal in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli, Laura; Perfumi, Marina

    2011-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a Rhodiola rosea L. extract on the prevention of the development of nicotine dependence and for the reduction of abstinence suffering following nicotine cessation in mice. Dependence was induced in mice by subcutaneous injections of nicotine (2 mg/kg, 4 times/day) for eight days. Spontaneous abstinence syndrome was evaluated 20 h after the last nicotine administration, by analysis of withdrawal signs, as affective (anxiety-like behaviour) and physical (somatic signs and locomotor activity). Rhodiola rosea L. extract was administered orally during nicotine treatment (10, 15 and 20 mg/kg) or during nicotine withdrawal (20 mg/kg). Results show that both affective and somatic signs (head shaking, paw tremors, body tremors, ptosis, jumping, piloerection and chewing) induced by nicotine withdrawal are abolished by administration of Rhodiola rosea L. extract in a dose-dependent fashion, during both nicotine exposure and nicotine cessation. In conclusion, our data encourage additional studies to define the use of R. rosea L. as a therapeutic approach in the treatment of smoking cessation.

  17. Rhodiola Rosea as antioxidant in red blood cells: ultrastructural and hemolytic behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Battistelli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Rhodiola rosea L. (Crassulaceae is a plant that lives at high altitude in Europe and Asia, usually used for its high capacity to increase the organism resistance to different stress conditions. Although a few international literature supports these effects, today R. rosea has become a common component of many dietary supplements also in the Western world. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the R. rosea roots aqueous extract on in vitro human erythrocytes exposed to hypochlorous acid (HOCl- oxidative stress. Several damages occur in human erythrocytes exposed in vitro to HOCl, among these membrane protein and lipid modifications, shifting from the discocyte shape to the echinocyte one, and determining lysis ultimately. Therefore, in the present work, the evaluation of the antioxidant capacity of the Rhodiola extract has been carried out by means of scanning electron microscopy and of hemolytic behaviour on human erythrocytes exposed to HOCl in the presence of increasing doses of the aqueous extract in different experimental environments (co-incubation and subsequent incubations. The results obtained are consistent with a significative protection of the extract in presence of the oxidative agent, but a cautionary note emerges from the analysis of the data related to the cell exposition to the plant extract in the absence of any induced oxidative stress. In fact, the addition to erythrocyte of high doses of R. rosea extract always determines severe alterations of the cell shape.

  18. [Genetic diversity of different geographical populations of Rhodiola rosea based on AFLP markers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Ruan, Xiao; Jiang, Hao; Meng, Qingwen; Wang, Lihe

    2009-09-01

    To research the genetic diversity of different Rhodiola rosea geographical populations in Tianshan Mountain, China; The genetic diversity of eighteen R. rosea geological populations from six niches was estimated using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. The data of amplified bands were analyzed by the software POPGENE v1.31 (32-bit) and SPSS. The nine primers employed produced a total of 238 discernable and reproducible amplified fragments. There were 228 polymorphic bands. The percentage of polymorphic bands with in different populations was 95.6%. Genetic diversity analysis showed that average number of alleles per loci was Na = 1.4883, effective number of alleles per loci Ne = 1.3907, Neis gene diversity index H = 0.2170, Shannon's information index I = 0.3108, the percentage of polymorphic loci P = 52.71, genetic differentiation among populations Gst = 0.364; UPGMA cluster analysis based on genetic distance data divided eighteen populations into two clusters: Cluster I composed of twelve populations and Cluster II 6 populations which distributed in attitude upper 3 175 m; Our researches suggest that the best niche of R. rosea was at attitude between 3 150-3 250 m; this region is important for the conservation of R. rosea germplasm resource.

  19. The Effects of Rhodiola rosea L. Extract on Anxiety, Stress, Cognition and Other Mood Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropley, Mark; Banks, Adrian P; Boyle, Julia

    2015-12-01

    This trial evaluated the impact of a Rhodiola rosea L. extract on self-reported anxiety, stress, cognition, and other mood symptoms. Eighty mildly anxious participants were randomized into two different groups of either Rhodiola rosea L (2 × 200 mg dose Vitano®, 1 tablet taken before breakfast and 1tablet before lunch) or a control condition (no treatment). Self-report measures and cognitive tests were completed at four testing sessions over a period of 14 days. Relative to the controls, the experimental group demonstrated a significant reduction in self-reported, anxiety, stress, anger, confusion and depression at 14 days and a significant improvements in total mood. No relevant differences in cognitive performance between the groups were observed. Rhodiola rosea L (Vitano®) presented a favourable safety tolerability profile. Although this was a non-placebo controlled trial, it is unlikely that the findings were the result of placebo effects as changes appeared gradual and were specific to certain psychological measures. However, we cannot determine a causal relationship; further investigations are recommended to support the effects of Rhodiola rosea L. extract on stress related symptoms. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Effects of Two Different Rhodiola rosea Extracts on Primary Human Visceral Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomari, Elena; Stefanon, Bruno; Colitti, Monica

    2015-05-11

    Rhodiola rosea (Rro) has been reported to have various pharmacological properties, including anti-fatigue, anti-stress and anti-inflammatory activity. It is also known to improve glucose and lipid metabolism, but the effects of Rhodiola rosea on adipocyte differentiation and metabolism are not still elucidated. In this study the anti-adipogenic and lipolytic activity of two extracts of Rhodiola rosea, containing 3% salidroside (RS) or 1% salidroside and 3% rosavines (RR) on primary human visceral adipocytes was investigated. Pre-adipocytes were analyzed after 10 and 20 days of treatment during differentiation and after 7 days of treatment when they reached mature shape. The RS extract significantly induced higher apoptosis and lipolysis in comparison to control cells and to RR extract. In contrast, RR extract significantly reduced triglyceride incorporation during maturation. Differentiation of pre-adipocytes in the presence of RS and RR extracts showed a significant decrease in expression of genes involved in adipocyte function such as SLC2A4 and the adipogenic factor FGF2 and significant increase in expression of genes involved in inhibition of adipogenesis, such as GATA3, WNT3A, WNT10B. Furthermore RR extract, in contrast to RS, significantly down-regulates PPARG, the master regulator of adipogenesis and FABP4. These data support the lipolytic and anti-adipogenetic activity of two different commercial extracts of Rhodiola rosea in primary human visceral pre-adipocytes during differentiation.

  1. Rhodiola rosea ability to enrich cellular antioxidant defences of cultured human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcabrini, Cinzia; De Bellis, Roberta; Mancini, Umberto; Cucchiarini, Luigi; Potenza, Lucia; De Sanctis, Roberta; Patrone, Vania; Scesa, Carla; Dachà, Marina

    2010-04-01

    Keratinocytes are cells strongly exposed to oxidative stress, but normally good equipped for antioxidant responses. However, it has long been suggested that exogenous antioxidants could play a useful role in minimizing the adverse skin responses associated with such oxidant species. In this work it was paid attention to the extract of Rhodiola rosea L. roots by using the phytocomplex as a whole because of the important activity of its composition and mutual distribution of its components. We have measured the protection afforded by the extract to reduced glutathione levels, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels in cultured human keratinocytes (NCTC 2544) exposed to different oxidative insults: Fe(II)/ascorbate, Fe(II)/H(2)O(2), and tert-butyl-hydroperoxide. We also have investigated the influence of the R. rosea extract on the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species and on the activity of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase). Furthermore, we have demonstrated that R. rosea extract was able to increase in a time- and dose-dependent manner the activity of the trans plasma membrane oxido reductase activity as an indirect evaluation of the intracellular redox status and this effect was already evident with small concentration of the extract and in a long time. As a result, NCTC 2544 are able to better counteract to several oxidative insults if incubated with R. rosea extract demonstrating a very good antioxidant activity of this phytocomplex.

  2. Effects of Two Different Rhodiola rosea Extracts on Primary Human Visceral Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Pomari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rhodiola rosea (Rro has been reported to have various pharmacological properties, including anti-fatigue, anti-stress and anti-inflammatory activity. It is also known to improve glucose and lipid metabolism, but the effects of Rhodiola rosea on adipocyte differentiation and metabolism are not still elucidated. In this study the anti-adipogenic and lipolytic activity of two extracts of Rhodiola rosea, containing 3% salidroside (RS or 1% salidroside and 3% rosavines (RR on primary human visceral adipocytes was investigated. Pre-adipocytes were analyzed after 10 and 20 days of treatment during differentiation and after 7 days of treatment when they reached mature shape. The RS extract significantly induced higher apoptosis and lipolysis in comparison to control cells and to RR extract. In contrast, RR extract significantly reduced triglyceride incorporation during maturation. Differentiation of pre-adipocytes in the presence of RS and RR extracts showed a significant decrease in expression of genes involved in adipocyte function such as SLC2A4 and the adipogenic factor FGF2 and significant increase in expression of genes involved in inhibition of adipogenesis, such as GATA3, WNT3A, WNT10B. Furthermore RR extract, in contrast to RS, significantly down-regulates PPARG, the master regulator of adipogenesis and FABP4. These data support the lipolytic and anti-adipogenetic activity of two different commercial extracts of Rhodiola rosea in primary human visceral pre-adipocytes during differentiation.

  3. Anti-inflammatory activity of Rhodiola rosea--"a second-generation adaptogen".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawa, A S; Khanum, Farhath

    2009-08-01

    Rhodiola rosea (golden root), a unique phytoadaptogen grown in high-altitude regions has gained attention for its various therapeutic properties. In India, this plant is found in the Himalayan belt and has not been completely explored for its beneficial health effects. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-inflammatory efficacy of the tincture extract of Rhodiola rosea roots (RTE). The anti-inflammatory activity was determined through carrageenan-induced paw oedema, formaldehyde-induced arthritis and nystatin-induced paw oedema in rat model. The tincture extract exhibited inhibitory effect against acute and subacute inflammation at a dose of 250 mg/kg body weight. Inhibition of nystatin-induced oedema was also observed in a dose-dependent manner. The in vitro inhibitory effects of the tincture extract from R. rosea roots was evaluated against the enzymes relating to inflammation. The enzymes include cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and Phospholipase A2 (PLA2). The extract showed varying inhibitory activities against these enzymes depending on the concentrations. A potent inhibition was observed against Cox-2 and PLA2. Inhibition of nystatin induced oedema and phospholipase A2 suggested that membrane stabilization could be the most probable mechanism of action of RTE in anti-inflammation. The findings in this study may provide the use of R. rosea root extract in the treatment of inflammatory conditions. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Approaches of Rhodiola kirilowii and Rhodiola rosea field cultivation in Poland and their potential health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech-Baran, Marta; Sykłowska-Baranek, Katarzyna; Pietrosiuk, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Numerous researches have been carried out on plants of the Rhodiola species, especially Rhodiola kirilowii (Regel) Maxim. and Rhodiola rosea. Various compounds have been reported to be isolated from R. kirilowii and R. rosea, including cyanogenic glycosides, monoterpene alcohols and their glycosides, aryl glycosides, phenylethanoids, phenylpropanoids and their glycosides (salidroside and rosavins respectively), as well as flavonoids, flavonlignans, proanthocyanidins and gallic acid derivatives and the latter have free radical scavenging capacity. The benefits claimed for Rhodiola include adapogenic, neuroprotective, anti-depresive anti-tumour and cardioprotective activities. Currently, the adaptogenic activity of Rhodiola compounds are properties evaluated mainly in human clinical trials. The mechanism of the action of Rhodiola extracts include affecting the levels of cortisol and NO by interactions with glucocorticoid receptors directly or via the c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) pathway. However, the natural populations of R. rosea in Poland are threatened; therefore, the cultivation of R. rosea and alternative species R. kirilowii might be a possible solution for producing these kinds of plants in Poland in sufficient quantities and quality for pharmaceutical purposes. Lack of proven interaction with other drugs and no confirmed adverse effects during clinical trials encourages further investigation. These herb preparations ought to be studied extensively to establish their position as potential drugs for a variety of diseases.

  5. The effectiveness and efficacy of Rhodiola rosea L.: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Shao Kang; Perry, Rachel; Ernst, Edzard

    2011-02-15

    To critically assess the current evidence from randomized clinical trials (RCTs) for or against the effectiveness or efficacy of Rhodiola rosea. Systematic literature searches were performed in six electronic databases: AMED (1985-July 2009), CINAHL (1982-July 2009), The Cochrane Library (search in July 2009), EMBASE (1974-July 2009), MEDLINE (1950-July 2009) and Web of Science (searched in July 2009). No language restrictions were imposed. Reference lists of all retrieved articles were searched, and experts and manufacturers were contacted for unpublished RCT. RCTs testing the efficacy or effectiveness of mono-preparations of R. rosea as sole treatment administered orally against a control intervention in any human individual suffering from any condition or healthy human volunteers were included. Studies were selected, data extracted, and quality assessed by two independent reviewers. Eleven RCTs met the inclusion criteria; all were placebo-controlled. Six trials investigated the effects of R. rosea on physical performance, four on mental performance, and two in patients diagnosed with mental health condition. The methodological quality of most trials was moderate or good. Only few mild adverse events were reported. R. rosea may have beneficial effects on physical performance, mental performance, and certain mental health conditions. There is, however, a lack of independent replications of the single different studies. Five of the 10 RCTs reached more than three points on the Jadad score (i.e., good quality). More research seems warranted. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. [Xanthones from leaves of Calophyllum inophyllum Linn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Li, Zhan-Lin; Liu, Ming-Sheng; Li, Dan-Yi; Zhang, Hui; Hua, Hui-Ming

    2009-02-01

    To study the xanthones from the leaves of Calophyllum inophyllum Linn., several chromatography methods were employed to isolate the constituents. Investigation on the CHCl3 extract led to the isolation of a new xanthone named inophyxanthone A (1) and four known compounds, which were pancixanthone A (2), gerontoxanthone B (3), jacareubin (4) and pyranojacareubin (5). Among them, compound 2 was obtained from this plant firstly, and compound 3 was obtained for the first time from this genus. The structure of inophyxanthone A (1) was identified as 1, 3, 5-trihydroxy-2-(1, 1-dimethylallyl)xanthone by spectral analysis.

  7. Pause menopause with Rhodiola rosea, a natural selective estrogen receptor modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbarg, Patricia L; Brown, Richard P

    2016-06-15

    Menopausal women are challenged by the adverse effects of estrogen loss on energy, mood, cognitive function, and memory. These stresses are compounded by increased risks for cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and cancer. Known to have neuroprotective, cardio-protective, anti-oxidative and anti-carcinogenic effects, Rhodiola rosea extracts have also been shown to improve energy, mood, cognitive function and memory. We propose that R. rosea be investigated for use as a potential selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) in the prevention and treatment of menopause-related fatigue, stress, depression, cognitive decline, memory impairment, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and cancer. This paper briefly reviews the relationship between estrogen decline and menopause-related health risks, the molecular mechanisms underlying estrogenic effects on health, and the evidence indicating beneficial effects of R. rosea extracts on these mechanisms and health risks. Mechanisms include non-genomic and genomic effects, for example: activation of intra-cellular signal transduction pathways by binding to estrogen receptors, ERα-mediated activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase with increased nitric oxide release; and anti-inflammatory effects, counteracting TNFα by inhibiting nuclear factor-Kappa-B (NF-KB) and protection of osteoblasts from hydrogen peroxide. A clinical case illustrating treatment of a menopausal woman with R. rosea is presented. Risks, benefits, gaps in knowledge, and future directions are discussed. Numerous lines of evidence indicate that R. rosea should be investigated as a potential selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) to prevent, delay or mitigate menopause-related cognitive, psychological, cardiovascular and osteoporotic conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of culture conditions on spore types of Clonostachys rosea 67-1 in submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, M H; Chen, Y M; Liu, J F; Li, S D; Ma, G Z

    2014-04-01

    The promising biocontrol isolate Clonostachys rosea 67-1 was investigated to clarify the effects of culture conditions on chlamydospore production in submerged fermentation. Culture conditions significantly affected both performance and types of C. rosea sporulation. C. rosea 67-1 was hard to generate chlamydospores under conventional conditions. However, the proportion of resistant spores increased to 17·4 and 15·5% in PD and rice meal media, respectively, in 8 days. Chlamydospore productivity was boosted (>threefold) with the addition of 50-200 mg l(-1) CuSO4 . The pH of the medium played a vital role in 67-1 sporulation. The percentage of chlamydospores decreased rapidly with increased pH (88·1% at pH 3·0 to 1·0% at pH 6·5). The optimal pH for conidia production was 6·0-6·5, at which chlamydospore forming was strongly inhibited. Regulating pH during fermentation contributed to improving output and proportion of resistant spores. When 67-1 was inoculated into broth with an initial pH of 6·5, followed by adjustment to pH 3·5 after 48 h, the number of chlamydospores reached 1·1 × 10(8) ml(-1). The impact of temperature and rotational speed was also analysed; an ultimate capacity of chlamydospores was achieved at 30°C and the speed above 120 rev min(-1) (P culture conditions on performance and types of C. rosea sporulation and subsequently inadequate research on the techniques for chlamydospore production. In addressing these concerns, this study provides a unique insight into the manipulation of C. rosea sporulation and chlamydospore fermentation of the biocontrol fungus. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Nutrient Values of Chrysophyllum Albidum Linn African Star Apple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    . Linn. It was necessitated by the need towards creating awareness that this species can provide nutrient supplements for the larger percentage of the population in the rural and peri-urban communities. Chrysophyllum albidum locally called ...

  10. Anticancer Activity of Limonia acidissima Linn (Rutaceae) Fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rutaceae) which has long been used traditionally for various infectious and malignant diseases. Methods: The fruit extract of Limonia acidissima Linn was obtained by macerating 3 times with methanol and then concentrating it at reduced pressure.

  11. New York, rändurite linn / Kadri Kerge

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kerge, Kadri

    2016-01-01

    New York on linn, mille elanikkond ja ruum on pidevas muutumises. Ehitustegevuse tulemusena on uue ilme saanud kõik linnaosad. Aktuaalseim teema New Yorgi arhitektuuriringkondades ja ehituses on nn. ultrapilvelõhkujatega seonduv

  12. Estimation of bioflavonoids in Amaranthus caudatus Linn . by HPLC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flavonoids are present in the Amaranthus caudatus Linn, Flavonoids like Rutin and quercetin possess many biochemical effects like inhibition of enzymes, regulatory role on different hormones and pharmacological activities like antimicrobial, antioxidant, anticancer, antihepatotoxic, protection of cardio vascular system.

  13. RP - HPLC Method for Determination of Piperine from Piper longum Linn. and Piper nigrum Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Santosh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Piper longum Linn. and Piper nigrum Linn. are used as spices and medicines. Quantitative determination of piperine was undertaken to provide an easy and simple analytical method, which can be used as a routine quality control method. RP-HPLC was performed using methanol and water as mobile phase. The detection and quantification was performed at a wavelength of 345 nm. Linearity of detector response for piperine was between the concentrations 0.005% to 0.1%. The correlation coefficient obtained for the linearity was 0.998. The assay value of piperine for fruit and root of P. longum was found to be 0.879% and 0.31%. The assay value of piperine for fruit of P. nigrum was 4.5%. The recovery value of standard piperine was 99.4%. Low value of standard deviation and coefficient of variation are indicative of high precision of the method.

  14. Tyrosinase Inhibitory Effect and Antioxidative Activities of Fermented and Ethanol Extracts of Rhodiola rosea and Lonicera japonica

    OpenAIRE

    Yuh-Shuen Chen; Hua-Chian Liou; Chin-Feng Chan

    2013-01-01

    This is the first study to investigate the biological activities of fermented extracts of Rhodiola rosea L. (Crassulaceae) and Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Caprifoliaceae). Alcaligenes piechaudii CC-ESB2 fermented and ethanol extracts of Rhodiola rosea and Lonicera japonica were prepared and the antioxidative activities of different concentrations of samples were evaluated using in vitro antioxidative assays. Tyrosinase inhibition was determined by using the dopachrome method with L-DOPA as subs...

  15. Central additive effect of Ginkgo biloba and Rhodiola rosea on psychomotor vigilance task and short-term working memory accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Kuraishy, Hayder M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aim: The present study investigates the effect of combined treatment with Ginkgo biloba and/or rhodiola rosea on psychomotor vigilance task and short-term working memory accuracy. Subjects and Methods: A total number of 112 volunteers was enrolled to study the effect of Ginkgo biloba and rhodiola rosea on psychomotor vigilance task and short-term working memory accuracy as compared to placebo effects,the central cognitive effect was assessed by Critical flicker-fusion frequency (...

  16. Extension of Drosophila Lifespan by Rhodiola rosea Depends on Dietary Carbohydrate and Caloric Content in a Simplified Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schriner, Samuel E; Coskun, Volkan; Hogan, Sean P; Nguyen, Cindy T; Lopez, Terry E; Jafari, Mahtab

    2016-03-01

    The root and rhizome extract of Rhodiola rosea has been extensively used in traditional medicine to improve physical and mental performance and to protect against stress. We, and others, have reported that R. rosea can extend lifespan in flies, worms, and yeast. We also previously found that the extract can act independently of dietary restriction (DR), a treatment that can extend lifespan in a range of model organisms. In flies, DR is implemented through a reduction in dietary yeast content. Here, we report that the ability of R. rosea extract to extend lifespan in flies is dependent on the carbohydrate and caloric content when supplemented with a simplified diet composed of yeast and sucrose. R. rosea extract elevated the sugar content in flies and down-regulated hexokinase expression, suggesting that it perturbs carbohydrate metabolism in flies. In our previous studies, bananas, barley malt, and corn syrup provided dietary carbohydrates, and R. rosea extract could extend lifespan with a range of caloric levels. We conclude that the lifespan-extending effect of R. rosea extract in flies is dependent on dietary carbohydrate and caloric contents coupled with an interaction with complex dietary components present in bananas, barley, or corn.

  17. Rhodiola rosea for mental and physical fatigue in nursing students: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salima Punja

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fatigue is one of many unintended consequences of shift work in the nursing profession. Natural health products (NHPs for fatigue are becoming an increasingly popular topic of clinical study; one such NHP is Rhodiola rosea. A well-designed, rigorously conducted randomized controlled trial is required before therapeutic claims for this product can be made. OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of R. rosea with placebo for reducing fatigue in nursing students on shift work. DESIGN: A parallel-group randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of 18-55 year old students from the Faculty of Nursing from the University of Alberta, participating in clinical rotations between January 2011 and September 2011. INTERVENTIONS: Participants were randomized to take 364 mg of either R. rosea or identical placebo at the start of their wakeful period and up to one additional capsule within the following four hours on a daily basis over a 42-day period. OUTCOMES: The primary outcome was reduction in fatigue over the 42-day trial period measured using the Vitality-subscale of the RAND-36, cross-validated by the visual analogue scale for fatigue (VAS-F. Secondary outcomes included health-related quality of life, individualized outcomes assessment, and adverse events. RESULTS: A total of 48 participants were randomized to R. rosea (n = 24 or placebo (n = 24. The mean change in scores on the Vitality-subscale was significantly different between the study groups at day 42 in favor of placebo (-17.3 (95% CI -30.6, -3.9, p = 0.011, The mean change in scores on the VAS-F was also significantly difference between study groups at day 42 in favour of placebo (1.9 (95% CI 0.4, 3.5, p = 0.015. Total number of adverse events did not differ between R. rosea and placebo groups. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that among nursing students on shift work, a 42-day course of R. Rosea compared with placebo worsened fatigue; however, the results

  18. Rhodiola rosea for mental and physical fatigue in nursing students: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punja, Salima; Shamseer, Larissa; Olson, Karin; Vohra, Sunita

    2014-01-01

    Fatigue is one of many unintended consequences of shift work in the nursing profession. Natural health products (NHPs) for fatigue are becoming an increasingly popular topic of clinical study; one such NHP is Rhodiola rosea. A well-designed, rigorously conducted randomized controlled trial is required before therapeutic claims for this product can be made. To compare the efficacy of R. rosea with placebo for reducing fatigue in nursing students on shift work. A parallel-group randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of 18-55 year old students from the Faculty of Nursing from the University of Alberta, participating in clinical rotations between January 2011 and September 2011. Participants were randomized to take 364 mg of either R. rosea or identical placebo at the start of their wakeful period and up to one additional capsule within the following four hours on a daily basis over a 42-day period. The primary outcome was reduction in fatigue over the 42-day trial period measured using the Vitality-subscale of the RAND-36, cross-validated by the visual analogue scale for fatigue (VAS-F). Secondary outcomes included health-related quality of life, individualized outcomes assessment, and adverse events. A total of 48 participants were randomized to R. rosea (n = 24) or placebo (n = 24). The mean change in scores on the Vitality-subscale was significantly different between the study groups at day 42 in favor of placebo (-17.3 (95% CI -30.6, -3.9), p = 0.011), The mean change in scores on the VAS-F was also significantly difference between study groups at day 42 in favour of placebo (1.9 (95% CI 0.4, 3.5), p = 0.015). Total number of adverse events did not differ between R. rosea and placebo groups. This study indicates that among nursing students on shift work, a 42-day course of R. Rosea compared with placebo worsened fatigue; however, the results should be interpreted with caution. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01278992.

  19. Rapid and simultaneous determination of five vinca alkaloids in Catharanthus roseus and human serum using trilinear component modeling of liquid chromatography-diode array detection data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi; Wu, Hai-Long; Li, Yong; Gu, Hui-Wen; Yin, Xiao-Li; Xie, Li-Xia; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2016-07-15

    A novel chemometrics-assisted high performance liquid chromatography method coupled with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) was proposed for the simultaneous determination of vincristine (VCR), vinblastine (VLB), vindoline (VDL), catharanthine (CAT) and yohimbine (YHB) in Catharanthus roseus (C. roseus) and human serum samples. With the second-order advantage of the alternating trilinear decomposition (ATLD) method, the resolution and rapid determination of five components of interest in complex matrices were performed, even in the present of heavy overlaps and unknown interferences. Therefore, multi-step purification was omitted and five components could be fast eluted out within 7.5min under simple isocratic elution condition (acetonitrile/0.2% formic acid water, 37:63, v/v). Statistical parameters, such as the linear correlation coefficient (R(2)), root-mean-square error of prediction (RMSEP), limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) had been calculated to investigate the accuracy and reliability of the method. The average recoveries of five vinca alkaloids ranged from 97.1% to 101.9% and 98.8% to 103.0% in C. roseus and human serum samples, respectively. The five vinca alkaloids were adequately determined with limits of detection (LODs) of 29.5-49.3ngmL(-1) in C. roseus and 12.4-27.2ngmL(-1) in human serum samples, respectively. The obtained results demonstrated that the analytical strategy provided a feasible alternative for synchronously monitoring the quality of raw herb and the concentration of blood drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Endophytic colonization of tomato plants by the biological control agent Clonostachys rosea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Anna Kaja; Jørgensen, Hans Jørgen Lyngs; Amby, Daniel Buchvaldt

    Fungal endophytes live naturally inside plants without causing symptoms. On the contrary, they can promote plant growth and increase tolerance to abiotic and biotic stress. These beneficial effects have increased the agricultural interest for exploitation of fungal isolates with an endophytic life......-style. Clonostachys rosea occurs naturally world-wide and is capable of colonizing many different habitats. The fungus is primarily known as a versatile biological control agent. However, it has also been reported as a plant endophyte in, e.g., soybean, red clover and cacao. The C. rosea isolate IK726 efficiently...... controls seed- and soil-borne diseases and can furthermore promote plant growth. However, it is not known whether IK726 can colonize plants internally and therefore, the objective of the present study was to examine the possibility of an endophytic life-style of IK726 in tomato. Tomato seeds were sown...

  1. Pengaruh Naungan Yang Berbeda Terhadap Jumlah Stomata Dan Ukuran Porus Stomata Daun Zephyranthes Rosea Lindl

    OpenAIRE

    Haryanti, Sri

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this experiment was to study the effect difference of shelter towards the sum of stomata and longth and wide porus of stomata Zephyranthes rosea. The experiment was performent by using Randomized Complete Design (3 treatment with 3 replicatesfor each treatment). experiment. The treatment was 1 paranet,2 paranets and control (no paranet). Parameter was sum of leaf and wide of leaf. Data was analized by using Anova test. The result of this experiment indicated that ...

  2. Effect of commercial Rhodiola rosea on CYP enzyme activity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thu, Ole Kristian; Spigset, Olav; Nilsen, Odd Georg; Hellum, Bent

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the herbal drug Rhodiola rosea on the activity of the cytochrome P-450 (CYP) enzymes CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 in humans. In a randomized cross-over study, 13 healthy volunteers were given a cocktail with single doses of the CYP substrates caffeine (CYP1A2), losartan (CYP2C9), omeprazole (CYP2C19), dextromethorphan (CYP2D6), and midazolam (CYP3A4) with and without 14 days of pretreatment with a commercially available R. rosea product (Arctic Root, produced by the Swedish Herbal Institute). Four hours after intake of the drug cocktail, a blood sample was obtained, the serum concentrations of the drugs and their metabolites were analyzed, and the metabolic ratios were calculated as a measure of CYP enzyme activity. A statistically significant 21% decrease in the EXP-3174/losartan ratio was found after pretreatment with R. rosea (p = 0.023), indicating a reduced CYP2C9 metabolic activity. The effect was more pronounced in CYP2C9 extensive metabolizers than in CYP2C9 intermediate and poor metabolizers. For the other CYP enzymes tested, no significant effects were observed. This study indicates that R. rosea inhibits the metabolic capacity of CYP2C9 in humans. Although the effect is modest, it might be clinically relevant during treatment with CYP2C9 substrates with a narrow therapeutic index, such as phenytoin and warfarin.

  3. In vitro inhibition of cytochrome P-450 activities and quantification of constituents in a selection of commercial Rhodiola rosea products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thu, Ole Kristian; Nilsen, Odd Georg; Hellum, Bent

    2016-12-01

    Rhodiola rosea L. (Crassulaceae) products are popular natural remedies with a worldwide distribution. Recent studies have revealed potent CYP inhibition by R. rosea extracts both in vitro and in vivo, but information on in vitro CYP inhibition by commercial products are lacking. Variations in commercial R. rosea product quality have also been published. This study evaluates the variation of in vitro CYP inhibition potential and product quality of six commercially available R. rosea products. Human CYPs isolated from baculovirus-infected cell system were incubated with testosterone (CYP3A4), dextromethorphan (CYP2D6) or phenacetin (CYP1A2). Positive CYP inhibitors ketoconazole (CYP3A4), quinidine (CYP2D6) and β-naphtoflavone (CYP1A2) were used as controls. Quantification of rosavin, rosarin, rosin, tyrosol and salidroside were used to evaluate R. rosea content. IC50 values ranged from 7.2-106.6 μg/mL for CYP3A4, 13.0-186.1 μg/mL for 2D6 and 10.7-116.0 μg/mL for 1A2. The tincture formulation of R. rosea was the strongest inhibitor giving the lowest IC50 values of 7.2 ± 0.7, 13 ± 1.7 and 10.7 ± 5.6 μg/mL, respectively. CYP3A4 was significantly more inhibited by the different products than CYP1A2 (p rosea product. Constituent concentrations were not linked to enzyme inhibition. The present results show a large variation in inhibitory potential between the products. Several of the products demonstrate similar inhibition levels as the product Arctic Root already proven to inhibit CYP enzyme activity in man.

  4. Synergistic interactions between the antinociceptive effect of Rhodiola rosea extract and B vitamins in the mouse formalin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel-Ruiz, Rosa Mariana; González-Trujano, María Eva; Déciga-Campos, Myrna

    2013-11-15

    In this study, the pharmacological interactions between a Rhodiola rosea ethanol extract and B-vitamins such as thiamine (B1), riboflavine (B2), pyridoxine (B6), cyanocobalamin (B12) and a mixture of vitamins B1+B6+B12 was investigated in the mouse formalin test. Individual dose response curves of the Rhodiola rosea ethanol extract, as well as B-vitamins alone or in a mixture were evaluated in mice in which nociception was induced with 2% formalin intraplantarly. The antinociceptive mechanisms of the Rhodiola rosea were investigated by exploring the role of the opioid and serotonin receptors and the nitric oxide pathway. Isobolographic analysis was used to evaluate the pharmacological interactions between the Rhodiola rosea ethanol extract and each B-vitamin individually or the mixture of vitamins B1+B6+B12 by using the ED30 and a fixed 1:1 ratio combination. Administration of the Rhodiola rosea extract alone or in combination with all of the vitamins produced a significant and dose-dependent antinociceptive response. The antinociceptive effect of the Rhodiola rosea extract (ED50=81 mg/kg, p.o.) was significant and reverted in the presence of antagonists of the 5-HT1A, GABA/BDZs and opioid receptors and by blocking mediators of the nitric oxide/cGMP/K(+) channels pathway. Isobolograms demonstrate that all of the combinations investigated in this study produced a synergistic interaction experimental ED30 values were significantly smaller than those calculated theoretically. These results provide evidence that a Rhodiola rosea ethanol extract in combination with B-vitamins produces a significant diminution in the nociceptive response in a synergistic manner, which is controlled by various mechanisms. These findings could aid in the design of clinical studies and suggest that these combinations could be applied for pain therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Two potent cytochrome P450 2D6 inhibitors found in Rhodiola rosea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wen; Zhang, Tingting; Wang, Zhi; Liu, Tao; Liu, Yanping; Cao, Zhihong; Sui, Zhongguo

    2013-12-01

    Throughout the world, in particular in Russia, Northern Europe and China, Rhodiola species are used as herb supplements. Previously, we found that the extract of Rhodiola rosea, one of the most widely used Rhodiola species, had an inhibitory effect on the catalytic activity of cytochrome P450 2D6. Here, its inhibitory components were identified. A human liver microsomal in vitro system was used with dextromethorphan as substrate. The production rate of destrorphan, a metabolite of dextromethorphan, was used to measure enzyme activity. The concentration of destrorphan in the samples was measured using LC-MS/MS. Inhibitory activity of eight main components from Rhodiola rosea was evaluated. Rhodiosin and rhodionin showed inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 0.761 microM and 0.420 microM, respectively. The other components showed no obvious inhibition (with a residual enzyme activity of more than 90%). Both rhodiosin and rhodionin were determined to be non-competitive inhibitors with Ki values of 0.769 microM and 0.535 microM. Two of the main Rhodiola rosea compounds, rhodiosin and rhodionin, can inhibit cytochrome P450 2D6 non-competitively with high specificity which could have implications for interactions with co-administered drugs.

  6. Biometric features and content of phenolic compounds of roseroot (Rhodiola rosea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Adamczak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Roseroot (Rhodiola rosea L. belongs to important herbs in folk medicine of Scandinavia, Russia, Mongolia, and China. Its therapeutic usage is mainly associated with the adaptogenic properties of this species. Roseroot is characterized by high morphological, phytochemical, and genetic differentiation. The aim of the present work was to determine the biometric and phytochemical co-variability of this taxon. Samples of Rh. rosea were collected from 4-year-old experimental field cultivation established by rhizome division in western Poland. For each plant, the biometric measurements of the clumps, shoots, leaves, and rhizomes with roots were carried out. In the underground plant parts (raw material, the contents of the main active compounds (phenylpropanoids, phenylethanoids, phenolic acids, and catechins were determined by the HPLC-DAD method. K-means clustering analysis showed three well-separated plant groups of Rh. rosea that differed significantly in the level of most of the investigated components. It was interesting that in the raw material with a high content of phenylethanoids, a low level of phenyl­propanoids was found, and vice versa. These chemical groups clearly differed in luxuriance of plants, too. The important diagnostic feature was also the degree of leaf serration. The morphological and phytochemical co-variability of roseroot was confirmed by the correlations detected between some active compounds (especially catechins and rosavin and biometric traits describing the size and serration of leaves, the size of clumps and shoots as well as the weight of the raw material.

  7. Rosenroot (Rhodiola rosea): traditional use, chemical composition, pharmacology and clinical efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panossian, A; Wikman, G; Sarris, J

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this review article was to summarize accumulated information related to chemical composition, pharmacological activity, traditional and official use of Rhodiola rosea L. in medicine. In total approximately 140 compounds were isolated from roots and rhizome - monoterpene alcohols and their glycosides, cyanogenic glycosides, aryl glycosides, phenylethanoids, phenylpropanoids and their glycosides, flavonoids, flavonlignans, proanthocyanidins and gallic acid derivatives. Studies on isolated organs, tissues, cells and enzymes have revealed that Rhodiola preparations exhibit adaptogenic effect including, neuroprotective, cardioprotectiv e, anti-fatigue, antidepressive, anxiolytic, nootropic, life-span increasing effects and CNS stimulating activity. A number of clinical trials demonstrate that repeated administration of R. rosea extract SHR-5 exerts an anti-fatigue effect that increases mental performance (particularly the ability to concentrate in healthy subjects), and reduces burnout in patients with fatigue syndrome. Encouraging results exist for the use of Rhodiola in mild to moderate depression, and generalized anxiety. Several mechanisms of action possibly contributing to the clinical effect have been identified for Rhodiola extracts. They include interactions with HPA-system (cortisol-reducing), protein kinases p-JNK, nitric oxide, and defense mechanism proteins (e.g. heat shock proteins Hsp 70 and FoxO/DAF-16). Lack of interaction with other drugs and adverse effects in the course of clinical trials make it potentially attractive for use as a safe medication. In conclusion, Rhodiola rosea has robust traditional and pharmacological evidence of use in fatigue, and emerging evidence supporting cognition and mood.

  8. Decolorization and detoxification of sulfonated azo dye methyl orange by Kocuria rosea MTCC 1532.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshetti, G K; Telke, A A; Kalyani, D C; Govindwar, S P

    2010-04-15

    Kocuria rosea (MTCC 1532) showed 100% decolorization of methyl orange (50 mg l(-1)) under static condition. The optimum pH and temperature for dye decolorization was 6.8 and 30 degrees C, respectively. The K. rosea (MTCC 1532) showed maximum decolorization of methyl orange when growth medium containing yeast extract as compared to other substrates. The culture exhibited significant ability to decolorize repeated additions of dye, with reduction in time up to 12 h at eighth dye aliquot addition. Significant induction of reductases (NADH-DCIP reductase and azoreductase) suggests its involvement in decolorization of methyl orange. The metabolites formed after decolorization of methyl orange, such as 4-amino sulfonic acid and N,N'-dimethyl p-phenyldiamine were characterized using FTIR and MS. Phytotoxicity and microbial toxicity study showed the methyl orange was toxic and metabolites obtained after its decolorization was nontoxic for experimental plants (Triticum aestivum and Phaseolus mungo) and bacteria (K. rosea, Pseudomonas aurugenosa and Azatobacter vinelandii). 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The effects of Rhodiola rosea extract on 5-HT level, cell proliferation and quantity of neurons at cerebral hippocampus of depressive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q G; Zeng, Y S; Qu, Z Q; Tang, J Y; Qin, Y J; Chung, P; Wong, R; Hägg, U

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Rhodiola rosea extract and depression on the serotonin (5-HT) level, cell proliferation and quantity of neurons at cerebral hippocampus of depressive rats induced by Chronic Mild Stress (CMS). Seventy male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into seven groups (10 per group): normal control group, untreated depressive rat model group, negative control group, positive control group, low dosage Rhodiola rosea extract (1.5g/kg) group, medium dosage Rhodiola rosea extract (3g/kg) group and high dosage Rhodiola rosea extract (6g/kg) group. After the depressive rats induced by CMS had received Rhodiola rosea extract for 3 weeks, the 5-HT levels at cerebral hippocampus were detected by high performance liquid chromatography. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was injected in vivo to label the proliferating cells at hippocampus, and morphometry was used to count the hippocampal neurons. The results showed that the 5-HT level of the three experimental groups had recovered to normal status. The immunohistochemistry of hippocampus BrdU positive cells had returned to the normal level in the group of depressive rats with low dosage Rhodiola rosea extract. In conclusion the results demonstrated that Rhodiola rosea extract could improve 5-HT level in hippocampus in depressive rats, and low dosage Rhodiola rosea could induce neural stem cell proliferation at hippocampus to return to normal level, repairing the injured neurons at hippocampus.

  10. A Perilipin Gene from Clonostachys rosea f. Catenulata HL-1-1 Is Related to Sclerotial Parasitism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan-Bin Sun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Clonostachys rosea f. catenulata is a promising biocontrol agent against many fungal plant pathogens. To identify mycoparasitism-related genes from C. rosea f. catenulata, a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH cDNA library of C. rosea f. catenulata HL-1-1 that parasitizes the sclerotia of S. sclerotiorum was constructed. 502 clones were sequenced randomly, and thereby 472 expressed sequence tags (ESTs were identified. Forty-three unigenes were annotated and exhibited similarity to a wide diversity of genes. Quantitative real -time PCR showed that a perilipin-like protein encoding gene, Per3, was up-regulated by 6.6-fold over the control at 96 h under the induction of sclerotia. The full-length sequence of Per3 was obtained via 5' and 3' rapid identification of cDNA ends. Overexpression of Per3 in HL-1-1 significantly enhanced the parasitic ability on sclerotia. The results indicated that Per3 might be involved in the mycoparasitism of C. rosea f. catenulata HL-1-1. This is the first report of a perilipin as a potential biocontrol gene in mycoparasites. The study provides usefu l insights into the interaction between C. rosea f. catenulata and fungal plant pathogens.

  11. Effects of a Rhodiola rosea L. extract on acquisition and expression of morphine tolerance and dependence in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli, Laura; Perfumi, Marina

    2011-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of Rhodiola rosea L. extract on acquisition and expression of morphine tolerance and dependence in mice. Therefore animals were injected with repeated administration of morphine (10 mg/kg, subcutaneous) twice daily for five or six days, in order to make them tolerant or dependent. Rhodiola rosea L. extract (0, 10, 15 and 20 mg/kg) was administered by the intragastric route 60 min prior to each morphine injection (for acquisition) or prior the last injection of morphine or naloxone on test day (for tolerance or dependence expression, respectively). Morphine tolerance was evaluated by testing its analgesic effect in the tail flick test at the 1st and 5th days. Morphine dependence was evaluated by counting the number of withdrawal signs (jumping, rearing, forepaw tremor, teeth chatter) after naloxone injection (5 mg/kg; intraperitoneal) on the test day (day 6). Results showed that Rhodiola rosea L. extract significantly reduced the expression of morphine tolerance, while it was ineffective in modulating its acquisition. Conversely, Rhodiola rosea L. extract significantly and dose-dependently attenuated both development and expression of morphine dependence after chronic or acute administration. These data suggest that Rhodiola rosea L. may have human therapeutic potential for treatment of opioid addiction.

  12. Antipyretic effects of hydro-methanol extract of Melia azedarach Linn. seeds and Cucumis melo Linn. seeds in experimental rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Sabira; Akhtar, Naveed; Asif, Hafiz Muhammad

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the antipyretic activity of hydro-methanol extract of Melia azedarach Linn. (HMEMA) seeds and Cucumis melo Linn. (HMECM) seeds in experimental animals. Baker's yeast was used to induce fever in rabbits which were divided into six groups. The animal groups were thereafter administered distilled water (control), paracetamol (reference standard, 150mg/kg), HMEMA (250mg/kg), HMEMA (500mg/kg), HMECM (250mg/kg) and HMECM (500mg/kg) respectively. HMEMA and HMECM were also phytochemically screened for tannins, alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, saponins and cardiac glycosides. Results indicate that hydro-methanol extract of M. azedarach Linn. Seeds (250mg/kg and 500mg/kg) significantly (pMelia azedarach L. seeds in treating fever. This property can be attributed to the presence of phytochemical constituents present in the hydro-methanol extract of Melia azedarach L. seeds and the exact mechanism need to be evaluated.

  13. Clonostachys rosea reduces spot blotch in barley by inhibiting prepenetration growth and sporulation of Bipolaris sorokiniana without inducing resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birgit; Lübeck, Peter Stephensen; Jørgensen, Hans J.L.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several diseases threaten cereal production and fungicides are therefore widely used. Biological control is an environmentally friendly alternative and the fungus Clonostachys rosea is a versatile antagonist, effective against several plant diseases. We studied the ability of C. rosea...... to control barley leaf pathogens and the mechanisms behind the inhibition emphasising induced resistance. RESULTS: Under controlled conditions, spray application of C. rosea isolate IK726 to barley leaves reduced Bipolaris sorokiniana severity up to 70% when applied 24 h before or simultaneously...... as the pathogen, whereas application 24 h after the pathogen had no effect. IK726 also reduced the sporulation capacity of B. sorokiniana. Microscopy of B. sorokiniana infection revealed that IK726 primarily inhibited conidial germination and appressorium formation while further pathogen development and host...

  14. Rapid resolution liquid chromatography (RRLC) analysis for quality control of Rhodiola rosea roots and commercial standardized products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuan-Chun; Wang, Xiao-Qiang; Hou, Fei Fei; Ma, Jie; Luo, Mai; Lu, Shane; Jin, Peter; Terevsky, Nelly; Chen, Alice; Xu, Iris; Patel, Asmita V; Gorecki, Dariusz

    2011-05-01

    A simple, sensitive and reliable reversed phase Rapid Resolution Liquid Chromatography (RRLC) method was developed and validated for six biologically active compounds (salidroside, tyrosol, rosarin, rosavin, rosin and rosiridin) in Rhodiola rosea L. roots and powder extracts. The method uses a Phenomenex C18 (2)-HST column at 40 degrees C with a neutral gradient system mobile phase (H20 and acetonitrile), a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, and UV detection wavelengths set at 205 and 254 nm, simultaneously. Baseline separation of the six active compounds was achieved within 8 minutes. The average percentages of rosavins (rosarin, rosavin, and rosin) in authentic R. rosea roots and root powder extracts were quantitatively determined and a characteristic R. rosea roots RRLC profile was established. The RRLC method is accurate and sensitive; in addition, it effectively increases the sample analysis throughput compared with conventional HPLC.

  15. Purple pitcher plant (Sarracenia rosea Dieback and partial community disassembly following experimental storm surge in a coastal pitcher plant bog.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Abbott

    Full Text Available Sea-level rise and frequent intense hurricanes associated with climate change will result in recurrent flooding of inland systems such as Gulf Coastal pitcher plant bogs by storm surges. These surges can transport salt water and sediment to freshwater bogs, greatly affecting their biological integrity. Purple pitcher plants (Sarracenia rosea are Gulf Coast pitcher plant bog inhabitants that could be at a disadvantage under this scenario because their pitcher morphology may leave them prone to collection of saline water and sediment after a surge. We investigated the effects of storm surge water salinity and sediment type on S. rosea vitality, plant community structure, and bog soil-water conductivity. Plots (containing ≥1 ramet of S. rosea were experimentally flooded with fresh or saline water crossed with one of three sediment types (local, foreign, or no sediment. There were no treatment effects on soil-water conductivity; nevertheless, direct exposure to saline water resulted in significantly lower S. rosea cover until the following season when a prescribed fire and regional drought contributed to the decline of all the S. rosea to near zero percent cover. There were also significant differences in plant community structure between treatments over time, reflecting how numerous species increased in abundance and a few species decreased in abundance. However, in contrast to S. rosea, most of the other species in the community appeared resilient to the effects of storm surge. Thus, although the community may be somewhat affected by storm surge, those few species that are particularly sensitive to the storm surge disturbance will likely drop out of the community and be replaced by more resilient species. Depending on the longevity of these biological legacies, Gulf Coastal pitcher plant bogs may be incapable of fully recovering if they become exposed to storm surge more frequently due to climate change.

  16. Purple pitcher plant (Sarracenia rosea) Dieback and partial community disassembly following experimental storm surge in a coastal pitcher plant bog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Matthew J; Battaglia, Loretta L

    2015-01-01

    Sea-level rise and frequent intense hurricanes associated with climate change will result in recurrent flooding of inland systems such as Gulf Coastal pitcher plant bogs by storm surges. These surges can transport salt water and sediment to freshwater bogs, greatly affecting their biological integrity. Purple pitcher plants (Sarracenia rosea) are Gulf Coast pitcher plant bog inhabitants that could be at a disadvantage under this scenario because their pitcher morphology may leave them prone to collection of saline water and sediment after a surge. We investigated the effects of storm surge water salinity and sediment type on S. rosea vitality, plant community structure, and bog soil-water conductivity. Plots (containing ≥1 ramet of S. rosea) were experimentally flooded with fresh or saline water crossed with one of three sediment types (local, foreign, or no sediment). There were no treatment effects on soil-water conductivity; nevertheless, direct exposure to saline water resulted in significantly lower S. rosea cover until the following season when a prescribed fire and regional drought contributed to the decline of all the S. rosea to near zero percent cover. There were also significant differences in plant community structure between treatments over time, reflecting how numerous species increased in abundance and a few species decreased in abundance. However, in contrast to S. rosea, most of the other species in the community appeared resilient to the effects of storm surge. Thus, although the community may be somewhat affected by storm surge, those few species that are particularly sensitive to the storm surge disturbance will likely drop out of the community and be replaced by more resilient species. Depending on the longevity of these biological legacies, Gulf Coastal pitcher plant bogs may be incapable of fully recovering if they become exposed to storm surge more frequently due to climate change.

  17. Accelerated ripening of Kedong sufu with autochthonous starter cultures Kocuria rosea KDF3 and its protease KP3 as adjuncts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Z; Chen, H; Lv, X T; Deng, H L; Chen, X; Li, J J; Guo, L

    2014-04-01

    Application of autochthonous strain Kocuria rosea KDF3 and its protease KP3 as adjuncts for acceleration of Kedong sufu ripening. Kedong sufu was manufactured using autochthonous cultures (batch A), K. rosea KDF3 plus autochthonous cultures (batch B) and protease KP3 plus autochthonous cultures (batch C). The effects of certain key factors on the quality of sufu were analysed during a 150-day ripening period. The physicochemical properties of sufu samples from batches B and C after 120 days of ripening met the national standard requirements and samples from batch A after 150 days of ripening. The sensory evaluations of sufu samples from batches B and C after 120 days of ripening and from batch A after 150 days of ripening showed no significant differences (P > 0·05). Furthermore, the mechanism underlying the shorter ripening time and typical sensory quality of sufu prepared with K. rosea KDF3 or protease KP3 was partly revealed by profiles of peptides and free amino acids. The maturation times of Kedong sufu were shortened by 30 days, and the desired characteristics were obtained by adding K. rosea KDF3 or its protease KP3. Kocuria rosea KDF3 or its protease KP3 can hasten sufu maturation. They could be used as adjuncts or additives for accelerating the ripening of Kedong sufu. This study is the first report of using autochthonous strain K. rosea KDF3 or its protease KP3 as adjuncts for accelerating Kedong sufu ripening. The results are useful for characterizing the ripening of Kedong sufu, and they lay the foundation for pilot plant tests and full-scale plant tests. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Some Central Nervous System Activities of Nerium Oleander Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the activity of 50 % hydroalcohol flower extract of Nerium oleander Linn. on the central nervous system (CNS) of mice. Methods: The effect of the 50 % hydroalcohol extract of N. oleander flowers at dosage levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. on the locomotor activity of mice ...

  19. Pharmacognostic Studies on the Stems of Argemone mexicana Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macroscopical, microscopical, chemo-microscopical and quantitative studies on the leaves of Argemone mexicana Linn (Fam. Papaveraceae) were carried out. Morphologically, the stem is of variable size, mostly light green in colour. There was presence of white substances (wax) at the surfaces and it's prickly in nature.

  20. Phytochemical and Anti-sickling Activities of Terminalia catappa Linn.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An ethnobotanical survey revealed that the dried fallen leaves of Terminalia catappa Linn. are used locally in various parts of Nigeria for the management of sickle cell anaemia. This research investigated if Terminalia catappa leaf interferes with the basic mechanism of erythrocyte sickling. Powdered dried fallen leaves of ...

  1. Protective Effect of Purple Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the protective effects of purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Linn, Convolvulaceae) extract (IBE) in stimulated BV-2 microglial cells and its anti-oxidant properties. Methods: Cell viability assessment was performed by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay.

  2. Antifertility Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Carica Papaya (Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the effects of short term administration of the aqueous extract of Carica Papaya (Linn.) seeds on ovulation and the estrous cycle of adult cyclic Sprague-Dawley rats. Three oral doses of the extract (50mg/kg; 100mg/kg and 800mg/kg body weight) were administered once a day in two independent ...

  3. Anti hyperglycemic activities of Annona muricata (Linn) | Aderibigbe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to determine the effects of methanolic extracts of Annona muricata (Linn) on the blood glucose level of streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Thirty adult Wistar rats were randomly assigned into three groups (A, B and C) of ten rats each. Group A was the control, Group B was untreated ...

  4. Effects of the Aqueous Fruit Extract of Solanum Macrocarpum Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of the Aqueous Fruit Extract of Solanum Macrocarpum Linn on Biochemical Kidney Function of Hyperlipidaemic Rats Administered Triton-X Orally for 7 Days. ... The plant was Soxhlet-extracted with distilled water and the extract concentrated in vacuo with a yield of 15.34% w/w . The extract was stored in a specimen ...

  5. Variation in flowering phenology of Cassia fistula Linn. population in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flowering phenology in the population of Cassia fistula Linn. at Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria was investigated for three years to determine if there was variation in the phenology and the patterns were compared with some environmental factors to determine if there was any correlation. The number of plants flowering each ...

  6. Nutrient Values of Chrysophyllum Albidum Linn African Star Apple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study analyzed the nutritive composition of Chrysophyllum albidum Linn. It was necessitated by the need towards creating awareness that this species can provide nutrient supplements for the larger percentage of the population in the rural and peri-urban communities. Chrysophyllum albidum locally called “Udara” is ...

  7. Antioxidant Effects of Methanol Extract of Allium cepa linn on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    production (Way, 1984). Cyanide poisoning may result from exposure to ... produce the oxidative stress and damage seen after cyanide exposure. Allium cepa linn (onion), is used as .... Table 2: Effects of methanol extract of A. Cepa on Kidney MDA, GSH, antioxidant enzymes and protein. Groups Kidney MDA. (µg/g tissue).

