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Sample records for viking lander system

  1. Viking Lander Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Viking Project found a place in history when it became the first mission to land a spacecraft successfully on the surface of another planet and return both imaging and non-imaging data over an extended time period. Two identical spacecraft, each consisting of a lander and an orbiter, were built. Each orbiter-lander pair flew together and entered Mars orbit; the landers then separated and descended to the planet's surface. The Viking 1 Lander touched down on the western slope of Chryse Planitia (the Plains of Gold) on July 20, 1976, while the Viking 2 lander settled down at Utopia Planitia on September 3, 1976. Besides taking photographs and collecting other science data on the Martian surface, the two landers conducted three biology experiments designed to look for possible signs of life. These experiments discovered unexpected and enigmatic chemical activity in the Martian soil, but provided no clear evidence for the presence of living microorganisms in soil near the landing sites. According to scientists, Mars is self-sterilizing. They believe the combination of solar ultraviolet radiation that saturates the surface, the extreme dryness of the soil and the oxidizing nature of the soil chemistry prevent the formation of living organisms in the Martian soil. The Viking mission was planned to continue for 90 days after landing. Each orbiter and lander operated far beyond its design lifetime. Viking Orbiter 1 functioned until July 25, 1978, while Viking Orbiter 2 continued for four years and 1,489 orbits of Mars, concluding its mission August 7, 1980. Because of the variations in available sunlight, both landers were powered by radioisotope thermoelectric generators -- devices that create electricity from heat given off by the natural decay of plutonium. That power source allowed long-term science investigations that otherwise would not have been possible. The last data from Viking Lander 2 arrived at Earth on April 11, 1980. Viking Lander 1 made its final

  2. Viking Lander 2 Anniversary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] This portion of a daytime IR image covers the Viking 2 landing site (shown with the X). The second landing on Mars took place September 3, 1976 in Utopia Planitia. The exact location of Lander 2 is not as well established as Lander 1 because there were no clearly identifiable features in the lander images as there were for the site of Lander 1. The Utopia landing site region contains pedestal craters, shallow swales and gentle ridges. The crater Goldstone was named in honor of the Tracking Station in the desert of California. The two Viking Landers operated for over 6 years (nearly four martian years) after landing. This one band IR (band 9 at 12.6 microns) image shows bright and dark textures, which are primarily due to differences in the abundance of rocks on the surface. The relatively cool (dark) regions during the day are rocky or indurated materials, fine sand and dust are warmer (bright). Many of the temperature variations are due to slope effects, with sun-facing slopes warmer than shaded slopes. The dark rings around several of the craters are due to the presence of rocky (cool) material ejected from the crater. These rocks are well below the resolution of any existing Mars camera, but THEMIS can detect the temperature variations they produce. Daytime temperature variations are produced by a combination of topographic (solar heating) and thermophysical (thermal inertia and albedo) effects. Due to topographic heating the surface morphologies seen in THEMIS daytime IR images are similar to those seen in previous imagery and MOLA topography.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be

  3. One Mars year: viking lander imaging observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K L; Arvidson, R E; Guinness, E A; Bragg, S L; Wall, S D; Carlston, C E; Pidek, D G

    1979-05-25

    Throughout the complete Mars year during which they have been on the planet, the imaging systems aboard the two Viking landers have documented a variety of surface changes. Surface condensates, consisting of both solid H(2)O and CO(2), formed at the Viking 2 lander site during the winter. Additional observations suggest that surface erosion rates due to dust redistribution may be substantially less than those predicted on the basis of pre-Viking observations. The Viking 1 lander will continue to acquire and transmit a predetermined sequence of imaging and meteorology data as long as it is operative.

  4. The environs of viking 2 lander.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorthill, R W; Moore, H J; Hutton, R E; Scott, R F; Spitzer, C R

    1976-12-11

    Forty-six days after Viking 1 landed, Viking 2 landed in Utopia Planitia, about 6500 kilometers away from the landing site of Viking 1. Images show that in the immediate vicinity of the Viking 2 landing site the surface is covered with rocks, some of which are partially buried, and fine-grained materials. The surface sampler, the lander cameras, engineering sensors, and some data from the other lander experiments were used to investigate the properties of the surface. Lander 2 has a more homogeneous surface, more coarse-grained material, an extensive crust, small rocks or clods which seem to be difficult to collect, and more extensive erosion by the retro-engine exhaust gases than lander 1. A report on the physical properties of the martian surface based on data obtained through sol 58 on Viking 2 and a brief description of activities on Viking 1 after sol 36 are given.

  5. Photogrammetry of the Viking Lander imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. S. C.; Schafer, F. J.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of photogrammetric mapping which uses Viking Lander photography as its basis is solved in two ways: (1) by converting the azimuth and elevation scanning imagery to the equivalent of a frame picture, using computerized rectification; and (2) by interfacing a high-speed, general-purpose computer to the analytical plotter employed, so that all correction computations can be performed in real time during the model-orientation and map-compilation process. Both the efficiency of the Viking Lander cameras and the validity of the rectification method have been established by a series of pre-mission tests which compared the accuracy of terrestrial maps compiled by this method with maps made from aerial photographs. In addition, 1:10-scale topographic maps of Viking Lander sites 1 and 2 having a contour interval of 1.0 cm have been made to test the rectification method.

  6. Viking lander tracking contributions to Mars mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, W.H. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The major recent advances in planetary mapping have been accomplished through use of photography from orbiting satellites, as is the case for Mars with Mariner and Viking photographs. The requirement for greater precision demands that inputs to the photogrammatic process be more precisely defined. This paper describes how analyses of Doppler and ranging data from the Viking landers are contributing to more precise mapping of Mars in several specific areas. (Auth.)

  7. Frost at the Viking Lander 2 Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Photo from Viking Lander 2 shows late-winter frost on the ground on Mars around the lander. The view is southeast over the top of Lander 2, and shows patches of frost around dark rocks. The surface is reddish-brown; the dark rocks vary in size from 10 centimeters (four inches) to 76 centimeters (30 inches) in diameter. This picture was obtained Sept. 25, 1977. The frost deposits were detected for the first time 12 Martian days (sols) earlier in a black-and-white image. Color differences between the white frost and the reddish soil confirm that we are observing frost. The Lander Imaging Team is trying to determine if frost deposits routinely form due to cold night temperatures, then disappear during the warmer daytime. Preliminary analysis, however, indicates the frost was on the ground for some time and is disappearing over many days. That suggests to scientists that the frost is not frozen carbon dioxide (dry ice) but is more likely a carbon dioxide clathrate (six parts water to one part carbon dioxide). Detailed studies of the frost formation and disappearance, in conjunction with temperature measurements from the lander's meteorology experiment, should be able to confirm or deny that hypothesis, scientists say.

  8. Photogrammetry of the Viking-Lander imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S.S.C.; Schafer, F.J.

    1982-01-01

    We have solved the problem of photogrammetric mapping from the Viking Lander photography in two ways: 1) by converting the azimuth and elevation scanning imagery to the equivalent of a frame picture by means of computerized rectification; and 2) by interfacing a high-speed, general-purpose computer to the AS-11A analytical plotter so that all computations of corrections can be performed in real time during the process of model orientation and map compilation. Examples are presented of photographs and maps of Earth and Mars. -from Authors

  9. Errors in Viking Lander Atmospheric Profiles Discovered Using MOLA Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, Paul; Lorenz, R. D.; Neumann, G. A.

    2002-01-01

    Each Viking lander measured a topographic profile during entry. Comparing to MOLA (Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter), we find a vertical error of 1-2 km in the Viking trajectory. This introduces a systematic error of 10-20% in the Viking densities and pressures at a given altitude. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  10. Wind reconstruction algorithm for Viking Lander 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kynkäänniemi, Tuomas; Kemppinen, Osku; Harri, Ari-Matti; Schmidt, Walter

    2017-06-01

    The wind measurement sensors of Viking Lander 1 (VL1) were only fully operational for the first 45 sols of the mission. We have developed an algorithm for reconstructing the wind measurement data after the wind measurement sensor failures. The algorithm for wind reconstruction enables the processing of wind data during the complete VL1 mission. The heater element of the quadrant sensor, which provided auxiliary measurement for wind direction, failed during the 45th sol of the VL1 mission. Additionally, one of the wind sensors of VL1 broke down during sol 378. Regardless of the failures, it was still possible to reconstruct the wind measurement data, because the failed components of the sensors did not prevent the determination of the wind direction and speed, as some of the components of the wind measurement setup remained intact for the complete mission. This article concentrates on presenting the wind reconstruction algorithm and methods for validating the operation of the algorithm. The algorithm enables the reconstruction of wind measurements for the complete VL1 mission. The amount of available sols is extended from 350 to 2245 sols.

  11. Wind reconstruction algorithm for Viking Lander 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kynkäänniemi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The wind measurement sensors of Viking Lander 1 (VL1 were only fully operational for the first 45 sols of the mission. We have developed an algorithm for reconstructing the wind measurement data after the wind measurement sensor failures. The algorithm for wind reconstruction enables the processing of wind data during the complete VL1 mission. The heater element of the quadrant sensor, which provided auxiliary measurement for wind direction, failed during the 45th sol of the VL1 mission. Additionally, one of the wind sensors of VL1 broke down during sol 378. Regardless of the failures, it was still possible to reconstruct the wind measurement data, because the failed components of the sensors did not prevent the determination of the wind direction and speed, as some of the components of the wind measurement setup remained intact for the complete mission. This article concentrates on presenting the wind reconstruction algorithm and methods for validating the operation of the algorithm. The algorithm enables the reconstruction of wind measurements for the complete VL1 mission. The amount of available sols is extended from 350 to 2245 sols.

  12. X-ray proportional counter for the Viking Lander

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glesius, F.L.; Kroon, J.C.; Castro, A.J.; Clark, B.C.

    1978-01-01

    A set of four sealed proportional counters with optimized energy response is employed in the X-ray fluorescence spectrometer units aboard the two Viking Landers. The instruments have provided quantitative elemental analyses of soil samples taken from the Martian surface. This paper discusses the design and development of these miniature proportional counters, and describes their performance on Mars

  13. The development of sine vibration test requirements for Viking lander capsule components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, S.

    1974-01-01

    In connection with the Viking project for exploring the planet Mars, two identical spacecraft, each consisting of an orbiter and a lander, will be launched in the third quarter of 1975. Upon arrival at the planet, the Viking lander will separate from the Viking orbiter and descend to a soft landing at a selected site on the Mars surface. It was decided to perform a sine vibration test on the Viking spacecraft, in its launch configuration, to qualify it for the booster-induced transient-dynamic environment. It is shown that component-level testing is a cost- and schedule-effective prerequisite to the system-level, sine-vibration test sequences.

  14. New analysis software for Viking Lander meteorological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Kemppinen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a set of tools that enable us to process Viking Lander meteorological data beyond what has been previously publicly available. Besides providing data for new periods of time, the existing data periods have been augmented by enhancing the data resolution significantly. This was accomplished by first transferring the original Prime computer version of the data analysis software to a standard Linux platform, and then by modifying the software to be able to process the data despite irregularities in the original raw data and reverse engineering various parameter files. In addition to this, the processing pipeline has been streamlined, making processing the data faster and easier. As a case example of new data, freshly processed Viking Lander 1 and 2 temperature records are described and briefly analyzed in ways that have not been previously possible due to the lack of data.

  15. Preliminary meteorological results on Mars from the Viking 1 lander

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, S.L.; Henry, R.M.; Leovy, C.B.

    1976-01-01

    The results from the meteorology instruments on the Viking 1 lander are presented for the first 4 sols of operation. The instruments are working satisfactorily. Temperatures fluctuated from a low of 188 0 K to an estimated maximum of 244 0 K. The mean pressure is 7.65 millibars with a diurnal variation of amplitude 0.1 millibar. Wind speeds averaged over several minutes have ranged from essentially calm to 9 meters per second. Wind directions have exhibited a remarkable regularity which may be associated with nocturnal downslope winds and gravitational oscillations, or to tidal effects of the diurnal pressure wave, or to both

  16. Viking Lander imaging investigation: Picture catalog of primary mission experiment data record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, R. B.

    1978-01-01

    All the images returned by the two Viking Landers during the primary phase of the Viking Mission are presented. Listings of supplemental information which described the conditions under which the images were acquired are included together with skyline drawings which show where the images are positioned in the field of view of the cameras. Subsets of the images are listed in a variety of sequences to aid in locating images of interest. The format and organization of the digital magnetic tape storage of the images are described. The mission and the camera system are briefly described.

  17. The Martian surface as imaged, sampled, and analyzed by the Viking landers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvidson, R.E.; Gooding, J.L.; Moore, H.J.

    1989-01-01

    Data collected by two Viking landers are analyzed. Attention is given to the characteristics of the surface inferred from Lander imaging and meteorology data, physical and magnetic properties experiments, and both inorganic and organic analyses of Martian samples. Viking Lander 1 touched down on Chryse Planitia on July 20, 1976 and continued to operate for 2252 sols, until November 20, 1982. Lander 2 touched down about 6500 km away from Lander 1, on Utopia Planitia on September 3, 1976. The chemical compositions of sediments at the two landing sites are similar, suggesting an aeolian origin. The compositions suggest an iron-rich rock an are matched by various clays and salts. 89 refs

  18. Surface of Mars: the view from the Viking 1 lander

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutch, T.A.; Binder, A.B.; Huck, F.O.; Levinthal, E.C.; Liebes, S. Jr.; Morris, E.C.; Patterson, W.R.; Pollack, J.B.; Sagan, C.; Taylor, G.R.

    1976-01-01

    The first photographs ever returned from the surface of Mars were obtained by two facsimile cameras aboard the Viking 1 lander, including black-and-white and color, 0.12 0 and 0.04 0 resolution, and monoscopic and stereoscopic images. The surface, on the western slopes of Chryse Planitia, is a boulder-strewn deeply reddish desert, with distant eminences--some of which may be the rims of impact craters--surmounted by a pink sky. Both impact and aeolian processes are evident. After dissipation of a small dust cloud stirred by the landing maneuvers, no subsequent signs of movement were detected on the landscape, and nothing has been observed that is indicative of macroscopic biology at this time and place

  19. Experimental test of the variability of G using Viking lander ranging data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellings, R.W.; Adams, P.J.; Anderson, J.D.; Keesey, M.S.; Lau, E.L.; Standish, E.M.; Canuto, V.M.; Goldman, I.

    1983-01-01

    Results are presented from the analysis of solar system astrometric data, notably the range data to the Viking landers on Mars. A least-squares fit of the parameters of the solar system model to these data limits a simple time variation in the effective Newtonian gravitational constant to (0.2 +- 0.4) x 10 -11 yr -1 and a rate of drift of atomic clocks relative to the implicit clock of relativistic dynamics to (0.1 +- 0.8) x 10 -11 yr -1 . The error limits quoted are the result of uncertainties in the masses of the asteroids

  20. Viking Lander image analysis of Martian atmospheric dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, James B.; Ockert-Bell, Maureen E.; Shepard, Michael K.

    1995-01-01

    We have reanalyzed three sets of Viking Lander 1 and 2 (VL1 and VL2) images of the Martian atmosphere to better evaluate the radiative properties of the atmospheric dust particles. The properties of interest are the first two moments of the size distribution, the single-scattering albedo, the dust single-scattering phase function, and the imaginary index of refraction. These properties provide a good definition of the influence that the atmospheric dust has on heating of the atmosphere. Our analysis represents a significant improvement over past analyses (Pollack et al. 1977,1979) by deriving more accurate brightnesses closer to the sun, by carrying out more precise analyses of the data to acquire the quantities of interest, and by using a better representation of scattering by nonspherical particles. The improvements allow us to better define the diffraction peak and hence the size distribution of the particles. For a lognormal particle size distribution, the first two moments of the size distribution, weighted by the geometric cross section, are found. The geometric cross-section weighted mean radius (r(sub eff)) is found to be 1.85 +/- 0.3 microns at VL2 during northern summer when dust loading was low and 1.52 +/- 0.3 microns at VL1 during the first dust storm. In both cases the best cross-section weighted mean variance (nu(eff)) of the size distribution is equal to 0.5 +/- 0.2 microns. The changes in size distribution, and thus radiative properties, do not represent a substantial change in solar energy deposition in the atmosphere over the Pollack et al. (1977,1979) estimates.

  1. Physical properties of the martian surface from the Viking 1 lander: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shorthill, R.W.; Hutton, R.E.; Moore, H.J. II; Scott, R.E.; Spitzer, C.R.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of the physical properties experiment is to determine the characteristics of the martian ''soil'' based on the use of the Viking lander imaging system, the surface sampler, and engineering sensors. Viking 1 lander made physical contact with the surface of Mars at 11:53:07.1 hours on 20 July 1976 G.M.T. Twenty-five seconds later a high-resolution image sequence of the area around a footpad was started which contained the first information about surface conditions on Mars. The next image is a survey of the martian landscape in front of the lander, including a view of the top support of two of the landing legs. Each leg has a stroke gauge which extends from the top of the leg support an amount equal to the crushing experienced by the shock absorbers during touchdown. Subsequent images provided views of all three stroke gauges which, together with the knowledge of the impact velocity, allow determination of ''soil'' properties. In the images there is evidence of surface erosion from the engines. Several laboratory tests were carried out prior to the mission with a descent engine to determine what surface alterations might occur during a Mars landing. On sol 2 the shroud, which protected the surface sampler collector head from biological contamination, was ejected onto the surface. Later a cylindrical pin which dropped from the boom housing of the surface sampler during the modified unlatching sequence produced a crater (the second Mars penetrometer experiment). These two experiments provided further insight into the physical properties of the martian surface

  2. Model of the fine-grain component of martian soil based on Viking lander data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussinov, M.D.; Chernyak, Y.B.; Ettinger, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    A model of the fine-grain component of the Martian soil is proposed. The model is based on well-known physical phenomena, and enables an explanation of the evolution of the gases released in the GEX (gas exchange experiments) and GCMS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometer experiments) of the Viking landers. (author)

  3. The surface of Mars: the view from the viking 2 lander.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutch, T A; Grenander, S U; Jones, K L; Patterson, W; Arvidson, R E; Guinness, E A; Avrin, P; Carlston, C E; Binder, A B; Sagan, C; Dunham, E W; Fox, P L; Pieri, D C; Huck, F O; Rowland, C W; Taylor, G R; Wall, S D; Kahn, R; Levinthal, E C; Liebes, S; Tucker, R B; Morris, E C; Pollack, J B; Saunders, R S; Wolf, M R

    1976-12-11

    Viking 2 lander began imaging the surface of Mars at Utopia Planitia on 3 September 1976. The surface is a boulder-strewn reddish desert cut by troughs that probably form a polygonal network. A plateau can be seen to the east of the spacecraft, which for the most probable lander location is approximately the direction of a tongue of ejecta from the crater Mie. Boulders at the lander 2 site are generally more vesicular than those near lander i. Fines at both lander sites appear to be very fine-grained and to be bound in a duricrust. The pinkish color of the sky, similar to that observed at the lander I site, indicates suspension of surface material. However, the atmospheric optical depth is less than that at the lander I site. After dissipation of a cloud of dust stirred during landing, no changes other than those stemming from sampling activities have been detected in the landscape. No signs of large organisms are apparent at either landing site.

  4. The surface of Mars - The view from the Viking 2 lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutch, T. A.; Grenander, S. U.; Jones, K. L.; Patterson, W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Guinness, E. A.; Avrin, P.; Carlston, C. E.; Binder, A. B.; Sagan, C.

    1976-01-01

    Viking 2 lander began imaging the surface of Mars at Utopia Planitia on September 3, 1976. The surface is a boulder-strewn reddish desert cut by troughs that probably form a polygonal network. A plateau can be seen to the east of the spacecraft, which for the most probable lander location is approximately the dirction of a tongue of ejecta from the crater Mie. Boulders at the lander 2 site are generally more vesicular than those near lander 1. Fines at both lander sites appear to be very fine-grained and to be bound in a duricrust. The pinkish color of the sky, similar to that observed at the lander 1 site, indicates suspension of surface material. However, the atmospheric optical depth is less than that at the lander 1 site. After dissipation of a cloud of dust stirred during landing, no changes other than those stemming from sampling activities have been detected in the landscape. No signs of large organisms are apparent at either landing site.

  5. Rationale for a Mars Pathfinder mission to Chryse Planitia and the Viking 1 lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, Robert A.

    1994-01-01

    Presently the landing site for Mars Pathfinder will be constrained to latitudes between 0 deg and 30 deg N to facilitate communication with earth and to allow the lander and rover solar arrays to generate the maximum possible power. The reference elevation of the site must also be below 0 km so that the descent parachute, a Viking derivative, has sufficient time to open and slow the lander to the correct terminal velocity. Although Mars has as much land surface area as the continental crust of the earth, such engineering constraints immediately limit the number of possible landing sites to only three broad areas: Amazonis, Chryse, and Isidis Planitia. Of these, both Chryse and Isidis Planitia stand out as the sites offering the most information to address several broad scientific topics.

  6. Are the Viking Lander sites representative of the surface of Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakosky, B. M.; Christensen, P. R.

    1986-01-01

    Global remote sensing data of the Martian surface, collected by earth- and satellite-based instruments, are compared with data from the two Viking Landers to determine if the Lander data are representative of the Martian surface. The landing sites are boulder-strewn and feature abundant fine material and evidence of strong eolian forces. One site (VL-1) is in a plains-covered basin which is associated with volcanic activity; the VL-2 site is in the northern plains. Thermal IR, broadband albedo, color imaging and radar remote sensing has been carried out of the global Martian surface. The VL-1 data do not fit a general correlation observed between increases in 70-cm radar cross-sections and thermal inertia. A better fit is found with 12.5-cm cross sections, implying the presence of a thinner or discontinuous duricrust at the VL-1 site, compared to other higher-inertia regions. A thin dust layer is also present at the VL-2 site, based on the Lander reflectance data. The Lander sites are concluded to be among the three observed regions of anomalous reflectivity, which can be expected in low regions selected for the landings. Recommendations are furnished for landing sites of future surface probes in order to choose sites more typical of the global Martian surface.

  7. Observations of Martian surface winds at the Viking Lander 1 site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, J.R.; Leovy, C.B.; Tillman, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    Partial failure of the wind instrumentation on the Viking Lander 1 (VL1) in the Martian subtropics (22.5 degree N) has limited previous analyses of meteorological data for this site. The authors describe a method for reconstructing surface winds using data from the partially failed sensor and present and analyze a time series of wind, pressure, and temperature at the site covering 350 Mars days (sols). At the beginning of the mission during early summer, winds were controlled by regional topography, but they soon underwent a transition to a regime controlled by the Hadley circulation. Diurnal and semidiurnal wind oscillations and synoptic variations have been analyzed and compared with the corresponding variations at the Viking Lander 2 middle latitude site (48 degree N). Diurnal wind oscillations were controlled primarily by regional topography and boundary layer forcing, although a global mode may have been influencing them during two brief episodes. Semidiurnal wind oscillations were controlled by the westward propagating semidiurnal tide from sol 210 onward. Comparison of the synoptic variations at the two sites suggests that the same eastward propagating wave trains were present at both sites, at least following the first 1977 great dust storm, but discordant inferred zonal wave numbers and phase speeds at the two sites cast doubt on the zonal wave numbers deduced from analyses of combined wind and pressure data, particularly at the VL1 site where the signal to noise ratio of the dominant synoptic waves is relatively small

  8. Martian soil stratigraphy and rock coatings observed in color-enhanced Viking Lander images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, E. L., III

    1979-01-01

    Subtle color variations of martian surface materials were enhanced in eight Viking Lander (VL) color images. Well-defined soil units recognized at each site (six at VL-1 and four at VL-2), are identified on the basis of color, texture, morphology, and contact relations. The soil units at the Viking 2 site form a well-defined stratigraphic sequence, whereas the sequence at the Viking 1 site is only partially defined. The same relative soil colors occur at the two sites, suggesting that similar soil units are widespread on Mars. Several types of rock surface materials can be recognized at the two sites; dark, relatively 'blue' rock surfaces are probably minimally weathered igneous rock, whereas bright rock surfaces, with a green/(blue + red) ratio higher than that of any other surface material, are interpreted as a weathering product formed in situ on the rock. These rock surface types are common at both sites. Soil adhering to rocks is common at VL-2, but rare at VL-1. The mechanism that produces the weathering coating on rocks probably operates planet-wide.

  9. Diurnal variations of the Martian surface layer meteorological parameters during the first 45 sols at two Viking Lander sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, J.L.; Leovy, C.B.; Tillman, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    Wind speed, ambient and surface temperatures from both Viking Landers have been used to compute bulk Richardson numbers and Monin-Obukhov lengths during the earliest phase of the Mars missions. These parameters are used to estimate drag and heat transfer coefficients, friction velocities and surface heat fluxes at the two sites. The principal uncertainty is in the specification of the roughness length. Maximum heat fluxes occur near local noon at both sites, and are estimated to be in the range 15--20 W m -2 at the Viking 1 site and 10--15 W m -2 at the Viking 2 site. Maximum values of friction velocity occur in late morning at Viking 1 and are estimated to be 0.4--0.6 m s -1 . They occur shortly after drawn at the Viking 2 site where peak values are estimated to be in the range 0.25--0.35 m s -1 . Extension of these calculations to later times during the mission will require allowance for dust opacity effects in the estimation of surface temperature and in the correction of radiation errors of the Viking 2 temperature sensor

  10. Computations of Viking Lander Capsule Hypersonic Aerodynamics with Comparisons to Ground and Flight Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edquist, Karl T.

    2006-01-01

    Comparisons are made between the LAURA Navier-Stokes code and Viking Lander Capsule hypersonic aerodynamics data from ground and flight measurements. Wind tunnel data are available for a 3.48 percent scale model at Mach 6 and a 2.75 percent scale model at Mach 10.35, both under perfect gas air conditions. Viking Lander 1 aerodynamics flight data also exist from on-board instrumentation for velocities between 2900 and 4400 m/sec (Mach 14 to 23.3). LAURA flowfield solutions are obtained for the geometry as tested or flown, including sting effects at tunnel conditions and finite-rate chemistry effects in flight. Using the flight vehicle center-of-gravity location (trim angle approx. equals -11.1 deg), the computed trim angle at tunnel conditions is within 0.31 degrees of the angle derived from Mach 6 data and 0.13 degrees from the Mach 10.35 trim angle. LAURA Mach 6 trim lift and drag force coefficients are within 2 percent of measured data, and computed trim lift-to-drag ratio is within 4 percent of the data. Computed trim lift and drag force coefficients at Mach 10.35 are within 5 percent and 3 percent, respectively, of wind tunnel data. Computed trim lift-to-drag ratio is within 2 percent of the Mach 10.35 data. Using the nominal density profile and center-of-gravity location, LAURA trim angle at flight conditions is within 0.5 degrees of the total angle measured from on-board instrumentation. LAURA trim lift and drag force coefficients at flight conditions are within 7 and 5 percent, respectively, of the flight data. Computed trim lift-to-drag ratio is within 4 percent of the data. Computed aerodynamics sensitivities to center-of-gravity location, atmospheric density, and grid refinement are generally small. The results will enable a better estimate of aerodynamics uncertainties for future Mars entry vehicles where non-zero angle-of-attack is required.

  11. The initial exploration of Mars - Rationale for a return mission to Chryse Planitia and the Viking 1 Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    A discussion of the concepts behind planning a landing site on Mars is presented. On the basis of the engineering constraints and the scientific objectives which are likely to be imposed on the first few missions to the surface, reasons for supporting a return to Chryse Planitia and the Viking 1 landing site are given. Samples from the Hesperian ridged plains would be useful in establishing an absolute age for the present crater chronology, and samples of soils from the vicinity of the Viking 1 lander would be useful in determining the significance of the results from the Viking biological experiments. Soil samples would provide consistency between unmanned and manned missions, may contain fossil microorganisms, and could be useful in determining the mechanism responsible for outflow channel formation.

  12. Viking orbiter and its Mariner inheritance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Improvements to the design of the Mariner spacecraft resulted in the Viking spacecraft. The Viking spacecraft would consist of two major systems - an orbiter and a lander, while the lander would provide the means for safely delivering the scientific instruments to the surface, house, and provide the necessary power source and communication links for those experiments, the orbiter would transport the lander to Mars, rovide a platform for the Viking imaging system so that proposed landing sites could be surveyed and certified, relay lander science information back to Earth, and conduct scientific observations in its own right.

  13. Thermal and microstructural properties of fine-grained material at the Viking Lander 1 site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton, M. D.; Harri, A.-M.; Savijärvi, H.; Mäkinen, T.; Hagermann, A.; Kemppinen, O.; Johnston, A.

    2016-06-01

    As Viking Lander 1 touched down on Mars one of its footpads fully penetrated a patch of loose fine-grained drift material. The surrounding landing site, as observed by VL-1, was found to exhibit a complex terrain consisting of a crusted surface with an assortment of rocks, large dune-like drifts and smaller patches of drift material. We use a temperature sensor attached to the buried footpad and covered in fine-grained material to determine the thermal properties of drift material at the VL-1 site. The thermal properties are used to investigate the microstructure of the drift material and understand its relevance to surface-atmosphere interactions. We obtained a thermal inertia value of 103 ± 22 tiu. This value is in the upper range of previous thermal inertia estimates of martian dust as measured from orbit and is significantly lower than the regional thermal inertia of the VL-1 site, of around 283 tiu, obtained from orbit. We estimate a thermal inertia of around 263 ± 29 tiu for the duricrust at the VL-1 site. It was noted the patch of fine-grained regolith around the footpad was about 20-30 K warmer compared to similar material beyond the thermal influence of the lander. An effective diameter of 8 ± 5 μm was calculated for the particles in the drift material. This is larger than atmospheric dust and large compared to previous estimates of the drift material particle diameter. We interpret our results as the presence of a range of particle sizes, <8 μm, in the drift material with the thermal properties being controlled by a small amount of large particles (∼8 μm) and its cohesion being controlled by a large amount of smaller particles. The bulk of the particles in the drift material are therefore likely comparable in size to that of atmospheric dust. The possibility of larger particles being locked into a fine-grained material has implications for understanding the mobilisation of wind blown materials on Mars.

  14. VIKING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    For the international VIKING exhibition at the Danish National Museum, British Museum and Neues Museum Berlin, we developed a short stylised animation showing the timeline of the Jelling Monuments....

  15. Determination of the hypersonic-continuum/rarefied-flow drag coefficient of the Viking lander capsule 1 aeroshell from flight data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, R. C.; Walberg, G. D.

    1980-01-01

    Results of an investigation to determine the full scale drag coefficient in the high speed, low density regime of the Viking lander capsule 1 entry vehicle are presented. The principal flight data used in the study were from onboard pressure, mass spectrometer, and accelerometer instrumentation. The hypersonic continuum flow drag coefficient was unambiguously obtained from pressure and accelerometer data; the free molecule flow drag coefficient was indirectly estimated from accelerometer and mass spectrometer data; the slip flow drag coefficient variation was obtained from an appropriate scaling of existing experimental sphere data. Comparison of the flight derived drag hypersonic continuum flow regime except for Reynolds numbers from 1000 to 100,000, for which an unaccountable difference between flight and ground test data of about 8% existed. The flight derived drag coefficients in the free molecule flow regime were considerably larger than those previously calculated with classical theory. The general character of the previously determined temperature profile was not changed appreciably by the results of this investigation; however, a slightly more symmetrical temperature variation at the highest altitudes was obtained.

  16. Maps of the Martian Landing Sites and Rover Traverses: Viking 1 and 2, Mars Pathfinder, and Phoenix Landers, and the Mars Exploration Rovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, T. J.; Calef, F. J., III; Deen, R. G.; Gengl, H.

    2016-12-01

    The traverse maps produced tactically for the MER and MSL rover missions are the first step in placing the observations made by each vehicle into a local and regional geologic context. For the MER, Phoenix and MSL missions, 25cm/pixel HiRISE data is available for accurately localizing the vehicles. Viking and Mars Pathfinder, however, relied on Viking Orbiter images of several tens of m/pixel to triangulate to horizon features visible both from the ground and from orbit. After Pathfinder, MGS MOC images became available for these landing sites, enabling much better correlations to horizon features and localization predictions to be made, that were then corroborated with HiRISE images beginning 9 years ago. By combining topography data from MGS, Mars Express, and stereo processing of MRO CTX and HiRISE images into orthomosaics (ORRs) and digital elevation models (DEMs), it is possible to localize all the landers and rover positions to an accuracy of a few tens of meters with respect to the Mars global control net, and to better than half a meter with respect to other features within a HiRISE orthomosaic. JPL's MIPL produces point clouds of the MER Navcam stereo images that can be processed into 1cm/pixel ORR/DEMs that are then georeferenced to a HiRISE/CTX base map and DEM. This allows compilation of seamless mosaics of the lander and rover camera-based ORR/DEMs with the HiRISE ORR/DEM that can be viewed in 3 dimensions with GIS programs with that capability. We are re-processing the Viking Lander, Mars Pathfinder, and Phoenix lander data to allow similar ORR/DEM products to be made for those missions. For the fixed landers and Spirit, we will compile merged surface/CTX/HiRISE ORR/DEMs, that will enable accurate local and regional mapping of these landing sites, and allow comparisons of the results from these missions to be made with current and future surface missions.

  17. Sensor systems for the Altair Lunar Lander:

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariella, R

    2009-12-22

    The Altair Lunar Lander will enable astronauts to learn to live and work on the moon for extended periods of time, providing the experience needed to expand human exploration farther into the solar system. My overriding recommendation: Use independent and complementary [sometimes referred to as 'orthogonal'] techniques to disambiguate confounding/interfering signals. E.g.: a mass spectrometer ['MS'], which currently serves as a Majority Constituent Analyzer ['MCA'] can be very valuable in detecting the presence of a gaseous specie, so long as it falls on a mass-to-charge ratio ['m/z'] that is not already occupied by a majority constituent of cabin air. Consider the toxic gas, CO. Both N{sub 2} and CO have parent peaks of m/z = 28, and CO{sub 2} has a fragment peak at m/z = 28 [and at 16 and 12], so the N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} m/z=28 signals could mask low, but potentially-dangerous levels of CO. However there are numerous surface-sensitive CO detectors, as well as tunable-diode-laser-based CO sensors that could provide independent monitoring of CO. Also, by appending a gas chromatograph ['GC'] as the front-end sample processer, prior to the inlet of the MS, one can rely upon the GC to separate CO from N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}, providing the crew with another CO monitor. If the Altair Lunar Lander is able to include a Raman-based MCA for N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and CO{sub 2}, then each type of MCA would have cross-references, providing more confidence in the ongoing performance of each technique, and decreasing the risk that one instrument might fail to perform properly, without being noticed. See, also Dr. Pete Snyder's work, which states 'An orthogonal technologies sensor system appears to be attractive for a high confidence detection of presence and temporal characterization of bioaerosols.' Another recommendation: Use data fusion for event detection to decrease uncertainty: tie together the

  18. On the Thermal Protection Systems of Landers for Venus Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekonomov, A. P.; Ksanfomality, L. V.

    2018-01-01

    The landers of the Soviet Venera series—from Venera-9 to Venera-14—designed at the Lavochkin Association are a man-made monument to spectacular achievements of Soviet space research. For more than 40 years, they have remained the uneclipsed Soviet results in space studies of the Solar System. Within the last almost half a century, the experiments carried out by the Venera-9 to Venera-14 probes for studying the surface of the planet have not been repeated by any space agency in the world, mainly due to quite substantial technical problems. Since that time, no Russian missions with landers have been sent to Venus either. On Venus, there is an anoxic carbon dioxide atmosphere, where the pressure is 9.2 MPa and the temperature is 735 K near the surface. A long-lived lander should experience these conditions for an appreciable length of time. What technical solutions could provide a longer operation time for a new probe investigating the surface of Venus, if its thermal scheme is constructed similar to that of the Venera series? Onboard new landers, there should be a sealed module, where the physical conditions required for operating scientific instruments are maintained for a long period. At the same time, new high-temperature electronic equipment that remains functional under the above-mentioned conditions have appeared. In this paper, we consider and discuss different variants of the system for a long-lived sealed lander, in particular, the absorption of the penetrating heat due to water evaporation and the thermal protection construction for the instruments with intermediate characteristics.

  19. Non-Cooled Power System for Venus Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Denise; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Colozza, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    The Planetary Science Decadal Survey of 2013-2022 stated that the exploration of Venus is of significant interest. Studying the seismic activity of the planet is of particular importance because the findings can be compared to the seismic activity of Earth. Further, the geological and atmospheric properties of Venus will shed light into the past and future of Earth. This paper presents a radioisotope power system (RPS) design for a small low-power Venus lander. The feasibility of the new power system is then compared to that of primary batteries. A requirement for the power source system is to avoid moving parts in order to not interfere with the primary objective of the mission - to collect data about the seismic activity of Venus using a seismometer. The target mission duration of the lander is 117 days, a significant leap from Venera 13, the longest-lived lander on the surface of Venus, which survived for 2 hours. One major assumption for this mission design is that the power source system will not provide cooling to the other components of the lander. This assumption is based on high-temperature electronics technology that will enable the electronics and components of the lander to operate at Venus surface temperature. For the proposed RPS, a customized General Purpose Heat Source Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (GPHSRTG) is designed and analyzed. The GPHS-RTG is chosen primarily because it has no moving parts and it is capable of operating for long duration missions on the order of years. This power system is modeled as a spherical structure for a fundamental thermal analysis. The total mass and electrical output of the system are calculated to be 24 kilograms and 26 Watts, respectively. An alternative design for a battery-based power system uses Sodium Sulfur batteries. To deliver a similar electrical output for 117 days, the battery mass is calculated to be 234 kilograms. Reducing mission duration or power required will reduce the required battery mass

  20. Scientific results of the Viking Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flinn, E.A.; Reid, G.C.; Csanady, G.

    1977-01-01

    The Viking space project launched two unmanned spacecraft to Mars in 1975 for scientific exploration with special emphasis on the search for life. Each spacecraft consisted of an orbiter and a lander. The landing sites were finally selected after the spacecraft were in orbit. Thirteen investigations were performed: three mapping experiments from the orbiter, one atmospheric investigation during the lander entry phase, eight experiments on the surface of the planet, and one using the spacecraft radio and radar systems. The experiments on the surface dealt principally with biology, chemistry, geology, and meteorology. Seventy-eight scientists participated in the 13 teams performing these experiments. 53 individual articles make up this book

  1. Lander Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavers, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Since 2006 NASA has been formulating robotic missions to the lunar surface through programs and projects like the Robotic Lunar Exploration Program, Lunar Precursor Robotic Program, and International Lunar Network. All of these were led by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Due to funding shortfalls, the lunar missions associated with these efforts, the designs, were not completed. From 2010 to 2013, the Robotic Lunar Lander Development Activity was funded by the Science Mission Directorate (SMD) to develop technologies that would enable and enhance robotic lunar surface missions at lower costs. In 2013, a requirements-driven, low-cost robotic lunar lander concept was developed for the Resource Prospector Mission. Beginning in 2014, The Advanced Exploration Systems funded the lander team and established the MSFC, Johnson Space Center, Applied Physics Laboratory, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory team with MSFC leading the project. The lander concept to place a 300-kg rover on the lunar surface has been described in the New Technology Report Case Number MFS-33238-1. A low-cost lander concept for placing a robotic payload on the lunar surface is shown in figures 1 and 2. The NASA lander team has developed several lander concepts using common hardware and software to allow the lander to be configured for a specific mission need. In addition, the team began to transition lander expertise to United States (U.S.) industry to encourage the commercialization of space, specifically the lunar surface. The Lunar Cargo Transportation and Landing by Soft Touchdown (CATALYST) initiative was started and the NASA lander team listed above is partnering with three competitively selected U.S. companies (Astrobotic, Masten Space Systems, and Moon Express) to develop, test, and operate their lunar landers.

  2. Lunar lander and return propulsion system trade study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlbert, Eric A.; Moreland, Robert; Sanders, Gerald B.; Robertson, Edward A.; Amidei, David; Mulholland, John

    1993-01-01

    This trade study was initiated at NASA/JSC in May 1992 to develop and evaluate main propulsion system alternatives to the reference First Lunar Outpost (FLO) lander and return-stage transportation system concept. Thirteen alternative configurations were developed to explore the impacts of various combinations of return stage propellants, using either pressure or pump-fed propulsion systems and various staging options. Besides two-stage vehicle concepts, the merits of single-stage and stage-and-a-half options were also assessed in combination with high-performance liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen propellants. Configurations using an integrated modular cryogenic engine were developed to assess potential improvements in packaging efficiency, mass performance, and system reliability compared to non-modular cryogenic designs. The selection process to evaluate the various designs was the analytic hierarchy process. The trade study showed that a pressure-fed MMH/N2O4 return stage and RL10-based lander stage is the best option for a 1999 launch. While results of this study are tailored to FLO needs, the design date, criteria, and selection methodology are applicable to the design of other crewed lunar landing and return vehicles.

  3. The Viking Orbiter and its Mariner inheritance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, A. E.; Norris, H. W.

    1975-01-01

    The orbiter system of the Viking spacecraft performs the functions of transporting the lander into orbit around Mars, surveying the proposed landing sites, relaying lander data to earth, and conducting independent scientific observations of Mars. The orbiter system is a semiautomatic, solar-powered, triaxially stabilized platform capable of making trajectory corrections and communicating with earth on S-band. Its instruments for visual imaging, detecting water vapor, and thermal mapping are mounted on a separate two-degree-of-freedom scan platform. Radio science is conducted at three frequencies, using the main S-band system, a separate X-band derived from the S-band, and the UHF one-way link with the lander.

  4. Design and Analysis of Morpheus Lander Flight Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jiann-Woei; Yang, Lee; Fritz, Mathew; Nguyen, Louis H.; Johnson, Wyatt R.; Hart, Jeremy J.

    2014-01-01

    The Morpheus Lander is a vertical takeoff and landing test bed vehicle developed to demonstrate the system performance of the Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) system capability for the integrated autonomous landing and hazard avoidance system hardware and software. The Morpheus flight control system design must be robust to various mission profiles. This paper presents a design methodology for employing numerical optimization to develop the Morpheus flight control system. The design objectives include attitude tracking accuracy and robust stability with respect to rigid body dynamics and propellant slosh. Under the assumption that the Morpheus time-varying dynamics and control system can be frozen over a short period of time, the flight controllers are designed to stabilize all selected frozen-time control systems in the presence of parametric uncertainty. Both control gains in the inner attitude control loop and guidance gains in the outer position control loop are designed to maximize the vehicle performance while ensuring robustness. The flight control system designs provided herein have been demonstrated to provide stable control systems in both Draper Ares Stability Analysis Tool (ASAT) and the NASA/JSC Trick-based Morpheus time domain simulation.

  5. SNAP 19 Viking RTG mission performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brittain, W.M.

    1976-01-01

    The Viking-75 mission utilized the August/September 1975 opportunity to launch two spacecrafts to Mars for arrival in 1976 after about a one-year transit period. On arrival, each spacecraft, consisting of an orbiter and lander, will be placed in Mars orbit, with each lander subsequently descending from orbit to a soft-landing on the Martian surface. Two SNAP 19 RTG's (radioisotope thermoelectric generators) provide the primary source of electrical power and means of thermal control for each Viking lander. The RTG's will be switched on-load just prior to separation of the lander from the orbiter for checkout of the lander, and will remain on-load during entry and the remainder of the 90-day minimum surface mission

  6. NASA Propulsion Sub-System Concept Studies and Risk Reduction Activities for Resource Prospector Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Huu P.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's exploration roadmap is focused on developing technologies and performing precursor missions to advance the state of the art for eventual human missions to Mars. One of the key components of this roadmap is various robotic missions to Near-Earth Objects, the Moon, and Mars to fill in some of the strategic knowledge gaps. The Resource Prospector (RP) project is one of these robotic precursor activities in the roadmap. RP is a multi-center and multi-institution project to investigate the polar regions of the Moon in search of volatiles. The mission is rated Class D and is approximately 10 days, assuming a five day direct Earth to Moon transfer. Because of the mission cost constraint, a trade study of the propulsion concepts was conducted with a focus on available low-cost hardware for reducing cost in development, while technical risk, system mass, and technology advancement requirements were also taken into consideration. The propulsion system for the lander is composed of a braking stage providing a high thrust to match the lander's velocity with the lunar surface and a lander stage performing the final lunar descent. For the braking stage, liquid oxygen (LOX) and liquid methane (LCH4) propulsion systems, derived from the Morpheus experimental lander, and storable bi-propellant systems, including the 4th stage Peacekeeper (PK) propulsion components and Space Shuttle orbital maneuvering engine (OME), and a solid motor were considered for the study. For the lander stage, the trade study included miniaturized Divert Attitude Control System (DACS) thrusters (Missile Defense Agency (MDA) heritage), their enhanced thruster versions, ISE-100 and ISE-5, and commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware. The lowest cost configuration of using the solid motor and the PK components while meeting the requirements was selected. The reference concept of the lander is shown in Figure 1. In the current reference configuration, the solid stage is the primary provider of delta

  7. Integral design method for simple and small Mars lander system using membrane aeroshell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakagami, Ryo; Takahashi, Ryohei; Wachi, Akifumi; Koshiro, Yuki; Maezawa, Hiroyuki; Kasai, Yasko; Nakasuka, Shinichi

    2018-03-01

    To execute Mars surface exploration missions, spacecraft need to overcome the difficulties of the Mars entry, descent, and landing (EDL) sequences. Previous landing missions overcame these challenges with complicated systems that could only be executed by organizations with mature technology and abundant financial resources. In this paper, we propose a novel integral design methodology for a small, simple Mars lander that is achievable even by organizations with limited technology and resources such as universities or emerging countries. We aim to design a lander (including its interplanetary cruise stage) whose size and mass are under 1 m3 and 150 kg, respectively. We adopted only two components for Mars EDL process: a "membrane aeroshell" for the Mars atmospheric entry and descent sequence and one additional mechanism for the landing sequence. The landing mechanism was selected from the following three candidates: (1) solid thrusters, (2) aluminum foam, and (3) a vented airbag. We present a reasonable design process, visualize dependencies among parameters, summarize sizing methods for each component, and propose the way to integrate these components into one system. To demonstrate the effectiveness, we applied this methodology to the actual Mars EDL mission led by the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) and the University of Tokyo. As a result, an 80 kg class Mars lander with a 1.75 m radius membrane aeroshell and a vented airbag was designed, and the maximum landing shock that the lander will receive was 115 G.

  8. Viking Seismometer PDS Archive Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, R. D.

    2016-12-01

    The Viking Lander 2 seismometer operated successfully for over 500 Sols on the Martian surface, recording at least one likely candidate Marsquake. The Viking mission, in an era when data handling hardware (both on board and on the ground) was limited in capability, predated modern planetary data archiving, and ad-hoc repositories of the data, and the very low-level record at NSSDC, were neither convenient to process nor well-known. In an effort supported by the NASA Mars Data Analysis Program, we have converted the bulk of the Viking dataset (namely the 49,000 and 270,000 records made in High- and Event- modes at 20 and 1 Hz respectively) into a simple ASCII table format. Additionally, since wind-generated lander motion is a major component of the signal, contemporaneous meteorological data are included in summary records to facilitate correlation. These datasets are being archived at the PDS Geosciences Node. In addition to brief instrument and dataset descriptions, the archive includes code snippets in the freely-available language 'R' to demonstrate plotting and analysis. Further, we present examples of lander-generated noise, associated with the sampler arm, instrument dumps and other mechanical operations.

  9. Progress Towards the Development of a Long-Lived Venus Lander Duplex System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Rodger, W.; Bruder, Geoffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    NASA has begun the development of a combined Stirling cycle power and cooling system (duplex) to enable the long-lived surface exploration of Venus and other harsh environments in the solar system. The duplex system will operate from the heat provided by decaying radioisotope plutonium-238 or its substitute. Since the surface of Venus has a thick, hot, and corrosive atmosphere, it is a challenging proposition to maintain sensitive lander electronics under survivable conditions. This development effort requires the integration of: a radioisotope or fission heat source; heat pipes; high-temperature, corrosion-resistant material; multistage cooling; a novel free-displacer Stirling convertor for the lander; and a minimal vibration thermoacoustic Stirling convertor for the seismometer. The first year effort includes conceptual system design and control studies, materials development, and prototype hardware testing. A summary of these findings and test results is presented in this report.

  10. System-level Analysis of Food Moisture Content Requirements for the Mars Dual Lander Transit Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levri, Julie A.; Perchonok, Michele H.

    2004-01-01

    In order to ensure that adequate water resources are available during a mission, any net water loss from the habitat must be balanced with an equivalent amount of required makeup water. Makeup water may come from a variety of sources, including water in shipped tanks, water stored in prepackaged food, product water from fuel cells, and in-situ water resources. This paper specifically addresses the issue of storing required makeup water in prepackaged food versus storing the water in shipped tanks for the Mars Dual Lander Transit Mission, one of the Advanced Life Support Reference Missions. In this paper, water mass balances have been performed for the Dual Lander Transit Mission, to determine the necessary requirement of makeup water under nominal operation (i.e. no consideration of contingency needs), on a daily basis. Contingency issues are briefly discussed with respect to impacts on makeup water storage (shipped tanks versus storage in prepackaged food). The Dual Lander Transit Mission was selected for study because it has been considered by the Johnson Space Center Exploration Office in enough detail to define a reasonable set of scenario options for nominal system operation and contingencies. This study also illustrates the concept that there are multiple, reasonable life support system scenarios for any one particular mission. Thus, the need for a particular commodity can depend upon many variables in the system. In this study, we examine the need for makeup water as it depends upon the configuration of the rest of the life support system.

  11. Atmospheric Mining in the Outer Solar System: Outer Planet Orbital Transfer and Lander Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric mining in the outer solar system has been investigated as a means of fuel production for high energy propulsion and power. Fusion fuels such as Helium 3 (3He) and deuterium can be wrested from the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune and either returned to Earth or used in-situ for energy production. Helium 3 and deuterium were the primary gases of interest with hydrogen being the primary propellant for nuclear thermal solid core and gas core rocket-based atmospheric flight. A series of analyses were undertaken to investigate resource capturing aspects of atmospheric mining in the outer solar system. This included the gas capturing rate, storage options, and different methods of direct use of the captured gases. While capturing 3He, large amounts of hydrogen and 4He are produced. Analyses of orbital transfer vehicles (OTVs), landers, and the issues with in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) mining factories are included. Preliminary observations are presented on near-optimal selections of moon base orbital locations, OTV power levels, and OTV and lander rendezvous points. For analyses of round trip OTV flights from Uranus to Miranda or Titania, a 10- Megawatt electric (MWe) OTV power level and a 200 metricton (MT) lander payload were selected based on a relative short OTV trip time and minimization of the number of lander flights. A similar optimum power level is suggested for OTVs flying from low orbit around Neptune to Thalassa or Triton. Several moon base sites at Uranus and Neptune and the OTV requirements to support them are also addressed.

  12. Did Viking discover life on Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guaita, Cesare

    2017-08-01

    The last analytical results of SAM laboratory onboard of Curiosity offer a new insight on the interpretation of the Label Release (LR) experiment performed on Mars by the two Viking landers about 40 years ago. The fundamental action of perchlorate salt, able to decompose all organic compounds at high temperature ( > 300°C) is discussed.

  13. The weather on Mars on the basis of the measurements carried out by the Vikings mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macris, C.J.; Petropoulos, B.Ch.

    1982-01-01

    The authors summarize some new results concerning the Mars atmosphere obtained after the Vikings mission. On the basis of the results of the measurements made by the Viking 2 lander and Viking orbiter, the values of pressure and density corresponding to the altitudes from 28 to 100 km and different molecular weights have been computed. The computed values have been compared with the ones measured by Viking 2. (Auth.)

  14. BILLIARDS: Baseline Instrumented Lithology Lander, Inspector and Asteroid Redirection Demonstration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Matthew; Sloane, Joshua; Ortiz, Oliver; Barbee, Brent

    2015-01-01

    BILLIARDS Baseline Instrumented Lithology Lander, Inspector, and Asteroid Redirection Demonstration System Proposed demonstration mission for Billiard-Ball concept Select asteroid pair with natural close approach to minimize cost and complexity Primary Objectives Rendezvous with a small (10m), near Earth (alpha) asteroid Maneuver the alpha asteroid to a collision with a 100m (beta) asteroid Produce a detectable deflection or disruption of the beta asteroid Secondary objectives Contribute knowledge of asteroid composition and characteristics Contribute knowledge of small-body formation Opportunity for international collaboration

  15. Geographic asymmetries of the Viking auroral distribution: Implications for ionospheric coordinate systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hearn, D.J.; Elphinstone, R.D.; Murphree, J.S.; Cogger, L.L.

    1993-01-01

    Viking images of the auroral distribution have been used to investigate the relevance of various ionospheric coordinate systems. An important aspect of the large-scale auroral shape is its dependence on the asymmetries of the Earth's internal field. Model predictions of where the aurora occurs, using the equatorial plane's volume current density, agree with observations and imply that the internal field plays a more important role that generally believed. Historically, the belief that the internal field has only small effects seems to stem from the widespread use of the corrected geomagnetic and invariant coordinate systems. These systems involve the mapping of field lines and have advantages in statistical studies and comparisons; less sophisticated systems such as the eccentric dipole coordinate system should be used in individual studies and in studies involving differentiation or integration of some observational parameters. Observations of the auraoral distribution are give to illustrate the universal time, tilt angle, and Kp variability in different coordinate systems and demonstrate that the dominant variability of the aurora is due to internal field asymmetries. A new set of coordinate systems are briefly developed as examples of how to incorporate external field models into studies of auraoral images. It is proposed that the one of these coordinate systems can be used as a test of how well an external field model can match observed auroral distributions. 19 refs., 1 tab

  16. Planetary Seismology : Lander- and Wind-Induced Seismic Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Ralph

    2016-10-01

    Seismic measurements are of interest for future geophysical exploration of ocean worlds such as Europa or Titan, as well as Venus, Mars and the Moon. Even when a seismometer is deployed away from a lander (as in the case of Apollo) lander-generated disturbances are apparent. Such signatures may be usefully diagnostic of lander operations (at least for outreach), and may serve as seismic excitation for near-field propagation studies. The introduction of these 'spurious' events may also influence the performance of event detection and data compression algorithms.Examples of signatures in the Viking 2 seismometer record of lander mechanism operations are presented. The coherence of Viking seismometer noise levels and wind forcing is well-established : some detailed examples are examined. Wind noise is likely to be significant on future Mars missions such as InSight, as well as on Titan and Venus.

  17. Concurrent Multidisciplinary Preliminary Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) Final Report: Advanced Long-Life Lander Investigating the Venus Environment (ALIVE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleson, Steven R.

    2018-01-01

    The COncurrent Multidisciplinary Preliminary Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) Team partnered with the Applied Research Laboratory to perform a NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) Program study to evaluate chemical based power systems for keeping a Venus lander alive (power and cooling) and functional for a period of days. The mission class targeted was either a Discovery ($500M) or New Frontiers ($750M to $780M) class mission.

  18. A comparison of soil organic carbon stocks in Viking Age and modern land use systems in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breuning-Madsen, Henrik; Kristensen, J.Aa.; Holst, M.K.

    2013-01-01

    in modern farmlands during thousands of years in relation to inputs of manure, fertilizers, liming and drainage. In this paper the SOC stocks from anaerobic soil horizons in two big loamy burial mounds from the Viking Age, representing the land use system 1000 years ago, are compared with results from...... land use systems with high input of manure. Compared to ancient sandy soils that do not show any SOC loss during the past 3000 years, there is a clear SOC loss from the loamy soils, probably about 40% during the last 150 years, where most of the loamy soils have been drained. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All...

  19. Planetary protection implementation on future Mars lander missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Robert; Devincenzi, Donald L.

    1993-01-01

    A workshop was convened to discuss the subject of planetary protection implementation for Mars lander missions. It was sponsored and organized by the Exobiology Implementation Team of the U.S./Russian Joint Working Group on Space Biomedical and Life Support Systems. The objective of the workshop was to discuss planetary protection issues for the Russian Mars '94 mission, which is currently under development, as well as for additional future Mars lander missions including the planned Mars '96 and U.S. MESUR Pathfinder and Network missions. A series of invited presentations was made to ensure that workshop participants had access to information relevant to the planned discussions. The topics summarized in this report include exobiology science objectives for Mars exploration, current international policy on planetary protection, planetary protection requirements developed for earlier missions, mission plans and designs for future U.S. and Russian Mars landers, biological contamination of spacecraft components, and techniques for spacecraft bioload reduction. In addition, the recent recommendations of the U.S. Space Studies Board (SSB) on this subject were also summarized. Much of the discussion focused on the recommendations of the SSB. The SSB proposed relaxing the planetary protection requirements for those Mars lander missions that do not contain life detection experiments, but maintaining Viking-like requirements for those missions that do contain life detection experiments. The SSB recommendations were found to be acceptable as a guide for future missions, although many questions and concerns about interpretation were raised and are summarized. Significant among the concerns was the need for more quantitative guidelines to prevent misinterpretation by project offices and better access to and use of the Viking data base of bioassays to specify microbial burden targets. Among the questions raised were how will the SSB recommendations be integrated with existing

  20. Planetary protection implementation on future Mars lander missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Robert; Devincenzi, Donald L.

    1993-06-01

    A workshop was convened to discuss the subject of planetary protection implementation for Mars lander missions. It was sponsored and organized by the Exobiology Implementation Team of the U.S./Russian Joint Working Group on Space Biomedical and Life Support Systems. The objective of the workshop was to discuss planetary protection issues for the Russian Mars '94 mission, which is currently under development, as well as for additional future Mars lander missions including the planned Mars '96 and U.S. MESUR Pathfinder and Network missions. A series of invited presentations was made to ensure that workshop participants had access to information relevant to the planned discussions. The topics summarized in this report include exobiology science objectives for Mars exploration, current international policy on planetary protection, planetary protection requirements developed for earlier missions, mission plans and designs for future U.S. and Russian Mars landers, biological contamination of spacecraft components, and techniques for spacecraft bioload reduction. In addition, the recent recommendations of the U.S. Space Studies Board (SSB) on this subject were also summarized. Much of the discussion focused on the recommendations of the SSB. The SSB proposed relaxing the planetary protection requirements for those Mars lander missions that do not contain life detection experiments, but maintaining Viking-like requirements for those missions that do contain life detection experiments. The SSB recommendations were found to be acceptable as a guide for future missions, although many questions and concerns about interpretation were raised and are summarized. Significant among the concerns was the need for more quantitative guidelines to prevent misinterpretation by project offices and better access to and use of the Viking data base of bio-assays to specify microbial burden targets. Among the questions raised were how will the SSB recommendations be integrated with existing

  1. Martian ionosphere as observed by the Viking retarding potential analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, W.B.; Sanatani, S.; Zuccaro, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    The retarding potential analyzers on the Viking landers obtained the first in situ measurements of ions from another planetary ionosphere. Mars has an F 1 ionosphere layer with a peak ion concentration of approximately 10 5 cm -3 just below 130-km altitude, of which approx.90% are O 2 + and 10% CO 2 + . At higher altitudes, O + ions were detected with peak concentration near 225 km of less than 10 3 cm -3 . Viking 1 measured ion temperatures of approximately 150 0 K near the F 1 peak increasing to an apparent exospheric temperature of 210 0 K near 175 km. Above this altitude, departures from thermal equilibrium with the neutral gas occur, and T 1 increases rapidly to >1000 0 K at 250 km. An equatorward horizontal ion velocity of the order of 100--200 m/s was observed near 200 km and near the F 1 peak, with a minimum velocity at intermediate heights. Both landers entered the F 1 layer at a solar zenith angle near 44 0 , though the local times of the Viking 1 and 2 entries were 16:13 and 9:49 LT, respectively. On Viking 2, considerably more structure was observed in the height profiles of ionospheric quantities, although they were similar in shape to the Viking 1 profiles

  2. Vikings and the Western Frontier

    OpenAIRE

    Wienberg, Jes

    2015-01-01

    The article investigates how and why the Vikings became world-famous. The point of departure is the World Exposition in Chicago in 1893, where an icon for the Viking, a replica of the Gokstad ship, arrived the very same day as Frederick Jackson Turner presented his frontier thesis. The origin of the word Viking, the romantic revival of the Viking, the creation of the Viking Age and the criticism of the Viking and the Viking Age is discussed. Finally the article argues that the Viking and the ...

  3. Viking Age Hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Arwill-Nordbladh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A study of hair in the Viking Age. The article draws on medieval Icelandic and Scandinavian texts for interpretation. Further information is taken from pictoral representations of viking hair styles and decoration, hairdressing artefacts, figurines and actual remains of hair.

  4. Mars: The Viking Discoveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Bevan M.

    This booklet describes the results of NASA's Viking spacecraft on Mars. It is intended to be useful for the teacher of basic courses in earth science, space science, astronomy, physics, or geology, but is also of interest to the well-informed layman. Topics include why we should study Mars, how the Viking spacecraft works, the winds of Mars, the…

  5. Development of a Compact, Deep-Penetrating Heat Flow Instrument for Lunar Landers: In-Situ Thermal Conductivity System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagihara, S.; Zacny, K.; Hedlund, M.; Taylor, P. T.

    2012-01-01

    Geothermal heat flow is obtained as a product of the geothermal gradient and the thermal conductivity of the vertical soil/rock/regolith interval penetrated by the instrument. Heat flow measurements are a high priority for the geophysical network missions to the Moon recommended by the latest Decadal Survey and previously the International Lunar Network. One of the difficulties associated with lunar heat flow measurement on a robotic mission is that it requires excavation of a relatively deep (approx 3 m) hole in order to avoid the long-term temporal changes in lunar surface thermal environment affecting the subsurface temperature measurements. Such changes may be due to the 18.6-year-cylcle lunar precession, or may be initiated by presence of the lander itself. Therefore, a key science requirement for heat flow instruments for future lunar missions is to penetrate 3 m into the regolith and to measure both thermal gradient and thermal conductivity. Engineering requirements are that the instrument itself has minimal impact on the subsurface thermal regime and that it must be a low-mass and low-power system like any other science instrumentation on planetary landers. It would be very difficult to meet the engineering requirements, if the instrument utilizes a long (> 3 m) probe driven into the ground by a rotary or percussive drill. Here we report progress in our efforts to develop a new, compact lunar heat flow instrumentation that meets all of these science and engineering requirements.

  6. A HW-SW Co-Designed System for the Lunar Lander Hazard Detection and Avoidance Breadboarding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo, Pedro; Latorre, Antonio; Valle, Carlos; Gomez de Aguero, Sergio; Hagenfeldt, Miguel; Parreira, Baltazar; Lindoso, Almudena; Portela, Marta; Garcia, Mario; San Millan, Enrique; Zharikov, Yuri; Entrena, Luis

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents the HW-SW co-design approach followed to tackle the design of the Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA) system breadboarding for the Lunar Lander ESA mission, undertaken given the fact that novel GNC technologies used to promote autonomous systems demand processing capabilities that current (and forthcoming) space processors are not able to satisfy. The paper shows how the current system design has been performed in a process in which the original HDA functionally validated design has been partitioned between SW (deemed for execution in a microprocessor) and HW algorithms (to be executed in an FPGA), considering the performance requirements and resorting to a deep analysis of the algorithms in view of their adequacy to HW or SW implementation.

