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Sample records for vietnam arvn vietnamese

  1. The Consequences of the Vietnam War on the Vietnamese Population

    OpenAIRE

    Mizoguchi, Nobuko

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to examine the demographic and socioeconomic consequences of wars, using the case of the Vietnam War and its effects on the Vietnamese population. Using mainly the 1989 and 1999 census microdata, it focuses on the effects of the last ten years of the Vietnam War (or the "American War") from 1965 to 1975, characterized by the escalation of the war with a large presence of American troops in Vietnam and extensive aerial bombings by the United States. The dis...

  2. Modern and Traditional Medical Practices of Vietnam. Vietnamese Concepts of Illness and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieu, Le Tai

    This paper discusses superstitious, folk, traditional, and modern medical practices of Vietnam. Concepts of illness, somatization, behavior labeling, diagnostic attempts, and attitudes toward treatment among Vietnamese are also reviewed. (APM)

  3. Gender Equality in Family Relations of Vietnamese Living in Vietnam and Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Van Hai, Mai

    2016-01-01

    Gender equality is an important aspect of a happy family. It is expressed in equality of tasks sharing, decisions related to organization of family life, equal treatment of daughters and sons etc. The main aim of the study was to look at the eff ect of immigration on the perception of gender equality. Respondents of this study were 196 Vietnamese living in Vietnam (100 persons) and Poland (96 persons). Methods of the study included: the purposely designed questionnaire administered to all par...

  4. Dependent or breadwinner? Vietnamese brides reshaping gender roles at the China-Vietnam border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengli Huang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Within cross-border marriages, foreign brides’ economic contributions to their families are often underestimated due to the fact that they are always believed to be passport and economic “dependents.” However, this paper examines how the Vietnamese brides take advantage of their cross-border marriage and migration to China to create more opportunities and social capitals for themselves and their families. Importantly, the specific context of the China-Vietnam border has provided varied opportunities and resources for these women to go beyond the state’s regulations and constraints and to experiment with the alternatives. By taking advantage of the prosperity of border trade, the chaotic administration, and the benefits of living in the space “in-between,” Vietnamese brides have developed different transnational networks, making concrete contributions to their families and greatly challenging the label of economic “dependents” or family burdens.

  5. Halogenated organics in Vietnamese and in Vietnam food. Dioxins, dibenzofurans, PCBs, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and selected pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schecter, A.; Tung, K.C. [Univ. of Texas School of Public Health at Dallas, TX (United States); Quynh, Hong Trong [Oncology Institute, Ha Noi, Vietnam (Viet Nam); Paepke, O. [ERGO Research Laboratory, Hamburg (Germany); Malisch, R. [State Laboratory for Chemical and Veterinary Analysis, Freiburg (Germany); Constable, J.D. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Vietnam is frequently thought of as the location of the world's largest dioxin contamination, with over 400 pounds of 2,3,7,8-TCDD from Agent Orange defoliant sprayed from 1962 to 1971. Although this is true, distribution of dioxin from Agent Orange is far from ubiquitous in Vietnam. The north was never sprayed and only certain areas of central and south Vietnam were sprayed. Dioxins have been found in very high levels in human milk and in food in some select areas of Vietnam from the 1970s to the present. Other pesticides including DDT and metabolites, {alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma} HCH, and HCB have also been found in humans and in food. We review dioxin ''hot spots'' studied in the past with current suspect hot spots and also add to the chemicals studied in Vietnamese by measuring polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants in nursing Vietnamese women's milk and compare these to levels from other countries.

  6. Military service, exposure to trauma, and health in older adulthood: an analysis of northern Vietnamese survivors of the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korinek, Kim; Teerawichitchainan, Bussarawan

    2014-08-01

    We sought to better understand the association between early life exposure to war and trauma and older adult health status in a developing setting. We analyzed data of 405 Vietnamese men and women in 1 northern Vietnam commune who entered early adulthood during the Vietnam War and who are now entering late adulthood (i.e., ages 55 years and older in 2010). The toll of war's trauma in the aging northern Vietnamese population was perceptible in the association between exposure to war trauma and various measures of physical health, including negative self-reported health and somatic symptoms. Killing another person and being exposed to toxic substances in warfare was especially detrimental to health in older adulthood. War traumas were likely implicated more strongly as determinants of late adulthood health in men than in women. The weak association between trauma exposure and reported depressive symptoms raised questions about measuring mental health. Military service and war trauma were important determinants of older adult health beyond the US context, given the widespread waging of war and concentration of recent armed conflicts within developing societies.

  7. Vietnamese infant and childhood mortality in relation to the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitz, D A; Thang, N M; Swenson, I E; Stone, E M

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. There is obvious potential for war to adversely affect infant and childhood mortality through direct trauma and disruption of the societal infrastructure. This study examined trends in Vietnam through the period of the war. METHODS. The 1988 Vietnam Demographic and Health Survey collected data on reproductive history and family planning from 4172 women aged 15 through 49 years in 12 selected provinces of Vietnam. The 13,137 births and 737 deaths to children younger than age 6 reported by the respondents were analyzed. RESULTS. For the country as a whole, infant and childhood mortality dropped by 30% to 80% from the prewar period to the wartime period and was stable thereafter. In provinces in which the war was most intense, mortality did not decline from the prewar period to the wartime period but declined after the war, consistent with an adverse effect during the wartime period. CONCLUSIONS. The data are limited by assignment of birth location on the basis of mother's current residence and by inadequate information on areas of war activity. Nonetheless, the data do not indicate a widespread, sizable adverse effect of the war on national infant and childhood mortality in Vietnam but suggest detrimental effects in selected provinces. PMID:8342722

  8. Vietnamese infant and childhood mortality in relation to the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitz, D A; Thang, N M; Swenson, I E; Stone, E M

    1993-08-01

    There is obvious potential for war to adversely affect infant and childhood mortality through direct trauma and disruption of the societal infrastructure. This study examined trends in Vietnam through the period of the war. The 1988 Vietnam Demographic and Health Survey collected data on reproductive history and family planning from 4172 women aged 15 through 49 years in 12 selected provinces of Vietnam. The 13,137 births and 737 deaths to children younger than age 6 reported by the respondents were analyzed. For the country as a whole, infant and childhood mortality dropped by 30% to 80% from the prewar period to the wartime period and was stable thereafter. In provinces in which the war was most intense, mortality did not decline from the prewar period to the wartime period but declined after the war, consistent with an adverse effect during the wartime period. The data are limited by assignment of birth location on the basis of mother's current residence and by inadequate information on areas of war activity. Nonetheless, the data do not indicate a widespread, sizable adverse effect of the war on national infant and childhood mortality in Vietnam but suggest detrimental effects in selected provinces.

  9. Not Just an Infantryman’s War: United States Armored Cavalry of the Vietnam War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-16

    Operations APC Armored Personnel Carrier ARVN Army of the Republic of Vietnam COSN Central Office of South Vietnam CTZ Corps Tactical Zone FA...Missions Conducted in II CTZ in 1966 Using Armor and Mechanized Units, by Battalion Days......................................................46 Figure...11. Missions Conducted in II CTZ in 1966 Using Armor and Mechanized Units, by Battalion Days......................................................46

  10. Detection of hepatitis A virus RNA from children patients with acute and fulminant hepatitis of unknown etiology in Vietnam: Genomic characterization of Vietnamese HAV strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Phuc Le; Trong, Khanh Huu; Tran, Tung Thanh; Huy, Tran Thien Tuan; Abe, Kenji

    2008-10-01

    Although it is thought that Vietnam is a high endemic region of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection, there is no report on genomic characterization of HAV spread in Vietnam. The purpose of the present paper was therefore to identify various virus infections from 33 children with acute or fulminant hepatitis of unknown etiology admitted to Children's Hospital No.1 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Anti-HAV IgM and IgG were assayed by ELISA. Viral RNA and DNA were determined by PCR method. HAV genes isolated by PCR were sequenced and characterized by phylogenetic analysis. Anti-HAV IgM was detected in 18 of 26 acute hepatitis (69.2%) and one of seven (14.3%) fulminant hepatitis patients. Furthermore, HAV-RNA in serum was identified in five of 26 acute (19.2%) and two of seven (28.6%) fulminant hepatitis patients, respectively, on nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Among the seven HAV-RNA-positive patients tested, two (28.6%) were negative for anti-HAV IgM. We also obtained seven isolates containing the HAV genome with the viral protein 1 (VP1) region sequence. All Vietnamese HAV isolates formed a cluster and belonged to genotype IA according to phylogenetic analysis based on the short sequences of VP1-2A junction region. HAV is an important agent with regard to fulminant hepatitis among children in Vietnam. To the authors' knowledge this is the first report on Vietnamese HAV strain confirmed on sequencing.

  11. Vietnamese Advanced Course: Typical North Vietnamese Expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This text, prepared by the Defense Language Institute (DLI), is a dictionary of idioms which lists 621 words, phrases, and expressions frequently used in newspapers, magazines, and literary works published in North Vietnam. It is intended for use as a reference work for DLI courses in Vietnamese. Entries are listed alphabetically, translated, and…

  12. Wild Vietnamese relatives of blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    rom 25 October to 14 November 2015, wild relatives of cultivated blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum, were collected during a Vietnamese-US cooperative expedition in Northern Vietnam. The exploration involved representatives of the Plant Resources Center, Vietnam Academy of Agricultural Sciences, in Han...

  13. Cooperation between the U.S. and Vietnamese Governments to Address the Agent Orange Issue in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    under what was known as the “domino theory ,” U.S. President Dwight D. 9 Stanley Karnow, Vietnam: A...wife gave birth to three disabled children: Le Thi Thoa (congenital amputation), Le Quang Chien ( disabled and deformed), and Le Quang Chuong ( disabled ...to disabled children.96 The documentary compares the opportunities of Agent Orange victims to schooling and disability care within the U.S. and

  14. Vietnam

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cathy Egan

    Meanwhile, IDRC was gathering advice and insights from other donors (including United Nations agencies) already active in. Vietnam. The information gathering ... preparation of young scholars and researchers. It was cooperating with other donors — many of them network partners with IDRC in other countries. Its gov-.

  15. The New Migrants from Asia: Vietnamese in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Hien Duc

    1996-01-01

    Presents instructional materials for a unit of study reexamining the effects of the Vietnam War on the Vietnamese migration to the United States. These materials discuss the historical background of this migration as well as the development of Vietnamese American communities and their relationship to other Asian American communities. (MJP)

  16. Introduction to "Mapping Vietnameseness"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hue-Tam Ho Tai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vietnam and China are currently engaged in a map war, with each country using ancient maps to buttress its claims to territorial sovereignty over some uninhabited islands in the South China Sea (in Chinese terminology, also known as the Eastern Sea (in Vietnamese. But what do maps in fact represent? What is meant by “territory”? How are territorial limits conceived? These questions were raised in a May 2015 workshop inspired by Thongchai Winichakul’s Siam Mapped: A History of the Geo-Body of a Nation (1994, a groundbreaking book that traces the transformation of Thai geographical consciousness as a result of Siam’s encounter with Western powers in the nineteenth century. While many of Thongchai’s insights apply to the Vietnamese case, as the first of the three articles included in this special issue of Cross-Currents shows, some of the 2015 workshop participants’ conclusions departed from his, especially regarding the formation of a Vietnamese geographical consciousness before the colonial period.[i] This is true of the other two papers, which focus specifically on the construction of borders and the associated production of maps in the nineteenth century before French colonial conquest... Notes 1 Thanks are due to the Max Planck Institute for the Study of Religious and Ethnic Change in Gottingen, Germany, for its gracious hosting and generous funding of the conference, together with the Asia Center of Harvard University.

  17. New report shows Vietnamese entrepreneurs are growth-oriented ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-06-30

    Jun 30, 2015 ... More than 70 of Vietnamese entrepreneurs choose to start a business to take advantage of opportunities. This is just one of many findings published in a new report that looks at entrepreneurship in Vietnam. The 2014 Vietnam Report, by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM), was launched on June 9 ...