  8. Tallinna Visioonikonverents 2010 : Linn ja linnakultuur 22. sajandil

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Tallinna Lauluväljaku ruumides 22. novembril toimunud Tallinna Visioonikonverentsist "Linn ja linnakultuur 22. sajandil", kus arutleti teemal, milline võiks olla Tallinn saja aasta pärast. Konverentsil esinesid Toomas Vitsut, Mart Saarma, Jan Sturesson, Raivo Raave, Satish Kumar, Juhani Pallasmaa ning moderaatoriteks olid Hardo Aasmäe ja Mati Heidmets

  9. Antimicrobial activity of Psidium guajava Linn . stem extracts against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antimicrobial activities of the water and methanolic extracts of Psidium guajava Linn. stem bark were evaluated against eight methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates. The plant material was extracted and phytochemical analyses were performed by standard procedures. The agar diffusion method ...

  10. A New Diterpenoid from the Seeds of Caesalpinia sappan Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Jiang Xu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A new cassane-type d iterpene, named Phangininoxy A (1 and one known Phanginin A (2 were isolated from the exact of seeds of Caesalpinia sappan Linn. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, mainly 1D and 2D NMR.

  11. Study on the effect of polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum linne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... H22 solid tumours, improved the survival time of tumour-bearing mice, increased the proliferation of lymphocytes, elevated the levels of IL-2, and increased the concentration of calcium ions in the lymphocytes. Polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum Linne have certain anti-tumour effect, which is related with the cellular ...

  12. Investigation On Antidiarrhoeal Activity Of Aristolochia Indica Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The present study aimed at investigating the effect of ethanolic extract (EtAI), and aqueous extract (AqAI) of Aristolochia indica Linn roots on castor oil-induced diarrhoea and study on small intestinal transit. Phytochemical analysis of extracts was performed as per standard procedure. Materials and Methods: ...

  13. Hepatoprotective studies of Coccinia indica Linn. in carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cocciana indica Linn (Cucurbitaceae) is widely distributed throughout India. It was employed in ancient system of medicine as anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, digestant, liver tonic, and expectorant. Though it is traditionally used in jaundice and other hepatic manifestations, there are no reports on their validation and ...

  14. A Protease Isolated from the Latex of Plumeria rubra Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To isolate, purify and characterize protease from the latex of the plant. Methods: Protease was isolated from the latex of Plumeria rubra Linn using acetone precipitation method and purified by a sequence of DEAE cellulose column chromatography, followed by two successive column purification in Sephadex G-50 ...

  15. The Latex Of Jatropha Curcas Linn (Euphorblaceae): A Prospective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The latex of Jatropha curcas Linn (Euphorbiaceae) has been investigated as a prospective haemostatic agent. The latex reduced clotting and bleeding times significantly (P<0.0001) compared to Tincture of Benzoin Co (TBC); Iodine tincture, Tannin and 90%v/v Ethanol. There was a significant positive correlation between ...

  16. Periphyton Associated with Nymphaea lotus Linn. in Two Different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The periphyton communities associated with Nymphaea lotus Linn. in two different freshwater bodies, the Kpong head-pond and Odaw stream, both in southern Ghana, were studied. Twenty-eight genera of algae, belonging to five phyla (Chlorophyta, Cryptophyta, Crysophyta, Cyanophyta and Euglenophyta) were ...

  17. Experimental wound healing aspects of Jasminum grandiflorum Linn

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experimental wound healing aspects of Jasminum grandiflorumLinn: a preclinical study. M Arun, S Satish, P Anima. Abstract. Background: Jasminum grandiflorum is an important shrub of family Oleaceae and ancient literature mentions its various medicinal uses especially its efficacy in wound healing. To substantiate its ...

  18. Negative-Pressure Cavitation Extraction of Four Main Vinca Alkaloids from Catharanthus roseus Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuangang Zu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, an improved method termed negative-pressure cavitation extraction (NPCE followed by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC was developed for the extraction and quantification of vindoline (VDL, catharanthine (CTR, vincristine (VCR and vinblastine (VLB from Catharanthus roseus leaves. The optimized method employed 60-mesh particles, 80% ethanol, a negative pressure of −0.075 MPa, a solid to liquid ratio of 1:20, 30 min of extraction and three extraction cycles. Under these optimized conditions, the extraction yields of VDL, CTR, VCR and VLB are 0.5783, 0.2843, 0.018 and 0.126 mg/g DW, respectively. These extraction yields are equivalent to those from the well-known ultrasonic extraction method and higher than the yields from maceration extraction and heating reflux extraction. Our results suggest that NPCE-RP-HPLC represents an excellent alternative for the extraction and quantification of vinca alkaloids for pilot- and industrial-scale applications.

  19. Metabolomics Characterization of Two Apocynaceae Plants, Catharanthus roseus and Vinca minor, Using GC-MS and LC-MS Methods in Combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Lu, Xueyan; Guo, Xiaorui; Guo, Qingxi; Li, Dewen

    2017-06-17

    Catharanthus roseus ( C. roseus ) and Vinca minor ( V. minor ) are two common important medical plants belonging to the family Apocynaceae. In this study, we used non-targeted GC-MS and targeted LC-MS metabolomics to dissect the metabolic profile of two plants with comparable phenotypic and metabolic differences. A total of 58 significantly different metabolites were present in different quantities according to PCA and PLS-DA score plots of the GC-MS analysis. The 58 identified compounds comprised 16 sugars, eight amino acids, nine alcohols and 18 organic acids. We subjected these metabolites into KEGG pathway enrichment analysis and highlighted 27 metabolic pathways, concentrated on the TCA cycle, glycometabolism, oligosaccharides, and polyol and lipid transporter (RFOS). Among the primary metabolites, trehalose, raffinose, digalacturonic acid and gallic acid were revealed to be the most significant marker compounds between the two plants, presumably contributing to species-specific phenotypic and metabolic discrepancy. The profiling of nine typical alkaloids in both plants using LC-MS method highlighted higher levels of crucial terpenoid indole alkaloid (TIA) intermediates of loganin, serpentine, and tabersonine in V. minor than in C. roseus . The possible underlying process of the metabolic flux from primary metabolism pathways to TIA synthesis was discussed and proposed. Generally speaking, this work provides a full-scale comparison of primary and secondary metabolites between two medical plants and a metabolic explanation of their TIA accumulation and phenotype differences.

  20. Hydroalcoholic extract of Rhodiola rosea L. (Crassulaceae) and its hydrolysate inhibit melanogenesis in B16F0 cells by regulating the CREB/MITF/tyrosinase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hsiu-Mei; Chien, Yin-Chih; Wu, Chieh-Hsi; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Wu, Wan-Chen; Pan, Yu-Yun; Su, Yu-Han; Wen, Kuo-Ching

    2014-03-01

    We investigated the effects of an aqueous alcohol extract of Rhodiola rosea (R. rosea) and its hydrolysate on melanin synthesis and the mechanisms mediating the activity. The ratio of tyrosol to salidroside was 2.3 in hydroalcoholic extract, and 51.0 in hydrolysate. We found that R. rosea extract and its hydrolysate inhibited melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in mouse melanoma cells (B16F0 cells). R. rosea extract also inhibited gene and protein expression of melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) and inhibited c-AMP response element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation, suppressed the activation of AKT and glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK3β), and inhibited the expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP-1). R. rosea hydrolysate inhibited the phosphorylation of CREB, the activation of AKT and GSK3β, and the expression of MITF and tyrosinase. Our results suggest that R. rosea extract is a novel tyrosinase inhibitor and that it exerts its effects by regulating the CREB/MITF/tyrosinase pathway in B16F0. Further in vivo studies are needed to determine the effectiveness of R. rosea extract as a skin whitening agent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Effects of Rhodiola rosea on body weight and intake of sucrose and water in depressive rats induced by chronic mild stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiao-Ge; Zeng, Yuan-Shan; Tang, Jiu-Yu; Qin, Ya-Jing; Chen, Sui-Jun; Zhong, Zhi-Qiang

    2008-09-01

    To explore the effects of Rhodiola rosea on the body weight and the intake of sucrose and water in depressive rats induced by chronic mild stress.dz A total of 70 male SD rats were divided into seven groups, including normal control group (treated with 0.5% sodium carboxymethycellulose), untreated group, negative control group (treated with 0.5% sodium carboxymethycellulose), positive control group (treated with fluoxetine), low-, medium- and high-dose Rhodiola rosea group (treated with 1.5, 3, 6 g/kg Rhodiola rosea respectively). Except for rats in normal control group, the other sixty rats endured chronic stress for 4 weeks to establish the depression model. After that, rats were administered Rhodiola rosea for 3 weeks. During the whole experiment, the body weight, and sucrose intake, tap water intake of all rats were examined once a week. After the termination of the stress regime, compared with the normal control group, the body weight and 1% sucrose intake in depressive rats were decreased. After 3-week Rhodiola rosea treatment, the body weight and 1% sucrose intake increased in rats of the low-dose Rhodiola rosea group and recovered to the level of the normal control group. Low-dose Rhodiola rosea can increase the body weight and sucrose intake of depressive rats, making them recover to normal status.

  2. Anti hyperglycemic activities of Annona muricata (Linn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, David Olawale; Komolafe, Omobola Aderibigbe; Adewole, Olarinde Stephen; Obuotor, Efere Martins; Adenowo, Thomas Kehinde

    2008-10-25

    This study was designed to determine the effects of methanolic extracts of Annona muricata (Linn) on the blood glucose level of streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Thirty adult Wistar rats were randomly assigned into three groups (A, B and C) of ten rats each. Group A was the control, Group B was untreated hyperglycemic group and group C was A. muricata-treated group. Hyperglycemia was induced in groups B and C by a single intraperitoneal injection of 80 mg/kg streptozotocin dissolved in 0.1 M citrate buffer. The control group was intraperitoneally injected with equivalent volume of citrate buffer and all the animals were monitored for four weeks. Daily intra peritoneal injection of 100 mg/kg A. muricata was administered to group C rats for two weeks and the animals were monitored for another two weeks. The data obtained were analyzed with descriptive and inferential statistics. The result showed a mean body weight of 206 +/- 7.74 g, 173.29+/-5.13 g and 197 +/- 5.62 g respectively for the control, untreated diabetic and A. muricata-treated diabetic group, and a mean blood glucose concentration of 3.78 +/- 0.190 mmol/L, 21.64 +/- 2.229 mmol/L and 4.22 +/- 0.151 mmol/L for the control, untreated diabetic and treated diabetic groups respectively. A significant difference exists between the blood glucose concentrations of treated and untreated hyperglycemic groups of rats. The result of this study demonstrated that A. muricata possesses anti-hyperglycemic activities.

  3. Pharmacognostic study of Lantana camara Linn. root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study was carried out to perform the pharmacognostic evaluation of Lantana camara Linn. root. Method: The pharmacognostic evaluation was done in terms of organoleptic, macro-microscopy, fluorescence analysis and physicochemical parameters. Results: The characteristic macroscopic features showed that the root consists of 25-40 cm long, 0.2-4.0 cm thick pieces which are usually branched, shallow, tough, creamish-brown externally, outer surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles, with hard fracture, characteristic odour and pungent taste. The main microscopic characters of the root shows exfoliating cork, consisting of about 10-15 rows of tangentially elongated, thick-walled cells followed by cortex consisting of polygonal parenchymatous cells, a few containing rhomboidal shaped calcium oxalate crystals. Endodermis consists of 3-4 layers of non-lignified, thick-walled rounded parenchymatous cells followed by a single layer of non-lignified pericycle. Phloem, a wide zone of xylem consisting of lignified pitted vessels and bi-to triseriate medullary rays are also present. Proximate physicochemical analysis of the root power showed loss on drying, total ash, water soluble ash, sulphated ash values as 0.52, 4.26, 3.8 and 5.8 % w/w respectively. Successive extraction of the root powder with petroleum ether, chloroform, alcohol, water yielded 0.19, 0.35, 2.19 and 2.0 % w/w respectively. Fluorescence study imparted characteristic colors to the root powder when observed under visible, short and long wavelength light. Conclusions: Various pharmacognostic parameters evaluated in this study helps in identification and standardization of Lantana camara L. root in crude form.

  4. Protective Effect of Mangifera indica Linn., Cocos nucifera Linn., and Averrhoa carambola Linn. Extracts against Ultraviolet B-Induced Damage in Human Keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalinee Ronpirin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant activity of Mangifera indica Linn., Cocos nucifera Linn., and Averrhoa carambola Linn. and their biological effect on human keratinocytes affected by the ultraviolet B (UVB, a major cause of cell damage and skin cancer through induction of DNA damage, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, and apoptosis. The richest antioxidant activity was found in ethanol fraction of M. indica (21.32 ± 0.66 mg QE/g dry weight, while the lowest one was found in aqueous fractions of M. indica and C. nucifera (1.76 ± 2.10 and 1.65 ± 0.38 mg QE/g dry weight, respectively. Ethanol and aqueous fractions of A. carambola (250 µg/mL significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells. The expression of cleaved caspase 3 in UVB-treated group was significantly greater than that in untreated group. Both fractions of A. carambola (50, 100, and 250 µg/mL significantly decreased the expression of cleaved caspase 3. Regarding the induction of DNA repair, ethanol (100 and 250 µg/mL and aqueous (50, 100 and 250 µg/mL fractions of A. carambola significantly decreased the percentage of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD. Taken together, our results suggest that both fractions of A. carambola may be potentially developed for dermal applications.

  5. Citrus aurantium and Rhodiola rosea in combination reduce visceral white adipose tissue and increase hypothalamic norepinephrine in a rat model of diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verpeut, Jessica L; Walters, Amy L; Bello, Nicholas T

    2013-06-01

    Extracts from the immature fruit of Citrus aurantium are often used for weight loss but are reported to produce adverse cardiovascular effects. Root extracts of Rhodiola rosea have notable antistress properties. The hypothesis of these studies was that C aurantium (6% synephrine) and R rosea (3% rosavins, 1% salidroside) in combination would improve diet-induced obesity alterations in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. In normal-weight animals fed standard chow, acute administration of C aurantium (1-10 mg/kg) or R rosea (2-20 mg/kg) alone did not reduce deprivation-induced food intake, but C aurantium (5.6 mg/kg) + R rosea (20 mg/kg) produced a 10.5% feeding suppression. Animals maintained (13 weeks) on a high-fat diet (60% fat) were exposed to 10-day treatments of C aurantium (5.6 mg/kg) or R rosea (20 mg/kg) alone or in combination. Additional groups received vehicle (2% ethanol) or were pair fed to the C aurantium + R rosea group. Although high-fat diet intake and weight loss were not influenced, C aurantium + R rosea had a 30% decrease in visceral fat weight compared with the other treatments. Only the C aurantium group had an increased heart rate (+7%) compared with vehicle. In addition, C aurantium + R rosea administration resulted in an elevation (+15%) in hypothalamic norepinephrine and an elevation (+150%) in frontal cortex dopamine compared with the pair-fed group. These initial findings suggest that treatments of C aurantium + R rosea have actions on central monoamine pathways and have the potential to be beneficial for the treatment of obesity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Differential effects of Rhodiola rosea on regulatory T cell differentiation and interferon‑γ production in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xi; Li, Pingping; Zhang, Peng; Chu, Ming; Liu, Hongju; Chen, Xiaoping; Ge, Qing

    2016-07-01

    Rhodiola rosea (R. rosea), a type of adaptogen, has been previously reported to exhibit immunostimulating activity in rodents and in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in vitro. To examine the effect of R. rosea on T cells under simulated microgravity, spaceflight analogs of human head‑down bed rest (HDBR) at ‑6˚ and murine hind limb unloading (HU) were used. A decrease in the levels of interferon‑γ (IFN‑γ) and interleukin‑17 (IL‑17) and an increase in regulatory T (Treg) cells were observed in the placebo group following HDBR. The R. rosea treated HBDR group demonstrated further decreased IFN‑γ production, however, R. rosea exhibited no effect on the ratio of circulating Tregs or Treg cell differentiation. By contrast, the treatment of R. rosea on human T cells in vitro did not alter IFN‑γ secretion, however, Treg differentiation was significantly reduced. An R. rosea‑induced upregulation of hypoxia‑inducible factor 1α (HIF‑1α) contributed to the suppression of Treg differentiation in vitro. Differences in the effect of R. rosea in vitro and in vivo were also observed using a mouse model of microgravity. The results of the current study suggest that R. rosea has differential modulatory effects on T cells in vivo and in vitro and care should be taken when evaluating the effects of R. rosea on the immune system.

  7. Rhodiola rosea extracts and salidroside decrease the growth of bladder cancer cell lines via inhibition of the mTOR pathway and induction of autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongbo; Li, Xuesen; Simoneau, Anne R; Jafari, Mahtab; Zi, Xiaolin

    2012-03-01

    The incidence of human urinary bladder cancer increases markedly with age, suggesting a mechanistic connection between aging and bladder carcinogenesis and a potential use of anti-aging agents in bladder cancer chemoprevention. Rhodiola rosea, growing in high altitude or cold regions of the world, has been reported to have anti-aging effects in Drosophila. We demonstrated that a R. rosea extract and one of its bioactive components, salidroside, inhibited the growth of bladder cancer cell lines with a minimal effect on nonmalignant bladder epithelial cells TEU-2. Interestingly, the R. rosea extract and salidroside component exhibited a selective ability to inhibit the growth of p53 knockout primary mouse embryo fibroblasts (p53-/- MEFs) compared to their wild-type counterparts. The growth inhibitory effects of the R. rosea extract and salidroside were, however, attenuated in TSC2 and p53 double knock MEFs (TSC2-/-, p53-/- MEFs), suggesting that TSC2 protein is, at least in part, required for the growth inhibitory effects of the R. rosea extract and salidroside. The R. rosea extract and salidroside treatment of UMUC3 cells resulted in an increase of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-α phosphorylation and a decrease of 4E-BP1 phosphorylation, leading to increased binding of 4E-BP1 to m7 GTP. These results indicate that the R. rosea extract and salidroside inhibit translation initiation. Furthermore, both the R. rosea extract and salidroside treatment of UMUC3 cells caused a significant percentage of cells undergoing autophagy. Therefore, the R. rosea extract and salidroside deserve further study as novel agents for chemoprevention of bladder carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Citrus aurantium and Rhodiola rosea in combination reduce visceral white adipose tissue and increase hypothalamic norepinephrine in a rat model of diet-induced obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verpeut, Jessica L.; Walters, Amy L.; Bello, Nicholas T.

    2013-01-01

    Extracts from the immature fruit of Citrus aurantium are often used for weight loss but are reported to produce adverse cardiovascular effects. Root extracts of Rhodiola rosea have notable antistress properties. The hypothesis of these studies was that C aurantium (6% synephrine) and R rosea (3% rosavins, 1% salidroside) in combination would improve diet-induced obesity alterations in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. In normal-weight animals fed standard chow, acute administration of C aurantium (1-10 mg/kg) or R rosea (2-20 mg/kg) alone did not reduce deprivation-induced food intake, but C aurantium (5.6 mg/kg) + R rosea (20 mg/kg) produced a 10.5% feeding suppression. Animals maintained (13 weeks) on a high-fat diet (60% fat) were exposed to 10-day treatments of C aurantium (5.6 mg/kg) or R rosea (20 mg/kg) alone or in combination. Additional groups received vehicle (2% ethanol) or were pair fed to the C aurantium + R rosea group. Although high-fat diet intake and weight loss were not influenced, C aurantium + R rosea had a 30% decrease in visceral fat weight compared with the other treatments. Only the C aurantium group had an increased heart rate (+7%) compared with vehicle. In addition, C aurantium + R rosea administration resulted in an elevation (+15%) in hypothalamic norepinephrine and an elevation (+150%) in frontal cortex dopamine compared with the pair-fed group. These initial findings suggest that treatments of C aurantium + R rosea have actions on central monoamine pathways and have the potential to be beneficial for the treatment of obesity. PMID:23746567

  9. Anthelmintic activity of essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum Linn. and eugenol against Haemonchus contortus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pessoa, L.M; Morais, S.M; Bevilaqua, C.M.L; Luciano, J.H.S

    2002-01-01

    The ovicidal activity of the essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum Linn. (Labideae) and its main component eugenol was evaluated against Haemonchus contortus, gastrointestinal parasite of small ruminants...

  10. Transaldolase gene Tal67 enhances the biocontrol activity of Clonostachys rosea 67-1 against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Yu; Li, Shi-Dong; Sun, Man-Hong

    2016-06-03

    Clonostachys rosea is a promising biocontrol agent that parasitizes various fungal plant pathogens. In this paper, transaldolase gene Tal67 was found to be greatly upregulated in C. rosea isolate 67-1 during mycoparasitism of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum sclerotia. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed a significant increase in expression at 0-48 h after induction by sclerotia, and the level peaked at 13.9-fold higher than the control at 24 h. Gene disruption led to a decrease in the growth rate of the Tal67-deficient strain ΔTal67 to 5.3 mm/day, which was much lower than the wild type and the complemented strain ΔTal67+ (P sclerotiorum decreased by 24.6%. However, reinsertion of the transaldolase gene recovered the fungicidal activity of C. rosea. The efficacy of the mutants against soybean Sclerotinia stem rot was evaluated in the greenhouse, and the control efficiency of isolate 67-1 reached 65.3%, while the efficiency of the ΔTal67 strain decreased sharply to 17.8%, and the complemented strain ΔTal67+ recovered to 64.8%. These results suggest that Tal67 plays an important role in the growth and biocontrol activity of C. rosea. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dual effects of Metarhizium spp. and Clonostachys rosea against an insect and a seed-borne pathogen in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyser, Chad A; Jensen, Birgit; Meyling, Nicolai V

    2016-03-01

    Crops are often prone to both insect herbivory and disease, which necessitate multiple control measures. Ideally, an efficacious biological control agent must adequately control the target organism and not be inhibited by other biological control agents when applied simultaneously. Wheat seeds infected with the plant pathogen Fusarium culmorum were treated with Metarhizium brunneum or M. flavoviride and Clonostachys rosea individually and in combination, with the expectation to control both root-feeding insects and the pathogen. Emerging roots were evaluated for disease and then placed with Tenebrio molitor larvae, which were monitored for infection. Plant disease symptoms were nearly absent for seeds treated with C. rosea, both individually and in combination with Metarhizium spp. Furthermore, roots grown from seeds treated with Metarhizium spp. caused significant levels of fungal infection in larvae when used individually or combined with C. rosea. However, cotreated seeds showed reduced virulence towards T. molitor when compared with treatments using Metarhizium spp. only. This study clearly shows that seed treatments with both the entomopathogenic fungus M. brunneum and the mycoparasitic fungus C. rosea can protect plant roots from insects and disease. The dual-treatment approach to biological control presented here is consistent with the ideals of IPM strategies. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Capillary electrophoresis as a fast and efficient alternative for the analysis of Urceola rosea leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gufler, Vera; Ngoc, Hieu Nguyen; Stuppner, Hermann; Ganzera, Markus

    2018-03-01

    Urceola rosea, a plant whose leaves are used as food and for medical purposes, is a climbing liana found in many south-east Asian countries. Main polar compounds are flavonoids (kaempferol and quercetin glycosides) and phenolic acids. As an alternative to the established HPLC method their analysis by capillary electrophoresis is described for the first time. It was possible in <8min with a 25mM sodium tetraborate decahydrate solution with pH8.5, at a capillary temperature of 40°C and an applied voltage of 25kV. Up to five compounds could be quantified in different methanolic U. rosea extracts, which showed to be of variable composition; e.g. the content of total flavonoids ranged from 0.29 to 1.08%. In respect to quantitative results as well as validation parameters (e.g. R 2 ≥0.994, recovery rates from 95.5 to 103.6%, inter-day precision≤4.5%) the CE method was well comparable to HPLC. However, in terms of required analysis time and environmental sustainability capillary electrophoresis is definitely advantageous. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Metabolic profiling of Rhodiola rosea rhizomes by ¹H NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioset, Karine Ndjoko; Nyberg, Nils T; Van Diermen, Daphne; Malnoe, Pia; Hostettmann, Kurt; Shikov, Alexander N; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W

    2011-01-01

    Rhodiola rosea is a broadly used medicinal plant with largely unexplored natural variability in secondary metabolite levels. The aim of this work was to develop a non-target procedure for ¹H NMR spectroscopic fingerprinting of rhizome extracts for pattern recognition analysis and identification of secondary metabolites responsible for differences in sample composition. To achieve this, plants from three different geographic areas (Swiss Alps, Finland, and Altai region in Siberia) were investigated. A sample preparation procedure was developed in order to remove polymeric polyphenols as the ¹H NMR analysis of low-molecular-weight metabolites was hampered by the presence of tannins. Principal component analysis disclosed tight clustering of samples according to population. PCA models based on the aromatic region of the spectra showed that the first two components reflected changes in the content of salidroside and rosavin, respectively, the rosavin content being negatively correlated to that of rhodiocyanoside A and minor aromatics. Score plots and non-parametric variance tests demonstrated population-dependent changes according to harvest time. Data consistency was assessed using score plots and box-and-whisker graphs. In addition, a procedure for presenting loadings of PCA models based on bucketed data as high-resolution plots, which are reminiscent of real ¹H NMR spectra and help to identify latent biomarkers, is presented. This study demonstrated the usefulness of the established procedure for multivariate non-target ¹H NMR metabolic profiling of Rhodiola rosea. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Rhodiola rosea Impairs Acquisition and Expression of Conditioned Place Preference Induced by Cocaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Titomanlio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel approach to the treatment of adverse effects of drugs of abuse is one which makes use of natural products. The present study investigated the effect of Rhodiola rosea L. hydroalcoholic extract (RHO on cocaine-induced hyperactivity and conditioned place preference (CPP in mice. In a first experiment, mice received RHO (15, 20 or 25 mg/kg, IG, cocaine (25 mg/kg, i.p. (COC, or a combination of both drugs (COC + RHO15, COC + RHO20, and COC + RHO25, and their locomotor activity was evaluated. In a second experiment, the effects of RHO on the acquisition, expression, and reinstatement of cocaine CPP (induced by drug priming or social defeat stress were evaluated. RHO alone did not increase activity but potentiated the hyperactivity induced by cocaine. Rhodiola did not induce motivational effects by itself but attenuated the acquisition and expression of cocaine-induced CPP. Moreover, it was found that RHO did not block reinstatement. The results indicate that RHO is effective in reducing the rewarding properties of cocaine but is ineffective in preventing priming or stress-induced cocaine reinstatement. In light of these findings, the benefits of Rhodiola rosea L. as a treatment of cocaine addiction would seem to be limited.

  15. Artificial neural network optimization of Althaea rosea seeds polysaccharides and its antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Liu, Wenhui; Tian, Shuge

    2014-09-01

    A combination of an orthogonal L16(4)4 test design and a three-layer artificial neural network (ANN) model was applied to optimize polysaccharides from Althaea rosea seeds extracted by hot water method. The highest optimal experimental yield of A. rosea seed polysaccharides (ARSPs) of 59.85 mg/g was obtained using three extraction numbers, 113 min extraction time, 60.0% ethanol concentration, and 1:41 solid-liquid ratio. Under these optimized conditions, the ARSP experimental yield was very close to the predicted yield of 60.07 mg/g and was higher than the orthogonal test results (40.86 mg/g). Structural characterizations were conducted using physicochemical property and FTIR analysis. In addition, the study of ARSP antioxidant activity demonstrated that polysaccharides exhibited high superoxide dismutase activity, strong reducing power, and positive scavenging activity on superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, and reducing power. Our results indicated that ANNs were efficient quantitative tools for predicting the total ARSP content. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Genetic structure of Fennoscandian populations of the threatened wood-decay fungus Fomitopsis rosea (Basidiomycota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauserud, Håvard; Schumacher, Trond

    2003-02-01

    The genetic structure of five Fennoscandian populations of the threatened wood-decay fungus Fomitopsis rosea (Basidiomycota) was investigated using codominant PCR-RFLP, allele specific amplification (ASA) markers, inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers and mating studies. Sequence analyses of a subset of single spore isolates revealed sequence variation in four target sequences; internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and intergenic spacer (IGS1) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA, the translation elongation factor 1 alpha (efa) gene and the super oxide dismutase (sod) gene. No sequence variation was found in amplified portions of the mitochondrial large and small rRNA genes. Genotype distributions were mostly (90%) in accordance with Hardy-Weinberg expectations, and the nrDNA markers (ITS/IGS1), efa and sod were in most cases (87%) in linkage equilibrium, indicating an outcrossing reproductive mode, panmictic conditions and large population sizes of the fungus. Mating tests confirmed that F. rosea exhibits an outcrossing bipolar heterothallic mating system. Mating allele richness was high in two investigated populations. Phylogenetic analyses of ITS and IGS1 sequences from the five geographic populations revealed some geographic sub-structuring of the ITS sequences, but no sub-structuring of IGS1. The nrDNA (ITS/IGS1), efa and sod markers gave a low overall FST (0.013). The ISSR markers gave no clustering of the populations in UPGMA, and the between-population variance component was very low in AMOVA (0.4%), indicating a high level of gene flow.

  17. Multicenter, open-label, exploratory clinical trial with Rhodiola rosea extract in patients suffering from burnout symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper S

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Siegfried Kasper,1 Angelika Dienel2 1Universitätsklinik für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Medizinische Universität Wien, Wien, Austria; 2Dr Willmar Schwabe GmbH & Co. KG, Karlsruhe, Germany Purpose: This study is the first clinical trial aiming to explore the clinical outcomes in burnout patients treated with Rhodiola rosea. The reported capacity of R. rosea to strengthen the organism against stress and its good tolerability offer a promising approach in the treatment of stress-related burnout. The aim of the treatment was to increase stress resistance, thus addressing the source rather than the symptoms of the syndrome and preventing subsequent diseases associated with a history of burnout. The objective of the trial was to provide the exploratory data required for planning future randomized trials in burnout patients in order to investigate the clinical outcomes of treatment with R. rosea dry extract in this target group.Methods: The study was planned as an exploratory, open-label, multicenter, single-arm trial. A wide range of rating scales were assessed and evaluated in an exploratory data analysis to generate hypotheses regarding clinical courses and to provide a basis for the planning of subsequent studies. A total of 118 outpatients were enrolled. A daily dose of 400 mg R. rosea extract (WS® 1375, Rosalin was administered over 12 weeks. Clinical outcomes were assessed by the German version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory, Burnout Screening Scales I and II, Sheehan Disability Scale, Perceived Stress Questionnaire, Number Connection Test, Multidimensional Mood State Questionnaire, Numerical Analogue Scales for different stress symptoms and impairment of sexual life, Patient Sexual Function Questionnaire, and the Clinical Global Impression Scales. Results: The majority of the outcome measures showed clear improvement over time. Several parameters had already improved after 1 week of treatment and continued to improve further up to

  18. Lifespan extension and delay of age-related functional decline caused by Rhodiola rosea depends on dietary macronutrient balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of rhizome powder from the herb Rhodiola rosea, a traditional Western Ukraine medicinal adaptogen, on lifespan and age-related physiological functions of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Results Flies fed food supplemented with 5.0 mg/ml and 10.0 mg/ml of R. rosea rhizome powder had a 14% to 17% higher median lifespan, whereas at 30.0 mg/ml lifespan was decreased by 9% to 12%. The preparation did not decrease fly fecundity. The effect of R. rosea supplement on lifespan was dependent on diet composition. Lifespan extension by 15% to 21% was observed only for diets with protein-to-carbohydrate ratios less than 1. Lifespan extension was also dependent on total concentration of macronutrients. Thus, for the diet with 15% yeast and 15% sucrose there was no lifespan extension, while for the diet with protein-to-carbohydrate ratio 20:1 R. rosea decreased lifespan by about 10%. Flies fed Rhodiola preparation were physically more active, less sensitive to the redox-cycling compound menadione and had a longer time of heat coma onset compared with controls. Positive effects of Rhodiola rhizome on stress resistance and locomotor activity were highest at the ‘middle age’. Conclusions The present data show that long-term food supplementation with R. rosea rhizome not only increases D. melanogaster lifespan, but also delays age-related decline of physical activity and increases stress resistance, what depends on protein-to-carbohydrate ratio of the diet. PMID:24472572

  19. Envisaging the Regulation of Alkaloid Biosynthesis and Associated Growth Kinetics in Hairy Roots of Vinca minor Through the Function of Artificial Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Priyanka; Anjum, Shahin; Khan, Shamshad Ahmad; Roy, Sudeep; Odstrcilik, Jan; Mathur, Ajay Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Artificial neural network based modeling is a generic approach to understand and correlate different complex parameters of biological systems for improving the desired output. In addition, some new inferences can also be predicted in a shorter time with less cost and labor. As terpenoid indole alkaloid pathway in Vinca minor is very less investigated or elucidated, a strategy of elicitation with hydroxylase and acetyltransferase along with incorporation of various precursors from primary shikimate and secoiridoid pools via simultaneous employment of cyclooxygenase inhibitor was performed in the hairy roots of V. minor. This led to the increment in biomass accumulation, total alkaloid concentration, and vincamine production in selected treatments. The resultant experimental values were correlated with algorithm approaches of artificial neural network that assisted in finding the yield of vincamine, alkaloids, and growth kinetics using number of elicits. The inputs were the hydroxylase/acetyltransferase elicitors and cyclooxygenase inhibitor along with various precursors from shikimate and secoiridoid pools and the outputs were growth index (GI), alkaloids, and vincamine. The approach incorporates two MATLAB codes; GRNN and FFBPNN. Growth kinetic studies revealed that shikimate and tryptophan supplementation triggers biomass accumulation (GI = 440.2 to 540.5); while maximum alkaloid (3.7 % dry wt.) and vincamine production (0.017 ± 0.001 % dry wt.) was obtained on supplementation of secologanin along with tryptophan, naproxen, hydrogen peroxide, and acetic anhydride. The study shows that experimental and predicted values strongly correlate each other. The correlation coefficient for growth index (GI), alkaloids, and vincamine was found to be 0.9997, 0.9980, 0.9511 in GRNN and 0.9725, 0.9444, 0.9422 in FFBPNN, respectively. GRNN provided greater similarity between the target and predicted dataset in comparison to FFBPNN. The findings can provide future

  20. PIPER BETLE LINN: AS A REMEDY FOR DIABETES MELLITUS

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmi Sriyani Rajapaksha Arambewela; Hettiarachchige Sami Ariyawansa; Liyanage Dona Ashanthi Menuka Arawwawala; Horadugoda Gamage Sujatha Pushpakanthi Hewageegana

    2011-01-01

    Present study was carried out to evaluate the possibility of Piper betle Linn. (F: Piperaceae) to be used as a neutraceutical for Diabetes Mellitus. Newly diagnosed, Type 2 diabetes patients from either sex were selected (n=50/group) after measuring fasting blood glucose levels. Either P. betle or triphala (a known antidiabetic herbal drug) were given to patients for 30 consecutive days. Treated subjects were checked for fasting blood glucose levels and serum creatinine, urea, aspartate tra...

  1. PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF SPERMACOCE HISPIDA LINN: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Vinayak Meti; Chandrashekar. K; Shishir Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Spermacoce hispida Linn is one of the important plant belonging to the family of Rubiaceae and is commonly used herb in siddha medicine. This review supports all updated information on its chemical constituents, pharmacological activities, traditional uses and scientific approach. The plant extracts contains phytochemical constituents such as of saponins, tannins, phenolics, steroids, essential oils, flavonoids and terpenoids. The chemical entities of this plant have been used as an antidiabe...

  2. Pharmacognostic Investigation of Clerodendrum Phlomidis Linn. F. Root

    OpenAIRE

    Dinesh Kumar; Ajay Kumar; Om Prakash

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to perform the pharmacognostic evaluation of Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. f. root in terms of organoleptic, fluorescence analysis, macro-microscopy and physicochemical parameters.The characteristic macroscopic study showed that the root consists of 7-15 cm long, 0.2 -3.0 cm thick pieces which are cylindrical, tough and yellowish-brown externally, with hard fracture and slightly astringent taste. The main microscopic characters of the root sho...

  3. Pharmacognostical and phytochemical studies on roots of Bombax ceiba Linn.

    OpenAIRE

    Pankaj H. Chaudhary; Rai, Pallavi D.; Sharada L. Deore; Khadabadi, Somshekhar S.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Bombax ceiba Linn. (Bombacaceae) is a well-known plant for its antihypertensive, antioxidant, antidiabetic, aphrodisiac and uterine tonicity properties. Aims: To study pharmacognostical, physicochemical and phytochemically the roots of this plant. Methods: Pharmacognostical study included the macroscopic characters like size, color, surface characteristics, texture, fracture characteristics and odor of the roots. The intact root as well as powdered drug were studied under a m...

  4. Kombucha Rosella (Hibiscus Sabdariffa Linn) dan Kemampuannya sebagai Antihiperkolesterolemia

    OpenAIRE

    Suhartatik, Nanik; Karyantina, Merkuria; Purwanti, Indrias Tri

    2009-01-01

    Kita mengenal adanya teh yang diekstrak dari kelopak bunga rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn). Teh jenis ini dapat dibuat menjadi kombucha dengan cara memfermentasikan ekstrak rosella menggunakan peran mikrobia dalam fer­ mentasi kombucha. Mikrobia dalam fermentasi kombucha ini ditumbuhkan dalam ekstrak rosella sebagai medium per­ tumbuhan dengan variasi konsentrasi rosella (30, 40, 50 gram rosella kering/L). Selama proses fermentasi, kombucha rosella dianalisis pH, total asam, dan aktivitas ...

  5. Chemical constituents and biological studies of Origanum vulgare Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswara Rao, Gottumukkala; Mukhopadhyay, T.; Annamalai, T.; Radhakrishnan, N.; Sahoo, M. R.

    2011-01-01

    Bioassay-guided isolation of methanolic extract of the leaves of Origanum vulgare Linn., yielded two protocatechuic acid ester derivatives, origanol A (1) and origanol B (2) along with ursolic acid (3), oleanolic acid (4), β-sitosterol (5), and triacontanol (6). Structures of the compound were established based on physical and spectral data (UV, IR, 1H and 13C NMR and mass). Origanol A (1) showed significant mushroom tyrosinase inhibition activity. PMID:21772760

  6. Development of quality control parameters for the standardization of fruit of Ficus racemosa Linn. (M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramandeep Singh

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: These physicochemical data and phytochemical analysis of different extracts of F. racemosa Linn. is useful for further studies for pharmacological screening. In future this study will be helpful for qualitative & quantitative analysis of phytoconstituents for isolation of newer molecule from F. racemosa Linn.

  7. 82 FR 38928 - Closure on Public Lands of Yellowstone Bridge in Linn County, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-16

    ...-0096] Closure on Public Lands of Yellowstone Bridge in Linn County, OR AGENCY: Bureau of Land... Yellowstone Bridge to motorized vehicles is in effect on public lands administered by the Cascades Field... hours. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This closure affects public lands at Yellowstone Creek, Linn County...

  8. Carl von Linné jälgedes / Piret Veigel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veigel, Piret, 1961-

    2007-01-01

    Alanud aastal tähistatakse Carl von Linné, taimede ülemaailmselt käibiva teadusliku klassifitseerimise süsteemi rajaja 300. sünniaastapäeva. Loodusteadlase majast ja aiast Uppsalas, tema suvekodust Hammarby's ja Fredriksdali vabaõhumuuseumist Helsingborgis, kus leiab Linné-aegset maaharimist

  9. A Three-Way Transcriptomic Interaction Study of a Biocontrol Agent (Clonostachys rosea), a Fungal Pathogen (Helminthosporium solani), and a Potato Host (Solanum tuberosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysøe, Erik; Dees, Merete W; Brurberg, May Bente

    2017-08-01

    Helminthosporium solani causes silver scurf, which affects the quality of potato. The biocontrol agent Clonostachys rosea greatly limited the severity of silver scurf symptoms and amount of H. solani genomic DNA in laboratory experiments. Transcriptomic analysis during interaction showed that H. solani gene expression was highly reduced when coinoculated with the biocontrol agent C. rosea, whereas gene expression of C. rosea was clearly boosted as a response to the pathogen. The most notable upregulated C. rosea genes were those encoding proteins involved in cellular response to oxidative stress, proteases, G-protein signaling, and the methyltransferase LaeA. The most notable potato response to both fungi was downregulation of defense-related genes and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases. At a later stage, this shifted, and most potato defense genes were turned on, especially those involved in terpenoid biosynthesis when H. solani was present. Some biocontrol-activated defense-related genes in potato were upregulated during early interaction with C. rosea alone that were not triggered by H. solani alone. Our results indicate that the reductions of silver scurf using C. rosea are probably due to a combination of mechanisms, including mycoparasitism, biocontrol-activated stimulation of plant defense mechanisms, microbial competition for nutrients, space, and antibiosis.

  10. The Effect of Acute Rhodiola rosea Ingestion on Exercise Heart Rate, Substrate Utilisation, Mood State, and Perceptions of Exertion, Arousal, and Pleasure/Displeasure in Active Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Neil D.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of acute Rhodiola rosea (R. rosea) ingestion on substrate utilisation, mood state, RPE, and exercise affect. Ten males (mean age ± S.D. = 26 ± 6 years) completed two 30-minute cycling trials at an intensity of 70% of V˙O2max⁡ following ingestion of either 3 mg·kg−1 body mass of R. rosea or placebo using a double-blind, crossover design. During exercise, heart rate and RPE were recorded. Participants completed measures of mood state and exercise affect before and after exercise. Expired air samples were taken during exercise to determine substrate utilisation. Repeated measures analysis of variance indicated that RPE was significantly lower at 30 minutes into exercise versus placebo (P = 0.003). Perceptions of arousal (P = 0.05) and pleasure were significantly higher after exercise with R. rosea compared to placebo (P = 0.003). Mood state scores for vigor were also higher in R. rosea condition compared to placebo (P = 0.008). There were no significant differences in energy expenditure, carbohydrate, or fat oxidation between conditions (P > 0.05). Ingestion of R. rosea favourably influenced RPE and exercise affect without changes in energy expenditure or substrate utilization during 30-minute submaximal cycling performance. PMID:26464892

  11. The Effect of Acute Rhodiola rosea Ingestion on Exercise Heart Rate, Substrate Utilisation, Mood State, and Perceptions of Exertion, Arousal, and Pleasure/Displeasure in Active Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Duncan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effect of acute Rhodiola rosea (R. rosea ingestion on substrate utilisation, mood state, RPE, and exercise affect. Ten males (mean age ± S.D. = 26 ± 6 years completed two 30-minute cycling trials at an intensity of 70% of V˙O2max⁡ following ingestion of either 3 mg·kg−1 body mass of R. rosea or placebo using a double-blind, crossover design. During exercise, heart rate and RPE were recorded. Participants completed measures of mood state and exercise affect before and after exercise. Expired air samples were taken during exercise to determine substrate utilisation. Repeated measures analysis of variance indicated that RPE was significantly lower at 30 minutes into exercise versus placebo (P=0.003. Perceptions of arousal (P=0.05 and pleasure were significantly higher after exercise with R. rosea compared to placebo (P=0.003. Mood state scores for vigor were also higher in R. rosea condition compared to placebo (P=0.008. There were no significant differences in energy expenditure, carbohydrate, or fat oxidation between conditions (P>0.05. Ingestion of R. rosea favourably influenced RPE and exercise affect without changes in energy expenditure or substrate utilization during 30-minute submaximal cycling performance.

  12. Multicenter, open-label, exploratory clinical trial with Rhodiola rosea extract in patients suffering from burnout symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Siegfried; Dienel, Angelika

    2017-01-01

    This study is the first clinical trial aiming to explore the clinical outcomes in burnout patients treated with Rhodiola rosea. The reported capacity of R. rosea to strengthen the organism against stress and its good tolerability offer a promising approach in the treatment of stress-related burnout. The aim of the treatment was to increase stress resistance, thus addressing the source rather than the symptoms of the syndrome and preventing subsequent diseases associated with a history of burnout. The objective of the trial was to provide the exploratory data required for planning future randomized trials in burnout patients in order to investigate the clinical outcomes of treatment with R. rosea dry extract in this target group. The study was planned as an exploratory, open-label, multicenter, single-arm trial. A wide range of rating scales were assessed and evaluated in an exploratory data analysis to generate hypotheses regarding clinical courses and to provide a basis for the planning of subsequent studies. A total of 118 outpatients were enrolled. A daily dose of 400 mg R. rosea extract (WS® 1375, Rosalin) was administered over 12 weeks. Clinical outcomes were assessed by the German version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory, Burnout Screening Scales I and II, Sheehan Disability Scale, Perceived Stress Questionnaire, Number Connection Test, Multidimensional Mood State Questionnaire, Numerical Analogue Scales for different stress symptoms and impairment of sexual life, Patient Sexual Function Questionnaire, and the Clinical Global Impression Scales. The majority of the outcome measures showed clear improvement over time. Several parameters had already improved after 1 week of treatment and continued to improve further up to the end of the study. The incidence of adverse events was low with 0.015 events per observation day. The trial reported here was the first to investigate clinical outcomes in patients suffering from burnout symptoms when treated with R. rosea

  13. Protective effects of salidroside from Rhodiola rosea on LPS-induced acute lung injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Shuang; Xiong, Ying; Song, Bocui; Song, Yu; Wang, Dacheng; Chu, Xiao; Chen, Na; Huo, Meixia; Deng, Xuming; Lu, Jing

    2012-08-01

    Salidroside is a major component extracted from Rhodiola rosea. In this study, we investigated protective effects of salidroside on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. In the mouse model, we found that pretreatment with a single 120 mg/kg dose of salidroside prior to the administration of intratracheal LPS induced a significant decrease in the W/D ratio and mouse myeloperoxidase activity of lung, reduction protein concentration, the number of total cells, neutrophils and macrophages in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In addition, salidroside also inhibited the production of several inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-1β, and the NF-κB DNA-binding activation after LPS challenge. These results indicated that salidroside possess a protective effect on LPS-induced ALI in mice.

  14. Evaluation of Demographics and Climatic Factors/Disease Relationship in Patients with Pityriasis Rosea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel Bülbül Başkan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Pityriasis rosea (PR is an acute onset, self-limiting papulosquamous skin disease. The etiology of the disease is totally unknown, however, many epidemiological and clinical studies have suggested that infectious agents may cause the disease. Seasonal changes in the incidence may be an epidemiologic evidence for potential infectious etiology. In this study, we aimed to analyze the demographic data of PR patients and to explore the role of climatic factors in the etiology of the disease. Material and Method: We retrospectively reviewed the patient files of PR cases that had been followed up in our clinic between 2000 and 2005. Demographic data of the patients as well as the date of applications were recorded. Temperature, raining, pressure and humidity data for the City of Bursa for years 2000-2005 were obtained from the General Directorate of Meteorology, Republic of Turkey. Any potential relationship between onset time of PR and meteorological parameters was investigated statistically by using cluster analysis. Results: We reviewed the medical records of 413 patients, of whom 271 were female and 142 were male. Herald plaque was seen in 88 patients (21.3%. Pityriasis rosea was observed predominantly in persons between 20 and 29 years of age (139 patients; 33.6%. Distribution of number of cases between 2000-2005 was 51, 57, 80, 75, 63, 87. The highest number of patients was seen in winter (n: 122; 29.5% followed by spring (n: 101; 24.4%, autumn (n: 101; 24.4% and summer (n: 89; 21.7%. No statistically significant difference was found between annual and seasonal changes in the incidence of PR (p>0.05.Conclusion: We conclude that although the relation between PR and seasonal factors was not statistically significant in our study, multi-centric studies on large series of patients are needed to further investigate this topic.

  15. Alleviation of kidney damage induced by unilateral ureter obstruction in rats by Rhodiola rosea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyeturk, Ugur; Terzi, E Hakan; Kemahli, Eray; Gucuk, Adnan; Tosun, Mehmet; Çetinkaya, Ayhan

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of Rhodiola rosea extract in terms of alleviating the renal damage induced by unilateral ureter obstruction (UUO) in rats. Thirty Wistar albino male rats were divided into five groups: (I) Control, (II) UUO 7 days, (III) UUO 7 days+extract,(IV) UUO 14 days, and (V) UUO 14 days+extract. Seven or 14 days after the initiation of the experimental procedure, the left kidneys of rats in all five groups were removed for histological examination, and their blood was drawn for biochemical measurements. Median malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels were, respectively, 39.4 (5.04) nmol/mL and 25.8 (8.01) nmol/minute/mL in group I, 77.9 (12.38) nmol/mL and 5.8 (1.95) nmol/minute/mL in group II, 48.7 (12.1) nmol/mL and 9.1 (2.3) nmol/minute/mL in group III, 58.5 (23.83) nmol/mL and 8.4 (2.1) nmol/minute/mL in group IV, and 44.8 (4.97) nmol/mL and 13.8 (3.73) nmol/minute/mL in group V. There was a statistically significant difference among the groups in terms of MDA and GPx levels (prosea extract was shown to alleviate the renal damage induced by UUO through its antioxidant effects. The mechanism by which R. rosea extract causes these effects merits further investigation.

  16. Potent in vitro inhibition of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein by Rhodiola rosea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellum, Bent H; Tosse, Anita; Hoybakk, Kathrine; Thomsen, Mette; Rohloff, Jens; Georg Nilsen, Odd

    2010-03-01

    Six clones of RHODIOLA ROSEA, obtained from plants originating from widely different areas in Norway, were investigated for their IN VITRO inhibitory potential on CYP3A4-mediated metabolism and P-gp efflux transport activity. Presumed active constituents in the ethanol extracts of the different clones were quantified. C-DNA baculovirus expressed CYP3A4 and Caco-2 cells were used for inhibitory assays, and as positive control inhibitors ketoconazole and verapamil were applied, respectively. A validated HPLC methodology was used to quantify the formation of 6-beta-OH-testosterone and scintillation counting was used to quantify the transport of (3)H-digoxin in Caco-2 cells. All clones showed potent inhibition of CYP3A4 and P-gp activities, with IC (50) values ranging from 1.7 to 3.1 microg/mL and from 16.7 to 51.7 microg/mL, respectively, being below that reported for other herbs and some known classic drug inhibitors, such as St. John's wort and fluoxetine. RHODIOLA ROSEA might thus be a candidate for clinically relevant drug interactions. The concentration of presumed biologically active constituents in the different clones varied considerably, but this variation was not related to the clones' inhibitory potential on CYP3A4 or P-gp activities. Other constituents might thus be responsible for the observed inhibitory properties. The place of origin seemed to be of minor importance for CYP3A4 or P-gp inhibition. Copyright Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.

  17. The preventive effect of sensorimotor- and vibration exercises on the onset of Oxaliplatin- or vinca-alkaloid induced peripheral neuropathies - STOP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streckmann, Fiona; Balke, Maryam; Lehmann, Helmar C; Rustler, Vanessa; Koliamitra, Christina; Elter, Thomas; Hallek, Michael; Leitzmann, Michael; Steinmetz, Tilman; Heinen, Petra; Baumann, Freerk T; Bloch, Wilhelm

    2018-01-10

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a common and clinically relevant side effect of chemotherapy. Approximately 50% of all leukemia, lymphoma, colorectal- and breast cancer patients are affected. CIPN is induced by neurotoxic chemotherapeutic agents and can manifest with sensory and/or motor deficits. It is associated with significant disability and poor recovery. Common symptoms include pain, altered sensation, reduced or absent reflexes, muscle weakness, reduced balance control and insecure gait. These symptoms not only affect activities of daily living, subsequently reducing patients' quality of life, they have far more become a decisive limiting factor for medical therapy, causing treatment delays, dose reductions, or even discontinuation of therapy, which can affect the outcome and compromise survival. To date, CIPN cannot be prevented and its occurrence presents a diagnostic dilemma since approved and effective treatment options are lacking. Promising results have recently been achieved with exercise. We have revealed that sensorimotor training (SMT) or whole body vibration (WBV) can reduce the symptoms of CIPN and attenuate motor and sensory deficits. We furthermore detected a tendency that it may also have a preventive effect on the onset of CIPN. We are therefore conducting a prospective, multicentre, controlled clinical trial involving 236 oncological patients receiving either oxaliplatin (N = 118) or vinca-alkaloid (N = 118) who are randomized to one of two interventions (SMT or WBV) or a treatment as usual (TAU) group. Primary endpoint is the time to incidence of neurologically confirmed CIPN. Secondary endpoints are pain, maintenance of the functionality of sensory as well as motor nerve fibres as well as the level of physical activity. The baseline assessment is performed prior to the first cycle of chemotherapy. Subsequent follow-up assessments are conducted at 12 weeks, after completion of chemotherapy, and at a 3-month

  18. Differential rubisco content and photosynthetic efficiency of rol gene integrated Vinca minor transgenic plant: Correlating factors associated with morpho-anatomical changes, gene expression and alkaloid productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Priyanka; Khan, Shamshad Ahmad; Masood, Nusrat; Manika, N; Sharma, Abhishek; Verma, Neha; Luqman, Suaib; Mathur, Ajay K

    2017-12-01

    Transgenic plants obtained from a hairy root line (PVG) of Vinca minor were characterized in relation to terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs) pathway gene expression and vincamine production. The hairy roots formed callus with green nodular protuberances when transferred onto agar-gelled MS medium containing 3.0mg/l zeatin. These meristematic zones developed into shoot buds on medium with 1.0mg/l 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 40mg/l ascorbic acid. These shoot buds subsequently formed rooted plants when shifted onto a hormone-free MS medium with 6% sucrose. Transgenic nature of the plants was confirmed by the presence of rol genes of the Ri plasmid in them. The transgenic plants (TP) had elongated internodes and a highly proliferating root system. During glass house cultivation TP consistently exhibited slower growth rate, low chlorophyll content (1.02±0.08mg/gm fr. wt.), reduced carbon exchange rate (2.67±0.16μmolm-2s-1), less transpiration rate (2.30±0.20mmolm-2 s-1) and poor stomatal conductance (2.21±0.04mmolm-2 s-1) when compared with non-transgenic population. The activity of rubisco enzyme in the leaves of TP was nearly two folds less in comparison to non-transgenic controls (1.80milliunitsml-1mgprotein-1 against 3.61milliunits ml-1mgprotein-1, respectively). Anatomically, the TP had a distinct tetarch arrangement of vascular bundles in their stem and roots against a typical ployarched pattern in the non-transgenic plants. Significantly, the transgenic plants accumulated 35% higher amount of total TIAs (3.10±0.21% dry wt.) along with a 0.03% dry wt. content of its vasodilatory and nootropic alkaloid vincamine in their leaves. Higher productivity of alkaloids in TP was corroborated with more than four (RQ=4.60±0.30) and five (RQ=5.20±0.70) times over-expression of TIAs pathway genes tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC) and strictosidine synthase (STR) that are responsible for pushing the metabolic flux towards TIAs synthesis in this medicinal herb

  19. 'Elaioplasts' identified as lipotubuloids in Althaea rosea, Funkia sieboldiana and Vanilla planifolia contain lipid bodies connected with microtubules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kwiatkowska

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available "Elaioplasts" observed in Vanilla planifolia, Funkia Sieboldiana and Althaea rosea exhibit all the features characteristic of lipotubuloids earlier described in Ornithogalum umbellatum. They are cytoplasmic domains containing aggregates of lipid bodies connected with microtubules. The immunogold technique confirmed the presence of tubulin in this domain. These structures do not have their own membranes but they are surrounded by a tonoplast at the side of a vacuole since they invaginate into it. In cytoplasm of this domain among lipid bodies there are numerous ribosomes, ER cisternae and vesicles as well as few mitochondria, Golgi structures and microbodies while at older developmental stages there are also autolytic vacuoles. The fact that they are so similar to O. umbellatum lipotubuloids suggest that "elaioplasts" of V. planifolia, F. Sieboldiana and A. rosea can also be named lipotubuloids.