  7. Development and Integration of the Janus Robotic Lander: A Liquid Oxygen-Liquid Methane Propulsion System Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Raul

    Initiatives have emerged with the goal of sending humans to other places in our solar system. New technologies are being developed that will allow for more efficient space systems to transport future astronauts. One of those technologies is the implementation of propulsion systems that use liquid oxygen and liquid methane (LO2-LCH4) as propellants. The benefits of a LO2-LCH4 propulsion system are plenty. One of the main advantages is the possibility of manufacturing the propellants at the destination body. A space vehicle which relies solely on liquid oxygen and liquid methane for its main propulsion and reaction control engines is necessary to exploit this advantage. At the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) MIRO Center for Space Exploration Technology Research (cSETR) such a vehicle is being developed. Janus is a robotic lander vehicle with the capability of vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) which integrates several LO2-LCH 4 systems that are being devised in-house. The vehicle will serve as a testbed for the parallel operation of these propulsion systems while being fed from common propellant tanks. The following work describes the efforts done at the cSETR to develop the first prototype of the vehicle as well as the plan to move forward in the design of the subsequent prototypes that will lead to a flight vehicle. In order to ensure an eventual smooth integration of the different subsystems that will form part of Janus, requirements were defined for each individual subsystem as well as the vehicle as a whole. Preliminary testing procedures and layouts have also been developed and will be discussed to detail in this text. Furthermore, the current endeavors in the design of each subsystem and the way that they interact with one another within the lander will be explained.

  8. Summary of neutron measurements for the Viking Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.E.

    1975-01-01

    The results of neutron measurements for 238 Pu-fueled, 683-W (thermal) capsules fabricated for the Viking Program (Mars Lander) are presented. These results include, for each capsule, the total neutron emission rate and neutron multiplication and, for one capsule, the neutron energy spectrum. A precision long counter was used for the neutron emission rate measurements and a single stilbene crystal for the neutron spectrum measurement. (U.S.)

  9. Effects of cold-water corals on fish diversity and density (European continental margin: Arctic, NE Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea): Data from three baited lander systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linley, T. D.; Lavaleye, M.; Maiorano, P.; Bergman, M.; Capezzuto, F.; Cousins, N. J.; D'Onghia, G.; Duineveld, G.; Shields, M. A.; Sion, L.; Tursi, A.; Priede, I. G.

    2017-11-01

    Autonomous photographic landers are a low-impact survey method for the assessment of mobile fauna in situations where methods such as trawling are not feasible or ethical. Three institutions collaborated through the CoralFISH project, each using differing lander systems, to assess the effects of cold-water corals on fish diversity and density. The Biogenic Reef Ichthyofauna Lander (BRIL, Oceanlab), Autonomous Lander for Biological Experiments (ALBEX, NIOZ) and the Marine Environment MOnitoring system (MEMO, CoNISMa) were deployed in four CoralFISH European study regions covering the Arctic, NE Atlantic and Mediterranean, namely Northern Norway (275-310 m depth), Belgica Mound Province (686-1025 m depth), the Bay of Biscay (623-936 m depth), and Santa Maria di Leuca (547-670 m depth). A total of 33 deployments were carried out in the different regions. Both the time of first arrival (Tarr) and the maximum observed number of fish (MaxN) were standardised between the different lander systems and compared between coral and reference stations as indicators of local fish density. Fish reached significantly higher MaxN at the coral stations than at the reference stations. Fish were also found to have significantly lower Tarr in the coral areas in data obtained from the BRIL and MEMO landers. All data indicated that fish abundance is higher within the coral areas. Fish species diversity was higher within the coral areas of Atlantic Ocean while in Northern Norway and Santa Maria di Leuca coral areas, diversity was similar at coral and reference stations but a single dominant species (Brosme brosme and Conger conger respectively) showed much higher density within the coral areas. Indicating that, while cold-water coral reefs have a positive effect on fish diversity and/or abundance, this effect varies across Europe's reefs.

  10. Viking re-enactment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konzack, Lars

    2017-01-01

    In Chapter 4 we meet many different participants such as archaeology students, tradespeople, re-enactors, horseback riders, archers and many more who are all partaking in the same Viking market at Moesgaard Museum, Denmark. The purpose of this chapter is to present Moesgaard Viking Moot...... as a participatory local heritage event with a diverse range of spectators and participants. Lars Konzack shows how the different participants have developed their interaction with and interpretation of the Viking age through the market’s 40-year history....

  11. Robotic Lunar Lander Development Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Benjamin; Cohen, Barbara A.; McGee, Timothy; Reed, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and John Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory have developed several mission concepts to place scientific and exploration payloads ranging from 10 kg to more than 200 kg on the surface of the moon. The mission concepts all use a small versatile lander that is capable of precision landing. The results to date of the lunar lander development risk reduction activities including high pressure propulsion system testing, structure and mechanism development and testing, and long cycle time battery testing will be addressed. The most visible elements of the risk reduction program are two fully autonomous lander flight test vehicles. The first utilized a high pressure cold gas system (Cold Gas Test Article) with limited flight durations while the subsequent test vehicle, known as the Warm Gas Test Article, utilizes hydrogen peroxide propellant resulting in significantly longer flight times and the ability to more fully exercise flight sensors and algorithms. The development of the Warm Gas Test Article is a system demonstration and was designed with similarity to an actual lunar lander including energy absorbing landing legs, pulsing thrusters, and flight-like software implementation. A set of outdoor flight tests to demonstrate the initial objectives of the WGTA program was completed in Nov. 2011, and will be discussed.

  12. Preliminary findings of the Viking gas exchange experiment and a model for Martian surface chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, V.I.; Berdahl, B.J.; Carle, G.C.

    1977-01-01

    It is stated that O 2 and CO 2 were evolved from humidified Martian soil in the gas exchange experiment on Viking Lander 1. Small changes in N 2 gas were also recorded. A model of the morphology and a hypothesis of the mechanistics of the Martian surface are proposed. (author)

  13. Optical analysis of a compound quasi-microscope for planetary landers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, S. D.; Burcher, E. E.; Huck, F. O.

    1974-01-01

    A quasi-microscope concept, consisting of facsimile camera augmented with an auxiliary lens as a magnifier, was introduced and analyzed. The performance achievable with this concept was primarily limited by a trade-off between resolution and object field; this approach leads to a limiting resolution of 20 microns when used with the Viking lander camera (which has an angular resolution of 0.04 deg). An optical system is analyzed which includes a field lens between camera and auxiliary lens to overcome this limitation. It is found that this system, referred to as a compound quasi-microscope, can provide improved resolution (to about 2 microns ) and a larger object field. However, this improvement is at the expense of increased complexity, special camera design requirements, and tighter tolerances on the distances between optical components.

  14. The Viking X ray fluorescence experiment - Sampling strategies and laboratory simulations. [Mars soil sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, A. K.; Castro, A. J.; Clark, B. C.; Toulmin, P., III; Rose, H., Jr.; Keil, K.; Gooding, J. L.

    1977-01-01

    Ten samples of Mars regolith material (six on Viking Lander 1 and four on Viking Lander 2) have been delivered to the X ray fluorescence spectrometers as of March 31, 1977. An additional six samples at least are planned for acquisition in the remaining Extended Mission (to January 1979) for each lander. All samples acquired are Martian fines from the near surface (less than 6-cm depth) of the landing sites except the latest on Viking Lander 1, which is fine material from the bottom of a trench dug to a depth of 25 cm. Several attempts on each lander to acquire fresh rock material (in pebble sizes) for analysis have yielded only cemented surface crustal material (duricrust). Laboratory simulation and experimentation are required both for mission planning of sampling and for interpretation of data returned from Mars. This paper is concerned with the rationale for sample site selections, surface sampler operations, and the supportive laboratory studies needed to interpret X ray results from Mars.

  15. Viking og Hvidekrist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2. oplag 1993. Svensk udgave: Från Vikingar till Korsfarare, 1992. Tysk udgave: Wikinger Waráger Normannen. Die Skandinavier und Europa 800-1200, 1992. Fransk udgave i samarbejde med J.-P. Mohen & F.-X. Dillmann: Les Vikings . . . . Les Scandinaves et l'Europe 800-1200, 1992. Engelske og amerikan......2. oplag 1993. Svensk udgave: Från Vikingar till Korsfarare, 1992. Tysk udgave: Wikinger Waráger Normannen. Die Skandinavier und Europa 800-1200, 1992. Fransk udgave i samarbejde med J.-P. Mohen & F.-X. Dillmann: Les Vikings . . . . Les Scandinaves et l'Europe 800-1200, 1992. Engelske og...... amerikanske udgaver i samarbejde med D.M. Wilson: From Viking to Crusader. Scandinavia and Europe 800-1200, 1992...

  16. Viking relativity experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, I.I.; Reasenberg, R.D.; MacNeil, P.E.; Goldstein, R.B.; Brenkle, J.P.; Cain, D.L.; Komarek, T.; Zygielbaum, A.I.; Cuddihy, W.F.; Michael, W.H. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of the round-trip time of flight of radio signals transmitted from the earth to the Viking spacecraft are being analyzed to test the predictions of Einstein's theory of general relativity. According to this theory the signals will be delayed by up to approx.250 μs owing to the direct effect of solar gravity on the propagation. A very preliminary qualitative analysis of the Viking data obtained near the 1976 superior conjunction of Mars indicates agreement with the predictions to within the estimated uncertainty of 0.5%

  17. The Viking Relativity Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, I. I.; Reasenberg, R. D.; Macneil, P. E.; Goldstein, R. B.; Brenkle, J. P.; Cain, D. L.; Komarek, T.; Zygielbaum, A. I.; Cuddihy, W. F.; Michael, W. H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of the round-trip time of flight of radio signals transmitted from the earth to the Viking spacecraft are being analyzed to test the predictions of Einstein's theory of general relativity. According to this theory the signals will be delayed by up to approximately 250 microsec owing to the direct effect of solar gravity on the propagation. A very preliminary qualitative analysis of the Viking data obtained near the 1976 superior conjunction of Mars indicates agreement with the predictions to within the estimated uncertainty of 0.5%.

  18. The Viking mission search for life on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, H. P.; Lederberg, J.; Rich, A.; Horowitz, N. H.; Oyama, V. I.; Levin, G. V.

    1976-01-01

    The scientific payload on the Viking Mars landers is described. Shortly after landing, two facsimile cameras capable of stereoscopic imaging will scan the landing site area in black and white, color, and infrared to reveal gross evidence of past or present living systems. A wide range mass spectrometer will record a complete mass spectrum for soil samples from mass 12 to mass 200 every 10.3 sec. Three experiments based on different assumptions on the nature of life on Mars, if it exists, will be carried out by the bio-lab. A pyrolytic release experiment is designed to measure photosynthetic or dark fixation of carbon dioxide or carbon monoxide into organic compounds. A labelled release experiment will test for metabolic activity during incubation of a surface sample moistened with a solution of radioactively labelled simple organic compounds. A gas exchange experiment will detect changes in the gaseous medium surrounding a soil sample as the result of metabolic activity. The hardware, function, and terrestrial test results of the bio-lab experiments are discussed.

  19. Linear Covariance Analysis for a Lunar Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jiann-Woei; Bhatt, Sagar; Fritz, Matthew; Woffinden, David; May, Darryl; Braden, Ellen; Hannan, Michael

    2017-01-01

    A next-generation lunar lander Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC) system, which includes a state-of-the-art optical sensor suite, is proposed in a concept design cycle. The design goal is to allow the lander to softly land within the prescribed landing precision. The achievement of this precision landing requirement depends on proper selection of the sensor suite. In this paper, a robust sensor selection procedure is demonstrated using a Linear Covariance (LinCov) analysis tool developed by Draper.

  20. Thermal Management System for Long-Lived Venus Landers, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall program objective is to develop a high-temperature passive thermal management system for the Radioisotope Power Conversion system that energizes the...

  1. Viking-2 Seismometer Measurements on Mars: PDS Data Archive and Meteorological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Ralph D.; Nakamura, Yosio; Murphy, James R.

    2017-11-01

    A data product has been generated and archived on the NASA Planetary Data System (Geosciences Node), which presents the seismometer readings of Viking Lander 2 in an easy-to-access form, for both the raw ("high rate") waveform records and the compressed ("event mode") amplitude and frequency records. In addition to the records themselves, a separate summary file for each instrument mode lists key statistics of each record together with the meteorological measurements made closest in time to the seismic record. This juxtaposition facilitates correlation of the seismometer instrument response to different meteorological conditions, or the selection of seismic data during which wind disturbances can be expected to be small. We summarize data quality issues and also discuss lander-generated seismic signals, due to operation of the sampling arm or other systems, which may be of interest for prospective missions to other bodies. We review wind-seismic correlation, the "Martian solar day (sol) 80" candidate seismic event, and identify the seismic signature of a probable dust devil vortex on sol 482 : the seismometer data allow an estimate of the peak wind, occurring between coarsely spaced meteorology measurements. We present code to generate the plots in this paper to illustrate use of the data product.

  2. Life habitability in the solar system: testing the universality of biology on Europa with microprobes or lander

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chela-Flores, J.

    2007-05-01

    We discuss whether it is possible to test the universality of biology, a quest that is of paramount relevance for one of its most recent branches, namely astrobiology. We review this topic in terms of the relative roles played on the Earth biota by contingency and evolutionary convergence. We raise the related question of whether the molecular events that were precursors to the origin of life on Earth are bound to occur elsewhere in the solar system, wherever the environmental conditions are similar to the terrestrial ones. The set of hypotheses for addressing the question of the universality of biology can be tested by future experiments that are feasible with current technology. We focus on landing on the Jovian satellite Europa and its broader implications, including selecting a landing site. We also discuss the corresponding miniaturized equipment that is already in existence. The second objective is to discuss in more detail whether sulphur traces on Jupiter's moon Europa could be of biogenic origin, and could be tested with the present level of technology readiness. To achieve reliable biosignatures in the solar system in the foreseeable future, it seems essential to go back to Europa, in addition to continuing the multiple well-funded Mars programmes. Our work highlights the type of biogenic signatures that can be searched, when probing Europa's icy and patchy surface. Definite answers can be retrieved in situ on the icy surface with instrumentation for the corresponding biogeochemistry. The measurements can be performed by, for instance, microprobes, or by landers (of the type of the original JPL studies that sadly have been suspended). Such on-site measurements could make a modest contribution to the overall question of settling one of the most significant problems in astrobiology, namely the origin of the surficial sulphur on Europa. (author)

  3. Microbial response to oil enrichment in Gulf of Mexico sediment measured using a novel long-term benthic lander system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth N. Orcutt

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Weathered crude oil sank to the seafloor following the 'Deepwater Horizon' disaster in 2010, removing this oil from further physical and photo-chemical degradation processes and leaving benthic processes as the mechanisms for altering and remediating this hydrocarbon source. To quantify potential microbial oil degradation rates at the seafloor, and associated changes in sediment microbial community structure and pore fluid composition, we used a benthic lander system to deploy novel sediment flow-through chambers at a natural hydrocarbon seep in the Gulf of Mexico (at a depth of 1226 m in lease block GC600 roughly 265 km southwest of the 'Deepwater Horizon' wellhead (at 1500 m depth. Sediment amended with 20% unweathered crude oil had elevated rates of sulfate reduction over the course of the 5-month-long experiment as compared to an unamended control, yielding potential rates of sulfate reduction (600–800 mmol m–2 d–1 among the highest measured in hydrocarbon-influenced seafloor sediment. Oil amendment also stimulated methane production towards the end of the experiment, and led to slightly higher cell densities without significant changes in microbial community structure, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence libraries and fatty acid profiles. Assuming a link between sulfate reduction and hydrocarbon degradation, these results suggest that electron acceptor availability may become limiting in heavily oiled deep-sea environments, resulting in minimal degradation of deposited oil. This study provides unique data on seafloor sediment responses to oil deposition, and reveals the value of using observatories to fill the gap in understanding deep-sea microbial processes, especially for ephemeral and stochastic events such as oil spills.

  4. Relation of the lunar power system to the SEI program and to landers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criswell, David R.; Waldron, Robert D.

    1992-01-01

    The people of Earth will need more than 20,000 billion watts (GWe) of electric power by 2050 for a high level of prosperity. Power needs in the 22nd Century could exceed 100,000 GWe. By 2100 the total quantity of thermal energy used could fully deplete the known inventory (10(exp 7) GWt-Y) of all non-renewable sources on Earth except for deuterium and hydrogen for use in proposed fusion reactors. The labor, capital, and mass of power plants required to produce 1 GWe-Y of energy from present-day power plants is summarized. Fossil and nuclear plants respectively consume 80 to 190 M$ and 12 to 48 M$ of fuel per GWe-Y. The Lunar Power System (LPS) uses solar power bases on the moon to beam electric power to Earth. The LPS in the figure supplies load-following power to rectennas on Earth. Additional solar power conversion units are located across the lunar limb from their respective Earthward transmitting stations. LPS can be augmented by mirrors in polar orbit about the moon. The construction of rectennas on Earth determines the base cost (0.001s$/kWe-H) of LPS power. A manned International Lunar Base (ILB) can accelerate the development of LPS by providing the initial transportation and habitation facilities and base operations. ILB can greatly reduce up front costs and risks by emplacing a moderate scale LPS (1-100 GWe). LPS can accelerate the development of the ILB by providing greater funding than is reasonable to expect for purely scientific research. An international ILB/LPS program can foster world trust and prosperity.

  5. Comparison of property between two Viking Seismic tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Yamada, R.

    2016-12-01

    Tthe restoration work of the seismometer data onboard Viking Lander 2 is still continuing. Originally, the data were processed and archived both in MIT and UTIG separately, and each data is accessible via the Internet today. Their file formats to store the data are different, but both of them are currently readable due to the continuous investigation. However, there is some inconsistency between their data although most of their data are highly consistent. To understand the differences, the knowledge of archiving and off-line processing of spacecraft is required because these differences are caused by the off-line processing.The data processing of spacecraft often requires merge and sort processing of raw data. The merge processing is normally performed to eliminate duplicated data, and the sort processing is performed to fix data order. UTIG did not seem to perform these merge and sort processing. Therefore, the UTIG processed data remain duplication. The MIT processed data did these merge and sort processing, but the raw data sometimes include wrong time tags, and it cannot be fixed strictly after sort processing. Also, the MIT processed data has enough documents to understand metadata, while UTIG data has a brief instruction. Therefore, both of MIT and UTIG data are treated complementary. A better data set can be established using both of them. In this presentation, we would show the method to build a better data set of Viking Lander 2 seismic data.

  6. Network science landers for Mars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harri, A.M.; Marsal, O.; Lognonne, P.

    1999-01-01

    by the Mars Express Orbiter that is expected to be functional during the NetLander Mission's operational phase. Communication between the landers and the Earth would take place via a data relay onboard the Mars Express Orbiter. (C) 1999 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.......The NetLander Mission will deploy four landers to the Martian surface. Each lander includes a network science payload with instrumentation for studying the interior of Mars, the atmosphere and the subsurface, as well as the ionospheric structure and geodesy. The NetLander Mission is the first......, ionospheric, geodetic measurements and ground penetrating radar mapping supported by panoramic images. The payloads also include entry phase measurements of the atmospheric vertical structure. The scientific data could be combined with simultaneous observations of the atmosphere and surface of Mars...

  7. 75 FR 70106 - Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited (Type Certificate Previously Held by Bombardier, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... states: Viking Air Limited has completed a system safety review of the aircraft fuel system against fuel... safety review of the aircraft fuel system against fuel tank safety standards introduced in Chapter 525 of... describes the unsafe condition as: Viking Air Limited has completed a system safety review of the aircraft...

  8. The Swedish satellite project Viking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultqvist, B.

    1990-01-01

    The Swedish satellite project Viking is described and related to earlier missions. Some new operational characteristics are discussed, including the real-time data analysis campaigns that were an important part of the project. Some areas of important scientific impact of the project are also described. Viking was specially designed and equipped for investigation of plasma physical acceleration and other processes in the transition region between hot and cold plasma on auroral latitude magnetic field lines

  9. Viking solar corona experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, G.L.; Brenkle, J.P.; Komarek, T.A.; Zygielbaum, A.I.

    1977-01-01

    The 1976 Mars solar conjunction resulted in complete occulations of the Viking spacecraft by the sun at solar minimum. During the conjunction period, coherent 3.5- and 13-cm wavelength radio waves from the orbiters passed through the solar corona and were received with the 64-m antennas of the NASA Deep Space Network. Data were obtained within at least 0.3 and 0.8 R/sub s/ of the photosphere at the 3.5- and 13-cm wavelengths, respectively. The data can be used to determine the plasma density integrated along the radio path, the velocity of density irregularities in the coronal plasma, and the spectrum of the density fluctuations in the plasma. Observations of integrated plasma density near the south pole of the sun generally agree with a model of the corona which has an 8:1 decrease in plasma density from the equator to the pole. Power spectra of the 3.5- and 13-cm signals at a heliocentric radial distance of about 2 R/sub s/ have a 1/2-power width of several hundred hertz and vary sharply with proximate geometric miss distance. Spectral broadening indicates a marked progressive increase in plasma irregularities with decreasing ray altitude at scales between about 1 and 100 km

  10. The mystery of the missing Viking helmets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, K

    2000-11-01

    Based on archaeological finds and old Norse literature, this study describes the Scandinavian helmet tradition from the Bronze Age to the Viking Age, as well as the Viking culture, with special emphasis on weaponry and head protection. Contrary to what is commonly believed, the study shows that metal helmets must have been used very infrequently by the Vikings. In fact, only one Viking helmet has been retrieved in Scandinavia. Possible reasons for the widespread misconception that the Vikings wore helmets are discussed, and the responsibility for not correcting this misunderstanding is placed with the archaeological profession.

  11. SNC Meteorites, Organic Matter and a New Look at Viking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmflash, David M.; Clemett, Simon J.; McKay, David S.

    2001-01-01

    Recently, evidence has begun to grow supporting the possibility that the Viking GC-MS would not have detected certain carboxylate salts that could have been present as metastable oxidation products of high molecular weight organic species. Additionally, despite the instrument's high sensitivity, the possibility had remained that very low levels of organic matter, below the instrument's detection limit, could have been present. In fact, a recent study indicates that the degradation products of several million microorganisms per gram of soil on Mars would not have been detected by the Viking GC-MS. Since the strength of the GC-MS findings was considered enough to dismiss the biology packet, particularly the LR results, any subsequent evidence suggesting that organic molecules may in fact be present on the Martian surface necessitates a re-evaluation of the Viking LR data. In addition to an advanced mass spectrometer to look for isotopic signatures of biogenic processes, future lander missions will include the ability to detect methane produced by methanogenic bacteria, as well as techniques based on biotechnology. Meanwhile, the identification of Mars samples already present on Earth in the form of the SNC meteorites has provided us with the ability to study samples of the Martian upper crust a decade or more in advance of any planned sample return missions. While contamination issues are of serious concern, the presence of indigenous organic matter in the form of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons has been detected in the Martian meteorites ALH84001 and Nakhla, while there is circumstantial evidence for carbonaceous material in Chassigny. The radiochronological ages of these meteorites are 4.5 Ga, 1.3 Ga, and 165 Ma respectively representing a span of time in Earth history from the earliest single-celled organisms to the present day. Given this perspective on organic material, a biological interpretation to the Viking LR results can no longer be ruled out. In the LR

  12. NASA Facts, The Viking Mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC. Educational Programs Div.

    Presented is one of a series of publications of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) facts about the exploration of Mars. The Viking mission to Mars, consisting of two unmanned NASA spacecraft launched in August and September, 1975, is described. A description of the spacecraft and their paths is given. A diagram identifying the…

  13. Digibaro pressure instrument onboard the Phoenix Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Polkko, J.; Kahanpää, H. H.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M. M.; Haukka, H.; Savijarv1, H.; Kauhanen, J.

    2009-04-01

    The Phoenix Lander landed successfully on the Martian northern polar region. The mission is part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Scout program. Pressure observations onboard the Phoenix lander were performed by an FMI (Finnish Meteorological Institute) instrument, based on a silicon diaphragm sensor head manufactured by Vaisala Inc., combined with MDA data processing electronics. The pressure instrument performed successfully throughout the Phoenix mission. The pressure instrument had 3 pressure sensor heads. One of these was the primary sensor head and the other two were used for monitoring the condition of the primary sensor head during the mission. During the mission the primary sensor was read with a sampling interval of 2 s and the other two were read less frequently as a check of instrument health. The pressure sensor system had a real-time data-processing and calibration algorithm that allowed the removal of temperature dependent calibration effects. In the same manner as the temperature sensor, a total of 256 data records (8.53 min) were buffered and they could either be stored at full resolution, or processed to provide mean, standard deviation, maximum and minimum values for storage on the Phoenix Lander's Meteorological (MET) unit.The time constant was approximately 3s due to locational constraints and dust filtering requirements. Using algorithms compensating for the time constant effect the temporal resolution was good enough to detect pressure drops associated with the passage of nearby dust devils.

  14. Lander based hydroacoustic monitoring of marine single bubble releases in Eckernförde Bay utilizing the multibeam based GasQuant II system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Peter; Schneider von Deimling, Jens; Greinert, Jens

    2015-04-01

    The GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel is currently developing a Imagenex Delta T based lander system for monitoring and quantifying marine gas release (bubbles). The GasQuant II is built as the successor of the GasQuant I system (Greinert, 2008), that has been successfully used for monitoring tempo-spatial variability of gas release in the past (Schneider von Deimling et al., 2010). The new system is lightweight (40 kg), energy efficient, flexible to use and built for ROV deployment with autonomous operation of up to three days. A prototype has been successfully deployed in Eckernförde Bay during the R/V ALKOR cruise AL447 in October/November 2014 to monitor the tempo-spatial variability of gas bubble seepage and to detect a possible correlation with tidal variations. Two deployments, one in forward- and one in upward looking mode, reveal extensive but scattered single bubble releases rather than distinct and more continuous sources. While these releases are difficult to detect in forward looking mode, they can unambiguously be detected in the upward looking mode even for minor gas releases, bubble rising speeds can be determined. Greinert, J., 2008. Monitoring temporal variability of bubble release at seeps: The hydroacoustic swath system GasQuant. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans Vol. 113 Issue C7 CiteID C07048 113, 7048. doi:10.1029/2007JC004704 Schneider von Deimling, J., Greinert, J., Chapman, N.R., Rabbel, W., Linke, P., 2010. Acoustic imaging of natural gas seepage in the North Sea: Sensing bubbles controlled by variable currents. Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 8, 155. doi:10.4319/lom.2010.8.155

  15. Mercury Lander Mission Concept Study Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, D. A.

    2018-05-01

    Provides a summary of the Mercury Lander Mission Concept Study performed as part of the last Planetary Decadal Survey. The presentation will focus on engineering trades and the challenges of developing a Mercury lander mission.

  16. Power System Overview for the Small RPS Centaur Flyby and the Mars Polar Hard Lander NASA COMPASS Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) Radioisotope Power System Program Office (RPSPO) sponsored two studies lead by their mission analysis team. The studies were performed by NASA GRCs Collaborative Modeling for Parametric Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) team. Typically a complete toplevel design reference mission (DRM) is performed assessing conceptual spacecraft design, launch mass, trajectory, science strategy and sub-system design such as, power, propulsion, structure and thermal.

  17. Rock Moved by Mars Lander Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The robotic arm on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander slid a rock out of the way during the mission's 117th Martian day (Sept. 22, 2008) to gain access to soil that had been underneath the rock.The lander's Surface Stereo Imager took the two images for this stereo view later the same day, showing the rock, called 'Headless,' after the arm pushed it about 40 centimeters (16 inches) from its previous location. 'The rock ended up exactly where we intended it to,' said Matt Robinson of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, robotic arm flight software lead for the Phoenix team. The arm had enlarged the trench near Headless two days earlier in preparation for sliding the rock into the trench. The trench was dug to about 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) deep. The ground surface between the rock's prior position and the lip of the trench had a slope of about 3 degrees downward toward the trench. Headless is about the size and shape of a VHS videotape. The Phoenix science team sought to move the rock in order to study the soil and the depth to subsurface ice underneath where the rock had been. This image was taken at about 12:30 p.m., local solar time on Mars. The view is to the north northeast of the lander. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by JPL, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. Simulations of the Viking Gas Exchange Experiment using palagonite and Fe-rich montmorillonite as terrestrial analogs: implications for the surface composition of Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, R; Orenberg, J

    1993-10-01

    Simulations of the Gas Exchange Experiment (GEX), one of the Viking Lander Biology Experiments, were run using palagonite and Fe-rich montmorillonite as terrestrial analogs of the Martian soil. These terrestrial analogs were exposed to a nutrient solution of the same composition as that of the Viking Landers under humid (no contact with nutrient) and wet (intimate contact) conditions. The headspace gases in the GEX sample cell were sampled and then analyzed by gas chromatography under both humid and wet conditions. Five gases were monitored: CO2, N2, O2, Ar, and Kr. It was determined that in order to simulate the CO2 gas changes of the Viking GEX experiment, the mixture of soil analog mineral plus nutrient medium must be slightly (pH = 7.4) to moderately basic (pH = 8.7). This conclusion suggests constraints upon the composition of terrestrial analogs to the Mars soil; acidic components may be present, but the overall mixture must be basic in order to simulate the Viking GEX results.

  19. The World in the Viking Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Viking Age was ignited by the art of building seaworthy sailing ships and the skills to sail them on the open sea. The growth in seafaring, trade, piracy, and exploration that began to gather momentum during the 8th century CE was not limited to Europe’s northern seas, however. Ships, laden...... the story of Viking-Age seafaring and voyages of exploration. The World in the Viking Age reveals a global history concerning ships, people and objects on the move. It is a story that challenges entrenched ideas about the past and present, and the skills and opportunities of previous generations....

  20. Testing relativity with solar system dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellings, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    A major breakthrough is described in the accuracy of Solar System dynamical tests of relativistic gravity. The breakthrough was achieved by factoring in ranging data from Viking Landers 1 and 2 from the surface of Mars. Other key data sources included optical transit circle observations, lunar laser ranging, planetary radar, and spacecraft (Mariner 9 to Mars and Mariner 10 to Mercury). The Solar System model which is used to fit the data and the process by which such fits are performed are explained and results are discussed. The results are fully consistent with the predictions of General Relativity.

  1. Low Cost Precision Lander for Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, J. N.; Gardner, T. G.; Hoppa, G. V.; Seybold, K. G.

    2004-12-01

    For 60 years the US Defense Department has invested heavily in producing small, low mass, precision guided vehicles. The technologies matured under these programs include terrain-aided navigation, closed loop terminal guidance algorithms, robust autopilots, high thrust-to-weight propulsion, autonomous mission management software, sensors, and data fusion. These technologies will aid NASA in addressing New Millennium Science and Technology goals as well as the requirements flowing from the Vision articulated in January 2004. Establishing and resupplying a long term lunar presence will require automated landing precision not yet demonstrated. Precision landing will increase safety and assure mission success. In the DOD world, such technologies are used routinely and reliably. Hence, it is timely to generate a point design for a precise planetary lander useful for lunar exploration. In this design science instruments amount to 10 kg, 16% of the lander vehicle mass. This compares favorably with 7% for Mars Pathfinder and less than 15% for Surveyor. The mission design flies the lander in an inert configuration to the moon, relying on a cruise stage for navigation and TCMs. The lander activates about a minute before impact. A solid booster reduces the vehicle speed to 300-450 m/s. The lander is now about 2 minutes from touchdown and has 600 to 700 m/s delta-v capability, allowing for about 10 km of vehicle divert during terminal descent. This concept of operations is chosen because it closely mimics missile operational timelines used for decades: the vehicle remains inert in a challenging environment, then must execute its mission flawlessly on a moment's notice. The vehicle design consists of a re-plumbed propulsion system, using propellant tanks and thrusters from exoatmospheric programs. A redesigned truss provides hard points for landing gear, electronics, power supply, and science instruments. A radar altimeter and a Digital Scene Matching Area Correlator (DSMAC

  2. Change in failure stress on the southern san andreas fault system caused by the 1992 magnitude = 7.4 landers earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R S; King, G C; Lin, J

    1992-11-20

    The 28 June Landers earthquake brought the San Andreas fault significantly closer to failure near San Bernardino, a site that has not sustained a large shock since 1812. Stress also increased on the San Jacinto fault near San Bernardino and on the San Andreas fault southeast of Palm Springs. Unless creep or moderate earthquakes relieve these stress changes, the next great earthquake on the southern San Andreas fault is likely to be advanced by one to two decades. In contrast, stress on the San Andreas north of Los Angeles dropped, potentially delaying the next great earthquake there by 2 to 10 years.

  3. The Case for Extant Life on Mars and Its Possible Detection by the Viking Labeled Release Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Gilbert V; Straat, Patricia Ann

    2016-10-01

    The 1976 Viking Labeled Release (LR) experiment was positive for extant microbial life on the surface of Mars. Experiments on both Viking landers, 4000 miles apart, yielded similar, repeatable, positive responses. While the authors eventually concluded that the experiment detected martian life, this was and remains a highly controversial conclusion. Many believe that the martian environment is inimical to life and the LR responses were nonbiological, attributed to an as-yet-unidentified oxidant (or oxidants) in the martian soil. Unfortunately, no further metabolic experiments have been conducted on Mars. Instead, follow-on missions have sought to define the martian environment, mostly searching for signs of water. These missions have collected considerable data regarding Mars as a habitat, both past and present. The purpose of this article is to consider recent findings about martian water, methane, and organics that impact the case for extant life on Mars. Further, the biological explanation of the LR and recent nonbiological hypotheses are evaluated. It is concluded that extant life is a strong possibility, that abiotic interpretations of the LR data are not conclusive, and that, even setting our conclusion aside, biology should still be considered as an explanation for the LR experiment. Because of possible contamination of Mars by terrestrial microbes after Viking, we note that the LR data are the only data we will ever have on biologically pristine martian samples. Key Words: Extant life on Mars-Viking Labeled Release experiment-Astrobiology-Extraterrestrial life-Mars. Astrobiology 16, 798-810.

  4. Viking Afterbody Heating Computations and Comparisons to Flight Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edquist, Karl T.; Wright, Michael J.; Allen, Gary A., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics predictions of Viking Lander 1 entry vehicle afterbody heating are compared to flight data. The analysis includes a derivation of heat flux from temperature data at two base cover locations, as well as a discussion of available reconstructed entry trajectories. Based on the raw temperature-time history data, convective heat flux is derived to be 0.63-1.10 W/cm2 for the aluminum base cover at the time of thermocouple failure. Peak heat flux at the fiberglass base cover thermocouple is estimated to be 0.54-0.76 W/cm2, occurring 16 seconds after peak stagnation point heat flux. Navier-Stokes computational solutions are obtained with two separate codes using an 8- species Mars gas model in chemical and thermal non-equilibrium. Flowfield solutions using local time-stepping did not result in converged heating at either thermocouple location. A global time-stepping approach improved the computational stability, but steady state heat flux was not reached for either base cover location. Both thermocouple locations lie within a separated flow region of the base cover that is likely unsteady. Heat flux computations averaged over the solution history are generally below the flight data and do not vary smoothly over time for both base cover locations. Possible reasons for the mismatch between flight data and flowfield solutions include underestimated conduction effects and limitations of the computational methods.

  5. Solar radiation for Mars power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Joseph; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    Detailed information about the solar radiation characteristics on Mars are necessary for effective design of future planned solar energy systems operating on the surface of Mars. A procedure and solar radiation related data from which the diurnally and daily variation of the global, direct (or beam), and diffuse insolation on Mars are calculated, are presented. The radiation data are based on measured optical depth of the Martian atmosphere derived from images taken of the Sun with a special diode on the Viking Lander cameras; and computation based on multiple wavelength and multiple scattering of the solar radiation.

  6. On the structure of the upper atmosphere of Mars according to data from experiments on the Viking space vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izakov, M. N.

    1979-01-01

    Altitude profiles of the concentrations of the atmospheric components measured by the on board mass spectrometers during the descent of Viking lander are discussed by assuming that temperature has a smoother profile, and the eddy mixing coefficients are smaller at altitudes of 120 to 170 km than those formally determined. The influence of acoustic gravitational waves and errors in measurements and calculations are discussed in relation to the convolutions in the altitude profiles of the concentrations of the atmospheric components and the temperature of the atmosphere.

  7. First-order optical analysis of a quasi-microscope for planetary landers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huck, F. O.; Sinclair, A. R.; Burcher, E. E.

    1973-01-01

    A first-order geometrical optics analysis of a facsimile camera augmented with an auxiliary lens as magnifier is presented. This concept, called quasi-microscope, bridges the gap between surface resolutions of the order of 1 to 10 mm which can be obtained directly with planetary lander cameras and resolutions of the order of 0.2 to 10 microns which can be obtained only with relatively complex microscopes. A facsimile camera was considered in the analysis; however, the analytical results can also be applied to television and film cameras. It was found that quasi-microscope resolutions in the range from 10 to 100 microns are obtainable with current state-of-the-art lander facsimile cameras. For the Viking lander camera having an angular resolution of 0.04 deg, which was considered as a specific example, the best achievable resolution would be about 20 microns. The preferred approach to increase the resolution of the quasi-microscope would be, if possible, through an increase in angular resolution of the camera. A twofold to threefold improvement in resolution could also be achieved with a special camera focus position, but this approach tends to require larger and heavier auxiliary optics.

  8. Affordable, Lightweight, Compactly Stowable, High Strength / Stiffness Lander Solar Array, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Deployable Space Systems, Inc. (DSS) has developed a next-generation high performance solar array system specifically for NASA's future Lander and sample return...

  9. Affordable, Lightweight, Compactly Stowable, High Strength / Stiffness Lander Solar Array, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Deployable Space Systems, Inc. (DSS) has developed a next-generation high performance solar array system specifically for NASA's future Lander and sample return...

  10. Viking gemiciliği

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZBEY, Muhammet Talha

    2015-01-01

    Moğolların, hükümdarları Cengiz Han (1206-1227) önderliğinde karada kat ettiği mesafenin bir benzerine, bundan yaklaşık dört yüzyıl önce İskandinavlar Viking çağında (İS. 793-1066) zamanın bilinen ve ötesindeki coğrafya içerisindeki akınlarıyla ulaşmışlardı. Farklı bölgelerdeki İskandinavların bir kısmı akıncı hüviyetine bürünmüşken bir diğer kısmı da tüccar kimliğindedir. Ticaret ile uğraşan İskandinavların yerleşimleri doğal sonuç olarak ortaya çıkarken, istilaları takip eden süreç...

  11. ROSETTA lander Philae: Touch-down reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roll, Reinhard; Witte, Lars

    2016-06-01

    The landing of the ROSETTA-mission lander Philae on November 12th 2014 on Comet 67 P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko was planned as a descent with passive landing and anchoring by harpoons at touch-down. Actually the lander was not fixed at touch-down to the ground due to failing harpoons. The lander internal damper was actuated at touch-down for 42.6 mm with a speed of 0.08 m/s while the lander touch-down speed was 1 m/s. The kinetic energy before touch-down was 50 J, 45 J were dissipated by the lander internal damper and by ground penetration at touch-down, and 5 J kinetic energy are left after touch-down (0.325 m/s speed). Most kinetic energy was dissipated by ground penetration (41 J) while only 4 J are dissipated by the lander internal damper. Based on these data, a value for a constant compressive soil-strength of between 1.55 kPa and 1.8 kPa is calculated. This paper focuses on the reconstruction of the touch-down at Agilkia over a period of around 20 s from first ground contact to lift-off again. After rebound Philae left a strange pattern on ground documented by the OSIRIS Narrow Angle Camera (NAC). The analysis shows, that the touch-down was not just a simple damped reflection on the surface. Instead the lander had repeated contacts with the surface over a period of about 20 s±10 s. This paper discusses scenarios for the reconstruction of the landing sequence based on the data available and on computer simulations. Simulations are performed with a dedicated mechanical multi-body model of the lander, which was validated previously in numerous ground tests. The SIMPACK simulation software was used, including the option to set forces at the feet to the ground. The outgoing velocity vector is mostly influenced by the timing of the ground contact of the different feet. It turns out that ground friction during damping has strong impact on the lander outgoing velocity, on its rotation, and on its nutation. After the end of damping, the attitude of the lander can be

  12. 75 FR 43092 - Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited (Type Certificate Previously Held by Bombardier, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... completed a system safety review of the aircraft fuel system against fuel tank safety standards introduced... Limited has completed a system safety review of the aircraft fuel system against fuel tank safety... describes the unsafe condition as: Viking Air Limited has completed a system safety review of the aircraft...

  13. The viking landing sites: selection and certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masursky, H; Crabill, N L

    1976-08-27

    During the past several years the Viking project developed plans to use Viking orbiter instruments and Earth-based radar to certify the suitability of the landing sites selected as the safest and most scientifically rewarding using Mariner 9 data. During June and July 1976, the Earth-based radar and orbital spacecraft observations of some of the prime and backup sites were completed. The results of these combined observations indicated that the Viking 1 prime landing area in the Chryse region of Mars is geologically varied and possibly more hazardous than expected, and was not certifiable as a site for the Viking 1 landing. Consequently, the site certification effort had to be drastically modified and lengthened to search for a site that might be safe enough to attempt to land. The selected site considered at 47.5 degrees W, 22.4 degrees N represented a compromise between desirable characteristics observed with visual images and those inferred from Earth-based radar. It lies in the Chryse region about 900 kilometers northwest of the original site. Viking 1 landed successfully at this site on 20 July 1976.

  14. Viking Quest - an Epic Tale of Loot and Legend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Osgood

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Sounding rather more akin to a promotional release for the Tony Curtis/Kirk Douglas film The Vikings, Viking Quest is another BBC undertaking. From Julian Richards' latest offering, The Blood of the Vikings, this game centres on putting together a crew to undertake a raid on the monastery at Lindisfarne.

  15. Mars Solar Balloon Lander, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Mars Solar Balloon Lander (MSBL) is a novel concept which utilizes the capability of solar-heated hot air balloons to perform soft landings of scientific...

  16. A Novel, Low-Cost Conformable Lander

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary focus of this activity will be to outline a preliminary mechanical design for this conforming lander. Salient issues to be worked include (1) determining...

  17. Making Place for a Viking Fortress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Hannah; Goodchild, Helen; Sindbæk, Søren Michael

    2014-01-01

    in Viking-age Scandinavia, commanded a key position at the narrow strait of the Limfjord, a principal sailing route between the Baltic and the North Sea. Previous excavations established that this location was on the site of an earlier settlement, which was burned-down prior to the construction...

  18. The World in the Viking Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Viking Age was ignited by the art of building seaworthy sailing ships and the skills to sail them on the open sea. The growth in seafaring, trade, piracy, and exploration that began to gather momentum during the 8th century CE was not limited to Europe’s northern seas, however. Ships, laden...

  19. Did Viking discover life on Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, H. P.

    1999-01-01

    A major argument in the claim that life had been discovered during the Viking mission to Mars is that the results obtained in the Labeled Release (LR) experiment are analogous to those observed with terrestrial microorganisms. This assertion is critically examined and found to be implausible.

  20. The Viking X ray fluorescence experiment - Analytical methods and early results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, B. C., III; Castro, A. J.; Rowe, C. D.; Baird, A. K.; Rose, H. J., Jr.; Toulmin, P., III; Christian, R. P.; Kelliher, W. C.; Keil, K.; Huss, G. R.

    1977-01-01

    Ten samples of the Martian regolith have been analyzed by the Viking lander X ray fluorescence spectrometers. Because of high-stability electronics, inclusion of calibration targets, and special data encoding within the instruments the quality of the analyses performed on Mars is closely equivalent to that attainable with the same instruments operated in the laboratory. Determination of absolute elemental concentrations requires gain drift adjustments, subtraction of background components, and use of a mathematical response model with adjustable parameters set by prelaunch measurements on selected rock standards. Bulk fines at both Viking landing sites are quite similar in composition, implying that a chemically and mineralogically homogeneous regolith covers much of the surface of the planet. Important differences between samples include a higher sulfur content in what appear to be duricrust fragments than in fines and a lower iron content in fines taken from beneath large rocks than those taken from unprotected surface material. Further extensive reduction of these data will allow more precise and more accurate analytical numbers to be determined and thus a more comprehensive understanding of elemental trends between samples.

  1. Orbiting Depot and Reusable Lander for Lunar Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petro, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    A document describes a conceptual transportation system that would support exploratory visits by humans to locations dispersed across the surface of the Moon and provide transport of humans and cargo to sustain one or more permanent Lunar outpost. The system architecture reflects requirements to (1) minimize the amount of vehicle hardware that must be expended while maintaining high performance margins and (2) take advantage of emerging capabilities to produce propellants on the Moon while also enabling efficient operation using propellants transported from Earth. The system would include reusable single- stage lander spacecraft and a depot in a low orbit around the Moon. Each lander would have descent, landing, and ascent capabilities. A crew-taxi version of the lander would carry a pressurized crew module; a cargo version could carry a variety of cargo containers. The depot would serve as a facility for storage and for refueling with propellants delivered from Earth or propellants produced on the Moon. The depot could receive propellants and cargo sent from Earth on a variety of spacecraft. The depot could provide power and orbit maintenance for crew vehicles from Earth and could serve as a safe haven for lunar crews pending transport back to Earth.

  2. The limitations on organic detection in Mars-like soils by thermal volatilization-gas chromatography-MS and their implications for the Viking results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-González, Rafael; Navarro, Karina F; de la Rosa, José; Iñiguez, Enrique; Molina, Paola; Miranda, Luis D; Morales, Pedro; Cienfuegos, Edith; Coll, Patrice; Raulin, François; Amils, Ricardo; McKay, Christopher P

    2006-10-31

    The failure of Viking Lander thermal volatilization (TV) (without or with thermal degradation)-gas chromatography (GC)-MS experiments to detect organics suggests chemical rather than biological interpretations for the reactivity of the martian soil. Here, we report that TV-GC-MS may be blind to low levels of organics on Mars. A comparison between TV-GC-MS and total organics has been conducted for a variety of Mars analog soils. In the Antarctic Dry Valleys and the Atacama and Libyan Deserts we find 10-90 mug of refractory or graphitic carbon per gram of soil, which would have been undetectable by the Viking TV-GC-MS. In iron-containing soils (jarosites from Rio Tinto and Panoche Valley) and the Mars simulant (palogonite), oxidation of the organic material to carbon dioxide (CO(2)) by iron oxides and/or their salts drastically attenuates the detection of organics. The release of 50-700 ppm of CO(2) by TV-GC-MS in the Viking analysis may indicate that an oxidation of organic material took place. Therefore, the martian surface could have several orders of magnitude more organics than the stated Viking detection limit. Because of the simplicity of sample handling, TV-GC-MS is still considered the standard method for organic detection on future Mars missions. We suggest that the design of future organic instruments for Mars should include other methods to be able to detect extinct and/or extant life.

  3. The limitations on organic detection in Mars-like soils by thermal volatilization–gas chromatography–MS and their implications for the Viking results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-González, Rafael; Navarro, Karina F.; de la Rosa, José; Iñiguez, Enrique; Molina, Paola; Miranda, Luis D.; Morales, Pedro; Cienfuegos, Edith; Coll, Patrice; Raulin, François; Amils, Ricardo; McKay, Christopher P.

    2006-01-01

    The failure of Viking Lander thermal volatilization (TV) (without or with thermal degradation)–gas chromatography (GC)–MS experiments to detect organics suggests chemical rather than biological interpretations for the reactivity of the martian soil. Here, we report that TV–GC–MS may be blind to low levels of organics on Mars. A comparison between TV–GC–MS and total organics has been conducted for a variety of Mars analog soils. In the Antarctic Dry Valleys and the Atacama and Libyan Deserts we find 10–90 μg of refractory or graphitic carbon per gram of soil, which would have been undetectable by the Viking TV–GC–MS. In iron-containing soils (jarosites from Rio Tinto and Panoche Valley) and the Mars simulant (palogonite), oxidation of the organic material to carbon dioxide (CO2) by iron oxides and/or their salts drastically attenuates the detection of organics. The release of 50–700 ppm of CO2 by TV–GC–MS in the Viking analysis may indicate that an oxidation of organic material took place. Therefore, the martian surface could have several orders of magnitude more organics than the stated Viking detection limit. Because of the simplicity of sample handling, TV–GC–MS is still considered the standard method for organic detection on future Mars missions. We suggest that the design of future organic instruments for Mars should include other methods to be able to detect extinct and/or extant life. PMID:17060639

  4. Propulsive Maneuver Design for the 2007 Mars Phoenix Lander Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raofi, Behzad; Bhat, Ramachandra S.; Helfrich, Cliff

    2008-01-01

    On May 25, 2008, the Mars Phoenix Lander (PHX) successfully landed in the northern planes of Mars in order to continue and complement NASA's "follow the water" theme as its predecessor Mars missions, such as Mars Odyssey (ODY) and Mars Exploration Rovers, have done in recent years. Instruments on the lander, through a robotic arm able to deliver soil samples to the deck, will perform in-situ and remote-sensing investigations to characterize the chemistry of materials at the local surface, subsurface, and atmosphere. Lander instruments will also identify the potential history of key indicator elements of significance to the biological potential of Mars, including potential organics within any accessible water ice. Precise trajectory control and targeting were necessary in order to achieve the accurate atmospheric entry conditions required for arriving at the desired landing site. The challenge for the trajectory control maneuver design was to meet or exceed these requirements in the presence of spacecraft limitations as well as other mission constraints. This paper describes the strategies used, including the specialized targeting specifically developed for PHX, in order to design and successfully execute the propulsive maneuvers that delivered the spacecraft to its targeted landing site while satisfying the planetary protection requirements in the presence of flight system constraints.

  5. Thermodynamic comparison of the FICFB and Viking gasification concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassner, Martin; Marechal, Francois

    2009-01-01

    Two biomass gasification concepts, i.e. indirectly heated, fast internally circulating fluidised bed (FICFB) gasification with steam as gasifying agent and two-stage, directly heated, fixed bed Viking gasification are compared with respect to their performance as gas generators. Based on adjusted equilibrium equations, the gas composition and the energy requirements for gasification are accurately modelled. Overall energy balances are assessed by an energy integration with the heat cascade concept and considering energy recovery in a steam Rankine cycle. A detailed inventory of energy and exergy losses of the different process sections is presented and potential process improvements due to a better utility choice or feed pretreatment like drying or pyrolysis are discussed. While Viking gasification performs better as an isolated gas generator than state-of-the-art FICFB gasification, there is large potential for improvement of the FICFB system. Furthermore, a concluding analysis of the gasification systems in an integrated plant for synthetic natural gas production shows that FICFB gasification is more suitable overall due to a more advantageous energy conversion related to the producer gas composition.

  6. Analysis of data from Viking RPA's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, W. B.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of the martian ionosphere performed by Viking Retarding Potential Analyzer (RPA) are reported. Viking RPA measurements of low energy electron fluxes out to 16,000 km above the Mars surface are discussed including both energy spectra and periods of continuous monitoring of the total flux above 15 ev. The mean electron current at energies greater than ev increases montonically by nearly two orders of magnitude from about 9000 km down to 700 km, but no clear signature of the bow shock is seen. The total wave power in the 2 sec measurement intervals for this current does, however, show a broad peak near 1700 km altitude. These variations in the low energy electron fluxes are related to whistler mode oscillations in the solar wind plasma. It is concluded that there may be a highly turbulent shock structure that masks a clear signature of the bow shock in the time averaged data.

  7. A female Viking warrior confirmed by genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedenstierna-Jonson, Charlotte; Kjellström, Anna; Zachrisson, Torun; Krzewińska, Maja; Sobrado, Veronica; Price, Neil; Günther, Torsten; Jakobsson, Mattias; Götherström, Anders; Storå, Jan

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study has been to confirm the sex and the affinity of an individual buried in a well-furnished warrior grave (Bj 581) in the Viking Age town of Birka, Sweden. Previously, based on the material and historical records, the male sex has been associated with the gender of the warrior and such was the case with Bj 581. An earlier osteological classification of the individual as female was considered controversial in a historical and archaeological context. A genomic confirmation of the biological sex of the individual was considered necessary to solve the issue. Genome-wide sequence data was generated in order to confirm the biological sex, to support skeletal integrity, and to investigate the genetic relationship of the individual to ancient individuals as well as modern-day groups. Additionally, a strontium isotope analysis was conducted to highlight the mobility of the individual. The genomic results revealed the lack of a Y-chromosome and thus a female biological sex, and the mtDNA analyses support a single-individual origin of sampled elements. The genetic affinity is close to present-day North Europeans, and within Sweden to the southern and south-central region. Nevertheless, the Sr values are not conclusive as to whether she was of local or nonlocal origin. The identification of a female Viking warrior provides a unique insight into the Viking society, social constructions, and exceptions to the norm in the Viking time-period. The results call for caution against generalizations regarding social orders in past societies. © 2017 The Authors American Journal of Physical Anthropology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Novel Architecture for a Long-Life, Lightweight Venus Lander

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugby, D.; Seghi, S.; Kroliczek, E.; Pauken, M.

    2009-01-01

    performance insulation as a function of temperature and pressure; (3) a bench-top ambient pressure thermal test of the evaporation system; and (4) a higher fidelity test, to be conducted in a high pressure, high temperature inert gas test chamber, of a small-scale Venus lander prototype (made from two hemispherical interconnecting halves) that includes all of the aforesaid features.22 CFR 125.4(b)(13) applicable

  9. Kings and Vikings: On the Dynamics of Competitive Agglomeration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baker, M.J.; Bulte, E.H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a theory of competitive agglomeration—a new enquiry into the origins of hierarchical structures and governments. As a motivating example we analyze the Viking age—the roughly 300 year period beginning in 800 AD—from the perspective of the economics of conflict. The Viking age is

  10. Evaluation of the Viking-Cives tow plow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    In early February, 2009, the Maine Department of Transportation (MaineDOT) entered into an agreement : with Viking-Cives USA to evaluate the Viking-Cives Tow Plow. MaineDOT agreed to evaluate the Tow : Plow for the remainder of the 2008-2009 winter s...

  11. Geologic map of the Bateman Spring Quadrangle, Lander County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramelli, Alan R.; Wrucke, Chester T.; House, P. Kyle

    2017-01-01

    This 1:24,000-scale geologic map of the Bateman Spring 7.5-minute quadrangle in Lander County, Nevada contains descriptions of 24 geologic units and one cross section. Accompanying text includes full unit descriptions and references. This quadrangle includes lower Paleozoic siliciclastic sedimentary rocks of the Roberts Mountain allochthon, Miocene intrusive dikes, alluvial deposits of the northern Shoshone Range piedmont, and riverine deposits of the Reese and Humboldt rivers.Significant findings include: refined age estimates for the Ordovician-Cambrian Valmy Formation and Devonian Slaven Chert, based on new fossil information; and detailed mapping of late Quaternary fault traces along the Shoshone Range fault system.

  12. Anemometers for Mars. [Viking '75 wind measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, R. M.; Greene, G. C.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation is conducted concerning the problems involved in the conduction of wind measurements on the planet Mars, taking into account the currently known characteristics of the Martian atmosphere. Problems introduced by the presence of the lander are examined. The suitability of several different types of anemometers for making the measurements is discussed, giving attention to rotating anemometers, sonic anemometers, ion tracers, drag force anemometers, pitot tubes, and thermal anemometers.

  13. SCANDINAVIAN MIGRATION IN THE VIKING AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladyslaw Duczko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Movements of Scandinavians in period between late 8th AD to middle of 11th AD, called Viking Age, were combined military actions-piracy – and migrations with goal to colonize territories in the West Europe – mainly Insular world of Atlantic and British isles, but also in East Europe, among Finno-Ugrians and Slavs. This activity is seen as the recent, and last, of the Migration Period, the time of great movements of Germanic people in the 4th century AD.

  14. The Landers earthquake; preliminary instrumental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L.; Mori, J.; Hauksson, E.

    1992-01-01

    Early on the morning of June 28, 1992, millions of people in southern California were awakened by the largest earthquake to occur in the western United States in the past 40 yrs. At 4:58 a.m PDT (local time), faulting associated with the magnitude 7.3 earthquake broke through to earth's surface near the town of Landers, California. the surface rupture then propagated 70km (45 mi) to the north and northwest along a band of faults passing through the middle of the Mojave Desert. Fortunately, the strongest shaking occurred in uninhabited regions of the Mojave Desert. Still one child was killed in Yucca Valley, and about 400 people were injured in the surrounding area. the desert communities of Landers, Yucca Valley, and Joshua Tree in San Bernardino Country suffered considerable damage to buildings and roads. Damage to water and power lines caused problems in many areas. 

  15. The Modern Near-Surface Martian Climate: A Review of In-Situ Meteorological Data from Viking to Curiosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, G. M.; Newman, C. N.; De Vicente-Retortillo, A.; Fischer, E.; Renno, N. O.; Richardson, M. I.; Fairén, A. G.; Genzer, M.; Guzewich, S. D.; Haberle, R. M.; hide

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the complete set of in-situ meteorological data obtained from the Viking landers in the 1970s to todays Curiosity rover to review our understanding of the modern near-surface climate of Mars, with focus on the dust, CO2 and H2O cycles and their impact on the radiative and thermodynamic conditions near the surface. In particular, we provide values of the highest confidence possible for atmospheric opacity, atmospheric pressure, near-surface air temperature, ground temperature, near-surface wind speed and direction, and near-surface air relative humidity and water vapor content. Then, we study the diurnal, seasonal and interannual variability of these quantities over a span of more than twenty Martian years. Finally, we propose measurements to improve our understanding of the Martian dust and H2O cycles, and discuss the potential for liquid water formation under Mars present day conditions and its implications for future Mars missions.

  16. Rock Moved by Mars Lander Arm, Stereo View

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The robotic arm on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander slid a rock out of the way during the mission's 117th Martian day (Sept. 22, 2008) to gain access to soil that had been underneath the rock.The lander's Surface Stereo Imager took the two images for this stereo view later the same day, showing the rock, called 'Headless,' after the arm pushed it about 40 centimeters (16 inches) from its previous location. 'The rock ended up exactly where we intended it to,' said Matt Robinson of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, robotic arm flight software lead for the Phoenix team. The arm had enlarged the trench near Headless two days earlier in preparation for sliding the rock into the trench. The trench was dug to about 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) deep. The ground surface between the rock's prior position and the lip of the trench had a slope of about 3 degrees downward toward the trench. Headless is about the size and shape of a VHS videotape. The Phoenix science team sought to move the rock in order to study the soil and the depth to subsurface ice underneath where the rock had been. This left-eye and right-eye images for this stereo view were taken at about 12:30 p.m., local solar time on Mars. The scene appears three-dimensional when seen through blue-red glasses.The view is to the north northeast of the lander. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by JPL, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. The Phoenix Mars Lander Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonitz, Robert; Shiraishi, Lori; Robinson, Matthew; Carsten, Joseph; Volpe, Richard; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Chu, P. C.; Wilson, J. J.; Davis, K. R.

    2009-01-01

    The Phoenix Mars Lander Robotic Arm (RA) has operated for over 150 sols since the Lander touched down on the north polar region of Mars on May 25, 2008. During its mission it has dug numerous trenches in the Martian regolith, acquired samples of Martian dry and icy soil, and delivered them to the Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) and the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA). The RA inserted the Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) into the Martian regolith and positioned it at various heights above the surface for relative humidity measurements. The RA was used to point the Robotic Arm Camera to take images of the surface, trenches, samples within the scoop, and other objects of scientific interest within its workspace. Data from the RA sensors during trenching, scraping, and trench cave-in experiments have been used to infer mechanical properties of the Martian soil. This paper describes the design and operations of the RA as a critical component of the Phoenix Mars Lander necessary to achieve the scientific goals of the mission.

  18. Viking 2 electron observations at Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Francis S.; Hanson, William B.

    1992-01-01

    An analysis of the electron mode sweeps made in Viking 2 above the ionosphere is presented. An observation of the electron energy spectrum over the range 0 to 78 eV was recorded in 1 s and observations were made at intervals of 4 or 8 s. The concentrations and temperatures were highly variable in the altitude range 14,000 to 9000 km. Evidence for two Maxwellian components were present in most of the records. The general trend of concentration and temperature for the predominant component was from 2/cu cm and 100,000 K at 15,600 km to 5/cu cm at 220,000 K and 900 km, in good agreement with the Mars 3 observations of Gringauz et al. (1974). The higher-temperature component was generally characterized by a temperature near 400,000 K and concentrations near 0.1/cu cm. The electron plasma pressures near 800 km were about a factor of 20 lower than those obtained from Viking 1, the difference being much greater than expected from the normal distribution around the stagnation point in the shocked solar wind.

  19. A metallurgical study of some viking swords

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams, Alan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available While «pattern-welded» swords have been found all over Europe from sites dating from the Migration Period and into the Early Middle Ages, they were steadily supplanted during the Viking period by swords made out of a few pieces of iron and steel, or even a single piece of steel. Swords with «Ulfberht» or related inscriptions were the most famous of these. The results of the metallurgical study of 44 specimens from «Ulfberht» swords, as well as some other Viking-age swords, together with electron microanalyses carried out on selected examples, are presented here.

    Mientras que se han encontrado en toda Europa espadas forjadas mediante el sistema de ‘pattern welding’ (entrelazado de láminas formando patrones visibles, procedentes de yacimientos que se extienden desde el Periodo de las Migraciones bárbaras hasta la Alta Edad Media, durante el periodo vikingo fueron habitualmente reemplazadas por espadas forjadas a partir de unas pocas piezas de hierro y acero, o incluso de una única pieza de acero. Las más famosas de entre ellas fueron las espadas con la inscripción «Ulfbehrt» u otras relacionadas. Este artículo presenta los resultados del estudio metalúrgico de 44 ejemplares de espadas de «Ulfberht» y otras de época vikinga, así como los microanálisis efectuados sobre algunas muestras seleccionadas.

  20. Viking-Age Sails: Form and Proportion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Vibeke

    2017-04-01

    Archaeological ship-finds have shed much light on the design and construction of vessels from the Viking Age. However, the exact proportions of their sails remain unknown due to the lack of fully preserved sails, or other definite indicators of their proportions. Key Viking-Age ship-finds from Scandinavia—the Oseberg Ship, the Gokstad Ship and Skuldelev 3—have all revealed traces of rigging. In all three finds, the keelson—with the mast position—is preserved, together with fastenings for the sheets and the tack, indicating the breadth of the sail. The sail area can then be estimated based on practical experience of how large a sail the specific ship can carry, in conjunction with hull form and displacement. This article presents reconstructions of the form and dimensions of rigging and sail based on the archaeological finds, evidence from iconographic and written sources, and ethnographic parallels with traditional Nordic boats. When these sources are analysed, not only do the similarities become apparent, but so too does the relative disparity between the archaeological record and the other sources. Preferential selection in terms of which source is given the greatest merit is therefore required, as it is not possible to afford them all equal value.