  18. Vietnamese traditional medicine from a pharmacist's perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdenbag, H.J.; Nguyen, T.M.; Vu, D.V.; Tran, H.; Nguyen, D.T.; Tran, T.V.; Smet, P.A.G.M. de; Brouwers, J.R.B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Traditional medicine plays an important role in the healthcare system of Vietnam. Vietnamese traditional medicine (VTM) is underpinned by the oriental philosophy and theory of healing. VTM is largely influenced by traditional Chinese medicine, but differs to a certain extent. VTM is largely not

  19. Vietnamese traditional medicine from a pharmacist's perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdenbag, H.J.; Nguyen, T.M.; Vu, D.V.; Tran, Hung; Nguyen, D.T.; Tran, T.V.; De Smet, P.A.; Brouwers, J.R.

    Traditional medicine plays an important role in the healthcare system of Vietnam. Vietnamese traditional medicine (VTM) is underpinned by the oriental philosophy and theory of healing. VTM is largely influenced by traditional Chinese medicine, but differs to a certain extent. VTM is largely not

  20. Learning Environment in Vietnamese Physics Teacher Education Programme through the Lens of Constructivism: A Case Study of a State University in Mekong Delta Region, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thao-Do, Thi Phuong; Bac-Ly, Dang Thi; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2016-01-01

    Constructivism was introduced to Vietnam through many ways such as workshops, books, the Internet, and so on. However, due to the lack of professional education, fundamental ideas of constructivist learning perhaps were missing or neglected through classroom activities. Furthermore, due to the influence of culture and society, Vietnamese…

  1. Consonants, vowels and tones across Vietnamese dialects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PhȦm, Ben; McLeod, Sharynne

    2016-04-01

    Vietnamese is spoken by over 89 million people in Vietnam and it is one of the most commonly spoken languages other than English in the US, Canada and Australia. This study defines between one and nine different dialects of Vietnamese spoken in Vietnam. In Vietnamese schools, children learn Standard Vietnamese which is based on the northern dialect; however, if they live in other regions they may speak a different dialect at home. This paper describes the differences between the consonants, semivowels, vowels, diphthongs and tones for four dialects: Standard, northern, central and southern Vietnamese. The number and type of initial consonants differs per dialect (i.e. Standard = 23, northern = 20, central = 23, southern = 21). For example, the letter "r" is pronounced in the Standard and central dialects as the retroflex /ʐ/, northern dialect as the voiced alveolar fricative /z/ or the trilled /r/ and in the southern dialect as the voiced velar fricative /ɣ/. Additionally, the letter "v" is pronounced in the Standard, northern and central dialects as the voiced bilabial fricative /v/, the southern dialect as the voiced palatal approximant /j/ and in the lower northern dialect (Ninh Binh) as the voiceless bilabial fricative /f/. Similarly, the number of final consonants differs per dialect (i.e. Standard = 6, northern = 10, central = 10, southern = 8). Finally, the number and type of tones differs per dialect (i.e. Standard = 6, northern = 6, central = 5, southern = 5). Understanding differences between Vietnamese dialects is important so that speech-language pathologists and educators provide appropriate services to people who speak Vietnamese.

  2. Vietnamese Lexicography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh-Hoa, Nguyen

    The history of lexicography in Vietnam is chronicled from early Chinese and missionary scholarship through the colonial period (1884-1946), the war years (1946-1954), the partition period (1954-1975), and the post-1975 period. The evolution of romanization, political-linguistic influences, native scholarship in lexicography, and dictionary types…

  3. Effectiveness of the Vietnamese Good Agricultural Practice (VietGAP on plant growth and quality of Choy Sum (Brassica rapa var. Parachinensis in Northern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuan M. Ha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In response to the recent concerns about human health, ecosystem sustainability and thus demands for food safety, production of clean produce, particularly daily-consumed vegetables, is essential. The study was carried out in Thai Nguyen city (northern Vietnam during August – November 2011 to evaluate impacts of a VietGAP guideline on plant growth and quality of Choy Sum, one of the major vegetables in the research area. The experiment comprised two treatments, a control (local farmers’ conventional practice and an experimental treatment (plants grown according to the VietGAP guideline. Plant samples of the latter treatment were collected for quality test at the end of the experiment. Results showed that the experimental plants had significant higher growth parameters with regards to leaf areas (7.13 dm2 and average top plant weight (3.33 kg m-2, while those of the control treatment were 5.80 dm2 and 2.77 kg m-2, respectively. Lab test results showed the experimental plant samples met the national quality standards to be certified as a clean product. The participatory on-field experiment would facilitate critical reflections, transformative learning and readiness for adoption of eco-friendly production practices by the local farmers

  4. Diabetes in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khue, Nguyen Thy

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence for diabetes, prediabetes, and gestational diabetes in Vietnam are low relative to other parts of the world, but they are increasing at alarming rates. These changes have occurred in the setting of economic and cultural transitions. The aim of this study was to provide relevant information depicting the diabetes burden in Vietnam. Literature was reviewed using PubMed and local Vietnamese sources, including papers published in the Vietnamese language. In 2012, the prevalence of diabetes was 5.4% and prediabetes 13.7%. In 2005, the prevalence of obesity was 1.7%. There is a dual burden of over- and undernutrition observed in Vietnam. Diabetes is associated with an increased waist-to-hip ratio despite normal body mass index. Nutritional transitions occurred with increased protein, fat, and fast foods, and with decreased fresh fruits and vegetables. Tobacco use is very high in Vietnam with 66% of adult men currently smoking. Challenges include endocrinology training, health care coverage, patient education, and lack of coordination among government and specialist agencies. Diabetes is a growing problem in Vietnam and is associated with obesity, changes in dietary patterns, and other cultural transitions. More research is needed to better understand this health care problem and to devise targeted interventions. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Doi Moi, Education and Identity Formation in Contemporary Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Matthieu; Ket, Vu Doan

    2007-01-01

    In 2006 Vietnam had experienced more than two decades of reform. However, while the reforms have transformed the entire Vietnamese economy and opened the country to globalization, the education system is still very much under the Vietnamese Communist Party's control. The schoolbooks are published under close supervision of the authorities. The…

  6. Genetic variation within and between three Vietnamese pine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pinus merkusii is an important species in Vietnam with many economic and biological contributions. The information on diversity within and between populations of a species is necessary for plantation programs, breeding and conservation strategies. Genetic diversity of three Vietnamese populations (NA, QB and QN) was ...

  7. Cultural Identity and Allegiance among Vietnamese Students and Their Organizations at the University of California, Irvine: 1980-1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thai-Huy; Gasman, Marybeth

    2015-01-01

    Background: Within the canon of Asian American histories and histories of student activism, little attention is given to the Vietnamese students at the University of California at Irvine, who came together to advocate for the well-being of Vietnamese refugees after the end of the Vietnam War. This study examines this history and discusses the…

  8. The Strategic Lessons Unlearned from Vietnam, Iraq, and Afghanistan: Why the Afghan National Security Forces Will Not Hold, and the Implications for the U.S. Army in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    capability for forward air control.66 A total of 20 of the sturdy Brazilian -made Embraer A-29 Su- per Tucano light aircraft (essentially an...very end of the war in 1975 did not fly in South Vietnamese air space .80 The main point to be observed here is that the ARVN had a large, powerful...described as “the most shadowy and the most unaccountable in the country.”153 The KPF once attacked a police station in Kandahar and killed the ANP police

  9. Masculinity and Punishment: Men's Upbringing of Boys in Rural Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydstrom, Helle

    2006-01-01

    This article examines men's use of physical punishment when interacting with their sons or grandsons in rural Vietnam. By drawing on two periods of anthropological fieldwork in a northern Vietnamese commune, the article analyses the ways in which violence is informed by, while also perpetually reinforcing, a masculine discourse. Vietnam has…

  10. VIETNAMESE MIGRATION IN THE CONTEXT OF CLIMATE CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem S. Lukyanetz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines emigration from Vietnam in the context of global climate change. Vietnam is among the five countries, most vulnerable to water level rise in the oceans associated with global warming. The areas of potential flooding include territories with most dense population and are extremity important for the economy of Vietnam. The country has a significant demographic potential exceeding 90 mln people. Vietnamese migration has a relatively long history. Large Vietnamese communities have grown in the countries of Eastern Europe; these communities are relatively well integrated into the host countries. Increase in global mean temperatures could lead to severe storms, tsunamis, and flooding and force significant portion of the population out of the Mekong Delta regions and Central provinces of Vietnam. The paper discusses the potential of Atlas Information Systems (AISs for the assessment of social-economic and demographic consequences of climate change in Vietnam. The authors describe an AIS they are developing. This AIS consists of blocks that provide for a close link between socio-political, economic (production, natural resource, and environmental components for the integrated assessment of the provinces of Vietnam. Simulation of events shows that the flood zone could affect such populated provinces as An Giang, Kien Giang, Hau Giang, Dong Thap, Long An, Tien Giang, Vinh Long and Can Tho. To address this problem, the Vietnamese authorities, in 2008, approved the state target program to respond to climate change. The Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment was commissioned to create a scenario of climate change and sea level rise in Vietnam. However, the problem requires an immediate response at the international level, as the threat cannot be localized within the borders of Vietnam. Flooding may require mandatory relocation of the population in the country and, possibly, beyond its borders. If people are not relocated gradually

  11. THE DETERMINANTS OF THE VIETNAMESE ECONOMICS COMPETITIVENESS, A LESSON FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Ha; Galiegue, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Vietnam has been very successful for the last two decades, since the adoption of “Doi moi” in 1986. Over the last two decades, an economic growth rate in Vietnam has been one of the highest worldwide (with GDP growing by respectively 8% per year). The increase of the Vietnamese share of world trade is the highest of all major Asian exporters (including China) since the mid-1990s. « Why is Vietnam so competitive with respect to other Asian exporters? » This paper considers Vietnam's competitiv...

  12. Universal service policy in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do Manh, Thai; Falch, Morten; Von Salakpi, Simeon

    2016-01-01

    Universal service provision is a key to bridge the digital divide. This paper provides an empirical examination of the Vietnamese universal policy introduced in 2015 for implementation up to 2020. Using the framework of King et al. (1994) the paper analyses the universal services policy in Vietnam...... as well as the policies of broadband development in South Korea and Japan in order to clarify the types of universal service initiatives made in these countries. Furthermore, the paper compares the universal service policy in Vietnam with the broadband development policy in South Korea and in Japan...... in order to evaluate whether the Vietnamese universal policy is efficient. The paper concludes with a discussion of how an effective universal policy can be designed....

  13. Contested Nationalism: Ethnic Identity and State Power in the Republic of Vietnam, 1954-1963

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Nu-Anh

    2012-01-01

    The conventional scholarship depicts noncommunist nationalism in the Republic of Vietnam (RVN, or South Vietnam, 1954-1963) as weak or inauthentic, especially when compared to the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV, or North Vietnam). But such arguments assume that Vietnamese nationalism was singular and unitary. This essay reinterprets wartime nationalism by proposing the concept of contested nationalism. Specifically, it examines how the Republican government combined anticommunism with Vi...

  14. Governing pesticide in vegetable production in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoi, Van P.

    2010-01-01

    The economic liberalization in Vietnam, initiated in the middle of the 1980s, contributed to the further intensification and expansion of private actor-engagement in agriculture and food-supply. Vietnamese farmers, who already considered applying pesticides the most effective manner to protect their

  15. Operational Art in the Sino-Vietnamese War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-04

    and internal political actions taken by Deng Xiaoping , one of the Chinese Vice Premier’s.53 Chinese Operational Effectiveness The final category...Vietnamese War? For China, the aim was to eliminate external vulnerabilities and to consolidate internal power around Deng Xiaoping , one of China’s...masterfully kept the war limited to ground operations between China and Vietnam. Deng Xiaoping shaped the strategic approach prior to combat operations

  16. Labor Market Discrimination: Vietnamese Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linus Yamane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vietnamese and East European immigrants face similar obstacles in the U.S. labor market. This provides for an interesting test of racial discrimination in the labor market. Does it make any difference if an immigrant is Asian or White? When Vietnamese immigrants are compared to East European immigrants, Vietnamese men earn 7-9% less than comparable East European men, with more discrimination among the less educated, and in the larger Vietnamese population centers like California. Vietnamese women earn as much as comparable East European women. Vietnamese immigrants, male and female, are much less likely to hold managerial and supervisory positions than comparable East European immigrants.