  20. Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Alcea rosea flower extract as a new generation of antimicrobials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahiminezhad Alireza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs was developed by treating Ag+ with Alcea rosea flower extract. AgNO3 concentration, flower extract quantity, and reaction temperature were found to be significant factors in the bioreduction reaction. Synthesized AgNPs were almost spherical in shape with an average diameter of 7.2 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analysis revealed that oxygen-bearing functional groups in the A. rosea flower extract are responsible for reduction of Ag+. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of AgNPs against a Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli bacteria was determined to be 37.5 μg/ml.

  1. No size or density effect on alternative mate-locating tactics in the tropical damselfly Hetaerina rosea males (Odonata: Calopterygidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Enrique C. Peixoto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Males of the damselfly Hetaerina rosea may defend mating sites along river margins (resident males or, alternatively, wander among different areas presumably searching for mates (nonterritorial males. Although the occurrence of territorial and nonterritorial males of H. rosea is very common in Brazil, studies examining which factors may be responsible for the adoption of alternative mate-locating tactics in this species are inexistent. We investigated the relationship between the adoption of these alternative mate-locating tactics by males of H. rosea and two possible causes: body weight and male abundance. We carried the study in three areas: sites 1, 2 and 3. Samples were monthly undertaken in sites 1 and 2 between September/2001 and August/2002 and in site 3 between May/1999 and January/2001. Using the scan method with fixed areas and mark-resighting techniques, we did not find any relationship between the proportion of nonterritorial males and male abundance per month on sites 2 (n=6 and 3 (n=7, indicating that the adoption of alternative mate-locating tactics is not affected by competition for territories. In the same way, nonterritorial and resident males showed similar body and thoracic weight measures (n=30 and n=27 for sites 2 and 3 respectively. Maybe the nonterritorial tactic is adopted by individuals searching for better territories or males that were evicted from their defended sites. The absence of relationship between weight and male territorial status is in accordance with other Hetaerina species. However, other traits not investigated here such as parasitic load, fat content and age may influence the adoption of different mate-acquisition tactics in H. rosea males. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (1-2: 361-370. Epub 2009 June 30.Los machos de la libélula Hetaerina rosea pueden defender sus sitios de apareamiento a lo largo de márgenes de ríos (machos residentes o, alternativamente, deambulan entre diferentes áreas presumiblemente

  2. Isoflurane anesthesia of wild-caught goliath birdeater spiders (Theraphosa blondi) and Chilean rose spiders (Grammostola rosea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariah, Trevor T; Mitchell, Mark A; Guichard, Clare M; Singh, Rimme S

    2009-06-01

    Anesthesia is used in theraphosid spiders to facilitate medical procedures (e.g., physical examination, sample collection, surgery); however, most information on this subject is anecdotal. This study was conducted to systematically determine the anesthetic parameters of wild-caught, subadult goliath birdeater spiders (Theraphosa blondi) (n = 11) and Chilean rose spiders (Grammostola rosea) (n = 12). Each spider was placed in a 3-L gas anesthetic chamber and subjected to an induction of 5% isoflurane at a rate of 1 L/min oxygen. Anesthetic depth was monitored by evaluating the righting reflex every 5 min. Animals were recovered in 100% oxygen. Induction, recovery, and overall anesthetic times were determined. After an 8-wk washout period, the procedure was repeated. For both species, median induction time was 10 min. Median recovery time was 30 min for T. blondi and 12.5 min for G. rosea.

  3. A survey of the gene repertoire of Gigaspora rosea unravels conserved features among Glomeromycota for obligate biotrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nianwu eTANG

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi are a diverse group of soil fungi (Glomeromycota that form the most ancient mutualistic association termed arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis with a majority of land plants, improving their nutrition uptake and resistance to stresses. In contrast to their great ecological implications, the knowledge of the molecular biological mechanisms involved is still scant, partly due to the limited genomic resources available. Here, we describe the gene repertoire of a new AM fungus Gigaspora rosea (Diversisporales. Among the 86332 nonredundant virtual transcripts assembled, 15346 presented similarities with proteins in the Refseq database and 10175 were assigned with GO terms. KOG and Interpro domain annotations clearly showed an enrichment of genes involved in signal transduction in G. rosea. KEGG pathway analysis indicates that most primary metabolic processes are active in G. rosea. However, as for R. irregularis, several metabolic genes were not found, including the fatty acid synthase gene. This finding supports the hypothesis that AM fungi depend on the lipids produced by their hosts. Furthermore, the presence of a large number of transporters and hundreds of secreted proteins, together with the reduced number of plant cell wall degrading enzymes could be interpreted as an evolutionary adaptation to its mutualistic obligate biotrophy. The detection of meiosis-related genes suggests that G. rosea might use a cryptic sexual process. Lastly, a phylogeny of basal fungi clearly shows Glomeromycota as a sister clade to Mucoromycotina, not only to the Mucorales or Mortierellales. The characterization of the gene repertoire from an AM fungal species belonging to the order of Diversisporales and its comparison with the gene sets of R. irregularis (Glomerales and Gigaspora margarita (Diversisporales, reveal that AM fungi share several features linked to mutualistic obligate biotrophy. This work contributes to lay the foundation

  4. The ABC transporter ABCG29 is involved in H2O2 tolerance and biocontrol traits in the fungus Clonostachys rosea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Mukesh; Jensen, Dan Funck; Karlsson, Magnus

    2016-04-01

    For successful biocontrol interactions, biological control organisms must tolerate toxic metabolites produced by themselves or plant pathogens during mycoparasitic/antagonistic interactions, by host plant during colonization of the plant, and xenobiotics present in the environment. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters can play a significant role in tolerance of toxic compounds by mediating active transport across the cellular membrane. This paper reports on functional characterization of an ABC transporter ABCG29 in the biocontrol fungus Clonostachys rosea strain IK726. Gene expression analysis showed induced expression of abcG29 during exposure to the Fusarium spp. mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEA) and the fungicides Cantus, Chipco Green and Apron. Expression of abcG29 in C. rosea was significantly higher during C. rosea-C. rosea (Cr-Cr) interaction or in exposure to C. rosea culture filtrate for 2 h, compared to interaction with Fusarium graminearum or 2 h exposure to F. graminearum culture filtrate. In contrast with gene expression data, ΔabcG29 strains did not display reduced tolerance towards ZEA, fungicides or chemical agents known for inducing oxidative, cell wall or osmotic stress, compared to C. rosea WT. The exception was a significant reduction in tolerance to H2O2 (10 mM) in ΔabcG29 strains when conidia were used as an inoculum. The antagonistic ability of ΔabcG29 strains towards F. graminearum, Fusarium oxysporum or Botrytis cinerea in dual plate assays were not different compared with WT. However, in biocontrol assays ΔabcG29 strains displayed reduced ability to protect Arabidopsis thaliana leaves from B. cinerea, and barley seedling from F. graminearum as measured by an A. thaliana detached leaf assay and a barley foot rot disease assay, respectively. These data show that the ABCG29 is dispensable for ZEA and fungicides tolerance, and antagonism but not H2O2 tolerance and biocontrol effects in C. rosea.

  5. Schisandra chinensis and Rhodiola rosea exert an anti-stress effect on the HPA axis and reduce hypothalamic c-Fos expression in rats subjected to repeated stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Nan; Li, Jie; Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Jian; Wang, Yangtian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Schisandra chinensis (S. chinensis) and Rhodiola rosea (R. rosea) on rats subjected to 5 h of stress, induced by water-floating followed by treadmill exercise. Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity and c-Fos and Fos-related antigen 2 (Fra-2) mRNA expression levels in the hypothalamus of the rats were evaluated. Rats were distributed into four groups: S. chinensis (n=12), R. rosea (n=10), stress control (n=10) and quiet control (n=8). Following a training period of 6 consecutive days, the S. chinensis, R. rosea and stress control groups underwent a 3-h water-floating session in the presence of feline predators immediately followed by 2 h treadmill running to induce psychological and physical stress. Following compound stress induction, the serum levels of corticosterone (CORT), adrenocorticotropic hormone and interleukin-1β and the mRNA expression levels of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), neuropeptide-Y, c-Fos and Fra-2 were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, radioimmunoassay and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The results indicated that S. chinensis and R. rosea markedly decreased the stress-induced elevation of CRH and peripheral CORT levels. The mRNA expression levels of c-Fos and Fra-2 in the hypothalamus were significantly increased after 5 h compound stress, and reduced levels of c-Fos expression were detected in rats treated with R. rosea. Thus, S. chinensis and R. rosea exert an anti-stress effect in rats subjected to stress by balancing the HPA axis, and possibly by reducing the expression of c-Fos in the hypothalamus.

  6. Pityriasis Rosea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... benefits Become a member DermCare Team Professionalism and ethics My account Member directory Publications JAAD JAAD Case ... SkinPAC State societies Scope of practice Truth in advertising Public and patients SPOT Skin Cancer™ Community programs & ...

  7. RP-HPLC determination of phenylalkanoids and monoterpenoids in Rhodiola rosea and identification by LC-ESI-TOF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Ali, Zulfiqar; Smillie, Troy J; Filion, Vicky; Cuerrier, Alain; Arnason, John T; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2009-08-01

    An HPLC method permitting the simultaneous determination of fourteen analytes (phenylalkanoids and monoterpenoids) from the roots of Rhodiola rosea was developed. A separation was achieved within 35 min using C(18) column material and a water-acetonitrile mobile phase, both containing a 0.05% phosphoric acid gradient system and a temperature of 53 degrees C. The method was validated for linearity, repeatability, limits of detection and limits of quantification. The limits of detection and limits of quantification of 14 phenylalkanoids and monoterpenoids were found to be 0.20-1.0 and 0.5-3.5 microg/mL, respectively. The wavelengths used for quantification of phenylalkanoids and monoterpenoids with a diode array detector were 205, 220 and 251 nm. The method was used to analyze the roots of two species of Rhodiola and commercial extracts of R. rosea and provides preliminary evidence of phytochemical differences between North American and Eurasian populations of R. rosea. LC-mass spectrometry coupled with electrospray ionization (ESI) interface method is described for the identification of phenylalkanoids and monoterpenoids in various Rhodiola samples. This method involved the use of the [M + H](+), [M + NH(4)](+) and [M + Na](+) ions in the positive ion mode with extractive ion monitoring (EIM). (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. In vivo Th1 and Th2 cytokine modulation effects of Rhodiola rosea standardised solution and its major constituent, salidroside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Shen Chou; Chin, Lengsu William; Chao, Pei-Chun; Lai, Ya-Yun; Lin, Long-Yau; Chou, Ming-Yung; Chou, Ming-Chih; Wei, James Cheng-Chung; Yang, Chi-Chiang

    2011-11-01

    Although Rhodiola rosea (L.) is used widely and disseminated in Oriental medicine, its in vivo effects on cytokine modulation remain unclear. Among the biologically active components of Rhodiola rosea, salidroside was suggested to be the most active compound. The objectives of this study were to assess the toxicity and cytokine modulation effects of Rhodiola rosea standardised solution (RRSS) and salidroside. Quantitative high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis determined the content of salidroside in RRSS to be 4.39% (w/v). Groups of Balb/c mice were fed daily with different doses of RRSS or salidroside, with CAPE or distilled water used as positive and negative controls, respectively. The acute and subacute toxicity tests did not reveal weight differences, pathological changes, or abnormalities in liver or kidney function indices among the treated groups. Ovalbumin-primed mouse cytokine assays demonstrated that both T helper (Th1) (IL-2 and IFN-γ) and Th2 (IL-4 and IL-10) cytokines were significantly increased by feeding with RRSS in a dose- and time-dependent manner (p < 0.05). Moreover, the cytokine modulation effects of salidroside were less prominent than that of RRSS treatment and not dose-dependent. These findings suggest that increased secretion of both Th1- and Th2-pattern cytokines can be achieved with RRSS and salidroside treatment. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Anti-inflammatory activity of Sapindus trifoliatus Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arul, B; Kothai, R; Jacob, Philip; Sangameswaran, B; Sureshkumar, K

    2004-01-01

    Anti-inflammatory activity of the ethanolic extract of the seeds of Sapindus trifoliatus Linn. was studied in wister rats using the carrageenan induced left hind paw edema, carrageenan induced pleurisy and cotton pellet induced granuloma model. The ethanolic extract (150 mg/kg, p.o.) produced the inhibition of carrageenan induced rat paw edema. It also showed an inhibitory effect on leukocyte migration and a reduction on the pleural exudates as well as reduction on the granuloma weight in the cotton pellet granuloma method. The results indicated that the ethanolic extract produced significant (P < 0.001) anti-inflammatory activity when compared with the standard and untreated control.

  10. Evaluation of psychopharmacological effects of Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugesan, T; Saravanan, K S; Lakshmi, S; Ramya, G; Thenmozhi, K

    2001-11-01

    The methanolic extract of Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. (MECP) leaves was evaluated for its psychopharmacological activities in several experimental models using Swiss albino mice and Wistar albino rats. The MECP was found to cause significant reduction in spontaneous activity, and decreases in exploratory behavioral profiles by the Y-maze and head dip test. It also showed reduction in muscle relaxant activity by rotarod, 30 degrees inclined screen and traction tests, as well as significantly potentiated the phenobarbitone sodium-induced sleeping time in the doses examined (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg body wt.). All the results were compared with respective controls for the evaluation of significance.

  11. Chemical and biological investigations of Dillenia indica Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Most. Nazma Parvin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of four compounds namely, lupeol (1, betulinaldehyde (2, betulinic acid (3 and stigmasterol (4 were isolated from the stem extract of Dillenia indica Linn. The structures of the isolated compounds (1-4 were established by extensive spectroscopic studies. The crude methanolic extracts and its n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, dichloromethane and chloroform soluble partitionates demonstrated weak antimicrobial activity against a wide range of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and fungi. The extractives revealed significant cytotoxic activity when tested by brine shrimp lethality bioassay. In addition, the extractives exhibited significant free radical scavenging activity when compared with the standard drug ascorbic acid.

  12. Kombucha Rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn) dan Kemampuannya sebagai Antihiperkolesterolemia

    OpenAIRE

    Suhartatik, Nanik; Karyantina, Merkuria; Purwanti, Indrias Tri

    2012-01-01

    We know that there is another tea extract, e.i from calyx of roselle flower (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn). This kind of tea could be made became kombucha by ferment roselle extract using microbe in the fermentation of kombucha. This mi­ crobe grown in roselle extract as a medium with variety of roselle concentration (30; 40; 50 grams of dried roselle/L). During the fermentation process, roselle kombucha was analyzed for pH value, total acid, antioxidant activity at 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 days of ferm...

  13. Two new pentacyclic triterpenoids from Lantana camara LINN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Sabira; Zehra, Syeda Qamar; Siddiqui, Bina Shaheen

    2008-09-01

    Two new pentacyclic triterpenoids, namely lantanoic acid (1) and camaranoic acid (2), and six known compounds such as lantic acid, camarinic acid, camangeloyl acid, camarinin, oleanonic acid, and ursonic acid were isolated from the aerial parts of Lantana camara LINN. Structures of the new constituents were elucidated by chemical transformation and spectral studies including 1D ((1)H- and (13)C-NMR) and 2D ((1)H-(1)H correlation spectroscopy (COSY), nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY), (1)H-(1)H total correlation spectroscopy (TOCSY), J-resolved, (1)H-detected heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence (HMQC), and heteronuclear multiple bond connectivity (HMBC)) NMR spectroscopy.

  14. Pretreatment with Rhodiola rosea extract reduces cognitive impairment induced by intracerebroventricular streptozotocin in rats: implication of anti-oxidative and neuroprotective effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Ze-Qiang; Zhou, Yan; Zeng, Yuan-Shan; Li, Yan; Chung, Peter

    2009-08-01

    To investigate the pretreatment effects of Rhodiola rosea (R. rosea) extract on cognitive dysfunction, oxidative stress in hippocampus and hippocampal neuron injury in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with R. rosea extract at doses of 1.5, 3.0, and 6.0 g/kg for 3 weeks, followed by bilateral intracerebroventricular injection with streptozotocin (1.5 mg/kg) on days 1 and 3. Behavioral alterations were monitored after 2 weeks from the lesion using Morris water maze task. Three weeks after the lesion, the rats were sacrificed for measuring the malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione reductase (GR) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in hippocampus and histopathology of hippocampal neurons. The MDA level was significantly increased while the GR and GSH levels were significantly decreased with striking impairments in spatial learning and memory and severe damage to hippocampal neurons in the model rat induced by intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin. These abnormalities were significantly improved by pretreatment with R. rosea extract (3.0 g/kg). R. rosea extract can protect rats against cognitive deficits, neuronal injury and oxidative stress induced by intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin, and may be used as a potential agent in treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as AD.

  15. Anticlastogenic activity of flavonoid rich extract of Cassia auriculata Linn. on experimental animal [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Supriya S; Kewatkar, Shailesh M; Paithankar, Vivek V

    2013-01-01

    To determine antimutagenic activity of Cassia auriculata Linn. on chromosomal damage induced by cyclophosphamide (CP). In the present investigation, four groups of six Swiss albino mice in each group were used. Excepting for the first group all the remaining groups were treated with CP (50 mg/kg). Mice of third and fourth group were treated with ethyl acetate extract of C. auriculata Linn. at 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg with CP. Metaphase of bone marrow cells of all animals were analyzed for qualitative and quantitative chromosomal aberrations. Break, fragment, deletion, Polyploidy, pulverized, ring and total aberration were observed. Flavonoids rich extracts of root of C. auriculata Linn. provided significant protection (P extract treated animals respectively. From the present study it can was observed that ethyl acetate extract of C. auriculata Linn possess significant anti-mutagenic potential against CP induced chromosomal aberration.

  16. Morinda citrifolia Linn. for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prapaitrakool, Sunisa; Itharat, Arunporn

    2010-12-01

    To be a preliminary, prospective, randomized double blinded, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of Morinda citrifolia Linn or noni for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in patients considered high risk for PONV after various types of surgery. The plant extract was prepared by boiling of dried noni fruit (maturity stage 3-4) then evaporated under standard procedure and processed into capsules. The doses were 150 mg, 300 mg and 600 mg which are equivalent to 5, 10 and 20 g of dried noni fruit, respectively. One hundred patients of ASA physical status I or II, aged 18-65 years, and considered at risk for PONV, were randomized to receive 150, 300, 600 mg of noni extract or a placebo orally 1 hours before surgery. Standard general anesthetic technique and postoperative analgesia were employed. Significantly fewer patients who had received the 600 mg noni extract experienced nausea during the first 6 hours compared to the placebo group (48% for the 600 mg noni group and 80% for the placebo group, p-value = 0.04). The incidence of PONV in other time periods was not statistically different for all three noni doses compared to the placebo group. No side effects were reported in all groups. Morinda citrifolia Linn. has an antiemetic property and prophylactic noni extract at 600 mg (equivalent to 20g of dried noni fruit or scopoletin 8.712 microg) effectively reduces the incidence of early postoperative nausea (0-6 hours).

  17. Microscopic evaluation and physicochemical analysis of Origanum majorana Linn leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BP Pimple

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the microscopic evaluation and physicochemical analysis of Origanum majorana Linn leaves. Methods: Fresh and dried powdered leaf samples was studies for its morphology, microscopy, organoleptic characters, fluorescence analysis and various other WHO recommended methods for standardisation. Results: Leaves are simple, petiolated, ovate to oblong-ovate, (0.5-1.5 cm long, (0.2-0.8 cm wide, with obtuse apex, entire margin, reticulate veination and symmetrical but tapering base. The microscopy revealed the dorsiventral nature of the leaf. Both the surfaces show presence of numerous covering trichomes, diacytic stomata and thin walled, wavy epidermal cells. The covering trichomes are multicellular, uniseriate, thin walled and pointed. In the midrib region, the epidermis is followed by collenchyma and vascular bundle (xylem and phloem. Whereas; the mesophyll exhibited only palisade cells and spongy parenchyma. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the pharmacognostic profile can serve as tool for developing standards for identification, quality and purity of Origanum majorana Linn leaves.

  18. Uji Antibakteri Ekstak Daun Sirsak (Annonamuricata Linn) terhadap Bakteri Escherichia coli dan Staphylococcusaureus

    OpenAIRE

    Pradikta, Rina

    2015-01-01

    Antibacterial activity of methanol extract soursop leaf (Annona muricata Linn) toEscherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus with diffusionmethod has been done. Result showed soursop leaf methanol extract (Annona muricata Linn) has activity as antibacterial. at concentration of 10 % to Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with resistancediameter of 10 mm to Escherichia coli, and 8,52 mm to Staphylococcus aureus each. While in the water solvent resistent diameter for bacteria Escherichia...

  19. In vitro antioxidant activity of hydro alcoholic extract from the fruit pulp of Cassia fistula Linn

    OpenAIRE

    Bhalodia, Nayan R.; Nariya, Pankaj B.; Acharya, R. N.; Shukla, V. J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study is aimed to investigate antioxidant activity of the extracts of Cassia fistula Linn. (Leguminosae) fruit pulp. Cassia fistula Linn., a Indian Laburnum, is widely cultivated in various countries and different continents including Asia, Mauritius, South Africa, Mexico, China, West Indies, East Africa and Brazil as an ornamental tree for its beautiful bunches of yellow flowers and also used in traditional medicine for several indications. The primary phytochemical study and in ...

  20. Development of a biocontrol agent for plant disease control with special emphasis on the near commercial fungal antagonist Clonostachys rosea strain "IK726"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dan Funck; Knudsen, Inge M.B.; Lübeck, Mette

    2007-01-01

    . Among the success stories for control of seed- and soilborne diseases are fungal biocontrol agents based on Trichoderma harzianum, Clonostachys rosea and Conithyrium minitans, and bacterial biocontrol agents based on strains of Agrobacterium, Pseudomonas and Streptomyces. We have developed C. rosea......Numerous experiments demonstrating potential biocontrol effects on soilborne diseases have been reported in the scientific literature. However, from the lists of approved and registered biocontrol agents, it is striking how few have been commercialised and are used in practise for plant disease...... strain ‘IK726', which has proved to be an effective antagonist in several crops against seed- and soilborne diseases. Although a biocontrol agent based on C. rosea ‘IK726' is not yet commercialised, this paper will be used to address some of the biological and technical aspects that must be dealt...

  1. Zearalenone detoxification by zearalenone hydrolase is important for the antagonistic ability of Clonostachys rosea against mycotoxigenic Fusarium graminearum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosawang, Chatchai; Karlsson, Magnus; Vélëz, Heriberto

    2014-01-01

    The fungus Clonostachys rosea is antagonistic against plant pathogens, including Fusarium graminearum, which produces the oestrogenic mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEA). ZEA inhibits other fungi, and C. rosea can detoxify ZEA through the enzyme zearalenone lactonohydrolase (ZHD101). As the relevance...... of ZEA detoxification for biocontrol is unknown, we studied regulation and function of ZHD101 in C. rosea. Quantitative reverse-transcription PCR revealed zhd101 gene expression in all conditions studied and demonstrated dose-dependent induction by ZEA. Known inducers of the Polyketide Synthase pathway...... did not induce zhd101 expression, suggesting specificity of the enzyme towards ZEA. To assess the role of ZHD101 during biocontrol interactions, we generated two Δzhd101 mutants incapable of ZEA-detoxification and confirmed their defect in degrading ZEA by HPLC. The Δzhd101 mutants displayed a lower...

  2. Higher Expression of Toll-like Receptors 3, 7, 8, and 9 in Pityriasis Rosea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ela, Mostafa Abou; El-Komy, Mohamed; Hay, Rania Abdel; Hegazy, Rehab; Sharobim, Amin; Rashed, Laila; Amr, Khalda

    2017-03-01

    Pityriasis rosea (PR) is a common papulosquamous skin disease in which an infective agent may be implicated. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in immune responses and in the pathophysiology of inflammatory skin diseases. Our aim was to determine the possible roles of TLRs 3, 7, 8, and 9 in the pathogenesis of PR. Twenty-four PR patients and 24 healthy individuals (as controls) were included in this case control study. All recruits were subjected to routine laboratory investigations. Biopsies were obtained from one active PR lesion and from healthy skin of controls for the detection of TLR 3, 7, 8, and 9 gene expression using real-time polymerase chain reaction. This study included 24 patients (8 females and 16 males) with active PR lesions, with a mean age of 28.62 years. Twenty four healthy age- and sex-matched individuals were included as controls (8 females and 16 males, with a mean age of 30.83 years). The results of the routine laboratory tests revealed no significant differences between both groups. Significantly elevated expression of all studied TLRs were detected in PR patients relative to healthy controls (p < .001). TLRs 3, 7, 8, and 9 might be involved in the pathogenesis of PR.

  3. Acyclovir in pityriasis rosea: An observer-blind, randomized controlled trial of effectiveness, safety and tolerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Das

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pityriasis rosea (PR is an acute inflammatory dermatosis. The association of human herpes virus 6 and 7 suggests the utility of use of antiviral agents in this disease. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of acyclovir in the treatment of PR. Methods: An observer-blind, randomized (1:1, parallel group, add-on trial was conducted on 24 adult patients with PR. Subjects of both Group A and B received the standard of care in the form of cetirizine 10 mg OD and calamine. Group A in addition received acyclovir 400 mg tablets thrice daily for 7 days. Both groups were followed up for four consecutive weeks for assessment of effectiveness and adverse events. Results: Group A complained of significantly fewer new lesions than Group B (P = 0.046. A complete response was obtained in all patients of Group A and 83% patients of Group B at the end of the follow up period. There was significant reduction in both lesional score and pruritus at second week follow-up in Group A and third week follow-up in Group B (P < 0.05. Minor adverse effects were observed in both treatment arms. Conclusion: Acyclovir offered rapid resolution of clinical severity of PR from second week onwards without significantly increased adverse events as compared to supportive therapy alone.

  4. The Role of Cytokines, Chemokines, and Growth Factors in the Pathogenesis of Pityriasis Rosea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Drago

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pityriasis rosea (PR is an exanthematous disease related to human herpesvirus- (HHV- 6/7 reactivation. The network of mediators involved in recruiting the infiltrating inflammatory cells has never been studied. Object. To investigate the levels of serum cytokines, growth factors, and chemokines in PR and healthy controls in order to elucidate the PR pathogenesis. Materials and Methods. Interleukin- (IL- 1, IL-6, IL-17, interferon- (IFN- γ, tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- α, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF, and chemokines, CXCL8 (IL-8 and CXCL10 (IP-10, were measured simultaneously by a multiplex assay in early acute PR patients’ sera and healthy controls. Subsequently, sera from PR patients were analysed at 3 different times (0, 15, and 30 days. Results and discussion. Serum levels of IL-17, IFN-γ, VEGF, and IP-10 resulted to be upregulated in PR patients compared to controls. IL-17 has a key role in host defense against pathogens stimulating the release of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines. IFN-γ has a direct antiviral activity promoting NK cells and virus specific T cells cytotoxicity. VEGF stimulates vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. IP-10 can induce chemotaxis, apoptosis, cell growth, and angiogenesis. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that these inflammatory mediators may modulate PR pathogenesis in synergistic manner.

  5. Higher Expression of Toll-like Receptors 3, 7, 8, and 9 in Pityriasis Rosea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Abou El-Ela

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Pityriasis rosea (PR is a common papulosquamous skin disease in which an infective agent may be implicated. Toll-like receptors (TLRs play an important role in immune responses and in the pathophysiology of inflammatory skin diseases. Our aim was to determine the possible roles of TLRs 3, 7, 8, and 9 in the pathogenesis of PR. Methods Twenty-four PR patients and 24 healthy individuals (as controls were included in this case control study. All recruits were subjected to routine laboratory investigations. Biopsies were obtained from one active PR lesion and from healthy skin of controls for the detection of TLR 3, 7, 8, and 9 gene expression using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results This study included 24 patients (8 females and 16 males with active PR lesions, with a mean age of 28.62 years. Twenty four healthy age- and sex-matched individuals were included as controls (8 females and 16 males, with a mean age of 30.83 years. The results of the routine laboratory tests revealed no significant differences between both groups. Significantly elevated expression of all studied TLRs were detected in PR patients relative to healthy controls (p < .001. Conclusions TLRs 3, 7, 8, and 9 might be involved in the pathogenesis of PR.

  6. Metabolic profiling assisted quality assessment of Rhodiola rosea extracts by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhanguo; Hu, Huiling; Chen, Fang; Zou, Liang; Yang, Mingfu; Wang, Anqi; Foulsham, James E; Lan, Ke

    2012-05-01

    In this work, fast and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with multivariate analysis was utilized to assist the quality assessment of Rhodiola rosea extracts (RREs). 131 peaks were separated and detected in RREs on a fused-core C18 column. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of the chromatographic data demonstrated that 10 batches of RREs could be well-differentiated and categorized into three groups which were closely related to the origins of RREs. Partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) showed that the quality differentiation might be explained by at least 6 components, in which rosavin was characterized by an external reference, rosiridine was identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and the mass spectra of the others were provided. The observation that the level of rosavin was more relevant to the multivariate chromatographic data than the ones of salidroside and tyrosol, the other two components commonly used to standardize RREs, was confirmed by the PLS prediction models. Results of the present study not only indicated that rosavin was a rational marker to represent the quality of RREs, but also demonstrated the power of HPLC-based metabolic profiling in the quality assessment of herbal extracts. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Antitumor effects of a purified polysaccharide from Rhodiola rosea and its action mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zibin; Li, Wei; Wang, Haotian; Yan, Weiqun; Zhou, Yulai; Wang, Guanjun; Cui, Jiuwei; Wang, Fang

    2012-09-01

    In the last three decades, numerous polysaccharides and polysaccharide-protein complexes have been isolated from plant or animal and used as a promising source of therapeutic agents for cancer. In this study, we prepared a homogeneous polysaccharide (RRP-ws) from Rhodiola rosea and tested its immunomodulation and anti-cancer activity in vitro and in vivo experiments using Sarcoma 180 (S-180) cells. Preliminary physicochemical analysis identified that RRP-ws was composed of Glc, Gal, Man and Rha with a relative molar ratio of 4.2:2.4:1.6:1.0, and contained 95.14% of total carbohydrate, 2.08% of protein and no sulfate. In vitro experiment showed that RRP-ws exerted a direct cytotoxic effect on the growth of S-180 cells. In vivo experiment, RRP-ws could inhibit tumor growth of S-180 tumor transplanted in mice, and increase the relative spleen/thymus indexes and body weight. Furthermore, RRP-ws also increased the production of IL-2, TNF-α and IFN-γ in serum, and elevated the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ on peripheral blood T-lymphocyte in tumor bearing mice. The overall findings indicated that RRP-ws could be used as a novel promising immunotherapeutic agent in cancer treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Adjuvant effects of salidroside from Rhodiola rosea L. on the immune responses to ovalbumin in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Shuang; He, Jiakang; Guo, Weixiao; Wei, Jingyuan; Lu, Jing; Deng, Xuming

    2011-12-01

    Salidroside, a major component of Rhodiola rosea L., was evaluated for its adjuvant effects on the immune responses in mice by ovalbumin (OVA) stimulation. BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously with OVA 100 μg or OVA 100 μg dissolved in saline containing alum (100 μg) or salidroside (12.5, 25, or 50 μg) on Days 1 and 15. Two weeks later (Day 28), blood samples were collected to analyze OVA-specific IgG, IgG1, and IgG2b antibodies. Meanwhile, splenocytes were harvested to assess lymphocyte proliferation, cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, and IFN-γ) production, and CD4(+), CD8(+) lymphocyte subsets. The results indicated that co-administration of salidroside with OVA significantly enhanced the ConA-, LPS-, and OVA-induced splenocyte proliferation, produced more IL-2, IL-4, IFN-γ, and IgG, IgG1, and IgG2b antibody levels, and increased the percentage of CD4(+), CD8(+) lymphocyte subsets than OVA alone. Thus, salidroside possess immunological adjuvant activity by regulating humoral and cellular immune responses in mice.

  9. Efecto de algunos antioxidantes para conservar la viabilidad en semillas de Tabebuia rosea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trujillo Enrique

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Varios experimentos de laboratorio se llevaron a cabo con el objeto de evaluar la eficiencia de los antioxidantes carbón
    activado, L-ciste ína, ácido ascórbico, ácido cítrico aplicados solos o en mezclas y del almacenamiento al vacío bajo condiciones de luz y oscuridad para evitar la pérdida de
    viabilidad de las semillas de Tabebuia rosea Sert. Los frutos se recolectaron de diez árboles localizados en la región de Garagoa, Boyacá y se trajeron al laboratorio donde la
    extracción de la semilla, secamiento y almacenamiento
    se realizaron bajo condiciones de luz o de oscuridad. Una vez aplicados los tratamientos la semilla se almacenó a 10°C
    y se hicieron pruebas de qerrninación a los 60, 90, 120, 150 y 180 días. Se encontró que el uso de estos compuestos antioxidantes efectivamente favorecen la conservación
    de la viabilidad de las semillas de ocobo y que el mejor tratamiento fue la combinación de empaque y almacenamiento al vacío y oscuridad, lo cual comprueba que tanto el oxígeno como la luz tienden a deteriorar la
    viabilidad de las semillas ricas en grasas.

  10. Anti-inflammatory and anticancer compounds isolated from Ventilago madraspatana Gaertn., Rubia cordifolia Linn. and Lantana camara Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Subhalakshmi; Das Sarma, Madhushree; Patra, Amarendra; Hazra, Banasri

    2010-09-01

    The aim was to search for anti-inflammatory and anticancer compounds from three medicinal plants, viz. Ventilago madraspatana Gaertn., Rubia cordifolia Linn. and Lantana camara Linn. The NO* scavenging potential of selected plant extracts was determined on LPS/IFN-gamma activated murine peritoneal macrophage cultures, and iNOS and COX-2 expression was evaluated by Western blot analysis. Bio-assay guided fractionation yielded four compounds: physcion and emodin from V. madraspatana, 1-hydroxytectoquinone from R. cordifolia, and oleanonic acid from L. camara. The anti-inflammatory activity of these compounds was tested through the carrageenan-induced rat-paw oedema model. They were then tested against a murine tumour (Ehrlich ascites carcinoma), and three human cancer cell lines, namely A375 (malignant skin melanoma), Hep2 (epidermoid laryngeal carcinoma) and U937 (lymphoma). All four compounds dose dependently inhibited NO* through suppression of iNOS protein without affecting macrophage viability. Physcion and emodin caused 65-68% reduction of oedema volume at 40 mg/kg, which validated their in-vivo anti-inflammatory effect. 1-Hydroxytectoquinone and oleanonic acid exhibited promising cytotoxicity against A375 cells. Ethnomedical reports on these traditional medicinal plants have been rationalised through an insight into the anti-inflammatory as well as anticancer potential of four constituents, characterised to be prospective candidates for designing novel therapeutic agents.

  11. Transcriptomic profiling to identify genes involved in Fusarium mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone tolerance in the mycoparasitic fungus Clonostachys rosea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosawang, Chatchai; Karlsson, Magnus; Jensen, Dan Funck

    2014-01-01

    approach to identify genes induced by DON and ZEA in order to investigate the molecular basis of mycotoxin resistance C. rosea.Results: We generated DON- and ZEA-induced cDNA libraries based on suppression subtractive hybridization. A total of 443 and 446 sequenced clones (corresponding to 58 and 65 genes......Background: Clonostachys rosea strain IK726 is a mycoparasitic fungus capable of controlling mycotoxin-producing Fusarium species, including F. graminearum and F. culmorum, known to produce Zearalenone (ZEA) and Deoxynivalenol (DON). DON is a type B trichothecene known to interfere with protein...

  12. Primer Registro para la Argentina de Rhizophlyctis rosea (Spizellomycetales, Chytridiomycota y notas sobre su frecuencia y abundancia en suelos cultivados First record for Argentina of Rhizophlyctis rosea (Spizellomycetales, Chytridiomycota and notes on its frequency and abundance in cultivated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostina V. Marano

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se colectaron muestras de suelo de dos lotes de frutilla en el Partido de Luján (Provincia de Buenos Aires, las que fueron incubadas y cebadas en laboratorio con sustratos celulósicos, queratínicos y quitínicos, con el objetivo de aislar a R. rosea (de Bary & Woronin Fisch. Todos los tipos de materiales empleados fueron positivos para esta especie. Estandarizando los sustratos adicionados, se analizó su frecuencia y abundancia y se contabilizó el número de talos que crecieron en ellos, pudiéndose obtener la densidad de talos y el número de talos por gramo de suelo (NTG. Se colectaron asimismo muestras de agua y sedimento de ambientes acuáticos, con el objetivo de registrar caracteres morfológicos provenientes de distintas cepas y realizar una descripción completa de R. rosea. Esta especie es citada por primera vez para la Argentina y en esta contribución se muestran por primera vez resultados cuantitativos de hongos zoospóricos del suelo pertenecientes al Phylum Chytridiomycota. El género Rhizophlyctis A. Fischer es también una nueva cita para el país.Soil samples from two strawberry fields in Partido de Luján (Provincia de Buenos Aires were collected, flooded and baited with cellulose, queratinic and chitinic substrates in order to obtain R. rosea (de Bary & Woronin A. Fisch. All kinds of materials employed, proved positive for this species. By standardizing the substrata addition, we analyzed frequency and abundance and by counting the thalli that grew on it, derivations of thallus density and thallus recovery per gram of soil (TRG were possible. Water and sediment samples from aquatic environments were also taken, with the aim of reporting morphological characters from different strains, and make a complete description of R. rosea. This species is recorded for the first time in Argentina and this contribution shows first quantitative results of soil fungi belonging to the Phylum Chytridiomycota , for our country. The genus

  13. Separation of four flavonoids from Rhodiola rosea by on-line combination of sample preparation and counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chaoyang; Hu, Liming; Fu, Qianyun; Gu, Xiaohong; Tao, Guanjun; Wang, Hongxin

    2013-09-06

    Purification of four flavonoids from Rhodiola rosea was developed by on-line combination of sample preparation and counter-current chromatography (CCC). Flavonoid sample was prepared by dynamic ultrasonic-assisted and solid-phase extraction using ion liquids as extractant. The preparation conditions were optimized by D-optimal design as follows: 2mol/L of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide concentration, 360W of ultrasonic power, 1.5mL/min of flow rate, 35min of extraction time and 0.5mL (absorbent) per g (material) of absorbent amount. The prepared sample solution (20mL) was loaded and injected directly into CCC column for final separation. As a result, four flavonoids, herbacetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-7-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside 1 (40.1mg), kaempferol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-7-O-α-l-rhamn-opyranoside 2 (4.6mg), kaempferol 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside-(2→1)-β-d-xylopyranoside 3 (20.2mg) and herbacetin-8-O-β-d-glucopyranoside 4 (22.5mg), were obtained from 20g of R. rosea material using ethyl acetate-n-butanol-H2O as solvent system at a ratio of 4:1:5 by CCC. Their structures were identified by ESI-MS/MS, NMR methods. Their purities determined by UPLC were 98.5%, 95.4%, 98.1% and 97.5%, respectively. Kaempferol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-7-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside 2 and herbacetin-8-O-β-d-glucopyrano-side 4 were isolated for first time from R. rosea. The purification method was simple, efficient and evaded tedious sample preparation process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Rhodiola rosea L. extract and its active compound salidroside antagonized both induction and reinstatement of nicotine place preference in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titomanlio, Federica; Perfumi, Marina; Mattioli, Laura

    2014-05-01

    Conventional pharmacological treatments for drug addiction aim to reduce three most important aspects: withdrawal syndrome, craving, and relapse. Pharmacological treatments currently available for the treatment of tobacco smoking are able to alleviate withdrawal symptoms but are not sufficiently effective in reducing craving and rarely effective to prevent relapse. Rhodiola rosea L., a well-known traditional oriental medicine with anxiolytic, antidepressive, antistress, and adaptogenic properties, has been recently shown to be effective in the prevention and treatment of nicotine-withdrawal symptoms. The present study used the conditioned place preference (CPP) model to systematically investigate, in mice, the effects of a R. rosea L. extract (RHO) and its active compound salidroside (SDS), on the reinforcing properties of nicotine and their efficacy in the vulnerability to reinstatement. To study the effects on the rewarding properties of nicotine, RHO (10, 15, and 20 mg/kg) and SDS (0.2 mg/kg) were tested both in the acquisition and expression of CPP induced by nicotine injection (0.5 mg/kg). Moreover, the efficacy of RHO and SDS in preventing relapse induced by nicotine priming (0.1 mg/kg, s.c.) and by restraint stress was also evaluated. Results showed the ability of RHO and salidroside to significantly reduce the rewarding properties of nicotine at all doses tested. RHO and SDS also suppressed both priming- and stress-induced reinstatement of CPP. The present study showed the positive effects of R. rosea L. in reducing rewarding properties and preventing relapse to nicotine and evidenced the important role of salidroside in the effects of the extract.

  15. Purification of Phenylalkanoids and monoterpene glycosides from Rhodiola rosea L. roots by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudge, Elizabeth; Lopes-Lutz, Daise; Brown, Paula N; Schieber, Andreas

    2013-02-01

    Rhodiola rosea L. is a medicinal herb used for its adaptogenic properties. The main active components are the phenylpropanoids collectively referred to as rosavins. To develop an isolation method for phytochemicals present in Rhodiola rosea roots using high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). The roots of Rhodiola rosea were extracted with methanol and fractionated using liquid-liquid partition and polyamide column clean-up. The purified fraction (100 mg) was subjected to semi-preparative HSCCC using the two-phase solvent system ethyl acetate:butanol:water (3:2:5). The head-to-tail elution mode was employed with a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min and a rotary speed of 1000 rpm. The separation yielded six main fractions with four components more than 90% pure. The sixth fraction was further purified using semi-preparative HPLC with a Synergi-hydro RP C₁₈ -column to obtain rosin and geranyl 1-O-α-l-arabinopyranosyl(1 → 6)-β-d-glucopyranoside. The main components isolated were rosavin (3.4 mg, 97% purity), salidroside (0.5 mg, 90% purity), benzyl-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (1.2 mg, 85% purity), rosarin (1.3 mg, 99% purity), rosiridin (1.8 mg, 92% purity), rosin (1.2 mg, 95% purity) and geranyl 1-O-α-l-arabinopyranosyl(1 → 6)-β-d-glucopyranoside (6.5 mg, 97% purity). The identity and purity of these components were confirmed using ultrafast liquid chromatography-diode-array detector-MS/MS analysis,  ¹H- and ¹³C-NMR spectroscopy. High-speed counter-current chromatography was successful in the isolation of several phytochemicals present in Rhodiola rosea roots, including two components that are not commercially available. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Noncompetitive inhibition of human CYP2C9 in vitro by a commercial Rhodiola rosea product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thu, Ole Kristian Forstrønen; Spigset, Olav; Hellum, Bent

    2017-08-01

    A commercial Rhodiola rosea (R. rosea) product has previously demonstrated CYP2C9 inhibition in humans. The purpose of this study was to provide in vitro inhibitory data for this particular interaction and to classify the mechanism of the interaction. Another aim was to examine the in vitro influence of ethanol on the CYP2C9 activity. Human CYP2C9 (wild type) isolated from a baculovirus-infected cell system was incubated with 0.8 μmol/L losartan for 20 min. Sulfaphenazole was used as a positive control. The commercial R. rosea product "Arctic Root" was used as test inhibitor. Formation of the CYP2C9-produced losartan metabolite EXP-3174 was determined by validated LC-MS/MS methodology. Possible mechanism-based (irreversible) inhibition was evaluated using time- and NADPH-dependent inhibition assays. Kinetic constants (Km , Vmax , and Ki ) were calculated from a Lineweaver-Burk plot. Mode of inhibition was determined. CYP2C9 was inhibited by "Arctic Root" with an IC50 (extract concentration yielding 50% reduction in enzyme activity) of 19.2 ± 2.7 μg/mL. Inhibitor concentrations of 20 μg/mL and 40 μg/mL yielded Ki values of 16.37 μg/mL and 5.59 μg/mL, respectively. The Lineweaver-Burk plot showed noncompetitive inhibition mode. No time- or NADPH-dependent inhibition was observed. The presence of ethanol inhibited CYP2C9 activity in a concentration-dependent manner. In conclusion, the commercial R. rosea product "Arctic Root" demonstrated noncompetitive inhibition of CYP2C9 in vitro. Further work identifying the constituents responsible for this inhibition is needed. © 2017 The Authors. Pharmacology Research & Perspectives published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd, British Pharmacological Society and American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  17. Polyploid races, genetic structure and morphological features of earthworm Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny, 1826 (Oligohaeta, Lumbricidae in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P. Vlasenko

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Four chromosomal races (2n=36, 3n=54, 6n=108, 8n=144 and 96 clones have been revealed among 224 specimens of the earthworm A. rosea over the territory of Ukraine by means of karyological analysis and biochemical genetic marking. Each population has been showed by several clones at least; moreover the clones from different places have never been identical. The clones in the range of one population can be identified with the set of quantitative and qualitative parameters.

  18. Polyploid races, genetic structure and morphological features of earthworm Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny, 1826) (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae) in Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasenko, R P; Mezhzherin, S V; Garbar, A V; Kotsuba, Yu

    2011-01-01

    Four chromosomal races (2n=36, 3n=54, 6n=108, 8n=144) and 96 clones have been revealed among 224 specimens of the earthworm Aporrectodea rosea over the territory of Ukraine by means of karyological analysis and biochemical genetic marking. Each population has been showed by several clones at least; moreover the clones from different places have never been identical. The clones in the range of one population can be identified with the set of quantitative and qualitative parameters.

  19. Polyploid races, genetic structure and morphological features of earthworm Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny, 1826) (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae) in Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasenko, R.P.; Mezhzherin, S.V.; Garbar, A.V.; Kotsuba, Yu.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Four chromosomal races (2n=36, 3n=54, 6n=108, 8n=144) and 96 clones have been revealed among 224 specimens of the earthworm Aporrectodea rosea over the territory of Ukraine by means of karyological analysis and biochemical genetic marking. Each population has been showed by several clones at least; moreover the clones from different places have never been identical. The clones in the range of one population can be identified with the set of quantitative and qualitative parameters. PMID:24260622

  20. Concentration-Dependent Effects of Rhodiola Rosea on Long-Term Survival and Stress Resistance of Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae: The Involvement of YAP 1 and MSN2/4 Regulatory Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliak, Maria M; Burdyliuk, Nadia I; Izers'ka, Lilia I; Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2014-01-01

    Concentration-dependent effects of aqueous extract from R. rosea root on long-term survival and stress resistance of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied. At low concentrations, R. rosea aqueous extract extended yeast chronological lifespan, enhanced oxidative stress resistance of stationary-phase cells and resistance to number stressors in exponentially growing cultures. At high concentrations, R. rosea extract sensitized yeast cells to stresses and shortened yeast lifespan. These biphasic concentration-responses describe a common hormetic phenomenon characterized by a low-dose stimulation and a high-dose inhibition. Yeast pretreatment with low doses of R. rosea extract enhanced yeast survival and prevented protein oxidation under H2O2-induced oxidative stress. Positive effect of R. rosea extract on yeast survival under heat shock exposure was not accompanied with changes in antioxidant enzyme activities and levels of oxidized proteins. The deficiency in transcriptional regulators, Msn2/Msn4 and Yap1, abolished the positive effect of low doses of R. rosea extract on yeast viability under stress challenges. Potential involvement of Msn2/Msn4 and Yap1 regulatory proteins in realization of R. rosea beneficial effects is discussed.

  1. IN VITRO PROPAGATION OF MUSSAENDA (Mussaenda erythrophylla cv. Rosea PROPAGAÇÃO IN VITRO DE MUSSAENDA (Mussaenda erythrophylla cv. Rosea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Bosco de Oliveira

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available

    This research aimed to develop a protocol for the micropropagation of Mussaenda erytrophylla cv. Rosea. Calcium hypochlorite or sodium hypochlorite (2.5% was used for the sterilization of bracts segments, with or without previous immersion in alcohol 70%. For callus induction, bracts segments were inoculated on MS medium with different concentrations of BAP and NAA. For buds induction, callus were inoculated on MS medium with different concentrations of cytokinins BAP, 2iP, and KIN (0.0 mg L-1, 0.5 mg L-1, 1.0 mg L-1, and 2.0 mg L-1. For multiplication, nodal segments from in vitro plants were inoculated in MS medium with BAP, KIN, and 2iP, in the concentrations of 0.0 mg L-1, 0.5 mg L-1, 1.0 mg L-1, and 2.0 mg L-1. For rooting, nodal segments from in vitro plants were inoculated using two MS medium dilutions: full strength and half strength of MS basal salt mixture (macronutrients salts and different concentrations of IBA (0.00 mg L-1, 0.25 mg L-1, 0.50 mg L-1, and 1.00 mg L-1. The best sterilization treatment was achieved by using calcium hypochlorite combined with immersion in alcohol. For callus induction, the MS medium with 0.4 mg L-1 of NAA plus 4.0 mg L-1 of BAP was more efficient. Bud multiplication was improved in MS medium with 0.5 mg L-1 of 2iP or 1.0 mg L-1 of KIN. The highest percentage of explants with roots without emission of callus was observed in the medium with 50% and 100% of MS salts without IBA.

  2. Development and characterisation of Vitex negundo Linn. noodles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan, L.S.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Formulation 2 (1 g w/w was the most favourable and was chosen for further analyses to compare its composition with that of a control (0 g w/w. Total phenolic content (TPC of the fresh noodles remained higher than that of the control even after cooking. However, after cooking, the carbohydrate and protein contents showed significant increases. The results showed that the lemuni-supplemented noodles have a longer shelf life compared to the control. The colour parameters L* and a* also showed significant differences as the lightness decreased, and the redness increased after the substitution. The L*, a* and b* values decreased significantly after the noodles of both formulations were cooked. The tensile strength, adhesiveness, and hardness of the lemuni noodles were significantly higher than those of the control. Thus, the Vitex negundo Linn. leaf has the potential to increase the health benefits of food products

  3. Novel lipid constituents identified in seeds of Nigella sativa (Linn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, B.K.; Verma, Manjul; Gupta, Meenal [Vikram University (India). School of Studies in Chemistry and Biochemistry]. E-mail: bkmehta11@yahoo.com

    2008-07-01

    Novel lipids were isolated from the unsaponifiable matter extracted from seeds of Nigella sativa Linn by using n-hexane. The new dienoate and two monoesters were the new lipids identified by spectral (IR, {sup 1}H- and {sup 13}C-NMR spectra, mass spectrum, elemental analysis) and chemical analysis. The dienoate (1) was identified as methylnonadeca-15,17-dienoate and two monoesters were identified as pentyl hexadec-12-enoate (2) and pentyl pentadec-11-enoate (3). Linoleic acid, oleic acid, {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol were identified as part of the lipid structures. All compounds exhibited moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus and poor activity against shigella spp, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. (author)

  4. Cerebroprotective effect of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. root extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Muralidharan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the cerebroprotective effect of the aqueous extract of the roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. (250 and 500 mg/kg in hypoxic rats. Hypoxia was induced by providing sodium nitrite drinking water to rats for 14 days. Extract at the tested doses promoted the locomotor activity and spatial behavior significantly, which was impaired in hypoxic rats. The extract administration restored the decreased levels of brain enzymes such as glutamate and dopamine and decreased acetylcholinesterase (AchE activity significantly. Levels of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and catalase were reduced due to hypoxia and were restored to near normalcy by administration of ethanol extract of G. glabra. Increased lipid peroxidation in hypoxic rats was also restored significantly by extract treatment. Thus, this study suggests that ethanol extract of G. glabra possess a cerebroprotective effect in hypoxic rats, which may be mediated by its antioxidant effects.

  5. Psidium guajava Linn confers gastro protective effects on rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston Raja, N R; Sundar, K

    2012-02-01

    The best alternatives to synthetic medicines, available, for the treatment of gastric ulcer disorders, are the natural products found in plants. They are known to exhibit a variety of activities. The present study is aimed at the screening of Psidium (P.) guajava Linn for its gastro protective effect. The methanol extracts of the leaves of P. guajava were tested in three different ulcer models viz. aspirin (ASP), pyloric ligation (PL) and ethanol (EtoH) induced ulcer models in rats. The treatment of P. guajava at varying doses (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg) significantly (p guajava may be responsible for the anti-ulcer property exhibited. The results further suggest that P. guajava possess gastro protective as well as ulcer healing properties which might also be due to its anti-secretory properties.