  1. Best Practices for In-Situ Sediment-Water Incubations with Benthic Landers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengberg, Anders; Kononets, Mikhail; Hall, Per; Nilsson, Madeleine; Ekeroth, Nils

    2017-04-01

    Biological, chemical, physical and geological processes that take place at the seafloor are crucial in influencing and regulating many aquatic environments. One method to estimate exchange rates, fluxes, between the sediment and the overlying water is in-situ sediment-water incubations using autonomous chamber landers. As for all field sampling and measurements best practices methods are needed to obtain high quality data. With experiences form many years usage of the Gothenburg autonomous bottom lander systems this presentation will describe some of the experimental work that has been done with focus on quality control and data evaluation methods.

  2. Network of Nano-Landers for In-Situ Characterization of Asteroid Impact Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Kalita, Himangshu; Asphaug, Erik; Schwartz, Stephen; Thangavelautham, Jekanthan

    2017-01-01

    Exploration of asteroids and comets can give insight into the origins of the solar system and can be instrumental in planetary defence and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). Asteroids, due to their low gravity are a challenging target for surface exploration. Current missions envision performing touch-and-go operations over an asteroid surface. In this work, we analyse the feasibility of sending scores of nano-landers, each 1 kg in mass and volume of 1U, or 1000 cm3. These landers would hop...

  3. Europa Lander Material Selection Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tappan, Alexander S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Heller, Mellisa [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-10

    Energetic materials (EMs, explosives, pyrotechnics, propellants) provide high-power output of high temperature reaction products. These products can be solid, liquid, or gaseous during reaction or after the products have equilibrated with the surroundings. For example, high explosives typically consist of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen bonded within a single molecule, and produce almost exclusively gaseous products. Conversely, intermetallics consist of physical mixtures of metals and metalloids, and produce almost exclusively condensed products. Other materials such as pyrotechnics and propellants have intermediate behavior. All energetic materials react in a self-propagating manner that after ignition, does not necessarily require energy input from the surroundings. The range of reaction velocities can range from mm/s for intermetallics, to km/s for high explosives. Energetic material selection depends on numerous requirements specific to the needs of a system. High explosives are used for applications where high pressure gases are necessary for pushing or fracturing materials (e.g., rock, metal) or creating shock waves or air blast. Propellants are used to produce moderate-pressure, high-temperature products without a shock wave. Pyrotechnics are used to produce numerous effects including: high-temperature products, gases, light, smoke, sound, and others. Thermites are used to produce heat, high-temperature products, materials, and other effects that require condensed products. Intermetallics are used to produce high-temperature condensed products and materials, with very little gas production. Numerous categories of energetic materials exist with overlapping definitions, effects, and properties.

  4. Viking investigations of auroral electrodynamical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marklund, G.

    1993-01-01

    Recent results from the Viking electric field experiment and their contribution to a better understanding of the aurora and of associated ionosphere-magnetosphere processes are briefly reviewed. The high-resolution electric field data have provided new and important results in a number of different areas, including auroral electrodynamics both on the arc scale size and on the global scale, the auroral acceleration process, the current-voltage relationship, substorms, and the dynamics of the polar cusp. After a short introduction presenting some of the characteristic features of the high-altitude electric field data the remainder of this paper focuses on the role of the electric field in auroral electrodynamics and in the auroral acceleration process. The relationships between the auroral emissions and the associated electric field, current, particle, and conductivity distributions are discussed for both small-scale and large-scale auroral distributions on the basis of results from Viking event studies and from numerical model studies. Particular attention is paid to ionospheric convection and field- aligned current signatures associated with northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) auroral distributions, such as the theta aurora or those characterized by extended auroral activity poleward of the classical auroral oval. The role of dc electric fields for the auroral acceleration process has been further investigated and clarified. Intense low-frequency electric field fluctuations (< l Hz) have been shown to play an important role in the auroral acceleration process. In this frequency range the electric field appears static for the electrons but not for the ions, giving rise to a selective acceleration. Estimates of the acceleration potential based on a number of different methods generally show good agreement, providing convincing evidence of the role of dc electric fields in the auroral acceleration process

  5. Viking valitseb Rootsi-Soome liinil / Annika Matson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Matson, Annika, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    Viking Line'il Soome ja Rootsi vahelisel liinil reisijateveos suurim turuosa. Ettevõtte tegevusest, majandustulemustest. Kommenteerib Romet Kreek. Diagrammid: Soome ja Rootsi vahel sõitvatest laevadest pea iga teine on punane; Tõusuaastaid olnud vaid neli

  6. A simulation of the Four-way lunar Lander-Orbiter tracking mode for the Chang'E-5 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Ye, Mao; Yan, Jianguo; Hao, Weifeng; Barriot, Jean-Pierre

    2016-06-01

    The Chang'E-5 mission is the third phase of the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program and will collect and return lunar samples. After sampling, the Orbiter and the ascent vehicle will rendezvous and dock, and both spacecraft will require high precision orbit navigation. In this paper, we present a novel tracking mode-Four-way lunar Lander-Orbiter tracking that possibly can be employed during the Chang'E-5 mission. The mathematical formulas for the Four-way lunar Lander-Orbiter tracking mode are given and implemented in our newly-designed lunar spacecraft orbit determination and gravity field recovery software, the LUnar Gravity REcovery and Analysis Software/System (LUGREAS). The simulated observables permit analysis of the potential contribution Four-way lunar Lander-Orbiter tracking could make to precision orbit determination for the Orbiter. Our results show that the Four-way lunar Lander-Orbiter Range Rate has better geometric constraint on the orbit, and is more sensitive than the traditional two-way range rate that only tracks data between the Earth station and lunar Orbiter. After combining the Four-way lunar Lander-Orbiter Range Rate data with the traditional two-way range rate data and considering the Lander position error and lunar gravity field error, the accuracy of precision orbit determination for the Orbiter in the simulation was improved significantly, with the biggest improvement being one order of magnitude, and the Lander position could be constrained to sub-meter level. This new tracking mode could provide a reference for the Chang'E-5 mission and have enormous potential for the positioning of future lunar farside Lander due to its relay characteristic.

  7. Mars' rotational state and tidal deformations from radio interferometry of a network of landers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iess, L.; Giuliani, S.; Dehant, V.

    2012-04-01

    The precise determination of the rotational state of solar system bodies is one of the main tools to investigate their interior structure. Unfortunately the accuracies required for geophysical interpretations are very stringent, and generally unattainable from orbit using optical or radar tracking of surface landmarks. Radio tracking of a lander from ground or from a spacecraft orbiting the planet offers substantial improvements, especially if the lander lifetime is adequately long. The optimal configuration is however attained when two or more landers can be simultaneously tracked from a ground antenna in an interferometric mode. ESA has been considering a network of landers on Mars since many years, and recently this concept has been revived by the study of the Mars Network Science Mission (MNSM). The scientific rationale of MNSM is the investigation of the Mars' interior and atmosphere by means of a network of two or three landers, making it especially suitable for interferometric observations. In order to synthesize an interferometer, the MNSN landers must be tracked simultaneously from a single ground antenna in a coherent two-way mode. The uplink radio signal (at X- or Ka-band) is received by the landers' transponders and retransmitted to ground in the same frequency band. The signals received at ground station are then recorded (typically at few tens of kHz) and beaten against each other to form the output of the interferometer, a complex phasor. The differential phase retain information on Mars' rotational parameters and tidal deformations. A crucial aspect of the interferometric configuration is the rejection of common noise and error sources. Errors in the station location, Earth orientation parameters and ephemerides, path delays due to the Earth troposphere and ionosphere, and, to a good extent, interplanetary plasma are cancelled out. The main residual errors are due to differential path delays from Mars' atmosphere and differential drifts of the

  8. From Viking to Crusader. Scandinavia and Europe 800-1200

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1st edtion in Danish: Viking og Hvidekrist. Norden og Europa 800-1200, 1992; 2nd edition 1993. Swedish edition: Från Vikingar till Korsfarare, 1992. German edition: Wikinger Waräger Normannen. Die Skandinavier und Europa 800-1200, 1992. French edition with J.-P. Mohen & F.-X. Dillmann: Les Vikings...

  9. Borgring: the discovery of a Viking Age ring fortress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goodchild, Helen; Holm, Nanna; Sindbæk, Søren Michael

    2017-01-01

    -type ring fortress. Borgring is the first such monument to be found in Denmark in over six decades, and provides an opportunity to investigate a type-site of Viking Age military organisation and conflict. The authors argue that Borgring complements a varied group of fortification structures in late Viking...... Age Denmark, part of a military network close to contemporaneous European ideas of military kingship and defence....

  10. The Philae lander mission and science overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnhardt, Hermann; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Apathy, Istvan; Auster, Hans Ulrich; Ercoli Finzi, Amalia; Goesmann, Fred; Klingelhöfer, Göstar; Knapmeyer, Martin; Kofman, Wlodek; Krüger, Harald; Mottola, Stefano; Schmidt, Walter; Seidensticker, Klaus; Spohn, Tilman; Wright, Ian

    2017-07-13

    The Philae lander accomplished the first soft landing and the first scientific experiments of a human-made spacecraft on the surface of a comet. Planned, expected and unexpected activities and events happened during the descent, the touch-downs, the hopping across and the stay and operations on the surface. The key results were obtained during 12-14 November 2014, at 3 AU from the Sun, during the 63 h long period of the descent and of the first science sequence on the surface. Thereafter, Philae went into hibernation, waking up again in late April 2015 with subsequent communication periods with Earth (via the orbiter), too short to enable new scientific activities. The science return of the mission comes from eight of the 10 instruments on-board and focuses on morphological, thermal, mechanical and electrical properties of the surface as well as on the surface composition. It allows a first characterization of the local environment of the touch-down and landing sites. Unique conclusions on the organics in the cometary material, the nucleus interior, the comet formation and evolution became available through measurements of the Philae lander in the context of the Rosetta mission.This article is part of the themed issue 'Cometary science after Rosetta'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. Spacecraft Conceptual Design Compared to the Apollo Lunar Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, C.; Bowie, J.; Rust, R.; Lenius, J.; Anderson, M.; Connolly, J.

    2011-01-01

    Future human exploration of the Moon will require an optimized spacecraft design with each sub-system achieving the required minimum capability and maintaining high reliability. The objective of this study was to trade capability with reliability and minimize mass for the lunar lander spacecraft. The NASA parametric concept for a 3-person vehicle to the lunar surface with a 30% mass margin totaled was considerably heavier than the Apollo 15 Lunar Module "as flown" mass of 16.4 metric tons. The additional mass was attributed to mission requirements and system design choices that were made to meet the realities of modern spaceflight. The parametric tool used to size the current concept, Envision, accounts for primary and secondary mass requirements. For example, adding an astronaut increases the mass requirements for suits, water, food, oxygen, as well as, the increase in volume. The environmental control sub-systems becomes heavier with the increased requirements and more structure was needed to support the additional mass. There was also an increase in propellant usage. For comparison, an "Apollo-like" vehicle was created by removing these additional requirements. Utilizing the Envision parametric mass calculation tool and a quantitative reliability estimation tool designed by Valador Inc., it was determined that with today?s current technology a Lunar Module (LM) with Apollo capability could be built with less mass and similar reliability. The reliability of this new lander was compared to Apollo Lunar Module utilizing the same methodology, adjusting for mission timeline changes as well as component differences. Interestingly, the parametric concept's overall estimated risk for loss of mission (LOM) and loss of crew (LOC) did not significantly improve when compared to Apollo.

  12. Viking-1 meteorological measurements - First impressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, S. L.; Henry, R. M.; Leovy, C. B.; Tillman, J. E.; Ryan, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation is given of in situ meteorological measurements made by Viking 1 on Mars. The data reported show that: (1) the atmosphere has approximate volume mixing ratios of 1.5% argon, 3% nitrogen, and 95% carbon dioxide; (2) the diurnal temperature range is large and regular, with a sunrise minimum of about 188 K and a midafternoon maximum near 244 K; (3) air and ground temperatures coincide quite closely during the night, but ground temperature exceeds air temperature near midday by as much as 25 C; (4) the winds exhibit a marked diurnal cycle; and (5) a large diurnal pressure variation with an afternoon minimum and an early-morning maximum parallels the wind pattern. The variations are explained in terms of familiar meteorological processes. It is suggested that latent heat is unlikely to play an important role on Mars because no evidence has been observed for traveling synoptic-scale disturbances such as those that occur in the terrestrial tropics.

  13. SIIOS in Alaska - Testing an `In-Vault' Option for a Europa Lander Seismometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, V. J.; Weber, R. C.; DellaGiustina, D. N.; Bailey, H.; Schmerr, N. C.; Pettit, E. C.; Dahl, P.; Albert, D.; Avenson, B.; Byrne, S.; Siegler, M.; Bland, M. T.; Patterson, G. W.; Selznick, S.

    2017-12-01

    The surface environment of Europa within the radiation-heavy jovian system, poses extreme technical challenges for potential landed missions. The need for radiation shielding and protection from the cold requires instruments to be housed within a thermally insulated and radiation protected `vault'. Unfortunately, this is non-ideal for seismometers as instrument-to-surface coupling is an important factor in the quality of returned data. Delivering a seismic package to an icy world would therefore benefit from the development of a cold-tolerant, radiation-hardened sensor that can survive outside of a protective vault. If such an instrument package were not technologically mature enough, or if lander safety considerations prevent deployment on lander legs, an in-vault location is still a viable option. For such a case, a better understanding of the transmission of seismic signals received through the lander legs is necessary for interpretation of the received signals. The performance, mass, and volume of the `Seismometer to investigate ice and ocean structure' (SIIOS) already meet or exceed flight requirements identified in lander studies for the icy moon Europa. We are testing this flight-candidate in several configurations around and within a lander mock-up, assuming a 1x1 meter vault with extended legs. We compare the received signals from a SIIOS device on the ice with those received by an identical sensor directly above it in the `vault'. We also compare the data from these single-point receivers to that received by two short base-line arrays - A 4-point "in-vault" array and another 4-point array arranged at the ice surface at the base of the lander legs. Our field-testing is performed at Gulkana Glacier, Alaska. The summer melt season provides kilometer-scale regions of coexisting ice, water, and silicate material, thereby providing seismic contrasts analogous to the ice-water layers and possible sub-surface lakes expected at Europa. We demonstrate the

  14. Long-Lived Venus Lander Conceptual Design: How To Keep It Cool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Ridger W.; Schmitz, Paul C.; Penswick, L. Barry; Bruder, Geoffrey A.

    2009-01-01

    Surprisingly little is known about Venus, our neighboring sister planet in the solar system, due to the challenges of operating in its extremely hot, corrosive, and dense environment. For example, after over two dozen missions to the planet, the longest-lived lander was the Soviet Venera 13, and it only survived two hours on the surface. Several conceptual Venus mission studies have been formulated in the past two decades proposing lander architectures that potentially extend lander lifetime. Most recently, the Venus Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) was commissioned by NASA to study a Venus Flagship Mission potentially launching in the 2020- 2025 time-frame; the reference lander of this study is designed to survive for only a few hours more than Venera 13 launched back in 1981! Since Cytherean mission planners lack a viable approach to a long-lived surface architecture, specific scientific objectives outlined in the National Science Foundation Decadal Survey and Venus Exploration Advisory Group final report cannot be completed. These include: mapping the mineralogy and composition of the surface on a planetary scale determining the age of various rock samples on Venus, searching for evidence of changes in interior dynamics (seismometry) and its impact on climate and many other key observations that benefit with time scales of at least a full Venus day (Le. daylight/night cycle). This report reviews those studies and recommends a hybrid lander architecture that can survive for at least one Venus day (243 Earth days) by incorporating selective Stirling multi-stage active cooling and hybrid thermoacoustic power.

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: VIKING catalogue data release 2 (Edge+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edge, A.; Sutherland, W.; Viking Team

    2016-10-01

    The VIKING survey with VISTA (ESO programme ID 179.A-2004) is a wide area (eventually 1500 sq.degrees), intermediate-depth (5-sigma detection limit J=21 on Vega system) near-infrared imaging survey, in the five broadband filters Z, Y, J, H, Ks. The planned sky coverage is at high galactic latitudes, and includes two main stripes 70x10°2 each: one in the South Galactic cap near Dec~-30°, and one near Dec~0° in the North galactic cap; in addition, there are two smaller outrigger patches called GAMA09 and CFHLS-W1. Science goals include z>6.5 quasars, extreme brown dwarfs, and multiwavelength coverage and identifications for a range of other imaging surveys, notably VST-KIDS and Herschel-ATLAS. This second public data release of VIKING data covers all of the highest quality data taken between the start of the survey (12th of November 2009) and the end of Period 92 (30th September 2013). This release supersedes the first release (VIKING and VIKING CAT published 28.06.2013 and 16.12.2013 respectively) as it includes improved CASU processing (V1.3) that gives better tile grouting and zero point corrections This release contains 396 tiles with coverage in all five VIKING filters, 379 of which have a deep co-add in J, and an additional 81 with at least two filters where the second OB has not been executed yet or one filter in an OB was poor quality. These 477 fields cover a total of ~690 square degrees and the resulting catalogues include a total of 46,270,162 sources (including low-reliability single-band detections). The imaging and catalogues (both single-band and band-merged) total 839.3GB. The coverage in each of the five sub-areas is not completely contiguous but any inter-tile gaps are relatively small. More details can be found in the accompanying documentation: vikingcatdr2.pdf (2 data files).

  16. Modeling and experimental validation of sawing based lander anchoring and sampling methods for asteroid exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Dong, Chengcheng; Zhang, Hui; Li, Song; Song, Aiguo

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a novel lander anchoring system based on sawing method for asteroid exploration. The system is composed of three robotic arms, three cutting discs, and a control system. The discs mounted at the end of the arms are able to penetrate into the rock surface of asteroids. After the discs cut into the rock surface, the self-locking function of the arms provides forces to fix the lander on the surface. Modeling, trajectory planning, simulations, mechanism design, and prototype fabrication of the anchoring system are discussed, respectively. The performances of the system are tested on different kinds of rocks, at different sawing angles, locations, and speeds. Results show that the system can cut 15 mm deep into granite rock in 180 s at sawing angle of 60°, with the average power of 58.41 W, and the "weight on bit" (WOB) of 8.637 N. The 7.8 kg anchoring system is capable of providing omni-directional anchoring forces, at least 225 N normal and 157 N tangent to the surface of the rock. The system has the advantages of low-weight, low energy consumption and balance forces, high anchoring efficiency and reliability, and could enable the lander to move and sample or assist astronauts and robots in walking and sampling on asteroids.

  17. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation after wood smoke exposure in a reconstructed Viking Age house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annie; Karottki, Dorina Gabriela; Christensen, Jannie Marie

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to particles from combustion of wood is associated with respiratory symptoms, whereas there is limited knowledge about systemic effects. We investigated effects on systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and DNA damage in humans who lived in a reconstructed Viking Age house, with indoor...... expression levels of CD11b, CD49d, and CD62L on monocytes after the stay in the house. In conclusion, even a high inhalation exposure to wood smoke was associated with limited systemic effects on markers of oxidative stress, DNA damage, inflammation, and monocyte activation....

  18. Post-Viking microbiology: new approaches, new data, new insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nealson, K. H.

    1999-01-01

    In the 20 years since the Viking experiments, major advances have been made in the areas of microbial systematics, microbial metabolism, microbial survival capacity, and the definition of environments on earth, suggesting that life is more versatile and tenacious than was previously appreciated. Almost all niches on earth which have available energy, and which are compatible with the chemistry of carbon-carbon bonds, are known to be inhabited by bacteria. The oldest known bacteria on earth apparently evolved soon after the formation of the planet, and are heat loving, hydrogen and/or sulfur metabolizing forms. Among the two microbial domains (kingdoms) is a great deal of metabolic diversity, with members of these forms being able to grow on almost any known energy source, organic or inorganic, and to utilize an impressive array of electron acceptors for anaerobic respiration. Both hydrothermal environments and the deep subsurface environments have been shown to support large populations of bacteria, growing on energy supplied by geothermal energy, thus isolating these ecosystems from the rest of the global biogeochemical cycles. This knowledge, coupled with new insights into the history of the solar system, allow one to speculate on possible evolution and survival of life forms on Mars.

  19. 76 FR 53633 - Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited (Type Certificate No. A-815 Formerly Held by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited (Type Certificate No. A-815 Formerly Held by Bombardier Inc. and de... superseding an existing airworthiness directive (AD) for all Viking Air Limited (type certificate No. A-815..., contact Viking Air Ltd., 9574 Hampden Road, Sidney, BC Canada V8L 5V5; telephone: (800) 663-8444; Internet...

  20. 76 FR 62605 - Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited Model DHC-3 (Otter) Airplanes With Supplemental Type...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited Model DHC-3 (Otter) Airplanes With Supplemental Type Certificate.... That AD applies to Viking Air Limited Model DHC-3 (Otter) airplanes equipped with a Honeywell TPE331... limitations and marking the airspeed indicator accordingly for Viking Air Limited Model DHC-3 (Otter...

  1. 76 FR 10220 - Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited (Type Certificate No. A-815 Formerly Held by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited (Type Certificate No. A-815 Formerly Held by Bombardier Inc. and de...-approved maintenance/inspection program identified in this AD, contact Viking Air Ltd., 9574 Hampden Road... Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new airworthiness directive (AD): 2011-05-02 Viking Air Limited...

  2. 76 FR 31800 - Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited Model DHC-3 (Otter) Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited Model DHC-3 (Otter) Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation... INFORMATION: Discussion Recent analysis by the FAA on the Viking Air Limited Model DHC-3 (Otter) airplanes... new airworthiness directive (AD): 2011-12-02 Viking Aircraft Limited: Amendment 39-16709; Docket No...

  3. Viking Line'i lahkuva "kapteni" 9 põhimõtet / Nils-Erik Eklund

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eklund, Nils-Erik

    2009-01-01

    2009. aasta 1. juunil 50-aastaseks saanud laevakompanii Viking Line ametist lahkuv juht Nils-Erik Eklund vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad oma isa, Viking Line'i asutaja Gunnar Eklundi jälgedes käimist, ettevõtte võimalikku laienemist teistesse tegevusaladesse, peamisi juhtimispõhimõtteid ning keerulisemaid hetki Viking Line'i ajaloos

  4. 75 FR 75932 - Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited (Type Certificate No. A-815 Formerly Held by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited (Type Certificate No. A-815 Formerly Held by Bombardier Inc. and de..., contact Viking Air Ltd., 9574 Hampden Road, Sidney, BC Canada V8L 5V5; telephone: (800) 663-8444; Internet... proposed AD. Discussion Viking Aircraft Limited has issued revisions to the DHC-3 Otter maintenance manual...

  5. 76 FR 34011 - Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited (Type Certificate No. A-815 Formerly Held by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ...-0597; Directorate Identifier 2011-CE-019-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited.../inspection program identified in this AD, contact Viking Air Ltd., 9574 Hampden Road, Sidney, BC Canada V8L... 2011-05-02, Amendment 39-16611 (76 FR 10220, February 24, 2011), for certain Viking Air Limited (Type...

  6. Viking Line pakub mugavat reisimisvõimalust / kommenteerinud Inno Borodenko, Piret Pääsik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    1. juunil 2009 täitus 50 aastat laevakompanii Viking Line asutamisest ja 15 aastat Viking Line tulekust Eestisse. Viking Line Eesti OÜ tegevjuht Inno Borodenko ja turundusjuht Piret Pääsik tutvustavad laevafirma saamislugu, eesmärke ning tegevust.

  7. Viking landing sites, remote-sensing observations, and physical properties of Martian surface materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, H.J.; Jakosky, B.M.

    1989-01-01

    Important problems that confront future scientific exploration of Mars include the physical properties of Martian surface materials and the geologic processes that formed the materials. The design of landing spacecraft, roving vehicles, and sampling devices and the selection of landing sites, vehicle traverses, and sample sites will be, in part, guided by the physical properties of the materials. Four materials occur in the sample fields of the Viking landers: (1) drift, (2) crusty to cloddy, (3) blocky, and (4) rock. The first three are soillike. Drift materials is weak, loose, and porous. We estimate that it has a dielectric constant near 2.4 and a thermal inertia near 1 ?? 10-3 to 3 ?? 10-3 (cal cm-2 sec 1 2 K-1) because of its low bulk density, fine grain size, and small cohesion. Crusty to cloddy material is expected to have a dielectric constant near 2.8 and a thermal inertia near 4 ?? 10-3 to 7 ?? 10-3 because of its moderate bulk density and cementation of grains. Blocky material should have a dielectric constant near 3.3 and a thermal inertia near 7 ?? 10-3 to 9 ?? 10-3 because of its moderate bulk density and cementation. Common basaltic rocks have dielectric constans near 8 and thermal inertias near 30 ?? 10-3 to 60 ?? 10-3. Comparisons of estimated dielectric constants and thermal inertias of the materials at the landing sites with those obtained remotely by Earth-based radars and Viking Orbiter thermal sensors suggest that the materials at the landing sites are good analogs for materials elsewhere on Mars. Correlation of remotely estimated dielectric constant and thermal inertias indicates two modal values for paired values of dielectric constants and thermal inertias near (A) 2 and 2 ?? 10-3 and (B) 3 and 6 ?? 10-3, respectively. These two modes are comparable to the dielectric constants and thermal inertias for drift and crusty to cloddy material, respectively. Dielectric constants and thermal inertias for blocky material are larger but conistent

  8. Landing on small bodies: From the Rosetta Lander to MASCOT and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulamec, Stephan; Biele, Jens; Bousquet, Pierre-W.; Gaudon, Philippe; Geurts, Koen; Ho, Tra-Mi; Krause, Christian; Lange, Caroline; Willnecker, Rainer; Witte, Lars; The Philae; Mascot Teams

    2014-01-01

    Recent planning for science and exploration missions has emphasized the high interest in the close investigation of small bodies in the Solar System. In particular in-situ observations of asteroids and comets play an important role in this field and will contribute substantially to our understanding of the formation and history of the Solar System. The first dedicated comet Lander is Philae, an element of ESA's Rosetta mission to comet 67/P Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Rosetta was launched in 2004. After more than 7 years of cruise (including three Earth and one Mars swing-by as well as two asteroid flybys) the spacecraft has gone into a deep space hibernation in June 2011. When approaching the target comet in early 2014, Rosetta will be re-activated. The cometary nucleus will be characterized remotely to prepare for Lander delivery, currently foreseen for November 2014. The Rosetta Lander was developed and manufactured, similar to a scientific instrument, by a consortium consisting of international partners. Project management is located at DLR in Cologne/Germany, with co-project managers at CNES (France) and ASI (Italy). The scientific lead is at the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Science (Lindau, Germany) and the Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale (Paris). Mainly scientific institutes provided the subsystems, instruments and the complete, qualified lander system. Operations are performed in two dedicated centers, the Lander Control Center (LCC) at DLR-MUSC and the Science Operations and Navigation Center (SONC) at CNES. This concept was adopted to reduce overall cost of the project and is foreseen also to be applied for development and operations of future small bodies landers. A mission profiting from experience gained during Philae development and operations is MASCOT, a surface package for the Japanese Hayabusa 2 mission. MASCOT is a small (˜10 kg) mobile device, delivered to the surface of asteroid 1999JU3. There it will operate for about 16 h. During this

  9. Atlantic Deep-Water Canyons (Benthic Landers) 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Each benthic lander contains a programmable sediment trap which can take 12 monthly samples, plus instruments to record temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen,...

  10. Innovations in Delta Differential One-Way Range: from Viking to Mars Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Border, James S.

    2009-01-01

    The Deep Space Network has provided the capability for very-long-baseline interferometry measurements in support of spacecraft navigation since the late 1970s. Both system implementation and the importance of such measurements to flight projects have evolved significantly over the past three decades. Innovations introduced through research and development programs have led to much better performance. This paper provides an overview of the development and use of interferometric tracking techniques in the DSN starting with the Viking era and continuing with a description of the current system and its planned use to support Mars Science Laboratory.

  11. Prototype Lithium-Ion Battery Developed for Mars 2001 Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    2000-01-01

    In fiscal year 1997, NASA, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and the U.S. Air Force established a joint program to competitively develop high-power, rechargeable lithium-ion battery technology for aerospace applications. The goal was to address Department of Defense and NASA requirements not met by commercial battery developments. Under this program, contracts have been awarded to Yardney Technical Products, Eagle- Picher Technologies, LLC, BlueStar Advanced Technology Corporation, and SAFT America, Inc., to develop cylindrical and prismatic cell and battery systems for a variety of NASA and U.S. Air Force applications. The battery systems being developed range from low-capacity (7 to 20 A-hr) and low-voltage (14 to 28 V) systems for planetary landers and rovers to systems for aircraft that require up to 270 V and for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles that require capacities up to 200 A-hr. Low-Earth-orbit and geosynchronousorbit spacecraft pose additional challenges to system operation with long cycle life (>30,000 cycles) and long calendar life (>10 years), respectively.

  12. On the trail of Vikings with polarized skylight: experimental study of the atmospheric optical prerequisites allowing polarimetric navigation by Viking seafarers

    OpenAIRE

    Horváth, Gábor; Barta, András; Pomozi, István; Suhai, Bence; Hegedüs, Ramón; Åkesson, Susanne; Meyer-Rochow, Benno; Wehner, Rüdiger

    2011-01-01

    Between AD 900 and AD 1200 Vikings, being able to navigate skillfully across the open sea, were the dominant seafarers of the North Atlantic. When the Sun was shining, geographical north could be determined with a special sundial. However, how the Vikings could have navigated in cloudy or foggy situations, when the Sun's disc was unusable, is still not fully known. A hypothesis was formulated in 1967, which suggested that under foggy or cloudy conditions, Vikings might have been able to deter...

  13. Evaluation of the Viking-Cives towplow for winter maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    To maximize efficiency while minimizing costs within ODOTs winter maintenance budget, ODOT is : evaluating new methods of snow and ice removal. One method is the use of the Viking-Cives TowPlow. The : TowPlow is pulled behind a tandem axle truck a...

  14. Viking Line sai ligi Tallinki ärisaladustele

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Viking Line pääses Silja Line'i müügiläbirääkimistel ligi ettevõtte ärisaladustele ja võtab nüüd Tallinkilt Soome ja Rootsi vahelistel liinidel turuosa endale. Vt. samas: Üleminek; Tulemused

  15. Viking Line visandab oma laevadele purjeid / Sirje Rank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rank, Sirje, 1966-

    2008-01-01

    Viking Line'i juht Nils-Erik Eklund leiab, et Tallinki uued laevad on pigem probleem kui konkurentsieelis, sest uue põlvkonna reisilaevad peaks liikuma osaliselt tuule- ja päikeseenergia jõul. Vt. samas: Tallinna-Helsingi liinil on tasakaal lähedal

  16. The Female Vikings, a women's fan group in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mintert, Svenja-Maria; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2014-01-01

    on the historical development of a Danish women-only fan group called 'The Female Vikings', which support a professional football club, Lyngby Boldklub (BK), in a city north of Copenhagen. The article explores the backgrounds and motivations of female fans, as well as their ways of staging femininity in a man...... of the female fans during the club's 'crisis' and their 'collective memories'....

  17. Vike-Freiberga: capitalism is failing / Monika Hanley

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanley, Monika

    2009-01-01

    Läti endine president Vaira Vike-Freiberga sõnas oma kõnes Ameerika Kaubanduskoja lõunal, et majandusliku olukorra parandamiseks tuleb muuta kapitalistlikku majandussüsteemi ning kutsus Läti poliitikuid üles võitlema raske situatsiooniga riigis

  18. Presidents bid farewell to Vike-Freiberga / Talis Saule Archdeacon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Archdeacon, Talis Saule

    2007-01-01

    Eesti president Toomas Hendrik Ilves ja Leedu president Valdas Adamkus jätsid 3. juulil 2007 Riias hüvasti ametist lahkuva Läti presidendi Vaira Vike-Freibergaga. Baltimaade liidrid arutasid koostöö küsimusi

  19. Observations of auroral zone processes by the Viking satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultqvist, B.

    1989-01-01

    The scientific results of the Viking project obtained up to the spring of 1988 are reviewed. During solar minimum conditions, when Viking was operated, the dayside auroral oval has been found to be the most active part, except during strong substorms and storms. A number of new auroral morphological features have been seen with the imaging experiment onboard Viking. Large-amplitude slow fluctuations of the electric field heat the ionospheric plasma and pump up the magnetic moment of the ionospheric ions so that they may leave the ionosphere. These fluctuations also accelerate ionospheric electrons upwards along the magnetic field lines. The importance of the acceleration of auroral electrons into the atmosphere by magnetic field-aligned potential differences has been confirmed. The first satellite-borne plasma wave interferometer on Viking has made it possible to determine a number of characteristics of the 'weak' double layers, seen first by the S3-3 satellite. A large number of these along the magnetic field lines produce large electric potential differences. Many new results concerning wave-particle interactions have been obtained, of which a few are presented here. (author)

  20. Ground-based observations coordinated with Viking satellite measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opgenoorth, H.J.; Kirkwood, S.

    1989-01-01

    The instrumentation and the orbit of the Viking satellite made this first Swedish satellite mission ideally suited for coordinated observations with the dense network of ground-based stations in northern Scandinavia. Several arrays of complementing instruments such as magnetometers, all-sky cameras, riometers and doppler radars monitored on a routine basis the ionosphere under the magnetospheric region passed by Viking. For a large number of orbits the Viking passages close to Scandinavia were covered by the operation of specially designed programmes at the European incoherent-scatter facility (EISCAT). First results of coordinated observations on the ground and aboard Viking have shed new light on the most spectacular feature of substorm expansion, the westward-travelling surge. The end of a substorm and the associated decay of a westward-travelling surge have been analysed. EISCAT measurements of high spatial and temporal resolution indicate that the conductivities and electric fields associated with westward-travelling surges are not represented correctly by the existing models. (author)

  1. A new type of ion injection event observed by Viking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, M.; Lundin, R.; Woch, J.; Shapshak, M.; Elphinstone, R.

    1993-01-01

    The authors report on the observation of a new type of ion injection event observed by Viking spacecraft several degrees equatorward of the cusp. Its signature seems considerably different than previously reported events such as flux transfer events or impulsive or transient magnetosheath plasma injection events. It consists of low energy ions, as the pattern drops sharply above 100 to 200 eV

  2. Altair Lander Life Support: Design Analysis Cycles 4 and 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Molly; Curley, Su; Rotter, Henry; Stambaugh, Imelda; Yagoda, Evan

    2011-01-01

    Life support systems are a critical part of human exploration beyond low earth orbit. NASA s Altair Lunar Lander team is pursuing efficient solutions to the technical challenges of human spaceflight. Life support design efforts up through Design Analysis Cycle (DAC) 4 focused on finding lightweight and reliable solutions for the Sortie and Outpost missions within the Constellation Program. In DAC-4 and later follow on work, changes were made to add functionality for new requirements accepted by the Altair project, and to update the design as knowledge about certain issues or hardware matured. In DAC-5, the Altair project began to consider mission architectures outside the Constellation baseline. Selecting the optimal life support system design is very sensitive to mission duration. When the mission goals and architecture change several trade studies must be conducted to determine the appropriate design. Finally, several areas of work developed through the Altair project may be applicable to other vehicle concepts for microgravity missions. Maturing the Altair life support system related analysis, design, and requirements can provide important information for developers of a wide range of other human vehicles.

  3. Reconciling the Differences between the Measurements of CO2 Isotopes by the Phoenix and MSL Landers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, P. B.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Atreya, S.; Pavlov, A. A.; Trainer, M.; Webster, C. R.; Wong, M.

    2014-01-01

    Precise stable isotope measurements of the CO2 in the martian atmosphere have the potential to provide important constraints for our understanding of the history of volatiles, the carbon cycle, current atmospheric processes, and the degree of water/rock interaction on Mars. There have been several different measurements by landers and Earth based systems performed in recent years that have not been in agreement. In particular, measurements of the isotopic composition of martian atmospheric CO2 by the Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) instrument on the Mars Phoenix Lander and the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) are in stark disagreement. This work attempts to use measurements of mass 45 and mass 46 of martian atmospheric CO2 by the SAM and TEGA instruments to search for agreement as a first step towards reaching a consensus measurement that might be supported by data from both instruments.

  4. Identification of the Beagle 2 lander on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, J. C.; Clemmet, J.; Croon, M.; Sims, M. R.; Pullan, D.; Muller, J.-P.; Tao, Y.; Xiong, S.; Putri, A. R.; Parker, T.; Turner, S. M. R.; Pillinger, J. M.

    2017-10-01

    The 2003 Beagle 2 Mars lander has been identified in Isidis Planitia at 90.43° E, 11.53° N, close to the predicted target of 90.50° E, 11.53° N. Beagle 2 was an exobiology lander designed to look for isotopic and compositional signs of life on Mars, as part of the European Space Agency Mars Express (MEX) mission. The 2004 recalculation of the original landing ellipse from a 3-sigma major axis from 174 km to 57 km, and the acquisition of Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) imagery at 30 cm per pixel across the target region, led to the initial identification of the lander in 2014. Following this, more HiRISE images, giving a total of 15, including red and blue-green colours, were obtained over the area of interest and searched, which allowed sub-pixel imaging using super high-resolution techniques. The size (approx. 1.5 m), distinctive multilobed shape, high reflectivity relative to the local terrain, specular reflections, and location close to the centre of the planned landing ellipse led to the identification of the Beagle 2 lander. The shape of the imaged lander, although to some extent masked by the specular reflections in the various images, is consistent with deployment of the lander lid and then some or all solar panels. Failure to fully deploy the panels-which may have been caused by damage during landing-would have prohibited communication between the lander and MEX and commencement of science operations. This implies that the main part of the entry, descent and landing sequence, the ejection from MEX, atmospheric entry and parachute deployment, and landing worked as planned with perhaps only the final full panel deployment failing.

  5. Identification of the Beagle 2 lander on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, J C; Clemmet, J; Croon, M; Sims, M R; Pullan, D; Muller, J-P; Tao, Y; Xiong, S; Putri, A R; Parker, T; Turner, S M R; Pillinger, J M

    2017-10-01

    The 2003 Beagle 2 Mars lander has been identified in Isidis Planitia at 90.43° E, 11.53° N, close to the predicted target of 90.50° E, 11.53° N. Beagle 2 was an exobiology lander designed to look for isotopic and compositional signs of life on Mars, as part of the European Space Agency Mars Express (MEX) mission. The 2004 recalculation of the original landing ellipse from a 3-sigma major axis from 174 km to 57 km, and the acquisition of Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) imagery at 30 cm per pixel across the target region, led to the initial identification of the lander in 2014. Following this, more HiRISE images, giving a total of 15, including red and blue-green colours, were obtained over the area of interest and searched, which allowed sub-pixel imaging using super high-resolution techniques. The size (approx. 1.5 m), distinctive multilobed shape, high reflectivity relative to the local terrain, specular reflections, and location close to the centre of the planned landing ellipse led to the identification of the Beagle 2 lander. The shape of the imaged lander, although to some extent masked by the specular reflections in the various images, is consistent with deployment of the lander lid and then some or all solar panels. Failure to fully deploy the panels-which may have been caused by damage during landing-would have prohibited communication between the lander and MEX and commencement of science operations. This implies that the main part of the entry, descent and landing sequence, the ejection from MEX, atmospheric entry and parachute deployment, and landing worked as planned with perhaps only the final full panel deployment failing.

  6. Structural design of liquid oxygen/liquid methane robotic lander JANUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaidez, Mariana

    As the attempt to send humans to Mars has gained momentum in the last decade, the need to find alternative propellants that are safer, less toxic, and yields a better performance has become apparent [1]. Liquid methane and oxygen have emerged as a suitable alternative. In addition, the incorporation of liquid methane/liquid oxygen into the propulsion system has demonstrated an increase in engine performance, as well as a reduction in the volume, size and complexity of the propulsion system. In an attempt to further understand the technologies that are possible to develop using liquid oxygen (LO 2) and liquid methane (LCH4), a preliminary design of a robotic lander JANUS is being completed by the Center for Space Exploration and Technology Research (cSTER). The structural design of the vehicle is important because it acts as the skeleton of the vehicle and dictates the maneuverability of the robotic lander. To develop the structure of the robotic lander, six different design vehicle concepts with varying tank configurations were considered. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was completed on each model to optimize each vehicle. Trade studies were completed to choose the best design for JANUS. Upon completion of the trade studies the design for the first prototype of JANUS was initiated in which the tank and thrust modules were designed. This thesis will describe the design process for the structural design of the JANUS.

  7. Success of sky-polarimetric Viking navigation: revealing the chance Viking sailors could reach Greenland from Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Száz, Dénes; Horváth, Gábor

    2018-04-01

    According to a famous hypothesis, Viking sailors could navigate along the latitude between Norway and Greenland by means of sky polarization in cloudy weather using a sun compass and sunstone crystals. Using data measured in earlier atmospheric optical and psychophysical experiments, here we determine the success rate of this sky-polarimetric Viking navigation. Simulating 1000 voyages between Norway and Greenland with varying cloudiness at summer solstice and spring equinox, we revealed the chance with which Viking sailors could reach Greenland under the varying weather conditions of a 3-week-long journey as a function of the navigation periodicity Δ t if they analysed sky polarization with calcite, cordierite or tourmaline sunstones. Examples of voyage routes are also presented. Our results show that the sky-polarimetric navigation is surprisingly successful on both days of the spring equinox and summer solstice even under cloudy conditions if the navigator determined the north direction periodically at least once in every 3 h, independently of the type of sunstone used for the analysis of sky polarization. This explains why the Vikings could rule the Atlantic Ocean for 300 years and could reach North America without a magnetic compass. Our findings suggest that it is not only the navigation periodicity in itself that is important for higher navigation success rates, but also the distribution of times when the navigation procedure carried out is as symmetrical as possible with respect to the time point of real noon.

  8. Success of sky-polarimetric Viking navigation: revealing the chance Viking sailors could reach Greenland from Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Száz, Dénes; Horváth, Gábor

    2018-04-01

    According to a famous hypothesis, Viking sailors could navigate along the latitude between Norway and Greenland by means of sky polarization in cloudy weather using a sun compass and sunstone crystals. Using data measured in earlier atmospheric optical and psychophysical experiments, here we determine the success rate of this sky-polarimetric Viking navigation. Simulating 1000 voyages between Norway and Greenland with varying cloudiness at summer solstice and spring equinox, we revealed the chance with which Viking sailors could reach Greenland under the varying weather conditions of a 3-week-long journey as a function of the navigation periodicity Δt if they analysed sky polarization with calcite, cordierite or tourmaline sunstones. Examples of voyage routes are also presented. Our results show that the sky-polarimetric navigation is surprisingly successful on both days of the spring equinox and summer solstice even under cloudy conditions if the navigator determined the north direction periodically at least once in every 3 h, independently of the type of sunstone used for the analysis of sky polarization. This explains why the Vikings could rule the Atlantic Ocean for 300 years and could reach North America without a magnetic compass. Our findings suggest that it is not only the navigation periodicity in itself that is important for higher navigation success rates, but also the distribution of times when the navigation procedure carried out is as symmetrical as possible with respect to the time point of real noon.

  9. ESA strategy for human exploration and the Lunar Lander Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardini, B.

    As part of ESAs Aurora Exploration programme, the Agency has defined, since 2001, a road map for exploration in which, alongside robotic exploration missions, the International Space Station (ISS) and the Moon play an essential role on the way to other destinations in the Solar System, ultimately to a human mission to Mars in a more distant future. In the frame of the Human Spaceflight programme the first European Lunar Lander Mission, with a launch date on 2018, has been defined, targeting the lunar South Pole region to capitalize on unique illumination conditions and provide the opportunity to carry out scientific investigations in a region of the Moon not explored so far. The Phase B1 industrial study, recently initiated, will consolidate the mission design and prepare the ground for the approval of the full mission development phase at the 2012 ESA Council at Ministerial. This paper describes the mission options which have been investigated in the past Phase A studies and presents the main activities foreseen in the Phase B1 to consolidate the mission design, including a robust bread-boards and technology development programme. In addition, the approach to overcoming the mission's major technical and environmental challenges and the activities to advance the definition of the payload elements will be described.

  10. The Modern Near-Surface Martian Climate: A Review of In-situ Meteorological Data from Viking to Curiosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, G. M.; Newman, C. N.; De Vicente-Retortillo, A.; Fischer, E.; Renno, N. O.; Richardson, M. I.; Fairén, A. G.; Genzer, M.; Guzewich, S. D.; Haberle, R. M.; Harri, A.-M.; Kemppinen, O.; Lemmon, M. T.; Smith, M. D.; de la Torre-Juárez, M.; Vasavada, A. R.

    2017-10-01

    We analyze the complete set of in-situ meteorological data obtained from the Viking landers in the 1970s to today's Curiosity rover to review our understanding of the modern near-surface climate of Mars, with focus on the dust, CO2 and H2O cycles and their impact on the radiative and thermodynamic conditions near the surface. In particular, we provide values of the highest confidence possible for atmospheric opacity, atmospheric pressure, near-surface air temperature, ground temperature, near-surface wind speed and direction, and near-surface air relative humidity and water vapor content. Then, we study the diurnal, seasonal and interannual variability of these quantities over a span of more than twenty Martian years. Finally, we propose measurements to improve our understanding of the Martian dust and H2O cycles, and discuss the potential for liquid water formation under Mars' present day conditions and its implications for future Mars missions. Understanding the modern Martian climate is important to determine if Mars could have the conditions to support life and to prepare for future human exploration.

  11. Accuracy Analysis of Lunar Lander Terminal Guidance Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. K. Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article studies a proposed analytical algorithm of the terminal guidance for the lunar lander. The analytical solution, which forms the basis of the algorithm, was obtained for a constant acceleration trajectory and thrust vector orientation programs that are essentially linear with time. The main feature of the proposed algorithm is a completely analytical solution to provide the lander terminal guidance to the desired spot in 3D space when landing on the atmosphereless body with no numerical procedures. To reach 6 terminal conditions (components of position and velocity vectors at the final time are used 6 guidance law parameters, namely time-to-go, desired value of braking deceleration, initial values of pitch and yaw angles and rates of their change. In accordance with the principle of flexible trajectories, this algorithm assumes the implementation of a regularly updated control program that ensures reaching terminal conditions from the current state that corresponds to the control program update time. The guidance law parameters, which ensure that terminal conditions are reached, are generated as a function of the current phase coordinates of a lander. The article examines an accuracy and reliability of the proposed analytical algorithm that provides the terminal guidance of the lander in 3D space through mathematical modeling of the lander guidance from the circumlunar pre-landing orbit to the desired spot near the lunar surface. A desired terminal position of the lunar lander is specified by the selenographic latitude, longitude and altitude above the lunar surface. The impact of variations in orbital parameters on the terminal guidance accuracy has been studied. By varying the five initial orbit parameters (obliquity, ascending node longitude, argument of periapsis, periapsis height, apoapsis height when the terminal spot is fixed the statistic characteristics of the terminal guidance algorithm error according to the terminal

  12. Lander Radioscience LaRa, a Space Geodesy Experiment to Mars within the ExoMars 2020 mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehant, V. M. A.; Le Maistre, S.; Yseboodt, M.; Peters, M. J.; Karatekin, O.; Van Hove, B.; Rivoldini, A.; Baland, R. M.; Van Hoolst, T.

    2017-12-01

    The LaRa (Lander Radioscience) experiment is designed to obtain coherent two-way Doppler measurements from the radio link between the 2020 ExoMars lander and Earth over at least one Martian year. The LaRa instrument consists of a coherent transponder with up- and downlinks at X-band radio frequencies. The signal received from Earth is a pure carrier at 7.178 GHz; it is transponded back to Earth at a frequency of 8.434 GHz. The transponder is designed to maintain its lock and coherency over its planed one-hour observation sessions. The transponder mass is at the one-kg level. There are one uplink antenna and two downlink antennas. They are small patch antennas covered by a radome of 130gr for the downlink ones and of 200gr for the uplink. The signals will be generated and received by Earth-based radio antennas belonging to the NASA deep space network (DSN), the ESA tracking station network, or the Russian ground stations network. The instrument lifetime is more than twice the nominal mission duration of one Earth year. The Doppler measurements will be used to observe the orientation and rotation of Mars in space (precession, nutations, and length-of-day variations), as well as polar motion. The ultimate objective is to obtain information/constraints on the Martian interior, and on the sublimation/condensation cycle of atmospheric CO2. Orientation and rotational variations will allow us to constrain the moment of inertia of the entire planet, the moment of inertia of the core, and seasonal mass transfer between the atmosphere and the ice caps. The LaRa experiment will be combined with other previous radio science experiments such as the InSight (Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) RISE experiment (Rotation and Interior Structure Experiment) with radio science data of the NASA Viking landers, Mars Pathfinder and Mars Exploration Rovers. In addition, other ExoMars2020 and TGO (Trace Gas Orbiter) experiments providing

  13. Search for atmospheric holes with the Viking cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, L.A.; Sigwarth, J.B.; Craven, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    Images taken with the two ultraviolet cameras on board the Viking spacecraft were examined for evidence of transient decreases of Earth's ultraviolet dayglow. Comparison of near-limb observations of dayglow intensities with those at smaller angles to the nadir with the camera sensitive to OI 130.4 nm emissions supports the existence of transient decreases in the near-nadir dayglow. However, the amount of near-nadir imaging is severely limited and only several significant events are found. More decisive confirmation of the existence of such transient decreases must await a larger survey from another spacecraft. The diameters of these regions as detected with Viking are ∼50 to 100 km. Occurrence frequencies, intensity decreases, and dimensions for these clusters of darkened pixels are similar to those previously reported for such events, or atmospheric holes, as seen in images of the ultraviolet dayglow with Dynamics Explorer 1

  14. Automated microbial metabolism laboratory. [Viking 75 entry vehicle and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The labeled release concept was advanced to accommodate a post- Viking mission designed to extend the search, to confirm the presence of, and to characterize any Martian life found, and to obtain preliminary information on control of the life detected. The advanced labeled release concept utilizes four test chambers, each of which contains either an active or heat sterilized sample of the Martian soil. A variety of C-14 labeled organic substrates can be added sequentially to each soil sample and the resulting evolved radioactive gas monitored. The concept can also test effects of various inhibitors and environmental parameters on the experimental response. The current Viking '75 labeled release hardware is readily adaptable to the advanced labeled release concept.

  15. Mars, solar wind, and supernova - implications of the Viking data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, M.

    1977-01-01

    A scenario for the evolution of the Martian atmosphere consistent with various data of the Viking 1 and 2 and the Mariner 9 has been presented: Mars was formed from Renazzo-type meteorites polluted by the products of supernova explosion. A dense ancient Martian atmosphere has been swept away by the solar wind and the present tenuous atmosphere was supplied recently by the volcanic gas from the Tharsis region, after the occurrence of the magnetic field. (Auth.)

  16. Rational bandits: Plunder, public goods, and the Vikings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurrild-Klitgaard, Peter; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2003-01-01

    The paper applies and extends insights from Mancur Olson's study of state making to the Vikings. In a world of roving bandits, a sub-optimal provision of public goods exists, most notably of security. Roving banditry leads to over-plundering and zero profits for the plunderers, which makes statio...... of the process being reflected in the variation in the number of raids and the amount of wealth extracted. Udgivelsesdato: DEC...

  17. Viking mission and the search for life on Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, H.P.

    1979-01-01

    Results of the Viking experiments to search for life on Mars are reviewed. Search for metabolic processes was made with a pyrolytic release experiment which required synthesis of organic material from CO or CO 2 . A gas exchange experiment looked for the production of oxidized and reduced gases. The labeled release experiment required decomposition of simple organic molecules with the release of a carbon gas. Results and their implications are discussed

  18. Mitochondrial DNA variation in the Viking age population of Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Krzewińska, Maja; Bjørnstad, Gro; Skoglund, Pontus; Olason, Pall Isolfur; Bill, Jan; Götherström, Anders; Hagelberg, Erika

    2015-01-01

    The medieval Norsemen or Vikings had an important biological and cultural impact on many parts of Europe through raids, colonization and trade, from about AD 793 to 1066. To help understand the genetic affinities of the ancient Norsemen, and their genetic contribution to the gene pool of other Europeans, we analysed DNA markers in Late Iron Age skeletal remains from Norway. DNA was extracted from 80 individuals, and mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms were detected by next-generation sequencing. ...

  19. Viking orbiter imaging observations of dust in the Martian atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, G.A.; Baum, W.A.; Barnes, J.

    1979-01-01

    More than 20 local Martian dust clouds and two global dust storms were observed with the Viking orbiter camera. Sixteen of the local clouds were imaged in two colors or were observed with other instruments confirming their identification as dust clouds. These Viking results are compared with earth-based observations of Martian dust storms and with Mariner 9 data. Most of the dust activity seen by Viking occurred during southern hemisphere spring and early summer, when Mars was near perihelion and isolation was near maximum. About half the local clouds occurred near the edge of the southern polar cap, where winds are presumably enhanced by a strong regional temperature gradient. The other half occurred mainly in the southern hemisphere near regions where circulation models incorporating topography predict positive vertical velocities. Although dust clouds observed from earth show a similar partial correlation with models, some ambiguity exists concerning interpretation of regions near Hellespontus that have spawned the most spectacular Martian dust storms on record

  20. Mitochondrial DNA variation in the Viking age population of Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzewińska, Maja; Bjørnstad, Gro; Skoglund, Pontus; Olason, Pall Isolfur; Bill, Jan; Götherström, Anders; Hagelberg, Erika

    2015-01-19

    The medieval Norsemen or Vikings had an important biological and cultural impact on many parts of Europe through raids, colonization and trade, from about AD 793 to 1066. To help understand the genetic affinities of the ancient Norsemen, and their genetic contribution to the gene pool of other Europeans, we analysed DNA markers in Late Iron Age skeletal remains from Norway. DNA was extracted from 80 individuals, and mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms were detected by next-generation sequencing. The sequences of 45 ancient Norwegians were verified as genuine through the identification of damage patterns characteristic of ancient DNA. The ancient Norwegians were genetically similar to previously analysed ancient Icelanders, and to present-day Shetland and Orkney Islanders, Norwegians, Swedes, Scots, English, German and French. The Viking Age population had higher frequencies of K*, U*, V* and I* haplogroups than their modern counterparts, but a lower proportion of T* and H* haplogroups. Three individuals carried haplotypes that are rare in Norway today (U5b1b1, Hg A* and an uncommon variant of H*). Our combined analyses indicate that Norse women were important agents in the overseas expansion and settlement of the Vikings, and that women from the Orkneys and Western Isles contributed to the colonization of Iceland. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Composition and structure of the martian upper atmosphere: analysis of results from viking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, M B; Kong, T Y; Yung, Y L; Nier, A O

    1976-12-11

    Densities for carbon dioxide measured by the upper atmospheric mass spectrometers on Viking 1 and Viking 2 are analyzed to yield height profiles for the temperature of the martian atmosphere between 120 and 200 kilometers. Densities for nitrogen and argon are used to derive vertical profiles for the eddy diffusion coefficient over the same height range. The upper atmosphere of Mars is surprisingly cold with average temperatures for both Viking 1 and Viking 2 of less than 200 degrees K, and there is significant vertical structure. Model calculations are presented and shown to be in good agreement with measured concentrations of carbon monoxide, oxygen, and nitric oxide.

  2. Telltale wind indicator for the Mars Phoenix lander

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnlaugsson, H.P.; Honstein-Rathlou, C.; Merrison, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    The Telltale wind indicator is a mechanical anemometer designed to operate on the Martian surface as part of the meteorological package on the NASA Phoenix lander. It consists of a lightweight cylinder suspended by Kevlar fibers and is deflected under the action of wind. Imaging of the Telltale...

  3. Mars Orbiter Camera Views the 'Face on Mars' - Comparison with Viking

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Shortly after midnight Sunday morning (5 April 1998 12:39 AM PST), the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) on the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft successfully acquired a high resolution image of the 'Face on Mars' feature in the Cydonia region. The image was transmitted to Earth on Sunday, and retrieved from the mission computer data base Monday morning (6 April 1998). The image was processed at the Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) facility 9:15 AM and the raw image immediately transferred to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for release to the Internet. The images shown here were subsequently processed at MSSS.The picture was acquired 375 seconds after the spacecraft's 220th close approach to Mars. At that time, the 'Face', located at approximately 40.8o N, 9.6o W, was 275 miles (444 km) from the spacecraft. The 'morning' sun was 25o above the horizon. The picture has a resolution of 14.1 feet (4.3 meters) per pixel, making it ten times higher resolution than the best previous image of the feature, which was taken by the Viking Mission in the mid-1970's. The full image covers an area 2.7 miles (4.4 km) wide and 25.7 miles (41.5 km) long.In this comparison, the best Viking image has been enlarged to 3.3 times its original resolution, and the MOC image has been decreased by a similar 3.3 times, creating images of roughly the same size. In addition, the MOC images have been geometrically transformed to a more overhead projection (different from the mercator map projection of PIA01440 & 1441) for ease of comparison with the Viking image. The left image is a portion of Viking Orbiter 1 frame 070A13, the middle image is a portion of MOC frame shown normally, and the right image is the same MOC frame but with the brightness inverted to simulate the approximate lighting conditions of the Viking image.Processing Image processing has been applied to the images in order to improve the visibility of features. This processing included the following steps: The image was

  4. Collective labour law after Viking, Laval, Rüffert, and Commission v. Luxembourg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Peijpe, T.

    2009-01-01

    The judgments of the European Court of Justice (ECJ) in the International Transport Workers’ Federation and Finnish Seamen’s Union v Viking Line ABP and OÜ Viking Line Eesti (hereinafter ‘Viking’), Laval un Partneri Ltd v Svenska Byggnadsarbetareförbundet and Others (hereinafter ‘Laval’), Dirk

  5. Viking Line toob Rosella uuest aastast Eesti lipu alla / Signe Kalberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalberg, Signe, 1959-

    2005-01-01

    Viking Line'i parvlaev Rosella hakkab kulude kokkuhoiu, äritegevuse tasuvuse ja konkurentsivõime taastamise huvidest sõitma uuest aastast Eesti lipu all ning vahetab välja senise laevameeskonna. Viking Line'i infojuhi Johanna Boijer-Svahnströmi kommentaare

  6. Wayward Warriors: The Viking Motif in Swedish and English Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundmark, Björn

    2014-01-01

    In this article the Viking motif in children's literature is explored--from its roots in (adult) nationalist and antiquarian discourse, over pedagogical and historical texts for children, to the eventual diversification (or dissolution) of the motif into different genres and forms. The focus is on Swedish Viking narratives, but points of…

  7. Was it for walrus? Viking Age settlement and medieval walrus ivory trade in Iceland and Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frei, Karin M.; Coutu, Ashley N.; Smiarowski, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    Walrus-tusk ivory and walrus-hide rope were highly desired goods in Viking Age north-west Europe. New finds of walrus bone and ivory in early Viking Age contexts in Iceland are concentrated in the south-west, and suggest extensive exploitation of nearby walrus for meat, hide and ivory during the ...

  8. Dynamic Wind-Tunnel Testing of a Sub-Scale Iced S-3B Viking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sam; Barnhart, Billy; Ratvasky, Thomas P.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of ice accretion on a 1/12-scale complete aircraft model of S-3B Viking was studied in a rotary-balance wind tunnel. Two types of ice accretions were considered: ice protection system failure shape and runback shapes that form downstream of the thermal ice protection system. The results showed that the ice shapes altered the stall characteristics of the aircraft. The ice shapes also reduced the control surface effectiveness, but mostly near the stall angle of attack. There were some discrepancies with the data with the flaps deflected that were attributed to the low Reynolds number of the test. Rotational and forced-oscillation studies showed that the effects of ice were mostly in the longitudinal forces, and the effects on the lateral forces were relatively minor.

  9. Studies of Viking Age swords: metallography and archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Astrup, Eva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a comment on Alan Williams investigation ‘A Metallurgical Study of some Viking Swords’ published in Gladius XXIX. Williams’ paper comprise metallurgical investigations of 44 Viking Age Swords, all with ULFBERHT inscriptions. Such investigations, made by a well qualified metallurgist, are essential to archaeology. Unfortunately, this one has some serious limitations. In order to give a good description of the quality of a sword-blade, samples showing at least the section through both the edge and the central part of the blade are necessary. This is mostly not the case in Williams’ investigations, and he gives insufficient information about his samples. Other weak points are his group division and his interpretation of the production area for blades containing high-carbon steel.

    Este trabajo es un comentario sobre la investigación de Alan Williams ‘A Metallurgical Study of some Viking Swords` publicado en Gladius XXIX. El artículo de Williams incluye un estudio arqueometalúrgico de 44 espadas de época vikinga, todas ellas con la inscripción ULFBERHT. Estas investigaciones, realizadas por un arqueometalúrgico altamente cualificado, son esenciales en arqueología. Sin embargo, esta en concreto presenta algunas serias limitaciones. Para poder proporcionar una buena descripción de la calidad de la hoja de una espada, son necesarias muestras de al menos la sección desde el filo y hasta la parte central de la hoja. Este no es el caso de la mayoría de las muestras de Williams, quien proporciona insuficiente información sobre su toma de muestras. Otros puntos débiles son su clasificación en grupos y su interpretación del área de producción para las hojas que contienen un acero con elevado contenido de carbono.

  10. Mars Orbiter Camera Views the 'Face on Mars' - Best View from Viking

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Shortly after midnight Sunday morning (5 April 1998 12:39 AM PST), the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) on the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft successfully acquired a high resolution image of the 'Face on Mars' feature in the Cydonia region. The image was transmitted to Earth on Sunday, and retrieved from the mission computer data base Monday morning (6 April 1998). The image was processed at the Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) facility 9:15 AM and the raw image immediately transferred to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for release to the Internet. The images shown here were subsequently processed at MSSS.The picture was acquired 375 seconds after the spacecraft's 220th close approach to Mars. At that time, the 'Face', located at approximately 40.8o N, 9.6o W, was 275 miles (444 km) from the spacecraft. The 'morning' sun was 25o above the horizon. The picture has a resolution of 14.1 feet (4.3 meters) per pixel, making it ten times higher resolution than the best previous image of the feature, which was taken by the Viking Mission in the mid-1970's. The full image covers an area 2.7 miles (4.4 km) wide and 25.7 miles (41.5 km) long.This Viking Orbiter image is one of the best Viking pictures of the area Cydonia where the 'Face' is located. Marked on the image are the 'footprint' of the high resolution (narrow angle) Mars Orbiter Camera image and the area seen in enlarged views (dashed box). See PIA01440-1442 for these images in raw and processed form.Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  11. Viking relativity experiment: Verification of signal retardation by solar gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reasenberg, R.D.; Shapiro, I.I.; MacNeil, P.E.; Goldstein, R.B.; Breidenthal, J.C.; Brenkle, J.P.; Cain, D.L.; Kaufman, T.M.; Komarek, T.A.; Zygielbaum, A.I.

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of 14 months of data obtained from radio ranging to the Viking spacecraft verified, to an estimated accuracy of 0.1%, the prediction of the general theory of relativity that the round-trip times of light signals traveling between the Earth and Mars are increased by the direct effect of solar gravity. The correspondig value for the metric parameter γ is 1.000 +- 0.002, where the quoted uncertainty, twice the formal standard deviation, allows for possible systematic errors

  12. Radiation effects on the Viking-2 preamplifier-readout chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fallot-Burghardt, W.; Hawblitzel, C.; Hofmann, W.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Seeger, M.; Brenner, R.; Nygaard, E.; Rudge, A.; Toker, O.; Weilhammer, P.; Yoshioka, K.