  17. Comparison of Vietnamese and European pig breeds using microsatellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuy, N T D; Melchinger-Wild, E; Kuss, A W; Cuong, N V; Bartenschlager, H; Geldermann, H

    2006-10-01

    This study characterized autochthonous pig breeds of Vietnam and compared them with breeds from other regions. A total of 343 animals were considered from 5 indigenous pig breeds of Vietnam (Muong Khuong, Co, Meo, Tap Na, and Mong Cai), 2 exotic breeds kept in Vietnam (Landrace and Yorkshire), 3 European commercial breeds (German Land-race, Piétrain, and Large White), the Chinese breed Meishan, and the European Wild Boar. Each individual was genotyped for 20 selected polymorphic microsatellite loci. The Vietnamese autochthonous breeds showed higher degrees of polymorphism, allelic diversity, and heterozygosity than the other pig breeds. Also, large genetic diversity was observed across the area of distribution, with village-specific subpopulations, which led to significant inbreeding coefficients. As expected, genetic distances showed large differences among European-based, Chinese, and Vietnamese indigenous breeds and reflected the geographical distribution of breeds. In comparison with the European breeds, the Vietnamese indigenous pig breeds harbored a considerable amount of genetic diversity and, therefore, will be of significance for livestock bioconservation.

  18. Structural transformation, biased technological change, and employment in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Tarp, Finn; Wu, Ce

    Employment in Vietnam and elsewhere in Asia has grown more slowly than GDP over the last several decades. This means GDP per capita is rising. Vietnamese policymakers, however, are concerned that ongoing structural transformation is creating too few jobs. We use data for seven aggregated sectors...... and the overall Vietnamese economy to examine the roles played by structural transformation, technical change, and institutional bias toward capital intensive development to evaluate the Vietnamese development experience. We find that while some of the difference between GDP and employment growth can...

  19. Structural Transformation, Biased Technological Change, and Employment in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Tarp, Finn; Wu, Ce

    2015-01-01

    Employment in Vietnam and elsewhere in Asia has grown more slowly than GDP over the last several decades. This means GDP per capita is rising. Vietnamese policymakers, however, are concerned that ongoing structural transformation is creating too few jobs. We use data for seven aggregated sectors...... and the overall Vietnamese economy to examine the roles played by structural transformation, technical change and institutional bias towards capital-intensive development to evaluate the Vietnamese development experience. We find that while some of the difference between GDP and employment growth can...

  20. Governance conditions for adaptive freshwater management in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ha, T. P.; Dieperink, Carel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074013130; Dang Tri, Van Pham; Otter, Henriëtte S.; Hoekstra, Piet|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07435244X

    2018-01-01

    The Vietnamese Mekong Delta (VMD) is a region of utmost importance to Vietnam's national food security. However, the availability of required freshwater resources (from both surface and groundwater sources) is currently under great threats due to dry season salinity intrusion, surface water

  1. Diabetes Control among Vietnamese Patients in Ho Chi Minh City: An Observational Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokokawa, Hirohide; Khue, Nguyen Thy; Goto, Aya; Nam, Tran Quang; Trung, Tran The; Khoa, Vo Tuan; Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Boi; Minh, Pham Nghiem; Vinh, Nguyen Quang; Okayama, Akira; Yasumura, Seiji

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the extent of diabetic control and its associated factors among Vietnamese patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). The study was conducted among 652 outpatients who were recruited at a public general hospital (People Hospital 115) and a private clinic (Medic Center) in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Median age…

  2. The effects of Vietnamese rice export policies on world market integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luckmann, J.; Ihle, R.; Kleinwechter, U.; Grethe, H.

    2015-01-01

    World market prices of rice have been subject to large fluctuations in recent years. Vietnam is a major exporter of rice which is also the main staple food in the country. The Vietnamese government is limiting exports, to insulate domestic consumers from world market price hikes. The effects of

  3. Vietnamese Higher Education in the Context of Globalization: Qualitative or Quantitative Targets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Huong Thi Kieu

    2014-01-01

    The adoption of a more market-oriented economy has paved the way for the Vietnamese education system to undergo continuous change for more than twenty years. This paper sets out: (1) to examine the impacts of globalisation and liberalisation on the education sector in developing countries, with a main focus on Vietnam, and (2) to determine how the…

  4. Nutritional status following malaria control in a Vietnamese ethnic minority commune

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hung, L. Q.; de Vries, P. J.; Giao, P. T.; Binh, T. Q.; Nam, N. V.; Chong, M. T.; Kager, P. A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study whether control of malaria leads to catch-up growth or an increase of obesity in a marginally nourished population. Setting: A Vietnamese ethnic minority commune in southern Vietnam. Design: Repeated annual anthropometric surveys were performed from 1995 to 2000. Z-scores for

  5. World market integration of Vietnamese rice markets during the 2008 food price crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luckmann, J.; Ihle, R.; Kleinwechter, U.; Grethe, H.

    2015-01-01

    World market prices of rice have been subject to large fluctuations in recent years. In mid 2008, prices reached levels never seen before. Vietnam is a major exporter of rice and rice is also the main staple food of the country. Given the importance of rice for domestic food security, the Vietnamese

  6. Australian-Trained Vietnamese Teachers of English: Culture and Identity Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Phan Le

    2007-01-01

    The identity formation of Australian-trained Vietnamese teachers of English is explored by looking at their experiences as TESOL (teaching English to speakers of other languages) students in Australia and as teachers of English in Vietnam. On the one hand, the paper consolidates the understanding of identity in relation to difference and…

  7. Improved forage strategies for high-yielding dairy cows in Vietnam : report of a workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, A.P.; Lee, van der J.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents results of the workshop "Improved forage strategies for high-yielding dairy cows in Vietnam" which was held with Vietnamese stakeholders on January 17-18, 2013 in Ho Chi Minh City as part of the project "Forage and Grass Production for Dairy Development in Vietnam" funded by the

  8. The Educational Realities of Hmong Communities in Vietnam: The Voices of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Constance

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the language policy and sociolinguistic realities of Hmong people in Lao Cai province, Vietnam. Minority children, who have their own mother tongue, are educated in Vietnamese, a language that few understand. In response to this situation, the Ministry of Education and Training of Vietnam in collaboration with UNICEF,…

  9. Cultural and clinical factors associated with antihypertensive medication adherence in Vietnamese policemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Wen Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to characterize Vietnamese policemen with hypertension, to report the proportion of hypertension control and medication adherence in Vietnamese policemen, and to explore cultural and clinical factors related to antihypertensive medication adherence. A cross-sectional study design was used. A convenience sample of 100 policemen with hypertension was recruited in Vietnam. A total score of 80% or more on the Medication Adherence scale was defined as medication adherence. Medication adherence was reported in 64% of the participants, but hypertension control was found in only 53%. Medication adherence was higher in the participants with higher perceived susceptibility to hypertension-related complications, higher perceived benefit of Western anti-hypertensive medications, longer duration of time since diagnosis, and fewer prescribed blood pressure lowering medications. Vietnamese policemen are at high risk for poor medication adherence and hypertension management. Culturally and clinically appropriate nursing interventions for hypertension management in Vietnamese policemen are needed.

  10. Emergence of Integrated Water Resources Management: Measuring implementation in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Akkerman, M.; Khanh, N.T.; Witter, M.; Rutten, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the changes in laws and regulations, such as the revised Law on Water Resources in 2012, have sought to provide a legal framework for the internationally recognized practices of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in Vietnam. With IWRM being a novel approach for Vietnam, it would be interesting to evaluate how well water resources plans are adhering to the principles of IWRM, to learn and further tailor these principles to the Vietnamese situation. Practical approaches on h...

  11. Antibiotic contaminants in coastal wetlands from Vietnamese shrimp farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuy, Hoang Thi Thanh; Nga, Le Phi; Loan, Tu Thi Cam

    2011-07-01

    Shrimp culture has been expanded rapidly in recent years in coastal wetland zone of Vietnam due to favorable natural conditions. However, this industry has caused several negative impacts to the environment. One of the critical issues is the excessive application of antibiotics including human medicines. These chemicals could be released from shrimp ponds and then accumulated and contaminated of the ecosystem. This review article discusses a whole range of findings that address various aspects of the usage, occurrence and potentially environmental risks of antibiotics released from shrimp farming, with emphasis on the South Vietnam coastal wetland. The published information on the usage and occurrence of antibiotics in Vietnamese shrimp farming has been reviewed. A global comparison was also carried out. This follows by a brief overview of the transport and fate of these antibiotics in the environment. Several antibiotics commonly used in Vietnamese shrimp culture have been detected in wastewater and sediment of the ponds, as well as in surrounding coastal wetlands, resulting in the existence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. However, their transport and fate could not be clearly defined. The well-documented accumulation of antibiotics in mud and sediments in Vietnamese coastal wetlands potentially poses serious risks for the local wetland ecosystems. Thus, research on the transport and fate of antibiotics' residues from the ponds into the surrounding environment is urgently needed.

  12. "Freedom. Money. Fun. Love.": the warlore of Vietnamese bargirls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Mai Lan

    2011-01-01

    Memories of the Vietnam War abound in the minds of those who survived it, be they veterans or civilians, Vietnamese or American. Vietnamese refugees, forced to flee their homeland after the war ended in 1975, tell particularly poignant stories of loss -- of country, of family, of tradition, and of identity. Not so the women featured in this article. During the war, they served as bargirls in Saigon, entertaining American soldiers. The stories they tell of the war paint an entirely different picture: one of good times, and camaraderie, and the exhilaration of being young and free in the city. They were able to break free from tradition and the expectations imposed on their gender because of the war, and because of that, remember the war as the best time of their lives.

  13. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD mutations and haemoglobinuria syndrome in the Vietnamese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Day Nick

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Vietnam the blackwater fever syndrome (BWF has been associated with malaria infection, quinine ingestion and G6PD deficiency. The G6PD variants within the Vietnamese Kinh contributing to the disease risk in this population, and more generally to haemoglobinuria, are currently unknown. Method Eighty-two haemoglobinuria patients and 524 healthy controls were screened for G6PD deficiency using either the methylene blue reduction test, the G-6-PDH kit or the micro-methaemoglobin reduction test. The G6PD gene variants were screened using SSCP combined with DNA sequencing in 82 patients with haemoglobinuria, and in 59 healthy controls found to be G6PD deficient. Results This study confirmed that G6PD deficiency is strongly associated with haemoglobinuria (OR = 15, 95% CI [7.7 to 28.9], P G6PD variants were identified in the Vietnamese population, of which two are novel (Vietnam1 [Glu3Lys] and Vietnam2 [Phe66Cys]. G6PD Viangchan [Val291Met], common throughout south-east Asia, accounted for 77% of the variants detected and was significantly associated with haemoglobinuria within G6PD-deficient ethnic Kinh Vietnamese (OR = 5.8 95% CI [114-55.4], P = 0.022. Conclusion The primary frequency of several G6PD mutations, including novel mutations, in the Vietnamese Kinh population are reported and the contribution of G6PD mutations to the development of haemoglobinuria are investigated.