  6. HPTLC fingerprint profile of Bauhinia variegata Linn. leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayathri Gunalan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To develop the finger print of medicinally and economically important leaves of Bauhinia variegata Linn. Methods: Ethanol extract of the leaves were developed in the mobile phase of n-Hexane: Ethyl acetate: Formic acid: Acetic acid (70:30:1.0:1.0 using standard procedures and scanned under UV at 254 nm, 366nm and under visible light. Results: The HPTLC fingerprinting of the ethanol extract has shown several peaks with different Rf values. 2.5 毺 L of ethanol extract showed 11 spots while 5 毺 L and 10 毺 L has shown 13 spots. 15毺 L concentration gave 14 spots in the above said solvent system. Conclusions: This finger print would be helpful in the identification and authentication of this species.

  7. Analgesic and antipyretic activities of Momordica charantia linn. fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Patel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant Momordica charantia Linn. belongs to family Cucurbitaceae. It is known as bitter gourd in English and karela in Hindi. Earlier claims show that the plant is used in stomachic ailments as a carminative tonic; as an antipyretic and antidiabetic agent; and in rheumatoid arthritis and gout. The fruit has been claimed to contain charantin, steroidal saponin, momordium, carbohydrates, mineral matters, ascorbic acid, alkaloids, glucosides, etc. The ethanolic extract of the fruit showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, glycosides, steroids, proteins, and carbohydrates. The present study was carried out using acetic acid-induced writhing and tail-immersion tests in mice, while yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The ethanolic extracts (250 and 500 mg/kg, po. showed an analgesic and antipyretic effect, which was significantly higher than that in the control rats. The observed pharmacological activities provide the scientific basis to support traditional claims as well as explore some new and promising leads.

  8. The science behind sacredness of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Shankar; Mirdha, Bijay R; Mahapatra, Sushil C

    2009-01-01

    Medicinal properties of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn) are known for thousand years to various civilizations of the world. This medicinal herb is considered as a sacred plant by the Hindus in the Indian subcontinent. Scientific explorations of traditional belief of medicinal properties of Tulsi have got momentum mostly after the middle of the 20th century. In the present review, efforts have been made to sum up different aspects of scientific studies on this medicinal plant. Scientific evidences are available on various medicinal aspects i.e. antimicrobial, adaptogenic, antidiabetic, hepato-protective, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, radioprotective, immunomodulatory, neuro-protective, cardio-protective, mosquito repellent etc. to name a few. Most of these evidences are based on in-vitro, experimental and a few human studies.

  9. Wound healing activity of Sida cordifolia Linn. in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Rajesh S; Chaurasiya, Pradeep K; Rajak, Harish; Singour, Pradeep K; Toppo, Fedelic Ashish; Jain, Ankit

    2013-01-01

    The present study provides a scientific evaluation for the wound healing potential of ethanolic (EtOH) extract of Sida cordifolia Linn. (SCL) plant. Excision, incision and burn wounds were inflicted upon three groups of six rats each. Group I was assigned as control (ointment base). Group II was treated with 10% EtOH extract ointment. Group III was treated with standard silver sulfadiazine (0.01%) cream. The parameters observed were percentage of wound contraction, epithelialization period, hydroxyproline content, tensile strength including histopathological studies. It was noted that the effect produced by the ethanolic extract of SCL ointment showed significant (P < 0.01) healing in all wound models when compared with the control group. All parameters such as wound contraction, epithelialization period, hydroxyproline content, tensile strength and histopathological studies showed significant (P < 0.01) changes when compared with the control. The ethanolic extract ointment of SCL effectively stimulates wound contraction; increases tensile strength of excision, incision and burn wounds.

  10. PENGARUH EKSTRAK DAUN LEGUNDI (Vitex trifolia Linn TERHADAP KEMATIAN LARVA Aedes albopictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nia Sari Nastiti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKPengendalian Aedes albopictus penting dilakukan karena merupakan salah satu vektor penyakit yang mampumembawa dan menularkan virus Chikungunya. Di antara cara pengendalian yang perlu dikembangkan adalahpengendalian secara hayati, karena aman bagi manusia dan organisme lain serta ramah lingkungan. Pengendalian hayatiyang dapat digunakan adalah daun Legundi (Vitex trifolia linn. Vitex trifolia linn telah diketahui mengandung bahan aktifalkaloid, saponin, flafonoid. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh ekstrak daun Vitex trifolia linnterhadap kematianlarva Aedes albopictus.Jenis penelitian ini adalah quasi experiment, menggunakan Post Test OnlyControl Group Design. Obyekpenelitian ini adalah 750 ekor larva Aedes albopictus instar IV yang berasal dari hasil penangkaran di Balai BesarPenelitian dan Pengembangan Vektor dan Reservoir Penyakit (B2P2VRP Salatiga, Jawa Tengah. Ekstrak etanol daunVitex trifolia linn dibuat dari daun Legundi segar yang didestilasi dengan suhu 100oC sampai pekat. Setiap kelompokmedia (gelas penelitian diisi 100 ml air sumur, dan ekstrak etanol daun Vitex trifolia linn dengan konsentrasi 2,5 %, 5 %,7,5 %, 10 %, 12,5 % dan 0 % (kontrol. Selanjutnya pada setiap media dimasukkan 25 ekor larva Aedes albopictus,penghitungan kematian larva dilakukan setiap jam ke 1, 2, 4, dan 24. Replikasi dilakukan sebanyak 5 kali.Hasil uji statistik dengan Oneway Anova diperoleh p=0,000, sehingga (p<0,05 artinya ada perbedaan yangbermakna, yaitu ekstrak daun Vitex trifolia linn dapat mematikan larva Aedes albopictus. Kesimpulan penelitian ini adalahpenggunaan ekstrak daun Vitex trifolia linn dengan konsentrasi 12,5 % paling efektif terhadap kematian larva Aedesalbopictus.Kata Kunci: Ekstrak, daun legundi (Vitex trifolia linn, Aedes albopictus

  11. Approaches of [i]Rhodiola kirilowii [/i]and [i]Rhodiola rosea[/i] field cultivation in Poland and their potential health benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Grech-Baran

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Numerous researches have been carried out on plants of the Rhodiola species, especially Rhodiola kirilowii (Regel Maxim. and Rhodiola rosea. Various compounds have been reported to be isolated from R. kirilowii and R. rosea, including cyanogenic glycosides, monoterpene alcohols and their glycosides, aryl glycosides, phenylethanoids, phenylpropanoids and their glycosides (salidroside and rosavins respectively, as well as flavonoids, flavonlignans, proanthocyanidins and gallic acid derivatives and the latter have free radical scavenging capacity. The benefits claimed for Rhodiola include adapogenic, neuroprotective, anti-depresive anti-tumour and cardioprotective activities. Currently, the adaptogenic activity of Rhodiola compounds are properties evaluated mainly in human clinical trials. The mechanism of the action of Rhodiola extracts include affecting the levels of cortisol and NO by interactions with glucocorticoid receptors directly or via the c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK pathway. However, the natural populations of R. rosea in Poland are threatened; therefore, the cultivation of R. rosea and alternative species R. kirilowii might be a possible solution for producing these kinds of plants in Poland in sufficient quantities and quality for pharmaceutical purposes. Lack of proven interaction with other drugs and no confirmed adverse effects during clinical trials encourages further investigation. These herb preparations ought to be studied extensively to establish their position as potential drugs for a variety of diseases.

  12. Role of Ni-tolerant Bacillus spp. and Althea rosea L. in the phytoremediation of Ni-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Waheed Ullah; Yasin, Nasim Ahmad; Ahmad, Sajid Rashid; Ali, Aamir; Ahmed, Shakil; Ahmad, Aqeel

    2017-05-04

    In our current study, four nickel-tolerant (Ni-tolerant) bacterial species viz, Bacillus thuringiensis 002, Bacillus fortis 162, Bacillus subtilis 174, and Bacillus farraginis 354, were screened using Ni-contaminated media. The screened microbes exhibited positive results for synthesis of indole acetic acid (IAA), siderophore production, and phosphate solubilization. The effects of these screened microbes on Ni mobility in the soil, root elongation, plant biomass, and Ni uptake in Althea rosea plants grown in Ni-contaminated soil (200 mg Ni kg(-1)) were evaluated. Significantly higher value for water-extractable Ni (38 mg kg(-1)) was observed in case of Ni-amended soils inoculated with B. subtilis 174. Similarly, B. thuringiensis 002, B. fortis 162, and B. subtilis 174 significantly enhanced growth and Ni uptake in A. rosea. The Ni uptake in the shoots and roots of B. subtilis 174-inoculated plants enhanced up to 1.7 and 1.6-fold, respectively, as compared to that in the un-inoculated control. Bacterial inoculation also significantly improved the root and shoot biomass of treated plants. The current study presents a novel approach for bacteria-assisted phytoremediation of Ni-contaminated areas.

  13. The Role of Biotechnology for Conservation and Biologically Active Substances Production of Rhodiola rosea: Endangered Medicinal Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasimira Tasheva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, more than 50 000 plant species are used in phytotherapy and medicine. About 2/3 of them are harvested from nature leading to local extinction of many species or degradation of their habitats. Biotechnological methods offer possibilities not only for faster cloning and conservation of the genotype of the plants but for modification of their gene information, regulation, and expression for production of valuable substances in higher amounts or with better properties. Rhodiola rosea is an endangered medicinal species with limited distribution. It has outstanding importance for pharmaceutical industry for prevention and cure of cancer, heart and nervous system diseases, and so forth. Despite the great interest in golden root and the wide investigations in the area of phytochemistry, plant biotechnology remained less endeavoured and exploited. The paper presents research on initiation of in vitro cultures in Rhodiola rosea and some other Rhodiola species. Achievements in induction of organogenic and callus cultures, regeneration, and micropropagation varied but were a good basis for alternative in vitro synthesis of the desired metabolites and for the development of efficient systems for micropropagation for conservation of the species.

  14. Changes in the Content of the Glycosides, Aglycons and their Possible Precursors of Rhodiola rosea during the Vegetation Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmazloum, Iman; Ladányi, Márta; György, Zsuzsanna

    2015-08-01

    Phytochemical participants in the biosynthetic pathway of salidroside and cinnamyl alcohol glycosides were studied from seven Rhodiola rosea L. individuals originating from a wild population. Plants were grown in a phytotron and samples were taken at 3 weekly intervals during the vegetation period. Based on HPLC analysis, all the key compounds to which roseroot medicinal property is attributed were detected, with salidrosde being the most dominant, followed by its aglycone, tyrosol. The contents of all compounds were 2-3 times more in the rhizomes than in roots. The highest content of salidroside, tyrosol, rosarin, rosavin and cinnamyl alcohol was recorded in rhizomes and at the beginning of shoot elongation. The seven roseroot individuals showed a very high deviation in their chemical content at each sampling time. Our statistical analysis showed that the trend of salidroside accumulation in the rhizome was the most similar in all studied plants. These results have important implications for choosing a reasonable harvest time to obtain the maximum phytochemical content and a better understanding of active compounds formation in R. rosea L.

  15. Effect of provenance, plant part and processing on extract profiles from cultivated European Rhodiola rosea L. for medicinal use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschel, Wieland; Prieto, José M; Karkour, Caroline; Williamson, Elizabeth M

    2013-02-01

    The demand for plant material of Rhodiola rosea L. (Crassulaceae) for medicinal use has increased recently, amid concerns about its quality and sustainability. We have analysed the content of phenylpropanoids (total rosavins) and salidroside in liquid extracts from 3-year old cultivated plants of European origin, and mapped the influence of plant part (rhizome versus root), genotype, drying, cutting, and extraction solvent to chemical composition. Rhizomes contained 1.5-4 times more salidroside (0.3-0.4% dry wt) and total rosavins (1.2-3.0%) than roots. The qualitative decisive phenylpropanoid content in the extracts was most influenced by plant part, solvent, and genotype, while drying temperature and cutting conditions were of less importance. We have shown that R. rosea from different boreal European provenances can be grown under temperate conditions and identified factors to obtain consistent high quality extracts provided that authentic germplasm is used and distinguished between rhizome, roots and their mixtures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Simultaneous quantification of polyherbal formulations containing Rhodiola rosea L. and Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim. using rapid resolution liquid chromatography (RRLC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuan-Chun; Wang, Xiao-Qiang; Hou, Feifei; Ma, Jie; Luo, Mai; Lu, Shane; Jin, Peter; Chen, Alice; Xu, Iris; Patel, Asmita V; Gorecki, Derek

    2011-07-15

    An RRLC method capable of simultaneous identification and rapid quantification of six biologically active compounds (salidroside, tyrosol, rosarin, rosavin, rosin, rosiridin) in Rhodiola rosea L. and two active compounds (eleutheroside B and eleutheroside E) in Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim. was developed. The chromatographic analyses were performed on a reversed phase Phenomenex C18 (2)-HST column at 40°C with a neutral mobile phase (purified water and acetonitrile) gradient system at a flow rate of 1.0ml/min and UV detection at 205 and 220nm simultaneously. Baseline separation of eight active compounds was achieved within 8min. This developed method provides good linearity (R>0.9997), precision (RSDrosea and E. senticosus raw herbs, commercial extracts, as well as polyherbal formulations containing R. rosea and E. senticosus as ingredients. This RRLC method is accurate and sensitive; in addition, it greatly increases sample analysis throughput with reduced analysis time, which is suitable for routine quality control analysis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The role of biotechnology for conservation and biologically active substances production of Rhodiola rosea: endangered medicinal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasheva, Krasimira; Kosturkova, Georgina

    2012-01-01

    At present, more than 50,000 plant species are used in phytotherapy and medicine. About 2/3 of them are harvested from nature leading to local extinction of many species or degradation of their habitats. Biotechnological methods offer possibilities not only for faster cloning and conservation of the genotype of the plants but for modification of their gene information, regulation, and expression for production of valuable substances in higher amounts or with better properties. Rhodiola rosea is an endangered medicinal species with limited distribution. It has outstanding importance for pharmaceutical industry for prevention and cure of cancer, heart and nervous system diseases, and so forth. Despite the great interest in golden root and the wide investigations in the area of phytochemistry, plant biotechnology remained less endeavoured and exploited. The paper presents research on initiation of in vitro cultures in Rhodiola rosea and some other Rhodiola species. Achievements in induction of organogenic and callus cultures, regeneration, and micropropagation varied but were a good basis for alternative in vitro synthesis of the desired metabolites and for the development of efficient systems for micropropagation for conservation of the species.

  18. Neuroprotective effects of Rhodiola rosea extracts against excitotoxicity and oxygen-glucose deprivation in hippocampal slice cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramsbergen, Jan Bert; Sindberg, Jeanne; Lundberg, Louise

    . rosea roots (Clone 5, Pharmaplant, Germany, grown for four years) as well as chemical fractions and/or purified compounds (e.g. salidrosid, rosavin) against excitotoxicity and ischemia-like brain damage using organotypic hippocampal slice cultures. Hippocampal slice cultures derived from 8 days old rat...... pups were grown for 2-3 weeks before exposure to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA, 10 µM, 24 h) or oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD, 30 or 35 min), with and without presence of R. rosea extracts or compounds during and 24 h after the insult. NMDA- or OGD-induced neuronal cell death was monitored...... and quantified by propidium iodide uptake and immunohistochemical staining for MAP2 as a neuronal marker. Significant and dose-dependent protection against NMDA and OGD-induced CA1 pyramidal cell death was obtained by crude extracts using 250 µg/ml (33-50% protection) or 500 µg/ml (45-65% protection). A number...

  19. Hemolymph biochemistry reference ranges for wild-caught Goliath birdeater spiders (Theraphosa blondi) and Chilean rose spiders (Grammostola rosea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariah, Trevor T; Mitchell, Mark A; Guichard, Clare M; Singh, Rimme S

    2007-06-01

    Theraphosid spiders have become increasingly popular for private and public uses in the United States. However, little is known about their physiology from a medical standpoint. This study represents the first attempt to establish reference hemolymph values for two common species of theraphosids, the goliath birdeater spider (Theraphosa blondi) and the Chilean rose spider (Grammostola rosea). Eleven T. blondi and twelve G. rosea, all wild-caught subadults, were obtained after importation and hemolymph was collected for biochemical analysis. After 8 wk of captivity, hemolymph was again collected from the spiders and analyzed. The biochemical analytes measured in the study included aspartate transferase, creatine kinase, glucose, total protein, albumin, uric acid, blood urea nitrogen, phosphorous, calcium, potassium, and sodium. The osmolality of the hemolymph was estimated for each spider using two different formulae. There were significant differences in body weight, sodium, potassium, and osmolality between the sampling times for both species. There were also significant differences in creatine kinase, calcium, total protein, and blood urea nitrogen between sampling periods for T. blondi. The results of this study suggest that serial hemolymph samples may be used to assess the hydration status of theraphosid spiders. In addition, the differences in hemolymph analytes between spiders suggest that there may be differences between species that should be addressed in future studies.

  20. Rhodiola rosea suppresses thymus T-lymphocyte apoptosis by downregulating tumor necrosis factor-α-induced protein 8-like-2 in septic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming-Wei; Su, Mei-Xian; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Lin-Ming; Wang, Yun-Hui; Qian, Chuan-Yun

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, several studies have shown that Rhodiola rosea can enhance cellular immunity and humoral immune function in mice, and thus, it has become a research hotspot. However, its underlying mechanism of action has remained elusive. The present study investigated whether Rhodiola rosea was able to downregulate the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α-inducible protein 8-like 2 (TIPE2), thereby inhibiting the expression of apoptotic genes, attenuating T-lymphocyte apoptosis and improving immunity in septic mice. A mouse model of caecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis was established, and animals in the treatment group were pre-treated with an intraperitoneal injection of Rhodiola rosea extract, while animals in the control group and sham-operated group were injected with an equivalent amount of normal saline. TIPE2, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Fas and Fas ligand (FasL) mRNA and protein levels in thymic T cells were determined using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis, respectively. Furthermore, the thymus T-lymphocyte apoptosis rate, thymus T-lymphocyte count and thymus T-lymphocyte sub-sets were assessed using flow cytometry. Levels of T-helper cell type 1 (Th1) cytokines [Interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12 and interferon (IFN)-γ] and Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) were determined using ELISA. The results showed that, compared to that in the CLP group, the expression of TIPE2, Fas and FasL in the treatment group was significantly decreased, while the expression of Bcl-2 was increased (PRhodiola rosea rescued decreased in the counts of the CD3(+) T and CD4(+) T sub-sets of thymus T lymphocytes in the CLP group (PRhodiola rosea led to further increases. The thymus index of septic mice treated with Rhodiola rosea as well as their survival rate were improved as compared with those in the CLP group. These findings suggested that Rhodiola rosea has protective effects against sepsis by decreasing apoptosis

  1. Aislamiento de consorcios de hongos micorrícicos arbusculares de plantas medicinales y su efecto en el crecimiento de vinca (Catharanthus roseus Isolation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi consortia from medicinal plants and their effectiveness on growth of vinca (Catharanthus roseus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA DE LA ROSA-MERA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo consistió en propagar e identificar hongos micorrícicos arbusculares (HMA recolectados de plantas medicinales (PM de áreas naturales de bosques mixtos, y seleccionar consorcios micorrícicos con base en la promoción del crecimiento de vinca Catharanthus roseus (L G. Don, planta medicinal cuyos alcaloides tienen propiedades antineoplásicas. En la primera fase experimental se recolectaron raíces y suelo rizosférico de 13 PM establecidas en campo para evaluar el porcentaje de colonización total (PCT y cuantificar el número de esporas; además, se tomó una parte del suelo para establecer plantas trampa en invernadero durante 10 meses, y posteriormente evaluar el PCT e identificar los principales géneros de HMA. Todas las PM en su condición natural presentaron colonización micorrícica, observándose cuatro géneros de HMA (Glomus, Acaulospora, Gigaspora y Scutellospora, de los cuales Acaulospora y Glomus fueron los predominantes. En la segunda fase experimental se seleccionaron ocho consorcios con base en el PCT (> 40 % obtenido en las plantas trampa, que correspondieron a las muestras recolectadas de Adiantum capillus-veneris L., Castilleja tenuiflora Benth., Erigeron karvinskianus DC., Pimpinella anisum L., Plantago major L., Ricinus communis L., Rubus fruticosus L. y Rumex mexicanus Meisn. Estos consorcios fueron inoculados en plántulas de C. roseus para evaluar su capacidad de estimular el crecimiento de esta especie en condiciones de invernadero. Después de 70 días, a pesar de presentar un solo género predominante (Glomus, el consorcio aislado de R. mexicanus promovió de manera más consistente el crecimiento de C. roseus (número de hojas, área foliar y peso seco foliar en comparación con el resto de los consorcios micorrícicos.This study consisted on propagating and identifying arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF collected from medicinal plants (MP of natural areas of mixed forest (Estado de Mexico, and

  2. Efek Penambahan Jus dan Daun Sirih (Piper bettle linn Sebagai Aditif Pakan Terhadap Peforma Ayam Petelur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nining Haryun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Pengembangan unggas telah dilakukan dalam hal perkembangbiakan, pemberian pakan dan manajemen. Namun, implementasinya masih menghadapi banyak tantangan seperti masalah penurunan produksi. Salah satu penyebab penurunan produksi adalah gangguan kesehatan yang disebabkan oleh bakteri patogen (Salmonella sp dan Escherichia coli. Salah satu cara untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut adalah penggunaan bettle linn Juice sebagai pakan tambahan. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh bettle linn Juice sebagai pakan tambahan terhadap kinerja ayam petelur. Metode yang digunakan adalah uji biologis ayam petelur umur 69 minggu Isa Brown Strain dari 250 ayam petelur, menggunakan Completely Randomized Design (RAL dengan 5 perlakuan dan 5 ulangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Piper bettle linn Juice tidak memberikan pengaruh yang signifikan (P> 0,05 terhadap konsumsi pakan dan angka kematian. Mempengaruhi secara signifikan (P <0,01 terhadap Hen Day Production (HDP, berat telur dan Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR.

  3. Preventive Effects of Rhodiola rosea L. on Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke; Si, Xiao-Ping; Huang, Jian; Han, Jian; Liang, Xu; Xu, Xiao-Bo; Wang, Yi-Ting; Li, Guo-Yu; Wang, Hang-Yu; Wang, Jin-Hui

    2016-06-03

    Rhodiola rosea L. (RRL) possesses a wide range of pharmacological properties, including lung-protective activity, and has been utilized in folk medicine for several 100 years. However, the lung-protective mechanism remains unclear. This study investigated the possible lung-protective activity mechanism of RRL in a pulmonary fibrosis (PF) rat model. Lung fibrotic injury was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by single intratracheal instillation of saline containing bleomycin (BLM; 5 mg/kg). The rats were administered 125, 250, or 500 mg/kg of a 95% ethanol extract of RRL for 28 days. The animals were killed to detect changes in body weight, serum levels of glutathione (GSH) and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), as well as lung tissue hydroxyproline (HYP) content. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's trichrome, and immunohistochemical staining were performed to observe the histopathological changes in lung tissues. Additionally, target-related proteins were measured by Western blotting. RRL alleviated the loss of body weight induced by instilling BLM in PF rats, particularly at the 500 mg/kg per day dose. RRL reduced HYP (p < 0.01) and increased GSH and T-SOD contents. BALF levels of TNF-α, TGF-β1, and IL-6 decreased significantly in the RRL-treated groups. Expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and α-smooth muscle actin decreased significantly in a dose-dependent manner in response to RRL. Moreover, the levels of TGF-β1 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 in lung tissues also decreased in the RRL-treated groups. RRL alleviated BLM-induced PF in rats. Our results reveal that the protective effects of RRL against fibrotic lung injury in rats are correlated with its anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and anti-fibrotic properties. MMP-9 may play

  4. Preventive Effects of Rhodiola rosea L. on Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rhodiola rosea L. (RRL possesses a wide range of pharmacological properties, including lung-protective activity, and has been utilized in folk medicine for several 100 years. However, the lung-protective mechanism remains unclear. This study investigated the possible lung-protective activity mechanism of RRL in a pulmonary fibrosis (PF rat model. Lung fibrotic injury was induced in Sprague–Dawley rats by single intratracheal instillation of saline containing bleomycin (BLM; 5 mg/kg. The rats were administered 125, 250, or 500 mg/kg of a 95% ethanol extract of RRL for 28 days. The animals were killed to detect changes in body weight, serum levels of glutathione (GSH and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD, as well as lung tissue hydroxyproline (HYP content. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1, and interleukin 6 (IL-6 levels were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Hematoxylin and eosin, Masson’s trichrome, and immunohistochemical staining were performed to observe the histopathological changes in lung tissues. Additionally, target-related proteins were measured by Western blotting. RRL alleviated the loss of body weight induced by instilling BLM in PF rats, particularly at the 500 mg/kg per day dose. RRL reduced HYP (p < 0.01 and increased GSH and T-SOD contents. BALF levels of TNF-α, TGF-β1, and IL-6 decreased significantly in the RRL-treated groups. Expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 and α-smooth muscle actin decreased significantly in a dose-dependent manner in response to RRL. Moreover, the levels of TGF-β1 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 in lung tissues also decreased in the RRL-treated groups. RRL alleviated BLM-induced PF in rats. Our results reveal that the protective effects of RRL against fibrotic lung injury in rats are correlated with its anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and anti-fibrotic properties. MMP-9 may

  5. Efecto del Almacenamiento sobre la Viabilidad de la Semilla del Roble -Tabebuia Rosea (Bertol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piedrahita Edgar

    1987-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio se llevó a cabo en el Laboratorio de Semillas Forestales de la Facultad de Agronomía de la Universidad Nacional. El objetivo principal fue estudiar los efectos del contenido de humedad de la semilla y la temperatura de almacenamiento con evaluaciones cada cuatro meses hasta el término de un año sobre la viabilidad y el vigor de la semilla del roble, Tabebuia rosea (Bertol DC. Para la evaluación de las pruebas de germinación se dispuso ensayos con un diseño completamente al azar en un arreglo factorial con tres replicaciones. Los factores involucrados fueron el período de almacenamiento (P con tres niveles: 4, 8 Y 12 meses; la temperatura (T con dos niveles: 4° y -1°C; el contenido de humedad de la semilla (H en tres niveles: 9.8, 14.7 Y 26.9%. Los resultados revelan que la semilla del roble pertenece al grupo de las "ortodoxas" y que por tanto debe ser almacenada a contenidos de humedad menores del 10% (nivel por encima del cual se considera crítico según Yoshio y Márquez, 1983 y a bajas temperaturas El nivel de contenido de humedad alto de 26.9% ,arrojó valores nulos en la conservación de la viabilidad de la semilla bajo las dos temperaturas y durante los tres períodos de evaluación. Existen diferencias significativas entre tratamientos y el contenido de humedad bajo (9.8%, el más adecuado, difiere significativamente al nivel del 0.05% del contenido de humedad medio (14.7%. El período de almacenamiento de 4 meses difiere significativamente al 0.01 % del período de 8 meses al nivel de las dos temperaturas de almacenamiento, pero el período más prolongado de 12 meses no difiere de 4 y 8 meses al nivel de temperatura de -1°C. El único tratamiento que permitió conservar la viabilidad durante todo el período de estudio fue el almacenamiento con bajo contenido de humedad (9.8% y temperatura de -1~C, al nivel de 40% de germinación absoluta. Los resultados de vigor evaluados con el Indice de Czabator

  6. Evaluation of hypolipidemic activity of leaf juice of Catharanthus roseus (Linn.) G. Donn. in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Yogesh; Vadgama, Vishalkumar; Baxi, Seema; Chandrabhanu; Tripathi, B

    2011-01-01

    Our aim of the study was to evaluate the hypolipidemic activity of leaf juice of Catharanthus roseus (Linn.) G. Donn. in guinea pigs. Adult guinea pigs of either sex were divided into seven groups: group 1 - normal diet; group 2 - high fat diet; group 3 and 4 - normal diet plus leaf juice of Catharanthus roseus (Linn.) G. Donn. in the dose of 0.5 and 1 mL/kg, respectively; group 5 and 6- high fat diet with leaf juice of Catharanthus roseus (Linn.) G. Donn. in the dose of 0.5 and 1 mL/kg, respectively; group 7 - high fat diet plus atorvastatin (3 mg/kg). Above diet treatment was given for six weeks and drug was given during last three weeks. Serum lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-c, VLDL-c, HDL-c) was performed in each group of animals before and at the end of six weeks. Histological study of aorta, liver and kidney was done in group 1, 2, 6 and 7 and blood cell count was done in animals that were treated juice of C. roseus (Linn.) G. Donn. before and after juice administration. Simultaneous administration of leaf juice of C. roseus (Linn.) G. Donn. in the dose of 0.5 mL/kg prevents the rise of serum lipid parameters and decreases the fatty changes in the tissue induced by high fat diet, whereas in the dose of 1 mL/kg not only counteracts the elevation, but also significantly (p roseus (Linn.) G. Donn. possesses significant lipid lowering and anti atherosclerotic activity.

  7. Assessment of Antiobesity Potential of Achyranthes aspera Linn. Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Rani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the quality control parameters, quantitative phytochemical analysis (total phenols, total flavonoids, and total saponin content, and the antiobesity effect of ethanol extract of Achyranthes aspera Linn. seed (EAA by employing in vitro and in vivo models. In in vitro study, the inhibitory activity of EAA on pancreatic amylase and lipase was measured. The in vivo pancreatic lipase activity was evaluated by measurement of plasma triacylglycerol levels after oral administration of EAA along with lipid emulsion to Swiss albino mice. The EAA inhibited pancreatic amylase and lipase activity in vitro and elevations of plasma triacylglycerol level in mice. Furthermore, the antiobesity effect of EAA (900 mg/kg was assessed in mice fed a high-fat diet with or without EAA for 6 weeks. EAA significantly suppressed the increase in body, retroperitoneal adipose tissue, liver weights, and serum parameters, namely; total cholesterol, total triglyceride, and LDL-cholesterol level. The anti obesity effects of EAA in high-fat-diet-treated mice may be partly mediated through delaying the intestinal absorption of dietary fat by inhibiting pancreatic amylase and lipase activity. Histopathological effects of EAA on the liver of mice were also assessed.

  8. Evaluation of solar dried thyme (Thymus vulgaris Linne) herbs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balladin, Derrick A.; Headley, Oliver [University of the West Indies, Center for Resource Management and Environmental Studies, St Michael (Barbados)

    1999-07-01

    Thyme (Thymus vulgaris Linne) herbs can be dried at about 50degC reached an equilibrium moisture content after 12 h and 9.5 h using the wire basket solar dryer and oven drying method respectively. The initial moisture content (wet wt. basis), (final moisture content, dry wt. basis (dwb)) determined by the Dean-Stark toluene method, oven and microwave were 75.15% (10.0%), 75.12% (11.85%) and 72.31% (12.50%) respectively. Paired t-test ({alpha} = 0.05, 10 degrees of freedom) showed no significant difference between the Dean-Stark toluene and the oven methods, but a significant difference between these two methods and the microwaves method. The % essential oils extracted after drying by the oven and the wire basket solar methods were 0.5 and 0.6% (per 100 g dwb) respectively. The % oleoresin and ash content were 27% for both drying methods and 1.60, 2.03 and 2.25% for the fresh, oven dried and the wire basket solar dried herb respectively. (Author)

  9. Botanical pharmacognosy of stem of Gmelina asiatica Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, R; Prasant, K; Babu, U V

    2012-04-01

    Gmelina asiatica Linn (G. parvifolia Roxb.) is a large shrub or a small tree. Roots and aerial parts are used in Ayurvedic medicine and also have ethno-medical uses. Root is reported as adulterant to G. arborea roxb roots. Pharmacognostical characters of root were reported. Owing to the shortage of genuine drug and ever-increasing demands in market, it becomes necessary to search an alternative with equal efficacy without compromising the therapeutic value. Nowadays, it becomes a common practice of using stem. In case of roots phytochemical and pharmacological analysis of stem was reported. However, there is no report on the pharmacognostical characters of stem and to differentiate it from roots. The present report describes the botanical pharmacognostical characters of stem and a note to differentiate it from root. Hollow pith, faint annual rings in cut ends, alternatively arranged macrosclereids and bundle cap fibers, and presence of abundant starch grains and calcium oxalates in pith and in ray cells are the diagnostic microscopic characters of stem. Stem pieces can be differentiated from roots by absence of tylosis.

  10. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical analysis of Tamarindus indica Linn. stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveena Kodlady

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tamarindus indica Linn. fruits (Chincha are extensively used in culinary preparations in Indian civilization. Its vast medicinal uses are documented in Ayurvedic classics and it can be used singly or as a component of various formulations. Besides fruit, the Kasta (wood of T. indica L. is also important and used to prepare Kshara (alkaline extract an Ayurvedic dosage form. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical details of Chincha Kasta are not available in authentic literature including API (Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. The study is an attempt in this direction. T. indica L. stem with heartwood was selected and morphological, microscopic and physicochemical standardization characters along with TLC finger print, and fluorescence analysis were documented. Transverse section of stem showed important characters such as phelloderm, stone cells layer, fiber groups, calcium oxalate, crystal fibers, and tylosis in heartwood region. Four characteristic spots were observed under UV long wave, in thin layer chromatography with the solvent combination of toluene: ethyl acetate (8:2. The study can help correct identification and standardization of this plant material.

  11. Effects of meclofenoxate and Extr. Rhodiolae roseae L. on electroconvulsive shock-impaired learning and memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarova, M B; Petkov, V D; Markovska, V L; Petkov, V V; Mosharrof, A

    1986-09-01

    In experiments on albino rats, the authors studied the effects of meclofenoxate and Extr. Rhodiolae roseae on the memory-impairing action of convulsant electroshock. "Step-down" passive avoidance training with negative reinforcement was used to trace the changes in memory. Meclofenoxate administered i.p. in a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight for five days prevented the retrograde amnesia observed after convulsant electroshock upon retention testing on the 3rd and 24th hr after the end of the training session. The Rhodiola extract administered orally in a dose of 0.10 ml/rat for 10 days, which in other experimental approaches improved learning and memory, remained ineffective here. The role of biogenic monoamines in the learning- and memory-improving effects of meclofenoxate is considered on the basis of earlier studies by the authors.

  12. Metabolic profiling of Rhodiola rosea rhizomes by 1H NMR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ioset, Karine Ndjoko; Nyberg, Nils T; Van Diermen, Daphne

    2011-01-01

    Introduction - Rhodiola rosea is a broadly used medicinal plant with largely unexplored natural variability in secondary metabolite levels.Objective - The aim of this work was to develop a non-target procedure for (1)H NMR spectroscopic fingerprinting of rhizome extracts for pattern recognition...... analysis and identification of secondary metabolites responsible for differences in sample composition. To achieve this, plants from three different geographic areas (Swiss Alps, Finland, and Altai region in Siberia) were investigated.Results - A sample preparation procedure was developed in order...... to remove polymeric polyphenols as the (1)H NMR analysis of low-molecular-weight metabolites was hampered by the presence of tannins. Principal component analysis disclosed tight clustering of samples according to population. PCA models based on the aromatic region of the spectra showed that the first two...

  13. Response surface methodology for the optimization of keratinase production in culture medium containing feathers produced by Kocuria rosea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, C; Diaz, I; Coello, N

    2006-05-01

    A 43-fold increase in keratinase production by Kocuria rosea was achieved in batch fermentation using response surface methodology. Factorial designs were used to select the components of a culture medium that showed a significant effect on keratinase production. An orthogonal-central composite experimental design was performed, with only two (feathers and magnesium) from nine initial compounds being further analyzed by response surface methodology. An optimum keratinase production of 14 886.9 U/mg was obtained with the following medium composition (per litre): NH4Cl, 0.3 g; NaCl, 0.3 g; K2HPO4, 3.2 g; KH2PO4, 4.0 g; MgSO4.6H2O, 0.5 g; yeast extract, 0.1 g; and finely milled feathers, 30 g. The medium was shaken at 400 r/min with an incubation period of 14 h at 40 degrees C.

  14. Free radical-scavenging activities of oligomeric proanthocyanidin from Rhodiola rosea L. and its antioxidant effects in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qian; Yin, Zhi-Ping; Ma, Lei; Zhao, Wen; Hao, Hong-Wei; Li, Hui-Ling

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the antioxidant activity of oligomeric proanthocyanidin from Rhodiola rosea L. (OPCRR). The free radical-scavenging activities exhibited by OPCRR, as determined by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion (√[Formula: see text]) scavenging assays, were greater than that of vitamin C. The effects of OPCRR on the antioxidant enzymes activity and lipid peroxide content in vivo were evaluated through three observation biomarkers, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum, heart, liver and brain tissues in mice. The OPCRR significantly enhanced the SOD and GSH-Px activities, and reduced the MDA content in mice. These results indicated that the OPCRR has a great potential to be a natural antioxidant due to its considerable antioxidant activities in vitro and in vivo.

  15. Anti-Urolithiatic Activity of Melia Azedarach Linn Leaf Extract in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The effect of oral administration of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Melia azedarach Linn leaves on calcium oxalate urolithiasis has been investigated. Lithiasis was induced by oral adminstration of ethylene glycol (0.75 %v/v) in male albino rats for 28 days. Each of the extract (250 mg/kg) was administered orally ...

  16. Heade suhete linn - kõik sõpradele / Väinu Rozental

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rozental, Väinu, 1957-

    2007-01-01

    Autori arvates on Tartust saanud korporatiivne linn, kus võim ja äri jagatakse väikese inimgrupi sees. Vt. samas: Tartu niiditõmbajad: otsused on tehtud linnakodanike huvides; Tartu Rotary Klubi liikmed; Tuntumad tehingud omadele Tartu linnas

  17. Anti-Stress and Anti-Amnesic Effects of Coriandrum sativum Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Coriandrum sativum Linn. (Umbelliferae, C. sativum) is cultivated throughout the world for its use as spice and as a folk medicine. This study deals with the anti-stress and anti-amnestic properties of C. sativum extract in rats. Methods: Urinary levels of vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and ascorbic acid were used to ...

  18. Tallinna linn või aukude plombeerimine = City of Tallinn or filling of holes / Veljo Kaasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaasik, Veljo

    1999-01-01

    "Eesti Päevalehes" ilmunud arhitektide viimase aja karakteersemate tööde hindamistabelist, selles olevast Nissani keskusest (Andres Siim, Hanno Kreis), Hansapanga hoonest ja Stockmanni kaubamajast (Peep Jänes). Tallinna arhitektuurist kui tervikust. Tallinnas on palju tühje krunte, rekonstrueerimist ootavaid linnaosi ja suuri üksikhooneid. Linn realiseerub läbi investorite majandusliku huvitatuse

  19. Murrayakoeninol--a new carbazole alkaloid from Murraya koenigii (Linn) Spreng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Mumu; Saha, Sudipta; Mukhapadhyay, Sibabrata

    2009-03-01

    A new carbazole alkaloid, designated as murrayakoeninol, was isolated from the leaves of Murraya koenigii (Linn) Spreng, along with four known carbazole alkaloids, viz. mahanimbine, koenimbine, O-methylmurrayamine-A and murrayazolinine and one from the bark viz. girinimbine. The structure of the new alkaloid 1 was elucidated on the basis of 2D NMR spectral analysis and chemical reactions.

  20. Wound healing activity of methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Banana) in Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amutha, Kuppusamy; Selvakumari, Ulagesan

    2016-10-01

    This study is designed to explore the phytochemical, antibacterial and wound healing activity of methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Banana). The phytochemical analysis was performed for the methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. Results indicates that the Musa paradisiaca Linn. was rich in glucosides, tannins and alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids and phenols were present in moderate quantities. The extract shows antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus with the zone of inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 21 mm and Staphylococcus aureus was 19 mm at concentration of 500 µg/disc. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was also evaluated for the extract. Wistar albino rats were selected for wound healing activity. The burn wound was created by using red hot steel rod from above the hind limb region. The methanolic extract was applied on the wound and the progressive changes were monitored every day. The wound contraction rate was absorbed based on the histopathological examination. It was concluded that the methanolic extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. showed greater healing activity compared to control in Wistar albino rats. © 2014 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2014 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Evaluation of lead exposure using Achatina achatina (Linné 1758 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ecotoxicological observations on Achatina achatina (Linné, 1758) were assessed for the bioaccumulation of lead in snail carcass as induced by traffic near abandoned battery factory (Niger Delta, Nigeria). Levels of lead bioaccumulation above European Commission limit of 1.5g/g at higher traffic intensity depressed ...

  2. Prophylactic and immune modulatory influences of Nigella sativa Linn. in broilers exposed to biological challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam S. Soliman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Prophylaxis and disease prevention is an essential strategy among biorisk management in poultry farms that stimulate and maintain the birds' immunity. The aim of this study was to investigate the prophylactic, and immune-stimulant influence of Nigella sativa Linn. in broilers under biological stress. Materials and Methods: A total of 250 1-day-old (ross chicks were divided into 5 groups; four of which were supplemented with 1.4%, 2.8%, 4.2%, and 5.6% N. sativa Linn., respectively. The four supplemented groups were challenged with Escherichia coli O157:H7 1.5x108 at a 14th day old. A total of 1050 samples (150 serum, 150 swab, and 750 organ samples were collected and examined. Results: A highly significant increase (p<0.01 in 5.6% N. sativa Linn. supplemented group in performance traits (body weight, weight gain, and performance index, biochemical parameters (proteinogram, liver enzymes, and creatinine, immunoglobulins concentration, and immune organs' weight. Meanwile, liver showed improvement of histoarchitecture without fibrosis. Heart showed a mild pericarditis with a mild degree of hydropic degeneration. Bursa, thymus, and spleen showed lymphoid hyperplasia. Conclusion: A concentration of 5.6% N. sativa Linn. in broiler's feed can improve the immune response and subsequent resistance of broilers against diseases.

  3. Nematicidal natural products from the aerial parts of Lantana camara Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, F; Begum, S; Raza, S M; Wahab, A; Siddiqui, B S

    2005-09-01

    Lantanilic acid, camaric acid and oleanolic acid possessing nematicidal activity were isolated from the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Lantana camara Linn. through bio-assay guided fractionation. These compounds exhibited 98%, 95% and 70% mortality respectively against root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita at 0.5% concentration. Conventional nematicide furadan showed 100% mortality at this concentration.

  4. Toxic effects of the extracts of Eugenia uniflora Linn. in rats | Abatan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The toxi effects of the leaves of Eugenia uniflora Linn on rats was evaluated by observing abnormal changes in the haemogram including erythron and leukogram, serum biochemical parameters, histopathology, and hexobarbital sleeping time. The leaf extract produced significant increases in the packed cell volume (PCV) ...

  5. Isolation of Secondary Metabolites from the Soil-Derived Fungus Clonostachys rosea YRS-06, a Biological Control Agent, and Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Ming-Ming; Qi, Feng-Ming; Li, Jie; Jiang, Chun-Xiao; Hou, Yue; Shi, Yan-Ping; Di, Duo-Long; Zhang, Ji-Wen; Wu, Quan-Xiang

    2016-03-23

    The fungus Clonostachys rosea is widely distributed all over the world. The destructive force of this fungus, as a biological control agent, is very strong to lots of plant pathogenic fungi. As part of the ongoing search for antibiotics from fungi obtained from soil samples, the secondary metabolites of C. rosea YRS-06 were investigated. Through efficient bioassay-guided isolation, three new bisorbicillinoids possessing open-ended cage structures, tetrahydrotrichodimer ether (1) and dihydrotrichodimer ether A and B (2 and 3), and 12 known compounds were obtained. Their structures were determined via extensive NMR, HR-ESI-MS, and CD spectroscopic analyses and X-ray diffraction data. Compounds 1-3 are rare bisorbicillinoids with a γ-pyrone moiety. The biological properties of 1-15 were evaluated against six different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Bisorbicillinoids, 2-5, and TMC-151 C and E, 14 and 15, showed potent antibacterial activity.

  6. Effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. fruit extracts on α-glucosidase enzyme, glucose diffusion and wound healing activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheem Mohssin Shadhan

    2017-05-01

    Conclusions: It is established that methanolic extract and fractions from H. sabdariffa Linn. fruit can inhibit the α-glucosidase enzyme and glucose movement as well as influence the wound healing activity positively.

  7. Transcriptome and proteomic analysis of mango (Mangifera indica Linn) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hong-xia; Jia, Hui-min; Ma, Xiao-wei; Wang, Song-biao; Yao, Quan-sheng; Xu, Wen-tian; Zhou, Yi-gang; Gao, Zhong-shan; Zhan, Ru-lin

    2014-06-13

    Here we used Illumina RNA-seq technology for transcriptome sequencing of a mixed fruit sample from 'Zill' mango (Mangifera indica Linn) fruit pericarp and pulp during the development and ripening stages. RNA-seq generated 68,419,722 sequence reads that were assembled into 54,207 transcripts with a mean length of 858bp, including 26,413 clusters and 27,794 singletons. A total of 42,515(78.43%) transcripts were annotated using public protein databases, with a cut-off E-value above 10(-5), of which 35,198 and 14,619 transcripts were assigned to gene ontology terms and clusters of orthologous groups respectively. Functional annotation against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database identified 23,741(43.79%) transcripts which were mapped to 128 pathways. These pathways revealed many previously unknown transcripts. We also applied mass spectrometry-based transcriptome data to characterize the proteome of ripe fruit. LC-MS/MS analysis of the mango fruit proteome was using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) in an LTQ Orbitrap Velos (Thermo) coupled online to the HPLC. This approach enabled the identification of 7536 peptides that matched 2754 proteins. Our study provides a comprehensive sequence for a systemic view of transcriptome during mango fruit development and the most comprehensive fruit proteome to date, which are useful for further genomics research and proteomic studies. Our study provides a comprehensive sequence for a systemic view of both the transcriptome and proteome of mango fruit, and a valuable reference for further research on gene expression and protein identification. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics of non-model organisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Pharmacognostic Investigation of Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. f. Root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to perform the pharmacognostic evaluation of Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. f. root in terms of organoleptic, fluorescence analysis, macro-microscopy and physicochemical parameters.The characteristic macroscopic study showed that the root consists of 7-15 cm long, 0.2 -3.0 cm thick pieces which are cylindrical, tough and yellowish-brown externally, with hard fracture and slightly astringent taste. The main microscopic characters of the root show exfoliating cork, having10-15 rows of tangentially elongated, thick-walled cells. Cortex consists of round to oval parenchymatous cells, a few containing rhomboid shaped calcium oxalate crystals. Endodermis consists of 3- 4 layers of non-lignified, thick-walled rounded parenchymatous cells followed by a single pericyclic layer. Phloem consists of isodiametric, thin-walled, parenchymatous cells whereas xylem contains lignified pitted vessels. Medullary rays consisting of biseriate layer of lignified and radially elongated parenchymatous cells is narrower in the xylem region during wider in the phloem region. The physicochemical analysis of the root, i.e., total ash, water-soluble ash, sulphated ash are 7.8, 0.9 and 10.3 (% w/w respectively. Further successive extraction of the root powder with petroleum ether, chloroform, alcohol, water yielded 2.2, 2.4, 12.4 and 9.6 (% w/wextracts respectively. Fluorescence study imparted characteristic colours to the root powder when observed under visible, short and long wavelength light. Various pharmacognostic parameters evaluated in this study helps inbotanical identification and standardization of Clerodendrum phlomidis L. root part in crude form and provide the authentic data for the researchers and scientists involved in carrying out further research on this plant part.

  9. Pharmacognostical and phytochemical studies on roots of Bombax ceiba Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj H. Chaudhary

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: Bombax ceiba Linn. (Bombacaceae is a well-known plant for its antihypertensive, antioxidant, antidiabetic, aphrodisiac and uterine tonicity properties. Aims: To study pharmacognostical, physicochemical and phytochemically the roots of this plant. Methods: Pharmacognostical study included the macroscopic characters like size, color, surface characteristics, texture, fracture characteristics and odor of the roots. The intact root as well as powdered drug were studied under a microscope to analyze the cellular characteristics of the drug. Physicochemical parameter like extractive values, loss on drying (LOD, total ash, water-soluble and acid insoluble ash, foaming index and hemolytic index of Bombax ceiba root powder were determined as per WHO guidelines. Preliminary phytochemical screening and qualitative chemical examination studies have been carried out for the various phytoconstituents. HPTLC have also carried out using cyclohexane: diethyl ether: ethyl acetate as mobile phase. Results: Chemical evaluation and TLC studies shown presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, saponins and tannins. The microscopic characters have shown presence of cork, cambium, xylem vessels, stone cells, starch grains, calcium oxalate crystals and phloem fibers. Microscopy analysis of the powder included the cork cells, fibers, calcium oxalate crystals and vessel. The presence of steroids was confirmed in HPTLC fingerprinting studies. Conclusions: Pharmacognostical and preliminary phytochemical screening of Bombax ceiba roots will be useful in order to authenticate, standardize and avoid any adulteration in the raw material. The diagnostic microscopic characters and physicochemical data will be helpful in the development of a monograph. The chromatographic fingerprinting profile can be used to standardize extracts and formulations containing Bombax ceiba roots.

  10. Application and recovery of ionic liquids in the preparative separation of four flavonoids from Rhodiola rosea by on-line three-dimensional liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shufeng; Hu, Liming; Ma, Chaoyang; Lv, Wenping; Wang, Hongxin

    2014-09-01

    A novel on-line three-dimensional liquid chromatography method was developed to separate four main flavonoids from Rhodiola rosea. Ethyl acetate/0.5 mol/L ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride aqueous solution was selected as the solvent system. In the first-dimension separation, the target flavonoids were entrapped and subsequently desorbed into the second-dimension high-speed countercurrent chromatographic column for separation. In the third-dimension chromatography, the residual ionic liquid in the four separated flavonoids was removed and the used ionic liquid was recovered. As a result, 35.1 mg of compound 1, 20.4 mg of compound 2, 8.5 mg of compound 3, and 10.6 mg of compound 4 were obtained from 1.53 g R. rosea extract. They were identified as rhodiosin, rhodionin, herbacetin, and kaempferol, respectively. The recovery of ionic liquid reached 99.1% of the initial amount. The results showed that this method is a powerful technology for the separation of R. rosea flavonoids and that the ionic-liquid-based solvent system has advantages over traditional solvent systems in renewable and environmentally friendly properties. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of bark extracts of Chionanthus zeylanica linn., as an important medicinal plant in eastern ghats

    OpenAIRE

    Venkateswara Rao. S; Kammakshamma. J; Ayya Raju. M

    2013-01-01

    Chionanthus zeylanica Linn., belongs to the family Oleaceae. The stem bark part of Chionanthus zeylanica Linn., was dried, extracted with different solvents by soxhlet extraction method. Phytochemical studies of all the crude extracts showed the presence of secondary metabolites of flavonoids, steroids, tannins, alkaloids, glycosides, phenols, reducing sugars, etc. The phytochemical results confirm that all extracts contains more important chemical constituents for various biological activiti...

  12. [Effects of Rhodiola rosea on level of 5-hydroxytryptamine, cell proliferation and differentiation, and number of neuron in cerebral hippocampus of rats with depression induced by chronic mild stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ya-jing; Zeng, Yuan-shan; Zhou, Chun-chun; Li, Yan; Zhong, Zhi-qiang

    2008-12-01

    To explore the effects of Rhodiola rosea on the level of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), cell proliferation and differentiation, and number of neuron in cerebral hippocampus of rats with depression induced by chronic mild stress. Fifty rats were divided into 5 groups: normal control, untreated, negative control, positive control and Rhodiola rosea-treated groups. There were 10 rats in each group. Except for normal control group, depression was induced in rats by chronic mild stress. The depressive rats in the other four groups were intragastrically administered with 0.5% sodium carboxymethycellulose, fluoxetine and Rhodiola rosea for 3 weeks. After the treatment, the content of 5-HT in the hippocampus was detected by high-performance liquid chromatography. The proliferating cells and differentiated cells in the hippocampus were labeled by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) or/and beta-tubulin III immunohistochemistry, and the number of hippocampal neurons was counted by morphometry. Compared with the normal control group, the content of 5-HT, number of BrdU positive cells, percentage of BrdU and beta-tubulin III double labeled cells and number of neurons in cerebral hippocampus in the Rhodiola rosea-treated group were increased and recovered to normal level. Rhodiola rosea may enhance the level of 5-HT and promote the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in the hippocampus of the depressive rats, and may play a role in saving injured neurons of the hippocampus.

  13. Oreganum vulgare Linn. leaf: An Extensive Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Quality Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veni Bharti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Standardization and detailed pharmacognostical studies of Oreganum vulgare Linn. leaf for authentication and commercial utilization. Methods: Oreganum vulgare Linn. leaf was with standardization according to standard procedures described in WHO, 2011 and I.P. 1996. Results: The physicochemical parameters total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash and sulphated ash were found to be 11.5%, 11%, 5, 10.5% w/w respectively. Foaming index was found be <100. The trace elements were found to be copper, lead, cadmium, zinc, cobalt, manganese, nickel and copper in ethanol extract and phytochemical screening of aqueous and ethanol extract showed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, anthocyanins, phenolic compounds etc. Conclusion: The standardization parameters viz. physico-chemical parameters, macroscopy, microscopy, taxonomy, anatomy and preliminary phytochemical screening, microbial and aflatoxin count, HPTLC profile is being reported to help in authentication and development of monograph of this plant.

  14. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant capacity of Lycopodium clavatum Linn. from Lake Sebu, South Cotabato, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descallar, Angem L.; Nuñez, Maria Pamela S.; Cabrera, Maria Luisa N.; Martin, Tres Tinna B.; Obemio, Christine Dawn G.; Lañojan, Rhumer S.

    2017-01-01

    Lycopodium clavatum or locally known as "lumot" is one of the many plants used in the traditional system of medicine here in the Philippines. It has been known that this plant was used for body pains and "facial wipes" recognizing its anti-aging potential by the Obo community in Lake Sebu, South Cotabato. However, there is a lack of sufficient data on its phytochemical components and medicinal properties. Thus, this study is conducted to determine the secondary metabolites present and its antioxidant property of the decoction and ethanolic extracts of Lycopodium clavatum Linn. Free radical scavenging activity of Lycopodium clavatum Linn. was determined by in vitro 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Antioxidant activities were observed which may be due to the presence of alkaloids, steroids, and flavonoids in both decoction and ethanolic extracts.