    1994-01-01

    We have studied the radiation sensitivity of the Viking-2 VLSI circuit which has been designed for the readout of silicon strip detectors and manufactured at Mietec in 1.5 μm CMOS technology. Both biased and unbiased chips have been irradiated with a 137 Cs γ source up to a total dose of 2 kGy (200 krad) after which all tested chips were still fully functional. We report the characteristic changes of device parameters with dose, including equivalent noise charge for different capacitive loads, and determine transistor threshold shifts and change of mobilities. ((orig.))

  13. Telecommunications Relay Support of the Mars Phoenix Lander Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Charles D., Jr.; Erickson, James K.; Gladden, Roy E.; Guinn, Joseph R.; Ilott, Peter A.; Jai, Benhan; Johnston, Martin D.; Kornfeld, Richard P.; Martin-Mur, Tomas J.; McSmith, Gaylon W.; hide

    2010-01-01

    The Phoenix Lander, first of NASA's Mars Scout missions, arrived at the Red Planet on May 25, 2008. From the moment the lander separated from its interplanetary cruise stage shortly before entry, the spacecraft could no longer communicate directly with Earth, and was instead entirely dependent on UHF relay communications via an international network of orbiting Mars spacecraft, including NASA's 2001 Mars Odyssey (ODY) and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft, as well as ESA's Mars Express (MEX) spacecraft. All three orbiters captured critical event telemetry and/or tracking data during Phoenix Entry, Descent and Landing. During the Phoenix surface mission, ODY and MRO provided command and telemetry services, far surpassing the original data return requirements. The availability of MEX as a backup relay asset enhanced the robustness of the surface relay plan. In addition to telecommunications services, Doppler tracking observables acquired on the UHF link yielded an accurate position for the Phoenix landing site.

  14. On the trail of Vikings with polarized skylight: experimental study of the atmospheric optical prerequisites allowing polarimetric navigation by Viking seafarers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Gábor; Barta, András; Pomozi, István; Suhai, Bence; Hegedüs, Ramón; Akesson, Susanne; Meyer-Rochow, Benno; Wehner, Rüdiger

    2011-03-12

    Between AD 900 and AD 1200 Vikings, being able to navigate skillfully across the open sea, were the dominant seafarers of the North Atlantic. When the Sun was shining, geographical north could be determined with a special sundial. However, how the Vikings could have navigated in cloudy or foggy situations, when the Sun's disc was unusable, is still not fully known. A hypothesis was formulated in 1967, which suggested that under foggy or cloudy conditions, Vikings might have been able to determine the azimuth direction of the Sun with the help of skylight polarization, just like some insects. This hypothesis has been widely accepted and is regularly cited by researchers, even though an experimental basis, so far, has not been forthcoming. According to this theory, the Vikings could have determined the direction of the skylight polarization with the help of an enigmatic birefringent crystal, functioning as a linearly polarizing filter. Such a crystal is referred to as 'sunstone' in one of the Viking's sagas, but its exact nature is unknown. Although accepted by many, the hypothesis of polarimetric navigation by Vikings also has numerous sceptics. In this paper, we summarize the results of our own celestial polarization measurements and psychophysical laboratory experiments, in which we studied the atmospheric optical prerequisites of possible sky-polarimetric navigation in Tunisia, Finland, Hungary and the high Arctic.

  15. Project Morpheus: Lean Development of a Terrestrial Flight Testbed for Maturing NASA Lander Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devolites, Jennifer L.; Olansen, Jon B.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Morpheus Project has developed and tested a prototype planetary lander capable of vertical takeoff and landing that is designed to serve as a testbed for advanced spacecraft technologies. The lander vehicle, propelled by a Liquid Oxygen (LOX)/Methane engine and sized to carry a 500kg payload to the lunar surface, provides a platform for bringing technologies from the laboratory into an integrated flight system at relatively low cost. In 2012, Morpheus began integrating the Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) sensors and software onto the vehicle in order to demonstrate safe, autonomous landing and hazard avoidance. From the beginning, one of goals for the Morpheus Project was to streamline agency processes and practices. The Morpheus project accepted a challenge to tailor the traditional NASA systems engineering approach in a way that would be appropriate for a lower cost, rapid prototype engineering effort, but retain the essence of the guiding principles. This paper describes the tailored project life cycle and systems engineering approach for the Morpheus project, including the processes, tools, and amount of rigor employed over the project's multiple lifecycles since the project began in fiscal year (FY) 2011.

  16. The sunstone and polarised skylight: ancient Viking navigational tools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropars, Guy; Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan; Le Floch, Albert

    2014-10-01

    Although the polarisation of the light was discovered at the beginning of the nineteenth century, the Vikings could have used the polarised light around the tenth century in their navigation to America, using a 'sunstone' evoked in the Icelandic Sagas. Indeed, the birefringence of the Iceland spar (calcite), a common crystal in Scandinavia, permits a simple observation of the axis of polarisation of the skylight at the zenith. From this, it is possible to guess the azimuth of a hidden Sun below the horizon, for instance. The high sensitivity of the differential method provided by the ordinary and extraordinary beams of calcite at its so-called isotropy point is about two orders higher than that of the best dichroic polariser and permits to reach an accuracy of ±1° for the Sun azimuth (at sunrise and sunset). Unfortunately, due to the relative fragility of calcite, only the so-called Alderney crystal was discovered on board a 16th ancient ship. Curiously, beyond its use as a sunstone by the Vikings, during these last millennia calcite has led to the discovery of the polarisation of the light itself by Malus and is currently being used to detect the atmospheres of exoplanets. Moreover, the differential method for the light polarisation detection is widely used in the animal world.

  17. Viking Helmet Corroles: Activating Inert Oxidometal Corroles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweyen, Peter; Brandhorst, Kai; Hoffmann, Martin; Wolfram, Benedikt; Zaretzke, Marc-Kevin; Bröring, Martin

    2017-10-09

    Chemically inert oxidometal(V) corrols of molybdenum and rhenium undergo clean ligand-exchange reactions upon the action of SiCl 4 . The resulting dichlorido complexes show trigonal prismatic coordination of the metal ion with the chlorine atoms residing in a cis configuration, and were studied by optical and resonance spectroscopy as well as DFT calculations. In situ reactivity studies with carbon nucleophiles indicate high reactivity for chlorine replacement. Treatment with sodium cyclopentadienide paves the way to robust molybdenum corrolocene half-sandwich complexes. These organometallic compounds are the first corrole species that stabilize an air-stable and diamagnetic low spin d 2 -Mo IV center. Structural, spectroelectrochemical, and chemical investigations prove a reversible Mo IV /Mo V redox couple close to the Fc/Fc + potential for these systems. The high stability of the compounds in both redox states calls for future applications in catalysis and as redox switch. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Individualistic Vikings: Culture, Economics and Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Már Wolfgang Mixa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Icelandic culture has generally been considered to share many similarities to the Nordic cultures. However, the financial crisis in 2008 painted a completely different picture, with the Nordic nations faring much less worse than Iceland, which saw its banking system becoming almost entirely worthless. Looking at traditional cultural yardsticks in the vein of the most commonly used research in the field of business and organizational management, generally linked to Hofstede´s dimensional studies, one would at first glance conclude that Icelanders would have behaved in a similar manner as people in the Nordic nations. By focusing on savings ratio, it is shown that Icelanders were much more risk-seeking during the prelude of the crisis. Many nations badly hit during the 2008 financial crisis have a high level of individualism inherent in their culture. Iceland fits this scenario. Thus while general cultural characteristics may lack explanatory power regarding economic behavior of people between cultures, the individual/collective cultural dimension may provide clues of what dangers (and possible strengths lurk within societies from a financial point of view. Such developments may affect the financial stability of nations, especially those with a high level of individualism where financial liberalization with possible abuses is occurring.

  19. Lunar lander stage requirements based on the Civil Needs Data Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulqueen, John A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines the lunar lander stages that will be necessary for the future exploration and development of the Moon. Lunar lander stage sizing is discussed based on the projected lunar payloads listed in the Civil Needs Data Base. Factors that will influence the lander stage design are identified and discussed. Some of these factors are (1) lunar orbiting and lunar surface lander bases; (2) implications of direct landing trajectories and landing from a parking orbit; (3) implications of landing site and parking orbit; (4) implications of landing site and parking orbit selection; (5) the use of expendable and reusable lander stages; and (6) the descent/ascent trajectories. Data relating the lunar lander stage design requirements to each of the above factors and others are presented in parametric form. These data will provide useful design data that will be applicable to future mission model modifications and design studies.

  20. Oxidation of formic acid by oxyanions of chlorine and its implications to the Viking Labeled Release experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, P.; Navarro-gonzalez, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Viking Landers that arrived on Mars in 1976 carried out three biological experiments designed to investigate if there was microbial life. These were the Gas-Exchange, Pyrolitic Release and Labeled Release experiments. The three experiments yielded positive responses but the Labeled Release experiment had a kinetic response indicative of microbial activity. The experiment consisted of adding a broth of nutrients (formic acid, glycolic acid, glycine, D- and L-alanine and D- and L-lactic acid uniformly marked with 14C) to martian soil samples. The results were surprising; the nutrients were consumed releasing radioactive gases in a manner that is compatible by terrestrial microorganisms. The existence of Martian life was contradicted by soil chemical analysis that indicated the absence of organic compounds above the detection limits of parts per billion (ppb). Instead the positive response of the Labeled Release Experiment was attributed to the existence of peroxides and/or superoxides in the Martian soils that destroyed the nutrients upon contact. Recently, the Phoenix mission that landed in the Martian Arctic in 2008 revealed the presence of a highly oxidized form of the element chlorine in the soil: perchlorate. Perchlorate is thought to have formed in the Martian atmosphere by the oxidation of chloride from volcanic sources with ozone. Therefore perchlorate is formed by the stepwise oxidation of hypochlorite, chlorite and chlorate. These oxyanions of chlorine are powerful oxidizers that may exist in the Martian soil and may have reacted with the nutrients of the Labeled Release Experiment. This paper aims to better understand these results by designing experiments to determine the kinetics of decomposition of formic acid to carbon dioxide with different oxidized forms of chlorine by headspace technique in gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC / MS). Previous studies done in the laboratory showed that only hypochlorite quantitatively reacted with

  1. Viking satellite program - preliminary results from the APL Magnetic Field Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potemra, T.A.; Zanetti, L.J.; Erlandson, R.E.; Gustafsson, G.; Acuna, M.H.; NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD)

    1986-01-01

    Sweden's Viking satellite, launched in February 1986, has been conducting plasma process observations in the earth magnetosphere and auroral regions; the U.S.-supplied APL Magnetic Field Experiment aboard Viking is used to determine field-aligned Birkeland current characteristics in previously unsampled regions of near-earth space. The Magnetic Field Experiment has an equivalent spatial resolution of 12 m in the auroral ionosphere when making measurements near apogee. The purposes of Viking's other instruments and their relationship to the Magnetic Field Experiment are discussed

  2. Vike-Freiberga on sunnitud kleite müüma / Harry Tuul

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuul, Harry

    2007-01-01

    Läti endine president Vaira Vike-Freiberga kavatseb oma esindusriided eBays maha müüa. Koos abikaasa Imants Freibergsiga asutati konsultatsioonifirma VVF Consulting, mis annab nõu diplomaatia, poliitika ja läbirääkimiste kunstis. Ekspresidendi tulevikuplaanidest. Vaira Vike-Freiberga kohta avaldavad arvamust Eesti suursaadik Riias 2002-2006 Toomas Lukk ja president Toomas Hendrik Ilves. T.H. Ilvese sõnul on Vaira Vike-Freiberga Läti patrioot, kes oli ühtlasi rahvusvahelises rindes kõigi kolme Balti riigi eestkõneleja

  3. Asteroid Redirection Mission Evaluation Using Multiple Landers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzocchi, Michael C. F.; Emami, M. Reza

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a low-thrust tugboat redirection method is assessed using multiple spacecraft for a target range of small near-Earth asteroids. The benefits of a landed configuration of tugboat spacecraft in formation are examined for the redirection of a near-Earth asteroid. The tugboat method uses a gimballed thruster with a highly collimated ion beam to generate a thrust on the asteroid. The target asteroid range focuses on near-Earth asteroids smaller than 150 m in diameter, and carbonaceous (C-type) asteroids, due to the volatiles available for in-situ utilization. The assessment focuses primarily on the three key parameters, i.e., the asteroid mass redirected, the timeframe for redirection, and the overall system cost. An evaluation methodology for each parameter is discussed in detail, and the parameters are employed to determine the expected return and feasibility of the redirection mission. The number of spacecraft employed is optimized along with the electrical power needed for each spacecraft to ensure the highest possible return on investment. A discussion of the optimization results and the benefits of spacecraft formation for the tugboat method are presented.

  4. DE 1 and Viking observations associated with electron conical distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menietti, J. D.; Weimer, D. R.; Andre, M.; Eliasson, L.

    1994-01-01

    Data from the electron detectors on board the Swedish Viking satellite launched during a period of low solar activity and from the Dynamic Explorer (DE) 1 satellite launched during active solar coditions have been examined for the occurrence and location of electron conical distributions and several conclusions can be drawn. First, we note that most of the best examples of electron conics observed by the V-3 experiment onboard Viking occurred in the afternoon sector in the range of magneitc local time 14 hours less than Magnetic Local Time (MLT) less than 18 hours, at midaltitudes in the range 10,000 km less than h less than 13,500 km, with few occurring in the nightside auroral region, a region poorly sampled at altitudes greater than 5000 km. For the Viking data there is an association of electron conics with upper hybrid waves. DE 1 observations made by the high-altitude plasma instrument (HAPI) indicate that electron conics were observed in the midmorning sector and the late evening sector, and as has been reported earlier, the correlation with upper hybird waves was good. The HAPI did not sample the afternoon sector. The electon conics observed on both satellites occurred in the presence of at least a modest (several kilovolts) potential difference beneath the satellite with a maximum energy that was usually, but not always, equal to or greater than the maximum energy of the electron conics. Two independent sets of observations by DE 1 suggest two distinct production mechanisms for electron conics. Examiniation of DE 1 electric field measurements from the plasma wave instrument during the observation of electron conics show simultaneous parallel oscillations in the frequency range of 0.2 Hz less than f less than 0.5 Hz during one and perhaps two of four events examined, and upper hybrid waves were observed on all four events. In addition, recent observations of '90-deg' electron conics associated with auroral kilometric radiation source regions suggest a

  5. A Wind Tunnel Study on the Mars Pathfinder (MPF) Lander Descent Pressure Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, J. Francisco; Coquilla, Rachael V.; Wilson, Gregory R.; Seiff, Alvin; Rivell, Tomas

    2001-01-01

    The primary focus of this study was to determine the accuracy of the Mars Pathfinder lander local pressure readings in accordance with the actual ambient atmospheric pressures of Mars during parachute descent. In order to obtain good measurements, the plane of the lander pressure sensor opening should ideally be situated so that it is parallel to the freestream. However, due to two unfavorable conditions, the sensor was positioned in locations where correction factors are required. One of these disadvantages is due to the fact that the parachute attachment point rotated the lander's center of gravity forcing the location of the pressure sensor opening to be off tangent to the freestream. The second and most troublesome factor was that the lander descends with slight oscillations that could vary the amplitude of the sensor readings. In order to accurately map the correction factors required at each sensor position, an experiment simulating the lander descent was conducted in the Martian Surface Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. Using a 115 scale model at Earth ambient pressures, the test settings provided the necessary Reynolds number conditions in which the actual lander was possibly subjected to during the descent. In the analysis and results of this experiment, the readings from the lander sensor were converted to the form of pressure coefficients. With a contour map of pressure coefficients at each lander oscillatory position, this report will provide a guideline to determine the correction factors required for the Mars Pathfinder lander descent pressure sensor readings.

  6. The Camera of the MASCOT Asteroid Lander on Board Hayabusa 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaumann, R.; Schmitz, N.; Koncz, A.; Michaelis, H.; Schroeder, S. E.; Mottola, S.; Trauthan, F.; Hoffmann, H.; Roatsch, T.; Jobs, D.; Kachlicki, J.; Pforte, B.; Terzer, R.; Tschentscher, M.; Weisse, S.; Mueller, U.; Perez-Prieto, L.; Broll, B.; Kruselburger, A.; Ho, T.-M.; Biele, J.; Ulamec, S.; Krause, C.; Grott, M.; Bibring, J.-P.; Watanabe, S.; Sugita, S.; Okada, T.; Yoshikawa, M.; Yabuta, H.

    2017-07-01

    and those made by the in-situ measurements. The MasCam is mounted inside the lander slightly tilted, such that the center of its 54.8° square field-of-view is directed towards the surface at an angle of 22° with respect to the surface plane. This is to ensure that both the surface close to the lander and the horizon are observable. The camera optics is designed according to the Scheimpflug principle, thus that the entire scene along the camera's depth of field (150 mm to infinity) is in focus. The camera utilizes a 1024×1024 pixel CMOS sensor sensitive in the 400-1000 nm wavelength range, peaking at 600-700 nm. Together with the f-16 optics, this yields a nominal ground resolution of 150 micron/px at 150 mm distance (diffraction limited). The camera flight model has undergone standard radiometric and geometric calibration both at the component and system (lander) level. MasCam relies on the use of wavelet compression to maximize data return within stringent mission downlink limits. All calibration and flight data products will be generated and archived in the Planetary Data System in PDS image format.

  7. Dupuytren's contracture: emerging insight into a Viking disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Adam C; Schreuder, Fred B

    2014-01-01

    Dupuytren's disease is a fibroproliferative condition of the palm, with a predilection for men, which has affected Northern Europeans since the Viking conquests. Although strongly heritable, clear evidence exists for environmental factors that modify the underlying genetic risk, such as diabetes, heavy drinking, and smoking. Evidence also exists for epilepsy (probably due to treatment with certain anti-epileptic drugs), and Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection. Recent large studies have shown no relationship with manual labour or vibrating tools. Two theories have emerged regarding the pathogenic mechanism: the first attributes the aberrant healing process that characterises Dupuytren's to free radicals, generated as a result of microangiopathy, whereas the second cites a genetic tendency toward apoptosis-resistant myofibroblasts. Despite only one study demonstrating linkage, emerging data from genome-wide association studies highlight a series of single nucleotide polymorphisms near members of the Wnt signalling pathway, and transcriptional profiling studies have consistently identified certain components of the extracellular matrix.

  8. Federalism and Lander Autonomy: The Higher Education Policy Network in the Federal Republic of Germany. Studies in Higher Education Dissertation Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onestini, Cesare

    This study traces the development of the German higher education system, examining the development of higher education policies from the postwar years to the postunification period. It focuses on federalism and the relative positions of"Lander" (German states) and the government of the Federal Republic (FRG) as revealed in higher…

  9. Viking and early Middle Ages northern Scandinavian textiles proven to be made with hemp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoglund, G; Nockert, M; Holst, B

    2013-10-18

    Nowadays most plant textiles used for clothing and household are made of cotton and viscose. Before the 19th century however, plant textiles were mainly made from locally available raw materials, in Scandinavia these were: nettle, hemp and flax. It is generally believed that in Viking and early Middle Ages Scandinavia hemp was used only for coarse textiles (i.e. rope and sailcloth). Here we present an investigation of 10 Scandinavian plant fibre textiles from the Viking and Early Middle Ages, believed to be locally produced. Up till now they were all believed to be made of flax. We show that 4 textiles, including two pieces of the famous Överhogdal Viking wall-hanging are in fact made with hemp (in three cases hemp and flax are mixed). This indicates that hemp was important, not only for coarse but also for fine textile production in Viking and Early Middle Ages in Scandinavia.

  10. Viking Link er en risikofyldt investering af broget kulør

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Djørup, Søren Roth

    2018-01-01

    Danmark har planer om at bygge en kabelforbindelse til England ved navn Viking Link. Dette er et investeringsprojekt til 11 mia. kroner. Vi har tidligere forholdt os kritisk til ikke blot selve investeringen, men også processen bag investeringsbeslutningen, der er foregået uden, at offentligheden...... har kunnet få indblik i beslutningsgrundlaget. Tilbage står, at Viking Link er en risikofri investering for de danske elproducenter, som får alle fordelene, men er særdeles risikofyldt for de danske elforbrugere, som står tilbage med regningen, hvis forudsætningerne ikke holder. Desuden findes...... alternativer, hvor vi som samfund får mere for pengene, men økonomien i disse alternativer forringes, hvis vi bygger Viking Link. Vi anbefaler, at man som minimum udskyder Viking Link, til vi har realiseret de bedre alternativer....

  11. Vike-Freiberga calls on Russia to re-evaluate its history / Aaron Eglitis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eglitis, Aaron

    2003-01-01

    Rahvusvahelisel holokausti uurimise konverentsil avaldas Läti president Vaira Vike-Freiberga kahetsust, et kuna Venemaa ei soovi tunnistada Läti okupeerimist Nõukogude Liidu poolt 1940. aasta juunis, tekitab see probleeme Läti-Vene suhetes

  12. Viking and Early Middle Ages Northern Scandinavian Textiles Proven to be made with Hemp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoglund, G.; Nockert, M.; Holst, B.

    2013-10-01

    Nowadays most plant textiles used for clothing and household are made of cotton and viscose. Before the 19th century however, plant textiles were mainly made from locally available raw materials, in Scandinavia these were: nettle, hemp and flax. It is generally believed that in Viking and early Middle Ages Scandinavia hemp was used only for coarse textiles (i.e. rope and sailcloth). Here we present an investigation of 10 Scandinavian plant fibre textiles from the Viking and Early Middle Ages, believed to be locally produced. Up till now they were all believed to be made of flax. We show that 4 textiles, including two pieces of the famous Överhogdal Viking wall-hanging are in fact made with hemp (in three cases hemp and flax are mixed). This indicates that hemp was important, not only for coarse but also for fine textile production in Viking and Early Middle Ages in Scandinavia.

  13. Between Apathy and Antipathy: The Vikings in Irish and Scandinavian History

    OpenAIRE

    HOLM, POUL

    1995-01-01

    PUBLISHED "Neither apathy nor antipathy can ever bring out the truth of history" (Eoin MacNeill, Phases of Irish History, Dublin, 1919, vi). Around 1970 the subject of "the Vikings in Ireland" was seen, historiographically, as a non-problem. Scandinavian historians did not deal with Irish history, and except for the casual asides of four or five specialists, there was no particular interest in Ireland as an area in Viking studies. However, during the seventies there was a veritable boom...

  14. Dragonfly: Exploring Titan's Surface with a New Frontiers Relocatable Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jason W.; Turtle, Elizabeth P.; Trainer, Melissa G.; Lorenz, Ralph

    2017-10-01

    We proposed to the NASA New Frontiers 4 mission call a lander to assess Titan's prebiotic chemistry, evaluate its habitability, and search for biosignatures on its surface. Titan as an Ocean World is ideal for the study of prebiotic chemical processes and the habitability of an extraterrestrial environment due to its abundant complex carbon-rich chemistry and because both liquid water and liquid hydrocarbons can occur on its surface. Transient liquid water surface environments can be created by both impacts and cryovolcanic processes. In both cases, the water could mix with surface organics to form a primordial soup. The mission would sample both organic sediments and water ice to measure surface composition, achieving surface mobility by using rotors to take off, fly, and land at new sites. The Dragonfly rotorcraft lander can thus convey a single capable instrument suite to multiple locations providing the capability to explore diverse locations 10s to 100s of kilometers apart to characterize the habitability of Titan's environment, investigate how far prebiotic chemistry has progressed, and search for chemical signatures indicative of water- and/or hydrocarbon-based life.

  15. Smectite clays in Mars soil - Evidence for their presence and role in Viking biology experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banin, A.; Rishpon, J.

    1979-01-01

    Evidence for the presence of smectite clays in Martian soils is reviewed and results of experiments with certain active clays simulating the Viking biology experiments are reported. Analyses of Martian soil composition by means of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and dust storm spectroscopy and Martian geological history strongly suggest the presence of a mixture of weathered ferro-silicate minerals, mainly nontronite and montmorillonite, accompanied by soluble sulphate salts, as major constituents. Samples of montmorillonite and nontronite incubated with (C-14)-formate or the radioactive nutrient medium solution used in the Viking Labeled Release experiment, were found to produce patterns of release of radioactive gas very similar to those observed in the Viking experiments, indicating the iron-catalyzed decomposition of formate as the reaction responsible for the Viking results. The experimental results of Hubbard (1979) simulating the results of the Viking Pyrolytic Release experiment using iron montmorillonites are pointed out, and it is concluded that many of the results of the Viking biology experiments can be explained in terms of the surface activity of smectite clays in catalysis and adsorption.

  16. Planetary Data Systems (PDS) Imaging Node Atlas II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanboli, Alice; McAuley, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The Planetary Image Atlas (PIA) is a Rich Internet Application (RIA) that serves planetary imaging data to the science community and the general public. PIA also utilizes the USGS Unified Planetary Coordinate system (UPC) and the on-Mars map server. The Atlas was designed to provide the ability to search and filter through greater than 8 million planetary image files. This software is a three-tier Web application that contains a search engine backend (MySQL, JAVA), Web service interface (SOAP) between server and client, and a GWT Google Maps API client front end. This application allows for the search, retrieval, and download of planetary images and associated meta-data from the following missions: 2001 Mars Odyssey, Cassini, Galileo, LCROSS, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mars Exploration Rover, Mars Express, Magellan, Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Pathfinder, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, MESSENGER, Phoe nix, Viking Lander, Viking Orbiter, and Voyager. The Atlas utilizes the UPC to translate mission-specific coordinate systems into a unified coordinate system, allowing the end user to query across missions of similar targets. If desired, the end user can also use a mission-specific view of the Atlas. The mission-specific views rely on the same code base. This application is a major improvement over the initial version of the Planetary Image Atlas. It is a multi-mission search engine. This tool includes both basic and advanced search capabilities, providing a product search tool to interrogate the collection of planetary images. This tool lets the end user query information about each image, and ignores the data that the user has no interest in. Users can reduce the number of images to look at by defining an area of interest with latitude and longitude ranges.

  17. Archiving InSight Lander Science Data Using PDS4 Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, T.; Guinness, E. A.; Slavney, S.

    2017-12-01

    The InSight Mars Lander is scheduled for launch in 2018, and science data from the mission will be archived in the NASA Planetary Data System (PDS) using the new PDS4 standards. InSight is a geophysical lander with a science payload that includes a seismometer, a probe to measure subsurface temperatures and heat flow, a suite of meteorology instruments, a magnetometer, an experiment using radio tracking, and a robotic arm that will provide soil physical property information based on interactions with the surface. InSight is not the first science mission to archive its data using PDS4. However, PDS4 archives do not currently contain examples of the kinds of data that several of the InSight instruments will produce. Whereas the existing common PDS4 standards were sufficient for most of archiving requirements of InSight, the data generated by a few instruments required development of several extensions to the PDS4 information model. For example, the seismometer will deliver a version of its data in SEED format, which is standard for the terrestrial seismology community. This format required the design of a new product type in the PDS4 information model. A local data dictionary has also been developed for InSight that contains attributes that are not part of the common PDS4 dictionary. The local dictionary provides metadata relevant to all InSight data sets, and attributes specific to several of the instruments. Additional classes and attributes were designed for the existing PDS4 geometry dictionary that will capture metadata for the lander position and orientation, along with camera models for stereo image processing. Much of the InSight archive planning and design work has been done by a Data Archiving Working Group (DAWG), which has members from the InSight project and the PDS. The group coordinates archive design, schedules and peer review of the archive documentation and test products. The InSight DAWG archiving effort for PDS is being led by the PDS Geosciences

  18. The ESA Lunar Lander and the search for Lunar Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, A. D.; Barber, S. J.; Pillinger, J. M.; Sheridan, S.; Wright, I. P.; Gibson, E. K.; Merrifield, J. A.; Waltham, N. R.; Waugh, L. J.; Pillinger, C. T.

    2011-10-01

    Following the Apollo era the moon was considered a volatile poor body. Samples collected from the Apollo missions contained only ppm levels of water formed by the interaction of the solar wind with the lunar regolith [1]. However more recent orbiter observations have indicated that water may exist as water ice in cold polar regions buried within craters at concentrations of a few wt. % [2]. Infrared images from M3 on Chandrayaan-1 have been interpreted as showing the presence of hydrated surface minerals with the ongoing hydroxyl/water process feeding cold polar traps. This has been supported by observation of ephemeral features termed "space dew" [3]. Meanwhile laboratory studies indicate that water could be present in appreciable quantities in lunar rocks [4] and could also have a cometary source [5]. The presence of sufficient quantities of volatiles could provide a resource which would simplify logistics for long term lunar missions. The European Space Agency (ESA's Directorate of Human Spaceflight and Operations) have provisionally scheduled a robotic mission to demonstrate key technologies to enable later human exploration. Planned for launch in 2018, the primary aim is for precise automated landing, with hazard avoidance, in zones which are almost constantly illuminated (e.g. at the edge of the Shackleton crater at the lunar south pole). These regions would enable the solar powered Lander to survive for long periods > 6 months, but require accurate navigation to within 200m. Although landing in an illuminated area, these regions are close to permanently shadowed volatile rich regions and the analysis of volatiles is a major science objective of the mission. The straw man payload includes provision for a Lunar Volatile and Resources Analysis Package (LVRAP). The authors have been commissioned by ESA to conduct an evaluation of possible technologies to be included in L-VRAP which can be included within the Lander payload. Scientific aims are to demonstrate the

  19. Study of Plume Impingement Effects in the Lunar Lander Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marichalar, Jeremiah; Prisbell, A.; Lumpkin, F.; LeBeau, G.

    2010-01-01

    Plume impingement effects from the descent and ascent engine firings of the Lunar Lander were analyzed in support of the Lunar Architecture Team under the Constellation Program. The descent stage analysis was performed to obtain shear and pressure forces on the lunar surface as well as velocity and density profiles in the flow field in an effort to understand lunar soil erosion and ejected soil impact damage which was analyzed as part of a separate study. A CFD/DSMC decoupled methodology was used with the Bird continuum breakdown parameter to distinguish the continuum flow from the rarefied flow. The ascent stage analysis was performed to ascertain the forces and moments acting on the Lunar Lander Ascent Module due to the firing of the main engine on take-off. The Reacting and Multiphase Program (RAMP) method of characteristics (MOC) code was used to model the continuum region of the nozzle plume, and the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) Analysis Code (DAC) was used to model the impingement results in the rarefied region. The ascent module (AM) was analyzed for various pitch and yaw rotations and for various heights in relation to the descent module (DM). For the ascent stage analysis, the plume inflow boundary was located near the nozzle exit plane in a region where the flow number density was large enough to make the DSMC solution computationally expensive. Therefore, a scaling coefficient was used to make the DSMC solution more computationally manageable. An analysis of the effectiveness of this scaling technique was performed by investigating various scaling parameters for a single height and rotation of the AM. Because the inflow boundary was near the nozzle exit plane, another analysis was performed investigating three different inflow contours to determine the effects of the flow expansion around the nozzle lip on the final plume impingement results.

  20. A note on the analysis of Viking swords

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams, Alan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A large number of swords from the Viking era bear the inscription «VLFBERHT» or a variation on that. The metallurgy of different examples of these swords varies considerably but the metal employed correlates with the spelling of that name. In seeking to determine the origin of these swords, metallurgical studies may guide us, especially as many of the best examples differ considerably from both earlier and later Medieval swords.

    Un número importante de espadas de época vikinga llevan la inscripción «VLFBERHT» o una variante de la misma. La metalurgia de diferentes ejemplos de dichas espadas varía considerablemente, pero el metal empleado guarda correlación con la forma en que se escribió dicho nombre. Cuando tratamos de determinar el origen de estas espadas, los estudios metalúrgicos pueden servirnos de guía, especialmente dado que muchos de los mejores ejemplos difieren considerablemente de espadas medievales tanto anteriores como posteriores en el tiempo.

  1. Thermal stress evaluation of the Viking RTG heat shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadter, J.T.; Weiss, R.O.

    1976-03-01

    Thermal stress analyses of the Viking RTG heat shield are presented. The primary purpose of the analyses was to determine the effects of the end cap and the finite length of the heat shield on the peak tensile stress in the barrel wall. The SAAS III computer code was used to calculate the thermal stresses; axisymmetric and plane section analyses were performed for a variety of temperature distributions. The study consisted of three parts. In the first phase, the influence of the end cap on the barrel wall stresses was examined by parametrically varying the modulus of elasticity of the contact zone between the end cap and the barrel. The second phase was concerned with stresses occurring as a result of an orbital decay reentry trajectory, and the effects of the magnitude and shape of the axial temperature gradient. The final part of the study was concerned with the circumferentially nonuniform temperature distribution which develops during a side-on stable reentry. The last part includes a comparison of stresses generated for a hexagonal cross section with those generated for a circular cross section

  2. Biological implications of the Viking mission to Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazur, P.; Barghoorn, E.S.; Jukes, T.H.; Margulis, L.

    1978-01-01

    A central purpose of Viking was to search for evidence that life exists on Mars or may have existed in the past. The missions carried three biology experiments the prime purpose of which was to seek for existing microbial life. They produced clear evidence of chemical reactivity in soil samples, but it is becoming increasingly clear that the chemical reactions were nonbiological in origin. The unexpected release of oxygen by soil moistened with water vapor in the Gas Exchange experiment together with the negative findings of the organic analysis experiment lead to the conclusion that the surface contains powerful oxidants. This conclusion is consistent with models of the atmosphere. The oxidants appear also to have been responsible for the decarboxylation of the organic nutrients that were introduced in the Label Release experiment. The major results of the GEX and LR experiments have been simulated at least qualitatively on Earth. The third, Pyrolytic Release, experiment obtained evidence for organic synthesis by soil samples. Although the mechanism of the synthesis is obscure, the thermal stability of the reaction makes a biological explanation most unlikely. Furthermore, the response of soil samples in all three experiments to the addition of water is not consistent with a biological interpretation. (Auth.)

  3. Biological implications of the Viking mission to Mars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazur, P [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA); Barghoorn, E S [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (USA). Dept. of Biology; Halvorson, H O [Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (USA); Jukes, T H [California Univ., Berkeley (USA). Space Sciences Lab.; Kaplan, I R [California Univ., Los Angeles (USA); Margulis, L [Boston Univ., MA (USA)

    1978-06-01

    A central purpose of Viking was to search for evidence that life exists on Mars or may have existed in the past. The missions carried three biology experiments the prime purpose of which was to seek for existing microbial life. They produced clear evidence of chemical reactivity in soil samples, but it is becoming increasingly clear that the chemical reactions were nonbiological in origin. The unexpected release of oxygen by soil moistened with water vapor in the Gas Exchange experiment together with the negative findings of the organic analysis experiment lead to the conclusion that the surface contains powerful oxidants. This conclusion is consistent with models of the atmosphere. The oxidants appear also to have been responsible for the decarboxylation of the organic nutrients that were introduced in the Label Release experiment. The major results of the GEX and LR experiments have been simulated at least qualitatively on Earth. The third, Pyrolytic Release, experiment obtained evidence for organic synthesis by soil samples. Although the mechanism of the synthesis is obscure, the thermal stability of the reaction makes a biological explanation most unlikely. Furthermore, the response of soil samples in all three experiments to the addition of water is not consistent with a biological interpretation.

  4. Signature of transient boundary layer processes observed with Viking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woch, J.; Lundin, R.

    1992-01-01

    Transient penetration of plasma with magnetosheath origin is frequently observed with the hot plasma experiment on board the Viking satellite at auroral latitudes in the dayside magnetosphere. The injected magnetosheath ions exhibit a characteristic pitch angle/energy dispersion pattern earlier reported for solar wind ions accessing the magnetosphere in the cusp regions. In contrast to the continuous plasma entry in the cusp, the events discussed here show temporal features which suggest a connection to transient processes at or in the vicinity of the magnetospheric boundary. A single event study confirms previously published observations that the injected ions flow essentially tailward with a velocity comparable to the magnetosheath flow and that the energy spectra inferred for the source population resemble magnetosheath spectra. Based on a statistical study, it is found that these events are predominantly observed around 0800 and 1600 MLT, in a region populated by both rung current/plasma sheet particles and by particles whose source is the magnetosheath plasma. Magnetic field line tracing based on the Tsyganenko magnetic field model yields a scatter of the source locations around the mid-latitude region of the magnetospheric boundary. The probability for these events to occur is highest when the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) is confined to the ecliptic plane. The connection of the events to transient impulsive solar wind/magnetosphere interaction processes, such as transient reconnection (FTE), impulsive plasma transfer, Kelvin Helmholtz instabilities, and solar wind pressure pulses, is discussed. A relation with transient reconnection can be excluded

  5. Snapshots of high-latitude electrodynamics using Viking and DMSP F7 observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marklund, G.T.; Blomberg, L.G.; Stasiewicz, K.; Murphree, J.S.; Pottelette, R.; Zanetti, L.J.; Potemra, T.A.; Hardy, D.A.; Rich, F.J.

    1988-01-01

    Simultandeous observations by the Viking an the DMSP F7 satellites have been used as input to a new method to obtain snapshot pictures of the auroral electrodynamics. In particular, an ''instantaneous'' global equipotential (or convection) pattern is calculated from distributions of field-aligned current and conductivity which are qualitatively consistent with the Viking auroral imager data and quantitatively consistent with magnetic field and particle data from the two satellites. This convection pattern, which is of the normal two-cell type, with a weak dusk cell and a strong, elongated crescent-shape dawn cell (consistent with positive interplanetary magnetic field B/sub y/), agrees well with the Viking electric field data. The model and the observed potential profiles agree nicely along the entire Viking orbit except for two intervals above acceleration regions where deviations are to be expected (due to parallel electric fields). These regions are characterized by U-shaped potential minima, upward field-aligned currents, upgoing ion beams, and relatively intense auroral kilometric radiation. Thus, the model results are consistent with the Viking observations not only on a global scale but also on the scale of the auroral acceleration regions. The corresponding convection in the magnetosphere is obtained from a simple projection to the equatorial plane of the deduced two-cell convection pattern. From this location of the plasmapause is inferred. copyright American Geophysical Union 1988

  6. Snapshots of high-latitude electrodynamics using Viking and DMSP/F7 observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marklund, G.T.; Blomberg, L.G.; Murphree, J.S.; Pottelette, R.; Zanetti, L.J.; Potemra, T.A.; Hardy, D.A.; Rich, F.J.

    1988-02-01

    Simultaneous observations by the Viking and the DMSP/F7 satellites have been used in a new method to obtain snapshot pictures of the auroral electrodynamics. In particular, an 'instantaneous' global equipotential (or convection) pattern is calculated using field-aligned current and conductivity distributions that are qualitatively consistent with the Viking auroral imager data and quantitatively consistent with magnetic field and particle data from the two satellites. This convection pattern which is of the normal two-cell type, with a weak dusk cell and a strong, elongated crescent-shaped dawn cell (consistent with positive IMF B y ) agrees well with the Viking electric field data. The model and the observed potential profiles agree nicely along the entire Viking orbit except for two intervals above acceleration regions where deviations are to be expected (due to parallel electric fields). These regions are characterized by: U-shaped potential minima, upward field-aligned currents, upgoing ion beams and relatively intense AKR. The model results are thus consistent with the Viking observations not only on a global scale but also on the scale size of the auroral acceleration regions. The corresponding convection in the magnetosphere is illustrated by a simple projection of the deduced two-cell convection pattern to the equatorial plane. From this the instantaneous location of the plasmapause is inferred. (authors)

  7. Battery and Fuel Cell Development Goals for the Lunar Surface and Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.

    2008-01-01

    NASA is planning a return to the moon and requires advances in energy storage technology for its planned lunar lander and lunar outpost. This presentation describes NASA s overall mission goals and technical goals for batteries and fuel cells to support the mission. Goals are given for secondary batteries for the lander s ascent stage and suits for extravehicular activity on the lunar surface, and for fuel cells for the lander s descent stage and regenerative fuel cells for outpost power. An overall approach to meeting these goals is also presented.

  8. Tööpuuduses Turu laevatehas loodab kriisist pääsemiseks Viking Line'ilt tellimusi saada

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Viking Line teatas juunis, et loobub uute aluste tellimisest. Viking Line'i juhi Mikael Backmani sõnul on firma laevadel eluaega veel küllalt. Kui Turu laevatehas uusi tellimusi ei saa, võib tööta jääda paar tuhat töötajat

  9. Seismic chimneys in the Southern Viking Graben - Implications for palaeo fluid migration and overpressure evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstens, Jens; Berndt, Christian

    2015-02-01

    Detailed understanding of natural fluid migration systems is essential to minimize risks during hydrocarbon exploration and to evaluate the long-term efficiency of the subsurface storage of waste water and gas from hydrocarbon production as well as CO2. The Southern Viking Graben (SVG) hosts numerous focused fluid flow structures in the shallow (expressions of vertical fluid conduits are variously known as seismic chimneys or pipes. Seismic pipes are known to form large clusters. Seismic chimneys have so far been described as solitary structures. Here, we show that the study area in the SVG hosts more than 46 large-scale vertical chimney structures, which can be divided in three categories implying different formation processes. Our analysis reveals that seal-weakening, formation-wide overpressure and the presence of free gas are required to initiate the formation of vertical fluid conduits in the SVG. The presence of numerous vertical fluid conduits implies inter-stratigraphic hydraulic connectivity, which significantly affects the migration of fluids in the subsurface. Chimney structures are important for understanding the transfer of pore pressure anomalies to the shallow parts of the basin.

  10. Mapping using the Tsyganenko long magnetospheric model and its relationship to Viking auroral images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elphinstone, R.D.; Hearn, D.; Murphree, J.S.; Cogger, L.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Tsyganenko long magnetospheric model (1987) has been used in conjunction with ultra-violet images taken by the Viking spacecraft to investigate the relationship of the auroral distribution to different magnetospheric regions. The model describes the large-scale structure of the magnetosphere reasonably well for dipole tilt angles near zero, but it appears to break down at higher tilt angles. Even so, a wide variety of auroral configurations can be accurately described by the model. It appears that the open-closed field line boundary is a poor indicator of auroral arc systems with the possible exception of high-latitude polar arcs. The auroral distribution typically called the oval maps to a region in the equatorial plane quite close to the Earth and can be approximately located by mapping the model current density maximum from the equatorial plane into the ionosphere. Although the model may break down along the flanks of the magnetotail, the large-scale auroral distribution generally reflects variations in the near-Earth region and can be modeled quite effectively

  11. Unconventional Oil Reserves Development in the Viking Play (Western Canada Using Horizontal Wells and Hydraulic Fracturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.B. Baishev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Oil production from the Viking play in Saskatchewan province started in the 1950s and continues since that time. Horizontal drilling and multistage fracturing have caused resurgence in development of this play. Based on the production data from several fields, the comparative results of the Viking play development using vertical and horizontal wells are presented. Horizontal wells drilling made it possible to increase oil production in those formation zones that were previously considered predominantly gas-saturated, as well as in the zones affected by water injection using vertical wells in order to maintain reservoir pressure. Infill drilling combined with longer lateral completion length also positively affected the development of oil reserves from the Viking play.

  12. Viking telecommunication effects of GEOS satellite interference based on testing at the Madrid deep space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhr, F. V.; Kent, S. S.; Galvez, J. L.; Luaces, B. G.; Pasero, G. R.; Urech, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    In support of the ongoing NASA-European Space Agency (ESA) effort to understand and control possible interference between missions, testing was conducted at the Madrid Deep Space Station from July 1975 to February 1976 to characterize the effect on Viking 1975 telecommunication link performance of Geodetic Earth-Orbiting Satellite (GEOS) downlink signals. The prime use of the data was to develop a capability to predict GEOS interference effects for evaluation of Viking 1975 mission impacts and possible temporary GEOS shutdown. Also, the data would serve as a basis for assessment of the GEOS impact on missions other than Viking as well as for more general interference applications. Performances of the reference receiver, telemetry, and planetary ranging were measured in the presence of various types of GEOS-related interference, including an unmodulated GEOS carrier and simulation of the actual spectrum by an ESA-supplied GEOS suitcase model.

  13. Viking observations at the source region of auroral kilometric radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahnsen, A.; Jespersen, M.; Ungstrup, E.; Pedersen, B.M.; Eliasson, L.; Murphree, J.S.; Elphinstone, R.D.; Blomberg, L.; Holmgren, G.; Zanetti, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    The orbit of the Swedish satellite Viking was optimized for in situ observations of auroral particle acceleration and related phenomena. In a large number of the orbits, auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) was observed, and in approximately 35 orbits the satellite passed through AKR source regions as evidenced by very strong signals at the local electron cyclotron frequency f ce . These sources were found at the poleward edge of the auroral oval at altitudes, from 5,000 to 8,000 km, predominantly in the evening sector. The strong AKR signal has a sharp low-frequency cutoff at or very close to f ce in the source. In addition to AKR, strong broadband electrostatic noise is measured during the source crossings. Energetic (1-15 keV) electrons are always present at and around the AKR sources. Upward directed ion beams of several keV are closely correlated with the source as are strong and variable electric fields, indicating that a region of upward pointing electric field below the observation point is a necessary condition for AKR generation. The plasma density is measured by three independent experiments and it is generally found that the density is low across the whole auroral oval. For some source crossings the three methods agree and show a density depletion (but not always confined to the source region itself), but in many cases the three measurements do not yield consistent results. The magnetic projection of the satellite passes through auroral forms during the source crossings, and the strongest AKR events seem to be connected with kinks in an arc or more complicated structures

  14. Mars Atmosphere and Regolith COllector/PrOcessor for Lander Ops (MARCO POLO) Atmospheric Processing Module

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The multi-NASA center Mars Atmosphere and Regolith COllector/PrOcessor for Lander Operations (MARCO POLO) project was established to build and demonstrate a...

  15. The InSight Mars Lander and Its Effect on the Subsurface Thermal Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Matthew A.; Smrekar, Suzanne E.; Grott, Matthias; Piqueux, Sylvain; Mueller, Nils; Williams, Jean-Pierre; Plesa, Ana-Catalina; Spohn, Tilman

    2017-10-01

    The 2018 InSight (Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) Mission has the mission goal of providing insitu data for the first measurement of the geothermal heat flow of Mars. The Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package (HP3) will take thermal conductivity and thermal gradient measurements to approximately 5 m depth. By necessity, this measurement will be made within a few meters of the lander. This means that thermal perturbations from the lander will modify local surface and subsurface temperature measurements. For HP3's sensitive thermal gradient measurements, this spacecraft influence will be important to model and parameterize. Here we present a basic 3D model of thermal effects of the lander on its surroundings. Though lander perturbations significantly alter subsurface temperatures, a successful thermal gradient measurement will be possible in all thermal conditions by proper (>3 m depth) placement of the heat flow probe.

  16. Titan Aerial Daughtercraft (TAD) for Surface Studies from a Lander or Balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthies, L.; Tokumaru, P.; Sherrit, S.; Beauchamp, P.

    2014-06-01

    Recent rapid progress on autonomous navigation of micro air vehicles for terrestrial applications opens new possibilities for a small aerial vehicle that could deploy from a Titan lander or balloon to acquire samples for analysis on the mothership.

  17. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: Lander National Topographic Map, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the Lander National Topographic Map NK12-6 are presented. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included also

  18. The inducible CAM plants in putative lunar lander experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlak, Olexii; Zaetz, Iryna; Soldatkin, Olexii; Rogutskyy, Ivan; Danilchenko, Boris; Mikheev, Olexander; de Vera, Jean-Pierre; Vidmachenko, Anatolii; Foing, Bernard H.; Kozyrovska, Natalia

    Precursory lunar lander experiments on growing plants in locker-based chambers will increase our understanding of effect of lunar conditions on plant physiology. The inducible CAM (Cras-sulacean Acid Metabolism)-plants are reasonable model for a study of relationships between environmental challenges and changes in plant/bacteria gene expression. In inducible CAM-plants the enzymatic machinery for the environmentally activated CAM switches on from a C3-to a full-CAM mode of photosynthesis in response to any stresses (Winter et al., 2008). In our study, Kalanchoe spp. are shown to be promising candidates for putative lunar experiments as resistant to irradiation and desiccation, especially after inoculation with a bacterial consortium (Boorlak et al., 2010). Within frames of the experiment we expect to get information about the functional activity of CAM-plants, in particular, its organogenesis, photosystem, the circadian regulation of plant metabolism on the base of data gaining with instrumental indications from expression of the reporter genes fused to any genes involved in vital functions of the plant (Kozyrovska et al., 2009). References 1. Winter K., Garcia M., Holtum J. (2008) J. Exp. Bot. 59(7):1829-1840 2. Bourlak O., Lar O., Rogutskyy I., Mikheev A., Zaets I., Chervatyuk N., de Vera J.-P., Danilchenko A.B. Foing B.H., zyrovska N. (2010) Space Sci. Technol. 3. Kozyrovska N.O., Vidmachenko A.P., Foing B.H. et al. Exploration/call/estec/ESA. 2009.

  19. Brake Failure from Residual Magnetism in the Mars Exploration Rover Lander Petal Actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandura, Louise

    2004-01-01

    In January 2004, two Mars Exploration Rover spacecraft arrived at Mars. Each safely delivered an identical rover to the Martian surface in a tetrahedral lander encased in airbags. Upon landing, the airbags deflated and three Lander Petal Actuators opened the three deployable Lander side petals enabling the rover to exit the Lander. Approximately nine weeks prior to the scheduled launch of the first spacecraft, one of these mission-critical Lander Petal Actuators exhibited a brake stuck-open failure during its final flight stow at Kennedy Space Center. Residual magnetism was the definitive conclusion from the failure investigation. Although residual magnetism was recognized as an issue in the design, the lack of an appropriately specified lower bound on brake drop-out voltage inhibited the discovery of this problem earlier in the program. In addition, the brakes had more unit-to-unit variation in drop-out voltage than expected, likely due to a larger than expected variation in the magnetic properties of the 15-5 PH stainless steel brake plates. Failure analysis and subsequent rework of two other Lander Petal Actuators with marginal brakes was completed in three weeks, causing no impact to the launch date.

  20. La subsidence dans le Viking Graben (mer du Nord septentrionale Subsidence in the Viking Graben (Northern Part of the North Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vially R.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'utilisation des modèles numériques de calcul de la subsidence nécessite une bonne connaissance géologique de la zone étudiée. Seule une étude détaillée de stratigraphie sismique le long de profils régionaux passant par des forages permet de contraindre les différents paramètres servant au calcul de la subsidence. L'étude de la subsidence du Viking Graben a mis en évidence trois épisodes : - phase de distension permo-triasique (saalienne ? dont l'axe de subsidence est décalé vers l'est par rapport à l'axe actuel du Viking Graben; - phase de distension jurassique supérieur (cimmérienne qui crée les structures majeures de cette zone; - phase paléocène correspondant au contrecoup de l'ouverture plus à l'ouest de l'Atlantique Nord. Cette phase est surtout sensible à l'ouest de la zone étudiée. Les cartes de subsidence pour les différentes époques font apparaître l'influence du bati calédonien. Deux directions principales apparaissent, une NE-SW correspondant aux directions structurales visibles à terre en Ecosse et une NW-SE discrète qui sépare le Southern Viking Graben du Northern Viking Graben. Cette dernière direction pourrait se calquer sur la suture (au Silurien d'un diverticule de l'océan lapétus, la Tornquist Sea. The use of numerical models for computing subsidence requires a good geological understanding of the zone being examined. Detailed seismic stratigraphy along regional profiles going via boreholes is the only way to determine the different parameters required for computing subsidence. An investigation of the subsidence of the Viking Graben in the North Sea has revealed three episodes:(a The Permo-Triassic (Saalian ? distension phase during which the axis of subsidence lay to the east of the present axis of the Viking Graben. (b The later Jurassic (Kimmerian distension phase which created the major structures in this zone. (c The Paleocene phase corresponding to the backlash of the westward

  1. Measurement of fish movements at depths to 6000 m using a deep-ocean lander incorporating a short base-line sonar utilizing miniature code-activated transponder technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, P. M.; Bradley, S.; Priede, I. G.; Gray, P.

    1999-12-01

    Most research on animal behaviour in the deep ocean (to depths of 6000 m) is restricted to the capture of dead specimens or viewing activity over small areas of the sea floor by means of cameras or submersibles. This paper describes the use of a miniature acoustic code-activated transponder (CAT) tag and short base-line sonar to track the movements of deep-sea fish in two dimensions over an area 1 km in diameter centred on a lander platform. The CAT tags and sonar are transported to the deep-sea floor by means of a subsea mooring which is ballasted so that it lands and remains on the sea floor for the duration of the tracking experiment (the lander). A description of the CAT, lander and short base-line sonar is given. Results are presented to illustrate the operation of the system.

  2. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation after wood smoke exposure in a reconstructed Viking Age house.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Annie; Karottki, Dorina Gabriela; Christensen, Jannie Marie; Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort; Sigsgaard, Torben; Glasius, Marianne; Loft, Steffen; Møller, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Exposure to particles from combustion of wood is associated with respiratory symptoms, whereas there is limited knowledge about systemic effects. We investigated effects on systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and DNA damage in humans who lived in a reconstructed Viking Age house, with indoor combustion of wood for heating and cooking. The subjects were exposed to high indoor concentrations of PM2.5 (700-3,600 µg/m(3)), CO (10.7-15.3 ppm) and NO2 (140-154 µg/m(3)) during a 1-week stay. Nevertheless, there were unaltered levels of genotoxicity, determined as DNA strand breaks and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase and oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 sensitive sites in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. There were also unaltered expression levels of OGG1, HMOX1, CCL2, IL8, and TNF levels in leukocytes. In serum, there were unaltered levels of C-reactive protein, IL6, IL8, TNF, lactate dehydrogenase, cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipoproteins. The wood smoke exposure was associated with decreased serum levels of sICAM-1, and a tendency to decreased sVCAM-1 levels. There was a minor increase in the levels of circulating monocytes expressing CD31, whereas there were unaltered expression levels of CD11b, CD49d, and CD62L on monocytes after the stay in the house. In conclusion, even a high inhalation exposure to wood smoke was associated with limited systemic effects on markers of oxidative stress, DNA damage, inflammation, and monocyte activation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. An Overview of Propulsion Concept Studies and Risk Reduction Activities for Robotic Lunar Landers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Huu P.; Story, George; Burnside, Chris; Kudlach, Al

    2010-01-01

    In support of designing robotic lunar lander concepts, the propulsion team at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), with participation from industry, conducted a series of trade studies on propulsion concepts with an emphasis on light-weight, advanced technology components. The results suggest a high-pressure propulsion system may offer some benefits in weight savings and system packaging. As part of the propulsion system, a solid rocket motor was selected to provide a large impulse to reduce the spacecraft s velocity prior to the lunar descent. In parallel to this study effort, the team also began technology risk reduction testing on a high thrust-to-weight descent thruster and a high-pressure regulator. A series of hot-fire tests was completed on the descent thruster in vacuum conditions at NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) in New Mexico in 2009. Preparations for a hot-fire test series on the attitude control thruster at WSTF and for pressure regulator testing are now underway. This paper will provide an overview of the concept trade study results along with insight into the risk mitigation activities conducted to date.

  4. Een onderzoek naar de bijdrage van een Strong Viking Run op het sport- en beweeggedrag

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ward Janssen

    2017-01-01

    Aanleiding: Eenmalig of terugkerende sportevenementen vormen een snel ontwikkeld onderdeel binnen de sportsector. Alleen spektakel is niet langer toereikend in deze sector, positieve maatschappelijke doeleinde staan hierbij voorop. Zo kwam er ook de vraag vanuit Strong Viking B.V. wat haar

  5. Household air pollution from wood burning in two reconstructed houses from the Danish Viking Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, J M; Ryhl-Svendsen, M

    2015-06-01

    During 13 winter weeks, an experimental archeology project was undertaken in two Danish reconstructed Viking Age houses with indoor open fireplaces. Volunteers inhabited the houses under living conditions similar to those of the Viking Age, including cooking and heating by wood fire. Carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM2.5 ) were measured at varying distances to the fireplace. Near the fireplaces CO (mean) was 16 ppm. PM2.5 (mean) was 3.40 mg/m(3) , however, measured in one house only. The CO:PM mass ratio was found to increase from 6.4 to 22 when increasing the distance to the fire. Two persons carried CO sensors. Average personal exposure was 6.9 ppm, and from this, a personal PM2.5 exposure of 0.41 mg/m(3) was estimated. The levels found here were higher than reported from modern studies conducted in dwellings using biomass for cooking and heating. While this may be due to the Viking house design, the volunteer's lack of training in attending a fire maybe also played a role. Even so, when comparing to today's issues arising from the use of open fires, it must be assumed that also during the Viking Age, the exposure to woodsmoke was a contributing factor to health problems. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Acceleration/heating of plasma on auroral field lines: preliminary results from the Viking satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundin, R.

    1988-01-01

    In this report, a review of the first results obtained from the particle experiment on board the Viking spacecraft will be given. During the first part of the Viking mission, the orbit was suitable for high-altitude measurements (up to ∼ 13500 km) in the dayside oval and the cusp/cleft region. Thus, some emphasis will be put on processes occurring in the dayside auroral region. On the basis of more than 100 Viking traversals of the cusp and cleft it is suggested that these regions can be identified by some regular characteristics in the particle data. The cusp has a continuous presence of solar wind plasma, affected mainly by convection and containing modest plasma energization. Conversely, the cleft is characterized by extensive plasma energization, and strong field aligned current sheets. Temporal injections of solar wind plasma are frequently observed in the cleft. A distinguishing characteristic of the Viking charged particle experiment is the energy and angular resolution. Thus, the fine-structure of narrow particle beams and conical distributions of both electrons and ions can be determined. This enables very detailed studies of the plasma acceleration processes along auroral field lines. Some examples of accelerated plasma populations and their related energy and angular distribution will be presented. The observations are compared with existing theories of auroral plasma heating and acceleration processes

  7. Network analysis of the Viking Age in Ireland as portrayed in Cogadh Gaedhel re Gallaibh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yose, Joseph; Kenna, Ralph; MacCarron, Máirín; MacCarron, Pádraig

    2018-01-01

    Cogadh Gaedhel re Gallaibh ('The War of the Gaedhil with the Gaill') is a medieval Irish text, telling how an army under the leadership of Brian Boru challenged Viking invaders and their allies in Ireland, culminating with the Battle of Clontarf in 1014. Brian's victory is widely remembered for breaking Viking power in Ireland, although much modern scholarship disputes traditional perceptions. Instead of an international conflict between Irish and Viking, interpretations based on revisionist scholarship consider it a domestic feud or civil war. Counter-revisionists challenge this view and a long-standing and lively debate continues. Here, we introduce quantitative measures to the discussions. We present statistical analyses of network data embedded in the text to position its sets of interactions on a spectrum from the domestic to the international. This delivers a picture that lies between antipodal traditional and revisionist extremes; hostilities recorded in the text are mostly between Irish and Viking-but internal conflict forms a significant proportion of the negative interactions too.

  8. viking: identification and characterization of a second type IV collagen in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasothornsrikul, S; Davis, W J; Cramer, G; Kimbrell, D A; Dearolf, C R

    1997-10-01

    We have taken an enhancer trap approach to identify genes that are expressed in hematopoietic cells and tissues of Drosophila. We conducted a molecular analysis of two P-element insertion strains that have reporter gene expression in embryonic hemocytes, strain 197 and vikingICO. This analysis has determined that viking encodes a collagen type IV gene, alpha2(IV). The viking locus is located adjacent to the previously described DCg1, which encodes collagen alpha1(IV), and in the opposite orientation. The alpha2(IV) and alpha1(IV) collagens are structurally very similar to one another, and to vertebrate type IV collagens. In early development, viking and DCg1 are transcribed in the same tissue-specific pattern, primarily in the hemocytes and fat body cells. Our results suggest that both the alpha1 and alpha2 collagen IV chains may contribute to basement membranes in Drosophila. This work also provides the foundation for a more complete genetic dissection of collagen type IV molecules and their developmental function in Drosophila.

  9. Faces across the North Sea: Viking art in Norway and England, AD 700-1300

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Tanner

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available The Institute of Archaeology has begun a programme of academic collaboration with the Institutt for Arkeologi og Kulturhistorie in Trondheim, Norway. One of the first initiatives to be taken is a comparative study of facial representation in Viking art. A member of the research team outlines the project.

  10. [Parasite eggs identified in material from archaeological excavations in Ribe (the viking age) (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansen, P; Jorgensen, R J

    1977-06-01

    Eggs of Fasciola hepatica, Ascaris sp., Taenia sp., and Trichuris sp. have been demonstrated in archaeological excavations from the early viking period (750--800 A.D.) in Ribe, the oldest urban society of Denmark. The origin of the faecal material is discussed. The parasitological examinations are continued and extended.

  11. 76 FR 37793 - Viking Range Corporation, Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... Corporation, containing a civil penalty of $450,000.00. DATES: Any interested person may ask the Commission... existing under the laws of the State of Mississippi, with its principal corporate office located at 111 W... a substantial product hazard, or created an unreasonable risk of serious injury or death, Viking...

  12. Fueled viking generator S/N 106 acceptance vibration test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, C.; Brewer, C.O.; Abrahamson, S.G.

    1976-01-01

    The Viking Generator S/N 106 was vibrated to the Teledyne Isotope Flight Acceptance Schedule (Random Only) with no deviation from normal generator functional output. Radiographic analysis and power tests before and after the vibration test indicated no change in the condition of the generator. The work was conducted in the Alpha Fuels Environmental Test Facility at Mound Laboratory

  13. Scientific results from the Swedish Viking satellite: A 1988 status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultqvist, B.

    1988-05-01

    The contributions of the Viking mission to space physics up to the early spring of 1988 are summarized in the following areas: global distribution of magnetosphere-ionosphere interaction, auroral morphology and substorm dynamics, heating and expulsion of ionspheric plasma into the magnetosphere, field-aligned acceleration into the ionosphere and wave generation. (With 64 refs.)(L.E.)

  14. Mars 2001 Lander Mission: Measurement Synergy Through Coordinated Operations Planning And Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidson, R.; Bell, J. F., III; Kaplan, D.; Marshall, J.; Mishkin, A.; Saunders, S.; Smith, P.; Squyres, S.