  14. Perceptions of Higher Education Quality at Three Universities in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Huong Thi; Starkey, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Vietnam is experiencing rapid expansion in the provision of higher education that requires quality assurance appropriate for the Vietnamese-centralised Confucian cultural context. This paper aims to examine the concept of quality from the perspectives of academic leaders, quality assurance members and academics at three higher education…

  15. "Doi Moi" (Renovation) and Higher Education Reform in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Pham Thi Hong

    2011-01-01

    Vietnam has experienced significant social, economic, political, and educational changes during the last two decades since the "Doi Moi" policy was implemented. To respond to new requirements required by the global economy, Vietnamese education has undergone remarkable reforms. This article critically examines these reforms in three…

  16. Planning Joint Vietnam Ocean Circulation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    We intend to make new Lagrangian and Eulerian observations to measure the seasonal circulation 1) in the coastal waters of Vietnam and 2) in the SCS...circulation models of the SCS and its coastal waters . Raise interest amongst Vietnamese scientists on Lagrangian circulation studies through multiple...an inexpensive micro-controller unit (MCU) was designed with support circuitry for onboard GPS, 5 SST, drogue detection, external barometer

  17. Viral Advertising on Facebook in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Phuong

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to explore which factors affect the effectiveness of viral advertising on Facebook in Vietnam. The quantitative research method is applied in this research and the sample is Vietnamese Facebook users. After the data analysis stage using SPSS, it became clear that weak ties, perceptual affinity and emotions have an impact on the effectiveness of viral advertising. The results provide a pratical implication of how to make an Ad which can go viral on Facebook. Moreo...

  18. Flexibility, Reach, and the Vietnam Fire Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    Zone MAAG Military Assistance Advisory Group MACV Military Assistance Command Vietnam NVA North Vietnamese Army PB Patrol Base SEATO Southeast...Fire Support Base, Patrol Base ( PB ), Fire Support Patrol Base, Landing Zone (LZ), Camp, and Basecamp. These terms are often interchanged because...significant influence because each base needed a LOC that was reliable. Bases located in wetlands operated differently than those in remote jungle

  19. Exploring Cultural Context and School Leadership: Conceptualizing an Indigenous Model of Có Uy School Leadership in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Thang Dinh; Hallinger, Philip

    2017-01-01

    The need for empirical research on leadership in educational organizations across more diverse national settings frames the purpose of the current study of principal leadership in Vietnam. To date, the international literature on school leadership in Vietnam is virtually a blank slate. This research aimed at describing how Vietnamese school…

  20. Vietnamese Garment Enterprises After the Termination of the Multi-Fiber Agreement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Henrik

    in the basic institutional international trade arrangements. The focus is on Vietnam and the Vietnamese garment suppliers looking at how they have performed after the removal of the quota systems and what kind of strategies they have pursued. The results show that Vietnamese suppliers have been able to compete...... internationally after the quota removals although many of them appear to be locked in the low value end of the chain. The data show, however, that they are not only able to compete and grow but also to change between buyers and markets, which provides them with the flexibility of shifting between chains....

  1. Normative nasalance scores for Vietnamese-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van Thai; Lehes, Lagle; Truong, Thi Thuy Hang; Hoang, Thi Van Anh; Jagomägi, Triin

    2017-10-26

    The Nasometer is increasingly being used to complement auditory perceptual assessment of nasality. Nasalance scores which are obtained from the Nasometer vary across languages. Normative nasalance scores have been established for many languages but not for the Vietnamese language. The objective of this study was to obtain the normative nasalance scores for Vietnamese-speaking children. In this study, 102 healthy Vietnamese children speaking in the central regional dialect aged from 7 to 9 years (45 boys, 57 girls; mean age = 7.5 years) at a primary school in Hue, Vietnam participated. Three speech stimuli, which were specific for the Vietnamese language, were designed: oral stimuli (19 words and 18 sentences), oro-nasal stimuli (eight sentences) and nasal stimuli (seven sentences). The children were asked to repeat these stimuli after the examiner. The Nasometer II (model 6450) was used to obtain the nasalance scores. The procedure took about 10 minutes for each child. The mean nasalance scores and the standard deviation of each stimulus were: 13.1 ± 5.8 (oral stimuli), 30.7 ± 6.6 (oro-nasal stimuli) and 56.9 ± 9.2 (nasal stimuli). No significant differences between the genders were found. The normative nasalance scores provide essential reference information for clinicians who deal with nasalance disorders, especially patients with cleft palate. The nasalance scores in this study were established for Vietnamese children speaking in the central regional dialect and can be applied to both genders.

  2. Hepatitis B Stigma and Knowledge among Vietnamese in Ho Chi Minh City and Chicago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Dam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stigma regarding viral hepatitis and liver disease has psychological and social consequences including causing negative self-image, disrupting relationships, and providing a barrier to prevention, testing, and treatment. The aim of this study was to characterize and compare HBV knowledge and stigma in Vietnamese in Ho Chi Minh City and Chicago and to begin to evaluate the cultural context of HBV stigma. Methods. A written survey including knowledge questions and a validated HBV stigma questionnaire was distributed to Vietnamese in Ho Chi Minh City and Chicago. 842 surveys from Ho Chi Minh City and 170 from Chicago were analyzed. Results. Vietnamese living in Chicago had better understanding of HBV transmission and that HBV can cause chronic infection and liver cancer. Vietnamese in Chicago had higher stigma scores on a broad range of items including guilt and shame about HBV and were more likely to feel that persons with HBV can bring harm to others and should be isolated. Conclusions. Vietnamese in Ho Chi Minh City and Chicago have knowledge deficits about HBV, particularly regarding modes of transmission. Persons in Ho Chi Minh City expressed lower levels of HBV stigma than Vietnamese living in Chicago, likely reflecting changing cultural attitudes in Vietnam. Culturally appropriate educational initiatives are needed to address the problem of HBV stigma.

  3. Communication ambivalence toward elders: data from North Vietnam, South Vietnam, and the U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Robert M; Cargile, Aaron C; Giles, Howard; Bui, Cuong T

    2004-12-01

    This study investigated young adults' beliefs about their intra- and intergenerational communications in South Vietnam, North Vietnam, and the U.S.A. Respondents perceived their interactions with older people as simultaneously more problematic (e.g., older people seen as more nonaccommodative) and more pleasing (e.g., older adults seen as more accommodative) than their interactions with other young adults. Young adults also strongly felt more of an obligation to be respectful, and to a lesser degree avoidant, in their communication with older adults than to those in their peer age group. Large-scale linguistic, historical, political, and cultural differences notwithstanding, a similar intergenerational communication profile emerged among the North Vietnamese, South Vietnamese, and American respondents in their reports of their communication with people of different ages. Intergroup, cultural, identity, and modernity issues were invoked to account for these findings.

  4. Wicked problems: a value chain approach from Vietnam's dairy product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoi, Nguyen Viet

    2013-12-01

    In the past few years, dairy industry has become one of the fastest growing sectors in the packaged food industry of Vietnam. However, the value-added creation among different activities in the value chain of Vietnam dairy sector is distributed unequally. In the production activities, the dairy farmers gain low value-added rate due to high input cost. Whereas the processing activities, which managed by big companies, generates high profitability and Vietnamese consumers seem to have few choices due to the lack of dairy companies in the market. These wicked problems caused an unsustainable development to the dairy value chain of Vietnam. This paper, therefore, will map and analyze the value chain of the dairy industry in Vietnam. It will also assess the value created in each activity in order to imply solutions for a sustainable development of Vietnam's dairy industry. M10, M11.

  5. The United States and Vietnam Relationship: Benefits and Challenges for Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    pursuing a sustainable development that closely and harmoniously combines economic growth and social development, natural resource and environment...the central factor in the development of the country. Vietnam will focus on education, training, healthcare, and other social areas to enhance the...Vietnamese merchandise may be subject to the standards of the WTO Agreement on Anti- Dumping . The existence of the non-market designation is due to existing

  6. Cross-Border Brides: Vietnamese Wives, Chinese Husbands in a Border-Area Fishing Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyễn Thị Phương Châm

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article traces the lives of a group of Vietnamese women driven by poverty and loss of marriageability to cross the border into China to marry men from the fishing village of Wanwei. Wanwei’s location, only 25 kilometers from the border with Vietnam, enables these women to make fairly regular trips back to their native villages to visit their birth families. Yet, despite the fact that they now live in a designated Jing (ethnic Vietnamese village, where a significant proportion of the population shares their ethnicity, their illegal residential status and recent arrival excludes them from the community of villagers who claim descent from Vietnamese immigrants in the sixteenth century. Despite the hardships these women face as a result of continuing poverty, lack of emotional intimacy in their marriages, and marginal social status, few see themselves as victims of human trafficking. Instead, most take pride in their agency and achievements.

  7. Chain Migration through Social Networks: Case Study of Vietnamese Migrants in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anh Tuan NGUYEN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to investigate the relationship between the recent increasingly pattern of Vietnamese migrants in Thailand and migration networks. By surveying 50 Vietnamese migrants in Bangkok, Thailand, the study confirms that migration networks have played a critical role in facilitating migration flows, especially irregular flows from Vietnam to Thailand over the years. It can be reflected by reducing the cost of migration, coping with new working environment and risks during working in Thailand and ensuring the return process for Vietnamese migrants. Moreover, forms of social networks includes personal networks (kinship and friendship networks, and community network (ngườidẫnđường’s network, social media has been also discussed. The study also implies that the người dẫn đường’s networks might contribute to recently emerging issues such as human trafficking and smugglings, which require further research.

  8. Molecular genotyping of duck hepatitis A viruses (DHAV) in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Huong Thi Thanh; Le, Xuyen Thi Kim; Do, Roan Thi; Hoang, Chau Thi Minh; Nguyen, Khue Thi; Le, Thanh Hoa

    2016-09-30

    The aim of this study was to identify the genetic characteristics and molecular genotyping of duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV) isolated in Vietnam during 2009-2013. Thirty duckling livers from outbreaks between 2009 and 2013 in seven provinces were collected and identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Then, VP1 genes of eleven positive samples and two attenuated vaccine strains were sequenced and analyzed. Genotypic and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the 13 Vietnamese isolates were classified into two genotypes, DHAV-1 and DHAV-3. The rate of identity and homology was 91%-100% between the 10 Vietnamese and 26 global strains of DHAV-3, and 92%-100% between 3 Vietnamese and 16 strains of DHAV-1. Between the DHAV-3 and DHAV-1 strains, the divergence reached 30%. At the C-terminal of VP1 for the different strains, a hypervariable region was observed, and notably, six of the Vietnamese DHAV-3 strains in this study showed four consistent differences (at positions T184M, Q200H, K207N, and K214R) within this group that were distinct from all other DHAV-3 strains. This is the first report of molecular characterization of DHAVs in Vietnam. At least two genotypes were identified, DHAV-1 and DHAV-3, with diversified clades within and between genotypes. DHAV-3 seemed to be dominant in Vietnam.

  9. Complete genome characterization of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vui, Dam Thi; Thanh, To Long; Tung, Nguyen; Srijangwad, Anchalee; Tripipat, Thitima; Chuanasa, Taksina; Nilubol, Dachrit

    2015-08-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) first emerged in Vietnam in 2009. In this study, the complete genomes of three Vietnamese PEDV isolates were characterized. These three isolates were isolated from 3-day-old pigs experiencing diarrhea. Two isolates were from swine farms in the south, and the other was from northern Vietnam. The whole genome sequences of these isolates are 28,035 nucleotides in length and have characteristics similar to those of other PEDV isolates. All three Vietnamese PEDV isolates share 99.8 % and 99.6 % sequence identity at the nucleotide and amino acid level, respectively, and have insertions of four amino acids (GENQ) and one amino acid (N) at positions 56-59 and 140, respectively, and one deletion of two amino acids (DG) at positions 160-161. Phylogenetic analysis based on the whole genome revealed that the three Vietnamese PEDV isolates are grouped together with new variants from China from 2011 to 2012 and are genetically distinct from US isolates and the classical PEDV variant. The results suggest that Vietnamese PEDV isolates are new variants, as evidenced by their genetic composition of insertions and a deletion in the spike gene, and they might have originated from the same ancestor as the Chinese PEDV strain. This study provides a better understanding of the molecular characteristics of PEDV in Vietnam.