  15. Abortifacient properties of aqueous extract of Carica papaya (Linn) seeds on female Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oderinde, O; Noronha, C; Oremosu, A; Kusemiju, T; Okanlawon, O A

    2002-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the abortifacient potential of aqueous extract of Carica papaya (Linn) seeds in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Oral doses of 100 and 800 mg/kg body weight were administered once a day on days 1-10 post-coitum. No significant differences in total body weight were found in foetuses exposed to these regimes. However, in the group treated with 100 mg/kg body weight, there was a significant increase (p papaya (Linn) seeds does not adversely affect prenatal development. The altered toxicological profile indicates that the abortifacient property is a high dose side effect. The results indicate that Carica papaya toxicity can adversely affect the foetus.

  16. Hepatoprotective Activity of Oxalis stricta linn. on Paracetamol Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohankumar Anilbhai Patel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the hepatoprotective effects of Ethanolic Extract of Oxalis stricta Linn.(EEOS towards Paracetamol intoxicated hepatic damage in Albino rats. The various extracts were prepared dose form 250 mg/kg and 500mg/kg against liver toxicity induced by Paracetamolat a dose of 2 gm/kg p.o once daily. Serum glutamate pyruvate tranaminase (SGPT, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and bilirubin content which was elevated due to Paracetamol intoxication was significantly reduced by the extract. Standard drug Silymarin was used as reference. In Paracetamol alone treated animals shows lipid peroxidation was increased with decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, reduced glutathione (GSH levels which represents the hepatic antioxidant status. It was further confirmed by histopathological observations. Futher Histopathological observations indicated. From the results it may be concluded that the 70% ethanolic extract of Oxalis stricta Linn. Possess hepatoprotective activity.

  17. The comparison between the efficacy of high dose acyclovir and erythromycin on the period and signs of pitiriasis rosea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsani Amirhooshang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pityriasis Rosea (PR is an acute inflammatory and self-limiting skin disorder, sometimes with troublesome symptoms. To date, there are few treatments available for this disorder. Aim: Compare the traditional treatment with erythromycin to a newly introduced antiviral treatment acyclovir for PR. Materials and Methods: Patients with clinically confirmed diagnosis of PR, matching our exclusion criteria, were enrolled. They were randomized in two groups that received high-dose oral acyclovir or erythromycin. The participants were evaluated two, four, and eight weeks after commencement of the study and followed for one year. Results: A total of 30 patients including 15 males and 15 females completed the study. After eight weeks, 13 patients in the acyclovir group experienced complete response, while in the erythromycin group only six patients had complete response (P < 0.05. Also, patients in the acyclovir group experienced faster resolution of pruritus in comparison with the erythromycin group (not significant. No adverse drug reaction was detected in both groups. Conclusion: It seemed that a high-dose of oral acyclovir was a safe and effective therapy for PR, although this remained to be confirmed in larger studies.

  18. Evaluation of Rhodiola rosea supplementation on skeletal muscle damage and inflammation in runners following a competitive marathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanely, R Andrew; Nieman, David C; Zwetsloot, Kevin A; Knab, Amy M; Imagita, Hidetaka; Luo, Beibei; Davis, Barbara; Zubeldia, José M

    2014-07-01

    Adaptogens modulate intracellular signaling and increase expression of heat shock protein 72 (HSP72). Rhodiola rosea (RR) is a medicinal plant with demonstrated adaptogenic properties. The purpose of this study was to measure the influence of RR supplementation on exercise-induced muscle damage, delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS), plasma cytokines, and extracellular HSP72 (eHSP72) in experienced runners completing a marathon. Experienced marathon runners were randomized to RR (n=24, 6 female, 18 male) or placebo (n=24, 7 female, 17 male) groups and under double-blinded conditions ingested 600mg/day RR extract or placebo for 30days prior to, the day of, and seven days post-marathon. Blood samples were collected, and vertical jump and DOMS assessed the day before, 15min post- and 1.5h post-marathon. DOMS was also assessed for seven days post-marathon. Marathon race performance did not differ between RR and placebo groups (3.87±0.12h and 3.93±0.12h, respectively, p=0.722). Vertical jump decreased post-marathon (time effect, p0.300). In conclusion, RR supplementation (600mg/day) for 30days before running a marathon did not attenuate the post-marathon decrease in muscle function, or increases in muscle damage, DOMS, eHSP72, or plasma cytokines in experienced runners. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Stability and Fitness Impact of the Visually Discernible Rosea1 Marker in the Tobacco etch virus Genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P. Zwart

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Antirrhinum majus Rosea1 (Ros1 is an MYB-related transcription factor that induces anthocyanin biosynthesis in plant tissues, and has been shown to be suitable for visual tracking of virus infection in plants. However, activation of anthocyanin biosynthesis has far reaching effects on plant physiology and could consequently have negative effects on viral replication. Therefore, viruses carrying the Ros1 marker might have a low fitness and consequently rapidly lose the marker. To compare the stability of the Ros1 marker, we generated Tobacco etch virus (TEV based constructs containing either Ros1 or the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP between the NIb and CP cistrons (TEV-Ros1 and TEV-eGFP, respectively. We measured the within-host competitive fitness of both viruses by direct competitions with a common competitor during infection of Nicotiana tabacum. The fitness of TEV-Ros1 was significantly lower than that of TEV-eGFP, and both recombinant viruses had a significantly lower fitness than the wild-type virus. Nevertheless, after seven weeks of infection in N. tabacum, similar levels of marker gene instability where found for both viruses. Despite lower fitness of the marked virus, Ros1 is therefore a viable alternative marker for tracking viral infection in plants.

  20. INHIBITION TEST OF METHANOL EXTRACT FROM SOURSOP LEAF (Annona muricata Linn.) AGAINST Streptococcus mutans BACTERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Raudhatul Jannah; Muhammad Ali Husni; Risa Nursanty

    2017-01-01

    Dental caries is a disease with a high prevalence of caries in Indonesia is caused by the bacterium Streptococcus mutans. The leaves of the soursop (Annona muricata Linn.) is one of the herbs that can remove dental plaque. This study aims to determine the chemical content and measure the inhibitory antibacterial soursop leaft methanol extractin inhibiting the growth of Streptococcus mutans bacteria. Phytochemical screening stated that the leaf of the soursop contains flavonoids, alkaloids, ta...

  1. PHARMACOGNOSTIC, PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF PIPER NIGRUM LINN. FRUIT (PIPERACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    P.V. Kadam; K.N. Yadav; F.A. Patel; F.A. Karjikar; M. J. Patil

    2013-01-01

    Piper species are reported to have great medicinal value in Indian medicine. Fruits of Piper nigrum Linn is commonly known as “Kalimiri” belongs to the family of Piperaceae and widely used as a pungent condiment. Traditionally it is used as antipyretic, diuretic, aphrodisiac, immune-stimulant, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, digestive, rubefacient, counter irritant, antiseptic, antispasmodic agent. Present work is related to standardization of Piper nigrum by using Pharmacognostic (Macroscopy,...

  2. Pectin extraction from Citron peel (Citrus medica Linn.) and its use in food system

    OpenAIRE

    Rojanakorn, T.; Lerkchaiyaphum, K.; Nantachai, K.; Tangwongchai, R.

    2006-01-01

    Screening experiments using 25-1 fractional factorial design showed that pH, temperature, and extracting time were the main factors affecting the amount and quality of extracted pectin from Citrus medica Linn. Optimum condition of pectin extraction was studied using central composite design (CCD). Mathematical models relating pH, temperature and extracted time to amount of extracted pectin, equivalent weight, methyl content and anhydrogalacturonic acid content were established. Based on the m...

  3. Biodiesel production and optimization from Calophyllum inophyllum linn oil (honne oil)--a three stage method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkanna, B K; Venkataramana Reddy, C

    2009-11-01

    The present work examines the production of a biodiesel from a non-edible oil namely honne oil (Calophyllum inophyllum linn). A three stage process viz., pre-treatment, alkali catalyzed transesterification and post treatment adopted for the production is discussed. The reaction parameters such as methanol to oil molar ratio, catalyst concentration, temperature and time have been optimized for the production of biodiesel. The yield of biodiesel from the honne oil under the optimized conditions is found to be 89%.

  4. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ISOLATED FLAVONOIDS FROM THE LEAVES OF CORCHORUS AESTUANS LINN.

    OpenAIRE

    Rashmika Patel * and Manish Patel

    2013-01-01

    Preliminary phytochemical investigation of various extracts of leaves of Corchorus aestuans Linn showed the presence of flavonoids, carbohydrates, saponins, phytosterols, phenolic compounds, triterpenoids, cardiac glycosides and tannins. An attempt has been made to isolate flavonoids and perform antioxidant potential of the same. The antioxidant activity was performed by two in-vitro testing methods, such as scavenging activity on 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and hydroxyl ra...

  5. STUDY OF ANTIULCER ACTIVITY OF ROOTS OF ALANGIUM SALVIFOLIUM LINN. IN PYLORUS LIGATED RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Mohanty P.K.; Panda S.K.; Mishra S.K.; Panda P.K.; Jaliwala Y.A.; Parle Milind

    2011-01-01

    Different extracts of Alangium salvifolium Linn. roots were tested for its antiulcer activity in aspirin induced and pylorus ligated rats model. The effect was assessed by parameters like Total acidity(TA),Free acidity(FA),Peptic activity(PA), Ulcer Index(UI) .The antiucler activity of all extracts were compared to the standard drug ranitidine. The study showed that all extracts were showing reductions TA, PA, FA and UI among which the extract of petroleum ether showed significant reduction ...

  6. Immunomodulatory Activity of Meniran Extracts (Phyllanthus Niruri Linn.) on Broiler Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Aldi, Yufri; Rasyadi, Yahdian; Handayani, Dian

    2014-01-01

    Broilers chickens are highly susceptible to many diseases caused by bacteria and viruses. Therefore to solve these problem we can use alternative medicine by administration of immunostimulatory compounds that can prevent disease in broiler chickens. One of the plants that can enhance the immune system is meniran. The study effect of immunomodulatory test from ethanol extract of meniran herbs (Phyllanthus niruri Linn.) has been conducted in broiler chickens with carbon clearance method. The st...

  7. Phytochemical and pharmacological studies of Vaj Turki (Acorus calamus Linn.) & Unani Description– A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Nadir Shahzad; Md. Anzar Alam; Naziya Sultana; Abdullah; Kum Asma

    2015-01-01

    Vaj Turki (Acorus calamus Linn.) is a marshy perennial herb and rhizomes which has been traditionally used as medicine, against different diseases viz; Nisyan (dementia), Zofe Dimagh (Alzheimers disease), Humma (fever), Zeequn Nafs (asthama), Sual Muzmin (chronic cough), Ziabetus (ziabetes), Dyslipidemia, Quroohe Muzmina (chronic ulcer) and mainly for digestive problems such as Dyspepsia (Zofe Hazm, Sue Hazm and Tukhma). A large number of chemical constituents such as phenyl propanoids, sesqu...

  8. DETEKSI HISTOLOGIK KESEMBUHAN LUKA PADA KULIT PASCA PEMBERIAN DAUN MENGKUDU (Morinda Citrofilia Linn)

    OpenAIRE

    Ni Ketut Suwiti

    2012-01-01

    A study to detect the microscopic structure of skin wound in mice (Mus musculus) aftertreatment with mengkudu leaves (Morinda citrifolia Linn.), by histological methods, hasbeen carried out. In this study were detected the level of wound healing every weeks. Thesamples were collected from skin with was given incision injury. The tissue samples werefixed, dehydrated and embedded in paraffin and 4 – 5 ?. sections. Harris-Haematoxilin-Eosin staining method, using to identified of histological st...

  9. Clinical study of Tribulus terrestris Linn. in Oligozoospermia: A double blind study

    OpenAIRE

    Sellandi, Thirunavukkarasu M.; Thakar, Anup B.; Baghel, Madhav Singh

    2012-01-01

    Infertility is a problem of global proportions, affecting on an average 8-12% of couples worldwide. Low sperm count (Oligozoospermia) is one of the main causes of male infertility and it is correlated with Kshina Shukra. The fruits of Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris. Linn) are considered to act as a diuretic and aphrodisiac; they used for urolithiasis, sexual dysfunctions, and infertility. Hence, it was planned to study the effect of Gokshura in the management of Kshina Shukra (Oligozoospermia)...

  10. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS AND HYDROALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF BACOPA MONNIERI LINN.

    OpenAIRE

    Monic Shah et al

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate in-vitro antioxidant activity of aqueous and hydroalcoholic extract of whole plant of Bacopa monnieri Linn. Family- Scrophularaceae. The total Phenolic content was determined using folin ciocalteau method while the total flavonoid content was determined using aluminium chloride method. In vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated using the Reducing power assay, Hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay, nitric oxide scavenging activity, super...

  11. Pemanfaatan Zat Warna Wortel (Daucus Carota Linn) Dalam Pembuatan Pewarna Bibir Bentuk Batang (Lipstik)

    OpenAIRE

    Andriani, Yuni; Soeryati, Sri; Gozali, Dolih

    2009-01-01

    The utilization of natural colorant in cosmetic dosage form, especially the colorant of carrot(Daucus carota Linn) in the preparation of lipstick colorant have been carried out. It can be knownfrom the research that the extract colorant of carrot had an orange color and stable during storagetimes. Lipstick formulation with various concentration of the root colorant (20, 30, and 40%),produced lipstick that had good physical stability during storage times, and it had orange up toreddish orange,...

  12. Inhibition Test of Methanol Extract From Soursop Leaf (Annona Muricata Linn.) Against Streptococcus Mutans Bacteria*

    OpenAIRE

    Jannah, Raudhatul; Husni, Muhammad Ali; Nursanty, Risa

    2017-01-01

    . Dental caries is a disease with a high prevalence of caries in Indonesia is caused by the bacterium Streptococcus mutans. The leaves of the soursop (Annona muricata Linn.) is one of the herbs that can remove dental plaque. This study aims to determine the chemical content and measure the inhibitory antibacterial soursop leaft methanol extractin inhibiting the growth of Streptococcus mutans bacteria. Phytochemical screening stated that the leaf of the soursop contains flavonoids, alkaloids, ...

  13. Antibacterial Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Punica granatum Linn. Petal on Common Oral Microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Farnaz Hajifattahi; Elham Moravej-Salehi; Maryam Taheri; Arash Mahboubi; Mohammad Kamalinejad

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to assess the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Punica granatum Linn. (P. granatum) petal on Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sobrinus, and Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods. In this in vitro study, P. granatum extract was prepared using powdered petals and water-ethanol solvent. Antibacterial effect of the extract, chlorhexidine (CHX), and ampicillin was evaluated on brain heart infusion agar (BHI...

  14. Studies on diuretic and laxative activity of bark extracts of Spondias pinnata (Linn. f) Kurz

    OpenAIRE

    S Mondal; G K Dash; S Acharyya; D K Brahma; S Bal

    2009-01-01

    The diuretic and laxative activity of different extracts of the barks of Spondias pinnata (Linn. f) Kurz (Family: Rubiaceae) were studied in Wistar albino rats. Furosemide (10 mg/kg, p.o.) and agar-agar (300 mg/kg, p.o.) were used as reference standards respectively for activity comparison. The chloroform and methanol extracts produced significant diuretic and laxative activity. On the other hand, the petroleum ether extract did not reveal significant activity. Urinary levels of sodium, potas...

  15. Fatty Acid and Alkenil Glycoside from the Fruits of Mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferlinahayati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Two compounds were isolated from methanol extract of mengkudu fruit (Morinda.citrifolia Linn. The extraction was conducted by maceration, while separation and purification using several chromatographic techniques. The compound structures were determined by spectral data including IR, 1H-NMR and GC-MS. Compound 1 was a mixture of 7 fatty acids with hexadecanoic acid as a primarily, meanwhile compound 2 was a mixture of an alkenyl glycoside with an aromatic.

  16. Ocimum sanctum Linn--a study on gastric ulceration and gastric secretion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, S; Das, D N; De, K; Ray, K; Roy, G; Chaudhuri, S B; Sahana, C C; Chowdhuri, M K

    1993-01-01

    The antiulcerogenic property of Ocimum sanctum Linn (Tulsi) was studied in pyloric ligated and pyloric ligated & aspirin treated rats. The extract of OSL reduced the ulcer index, free & total acidity on acute and chronic administration. Seven days pretreatment with the drug increased the mucous secretion also. It may be concluded that OSL extract has antiulcerogenic property against experimental ulcers, and it is due to its ability to reduce acid secretion and increase mucous secretion.

  17. Analgesic effects of various extracts of the root of Abutilon indicum linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Goyal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Abutilon indicum (Linn. sweet (Malvaceae commonly called ′Country Mallow′ is a perennial plant up to 3 m in height. It is abundantly found as a weed in the sub-Himalayan tract and in the hotter parts of India. The plant is traditionally used for treatment of several diseases like bronchitis, body ache, toothache, jaundice, diabetes, fever, piles, leprosy, ulcers, cystitis, gonorrhea, diarrhea, and so on. Abutilon indicum Linn. is reported to have hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, antimicrobial, male contraceptive, and antidiarrheal activities. The present study was done to evaluate the analgesic potential of various extracts of the root of Abutilon indicum Linn. Materials and Methods : The powdered root (900 g was subjected to successive solvent extraction, with solvents in increasing order of polarity, namely, petroleum ether (60 - 80΀C, methanol, and ethanol, using the soxhlet apparatus for 72 hours. The marc was extracted by cold maceration for 72 hours, to obtain a water-soluble extract. The peripheral analgesic activity was studied using acetic acid-induced writhing method in Swiss albino mice (20 - 30 g, while the central analgesic activity was evaluated by the tail flick method and the tail immersion method. Results : Results indicated that all the tested extracts, except the methanol extract, exhibited significant analgesic activity in both animals′ models. Petroleum ether extract showed higher analgesic activity. The activity may be related to the central mechanism or may be due to the peripheral analgesic mechanisms. Conclusion : The present study authenticates the traditional use.

  18. Lepidium sativum Linn.: a current addition to the family of mucilage and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Vipul D; Maheriya, Pankaj M; Jani, Girish K; Patil, Prasant D; Patel, Bhumit N

    2014-04-01

    Mucilage from the last decades has been found to be very attractive, interesting and useful in development of desired pharmaceutical dosage forms. Various applications of plant based mucilage have a wide potentiality in drug formulations. Lepidium sativum Linn. (family: Brassicaceae) is one of the mucilage containing fast growing, edible annual herb. Its various parts (roots, leaves and seeds) have been used to treat various human ailments. It mainly contains alkaloids, saponins, anthracene glycosides, carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, flavanoids, and sterols as chief phytochemical constituents. Its seed extracts have been screened for various biological activities like hypotensive, anti-microbial, bronchodilator, hypoglycemic and allelopathic, whereas its seed coat mucilage has been isolated using different methods to make it effective excipient of desired functionality as a part of pharmaceutical applications. Through keen references of reported work on Lepidium sativum Linn., in this review, we have focused on its seed coat mucilage isolation methods, chemical constituents, pharmacological profile and versatile application of Lepidium sativum Linn. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Protective effect of leaves of Raphinus sativus Linn on experimentally induced gastric ulcers in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraj, V C; Gopala Krishna, B; Viswanatha, G L; Satya Prasad, V; Vinay Babu, S N

    2011-07-01

    Raphinus sativus Linn (Cruciferae) commonly known as 'Radish' is a multipurpose herb cultivated in different parts of the world for its edible roots and leaves. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antiulcer activity of leaf extracts of R. sativus Linn on acetic acid induced chronic gastric ulcer and pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcer in rats. The acute oral toxicity study revealed that all the extracts were safe up to 2000 mg/kg per oral dose; hence one-tenth of this dose was selected for evaluation of antiulcer activity. In acetic acid induced gastric ulcer models, the ERS, CRS, EARS and AQRS have offered significant protection against acetic acid induced ulcers when compared to control group. While in pylorus ligation induced ulcer model the ERS, EARS and AQRS showed significant protection by decreasing the ulcer index, total acidity and free acidity. In conclusion the leaf extracts of R. sativus Linn are found to possess antiulcer property in the experimental animal models of gastric ulcers, which is consistent with the literature report in the folk medicine.

  20. Amelioration of alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity by the administration of ethanolic extract of Sida cordifolia Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejitha, S; Prathibha, P; Indira, M

    2012-10-01

    Sida cordifolia Linn. (Malvaceae) is a plant used in folk medicine for the treatment of the inflammation of oral mucosa, asthmatic bronchitis, nasal congestion and rheumatism. We studied the hepatoprotective activity of 50 % ethanolic extract of S. cordifolia Linn. against alcohol intoxication. The duration of the experiment was 90 d. The substantially elevated levels of toxicity markers such as alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transferase due to the alcohol treatment were significantly lowered in the extract-treated groups. The activity of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione content, which was lowered due to alcohol toxicity, was increased to a near-normal level in the co-administered group. Lipid peroxidation products, protein carbonyls, total collagen and hydroxyproline, which were increased in the alcohol-treated group, were reduced in the co-administered group. The mRNA levels of cytochrome P450 2E1, NF-κB, TNF-α and transforming growth factor-β1 were found to be increased in the alcohol-treated rats, and their expressions were found to be decreased in the co-administered group. These observations were reinforced by histopathological analysis. Thus, the present study clearly indicates that 50 % ethanolic extract of the roots of S. cordifolia Linn. has a potent hepatoprotective action against alcohol-induced toxicity, which was mediated by lowering oxidative stress and by down-regulating the transcription factors.

  1. Efecto de la fragmentación del hábitat sobre la calidad de las semillas en Lapageria rosea Effects of habitat fragmentation on seed quality of Lapageria rosea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAROLINA A. HENRÍQUEZ

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available La fragmentación del hábitat tiene un efecto negativo sobre la adecuación biológica de las plantas por la reducción en la cantidad de semillas producidas. Sin embargo, la fragmentación del hábitat también podría disminuir la adecuación biológica de las plantas a través de la reducción en la calidad de las semillas producidas, al reducir atributos como la viabilidad, tamaño o su capacidad germinativa. Esto podría ocurrir porque la reducción en los tamaños poblacionales en fragmentos, junto con el aumento en el grado de aislamiento, podrían generar una reducción de la variabilidad genética de las poblaciones e inducir a la expresión de depresión por endocruza. En este trabajo muestro el efecto de la fragmentación del bosque maulino sobre la calidad de las semillas producidas en la especie Lapageria rosea. Calidad es definida aquí como viabilidad, tamaño y capacidad germinativa de las semillas. Colecté semillas desde fragmentos de bosque y desde un bosque continuo, en el bosque maulino de Chile central. En al laboratorio se estimaron los porcentajes de viabilidad, el tamaño y la capacidad germinativa de las semillas colectadas. Los resultados muestran que las semillas producidas en fragmentos de bosque presentan porcentajes de viabilidad similares a las semillas producidas en el bosque continuo, sin embargo la variabilidad en estos porcentajes es mayor en las semillas de los fragmentos. Además, las semillas de fragmentos son de menor tamaño y poseen menor capacidad germinativa que las semillas de bosque continuo. Estas características de las semillas podría determinar que en fragmentos de bosque exista una reducción en el establecimiento de nuevos individuos, pudiendo inducir a un efecto negativo sobre la sobrevivencia de las poblaciones a largo plazoHabitat fragmentation is commonly associated to a reduction in plant fitness, because the reduction in the number of seeds produced. However habitat fragmentation might

  2. Pengujian Fitokimia dan Toksisitas Ekstrak Etanol Jantung Pisang Kepok (Musa paradisiaca LINN. dengan Metode Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meytij Jeanne Rampe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan pengujian fitokimia dan toksisitas ekstrak etanol jantung pisang kepok (Musa Paradisiaca Linn. dengan metode Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT.  Pengujian dilakukan untuk mencari beberapa senyawa kimia dari ekstrak jantung pisang Musa Paradisaca. Linn serta mengetahui efek toksik terhadap larva udang Artemia salina. Leach.  Maserasi jantung pisang kepok dilakukan dengan menggunakan etanol. Ekstrak etanol yang diperoleh dilakukan pengujian fitokimia dan toksisitas. Hasil pengujian fitokimia menunjukkan ekstrak etanol jantung pisang Musa paradisiaca. Linn memiliki komposisi senyawa flavonoid, kumarin dan senyawa fenolik lainnya. Ekstrak etanol jantung pisang kepok memberikan efek toksik terhadap larva udang Artemia salina. Leach dengan nilai LC50 sebesar 806,8 μg/mL.Kata kunci: jantung pisang kepok, fitokimia, toksisitas, BSLT.

  3. Singulisphaera rosea sp. nov., a planctomycete from acidic Sphagnum peat, and emended description of the genus Singulisphaera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulichevskaya, Irina S; Detkova, Ekaterina N; Bodelier, Paul L E; Rijpstra, W Irene C; Damsté, Jaap S Sinninghe; Dedysh, Svetlana N

    2012-01-01

    An aerobic, pink-pigmented, budding bacterium, designated strain S26(T), was isolated from an acidic Sphagnum peat bog of north-western Russia. Cells were non-motile and spherical, occurring singly, in pairs or in short chains, and were able to attach to surfaces by means of a holdfast material. Strain S26(T) was a moderately acidophilic, mesophilic organism capable of growth at pH 3.2-7.1 (optimum at pH 4.8-5.0) and at 4-33 °C (optimum at 20-26 °C). Most sugars, several organic acids and polyalcohols were the preferred growth substrates. The major fatty acids were C(16:0), C(18:1)ω9c and C(18:2)ω6c,12c. The major neutral lipids were n-C(31:9) hydrocarbon and squalene; the polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine and components with an unknown structure. The DNA G+C content of strain S26(T) was 62.2 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain S26(T) is a member of the order Planctomycetales. Among taxonomically characterized representatives of this order, highest levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (95.1-95.2%) were observed with strains of the non-filamentous, peat-inhabiting planctomycete Singulisphaera acidiphila. Strain S26(T) could be differentiated from Singulisphaera acidiphila based on pigmentation, significant differences in substrate utilization patterns, greater tolerance of acidic conditions and the presence of C(16:1)ω9c. Based on the data presented, strain S26(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Singulisphaera, for which the name Singulisphaera rosea sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is S26(T) (=DSM 23044(T)=VKM B-2599(T)).

  4. Anti-MMP-2 Activity and Skin-Penetrating Capability of the Chemical Constituents from Rhodiola rosea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tzong-Huei; Hsu, Chieh-Chih; Hsiao, George; Fang, Jia-You; Liu, Wei-Min; Lee, Ching-Kuo

    2016-05-01

    Based on the significant inhibitory activity toward matrix metalloproteinase-2 and collagenase noticed in preliminary studies, crude extracts of Rhodiola rosea were partitioned and chromatographed sequentially to afford three new compounds, 1,2,3,6-tetra-O-galloyl-4-O-p-hydroxybenzoyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), (E)-creoside I (2), and (R,Z)-2-methylhept-2-ene-1,6-diol (3), along with twenty-four known compounds (4-27). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic data analyses. All isolated compounds were subjected to bioactivity assays. In these, 1 specifically inhibited matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity with an IC50 value of 16.3 ± 1.6 µM, while its analogue 1,2,3,6-tetra-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranonoside (17) inhibited matrix metalloproteinase-2 with an IC50 value of 23.0 ± 4.8 µM. In the collagenase activity assay, the inhibitory effects of 1 and 17 at concentrations of both 20 and 40 µM were more potent than those of the positive control, 1,10-phenanthroline. In order to realize whether 17 could penetrate from the epidermal layer into the basal and dermal layers of the human skin to inhibit the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and collagenase or not, a transdermal penetration test in nude and white mice skins was performed. Penetration percentages of 17 quantified by LC-MS were 27.8 % and 74.8 % in 24 hours, respectively. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Investigating the compatibility of the biocontrol agent Clonostachys rosea IK726 with prodigiosin-producing Serratia rubidaea S55 and phenazine-producing Pseudomonas chlororaphis ToZa7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamou, Nathalie N; Dubey, Mukesh; Tzelepis, Georgios; Menexes, Georgios; Papadakis, Emmanouil N; Karlsson, Magnus; Lagopodi, Anastasia L; Jensen, Dan Funck

    2016-05-01

    This study was carried out to assess the compatibility of the biocontrol fungus Clonostachys rosea IK726 with the phenazine-producing Pseudomonas chlororaphis ToZa7 or with the prodigiosin-producing Serratia rubidaea S55 against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici. The pathogen was inhibited by both strains in vitro, whereas C. rosea displayed high tolerance to S. rubidaea but not to P. chlororaphis. We hypothesized that this could be attributed to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins. The results of the reverse transcription quantitative PCR showed an induction of seven genes (abcB1, abcB20, abcB26, abcC12, abcC12, abcG8 and abcG25) from subfamilies B, C and G. In planta experiments showed a significant reduction in foot and root rot on tomato plants inoculated with C. rosea and P. chlororaphis. This study demonstrates the potential for combining different biocontrol agents and suggests an involvement of ABC transporters in secondary metabolite tolerance in C. rosea.

  6. Real-time RT-PCR expression analysis of chitinase and endoglucanase genes in the three-way interaction between the biocontrol strain Clonostachys rosea IK726, Botrytis cinera and strawberry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamarabadi, Mojtaba; Jensen, Birgit; Jensen, Søren Dan Funck

    2008-01-01

    Clonostachys rosea is a well-known biocontrol agent against Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of gray mold in strawberry. The activity of cell wall-degrading enzymes might play a significant role for successful biocontrol by C. rosea. The expression pattern of four chitinases, and two endoglucan...... of IK726 are involved in biocontrol on leaves. This is the first example of monitoring of expression of chitinolytic genes in interactions between biocontrol agents and pathogens in plant material.......Clonostachys rosea is a well-known biocontrol agent against Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of gray mold in strawberry. The activity of cell wall-degrading enzymes might play a significant role for successful biocontrol by C. rosea. The expression pattern of four chitinases, and two......, allowing in situ activity assessment of each fungus in vitro and during their interaction on strawberry leaves. Growth of B. cinerea was inhibited in all pathogen-antagonist interactions while the activity of IK726 was slightly increased. In all in vitro interactions, four of the six genes were upregulated...

  7. Therapeutic effects and safety of Rhodiola rosea extract WS® 1375 in subjects with life-stress symptoms--results of an open-label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D; Heufelder, A; Zimmermann, A

    2012-08-01

    The trial was conducted to investigate the therapeutic effects and safety of a 4 week treatment with Rhodiola rosea extract WS® 1375 in subjects with life-stress symptoms. This was a multicentre, non-randomized, open-label, single-arm trial. One hundred and one subjects were enrolled in this clinical study and received the study drug at a dose of 200 mg twice daily for 4 weeks. Assessments with seven questionnaires included Numerical Analogue Scales of Subjective Stress Symptoms, Perceived Stress Questionnaire, Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory 20, Numbers Connecting Test, Sheehan Disability Scale and Clinical Global Impressions to cover various aspects of stress symptoms and adverse events. Invariably, all tests showed clinically relevant improvements with regard to stress symptoms, disability, functional impairment and overall therapeutic effect. Improvements were observed even after 3 days of treatment, as were continuing improvements after 1 and 4 weeks. Rhodiola rosea extract WS® 1375 was safe and generally well tolerated. Adverse events were mostly of mild intensity and no serious adverse events were reported. Rhodiola extract at a dose of 200 mg twice daily for 4 weeks is safe and effective in improving life-stress symptoms to a clinically relevant degree. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Alcohol- and water-based extracts obtained from Rhodiola rosea affect differently the number and metabolic activity of circulating granulocytes in Balb/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdanowski, Robert; Lewicki, Sławomir; Skopińska-Różewska, Ewa; Buchwald, Waldemar; Mrozikiewicz, Przemysław Michał; Stankiewicz, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Rhodiola rosea (RR) rhizomes with roots extracts are traditional natural drugs originated from Asia and now commonly used as adaptogens and antidepressants. The aim of this work was to study the in vivo effect of aqueous (RRW) and 50% hydro-alcoholic (RRA) extracts on the number and metabolic activity of blood granulocytes in mice. Mice were fed for 7 days RR extract in daily doses 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 or 0.4 mg. The metabolic activity of blood granulocytes was determined by measuring of their luminol-dependent chemiluminescent activity in scintillation counter, after zymosan stimulation. Number of blood granulocytes was diminished and their chemiluminescence was enhanced in all groups of mice fed R.rosea hydro-alcoholic extract. Aqueous extract (RRW) was ineffective in all doses applied. This study revealed difference in the number and metabolic activity of granulocytes mice fed RRA or RRW extracts. Immune characteristics of some individual compounds from RRA and RRW extracts, selected by HPLC analysis, should be carried out in the next experiments.

  9. Flavonoids of Alcea rosea L. and their immune stimulant, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities on hepatocellular carcinoma HepG-2 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Salam, Nabil A; Ghazy, Nabila M; Sallam, Shaimaa M; Radwan, Mohamed M; Wanas, Amira S; ElSohly, Mahmoud A; El-Demellawy, Maha A; Abdel-Rahman, Nevin M; Piacente, Sonia; Shenouda, Mary L

    2017-06-05

    Alcea rosea L. is widely cultivated in gardens of Egypt as an ornamental plant and it has a great history of folkloric medicinal uses. In the present work, phytochemical investigation of the alcoholic extract of the flowers of A. rosea L. led to the isolation of six flavonoids (1-6). Dihydrokaempferol-4'-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (1), dihydrokaempferol (2), kaempferol-3-O-[6″-(E-coumaroyl)]-β-d-glucopyranoside (3), kaempferol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (4), Apigenin (5) and kaempferol-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1'″→6″)-β-d-glucopyranoside (6). Four of the isolated compounds were evaluated for their antioxidant, immunostimulant and cytotoxic activities against HepG-2 cell line. Compound (3) showed potent cytotoxic activity against HepG-2 cell line with high selectivity towards hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro (with IC50 = 3.8 μg/mL). Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited significant antioxidant activity and compound 4 showed a significant immune stimulant activity. Compound 1 is isolated for the first time from genus Alcea and this is the first report for its biological investigation.

  10. Evaluation of In vitro Antiviral Activity of Datura metel Linn. Against Rabies Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Soumen; Mukherjee, Sandeepan; Pawar, Sandip; Chowdhary, Abhay

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The soxhlet and cold extracts of Datura metel Linn. were evaluated for in vitro antirabies activity. Materials and Methods: Soxhlet and cold extraction method were used to extract Datura (fruit and seed) extracts. In vitro cytotoxicity assay was performed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Based on the CC50 range, the in vitro antirabies activity of the extracts was screened by rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test and molecular method. Results: The Datura (fruit and seed) extracts were not cytotoxic below 5 mg/ml (CC50). Titer of 10−4 rabies virus challenge virus standard (RV CVS) (1 50% tissue culture infective dose [1 TCID50]) was obtained by RFFT method and the challenge dose of 10 TCID50 was used for antirabies assay. Datura fruit and seed (soxhlet and cold) extracts showed 50% inhibition of RV CVS at 2.5 mg/ml and 1.25 mg/ml (inhibitory concentration 50% [IC50]), respectively. The tested extracts showed selectivity index (CC50/IC50) ranging from 2 to 4. The viral RNA was extracted and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed which also revealed a 2-fold reduction of viral load at 1.25 mg/ml of the Datura seed (soxhlet methanolic and cold aqueous) extracts. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of in vitro antiviral activity of D. metel Linn. against rabies virus. Datura seed extracts have a potential in vitro antirabies activity and, in future, can be further screened for in vivo activity against rabies virus in murine model. SUMMARY In the present study, Datura metel. Linn showed and in-vitro anti rabies activity in Vero cell line which was determined by RFFIT method and PCR method PMID:27695266

  11. Analgesic Effects of Various Extracts of Root of Abutilon indicum linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumitra Singh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Abutilon indicum (Linn. sweet (Malvaceae commonly called “Country Mallow” is a perennial plant up to 3m in
    height. It is abundantly found as weed in sub-Himalayan tract and in hotter parts of India. The plant is traditionally
    used for treatment of several diseases like bronchitis, body ache, toothache, jaundice, diabetes, fever, piles,
    leprosy, ulcers, cystitis, gonorrhea, diarrhoea etc. Abutilon indicum Linn. is reported to have hepatoprotective,
    hypoglycemic, antimicrobial, male contraceptive and antidiarrhoeal activities. The present study was done to
    evaluate the analgesic potential of various extracts of root of Abutilon indicum Linn. The powdered root (900 g
    was subjected to successive solvent extraction with solvents in increasing order of polarity viz. petroleum ether
    (60-80 C°, methanol and ethanol by soxhlet apparatus for 72 hrs. The marc was extracted by cold maceration for
    72 hrs. to obtain water soluble extract. Peripheral analgesic activity was studied using acetic acid induced writhing
    method in Swiss albino mice (20-30 g while central analgesic activity was evaluated by tail flick method and
    tail immersion method. Results indicated that all the tested extracts except methanol extract exhibited significant
    analgesic activity in both animals’ models. Petroleum ether extract showed higher analgesic activity. The activity
    may be related with central mechanism or due to peripheral analgesic mechanisms. Thus the present study authenticates
    the traditional use.

  12. PENGARUH KONSENTRASI PERASAN MENGKUDU (Morinda citrofilia Linn TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN Shygella disenteriae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Ariana

    2017-09-01

    Abstract Mengkudu (Morinda citrofilia Linn Indonesia is known as a medicinal plant that can treat a variety of diseases. This study  to determine the effect of noni juice concentration on the growth of Shigella dysenteriae, the bacteria that causes the disease shigellosis (bacillary dysentery. The design of this study used an experimental design to test laboratory, noni juice obtained by weighing 100g were still ripe noni fruit (puti yellowish color and texture is still hard and washed, blender 100gr noni plus 100ml of sterile distilled water, filtered with sterile gauze and then Stril put in a test tube, back in autoclav sterilized for 15 minutes at a temperature of 1210C that noni juice is really sterile. Inhibition test with freshly made juice dilution method at concentrations of 100%, 50%, 25%, 12.5%, 6.25%, 3.13%, 1.57% and 0.78%, followed planted in the media Muller Hinton Shigella to know whether it is growing or not growing, Statistical data analysis using Chisquer test on α = 0.05. The test results showed λ2 Chisquer count> λ2 table, then Ho is rejected. The results showed 12.5% of concentration - 100% can inhibit the growth of Shigella dysenteriae while the concentration of 0.78% - 6.25% solid not inhibit the growth of Shigella dysenteriae, so it can be concluded that the noni (Morinda citrofilia Linn can inhibit the growth of Shigella dysenteriae and noni efficiently used for dysentery patients because of the concentration of 12.5% was able to inhibit the growth of Shygella dysenteriae. Keywords: Mengkudu (Morinda citrofilia Linn , Shigella dysenteriae

  13. AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI FRAKSI-FRAKSI EKSTRAK SIRIH HIJAU (Piper betle Linn TERHADAP PATOGEN PANGAN [Antibacterial Activity of Fractionated Green Sirih (Piper betle Linn Extract Against Food Pathogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggy T. Suhartono

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fractionation of green sirih (Piper betle Linn extract by chromatography colom using the mixture of several solvents i.e. chloroform, ethanol and acetic acid (4:1:1 resulted in 17 fractions. All fractions showed antibacterial activities but only 2 fractions (fraction 3 and fraction 4 showed the highest inhibition towards the six tested bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes. Among the tested bacteria, all fractions of green sirih extracts showed the most effective inhibition against, Salmonella Typhimurium with inhibition zone diameters ranging from 10 mm to 26 mm. Identification using GC-MS found that fraction 3 and fraction 4 contained chavicol; dodecanoic acid, myristic, palmitic and oleic acid.

  14. Isolation and Characterization of an Acyclic Isoprenoid from Semecarpus anacardium Linn. and its Antibacterial Potential in vitro - Antimicrobial Activity of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. Seeds -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyakkannu Purushothaman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Semecarpus anacardium Linn. is a plant well-known for its antimicrobial, antidiabetic and anti-arthritic properties in the Ayurvedic and Siddha system of medicine. This has prompted the screening of this plant for antibacterial activity. The main aims of this study were to isolate compounds from the plant’s seeds and to evaluate their antibacterial effects on clinical bacterial test strains. Methods: The n-butanolic concentrate of the seed extract was subjected to thin layer chromatography (TLC and repeated silica gel column chromatography followed by elution with various solvents. The compound was identified based on observed spectral (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and high-resolution mass spectrometry data. The well diffusion method was employed to evaluate the antibacterial activities of the isolated acyclic isoprenoid compound (final concentration: 5 - 15 μg/mL on four test bacterial strains, namely, Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 96, Bacillus cereus

  15. Two new cytotoxic furoquinoline alkaloids isolated from Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammed, Magdy M D; Ibrahim, Nabaweya A.; El-Sakhawy, Fatma S.

    2016-01-01

    Two new cytotoxic furoquinoline alkaloids were isolated from the leaves of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa; one from the total alkaloidal fraction (acid/base shake-out method) of the CHCl3 extract and identified as 7,8-dihydroxy-4-hydrofuroquinoline and named trivially as Aegelbine-A. The other new...... and 2D NMR spectroscopy and HR-ESI/MS. The cytotoxic activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated in vitro against HepG-2, PC3, A549 and MCF-7 cell lines. The obtained results revealed promising activity with structure-based relationship which is discussed briefly....

  16. Anti-diarrhoeal evaluation of Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. leaf extract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, S; Ahamed, N; Rajaram, S; Saluja, R; Thenmozhi, S; Murugesan, T

    1999-12-15

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of methanolic extract of leaves of Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. (MECP) (Family: Verbenaceae) for its anti-diarrhoeal potential against several experimental models of diarrhoea in Wistar albino rats. MECP showed significant inhibitory activity against castor oil induced diarrhoea and PGE2 induced enteropooling in rats. The extract also showed a significant reduction in gastrointestinal motility in charcoal meal test in rats. The results obtained establish the efficacy and substantiated the folklore claim as an anti-diarrhoeal agent.

  17. Protective effect of an aphrodisiac herb Tribulus terrestris Linn on cadmium-induced testicular damage

    OpenAIRE

    Rajendar, B.; K Bharavi; Rao, G S; P.V.S Kishore; Kumar, P. Ravi; Kumar, C. S. V. Satish; Patel, T. Pankaj

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether Tribulus terrestris Linn (TT) could protect the cadmium (Cd)-induced testicular tissue peroxidation in rats and to explore the underlying mechanism of the same. Materials and Methods: In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to know the protective effect of ethanolic extract of TT (eTT) in Cd toxicity. In in vitro studies, total antioxidant and ferrous metal ion chelating activity of TT was studied. In vivo studies were conducted...

  18. Anthelmintic activity of essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum Linn. and eugenol against Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, L M; Morais, S M; Bevilaqua, C M L; Luciano, J H S

    2002-10-16

    The ovicidal activity of the essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum Linn. (Labideae) and its main component eugenol was evaluated against Haemonchus contortus, gastrointestinal parasite of small ruminants. The oil and eugenol were diluted in Tween 20 (0.5%) at five different concentrations. In the egg hatch test, H. contortus eggs were obtained from feces of goats experimentally infected. At 0.50% concentration, the essential oil and eugenol showed a maximum eclodibility inhibition. These results suggest a possible utilization of the essential oil of O. gratissimum as an aid to the control of gastrointestinal helmintosis of small ruminants.

  19. Post-Coital Antifertility Activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeru Vasudeva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ancient literature mentions the use of a number of plants/preparations for fertility regulation. Some local contraceptive agents have also been described in Ayurvedic and Unani texts. Documented experiments or clinical data are, however, lacking. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to explore the antifertility and estrogenic activity of ethanolic extract of the roots of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. A strong anti-implantation (inhibition 100% and uterotropic activity was observed at the dose level of 400 mg/kg body weight. Histological studies were carried out to confirm this effect.

  20. Occurrence of bacterial pollution indicators in Boulti (Tilapia nilotica Linn. ) fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Zanfaly, H.T.; Ibrahim, A.A.

    1982-09-01

    A study was made for the occurrence of coliform and streptococcal groups on the skin surface (32 samples), gills (32 samples), intestinal tract (4 samples) and raw fish flesh (4 samples) and raw fish flesh (4 samples) of Boulti fish (Tilapia nilotica Linn.), a fresh water fish caught from Nasser's Lake in Aswan. Streptococcus group was detected in 13 samples taken from fish surface, 12 samples out of 32 swabs from gills. All intestine samples and raw fish flesh were positive for the streptococcus group. Coliform organisms were detected at nearly 43% of skin or gill samples, 100% of intestine and raw fish flesh samples.

  1. Diuretic activity of extracts of Mimusops elengi Linn. bark

    OpenAIRE

    Koti Basavaraj; Ashok Purnima

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, petroleum ether, chloroform, and alcoholic extracts of Mimusops elengi Linn. bark (200 mg/kg body weight, p. o.) were tested for diuretic activity. The animals were grouped into five of six animals each. The first group received only 0.9% sodium chloride solution (25 ml/kg body weight) and the second group received the standard drug furosemide (20 mg/kg body weight) in 0.9% sodium chloride solution. Rest of the three groups received each of extracts viz. pe...

  2. Genetic resources of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.)—strong genetic structure among natural populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Kim; Changtragoon, Suchitra; Ponoy, Bundit

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-nine provenances of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.) representing the full natural distribution range of the species were genotyped with microsatellite DNA markers to analyse genetic diversity and population genetic structure. Provenances originating from the semi-moist east coast of India...... had the highest genetic diversity while provenances from Laos showed the lowest. In the eastern part of the natural distribution area, comprising Myanmar, Thailand and Laos, there was a strong clinal decrease in genetic diversity the further east the provenance was located. Overall, the pattern...... of the findings for conservation and use of genetic resources of the species are discussed....

  3. Efecto antidiarreico de la tintura al 20 % de Mentha piperita Linn en ratas Antidiarrheal effect of Mentha piperita Linn tincture 20 % in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de la Paz Naranjo

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar la acción antidiarreica de una tintura al 20 % de Mentha piperita Linn (toronjil de menta, se realizó un estudio in vivo en modelo de diarreas en ratas inducidas con aceite de castor. Las dosis evaluadas fueron 200, 300 y 400 mg/kg. Se encontró que las dosis de 300 y 400 mg/kg alargaron el tiempo de aparición de la primera deposición líquida y disminuyeron su frecuencia, no así la dosis menor, que solamente redujo el número de deposiciones líquidas en el tiempo. Se halló conjuntamente un efecto dependiente de la dosis y una dosis efectiva media calculada (DE50 de 346,41 mg/kg. La dosis máxima de la tintura mostró tener acción antidiarreica en el modelo empleado. El nivel de significación se fijó en una p £ 0,05.To evaluate the antidiarrheal action a Mentha piperita Linn (toronjil de menta tincture 20 %, an in vivo study was carried out in a model of diarrheas in rats induced by beaver oil. The evaluated doses were 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg. It was found that the doses of 300 and 400 mg/kg prolonged the time of appearance of the first liquid defecation and reduced its frequency. It was not so with the smaller dose, which only reduced the number of liquid defecations in time. It was also found an effect depending on the dose and an effective mean calculated dose (ED50 of 346.41 mg/kg. The maximum dose of tincture proved to have an antidiarrheal action in the model used. The level of significance was fixed in a p £ 0.05.

  4. Preventive effect of Oenothera rosea on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea- (NMU induced gastric cancer in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almora-Pinedo Y

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Yuan Almora-Pinedo,1 Jorge Arroyo-Acevedo,2 Oscar Herrera-Calderon,3 Víctor Chumpitaz-Cerrate,4 Renán Hañari-Quispe,5 Aldo Tinco-Jayo,6 Cesar Franco-Quino,4 Linder Figueroa-Salvador7 1Department of Pharmacy, Hospital Nacional Hipólito Unanue, Lima, 2Laboratory of Experimental Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, 3Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Universidad Nacional San Luis Gonzaga de Ica, Ica, 4Laboratory of Physiology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Dentistry, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, 5Laboratory of Animal Physiology, Universidad Andina Néstor Cáceres Velasquez, Puno, 6Academic Department of Human Medicine, School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Universidad Nacional San Cristóbal de Huamanga, Ayacucho, 7School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas, Lima, Peru Background: Currently, gastric cancer (GC is considered a public health problem worldwide. Using medicinal plants for the prevention of chronic diseases such as cancer constitutes new alternatives in traditional medicine. Oenothera rosea (OR could be an option, but it needs to be evaluated. Aim: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of OR extract on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (NMU-induced GC in rats. Methods: In total, 80 male Holtzman rats were randomized into five groups. Group A received the saline solution (5mL/kg, group B received NMU 500 μg/kg (cancer inductor by oral administration for 16 weeks, and groups C, D, and E were treated with OR extract (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg, respectively and NMU in order to evaluate the preventive effect on cancer induced by NMU for 16 weeks. Blood and histological samples of stomachs were collected to determine histopathological, biochemical, and hematological parameters between different experimental groups. Results: Groups C, D, and E presented less histopathological changes such as anaplastic and

  5. A protocol for high frequency regeneration through nodal explant cultures and ex vitro rooting of Plumbago rosea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Binoy; Satheeshkumar, K; Seeni, S

    2007-01-15

    A rapid clonal multiplication scheme comprising direct multiple shoot initiation and downsizing of the node with buds proliferated upon during subculture was developed for Plumbago rosea. Sixty five per cent of the nodes (approximately 2.0 cm) dissected out of young shoots from field grown plants and cultured in MS agar medium containing 3% sucrose and 15.4 microM BAP remained contamination free and responded at 95% rate with callusing at basal cut end and axillary bud break in 5 days followed by the formation of 2.41 +/- 0.14 shoots of 0.87 +/- 0.14 cm length in 3 weeks. Though differences in frequency and number of buds formed between nodes of 1-5 positions from the young shoots was negligible, the shoots emanated from the youngest node were shorter (0.92 +/- 0.19 cm) than those (2.3 +/- 0.50 cm) of the mature 5th node. Synergistic influence of BAP and auxins on caulogenesis was absent. Bud emergence in shorter (approximately 0.5 cm) nodes was delayed up to 3 weeks and extensive callus proliferation from the cut basal end overlapped the 8.2 +/- 0.37 axillary shoots/buds formed after 7 weeks. Reduction in the size (downsized) of the 2.0 cm node with buds to 1.0 cm by dissecting out the basal internodal segment having the callus and subculture of them (approximately 1.0 cm) with buds in contact with the medium for 3 weeks contributed to maximum multiplication of 42.1 +/- 5.40 shoot buds. Division of the shoot cluster and transfer of 2-3 shoots (0.5-1.5 cm) in a clump to MS basal liquid medium induced elongation of the shoots to 4.1 +/- 0.18 cm in 2 weeks. Shoots of 3.0-4.2 cm length were rooted within 3 weeks at 100% efficiency in vitro or ex vitro without hardening. In vitro rhizogenesis in presence of 0.49 microM IBA is recommended for enhanced rooting and high yield of commercially important tuberous roots during cultivation in the field.

  6. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles with antimicrobial and azo dye (Congo red) degradation properties using Amaranthus gangeticus Linn leaf extract

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kolya, Haradhan; Maiti, Parthapratim; Pandey, Akhil; Tripathy, Tridib

    2015-01-01

    ...) using an aqueous solution of silver nitrate and Amaranthus gangeticus Linn (Chinese spinach) leaf extract. The synthesized AgNPs which are to be used as an antimicrobial and Congo red dye is to be used as a toxic-degrading...

  7. Establecimiento y desarrollo de plántulas de Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae en una selva subcaducifolia manejada de la costa Pacífica de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Mora Santacruz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Evaluamos el efecto de los tratamientos de remoción de suelo y roza de vegetación sobre el establecimiento y desarrollo inicial de la regeneración natural de Tabebuia rosea (Bertold DC. en una selva mediana subcaducifolia sometida a aprovechamiento maderable en la costa de Jalisco, México. Los tratamientos se aplicaron bajo la copa de árboles "semilleros" y se evaluó el número de plántulas emergidas y su desarrollo durante nueve meses. El tratamiento de remoción de suelo favoreció la emergencia de plántulas y su desarrollo inicial, mientras que el control de la vegetación competidora promovió un mayor crecimiento y menores porcentajes de mortalidad. Estos aspectos deben tomarse en cuenta para la regeneración natural de la especie después de la aplicación de las cortas con fines de aprovechamiento maderable y se sugiere incorporarlos a las técnicas silvícolas que actualmente se desarrollan en la zonaEstablishment and development of Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae seedlings in a semideciduous tropical forest under management, Pacific coast of Mexico. We evaluated the effect of soil "scarification" and vegetation clearing treatments on the natural regeneration and initial development of Tabebuia rosea (Bertold DC. seedlings in a moderate sized semideciduous tropical forest subjected to wood harvesting on the coast of Jalisco, Mexico. The treatments were applied under "seed" trees, and the number of germinated seedlings and their development were evaluated for nine months. Soil "scarification" promoted seed germination and initial seedling development, while the control of the competing vegetation increased the seedling growth and reduced their mortality. These results should be taken into account for the natural regeneration of this species, after clearing, to improve wood production, and should be incorporated into the silvicultural techniques currently developed in the region. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (4: 1215-1225. Epub 2006 Dec. 15

  8. Green coconut (Cocos nucifera Linn) shell extract mediated size controlled green synthesis of polyshaped gold nanoparticles and its application in catalysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paul, Koushik; Bag, Braja Gopal; Samanta, Kousik

    2014-01-01

    The shell extract of green coconut (Cocos nucifera Linn) has been utilized for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles at room temperature under very mild condition without any extra stabilizing or capping agents...