    1999-09-01

    The 2001 Mars Surveyor Program Mission includes an orbiter with a gamma ray spectrometer and a multispectral thermal imager, and a lander with an extensive set of instrumentation, a robotic arm, and the Marie Curie Rover. The Mars 2001 Science Operations Working Group (SOWG) is a subgroup of the Project Science Group that has been formed to provide coordinated planning and implementation of scientific observations, particularly for the landed portion of the mission. The SOWG will be responsible for delivery of a science plan and, during operations, generation and delivery of conflict-free sequences. This group will also develop an archive plan that is compliant with Planetary Data System (PDS) standards, and will oversee generation, validation, and delivery of integrated archives to the PDS. In this report we cover one element of the SOWG planning activities, the development of a plan that maximizes the scientific return from lander-based observations by treating the instrument packages as an integrated payload. Scientific objectives for the lander mission have been defined. They include observations focused on determining the bedrock geology of the site through analyses of rocks and also local materials found in the soils, and the surficial geology of the site, including windblown deposits and the nature and history of formation of indurated sediments such as duricrust. Of particular interest is the identification and quantification of processes related to early warm, wet conditions and the presence of hydrologic or hydrothermal cycles. Determining the nature and origin of duricrust and associated salts is -very important in this regard. Specifically, did these deposits form in the vadose zone as pore water evaporated from soils or did they form by other processes, such as deposition of volcanic aerosols? Basic information needed to address these questions includes the morphology, topography, and geologic context of landforms and materials exposed at the site

  15. Mars 2001 Lander Mission: Measurement Synergy Through Coordinated Operations Planning And Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidson, R.; Bell, J. F., III; Kaplan, D.; Marshall, J.; Mishkin, A.; Saunders, S.; Smith, P.; Squyres, S.

    1999-01-01

    The 2001 Mars Surveyor Program Mission includes an orbiter with a gamma ray spectrometer and a multispectral thermal imager, and a lander with an extensive set of instrumentation, a robotic arm, and the Marie Curie Rover. The Mars 2001 Science Operations Working Group (SOWG) is a subgroup of the Project Science Group that has been formed to provide coordinated planning and implementation of scientific observations, particularly for the landed portion of the mission. The SOWG will be responsible for delivery of a science plan and, during operations, generation and delivery of conflict-free sequences. This group will also develop an archive plan that is compliant with Planetary Data System (PDS) standards, and will oversee generation, validation, and delivery of integrated archives to the PDS. In this report we cover one element of the SOWG planning activities, the development of a plan that maximizes the scientific return from lander-based observations by treating the instrument packages as an integrated payload. Scientific objectives for the lander mission have been defined. They include observations focused on determining the bedrock geology of the site through analyses of rocks and also local materials found in the soils, and the surficial geology of the site, including windblown deposits and the nature and history of formation of indurated sediments such as duricrust. Of particular interest is the identification and quantification of processes related to early warm, wet conditions and the presence of hydrologic or hydrothermal cycles. Determining the nature and origin of duricrust and associated salts is -very important in this regard. Specifically, did these deposits form in the vadose zone as pore water evaporated from soils or did they form by other processes, such as deposition of volcanic aerosols? Basic information needed to address these questions includes the morphology, topography, and geologic context of landforms and materials exposed at the site

  16. MASCOT2, a Lander to Characterize the Target of an Asteroid Kinetic Impactor Deflection Test (AIM) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biele, J.; Ulamec, S.; Krause, C.; Cozzoni, B.; Lange, C.; Grundmann, J. T.; Grimm, C.; Ho, T.-M.; Herique, A.; Plettemeier, D.; Grott, M.; Auster, H.-U.; Hercik, D.; Carnelli, I.; Galvez, A.; Philippe, C.; Küppers, M.; Grieger, B.; Gil Fernandez, J.; Grygorczuk, J.

    2017-09-01

    In the course of the AIDA/AIM mission studies [1,2] a lander, MASCOT2, has been studied to be deployed on the moon of the binary Near-Earth Asteroid system, (65803) Didymos. The AIDA technology demonstration mission, composed of a kinetic impactor, DART, and an observing spacecraft, AIM, has been designed to deliver vital data to determine the momentum transfer efficiency of the kinetic impact and key physical properties of the target asteroid. This will enable derivation of the impact response of the object as a function of its physical properties, a crucial quantitative point besides the qualitative proof that the asteroid has been deflected at all. A landed asset on the target asteroid greatly supports analyzing its dynamical state, mass, geophysical properties, surface and subsurface structure. The lander's main instrument is a bistatic, low frequency radar (LFR) [3a,b] to sound the interior structure of the asteroid. It is supported by a camera (MasCAM) [4], a radiometer (MARA)[5], an accelerometer (DACC [9]), and, optionally regarding the science case, also a magnetometer (MasMAG)[6].

  17. Chasing Sources and Transports of Methane Plumes in the Northern Gulf of Mexico Using In Situ Sensors on Untethered Landers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, C. S.; Mendlovitz, H.; Seim, H.; Lapham, L.; Magen, C.; Joye, S. B.; MacDonald, I. R.; Asper, V. L.; Diercks, A. R.

    2016-02-01

    In situ time-series measurements of light hydrocarbons, oxygen, temperature and bottom currents from landers and elevators in the benthic boundary layer (BBL) at multiple sites in the northern Gulf of Mexico reveal spatial and temporal variability in methane concentrations controlled by horizontal advection of methane-rich plumes originating from nearby natural oil and gas seeps. Multi-sensor systems deployed for several weeks within 1m of the seafloor at depths from 882 to 1622m revealed methane concentrations ranging from near atmospheric saturation (gas chromatography. Continuous laser sensor methane measurements from mini-landers deployed in September 2015 at our Horn Dome and Bush Hill sites featuring numerous gas seeps revealed methane concentrations ranging from data within the BBL and friction layer from untethered platforms provides important new opportunities for monitoring the impacts of natural seeps and accidental hydrocarbon releases. The instrumented approaches we have developed to simultaneously monitor methane sources and physical processes controlling plume development and transport will enable more effective responses to further accidental hydrocarbon releases.

  18. The polar cusp from a particle point of view: A statistical study based on Viking data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aparicio, B.; Thelin, B.; Lundin, R.

    1991-01-01

    The authors present results from the particle measurements made on board the Viking satellite. For the period of interest the Viking orbits covered at high latitudes the whole dayside sector. Data from the Viking V-3 particle experiment acquired during the Polar Region Outer Magnetospheric International Study period have been used to study the extension of the cusp and cleft in magnetic local time and invariant latitude, and furthermore, their dependence on solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field parameters. The study is limited to the MLT range from 0900 to 1500 and to invariant latitudes (ILAT) from 74 degree to 82 degree. This region is divided into bins of size. The authors concentrated on the region where magnetosheath solar wind plasma penetrates more directly into the magnetosphere and is measured at Viking altitudes. This region is called the cusp proper, to be distinguished from a broader region denoted the cleft, where more energetic particles are observed. Statistically, they find the cusp proper to extend from invariant latitudes of 75 degree to 82 degree and magnetic local times from 0930 to 1400 MLT. The width in ILAT is found to be on average ∼2 degree and in MLT ∼2 hours. It is shown that a clear correlation exists between the densities in the cusp proper calculated from the Viking V-3 experiment in the cusp proper and those in the solar wind calculated from IMP 8 measurements. It is also shown that the position of the cusp proper in MLT depends on the sense of the By component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF By), giving a well-defined displacement of the region of maximum occurrence toward earlier MLTs for IMF By 0

  19. Systems to prevent nuclear material from re-entering the biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.; Angelo, J.A. Jr.; Lapin, S.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear systems are key to the success of many space missions as we have witness in the Apollo science packages, Viking Mars landers, and Pioneer and Voyager planetary exploration missions. There is always a concern that nuclear materials will re-enter the biosphere from a mission abort. In fact, this has happened for radioisotope and reactor power systems. Until now, the emphasize has been an incorporating on-board means to protect the biosphere. With possible increased use of nuclear power and propulsion systems in space, Project SIREN (Search, Intercept, Retrieve, Expulsion, Nuclear) has determined that external means can be used as a back up to current on-board systems to provide assured prevention of nuclear materials from re-entry once in space. The technology base to implement a SIREN vehicle has been assessed and a data base and mission analysis program prepared (called THOR) to evaluate various missions. The degree of hazard from existing nuclear power systems in space has been assessed and found to be significant

  20. COBALT: Development of a Platform to Flight Test Lander GN&C Technologies on Suborbital Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, John M., III; Seubert, Carl R.; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Bergh, Chuck; Kourchians, Ara; Restrepo, Carolina I.; Villapando, Carlos Y.; O'Neal, Travis V.; Robertson, Edward A.; Pierrottet, Diego; hide

    2017-01-01

    The NASA COBALT Project (CoOperative Blending of Autonomous Landing Technologies) is developing and integrating new precision-landing Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) technologies, along with developing a terrestrial fight-test platform for Technology Readiness Level (TRL) maturation. The current technologies include a third- generation Navigation Doppler Lidar (NDL) sensor for ultra-precise velocity and line- of-site (LOS) range measurements, and the Lander Vision System (LVS) that provides passive-optical Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN) estimates of map-relative position. The COBALT platform is self contained and includes the NDL and LVS sensors, blending filter, a custom compute element, power unit, and communication system. The platform incorporates a structural frame that has been designed to integrate with the payload frame onboard the new Masten Xodiac vertical take-o, vertical landing (VTVL) terrestrial rocket vehicle. Ground integration and testing is underway, and terrestrial fight testing onboard Xodiac is planned for 2017 with two flight campaigns: one open-loop and one closed-loop.

  1. NASA Propulsion Concept Studies and Risk Reduction Activities for Resource Prospector Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Huu P.; Williams, Hunter; Burnside, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The trade study has led to the selection of propulsion concept with the lowest cost and net lowest risk -Government-owned, flight qualified components -Meet mission requirements although the configuration is not optimized. Risk reduction activities have provided an opportunity -Implement design improvements while development with the early-test approach. -Gain knowledge on the operation and identify operation limit -Data to anchor analytical models for future flight designs; The propulsion system cold flow tests series have provided valuable data for future design. -The pressure surge from the system priming and waterhammer within component operation limits. -Enable to optimize the ullage volume to reduce the propellant tank mass; RS-34 hot fire tests have successfully demonstrated of using the engines for the RP mission -No degradation of performance due to extended storage life of the hardware. -Enable to operate the engine for RP flight mission scenarios, outside of the qualification regime. -Provide extended data for the thermal and GNC designs. Significant progress has been made on NASA propulsion concept design and risk reductions for Resource Prospector lander.

  2. Sustaining Human Presence on Mars Using ISRU and a Reusable Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arney, Dale C.; Jones, Christopher A.; Klovstad, Jordan J.; Komar, D.R.; Earle, Kevin; Moses, Robert; Shyface, Hilary R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the impact of ISRU (In-Site Resource Utilization), reusability, and automation on sustaining a human presence on Mars, requiring a transition from Earth dependence to Earth independence. The study analyzes the surface and transportation architectures and compared campaigns that revealed the importance of ISRU and reusability. A reusable Mars lander, Hercules, eliminates the need to deliver a new descent and ascent stage with each cargo and crew delivery to Mars, reducing the mass delivered from Earth. As part of an evolvable transportation architecture, this investment is key to enabling continuous human presence on Mars. The extensive use of ISRU reduces the logistics supply chain from Earth in order to support population growth at Mars. Reliable and autonomous systems, in conjunction with robotics, are required to enable ISRU architectures as systems must operate and maintain themselves while the crew is not present. A comparison of Mars campaigns is presented to show the impact of adding these investments and their ability to contribute to sustaining a human presence on Mars.

  3. ExoGeoLab Pilot Project for Landers, Rovers and Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard

    2010-05-01

    We have developed a pilot facility with a Robotic Test Bench (ExoGeoLab) and a Mobile Lab Habitat (ExoHab). They can be used to validate concepts and external instruments from partner institutes. The ExoGeoLab research incubator project, has started in the frame of a collaboration between ILEWG (International Lunar Exploration working Group http://sci.esa.int/ilewg), ESTEC, NASA and academic partners, supported by a design and control desk in the European Space Incubator (ESI), as well as infrastructure. ExoGeoLab includes a sequence of technology and research pilot project activities: - Data analysis and interpretation of remote sensing and in-situ data, and merging of multi-scale data sets - Procurement and integration of geophysical, geo-chemical and astrobiological breadboard instruments on a surface station and rovers - Integration of cameras, environment and solar sensors, Visible and near IR spectrometer, Raman spectrometer, sample handling, cooperative rovers - Delivery of a generic small planetary lander demonstrator (ExoGeoLab lander, Sept 2009) as a platform for multi-instruments tests - Research operations and exploitation of ExoGeoLab test bench for various conceptual configurations, and support for definition and design of science surface packages (Moon, Mars, NEOs, outer moons) - Field tests of lander, rovers and instruments in analogue sites (Utah MDRS 2009 & 2010, Eifel volcanic park in Sept 2009, and future campaigns). Co-authors, ILEWG ExoGeoLab & ExoHab Team: B.H. Foing(1,11)*#, C. Stoker(2,11)*, P. Ehrenfreund(10,11), L. Boche-Sauvan(1,11)*, L. Wendt(8)*, C. Gross(8, 11)*, C. Thiel(9)*, S. Peters(1,6)*, A. Borst(1,6)*, J. Zavaleta(2)*, P. Sarrazin(2)*, D. Blake(2), J. Page(1,4,11), V. Pletser(5,11)*, E. Monaghan(1)*, P. Mahapatra(1)#, A. Noroozi(3), P. Giannopoulos(1,11) , A. Calzada(1,6,11), R. Walker(7), T. Zegers(1, 15) #, G. Groemer(12)# , W. Stumptner(12)#, B. Foing(2,5), J. K. Blom(3)#, A. Perrin(14)#, M. Mikolajczak(14)#, S. Chevrier(14

  4. What would we miss if we characterized the Moon and Mars with just planetary meteorites, remote mapping, and robotic landers?. [Abstract only

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, M. M.

    1994-01-01

    Exploration of the Moon and planets began with telescopic studies of their surfaces, continued with orbiting spacecraft and robotic landers, and will culminate with manned exploration and sample return. For the Moon and Mars we also have accidental samples provided by impacts on their surfaces, the lunar and martian meteorites. How much would we know about the lunar surface if we only had lunar meteorites, orbital spacecraft, and robotic exploration, and not the Apollo and Luna returned samples? What does this imply for Mars? With martian meteorites and data from Mariner, Viking, and the future Pathfinder missions, how much could we learn about Mars? The basis of most of our detailed knowledge about the Moon is the Apollo samples. They provide ground truth for the remote mapping, timescales for lunar processes, and samples from the lunar interior. The Moon is the foundation of planetary science and the basis for our interpretation of the other planets. Mars is similar to the Moon in that impact and volcanism are the dominant processes, but Mars' surface has also been affected by wind and water, and hence has much more complex surface geology. Future geochemical or mineralogical mapping of Mars' surface should be able to tell us whether the dominant rock types of the ancient southern highlands are basaltic, anorthositic, granitic, or something else, but will not be able to tell us the detailed mineralogy, geochemistry, or age. Without many more martian meteorites or returned samples we will not know the diversity of martian rocks, and therefore will be limited in our ability to model martian geological evolution.

  5. Triggered seismicity and deformation between the Landers, California, and Little Skull Mountain, Nevada, earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin, Paul; Gomberg, Joan

    1994-01-01

    This article presents evidence for the channeling of strain energy released by the Ms = 7.4 Landers, California, earthquake within the eastern California shear zone (ECSZ). We document an increase in seismicity levels during the 22-hr period starting with the Landers earthquake and culminating 22 hr later with the Ms = 5.4 Little Skull Mountain (LSM), Nevada, earthquake. We evaluate the completeness of regional seismicity catalogs during this period and find that the continuity of post-Landers strain release within the ECSZ is even more pronounced than is evident from the catalog data. We hypothesize that regional-scale connectivity of faults within the ECSZ and LSM region is a critical ingredient in the unprecedented scale and distribution of remotely triggered earthquakes and geodetically manifest strain changes that followed the Landers earthquake. The viability of static strain changes as triggering agents is tested using numerical models. Modeling results illustrate that regional-scale fault connectivity can increase the static strain changes by approximately an order of magnitude at distances of at least 280 km, the distance between the Landers and LSM epicenters. This is possible for models that include both a network of connected faults that slip “sympathetically” and realistic levels of tectonic prestrain. Alternatively, if dynamic strains are a more significant triggering agent than static strains, ECSZ structure may still be important in determining the distribution of triggered seismic and aseismic deformation.

  6. Solar Electric and Chemical Propulsion Technology Applications to a Titan Orbiter/Lander Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupples, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Several advanced propulsion technology options were assessed for a conceptual Titan Orbiter/Lander mission. For convenience of presentation, the mission was broken into two phases: interplanetary and Titan capture. The interplanetary phase of the mission was evaluated for an advanced Solar Electric Propulsion System (SEPS), while the Titan capture phase was evaluated for state-of-art chemical propulsion (NTO/Hydrazine), three advanced chemical propulsion options (LOX/Hydrazine, Fluorine/Hydrazine, high Isp mono-propellant), and advanced tank technologies. Hence, this study was referred to as a SEPS/Chemical based option. The SEPS/Chemical study results were briefly compared to a 2002 NASA study that included two general propulsion options for the same conceptual mission: an all propulsive based mission and a SEPS/Aerocapture based mission. The SEP/Chemical study assumed identical science payload as the 2002 NASA study science payload. The SEPS/Chemical study results indicated that the Titan mission was feasible for a medium launch vehicle, an interplanetary transfer time of approximately 8 years, an advanced SEPS (30 kW), and current chemical engine technology (yet with advanced tanks) for the Titan capture. The 2002 NASA study showed the feasibility of the mission based on a somewhat smaller medium launch vehicle, an interplanetary transfer time of approximately 5.9 years, an advanced SEPS (24 kW), and advanced Aerocapture based propulsion technology for the Titan capture. Further comparisons and study results were presented for the advanced chemical and advanced tank technologies.

  7. Radio Telescopes to Keep Sharp Eye on Mars Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    As NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander descends through the Red Planet's atmosphere toward its landing on May 25, its progress will be scrutinized by radio telescopes from the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). At NRAO control rooms in Green Bank, West Virginia, and Socorro, New Mexico, scientists, engineers and technicians will be tracking the faint signal from the lander, 171 million miles from Earth. The GBT Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF To make a safe landing, Phoenix must make a risky descent, slowing down from nearly 13,000 mph at the top of the Martian atmosphere to only 5 mph in the final seconds before touchdown. NASA officials point out that fewer than half of all Mars landing missions have been successful, but the scientific rewards of success are worth the risk. Major events in the spacecraft's atmospheric entry, descent and landing will be marked by changes in the Doppler Shift in the frequency of the vehicle's radio signal. Doppler Shift is the change in frequency caused by relative motion between the transmitter and receiver. At Green Bank, NRAO and NASA personnel will use the giant Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) to follow the Doppler changes and verify that the descent is going as planned. The radio signal from Phoenix is designed to be received by other spacecraft in Mars orbit, then relayed to Earth. However, the GBT, a dish antenna with more than two acres of collecting surface and highly-sensitive receivers, can directly receive the transmissions from Phoenix. "We'll see the frequency change as Phoenix slows down in the Martian atmosphere, then there will be a big change when the parachute deploys," said NRAO astronomer Frank Ghigo. When the spacecraft's rocket thrusters slow it down for its final, gentle touchdown, its radio frequency will stabilize, Ghigo said. "We'll have confirmation of these major events through our direct reception several seconds earlier than the controllers at NASA's Jet Propulsion

  8. Relativistic time transfer for a Mars lander: from Areocentric Coordinate Time to Barycentric Coordinate Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Zheng; Xu, De-Wang; Yu, Qing-Shan; Liu, Jie; Xie, Yi

    2017-08-01

    As the second step of relativistic time transfer for a Mars lander, we investigate the transformation between Areocentric Coordinate Time (TCA) and Barycentric Coordinate Time (TCB) in the framework of IAU Resolutions. TCA is a local time scale for Mars, which is analogous to the Geocentric Coordinate Time (TCG) for Earth. This transformation has two parts: contributions associated with gravitational bodies and those depending on the position of the lander. After setting the instability of an onboard clock to 10-13 and considering that the uncertainty in time is about 3.2 microseconds after one Earth year, we find that the contributions of the Sun, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn in the leading term associated with these bodies can reach a level exceeding the threshold and must be taken into account. Other terms can be safely ignored in this transformation for a Mars lander.

  9. Records of ectoparasites on humans and sheep from Viking-age deposits in the former western settlement of Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, J P

    1990-07-01

    During recent archaeological excavations in Viking Greenland, specimens of the human flea, Pulex irritans L., and the body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus L., were recovered from several farmsteads. Bovicola ovis (Schrank) and the sheep ked, Melophagus ovinus (L.), also were found in associated deposits. The specimens were dated from about AD 990 to AD 1350. These finds raise questions about the levels of hygiene of the Viking farmers and open some interesting medical and biogeographical conundrums.

  10. The ISHTE [In-Situ Heat Transfer Experiment] lander: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, L.O.; Harrison, J.G.

    1986-12-01

    This report describes the design and development of a sea floor lander constructed to support the In-Situ Heat Transfer Experiment (ISHTE). The work entailed fabricating and testing a steel space frame that would support and accurately position delicate instruments which would monitor a heat source driven into the sediments of the deep ocean. This lander is capable of being (1) transported from Seattle to Hawaii and back several times; (2) deployed from a ship at sea; (3) operated on the sea floor to field delicate experimental equipment; and (4) recovered for retrofit to support a one-year experiment on the sea floor

  11. Composition and structure of the martian atmosphere: preliminary results from Viking 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nier, A.O.; Hanson, W.B.; Seiff, A.; McElroy, M.B.; Spencer, N.W.; Duckett, R.J.; Knight, T.C.D.; Cook, W.S.

    1976-01-01

    Results from the aeroshell-mounted neutral mass spectrometer on Viking 1 indicate that the upper atmosphere of Mars is composed mainly of CO 2 with trace quantities of N 2 , Ar, O, O 2 , and CO. The mixing ratios by volume relative to CO 2 for N 2 , Ar, and O 2 are about 0.06, 0.015, and 0.003, respectively, at an altitude near 135 kilometers. Molecular oxygen (O 2 + ) is a major component of the ionosphere according to results from the retarding potential analyzer. The atmosphere between 140 and 200 kilometers has an average temperature of about 180 0 +- 20 0 K. Atmospheric pressure at the landing site for Viking 1 was 7.3 millibars at an air temperature of 241 0 K. The descent data are consistent with the view that CO 2 should be the major constituent of the lower martian atmosphere

  12. EISCAT observation on plasma drifts connected with the Aureld-VIP rocket and the Viking satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellinen-Wannberg, A.; Sandahl, I.; Wannberg, G.; Opgenoorth, H.; Soeraas, F.; Murphree, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    Coordinated simultaneous measurements with the EISCAT incoherent scatter radar, Aureld-VIP sounding rocket, and Viking satellite are described. Background measurements from EISCAT provide us with the development of global plasma convection during the rocket night. The observed convection pattern is very distorted, with the eveningside reversal occurring at unusually low latitudes. On the morningside it withdraws back poleward from the measurement area. Viking particle measurements over the oval indicate a very complicated auroral topology with two sectors of boundary plasma sheet (BPS) and central plasma sheet (CPS) particles. The situation is interpreted as an intrusion of the evening side BPS into the morningside, which is also consistent with the convection pattern measured by EISCAT. Local measurements with the sounding rocket and radar indicate that the rocket flew in the northern part of the evening BPS area, approaching the inner transition region from BPS to CPS in its northward motion, thus confirming the existence of such a boundary

  13. Development of biological and nonbiological explanations for the Viking label release data. [hydrogen peroxide theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The plausibility that hydrogen peroxide, widely distributed within the Mars surface material, was responsible for the evocative response obtained by the Viking Labeled Release (LR) experiment on Mars was investigated. Although a mixture of gamma Fe2O3 and silica sand stimulated the LR nutrient reaction with hydrogen peroxide and reduced the rate of hydrogen decomposition under various storage conditions, the Mars analog soil prepared by the Viking Inorganic Analysis Team to match the Mars analytical data does not cause such effects. Nor is adequate resistance to UV irradiation shown. On the basis of the results and consideration presented while the hydrogen peroxide theory remains the most, if not only, attractive chemical explanation of the LR data, it remains unconvincing on critical points. Until problems concerning the formation and stabilization of hydrogen peroxide on the surface of Mars can be overcome, adhere to the scientific evidence requires serious consideration of the biological theory.

  14. Was the C282Y mutation an Irish Gaelic mutation that the Vikings helped disseminate?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Karl Sigvard; Konar, Jan; Dufva, Inge Hoegh

    2011-01-01

    The HLA-related hemochromatosis mutation C282Y is thought to have originated in Ireland in a person with HLA-A3-B14 and was spread by Vikings. Irish people with two HLA-A3 alleles had a high risk of hemochromatosis. In this study, from west Sweden, we wanted to test these hypotheses.......The HLA-related hemochromatosis mutation C282Y is thought to have originated in Ireland in a person with HLA-A3-B14 and was spread by Vikings. Irish people with two HLA-A3 alleles had a high risk of hemochromatosis. In this study, from west Sweden, we wanted to test these hypotheses....

  15. On the ability of the Viking gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer to detect organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biemann, Klaus

    2007-06-19

    A recent paper by Navarro-Gonzalez et al. [Navarro-Gonzalez R, Navarro KF, de la Rosa J, Iniguez E, Molina P, Miranda LD, Morales P, Cienfuegos E, Coll P, Raulin F, et al. (2006) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:16089-16094] claims to show that the Viking GCMS (gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer) experiment, which carried out a search for organic matter at the surface of Mars in 1976, "may have been blind to low levels of organics." To rebut this assertion, the Viking experiment, test data, and results on Mars are reviewed, and the fallacies in the design, execution, and interpretation of the new experiments presented by Navarro-Gonzalez et al. are critically examined.

  16. An Evaluation of a High Pressure Regulator for NASA's Robotic Lunar Lander Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnside, Christopher G.; Trinh, Huu P.; Pedersen, Kevin W.

    2013-01-01

    The Robotic Lunar Lander (RLL) development project office at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center is currently studying several lunar surface science mission concepts. The focus is on spacecraft carrying multiple science instruments and power systems that will allow extended operations on the lunar surface or other air-less bodies in the solar system. Initial trade studies of launch vehicle options indicate the spacecraft will be significantly mass and volume constrained. Because of the investment by the DOD in low mass, highly volume efficient components, NASA has investigated the potential integration of some of these technologies in space science applications. A 10,000 psig helium pressure regulator test activity has been conducted as part of the overall risk reduction testing for the RLL spacecraft. The regulator was subjected to typical NASA acceptance testing to assess the regulator response to the expected RLL mission requirements. The test results show the regulator can supply helium at a stable outlet pressure of 740 psig within a +/- 5% tolerance band and maintain a lock-up pressure less than the +5% above nominal outlet pressure for all tests conducted. Numerous leak tests demonstrated leakage less than 10-3 standard cubic centimeters per second (SCCS) for the internal seat leakage at lock-up and less than 10-5 SCCS for external leakage through the regulator body. The successful test has shown the potential for 10,000 psig helium systems in NASA spacecraft and has reduced risk associated with hardware availability and hardware ability to meet RLL mission requirements.

  17. A Model for Lower Hybrid Wave Excitation Compared with Observations by Viking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Liemohn, M. W.; Krivorutsky, E. N.; Horwitz, J. L.

    1997-01-01

    The mechanism of lower hybrid wave (LHW) excitation due to the O+ relative drift in a plasma subjected to low-frequency waves (LFWs) is used for analysis of Viking satellite data for events in the cusp/cleft region. In some cases, such a mechanism leads to LHW energy densities and ion distribution functions close to those observed, suggesting the proposed mechanism is a plausible candidate to explain certain classes of LHW generation events in space plasmas.

  18. Victorian Imag(ining of the Pagan Pyre: Frank Dicksee's 'Funeral of a Viking'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Rose Marshall

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Victorians drew on imagery of Druid and Viking funeral pyres as a way of exploring alternative narratives of death and burial, generating a collective attention to what happened to a body after death. I set Frank Dicksee’s oil painting, 'Funeral of a Viking' (1893, against the background of the emergent cremation movement and accounts of the neo-Druid William Price, a proponent for the legalization of cremation in the 1880s, in order to glimpse the work performed by the visualization of the ritualized burning of human beings in the pagan past. Fire produces metamorphosis in the objects it encounters, and Dicksee’s portrayal underscores the notion of a clearly delineated human body transforming into amorphous flame. Moreover, the Viking dissolves into pigment itself, mere aesthetic effect taking the place of a recognizable figure. In fictional accounts such as Paul Du Chaillu’s novel 'Ivar the Viking '(1893, the pyre as a narrative tool similarly forced attention to the body as dematerializing thing and to the language articulating this dissipation. I suggest that the Victorian fascination with pagan fire-death allowed for alternate visions of form–matter relationships that in turn might produce new aesthetic possibilities. As the Christian world insisted on the resurrection of the body in a way that clung fiercely to tangibility and bounded form even in the face of belief in the immortality of the saved soul, the modern moment might be seen, in contrast, as characterized by an embrace of an aesthetic of dissolving form or formlessness.

  19. Estimation of microwave source location in precipitating electron fluxes according to Viking satellite data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrushchinskij, A.A.; Ostapenko, A.A.; Gustafsson, G.; Eliasson, L.; Sandal, I.

    1989-01-01

    According to the Viking satellite data on electron fluxes in the 0.1-300 keV energy range, the microburst source location is estimated. On the basis of experimental delays in detected peaks in different energy channels and theoretical calculations of these delays within the dipole field model (L∼ 4-5.5), it is shown that the most probable source location is the equatorial region with the centre, 5-10 0 shifted towards the ionosphere

  20. Ancient DNA reveals the Arctic origin of Viking Age cod from Haithabu, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Star, Bastiaan; Boessenkool, Sanne; Gondek, Agata T; Nikulina, Elena A; Hufthammer, Anne Karin; Pampoulie, Christophe; Knutsen, Halvor; André, Carl; Nistelberger, Heidi M; Dierking, Jan; Petereit, Christoph; Heinrich, Dirk; Jakobsen, Kjetill S; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Jentoft, Sissel; Barrett, James H

    2017-08-22

    Knowledge of the range and chronology of historic trade and long-distance transport of natural resources is essential for determining the impacts of past human activities on marine environments. However, the specific biological sources of imported fauna are often difficult to identify, in particular if species have a wide spatial distribution and lack clear osteological or isotopic differentiation between populations. Here, we report that ancient fish-bone remains, despite being porous, brittle, and light, provide an excellent source of endogenous DNA (15-46%) of sufficient quality for whole-genome reconstruction. By comparing ancient sequence data to that of modern specimens, we determine the biological origin of 15 Viking Age (800-1066 CE) and subsequent medieval (1066-1280 CE) Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua ) specimens from excavation sites in Germany, Norway, and the United Kingdom. Archaeological context indicates that one of these sites was a fishing settlement for the procurement of local catches, whereas the other localities were centers of trade. Fish from the trade sites show a mixed ancestry and are statistically differentiated from local fish populations. Moreover, Viking Age samples from Haithabu, Germany, are traced back to the North East Arctic Atlantic cod population that has supported the Lofoten fisheries of Norway for centuries. Our results resolve a long-standing controversial hypothesis and indicate that the marine resources of the North Atlantic Ocean were used to sustain an international demand for protein as far back as the Viking Age.

  1. On the motion of electrons in the slow electric field fluctuations observed by Viking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultqvist, B.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented of calculations of the motion of electrons in slow, large-amplitude fluctuations of the electric field, which have been observed by means of the Swedish satellite Viking. The E component seen by the ionospheric electrons, entering the acceleration region from below, is assumed to vary along the path of the electrons along the magnetic field lines in the way that Viking recorded along its more or less horizontal path through, or above, the acceleration region. Although this is a simplified model, it is expected to illustrate the effect of the E parallel fluctuations on the cold electrons, which enter the acceleration region more realistically than in the earlier, highly simplified model used by hultqvist (1988). The results of the calculations show that temporal variations of E parallel of the kind observed by Viking easily can bring the electrons to the top of an acceleration region, which extends 1,000-10,000 km along the magnetic field lines, with energies in the range 100 eV to several keV, as have been observed

  2. Structure of Mars' Atmosphere up to 100 Kilometers from the Entry Measurements of Viking 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiff, A; Kirk, D B

    1976-12-11

    The Viking 2 entry science data on the structure of Mars' atmosphere up to 100 kilometers define a morning atmosphere with an isothermal region near the surface; a surface pressure 10 percent greater than that recorded simultaneously at the Viking 1 site, which implies a landing site elevation lower by 2.7 kilometers than the reference ellipsoid; and a thermal structure to 100 kilometers at least qualitatively consistent with pre-Viking modeling of thermal tides. The temperature profile exhibits waves whose amplitude grows with altitude, to approximately 25 degrees K at 90 kilometers. These waves are believed to be a consequence of layered vertical oscillations and associated heating and cooling by compression and expansion, excited by the daily thermal cycling of the planet surface. As is necessary for gravity wave propagation, the atmosphere is stable against convection, except possibly in some very local regions. Temperature is everywhere appreciably above the carbon dioxide condensation boundary at both landing sites, precluding the occurrence of carbon dioxide hazes in northern summer at latitudes to at least 50 degrees N. Thus, ground level mists seen in these latitudes would appear to be condensed water vapor.

  3. A statistical study of high-altitude electric fields measured on the Viking satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindqvist, P.A.; Marklund, G.T.

    1990-01-01

    Characteristics of high-altitude data from the Viking electric field instrument are presented in a statistical study based on 109 Viking orbits. The study is focused in particular on the signatures of and relationships between various parameters measured by the electric field instrument, such as the parallel and transverse (to B) components of the electric field instrument, such as electric field variability. A major goal of the Viking mission was to investigate the occurrence and properties of parallel electric fields and their role in the auroral acceleration process. The results in this paper on the altitude distribution of the electric field variability confirm earlier findings on the distribution of small-scale electric fields and indicate the presence of parallel fields up to about 11,000 km altitude. The directly measured parallel electric field is also investigated in some detail. It is in general directed upward with an average value of 1 mV/m, but depends on, for example, altitude and plasma density. Possible sources of error in the measurement of the parallel field are also considered and accounted for

  4. Through the Portal: Viking Motifs Incorporated in the Romanesque Style in Telemark, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Ødeby

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an analysis of motifs identified on six carved wooden Romanesque portal panels from the Norwegian county of Telemark. The findings suggest that animal motifs in the Late Viking style survived long into the Late Medieval period and were reused on these medieval portals. Stylistically, late expressions of Viking animal art do not differ a great deal from those of the subsequent Romanesque style. However, their symbolical differences are considered to be significant. The motifs themselves, and the issue of whether the Romanesque style adopted motifs from pre-Christian art, have attracted less attention. The motif portraying Sigurd slaying the dragon is considered in depth. It will be suggested that Sigurd, serving as a mediator between the old and the new beliefs when he appeared in late Viking contexts, was given a new role when portrayed in Christian art. Metaphor and liminality are a central part of this paper, and the theories of Alfred Gell and Margrete Andås suggest that the portal itself affects those who pass through it, and that the iconography is meaningful from a liminal perspective.

  5. [Efficacy of dolutegravir in treatment-experienced patients: the SAILING and VIKING trials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Santiago; Berenguer, Juan

    2015-03-01

    Dolutegravir is an HIV integrase inhibitor with a high genetic barrier to resistance and is active against raltegravir- and/or elvitegravir-resistant strains. The clinical development of dolutegravir for HIV infection rescue therapy is based on 3 clinical trials. In the SAILING trial, dolutegravir (5 mg once daily) in combination with 2 other antiretroviral agents was well tolerated and showed greater virological effect than raltegravir (400 mg twice daily) in the treatment of integrase inhibitor-naïve adults with virological failure infected with HIV strains with at least two-class drug resistance. The VIKING studies were designed to evaluate the efficacy of dolutegravir as rescue therapy in treatment-experienced patients infected with HIV strains with resistance mutations to raltegravir and/or elvitegravir. VIKING-1-2 was a dose-ranging phase IIb trial. VIKING-3 was a phase III trial in which dolutegravir (50 mg twice daily) formed part of an optimized regimen and proved safe and effective in this difficult-to-treat group of patients. Dolutegravir is the integrase inhibitor of choice for rescue therapy in multiresistant HIV infection, both in integrase inhibitor-naïve patients and in those previously treated with raltegravir or elvitegravir. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. A historical overview of the electrical power systems in the US manned and some US unmanned spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisel, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    A historical overview of electrical power systems used in the U.S. manned spacecraft and some of the U.S. unmanned spacecraft is presented in this investigation. A time frame of approximately 25 years, the period for 1959 to 1984, is covered in this report. Results indicate that the nominal bus voltage was 28 volts dc in most spacecraft and all other voltage levels were derived from this voltage through such techniques as voltage inversion or rectification, or a combination. Most spacecraft used solar arrays for the main source of power except for those spacecraft that had a relatively short flight duration, or deep spaceprobes that were designed for very long flight duration. Fuel cells were used on Gemini, Apollo, and Space Shuttle (short duration flights) while radioisotope thermoelectric generators were employed on the Pioneer, Jupiter/Saturn, Viking Lander, and Voyager spacecraft (long duration flights). The main dc bus voltage was unregulated on the manned spacecraft with voltage regulation provided at the user loads. A combination of regulated, semiregulated, and unregulated buses were used on the unmanned spacecraft depending on the type of load. For example, scientific instruments were usually connected to regulated buses while fans, relays, etc. were energized from an unregulated bus. Different forms of voltage regulation, such as shunt, buck/boot, and pulse-width modulated regulators, were used. This report includes a comprehensive bibliography on spacecraft electrical power systems for the space programs investigated.

  7. Space Systems Failures Disasters and Rescues of Satellites, Rockets and Space Probes

    CERN Document Server

    Harland, David M

    2005-01-01

    In the 1960s and 1970s deep space missions were dispatched in pairs in case one was lost in launch or failed during its journey. Following the triumphs of the Viking landings on Mars in 1976 and both Voyagers spacecraft successfully surveying the outer giant planets of the Solar System, it was decided by NASA to cut costs and send out just a single probe. Although Magellan successfully mapped Venus by radar, it suffered from problems during the flight. Then came the loss of Mars Observer, whose engine exploded as it was preparing to enter Mars’ orbit because it was using technology designed for Earth’s satellites and the engine was not suited to spending several months in space. Later came the high-profile losses of Mars Climate Observer and Mars Polar Lander - a consequence of the faster, better, cheaper philosophy introduced by Dan Goldin in 1993. Even the highly successful Galileo mission suffered a major setback when its high-gain antenna (also based on satellite mission suffered a major setback when ...

  8. A simultaneous estimation of the mass of Mars and its natural satellites, Phobos and Deimos, from the orbital perturbations on the Mariner 9, Viking 1, and Viking 2 orbiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, F. G.; Smith, D. E.; Fricke, S. K.; Mccarthy, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    The natural satellites of Mars, Phobos and Deimos, caused perturbations on the orbits of the Mariner 9, and the Viking spacecraft that were used to estimate the satellite masses. The Viking spacecraft were specifically targeted to make close flybys (within a few hundred kilometers) of Phobos in February 1977 and of Deimos in October 1977. These close encounters were used to estimate the moon's gravitational constant, GM (the universal constant of gravitation multiplied by the satellite mass). However, the Viking and Mariner 9 spacecraft made numerous flybys of Phobos and Deimos at distances of a few thousand kilometers. The tracking data from these more 'distant' encounters were processed to estimate the masses of Mars, Phobos, and Deimos.

  9. The Inferred Distribution of Liquid Water in Europa's Ice Shell: Implications for the Europa Lander Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noviello, J. L.; Torrano, Z. A.; Rhoden, A.; Manga, M.

    2017-12-01

    A key objective of the Europa lander mission is to identify liquid water within 30 km of the lander (Europa Lander SDT report, 2017), to provide essential context with which to evaluate samples and enable assessment of Europa's overall habitability. To inform lander mission development, we utilize a model of surface feature formation that invokes liquid water within Europa's ice shell to map out the implied 3D distribution of liquid water and assess the likelihood of a lander to be within 30 km of liquid water given regional variability. Europa's surface displays a variety of microfeatures, also called lenticulae, including pits, domes, spots, and microchaos. A recent model by Manga and Michaut (2017) attributes these features to various stages in the thermal-mechanical evolution of liquid water intrusions (i.e. sills) within the ice shell, from sill emplacement to surface breaching (in the case of microchaos) to freezing of the sill. Pits are of particular interest because they appear only when liquid water is still present. Another key feature of the model is that the size of a microfeature at the surface is controlled by the depth of the sill. Hence, we can apply this model to regions of Europa that contain microfeatures to infer the size, depth, and spatial distribution of liquid water within the ice shell. We are creating a database of microfeatures that includes digitized, collated data from previous mapping efforts along with our own mapping study. We focus on images with 220 m/pixel resolution, which includes the regional mapping data sets. Analysis of a preliminary study area suggests that sills are typically located at depths of 2km or less from the surface. We will present analysis of the full database of microfeatures and the corresponding 3D distribution of sills implied by the model. Our preliminary analysis also shows that pits are clustered in some regions, consistent with previous results, although individual pits are also observed. We apply a

  10. Orientation with a Viking sun-compass, a shadow-stick, and two calcite sunstones under various weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernáth, Balázs; Blahó, Miklós; Egri, Adám; Barta, András; Kriska, György; Horváth, Gábor

    2013-09-01

    It is widely accepted that Vikings used sun-compasses to derive true directions from the cast shadow of a gnomon. It has been hypothesized that when a cast shadow was not formed, Viking navigators relied on crude skylight polarimetry with the aid of dichroic or birefringent crystals, called "sunstones." We demonstrate here that a simple tool, that we call "shadow-stick," could have allowed orientation by a sun-compass with satisfying accuracy when shadows were not formed, but the sun position could have reliably been estimated. In field tests, we performed orientation trials with a set composed of a sun-compass, two calcite sunstones, and a shadow-stick. We show here that such a set could have been an effective orientation tool for Vikings only when clear, blue patches of the sky were visible.

  11. Observations of lower hybrid cavities in the inner magnetosphere by the Cluster and Viking satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tjulin

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Observations by the Viking and Cluster satellites at altitudes up to 35000km show that Lower Hybrid Cavities (LHCs are common in the inner magnetosphere. LHCs are density depletions filled with waves in the lower hybrid frequency range. The LHCs have, until recently, only been found at altitudes up to 2000km. Statistics of the locations and general shape of the LHCs is performed to obtain an overview of some of their properties. In total, we have observed 166 LHCs on Viking during 27h of data, and 535 LHCs on Cluster during 87h of data. These LHCs are found at invariant latitudes from the auroral region to the plasmapause. A comparison with lower altitude observations shows that the LHC occurrence frequency does not scale with the flux tube radius, so that the LHCs are moderately rarer at high altitudes. This indicates that the individual LHCs do not reach from the ionosphere to 35000km altitude, which gives an upper bound for their length. The width of the LHCs perpendicular to the geomagnetic field at high altitudes is a few times the ion gyroradius, consistent with observations at low altitudes. The estimated depth of the density depletions vary with altitude, being larger at altitudes of 20000-35000km (Cluster, 10-20%, smaller around 1500-13000km (Viking and previous Freja results, a few percent and again larger around 1000km (previous sounding rocket observations, 10-20%. The LHCs in the inner magnetosphere are situated in regions with background electrostatic hiss in the lower hybrid frequency range, consistent with investigations at low altitudes. Individual LHCs observed at high altitudes are stable at least on time scales of 0.2s (about the ion gyro period, which is consistent with previous results at lower altitudes, and observations by the four Cluster satellites show that the occurrence of LHCs in a region in space is a stable phenomenon, at least on time scales of an hour.

  12. Plate motions, Gondwana dinosaurs, Noah's arks, beached Viking funeral ships, ghost ships, and landspans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Louis L; Strganac, Christopher; Scotese, Christopher

    2011-03-01

    Gondwana landmasses have served as large-scale biogeographic Noah's Arks and Beached Viking Funeral Ships, as defined by McKenna. The latitudinal trajectories of selected Gondwana dinosaur localities were traced through time in order to evaluate their movement through climate zones relative to those in which they originally formed. The dispersal of fauna during the breakup of Gondwana may have been facilitated by the presence of offshelf islands forming landspans (sensu Iturralde-Vinent and MacPhee) in the Equatorial Atlantic Gateway and elsewhere.

  13. How Do You Answer the Life on Mars Question? Use Multiple Small Landers Like Beagle 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Everett K.; Pillinger, C. T.; Wright, I. P.; Hurst, S. J.; Richter, L.; Sims, M. R.

    2012-01-01

    To address one of the most important questions in planetary science Is there life on Mars? The scientific community must turn to less costly means of exploring the surface of the Red Planet. The United Kingdom's Beagle 2 Mars lander concept was a small meter-size lander with a scientific payload constituting a large proportion of the flown mass designed to supply answers to the question about life on Mars. A possible reason why Beagle 2 did not send any data was that it was a one-off attempt to land. As Steve Squyres said at the time: "It's difficult to land on Mars - if you want to succeed you have to send two of everything".

  14. Science Goals, Objectives, and Investigations of the 2016 Europa Lander Science Definition Team Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Kevin P.; Murray, Alison; Garvin, James; and the Europa Lander Science Definition Team, Project Science Team, and Project Engineering Team.

    2017-10-01

    In June of 2016 NASA convened a 21-person team of scientists to establish the science goals, objectives, investigations, measurement requirements, and model payload of a Europa lander mission concept. The NASA HQ Charter goals, in priority order, are as follows:1) Search for evidence of life on Europa, 2) Assess the habitability of Europa via in situ techniques uniquely available to a lander mission, 3) Characterize surface and subsurface properties at the scale of the lander to support future exploration of Europa.Within Goal 1, four Objectives were developed for seeking signs of life. These include the need to: a) detect and characterize any organic indicators of past or present life, b) identify and characterize morphological, textural, and other indicators of life, c) detect and characterize any inorganic indicators of past or present life, and d) determine the provenance of Lander-sampled material. Goal 2 focuses on Europa’s habitability and ensures that even in the absence of the detection of any potential biosignatures, significant ocean world science is still achieved. Goal 3 ensures that the landing site region is quantitatively characterized in the context needed for Goals 1 and 2, and that key measurements about Europa’s ice shell are made to enable future exploration.Critically, scientific success cannot be, and should never be, contingent on finding signs of life - such criteria would be levying requirements on how the universe works. Rather, scientific success is defined here as achieving a suite of measurements such that if convincing signs of life are present on Europa’s surface they could be detected at levels comparable to those found in benchmark environments on Earth, and, further, that even if no potential biosignatures are detected, the science return of the mission will significantly advance our fundamental understanding of Europa’s chemistry, geology, geophysics, and habitability.

  15. The ROSETTA PHILAE Lander damping mechanism as probe for the Comet soil strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roll, R.

    2015-10-01

    The ROSETTA Lander is equipped with an one axis damping mechanism to dissipate kinetic energy during the touch down. This damping is necessary to avoid damages to the Lander by a hard landing shock and more important to avoid re-bouncing from ground with high velocity. The damping mechanism works best for perpendicular impact, which means the velocity vector is parallel to the damper axis and all three feet touch the ground at the same time. That is usually not the case. Part of the impact energy can be transferred into rotational energy at ground contact if the impact is not perpendicular. This energy will lift up the Lander from the ground if the harpoons and the hold down thruster fail, as happen in mission. The damping mechanism itself is an electrical generator, driven by a spindle inside a telescopic tube. This tube was extended in mission for landing by 200mm. A maximum damping length of 140mm would be usually required to compensate a landing velocity of 1m/s, if the impact happens perpendicular on hard ground. After landing the potentiometer of the telescopic tube reading shows a total damping length of only 42,5mm. The damping mechanism and the overall mechanical behavior of the Lander at touch down are well tested and characterized and transferred to a multi-body computer model. The incoming and outgoing flightpath of PHILAE allow via computer-simulation the reconstruction of the touch down. It turns out, that the outgoing flight direction is dominated by the local ground slope and that the damping length is strongly dependent on the soil strength. Damping of soft comet ground must be included to fit the damping length measured. Scenario variations of the various feet contact with different local surface features (stone or regolith) and of different soil models finally lead to a restricted range for the soil strength at the touch down area.

  16. Feasibility of a Dragon-Derived Mars Lander for Scientific and Human-Precursor Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcz, John S.; Davis, Sanford S.; Allen, Gary A.; Glass, Brian J.; Gonzales, Andrew; Heldmann, Jennifer Lynne; Lemke, Lawrence G.; McKay, Chris; Stoker, Carol R.; Wooster, Paul Douglass; hide

    2013-01-01

    A minimally-modified SpaceX Dragon capsule launched on a Falcon Heavy rocket presents the possibility of a new low-cost, high-capacity Mars lander for robotic missions. We have been evaluating such a "Red Dragon" platform as an option for the Icebreaker Discovery Program mission concept. Dragon is currently in service ferrying cargo to and from the International Space Station, and a crew transport version is in development. The upcoming version, unlike other Earth-return vehicles, exhibits most of the capabilities necessary to land on Mars. In particular, it has a set of high-thrust, throttleable, storable bi-propellant "SuperDraco" engines integrated directly into the capsule that are intended for launch abort and powered landings on Earth. These thrusters provide the possibility of a parachute-free, fully-propulsive deceleration at Mars from supersonic speeds to the surface, a descent approach which would also scale well to larger future human landers. We will discuss the motivations for exploring a Red Dragon lander, the current results of our analysis of its feasibility and capabilities, and the implications of the platform for the Icebreaker mission concept. In particular, we will examine entry, descent, and landing (EDL) in detail. We will also describe the modifications to Dragon necessary for interplanetary cruise, EDL, and operations on the Martian surface. Our analysis to date indicates that a Red Dragon lander is feasible and that it would be capable of delivering more than 1000 kg of payload to sites at elevations three kilometers below the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) reference, which includes sites throughout most of the northern plains and Hellas.

  17. Planning and Implementation of Pressure and Humidity Measurements on ExoMars 2016 Schiaparelli Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkanen, T.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Komu, M.; Kemppinen, O.; Haukka, H.; Harri, A.-M.

    2014-04-01

    The ExoMars 2016 Schiaparelli lander offers a platform for meteorological and electric field observations ranging from timescales of seconds to Martian days, or sols. In the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), this opportunity has been used to develop a new type of instrument controller unit for the already flight-proven FMI pressure and humidity instruments. The new controller allows for more flexible and autonomous data acquisition processes and planning than the previous FMI designs.

  18. Electrochromic Radiator Coupon Level Testing and Full Scale Thermal Math Modeling for Use on Altair Lunar Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannon, Erika T.; Bower, Chad E.; Sheth, Rubik; Stephan, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    In order to control system and component temperatures, many spacecraft thermal control systems use a radiator coupled with a pumped fluid loop to reject waste heat from the vehicle. Since heat loads and radiation environments can vary considerably according to mission phase, the thermal control system must be able to vary the heat rejection. The ability to "turn down" the heat rejected from the thermal control system is critically important when designing the system. Electrochromic technology as a radiator coating is being investigated to vary the amount of heat rejected by a radiator. Coupon level tests were performed to test the feasibility of this technology. Furthermore, thermal math models were developed to better understand the turndown ratios required by full scale radiator architectures to handle the various operation scenarios encountered during a mission profile for the Altair Lunar Lander. This paper summarizes results from coupon level tests as well as the thermal math models developed to investigate how electrochromics can be used to increase turn down ratios for a radiator. Data from the various design concepts of radiators and their architectures are outlined. Recommendations are made on which electrochromic radiator concept should be carried further for future thermal vacuum testing.

  19. Of mice and (Viking?) men: phylogeography of British and Irish house mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searle, Jeremy B; Jones, Catherine S; Gündüz, Islam; Scascitelli, Moira; Jones, Eleanor P; Herman, Jeremy S; Rambau, R Victor; Noble, Leslie R; Berry, R J; Giménez, Mabel D; Jóhannesdóttir, Fríoa

    2009-01-22

    The west European subspecies of house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) has gained much of its current widespread distribution through commensalism with humans. This means that the phylogeography of M. m. domesticus should reflect patterns of human movements. We studied restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and DNA sequence variations in mouse mitochondrial (mt) DNA throughout the British Isles (328 mice from 105 localities, including previously published data). There is a major mtDNA lineage revealed by both RFLP and sequence analyses, which is restricted to the northern and western peripheries of the British Isles, and also occurs in Norway. This distribution of the 'Orkney' lineage fits well with the sphere of influence of the Norwegian Vikings and was probably generated through inadvertent transport by them. To form viable populations, house mice would have required large human settlements such as the Norwegian Vikings founded. The other parts of the British Isles (essentially most of mainland Britain) are characterized by house mice with different mtDNA sequences, some of which are also found in Germany, and which probably reflect both Iron Age movements of people and mice and earlier development of large human settlements. MtDNA studies on house mice have the potential to reveal novel aspects of human history.

  20. On the possibility of auroral remote sensing with the Viking ultraviolet imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, D.P.; McEwen, D.J.; Murphree, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    An investigation was carried out to assess the value of ultraviolet auroral images for remote sensing of electron precipitation. The authors compared auroral images, obtained by both cameras of the Viking Ultraviolet Imager during April and early May 1986, with simultaneous measurements of electron precipitation from the DMSP F7 and HiLat satellites at low altitudes above the auroral zone. The electron data were averaged over the image pixels and were used to normalize the imager signals to unit electron energy flux. The resulting quantity, here termed the effective sensitivity, showed large scatter about the mean values for both cameras that tended to mask any energy dependence except a decrease at electron energies above 6 keV. The mean effective sensitivities were 11.3 ± 1.1 digitization numbers (DN)/(erg cm -2 s -1 ) for the Lyman-Birge-Hopfield (LBH) camera and 15.9 ± 2.5 DN/(erg cm -2 s -1 ) for the 1304 camera. The signal ratio in simultaneous images from both cameras was insensitive to electron energy in the two cases examined, consistent with the weak energy dependences of the effective sensitivities. Unusually high LBH camera effective sensitivities of 45-60 DN/(erg cm -2 s -1 ) were obtained during several orbits on May 2 and 3. They conclude that images from either Viking camera may be used to infer the instantaneous distribution of electron energy deposition, with roughly 50% accuracy

  1. Vitamin D Deficiency in Europeans Today and in Viking Settlers of Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göring, H; Koshuchowa, S

    2016-12-01

    The vast majority of the Earth's population lives between the 20th and 40th parallel north and south. It seems that right here humans have found the best living conditions relating not only to temperature and food recourses, but also to UV radiation necessary for the production of vitamin D by human skin. An exception to this general rule is Europe. Nearly half a billion people live between the 40th and 60th parallel north of the equator despite the fact that the amounts of UV radiation there are much lower. Moreover, since the time of the Vikings, there has always been a part of the European population that lived even further north than the 60th parallel (the northern parts of Europe, including Greenland). In this work, we present the potential role that vitamin D deficiency might have played in the extinction of the Vikings of Greenland. We analyze factors that contribute to the discrepancy between the theoretical distribution of areas with vitamin D deficiency and today's reality, like the impact of civilization, religious traditions, as well as vitamin D supplementation in food products and as a biologically active dietary additive. The global migration of people on a scale and speed never seen before is now even more important for this discrepancy.

  2. Using the Viking biology experimental results to obtain chemical information about Martian regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumb, Robert C.

    1992-01-01

    Although initially formulated as biology experiments, most of the results produced by the Viking Labeled Release (LR), Gas Exchange (GEX), and Pyrolytic Release (PR) experiments have been reproduced by chemical means. The experiments do not need more study as 'biological' phenomena, but they do deserve much more careful consideration from a chemical viewpoint. They are the only 'wet-chemical' experiments that scientists have performed on another planet, but they have not found very general use as sources of scientific information. There is a large set of potentially useful chemical observations, e.g., the three resolvable and precisely measured kinetic components of the release of C-14-labeled gases, the thermal sensitivity and magnitudes of the oxidation reaction(s) of the LR experiments, the kinetics and magnitude of the O2 and CO2 release of the GEX experiments, the thermal sensitivity of the GEX results, the differences between the thermal sensitivity of the GEX and the thermal sensitivity of the LR responses, and the kinetics and magnitudes of the LR successive injection reabsorption effect. It should be possible to test many chemical aspects of hypothetical martian phenomena in experiments using the biology experimental configurations and derive much valuable information by comparisons with the Viking observations.

  3. Plate motions, Gondwana Dinosaurs, Noah's Arks, Beached Viking Funeral Ships, Ghost Ships, and Landspans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis L. Jacobs

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Gondwana landmasses have served as large-scale biogeographic Noah's Arks and Beached Viking Funeral Ships, as defined by McKenna. The latitudinal trajectories of selected Gondwana dinosaur localities were traced through time in order to evaluate their movement through climate zones relative to those in which they originally formed. The dispersal of fauna during the breakup of Gondwana may have been facilitated by the presence of offshelf islands forming landspans (sensu Iturralde-Vinent and MacPhee in the Equatorial Atlantic Gateway and elsewhere.As massas de terra do Gondwana serviram como Arcas de Noe biogeograficas de grande escala e Navios Funerarios Vikings encalhados, conforme definido por McKenna. As trajetorias latitudinais de areas selecionadas de dinossauros do Gondwana foram tracadas ao longo do tempo a fim de avaliar seu movimento atraves de zonas climaticas relativas aquelas nas quais elas foram originalmente formadas. A dispersao da fauna durante a quebra do Gondwana pode ter sido facilitada pela presenca de ilhas oceanicas formando extensoes de terra (sensu Iturralde-Vinent e MacPhee na entrada do Atlantico Equatorial e em outros lugares.

  4. The dissemination of multiple sclerosis: a Viking saga? A historical essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poser, C M

    1994-12-01

    The highest prevalence rates for multiple sclerosis are found in Iceland, Scandinavia, the British Isles, and the countries settled by their inhabitants and their descendants, that is, the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. This suggests that the Vikings may have been instrumental in disseminating the genetic susceptibility to the disease in those areas as well as in other parts of the world. The Vikings raided in most European countries and settled in Normandy and in Sicily and southern Italy. They engaged in trade with the Arabs along the river routes to the Caucasus and to the Black and Caspian Seas and penetrated into Persia, India, and probably China. They also migrated to the East and established the Russian state. Under the name Varangians, they became part of the Byzantine army and were active in all of the military activities of the Byzantine Empire. They participated in the Crusades. Russians, many of Scandinavian origin, also constituted a regiment of the Mongol army and roamed throughout that empire as well. The custom of capturing and keeping or selling women and children, which was widespread in the early Middle Ages, as well as the flourishing slave trade in men, were important factors in this genetic dissemination.

  5. Viking voyages: the origin of multiple sclerosis? An essay in medical history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poser, C M

    1995-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is most frequently found in Scandinavia, Iceland, the British Isles and the countries settled by their inhabitants and their descendants, i.e. the United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. This suggests that the Vikings may have been instrumental in disseminating genetic susceptibility to the disease in those areas, as well as in other parts of the world. The Vikings raided most European countries and settled in Normandy and in Sicily and southern Italy. They engaged in trade with the Arabs along the river routes to the Caucasus, to the Black and Caspian Seas, and penetrated Persia, India and probably China. They also migrated to the East and established the Russian state. Under the name Varangians, they became part of the Byzantine army and were active in all the military activities of the Byzantine Empire. They participated in the Crusades. Russians, many of Scandinavian origin also constituted a regiment of the Mongol army and roamed throughout that Empire as well. The custom of capturing and keeping or selling women and children, which was widespread in the early Middle Ages, as well as the flourishing slave trade in men, were important factors in this genetic dissemination.

  6. Where Worlds Collide : A typological and compositional analysis of the copper-alloy mounts from Viking Age Walcheren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roxburgh, Marcus A.; IJssennagger, Nelleke; Huisman, Hans D.J.; Van Os, Bertil J.H.

    2015-01-01

    In this article we present a new typological analysis, supported by compositional data gathered using Hand-Held X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (HH-XRF), for a large group of Viking-Age mounts, found in and around the North Sea coastal town of Domburg (Walcheren, The Netherlands). This new data

  7. Tech Talk for Social Studies Teachers: Exploring the Viking Invasion of Anglo-Saxon England (AD 1008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Chris

    2008-01-01

    It was 1,000 years ago that King Ethelred ordered the building of a large fleet of ships to blockade England from Viking invaders in a last-ditch effort to stop a series of invasions that had plagued England for decades. Although teachers may already have a personal and professional fascination with this and other events surrounding the Viking…

  8. The ability of odours to serve as state-dependent cues for real-world memories: can Viking smells aid the recall of Viking experiences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggleton, J P; Waskett, L

    1999-02-01

    This study determined the extent to which re-exposure to the unique combination of odours present in a museum (the Jorvik Viking Centre in York) aids the recall of a previous visit to the museum, which had typically taken place several years earlier. To test this, three groups of participants completed questionnaires about the contents of the museum, but in different conditions. One group completed the questionnaire in the presence of exactly the same distinctive odours as those present in the museum at the time of their original visit. Those in two other groups were given either a different (control) set of odours or no odours at all. After a brief delay, the same questionnaire was presented again to participants in all three groups. Those who had initially been given a novel (control) set of odours were now tested in the presence of the genuine Jorvik museum odours, while the group that had received the Jorvik odours were now tested with the control odours. The third group received no odours on either test. Only the novel odour-Jorvik odours condition led to a highly significant improvement in performance. This interaction showed that the museum odours could act as effective retrieval cues for this incidentally acquired, real-world episode.

  9. The MECA Payload as a Dust Analysis Laboratory on the MSP 2001 Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J.; Anderson, M.; Buehler, M.; Frant, M.; Fuerstenau, S.; Hecht, M.; Keller, U.; Markiewicz, W.; Meloy, T.; Pike, T.