  10. Vietnamese Domestic Tourism: An Investigation of Travel Motivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jolliffe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article approaches domestic tourism in Vietnam from a native Asian perspective aiming to examine Vietnamese domestic travel motivations. This quantitative study is based on a self-administered questionnaire to survey 230 Vietnamese domestic travellers. Results highlight the significant roles of the employer sponsoring the trip, family, travel promotion, and favourable weather in determining travel, in addition to their motivations to seek time for leisure and recreation. Moreover, the study detected a perception gap between the tourist’s demand and the travel agent’s supply. The behaviour of Vietnamese domestic travellers reflects the characteristics of a transition economy and reveals certain aspects which are also peculiar to other Asian countries. --- Die hier präsentierte quantitative Studie untersucht Reisemotive vietnamesischer InlandstouristInnen mittels eines an 230 ProbandInnen gerichteten Fragebogens. Die Ergebnisse heben neben dem Motiv der Freizeitgestaltung und Erholung die signifikante Rolle der Reisefinanzierung durch Arbeit- geberInnen, der Familie, der Tourismuswerbung sowie der Wetterbedingungen für die Reiseentscheidung hervor. Außerdem ergab die Studie, dass sich die touristischen Motivationen vom Angebot der Reiseagenturen unterscheiden. Die Autorinnen argumentieren, dass das Urlaubsverhalten vietnamesischer InlandstouristInnen Charakteristika eines im wirtschaftlichen Umbruch befindenden Landes widerspiegelt sowie Aspekte aufzeigt, die auch in anderen asiatischen Ländern eine wichtige Rolle spielen.

  11. Dilemmas in examining understanding of nature of science in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thao-Do, Thi Phuong; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2017-06-01

    Scholars proved nature of science (NOS) has made certain contributions to science teaching and learning. Nonetheless, what, how and how much NOS should be integrated in the science curriculum of each country cannot be a benchmark, due to the influence of culture and society. Before employing NOS in a new context, it should be carefully studied. In assessing views of NOS in Vietnam, a developing country with Eastern culture where the NOS is not consider a compulsory learning outcome, there are several issues that researchers and educators should notice to develop an appropriate instrument that can clearly exhibit a NOS view of Vietnamese. They may include: time for the survey; length, content, type, and terms of the questionnaire; Vietnamese epistemology and philosophy; and some other Vietnamese social and cultural aspects. The most important reason for these considerations is that a Vietnamese view of NOS and NOS assessment possibly differs from the Western ideas due to the social and cultural impact. As a result, a Western assessment tool may become less effective in an Eastern context. The suggestions and implications in this study were derived from a prolonged investigation on Vietnamese science teacher educators and student teachers of School of Education, at Can Tho University, a State University in Mekong Delta region, Vietnam.

  12. Impact of Foreign Direct Investment and Barriers to MNC Supply Chain Integration in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilici Hamdi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Vietnamese economy has been progressing to become a supplier to many multinational corporations (MNC. However, barriers presently exist that prevent Vietnamese firms from fully integrating into the supply chain of these global actors. Weak FDI overflow and block trading has government officials and business executives troubled that Vietnamese firms are still on the periphery of these global supply networks. Even as MNCs operating in Vietnam import many semi-finished products from other countries, Vietnamese firms are not benefiting from the opportunities to incorporate into the supply chain because of the lack of global experience, FDI, an educated workforce and outdated facilities. Vietnamese firms must upgrade their facilities and equip their labor forces to acquire MNC contracts and find global partners who can supply financing and knowhow.

  13. Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori in female Vietnamese immigrants to Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Su Jung; Yi, Sun Young; Park, Hye Sook; Park, Bo Hyun

    2012-02-14

    To investigate the seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and its relationship to nutritional factors in female Vietnamese immigrants to Korea. A total of 390 female immigrants from Vietnam and 206 Korean male spouses participated in the study. Blood samples from 321 female immigrants and 201 Korean male spouses were analyzed for H. pylori antibodies. Data on age, sex, alcohol consumption, smoking status, dietary nutritional factors and gastrointestinal symptoms were collected using questionnaires. The daily intakes of the following nutrients were estimated: energy, protein, niacin, lipid, fiber, calcium, iron, sodium, potassium, zinc, folate, cholesterol, and vitamins A, B1, B2, B6, C and E. The prevalence of H. pylori positivity was lower in the immigrants than in age-matched Korean females (55.7% vs 71.4%, respectively; P < 0.0001) and the domestic population of Vietnam. The prevalence of H. pylori positivity among married couples was 31.7% for both spouses. There were no statistically significant differences in the incidence of smoking, amount of alcohol consumed, or nutritional factors between the H. pylori-positive and negative groups. The prevalence of H. pylori positivity was lower among female Vietnamese immigrants than among Korean females. Nutritional factors did not differ between the H. pylori-positive and negative groups.

  14. Large Scale Integration of Renewable Power Sources into the Vietnamese Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Alexander; Schyska, Bruno; Thanh Viet, Dinh; von Bremen, Lueder; Heinemann, Detlev; Schramm, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    The Vietnamese Power system is expected to expand considerably in upcoming decades. Power capacities installed are projected to grow from 39 GW in 2015 to 129.5 GW by 2030. Installed wind power capacities are expected to grow to 6 GW (0.8 GW 2015) and solar power capacities to 12 GW (0.85 GW 2015). This goes hand in hand with an increase of the renewable penetration in the power mix from 1.3% from wind and photovoltaics (PV) in 2015 to 5.4% by 2030. The overall potential for wind power in Vietnam is estimated to be around 24 GW. Moreover, the up-scaling of renewable energy sources was formulated as one of the priorized targets of the Vietnamese government in the National Power Development Plan VII. In this work, we investigate the transition of the Vietnamese power system towards high shares of renewables. For this purpose, we jointly optimise the expansion of renewable generation facilities for wind and PV, and the transmission grid within renewable build-up pathways until 2030 and beyond. To simulate the Vietnamese power system and its generation from renewable sources, we use highly spatially and temporally resolved historical weather and load data and the open source modelling toolbox Python for Power System Analysis (PyPSA). We show that the highest potential of renewable generation for wind and PV is observed in southern Vietnam and discuss the resulting need for transmission grid extensions in dependency of the optimal pathway. Furthermore, we show that the smoothing effect of wind power has several considerable beneficial effects and that the Vietnamese hydro power potential can be efficiently used to provide balancing opportunities. This work is part of the R&D Project "Analysis of the Large Scale Integration of Renewable Power into the Future Vietnamese Power System" (GIZ, 2016-2018).

  15. International Accounting Standards/International Financial Reporting Standards versus Vietnamese Accounting Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Dinh, Thuy

    2014-01-01

    International Accounting Standards/International Financial Reporting Standards (IAS/IFRS) have increasingly achieved global acceptance in recent years. In the face of globalisation process, it is critical for Vietnam to direct its current accounting system in order to improve its competitiveness regarding financial services and capital markets on the globally coordinated market. This thesis aims at comparing IAS/IFRS and Vietnamese Accounting Standards (VAS) in terms of accounting standa...

  16. Perspectives of pupils, parents, and teachers on mental health problems among Vietnamese secondary school pupils

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Dat Tan; Dedding, Christine; Pham, Tam Thi; Bunders, Joske

    2013-01-01

    Background Secondary school can be a stressful period for adolescents, having to cope with many life changes. Very little research has been conducted on the mental health status of secondary school pupils in South East Asian countries, such as Vietnam. The study aimed to explore perceptions of mental health status, risk factors for mental health problems and strategies to improve mental health among Vietnamese secondary school students. Methods A qualitative design was used to address the mai...

  17. Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in Vietnam: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doanh, Pham Ngoc; Horii, Yoichiro; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2013-12-01

    Paragonimiasis is a food-borne parasitic zoonosis caused by infection with lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus. In Vietnam, research on Paragonimus and paragonimiasis has been conducted in northern and central regions of the country. Using a combination of morphological and molecular methods, 7 Paragonimus species, namely P. heterotremus, P. westermani, P. skrjabini, P. vietnamensis, P. proliferus, P. bangkokenis and P. harinasutai, have been identified in Vietnam. Of these, the first 3, P. heterotremus, P. westermani and P. skrjabini, are known to infect humans in other countries. However, in Vietnam, only P. heterotremus, found in some northern provinces, has been shown to infect humans. Even nowadays, local people in some northern provinces, such as Lai Chau and Yen Bai, are still suffering from P. heterotremus infection. In some provinces of central Vietnam, the prevalence and infection intensity of P. westermani metacercariae in freshwater crabs (the second intermediate hosts) are extremely high, but human cases have not been reported. Likewise, although P. skrjabini was found in Thanh Hoa Province, its pathogenicity to humans in Vietnam still remains uncertain. The results of molecular phylogenetic analyses of Vietnamese Paragonimus species provides new insights on the phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Paragonimus. Comprehensive molecular epidemiological and geobiological studies on the genus in Vietnam and adjacent countries are needed to clarify the biodiversity and public health significance of the lung flukes.

  18. Issues and Challenges in the Establishment of Continuous Improvement in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuong Anh Nguyen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A better understanding of Vietnamese management is important for both practitioners and academics because of the huge and continuing growth of business activity in Vietnam. In particular, information about the Vietnamese use of continuous improvement (CI practices is valuable because these have underpinned the success of both western and Asian companies in recent decades. Using the case-study method based on over 60 in-depth interviews with executives, managers, supervisors, and employees of nine leading companies in Vietnam and information gathered from discussions with 440 business and non-business leaders, practitioners, and academics, this paper shows that Vietnamese organizations face numerous challenges when implementing and sustaining CI practices. The findings highlight the tendency of Vietnamese organizations to pursue “shortcut” strategies that prevent them from competing higher up the value-added chain. Maintaining “face” is vital to the Vietnamese and this is a major cultural challenge for organizations in their CI efforts. The paper recommends that Vietnamese organizations address these challenges by pursuing CI more aggressively and investing in human resource development to build capabilities for the future. The Vietnamese government, which is the main engine of change in the country, should promote the use of CI by funding education and training in its methods.

  19. Vietnamese fusion restaurant business plan

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Trang; Heino, Thuy

    2017-01-01

    Helsinki is becoming more and more dynamic with diverse cultures and international ethnicities.Therefore, the appearance of ethnic food and cuisines is essential. Fusion food is emerging as a new popular trend amongst Finns. Vietnamese food is famous for its taste, freshness and nutrition. Vietnamese cuisines have become a part of daily food selection in many countries such as Germany, Czech Republic, Holland and the United States of America. However, it is still new to Finns since there are ...

  20. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Teen Pregnancy in Vietnam: Results from Two National Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huong Nguyen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study asked two broad questions: (1 what is the prevalence of teen pregnancy in contemporary Vietnam; and (2 what selected social, family, and individual factors are associated with teen pregnancy in Vietnam? The study utilized Vietnam Survey Assessment of Vietnamese Youth surveys conducted in 2003 and 2008 to answer the two research questions within the context of fast political, economic, and social change in Vietnam in the last two decades. Results of this study show that the prevalence of pregnancy among Vietnamese teenagers in the surveys was stable at 4%, or 40 pregnancies per 1000 adolescent girls aged 14 to 19. Age, experience of domestic violence, and early sexual debut were positively correlated with higher odds of teenage pregnancy for both survey cohorts; however, being an ethnic minority, educational attainment, sexual education at school, Internet use, and depressive symptoms were significantly related to teenage pregnancy only in the 2008 cohort.

  1. 31 CFR 500.554 - Gifts of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian, or South Vietnamese origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gifts of North Korean, North... § 500.554 Gifts of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian, or South Vietnamese origin. (a) Except as... importation of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian, or South Vietnamese origin goods sent as gifts to...