  9. Sensitivity difference of Streptococcus viridans on 35% Piper betle linn extract and 10% povidone iodine towards recurrent apthous stomatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maharani Laillyza Apriasari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral ulceration often becomes the main reason for the patients to see a dentist. Therapy of the oral ulceration is by giving the palliative therapy with topical antiseptic. Nowadays, there are many researches concerning with the traditional medicines as alternative therapy. One of them is Piper betle linn which contains the antiseptic agent. Purpose: This research is aimed to observe the sensitivity difference of Streptococcus viridans on 35% Piper betle linn extract and 10%povidone iodine. Methods: This laboratory research was conducted by the post test only design with random complete design. The research sampel is Streptococcus viridans culture that was scrapped from the ulcer of the recurrent aphthous stomatitis patient, then it was replicated by using the Federer theory. Results: Inhibitory zone of 35% Piper betle linn extract is bigger than 10% povidone iodine. Conclusion: Streptococcus viridans are more sensitive to 35% Piper bittle linn extract than 10% povidone iodine. 35% Piper betle linn extract has more antibacterial effect than 10% povidone iodine.Latar belakang: Ulserasi rongga mulut seringkali menjadi alasan utama bagi pasien untuk memeriksakan diri ke dokter gigi. Terapi ulserasi rongga mulut adalah pemberian terapi paliatif kepada penderita, seperti: pemberian obat topikal yang mengandung antiseptik. Saat ini banyak penelitian dalam pengembangan obat tradisional yang dapat dijadikan sebagai obat alternatif. Salah satu diantaranya adalah daun sirih yang mengandung zat antiseptik. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui perbedaan sensitivitas Streptococcus viridans terhadap ekstrak daun sirih 35% jika dibandingkan dengan povidone iodine 10%. Metode: Penelitian laboratoris yang dilakukan dengan post test only design dengan rancangan acak lengkap. Sampel penelitian adalah kultur Streptococcus viridans yang diambil melalui swab dari hapusan ulser pada pasien yang menderita stomatitis aftosa rekuren, kemudian dilakukan

  10. Aplikasi Ekstrak Daun Sirih (Piper Betle Linn dalam Menghambat Oksidasi Lemak Jambal Patin (Pangasius hypophthalmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Ariyani

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian aplikasi ekstrak daun sirih (Piper betle Linn untuk menghambat proses oksidasi jambal patin telah dilakukan. Percobaan dilakukan dengan penambahan ekstrak daun sirih (Piper betle Linn dalam larutan garam yang digunakan untuk penggaraman ikan. Perbandingan ekstrak daun sirih dan larutan garam yang digunakan adalah 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, 1:5 (v/v, sedangkan larutan garam tanpa penambahan ekstrak daun sirih digunakan sebagai kontrol. Selesai perendaman dalam campuran larutan garam dan ekstrak sirih (48 jam, patin asin dikeringkan di bawah sinar matahari selama 4–5 hari, selanjutnya disimpan pada suhu ruang (25-32oC selama 8 minggu. Perubahan mutu jambal patin dimonitor secara organoleptik dan kimiawi (angka Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances/TBARS, angka anisidin, dan produk berfluoresen, sebelum jambal patin kering disimpan dan setiap 2 minggu selama penyimpanan. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa penambahan ekstrak daun sirih pada larutan garam selama penggaraman mampu menghambat oksidasi lemak jambal patin selama penyimpanan 8 minggu tercermin dari rendahnya angka TBARS, anisidin, dan produk berfluoresen jambal patin yang diperlakukan dengan daun sirih dibanding dengan kontrol. Berdasarkan hasil uji sensori, jambal patin yang diberi ekstrak air daun sirih tidak berbau tengik, walaupun warna dan rasa jambal patin sedikit berubah. Perlakuan ekstrak sirih yang mampu menghambat oksidasi lemak jambal patin dengan nilai sensori terbaik adalah kelompok perlakuan ekstrak daun sirih dengan perbandingan 1:5 (v/v.

  11. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aqueous extracts of five medicinal plants on Allium cepa Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinboro, A; Bakare, A A

    2007-07-25

    The cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aqueous extracts of five medicinal plants: Azadirachta indica (A. Juss), Morinda lucida (Benth.), Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf.), Mangifera indica (Linn.) and Carica papaya (Linn.) was evaluated using the Allium cepa assay. The extracts were prepared with tap water as practised locally. Onion bulbs were exposed to 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50%; and 1, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20% concentrations (v/v) of each of the extracts for macroscopic and microscopic analyses, respectively. There was concentration-dependent and statistically significant (P<0.05) inhibition of root growth by the extracts when compared with the control. The EC(50) obtained for decoctions of Azadirachta indica. Cymbopogon citratus, Mangifera indica and Carica papaya were 0.6, 3.0, 1.4 and 0.8%, respectively. It was 2.6 and 0.8% for the squeezed extracts of Azadirachta indica and Morinda lucida, respectively. All the tested extracts were observed to have mitodepressive effects on cell division and induced mitotic spindle disturbance in Allium cepa. These results suggest an inhibitory, mitodepressive and turbagenic activities of the aqueous extracts on Allium cepa.

  12. Pectin extraction from Citron peel (Citrus medica Linn. and its use in food system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojanakorn, T.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Screening experiments using 25-1 fractional factorial design showed that pH, temperature, and extracting time were the main factors affecting the amount and quality of extracted pectin from Citrus medica Linn. Optimum condition of pectin extraction was studied using central composite design (CCD. Mathematical models relating pH, temperature and extracted time to amount of extracted pectin, equivalent weight, methyl content and anhydrogalacturonic acid content were established. Based on the mathematics models, the condition of pH 2, 100ºC and 105 min was found to be the optimum conditions for pectin extraction from Citrus medica Linn. Mathematical and experimental results were verified. The use of extracted pectin as a gelling agent in pineapple jam revealed no significant difference in gel consistency compared to that of commercial pectin grade 150 (p>0.05. However, the commercial pectin had a higher liking score on the spreadability, texture and overall liking. As a stabilizer in chocolate pasteurised milk, 0.2% of the extracted pectin was required to prevent precipitation of chocolate powder with the similar viscosity obtained from 0.06% κ-carageenan

  13. Ficus hispida Linn.: A review of its pharmacognostic and ethnomedicinal properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad; Chaudhary, Nisha

    2011-01-01

    Ficus hispida (FH) Linn. is a moderate sized tree found throughout the year and is grown wild or cultivated for its edible fruits and folklore value. Traditionally, different parts of the plant have been used in the treatment of ulcers, psoriasis, anemia, piles jaundice, vitiligo, hemorrhage, diabetes, convulsion, hepatitis, dysentery, biliousness, and as lactagogue and purgative. FH contains wide varieties of bioactives from different phytochemical groups like alkaloids, carbohydrates, proteins and amino acids, sterols, phenols, flavonoids, gums and mucilage, glycosides, saponins, and terpenes. Various scientific works have been published to establish the scientific basis of traditional medicinal values attributed to FH. Furthermore, newer pharmacological activities like antineoplastic, cardioprotective, neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects were also reported recently. Till now, no work has been published to elaborate the pharmacognostic features of FH Linn. The present review is, therefore, an effort to give a detailed account on its pharmacognosy and phytochemistry, and an extensive survey on its pharmacological activities. Moreover, we are trying to establish the mechanism of action behind its earlier reported pharmacology. The review also looks at the future formulation based delivery approaches of its lipophilic bioactives, which is done to enhance its dissolution so as to increase its bioavailability, and thus the associated pharmacological action. PMID:22096323

  14. STRUKTUR ANATOMI DAN KUALITAS SERAT KAYU DAN AKAR GANTUNG BERINGIN (FICUS BENJAMINA LINN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisdianto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Beringin (Ficus benjamina Linn. is one of typical fast growing tree species which are commonly found in Indonesia. The trees grow with hanging roots which grow larger and often can merged with the main stem, then its timber is not optimally utilized. This paper studies the anatomical structure and fiber quality of main stem and large, medium, and small diameter of hanging roots of beringin (Ficus benjamina Linn. tree. Anatomical structure was observed macroscopically and microscopically, while fiber dimensions were measured from macerated samples. The results show that the anatomical structure pattern of the roots is similar with those of main stem, however the quantity and dimension of anatomical components of hanging roots are smaller and shorter than components of main stem. Likewise, the fiber dimensions of roots are shorter and thinner than those taken from the main stem. Based on fiber dimensions and its derivative value, beringin wood fibers are classified into class quality II for pulp and paper. The creamy white color with white streaky figure of beringin wood from main stem is recommended for indoor decoration products such as wooden venetian blind, while the small roots are recommended for strap or webbing material crafts.

  15. Ficus hispida Linn.: A review of its pharmacognostic and ethnomedicinal properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad; Chaudhary, Nisha

    2011-01-01

    Ficus hispida (FH) Linn. is a moderate sized tree found throughout the year and is grown wild or cultivated for its edible fruits and folklore value. Traditionally, different parts of the plant have been used in the treatment of ulcers, psoriasis, anemia, piles jaundice, vitiligo, hemorrhage, diabetes, convulsion, hepatitis, dysentery, biliousness, and as lactagogue and purgative. FH contains wide varieties of bioactives from different phytochemical groups like alkaloids, carbohydrates, proteins and amino acids, sterols, phenols, flavonoids, gums and mucilage, glycosides, saponins, and terpenes. Various scientific works have been published to establish the scientific basis of traditional medicinal values attributed to FH. Furthermore, newer pharmacological activities like antineoplastic, cardioprotective, neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects were also reported recently. Till now, no work has been published to elaborate the pharmacognostic features of FH Linn. The present review is, therefore, an effort to give a detailed account on its pharmacognosy and phytochemistry, and an extensive survey on its pharmacological activities. Moreover, we are trying to establish the mechanism of action behind its earlier reported pharmacology. The review also looks at the future formulation based delivery approaches of its lipophilic bioactives, which is done to enhance its dissolution so as to increase its bioavailability, and thus the associated pharmacological action.

  16. Phytochemistry and hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of Amaranthus tricolor Linn. roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneja, Simran; Vats, Manisha; Aggarwal, Sushma; Sardana, Satish

    2013-01-01

    Background: The genus Amaranthus has potential activity as a hepatoprotective agent. Objective: The present pharmacological investigation focuses on evaluation of the efficacy of aqueous extract of roots of Amaranthus tricolor Linn. for their protection against paracetamol (PCM) overdose induced hepatotoxicity. Materials and Methods: The aqueous extract of roots of A. tricolor Linn. was prepared and phytochemical screening was done. The biochemical investigation viz. serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total Bilirubin (TB) was done against PCM-induced hepatotoxicity in wistar albino rats. The histopathological studies of liver were also done. Results: The phytochemical screening of the aqueous extract showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavanoids, amino acids, proteins, fixed oil, saponins and tannins, and phenolic compounds. Pretreatment with the aqueous extract of root significantly prevented the physical, biochemical, histological, and functional changes induced by paracetamol in the liver. The extract showed significant hepatoprotective effects as evidenced by decreased serum enzyme activities like SGPT, SGOT, ALP, and TB, which was supported by histopathological studies of liver. The aqueous extract showed significant hepatoprotective activity comparable with standard drug silymarin as well as hepatotoxin drug PCM. Conclusion: From these results, it is concluded that the A. tricolor has potential effectiveness in treating liver damage in a dose dependent manner. PMID:24459387

  17. Chemical composition and resistance-modifying effect of the essential oil of Lantana camara Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Erlânio O; Silva, Natálya F; Rodrigues, Fabiola F G; Campos, Adriana R; Lima, Sidney G; Costa, José Galberto M

    2010-04-01

    In this work, the chemical constituents, antibacterial and modulatory activities of the essential oil of Lantana camara Linn were studied. The essential oil was extracted from the leaves of L. camara by hydrodistillation method using Clevenger's apparatus and its chemical constituents were separated and identified by GC-MS, and the relative content of each constituent was determined by area normalization. Among the 25 identified components, bicyclogermacrene (19.42%), isocaryophyllene (16.70%), valecene (12.94%) and germacrene D (12.34%) were the main constituents. The oil was examined to antibacterial and modulatory activities against the multiresistant strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by microdilution test. The results show an inhibitory activity to E. coli (MIC 512 mug/ml) and S. aureus (MIC 256 mug/ml). The synergism of the essential oil and aminoglycosides was verified too, with significant reduction of MICs (7 x, 1250-5 mug/ml) against E. coli. It is suggested that the essential oil of Lantana camara Linn could be used as a source of plant-derived natural products with resistance-modifying activity.

  18. Phytochemistry and hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of Amaranthus tricolor Linn. roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simran Aneja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The genus Amaranthus has potential activity as a hepatoprotective agent. Objective : The present pharmacological investigation focuses on evaluation of the efficacy of aqueous extract of roots of Amaranthus tricolor Linn. for their protection against paracetamol (PCM overdose induced hepatotoxicity . Materials and Methods: The aqueous extract of roots of A. tricolor Linn. was prepared and phytochemical screening was done. The biochemical investigation viz. serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, serum glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and total Bilirubin (TB was done against PCM-induced hepatotoxicity in wistar albino rats. The histopathological studies of liver were also done. Results: The phytochemical screening of the aqueous extract showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavanoids, amino acids, proteins, fixed oil, saponins and tannins, and phenolic compounds. Pretreatment with the aqueous extract of root significantly prevented the physical, biochemical, histological, and functional changes induced by paracetamol in the liver. The extract showed significant hepatoprotective effects as evidenced by decreased serum enzyme activities like SGPT, SGOT, ALP, and TB, which was supported by histopathological studies of liver. The aqueous extract showed significant hepatoprotective activity comparable with standard drug silymarin as well as hepatotoxin drug PCM. Conclusion: From these results, it is concluded that the A. tricolor has potential effectiveness in treating liver damage in a dose dependent manner.

  19. Transformation of Rhodiola rosea with rol-genes from Agrobacterium rhizogenes to enhance the production of bioactive compounds and analyses of key genes in their pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stofberg, Jimmi; Antypa, Natalia-Meropi; Müller, Renate

    . rhizogenes-mediated transformation of leaf explants to obtain HRs. It consists of two steps: a) growth of HRs in bioreactors and b) regeneration of entire plants derived from nodular tissue. Another part of the study involves gene expression analyses of key genes in the biosynthetic pathway of salidroside...... to decreasing wild populations and climate changes threaten the plant further. Hence, alternatives are needed to circumvent this development. The objective of this study is to increase the content of bioactive compounds of R. rosea in planta. Transformation with root oncogenic loci (rol) genes from...... Agrobacterium rhizogenes leads to development of hairy roots (HRs) at the infection site. Transformed HRs have for several plant resulted in a higher contents of secondary metabolites compared to untransformed wild types. The method comprises clonal propagation of in vitro and in vivo material followed by A...

  20. A trade-off between the amount and distance of pollen dispersal triggered by the mixed foraging behaviour of Sephanoides sephaniodes (Trochilidae) on Lapageria rosea (Philesiaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia, Carlos E.; González-Gómez, Paulina L.

    2006-05-01

    Nectar thieves may increase or decrease pollinator-mediated pollen flow and thus may have positive or negative effects on plant reproductive success. In temperate rainforests of South America, the hummingbird Sephanoides sephaniodes acts as both a pollinator and non-destructive nectar thief on Lapageria rosea. Although pollinators that also act as nectar thieves have the potential to significantly modify plant reproductive success, no previous study has addressed this. To determine how the mixed behaviour of S. sephanoides affects pollen flow, we experimentally exposed some flowers to nectar theft and excluded nectar thieves from other flowers. We then assessed pollen dispersal into the floral neighbourhood. Thieved flowers exported less pollen, but the pollen exported was transferred farther into the neighbourhood. Our findings indicate a trade-off between distance and amount of pollen flow.

  1. GUS and GFP transformation of the biocontrol strain Clonostachys rosea IK726 and the use of these marker genes in ecological studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübeck, M.; Knudsen, I.M.B.; Jensen, B.

    2002-01-01

    . In addition, the biocontrol efficacy against disease caused by seed-borne Fusarium culmorum was evaluated on barley grown in sand. Compared to the wildtype, two selected GUS and GFP transformants, IK726c5 and IK726d11, did not vary in physiological properties. Both maintained the ability to colonize barley...... roots, and to reduce efficiently the severity of F. culmorum without affecting plant emergence. Quantification of GUS activity of IK726c5 in peat and vermiculite and on seeds was carried out. The GFP transformant, IK726d11, was visualized by epifluorescence and confocal scanning laser microscopy...... directly in soil, vermiculite, on carrot seed and roots, and on barley leaves. It was shown that C. rosea can thrive in very different niches. Conidia germination, colonization and conidiogenesis were demonstrated in vivo in all four environments. This is the first report on transformation of Clonostachys...

  2. Non-target effects of the microbial control agents Pseudomonas fluorescens DR54 and Clonostachys rosea IK726 in soils cropped with barley followed by sugar beet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Anders; Knudsen, Inge M.B.; Binnerup, Svend J.

    2005-01-01

    Non-target effects of a bacterial (Pseudomonas fluorescens DR54) and a fungal (Clonostachys rosea IK726) microbial control agent (MCA), on the indigenous microbiota in bulk soil and rhizosphere of barley, and subsequent a sugar beet crop, were studied in a greenhouse experiment. MCAs were...... by a factor of 106 and 20, respectively, and DR54 showed a short-lasting growth increase in the sugar beet rhizosphere. In general, the non-target effects were small and transient. IK726 seemed to have general stimulating effects on soil enzyme activity and the soil microbiota, and resulted in a significant...... introduced by seed and soil inoculation. Bulk and rhizosphere soils were sampled regularly during the growth of barley and sugar beet. The soils were assayed for the fate of MCAs and various features of the indigenous soil microbiota. At the end of the experiment (193 d), DR54 and IK726 had declined...

  3. Distribution of heavy metals in Lumbricus terrestris, Aporrectodea longa and A. rosea measured by atomic absorption and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, C.; Laursen, J.

    1982-01-01

    Distribution of Ca, Pb, Cd, Zn, Fe and Mn has been investigated in the earthworm species Lumbricus terrestris, Aporectodea longa and A. rosea by AAS and XRF measurements. The material of L. terrestris originated from the garden of the Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University in central Copenhagen. Material of the other two species was sampled in sewage sludge treated plots. It was found that lead and cadmium are accumulated in the gut wall and from here transferred to waste nodules (brown bodies). In L. terrestris more lead was transferred to waste nodules than cadmium. Also large amounts of zinc were accumulated in the gut wall. Analyses of L. terrestris calciferous glands showed that these take part in regulation and excretion of a number of heavy metals. Lead and cadmium content was low in the ventral nerve chord and seminal vesicles. A. longa with poorly developed calciferous glands seems to rely more on waste nodule formation in the ultimate immobilization of lead.

  4. Optimization of EPS Production and Characterization by a Halophilic Bacterium, Kocuria rosea ZJUQH from Chaka Salt Lake with Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Di; Jiao, Yingchun; Wu, Jianan; Liu, Zhengjie; Chen, Qihe

    2017-05-16

    With the rising awareness of microbial exopolysaccharides (EPSs) application in various fields, halophilic microorganisms which produce EPSs have received broad attention. A newly identified Kocuria rosea ZJUQH CCTCC M2016754 was determined to be a moderate halobacterium on account of its successful adaption to the environment containing 10% NaCl. The optimal combination of fermentation medium compositions on EPS production was studied. In this work, a fractional factorial design was adopted to investigate the significant factors that affected EPS production. The factors of KCl and MgSO₄ were found to have a profound impact on EPS production. We utilized central composite design and response surface methodology to derive a statistical model for optimizing the submerged culture medium composition. Judging from these experimental results, the optimum culture medium for producing EPSs was composed of 0.50% casein hydrolysate, 1.00% sodium citrate, 0.30% yeast extract, 0.50% KCl, 0.50% peptone, and 5.80% MgSO₄ (initial pH 7.0). The maximal EPS was 48.01 g/L, which is close to the predicted value (50.39 g/L). In the validation experiment, the highest concentration of 70.64 g/L EPSs was obtained after 120 h under the optimized culture medium in a 5-L bioreactor. EPS from this bacterium was also characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared analysis (FT-IR). The findings in this study imply that Kocuria rosea ZJUQH has great potential to be exploited as a source of EPSs utilized in food, the pharmaceutical and agriculture industry, and in the biotreatment of hypersaline environments.

  5. A Rhodiola rosea root extract protects skeletal muscle cells against chemically induced oxidative stress by modulating heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Santana, Aaron; Pérez-López, Verónica; Zubeldia, Jose María; Jiménez-del-Rio, Miguel

    2014-04-01

    Rhodiola rosea is a perennial plant in the Crassulaceae family, recently postulated to exert its adaptogenic functions partially by modulating the expression of molecular factors such as heat shock proteins (HSP). The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of a Rhodiola rosea extract (Rhodiolife) in protecting murine skeletal muscle cells (C2 C12 myotubes) from chemically induced oxidative stress and to establish whether modulation of HSP70 expression is observed. C2 C12 cells treated with Rhodiolife did not experience any loss of viability (p > 0.05) at concentrations of 1-100 µg/mL for up to 24 h. In control cultures, viability decreased 25% following exposure to 2 mM H2 O2 (1 h). However, no significant decrease in viability in cells pre-treated with extract at concentrations as low as 1 µg/mL was observed. HSP70 mRNA levels were up-regulated two-fold in cell cultures treated with Rhodiolife (10 µg/mL), and expression was further enhanced by exposure to H2 O2 (six-fold, p < 0.05). HSP70 protein levels were maintained in pre-treated cell cultures compared to controls but was significantly lower (-50%) in cells lacking treatment exposed to H2 O2 . The present results indicate that Rhodiolife protects C2 C12 myotubes against peroxide-induced oxidative stress through the modulation of the molecular chaperone HSP70. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Expression of a serine protease gene prC is up-regulated by oxidative stress in the fungus Clonostachys rosea: implications for fungal survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Gang Zou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Soil fungi face a variety of environmental stresses such as UV light, high temperature, and heavy metals. Adaptation of gene expression through transcriptional regulation is a key mechanism in fungal response to environmental stress. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the transcription factors Msn2/4 induce stress-mediated gene expression by binding to the stress response element. Previous studies have demonstrated that the expression of extracellular proteases is up-regulated in response to heat shock in fungi. However, the physiological significance of regulation of these extracellular proteases by heat shock remains unclear. The nematophagous fungus Clonostachys rosea can secret an extracellular serine protease PrC during the infection of nematodes. Since the promoter of prC has three copies of the stress response element, we investigated the effect of environmental stress on the expression of prC. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our results demonstrated that the expression of prC was up-regulated by oxidants (H(2O(2 or menadione and heat shock, most likely through the stress response element. After oxidant treatment or heat shock, the germination of conidia in the wild type strain was significantly higher than that in the prC mutant strain in the presence of nematode cuticle. Interestingly, the addition of nematode cuticle significantly attenuated the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS induced by oxidants and heat shock in the wild type strain, but not in prC mutant strain. Moreover, low molecule weight (<3 kD degradation products of nematode cuticle suppressed the inhibitory effect of conidial germination induced by oxidants and heat shock. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that PrC plays a protective role in oxidative stress in C. rosea. PrC degrades the nematode cuticle to produce degradation products, which in turn offer a protective effect against oxidative stress by scavenging ROS. Our study reveals a novel

  7. PENGGUNAAN EKSTRAK DAUN SIRIH (Piper betle Linn UNTUK MENGHAMBAT BAKTERI Aeromonas hydrophila DAN TOKSISITASNYA PADA IKAN PATIN (Pangasius hypophthalmus (THE USE OF PIPER BETLE LINN EXTRACT ON AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA TO OBSTRUCT AND THE TOKSISITY TO PANGASIUS HYPOPHTHALMUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Aisiah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui   daya  hambat  daun  sirih   yang  paling  besar  terhadap  bakteri Aeromonas Hydrophila, mengetahui konsentrasi minimal ekstrak daun sirih yang mampu menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri  A. hydrophila  dan mengetahui toksisitas konsentrasi efektif dari  ekstrak daun sirih terhadap ikan patin. Rancangan percobaan yang digunakan untuk  uji toksisitas  adalah rancangan acak lengkap, terdiri dari 4 perlakuan yaitu A  = Ikan disuntik dengan ekstrak daun sirih konsentrasi 75%, B  = Ikan disuntik dengan ekstrak daun sirih konsentrasi 25%, C  = Kontrol positif (ikan disuntik dengan akuades steril dan D  = Kontrol negatif (ikan tidak disuntik, diulang 3 kali. Hasil uji sensitivitas antibakteri daun sirih yang mempunyai daya hambat dan daya bunuh paling besar terhadap bakteri A. hydrophila adalah ekstrak daun sirih-metanol. Pengujian MIC menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak daun sirih-metanol memiliki daya hambat minimal 25 % terhadap aktivitas bakteri A. hydrophila. Hasil uji toksisitas yang dilakukan terhadap ikan patin dengan konsentrasi 75% dan 25% menunjukkan bahwa mortalitas yang terjadi tidak mencapai 50%. Pengamatan hematologis pada masing-masing perlakuan menunjukkan hasil yang berpengaruh tidak nyata terhadap kesehatan ikan patin. Parameter kualitas air pada penelitian ini yaitu, , kadar oksigen terlarut,  pH, amoniak, CO2 dan suhu masih dapat mendukung kehidupan ikan patin. This research was aimed a finding the part of Piper betle Linn  which had the biggest resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila bacteria and to know the minimal concentrate which could obstruct the growth of A. hydrophila  bacteria and to know effective concentrate toxicity of P. betle Linn  to Pangasius hypophthalmus.  The random sampling used proportionate stratified random sampling. In toxicity test, it had be done 4 treatment, which was given to fish, those were : A = fish was injected with 25 % concentrate of extract  P

  8. Comparative antioxidant and bioavailability studies of Vitamin C in Phyllanthus emblica Linn. and its combinations with Piper nigrum Linn. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanita Somasekhar

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (amla is used in Ayurveda, the ancient Indian system of medicine and its major constituent is vitamin C which has effective free radical scavenging property. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity and the bioavailability profile of vitamin C in amla and its combinations with piperine and ginger in comparison to synthetic vitamin C using New Zealand rabbits. In vitro antioxidant activity studies of synthetic vitamin C, amla, amla with piperine and amla with ginger were carried out using different models such as 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, Nitric Oxide, Hydrogen peroxide scavenging methods, Total reductive capability and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity estimation. The study results showed that synthetic vitamin C, amla, amla with piperine and amla with ginger possess significant in vitro antioxidant activity. For bioavailability studies, synthetic vitamin C, amla, amla with piperine and amla with ginger 100 mg/kg, were administered orally and the serum samples were analyzed by HPLC at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 24 hours. Bioavailability studies revealed that amla with piperine combination has higher concentration of vitamin C when compared to synthetic vitamin C. This is probably due to presence of piperine, which is a bioavailability enhancer. The present study supports the fact that amla with piperine combination can be an alternative to synthetic vitamin C.

  9. Determination of antioxidant capacity, α-amylase and lipase inhibitory activity of Crotalaria juncea Linn in vitro inhibitory activity of Crotalaria Juncea Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinakaran, Sathis Kumar; Banji, David; Avasarala, Harani; Banji, Otilia

    2014-06-01

    The present study involves the determination of antioxidant capacity and in vitro α-amylase and lipase inhibitory activity of the Crotalaria juncea Linn extract. The content of polyphenols, flavonoids, and tannins in the extracts was estimated by spectrophotometry. Antioxidant activity on goat liver lipid peroxidation and linoleic acid emulsion were determined and α-amylase and lipase inhibitory activity was also evaluated. All the extracts had shown antioxidant property, α-amylase, and lipase inhibitory properties. Aqueous extract was found to show maximum antioxidant activity on goat liver. Antilipid peroxidation and antioxidant activity were determined to be 66.94 ± 0.616 (p < .01) and 59.54 ± 0.2 (p < .01), respectively. Maximum α-amylase and lipase inhibitory activities of 71.42 ± 1.37 (p < .01) and 57.14 ± 2.74% (p < .01), respectively, were exhibited by macerated methanol extract. The results had shown that all the extracts exhibited low inhibition and antioxidant activity as compared to standard.

  10. Chemicals isolated from Justicia adhatoda Linn reduce fitness of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanigaivel, Annamalai; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Vasantha-Srinivasan, Prabhakaran; Edwin, Edward-Sam; Ponsankar, Athirstam; Selin-Rani, Selvaraj; Pradeepa, Venkatraman; Chellappandian, Muthiah; Kalaivani, Kandaswamy; Abdel-Megeed, Ahmed; Narayanan, Raman; Murugan, Kadarkarai

    2017-04-01

    Extracts from Justicia adhatoda L. (Acanthaceae) strongly reduced the fitness of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti Linn. The methanolic extracts inhibited several enzymes responsible for protecting insects from oxidative and other damage, including glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, cytochrome P450, and α- and β-esterases. They increased repellency (maximum repellency at 100 ppm) in host-seeking adult females using the "arm-in cage assay." Histopathological examination showed the extracts led to serious midgut cell damage. Justicia adhatoda extracts led to reduced fecundity and oviposition of gravid females compared to controls. The extracts led to substantially reduced A. aegypti survival. We infer that the extracts have potential to reduce pathogen transmission by suppressing population growth of A. aegypti, and possibly other mosquito species. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. New Ent-Kaurane-Type Diterpene Glycosides and Benzophenone from Ranunculus muricatus Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi-Ling Wu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two new ent-kaurane diterpene glycosides, ranunculosides A (1 and B (2, and a new benzophenone, ranunculone C (3, were isolated from the aerial part of Ranunculus muricatus Linn. The chemical structures of compounds 1–3 were established to be (2S-ent-kauran-2β-ol-15-en-14-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, (2S,4S-ent-kauran-2β,18-diol-15-en-14-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, and (R-3-[2-(3,4-dihydroxybenzoyl-4,5-dihydroxy-phenyl]-2-hydroxylpropanoic acid, respectively, by spectroscopic data and chemical methods. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by the combinational application of RP-HPLC analysis and Mosher’s method.

  12. TITIK TANGKAP PENGARUH HIPOTENSIF EKSTRAK TANAMAN OLDENLANDIA CORYMBOSA LINN PADA KUCING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Muhamad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In preliminary reports by others it lias been stated that Oldenlandia corvmbosa Linn had an hypoten­sive effect in rabbits. This study confirmed this finding in cats and found that alcoholic-extracts of the plant decreased resistance in the hindleg significantly in acute experiments. By the used'technique of extraction in which the content of the active component was multiplied by about ten times systemic intravenous infusion of the extract decreased the resistance to flow in the hind leg of the cat about 40 per cent. Thin layer chromatography techniques revealed 4 spots in the alcoholic extract but due to certain constraint factors it was not yet able to detect which spot(s contained the active component(s.

  13. Microbicidal effect of medicinal plant extracts (Psidium guajava Linn. and Carica papaya Linn. upon bacteria isolated from fish muscle and known to induce diarrhea in children Uso de extrato de plantas medicinais (Psidium guajava Linn. e Carica papaya Linn. frente a bactérias isoladas de pescado, causadoras de diarréias infantis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regine Helena Silva dos Fernandes VIEIRA

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Out of the twenty-four samples of shrimp and fish muscle used for this study, twelve were collected near a large marine sewer for waste disposal, 3 km off the coast of Fortaleza (Brazil and used for the isolation of E. coli. Other twelve were collected at the Mucuripe fresh fish market (Fortaleza, Brazil and used for the isolation of Staphylococcus aureus. Ethanol, water and acetone-diluted extracts of guava and papaya leaf sprouts were tested on the bacteria in order to verify their microbicidal potential. The E. coli strains used in the trials were rated LT positive. The papaya leaf extracts (Carica papaya Linn showed no microbicidal activity while the guava sprout extracts (Psidium guajava Linn displayed halos exceeding 13 mm for both species, an effect considered to be inhibitory by the method employed. Guava sprout extracts by 50% diluted ethanol most effectively inhibited E. coli (EPEC, while those in 50% acetone were less effective. It may be concluded that guava sprout extracts constitute a feasible treatment option for diarrhea caused by E. coli or by S. aureus-produced toxins, due to their quick curative action, easy availability in tropical countries and low cost to the consumer.Foram coletadas doze amostras de camarão e peixes nas imediações do interceptor oceânico, em Fortaleza e igual número na Feira de pescado do Mucuripe, Fortaleza, para isolamento de E. coli e Staphylococcus aureus, respectivamente. Extratos aquosos, alcoólicos e cetônicos de broto de goiabeira e de folha de mamão foram testados frente às bactérias para se verificar suas ações antibióticas. As cepas de E. coli utilizadas nos ensaios foram as classificadas como LT positivas. Os extratos de folhas de mamão (Carica papaya Linn não revelaram quaisquer atividades antibióticas enquanto que os preparados com broto de goiabeira (Psidium guajava Linn apresentaram halos sempre >13 mm para as duas espécies, considerados como de inibição pelo m

  14. UJI TOKSISITAS AKUT EKSTRAK DAUN PSIDIUM GUAVA LINN (DAUN JAMBU BIJI TERHADAP MENCIT (MUS MUSCULUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiyatun Naini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Psidium guava Linn leaf extract as mouthrinse has been suggested to be used against toothache, and also has suggested effect against diarrhea and vomiting, as well as anti spasmodic and rheumatic symptoms, anti inflammation, anti piretic, analgetic, and anti bacterial activity. However, to consider potential side effects, this work aimed to test the acute toxicity of guava leaf extract. For this purpose guava leaf extract was given orally to to groups of ten mice each at a doses of 1.25g, 2.5, 5, 10 and 21 g/kg body weight in a suspension with CMC Na 0,5%. Ten mice were used as control with a dose of 1 ml CMC Na 0,5%. The results suggest no acute toxicity to mice, since even the biggest dose given (show no measurable value of LD 50. It could be concluded that guava leaf extract shows no acute toxicity to mice at tested concentrations.

  15. Amelioration of asthmatic inflammation by an aqueous extract of Spinacia oleracea Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jin-Chul; Park, Chul-Hong; Lee, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Si-Oh; Kim, Tae-Ho; Lee, Sang-Han

    2010-03-01

    Inflammation of the respiratory tract is a crucial process in immune diseases, including asthma, and atopic rhinitis. To establish whether an aqueous extract of Spinacia oleracea Linn (SoL) has a beneficial influence in terms of anti-asthmatic activity, we examined its effects on an ovalbumin-induced asthmatic model. Mice sensitized to ovalbumin were orally administered the SoL extract, and their lungs examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining to determine IL-4/13 cytokine expression. The SoL extract exerted strong anti-asthmatic effects by inducing a decrease in the CD4+ cell number, IL-4/13, and other molecular markers in the lung. Our results collectively indicate that the aqueous SoL extract ameliorates asthmatic symptoms effectively in a mouse ovalbumin-challenge model.

  16. Antimicrobial activities of the crude methanol extract of Acorus calamus Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souwalak Phongpaichit

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A partially-purified fraction obtained from column chromatographic preparation of the crude methanol extract of Acorus calamus Linn. rhizomes was investigated for its antimicrobial activities on various microorganisms including bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi. It exhibited high activity againstfilamentous fungi: Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum gypseum, and Penicillium marneffei with IC50 values of 0.2, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/ml, respectively. However, it showed moderate activity against yeasts: Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (MIC 0.1-1 mg/ml and low activity against bacteria (MIC 5->10 mg/ml. Scanning electron microscopic observation revealed that hyphae and conidia treated with this fraction were shrunken and collapsed, which might be due to cell fluid leakage.

  17. Experimental and quantum chemical studies on poriferasterol - A natural phytosterol isolated from Cassia sophera Linn. (Caesalpiniaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmachari, Goutam; Mondal, Avijit; Nayek, Nayana; Kumar, Abhishek; Srivastava, Ambrish Kumar; Misra, Neeraj

    2017-09-01

    Poriferasterol, a biologically relevant phytosterol, has been isolated and identified first-time from Cassia sophera Linn. (family: Caesalpiniaceae) based on detailed spectral studies. Exhaustive theoretical studies on the molecular structure, vibrational spectra, HOMO, LUMO, MESP surfaces and reactivity descriptor of this plant-derived natural molecule have been performed. The experimentally observed FT-IR spectrum of the title compound has been compared with spectral data obtained by DFT-B3LYP/6-311 + G (d,p) method. The UV-visible spectrum of the title compound has also been recorded and the electronic properties, such as frontier orbitals and band gap energy are measured by TD-DFT approach. The 1H and 13C NMR spectrum has been calculated by using the gauge independent atomic orbital method and compared with the observed data.

  18. DETEKSI HISTOLOGIK KESEMBUHAN LUKA PADA KULIT PASCA PEMBERIAN DAUN MENGKUDU (Morinda Citrofilia Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Ketut Suwiti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A study to detect the microscopic structure of skin wound in mice (Mus musculus aftertreatment with mengkudu leaves (Morinda citrifolia Linn., by histological methods, hasbeen carried out. In this study were detected the level of wound healing every weeks. Thesamples were collected from skin with was given incision injury. The tissue samples werefixed, dehydrated and embedded in paraffin and 4 – 5 ?. sections. Harris-Haematoxilin-Eosin staining method, using to identified of histological structure.Microscopic analysiswas performed using a binocular light microscope (450X. The study showed that,histological structure of normaly skin we deteted in fourth weeks ware composed byepidermis, dermis and hipodermis tissue. We observed for the presence ofthe ephitelialsquomous complexs, hairfollicles, connective tissue with vein and arteriole and adiposetissue.

  19. Leaves extract of murraya koenigii linn for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shailly; George, Mathew; Singhal, Manmohan; Sharma, Ganesh N; Garg, Vikas

    2010-01-01

    This work has been done for the investigation of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of methanol extract of dried leaves of Murraya koenigii Linn by oral administration at dose of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, to healthy animals. Extract was studied for its anti-inflammatory activity by using carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in albino rats and the mean increase in paw volume and % inhibition in paw volume were measured plethysmometrically at different time intervals after carrageenan (1% w/v) injection. Extract was also evaluated for analgesic activity using Eddy's hot plate method and formalin induced paw licking method in albino rats. The methanol extract showed significant (P Murraya koenigii in treating conditions associated with inflammatory pain.

  20. In vitro anthelmintic efficacy of Borassus flabellifer Linn. (Palmae against Pheretima posthuma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Govindrao Jamkhande

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the anthelmintic activity of Borassus flabellifer (B. flabellifer Linn. leaves against Indian adult earth worms (Pheretima posthuma. Methods: The B. flabellifer leaves and Indian adult earth worms (Pheretima posthuma were collected and authenticated. Earth worms were grouped and treated with extract at 10, 20 and 50 mg/mL concentration, albendazole (10 mg/mL as a standard and normal saline. The paralysis time and mortality time was considered as indicator of anthelmintic efficacy. Results: All the extracts showed concentration dependent activity but significant activity was observed at 50 mg/mL. At concentration 50 mg/mL extract pertained better activity with paralysis time (13.3 min and death times (17.92 min when compared to standard albendazole. Conclusions: The study findings reveal that the methanolic extract of B. flabellifer leaves has effective anthelmintic activity against Indian adult earth worms.

  1. Exploring Tagetes erecta Linn flower for the elastase, hyaluronidase and MMP-1 inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Niladri; Nema, Neelesh K; Abedy, Md Karim; Sarkar, Birendra K; Mukherjee, Pulok K

    2011-10-11

    Traditionally Tagetes erecta Linn flower is claimed to treat skin diseases like sores, burns, wounds, ulcers, eczema and several other skin ailments. The aim of the present experiment was to evaluate the anti-wrinkle potential of standardized flower extract of Tagetes erecta. The Tagetes erecta extract and fractions were screened for hyaluronidase, elastase and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-1) inhibitory activity compared with the activity of standard oleanolic acid. Syringic acid and β-amyrin were obtained from the extract and quantified through RP-HPLC. Also the compounds were evaluated for anti-wrinkle activity. The methanol extract showed significant ((a)P Tagetes erecta. Tagetes erecta flower showed effective inhibition of hyaluronidase, elastase and MMP-1. Therefore, this experiment further rationalizes the traditional uses of this plant, which may be useful as an anti-wrinkle agent. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Factors affecting uptake of {sup 131}I in Chinese white cabbage (Brassica Chinensis Linn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, K.N. E-mail: peter.yu@cityu.edu.hk; Cheung, T.; Luo, D.L.; Li, M.F

    2000-06-01

    The factors affecting the uptake of {sup 131}I in Chinese white cabbage (Brassica Chinensis Linn) were studied. The time required for the ratio between the activity in the vegetable (Bq kg{sup -1} dry mass) and the activity in the soil (Bq kg{sup -1} dry mass) to reach equilibrium was around 72 h derived from an investigation period of 145 h. The ratio was also dependent on the mass of the vegetable (increased by more than twice when the vegetable mass was decreased to around 60%), the growth period of the vegetable (almost linearly decreased from 3.0x10{sup -2} to 1.1x10{sup -2} when the growth period changed from 66 to 81 d) and the season of culture, while it was independent of the concentration of {sup 131}I applied to the soil. The mean concentration ratio obtained for 51 samples was (6.3{+-}4.4)x10{sup -2}.

  3. Annona reticulata Linn. (Bullock's heart: Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad G. Jamkhande

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available From the beginning of human civilization plants and plant based chemicals are the most important sources of medicines. Phytochemical and different products obtained from plant are used as medicines, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and food supplements. Annona reticulata Linn. (牛心果 niú xīn guǒ; Bullock's heart is a versatile tree and its fruits are edible. Parts of A. reticulata are used as source of medicine and also for industrial products. It possesses several medicinal properties such as anthelmintic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, wound healing and cytotoxic effects. It is widely distributed with phytochemicals like tannins, alkaloids, phenols, glycosides, flavonoids and steroids. Present article is an attempt to highlight over taxonomy, morphology, geographical distribution, phytoconstituents and pharmacological activities of A. reticulata reported so far.

  4. INHIBITION TEST OF METHANOL EXTRACT FROM SOURSOP LEAF (Annona muricata Linn. AGAINST Streptococcus mutans BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raudhatul Jannah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is a disease with a high prevalence of caries in Indonesia is caused by the bacterium Streptococcus mutans. The leaves of the soursop (Annona muricata Linn. is one of the herbs that can remove dental plaque. This study aims to determine the chemical content and measure the inhibitory antibacterial soursop leaft methanol extractin inhibiting the growth of Streptococcus mutans bacteria. Phytochemical screening stated that the leaf of the soursop contains flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, steroids, glycosides and saponins. Test of inhibition were measured using paper disc diffusion method with variation concentrations of 5, 10, 15 20, and 25%, positive control is tetrasilkin 30 µg, and a negative control is methanol. Antibacterial test results showed that the methanol extract of soursop leaves have antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans at concentrations of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% with inhibitory diameter of 9,1; 10,57; 11,53; 12,01 and 13,75 mm respectively.

  5. Effect of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut milk extract on rat neutrophil functions in adjuvant arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramprasath, V R; Shanthi, P; Sachdanandam, P

    2006-01-01

    Neutrophils play an important role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and various inflammatory conditions, by accumulation and liberation of active proteolytic enzymes. The effect of milk extract of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nuts (SA) at a dosage of 150 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for 14 days on adjuvant arthritis was studied to gain some insight into this intriguing disease in relation to neutrophil functions. The decreased phagocytic function of neutrophils (phagocytic index and avidity index) found in adjuvant arthritis was significantly increased by the administration of the drug SA. Increased levels of reactive oxygen species (superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical, H2O2 and myeloperoxidase), lysosomal enzymes (acid phosphatase and cathepsin D) and increased accumulation of neutrophils in the joints observed in adjuvant arthritic animals were reverted back to near normal levels by treatment with SA. The results of this study indicate that SA can be considered to be a good therapeutic agent for inflammation and arthritis.

  6. PENGARUH KONSENTRASI AIR REBUSAN DAUN SIRSAK (Annona muricata Linn TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN LARVA NYAMUK Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Ariana

    2016-02-01

    Abstract Leaves of the soursop (Annona muricata Linn Indonesia is known as a medicinal plant that can treat a variety of diseases other than as a cure soursop leaves is also an insecticide-producing plants are bioactive compounds known as acetogenin which are bioactive compounds in high concentrations can be toxic to insects, thus may cause the insects will not eat. At low concentrations of toxic by oral administration stomach and can cause death. Soursop leaves are pesticides from natural elements that can be decided by the Aedes aegypti mosquito generation above background can be taken formulation of the problem Is there any effect of the concentration of soursop leaves boiled water (Annona muricata Linn on the growth of mosquito larvae of Aedes aegypti? This study aimed to determine the effect of water concentration on the growth of soursop leaf decoction Aedes aegypti mosquito larvae.The design of this study used an experimental design with laboratory testing, soursop leaf decoction obtained by weigh 100 g and dissolved in 100 ml of distilled water generated lau soursop leaves boiled water. The inhibition assay performed on boiled water boiling water concentration 100%, 90%, 80%, 70%, 60%, 50%, 40%, 30%, 20%, 10% and visits by the number of larvae of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes that die in 24 hours after treatment. Statistical analysis using Annova test with significance level 0.05 for determining the presence or absence of the influence of water concentration on the growth of soursop leaf decoction mosquito Aedes aegypti and subsequent Tukey HSD test was done to see the differences in each concentration. The results showed concentrations of 10% to 100% can inhibit the growth of mosquito larvae of Aedes aegypti, so it can be concluded that the soursop leaves can inhibit the growth of mosquito larvae of Aedes aegypti and efficient soursop leaves is used for patients with antibacterial, antifungal, anticonvulsant, and anti-inflammatory. Keyword :  larvae of Aedes

  7. Evaluation of Bifenthrin and Acorus calamus Linn. Extract against Aedes aegypti L. and Aedes albopictus (Skuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sulaiman

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Bifenthrin and Acorus calamus Linn extract were evaluated against dengue vectors in the laboratory."nMethods: Both Bifenthrin and Acorus calamus Linn crude hexane extract were bioassayed against the adults and larval stages of dengue vectors Aedes aegypti L. and Aedes albopictus(Skuse in the laboratory."nResults: The A. calamus crude hexane extract exhibited a larvicidal activity against 4th-instar Ae. aegypti larvae with LC50 and LC90 values of 0.4418 and 11.3935 ppm respectively. The plant crude extract exhibited against Ae. albopictus larvae with a higher LC50 and LC90 values of 21.2555 ppm and 36.1061 ppm, respectively. There was a significant difference on the effect of A. calamus extract on both Aedes spp. Larvae (P< 0.05. However, bifenthrin showed a significant difference on larvicidal effect to that of A. calamus hexane extract on both Aedes spp (P< 0.05. In testing the adulticidal activity, this plant extract exhibited the LC50 and LC90 values of 17.4075 and 252.9458 ppm against Ae .aegypti and a higher LC50 and LC90 values of 43.9952 and 446.1365 ppm respectively on Ae. albopictus. There was no significant difference on the effect of A. calamus extract on both Aedes spp adults (P> 0.05."nConclusion: Bifenthrin however showed a significant difference on both Aedes spp adults (P< 0.05. With the wide availability of A. calamus in Malaysia, it could be utilized for controlling dengue vectors. "n 

  8. Effects of ethanolic extract of Jasminum grandiflorum Linn. flowers on wound healing in diabetic Wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiren Hirapara

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate wound healing activity of ethanolic extract of Jasminum grandiflorum Linn. (J. grandiflorum flowers in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar albino rats were divided into six groups (n=6.Three groups – diabetic control, positive control (that received Glibenclamide and treatment (that received J. grandiflorum Linn. Flower extract were operated for excision wounds (EW. These groups were evaluated for wound contraction and re-epithelization. The other three groups were operated for incision wounds (IW and dead space wounds (DW. Incision and dead space wounds were produced in the same rats. IWs were analyzed for wound breaking strength and the granulation tissues from DWs were analyzed for dry weight, hydroxyproline content, and histology. Results: IWs and DWs showed significant improvement in wound breaking strength (265.8±10.4 vs 332.5±8.2; p

  9. Identifikasi komponen aktif minyak atsiri daun Vitex trifolia Linn yang berperan sebagai penolak serangga terhadap Chrysomya sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ami Soewandi J. S

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Dried leves powder of Vitex trifolia, Linn, is used tradisionally as insect repellent. The activity of the essential oil (isolated from the leaves and this fractions were studied as a repellent against Chrysomya sp. Fraction E contained a single component and has proven as the most effective to repel Chrysomya sp.According to the spectra of UV, IR, and GC-MS analysis, the single component of fraction E was identified as 4-methyl-1-(methylethy3-cyclohexnol.

  10. Antimalarial activity of Evolvulus alsinoids Linn.-an in vitro Plasmodium falciparum specific lactate dehydrogenase enzyme inhibition assay

    OpenAIRE

    Neeraj Sethiya; Priyadarshan Keluskar; Sanjay Ingle; Shrihari Mishra

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of standardized methanol extract of Evolvulus alsinoids Linn. (E. alsinoids) on Plasmodium falciparum specific lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH) enzyme inhibition. Methods: To carry out enzyme inhibition studies, lactate dehydrogenase was cloned from Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 strain using expression vector pET28a and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Protein purification was carried out by Ni-affinity chromatography. This protein was ...

  11. Sintesis N-Etanol -9,10,12- Trihidroksi Stearamida Yang Diturunkan Dari Minyak Jarak (Ricinus Communis Linn.)

    OpenAIRE

    Manurung, Simon

    2008-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memanfaatkan metil risinoleat yang merupakan komponen utama sebagai trigliserida yang dijumpai pada minyak jarak (Ricinus Communis Linn.) sebagai bahan untuk sintesis senyawa N-etanol-9,10,12-trihidroksi stearamida. Untuk mendapatkan senyawa N-etanol-9,10,12-trihidroksi stearamida, minyak jarak terlebih dahulu dimetanolisis dengan metanol menggunakan katalis H2SO4 dalam pelarut benzena pada kondisi refluks. Metil risinoleat dipisahkan dari metil ester asam le...

  12. Beneficial effect of the leaves of Murraya koenigii (Linn.) Spreng (Rutaceae) on diabetes-induced renal damage in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankuzo, Hassan; Ahmed, Qamar Uddin; Santosa, Rahajoe Imam; Akter, Seikh Farid Uddin; Talib, Norlewati A

    2011-04-26

    Murraya koenigii (Linn.) Spreng (curry leaf) is widely used as a nephroprotective agent in kidney's infirmities among diabetics by the traditional practitioners in Malaysia. However, the latter role of curry leaf has been grossly under reported and is yet to receive proper scientific evaluation. The present study was designed to investigate the beneficial effect of the leaves of Murraya koenigii (Linn.) on diabetes-induced renal damage in vivo with regard to prove its efficacy by local traditional practitioners in the treatment of kidney frailties in diabetics. Aqueous (AQ) extract of the leaves of Murraya koenigii (Linn.) was administered to both normal and streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic male rats (Sprague-Dawley strain). Animals were divided into six groups (n=6) and treated with variable dose levels of AQ extract (200 and 400mg/kg body weight/day) for 30 days. At the end of 30 days, animals were sacrificed, blood was collected, processed and stored at -70°C for the zestimation of serum urea and creatinine, changes in plasma antioxidant capacity by FRAP assay, and glutathione peroxidase levels, in the normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats. Histological changes of the kidneys of these animals were also evaluated by light microscopy to determine the beneficial effect of the leaves. Daily oral administration of variable dose levels of the AQ extract for 30 days, produced significant dose dependant decrease in serum urea and creatinine levels (pMurraya koenigii (Linn.) as adjuvant, in the treatment of pain disorders related to renal impairments among diabetics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Influence of Extract of Papaya Seeds and leaves (Carica papaya Linn.) on the Mortality of Anopheles sp. Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Ishak, Hasanuddin; Aras, Nurhidayah; Hakim, Buraerah H. Abd.

    2015-01-01

    This paper will be presented as oral presentation in the 47th APACPH Conference in Bandung, Indonesia dated October, 21-23rd 2015 Insecticide resistance and environmental damage as impact of application of synthetic larvicide continuesly, therefore it is necessarily alternative larvicide for vector control of Malaria. The aim of the research was to find out the influence of extracts of papaya seeds and leaves (Carica papaya Linn.) on the mortality of Anopheles sp. Larvae. The research m...

  14. EFEK SITOTOKSIK DAN PEMACUAN APOPTOSIS FRAKSI PETROLEUM ETER EKSTRAK ETANOL DAUN TAPAK LIMAN (Elephantopus scaber Linn TERHADAP SEL HELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeni Listyowati

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Elephantopus scaber Linn. has been reported to have cytotoxic effects on breast cancer cells and the potential to be developed as anticancer agent. This study aims was to determine the cytotoxic activity and apoptosis induction effect of petroleum ether fractions of ethanolic extract of (Elephantopus scaber Linn leaves against cervical cancer cells (HeLa. Petroleum ether fraction was obtained by dissolving eyhanolic extract in petroleum ether, and the soluble fraction was as petroleum ether fraction. The method used for cytotoxic activity test was MTT test. The concentration series used were 2000; 1500; 1000; 800; 400; 200; 100; 50; 25; 12.5; 6.25 and 3.125 mg/ml. The IC50 used as cytotoxic parameters. The apoptotic observations was conducted using acridine orange and ethidium bromide. The study showed the IC50 of petroleum ether fraction of (Elephantopus scaber Linn ethanolic extract was 185 ug/ml. The study also showed the potency to stimulate apoptosis in HeLa cells.

  15. IDENTIFIKASI DAN UJI AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI FRAKSI TERAKTIF DAUN PACAR KUKU (Lawsonia inermis Linn. TERHADAP Staphylococcus aureus DAN Escherischia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestri Handayani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan uji aktivitas antibakteri fraksi teraktif daun pacar kuku (Lawsonia inermis Linn. terhadap bakteri Staphylococcus aureusdan Escherichia coli. Fraksi teraktif diperoleh dari hasil pemisahan kromatografi vacum cair (KVC ekstrak etanol daun pacar kuku (Lawsonia inermis Linn. yang telah melalui tahap maserasi dengan pelarut etanol 70%. Proses KVC dilakukan dengan menggunakan tiga eluen yaitu n-heksan, etil asetat, dan etanol. Pengujian aktivitas antibakteri dilakukan dengan metode difusi agar. Komponen kimia dalam fraksi teraktif diidentifikasi melalui skrining fitokimia dengan metode kromatografi lapis tipis (KLT dan kromatografi gas-spektrometer massa (GC-MS.Uji aktivitas antibakteri menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak etanol dan fraksi-fraksi daun pacar kuku (Lawsonia inermis Linn. mampu menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri Staphylococcus aureus dan Escherichia coli. Fraksi etil asetat adalah fraksi teraktif anti bakteri.Identifikasi senyawa dalam fraksi teraktif melalui kromatografi lapis tipis (KLT menunjukkan adanya golongan senyawa flavonoid, terpenoid, antrakuinon, saponin, dan asam lemak. Analisis GC-MS menunjukkan adanya senyawa dominan 2-pentanone,4-hydroxy-4 methy, coumarin, hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester, dan 10-octadecanoic acid.