    1999-09-01

    In a companion abstract, the "Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment" (MECA) payload for Mars Surveyor Program 2001 (MSP 2001) is described in terms of its capabilities for addressing exobiology on Mars. Here we describe how the same payload elements perform in terms of gathering data about surface dust on the planet. An understanding of the origin and properties of dust is important to both human exploration and planetary geology. The MECA instrument is specifically designed for soil/dust investigations: it is a multifunctional laboratory equipped to assess particulate properties with wet chemistry, camera imagery, optical microscopy (potentially with LTV fluorescence capability), atomic force microscopy (AFM; potentially with mineral-discrimination capabilities), electrometry, active & passive external materials-test panels, mineral hardness testing, and electrostatic & magnetic materials testing. Additionally, evaluation of soil chemical and physical properties as a function of depth down to about 50 cm will be facilitated by the Lander/MECA robot arm on which the camera (RAC) and electrometer are mounted. Types of data being sought for the dust include: (1) general textural and grain-size characterization of the soil as a whole --for example, is the soil essentially dust with other components or is it a clast-supported material in which dust resides only in the clast interstices, (2) size frequency distribution for dust particles in the range 0.01 to 10.00 microns, (3) particle-shape distribution of the soil components and of the fine dust fraction in particular, (4) soil fabric such as grain clustering into clods, aggregates, and cemented/indurated grain amalgamations, as well as related porosity, cohesiveness, and other mechanical soil properties, (5) cohesive relationship that dust has to certain types of rocks and minerals as a clue to which soil materials may be prime hosts for dust "piggybacking", (6) particle, aggregate, and bulk soil electrostatic

  10. Making Place for a Viking Fortress. An archaeological and geophysical reassessment of Aggersborg, Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Brown

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article revisits the archaeology of the Viking-age settlement and ring fortress at Aggersborg, Denmark, based on a large-scale geophysical survey using magnetic gradiometry and ground-penetrating radar, as well as legacy excavation data. Late 10th-century Aggersborg, the largest known fortress in Viking-age Scandinavia, commanded a key position at the narrow strait of the Limfjord, a principal sailing route between the Baltic and the North Sea. Previous excavations established that this location was on the site of an earlier settlement, which was burned-down prior to the construction of the fortress. The character and extent of this prior activity, however, have hitherto remained ill-defined. The geophysical survey identifies previously unknown elements of the fortress structures and elucidates the extent and character of the earlier settlement. The analysis is combined with a comprehensive reconsideration of primary data from early excavations, and demonstrates how this evidence can guide the interpretation of geophysical data to yield a detailed reassessment of spatial structure, and even suggest chronological phasing. The excavation trenches show dense traces of occupation with a large number of sunken-featured buildings (SFBs. Anomalies consistent with similar features are mapped in the geophysical surveys, and their distribution is shown to complement results from the excavations, demonstrating the important contribution of non-invasive survey to our knowledge of scheduled monuments. The surveys suggest that the total number of SFBs may be as high as 350, equal to or exceeding the largest number of such buildings previously identified at any site in Scandinavia. The ring fortress, by implication, must have replaced a site of particular function or importance, albeit of a very different organisation. An interpretation of the communication landscape is combined with a visibility analysis to argue that the long-term significance of the

  11. The Vikings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesdahl, Else

    Translation of 'Vikingernes verden', 1987. Paperback 1992 (Penguin Books). Book club editions in England, Australia and other countries. 2nd revised edition 1998.......Translation of 'Vikingernes verden', 1987. Paperback 1992 (Penguin Books). Book club editions in England, Australia and other countries. 2nd revised edition 1998....

  12. KOREAN LUNAR LANDER – CONCEPT STUDY FOR LANDING-SITE SELECTION FOR LUNAR RESOURCE EXPLORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of the national space promotion plan and presidential national agendas South Korea’s institutes and agencies under the auspices of the Ministry of Science, Information and Communication Technology and Future Planning (MSIP are currently developing a lunar mission package expected to reach Moon in 2020. While the officially approved Korean Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter (KPLO is aimed at demonstrating technologies and monitoring the lunar environment from orbit, a lander – currently in pre-phase A – is being designed to explore the local geology with a particular focus on the detection and characterization of mineral resources. In addition to scientific and potential resource potentials, the selection of the landing-site will be partly constrained by engineering constraints imposed by payload and spacecraft layout. Given today’s accumulated volume and quality of available data returned from the Moon’s surface and from orbital observations, an identification of landing sites of potential interest and assessment of potential hazards can be more readily accomplished by generating synoptic snapshots through data integration. In order to achieve such a view on potential landing sites, higher level processing and derivation of data are required, which integrates their spatial context, with detailed topographic and geologic characterizations. We are currently assessing the possibility of using fuzzy c-means clustering algorithms as a way to perform (semi- automated terrain characterizations of interest. This paper provides information and background on the national lunar lander program, reviews existing approaches – including methods and tools – for landing site analysis and hazard assessment, and discusses concepts to detect and investigate elemental abundances from orbit and the surface. This is achieved by making use of manual, semi-automated as well as fully-automated remote-sensing methods to demonstrate the applicability of

  13. Planet mars as seen at the end of the viking mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    In the last 15 years, spacecraft missions to mars, especially Mariner 9 and Viking 1 and 2, have removed from discussion many of the traditional martian topics, such as canals, waves of darkening, and blue clearings. We now have a plethora of hard data about the large variety of geologic features on the planet, about the composition of the surface, the atmosphere, and the polar caps, and about many aspects of Martian meteorology, including temperatures, pressures, tides, dust storms, and the abundance and transport of water vapor. Perhaps the only areas of Martian planetology that have not been spectacularly advanced are those relating to the interior structure, the solar wind interaction, and the existence of living organisms. This paper attempts to summarize most of our new knowledge about the planet

  14. Measurement of quasi-static and low frequency electric fields on the Viking satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, L.P.; Faelthammar, C.G.; Lindqvist, P.A.; Marklund, G.T.; Mozer, F.S.; Pedersen, A.

    1987-03-01

    The instrument for measurement of quasi-static and low frequency (dc and slow varying) electric fields on the Viking satellite is described. The instrument uses three spherical probe pairs to measure the full three-dimensional electric field vector with 18.75 ms time resolution. The probes are kept near plasma potential by means of a controllable bias current. A guard covering part of the booms is biased to a negative voltage to prevent photoelectrons escaping from the probes from reaching the satellite body. Current-voltage sweeps are performed to determine the plasma density and temperature and to select the optimal bias current. The bias currents to the probes and the voltage offset on the guards as well as the current-voltage sweeps are controlled by an on-board microprocessor which can be programmed from the ground and allows great flexibility. (authors)

  15. The Viking Great Army and its Legacy: plotting settlement shift using metal-detected finds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Haldenby

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the Anglian and Anglo-Scandinavian settlement at Burrow House Farm, Cottam, East Yorkshire from 1993-95 was a pioneering collaboration between archaeologists and metal-detectorists, and led to the identification of a new form of Anglo-Scandinavian farmstead. It was also one of the first investigations ever undertaken of a 'productive site', so-called because of the large quantities of early medieval metalwork recovered by metal-detecting. The project provided an important demonstration of the effects of the reorganisation of land ownership following the Scandinavian settlement of Northumbria. Excavation demonstrated that the abandonment of an Anglian 'Butterwick-type' enclosure in the late 9th century was closely followed by the construction of the new Anglo-Scandinavian farmstead some 100m to the north, reinforced by the pattern seen in the horizontal stratigraphy of dated metalwork derived from metal-detecting (Richards 1999a; 2001a. Subsequently, metal-detecting has continued at the site, almost doubling the quantity of artefacts. This has led to further breakthroughs in the interpretation of the chronological and spatial development of the settlement, as well as some substantial revisions to the typology and dating of early medieval artefacts, with important implications for the chronology of the period. It allows some significant new conclusions to be drawn about settlement development at Cottam, identifying the changing function of the settlements, as well as their location: There are two phases of Anglian activity, with a transition from an 8th/9th-century estate centre to a 9th-century market, echoing the similar transitions being recorded in Scandinavia at sites such as Tissø. This is the first time such a configuration has been identified in England, and it throws important new light on the nature of 'productive sites'. There are also two phases of Viking activity, with an initial phase of looting, probably linked to

  16. Solar wind electron densities from Viking dual-frequency radio measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhleman, D.O.; Anderson, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    Simultaneous phase coherent, two-frequency measurements of the time delay between the Earth station and the Viking spacecraft have been analyzed in terms of the electron density profiles from 4 solar radii (R/sub sun/) to 200 R/sub sun/. The measurements were made during a period of solar activity minimum (1976--1977) and show a strong solar latitude effect. The data were analyzed with both a model independent, direct numerical inversion technique and with model fitting, yielding essentially the same results. It is shown that the solar wind density can be represented by two power laws near the solar equator proportional to r/sup -2.7/ and r/sup -2.04/. However, the more rapidly falling term quickly disappears at moderate latitudes (approx.20 0 ), leaving only the inverse-square behavior

  17. Urban networks and Arctic outlands: Craft specialists and reindeer antler in Viking towns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashby, Steven P.; Coutu, Ashley N.; Sindbæk, Søren Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the use of a minimally destructive biomolecular technique to explore the resource networks behind one of the first specialized urban crafts in early mediaeval northern Europe: the manufacture of composite combs of deer antler. The research incorporates the largest...... the 780s ad at the latest, presenting the earliest unambiguous evidence for exchange-links between urban markets in the southern North Sea region and the Scandinavian Peninsula. The results demonstrate that the common conceptual distinction between urban hinterlands and long-distance trade conceals...... a vital continuity. Long-range networks were vital to urban activities from the first appearance of towns in this part of the world, preceding the historically documented maritime expansion of the Viking Age. We consequently suggest that urbanism is more appropriately defined and researched in terms...

  18. Studies related to the development of the viking 1975 labeled release experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devincenzi, D.L.; Deal, P.H.

    1976-04-01

    The labeled release life detection experiment on the Viking 1975 Mars mission is based on the concept that microorganisms will metabolize radioactive organic substrates in a nutrient medium and release radioactive carbon dioxide. Several experiments, using laboratory equipment, were carried out to evaluate various aspects of the concept. Results indicate: (1) label is released by sterilization-treated soil, (2) substantial quantities of label are retained in solution under basic conditions, (3) the substrate used, as well as position of label in the molecule, affect release of label, (4) label release is depressed by radiolytic decomposition of substrates, and (5) About 100,000 organisms are required to produce a detectable response. These results, suggest additional areas for testing, add to the data base for interpretation of flight results, and have significance for broader application of this technique for assessing microbial activity. (Author)

  19. Viking GCMS Data Restoral and Perceiving Temperature on Other Worlds: Astrobiology Projects at NASA Ames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    The primary task for the summer was to procure the GCMS data from the National Space Science Data Coordinated Archive (NSSDCA) and to assess the current state of the data set for possible reanalysis opportunities. After procurement of the Viking GCMS data set and analysis of its current state, the internship focus shifted to preparing a plan for restoral and archiving of the GCMS data set. A proposal was prepared and submitted to NASA Headquarters to restore and make available the 8000 mass chromatographs that are the basic data generated by the Viking GCMS instrument. The relevance of this restoral and the methodology we propose for restoral is presented. The secondary task for the summer is to develop a thermal model for the perceived temperature of a human standing on Mars, Titan, or Europa. Traditionally, an equation called "Fanger's comfort equation" is used to measure the perceived temperature by a human in a given reference environment. However, there are limitations to this model when applied to other planets. Therefore, the approach for this project has been to derive energy balance equations from first principles and then develop a methodology for correlating "comfort" to energy balance. Using the -20 C walk-in freezer in the Space Sciences building at NASA Ames, energy loss of a human subject is measured. Energy loss for a human being on Mars, Titan and Europa are calculated from first principles. These calculations are compared to the freezer measurements, e.g. for 1 minute on Titan, a human loses as much energy as x minutes in a -20 C freezer. This gives a numerical comparison between the environments. These energy calculations are used to consider the physiological comfort of a human based on the calculated energy losses.

  20. Martian North Polar Water-Ice Clouds During the Viking Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamppari, L. K.; Bass, D. S.

    2000-01-01

    The Viking Orbiters determined that the surface of Mars' northern residual cap consists of water ice. Observed atmospheric water vapor abundances in the equatorial regions have been related to seasonal exchange between reservoirs such as the polar caps, the regolith and between different phases in the atmosphere. Kahn modeled the physical characteristics of ice hazes seen in Viking Orbiter imaging limb data, hypothesizing that ice hazes provide a method for scavenging water vapor from the atmosphere and accumulating it into ice particles. Given that Jakosky found that these particles had sizes such that fallout times were of order one Martian sol, these water-ice hazes provided a method for returning more water to the regolith than that provided by adsorption alone. These hazes could also explain the rapid hemispheric decrease in atmospheric water in late northern summer as well as the increase during the following early spring. A similar comparison of water vapor abundance versus polar cap brightness has been done for the north polar region. They have shown that water vapor decreases steadily between L(sub s) = 100-150 deg while polar cap albedo increases during the same time frame. As a result, they suggested that late summer water-ice deposition onto the ice cap may be the cause of the cap brightening. This deposition could be due to adsorption directly onto the cap surface or to snowfall. Thus, an examination of north polar waterice clouds could lend insight into the fate of the water vapor during this time period. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  1. Insular artefacts from Viking-Age burials from mid-Norway. A review of contact between Trøndelag and Britain and Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aina Margrethe Heen-Pettersen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a detailed overview of the Insular artefacts found in Viking-Age burials from the Trøndelag region of mid-Norway, most of which have not previously been published in English. The archaeological evidence indicates that contact between Trøndelag and the British Isles was well established at an early stage of the Viking Age. The main evidence for contact comes from the 9th century, when a number of significant patterns can be discerned. Some local concentrations of Insular goods show the continuing importance of some pre-Viking centres, while other areas suggest co-operation between several neighbouring families in order to equip and provision overseas expeditions. Later, the datable Insular artefacts indicate significant changes in the nature of contact. North Sea trading towards the end of the Viking Age appears to be affected by increasing centralisation of power in Trøndelag during the 10th century.

  2. Matte Svart Kristiansen & Kate Giles (eds., Dwellings, Identities and Homes. European Housing Culture from the Viking Age to the Renaissance (Hojbjerg: Jutland Archeological Society, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hoeren

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Book review of: Matte Svart Kristiansen & Kate Giles (eds., Dwellings, Identities and Homes. European Housing Culture from the Viking Age to the Renaissance (Hojbjerg: Jutland Archeological Society, 2014

  3. An Application of the "Virtual Spacecraft" Concept in Evaluation of the Mars Pathfinder Lander Low Gain Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorzelski, R. J.; Beckon, R. J.

    1997-01-01

    The virtual spacecraft concept is embodied in a set of subsystems, either in the form of hardware or computational models, which together represent all, or a portion of, a spacecraft. For example, the telecommunications transponder may be a hardware prototype while the propulsion system may exist only as a simulation. As the various subsystems are realized in hardware, the spacecraft becomes progressively less virtual. This concept is enabled by JPL's Mission System Testbed which is a set of networked workstations running a message passing operating system called "TRAMEL" which stands for Task Remote Asynchronous Message Exchange Layer. Each simulation on the workstations, which may in fact be hardware controlled by the workstation, "publishes" its operating parameters on TRAMEL and other simulations requiring those parameters as input may "subscribe" to them. In this manner, the whole simulation operates as a single virtual system. This paper describes a simulation designed to evaluate a communications link between the earth and the Mars Pathfinder Lander module as it descends under a parachute through the Martian atmosphere toward the planet's surface. This link includes a transmitter and a low gain antenna on the spacecraft and a receiving antenna and receiver on the earth as well as a simulation of the dynamics of the spacecraft. The transmitter, the ground station antenna, the receiver and the dynamics are all simulated computationally while the spacecraft antenna is implemented in hardware on a very simple spacecraft mockup. The dynamics simulation is a record of one output of the ensemble of outputs of a Monte Carlo simulation of the descent. Additionally, the antenna/spacecraft mock-up system was simulated using APATCH, a shooting and bouncing ray code developed by Demaco, Inc. The antenna simulation, the antenna hardware, and the link simulation are all physically located in different facilities at JPL separated by several hundred meters and are linked via

  4. Preface: The Chang'e-3 lander and rover mission to the Moon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ip Wing-Huen; Yan Jun; Li Chun-Lai; Ouyang Zi-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    The Chang'e-3 (CE-3) lander and rover mission to the Moon was an intermediate step in China's lunar exploration program, which will be followed by a sample return mission. The lander was equipped with a number of remote-sensing instruments including a pair of cameras (Landing Camera and Terrain Camera) for recording the landing process and surveying terrain, an extreme ultraviolet camera for monitoring activities in the Earth's plasmasphere, and a first-ever Moon-based ultraviolet telescope for astronomical observations. The Yutu rover successfully carried out close-up observations with the Panoramic Camera, mineralogical investigations with the VIS-NIR Imaging Spectrometer, study of elemental abundances with the Active Particle-induced X-ray Spectrometer, and pioneering measurements of the lunar subsurface with Lunar Penetrating Radar. This special issue provides a collection of key information on the instrumental designs, calibration methods and data processing procedures used by these experiments with a perspective of facilitating further analyses of scientific data from CE-3 in preparation for future missions

  5. Research on Impact Process of Lander Footpad against Simulant Lunar Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The safe landing of a Moon lander and the performance of the precise instruments it carries may be affected by too heavy impact on touchdown. Accordingly, landing characteristics have become an important research focus. Described in this paper are model tests carried out using simulated lunar soils of different relative densities (called “simulant” lunar soils below, with a scale reduction factor of 1/6 to consider the relative gravities of the Earth and Moon. In the model tests, the lander was simplified as an impact column with a saucer-shaped footpad with various impact landing masses and velocities. Based on the test results, the relationships between the footpad peak feature responses and impact kinetic energy have been analyzed. Numerical simulation analyses were also conducted to simulate the vertical impact process. A 3D dynamic finite element model was built for which the material parameters were obtained from laboratory test data. When compared with the model tests, the numerical model proved able to effectively simulate the dynamic characteristics of the axial forces, accelerations, and penetration depths of the impact column during landing. This numerical model can be further used as required for simulating oblique landing impacts.

  6. Preface: The Chang'e-3 lander and rover mission to the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Wing-Huen; Yan, Jun; Li, Chun-Lai; Ouyang, Zi-Yuan

    2014-12-01

    The Chang'e-3 (CE-3) lander and rover mission to the Moon was an intermediate step in China's lunar exploration program, which will be followed by a sample return mission. The lander was equipped with a number of remote-sensing instruments including a pair of cameras (Landing Camera and Terrain Camera) for recording the landing process and surveying terrain, an extreme ultraviolet camera for monitoring activities in the Earth's plasmasphere, and a first-ever Moon-based ultraviolet telescope for astronomical observations. The Yutu rover successfully carried out close-up observations with the Panoramic Camera, mineralogical investigations with the VIS-NIR Imaging Spectrometer, study of elemental abundances with the Active Particle-induced X-ray Spectrometer, and pioneering measurements of the lunar subsurface with Lunar Penetrating Radar. This special issue provides a collection of key information on the instrumental designs, calibration methods and data processing procedures used by these experiments with a perspective of facilitating further analyses of scientific data from CE-3 in preparation for future missions.

  7. Ionizing radiation test results for an automotive microcontroller on board the Schiaparelli Mars lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapani Nikkanen, Timo; Hieta, Maria; Schmidt, Walter; Genzer, Maria; Haukka, Harri; Harri, Ari-Matti

    2016-04-01

    The Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) has delivered a pressure and a humidity instrument for the ESA ExoMars 2016 Schiaparelli lander mission. Schiaparelli is scheduled to launch towards Mars with the Trace Gas Orbiter on 14th of March 2016. The DREAMS-P (pressure) and DREAMS-H (Humidity) instruments are operated utilizing a novel FMI instrument controller design based on a commercial automotive microcontroller (MCU). A custom qualification program was implemented to qualify the MCU for the relevant launch, cruise and surface operations environment of a Mars lander. Resilience to ionizing radiation is one of the most critical requirements for a digital component operated in space or at planetary bodies. Thus, the expected Total Ionizing Dose accumulated by the MCU was determined and a sample of these components was exposed to a Co-60 gamma radiation source. Part of the samples was powered during the radiation exposure to include the effect of electrical biasing. All of the samples were verified to withstand the expected total ionizing dose with margin. The irradiated test samples were then radiated until failure to determine their ultimate TID.

  8. MetBaro - Pressure Instrument for Mars MetNet Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polkko, J.; Haukka, H.; Harri, A.-M.; Schmidt, W.; Leinonen, J.; Mäkinen, T.

    2009-04-01

    THE METNET MISSION FOCUSED ON THE Martian atmospheric science is based on a new semihard landing vehicle called the MetNet Lander (MNL). The MNL will have a versatile science payload focused on the atmospheric science of Mars. The scientific payload of the MetNet Mission encompasses separate instrument packages for the atmospheric entry and descent phase and for the surface operation phase. MetBaro is the pressure instrument of MetNet Lander designed to work on Martian surface. It is based on Barocap® technology developed by Vaisala, Inc. MetBaro is a capacitic type of sensing device where capasitor plates are moved by ambient pressure. MetBaro device consists of two pressure transducers including a total of 6 Barocap® sensor heads of high-stability and high-resolution types. The long-term stability of MetBaro is in order of 20…50 µBar and resolution a few µBar. MetBaro is small, lightweighed and has low power consumption. It weighs about 50g without wires and controlling FPGA, and consumes 15 mW of power. A similar device has successfully flown in Phoenix mission, where it performed months of measurements on Martian ground. Another device is also part of the Mars Science Laboratory REMS instrument (to be launched in 2011).

  9. MetBaro - Pressure Device for Mars MetNet Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukka, Harri; Polkko, Jouni; Harri, Ari-Matti; Schmidt, Walter; Leinonen, Jussi; Genzer, Maria; Mäkinen, Teemu

    2010-05-01

    MetNet Mars Mission focused for Martian atmospheric science is based on a new semihard landing vehicle called the MetNet Lander (MNL). The MNL will have a versatile science payload focused on the atmospheric science of Mars. The scientific payload of the MetNet Mission encompasses separate instrument packages for the atmospheric entry and descent phase and for the surface operation phase. MetBaro is the pressure sensor of MetNet Lander designed to work on Martian surface. It is based on Barocap® technology developed by Vaisala, Inc. MetBaro is a capacitive type of sensing device where capasitor plates are moved by ambient pressure. MetBaro device consists of two pressure transducers including a total of 4 Barocap® sensor heads of high-stability and high-resolution types. The long-term stability of MetBaro is in order of 20…50 µBar and resolution a few µBar. MetBaro is small, lightweighed and has low power consumption. It weighs about 50g without wires and controlling FPGA, and consumes 15 mW of power. A similar device has successfully flown in Phoenix mission, where it performed months of measurements on Martian ground. Another device is also part of the Mars Science Laboratory REMS instrument (to be launched in 2011).

  10. MetHumi - Humidity Device for Mars MetNet Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genzer, Maria; Polkko, Jouni; Harri, Ari-Matti; Schmidt, Walter; Leinonen, Jussi; Mäkinen, Teemu; Haukka, Harri

    2010-05-01

    MetNet Mars Mission focused for Martian atmospheric science is based on a new semihard landing vehicle called the MetNet Lander (MNL). The MNL will have a versatile science payload focused on the atmospheric science of Mars. The scientific payload of the MetNet Mission encompasses separate instrument packages for the atmospheric entry and descent phase and for the surface operation phase. MetHumi is the humidity sensor of MetNet Lander designed to work on Martian surface. It is based on Humicap® technology developed by Vaisala, Inc. MetHumi is a capacitive type of sensing device where an active polymer film changes capacitance as function of relative humidity. One MetHumi device package consists of one humidity transducer including three Humicap® sensor heads, an accurate temperature sensor head (Thermocap® by Vaisala, Inc.) and constant reference channels. MetHumi is very small, lightweighed and has low power consumption. It weighs only about 15 g without wires, and consumes 15 mW of power. MetHumi can make meaningful relative humidity measurements in range of 0 - 100%RH down to -70°C ambient temperature, but it survives even -135°C ambient temperature.

  11. Radiation Testing at Sandia National Laboratories: Sandia – JPL Collaboration for Europa Lander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Ion Beam Lab.; Olszewska-Wasiolek, Maryla Aleksandra [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Gamma Irradiation Facility

    2017-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is assisting Jet Propulsion Laboratory in undertaking feasibility studies and performance assessments for the Planetary Protection aspect of the Europa Lander mission. The specific areas of interest for this project are described by task number. This white paper presents the evaluation results for Task 2, Radiation Testing, which was stated as follows: Survey SNL facilities and capabilities for simulating the Europan radiation environment and assess suitability for: A. Testing batteries, electronics, and other component and subsystems B. Exposing biological organisms to assess their survivability metrics. The radiation environment the Europa Lander will encounter on route and in orbit upon arrival at its destination consists primarily of charged particles, energetic protons and electrons with the energies up to 1 GeV. The charged particle environments can be simulated using the accelerators at the Ion Beam Laboratory. The Gamma Irradiation Facility and its annex, the Low Dose Rate Irradiation Facility, offer irradiations using Co-60 gamma sources (1.17 and 1.33 MeV), as well as Cs-137 gamma (0.661 MeV) AmBe neutron (0-10 MeV) sources.

  12. Analysis and interpretation of a unique Arabic finger ring from the Viking Age town of Birka, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wärmländer, Sebastian K T S; Wåhlander, Linda; Saage, Ragnar; Rezakhani, Khodadad; Hamid Hassan, Saied A; Neiß, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In this work we used non-destructive SEM imaging and EDS analysis to characterize the material composition of an Arabic finger ring, which was found in a 9(th) c. woman's grave at the Viking Age (A.D. 793-1066) trading center of Birka, Sweden. The ring is set with a violet stone inscribed with Arabic Kufic writing, here interpreted as reading "il-la-lah", i.e. "For/to Allah". The stone was previously thought to be an amethyst, but the current results show it to be coloured glass. The ring has been cast in a high-grade silver alloy (94.5/5.5 Ag/Cu) and retains the post-casting marks from the filing done to remove flash and mold lines. Thus, the ring has rarely been worn, and likely passed from the silversmith to the woman buried at Birka with few owners in between. The ring may therefore constitute material evidence for direct interactions between Viking Age Scandinavia and the Islamic world. Being the only ring with an Arabic inscription found at a Scandinavian archaeological site, it is a unique object among Swedish Viking Age material. The technical analysis presented here provides a better understanding of the properties and background of this intriguing piece of jewelry. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Optimization of a Lunar Pallet Lander Reinforcement Structure Using a Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Adam O.; Hull, Patrick V.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a design automation process using optimization via a genetic algorithm to design the conceptual structure of a Lunar Pallet Lander. The goal is to determine a design that will have the primary natural frequencies at or above a target value as well as minimize the total mass. Several iterations of the process are presented. First, a concept optimization is performed to determine what class of structure would produce suitable candidate designs. From this a stiffened sheet metal approach was selected leading to optimization of beam placement through generating a two-dimensional mesh and varying the physical location of reinforcing beams. Finally, the design space is reformulated as a binary problem using 1-dimensional beam elements to truncate the design space to allow faster convergence and additional mechanical failure criteria to be included in the optimization responses. Results are presented for each design space configuration. The final flight design was derived from these results.

  14. Accuracy of sun localization in the second step of sky-polarimetric Viking navigation for north determination: a planetarium experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Alexandra; Száz, Dénes; Egri, Ádám; Blahó, Miklós; Barta, András; Nehéz, Dóra; Bernáth, Balázs; Horváth, Gábor

    2014-07-01

    It is a widely discussed hypothesis that Viking seafarers might have been able to locate the position of the occluded sun by means of dichroic or birefringent crystals, the mysterious sunstones, with which they could analyze skylight polarization. Although the atmospheric optical prerequisites and certain aspects of the efficiency of this sky-polarimetric Viking navigation have been investigated, the accuracy of the main steps of this method has not been quantitatively examined. To fill in this gap, we present here the results of a planetarium experiment in which we measured the azimuth and elevation errors of localization of the invisible sun. In the planetarium sun localization was performed in two selected celestial points on the basis of the alignments of two small sections of two celestial great circles passing through the sun. In the second step of sky-polarimetric Viking navigation the navigator needed to determine the intersection of two such celestial circles. We found that the position of the sun (solar elevation θ(S), solar azimuth φ(S)) was estimated with an average error of +0.6°≤Δθ≤+8.8° and -3.9°≤Δφ≤+2.0°. We also calculated the compass direction error when the estimated sun position is used for orienting with a Viking sun-compass. The northern direction (ω(North)) was determined with an error of -3.34°≤Δω(North)≤+6.29°. The inaccuracy of the second step of this navigation method was high (Δω(North)=-16.3°) when the solar elevation was 5°≤θ(S)≤25°, and the two selected celestial points were far from the sun (at angular distances 95°≤γ(1), γ(2)≤115°) and each other (125°≤δ≤145°). Considering only this second step, the sky-polarimetric navigation could be more accurate in the mid-summer period (June and July), when in the daytime the sun is high above the horizon for long periods. In the spring (and autumn) equinoctial period, alternative methods (using a twilight board, for example) might be more

  15. Remediating Viking Origins: Genetic Code as Archival Memory of the Remote Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Marc; King, Turi; Brown, Steven D

    2013-10-01

    This article introduces some early data from the Leverhulme Trust-funded research programme, 'The Impact of the Diasporas on the Making of Britain: evidence, memories, inventions'. One of the interdisciplinary foci of the programme, which incorporates insights from genetics, history, archaeology, linguistics and social psychology, is to investigate how genetic evidence of ancestry is incorporated into identity narratives. In particular, we investigate how 'applied genetic history' shapes individual and familial narratives, which are then situated within macro-narratives of the nation and collective memories of immigration and indigenism. It is argued that the construction of genetic evidence as a 'gold standard' about 'where you really come from' involves a remediation of cultural and archival memory, in the construction of a 'usable past'. This article is based on initial questionnaire data from a preliminary study of those attending DNA collection sessions in northern England. It presents some early indicators of the perceived importance of being of Viking descent among participants, notes some emerging patterns and considers the implications for contemporary debates on migration, belonging and local and national identity.

  16. Gene-Lifestyle Interactions in Complex Diseases: Design and Description of the GLACIER and VIKING Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbasic, Azra; Poveda, Alaitz; Chen, Yan; Agren, Asa; Engberg, Elisabeth; Hu, Frank B; Johansson, Ingegerd; Barroso, Ines; Brändström, Anders; Hallmans, Göran; Renström, Frida; Franks, Paul W

    2014-12-01

    Most complex diseases have well-established genetic and non-genetic risk factors. In some instances, these risk factors are likely to interact, whereby their joint effects convey a level of risk that is either significantly more or less than the sum of these risks. Characterizing these gene-environment interactions may help elucidate the biology of complex diseases, as well as to guide strategies for their targeted prevention. In most cases, the detection of gene-environment interactions will require sample sizes in excess of those needed to detect the marginal effects of the genetic and environmental risk factors. Although many consortia have been formed, comprising multiple diverse cohorts to detect gene-environment interactions, few robust examples of such interactions have been discovered. This may be because combining data across studies, usually through meta-analysis of summary data from the contributing cohorts, is often a statistically inefficient approach for the detection of gene-environment interactions. Ideally, single, very large and well-genotyped prospective cohorts, with validated measures of environmental risk factor and disease outcomes should be used to study interactions. The presence of strong founder effects within those cohorts might further strengthen the capacity to detect novel genetic effects and gene-environment interactions. Access to accurate genealogical data would also aid in studying the diploid nature of the human genome, such as genomic imprinting (parent-of-origin effects). Here we describe two studies from northern Sweden (the GLACIER and VIKING studies) that fulfill these characteristics.

  17. Electron energy budget in the high-latitude ionosphere during Viking/EISCAT coordinated measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilensten, J.; Kofman, W.; Lathuillere, C.; Fontaine, D.; Eliasson, L.; Oran, E.S.

    1990-01-01

    The magnetospheric electron fluxes precipitating at the top of the auroral ionosphere contribute to the production of ionization, to the excitation of atmospheric constituents, and to the heating of the ambient electrons. This last process occurs essentially when the energy of the initial precipitated electrons and photoelectrons has been degraded to values lower than approximately 10 eV. The heated ambient electron gas loses this energy to the neutral gas and ambient ions. Finally, the temperature gradient produced in the ionospheric plasma induces a heat flux. In the absence of an electric field and for stationary conditions, the energy budget of ionospheric electrons results from the balance between these processes of heating, cooling, and heat conduction. The intensity of these different processes is quantitatively computed at each altitude in the ionosphere by combining simultaneous EISCAT and Viking in situ measurements, and by means of an electron transport model. The stationary electron flux, which leads to the heating rate, is computed, and remaining differences in the energy budget are discussed

  18. Delayed development of the Provost Viking ''C'' Pool formerly the Hamilton Lake Oilfield. [Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bokman, J

    1970-06-01

    The Provost Viking ''C'' Pool has had an unusual development history. This history has consisted of several distinct stages covering a span of almost 20 yr from 1952 to 1970. Each stage was initiated by a change in concepts concerning the pool and changes in specific technological or economic factors. Examples of these are: modified views as to what constitutes an acceptable exploration target (thin pay), implementation of a new recovery method or production scheme for the area, cheaper well drilling and development costs, wider well spacing and the development of an inexpensive, reliable source of water for injection. This discussion is designed to illustrate how these changes in concepts and in technology can be effective in stimulating the development of new and regeneration of old prospects. They illustrate exceptionally well the interrelationship and interdependence of the various tools - exploration and development geology, production and reservoir engineering, land and economics - which are employed in the oil industry. They also should contain some lessons which are applicable to other situations.

  19. The prospects for life on Mars - A pre-Viking assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, C.; Lederberg, J.

    1976-01-01

    The paper considers implications of the Mariner 9 findings for the investigation of Martian biology in the next decade, beginning with the Viking mission. Previous claims for observations of Martian biological activity are reviewed and refuted or reinterpreted. The question is raised of whether there are combinations of environmental temperature and water activity on Mars that are suitable for a conceivable Martian biology. Four possible classes of Martian organisms associated with temperature/water ecological niches in the external environment are proposed: organisms requiring high temperatures and high water activity, those inhabiting niches with low temperatures and high water activity, those inhabiting niches of high temperature and low water activity, and those which can survive under conditions of low temperature and low water activity. It is noted that organisms of the last two classes may extract water from minerals or from ice and may be of large dimensions. The possible surface distribution of Martian organisms is discussed along with future search strategies for life on Mars.

  20. Cusp/cleft region as observed by the Viking UV imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbe, G.P.; Murphree, J.S.; Cogger, L.L.; Woch, J.

    1993-01-01

    The authors report data taken by the Viking satellite at mid-altitudes (11,000-13,000 km) during northern hemispheric crossings of the cusp/cleft region. Particle signatures were used to divide the region into different categories. Data was looked at from the ultraviolet imager and particle diagnostics, when available. The authors discuss in detail two cases of crossing the cusp/cleft region, in order to look at the dynamics of a specific event, as opposed to other data analyses which have used large data sets to acquire good statistics, but which can thereby obscure dynamics of the actual events. Particle data were taken by the electron spectrometer ESP 1 and the ion spectrometer PISP 1/2. They looked at the spectral range 0.01 to 40 keV. The UV imager recorded 1 sec exposures of the auroral distribution once per minute. The data shows instantaneous observations of emissions, and does so for a narrow path swept by the satellite. Data indicate that the entire region is not a homogeneous region, but rather a very dynamic object. Conclusions include that the emissions observed are located at the footprint of the cleft region. The cusp region is located poleward of the region with continuous emission. The emission is observed to remain at a constant magnetic latitude during the period with IMF data, though B z swung 8nT during a 30 minute period

  1. Electric fields in the magnetosphere - the evidence from ISEE, S3-3, GEOS and Viking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faelthammar, C.G.

    1988-08-01

    Electric field measurements on the satellites S3-3, GEOS-1, GEOS-2, ISEE-1 and Viking have extended the empirical knowledge of electric fields in space so as to include the outer regions of the magnetosphere. While the measurements confirm some of the theoretically expected properties of the electric fields, they also reveal unexpected features and a high degree of complexity and variability. The existence of a magnetospheric dawn-to-dusk electric field, as expected on the basis of extrapolation from low altitude measurements, is confirmed in an average sense. However, the actual field exhibits large spatial and temporal variations, including strong fields of inductive origin. At the magnetopause the average (dawn to dusk directed) tangential electric field component is typically obscured by irregular fluctuations of large amplitude. The magnetic-field aligned component of the electric field, which is of particular importance for ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling and for auroral acceleration is even now very difficult to measure directly. However, the data from electric field measurements provide further support for the conclusion, based on a variety of evidence, that a non-vanishing magnetic-field aligned electric field exists in the auroral acceleration region. (93 refs.) (author)

  2. Average spatial distributions of energetic particles in the midaltitude cusp/cleft region observed by Viking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremser, G.; Lundin, R.

    1990-01-01

    The cusp/cleft region provides an entrance for magnetosheath particles into the magnetosphere and a sink for magnetospheric particles. In addition, strong acceleration and/or scattering of particles takes place. The Swedish satellite Viking crossed this region at midaltitudes. Measurements from this spacecraft were used to determine the average spatial distributions of H + and He ++ ions in the energy/charge range 2 keV/e ≤ E/Q ≤ 60 keV/e and of electrons with 7 keV ≤ E ≤ 97 keV. The data supply information on the structure of the midaltitude cusp/cleft region, the particle sources, and dynamical processes. Four different parts can be distinguished: (1) The cusp extends from about 76 degree to 82 degree invariant latitude (INL) and from 0800 to 1400 MLT. It is characterized by the presence of magnetosheath origin particles and important electron acceleration signatures. (2) A smaller region inside the cusp (77 degree-82 degree INL, 1000-1330 MLT) contains magnetosheath origin ions without electron acceleration. This is regarded as the cusp proper connected to the exterior cusp. (3) Poleward of the cusp magnetosheath origin ions are still present, but no magnetosheath electrons. This region is related to the plasma mantle. (4) Another region without magnetosheath origin ions but with strong electron acceleration extends equatorward of the cusp and probably constitutes part of the cleft, likely to be connected to the low-altitude boundary layer

  3. On the control of magnetic perturbing field onboard landers: the Magnetometer Protection program for the ESA ExoMars/Humboldt MSMO magnetometer experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menvielle, M.; Primdahl, Fritz; Brauer, Peter

    to planetary research. The major difficulty in implementing a magnetometer experiment onboard a lander is to achieve at acceptable costs a good Magnetometer Protection, namely to control the perturbing magnetic field generated by the lander during operations at the planetary surfa ce, so as to achieve...... scientific payload in the frame of the ESA ExoMars mission. Experience from previous missions constitutes the background for the MSMO Magnetometer Protection strategy. DC and AC lander generated magnetic perturbations are discussed, with particular attention to those related to solar generators. Emphasis...... and very resource consuming....

  4. Development of The Viking Speech Scale to classify the speech of children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Lindsay; Virella, Daniel; Mjøen, Tone; da Graça Andrada, Maria; Murray, Janice; Colver, Allan; Himmelmann, Kate; Rackauskaite, Gija; Greitane, Andra; Prasauskiene, Audrone; Andersen, Guro; de la Cruz, Javier

    2013-10-01

    Surveillance registers monitor the prevalence of cerebral palsy and the severity of resulting impairments across time and place. The motor disorders of cerebral palsy can affect children's speech production and limit their intelligibility. We describe the development of a scale to classify children's speech performance for use in cerebral palsy surveillance registers, and its reliability across raters and across time. Speech and language therapists, other healthcare professionals and parents classified the speech of 139 children with cerebral palsy (85 boys, 54 girls; mean age 6.03 years, SD 1.09) from observation and previous knowledge of the children. Another group of health professionals rated children's speech from information in their medical notes. With the exception of parents, raters reclassified children's speech at least four weeks after their initial classification. Raters were asked to rate how easy the scale was to use and how well the scale described the child's speech production using Likert scales. Inter-rater reliability was moderate to substantial (k>.58 for all comparisons). Test-retest reliability was substantial to almost perfect for all groups (k>.68). Over 74% of raters found the scale easy or very easy to use; 66% of parents and over 70% of health care professionals judged the scale to describe children's speech well or very well. We conclude that the Viking Speech Scale is a reliable tool to describe the speech performance of children with cerebral palsy, which can be applied through direct observation of children or through case note review. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The last Viking King: a royal maternity case solved by ancient DNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissing, Jørgen; Binladen, Jonas; Hansen, Anders; Sejrsen, Birgitte; Willerslev, Eske; Lynnerup, Niels

    2007-02-14

    The last of the Danish Viking Kings, Sven Estridsen, died in a.d. 1074 and is entombed in Roskilde Cathedral with other Danish kings and queens. Sven's mother, Estrid, is entombed in a pillar across the chancel. However, while there is no reasonable doubt about the identity of Sven, there have been doubts among historians whether the woman entombed was indeed Estrid. To shed light on this problem, we have extracted and analysed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from pulp of teeth from each of the two royals. Four overlapping DNA-fragments covering about 400bp of hypervariable region 1 (HVR-1) of the D-loop were PCR amplified, cloned and a number of clones with each segment were sequenced. Also a segment containing the H/non-H specific nucleotide 7028 was sequenced. Consensus sequences were determined and D-loop results were replicated in an independent laboratory. This allowed the assignment of King Sven Estridsen to haplogroup H; Estrid's sequence differed from that of Sven at two positions in HVR-1, 16093T-->C and 16304T-->C, indicating that she belongs to subgroup H5a. Given the maternal inheritance of mtDNA, offspring will have the same mtDNA sequence as their mother with the exception of rare cases where the sequence has been altered by a germ line mutation. Therefore, the observation of two sequence differences makes it highly unlikely that the entombed woman was the mother of Sven. In addition, physical examination of the skeleton and the teeth strongly indicated that this woman was much younger (approximately 35 years) at the time of death than the 70 years history records tell. Although the entombed woman cannot be the Estrid, she may well be one of Sven's two daughters-in-law who were also called Estrid and who both became queens.

  6. North error estimation based on solar elevation errors in the third step of sky-polarimetric Viking navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Száz, Dénes; Farkas, Alexandra; Barta, András; Kretzer, Balázs; Egri, Ádám; Horváth, Gábor

    2016-07-01

    The theory of sky-polarimetric Viking navigation has been widely accepted for decades without any information about the accuracy of this method. Previously, we have measured the accuracy of the first and second steps of this navigation method in psychophysical laboratory and planetarium experiments. Now, we have tested the accuracy of the third step in a planetarium experiment, assuming that the first and second steps are errorless. Using the fists of their outstretched arms, 10 test persons had to estimate the elevation angles (measured in numbers of fists and fingers) of black dots (representing the position of the occluded Sun) projected onto the planetarium dome. The test persons performed 2400 elevation estimations, 48% of which were more accurate than ±1°. We selected three test persons with the (i) largest and (ii) smallest elevation errors and (iii) highest standard deviation of the elevation error. From the errors of these three persons, we calculated their error function, from which the North errors (the angles with which they deviated from the geographical North) were determined for summer solstice and spring equinox, two specific dates of the Viking sailing period. The range of possible North errors Δ ω N was the lowest and highest at low and high solar elevations, respectively. At high elevations, the maximal Δ ω N was 35.6° and 73.7° at summer solstice and 23.8° and 43.9° at spring equinox for the best and worst test person (navigator), respectively. Thus, the best navigator was twice as good as the worst one. At solstice and equinox, high elevations occur the most frequently during the day, thus high North errors could occur more frequently than expected before. According to our findings, the ideal periods for sky-polarimetric Viking navigation are immediately after sunrise and before sunset, because the North errors are the lowest at low solar elevations.

  7. Simultaneous observations of sun-aligned polar cap arcs in both hemispheres by EXOS-C and viking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, T.; Kitayama, M.; Mukai, T.; Kaya, N.; Murphree, J.S.; Cogger, L.L.

    1988-01-01

    On September 25, 1986, the EXOS-C satellite traversed an intense electron precipitation in the southern polar cap, while the Viking satellite simultaneously obtained image data of the polar cap arc in the northern hemisphere. The energy spectrum of the precipitation, measured by instrumentation aboard EXOS-C, was very similar to that of adjacent (typical) auroral arcs, and the precipitation in the southern polar cap was observed in the same local time sector in which the arc was found in the northern polar cap. Observations seem to support the view that the polar cap arc occurs on closed field lines and is conjugate in both hemispheres. copyright American Geophysical Union 1988

  8. DNA typing of ancient parasite eggs from environmental samples identifies human and animal worm infections in viking-age settlement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Martin Jensen; Nejsum, Peter; Fredensborg, Brian Lund

    2015-01-01

    Ancient parasite eggs were recovered from environmental samples collected at a Viking-age settlement in Viborg, Denmark, dated 1018-1030 A.D. Morphological examination identified Ascaris sp., Trichuris sp., and Fasciola sp. eggs, but size and shape did not allow species identification. By carefully...... selecting genetic markers, PCR amplification and sequencing of ancient DNA (aDNA) isolates resulted in identification of: the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura, using SSUrRNA sequence homology; Ascaris sp. with 100% homology to cox1 haplotype 07; and Fasciola hepatica using ITS1 sequence homology...

  9. Geomorphic evidence for ancient seas in west Deuteronilus Mensae, Mars-2: From very high resolution Viking Orbiter images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Timothy J.; Schneeberger, Dale M.; Pieri, David C.; Saunders, R. Stephen

    1987-01-01

    Very high resolution Viking Orbiter images of the Martian surface, though rare, make it possible to examine specific areas at image scales approaching those of high altitude terrestrial aerial photographs. Twenty three clear images lie within west Deuteronilus Mensae. The northernmost images which constitute an almost unbroken mosaic of the west wall of a long fingerlike canyon are examined. Morphological details on the plateau surface within zone B, not detectable at low resolution, make it possible to divide the zone into two distinct subzones separated by an east-west escarpment. The morphology of the canyon floor is described in detail.

  10. Psychophysical study of the visual sun location in pictures of cloudy and twilight skies inspired by Viking navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, András; Horváth, Gábor; Meyer-Rochow, Victor Benno

    2005-06-01

    In the late 1960s it was hypothesized that Vikings had been able to navigate the open seas, even when the sun was occluded by clouds or below the sea horizon, by using the angle of polarization of skylight. To detect the direction of skylight polarization, they were thought to have made use of birefringent crystals, called "sun-stones," and a large part of the scientific community still firmly believe that Vikings were capable of polarimetric navigation. However, there are some critics who treat the usefulness of skylight polarization for orientation under partly cloudy or twilight conditions with extreme skepticism. One of their counterarguments has been the assumption that solar positions or solar azimuth directions could be estimated quite accurately by the naked eye, even if the sun was behind clouds or below the sea horizon. Thus under partly cloudy or twilight conditions there might have been no serious need for a polarimetric method to determine the position of the sun. The aim of our study was to test quantitatively the validity of this qualitative counterargument. In our psychophysical laboratory experiments, test subjects were confronted with numerous 180 degrees field-of-view color photographs of partly cloudy skies with the sun occluded by clouds or of twilight skies with the sun below the horizon. The task of the subjects was to guess the position or the azimuth direction of the invisible sun with the naked eye. We calculated means and standard deviations of the estimated solar positions and azimuth angles to characterize the accuracy of the visual sun location. Our data do not support the common belief that the invisible sun can be located quite accurately from the celestial brightness and/or color patterns under cloudy or twilight conditions. Although our results underestimate the accuracy of visual sun location by experienced Viking navigators, the mentioned counterargument cannot be taken seriously as a valid criticism of the theory of the alleged

  11. From Scandinavia to Spain: a Viking-Age reliquary in León and its meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesdahl, Else

    2010-01-01

    Presentation and discussion of a small box, which is highly decorated in the Scandinavian Mammen style and preserved in the treasury of the Church of San Isodoro in León, in northern Spain. This is the only Viking objects so far identified in Spain. The box, which is from the late 10th century an...... and probably was a reliquary, may be an aristocratic gift to the local royalty brought by a pilgrim on his way to Santiago de Compostela....

  12. Importance of Night Dreams in Ibsen's Plays A Psychoanalytic study of The Vikings of Helgeland and Little Eyolf

    OpenAIRE

    Bardzimashvili, Nino

    2014-01-01

    The topic for my thesis is the importance of night dreams in Henrik Ibsen's plays. My study of the subject is based on two plays, The Vikings of Helgeland and Little Eyolf. The first one is a historical play written in 1857 and is usually discussed in relationship with nationalism and the political events in 19th century Norway. The second one is known as a "family romance" and was written in 1894. These two plays represent different periods of Henrik Ibsen's writing and hence it is...

  13. Development of A Microbalance System For Water and Dust Detection In Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, R.; Palomba, E.; Palumbo, P.; Colangeli, L.

    The cycle of dust on Mars is a key component of current climate, is relevant in the dynamic and thermodynamic evolution of atmosphere, and is directly involved in the water cloud formation. Furthermore, dust suspended in the atmosphere is a major driver of atmospheric motions at all scales and is suspected of having had great in- fluence on the morphological evolution of the Martian surface. The dust dispersed in the atmosphere thermally influences the behaviour of the lower atmosphere. Most of information on the nature of small particle on Mars is derived from Viking Lander data and Mars Pathfinder observations, even if the Viking orbiter IRTM instrument also was able to provide estimates of particle size distribution of Martian soil. On the other hand water is important as indicator of global climate changes on long time- scale. Seasonal variations in the column abundance are due to the combined effect of exchange of H2O between atmosphere and water reservoirs (e.g. polar caps, re- golith) and atmospheric transport. The Viking orbiters collected accurate information during the period 1976-1979 and much of what we know about water circulation in the Martian atmosphere derives from the observations by the Mars Atmospheric Wa- ter Detection experiments (MAWD). Despite the low absolute water content (0,03%), relative humidity can exceed 100%, leading to the formation of near surface fog and condensation clouds, thanks to low typical Mars temperatures. The typical value of 6.1 mbar (coincident with the triple point in the water phase diagram) of the surficial pressure, makes rather difficult the persistence of liquid water at the surface of Mars. This means that the water is present exclusively in a gaseous and (when the conditions are favourable) solid state. In this context, it is extremely important to study the role of the different contributions to the production of atmospheric water and to the forma- tion of water ice clouds by the three main reservoirs, i

  14. Learning to live on a Mars day: fatigue countermeasures during the Phoenix Mars Lander mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, Laura K; Sullivan, Jason P; Vincent, Andrea S; Fiedler, Edna R; McKenna, Laurence M; Flynn-Evans, Erin E; Gilliland, Kirby; Sipes, Walter E; Smith, Peter H; Brainard, George C; Lockley, Steven W

    2012-10-01

    To interact with the robotic Phoenix Mars Lander (PML) spacecraft, mission personnel were required to work on a Mars day (24.65 h) for 78 days. This alien schedule presents a challenge to Earth-bound circadian physiology and a potential risk to workplace performance and safety. We evaluated the acceptability, feasibility, and effectiveness of a fatigue management program to facilitate synchronization with the Mars day and alleviate circadian misalignment, sleep loss, and fatigue. Operational field study. PML Science Operations Center. Scientific and technical personnel supporting PML mission. Sleep and fatigue education was offered to all support personnel. A subset (n = 19) were offered a short-wavelength (blue) light panel to aid alertness and mitigate/reduce circadian desynchrony. They were assessed using a daily sleep/work diary, continuous wrist actigraphy, and regular performance tests. Subjects also completed 48-h urine collections biweekly for assessment of the circadian 6-sulphatoxymelatonin rhythm. Most participants (87%) exhibited a circadian period consistent with adaptation to a Mars day. When synchronized, main sleep duration was 5.98 ± 0.94 h, but fell to 4.91 ± 1.22 h when misaligned (P Mars day suggests that future missions should utilize a similar circadian rhythm and fatigue management program to reduce the risk of sleepiness-related errors that jeopardize personnel safety and health during critical missions.

  15. The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) Wet Chemistry Experiment on the Mars 2001 Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grannan, S. M.; Meloy, T. P.; Hecht, H.; Anderson, M. S.; Buehler, M.; Frant, M.; Kounaves, S. P.; Manatt, K. S.; Pike, W. T.; Schubert, W.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) is an instrument suite that will fly on the Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander Spacecraft. MECA is sponsored by the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) program and will evaluate potential hazards that the dust and soil of Mars might present to astronauts and their equipment on a future human mission to Mars. Four elements constitute the integrated MECA payload: a microscopy station, patch plates, an electrometer, and the wet chemistry experiment (WCE). The WCE is the first application of electrochemical sensors to study soil chemistry on another planetary body, in addition to being the first measurement of soil/water solution properties on Mars. The chemical composition and properties of the watersoluble materials present in the Martian soil are of considerable interest to the planetary science community because characteristic salts are formed by the water-based weathering of rocks, the action of volcanic gases, and biological activity. Thus the characterization of water-soluble soil materials on Mars can provide information on the geochemical history of the planet surface. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  16. The dynamic cusp at low altitudes: A case study combining Viking, DMSP, and Sondrestrom incoherent scatter radar observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watermann, J.; Delabeaujardiere, O.; Lummerzheim, D.; Woch, J.; Newell, P.T.; Potemra, T.A.; Rich, F.J.; Shapshak, M.

    1992-01-01

    A case study involving data from three satellites and a ground-based radar are presented. Focus is on a detailed discussion of observations of the dynamic cusp made on 24 Sep. 1986 in the dayside high-latitude ionosphere and interior magnetosphere. The relevant data from space-borne and ground-based sensors is presented. They include in-situ particle and field measurements from the DMSP-F7 and Viking spacecraft and Sondrestrom radar observations of the ionosphere. These data are augmented by observations of the IMF and the solar wind plasma. The observations are compared with predictions about the ionospheric response to the observed particle precipitation, obtained from an auroral model. It is shown that observations and model calculations fit well and provide a picture of the ionospheric footprint of the cusp in an invariant latitude versus local time frame. The combination of Viking, Sondrestrom radar, and IMP-8 data suggests that an ionospheric signature of the dynamic cusp was observed. Its spatial variation over time which appeared closely related to the southward component of the IMF was monitored

  17. DNA typing of ancient parasite eggs from environmental samples identifies human and animal worm infections in Viking-age settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søe, Martin Jensen; Nejsum, Peter; Fredensborg, Brian Lund; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen

    2015-02-01

    Ancient parasite eggs were recovered from environmental samples collected at a Viking-age settlement in Viborg, Denmark, dated 1018-1030 A.D. Morphological examination identified Ascaris sp., Trichuris sp., and Fasciola sp. eggs, but size and shape did not allow species identification. By carefully selecting genetic markers, PCR amplification and sequencing of ancient DNA (aDNA) isolates resulted in identification of: the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura , using SSUrRNA sequence homology; Ascaris sp. with 100% homology to cox1 haplotype 07; and Fasciola hepatica using ITS1 sequence homology. The identification of T. trichiura eggs indicates that human fecal material is present and, hence, that the Ascaris sp. haplotype 07 was most likely a human variant in Viking-age Denmark. The location of the F. hepatica finding suggests that sheep or cattle are the most likely hosts. Further, we sequenced the Ascaris sp. 18S rRNA gene in recent isolates from humans and pigs of global distribution and show that this is not a suited marker for species-specific identification. Finally, we discuss ancient parasitism in Denmark and the implementation of aDNA analysis methods in paleoparasitological studies. We argue that when employing species-specific identification, soil samples offer excellent opportunities for studies of human parasite infections and of human and animal interactions of the past.

  18. A combined wave distribution function and stability analysis of Viking particle and low-frequency wave data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oscarsson, T.E.; Roennmark, K.G.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the authors present an investigation of low-frequency waves observed on auroral field lines below the acceleration region by the Swedish satellite Viking. The measured frequency spectra are peaked at half the local proton gyrofrequency, and the waves are observed in close connection with precipitating electrons. In order to obtain information about the distribution of wave energy in wave vector space, they reconstruct the wave distribution function (WDF) from observed spectral densities. They use a new scheme that allows them to reconstruct simultaneously the WDF over a broad frequency band. The method also makes it possible to take into account available particle observations as well as Doppler shifts caused by the relative motion between the plasma and the satellite. The distribution of energy in wave vector space suggested by the reconstructed WDF is found to be consistent with what is expected from a plasma instability driven by the observed precipitating electrons. Furthermore, by using UV images obtained on Viking, they demonstrate that the wave propagation directions indicated by the reconstructed WDFs are consistent with a simple model of the presumed wave source in the electron precipitation region

  19. The Viking viewer for connectomics: scalable multi-user annotation and summarization of large volume data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J R; Mohammed, S; Grimm, B; Jones, B W; Koshevoy, P; Tasdizen, T; Whitaker, R; Marc, R E

    2011-01-01

    Modern microscope automation permits the collection of vast amounts of continuous anatomical imagery in both two and three dimensions. These large data sets present significant challenges for data storage, access, viewing, annotation and analysis. The cost and overhead of collecting and storing the data can be extremely high. Large data sets quickly exceed an individual's capability for timely analysis and present challenges in efficiently applying transforms, if needed. Finally annotated anatomical data sets can represent a significant investment of resources and should be easily accessible to the scientific community. The Viking application was our solution created to view and annotate a 16.5 TB ultrastructural retinal connectome volume and we demonstrate its utility in reconstructing neural networks for a distinctive retinal amacrine cell class. Viking has several key features. (1) It works over the internet using HTTP and supports many concurrent users limited only by hardware. (2) It supports a multi-user, collaborative annotation strategy. (3) It cleanly demarcates viewing and analysis from data collection and hosting. (4) It is capable of applying transformations in real-time. (5) It has an easily extensible user interface, allowing addition of specialized modules without rewriting the viewer. © 2010 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2010 The Royal Microscopical Society.

  20. Combined Instrumentation Package COMARS+ for the ExoMars Schiaparelli Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülhan, Ali; Thiele, Thomas; Siebe, Frank; Kronen, Rolf

    2018-02-01

    In order to measure aerothermal parameters on the back cover of the ExoMars Schiaparelli lander the instrumentation package COMARS+ was developed by DLR. Consisting of three combined aerothermal sensors, one broadband radiometer sensor and an electronic box the payload provides important data for future missions. The aerothermal sensors called COMARS combine four discrete sensors measuring static pressure, total heat flux, temperature and radiative heat flux at two specific spectral bands. The infrared radiation in a broadband spectral range is measured by the separate broadband radiometer sensor. The electronic box of the payload is used for amplification, conditioning and multiplexing of the sensor signals. The design of the payload was mainly carried out using numerical tools including structural analyses, to simulate the main mechanical loads which occur during launch and stage separation, and thermal analyses to simulate the temperature environment during cruise phase and Mars entry. To validate the design an extensive qualification test campaign was conducted on a set of qualification models. The tests included vibration and shock tests to simulate launch loads and stage separation shocks. Thermal tests under vacuum condition were performed to simulate the thermal environment of the capsule during the different flight phases. Furthermore electromagnetic compatibility tests were conducted to check that the payload is compatible with the electromagnetic environment of the capsule and does not emit electromagnetic energy that could cause electromagnetic interference in other devices. For the sensor heads located on the ExoMars back cover radiation tests were carried out to verify their radiation hardness. Finally the bioburden reduction process was demonstrated on the qualification hardware to show the compliance with the planetary protection requirements. To test the actual heat flux, pressure and infrared radiation measurement under representative conditions

  1. The dynamic cusp at low altitudes: a case study utilizing Viking, DMSP-F7, and Sondrestrom incoherent scatter radar observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Watermann

    Full Text Available Coincident multi-instrument magnetospheric and ionospheric observations have made it possible to determine the position of the ionospheric footprint of the magnetospheric cusp and to monitor its evolution over time. The data used include charged particle and magnetic field measurements from the Earth-orbiting Viking and DMSP-F7 satellites, electric field measurements from Viking, interplanetary magnetic field and plasma data from IMP-8, and Sondrestrom incoherent scatter radar observations of the ionospheric plasma density, temperature, and convection. Viking detected cusp precipitation poleward of 75.5° invariant latitude. The ionospheric response to the observed electron precipitation was simulated using an auroral model. It predicts enhanced plasma density and elevated electron temperature in the upper E- and F-regions. Sondrestrom radar observations are in agreement with the predictions. The radar detected a cusp signature on each of five consecutive antenna elevation scans covering 1.2 h local time. The cusp appeared to be about 2° invariant latitude wide, and its ionospheric footprint shifted equatorward by nearly 2° during this time, possibly influenced by an overall decrease in the IMF Bz component. The radar plasma drift data and the Viking magnetic and electric field data suggest that the cusp was associated with a continuous, rather than a patchy, merging between the IMF and the geomagnetic field.

  2. Draft Genome Sequences of 12 Dry-Heat-Resistant Bacillus Strains Isolated from the Cleanrooms Where the Viking Spacecraft Were Assembled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seuylemezian, Arman; Cooper, Kerry; Schubert, Wayne; Vaishampayan, Parag

    2018-03-22

    Spore-forming microorganisms are of concern for forward contamination because they can survive harsh interplanetary travel. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of 12 spore-forming strains isolated from the Manned Spacecraft Operations Building (MSOB) and the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) in Cape Canaveral, FL, where the Viking spacecraft were assembled. Copyright © 2018 Seuylemezian et al.

  3. The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) Wet Chemistry Experiment on the Mars 2001 Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grannan, S. M.; Frant, M.; Hecht, M. H.; Kounaves, S. P.; Manatt, K.; Meloy, T. P.; Pike, W. T.; Schubert, W.; West, S.; Wen, X.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) is an instrument suite that will fly on the Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander Spacecraft. MECA is sponsored by the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) program and will evaluate potential hazards that the dust and soil of Mars might present to astronauts and their equipment on a future human mission to Mars. Four elements constitute the integrated MECA payload: a microscopy station, patch plates, an electrometer, and the wet chemistry laboratory (WCL). The WCL consists of four identical cells, each of which will evaluate a sample of Martian soil in water to determine conductivity, pH, redox potential, dissolved C02 and 02 levels, and concentrations of many soluble ions including sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium and the halides. In addition, cyclic voltammetry will be used to evaluate reversible and irreversible oxidants present in the water/soil solution. Anodic stripping voltammetry will be used to measure concentrations of trace metals including lead, copper, and cadmium at ppb levels. Voltammetry is a general electrochemical technique that involves controlling the potential of an electrode while simultaneously measuring the current flowing at that electrode. The WCL experiments will provide information on the corrosivity and reactivity of the Martian soil, as well as on soluble components of the soil which might be toxic to human explorers. They will also guide HEDS scientists in the development of high fidelity Martian soil simulants. In the process of acquiring information relevant to HEDS, the WCL will assess the chemical composition and properties of the salts present in the Martian soil.

  4. A Lunar L2-Farside Exploration and Science Mission Concept with the ORion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle and a Teleoperated Lander/Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jack O.; Kring, David; Norris, Scott; Hopkins, Josh; Lazio, Joseph; Kasper, Justin

    2012-01-01

    A novel concept is presented in this paper for a human mission to the lunar L2 (Lagrange) point that would be a proving ground for future exploration missions to deep space while also overseeing scientifically important investigations. In an L2 halo orbit above the lunar farside, the astronauts would travel 15% farther from Earth than did the Apollo astronauts and spend almost three times longer in deep space. Such missions would validate the Orion MPCV's life support systems, would demonstrate the high-speed re-entry capability needed for return from deep space, and would measure astronauts' radiation dose from cosmic rays and solar flares to verify that Orion would provide sufficient protection, as it is designed to do. On this proposed mission, the astronauts would teleoperate landers and rovers on the unexplored lunar farside, which would obtain samples from the geologically interesting farside and deploy a low radio frequency telescope. Sampling the South Pole-Aitkin basin (one of the oldest impact basins in the solar system) is a key science objective of the 2011 Planetary Science Decadal Survey. Observations of the Universe's first stars/galaxies at low radio frequencies are a priority of the 2010 Astronomy & Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Such telerobotic oversight would also demonstrate capability for human and robotic cooperation on future, more complex deep space missions.

  5. Radio wave scattering observations of the solar corona: First-order measurements of expansion velocity and turbulence spectrum using Viking and Mariner 10 spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, G.L.; Vesecky, J.F.; Plume, M.A.; Howard, H.T.; Barnes, A.