  2. [Physical condition and work capacity of Vietnamese workers in the People's Republic of Bulgaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ch'ong, N V

    1983-01-01

    The expansion of integration processes on economics between P.R. of Bulgaria and S.R. of Vietnam during the eight 5-year plan period and the increased number of Vietnamese workers in Bulgaria determine the actuality and significance of the problem of the studies on their physical state and working capacity. One hundred sixty newly-come Vietnamese workers, aged between 20 and 35 were examined as well as 89 subjects, working as miners in Madan mines, with three years average length or service and average age 20-30. The following indices were used in the determination of the physical state and working capacity: height, body weight, chest measurements, vital capacity, muscular strength and hand muscular strength, time of simple and complicated visual-motor reaction. The results revealed that the group of workers, with a 3-year stay in Bulgaria, had statistically significant, higher values of the majority of the indices as compared with those of the newly-come Vietnamese. The Vietnamese workers manifested lower values of the indices for physical development (with 5 to 25%) as compared with the Bulgarians, the difference being considerably smaller in the miners' group. The future longitudinal studies on the physical state and working capacity of the Vietnamese workers will be the grounds for the elaboration of norms for physical loading, weight lifting, etc.

  3. Vietnamese Migrant Workers in Thailand - Implications for Leveraging Migration for Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy HUYEN NGUYEN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A greater flow of people to and from each of the Mekong countries is catching the attention of the general public and academic researchers. As one of the fastest growing countries in the GMS, Thailand is attracting the majority of migrant workers from its neighbours. At a smaller scale, when compared with those from Lao PDR, Cambodia and Myanmar, Vietnamese workers are also joining this increasing trend in immigration to Thailand. By analyzing information from secondary data sources, this research paper attempts to provide further insights into the social and economic impacts generated by the Vietnamese migrant workers in Thailand both at home and the host country. The study discovers that moving to Thailand for work has eased the pressures of rural unemployment and underemployment that have plagued Vietnam recently. Meanwhile, Vietnamese workers are helping soothe the stress caused by the increasing demand for unskilled and low skilled labourers in Thailand. The study further learns that the long-established community of Vietnamese migrants in Thailand is encouraging the increasing movement of Vietnamese workers to Thailand. The study findings suggest meaningful implications for future policies in leveraging labour migration for development.

  4. Strongyloides stercoralis seroprevalence in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diep, Nguyen Thi Ngoc; Thai, Pham Quang; Trang, Nghiem Nguyen Minh; Jäger, Julia; Fox, Annette; Horby, Peter; Phuong, Hoang Vu Mai; Anh, Dang Duc; Mai, LE Thi Quynh; VAN Doorn, H Rogier; Nadjm, Behzad

    2017-11-01

    Strongyloidiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by the roundworm Strongyloides stercoralis affecting 30-100 million people worldwide. Many Southeast-Asian countries report a high prevalence of S. stercoralis infection, but there are little data from Vietnam. Here, we evaluated the seroprevalence of S. stercoralis related to geography, sex and age in Vietnam through serological testing of anonymized sera. Sera (n = 1710, 1340 adults and 270 children) from an anonymized age-stratified serum bank from four regions in Vietnam between 2012 and 2013 were tested using a commercial Strongyloides ratti immunoglobulin G ELISA. Seroreactivity was found in 29·1% (390/1340) of adults and 5·5% (15/270) of children. Male adults were more frequently seroreactive than females (33·3% vs. 24·9%, P = 0·001). The rural central highlands had the highest seroprevalence (42·4% of adults). Seroreactivity in the other regions was 29·9% (Hue) and 26·0% and 18·2% in the large urban centres of Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, respectively. We conclude that seroprevalence of S. stercoralis was high in the Vietnamese adult population, especially in rural areas.

  5. The Vietnam Cauldron: Defense Intelligence in the War for Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    over with black paint, giving the interior of the building the aura of a funeral home. Perhaps most worrisome, the weight of dozens of safes moved...to offset much of the effects of air strikes ... The North Vietnamese still retain the capability to support activities in South Vietnam and Laos at...South Vietnam through Laos and Cambodia, had little effect beyond short- 14 Defense Intelligence Historical Perspectives, Number 2 term dislocations. “The

  6. RUSSIAN-VIETNAMESE MILITARY-TECHNICAL COOPERATION: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н В Федоров

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Vietnam plays important role in Russian policy in the Asia-Pacific region. Military-technical cooperation holds special position in Russian-Vietnamese relations. The aim of the article is the detection of the special features of military-technical cooperation between Russia and Vietnam, and also challenges and opportunities it provides for Russian policy. After the collapse of the USSR defense interaction between Russia and Vietnam was determined by commercial foundations. Vietnam needed new Russian weapons to protect its interests, first of all, in the South China Sea. For Moscow military-technical cooperation with Vietnam got economic significance. But later there was a rise of political dimension of cooperation in this sphere, influenced by some external factors. The period of the 2000-2010s was marked by growth of arms sales from Russia to Vietnam. It was mostly caused by the escalation of the South China Sea conflict, for which US-Chinese contradictions began to play an increasing role. Military-technical coopera-tion with Vietnam influenced some aspects of policy of Russia in the region. There was an increase of indi-rect involvement of Russia into the South China Sea conflict. Russian arms sales for Vietnam became one of problems in Russian-Chinese relations. But Russia and China could cope with these disputes, partly because of enlargement of their interaction in international relations, including the demonstration of similar position for some aspects of the South China Sea conflict. In the framework of development of defense cooperation with Vietnam, Russia could get special conditions of access to facilities of Cam Ranh Bay that strengthened its strategic positions in the region. Russian cooperation with Hanoi in military-technical field and general reinforcement of Russian positions in Vietnam might be also a reason for contradictions with the US.

  7. Trafficking of Vietnamese women and girls for marriage in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckl, Heidi; Kiss, Ligia; Koehler, Jobst; Dong, Dung Thuy; Zimmerman, Cathy

    2017-01-01

    Bride-trafficking has been a growing phenomenon in Southeast Asia, particularly in China, where one-child policies have resulted in demographic imbalances favoring males. Yet, empirical evidence about women and girls sold into marriage in China remains sparse. This study describes the experiences of 51 Vietnamese women and girls as young as 14 in post-trafficking services who were sold into marriage in China. A consecutive sample of individuals from five services in Vietnam were invited to be interviewed within the first 2 weeks of admission. It is part of a wider dataset for research on the health of men, women, and children in post-trafficking services in Cambodia, Thailand, and Vietnam, the largest study to date on human trafficking and health. We calculated proportions for all variables and conducted bivariate analyses using Fisher Exact Tests for their associations with mental health disorders symptoms. Before leaving home, 31% ( n  = 15) participants were married. Participants reported high levels of sexual violence ( n  = 43; 86%) while trafficked and59% ( n  = 30) spent time in detention before returning to Vietnam. Once in post-trafficking care 52.9% ( n  = 27) reported probable depression, anxiety or post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD), two women (4%) attempted suicide in the past month and 38 (75%) remained afraid of their trafficker. Ten (22%) became pregnant while trafficked, and seven (16%) were pregnant at the interview. The cross-border bride trade between Vietnam and China raises complex policy issues, including questions about detention and immigration rights and strategies for supported return processes, including maternal and child health services. As the repercussions of China's absent female population will persist, Vietnam and China must grapple with the political and social conditions to implement prevention strategies, and resources for women who fall prey to this cross-border bride trade.

  8. Students' Intercultural Development through Language Learning in Vietnamese Tertiary Education: A Case Study on the Use of Film as an Innovative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Le Bach; Tran, Ly Thi

    2014-01-01

    Vietnam's open-door policy, its socialist-oriented market economy, recent growth in cross-border education and skills mobility, regionalisation and globalisation have created an increasing demand for Vietnamese graduates to develop not only their English language but also their intercultural competence. This paper discusses the issue of student…

  9. Vietnam seeks help expanding voluntary surgical contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piet-pelon, N J; Sukop, S

    1992-07-01

    Recent surveys by the Vietnamese Ministry of Health suggest that 60% of married women desire no more children. Yet only 2% of currently married women and less than 1/2 of 1% of their partners use sterilization. Underscoring the high unmet need for effective family planning, over 1 million abortions (legal in Vietnam for the past 20 years) are performed annually. This rate corresponds to 1 abortion for every live birth. The Ministry of Health has recently welcomed a variety of organizations, including AVSC, whose assistance can help expand the country's family planning programs. Sorely lacking in supplies, equipment, and trained personnel, Vietnam has merited priority status--2nd only to China and India--from the UNFPA, which has committed $36 million over the next 4 years. Other organizations currently working in Vietnam include the Population Council, the Population Crisis Committee, and the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Despite enormous casualties during the war years, and a decrease since the 1970s in average family size from 6 to 4 children, the population of Vietnam has continued to grow rapidly, far outpacing economic growth. Currently 67 million, the population is expected to reach 80 million by the year 2000. The average Vietnamese annual income is only $195, among the lowest in the world. Doi moi, the process of economic reform begun in 1986, coupled with new government incentives for families who have no more than 2 children, is changing the face of family planning in Vietnam. Newly opened pharmacies sell imported birth control pills and condoms (to those who can afford them), while government hospitals and health clinics provide mainly IUDs, in addition to limited supplies of pills and condoms. Throughout the country, some 8000 community-level health centers are staffed by nurse-midwives trained in family planning. Voluntary sterilization is available at the district, provincial, and national hospitals. All married women may obtain family

  10. Critical successful factors for innovation in vietnamese firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Hoai Nam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Innovation is considered as a core element of sustainable competitive advantage in the rapidly changing environment. However, in Vietnam, researches on innovation are very rare, which are mostly general reports without underlying analyses of innovation in firms, especially determinants for innovation. Therefore, this paper focuses on analyzing critical successful factors for innovation in Vietnamese firms.  Design/methodology/approach: This study used primary data through questionnaire survey from November 2015 to February 2016. Respondents were senior managers of firms located mostly at Hanoi (Northern, Hochiminh (Southern and Danang city (Central. The questionnaire included multi-items designed to measure factors. Each item was measured by 5 point Likert scale: 1 (strongly disagree to 5 (strongly agree. Questionnaires were administerd to 500 firms belonging to list of Vietnam Chamber of Commerce and Industry (VCCI in these three cities with rate of 40% (Hochiminh city, 40% (Hanoi city and Danang (20%. However, there were 360 returned questionnaires and valid to next analyses. Analysis methodologies of reliability, factor analysis and regression are utilized in this paper.  Findings: We developed and tested a model of determinants for Innovation in Vietnamese firms. The major contribution of this study is testing six determinants for innovation in Vietnamese companies. The results showed that awareness of innovation, innovation strategy and policy, organization for innovation, HR for innovation and building capabilities have positive impact on innovation.  Originality/value: This study makes a contribution for both academics and practitioners. For academics, this study provided one more empirical evidence of the determinants for innovation. Regarding practical implications, this study suggests that Vietnamese companies have to strengthen capabilities for employees through training, encourage generation of new ideas, rule breaking

  11. Analyzing the role of the PPP in the development of the Vietnamese Telecoms market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do Manh, Thai; Falch, Morten; Williams, Idongesit

    2016-01-01

    Private sector facilitation and financing of telecom infrastructure has always been touted as the best way of developing telecom infrastructure. This ideology reflects in the design of Public Private Partnerships. This idea is not practiced in every part of the world. In Vietnam PPPs are designed...... to facilitate Public-owned infrastructure. The market outcome in Vietnam negates the belief that private sector financing for infrastructure development is best practice. Using the Principal Agency theory, PPP in Vietnam is analyzed to understand the role of each segment in the facilitation of fixed......-line telephony, mobile telephony, broadband telephony and fixedline telephony. The outcome of the research indicates that the Vietnamese approach was innovative and not sustainable. Hence, PPPs favoring he private sector is proposed....

  12. Improved land tenure not the driver of economic development in a Vietnamese community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Christian M S; Mertz, Ole

    2016-01-01

    During the restructuring of the Vietnamese economy in 1986, the Communist party of Vietnam (CPV) took the decision to leave central planning and build a market economy in Vietnam. In order to promote rural development and deal with deforestation, poverty and declining agricultural profitability......, the government implemented the forestland allocation policies (FLA) and started a process of decentralization. This research note examines the impact of FLA policies on the agricultural practices of an upland community in central Vietnam and discusses the effects of increased tenure security. It is shown...... that the promotion of a sedentary production system has altered the sustainability of swidden agriculture leading to declining profitability and that a transition towards new crops and specialized crop cultivation has compensated for the loss. Furthermore, it is argued that the FLA policies have increased...