  16. Fungitoxic properties of four crude plant extacts on fusarium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Means were separated using LSD. Crude plant extracts exhibited fungitoxic activity against Fusarium oxysporum Schl. F. sp. phaseoli, with varying degree of efficacy. Nicotiana tobacum and Vinca rosea were not effective, Azadirachta indica and Tagetes minuta exhibited significant control over Fusarium. Azadirachta indica ...

  17. Differential activity of Striga hermonthica seed germination stimulants and Gigaspora rosea hyphal branching factors in rice and their contribution to underground communication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Cardoso

    Full Text Available Strigolactones (SLs trigger germination of parasitic plant seeds and hyphal branching of symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi. There is extensive structural variation in SLs and plants usually produce blends of different SLs. The structural variation among natural SLs has been shown to impact their biological activity as hyphal branching and parasitic plant seed germination stimulants. In this study, rice root exudates were fractioned by HPLC. The resulting fractions were analyzed by MRM-LC-MS to investigate the presence of SLs and tested using bioassays to assess their Striga hermonthica seed germination and Gigaspora rosea hyphal branching stimulatory activities. A substantial number of active fractions were revealed often with very different effect on seed germination and hyphal branching. Fractions containing (--orobanchol and ent-2'-epi-5-deoxystrigol contributed little to the induction of S. hermonthica seed germination but strongly stimulated AM fungal hyphal branching. Three SLs in one fraction, putative methoxy-5-deoxystrigol isomers, had moderate seed germination and hyphal branching inducing activity. Two fractions contained strong germination stimulants but displayed only modest hyphal branching activity. We provide evidence that these stimulants are likely SLs although no SL-representative masses could be detected using MRM-LC-MS. Our results show that seed germination and hyphal branching are induced to very different extents by the various SLs (or other stimulants present in rice root exudates. We propose that the development of rice varieties with different SL composition is a promising strategy to reduce parasitic plant infestation while maintaining symbiosis with AM fungi.

  18. Is There a Link between Human Herpesvirus Infection and Toll-like Receptors in the Pathogenesis of Pityriasis Rosea? A Case-control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ela, Mostafa Abou; Shaarawy, Eman; El-Komy, Mohamed; Fawzy, Marwa; Hay, Rania Abdel; Hegazy, Rehab; Sharobim, Amin; Moustafa, Nadine; Rashed, Laila; Sayed Amr, Khalda Sayed

    2016-12-01

    Human herpesvirus (HHV) 6 and 7 are involved in the pathogenesis of pityriasis rosea (PR). Our aim was to evaluate the role of the innate immune response in PR through the detection of Toll-like receptors (TLR) 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, and 9 expression in the skin of affected patients and to detect the possibility of being induced by HHV-6 and/or HHV-7 viral coexistence in these patients. Twenty-four patients with PR and 24 healthy controls were included in this case-control study. Biopsy was obtained from the PR lesion and from the healthy skin of controls for detection of HHV-6 and 7 as well as TLRs 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, and 9 gene expression using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Significantly elevated expression of all studied TLRs and significantly higher viral load of HHV-6 and 7 in PR cases were detected. A significant higher expression of TLR2 and 4 in HHV-7 positive cases and a significant positive correlation between TLR9 and HHV-7 viral load were documented. HHV6 and 7 may also be involved in the pathogenesis of PR via TLR pathways.

  19. Effects of a Rhodiola rosea L. extract on the acquisition, expression, extinction, and reinstatement of morphine-induced conditioned place preference in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli, Laura; Titomanlio, Federica; Perfumi, Marina

    2012-05-01

    Opioid addiction is a chronic, recurrent brain disease that is characterised by compulsive drug seeking and a high rate of relapse even after long periods of abstinence. Prevention of relapse is the primary goal of addiction treatment and is still the major limitation in drug therapy. The present study investigated the effects of a Rhodiola rosea L. hydroalcoholic extract (RHO), a well-known traditional oriental medicine, on establishment and reinstatement of morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in mice. CPP was induced by intraperitoneal injection of morphine (10 mg/kg) as an 8-day conditioning schedule. The effects of RHO on the rewarding properties of morphine were tested in mice receiving oral administration of RHO (10, 15, and 20 mg/kg) 60 min prior to each morphine injection (acquisition) or prior to the CPP test on day 9 (expression). Once established, CPP was extinguished by repeated testing, during which conditioned mice were injected daily with different doses of RHO. Finally, the efficacy of RHO in blocking reinstatement of CPP provoked by priming injections and physical stress was also evaluated. RHO administration showed dose dependency for prevention of establishment of CPP and was effective in facilitating extinction of morphine-induced CPP. RHO suppressed both priming- and stress-induced reinstatement of CPP in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, as RHO was effective for reducing craving and vulnerability to relapse, it might be a very effective natural remedy for the treatment of opioid addiction.

  20. Distribution of heavy metals in Lumbricus terrestris, Aporrectodea longa and A. rosea measured by atomic absorption and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, C.; Laursen, J. (Kongelige Veterinaer- og Landbohoejskole, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    1982-01-01

    Distribution of Ca, Pb, Cd, Zn, Fe and Mn has been investigated in the earthworm species Lumbricus terrestris, Aporectodea longa and A. rosea by atomic absorption and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry measurements. The material of L. terrestris originated from the garden of the Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University in central Copenhagen. Material of the other two species was sampled in sewage sludge treated plots. It was found that lead and cadmium are accumulated in the gut wall and from here transferred to waste nodules (brown bodies). In L. terrestris more lead was transferred to waste nodules than cadmium. Also large amounts of zinc were accumulated in the gut wall. Analyses of L. terrestris calciferous glands showed that these take part in regulation and excretion of a number of heavy metals. Lead and cadmium content was low in the ventral nerve chord and seminal vesicles. A. longa with poorly developed calciferous glands seems to rely more on waste nodule formation in the ultimate immobilization of lead.

  1. Antibiotic production improvement in the rare actinomycete Planobispora rosea by selection of mutants resistant to the aminoglycosides streptomycin and gentamycin and to rifamycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrametti, Fabrizio; Rossi, Roberta; Selva, Enrico; Marinelli, Flavia

    2006-04-01

    During a strain improvement program, spontaneous mutants with single or combined resistance to streptomycin (Str(r)), gentamycin (Gen(r)) or rifamycin (Rif(r)) were selected from the industrial strain of Planobispora rosea, which is the producer of thiazolylpeptide GE2270. Among the mutants resistant to each single antibiotic, higher producers occurred more frequently (60%) among Gen(r) than in Rif(r) (10%) and Str(r) (24%) populations. Two Gen(r) mutants showed up to 1.5-fold improvement in GE2270 production while single resistant mutants Str(r) and Rif(r) produced slightly more than the parental strains. The combination of Str(r) and Rif(r) in the same strain improved GE2270 yield up to 1.7-fold. Finally, a higher GE2270 producing strain (1.8-fold improvement with respect to the parental strain) was selected among those mutants with triple resistance to streptomycin, rifamycin and gentamycin. A hierarchical increase in aerial mycelium and spore formation was observed which paralleled GE2270 production improvement.

  2. Anti-microbial Activity of Tulsi {Ocimum Sanctum (Linn.)} Extract on a Periodontal Pathogen in Human Dental Plaque: An Invitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eswar, Pranati; Devaraj, C G; Agarwal, Payal

    2016-03-01

    Tulsi is a popular healing herb in Ayurvedic medicine. It is widely used in the treatment of several systemic diseases because of its anti-microbial property. However, studies documenting the effect of Tulsi on oral disease causing organisms are rare. Hence, an attempt was made to determine the effect of Tulsi on a periodontal microorganism in human dental plaque. To determine if Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) has an anti-microbial activity (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration and zone of inhibition) against Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in human dental plaque and to compare the antimicrobial activity of Ocimum sanctum(Linn.) extract with 0.2% chlorhexidine as the positive control and dimethyl sulfoxide as the negative control. A lab based invitro experimental study design was adopted. Ethanolic extract of Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) was prepared by the cold extraction method. The extract was diluted with an inert solvent, dimethyl sulfoxide, to obtain ten different concentrations (1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, 9%, 10%) of extract. Plaque sample was collected from 05 subjects diagnosed with periodontal disease. Isolation of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans from plaque samples was done using Tryptic Soy Serum Bacitracin Vancomycin agar (TSBV) medium. Identification of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was done based on cultural, microscopic, biochemical characterization and multiple drug resistance patterns. Anti-microbial activity of Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) extract was tested by agar well-diffusion method against 0.2% chlorhexidine as a positive control and dimethyl sulfoxide as a negative control. The zone of inhibition was measured in millimeters using Vernier callipers. At the 6% w/v concentration of Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) extract, a zone of inhibition of 22 mm was obtained. This was the widest zone of inhibition observed among all the 10 different concentrations tested. The zone of inhibition for positive control was 25mm and no zone of inhibition was observed

  3. Antipsychotic-like activity of noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandy, Vijayapandi; Narasingam, Megala; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2012-10-19

    Noni fruit is widely consumed in tropical regions of Indonesia to the Hawaiian Islands. The noni plant has a long history of use as a medicinal plant to treat a wide variety of ailments including CNS disorders. The present investigation was designed to evaluate the antipsychotic effect of noni fruits (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) using mouse models of apomorphine-induced climbing behaviour and methamphetamine-induced stereotypy (licking, biting, gnawing and sniffing). In acute study, the methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia (MMC) at different doses 1, 3, 5, 10 g/kg was administered orally one hour prior to apomorphine (5 mg/kg, i.p) and methamphetamine (5 mg/kg, i.p) injection respectively in Swiss albino mice. In chronic studies, (TAHITIAN NONI® Juice, TNJ) was made available freely in daily drinking water at 30, 50 and 100% v/v for 7 days; 30 and 50% v/v for 21 days respectively. On the test day, an equivalent average daily divided dose of TNJ was administered by oral gavage one hour prior to apomorphine treatment. Immediately after apomorphine/ methamphetamine administration, the animals were placed in the cylindrical metal cages and observed for climbing behaviour/ stereotypy and climbing time. The acute treatment of MMC (1, 3, 5, 10 g/kg, p.o) significantly decreased the apomorphine-induced cage climbing behaviour and climbing time in mice in a dose dependent manner. The MMC also significantly inhibited methamphetamine-induced stereotypy behaviour and climbing time in mice dose-dependently. The 7 and 21 days treatment of TNJ in drinking water at 50 and 100%v/v significantly alleviated the apomorphine-induced climbing behaviour and climbing time in mice. The present study results demonstrated the antidopaminergic effect of Morinda citrifolia Linn. in mice, suggesting that noni has antipsychotic-like activity which can be utilized in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. However further studies are warranted to identify the active principles responsible for

  4. Mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia Linn. gel affect on post-extraction fibroblast acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Khoswanto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tooth extraction is one of treatment frequently done by dentists in clinics, hospital, and even private practices. One thing that is needed to be observed after the treatment is the speed of wound recovery process. Mengkudu is commonly used as medicinal treatments, some of them to heal wounds, but there had never been research of the use of mengkudu fruit on wound recovery after tooth extraction. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mengkudu gel in accelerating the escalation of fibroblast post tooth extraction on Dawley rats. Method: This study was used post test only control group design. Thirty male Dawley rats weigh between 250-300 grams, 3 months of age are being used. Tooth extraction is being done on lower left incisor. The 30 rats are divided into three groups, there are mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia Linn. gel, poviclone iodine, and control group. The data were analyzed statistically using One-Way ANOVA and LSD. Result: The result of every tested group with Kolmogorof-Smirnov test showed p > 0.05. Examination showed there was significant difference in fibroblast amount between the group with mengkudu gel and two other groups (p < 0.05. Conclusion: The application of mengkudu gel can accelerate the escalation of fibroblast after the tooth extraction on Dawley rats.Latar Belakang: Ekstraksi gigi merupakan perawatan yang sering dilakukan oleh dokter gigi baik di klinik, rumah sakit, dan praktekpribadi. Satu hal yang perlu diperhatikan setelahpencabutan gigi adalah kecepatanpenyembuhan luka bekas cabut. Mengkudu merupakan bahan yang sering digunakan untukpengobatan, salah satu diantaranya adalah untukpenyembuhan luka, namunpenelitian untuk kesembuhan luka pasca cabut gigi yang menggunakan mengkudu belum pernah dilakukan sebelumnya. Tujuan: Tujuanpenelitian ini untuk mengetahui efek gel mengkudu dalam mempercepat peningkatan jumlah fibroblas setelah pencabutan gigi tikus Dawley. Metode: Penelitian ini

  5. Morinda citrifolia Linn: potencialidades para su utilización en la salud humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirda E González Lavaut

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Noni es el nombre común de la Morinda citrifolia Linn. originaria de la Polinesia, Malasia, Australia, India y el Sudeste de Asia, pero se ha extendido a casi todas las regiones del mundo. En este trabajo se muestran los aspectos más importantes que sobre esta planta aparecen en publicaciones, fundamentalmente de la vía Internet y del Chemical Abstracts en los últimos 5 años, que permitan valorar las potencialidades para su uso en la salud humana. En la medicina tradicional las frutas, flores, hojas, corteza y raíz de esta planta han sido utilizadas para diversos propósitos medicinales. Entre las afecciones más tratadas se encuentran la alergia, artritis, asma, cáncer, diabetes, depresión, debilidad física, desórdenes menstruales, obesidad y estrés. Si bien se ha encontrado en los extractos de varias partes de la planta una elevada cantidad de componentes e incluso algunos se han llegado a aislar, se considera que la acción farmacológica y beneficiosa se alcanza únicamente por el efecto sinérgico de todos los componentes.Noni is the common name given to Morinda citrifolia Linn. It is originating from Polinesia, Malasia, Australia, India and Southeast Asia, but it has extended to almost every region of the world. In this paper, the most important aspects of this plant appearing in publications, Internet and the Chemical Abstracts in the last 5 years that allow to assess the potentialities for its use in human health, are shown. In traditional medicine, the fruit, flowers, leaves, cortex and root of this plant have been used for diverse medicinal purposes. Allergy, arthritis, asthma, cancer, diabetes, depression, physical weakness, menstrual disorders, obesity and stress are among the most treated affections. Although in the extracts of various parts of the plant, a high number of components has been found and even some of them have been isolated, it is considered that the pharmacological and beneficial action is only reached by

  6. Comparative Physicochemical Evaluation of Kharekhasak (Tribulus terrestris Linn.) Before and After Mudabbar Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauheed, Abdullah; Hamiduddin; Khanam, Salma; Ali, Mohd Akhtar; Zaigham, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Mudabbar/Tadbeere advia is referred to the processes performed on the drugs to detoxify, purify, and enhance therapeutic action and to reduce its doses before making the formulations in Unani medicine. It improves quality of drugs either by optimizing its desirable characteristics or minimizing the undesirable ones; it makes drug effective, safe, and specific. There is a need of comparative evaluation to understand its significance. Tadbeer of Kharekhasak (KK) khurd (Tribulus terrestris Linn. fruit) is described by Rabban Al-Tabari in Firdausul Hikmat, Akbar Arzani in Qarabadeene Qadri, etc., during the compounding of aphrodisiac formulations. Mudabbar Kharekhasak (MKK) used in Safoofe Kharekhasak mentioned in Al-Qarabadeene was evaluated in this work. Mudabbar/Tadbeer process was carried out by blending fresh KK. Juice with powdered dry KK and drying it under the sun. Juice used for process is thrice the weight of dry KK powder. The KK before and after the process was evaluated using physicochemical tests: powder characterization, extractive value, alcohol and water soluble matter, ash value, loss on drying (LOD) at 105°C, pH, high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprinting, and diosgenin content. Powder characterizations were set in. Increase in successive and nonsuccessive extractive values in various solvents, water/alcohol-soluble content, total ash, acid-insoluble ash, water-soluble ash, and sulfated ash of MKK was noted in comparison with KK. Decrease in LOD at 105°C and pH of MKK powder was observed. HPTLC fingerprinting data were developed for the identification and evaluation. Quantification of diosgenin content increased to 432.1 g/g in MKK as compared to 144.5 g/g in KK, suggesting significant increase in saponin content. Data obtained clearly indicated changes in MKK validating the classical Mudabbar process, probably to enhance/modify the action of drug. Standards for crude and MKK were established for future reference. Mudabbar

  7. HEMOSTATIC EFFECT OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF Piper betle, Linn LEAVES TO MALE MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadakata Sinulingga

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhage occurs in most of the dental care. Untreated hemorrhage could cause excessive blood loss, hypotension, and cyanosis. A Natural resource that reported has an hemostatic effect is ethanol extract of betel leaves (Piper betel, Linn.The aim of this study is to find the minimum concentration of ethanol extract of betel leaves which capable of shortening the bleeding time in mice. The experimental study used pretest-posttest with control group design was conducted on 35 mice that divided into 7 group which are negative control, positive control (feracrylum 1%, the ethanol extract of betel leaves 1%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%. All mice were injected heparin intravenously. Mice’s tail was cut at diameter 3 mm and pretest bleeding time was counted. Mice’s tail was recut at diameter 4 mm, given treatment for 5 seconds and posttest bleeding time was counted. Results of paired t-test showed that reduction of bleeding time between pretest and posttest was significant (p<0,050. The enhancement of ethanol extract of betel leaves concentration leads to better hemostatic effect. Results of ANOVA test showed that comparison of posttest bleeding time among groups was significant (p<0,050. The minimum concentration of ethanol extract of betel leaves which capable of shortening the bleeding time in mice is 5%.

  8. Quality control and in vitro antioxidant potential of Coriandrum sativum Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhaveer Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coriandrum sativum Linn., commonly known as coriander, is a well-known spice and drug in India. It has various health-related benefits and used in various Unani formulations. In this present study, quality assessment of coriander fruits was carried out by studying anatomical characters, physicochemical tests, and chemoprofiling using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS along with in vitro antioxidant potential. Materials and Methods: Standardization was carried out as per the pharmacopeial guidelines. Estimation of heavy metals, pesticides, and aflatoxins was carried out to ascertain the presence of any contaminant in the sample. Chemoprofiling was achieved by thin layer chromatography (TLC by optimizing the mobile phase for different extracts. The most of the pharmacological activities of coriander are based on volatile oil constituents. Hence, GC-MS profiling was also carried out using hexane-soluble fraction of hydro-alcoholic extract. The total phenolic contents and in vitro antioxidant efficacy were determined using previously established methods. Results: The quality control and anatomical studies were very valuable for the identification whereas good antioxidant potential was observed when compared to ascorbic acid. The drug was found free of contaminant when analyzed for pesticides and aflatoxins whereas heavy metals were found under reported limits. Conclusion: The work embodied in this present research can be utilized for the identification and the quality control of the coriander fruit.

  9. Turmeric (Curcuma Longa Linn. Supplementation as an Alternative to Antibiotics in Poultry Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanung Danar Dono

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics have been used in non-therapeutic fashion as growth promoter for about 50 years in many parts of the world. It has been proven that supplementation of antibiotics in the diets reduces morbidity and mortality, as well as improve feed efficiency and overall growth performance of broiler chickens. However, the routine use of these antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs is being curtailed in view of threat to public health occurring through microflora that are developing resistance to antibiotics. This risk has driven European Union and other countries to withdraw authorization of in-feed antibiotics since 1997. Removal of AGPs resulted in substantial increase infections in poultry. As a consequence, the poultry industry needs to find alternatives to antibiotics in order to stem the effects of infection. One comparable alternative is natural sources of herbs and medicinal plants, which later known as phytobiotics. For the last 15 years, these alternatives have been increasingly claimed to increase enteric health, stimulate digestive system, and enhance growth performance. It was reported that turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn. belongs to such class of medicinal plant and may be an alternative to antibiotics in poultry production. In this review, the responses of poultry to diets supplemented with turmeric on growth performance, egg production, health status, and carcass characteristic were briefly discussed.

  10. Mn accumulation and tolerance in Celosia argentea Linn.: a new Mn-hyperaccumulating plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Shang, Weiwei; Zhang, Xuehong; Zhu, Yinian; Yu, Ke

    2014-02-28

    Identifying a hyperaccumulator is an important groundwork for the phytoextraction of heavy metal-contaminated soil. Celosia argentea Linn., which grew on a Mn tailing wasteland, was found to hyperaccumulate Mn (14 362mgkg(-1) in leaf dry matter) in this study. To investigate Mn tolerance and accumulation in C. argentea, a hydroponic culture experiment was conducted in a greenhouse. Results showed that the biomass and the relative growth rate of C. argentea were insignificantly different (p>0.05) at the Mn supply level ranging from 2.5mgL(-1) (control) to 400mgL(-1). Manganese concentrations in leaves, stems, and roots reached maxima of 20228, 8872, and 2823mgkg(-1) at 600mgMnL(-1), respectively. The relative rate of Mn accumulation increased by 91.2% at 400mgMnL(-1). Over 95% of the total Mn taken up by C. argentea was translocated to shoots. Thus, C. argentea exhibits the basic characteristics of a Mn-hyperaccumulator. This species has great potential to remediate Mn-contaminated soil cheaply and can also aid the studies of Mn uptake, translocation, speciation, distribution and detoxification in plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Antibiotic activity of the extract of Punica granatum Linn. over bovine strains of Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. R. Silva

    Full Text Available Human and veterinary medicines have not been so well succeeded in order to achieving their goals concerning the treatment of infections for long term caused by Staphylococcus aureus linked to resistance development against antibiotic agents. The antibiotic activity of the Punica granatum Linn. fresh fruit pericarp extract was evaluated by the agar diffusion method on 38 S. aureus strains, isolated from apparently healthy lactating cows in farms situated in counties of the semi-arid region of the State of Paraíba, Brazil to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. Twenty-two of the thirty-eight strains are penicillin-resistant (PRSA. The extract of P. granatum presented potential antibiotic action over all the assayed strains, forming 10 to 36 mm diameter inhibition zones. This paper's results claim the effectiveness of the extract of P. granatum as a potential antibacterial agent on S. aureus, and display the significance of evaluating new substances with antimicrobial potential, which can contribute to alternative therapeutics for veterinary and medicine.

  12. STRATA TAJUK DAN KOMPETISI PERTUMBUHAN CENDANA (Santalum album Linn. DI PULAU TIMOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hery Kurniawan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cendana (Santalum album Linn. is endemic species of NTT Province which not only have economic value, but also as a symbol that unify people or community and culture wisdom in NTT Province. The management of cendana had been passing many time and period, which it has having good and bad experience depending on several factors. Some of these are regional regulation which did not support the efforts for developing cendana plantation. This research was aimed to know cendana crown stratum and competition index especially in private land. Achieving information and data on cendana habitat for supporting the implementation of Cendana Master Plan in NTT Province become the targets of the research. Metodology of the research is descriptive quantitative which based on directly field survey. Data collection was conducted by three ways, which were interviewed with the stakeholders, direct survey and desk studied of secondary data. The result shows that Santalum album trees tend to grow at stratum 1 and 2 of the overall plantation in one area. And the average of competition index of Santalum plantation in TTS regency is 0,18; in TTU regency is 0,07; and Belu regency is 0,1.Keywords: Stratum, competition, cendana, NTT

  13. Mathematical modelling of nutrient balance of a goldfish (Carassius auratus Linn. recirculating aquaculture system (GRAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudeep Puthravilakom Sadasivan Nair

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a goldfish (Carassius auratus Linn. recirculating aquaculture system (GRAS has been developed. The GRAS consisted of a culture tank, a screen filter and a foam fractionator for removal of particulate and dissolved solids and a trickling filter for conversion of ammonium- and nitrite-nitrogen to relatively harmless nitrate-nitrogen. The culture of goldfish at a stocking density of 1.08 kg/m3 was continued for a period of two and half months. Based on mass balance analysis of ammonium- and nitrate-nitrogen and assuming the trickling filter to be a plug flow reactor, a model was formulated to determine the necessary recirculation flow rate at different times of culture for maintaining the major nutrients, viz., ammonium- and nitrate-nitrogen below their permissible limits. The model was calibrated and validated using the real time data obtained from the experimental run. The high values of coefficient of determination and low values of root mean square error show the effectiveness of the model.

  14. Anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities of calophyllolide isolated from Calophyllum inophyllum Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van-Linh; Truong, Cong-Tri; Nguyen, Binh Cao Quan; Vo, Thanh-Niem Van; Dao, Trong-Thuc; Nguyen, Van-Dan; Trinh, Dieu-Thuong Thi; Huynh, Hieu Kim; Bui, Chi-Bao

    2017-01-01

    Due to the high-cost and limitations of current wound healing treatments, the search for alternative approaches or drugs, particularly from medicinal plants, is of key importance. In this study, we report anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities of the major calophyllolide (CP) compound isolated from Calophyllum inophyllum Linn. The results showed that CP had no effect on HaCaT cell viability over a range of concentrations. CP reduced fibrosis formation and effectively promoted wound closure in mouse model without causing body weight loss. The underlying molecular mechanisms of wound repair by CP was investigated. CP markedly reduced MPO activity, and increased M2 macrophage skewing, as shown by up-regulation of M2-related gene expression, which is beneficial to the wound healing process. CP treatment prevented a prolonged inflammatory process by down-regulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines-IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, but up-regulation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10. This study is the first to indicate a plausible role for CP in accelerating the process of wound healing through anti-inflammatory activity mechanisms, namely, by regulation of inflammatory cytokines, reduction in MPO, and switching of macrophages to an M2 phenotype. These findings may enable the utilization of CP as a potent therapeutic for cutaneous wound healing.

  15. The Effectiveness of Extracts Basil Leaves (Ocimum sanctum Linn) against Saprolegnia sp. by in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarno; Luthfi Hakim, Muhammad; Kusdarwati, Rahayu

    2017-02-01

    Saprolegnia SP. is a fungi which is opportunistic and generally as a secondary pathogen on fish. Saprolegnia sp. infects epidermis tissue that begins at the head or fins and can spread over the entire surface of the body. The result of the using of chemicals to control infections of Saprolegnia spp. can cause pollution of the environment and harm the consumer. The purpose of this research was to determine the potential and the minimum concentration of extracts basil leaves (Ocimum sanctum Linn) as antifungi against the growth of Saprolegnia sp. by vitro. The research was held in Fish Quarantine Kelas I Juanda Suarabaya in January 2015. A positive result was obtained in the test of the effectiveness of basil leaves in inhibiting the growth of the fungus Saprolegnia sp. Concentration of the extract given to treatment 90% and 100% was able to inhibit the growth of Saprolegnia sp., indicated by the formation of the inhibitory zones at a concentration of treatment, and had the best results on the concentration of 100%.

  16. Evaluation of Cassia tora Linn. against oxidative stress-induced DNA and cell membrane damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Sunil Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study aims to evaluate antioxidants and protective role of Cassia tora Linn. against oxidative stress-induced DNA and cell membrane damage. Materials and Methods: The total and profiles of flavonoids were identified and quantified through reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. In vitro antioxidant activity was determined using standard antioxidant assays. The protective role of C. tora extracts against oxidative stress-induced DNA and cell membrane damage was examined by electrophoretic and scanning electron microscopic studies, respectively. Results: The total flavonoid content of CtEA was 106.8 ± 2.8 mg/g d.w.QE, CtME was 72.4 ± 1.12 mg/g d.w.QE, and CtWE was 30.4 ± 0.8 mg/g d.w.QE. The concentration of flavonoids present in CtEA in decreasing order: quercetin >kaempferol >epicatechin; in CtME: quercetin >rutin >kaempferol; whereas, in CtWE: quercetin >rutin >kaempferol. The CtEA inhibited free radical-induced red blood cell hemolysis and cell membrane morphology better than CtME as confirmed by a scanning electron micrograph. CtEA also showed better protection than CtME and CtWE against free radical-induced DNA damage as confirmed by electrophoresis. Conclusion: C. tora contains flavonoids and inhibits oxidative stress and can be used for many health benefits and pharmacotherapy.

  17. In vitro antibacterial properties of essential oil and organic extracts of Premna integrifolia Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atiqur Rahman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to examine the chemical composition of the essential oil of Premna integrifolia Linn (Lamiaceae, and to test the efficacy of the oil and various organic extracts as an antibacterial potential. The chemical compositions of the essential oil were analyzed by GC–MS. Twenty-nine compounds representing 94.81% of the total leaves oil were identified, of which phytol (27.25%, α-humulene (14.21%, spathulenol (12.12%, 1-octen-3-ol (8.21%, eugenol (6.69% and phenylethyl alcohol (5.81% were the major compounds. The oil (15 μL disk−1 and extracts (300 μg disk−1 of P. integrifolia displayed a great potential of antibacterial activity against Sarcina lutea IFO 3232, Bacillus subtilis IFO 3026, Escherichia coli IFO 3007, Pseudomonas sp. ATCC 13867, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 10031 and Xanthomonas campestries IAM 1671 with their respective zones of inhibition of 12.0 ± 1.2 to 22.1 ± 1.2 mm and MIC values of 62.5–250 μg mL−1. The results of this study suggest that the natural products derived from P. integrifolia may have potential use in food, pharmaceutical and/or agro industries for preservatives or antimicrobial agents.

  18. The Responses of Mulch Closure on the Germination of Mindi (Melia azedarach Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurmawati Siregar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the factors that determine the successful of the development of mindi is the availability of seedling. The seedlings can be propagated generatively by using seeds, however there is a problem related to the hardness of the testa that make it difficult to germinate, so it needs environment condition treatments to get optimal germination, one of this is mulching. The use mulch possibly get the improvement of temperature, humidity, infiltration and evapotranspiration. The study is aimed to determine the effect of mulch and to find out the best mulch type on the germination of mindi (Melia azedarach Linn. seed. Randomized completely design was employed that arranged factorially, consisted of (A mulch types factor and mulch thicknesses factor (B. There were 5 (five types of mulch treatment i.e rice straws, transparent plastics, dark plastics, zeolite and without mulch. The thicknesses of mulch consisted of one layer and two layers of mulch. Germination capacity, germination speed and growth simultaneously were observed. The results showed, mulching effect on germination mindi the best type of mulch is black or transparent plastic mulch while the thickness of the mulch does not affect the germination. Mindi seed capable of germination in the dark and light conditions on the conditions of temperature and humidity high temperatures.

  19. Processing of Rosmarinus officinalis linne extract on spray and spouted bed dryers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. F. Souza

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an investigation of the potential of spray and spouted bed technology for the production of dried extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis Linné, popularly known as rosemary. The extractive solution was characterized by loss on drying, extractable matter and total phenolic and flavonoid compounds (chemical markers. The product was characterized by determination of loss on drying, size distribution, morphology, flow properties and thermal degradation and thermal behavior. The spray and spouted bed dryer performance were assessed through estimation of thermal efficiency, product accumulation and product recovery. The parameters studied were the inlet temperature of the spouting gas (80 and 150ºC and the feed mass flow rate of concentrated extract relative to the evaporation capacity of the dryer, Ws/Wmax (15 to 75%. The atomizing air flow rate was maintained at 20 l/min with a pressure of 196.1 kPa. The spouting gas flow rate used in the drying runs was 40% higher than the gas flow under the condition of minimum spouting. The spray drying gas flow rate was fixed at 0.0118 kg/s. Under the conditions studied, performance in the spray and spouted bed drying of rosemary extract was poor, causing high degradation of the marker compounds (mainly the phenolic compounds. Thus, process improvements are required before use on an industrial scale.

  20. Efecto antidiarreico de la tintura al 20 % de Mentha piperita Linn en ratas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de la Paz Naranjo

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar la acción antidiarreica de una tintura al 20 % de Mentha piperita Linn (toronjil de menta, se realizó un estudio in vivo en modelo de diarreas en ratas inducidas con aceite de castor. Las dosis evaluadas fueron 200, 300 y 400 mg/kg. Se encontró que las dosis de 300 y 400 mg/kg alargaron el tiempo de aparición de la primera deposición líquida y disminuyeron su frecuencia, no así la dosis menor, que solamente redujo el número de deposiciones líquidas en el tiempo. Se halló conjuntamente un efecto dependiente de la dosis y una dosis efectiva media calculada (DE50 de 346,41 mg/kg. La dosis máxima de la tintura mostró tener acción antidiarreica en el modelo empleado. El nivel de significación se fijó en una p £ 0,05.

  1. Physico-chemical properties of Tecoma stans Linn. seed oil: a new crop for vegetable oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbihi, Hassen Mohamed; Mokbli, Sadok; Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Al-Resayes, Saud Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Tecoma stans Linn. is known to have various medicinal and therapeutic properties. However, to our knowledge, no information is available regarding their seed oils. In this study, the fatty acid (FA) compositions, physico-chemical properties and antioxidant capacities of T. stans seed oils (TSOs) were investigated. The oil content of the seeds was 15%. The FAs of the TSOs were analysed by GC-MS. α-Linolenic (45.47%), oleic (23.56%), linoleic (11.48%), palmitic (6.09%) and stearic (4.12%) acids were the major detected FAs. γ-Linolenic acid and stearidonic acid, unusually FAs, were also present (1.04% and 6.65%, respectively). The total tocol content in the TSOs was found to be 266.06 mg/100 g. The main component was γ-tocopherol (78.93%). The total phenolic content (168.69 mg GAE/100 g oil) and total flavonoid content (5.54 mg CE/g oil) were also determined in the TSOs.

  2. In Vitro Anti-arthritic activity of Tecoma stans (Linn. Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmeshkumar Prajapati

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO estimates 80% of the world population presently use herbal medicine for some aspects of primary health care. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic, systemic inflammatory disorder that may affect many tissues and organs, but principally attacks synovial joints. There are many herbs which are described in Ayurveda for arthritis. The medicinal plant contains flavonoids, terpenes, quinones, catechins, alkaloids, anthocyanins and anthoxanthins phytoconstituents, having anti-inflammatory effects. Tecoma stans (Linn. belongs to the family of Bignoniaceae. The root of Tecoma stans as diuretic, vermifuge and tonic. Pharmacological reports revealed that it is having antidiabetic, anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory activity, antimicrobial, and antifungal properties, and extensively used in the treatment of diabetes. Alcohol, Water, successive extracts of Petroleum ether, Chloroform, Methanol and Water extracts of T. stans leaves were tested for Antiarthritic activity using Diclofenac sodium as standard by In-vitro models like, Inhibition of protein denaturation and effect on membrane stabilization. Alcohol, Water and succesive Methanol extracts of T. stans leaves exhibited significant Antiarthritic activity. The results of the investigations justify us the folklore use of T. stans leaves in the treatment of inflammation during arthritis and the plant is worth for further chemical isolation and pharmacological investigations.

  3. Inotropic and cardioprotective effects of Daucus carota Linn. on isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavan Kumar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Daucus carota Linn. tubers were extracted with water and analyzed for its inotropic and cardioprotective effects by measuring various biochemical parameters at the test doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg. Isoproterenol (5.25 mg/kg and 8.5 mg/kg was administered subcutaneously on 29th and 30th day respectively in order to induce myocardial infarction. Cardiac tonicity was estimated by evaluating Na+K+ATPase, Mg2+ATPase and Ca2+ATPase levels in heart. The levels of Na+K+ATPase and Mg2+ATPase were decreased and that of Ca2+ATPase was increased in extract-treated group significantly (p<0.001. Cardioprotection was assessed by estimating serum aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, lipid peroxidase, and lactate dehydrogenase levels and cardiac total protein and lipid peroxidase, and lactate dehydrogenase. The levels altered by isoproterenol were restored significantly by the administration of the extract. The result of the study implies that D. carota is a potential source to protect heart from myocardial infarction and to maintain its tonicity.

  4. Physical Stability and HPLC Analysis of Indian Kudzu (Pueraria tuberosa Linn. Fortified Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subha Rastogi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods provide health benefit beyond basic nutrition. Functional foods fortified with plant ingredients are well known. Ayurveda (Indian System of Medicine has found several ways in which the medicinal benefits of herbs can be conveyed via certain foods as carriers. Milk is one such carrier which has been effectively used to deliver phytochemicals for targeted health benefits. Indian Kudzu or Pueraria tuberosa Linn. (Fabaceae is an important medicinal plant of Ayurveda, and experiments suggest that it enhances the health benefits of milk when taken with milk as a carrier. Different milk combinations with P. tuberosa were prepared by homogenizing pasteurized toned milk with its ethanolic and hot water extracts and their stability with reference to pH and coagulation was studied over a period of 15 days. The combinations were also analyzed for puerarin, the major isoflavone C-glucoside present in P. tuberosa, through high-performance liquid chromatography using photo diode array detector. It was observed that there was no precipitate formation and the pH also did not change during the study period indicating their physical stability under the experimental conditions. Also there was no significant change in the content of puerarin during the study period, thereby indicating the chemical stability of the samples. These studies will be useful for developing milk nutraceuticals fortified with Indian Kudzu which has the potential to be included as an ingredient in health and functional foods.

  5. CHARACTERISTICS OF PROBIOTIC KOUMISS FROM GOAT MILK WITH ADDITION OF ROSELLE EXTRACT (Hibiscus Sabdariffa Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nuraeni

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Goat milk and roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn are food ingredients with health functionalproperties. This research used Lactobacillus acidophilus RRAM-01 and Lactococcus lactis RRAM-01which had been proven as probiotic, and Saccharomyces cereviceae. Saccharomyces cereviseae wasused to produce specific flavor components in koumiss (bacterial fermentation product. The objectiveof this research was to study the characteristics of goat milk probiotic koumiss added that with roselleextract. The results showed that the addition of different concentration of roselle extract (0%, 0.5%, and1% in the goat milk probiotic koumiss had no effect on chemical and microbiological characteristics ofkoumiss. Goat milk processed into koumiss had ability to suppress the growth of coliform and hadstrong inhibition activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 as tested by agar diffusion test.Microbiological analysis used in this research was the pour plate method. Population of lactic acidbacteria indicated that the product fulfilled standards as probiotics koumiss (1011 cfu/mL, coliform wasnot detected in the products, therefore the products met the criteria of The National Agency of Drug andFood Control (NA-DFC as probiotic functional food. Sensory evaluation was conducted by usinghedonic quality test. Based on the hedonic quality test, addition of different concentrations of roselleextract increased the intensity of red color and koumiss viscosity, but had no effect to the aroma andsourness of koumiss.

  6. Spasmolytic effect of Psidium guajava Linn. (Myrtaceae) leaf aqueous extract on rat isolated uterine horns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiwororo, Witness D H; Ojewole, John A O

    2009-02-01

    Globally, primary dysmenorrhoea is one of the most frequent gynaecological disorders in young women. It is associated with increased uterine tone, and exaggerated contractility of uterine smooth muscles. In many rural African communities, a number of medicinal plants, including Psidium guajava Linn. (family: Myrtaceae), are used traditionally for the management, control and/or treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea. The present study was, therefore, undertaken to examine the spasmolytic effect of Psidium guajava leaf aqueous extract (PGE) on isolated, spontaneously-contracting and oestrogen-dominated, quiescent uterine horns of healthy, young adult, female Wistar rats. Graded, escalated concentrations of PGE (0.5-4.0 mg/ml) produced concentration-dependent and significant inhibitions of the amplitude of spontaneous phasic contractions of the isolated rat uterine horn preparations. In a concentration-related manner, PGE also significantly inhibited or abolished contractions produced by acetylcholine (ACh, 0.5-8.0 microg/ml), oxytocin (0.5-4.0 microU), bradykinin (2.5-10 ng/ml), carbachol (CCh, 0.5-8.0 microg/ml) or potassium chloride (K+, 10-80 mM) in quiescent uterine horn preparations isolated from the oestrogen-dominated rats. The spasmolytic effect of PGE observed in the present study lends pharmacological support to the traditional use of ;guava' leaves in the management, control and/or treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea in some rural African communities.

  7. Anxiolytic and antidepressant activity of different methanolic extracts of Melia azedarach Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, Humera

    2016-09-01

    Present study was planned to search for neuropharmacological properties of methanolic extracts of different parts of Melia azedarach Linn. because conventional medicine shows adverse effects. Recently natural products are studied worldwide, as safer alternatives, which are not duly supported with scientifically proved data. Melia azedarach (Bakayan, China berry tree) is medium sized tree belonging to family Meliaceae. Traditional use of plant is as anthelmintic, antilithic and diuretic. Topical application of oil for cramps and rheumatism is beneficial. Methanolic extract of flowers (BFM), twigs (BTM) and roots (BKB) were the test drugs to study different activities on NMRI mice. This is the first report regarding CNS activity of Melia flowers. Significant anxiolytic activity (p=0.000) of extract of flowers (BFM) and of roots (BKB) (p=0.002) was determined by "elevated plus maze" and "Light and dark activity box". Antidepressant activity was seen by BFM (p=0.000) in "forced swim test". Diazepam and Imipramine were used as positive controls respectively. In conclusion flower extract have shown very powerful anxiolytic and anti-depressant activity and cytotoxic potential of twigs cannot be ruled out.

  8. Antifertility effect of Melia azedarach Linn. (dharek) seed extract in female albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Reshu; Dhaliwal, Patwant Kaur

    2007-10-01

    In the present study, the effect of oral administration of Melia azedarach Linn. (dharek) seed extract on fertility index, uterine weight and various histological and biochemical parameters of uterus were studied in the adult cyclic Wistar rats. Average number of embryos and implantation losses in the pregnant animals treated with dharek seed extract was also studied. The extract was prepared using a flash evaporator at 35 degrees C and dissolved in olive oil to prepare doses on per kg body weight basis. The results indicated a reduction in fertility index and average number of embryos in mated rats treated with the dharek extract. Pre-implantation, post-implantation and total prenatal mortalities were increased in rats treated with dharek seed extract during early (D1-D7) and late (D7-D18) stages of gestation period at doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) body wt day(-1). Histological studies showed a significant reduction in myometrial thickness, uterine gland diameter, luminal diameter of uterine glands and luminal epithelial cell height in rats treated with dharek seed extract at 1mg kg(-1) body wt day(-1) for 18 days. Pits and folds in luminal epithelial, mitotic activity in luminal and glandular epithelial cells of uterus were observed to be absent. Biochemically, a significant increase in protein and glycogen contents was observed. Thus, in conclusion, the application of this plant extract in rodent control programme may help to elevate the socioeconomic status of the society.

  9. Sifat Anatomi dan Sifat Fisika Kayu Mindi (Melia azedarach Linn dari Hutan Rakyat di Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Praptoyo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical  and Physical Properties of Mindi Wood (Melia azedarach Linn from Community Forest in Yogyakarta Information about mindi wood characteristics is very limited while utilisation of this wood on our society is very extensive. Better knowledge on anatomical and physical wood properties of mindi wood optimizes its utilization. Therefore, this study aims to identify anatomical (macroscopic and microscopic and physical (moisture content, specific gravity and dimensional changes wood properties of mindi taken from community forests around Yogyakarta. The macroscopic structural characteristics results showed that annual ring appeared clearly at transversal surface, having single vessel, vasicentric and diffuse parenchyma, rough texture, straight fiber direction, and no resin canal. Cell proportion of wood showed that fibers occupy more than 44%, followed by vessel (20%, parenchyma (19% and rays (15%. Wood fiber dimension showed fiber length of 0.83 mm, fiber diameter of 14.57µ, and cell wall thickness of 2.50µ. Physical wood properties showed that mindi has 31% moisture content and 0.416 of basic specific gravity. Wood shrinkage from green to kilndry on longitudinal was 3.94 %, tangensial 5.74 %, and radial 2.60 %, with T/R ratio 2.38. Based on T/R ratio value, mindi wood is not recommended for wood construction due to its low dimensional stability. Furthermore, mindi wood also has high longitudinal wood shrinkage and low specific gravity indicating juvenility.

  10. Antimicrobial Activity and Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay of the Leaves Extract of Dillenia indica Linn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apu, AS; Muhit, MA; Tareq, SM; Pathan, AH; Jamaluddin, ATM; Ahmed, M

    2010-01-01

    The crude methanolic extract of Dillenia indica Linn. (Dilleniaceae) leaves has been investigated for the evaluation of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. Organic solvent (n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform) fractions of methanolic extract and methanolic fraction (aqueous) were screened for their antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method. Besides, the fractions were screened for cytotoxic activity using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality bioassay. Among the four fractions tested, n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform fractions showed moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity compared to standard antibiotic, kanamycin. The average zone of inhibition was ranged from 6 to 8 mm at a concentration of 400 µg/disc. But the aqueous fraction was found to be insensitive to microbial growth. Compared to vincristine sulfate (with LC50 of 0.52 µg/ ml), n-hexane and chloroform fractions demonstrated a significant cytotoxic activity (having LC50 of 1.94 µg/ml and 2.13 µg/ml, respectively). The LC50 values of the carbon tetrachloride and aqueous fraction were 4.46 µg/ml and 5.13 µg/ ml, respectively. The study confirms the moderate antimicrobial and potent cytotoxic activities of Dillenia indica leaves extract and therefore demands the isolation of active principles and thorough bioassay. PMID:21331191

  11. Experimental evidences of methanolic extraction of Cressa cretica Linn. on alloxan induced hyperglycemic Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lalitha Kumari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the physico-metabolic parameters measured were: serum insulin, serum lipid profile, serum biomarker enzymes and anti-oxidant enzymes, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol, total proteins, alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, creatinine, insulin assay (RIA, for in vivo anti-oxidant activity of MECC was measured in liver tissue homogenate (LTH by malondialdehyde (MDA, glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD enzymes and histopathological examination of pancreas were also observed. Previously, the methonolic extract of Cressa cretica Linn. effect on alloxan induced hyperglycemic Wistar rats was proved by taking the parameters like body weight, blood glucose, glycogen content in liver and muscle. Oral administration of MECC (200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg for 28 days exhibited a significant reduction in blood glucose, serum ALT, AST, CR, lipid profile and hepatic MDA levels. The improvement of hepatic enzymes such as GSH, serum TP, HDL, insulin levels were also observed. The results of this work also suggest that MECC may possess anti-hyperglycemic and anti-oxidant property.

  12. Immunomodulatory Activity of Meniran Extracts (Phyllanthus niruri Linn. on Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufri Aldi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Broilers chickens are highly susceptible to many diseases caused by bacteria and viruses. Therefore to solve these problem we can use alternative medicine by administration of immunostimulatory compounds that can prevent disease in broiler chickens. One of the plants that can enhance the immune system is meniran. The study effect of immunomodulatory test from ethanol extract of meniran herbs (Phyllanthus niruri Linn. has been conducted in broiler chickens with carbon clearance method. The study of extract administered orally with dose of 10; 30; 100; 300 mg/kg BW and a solution of 0.5% NaCMC as negative control also suspension Stimuno® forte 13.5 mg/kg BW as positive control for 6 days. The data of phagocytosis index was analyzed statisticaly with two way ANOVA followed with Duncan’s test. The increasing of phagocytosis index with carbon clearance method showed the effect from each dose with negative control was significant (P<0,05. The highest phagocytic index obtained from a dose of 300 mg / kg BW. The data’s of increased relative spleen weight and an increased of blood limfosit cell was analyzed statisticaly with one way ANOVA followed with Duncan’s test. Increased relative spleen weight and an increased of blood limfosit cell showed effect from each dose to negative control was significant (P<0,05. The results indicated that the ethanolic extract of meniran was active as immunostimulant for broiler chickens.

  13. Morinda citrifolia Linn leaf extract possesses antioxidant activities and reduces nociceptive behavior and leukocyte migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Mairim Russo; Santos, Rodrigo Correia; Guimarães, Adriana Gibara; Dos Santos, João Paulo Almeida; da Conceicão Santos, Alan Diego; Alves, Izabel Almeida; Gelain, Daniel Pens; de Lima Nogueira, Paulo Cesar; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo José; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi; de Souza Araújo, Adriano Antunes

    2011-10-01

    Herbal drugs have been used since ancient times to treat a wide range of diseases. Morinda citrifolia Linn (popularly known as "Noni") has been used in folk medicine by Polynesians for over 2,000 years. It is reported to have a broad range of therapeutic effects, including effects against headache, fever, arthritis, gingivitis, respiratory disorders, infections, tuberculosis, and diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antibacterial properties of the aqueous extract from M. citrifolia leaves (AEMC). Antioxidant activity was observed against lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, and hydroxyl radicals. The antinociceptive effect of AEMC was observed in the acetic acid-induced writhing test at the higher dose. Moreover, AEMC significantly reduced the leukocyte migration in doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg and showed mild antibacterial activity. Together, the results suggest that properties of M. citrifolia leaf extract should be explored further in order to achieve newer tools for managing painful and inflammation conditions, including those related to oxidant states.

  14. Morinda citrifolia Linn. (Rubiaceae) leaf extracts mitigate UVB-induced erythema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Brett J; Deng, Shixin; Palu, Afa K; Jensen, C Jarakae

    2009-07-01

    Morinda citrifolia Linn. (Rubiaceae) leaves have been used in tropical folk medicine to treat topical inflammation and burns. A carbomer gel base, containing the ethanol extract and juice pressed from the leaves, was evaluated for potential allergenic properties in a repeat-insult patch test in 49 volunteers. To investigate the topical photo-protective properties, the combined ethanol extract and leaf juice were evaluated in a UVB-induced erythema model in 25 volunteers. The crude ethanol extract of M. citrifolia leaves was also evaluated in vitro for potential anti-inflammatory activity in a histamine H-1 receptor antagonism assay. There was no evidence of allergenic potential in the repeat-insult patch test. When the combination of ethanol extract and leaf juice was applied, the UVB dose required to induce erythema was almost 3.5 times greater than with untreated skin (P citrifolia leaves inhibited receptor binding by 57%. These results suggest that M. citrifolia leaves are safe for topical use and may be useful in mitigating UVB-induced injury to the skin.

  15. Morinda citrifolia Linn (Noni): in vivo and in vitro reproductive toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Juliane C; Botelho, Giuliana G K; Bufalo, Aedra C; Boareto, Ana C; Rattmann, Yanna D; Martins, Elisangela S; Cabrini, Daniela A; Otuki, Michel F; Dalsenter, Paulo R

    2009-01-21

    Morinda citrifolia Linn (syn. Noni) is a plant widely used as food and medicine worldwide but there are no toxicological tests about this plant focused on reproduction. To investigate possible endocrine activity and toxic effect on the reproductive system of Wistar rats by exposure of aqueous extract of the Morinda citrifolia. Two experimental protocols in vivo were developed, (a) uterotrophic assay and (b) in utero and lactational assay, and one test in vitro to investigate the effect on the contractility of pregnant uteri isolated from rats (doses of the extract: 7.5, 75 and 750 mg/kg). The uterotrophic assay indicates presence of in vivo antiestrogenic activity of extract at doses of 7.5 and 750 mg/kg. The in utero and lactation exposure showed that the treatment with extract at the dose of 7.5mg/kg induced a reduction of 50% in parturition index and an increase of 74% in postimplantation losses index. The in vitro test showed that uteri from rats treated with 7.5mg/kg of the extract presented a 50% reduction on contraction induced by arachidonic acid. The exposure of aqueous extract of Morinda citrifolia in Wistar rats induced reproductive toxicity in nonlinear dose-response.

  16. The cytotoxic effect of Elephantopus scaber Linn extract against breast cancer (T47D) cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistyani, N.; Nurkhasanah

    2017-11-01

    Breast cancer is one of the main cause of death. Elephantopus scaber Linn (ES) which has been used as a traditional medicine contains an antitumor compounds. This study aimed to explore the active fraction from ethanolic extract of ES as anticancer and to determine its inhibition effect on the cell proliferation cycle of breast cancer (T47D) cells. The ES leaf was macerated with ethanol and then evaporated to get the concentrated extract. The extract was fractionated using petroleum ether, chloroform, and methanol respectively. The cytotoxic activity of each fraction was carried out with MTT method, and the inhibition of cell cycle test were observed by flowcytometry method. The result showed that ES and the fractions have cytotoxic activity against T47D cell lines with IC50 values of extract, petroleum ether, chloroform, and methanol fractions were 58.36±2.38, 132.17±9.69, 7.08±2.11, and 572.89±69.23 µg/mL. The inhibition effect of ethanol extract on the lifecycle of cells was occured in sub G1 phase. There was no prolonging of G1, S, G2/M and polyploidy phase of T47D cell lines. The chloroform fraction of ES is the most cytotoxic fraction against T47D cells without prolonging the cell lifecycle.

  17. Antimicrobial Potential of Thiodiketopiperazine Derivatives Produced by Phoma sp., an Endophyte of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Palak; Wani, Zahoor A; Nalli, Yedukondalu; Ali, Asif; Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Syed

    2016-11-01

    During the screening of endophytes obtained from Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn., the extract from a fungal culture designated as GG1F1 showed significant antimicrobial activity. The fungus was identified as a species of the genus Phoma and was most closely related to Phoma cucurbitacearum. The chemical investigation of the GG1F1 extract led to the isolation and characterization of two thiodiketopiperazine derivatives. Both the compounds inhibited the growth of several bacterial pathogens especially that of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, with IC50 values of less than 10 μM. The compounds strongly inhibited biofilm formation in both the pathogens. In vitro time kill kinetics showed efficient bactericidal activity of these compounds. The compounds were found to act synergistically with streptomycin while producing varying effects in combination with ciprofloxacin and ampicillin. The compounds inhibited bacterial transcription/translation in vitro, and also inhibited staphyloxanthin production in S. aureus. Although similar in structure, they differed significantly in some of their properties, particularly the effect on the expression of pathogenecity related genes in S. aureus at sub-lethal concentrations. Keeping in view the antimicrobial potential of these compounds, it would be needful to scale up the production of these compounds through fermentation technology and further explore their potential as antibiotics using in vivo models.