    1981-01-01

    Solar conjunction of Mars on 1976 November 25 occurred very near the beginning of solar cycle 21, about 4 months after the first Viking spacecraft arrived at the planet. Radio wave scattering data were collected at 3.6 and 13 cm wavelengths, using the radio link between the Viking orbiters and the Earth. These data allow measurements of solar wind properties over a range of heliocentric radial distance from approx.6 to 44 R/sub sun/ with solar latitudes ranging from -17 0 to +7 0 . Observations with Mariner 10 during a period of moderate solar activity in 1974 cover from 6 to 24 R/sub sun/ and from approx.20 0 to near 90 0 . We have found that the temporal frequency variance spectrum of amplitude fluctuations is useful for characterizing the bulk motion of the plasma. This spectrum has an approximately constant low frequency plateau and a power-law high frequency asymptote; the plateau-asymptote intersection frequency provides a measure of the solar wind velocity V. We also obtain the spectral index p of electron density turbulence, Phi/sub N/approx.kappa/sup -p/, where kappa is spatial wavenumber. These results apply to a cylindrical region oriented with its axis along the radio ray path and its center at the point of closest approach to the Sun. The measurements of V and p cover some 78/sup d/ for Viking and 49 2 for Mariner 10 and show the combined effects of changing heliocentric distance rho, solar latitude theta, and solar longitude Psi, as well as solar activity. The Viking results can be regarded as a function primary of rho and Psi since the observations are concentrated in the equatorial regions when solar activity was near minimum. For Mariner 10, rho, theta, and Psi variations were important. The Viking results show an abrupt change in V(rho) and the turbulence spectral index at approx.15 R/sub sun/

  6. A MATLAB based Distributed Real-time Simulation of Lander-Orbiter-Earth Communication for Lunar Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Diptyajit; Angeloski, Aleksandar; Ziah, Haseeb; Buchholz, Hilmar; Landsman, Andre; Gupta, Amitava; Mitra, Tiyasa

    Lunar explorations often involve use of a lunar lander , a rover [1],[2] and an orbiter which rotates around the moon with a fixed radius. The orbiters are usually lunar satellites orbiting along a polar orbit to ensure visibility with respect to the rover and the Earth Station although with varying latency. Communication in such deep space missions is usually done using a specialized protocol like Proximity-1[3]. MATLAB simulation of Proximity-1 have been attempted by some contemporary researchers[4] to simulate all features like transmission control, delay etc. In this paper it is attempted to simulate, in real time, the communication between a tracking station on earth (earth station), a lunar orbiter and a lunar rover using concepts of Distributed Real-time Simulation(DRTS).The objective of the simulation is to simulate, in real-time, the time varying communication delays associated with the communicating elements with a facility to integrate specific simulation modules to study different aspects e.g. response due to a specific control command from the earth station to be executed by the rover. The hardware platform comprises four single board computers operating as stand-alone real time systems (developed by MATLAB xPC target and inter-networked using UDP-IP protocol). A time triggered DRTS approach is adopted. The earth station, the orbiter and the rover are programmed as three standalone real-time processes representing the communicating elements in the system. Communication from one communicating element to another constitutes an event which passes a state message from one element to another, augmenting the state of the latter. These events are handled by an event scheduler which is the fourth real-time process. The event scheduler simulates the delay in space communication taking into consideration the distance between the communicating elements. A unique time synchronization algorithm is developed which takes into account the large latencies in space

  7. Characterisation of the Polyethylene Glycol Impregnation of the Swedish Warship Vasa and one of the Danish Skuldelev Viking Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, M.N.; Egsgaard, Helge; Hvilsted, Søren

    2007-01-01

    The Swedish l7th century warship Vasa and the Danish Skuldelev Viking ships from the 1 lth century were impregnated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) in the 1960s. The molecular weight, amount and integrity of this PEG were investigated at a range of depths below the wood surface. Large amounts of PEG...... could be extracted from degraded parts of the ships but hardly any from sound parts. Mass spectrometry showed that PEG 4000 is present only in the surface layers of the wood, PEG 1500 and PEG 600 are present at all depths of the wood that has been treated with it. Low molecular weight PEG was detected...... in one of the Skuldelev ships by mass spectrometry and Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC), it is argued that this is due to degradation of PEG 4000. SEC also showed that PEG 600 is the major PEG component in the Vasa which makes this particular object sensitive to changes in air humidity since PEG 600...

  8. Comparison of ground-based and Viking Orbiter measurements of Martian water vapor - Variability of the seasonal cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakosky, B. M.; Barker, E. S.

    1984-01-01

    Earth-based observations of Mars atmospheric water vapor are presented for the 1975-1976, 1977-1978, and 1983 apparitions. Comparisons are made with near-simultaneous spacecraft measurements made from the Viking Orbiter Mars Atmospheric Water Detection experiment during 1976-1978 and with previous earth-based measurements. Differences occur between the behavior in the different years, and may be related to the Mars climate. Measurements during the southern summer in 1969 indicate a factor of three times as much water as is present at this same season in other years. This difference may have resulted from the sublimation of water from the south polar residual cap upon removal of most or all of the CO2 ice present; sublimation of all of the CO2 ice during some years could be a result of a greater thermal load being placed on the cap due to the presence of differing amounts of atmospheric dust.

  9. The low-latitude boundary layer at mid-altitudes: Identification based on viking hot plasma data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woch, J.; Lundin, R.

    1993-01-01

    The authors address the problem of studying the magnetospheric low latitude boundary layer (LLBL). A limited number of in situ measurements are available, but for extensive study it will be necessary to learn how this region maps into the polar ionosphere so that extended ground based observations will become possible. They look at Viking passes through the auroral oval, and interpret the ion spectra recorded in terms of precipitating ions. The characteristic ion signatures then allow identification of source regions for these ions, and subsequent projections of these regions earthward. They feel they have found ion signatures of the LLBL in areas predicted by previous work, and that correlations with solar wind density provides support for the magnetosheath origin of these ions

  10. Evidence of authentic DNA from Danish Viking Age skeletons untouched by humans for 1,000 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linea Melchior

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given the relative abundance of modern human DNA and the inherent impossibility for incontestable proof of authenticity, results obtained on ancient human DNA have often been questioned. The widely accepted rules regarding ancient DNA work mainly affect laboratory procedures, however, pre-laboratory contamination occurring during excavation and archaeological-/anthropological handling of human remains as well as rapid degradation of authentic DNA after excavation are major obstacles. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We avoided some of these obstacles by analyzing DNA from ten Viking Age subjects that at the time of sampling were untouched by humans for 1,000 years. We removed teeth from the subjects prior to handling by archaeologists and anthropologists using protective equipment. An additional tooth was removed after standard archaeological and anthropological handling. All pre-PCR work was carried out in a "clean- laboratory" dedicated solely to ancient DNA work. Mitochondrial DNA was extracted and overlapping fragments spanning the HVR-1 region as well as diagnostic sites in the coding region were PCR amplified, cloned and sequenced. Consistent results were obtained with the "unhandled" teeth and there was no indication of contamination, while the latter was the case with half of the "handled" teeth. The results allowed the unequivocal assignment of a specific haplotype to each of the subjects, all haplotypes being compatible in their character states with a phylogenetic tree drawn from present day European populations. Several of the haplotypes are either infrequent or have not been observed in modern Scandinavians. The observation of haplogroup I in the present study (<2% in modern Scandinavians supports our previous findings of a pronounced frequency of this haplogroup in Viking and Iron Age Danes. CONCLUSION: The present work provides further evidence that retrieval of ancient human DNA is a possible task provided adequate

  11. Evidence of authentic DNA from Danish Viking Age skeletons untouched by humans for 1,000 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchior, Linea; Kivisild, Toomas; Lynnerup, Niels; Dissing, Jørgen

    2008-05-28

    Given the relative abundance of modern human DNA and the inherent impossibility for incontestable proof of authenticity, results obtained on ancient human DNA have often been questioned. The widely accepted rules regarding ancient DNA work mainly affect laboratory procedures, however, pre-laboratory contamination occurring during excavation and archaeological-/anthropological handling of human remains as well as rapid degradation of authentic DNA after excavation are major obstacles. We avoided some of these obstacles by analyzing DNA from ten Viking Age subjects that at the time of sampling were untouched by humans for 1,000 years. We removed teeth from the subjects prior to handling by archaeologists and anthropologists using protective equipment. An additional tooth was removed after standard archaeological and anthropological handling. All pre-PCR work was carried out in a "clean- laboratory" dedicated solely to ancient DNA work. Mitochondrial DNA was extracted and overlapping fragments spanning the HVR-1 region as well as diagnostic sites in the coding region were PCR amplified, cloned and sequenced. Consistent results were obtained with the "unhandled" teeth and there was no indication of contamination, while the latter was the case with half of the "handled" teeth. The results allowed the unequivocal assignment of a specific haplotype to each of the subjects, all haplotypes being compatible in their character states with a phylogenetic tree drawn from present day European populations. Several of the haplotypes are either infrequent or have not been observed in modern Scandinavians. The observation of haplogroup I in the present study (Viking and Iron Age Danes. The present work provides further evidence that retrieval of ancient human DNA is a possible task provided adequate precautions are taken and well-considered sampling is applied.

  12. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from AMERICAN VIKING using BT and XBT casts in the Northeast Pacific Ocean from 23 September 1986 to 17 September 1987 (NODC Accession 8800048)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the AMERICAN VIKING in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. Data were collected from 23...

  13. Long-term baited lander experiments at a cold-water coral community on Galway Mound (Belgica Mound Province, NE Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaleye, Marc; Duineveld, Gerard; Bergman, Magda; van den Beld, Inge

    2017-11-01

    A long-term lander employing a baited camera system was developed to study temporal variation in the presence of scavenging fish and invertebrates at a cold-water coral community on Galway Mound (Belgica Mound Province, NE Atlantic). The camera system was tested during two successful long-term deployments for periods of 6 and 12 months respectively. The baited system, consisting of two separate video cameras with infrared lights and a bait dispenser with 24 bait positions, recorded more than 15,500 clips of 17 s, regularly spread over both periods. New bait, consisting of sardines in oil, was offered at regular time intervals, and attracted scavengers over the whole period of deployment, and especially the crab Chaceon affinis did still eat from it till the end of the deployments. However, the attractiveness for some scavengers, i.e. amphipods, diminished quite quickly. In addition to invertebrate scavengers, namely C. affinis, two other crab species, amphipods, a shrimp and a starfish, also 7 species of fish were recorded near the bait, of which Lepidion eques was by far the most common. Though there was no concrete evidence for seasonal patterns, the observations showed substantial temporal variation in the abundance of several species, especially the crabs C. affinis and Bathynectes maravigna and the fish Phycis blennoides. It is concluded that long-term deployments of such a baited camera system can produce novel data. For instance such a system could be employed for monitoring impacts of disturbances on the deep-sea floor (e.g. mining), as we infer that mobile scavengers will be among the first organisms to show a visible reaction to any chemically and physically (noise, vibrations) alteration of the environment similar to a mine canary.

  14. Wide-Field Landers Temporary Keratoprosthesis in Severe Ocular Trauma: Functional and Anatomical Results after One Year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Nowomiejska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate longitudinal functional and anatomical results after combined pars plana vitrectomy (PPV and penetrating keratoplasty (PKP using a wide-field Landers intraoperative temporary keratoprosthesis (TKP in patients with vitreoretinal pathology and corneal opacity due to severe ocular trauma. Material and Methods. Medical records of 12 patients who had undergone PPV/PKP/KP due to severe eye trauma were analyzed. Functional (best-corrected visual acuity and anatomic outcomes (clarity of the corneal graft, retinal attachment, and intraocular pressure were assessed during the follow-up (mean 16 months. Results. Final visual acuities varied from NLP to CF to 2 m. Visual acuity improved in 7 cases, was unchanged in 4 eyes, and worsened in 1 eye. The corneal graft was transparent during the follow-up in 3 cases and graft failure was observed in 9 eyes. Silicone oil was used as a tamponade in all cases and retina was reattached in 92% of cases. Conclusions. Combined PPV and PKP with the use of wide-field Landers TKP allowed for surgical intervention in patients with vitreoretinal pathology coexisting with corneal wound. Although retina was attached in most of the cases, corneal graft survived only in one-fourth of patients and final visual acuities were poor.

  15. Feasibility of retrieving dust properties and total column water vapor from solar spectra measured using a lander camera on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manago, Naohiro; Noguchi, Katsuyuki; Hashimoto, George L.; Senshu, Hiroki; Otobe, Naohito; Suzuki, Makoto; Kuze, Hiroaki

    2017-12-01

    Dust and water vapor are important constituents in the Martian atmosphere, exerting significant influence on the heat balance of the atmosphere and surface. We have developed a method to retrieve optical and physical properties of Martian dust from spectral intensities of direct and scattered solar radiation to be measured using a multi-wavelength environmental camera onboard a Mars lander. Martian dust is assumed to be composed of silicate-like substrate and hematite-like inclusion, having spheroidal shape with a monomodal gamma size distribution. Error analysis based on simulated data reveals that appropriate combinations of three bands centered at 450, 550, and 675 nm wavelengths and 4 scattering angles of 3°, 10°, 50°, and 120° lead to good retrieval of four dust parameters, namely, aerosol optical depth, effective radius and variance of size distribution, and volume mixing ratio of hematite. Retrieval error increases when some of the observational parameters such as color ratio or aureole are omitted from the retrieval. Also, the capability of retrieving total column water vapor is examined through observations of direct and scattered solar radiation intensities at 925, 935, and 972 nm. The simulation and error analysis presented here will be useful for designing an environmental camera that can elucidate the dust and water vapor properties in a future Mars lander mission.

  16. Conceptual definition of a 50-100 kWe NEP system for planetary science missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Alan

    1993-01-01

    The Phase 1 objective of this project is to assess the applicability of a common Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) flight system of the 50-100 kWe power class to meet the advanced transportation requirements of a suite of planetary science (robotic) missions, accounting for differences in mission-specific payloads and delivery requirements. The candidate missions are as follows: (1) Comet Nucleus Sample Return; (2) Multiple Mainbelt Asteroid Rendezvous; (3) Jupiter Grand Tour (Galilean satellites and magnetosphere); (4) Uranus Orbiter/Probe (atmospheric entry and landers); (5) Neptune Orbiter/Probe (atmospheric entry and landers); and (6) Pluto-Charon Orbiter/Lander. The discussion is presented in vugraph form.

  17. Seasonal and global behavior of water vapor in the Mars atmosphere: Complete global results of the Viking atmospheric water detector experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakosky, B.M.; Farmer, C.B.

    1982-01-01

    The water vapor content of the Mars atmosphere was measured from the Viking Orbiter Mars Atmospheric Water Detectors (MAWD) for a period of more than 1 Martian year, from June 1976 through April 1979. Results are presented in the form of global maps of column abundance for 24 periods throughout each Mars year. The data reduction incorporates spatial and seasonal variations in surface pressure and supplements earlier published versions of less complete data

  18. How could the Viking Sun compass be used with sunstones before and after sunset? Twilight board as a new interpretation of the Uunartoq artefact fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernáth, Balázs; Farkas, Alexandra; Száz, Dénes; Blahó, Miklós; Egri, Adám; Barta, András; Akesson, Susanne; Horváth, Gábor

    2014-06-08

    Vikings routinely crossed the North Atlantic without a magnetic compass and left their mark on lands as far away as Greenland, Newfoundland and Baffin Island. Based on an eleventh-century dial fragment artefact, found at Uunartoq in Greenland, it is widely accepted that they sailed along chosen latitudes using primitive Sun compasses. Such instruments were tested on sea and proved to be efficient hand-held navigation tools, but the dimensions and incisions of the Uunartoq find are far from optimal in this role. On the basis of the sagas mentioning sunstones, incompatible hypotheses were formed for Viking solar navigation procedures and primitive skylight polarimetry with dichroic or birefringent crystals. We describe here a previously unconceived method of navigation based on the Uunartoq artefact functioning as a 'twilight board', which is a combination of a horizon board and a Sun compass optimized for use when the Sun is close to the horizon. We deduced an appropriate solar navigation procedure using a twilight board, a shadow-stick and birefringent crystals, which bring together earlier suggested methods in harmony and provide a true skylight compass function. This could have allowed Vikings to navigate around the clock, to use the artefact dial as a Sun compass during long parts of the day and to use skylight polarization patterns in the twilight period. In field tests, we found that true north could be appointed with such a medieval skylight compass with an error of about ±4° when the artificially occluded Sun had elevation angles between +10° and -8° relative to the horizon. Our interpretation allows us to assign exact dates to the gnomonic lines on the artefact and outlines the schedule of the merchant ships that sustained the Viking colony in Greenland a millennium ago.

  19. From Hades to Hel and from Elysium to Valhǫll : A Comparative Research about Death and Afterlife in ancient Greek and Viking society

    OpenAIRE

    Karagianni, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    The present thesis is a comparative research about death and afterlife in ancient Greek and Viking society making use of both literary sources such as the Eddas and the Homeric epic poems and archaeological evidence including ship burials, rune stones, grave steles and vase paintings. I start applying the subject of death and afterlife individually on each civilization and for this purpose the two first chapters consist of two parts; the first part deals with beliefs about death and afterlife...

  20. Morte, Sacrifício Humano e Renascimento : uma interpretação Iconográfica da Runestone Viking de Hammar I

    OpenAIRE

    Langer, Johnni

    2003-01-01

    The present article still interprets an iconographic source without detailed academic studies, the Viking runestone of Hammar I, originary of the island of Gotland (Sweden). An important document on the religious mentality of the Scandinavians, its mythological conceptions on the deities, human sacrifices, life after the death and some important symbols for the cult to the Óðinn god. Another basic aspect of our interpretation is the possibility to compare the classic Icelandic source...

  1. High-resolution metal gradients measured by in situ DGT/DET deployment in Black Sea sediments using an autonomous benthic lander RID G-2489-2010 RID A-4901-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fones, GR; Davison, W.; Holby, O.

    2001-01-01

    DET (Diffusive equilibration in thin films) and DGT (diffusive gradients in thin films) have been deployed in situ using an autonomous benthic lander to measure concentrations and induced fluxes of Fe and Mn (DET/DGT) and trace metals (DGT) in pore waters at millimeter spatial resolutions....... The newly developed deployment system is described, and based on these first results, its strengths and weaknesses are discussed. Deployments were made in the Western Black Sea in shelf sediments overlain by well-oxygenated water at a water depth of 77 m. Maxima of the redox-sensitive metals at 4 and 8 cm...... elements by several millimeters. Detection of this functional discrimination between Fe and Mn as regulators of trace metals would not have been possible using more conventional sampling procedures....

  2. Dolutegravir versus placebo in subjects harbouring HIV-1 with integrase inhibitor resistance associated substitutions: 48-week results from VIKING-4, a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akil, Bisher; Blick, Gary; Hagins, Debbie P; Ramgopal, Moti N; Richmond, Gary J; Samuel, Rafik M; Givens, Naomi; Vavro, Cindy; Song, Ivy H; Wynne, Brian; Ait-Khaled, Mounir

    2015-01-01

    The Phase III VIKING-3 study demonstrated that dolutegravir (DTG) 50 mg twice daily was efficacious in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-experienced subjects harbouring raltegravir- and/or elvitegravir-resistant HIV-1. VIKING-4 (ING116529) included a placebo-controlled 7-day monotherapy phase to demonstrate that short-term antiviral activity was attributable to DTG. VIKING-4 is a Phase III randomized, double-blind study in therapy-experienced adults with integrase inhibitor (INI)-resistant virus randomized to DTG 50 mg twice daily or placebo while continuing their failing regimen (without raltegravir or elvitegravir) for 7 days (clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01568892). At day 8, all subjects switched to open-label DTG 50 mg twice daily and optimized background therapy including ≥1 fully active drug. The primary end point was change from baseline in plasma HIV-1 RNA at day 8. The study population (n=30) was highly ART-experienced with advanced HIV disease. Patients had extensive baseline resistance to all approved antiretroviral classes. Adjusted mean change in HIV-1 RNA at day 8 was 
-1.06 log10 copies/ml for the DTG arm and 0.10 log10 copies/ml for the placebo arm (treatment difference -1.16 log10 copies/ml [-1.52, -0.80]; PVIKING-3 study.

  3. Triggered surface slips in the Coachella Valley area associated with the 1992 Joshua Tree and Landers, California, Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymer, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    The Coachella Valley area was strongly shaken by the 1992 Joshua Tree (23 April) and Landers (28 June) earthquakes, and both events caused triggered slip on active faults within the area. Triggered slip associated with the Joshua Tree earthquake was on a newly recognized fault, the East Wide Canyon fault, near the southwestern edge of the Little San Bernardino Mountains. Slip associated with the Landers earthquake formed along the San Andreas fault in the southeastern Coachella Valley. Surface fractures formed along the East Wide Canyon fault in association with the Joshua Tree earthquake. The fractures extended discontinuously over a 1.5-km stretch of the fault, near its southern end. Sense of slip was consistently right-oblique, west side down, similar to the long-term style of faulting. Measured offset values were small, with right-lateral and vertical components of slip ranging from 1 to 6 mm and 1 to 4 mm, respectively. This is the first documented historic slip on the East Wide Canyon fault, which was first mapped only months before the Joshua Tree earthquake. Surface slip associated with the Joshua Tree earthquake most likely developed as triggered slip given its 5 km distance from the Joshua Tree epicenter and aftershocks. As revealed in a trench investigation, slip formed in an area with only a thin (Salton Trough. A paleoseismic trench study in an area of 1992 surface slip revealed evidence of two and possibly three surface faulting events on the East Wide Canyon fault during the late Quaternary, probably latest Pleistocene (first event) and mid- to late Holocene (second two events). About two months after the Joshua Tree earthquake, the Landers earthquake then triggered slip on many faults, including the San Andreas fault in the southeastern Coachella Valley. Surface fractures associated with this event formed discontinuous breaks over a 54-km-long stretch of the fault, from the Indio Hills southeastward to Durmid Hill. Sense of slip was right

  4. Local Postseismic Relaxation Observed After the 1992 Landers (M=7.3), 1999 Hector Mine (M=7.1), 2002 Denali (M=7.9), and 2003 San Simeon (M=6.5) Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svarc, J. L.; Savage, J. C.

    2004-12-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey has observed the local postseismic deformation following the 1992 Landers (M=7.3), 1999 Hector Mine (M=7.1), 2002 Denali (M=7.9), and 2003 San Simeon (M=6.5) earthquakes. The observations consist of repeated campaign-style GPS surveys of geodetic arrays (aperture ˜ 50 km) in the epicentral area of each earthquake. The data span the intervals from 0.037 to 5.6, 0.0025 to 4.5, 0.022 to 1.6, and 0.005 to 0.55 yr postearthquake for the Landers, Hector Mine, Denali, and San Simeon earthquakes, respectively. We have reduced the observations to positions of the monuments measured relative to another monument within the array. The temporal dependence of the relative displacements for each monument can be approximated by a+bt+c(1-exp[-t/d]) where a, b, c, and d are constants particular to that monument and t is the time after the earthquake. The relaxation times d were found to be 0.367±0.062, 0.274±0.024, 0.145±0.017, and 0.032±0.002 yr for the Landers, Hector Mine, Denali, and San Simeon earthquakes, respectively. The observed increase in d with the duration of the time series fit suggests that the relaxation process involves more than a single relaxation time. An alternative function a'+b't+c'log(1+t/d') where a', b', c', and d' are constants particular to each monument furnishes a better fit to the data. This logarithmic form of the relaxation (Lomnitz creep function), identical to the calculated response of a simple spring-slider system subject to rate-state friction [Marone et al., 1991], contains a continuous spectrum of relaxation times. In fitting data the time constant d' is determined by observations within the first few days postseismic and consequently is poorly defined. Adequate fits to the data are found by simply setting d'=0.001 yr and determining a', b', and c' by linear least squares. That the temporal dependence is so readily fit by both exponential and logarithmic functions suggests that the temporal dependence by itself

  5. Adjustment errors of sunstones in the first step of sky-polarimetric Viking navigation: studies with dichroic cordierite/ tourmaline and birefringent calcite crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Száz, Dénes; Farkas, Alexandra; Blahó, Miklós; Barta, András; Egri, Ádám; Kretzer, Balázs; Hegedüs, Tibor; Jäger, Zoltán; Horváth, Gábor

    2016-01-01

    According to an old but still unproven theory, Viking navigators analysed the skylight polarization with dichroic cordierite or tourmaline, or birefringent calcite sunstones in cloudy/foggy weather. Combining these sunstones with their sun-dial, they could determine the position of the occluded sun, from which the geographical northern direction could be guessed. In psychophysical laboratory experiments, we studied the accuracy of the first step of this sky-polarimetric Viking navigation. We measured the adjustment error e of rotatable cordierite, tourmaline and calcite crystals when the task was to determine the direction of polarization of white light as a function of the degree of linear polarization p. From the obtained error functions e(p), the thresholds p* above which the first step can still function (i.e. when the intensity change seen through the rotating analyser can be sensed) were derived. Cordierite is about twice as reliable as tourmaline. Calcite sunstones have smaller adjustment errors if the navigator looks for that orientation of the crystal where the intensity difference between the two spots seen in the crystal is maximal, rather than minimal. For higher p (greater than p crit) of incident light, the adjustment errors of calcite are larger than those of the dichroic cordierite (p crit=20%) and tourmaline (p crit=45%), while for lower p (less than p crit) calcite usually has lower adjustment errors than dichroic sunstones. We showed that real calcite crystals are not as ideal sunstones as it was believed earlier, because they usually contain scratches, impurities and crystal defects which increase considerably their adjustment errors. Thus, cordierite and tourmaline can also be at least as good sunstones as calcite. Using the psychophysical e(p) functions and the patterns of the degree of skylight polarization measured by full-sky imaging polarimetry, we computed how accurately the northern direction can be determined with the use of the Viking

  6. Transient stresses al Parkfield, California, produced by the M 7.4 Landers earthquake of June 28, 1992: implications for the time-dependence of fault friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Fletcher

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available he M 7.4 Landers earthquake triggered widespread seismicity in the Western U.S. Because the transient dynamic stresses induced at regional distances by the Landers surface waves are much larger than the expected static stresses, the magnitude and the characteristics of the dynamic stresses may bear upon the earthquake triggering mechanism. The Landers earthquake was recorded on the UPSAR array, a group of 14 triaxial accelerometers located within a 1-square-km region 10 km southwest of the town of Parkfield, California, 412 km northwest of the Landers epicenter. We used a standard geodetic inversion procedure to determine the surface strain and stress tensors as functions of time from the observed dynamic displacements. Peak dynamic strains and stresses at the Earth's surface are about 7 microstrain and 0.035 MPa, respectively, and they have a flat amplitude spectrum between 2 s and 15 s period. These stresses agree well with stresses predicted from a simple rule of thumb based upon the ground velocity spectrum observed at a single station. Peak stresses ranged from about 0.035 MPa at the surface to about 0.12 MPa between 2 and 14 km depth, with the sharp increase of stress away from the surface resulting from the rapid increase of rigidity with depth and from the influence of surface wave mode shapes. Comparison of Landers-induced static and dynamic stresses at the hypocenter of the Big Bear aftershock provides a clear example that faults are stronger on time scales of tens of seconds than on time scales of hours or longer.

  7. Anglo-Saxon Landscape and Economy: using portable antiquities to study Anglo-Saxon and Viking Age England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian D. Richards

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last fifteen years the role of metal-detected objects in archaeological research has greatly increased through reporting to the Portable Antiquities Scheme (PAS and the Early Medieval Corpus (EMC. There are now thousands more artefacts and coins known than a decade ago which, in conjunction with fieldwork, have the potential to revolutionise our understanding of the early medieval period. This is the first time that these data have been examined on a national scale. Such an approach enables the detailed analysis of the nature of portable antiquities data, the bias within such datasets and the relationship between patterns of recovery and historic settlement (Sections 2 and 3. In the light of these new interpretations of the overall datasets, the most artefact- and coin-rich sites, known as 'productive sites', can be analysed within a new framework of understanding (Section 4. This article is a major outcome of the Viking and Anglo-Saxon Landscape and Economy (VASLE project, funded by AHRC research grant APN18370. In addition to the narrative elements of the article, readers are able to access the original datasets to draw their own maps, and to call up charts of the artefact assemblages for over 60 'productive sites'. The secondary datasets developed for the project are also available from the Archaeology Data Service.

  8. Observations of upflowing ionospheric ions in the mid-altitude cusp/cleft region with the Viking satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thelin, B.; Aparicio, B.; Lundin, R.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of positive ions (0.1-10 keV) from the polar-orbiting Viking satellite have been obtained in the cusp/cleft region and have been tabulated in MLT versus invariant latitude plots to get a synoptic picture of the occurrence of upgoing auroral positive ions. A distinction was made between ion distributions with peak fluxes along B (ion beam) and those exhibiting flux maxima that are not field-aligned (conics). Both beams and conics are shown to be common auroral phenomena, whose frequencies of occurrence in MLT, invariant latitude, and altitude were studied. During the period of study (March-June 1986) the ion beams were more frequenty (about a factor of 2) in the dusk sector than in the dawn sector. This effect seemed to increase with magnetic activity but was mostly unchanged with the sign of the interplanetary magnetic field B y component. An investigation was also made of the invariant latitude dependence for beams and conics, where the dawn sector beams have a tendency to be lcoated toward higher invariant latitudes for both positive and negative B y components. The ion beams were observed primarily above 5,000 km with a frequency of occurrence increasing with altitude up to the satellite apogee at about 13,500 km. The ion conics were observed from above 7,000 km to be steadily increasing in altitude

  9. The configuration of the auroral distribution for interplanetary magnetic field Bz northward. 2. Ionospheric convection consistent with Viking observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowska, K.; Elphinstone, R.D.; Murphree, J.S.; Cogger, L.L.; Hearn, D.; Marklund, G.

    1990-01-01

    Views of the northern hemisphere auroral distribution obtained by the Viking satellite present a qualitative means of inferring the convective patterns which occur during interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) B z northward. The approach is taken whereby upward field-aligned currents are assumed to be coincident with large-scale discrete auroral features and on this basis possible convective patterns are deduced. While the patterns are not unique solutions, they are found to be consistent with merging theory predictions. That is, for B z northward the auroral observations support the possibility of three and/or four cell patterns. When the IMF azimuthal angle is 90 degree (270 degree), a clockwise (anticlockwise) cell is found to be located in the polar region between the two standard viscous cells. When IMF B x dominates and is in a toward orientation, convection stagnates, whereas if B x is negative, a four-cell pattern may form with sunward flow at very high latitudes. The concept of using global auroral images as an additional tool when developing convection models could prove to be necessary in order to extend beyond the few isolated measurements taken in situ by satellites

  10. Excavating past population structures by surname-based sampling: the genetic legacy of the Vikings in northwest England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Georgina R; Balaresque, Patricia; King, Turi E; Hansen, Ziff; Lee, Andrew C; Pergl-Wilson, Giles; Hurley, Emma; Roberts, Stephen J; Waite, Patrick; Jesch, Judith; Jones, Abigail L; Thomas, Mark G; Harding, Stephen E; Jobling, Mark A

    2008-02-01

    The genetic structures of past human populations are obscured by recent migrations and expansions and have been observed only indirectly by inference from modern samples. However, the unique link between a heritable cultural marker, the patrilineal surname, and a genetic marker, the Y chromosome, provides a means to target sets of modern individuals that might resemble populations at the time of surname establishment. As a test case, we studied samples from the Wirral Peninsula and West Lancashire, in northwest England. Place-names and archaeology show clear evidence of a past Viking presence, but heavy immigration and population growth since the industrial revolution are likely to have weakened the genetic signal of a 1,000-year-old Scandinavian contribution. Samples ascertained on the basis of 2 generations of residence were compared with independent samples based on known ancestry in the region plus the possession of a surname known from historical records to have been present there in medieval times. The Y-chromosomal haplotypes of these 2 sets of samples are significantly different, and in admixture analyses, the surname-ascertained samples show markedly greater Scandinavian ancestry proportions, supporting the idea that northwest England was once heavily populated by Scandinavian settlers. The method of historical surname-based ascertainment promises to allow investigation of the influence of migration and drift over the last few centuries in changing the population structure of Britain and will have general utility in other regions where surnames are patrilineal and suitable historical records survive.

  11. Genetic evidence for a family-based Scandinavian settlement of Shetland and Orkney during the Viking periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodacre, S; Helgason, A; Nicholson, J; Southam, L; Ferguson, L; Hickey, E; Vega, E; Stefánsson, K; Ward, R; Sykes, B

    2005-08-01

    The Viking age witnessed the expansion of Scandinavian invaders across much of northwestern Europe. While Scandinavian settlements had an enduring cultural impact on North Atlantic populations, the nature and extent of their genetic legacy in places such as Shetland and Orkney is not clear. In order to explore this question further, we have made an extensive survey of both Y-chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in the North Atlantic region. Our findings indicate an overall Scandinavian ancestry of approximately 44% for Shetland and approximately 30% for Orkney, with approximately equal contributions from Scandinavian male and female subjects in both cases. This contrasts with the situation for the Western Isles, where the overall Scandinavian ancestry is less ( approximately 15%) and where there is a disproportionately high contribution from Scandinavian males. In line with previous studies, we find that Iceland exhibits both the greatest overall amount of Scandinavian ancestry (55%) and the greatest discrepancy between Scandinavian male and female components. Our results suggest that while areas close to Scandinavia, such as Orkney and Shetland, may have been settled primarily by Scandinavian family groups, lone Scandinavian males, who later established families with female subjects from the British Isles, may have been prominent in areas more distant from their homeland.

  12. Signatures of the high-altitude polar cusp and dayside auroral regions as seen by the Viking electric field experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marklund, G.T.; Blomberg, L.G.; Faelthammar, C.G.; Erlandson, R.E.; Potemra, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Electric field and satellite potential observations along 42 Viking orbits in the high-altitude (2R E ) polar cusp and dayside auroral region have been examined. Within the cusp the plasma density usually reaches a maximum, and it is typically very homogeneous, in contrast to the irregular and lower density in the cleft and dayside auroral regions. The maxima in the plasma density are sometimes anticorrelated with the magnetic field strength, indicating a diamagnetic effect. The entire cusp and dayside auroral regions are characterized by irregular and burstlike electric fields, comprising field reversals on various scales (up to 3 min or 500 km), the larger scales, however, being rare in the cusp. Another common feature in these regions is the high correlation between mutually orthogonal components of the electric and magnetic fields, both for large-scale variations across spatial structures and for wave and pulsations in the ULF frequency range. The electric field signatures in the cusp (in the 1100-1300 MLT sector) are, however, characteristically different from the cleft and oval field signatures in that the electric field is usually less intense and less structured and not correlated with the substorm activity level

  13. Understanding the Lunar System Architecture Design Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arney, Dale C.; Wilhite, Alan W.; Reeves, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Based on the flexible path strategy and the desire of the international community, the lunar surface remains a destination for future human exploration. This paper explores options within the lunar system architecture design space, identifying performance requirements placed on the propulsive system that performs Earth departure within that architecture based on existing and/or near-term capabilities. The lander crew module and ascent stage propellant mass fraction are primary drivers for feasibility in multiple lander configurations. As the aggregation location moves further out of the lunar gravity well, the lunar lander is required to perform larger burns, increasing the sensitivity to these two factors. Adding an orbit transfer stage to a two-stage lunar lander and using a large storable stage for braking with a one-stage lunar lander enable higher aggregation locations than Low Lunar Orbit. Finally, while using larger vehicles enables a larger feasible design space, there are still feasible scenarios that use three launches of smaller vehicles.

  14. Return of the Viking: Restoring a Proven Asset to Combat an Advanced Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-12

    ability to project power.32F33 Among the threats are the land based DF-21D and DF-26 Anti -Surface Ballistic Missiles (ASBMs). These systems have an...strikers. Analysis of potential future conflicts projects the use of advanced Anti -Access/Area-Denial (A2/AD) systems and the requirement for the carrier... Anti -Access/Area Denial Challenges”.29F30 Specifically, in response to the development of sophisticated weapons systems by China and Iran “the U.S

  15. Discovery of three z > 6.5 quasars in the VISTA kilo-degree infrared galaxy (VIKING) survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venemans, B. P. [Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Findlay, J. R. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Sutherland, W. J. [Astronomy Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen Mary, University of London, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom); De Rosa, G. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); McMahon, R. G.; González-Solares, E. A.; Lewis, J. R. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Simcoe, R. [MIT-Kavli Center for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Kuijken, K., E-mail: venemans@mpia.de [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2013-12-10

    Studying quasars at the highest redshifts can constrain models of galaxy and black hole formation, and it also probes the intergalactic medium in the early universe. Optical surveys have to date discovered more than 60 quasars up to z ≅ 6.4, a limit set by the use of the z-band and CCD detectors. Only one z ≳ 6.4 quasar has been discovered, namely the z = 7.08 quasar ULAS J1120+0641, using near-infrared imaging. Here we report the discovery of three new z ≳ 6.4 quasars in 332 deg{sup 2} of the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy Kilo-degree Infrared Galaxy (VIKING) survey, thus extending the number from 1 to 4. The newly discovered quasars have redshifts of z = 6.60, 6.75, and 6.89. The absolute magnitudes are between –26.0 and –25.5, 0.6-1.1 mag fainter than ULAS J1120+0641. Near-infrared spectroscopy revealed the Mg II emission line in all three objects. The quasars are powered by black holes with masses of ∼(1-2) × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}. In our probed redshift range of 6.44 < z < 7.44 we can set a lower limit on the space density of supermassive black holes of ρ(M {sub BH} > 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}) > 1.1 × 10{sup –9} Mpc{sup –3}. The discovery of three quasars in our survey area is consistent with the z = 6 quasar luminosity function when extrapolated to z ∼ 7. We do not find evidence for a steeper decline in the space density of quasars with increasing redshift from z = 6 to z = 7.

  16. Vikinzi – dijalektika religioznosti u reafirmaciji ontologije ljudske veze / The Vikings: the Dialectics of Religiousness in the Reaffirmation of Ontology of Human Bond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđe Žutić

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines connection between methodological assumptions of philosophical counseling (philotherapy, as a form of psychoterapy, and psychoanalasys, in their key relation to the question of identity. While philotherapy pressuposes that a person possesses ‘firm’ ontological identity, which by an onsetting of behavioral disorders or psychopatologies gets ‘darkened’, addressing the subject’s speech this way would be, according to Lacan, from „it’s most unthankful angle“, where one „could never identify with the idea of his wish“. But what happens if fenomenalism of an artwork is the surface of things (‘here and now’, while policy takes over the force of generisation of identity? On the question what is behind it, we will give an explicative answer, in an artwork The Vikings: it displays a cumulative paradigm through which psychoanalasis deconstructed the legitimacy of conventional morality. Therefore, if the definition of the self ‘here and now’ was there and then, in a perspective taken toward person’s psychodinamics and the ‘nature’ of wish, it all points out to political unconscious. In The Vikings it is represented in an analysis of the myth of Valhalla. According to an experience of the main protagonist and in dialectics of religious concepts of Christianity and Vikings, we follow a narrative-technical scheme which grants a perspective of given context. In the outcome of its turnovers we will  see the equation of the nature of wish with the ethics of optimizing it’s object.

  17. Mid-Latitude versus Polar-Latitude Transitional Impact Craters: Geometric Properties from Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) Observations and Viking Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, A.; Garvin, J. B.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.

    1998-01-01

    One intriguing aspect of martian impact crater morphology is the change of crater cavity and ejecta characteristics from the mid-latitudes to the polar regions. This is thought to reflect differences in target properties such as an increasing presence of ice in the polar regions. Previous image-based efforts concerning martian crater morphology has documented some aspects of this, but has been hampered by the lack of adequate topography data. Recent Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) topographic profiles provide a quantitative perspective for interpreting the detailed morphologies of martian crater cavities and ejecta morphology. This study is a preliminary effort to quantify the latitude-dependent differences in morphology with the goal of identifying target-dependent and crater modification effects from the combined of images and MOLA topography. We combine the available MOLA profiles and the corresponding Viking Mars Digital Image Mosaics (MDIMS), and high resolution Viking Orbiter images to focus on two transitional craters; one on the mid-latitudes, and one in the North Polar region. One MOLA pass (MGS Orbit 34) traverses the center of a 15.9 km diameter fresh complex crater located at 12.8degN 83.8degE on the Hesperian ridge plains unit (Hvr). Viking images, as well as MOLA data, show that this crater has well developed wall terraces and a central peak with 429 m of relative relief. Three MOLA passes have been acquired for a second impact crater, which is located at 69.5degN 41degE on the Vastitas Borealis Formation. This fresh rampart crater lacks terraces and central peak structures and it has a depth af 579 m. Correlation between images and MOLA topographic profiles allows us to construct basic facies maps of the craters. Eight main units were identified, four of which are common on both craters.

  18. More about the Viking hypothesis of origin of the delta32 mutation in the CCR5 gene conferring resistance to HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucotte, Gérard; Dieterlen, Florent

    2003-11-01

    The chemokine receptor CCR5 constitutes the major coreceptor for the HIV-1, because a mutant allele of the CCR5 gene named delta32 was shown to provide to homozygotes a strong resistance against infection. In the present study the frequency of the delta32 allele was collected in 36 European populations and in Cyprus, and the highest allele frequencies were found in Nordic countries. We constructed an allele map of delta32 frequencies in Europe; the map is in accordance to the Vikings hypothesis of the origin of the mutation and his dissemination during the eighth to the tenth centuries.

  19. Morte, Sacrifício Humano e Renascimento : uma interpretação Iconográfica da Runestone Viking de Hammar I

    OpenAIRE

    Langer, Johnni

    2003-01-01

    O presente artigo interpreta uma fonte iconográfica ainda sem estudos acadêmicos detalhados, a runestone Viking de Hammar I, originária da ilha de Gotland (Suécia). Um importante documento sobre a mentalidade religiosa dos escandinavos, suas concepções mitológicas sobre as divindades, sacrifícios humanos, vida após a morte e alguns símbolos importantes para o culto ao deus Óðinn. Outro fundamental aspecto de nossa interpretação é a possibilidade de compararmos as clássicas fontes islandesas, ...

  20. Space qualification of an automotive microcontroller for the DREAMS-P/H pressure and humidity instrument on board the ExoMars 2016 Schiaparelli lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkanen, T.; Schmidt, W.; Harri, A.-M.; Genzer, M.; Hieta, M.; Haukka, H.; Kemppinen, O.

    2015-10-01

    Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) has developed a novel kind of pressure and humidity instrument for the Schiaparelli Mars lander, which is a part of the ExoMars 2016 mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) [1]. The DREAMS-P pressure instrument and DREAMS-H humidity instrument are part of the DREAMS science package on board the lander. DREAMS-P (seen in Fig. 1 and DREAMS-H were evolved from earlier planetary pressure and humidity instrument designs by FMI with a completely redesigned control and data unit. Instead of using the conventional approach of utilizing a space grade processor component, a commercial off the shelf microcontroller was selected for handling the pressure and humidity measurements. The new controller is based on the Freescale MC9S12XEP100 16-bit automotive microcontroller. Coordinated by FMI, a batch of these microcontroller units (MCUs) went through a custom qualification process in order to accept the component for spaceflight on board a Mars lander.

  1. Mars Atmosphere and Regolith COllector/PrOcessor for Lander Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project was established to build and demonstrate a methane/oxygen propellant production system in a Mars analog environment. Proving a propellant production...

  2. Organizational Assessment of the Depot Level Analysis Center for the Lockheed S-3 Viking Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    70 L8 els , Jb J .J. I. INTRODUCTION A. THE NECESSITY FOR AN ORGANIZED MAINTENANCE EFFORT Aviation is a most demanding and unforgiving discipline...OV-10 Bronco , C-130 Hercules, C-131 Samaritan, and H-46 Sea Knight aircraft system platforms. Providing fleet reported failure information to its...Requests ( El ) and Hazard Material Request (HMR’S) and Engineering Material Requests (EMR’s) concerning material directly related to the weapon platforms of

  3. Polarization transition between sunlit and moonlit skies with possible implications for animal orientation and Viking navigation: anomalous celestial twilight polarization at partial moon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, András; Farkas, Alexandra; Száz, Dénes; Egri, Ádám; Barta, Pál; Kovács, József; Csák, Balázs; Jankovics, István; Szabó, Gyula; Horváth, Gábor

    2014-08-10

    Using full-sky imaging polarimetry, we measured the celestial distribution of polarization during sunset and sunrise at partial (78% and 72%) and full (100%) moon in the red (650 nm), green (550 nm), and blue (450 nm) parts of the spectrum. We investigated the temporal change of the patterns of degree p and angle α of linear polarization of sunlit and moonlit skies at dusk and dawn. We describe here the position change of the neutral points of sky polarization, and present video clips about the celestial polarization transition at moonlit twilight. We found that at partial moon and at a medium latitude (47° 15.481' N) during this transition there is a relatively short (10-20 min) period when (i) the maximum of p of skylight decreases, and (ii) from the celestial α pattern neither the solar-antisolar nor the lunar-antilunar meridian can be unambiguously determined. These meridians can serve as reference directions of animal orientation and Viking navigation based on sky polarization. The possible influence of these atmospheric optical phenomena during the polarization transition between sunlit and moonlit skies on the orientation of polarization-sensitive crepuscular/nocturnal animals and the hypothesized navigation of sunstone-aided Viking seafarers is discussed.

  4. Real-Time Hazard Detection and Avoidance Demonstration for a Planetary Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, Chirold D.; Robertson, Edward A.; Carson, John M., III

    2014-01-01

    The Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) Project is chartered to develop and mature to a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of six an autonomous system combining guidance, navigation and control with terrain sensing and recognition functions for crewed, cargo, and robotic planetary landing vehicles. In addition to precision landing close to a pre-mission defined landing location, the ALHAT System must be capable of autonomously identifying and avoiding surface hazards in real-time to enable a safe landing under any lighting conditions. This paper provides an overview of the recent results of the ALHAT closed loop hazard detection and avoidance flight demonstrations on the Morpheus Vertical Testbed (VTB) at the Kennedy Space Center, including results and lessons learned. This effort is also described in the context of a technology path in support of future crewed and robotic planetary exploration missions based upon the core sensing functions of the ALHAT system: Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN), Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA), and Hazard Relative Navigation (HRN).

  5. Origin of energetic ions in the polar cusp inferred from ion composition measurements by the Viking satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kremser

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The magnetospheric ion composition spectrometer MICS on the Swedish Viking satellite provided measurements of the ion composition in the energy range 10.1 keV/e\\leqE/Q\\leq326.0 keV/e. Data obtained during orbit 842 were used to investigate the ion distribution in the northern polar cusp and its vicinity. The satellite traversed the outer ring current, boundary region, cusp proper and plasma mantle during its poleward movement. H+ and He++ ions were encountered in all of these regions. He+ ions were present only in the ring current. The number of O+ and O++ ions was very small. Heavy high-charge state ions typical for the solar wind were observed for the first time, most of them in the poleward part of the boundary region and in the cusp proper. The H+ ions exhibited two periods with high intensities. One of them, called the BR/CP event, appeared at energies up to 50 keV. It started at the equatorward limit of the boundary region and continued into the cusp proper. Energy spectra indicate a ring current origin for the BR/CP event. Pitch angle distributions show downward streaming of H+ ions at its equatorward limit and upward streaming on the poleward side. This event is interpreted as the result of pitch angle scattering of ring current ions by fluctuations in the magnetopause current layer in combination with poleward convection. The other of the two periods with high H+ ion intensities, called the accelerated ion event, was superimposed on the BR/CP event. It was restricted to energies \\leq15 keV and occurred in the poleward part of the boundary region. This event is regarded as the high-energy tail of magnetosheath ions that were accelerated while penetrating into the magnetosphere. The cusp region thus contains ions of magnetospheric as well as of magnetosheath origin. The appearance of the ions depends, in addition to the ion source, on the magnetic field configuration and dynamic processes inside and close to the cusp.

  6. Origin of energetic ions in the polar cusp inferred from ion composition measurements by the Viking satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kremser

    Full Text Available The magnetospheric ion composition spectrometer MICS on the Swedish Viking satellite provided measurements of the ion composition in the energy range 10.1 keV/eleqE/Qleq326.0 keV/e. Data obtained during orbit 842 were used to investigate the ion distribution in the northern polar cusp and its vicinity. The satellite traversed the outer ring current, boundary region, cusp proper and plasma mantle during its poleward movement. H+ and He++ ions were encountered in all of these regions. He+ ions were present only in the ring current. The number of O+ and O++ ions was very small. Heavy high-charge state ions typical for the solar wind were observed for the first time, most of them in the poleward part of the boundary region and in the cusp proper. The H+ ions exhibited two periods with high intensities. One of them, called the BR/CP event, appeared at energies up to 50 keV. It started at the equatorward limit of the boundary region and continued into the cusp proper. Energy spectra indicate a ring current origin for the BR/CP event. Pitch angle distributions show downward streaming of H+ ions at its equatorward limit and upward streaming on the poleward side. This event is interpreted as the result of pitch angle scattering of ring current ions by fluctuations in the magnetopause current layer in combination with poleward convection. The other of the two periods with high H+ ion intensities, called the accelerated ion event, was superimposed on the BR/CP event. It was restricted to energies leq15 keV and occurred in the poleward part of the boundary region. This event is regarded as the high-energy tail of magnetosheath ions that were accelerated while penetrating into the magnetosphere. The cusp region thus contains ions of magnetospheric as well as of magnetosheath origin. The appearance of the ions depends, in addition to the ion source, on the

  7. Design of a 2000 lbf LOX/LCH4 Throttleable Rocket Engine for a Vertical Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Israel

    Liquid oxygen (LOX) and liquid methane (LCH4) has been recognized as an attractive rocket propellant combination because of its in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) capabilities, namely in Mars. ISRU would allow launch vehicles to carry greater payloads and promote missions to Mars. This has led to an increasing interest to develop spacecraft technologies that employ this propellant combination. The UTEP Center for Space Exploration and Technology Research (cSETR) has focused part of its research efforts to developing LOX/LCH4 systems. One of those projects includes the development of a vertical takeoff and landing vehicle called JANUS. This vehicle will employ a LOX/LCH 4 propulsion system. The main propulsion engine is called CROME-X and is currently being developed as part of this project. This rocket engine will employ LOX/LCH4 propellants and is intended to operate from 2000-500 lbf thrust range. This thesis describes the design and development of CROME-X. Specifically, it describes the design process for the main engine components, the design criteria for each, and plans for future engine development.

  8. Calculation of earthquake rupture histories using a hybrid global search algorithm: Application to the 1992 Landers, California, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzell, S.; Liu, P.

    1996-01-01

    A method is presented for the simultaneous calculation of slip amplitudes and rupture times for a finite fault using a hybrid global search algorithm. The method we use combines simulated annealing with the downhill simplex method to produce a more efficient search algorithm then either of the two constituent parts. This formulation has advantages over traditional iterative or linearized approaches to the problem because it is able to escape local minima in its search through model space for the global optimum. We apply this global search method to the calculation of the rupture history for the Landers, California, earthquake. The rupture is modeled using three separate finite-fault planes to represent the three main fault segments that failed during this earthquake. Both the slip amplitude and the time of slip are calculated for a grid work of subfaults. The data used consist of digital, teleseismic P and SH body waves. Long-period, broadband, and short-period records are utilized to obtain a wideband characterization of the source. The results of the global search inversion are compared with a more traditional linear-least-squares inversion for only slip amplitudes. We use a multi-time-window linear analysis to relax the constraints on rupture time and rise time in the least-squares inversion. Both inversions produce similar slip distributions, although the linear-least-squares solution has a 10% larger moment (7.3 ?? 1026 dyne-cm compared with 6.6 ?? 1026 dyne-cm). Both inversions fit the data equally well and point out the importance of (1) using a parameterization with sufficient spatial and temporal flexibility to encompass likely complexities in the rupture process, (2) including suitable physically based constraints on the inversion to reduce instabilities in the solution, and (3) focusing on those robust rupture characteristics that rise above the details of the parameterization and data set.

  9. Casa mea cetatea mea. Recenzie la cartea - Mette Svart Kristiansen, Kate Giles (eds, Dwellings, Identities and Homes. European Housing Culture from the Viking Age to the Renaissance, Jutland Archaeological Society, Aarhus University Press, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu Musteata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of the book - Casa mea cetatea mea. Recenzie la cartea - Mette Svart Kristiansen, Kate Giles (eds, Dwellings, Identities and Homes. European Housing Culture from the Viking Age to the Renaissance, Jutland Archaeological Society, Aarhus University Press, 2014

  10. Rosetta Orbiter and Lander: Our Evolving Understanding of Comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Claudia

    2015-08-01

    Rosetta is the third cornerstone mission of the European Space Agency's (ESA) comprehensive Horizon 2000 Programme. It was designed to find, and examine, some of the original material of the solar system; to help us understand how the comet works as a machine to absorb and re-radiate energy from the sun; to characterize the thermophysical properties and structure of the body, and to complete an inventory of its dusty, organic, and isotopic composition. At the time of the conference, Rosetta will be at perihelion, portions of the surface that were initially in sunlight will be in complete darkness, and portions initially only partially exposed to the sun will be experiencing summer. At the time of the conference, a planned pass into a comet plume may have yielded important measurements. Up-to-date logistics of Rosetta exploration will be discussed.Rosetta has already provided a rich mother-lode of data on this intriguing object, from the early measurements of D/H ratio, to the first-time measurement of N2 in a small body, to the unique ‘dragon-egg’ morphology seen in selected places on the surface. In this talk, I'll review some of the principle results so far of the Rosetta mission, including what we know of comet activity, the showers of grains, and developing magnetic field induced cometospheric boundaries and coma environment. I'll review the landing and walk through the 60 hours of time the probe spent on the comet's surface. Finally I'll discuss some of the intriguing questions that might be answered with the perihelion pass, such as does the observed increase in this comet’s rotation period indicate a sign of comet inflation or disruption?

  11. Deciphering diet and monitoring movement: Multiple stable isotope analysis of the viking age settlement at Hofstaðir, Lake Mývatn, Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayle, Kerry L; Hamilton, W Derek; Cook, Gordon T; Ascough, Philippa L; Gestsdóttir, Hildur; McGovern, Thomas H

    2016-05-01

    A previous multi-isotope study of archaeological faunal samples from Skútustaðir, an early Viking age settlement on the southern shores of Lake Mývatn in north-east Iceland, demonstrated that there are clear differences in δ(34)S stable isotope values between animals deriving their dietary protein from terrestrial, freshwater, and marine reservoirs. The aim of this study was to use this information to more accurately determine the diet of humans excavated from a nearby late Viking age churchyard. δ(13)C, δ(15)N, and δ(34)S analyses were undertaken on terrestrial animal (n = 39) and human (n = 46) bone collagen from Hofstaðir, a high-status Viking-period farmstead ∼10 km north-west of Skútustaðir. δ(34)S values for Hofstaðir herbivores were ∼6‰ higher relative to those from Skútustaðir (δ(34)S: 11.4 ± 2.3‰ versus 5.6 ± 2.8‰), while human δ(13)C, δ(15)N, and δ(34)S values were broad ranging (-20.2‰ to -17.3‰, 7.4‰ to 12.3‰, and 5.5‰ to 14.9‰, respectively). Results suggest that the baseline δ(34)S value for the Mývatn region is higher than previously predicted due to a possible sea-spray effect, but the massive deposition of Tanytarsus gracilentus (midges) (δ(34)S: -3.9‰) in the soil in the immediate vicinity of the lake is potentially lowering this value. Several terrestrial herbivores displayed higher bone collagen δ(34)S values than their contemporaries, suggesting trade and/or movement of animals to the region from coastal areas. Broad ranging δ(13)C, δ(15)N, and δ(34)S values for humans suggest the population were consuming varied diets, while outliers within the dataset could conceivably have been migrants to the area. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Accuracy of the hypothetical sky-polarimetric Viking navigation versus sky conditions: revealing solar elevations and cloudinesses favourable for this navigation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Száz, Dénes; Farkas, Alexandra; Barta, András; Kretzer, Balázs; Blahó, Miklós; Egri, Ádám; Szabó, Gyula; Horváth, Gábor

    2017-09-01

    According to Thorkild Ramskou's theory proposed in 1967, under overcast and foggy skies, Viking seafarers might have used skylight polarization analysed with special crystals called sunstones to determine the position of the invisible Sun. After finding the occluded Sun with sunstones, its elevation angle had to be measured and its shadow had to be projected onto the horizontal surface of a sun compass. According to Ramskou's theory, these sunstones might have been birefringent calcite or dichroic cordierite or tourmaline crystals working as polarizers. It has frequently been claimed that this method might have been suitable for navigation even in cloudy weather. This hypothesis has been accepted and frequently cited for decades without any experimental support. In this work, we determined the accuracy of this hypothetical sky-polarimetric Viking navigation for 1080 different sky situations characterized by solar elevation θ and cloudiness ρ, the sky polarization patterns of which were measured by full-sky imaging polarimetry. We used the earlier measured uncertainty functions of the navigation steps 1, 2 and 3 for calcite, cordierite and tourmaline sunstone crystals, respectively, and the newly measured uncertainty function of step 4 presented here. As a result, we revealed the meteorological conditions under which Vikings could have used this hypothetical navigation method. We determined the solar elevations at which the navigation uncertainties are minimal at summer solstice and spring equinox for all three sunstone types. On average, calcite sunstone ensures a more accurate sky-polarimetric navigation than tourmaline and cordierite. However, in some special cases (generally at 35° ≤ θ ≤ 40°, 1 okta ≤ ρ ≤ 6 oktas for summer solstice, and at 20° ≤ θ ≤ 25°, 0 okta ≤ ρ ≤ 4 oktas for spring equinox), the use of tourmaline and cordierite results in smaller navigation uncertainties than that of calcite. Generally, under clear or less cloudy

  13. Accuracy of the hypothetical sky-polarimetric Viking navigation versus sky conditions: revealing solar elevations and cloudinesses favourable for this navigation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Száz, Dénes; Farkas, Alexandra; Barta, András; Kretzer, Balázs; Blahó, Miklós; Egri, Ádám; Szabó, Gyula; Horváth, Gábor

    2017-09-01

    According to Thorkild Ramskou's theory proposed in 1967, under overcast and foggy skies, Viking seafarers might have used skylight polarization analysed with special crystals called sunstones to determine the position of the invisible Sun. After finding the occluded Sun with sunstones, its elevation angle had to be measured and its shadow had to be projected onto the horizontal surface of a sun compass. According to Ramskou's theory, these sunstones might have been birefringent calcite or dichroic cordierite or tourmaline crystals working as polarizers. It has frequently been claimed that this method might have been suitable for navigation even in cloudy weather. This hypothesis has been accepted and frequently cited for decades without any experimental support. In this work, we determined the accuracy of this hypothetical sky-polarimetric Viking navigation for 1080 different sky situations characterized by solar elevation θ and cloudiness ρ , the sky polarization patterns of which were measured by full-sky imaging polarimetry. We used the earlier measured uncertainty functions of the navigation steps 1, 2 and 3 for calcite, cordierite and tourmaline sunstone crystals, respectively, and the newly measured uncertainty function of step 4 presented here. As a result, we revealed the meteorological conditions under which Vikings could have used this hypothetical navigation method. We determined the solar elevations at which the navigation uncertainties are minimal at summer solstice and spring equinox for all three sunstone types. On average, calcite sunstone ensures a more accurate sky-polarimetric navigation than tourmaline and cordierite. However, in some special cases (generally at 35° ≤  θ  ≤ 40°, 1 okta ≤  ρ  ≤ 6 oktas for summer solstice, and at 20° ≤  θ  ≤ 25°, 0 okta ≤  ρ  ≤ 4 oktas for spring equinox), the use of tourmaline and cordierite results in smaller navigation uncertainties than that of calcite

  14. The Viking Portable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alan S.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a final exercise that gives composition students a better sense of how they have grown as writers during the semester. Students review, edit, and make conclusions on their "selected works," preparing a manuscript-like folder. (HTH)

  15. Viking stranger kings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobat, Andres S.

    2015-01-01

    as a materialization of a stranger king myth, with the ship‐setting reproducing the narrative of the founding of the dynasty by an immigrant forefather, and the burial mounds conveying the idea of the foreign king taking possession of the locals’ land. In a broader erspective, the stranger king concept and the special...

  16. The last Viking King

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing, J.; Binladen, J.; Hansen, Anders J.

    2007-01-01

    of King Sven Estridsen to haplogroup H; Estrid's sequence differed from that of Sven at two positions in HVR-1, 16093T -> C and 16304T -> C, indicating that she belongs to subgroup H5a. Given the maternal inheritance of mtDNA, offspring will have the same mtDNA sequence as their mother with the exception......, there have been doubts among historians whether the woman entombed was indeed Estrid. To shed light on this problem, we have extracted and analysed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from pulp of teeth from each of the two royals. Four overlapping DNA-fragments covering about 400 bp of hypervariable region 1 (HVR-1...

  17. From Vikings to Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gert Tinggaard, Svendsen; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    not destroyed but rather accumulated in the following centuries up till the universal welfare state of the 20th century. Focusing on the case of Denmark, our tentative argument is that social trust was not destroyed through five subsequent phases of state building but rather enhanced. Long-run political...... stability arguably allows such a self-reinforcing process over time between institutions and social trust....

  18. Thermal infrared properties of the Martian atmosphere 4. Predictions of the presence of dust and ice clouds from Viking IRTM spectral measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, G.E.

    1979-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the response of the Martian atmosphere at the wavelengths measured by the Viking infrared thermal mapper instrument (IRTM) to the presence of varying amounts of dust and water ice clouds. A detailed radiative transfer study is represented to show that these IRTM measurements at channels centered at 7, 9, 11, and 20 μm may be used to differentiate between the presence of dust and water ice clouds in the Martian atmosphere. They show further that these measurements may also be used to provide some information on the structure of the lower atmosphere. The use of the IRTM measurements in the manner we describe can provide information associated with the thermal characteristics of Martian dust storms

  19. Were Viking Dry-dock methods in the Americas used earlier to Build Pyramids, with Outflow Eroding the Sphinx, and were Stonehenge, the Obelisks, and Moas Similarly Erected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Edward; McLeod, Roger

    2006-03-01

    Chisel-quarried recycled granite in MA is datable by runes to 1069 CE; it could corroborate dating by a LIDAR. Associated sites, possibly used by Vikings to dry-dock their ships, could have exploited lock-like controls, possibly a continued technology. Site-leveling at the Giza Pyramids proves water was used. `Locks' and body-immersion worked for building, moving, erecting, or watering, at sites like Stonehenge, The Hanging Gardens at Babylon, the Moas of Easter Island, or The Pyramids, where the eroding water discharge was deliberately flushed over the Sphinx complex. It enhance the electromagnetically excited blue light signals we can detect, especially at sites frequented by Molocket of ME. Information, as at America's Stonehenge, in NH, and constructions at Acton MA, at Giza or at Rumford ME proves that the Pyramids and Sphinx were engineered and built about 4500 BP.

  20. Investigation of the problems associated with the Pt-20 Rh clads of the viking heat sources VF-3 and VF-7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinski, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    The investigation was undertaken to determine why the emissive coatings of the Viking Heat Sources VF-3 and VF-7 had flaked off the Pt-20 Rh clad material. During the course of the investigation, two additional, unusual phenomena were observed: a surface reaction zone on the uncoated Pt-20 Rh surfaces and grain boundary reactions in the weld zone of the clad. It seems that all three phenomena were the result of a complicated reaction couple that involved the heat source materials, storage container materials, and environment. Vapor transport mechanisms were responsible for the phenomena which were observed. The vapor transport mechanisms were probably initiated because of the impurities that were in both the heat source and storage container materials. The mechanisms resulted in significant changes in these heat sources because vapor transport was allowed to continue in a static environment for an unusually long period of time. (U.S.)