  13. The Rivalry of the French and American Educational Missions during the Vietnam War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuy-Phuong

    2014-01-01

    From 1955 to 1975, the French and the Americans were both active in the educational field in South Vietnam, but their objectives were different. The French were concerned with preserving their influence with the Vietnamese elites and relied on the Mission Culturelle--the heir of the colonial Direction of Education--and its prestigious high…

  14. Indochinese Refugee Experience. Refugees from Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia in Nova Scotia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Xuong, Comp.; Guay, Marcel, Ed.

    Firsthand accounts by refugees from Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam, telling how they escaped from Indochina and how they are adjusting to life in Canada (and particularly Nova Scotia), form the greater part of this book. Most of the accounts are by Vietnamese. Information is also provided on the history of the Canadian refugee program, and on the…

  15. Having "Learning Difficulties": The Inclusive Education of Disabled Girls and Boys in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydstrom, Helle

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the "inclusive education" strategy in Vietnam and the extent to which it facilitates learning in students with disabilities. After the introduction of the "doi moi" (renewal) policy in 1986, Vietnamese society went through a period of rapid transformation, including the educational sector. Debates on…

  16. Some Insights into Listening Strategies of Learners of English as a Foreign Language in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Nga Thi Hang

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated listening strategies used by students in different listening tasks and situations in an English as a foreign language (EFL) context. Thirty EFL students in a university in Vietnam were recruited for the study. The study aimed to explore what listening strategies EFL Vietnamese learners at university level used and why and…

  17. Fisheries products export training Vietnam: On Risk assessment, HACCP auditing and EU legislation & monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelvis, R.; Poelman, M.

    2012-01-01

    IMARES and RIKILT developed a training program for fisheries inspectors and private sector quality controllers in Vietnam, in close cooperation with the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation (EL&I) and the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs (buza) and the Vietnamese fish

  18. Bio-politics and the promotion of traditional herbal medicine in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Ayo

    2006-01-01

    -politics that aims to promote the ‘appropriate’ use of traditional herbal medicines. While the Vietnamese case bears many parallels to other countries in this respect, notably China, Vietnam's ancient history of medicine, postcolonial isolation and extensive health delivery network have resulted in a unique strategy...

  19. Livelihood Capabilities and Pathways of Shrimp Farmers in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Thi Phung Ha, Ha; Dijk, van J.W.M.; Bosma, R.H.; Sinh, L.X.

    2013-01-01

    Shrimp farming is a major livelihood activity in the Mekong Delta in the southernmost part of Vietnam. The Vietnamese government has promoted shrimp farming as a way to reduce poverty, provide employment opportunities and increase exports to support economic development. The shrimp farming system,

  20. Infection of a Japanese patient by genotype 4 hepatitis e virus while traveling in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Yuko; Isoda, Norio; Sato, Yukihiro; Iwaki, Takaaki; Ono, Kazunori; Ido, Kenichi; Sugano, Kentaro; Takahashi, Masaharu; Nishizawa, Tsutomu; Okamoto, Hiroaki

    2004-08-01

    Cases of imported hepatitis E in industrialized countries infected with a genotype 1 hepatitis E virus (HEV) have been identified. We report a 56-year-old Japanese man who acquired infection with a genotype 4 HEV with 98.8% identity to a Vietnamese isolate after ingestion of uncooked shellfish while traveling in Vietnam.

  1. U.S.-Vietnam Relations: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-31

    Vietnam’s growth over the past decade.7 Some analysts have speculated that if economic problems worsen and lead to increased social unrest, the position of...trade on a customs basis. Rising imports have led to trade disputes over imports of Vietnamese clothing, catfish , and shrimp. Additionally, some in...the media that “it is very, very, very unlikely that you would expect to see any live Americans discovered in Vietnam, Cambodia, or Laos.” Official

  2. New Species of Orchids (Orchidaceae) in the Flora of Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Leonid V. Averyanov; Van Duy NONG; Khang Sinh NGUYEN; Tatiana V. MAISAK; Nguyen, Van Canh; Quang Thinh PHAN; Nguyen, Phi Tam; Thien Tich NGUYEN; Ba Vuong TRUONG

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes results of joint efforts of professional botanists and orchid enthusiasts on studies of Vietnamese native orchids during years 2013–2016. It provides new original data about the discovery of 1 genus (Grammatophyllum Blume) and 29 orchid species new for the flora of Vietnam. Valid name, main synonyms, data on type, ecology, phenology, estimated IUCN Red List status, distribution, studied specimens, as well as brief taxonomic and biological notes are provided for each spec...

  3. A Gender Perspective on Elderly Work in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Giang, Long Thanh; Pfau, Wade Donald

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey (VHLSS) in 2006, this paper analyzes the current working status of the Vietnamese elderly and identifies the determinants of working status differentiated by gender. In general, our estimated results from various logit models show that, regardless of gender, older elderly, elderly living in northern and southern regions and urban areas, in households with more working-age people, in households receiving social security benefits, and...

  4. STATE AND PROSPECTS OF RUSSIAN-VIETNAMESE COOPERATION IN NUCLEAR ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordeev-Burgvits Mikhail Alekseevich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2010 the Vietnam government arrived at a decision to build the first nuclear power plant in the country Ninh Thuan 1 according to Russian project and with the help of Russian specialists. The construction of NPP in Vietnam will essentially relieve the deficit in energy production. The political leaders of Vietnam reckon upon the further growth of the economy. Energy of Vietnam is now generally held on big HPPs and TPPs. Small hydropower and such renewable energy sources as sun and wind play an important role in energy production. Because of the small amount of falls in the recent years in spite of monsoon climate, HPPs in Vietnam produce energy using not their full capacity. In TPP coal, diesel oil and gas is used as energy resources. The share of coal is still quite big (around 18 % and coal TPPs have a serious negative impact on the environment. That’s why the specialists count on the development of nuclear energy. The paper presents the plans for the construction of a nuclear power plant "Ninh Thuan" in Vietnam, the alleged NPP project, its advantage over other projects, prerequisites and prospects for cooperation between the Russian and Vietnamese governments in this field.

  5. Isolation and phylogenetic analysis of canine distemper virus among domestic dogs in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dung Van; Suzuki, Junko; Minami, Shohei; Yonemitsu, Kenzo; Nagata, Nao; Kuwata, Ryusei; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Vu, Chien Kim; Truong, Thuy Quoc; Maeda, Ken

    2017-01-20

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is one of the most serious pathogens found in many species of carnivores, including domestic dogs. In this study, hemagglutinin (H) genes were detected in five domestic Vietnamese dogs with diarrhea, and two CDVs were successfully isolated from dogs positive for H genes. The complete genome of one isolate, CDV/dog/HCM/33/140816, was determined. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all Vietnamese CDVs belonged to the Asia-1 genotype. In addition, the H proteins of Vietnamese CDV strains were the most homologous to those of Chinese CDVs (98.4% to 99.3% identity). These results indicated that the Asia-1 genotype of CDV was the predominant genotype circulating among the domestic dog population in Vietnam and that transboundary transmission of CDV has occurred between Vietnam and China.

  6. Bazaar Pagodas – Transnational Religion, Postsocialist Marketplaces and Vietnamese Migrant Women in Berlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertrud Huwelmeier

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available After the fall of the Berlin Wall and the breakdown of the East German Socialistgovernment, thousands of former contract workers from Vietnam stayedin the then reunified Germany. Due to their resulting precarious economicsituation, a large number of these migrants became engaged in small businessand petty trade. Some of them, women in particular, have become successfulentrepreneurs and wholesalers in recently built bazaars in the eastern parts ofBerlin. Most interestingly, parts of these urban spaces, former industrial areason the periphery of Germany’s capital, have been transformed into religiousplaces. This article explores the formation of female Vietnamese Buddhistnetworks on the grounds of Asian wholesale markets. It argues that transnationalmobilities in a post-socialist setting encourage border-crossing religious activities,linking people and places to various former socialist countries as well as to theSocialist Republic of Vietnam. Further, by considering political tensions betweenVietnamese in the eastern and western part of Berlin, this contribution illustratesthe negotiation of political sensitivities among diasporic Vietnamese in reunitedGermany. Based on ethnographic fieldwork among female lay Buddhists, itfocuses on entrepreneurship and investigates the relationship between business,migration and religious practices.

  7. 'These days virginity is just a feeling': heterosexuality and change in young urban Vietnamese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Philip

    2010-08-01

    This paper argues that young Vietnamese men's beliefs around women's changing sexual identities and habits generate some anxiety around their own heterosexual abilities, while contributing to growing doubts around 'traditional' masculine advantage within sexual relations. It explores this notion in regard to eight Vietnamese men aged 18-30 years, interviewed over 13 months of fieldwork in Hanoi, Vietnam. The paper suggests that young men are increasingly ambivalent about notions of 'gendered morality' in general and the significance of female virginity in particular, because of popular ideas around women's changing sexual behaviours since the economic liberalisation of Vietnam in the late 1980s. However, while such ambivalence might at first suggest a shift toward improved gender and sexual equality, findings reveal that some young urban Vietnamese men construct and reinforce explicitly 'masculinist' gender ideologies by watching heterosexual pornography in groups with male friends or by visiting female sex workers for the purpose of watching their friends have sex. In a time of rapid change around discourses on women, some young men seek to build a stable community and relationships with each other by controlling the terms and practice by which women's bodies are used and consumed.

  8. Data on Vietnamese patients׳ financial burdens and risk of destitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan-Hoang Vuong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The research process started in the first week of August 10, 2014 and ended early February 2015, obtaining qualified data for 330 patients from many hospitals in northern Vietnam. Its expansion was performed for an enlarged dataset through May 2015, containing 900 records. This article exemplifies the attempt to examine the likelihood of destitution among Vietnamese patients due to insufficient insurance coverage, cost of treatment and patient׳s status of residency during a curative hospital stay. The result suggests that the patients, who are poor and come from rural areas, face serious obstacles in accessing health care services. This data article presents attributes and values of the data set used in the article provided at DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40064-015-1279-x Vuong (2015 [4].

  9. Data on Vietnamese patients׳ financial burdens and risk of destitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Quan-Hoang; Nguyen, Trong-Khang

    2016-12-01

    The research process started in the first week of August 10, 2014 and ended early February 2015, obtaining qualified data for 330 patients from many hospitals in northern Vietnam. Its expansion was performed for an enlarged dataset through May 2015, containing 900 records. This article exemplifies the attempt to examine the likelihood of destitution among Vietnamese patients due to insufficient insurance coverage, cost of treatment and patient׳s status of residency during a curative hospital stay. The result suggests that the patients, who are poor and come from rural areas, face serious obstacles in accessing health care services. This data article presents attributes and values of the data set used in the article provided at DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40064-015-1279-x Vuong (2015) [4].

  10. Diversity and taxonomy of Vietnamese Pollicaria (Gastropoda, Pupinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell L. Minton

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Species in the genus Pollicaria (Gastropoda: Pupinidae are conspicuous members of the southeast Asian land snail fauna. Originally erected in 1856, both the genus and its constituent species have been reorganized multiple times with the most recent treatment published in 2013. Collections of Vietnamese Pollicaria during 2014 and 2015 raised questions of the utility of currently used diagnostic shell characters and identification keys in species identification. An examination of the authors’ collections, combined with museum specimens, suggested that at least three species of Pollicaria occur or have historically occurred in Vietnam. It is suggested that P. rochebruni is a senior synonym of P. crossei and treat both taxa as conspecific. A second species, P. mouhoti, was believed to only occur in Cambodia, Laos, and Thailand. A possible third species, based only on previous karyotypic work, is discussed. Our data further suggest that shell features such as color and size lack consistent utility in species-level identifications in Pollicaria.