  18. Toxicological Study of Ocimum sanctum Linn Leaves: Hematological, Biochemical, and Histopathological Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Gautam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to study the acute and subacute toxicity studies with orally administered 50% ethanolic leaves extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn (OSE. In acute toxicity tests, four groups of mice (n=6/group/sex were orally treated with doses of 200, 600, and 2000 mg/kg, and general behavior, adverse effects, and mortality were recorded for up to 14 days. In subacute toxicity study, rats received OSE by gavage at the doses of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg/day (n=6/group/sex for 28 days, and biochemical, hematological, and histopathological changes in tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, and testis/ovary were determined. OSE did not produce any hazardous symptoms or death and CNS and ANS toxicities in the acute toxicity test. Subacute treatment with OSE did not show any change in body weight, food and water consumption, and hematological and biochemical profiles. In addition, no change was observed both in macroscopic and microscopic aspects of vital organs in rats. Our result showed that Ocimum sanctum extract could be safe for human use.

  19. Leaves extract of Murraya Koenigii linn for anti--inflammatory and analgesic activity in animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailly Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work has been done for the investigation of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of methanol extract of dried leaves of Murraya koenigii Linn by oral administration at dose of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, to healthy animals. Extract was studied for its anti-inflammatory activity by using carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in albino rats and the mean increase in paw volume and % inhibition in paw volume were measured plethysmometrically at different time intervals after carrageenan (1% w/v injection. Extract was also evaluated for analgesic activity using Eddy′s hot plate method and formalin induced paw licking method in albino rats. The methanol extract showed significant (P < 0.001 reduction in the carrageenan-induced paw edema and analgesic activity evidenced by increase in the reaction time by eddy′s hot plate method and percentage increase in pain in formalin test. The methanol extract showed anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect in dose dependent manner when compared with the control and standard drug, diclofenac sodium (10mg/kg, p.o. These inhibitions were statistically significant (P < 0.05. Thus our investigation suggests a potential benefit of Murraya koenigii in treating conditions associated with inflammatory pain.

  20. LEAVES EXTRACT OF MURRAYA KOENIGII LINN FOR ANTIINFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITY IN ANIMAL MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh N. Sharma

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This work has been done for the investigation of the anti-inflammatory andanalgesic activity of methanol extract of dried leaves of Murraya koenigii Linn by oraladministration at dose of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, to healthy animals.Extract was studied for its anti-inflammatory activity by using carrageenan-induced hindpaw edema in albino rats and the mean increase in paw volume and % inhibition in pawvolume were measured plethysmometrically at different time intervals after carrageenan(1% w/v injection. Extract was also evaluated for analgesic activity using Eddy’s hotplate method and formalin induced paw licking method in albino rats. The methanolextract showed significant (P < 0.001 reduction in the carrageenan-induced paw edemaand analgesic activity evidenced by increase in the reaction time by eddy’s hot platemethod and percentage increase in pain in formalin test. The methanol extract showedanti-inflammatory and analgesic effect in dose dependent manner when compared withthe control and standard drug, diclofenac sodium (10mg/kg, p.o. These inhibitions werestatistically significant (P < 0.05. Thus our investigation suggests a potential benefit ofMurraya koenigii in treating conditions associated with inflammatory pain.

  1. Clinical study of Tribulus terrestris Linn. in Oligozoospermia: A double blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellandi, Thirunavukkarasu M; Thakar, Anup B; Baghel, Madhav Singh

    2012-07-01

    Infertility is a problem of global proportions, affecting on an average 8-12% of couples worldwide. Low sperm count (Oligozoospermia) is one of the main causes of male infertility and it is correlated with Kshina Shukra. The fruits of Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris. Linn) are considered to act as a diuretic and aphrodisiac; they used for urolithiasis, sexual dysfunctions, and infertility. Hence, it was planned to study the effect of Gokshura in the management of Kshina Shukra (Oligozoospermia), and to evade the preconception, a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was designed. In this study, eligible subjects between the age of 21 and 50 years, with a complaint of Kshina Shukra (Oligozoospermia), were randomized to receive either Gokshura granules or placebo granules for 60 days. The primary outcome measures were percentage changes in the Pratyatmaka Lakshanas (cardinal symptoms) of Kshina Shukra, Agni bala, Deha bala, Satva bala, the semenogram, and in the Quality of the Sexual Health Questionnaire. The placebo granules showed 70.95% improvement, whereas, the Gokshura granules showed 78.11% improvement in Rogi bala (Agni bala, Deha bala, Satva bala, and the Quality of Sexual Health) and Rogabala (Semen Analysis and Pratyatmaka Lakshanas). The Gokshura granules have shown superior results in the management of Kshina Shukra, as compared to the placebo granules.

  2. Proximate Nutritive Values and Mineral Components of Withania Somnifera (Linn. Dunal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Krishnamurthy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Withania somnifera (Linn. Dunal is a subtropical shrub with important medicinal properties. The nutritive value and the elemental composition of different parts of plants, Withania somnifera which are grown in two distinct geographical regions (Sondekola and Karthikere of Karnataka have been determined. The investigation revealed that the variation of macro, micro and proximate components varied not only in the plants of different regions but also in the different parts of the same plant. Among the macro elements, Karthikere samples recorded maximum values of nitrogen, phosphorous and magnesium and Sondekola samples recorded maximum values of sodium, potassium and calcium. Among the components of micronutrients, the highest values of iron were recorded both in Sondekola and Karthikere samples. The average values of manganese, copper and zinc were more in the Karthikere samples and comparatively less in the Sondekola samples. Whereas, all the samples of Sondekola recorded maximum values of nutrition. It is believed that the dry climatic condition of the region may contribute the high values of nutrition. Further, the observations are discussed with reference to the geography, elemental composition and nutritional values. The strong and negative observations on herbal drugs and their validity, the study emphasizes the role of elemental composition, proximate components, nutritive value, habitat and geographical features which influence growth and development of Withania somnifera and also herbal products of Withania somnifera in particular and medicinal plants in general.

  3. Protective effect of Piper longum Linn. on monosodium glutamate induced oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Mariyamma; Sujatha, K S; George, Sisilamma

    2009-03-01

    Protective effect of ethanol extract of Piper longum Linn. against monosodium glutamate (MSG) induced toxicity was studied. Rats, orally administered with MSG at a dose of 8 mg/g body weight for 20 consecutive days, showed an increase in liver weight and rate of lipid peroxidation. Glutathione (GSH) in serum, liver and kidney showed decreased concentration. Significant increase was noticed in activities of serum alanine amino transferase (ALT) and aspartate amino transferase (AST), levels of serum triacylglycerol, total cholesterol and urea. Histopathological examination of liver and kidney showed central venous congestion, diffuse degeneration and necrosis of hepatocytes in para cortical and midzonal areas of liver and diffuse cortical tubular degeneration of kidney. Oral administration of ethanol extract of P. longum fruits at 300 mg/kg body weight along with MSG significantly reduced the levels of lipid peroxides in serum, liver and kidney, serum AST activity, serum levels of triacylglycerol and total cholesterol. Though, there was an increase in the level of GSH in tissues it was not significant. However, the treatment failed to reduce the levels of ALT and urea. Examination of tissue sections also exhibited normal histological architecture of both the organs. The present study revealed that administration of P. longum provided significant protection to liver and kidney from the oxidative stress of MSG, though the dose rate was not sufficient to provide a complete protection.

  4. Phytochemical screening and in vitro bioactivities of the extracts of aerial part of Boerhavia diffusa Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apu, Apurba Sarker; Liza, Mahmuda Sultana; Jamaluddin, A T M; Howlader, Md Amran; Saha, Repon Kumer; Rizwan, Farhana; Nasrin, Nishat

    2012-09-01

    To investigate the bioactivities of crude n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of aerial part of Boerhavia diffusa Linn. (B. diffusa) and its phytochemical analysis. The identification of phytoconstituents and assay of antioxidant, thrombolytic, cytotoxic, antimicrobial activities were conducted using specific standard in vitro procedures. The results showed that the plant extracts were a rich source of phytoconstituents. Methanol extract showed higher antioxidant, thrombolytic activity and less cytotoxic activity than those of n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of B. diffusa. Among the bioactivities, antioxidant activity was the most notable compared to the positive control and thus could be a potential rich source of natural antioxidant. In case of antimicrobial screening, crude extracts of the plant showed remarkable antibacterial activity against tested microorganisms. All the extracts showed significant inhibitory activity against Candida albicuns, at a concentration of 1000 µg/disc. The present findings suggest that, the plant widely available in Bangladesh, could be a prominent source of medicinally important natural compounds.

  5. Anticonvulsant activity of the methanol root bark extract of Ficus sycomorus Linn. (Moraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar S. Abubakar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: Ficus sycomorus Linn. (Moraceae is used in Northern Nigeria for the management of grand mal epilepsy without any scientific validation. Aims: To evaluate the phytochemical constituents, acute toxicity study and anticonvulsant properties of the methanol root bark extract of F. sycomorus. Methods: The basic phytochemical screening, Lorke’s method and three models of epilepsy were employed, which include the maximal electroshock test in chicks, and pentylenetetrazole- and 4-aminopyridine-induced seizures in mice. Results: The extract revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, carbohydrate, alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids and cardiac glycosides. The intraperitoneal LD50 in mice was estimated to be 565.69 mg/kg body weight. The extract afforded a slight protection, 30% (highest dose used to the laboratory animals against the maximal electroshock test. The duration of convulsion decreased, which was not statistically significant (p>0.05 when compared to the untreated group. Also, the extract did not protect the animals against the chemically induced seizures by pentylenetetrazole and 4-aminopyridine. Conclusions: The data suggest that the methanol root bark extract of F. sycomorus, at the doses tested and under the experimental conditions reported, may not contain psychoactive principles that are relevant to the management of grand mal epilepsy as claimed by the traditional medicine practitioners.

  6. A panoramic view on phytochemical, nutritional, ethanobotanical uses and pharmacological values of Trachyspermum ammi Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Muhammad Asif

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Trachyspermum ammi Linn. (T. ammi is an aromatic, grassy, annual plant belonging to Umbelliferae family which grows in the east of India, Pakistan, Iran, and Egypt. T. ammi has been used traditionally to treat arthritis, colic, diarrhea and gastrointestinal problems. In addition to these medicinal uses, T. ammi continues to be valued around the world as an important cooking spice and is believed to relief the common cold, flu-like symptoms, headaches, and even painful menstrual periods. These multiple uses can be explained by its several active compounds. The phytochemical studies on T. ammi seeds have revealed the presence of alkaloids, steroids, fixed oils, glycosides, tannins, saponin and flavonoids, cumene, thymene, amino acids and dietary fiber essential oils like thymol, c-terpinene, p-cymene. Several pharmacological studies on anti-tussive effect, inhibitory effect on histamine (H1 receptors, antihypertensive, antispasmodic, bronchodilator, hepato-protective, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti mutagenic activities of T. ammi seed extracts have been reported in the literature. The present review is therefore, an effort to give a detailed survey of the literature on traditional, phytochemical and pharmacological properties of T. ammi.

  7. Biological activities of fructooligosaccharide (FOS)-containing Coix lachryma-jobi Linn. extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosroi, Jiradej; Khositsuntiwong, Narinthorn; Manosroi, Aranya

    2014-02-01

    Fructooligosaccharide (FOS), a prebiotic was extracted from the grain of Coix lachryma-jobi Linn. (Job's tears) by hot water extraction at 60 °C for 1 h. The resulting dried powder extract was assayed for FOS content of 1-kestose (GF2), nystose (GF3) and 1-β-D-fructofuranosylnystose (GF4) using HPLC equipped with RI detector. Total FOS content of the extract was 24.98 ± 7.48% (g/100 g crude extract). The biological activity including antioxidant and cytotoxicity of the FOS-containing extract was determined. The antioxidant activity by DPPH free radical scavenging of FOS-containing extract was comparable to vitamin C (0.97 fold of vitamin C) with a slight lipid peroxidation inhibition activity. The extract exhibited no cytotoxic effect on normal human skin fibroblast. These results have confirmed not only the source of FOS from Job's tears extract but also its potential application as antioxidant in food or cosmetic products.

  8. Antibacterial Activities of Jatropha curcas (LINN) on Coliforms Isolated from Surface Waters in Akure, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dada, E O; Ekundayo, F O; Makanjuola, O O

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the antibacterial activities of hot water, ethanol and acetone extracts of Jatropha curcas (LINN) leaves on coliforms isolated from surface waters using growth inhibition indices based on agar plate technique. The percentage recovery of the extracts was 19.17%, 18.10% and 18.80% for hot water, ethanol and acetone respectively. Phytochemical screening of the extracts was also determined. Qualitative phytochemical screening showed that the plant extracts contained steroids, tannins, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides, while alkaloids, phlobatannin, terpenoids and anthraquinones were absent. Only ethanolic extract did not possess saponins. Aqueous extracts of J. curcas compared most favourably with the standard antibiotics (gentamycin) on all the coliform bacteria except on K. pneumoniae and E. coli likely due to a measurably higher antibacterial activity compared to the organic extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the aqueous extract ranged from 3.00 to 7.00 mg/L while minimum bactericidal concentration ranged from 4.00 to 10.00 mg/L. Aqueous extract of J. curcas could be used as antibacterial agents against diseases caused by coliforms.

  9. Antibacterial Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Punica granatum Linn. Petal on Common Oral Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Hajifattahi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study aimed to assess the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Punica granatum Linn. (P. granatum petal on Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sobrinus, and Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods. In this in vitro study, P. granatum extract was prepared using powdered petals and water-ethanol solvent. Antibacterial effect of the extract, chlorhexidine (CHX, and ampicillin was evaluated on brain heart infusion agar (BHIA using the cup-plate method. By assessing the diameter of the growth inhibition zone, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of the extract were determined for the above-mentioned bacteria. Results. Hydroalcoholic extract of P. granatum petal had inhibitory effects on the proliferation of all five bacterial strains with maximum effect on S. mutans with MIC and MBC of 3.9 mg/mL. The largest growth inhibition zone diameter belonged to S. sanguinis and the smallest to E. faecalis. Ampicillin and CHX had the greatest inhibitory effect on S. sanguinis. Conclusions. Hydroalcoholic extract of P. granatum had a significant antibacterial effect on common oral bacterial pathogens with maximum effect on S. mutans, which is the main microorganism responsible for dental plaque and caries.

  10. Phytochemical screening and quantification of flavonoids from leaf extract of Jatropha curcas Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebuehi, O A T; Okorie, N A

    2009-01-01

    The Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) herb is found in SouthWest, Nigeria and other parts of West Africa, and is claimed to possess anti-hypertensive property. The phytochemical screening and flavonoid quantification of the leaf extract of Jatropha curcas Linn were studied. The phytochemical screening of the methanolic leaf extract of J. curcas L. was carried using acceptable and standard methods. The flavonoid contents of the leaf extract of Jatropha curcas L. were determined using thin layer chromatography (TLC), infrared spectroscopy (IRS) and a reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The phytochemical screening of the methanolic extract of the leaves of the plant shows the presence of alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, cyanogenic glycosides, phlobatannins, tannins, flavonoids and saponins. To quantify the flavonoid contents of leaf extract of Jatropha curcas L, extracts from the plant samples where examined in a C-18 column with UV detection and isocratic elution with acetonitrile; water (45:55). Levels of flavonoids (flavones) in leaves ranged from 6:90 to 8:85 mg/g dry weight. Results indicate that the methanolic extract of the leaves of Jatropha curcas L. contains useful active ingredients which may serve as potential drug for the treatment of diseases. In addition, a combination of TLC, IRS and HPLC can be used to analyse and quantify the flavonoids present in the leaves of Jatropha curcas L.

  11. Anti-diarrhoeal investigation from aqueous extract of Cuminum cyminum Linn. Seed in Albino rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Himanshu Bhusan; Sahoo, Saroj Kumar; Sarangi, Sarada Prasad; Sagar, Rakesh; Kori, Mohan Lal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cuminum cyminum Linn. (Umbelliferae), commonly known as Jeera. It is native from mediterranean region, but today widely cultivated in Asian countries. It has been reported to possess various medicinal properties and an important food ingredient. The seed of the plant are claimed for treatment of diarrhoea by various traditional practitioners. Objectives: Hence, the present investigation was undertaken to evaluate aq. extract of C. cyminum seeds (ACCS) against diarrhoea on albino rats. Materials and Methods: The animals were divided into five groups and the control group was applied with 2% acacia suspension, the standard group with loperamide (3 mg/kg) or atropine sulphate (5mg/kg) and three test groups administered orally with 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg of ACCS. The antidiarrhoeal effect was investigated by castor oil induce diarrhoea model, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induced enteropooling model, intestinal transit by charcoal meal test. Results: The ACCS showed significant (P < 0.001) inhibition in frequency of diarrhoea, defecation time delaying, secretion of intestinal fluid as well as intestinal propulsion as compared to control and the graded doses of tested extract followed dose dependent protection against diarrhoea. Conclusions: The study reveals that the ACCS is a potent antidiarrhoeal drug which supports the traditional claim. PMID:25002800

  12. Green synthesis of copper nanoparticles by Citrus medica Linn. (Idilimbu) juice and its antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shende, Sudhir; Ingle, Avinash P; Gade, Aniket; Rai, Mahendra

    2015-06-01

    We report an eco-friendly method for the synthesis of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) using Citron juice (Citrus medica Linn.), which is nontoxic and cheap. The biogenic copper nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer showing a typical resonance (SPR) at about 631 nm which is specific for CuNPs. Nanoparticles tracking analysis by NanoSight-LM20 showed the particles in the range of 10-60 nm with the concentration of 2.18 × 10(8) particles per ml. X-ray diffraction revealed the FCC nature of nanoparticles with an average size of 20 nm. The antimicrobial activity of CuNPs was determined by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method against some selected species of bacteria and plant pathogenic fungi. It was reported that the synthesized CuNPs demonstrated a significant inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Propionibacterium acnes and Salmonella typhi. Among the plant pathogenic fungi tested, Fusarium culmorum was found to be most sensitive followed by F. oxysporum and F. graminearum. The novelty of this work is that for the first time citron juice was used for the synthesis of CuNPs.

  13. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaves of Catharanthus roseus Linn. G. Don and their antiplasmodial activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponarulselvam, S; Panneerselvam, C; Murugan, K; Aarthi, N; Kalimuthu, K; Thangamani, S

    2012-01-01

    Objective To develop a novel approach for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaves extracts of Catharanthus roseus (C. roseus) Linn. G. Don which has been proven active against malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum). Methods Characterizations were determined by using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray and X-ray diffraction. Results SEM showed the formation of silver nanoparticles with an average size of 35–55 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the particles were crystalline in nature with face centred cubic structure of the bulk silver with the broad peaks at 32.4, 46.4 and 28.0. Conclusions It can be concluded that the leaves of C. roseus can be good source for synthesis of silver nanoparticle which shows antiplasmodial activity against P. falciparum. The important outcome of the study will be the development of value added products from medicinal plants C. roseus for biomedical and nanotechnology based industries. PMID:23569974

  14. Tore Linné Eriksen og de store utviklingsspørsmålene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Nordhaug

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews some of Tore Linné Eriksen’s works within development studies/development research. In a recent introduction to development studies from 2013, he presented development research as a cross-disciplinary social science approach that addresses the grand problems of mankind. Eriksen’s own research into these grand problems has concentrated on the causes of national and international inequality and poverty. In 1974 he supported the view of the “underdevelopment school”: “Underdevelopment” in Africa and Latin America was the outcome of the inclusion of those continents in a capitalist world economy dominated by Europe. Recent works by Eriksen on the origins of the “great divergence” between Western Europe and economically advanced non-European countries (2010 and on inequality and poverty in the current world (2012 are far more complex and empirically nuanced. Still, in a recent discussion of globalization and global capitalism (2013 he reverts to some of the earlier ”underdevelopment arguments” from 1974. The article concludes that there is a tension within Eriksen’s works on the role of capitalism in development and underdevelopment. In his programmatic writings, global capitalism is seen as the main cause of inequality and poverty. In his more empirically grounded works, global capitalism is viewed rather as an important part of the bigger picture of inequality and poverty. 

  15. Anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities of calophyllolide isolated from Calophyllum inophyllum Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van-Linh Nguyen

    Full Text Available Due to the high-cost and limitations of current wound healing treatments, the search for alternative approaches or drugs, particularly from medicinal plants, is of key importance. In this study, we report anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities of the major calophyllolide (CP compound isolated from Calophyllum inophyllum Linn. The results showed that CP had no effect on HaCaT cell viability over a range of concentrations. CP reduced fibrosis formation and effectively promoted wound closure in mouse model without causing body weight loss. The underlying molecular mechanisms of wound repair by CP was investigated. CP markedly reduced MPO activity, and increased M2 macrophage skewing, as shown by up-regulation of M2-related gene expression, which is beneficial to the wound healing process. CP treatment prevented a prolonged inflammatory process by down-regulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines-IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, but up-regulation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10. This study is the first to indicate a plausible role for CP in accelerating the process of wound healing through anti-inflammatory activity mechanisms, namely, by regulation of inflammatory cytokines, reduction in MPO, and switching of macrophages to an M2 phenotype. These findings may enable the utilization of CP as a potent therapeutic for cutaneous wound healing.

  16. Preparation of Activated Carbon From Polygonum orientale Linn. to Remove the Phenol in Aqueous Solutions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Feng

    Full Text Available Phenol components are major industry contaminants of aquatic environment. Among all practical methods for removing phenol substances from polluted water, activated carbon absorption is the most effective way. Here, we have produced low-cost activated carbon using Polygonum orientale Linn, a wide spreading species with large biomass. The phenol adsorption ability of this activated carbon was evaluated at different physico-chemical conditions. Average equilibrium time for adsorption was 120 min. The phenol adsorption ability of the P. orientale activated carbon was increased as the pH increases and reached to the max at pH 9.00. By contrast, the ionic strength had little effect on the phenol absorption. The optimum dose for phenol adsorption by the P. orientale activated carbon was 20.00 g/L. The dominant adsorption mechanism of the P. orientale activated carbon was chemisorption as its phenol adsorption kinetics matched with the pseudo-second-order kinetics. In addition, the equilibrium data were fit to the Langmuir model, with the negative standard free energy and the positive enthalpy, suggesting that adsorption was spontaneous and endothermic.

  17. Radio protective effects of the Ayurvedic medicinal plant Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Holy Basil: A memoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjeshwar Shrinath Baliga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of compounds which can selectively protect normal tissues against radiation injury is of immense use because in addition to it protecting the normal tissue, will also permits use of higher doses of radiation to obtain better cancer control and possible cure. However, most of the radio protective compounds investigated possess inadequate clinical application principally due to their inherent systemic toxicity at their optimal protective concentrations. Plants commonly used as medicinal and dietary agents have recently been the focus of attention and studies have shown that Ocimum sanctum Linn. commonly known as the Holy Basil and its water soluble flavonoids, orientin and vicenin protects experimental animals against the radiation-induced sickness and mortality at nontoxic concentrations. Studies with tumor bearing mice have also shown that both Tulsi extract and its flavonoids selectively protect the normal tissues against the tumoricidal effects of radiation. Preclinical studies have also shown that the aqueous extract of the Tulsi leaves; its flavanoids orientin and vicenin, and eugenol, the principal nonpolar constituent present in Tulsi prevent radiation-induced clastogenesis. Mechanistic studies have indicated that free radical scavenging, antioxidant, metal chelating and anti-inflammatory effects may contribute toward the observed protection. In addition, clinical studies with a small number of patients have shown that Tulsi was effective as a radio protective agent. This review summarizes the results related to the radio protective properties of Tulsi and its phytochemicals and also emphasizes the aspects that warrant future research to establish its use as a radio protective agent.

  18. Radio protective effects of the Ayurvedic medicinal plant Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Holy Basil): A memoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath; Rao, Suresh; Rai, Manoj P; D'souza, Prema

    2016-01-01

    The use of compounds which can selectively protect normal tissues against radiation injury is of immense use because in addition to it protecting the normal tissue, will also permits use of higher doses of radiation to obtain better cancer control and possible cure. However, most of the radio protective compounds investigated possess inadequate clinical application principally due to their inherent systemic toxicity at their optimal protective concentrations. Plants commonly used as medicinal and dietary agents have recently been the focus of attention and studies have shown that Ocimum sanctum Linn. commonly known as the Holy Basil and its water soluble flavonoids, orientin and vicenin protects experimental animals against the radiation-induced sickness and mortality at nontoxic concentrations. Studies with tumor bearing mice have also shown that both Tulsi extract and its flavonoids selectively protect the normal tissues against the tumoricidal effects of radiation. Preclinical studies have also shown that the aqueous extract of the Tulsi leaves; its flavanoids orientin and vicenin, and eugenol, the principal nonpolar constituent present in Tulsi prevent radiation-induced clastogenesis. Mechanistic studies have indicated that free radical scavenging, antioxidant, metal chelating and anti-inflammatory effects may contribute toward the observed protection. In addition, clinical studies with a small number of patients have shown that Tulsi was effective as a radio protective agent. This review summarizes the results related to the radio protective properties of Tulsi and its phytochemicals and also emphasizes the aspects that warrant future research to establish its use as a radio protective agent.

  19. In vitro antimicrobial status of methanolic extract of Citrus sinensis Linn. fruit peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Dhiman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : The present investigation evaluated the antimicrobial potential of methanolic extract of Citrus sinensis Linn. (Rutaceae fruit peel. There is a basis for the traditional use of this plant for local health remedies. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial activity of methanolic extract of C. sinensis fruit peel was tested against three bacterial and two fungal strains. Turbidimetric or tube dilution method and paper disc diffusion method were followed. Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Results: The C. sinensis fruit peel methanolic extract exhibited antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli with minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.78 μg/ ml and minimum bactericidal concentration of 6.25 μg/ml, and appreciable antifungal activity with minimum inhibitory concentration of 12.5 μg/ml. The phytochemistry of C. sinensis fruit peel methanolic extract revealed the presence of carbohydrates (reducing sugars, hexose sugars, non-reducing polysaccharides, gums, and mucilages, flavonoid glycosides, coumarin glycosides, volatile oils, organic acids, fats and fixed oils. Conclusion: Most of the organic chemical constituents reported are aromatic phenolic compounds, which are known for their wide spectra of antimicrobial activity. Therefore, the bacteriostatic and fungistatic action of the tested extract may be attributed to the presence of polyphenolic compounds. In short, C. sinensis fruit peel methanolic extract is a potential source of natural antimicrobials.

  20. Preliminary phytochemical screening and in vitro antibacterial activity of Anamirta cocculus (Linn. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umer Qadir

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work is aimed at primary screening of the phytochemical contents of seven solvents (petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, acetone, methanol, ethanol and a mixture of methanol and ethyl acetate (1:3 extracts of the seeds of Anamirta cocculus (Linn. and to evaluate the antibacterial activity of these extracts against five species of pathogenic bacteria. The powdered seeds of A. cocculus were extracted with seven solvents (polar and non-polar with Soxhlet apparatus and the extracts were subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening by standard biochemical tests. The antibacterial activity of various extracts was evaluated against five bacterial species (Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The zone of inhibitions and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the various extracts were determined by running the experiments in triplicates. The extracts of the seeds of A. cocculus contained various pharmaceutically active substances viz., aldehydes, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, saponins, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, glycosides, phytosterols, volatile oils, gums and mucilage and other minor phytochemicals. All the extracts showed significant levels of antibacterial activity. Methanol extract was the most active one with remarkable antibacterial activity on the various species tested. MICs of the extracts revealed methanol extract as the most potent one with the lowest inhibitory concentration of 3 μg/mL on E. coli. The findings of the present study indicated that the seeds of A. cocculus possess various secondary metabolites having the potential for developing pharmaceutical drugs, especially antimicrobial ones.

  1. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaves of Catharanthus roseus Linn. G. Don and their antiplasmodial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponarulselvam, S; Panneerselvam, C; Murugan, K; Aarthi, N; Kalimuthu, K; Thangamani, S

    2012-07-01

    To develop a novel approach for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaves extracts of Catharanthus roseus (C. roseus) Linn. G. Don which has been proven active against malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum). Characterizations were determined by using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray and X-ray diffraction. SEM showed the formation of silver nanoparticles with an average size of 35-55 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the particles were crystalline in nature with face centred cubic structure of the bulk silver with the broad peaks at 32.4, 46.4 and 28.0. It can be concluded that the leaves of C. roseus can be good source for synthesis of silver nanoparticle which shows antiplasmodial activity against P. falciparum. The important outcome of the study will be the development of value added products from medicinal plants C. roseus for biomedical and nanotechnology based industries.

  2. Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Tulsi): an ethnomedicinal plant for the prevention and treatment of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Piyali; Bishayee, Anupam

    2013-08-01

    Ocimum sanctum Linn., commonly known as 'Tulsi' or 'Holy Basil', is considered to be the most sacred herb of India. Several anatomical parts of O. sanctum are known to have an impressive number of therapeutic properties and accordingly find use in several traditional systems of medicine, such as Ayurveda, Unani, and Siddha. Scientific investigations have shown that O. sanctum has a plethora of biological and pharmacological activities. The presence of an impressive number of phytoconstituents in O. sanctum could explain its exceptional beneficial effects. Although several recent articles provide an overview of the various pharmacological properties of O. sanctum, the use of this herb for either prevention or therapy of oncologic diseases has not been exclusively and critically discussed in the literature. The present review critically and comprehensively examines the current knowledge on the chemopreventive and therapeutic potential of O. sanctum. The review also examines, in detail, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in the antineoplastic effects of O. sanctum. Finally, we discuss the role of synergy, current limitations, and future directions of research toward the effective use of this ethnomedicinal plant for the prevention and treatment of human cancer.

  3. Evaluation of nutritional and antioxidant status of Lepidium latifolium Linn.: a novel phytofood from Ladakh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Tarandeep; Hussain, Khadim; Koul, Sushma; Vishwakarma, Ram; Vyas, Dhiraj

    2013-01-01

    Lepidium latifolium Linn. (perennial pepperweed) is one of the preferred phytofoods among cold arid region of Ladakh, India and its leaves contribute significantly to people's diet. This study was conducted to determine its nutritive value and antioxidant activity. Plant samples from three different locations were selected in the present study. Results showed that this plant is an excellent source of glucosinolates, notably sinigrin that is present in very high amount (∼70-90%). Its value ranged from 149 to 199 µg per g fresh weight. Fatty acid composition analysis showed that its leaves were abundant in unsaturated fatty acids, specifically linolenic acid (18∶3) whose percentage is about 50%. Higher glucose and crude protein along with higher nitrogen to sulfur ratio, supplements the nutritive value of this plant. Based on total phenol, flavanoids, free radical scavenging activity and DNA protective activity showed that this ecotype of perennial pepperweed contains high antioxidant properties. The percentage inhibition for O2(-) scavenging activity ranged from 41.3% to 83.9%. Higher content of phenols (26.89 to 50.51 mg gallic acid equivalents per g dry weight) and flavanoids (38.66 to 76.00 mg quercetin equivalents per g dry weight) in leaves could be responsible for the free radical scavenging activity of this plant. Depending upon the location of the plants, variations were observed in different activities. Based on the systematic evaluation in this study, preparations of Lepidium latifolium from Ladakh can be promoted as substitute to dietary requirements.

  4. Evaluation of hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic potential of Tridax procumbens (Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Kusum

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes is a metabolic disorder affecting carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism. Tridax procumbens Linn. (Family-Asteraceae; common name-Dhaman grass is common herb found in India. Traditionally, the tribal inhabitants of Udaipur district in Rajasthan (India uses the leaf powder (along with other herb orally to treat diabetes. There is a need to evaluate extracts of this plant in order to provide scientific proof for it's application in traditional medicine system. Methods Extraction of whole plant of T. procumbens using 50%methanol. The extract was tested for acute and sub-chronic anti-hyperglycemic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats and for acute toxicity test among normal rats. Observations on body weight as well as on the oral glucose tolerance levels were also recorded. Results Oral administration of acute and sub chronic doses (250 and 500 mg/kg b.wt. of T. procumbens extract showed a significant (p T. procumbens were compared with the reference standard drug Glibenclamide (10 mg/kg b.wt.. Conclusion These test results support traditional medicinal use of, T. procumbens for the treatment of diabetes mellitus with corrections in body weight and oral glucose tolerance and no visible signs or symptoms of toxicity in normal rats indicating a high margin of safety. These results warrant follow-up through bioassay-directed isolation of the active principles.

  5. Efficacy of Fertilizer from Tubang-Bakod (JatrophaCurcas Linn Compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erma B. Quinay

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the efficacy of fertilizer from Tubang-Bakod (Jatophacurcas Linn compost, an experiment was carried out in complete randomized block design based on 3 replications. Varied ratios of commercial organic fertilizer (COF and Jatropha compost (JC are 100:0, 50:50 and 0:100 and commercial inorganic fertilizers (CIF were used in planting. Parameters such as number of leaves, length of stems, size and color of leaves were determined after harvesting. The maximum number of leaves was noted in 100:0ratios of JC and COF; the lengthiest stem was noted in vegetables grown with 100:0 JC; while the largest size of leaf was noted in CIF. The color of leaves was the same for the varied ratios with a reading of 4 while the CIF has a reading of 5 in the leaf color chart. The macronutrients of JC have 2.09% N, 1.98%P and 17. 49%K.However the micronutrients of the compost were 203.66 ppm Zn, 326.27 ppmMnand 3997.30 ppmFe. These nutrients are essential for the plant growth. It was observed that potassium (K exceeded the standard for the COF which is 3.66 wt. %. K hastens maturity and increase the size and quality of vegetables.

  6. Avaliação da toxicidade subcrônica do extrato bruto seco de Anacardium occidentale Linn em cães = Evaluation of the subchronic toxicity of the crude dry extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Arquimedes Fernandes Monteiro de Melo; Miracy Muniz Albuquerque; Maria Almerice Lopes da Silva; Gracielle Carvalho Gomes; Isabely de Souza Vera Cruz; Vanessa Ribeiro Leite; Jane Sheila Higino

    2006-01-01

    A busca de novos medicamentos tem levado ao desenvolvimento de novosfármacos que sejam eficientes e destituídos de toxicidade. Uma das fronteiras nessas pesquisas são os medicamentos fitoterápicos. No Brasil, a Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA) regulariza essas pesquisas e padroniza os procedimentos. A Resoluçãoda Diretoria Colegiada (RDC) 48/2004, por exemplo, regulariza o registro de fitoterápicos. O Anacardium occidentale Linn está entre as plantas mais estudadas, devido às...

  7. Semen characteristics and sperm morphology of Pistia stratiotes Linn. (Araceae) protected male albino rats (Wistar strain) exposed to sodium arsenite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ola-Davies, Olufunke; Ajani, O Samuel

    2016-09-01

    Sodium arsenite has been proven to be abundant in nature and released into the environment through human activities, including agricultural and industrial processes. The objective of our study was to investigate the sperm protective potential of Pistia stratiotes Linn. in arsenic-treated rats. The sperm protective potential of P. stratiotes Linn. (Araceae) was carried out in arsenic-exposed rats using 24 male albino rats (225 to 228 g) aged between 14 and 16 weeks old. They were grouped into 4 (A-D), each group containing 6 rats. Group A animals were orally treated with 100 mg/kg ethanol leaf extract of P. stratiotes Linn. daily for 14 days; group B (sodium arsenite at 2.5 mg/kg body weight; positive control); group C (P. stratiotes extract for 14 days and single dose of sodium arsenite on day 14; group D (0.1 mL propylene glycol; negative control/vehicle). Group B had a significantly lower (p0.05) for semen volume and the sperm count of rats across the groups. Total sperm abnormality was 10.44 and 14.27 % with the sodium arsenite treated group having the highest value when compared with groups A treated with P. stratiotes extract and D treated with propylene, although the differences were not significant (p>0.05). The study concluded that ethanol leaf extract of P. stratiotes has no negative effect on sperm motility, viability and morphology and also protected spermatozoa against arsenic-induced reproductive toxicity in Wistar strain albino rats. Therefore, it may play an important role in the protection of populations with chronic sodium arsenite exposure.

  8. Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Aqueous Extract of Leaves of Solanum Melongena Linn. in Experimental Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniyar, Yasmeen A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Aqueous extract of leaves of Solanum melongena Linn was investigated for its anti-inflammatory activity. Materials and Methods: Acute oral toxicity study according to OECD425 guidelines was done to find out the LD50 of test drug. Carrageenan induced paw oedema method in Wistar Albino rats were used in this study. Aspirin in the dose of 300mg/kg was used as the standard drug and three doses of aqueous extract of leaves of Solanum melongena L. (100mg/kg, 200mg/kg, 400mg/kg b.w.) was used as the test drug. The results were measured at 1st h, 3rd h, and 5th h after the carrageenan injection. Results: In acute oral toxicity study none of the animals died at the dose of 2000mg/kg. Aqueous extract of Solanum melongena Linn leaf in the dose of 200mg/kg showed significant anti-inflammatory activity (p <0.05) at 3rd hr and highly significant anti-inflammatory activity (p<0.001) at 5th hr; in the dose of 400 mg/kg, test drug showed p<0.01 at 3rd and p<0.001 at 5th hr and in the dose of 100mg/kg it showed significant (p<0.05) anti-inflammatory activity at 5th hr. In doses of 200mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of aqueous extract of S. melongena L showed the percentage of inhibition of 42.62% which is less than the standard drug aspirin which showed 64.5% inhibition. Conclusion: Aqueous extract of leaves of Solanum melongena Linn has anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:25738003

  9. Comparison of microwave hydrodistillation and solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from Melaleuca leucadendra Linn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismanto, A. W.; Kusuma, H. S.; Mahfud, M.

    2017-12-01

    The comparison of solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) and microwave hydrodistillation (MHD) in the extraction of essential oil from Melaleuca leucadendra Linn. was examined. Dry cajuput leaves were used in this study. The purpose of this study is also to determine optimal condition (microwave power). The relative electric consumption of SFME and MHD methods are both showing 0,1627 kWh/g and 0,3279 kWh/g. The results showed that solvent-free microwave extraction methods able to reduce energy consumption and can be regarded as a green technique for extraction of cajuput oil.

  10. Variasi Genetik pada Pertumbuhan Tanaman Konservasi Sumberdaya Genetik Cendana (Santalum album Linn. Populasi Pulau Timor Bagian Timur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumardi Sumardi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sandalwood (Santalum album Linn. Is a native species of East Nusa Tenggara that have high economic value because it contains oil in the hardwood that is used as a raw material for cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. However, sandalwood population in East Nusa Tenggara has declined severely caused of massive exploitation in the past without accompanied by the success of replanting. Excessive exploitation impact on the decreasing of genetic diversity. Conservation was initiatied by the Forestry Research Institute of Kupang in 2012 with Eastern Part of Timor Island as a genetic material source. This study was aimed to investigate the genetic variation of plant growth on sandalwood (Santalum album linn. genetic conservation from Eastern Part of Timor Island until 8 months after planting. The research was designed using Incomplete Block Design (IBD, consists of 25 families, single treeplot and 10 blocks as replicates. The variance analysis showed there was no significant difference between the families tested and the average height and diameter growth of test plants respectively 51,02 cm and 4.70 mm. The families heritability (h2f  estimation of height is 0.70 high category and the diameter is 0.53 medium category.   Key words : Population, conservation, variation, heritability ABSTRAK Cedana (Santalum album Linn. merupakan jenis tanaman asli Nusa Tenggara Timur yang memiliki nilai ekonomi tinggi karena kandungan minyak atsiri pada kayu terasnya yang digunakan sebagai bahan baku industri kosmetik dan obat-obatan. Namun demikian populasi jenis ini di Nusa Tenggara Timur telah mengalami penurunan sangat tajam, akibat eksploitasi besar-besaran dimasa lalu yang tidak dibarengi keberhasilan penanaman kembali. Kondisi tersebut berdampak pada keragaman genetik cendana yang pernah ada di NTT. Tindakan konservasi mulai dilakukan oleh Balai Penelitian Kehutanan Kupang pada tahun 2012 yang berasal dari populasi Pulau Timor bagian Timur. Penelitian ini

  11. The effect of ethanol extract of mangostene (Garcinia Mangostana Linn. peel on tongue cancer cells Supri's Clone-1 apoptosis, in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aurora Titiana

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis or programmed cell death serves to regulate physiological and pathological conditions. Garcinia mangostana Linn. is one of the medical herbs that is widely used to suppress human tongue cancer growth by inducing apoptosis. The research aimed to analyze the effect of ethanol extract of Garcinia mangostana Linn. on tongue cancer cells apoptosis Supri's Clone-1 (SP-C1. The type of the research was an experimental laboratory. Tongue cancer cells SP-C1 were treated by various ethanol extract concentrations (0, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700 pg/ml of Garcinia mangostana Linn. to detect the apoptosis, which was done by acridine orange and ethidium bromide coloring tests. The number of tongue cancer cells SP-C1 2x104 cells/dish. Observation on cells apoptosis was observed by a fluorescent microscope with 40 x magnification. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and was followed by Post Hoc test (Tukey-test with 95% significance level. The result showed that tongue cancer cells SP-C1 apoptosis treated by various ethanol extracts of Garcinia mangostana Linn. increase significantly. The highest effect of apoptosis was detected at the 700 pg/ml concentration that has an effect on the percentage of tongue cancer cells apoptosis by 65%.

  12. Upper Pleistocene Gulo gulo (Linne, 1758) remains from the Srbsko Chlum-Komin Hyena den cave in the Bohemian Karst, Czech Republic, with comparisons to contemporary wolverines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajus G. Diedrich; Jeffrey P. Copeland

    2010-01-01

    Wolverine bone material is described from the famous Upper Pleistocene cave Srbsko Chlum-Komin in the Bohemian Karst, Czech Republic, along with an overview of recently known Czech sites. The Gulo gulo Linne material was found in one of the largest Ice Age spotted-hyena dens in Europe. As a result of non-systematic excavations, the taphonomy is partly unclear. Lower-...

  13. Estudio sobre la distribución de frutos afectados por Curculio elephas (Gyllenhal) (Col., Curculionidae) en alcornoque (Quercus suber Linné)

    OpenAIRE

    Soria Iglesias, Francisco Javier; Villagrán Pinteño, Miguel; Martín Santana, Pedro; Ocete Rubio, María Elvira

    1997-01-01

    En este trabajo se realiza un estudio acerca de la distribución de frutos atacados por Curculio elephas (Gyllenhal) (Col., Curculionidae) en alcornoque {Quercus suber Linné), en relación con las diferentes orientaciones. Los resultados indican que este insecto coloniza de forma homogénea la copa del árbol.

  14. Rhodiola rosea extract protects human cortical neurons against glutamate and hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death through reduction in the accumulation of intracellular calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Dora Rita; Occhiuto, Francesco; Spadaro, Federica; Circosta, Clara

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of a titolated extract from Rhodiola rosea L. (RrE) and of salidroside (Sa), one of the major biologically active compounds extracted from this medicinal plant, against oxidative stressor hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) and glutamate (GLU)-induced cell apoptosis in a human cortical cell line (HCN 1-A) maintained in culture. The results obtained indicate that exposure of differentiated HCN 1-A neurons to GLU or H₂O₂ resulted in concentration-dependent cell death. A 24 h pre-treatment with RrE significantly increased cell survival and significantly prevented the plasma membrane damage and the morphological disruption caused by GLU or H₂O₂, indicating that neurons treated with RrE were protected from the neurotoxicity induced by the oxidative stressor used. In addition, RrE significantly reduced H₂O₂ or GLU-induced elevation of intracellular free Ca²⁺ concentration. The results obtained have also shown that Sa caused similar effects in all experimental models used; however, the potency of the action was lower than that of the extract containing corresponding quantities of Sa. These findings indicate that RrE has a neuroprotective effect in cortical neurons and suggest that the antioxidant activity of the RrE, due to the structural features of the synergic active principles they contain, may be responsible for its ability to stabilize cellular Ca²⁺ homeostasis. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Pityriasis rosea, Gianotti-Crosti syndrome, asymmetric periflexural exanthem, papular-purpuric gloves and socks syndrome, eruptive pseudoangiomatosis, and eruptive hypomelanosis: do their epidemiological data substantiate infectious etiologies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Chuh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Many clinical and laboratory-based studies have been reported for skin rashes which may be due to viral infections, namely pityriasis rosea (PR, Gianotti-Crosti syndrome (GCS, asymmetric periflexural exanthem/unilateral laterothoracic exanthem (APE/ULE, papularpurpuric gloves and socks syndrome (PPGSS, and eruptive pseudo-angiomatosis (EP. Eruptive hypomelanosis (EH is a newly discovered paraviral rash. Novel tools are now available to investigate the epidemiology of these rashes. To retrieve epidemiological data of these exanthema and analyze whether such substantiates or refutes infectious etiologies. We searched for articles published over the last 60 years and indexed by PubMed database. We then analyzed them for universality, demography, concurrent patients, temporal and spatial-temporal clustering, mini-epidemics, epidemics, and other clinical and geographical associations. Based on our criteria, we selected 55, 60, 29, 36, 20, and 4 articles for PR, GCS, APE/ULE, PPGSS, EP, and EH respectively. Universality or multiple-continental reports are found for all exanthema except EH. The ages of patients are compatible with infectious causes for PR, GCS, APE/ULE, and EH. Concurrent patients are reported for all. Significant patient clustering is demonstrated for PR and GCS. Mini-epidemics and epidemics have been reported for GCS, EP, and EH. The current epidemiological data supports, to a moderate extent, that PR, GCS, and APE could be caused by infectious agents. Support for PPGSS is marginal. Epidemiological evidences for infectious origins for EP and EH are inadequate. There might be growing epidemiological evidence to substantiate or to refute our findings in the future.

  16. Pityriasis Rosea, Gianotti-Crosti Syndrome, Asymmetric Periflexural Exanthem, Papular-Purpuric Gloves and Socks Syndrome, Eruptive Pseudoangiomatosis, and Eruptive Hypomelanosis: Do Their Epidemiological Data Substantiate Infectious Etiologies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawar, Vijay; Sciallis, Gabriel F.; Kempf, Werner; Lee, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Many clinical and laboratory-based studies have been reported for skin rashes which may be due to viral infections, namely pityriasis rosea (PR), Gianotti-Crosti syndrome (GCS), asymmetric periflexural exanthem/unilateral laterothoracic exanthem (APE/ULE), papular-purpuric gloves and socks syndrome (PPGSS), and eruptive pseudo-angiomatosis (EP). Eruptive hypomelanosis (EH) is a newly discovered paraviral rash. Novel tools are now available to investigate the epidemiology of these rashes. To retrieve epidemiological data of these exanthema and analyze whether such substantiates or refutes infectious etiologies. We searched for articles published over the last 60 years and indexed by PubMed database. We then analyzed them for universality, demography, concurrent patients, temporal and spatial-temporal clustering, mini-epidemics, epidemics, and other clinical and geographical associations. Based on our criteria, we selected 55, 60, 29, 36, 20, and 4 articles for PR, GCS, APE/ULE, PPGSS, EP, and EH respectively. Universality or multiple-continental reports are found for all exanthema except EH. The ages of patients are compatible with infectious causes for PR, GCS, APE/ULE, and EH. Concurrent patients are reported for all. Significant patient clustering is demonstrated for PR and GCS. Mini-epidemics and epidemics have been reported for GCS, EP, and EH. The current epidemiological data supports, to a moderate extent, that PR, GCS, and APE could be caused by infectious agents. Support for PPGSS is marginal. Epidemiological evidences for infectious origins for EP and EH are inadequate. There might be growing epidemiological evidence to substantiate or to refute our findings in the future. PMID:27103975

  17. Electrospun Cellulose Acetate Fiber Mats as Carriers for Crude Extracts From Phyllanthus Emblica Linn. Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thitiwongsawet Patcharaporn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit of Phyllanthus emblica Linn (PE was extracted with methanol and then partitioned into diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water fractions. The diethyl ether fraction showed the highest antibacterial activity against two pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923. The PE extract from diethyl ether fraction was then loaded into 17%w/v cellulose acetate (CA solution prepared in 2:1 v/v acetone/N, N-dimethylacetamide at concentrations of 1, 3, and 5% w/w (based on the weight of CA. The PE extract-loaded electrospun CA fiber mats were fabricated by electrospinning. The morphological appearance of both the neat and the PE extract-loaded electrospun CA fibers were smooth with the average diameters in a range of 335-694 nm. The amounts of water retention and release characteristics of PE extract from fiber mats in an acetate buffer (pH 5.5 were studied and compared with the corresponding cast-films fabricated by the solvent casting method. The amount of water retention of the PE extract-loaded fiber mats was about 112-205% which was higher than that of the cast films (i.e. 25-35%. The study of release characteristics of PE extract from fiber mats and films was carried out by total immersion method in an acetate buffer at 32°C for 72 h. The PE extract-loaded fiber mats exhibited greater amount of extract released than those of the cast films. The maximum amounts of PE extract released from fiber mats and films were about 40-80% and 18-23%, respectively.

  18. Quality assessment and anti-obesity activity of Stellaria media (Linn. Vill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Neerja

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is recognized as a social problem, associated with serious health risks and increased mortality. Numerous trials have been conducted to find and develop new anti-obesity drugs through herbal sources to minimize side effects associated with the present anti-obesity drugs. The present study was designed to evaluate the quality control parameters, quantitative phytochemical analysis (total phenolic, total flavonoids and total saponin content, and the anti-obesity effect of lyophilized juice (LJ of Stellaria media (Linn. Vill. by employing in vitro and in vivo models. Methods In vitro studies were performed to evaluate the inhibitory activity of LJ on pancreatic amylase and lipase. The in vivo pancreatic lipase activity was evaluated by measurement of plasma triacylglycerol levels after oral administration of lipid emulsion to swiss albino mice. Furthermore, the anti-obesity effect of LJ was assessed at two doses, 400 mg/kg and 900 mg/kg body weight in mice fed a high-fat-diet with or without LJ for 6 weeks. Results The LJ inhibited pancreatic amylase and lipase activity in vitro and elevated plasma triacylglycerol level in mice. LJ suppressed the increase in body weight, retroperitoneal adipose tissue, liver weights and serum parameters viz., total cholesterol, total triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol level at the dose of 900 mg/kg body weight of the mice fed with high fat diet. The total phenolic, flavonoid and saponin contents were found to be 0.26 mg/g, 1.4 mg/g and 1.19 μg/g respectively of LJ. Conclusion The anti-obesity effects of LJ in high-fat-diet fed mice may be partly mediated through delaying the intestinal absorption of dietary fat and carbohydrate by inhibiting digestive enzymes.

  19. A 24-Weeks Toxicity Study of Eryngium foetidum Linn. Leaves in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janwitthayanuchit, Kanittha; Kupradinun, Piengchai; Rungsipipat, Anudep; Kettawan, Aikkarach; Butryee, Chaniphun

    2016-07-01

    Eryngium foetidum Linn. leaves (EF) are widely used in Thailand and many countries throughout Asia as a culinary seasoning and a traditional medicine. However, adverse effect of high dose consumption in long duration has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate chronic toxicity of EF in mice. Thirty-two ICR male mice were divided into 4 groups of 8 mice each. The mice were fed AIN-76 rodent diet, or AIN-76 rodent diet supplemented with ground freeze-dried EF at 0.8%, 1.6% and 3.2% that is equivalent to approximately 35, 73 and 155 times that of human consumption, respectively, at 97.5 percentile for a period of 24 weeks. At the end of experiment, the mice were euthanized and blood samples were collected for hematological and biochemical evaluations. Necropsy was performed while visceral organs such as lung, liver, kidneys, spleen etc. were collected, weighed and histopathologically examined. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) results of mice in 1.6% and 3.2% EF diet groups were significantly higher than the BUN of control group. No significant difference was noted in other biochemical and hematological properties between the treatment groups and control; all results were within normal range. Histopathology of almost all visceral organs showed no significant changes. However, tubulonephrosis and chronic interstitial nephritis were observed in the groups treated with 1.6% and 3.2% EF diet. Body weight was reduced significantly at week 12 to week 20 when compared to the control group while relative kidney weights were significantly increased. In conclusion, the consumption of EF in diet at high doses illustrated the adverse effect on some biochemical parameters and histopathology in mice. Our findings suggested that EF daily consumption for 24 weeks, at higher doses than the 0.8% EF diet (35 times of human consumption), might cause adverse effect on kidney function in mice.

  20. Evaluation of nutritional and antioxidant status of Lepidium latifolium Linn.: a novel phytofood from Ladakh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarandeep Kaur

    Full Text Available Lepidium latifolium Linn. (perennial pepperweed is one of the preferred phytofoods among cold arid region of Ladakh, India and its leaves contribute significantly to people's diet. This study was conducted to determine its nutritive value and antioxidant activity. Plant samples from three different locations were selected in the present study. Results showed that this plant is an excellent source of glucosinolates, notably sinigrin that is present in very high amount (∼70-90%. Its value ranged from 149 to 199 µg per g fresh weight. Fatty acid composition analysis showed that its leaves were abundant in unsaturated fatty acids, specifically linolenic acid (18∶3 whose percentage is about 50%. Higher glucose and crude protein along with higher nitrogen to sulfur ratio, supplements the nutritive value of this plant. Based on total phenol, flavanoids, free radical scavenging activity and DNA protective activity showed that this ecotype of perennial pepperweed contains high antioxidant properties. The percentage inhibition for O2(- scavenging activity ranged from 41.3% to 83.9%. Higher content of phenols (26.89 to 50.51 mg gallic acid equivalents per g dry weight and flavanoids (38.66 to 76.00 mg quercetin equivalents per g dry weight in leaves could be responsible for the free radical scavenging activity of this plant. Depending upon the location of the plants, variations were observed in different activities. Based on the systematic evaluation in this study, preparations of Lepidium latifolium from Ladakh can be promoted as substitute to dietary requirements.