  1. Antiviral activity of dolutegravir in subjects with failure on an integrase inhibitor-based regimen: week 24 phase 3 results from VIKING-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, G; Mills, A; Grossberg, R; Lazzarin, A; Maggiolo, F; Molina, J; Pialoux, G; Wright, D; Ait-Khaled, M; Huang, J; Vavro, C; Wynne, B; Yeo, J

    2012-01-01

    Background VIKING-3 aimed to examine efficacy and safety of dolutegravir (DTG) 50 mg twice daily in patients with resistance to multiple ARV classes, including integrase inhibitors (INI). Methods RAL and/or EVG-resistant (current or historical) adult subjects with screening plasma HIV-1 RNA ≥500 c/mL and resistance to ≥2 other ART classes received open-label DTG 50 mg BID while continuing their failing regimen (without RAL/EVG). At Day 8 the background regimen was optimised and DTG continued. Activity of the optimized background regimen (OBR) was determined by Monogram Net Assessment. Primary endpoints were antiviral efficacy at Day 8 and Week 24. Results 183 subjects enrolled, 124 with INI-resistance at screening and 59 with historical (but no screening) resistance. Population was advanced: at BL, median CD4 140, prior ART 13 yrs, 56% CDC Class C; 79% had >2 NRTI, 75% >1 NNRTI, and 70% >2 PI resistance-associated mutations, and 61% had non-R5 HIV detected. Of the 114 subjects who had the opportunity to complete 24 weeks on study before data cutoff, 72 (63%) had 1 log HIV RNA decline of 2, respectively. Discontinuations due to adverse events were uncommon (6/183, 3%); the most common drug-related AEs were diarrhoea, nausea and headache, each reported in only 5% of subjects. Conclusion A majority of the highly treatment-experienced subjects in VIKING-3 achieved suppression with DTG-based therapy. Responses were associated with Baseline IN genotype but not OSS, highlighting the importance and independence of DTG antiviral activity. DTG had a low rate of discontinuation due to adverse events at 50 mg BID in this advanced patient population.

  2. Dolutegravir in antiretroviral-experienced patients with raltegravir- and/or elvitegravir-resistant HIV-1: 24-week results of the phase III VIKING-3 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagna, Antonella; Maggiolo, Franco; Penco, Giovanni; Wright, David; Mills, Anthony; Grossberg, Robert; Molina, Jean-Michel; Chas, Julie; Durant, Jacques; Moreno, Santiago; Doroana, Manuela; Ait-Khaled, Mounir; Huang, Jenny; Min, Sherene; Song, Ivy; Vavro, Cindy; Nichols, Garrett; Yeo, Jane M

    2014-08-01

    The pilot phase IIb VIKING study suggested that dolutegravir (DTG), a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) integrase inhibitor (INI), would be efficacious in INI-resistant patients at the 50 mg twice daily (BID) dose. VIKING-3 is a single-arm, open-label phase III study in which therapy-experienced adults with INI-resistant virus received DTG 50 mg BID while continuing their failing regimen (without raltegravir or elvitegravir) through day 7, after which the regimen was optimized with ≥1 fully active drug and DTG continued. The primary efficacy endpoints were the mean change from baseline in plasma HIV-1 RNA at day 8 and the proportion of subjects with HIV-1 RNA <50 c/mL at week 24. Mean change in HIV-1 RNA at day 8 was -1.43 log10 c/mL, and 69% of subjects achieved <50 c/mL at week 24. Multivariate analyses demonstrated a strong association between baseline DTG susceptibility and response. Response was most reduced in subjects with Q148 + ≥2 resistance-associated mutations. DTG 50 mg BID had a low (3%) discontinuation rate due to adverse events, similar to INI-naive subjects receiving DTG 50 mg once daily. DTG 50 mg BID-based therapy was effective in this highly treatment-experienced population with INI-resistant virus. www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01328041) and http://www.gsk-clinicalstudywww.gsk-clinicalstudyregister.com (112574). © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  3. Celestial polarization patterns sufficient for Viking navigation with the naked eye: detectability of Haidinger's brushes on the sky versus meteorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Gábor; Takács, Péter; Kretzer, Balázs; Szilasi, Szilvia; Száz, Dénes; Farkas, Alexandra; Barta, András

    2017-02-01

    If a human looks at the clear blue sky from which light with high enough degree of polarization d originates, an 8-shaped bowtie-like figure, the yellow Haidinger's brush can be perceived, the long axis of which points towards the sun. A band of high d arcs across the sky at 90° from the sun. A person can pick two points on that band, observe the yellow brushes and triangulate the position of the sun based on the orientation of the two observed brushes. This method has been suggested to have been used on the open sea by Viking navigators to determine the position of the invisible sun occluded by cloud or fog. Furthermore, Haidinger's brushes can also be used to locate the sun when it is below the horizon or occluded by objects on the horizon. To determine the position of the sun using the celestial polarization pattern, the d of the portion of the sky used must be greater than the viewer's degree of polarization threshold d* for perception of Haidinger's brushes. We studied under which sky conditions the prerequisite d > d* is satisfied. Using full-sky imaging polarimetry, we measured the d-pattern of skylight in the blue (450 nm) spectral range for 1296 different meteorological conditions with different solar elevation angles θ and per cent cloud cover ρ. From the measured d-patterns of a given sky we determined the proportion P of the sky for which d > d*. We obtained that P is the largest at low solar elevations θ ≈ 0° and under totally or nearly clear skies with cloud coverage ρ = 0%, when the sun's position is already easily determined. If the sun is below the horizon (-5° ≤ θ Viking navigation based on Haidinger's brushes is most useful after sunset and prior to sunrise, when the sun is not visible and large sky regions are bright, clear and polarized enough for perception of Haidinger's brushes.

  4. Dolutegravir in Antiretroviral-Experienced Patients With Raltegravir- and/or Elvitegravir-Resistant HIV-1: 24-Week Results of the Phase III VIKING-3 Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagna, Antonella; Maggiolo, Franco; Penco, Giovanni; Wright, David; Mills, Anthony; Grossberg, Robert; Molina, Jean-Michel; Chas, Julie; Durant, Jacques; Moreno, Santiago; Doroana, Manuela; Ait-Khaled, Mounir; Huang, Jenny; Min, Sherene; Song, Ivy; Vavro, Cindy; Nichols, Garrett; Yeo, Jane M.; Aberg, J.; Akil, B.; Arribas, J. R.; Baril, J.-G.; Blanco Arévalo, J. L.; Blanco Quintana, F.; Blick, G.; Boix Martínez, V.; Bouchaud, O.; Branco, T.; Bredeek, U. F.; Castro Iglesias, M.; Clumeck, N.; Conway, B.; DeJesus, E.; Delassus, J.-L.; De Truchis, P.; Di Perri, G.; Di Pietro, M.; Duggan, J.; Duvivier, C.; Elion, R.; Eron, J.; Fish, D.; Gathe, J.; Haubrich, R.; Henderson, H.; Hicks, C.; Hocqueloux, L.; Hodder, S.; Hsiao, C.-B.; Katlama, C.; Kozal, M.; Kumar, P.; Lalla-Reddy, S.; Lazzarin, A.; Leoncini, F.; Llibre, J. M.; Mansinho, K.; Morlat, P.; Mounzer, K.; Murphy, M.; Newman, C.; Nguyen, T.; Nseir, B.; Philibert, P.; Pialoux, G.; Poizot-Martin, I.; Ramgopal, M.; Richmond, G.; Salmon Ceron, D.; Sax, P.; Scarsella, A.; Sension, M.; Shalit, P.; Sighinolfi, L.; Sloan, L.; Small, C.; Stein, D.; Tashima, K.; Tebas, P.; Torti, C.; Tribble, M.; Troisvallets, D.; Tsoukas, C.; Viciana Fernández, P.; Ward, D.; Wheeler, D.; Wilkin, T.; Yeni, G.-P.; Louise Martin-Carpenter, J.; Uhlenbrauck, Gina

    2014-01-01

    Background. The pilot phase IIb VIKING study suggested that dolutegravir (DTG), a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) integrase inhibitor (INI), would be efficacious in INI-resistant patients at the 50 mg twice daily (BID) dose. Methods. VIKING-3 is a single-arm, open-label phase III study in which therapy-experienced adults with INI-resistant virus received DTG 50 mg BID while continuing their failing regimen (without raltegravir or elvitegravir) through day 7, after which the regimen was optimized with ≥1 fully active drug and DTG continued. The primary efficacy endpoints were the mean change from baseline in plasma HIV-1 RNA at day 8 and the proportion of subjects with HIV-1 RNA <50 c/mL at week 24. Results. Mean change in HIV-1 RNA at day 8 was −1.43 log10 c/mL, and 69% of subjects achieved <50 c/mL at week 24. Multivariate analyses demonstrated a strong association between baseline DTG susceptibility and response. Response was most reduced in subjects with Q148 + ≥2 resistance-associated mutations. DTG 50 mg BID had a low (3%) discontinuation rate due to adverse events, similar to INI-naive subjects receiving DTG 50 mg once daily. Conclusions. DTG 50 mg BID–based therapy was effective in this highly treatment-experienced population with INI-resistant virus. Clinical Trials Registration. www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01328041) and http://www.gsk-clinicalstudywww.gsk-clinicalstudyregister.com (112574). PMID:24446523

  5. Strip detectors read-out system user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claus, G.; Dulinski, W.; Lounis, A.

    1996-01-01

    The Strip Detector Read-out System consists of two VME modules: SDR-Flash and SDR-seq completed by a fast logic SDR-Trig stand alone card. The system is a self-consistent, cost effective and easy use solution for the read-out of analog multiplexed signals coming from some of the front-end electronics chips (Viking/VA chips family, Premus 128 etc...) currently used together with solid (silicon) or gas microstrip detectors. (author)

  6. GPS Monitoring of Surface Change During and Following the Fortuitous Occurrence of the M(sub w) = 7.3 Landers Earthquake in our Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M. Meghan

    1998-01-01

    Accomplishments: (1) Continues GPS monitoring of surface change during and following the fortuitous occurrence of the M(sub w) = 7.3 Landers earthquake in our network, in order to characterize earthquake dynamics and accelerated activity of related faults as far as 100's of kilometers along strike. (2) Integrates the geodetic constraints into consistent kinematic descriptions of the deformation field that can in turn be used to characterize the processes that drive geodynamics, including seismic cycle dynamics. In 1991, we installed and occupied a high precision GPS geodetic network to measure transform-related deformation that is partitioned from the Pacific - North America plate boundary northeastward through the Mojave Desert, via the Eastern California shear zone to the Walker Lane. The onset of the M(sub w) = 7.3 June 28, 1992, Landers, California, earthquake sequence within this network poses unique opportunities for continued monitoring of regional surface deformation related to the culmination of a major seismic cycle, characterization of the dynamic behavior of continental lithosphere during the seismic sequence, and post-seismic transient deformation. During the last year, we have reprocessed all three previous epochs for which JPL fiducial free point positioning products available and are queued for the remaining needed products, completed two field campaigns monitoring approx. 20 sites (October 1995 and September 1996), begun modeling by development of a finite element mesh based on network station locations, and developed manuscripts dealing with both the Landers-related transient deformation at the latitude of Lone Pine and the velocity field of the whole experiment. We are currently deploying a 1997 observation campaign (June 1997). We use GPS geodetic studies to characterize deformation in the Mojave Desert region and related structural domains to the north, and geophysical modeling of lithospheric behavior. The modeling is constrained by our

  7. Earthquake cycle modeling of multi-segmented faults: dynamic rupture and ground motion simulation of the 1992 Mw 7.3 Landers earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petukhin, A.; Galvez, P.; Somerville, P.; Ampuero, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    We perform earthquake cycle simulations to study the characteristics of source scaling relations and strong ground motions and in multi-segmented fault ruptures. For earthquake cycle modeling, a quasi-dynamic solver (QDYN, Luo et al, 2016) is used to nucleate events and the fully dynamic solver (SPECFEM3D, Galvez et al., 2014, 2016) is used to simulate earthquake ruptures. The Mw 7.3 Landers earthquake has been chosen as a target earthquake to validate our methodology. The SCEC fault geometry for the three-segmented Landers rupture is included and extended at both ends to a total length of 200 km. We followed the 2-D spatial correlated Dc distributions based on Hillers et. al. (2007) that associates Dc distribution with different degrees of fault maturity. The fault maturity is related to the variability of Dc on a microscopic scale. Large variations of Dc represents immature faults and lower variations of Dc represents mature faults. Moreover we impose a taper (a-b) at the fault edges and limit the fault depth to 15 km. Using these settings, earthquake cycle simulations are performed to nucleate seismic events on different sections of the fault, and dynamic rupture modeling is used to propagate the ruptures. The fault segmentation brings complexity into the rupture process. For instance, the change of strike between fault segments enhances strong variations of stress. In fact, Oglesby and Mai (2012) show the normal stress varies from positive (clamping) to negative (unclamping) between fault segments, which leads to favorable or unfavorable conditions for rupture growth. To replicate these complexities and the effect of fault segmentation in the rupture process, we perform earthquake cycles with dynamic rupture modeling and generate events similar to the Mw 7.3 Landers earthquake. We extract the asperities of these events and analyze the scaling relations between rupture area, average slip and combined area of asperities versus moment magnitude. Finally, the

  8. Gaydar, Marriage, and Rip-Roaring Homosexuals: Discourses About Homosexuality in Dear Abby and Ann Landers Advice Columns, 1967-1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Patrick M; Holmes, Kwame A

    2017-12-04

    Over the past 70 years, the history of acceptance of the lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) community within the United States has seen much change and fluctuation. One of the places that this dialogue has been preserved is through the syndicated advice columns of Dear Abby and Ann Landers, in which individuals in the United States were writing in for advice to deal with their anxiety over a newly emerging and highly visible new community of individuals once considered to be mentally ill and dangerous. Using discourse analysis, this article traces the evolution of public and scientific opinions about the LGBT community during the years leading up to the Stonewall riots all the way to right before the AIDs epidemic. This analysis sheds light on several moral panics that emerged regarding this newly visible population, especially in regard to disturbances within the domestic sphere and a stigmatization of bisexuality.

  9. The Effects of Aronia melanocarpa 'Viking' Extracts in Attenuating RANKL-Induced Osteoclastic Differentiation by Inhibiting ROS Generation and c-FOS/NFATc1 Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Mithun; Kim, In Sook; Lee, Young Min; Hong, Seong Min; Lee, Taek Hwan; Lim, Ji Hong; Debnath, Trishna; Lim, Beong Ou

    2018-03-08

    This study aimed to determine the anti-osteoclastogenic effects of extracts from Aronia melanocarpa 'Viking' (AM) and identify the underlying mechanisms in vitro. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are signal mediators in osteoclast differentiation. AM extracts inhibited ROS production in RAW 264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner and exhibited strong radical scavenging activity. The extracts also attenuated the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinucleated osteoclasts. To attain molecular insights, the effect of the extracts on the signaling pathways induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) were also investigated. RANKL triggers many transcription factors through the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and ROS, leading to the induction of osteoclast-specific genes. The extracts significantly suppressed RANKL-induced activation of MAPKs, such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun- N -terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 and consequently led to the downregulation of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 (NFATc1) protein expression which ultimately suppress the activation of the osteoclast-specific genes, cathepsin K, TRAP, calcitonin receptor and integrin β₃. In conclusion, our findings suggest that AM extracts inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation by downregulating ROS generation and inactivating JNK/ERK/p38, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)-mediated c-Fos and NFATc1 signaling pathway.

  10. The configuration of the auroral distribution for interplanetary magnetic field Bz northward. 1. IMF Bx and By dependencies as observed by the Viking satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliphinstone, R.D.; Jankowska, K.; Murphree, J.S.; Cogger, L.L.

    1990-01-01

    Viking images obtained throughout 1986 have been utilized in combination with IMP 8 satellite measurements of the interplanetary magnetic fields (IMF) to determine typical northern hemisphere auroral distributions for a variety of IMF B z positive conditions. Varying B y has an effect which is consistent with expected results. That is, B y positive implies high-latitude auroral arcs in the dusk sector while negative B y gives dawn sector polar arcs. A new result gives significant importance to the B x component of the IMF. B x toward the Sun (B y = 0) gives polar arcs on both dawn and dusk with comparatively weak UV emissions. With B x away from the Sun (B y = 0) a single Sun-aligned morning sector polar arc dominates the auroral distribution. Azimuthal angle changes to the IMF of only 45 degree seem to affect the global auroral distribution with time scales of less than 2-3 hours. Poleward boundaries of the aurora were found to have a strong dependence on the IMF azimuthal angle which varied according to the magnetic local time investigated

  11. Environmental Technology Verification Report. Field Portable Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer. Viking Instruments Corporation SpectraTrak (Trademark) 672

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Enfield, Wayne

    1997-01-01

    .... This self-contained, field transportable system, whose design has been adapted from laboratory technology, uses a contained, chromatographic column and accompanying mass spectrometer to provide...

  12. Ácido giberélico (GA3 no crisântemo (Dedranthema grandiflora Tzvelev. de corte 'viking': cultivo verão/outono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Claudinei Márcio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar a ação do ácido giberélico (AG3 em plantas crisântemo de corte 'Viking' quanto a parâmetros fenométricos, melhor época e concentração da aplicação para obter-se hastes de melhor qualidade no cultivo de verão/outono. Avaliou-se o efeito de cinco épocas de aplicação (sem aplicação, aplicação na segunda, quarta, oitava e décima semana após o plantio e quatro concentrações (0, 100, 200 e 300 mg.L-1 de GA3. Verificou-se que as maiores alturas foram obtidas com as aplicações na segunda e quarta semanas de cultivo e nas concentrações entre 200 a 300 mg.L-1. O maior diâmetro de haste e pedúnculo floral foram obtidos com a aplicação de 100 a 200 mg.L-1 GA3 na quarta semana. A concentração de 200 mg.L-1 de GA3, independente da época de aplicação proporcionou a antecipação do florescimento em cinco dias, todas as concentrações aplicadas a partir da oitava semana provocaram o clareamento do disco floral.

  13. (Ca,Mg)-Carbonate and Mg-Carbonate at the Phoenix Landing Site: Evaluation of the Phoenix Lander's Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) Data Using Laboratory Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, B.; Ming, D. W.; Boynton, W. V.; Niles, P. B.; Morris, R. V.

    2011-01-01

    Calcium carbonate (4.5 wt. %) was detected in the soil at the Phoenix Landing site by the Phoenix Lander s The Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer [1]. TEGA operated at 12 mbar pressure, yet the detection of calcium carbonate is based on interpretations derived from thermal analysis literature of carbonates measured under ambient (1000 mbar) and vacuum (10(exp -3) mbar) conditions [2,3] as well as at 100 and 30 mbar [4,5] and one analysis at 12 mbar by the TEGA engineering qualification model (TEGA-EQM). Thermodynamics (Te = H/ S) dictate that pressure affects entropy ( S) which causes the temperature (Te) of mineral decomposition at one pressure to differ from Te obtained at another pressure. Thermal decomposition analyses of Fe-, Mg-, and Ca-bearing carbonates at 12 mbar is required to enhance the understanding of the TEGA results at TEGA operating pressures. The objectives of this work are to (1) evaluate the thermal and evolved gas behavior of a suite of Fe-, Mg-, Ca-carbonate minerals at 1000 and 12 mbar and (2) discuss possible emplacement mechanisms for the Phoenix carbonate.

  14. In Situ Atmospheric Pressure Measurements in the Martian Southern Polar Region: Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor Meteorology Package on the Mars Polar Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Polkko, J.; Siili, T.; Crisp, D.

    1998-01-01

    Pressure observations are crucial for the success of the Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor (MVACS) Meteorology (MET) package onboard the Mars Polar Lander (MPL), due for launch early next year. The spacecraft is expected to land in December 1999 (L(sub s) = 256 degrees) at a high southern latitude (74 degrees - 78 degrees S). The nominal period of operation is 90 sols but may last up to 210 sols. The MVACS/MET experiment will provide the first in situ observations of atmospheric pressure, temperature, wind, and humidity in the southern hemisphere of Mars and in the polar regions. The martian atmosphere goes through a large-scale atmospheric pressure cycle due to the annual condensation/sublimation of the atmospheric CO2. Pressure also exhibits short period variations associated with dust storms, tides, and other atmospheric events. A series of pressure measurements can hence provide us with information on the large-scale state and dynamics of the atmosphere, including the CO2 and dust cycles as well as local weather phenomena. The measurements can also shed light on the shorter time scale phenomena (e.g., passage of dust devils) and hence be important in contributing to our understanding of mixing and transport of heat, dust, and water vapor.

  15. Results of the new processing of images obtained from the surface of Venus in a TV experiment onboard the VENERA-9 lander (1975)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksanfomality, L. V.

    2012-09-01

    Data on the results of the analysis of the content of re-processed panorama of the VENERA-9 lander are presented. The panorama was transmitted historically for the first time from the surface of Venus in 1975. The low noise of the VENERA-9 data allowed allocating a large object of an unusual regular structure. Earlier, its fuzzy image was repeatedly cited in the literature being interpreted as a "strange stone". The complex shape and its other features suggest that the object may be a real habitant of the planet. It is not excluded that another similar object observed was damaged during the VENERA-9 landing. From the evidence of its movement and position of some other similar objects it is concluded that because of the limited energy capacity, the physical action of the Venusian fauna may be much slower than that of the Earth fauna. Another question considered is what sources of energy could be used by life in the conditions of the high temperature oxygenless atmosphere of the planet. It is natural to assume that, like on Earth, the Venusian fauna is heterotrophic and should be based on hypothetical flora, using photosynthesis (based on an unknown high temperature biophysical mechanism).

  16. Solar system exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, G.A.; Quaide, W.L.

    1986-01-01

    Two fundamental goals lie at the heart of U.S. solar system exploration efforts: first, to characterize the evolution of the solar system; second, to understand the processes which produced life. Progress in planetary science is traced from Newton's definition of the principles of gravitation through a variety of NASA planetary probes in orbit, on other planets and traveling beyond the solar system. It is noted that most of the planetary data collected by space probes are always eventually applied to improving the understanding of the earth, moon, Venus and Mars, the planets of greatest interest to humans. Significant data gathered by the Mariner, Viking, Apollo, Pioneer, and Voyager spacecraft are summarized, along with the required mission support capabilities and mission profiles. Proposed and planned future missions to Jupiter, Saturn, Titan, the asteroids and for a comet rendzvous are described

  17. Secular Climate Change on Mars: An Update Using One Mars Year of MSL Pressure Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberle, R. M.; Gomez-Elvira, J.; de la Torre Juarez, M.; Harri, A-M.; Hollingsworth, J. L.; Kahanpaa, H.; Kahre, M. A.; Lemmon, M.; Martin-Torres, F. J.; Mischna, M.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The South Polar Residual Cap (SPRC) on Mars is an icy reservoir of CO2. If all the CO2 trapped in the SPRC were released to the atmosphere the mean annual global surface pressure would rise by approximately 20 Pa. Repeated MOC and HiRISE imaging of scarp retreat within the SPRC led to suggestions that the SPRC is losing mass. Estimates for the loss rate vary between 0. 5 Pa per Mars Decade to 13 Pa per Mars Decade. Assuming 80% of this loss goes directly into the atmosphere, an estimate based on some modeling (Haberle and Kahre, 2010), and that the loss is monotonic, the global annual mean surface pressure should have increased between approximately 1-20 Pa since the Viking mission (approximately 20 Mars years ago). Surface pressure measurements by the Phoenix Lander only 2.5 Mars years ago were found to be consistent with these loss rates. Last year at this meeting we compared surface pressure data from the MSL mission through sol 360 with that from Viking Lander 2 (VL-2) for the same period to determine if the trend continues. The results were ambiguous. This year we have a full Mars year of MSL data to work with. Using the Ames GCM to compensate for dynamics and environmental differences, our analysis suggests that the mean annual pressure has decreased by approximately 8 Pa since Viking. This result implies that the SPRC has gained (not lost) mass since Viking. However, the estimated uncertainties in our analysis are easily at the 10 Pa level and possibly higher. Chief among these are the hydrostatic adjustment of surface pressure from grid point elevations to actual elevations and the simulated regional environmental conditions at the lander sites. For these reasons, the most reasonable conclusion is that there is no significant difference in the size of the atmosphere between now and Viking. This implies, but does not demand, that the mass of the SPRC has not changed since Viking. Of course, year-to-year variations are possible as implied by the Phoenix data

  18. Construction of the Hunveyor-Husar space probe model system for planetary science education and analog studies and simulations in universities and colleges of Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérczi, Sz.; Hegyi, S.; Hudoba, Gy.; Hargitai, H.; Kokiny, A.; Drommer, B.; Gucsik, A.; Pintér, A.; Kovács, Zs.

    Several teachers and students had the possibility to visit International Space Camp in the vicinity of the MSFC NASA in Huntsville Alabama USA where they learned the success of simulators in space science education To apply these results in universities and colleges in Hungary we began a unified complex modelling in planetary geology robotics electronics and complex environmental analysis by constructing an experimental space probe model system First a university experimental lander HUNVEYOR Hungarian UNiversity surVEYOR then a rover named HUSAR Hungarian University Surface Analyser Rover has been built For Hunveyor the idea and example was the historical Surveyor program of NASA in the 1960-ies for the Husar the idea and example was the Pathfinder s rover Sojouner rover The first step was the construction of the lander a year later the rover followed The main goals are 1 to build the lander structure and basic electronics from cheap everyday PC compatible elements 2 to construct basic experiments and their instruments 3 to use the system as a space activity simulator 4 this simulator contains lander with on board computer for works on a test planetary surface and a terrestrial control computer 5 to harmonize the assemblage of the electronic system and instruments in various levels of autonomy from the power and communication circuits 6 to use the complex system in education for in situ understanding complex planetary environmental problems 7 to build various planetary environments for application of the

  19. VIKING EXPANSION NORTHWARDS - MEDIEVAL SOURCES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOFSTRA, T; SAMPLONIUS, K

    Evidence for Scandinavian activities in the northwestern part of the Barents Sea is scanty; according to the Annals, Svalbaro(i) was discovered in 1194, but the entry refers to Jan Mayen rather than present-day Svalbard/Spitsbergen. By contrast, the southern fringe of the Barents Sea was more than

  20. Viking Disruptions or Growing Integration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindbæk, Søren Michael

    2012-01-01

    Long-distance communication has emerged as a particular focus for archaeological exploration using network theory, analysis, and modelling. Initial attempts to adapt methods from social network analysis to archaeological data have, however, struggled to produce decisive results. This paper...... demonstrates how formal network analysis can be combined with a contextual reading of evidence relating to a long-distance communication network in the past. A study of the combined distributions of ten vessel types in 152 settlement sites from the 10th century suggests the outline of the core structure...... of the network. The model implies that 10th century long-distance exchange in the North Sea region featured long-distance links equal to those of the Carolingian emporia trade, and represented a growth in terms of new axes of integration, above all the growing links between the Scandinavian Peninsula...

  1. Armadillo and the Viking spirit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisk, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    process of the construction of meaning, or what Hans Blumenberg has termed the ‘work on myth’, since names function as principal devices for creating, reproducing, and transforming cultural narratives. Based on a case study of the Danish experience as part of Task Force Helmand in Afghanistan, the paper...... elucidates how the army’s names have brought stories of national origin, heroic greatness, and warrior ancestry into the banal space of life abroad, where a mythscape has grown and changed in response to the situation on the ground and changes in the wider figuration of the Afghan War. On this basis...

  2. A new model for Mars atmospheric dust based upon analysis of ultraviolet through infrared observations from Mariner 9, Viking, and Phobos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, R. T.; Lee, S. W.; Gladstone, G. R.; McMillan, W. W.; Rousch, T.

    1995-01-01

    We propose key modifications to the Toon et al. (1977) model of the particle size distribution and composition of Mars atmospheric dust, based on a variety of spacecraft and wavelength observations of the dust. A much broader (r(sub eff)variance-0.8 micron), smaller particle size (r(sub mode)-0.02 microns) distribution coupled with a "palagonite-like" composition is argued to fit the complete ultraviolet-to-30-micron absorption properties of the dust better than the montmorillonite-basalt r(sub eff)variance= 0.4 micron, r(sub mode)= 0.40 micron dust model of Toon et al. Mariner 9 (infrared interferometer spectrometer) IRIS spectra of high atmospheric dust opacities during the 1971 - 1972 Mars global dust storm are analyzed in terms of the Toon et al. dust model, and a Hawaiian palagonite sample with two different size distribution models incorporating smaller dust particle sizes. Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper (IRTM) emission-phase-function (EPF) observations at 9 microns are analyzed to retrieve 9-micron dust opacities coincident with solar band dust opacities obtained from the same EPF sequences. These EPF dust opacities provide an independent measurement of the visible/9-microns extinction opacity ratio (> or equal to 2) for Mars atmospheric dust, which is consistent with a previous measurement by Martin (1986). Model values for the visible/9-microns opacity ratio and the ultraviolet and visible single-scattering albedos are calculated for the palagonite model with the smaller particle size distributions and compared to the same properties for the Toon et al. model of dust. The montmorillonite model of the dust is found to fit the detailed shape of the dust 9-micron absorption well. However, it predicts structured, deep absorptions at 20 microns which are not observed and requires a separate ultraviolet-visible absorbing component to match the observed behavior of the dust in this wavelength region. The modeled palagonite does not match the 8- to 9-micron

  3. Power supplies for space systems quality assurance by Sandia Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannigan, R.L.; Harnar, R.R.

    1976-07-01

    The Sandia Laboratories' participation in Quality Assurance programs for Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators which have been used in space systems over the past 10 years is summarized. Basic elements of this QA program are briefly described and recognition of assistance from other Sandia organizations is included. Descriptions of the various systems for which Sandia has had the QA responsibility are presented, including SNAP 19 (Nimbus, Pioneer, Viking), SNAP 27 (Apollo), Transit, Multi-Hundred Watt (LES 8/9 and MJS), and a new program, High-Performance Generator Mod 3. The outlook for Sandia participation in RTG programs for the next several years is noted

  4. Unmanned solar systems exploration - An arena for international cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, D. H.; Pacault, R.

    1974-01-01

    Mission profiles for a Mars Surface Sample Return (MSSR) mission are considered. A profile using separate launches for a lander/ascent module and an orbiter/return system could use present technology and is appropriate for international cooperation. The achievement of clean interfaces between major building blocks and ease of controlling back contamination are advantages offered by the concept. A spatially distributed surface sample could be obtained by using multiple landers delivering samples to a common orbiter. The Pioneer Venus program, originally planned as a cooperative NASA-ESRO project, resulted in development of a standardized spacecraft bus yielding benefits at minimized cost. The first joint US-European planetary mission now planned is the launch of a Pioneer class orbiter to Jupiter in 1980. Feasibility studies are being conducted.

  5. Design of Photovoltaic Power System for a Precursor Mission for Human Exploration of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcnatt, Jeremiah; Landis, Geoffrey; Fincannon, James

    2016-01-01

    This project analyzed the viability of a photovoltaic power source for technology demonstration mission to demonstrate Mars in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) to produce propellant for a future human mission, based on technology available within the next ten years. For this assessment, we performed a power-system design study for a scaled ISRU demonstrator lander on the Mars surface based on existing solar array technologies.

  6. Rover deployment system for lunar landing mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutoh, Masataku; Hoshino, Takeshi; Wakabayashi, Sachiko

    2017-09-01

    For lunar surface exploration, a deployment system is necessary to allow a rover to leave the lander. The system should be as lightweight as possible and stored retracted when launched. In this paper, two types of retractable deployment systems for lunar landing missions, telescopic- and fold-type ramps, are discussed. In the telescopic-type system, a ramp is stored with the sections overlapping and slides out during deployment. In the fold-type system, it is stored folded and unfolds for the deployment. For the development of these ramps, a design concept study and structural analysis were conducted first. Subsequently, ramp deployment and rover release tests were performed using the developed ramp prototypes. Through these tests, the validity of their design concepts and functions have been confirmed. In the rover release test, it was observed that the developed lightweight ramp was sufficiently strong for a 50-kg rover to descend. This result suggests that this ramp system is suitable for the deployment of a 300-kg-class rover on the Moon, where the gravity is about one-sixth that on Earth. The lightweight and sturdy ramp developed in this study will contribute to both safe rover deployment and increase of lander/rover payload.

  7. Changes in dietary practices and social organization during the pivotal late iron age period in Norway (AD 550-1030): isotope analyses of Merovingian and Viking Age human remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Elise; Price, T Douglas; Richards, Michael P

    2014-11-01

    Human remains representing 33 individuals buried along the coast in northern Norway were analyzed for diet composition using collagen stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis. Where possible, both teeth and bone were included to investigate whether there were dietary changes from childhood to adulthood. A general shift was documented from the Merovingian Age 550-800 AD to the Viking Age AD 800-1050 (VA), with a heavier reliance on marine diet in the VA. Dietary life history data show that 15 individuals changed their diets through life with 11 of these having consumed more marine foods in the later years of life. In combination with (87) Sr/(86) Sr data, it is argued that at least six individuals possibly originated from inland areas and then moved to the coastal region where they were eventually interred. The trend is considered in relation to the increasing expansion of the marine fishing industry at this time, and it is suggested that results from isotope analyses reflect the expanding production and export of stockfish in this region. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Anne Scott Sørensen, Ole Martin Høystad, Erling Bjurström and Halvard Vike Nye kulturstudier - En innføring, Oslo: Spartacus Forlag AS/Scandinavian Academic Press, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gösta Arvastson

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Nye kulturstudier [New Cultural Studies] is the first introduction to cultural studies in Scandinavia and an impressive presentation of the subject. The book aims to explain how cultural studies emerged as an interdisciplinary field in humanities and social sciences. Other introductions to cultural research in eth-nology and anthropology have been produced - but this one is different, since it is more comprehensive and am-bitious. Nye kulturstudier is the result of in-terdisciplinary collaboration between four colleagues from Norway, Sweden and Denmark. Senior lecturer Anne Scott Sørensen and Professor Ole Martin Høystad are affiliated to the Institute for Literature, Media and Cultural Studies at the University of Southern Denmark in Odense. Professor Erling Bjurström belongs to Tema Q at Linköping Uni-versity, and Professor Halvard Vike works at the Institute for Social Anthro-pology at Oslo University. The authors comment that they are oriented towards different subjects and educational pro-grammes at their respective universities. The book begins with a background to the theories and scientific traditions. This is followed by Cultural Analysis and Methodology, a chapter on Identity, Globalisation and Multiculturalism, one on Taste, Lifestyle and Consumption and, finally, by Nature, Body and Ex-perience Landscapes.

  9. Energy storage considerations for a robotic Mars surface sampler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, P.M.; Cataldo, R.L.; Gonzalez-Sanabria, O.D.

    1988-01-01

    Manned exploration of Mars is being proposed by the National Commission on Space for the next century. To accomplish this task with minimal resupply cost for extended stay times, use of Mars' resources is essential. Methods must be developed to manufacture or extract water and oxygen from elements indigenous to Mars before they send explorers to the planet. Therefore, they must send precursor surveying equipment to determine Mars' resources to a greater extent than is now known from Viking 1 and Viking 2 data. A 1992 launch is planned for the Mars Observer that will contribute greater mapping resolution and expand the scientific data base. The proposed rover will provide scientists with the necessary information about abundant resources that would guide the required technology development needed to support a manned Mars infrastructure. The actual rover operations plan for both the sample return and extended mission will have a large impact on rover capabilities and the power system supplying power for traversing and scientific instrumentation. POWER SOURCE AND CONVERSION. Several power source/conversion options for the rover have been identified. These include power generation on the lander, Entry Vehicle (EV), Mars Orbiter Vehicle (MOV) and on the rover itself. Power from the lander would require the rover to return to landing site to recharge the energy storage systems, which limits rover excursions to one-half the range of the storage capacity. For on-board rover power, a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) has been considered with the appropriate energy storage to handle peak power demands

  10. The Small Mars System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantino, E.; Grassi, M.; Pasolini, P.; Causa, F.; Molfese, C.; Aurigemma, R.; Cimminiello, N.; de la Torre, D.; Dell'Aversana, P.; Esposito, F.; Gramiccia, L.; Paudice, F.; Punzo, F.; Roma, I.; Savino, R.; Zuppardi, G.

    2017-08-01

    The Small Mars System is a proposed mission to Mars. Funded by the European Space Agency, the project has successfully completed Phase 0. The contractor is ALI S.c.a.r.l., and the study team includes the University of Naples ;Federico II;, the Astronomical Observatory of Capodimonte and the Space Studies Institute of Catalonia. The objectives of the mission are both technological and scientific, and will be achieved by delivering a small Mars lander carrying a dust particle analyser and an aerial drone. The former shall perform in situ measurements of the size distribution and abundance of dust particles suspended in the Martian atmosphere, whereas the latter shall demonstrate low-altitude flight in the rarefied planetary environment. The mission-enabling technology is an innovative umbrella-like heat shield, known as IRENE, developed and patented by ALI. The mission is also a technological demonstration of the shield in the upper atmosphere of Mars. The core characteristics of SMS are the low cost (120 M€) and the small size (320 kg of wet mass at launch, 110 kg at landing), features which stand out with respect to previous Mars landers. To comply with them is extremely challenging at all levels, and sets strict requirements on the choice of the materials, the sizing of payloads and subsystems, their arrangement inside the spacecraft and the launcher's selection. In this contribution, the mission and system concept and design are illustrated and discussed. Special emphasis is given to the innovative features and to the challenges faced in the development of the work.

  11. Production and calving traits of Montbéliarde × Holstein and Viking Red × Holstein cows compared with pure Holstein cows during first lactation in 8 commercial dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, A R; Heins, B J; Hansen, L B

    2017-05-01

    Montbéliarde (MO) × Holstein (HO) and Viking Red (VR) × HO crossbred cows were compared with pure HO cows in 8 large, high-performance dairy herds. All cows were either 2-breed crossbred or pure HO cows that calved for the first time from December 2010 to April 2014. Best Prediction was used to calculate 305-d milk, fat, and protein production, as well as somatic cell score, and 513 MO × HO, 540 VR × HO, and 978 HO cows were analyzed for production in first lactation. Calving difficulty was scored from 1 (no assistance) to 5 (extreme difficulty). The analysis of calving traits included 493 MO × HO, 504 VR × HO, and 971 HO cows at first calving. Age at first calving was similar for breed groups, and the herds calved both crossbred (23.8 mo) and HO (23.9 mo) cows at young ages. The MO × HO crossbred cows had +3% higher production of 305-d fat plus protein production (actual basis, not mature equivalent) than the HO cows, and the VR × HO were similar to the HO cows for fat plus protein production. Breed groups did not differ for SCS during first lactation. The VR-sired 3-breed crossbred calves (from MO × HO dams) were similar to pure HO calves for calving difficulty; however, MO-sired male calves born to VR × HO dams had a mean score that was +0.5 points higher for calving difficulty than pure HO male calves. The 3-breed crossbred calves from both MO × HO (4%) and VR × HO (5%) first-lactation dams had a much lower stillbirth rate compared with pure HO calves (9%) from first-lactation dams. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Small Radioisotope Power System Testing at NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugala, Gina; Bell, Mark; Oriti, Salvatore; Fraeman, Martin; Frankford, David; Duven, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    In April 2009, NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) formed an integrated product team (IPT) to develop a Small Radioisotope Power System (SRPS) utilizing a single Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) with passive balancer. A single ASC produces approximately 80 We making this system advantageous for small distributed lunar science stations. The IPT consists of Sunpower, Inc., to provide the single ASC with a passive balancer, The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHUAPL) to design an engineering model Single Convertor Controller (SCC) for an ASC with a passive balancer, and NASA GRC to provide technical support to these tasks and to develop a simulated lunar lander test stand. The single ASC with a passive balancer, simulated lunar lander test stand, and SCC were delivered to GRC and were tested as a system. The testing sequence at GRC included SCC fault tolerance, integration, electromagnetic interference (EMI), vibration, and extended operation testing. The SCC fault tolerance test characterized the SCCs ability to handle various fault conditions, including high or low bus power consumption, total open load or short circuit, and replacing a failed SCC card while the backup maintains control of the ASC. The integrated test characterized the behavior of the system across a range of operating conditions, including variations in cold-end temperature and piston amplitude, including the emitted vibration to both the sensors on the lunar lander and the lunar surface. The EMI test characterized the AC and DC magnetic and electric fields emitted by the SCC and single ASC. The vibration test confirms the SCCs ability to control the single ASC during launch. The extended operation test allows data to be collected over a period of thousands of hours to obtain long term performance data of the ASC with a passive balancer and the SCC. This paper will discuss the results of each of these tests.

  13. Martian Cratering 7: The Role of Impact Gardening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, William K.; Anguita, Jorge; de la Casa, Miguel A.; Berman, Daniel C.; Ryan, Eileen V.

    2001-01-01

    Viking-era researchers concluded that impact craters of diameter Dduricrust at Viking and Pathfinder sites demonstrates the cementing process. These results affect lander/rover searches for intact ancient deposits. The upper tens of meters of exposed Noachian units cannot survive today in a pristine state. Intact Noachian deposits might best be found in cliffside strata, or in recently exhumed regions. The hematite-rich areas found in Terra Meridiani by the Mars Global Surveyor are probably examples of the latter.

  14. Fertility, survival, and conformation of Montbéliarde × Holstein and Viking Red × Holstein crossbred cows compared with pure Holstein cows during first lactation in 8 commercial dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, A R; Heins, B J; Hansen, L B

    2017-11-01

    Montbéliarde (MO) × Holstein (HO) and Viking Red (VR) × HO crossbred cows were compared with pure HO cows in 8 large, high-performance dairy herds in Minnesota. All cows calved for the first time from December 2010 to April 2014. Fertility and survival traits were calculated from records of insemination, pregnancy diagnosis, calving, and disposal that were recorded via management software. Body condition score and conformation were subjectively scored once during early lactation by trained evaluators. The analysis of survival to 60 d in milk included 536 MO × HO, 560 VR × HO, and 1,033 HO cows during first lactation. Cows analyzed for other fertility, survival, and conformation traits had up to 13% fewer cows available for analysis. The first service conception rate of the crossbred cows (both types combined) increased 7%, as did the conception rate across the first 5 inseminations, compared with the HO cows during first lactation. Furthermore, the combined crossbred cows (2.11 ± 0.05) had fewer times bred than HO cows (2.30 ± 0.05) and 10 fewer d open compared with their HO herdmates. Across the 8 herds, breed groups did not differ for survival to 60 d in milk; however, the superior fertility of the crossbred cows allowed an increased proportion of the combined crossbreds (71 ± 1.5%) to calve a second time within 14 mo compared with the HO cows (63 ± 1.5%). For survival to second calving, the combined crossbred cows had 4% superior survival compared with the HO cows. The MO × HO and VR × HO crossbred cows both had increased body condition score (+0.50 ± 0.02 and +0.25 ± 0.02, respectively) but shorter stature and less body depth than HO cows. The MO × HO cows had less set to the hock and a steeper foot angle than the HO cows, and the VR × HO cows had more set to the hock with a similar foot angle to the HO cows. The combined crossbred cows had less udder clearance from the hock than HO cows, more width between both front and rear teats, and longer

  15. Advanced Russian Mission Laplace-P to Study the Planetary System of Jupiter: Scientific Goals, Objectives, Special Features and Mission Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynov, M. B.; Merkulov, P. V.; Lomakin, I. V.; Vyatlev, P. A.; Simonov, A. V.; Leun, E. V.; Barabanov, A. A.; Nasyrov, A. F.

    2017-12-01

    The advanced Russian project Laplace-P is aimed at developing and launching two scientific spacecraft (SC)— Laplace-P1 ( LP1 SC) and Laplace-P2 ( LP2 SC)—designed for remote and in-situ studies of the system of Jupiter and its moon Ganymede. The LP1 and LP2 spacecraft carry an orbiter and a lander onboard, respectively. One of the orbiter's objectives is to map the surface of Ganymede from the artificial satellite's orbit and to acquire the data for the landing site selection. The main objective of the lander is to carry out in-situ investigations of Ganymede's surface. The paper describes the scientific goals and objectives of the mission, its special features, and the LP1 and LP2 mission profiles during all of the phases—from the launch to the landing on the surface of Ganymede.

  16. Integrated Solar System Exploration Education and Public Outreach: Theme, Products and Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowes, Leslie; Lindstrom, Marilyn; Stockman, Stephanie; Scalice, Daniela; Allen, Jaclyn; Tobola, Kay; Klug, Sheri; Harmon, Art

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Solar System Exploration Program is entering an unprecedented period of exploration and discovery. Its goal is to understand the origin and evolution of the solar system and life within it. SSE missions are operating or in development to study the far reaches of our solar system and beyond. These missions proceed in sequence for each body from reconnaissance flybys through orbiters and landers or rovers to sample returns. SSE research programs develop new instruments, analyze mission data or returned samples, and provide experimental or theoretical models to aid in interpretation.

  17. Atmospheric Risk Assessment for the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Allen; Vasavada, Ashwin; Cianciolo, Alicia; Barnes, Jeff; Tyler, Dan; Hinson, David; Lewis, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    In 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission will pioneer the next generation of robotic Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) systems, by delivering the largest and most capable rover to date to the surface of Mars. As with previous Mars landers, atmospheric conditions during entry, descent, and landing directly impact the performance of MSL's EDL system. While the vehicle's novel guided entry system allows it to "fly out" a range of atmospheric uncertainties, its trajectory through the atmosphere creates a variety of atmospheric sensitivities not present on previous Mars entry systems and landers. Given the mission's stringent landing capability requirements, understanding the atmosphere state and spacecraft sensitivities takes on heightened importance. MSL's guided entry trajectory differs significantly from recent Mars landers and includes events that generate different atmospheric sensitivities than past missions. The existence of these sensitivities and general advancement in the state of Mars atmospheric knowledge has led the MSL team to employ new atmosphere modeling techniques in addition to past practices. A joint EDL engineering and Mars atmosphere science and modeling team has been created to identify the key system sensitivities, gather available atmospheric data sets, develop relevant atmosphere models, and formulate methods to integrate atmosphere information into EDL performance assessments. The team consists of EDL engineers, project science staff, and Mars atmospheric scientists from a variety of institutions. This paper provides an overview of the system performance sensitivities that have driven the atmosphere modeling approach, discusses the atmosphere data sets and models employed by the team as a result of the identified sensitivities, and introduces the tools used to translate atmospheric knowledge into quantitative EDL performance assessments.

  18. Mars atmospheric phenomena during major dust storms, as measured at surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, J.A.; Henry, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    Meteorological instrumentation aboard the Viking Mars Landers measures wind, temperature, and pressure. Two global dust storms occurred during northern autumn and winter, observed both by the orbiters and by the landers. The meteorological data from the landers has been analyzed for the period just before first storm arrival to just after second storm arrival, with the objectives being definition of meteorological phenomena during the storm period, determination of those associated with storm and dust arrival, and evaluation of effects on synoptic conditions and the general circulation. Times of dust arrival over the sites could be defined fairly closely from optical and pressure (solar tide) data, and dust arrival was also accompanied by changes in diurnal temperature range, temperature maxima, and temperature minima. The arrivals of the storms at VL-1 were accompanied by significant increase in wind speed and pressure. No such changes were observed at VL-2. It is possible that surface material could have been raised locally at VL-1. Throughout the period except following the second dust storm synoptic picture at VL-2 was one of eastward moving cyclonic and anticyclonic systems. These disappeared following the second storm, a phenomenon which may be related to the storm

  19. To Teach "Vikings" to Behave among "Mandarins"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Mikael; Lemmergaard, Jeanette

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to report from interactive teaching situations that involve a number of cross-cultural puzzles and to report on the construct value of a model in progress on bribery in China. The paper reports from eight simulations. It is a cross-disciplinary case involving joint...... venture, expatriation training, culture in auditing and business ethics....

  20. Iron Lady / Vaira Vike-Freiberga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vike-Freiberga, Vaira, 1937-

    2000-01-01

    Valik Läti presidendi vastuseid, millele Venemaa ametnikud on reageerinud kõige ägedamalt. Teemad puudutavad Venemaa võimalikku agressiooni Baltimaades ning Läti liitumist NATO ja Euroopa Liiduga

  1. Robots Conquering the Homeland of the Vikings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger Nielsen, Jeppe; Sigh, Anne; Andersen, Kim Normann

    The movement of robots from the production line to the service sector provides a protein solution to innovate and transform public service delivery. However, although robots increasingly are adopted in public service delivery (e.g., in healthcare and eldercare) as an alternative to traditional...... labor intensive services, little is known about their impact on organizations work processes, and how key stakeholders react toward robots. On this backdrop, this single case study investigates implementation and use of robot vacuum cleaners in Danish eldercare at the local government level. Using...... an extended version of the technological frame concept, this paper illustrates how technologist, managers, frontline staff and clients have different perceptions towards robot vacuum cleaning. The technologist and managers praise the new innovation for facilitating savings on the current accounts. By contrast...

  2. Active Collision Avoidance for Planetary Landers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Present day robotic missions to other planets require precise, a priori knowledge of the terrain to pre-determine a landing spot that is safe. Landing sites can be...

  3. Mass Spectrometry on Future Mars Landers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2011-01-01

    Mass spectrometry investigations on the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) and the 2018 ExoMars missions will address core science objectives related to the potential habitability of their landing site environments and more generally the near-surface organic inventory of Mars. The analysis of complex solid samples by mass spectrometry is a well-known approach that can provide a broad and sensitive survey of organic and inorganic compounds as well as supportive data for mineralogical analysis. The science value of such compositional information is maximized when one appreciates the particular opportunities and limitations of in situ analysis with resource-constrained instrumentation in the context of a complete science payload and applied to materials found in a particular environment. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) investigation on MSL and the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) investigation on ExoMars will thus benefit from and inform broad-based analog field site work linked to the Mars environments where such analysis will occur.

  4. Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Papers in this session describe the concept of mined geologic disposal system and methods for ensuring that the system, when developed, will meet all technical requirements. Also presented in the session are analyses of system parameters, such as cost and nuclear criticality potential, as well as a technical analysis of a requirement that the system permit retrieval of the waste for some period of time. The final paper discusses studies under way to investigate technical alternatives or complements to the mined geologic disposal system. Titles of the presented papers are: (1) Waste Isolation System; (2) Waste Isolation Economics; (3) BWIP Technical Baseline; (4) Criticality Considerations in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Waste; (5) Retrieving Nuclear Wastes from Repository; (6) NWTS Programs for the Evaluation of Technical Alternatives or Complements to Mined Geologic Repositories - Purpose and Objectives

  5. systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Leonessa

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear robust control-system design framework predicated on a hierarchical switching controller architecture parameterized over a set of moving nominal system equilibria is developed. Specifically, using equilibria-dependent Lyapunov functions, a hierarchical nonlinear robust control strategy is developed that robustly stabilizes a given nonlinear system over a prescribed range of system uncertainty by robustly stabilizing a collection of nonlinear controlled uncertain subsystems. The robust switching nonlinear controller architecture is designed based on a generalized (lower semicontinuous Lyapunov function obtained by minimizing a potential function over a given switching set induced by the parameterized nominal system equilibria. The proposed framework robustly stabilizes a compact positively invariant set of a given nonlinear uncertain dynamical system with structured parametric uncertainty. Finally, the efficacy of the proposed approach is demonstrated on a jet engine propulsion control problem with uncertain pressure-flow map data.

  6. System concepts and design examples for optical communication with planetary spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesh, James R.

    Systems concepts for optical communication with future deep-space (planetary) spacecraft are described. These include not only the optical transceiver package aboard the distant spacecraft, but the earth-vicinity optical-communications receiving station as well. Both ground-based, and earth-orbiting receivers are considered. Design examples for a number of proposed or potential deep-space missions are then presented. These include an orbital mission to Saturn, a Lander and Rover mission to Mars, and an astronomical mission to a distance of 1000 astronomical units.

  7. Search for microorganisms on Europa and Mars in relation with the evolution of intelligent behavior on other worlds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chela-Flores, Julian

    2001-11-01

    Within the context of how to search for life in the Solar System, we discuss the need to consider universal evolutionary biomarkers, in addition to those of biochemical nature that have already been selected for in the biology experiments of the old Viking and future Beagle-2 landers. For the wider problem of the evolution of intelligent behavior on other worlds (the SETI program), the type of experiments suggested below aim at establishing a direct connection between Solar System exploration and the first steps along the pathway toward the evolution of intelligent behavior. The two leading sites for the implementation of the proposed first whole-cell experiments would be, firstly, Europa after the Europa-Orbiter mission, either on the ice-crust, or in the ocean itself by means of a submersible; secondly, such experiments could be implemented once isolated liquid water oases are identified in the Martian substratum. (author)

  8. Development and Testing of a New Family of Supersonic Decelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ian G.; Adler, Mark; Rivellini, Tommaso P.

    2013-01-01

    The state of the art in Entry, Descent, and Landing systems for Mars applications is largely based on technologies developed in the late 1960's and early 1970's for the Viking Lander program. Although the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory has made advances in EDL technology, these are predominantly in the areas of entry (new thermal protection systems and guided hypersonic flight) and landing (the sky crane architecture). Increases in entry mass, landed mass, and landed altitude beyond MSL capabilities will require advances predominantly in the field of supersonic decelerators. With this in mind, a multi-year program has been initiated to advance three new types of supersonic decelerators that would enable future large-robotic and human-precursor class missions to Mars.

  9. Spectral variability within species and its effects on savanna tree species discrimination

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cho, Moses A

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available . Smith, and P. E. Johnson, "Spectral mixture modeling: a new analysis of rock and soil types at the Viking Lander 1 site.," Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 98 B8, pp. 8098-8112, 1986. [2] F. A. Kruse, A. B. Lefkoff, J. W. Boardman, K. B...

  10. Thermophysical Properties of the Phoenix Mars Landing Site Study Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzig, N. E.; Mellon, M. T.; Golombek, M. P.; Arvidson, R. E.

    2006-03-01

    Analysis of Phoenix Mars study regions places 4 of 5 in a previously-identified duricrust-dominated thermophysical unit which also contains the Viking and Spirit landing sites. Extrapolation of lander-observed properties to the study regions may be complicated by surface heterogeneity.

  11. The atmosphere of Mars - Detection of krypton and xenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, T.; Biemann, K.; Biller, J. E.; Lafleur, A. L.; Rushneck, D. R.; Howarth, D. W.

    1976-01-01

    Krypton and xenon have been discovered in the Martian atmosphere with the mass spectrometer on the second Viking lander. Krypton is more abundant than xenon. The relative abundances of the krypton isotopes appear normal, but the ratio of xenon-129 to xenon-132 is enhanced on Mars relative to the terrestrial value for this ratio. Some possible implications of these findings are discussed.

  12. Development of a model of machine hand eye coordination and program specifications for a topological machine vision system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    A unified approach to computer vision and manipulation is developed which is called choreographic vision. In the model, objects to be viewed by a projected robot in the Viking missions to Mars are seen as objects to be manipulated within choreographic contexts controlled by a multimoded remote, supervisory control system on Earth. A new theory of context relations is introduced as a basis for choreographic programming languages. A topological vision model is developed for recognizing objects by shape and contour. This model is integrated with a projected vision system consisting of a multiaperture image dissector TV camera and a ranging laser system. System program specifications integrate eye-hand coordination and topological vision functions and an aerospace multiprocessor implementation is described.

  13. Hydrogeology of Basins on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidson, Raymond E.

    2001-01-01

    This document summarizes the work accomplished under NASA Grant NAG5-3870. Emphasis was put on the development of the FIDO rover, a prototype for the twin-Mers which will be operating on the surface of Mars in 2004, specifically the primary work was the analysis of FIDO field trials. The grantees also analyzed VIKING Lander 1 XRFS and Pathfinder APXS data. Results show that the Viking site chemistry is consistent with an andesite, and the Pathfinder site is consistent with a basaltic andesite. The grantees also worked to demonstrate the capability to simulate annealing methods to apply to the inversion of remote sensing data. They performed an initial analyses of Sojourner engineering telemetry and imaging data. They performed initial analyses of Viking Lander Stereo Images, and of Hematite deposits in Terra Meridiani. They also acquired and analyzed the New Goldstone radar data.

  14. Solar radiation on Mars: Update 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Joseph; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    Detailed information on solar radiation characteristics on Mars are necessary for effective design of future planned solar energy systems operating on the surface of Mars. A procedure and solar radiation related data are presented from which the daily variation of the global, direct beam and diffuse insolation on Mars are calculated. Given the optical depth of the Mars atmosphere, the global radiation is calculated from the normalized net flux function based on multiple wavelength and multiple scattering of the solar radiation. The direct beam was derived from the optical depth using Beer's law, and the diffuse component was obtained from the difference of the global and the direct beam radiation. The optical depths of the Mars atmosphere were derived from images taken of the Sun with a special diode on the cameras used on the two Viking Landers.

  15. The atmosphere and climate of Mars

    CERN Document Server

    Clancy, R Todd; Forget, François; Smith, Michael D; Zurek, Richard W

    2017-01-01

    Humanity has long been fascinated by the planet Mars. Was its climate ever conducive to life? What is the atmosphere like today and why did it change so dramatically over time? Eleven spacecraft have successfully flown to Mars since the Viking mission of the 1970s and early 1980s. These orbiters, landers and rovers have generated vast amounts of data that now span a Martian decade (roughly eighteen years). This new volume brings together the many new ideas about the atmosphere and climate system that have emerged, including the complex interplay of the volatile and dust cycles, the atmosphere-surface interactions that connect them over time, and the diversity of the planet's environment and its complex history. Including tutorials and explanations of complicated ideas, students, researchers and non-specialists alike are able to use this resource to gain a thorough and up-to-date understanding of this most Earth-like of planetary neighbours.

  16. Detection of Northern Hemisphere transient eddies at Gale Crater Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberle, Robert M.; Juárez, Manuel de la Torre; Kahre, Melinda A.; Kass, David M.; Barnes, Jeffrey R.; Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.; Harri, Ari-Matti; Kahanpää, Henrik

    2018-06-01

    The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) on the Curiosity Rover is operating in the Southern Hemisphere of Mars and is detecting synoptic period oscillations in the pressure data that we attribute to Northern Hemisphere transient eddies. We base this interpretation on the similarity in the periods of the eddies and their seasonal variations with those observed in northern midlatitudes by Viking Lander 2 (VL-2) 18 Mars years earlier. Further support for this interpretation comes from global circulation modeling which shows similar behavior in the transient eddies at the grid points closest to Curiosity and VL-2. These observations provide the first in situ evidence that the frontal systems often associated with "Flushing Dust Storms" do cross the equator and extend into the Southern Hemisphere.

  17. Adapting Mars Entry, Descent and Landing System for Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilimo, J.; Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Koryanov, V.; Guerrero, H.; Schmidt, W.; Haukka, H.; Finchenko, V.; Martynov, M.; Ostresko, B.; Ponomarenko, A.; Kazakovtsev, V.; Arruego, I.; Martin, S.; Siili, T.

    2013-09-01

    In 2001 - 2011 an inflatable Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS) for Martian atmosphere was developed by FMI and the MetNet team. This MetNet Mars Lander EDLS is used in both the initial deceleration during atmospheric entry and in the final deceleration before the semi-hard impact of the penetrator to Martian surface. The EDLS design is ingenious and its applicability to Earth's atmosphere is studied in the on-going project. In particular, the behavior of the system in the critical transonic aerodynamic (from hypersonic to subsonic) regime will be investigated. This project targets to analyze and test the transonic behavior of this compact and light weight payload entry system to Earth's atmosphere [1]. Scaling and adaptation for terrestrial atmospheric conditions, instead of a completely new design, is a favorable approach for providing a new re-entry vehicle for terrestrial space applications.

  18. Atmospheric Mining in the Outer Solar System: Aerial Vehicle Mission and Design Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric mining in the outer solar system has been investigated as a means of fuel production for high energy propulsion and power. Fusion fuels such as Helium 3 (3He) and deuterium can be wrested from the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune and either returned to Earth or used in-situ for energy production. Helium 3 and deuterium were the primary gases of interest with hydrogen being the primary propellant for nuclear thermal solid core and gas core rocket-based atmospheric flight. A series of analyses were undertaken to investigate resource capturing aspects of atmospheric mining in the outer solar system. This included the gas capturing rate, storage options, and different methods of direct use of the captured gases. While capturing 3He, large amounts of hydrogen and 4He are produced. With these two additional gases, the potential for fueling small and large fleets of additional exploration and exploitation vehicles exists. The mining aerospacecraft (ASC) could fly through the outer planet atmospheres, for global weather observations, localized storm or other disturbance investigations, wind speed measurements, polar observations, etc. Analyses of orbital transfer vehicles (OTVs), landers, and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) mining factories are included. Preliminary observations are presented on near-optimal selections of moon base orbital locations, OTV power levels, and OTV and lander rendezvous points.

  19. A Miniaturized Seismometer for Surface Measurements in the Outer Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerdt, W. B.; Pike, W. T.

    2001-01-01

    Seismology is a powerful tool for investigating the inner structure and dynamic processes of a planetary body. The interior structure information derived from seismic measurements is complementary to other methods of probing the subsurface (such as gravity and electromagnetics), both in terms of spatial and depth resolution and the relevant types of material properties being sensed. The propagation of seismic waves is sensitive to composition (via density and elastic parameters), temperature (via attenuation) and physical state (solid vs. liquid). In addition, the seismicity (level and distribution in space and time of seismic activity) provides information on the impact flux and tectonic forces currently active within the body. The major satellites of the outer solar system provide obvious targets for seismic investigations. In addition, small bodies, such as asteroids and comets, can also benefit from seismic measurements. We have developed an extremely small, lightweight, low-power seismometer for planetary applications which is ideally suited for use in the outer solar system. This instrument has previously been proposed and selected for use on a comet (on the Rosetta Lander, subsequently deselected for programmatic reasons) and Mars (on the NetLander mission). Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  20. Steam Methane Reformation Testing for Air-Independent Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwara, Kamwana N.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, NASA has been looking into utilizing landers that can be propelled by LOX-CH (sub 4), to be used for long duration missions. Using landers that utilize such propellants, also provides the opportunity to use solid oxide fuel cells as a power option, especially since they are able to process methane into a reactant through fuel reformation. One type of reformation, called steam methane reformation, is a process to reform methane into a hydrogen-rich product by reacting methane and steam (fuel cell exhaust) over a catalyst. A steam methane reformation system could potentially use the fuel cell's own exhaust to create a reactant stream that is hydrogen-rich, and requires less internal reforming of the incoming methane. Also, steam reformation may hold some advantages over other types of reforming, such as partial oxidation (PROX) reformation. Steam reformation does not require oxygen, while up to 25 percent can be lost in PROX reformation due to unusable CO (sub 2) reformation. NASA's Johnson Space Center has conducted various phases of steam methane reformation testing, as a viable solution for in-space reformation. This has included using two different types of catalysts, developing a custom reformer, and optimizing the test system to find the optimal performance parameters and operating conditions.