  11. Variations in Vietnamese marriages, births and infant deaths by months of the Julian calendar and years of the Vietnamese and Chinese astrological calendars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, M T; Swenson, I

    1996-07-01

    The timing of births and marriages in Vietnam appears to have some statistically significant relationships with the signs of the Chinese and Vietnamese astrological calendars. Years considered to be good years have significantly more births and marriages than years that are not considered as desirable. Births and marriages also have some significant variations with seasons of the year. Infant deaths do not appear to have any significant relationships with the astrological signs although infant mortality has some significant relationships with seasons of the year. The findings indicate that there is some purposeful planning for marriages and births to coincide with optimal times defined in the astrological calendars.

  12. Functional impairment and mental health functioning among Vietnamese children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Hoang-Minh; Weiss, Bahr; Trung, Lam T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Functional impairment is a key indicator of need for mental health services among children and adolescents, often a stronger predictor of service usage than mental health symptoms themselves. Functional impairment may be of particular importance in low and middle income countries (LMIC) because of its potential to focus policy on treatment of child mental health problems which is generally given low priority in LMIC. However, few studies have assessed functional impairment in LMIC. The present study assessed rates of functional impairment among children in Vietnam, as a case example of an LMIC, as well as effects of other risk/protective factors of particular relevance to LMIC (e.g., whether the family lived in an urban or rural area; family structure variables such as grandparents living with the family). Methods 1,314 parents of children 6–16 years old from 10 Vietnamese provinces were interviewed. Results The overall rate of functional impairment among Vietnamese children was 20%, similar to rates in high income countries such as Germany and the United States, suggesting that LMIC status may not be associated with dramatic increases in functional impairment in children. Functional impairment was significantly greater among mental health cases than non-cases, with increases of over 550% associated with mental health caseness. A number of other risk factors (e.g., marital status) had smaller but significant effects. Conclusions Mental health problems are a major but not the sole contributor to functional impairment among Vietnamese children. The pragmatic significance of this research lies in its potential to affect public awareness and policy related to child mental health in LMIC. PMID:26315942

  13. Risk factors of periodontal disease in Vietnamese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thuy A V; Kieu, Thoai Q; Ngo, Lan T Q

    2017-05-12

    The aim of the present study was to assess the association of periodontitis with dental and smoking behaviors, self-perception of oral status, dental knowledge, and obesity in Vietnamese patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 367 adults who first visited the Faculty of Odonto-Stomatology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Information on demographic characteristics, dental and smoking behaviors, self-perception of oral status, dental knowledge, and nutritional status was investigated by a self-administered questionnaire. Periodontal status, including plaque index, probing depth, and bleeding on probing, was examined. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to explore risk factors that were associated with periodontitis after adjusting for confounding factors. Dental and smoking behaviors, dental knowledge, and nutritional status were all significantly related to periodontitis. The multiple logistic regression analysis showed that patients who had risk factors significantly associated with periodontitis were those who had dental scaling during the past year (odds ratio [OR]: 2.2), current smokers (OR: 2.47), who received instructions on oral hygiene (OR=1.73), and those who were overweight/obese (OR: 4.78). Periodontitis was correlated with dental and smoking behaviors, dental knowledge, and nutritional status in Vietnamese dental patients. Promoting a healthy lifestyle, reducing tobacco consumption, motivating oral self-care behaviors, together with normal weight maintenance, are necessary to reduce periodontal disease burdens. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Nutritional analysis of Vietnamese seaweeds for food and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Diem Hong; Hoang, Thi Minh Hien

    2004-01-01

    Vietnamese edible marine macro-algae (seaweed) are of interest because of their value in nutrition and medicine. Vietnamese living in the coastal have traditionally utilized seaweeds species as food supplement and herbal medicine. They consumed seaweed as food in various forms: raw as salad and vegetable, pickle with sauce or with vinegar, relish or sweetened jellies and also cooked for vegetable soup. As herbal medicine, seaweed is usually used for traditional comestics, treatments for cough, asthma, hemorrhoid, boils, goitres, stomach ailments, urinary diseases, reduce the incidence of tumors, ulcers and headaches. Although Vietnam has an abundance of algae floral with total number of species is estimated to be nearly 1000 spp. in which there are 638 species of marine algae identified. However, there have been no intense study regarding to changes in marine algal chemistry. The fifteen species of edible seaweeds studied in this paper include green, brown and red algae. The proximate compositions as ash, protein, lipid, carbohydrate, fatty acids, vitamins, pigments, macro and micro-elements were compared among different species examined and the genetic relationships among them by analyzing the species-specific differences in nucleotide sequences of ITS-1 region of the ribosomal DNA was identified.

  15. Caretaker mental health and family environment factors are associated with adolescent psychiatric problems in a Vietnamese sample

    OpenAIRE

    Stratton, Kelcey Jane; Edwards, Alexis Christine; Overstreet, Cassie; Richardson, Lisa; Tran, Trinh Luong; Trung, Lam Tu; Tam, Nguyen Thanh; Tuan, Tran; Buoi, La Thi; Ha, Tran Thu; Thach, Tran Duc; Amstadter, Ananda Beth

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about risk factors for adolescent mental health in Vietnam. The present study investigated the relationship between caretaker mental health and adolescent mental health in a cross-sectional Vietnamese sample. Primary caretakers completed measures of their own mental distress and general health status using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20) as well as reports of adolescent mental health using the parent version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). M...

  16. Journeys to home and liminal spaces among former refugees: exploring identity and belonging among Vietnamese-Canadians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Eyles

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Rites of passage are integral to the life course of human beings. They exist in societies as culturally appropriate means to help individuals transition into their new social role or status. The story and journey of the former Vietnamese refugees in Hamilton (Ontario, Canada is one that resonates with the literature on rites of passage. This process included an uprooting from home, which was followed by a crossing over into liminal space. After leaving Vietnam, these refugees were in limbo as a result of their circumstance. Rites of passage as a conceptual framework can help to explain the journey and settlement experience of these Vietnamese refugees. Their experience have shaped their understanding of home, identity and belonging as Vietnamese-Canadians. The following paper examines the Vietnamese refugees’ stories and their reflection on settlement and home, which suggest a process of continuous liminality that articulates the complexity of experience and sense making in the lives of migrants. In order to understand the sense of belonging of these former refugees, the authors examine their life, journey, and rites of passage from Vietnam to Canada.

  17. Parents and Children Only? Acculturation and the Influence of Extended Family Members among Vietnamese Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingvold, Laila; Middelthon, Anne-Lise; Allen, James; Hauff, Edvard

    2012-03-01

    The nuclear family is often the point of departure in much of the existing acculturation research on refugee youth and children of refugees. The influence of other extended family members appears to receive less attention in understanding acculturation processes and intergenerational perspectives. This qualitative study explores the influence of extended family members upon a small sample of Vietnamese refugee parents and their adolescents while they undergo acculturation through their long-term resettlement process in Norway. With repeated interviews over a time span of 3 years, we identified situations and processes in family life in which extended kin become particularly activated and influential. Vietnamese refugee families in Norway keep close contact with extended kin even in the face of geographical distance to kin remaining in Vietnam, or globally dispersed. Aunts, uncles, and cousins are experienced as significant persons in the lives of many adolescents. Additionally, birth order of parents can often influence relationship dynamics among siblings and siblings children. Extended kin surfaced as especially important and influential at critical stages and crisis situations in family life. Extended family, and in particular, parental siblings play important roles in the acculturation experience and family functioning of Vietnamese refugee families in Norway. This has important implications for the study of Vietnamese and other refugee and immigrant families in acculturation research.

  18. Parents and Children Only? Acculturation and the Influence of Extended Family Members among Vietnamese Refugees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingvold, Laila; Middelthon, Anne-Lise; Allen, James; Hauff, Edvard

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear family is often the point of departure in much of the existing acculturation research on refugee youth and children of refugees. The influence of other extended family members appears to receive less attention in understanding acculturation processes and intergenerational perspectives. This qualitative study explores the influence of extended family members upon a small sample of Vietnamese refugee parents and their adolescents while they undergo acculturation through their long-term resettlement process in Norway. With repeated interviews over a time span of 3 years, we identified situations and processes in family life in which extended kin become particularly activated and influential. Vietnamese refugee families in Norway keep close contact with extended kin even in the face of geographical distance to kin remaining in Vietnam, or globally dispersed. Aunts, uncles, and cousins are experienced as significant persons in the lives of many adolescents. Additionally, birth order of parents can often influence relationship dynamics among siblings and siblings children. Extended kin surfaced as especially important and influential at critical stages and crisis situations in family life. Extended family, and in particular, parental siblings play important roles in the acculturation experience and family functioning of Vietnamese refugee families in Norway. This has important implications for the study of Vietnamese and other refugee and immigrant families in acculturation research. PMID:24510190

  19. Demographic and behavioral correlates of HIV/STI among Vietnamese female sex workers in southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yeon Jung; Li, Xiaoming; Tam, Cheuk Chi; Zhou, Yuejiao; Chen, Yi; Shen, Zhiyong

    2016-11-01

    Previous literature has suggested high rates of HIV/STIs among Chinese FSWs. However, limited data were available regarding HIV-related risks among Vietnamese FSWs - a rapidly increasing, vulnerable population in southwest China. The current study examined the demographic and behavioral factors associated with the infection rates of HIV, syphilis, and Hepatitis C (HCV) among Vietnamese FSWs in Guangxi, China. We conducted a secondary data analysis of a cumulative sample of 1026 Vietnamese FSWs (aged 14-66) recruited over five years (2010-2014) from 35 National Sentinel Surveillance sites in Guangxi. Analyses included Fisher's exact chi-square test, t-test, and binary logistic regression. The overall prevalence of HIV, syphilis, and HCV infections among the cross-border women were 3.2%, 6.9%, and 2.6%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that greater lengths of sex work and low paying work venues were significant risk factors for HIV infection; for syphilis infection, older age, drug use experience, and forgoing condom use were significant risk factors; for HCV infection, drug use experience was the only significant risk factor. Our findings suggest that elevated HIV-related risks among the Vietnamese FSWs are closely related to their financial disadvantages and that drug use is a prominent risk factor for cross-border women in the sex trade. Furthermore, culturally tailored and linguistically accessible HIV prevention and intervention initiatives that target cross-border FSWs, with a close international collaboration between China and Vietnam, are urgently needed.

  20. Sequence analysis of Vietnamese P[6] rotavirus strains suggests evidence of interspecies transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Khamrin, Pattara; Trinh, Quang Duy; Phan, Tung Gia; Pham, Le Duc; Hoang, Le Phuc; Hoang, Kim Trong; Yagyu, Fumihiro; Okitsu, Shoko; Ushijima, Hiroshi

    2007-12-01

    Nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the VP8* gene of five Vietnamese P[6] rotavirus strains detected from hospitalized patients with acute gastroenteritis were analyzed and compared with other human and porcine P[6] rotaviruses. It is of interest that these strains had greatest identity with two Italian porcine rotavirus strains, 134/04-10 and 134/04-11. To our knowledge, these five Vietnamese rotaviruses are the rare P[6] rotavirus strains belonging to lineage I that cluster into sublineage Ic with porcine rotaviruses, and not into sublineage Ia, as other human P[6] rotaviruses have done so far. Sequence analysis of the VP7 gene of these P[6] rotavirus strains was also performed. The results showed that the Vietnamese G9P[6] strain had high similarity with other human G9 rotaviruses, confirming a human-animal reassortant virus, whereas other three G4P[6] strains had best identity with porcine G4 rotavirus strains, suggesting interspecies transmission of rotavirus between porcine and humans. This result provides the important data on molecular characteristics of Vietnamese rotaviruses, and highlights interspecies transmission events of rotaviruses in Vietnam as well as in Asia. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Use of Vietnamese in English Language Teaching in Vietnam: Attitudes of Vietnamese University Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anh, Kieu Hang Kim

    2012-01-01

    Drawing upon the literature on the history of the language teaching methods focusing on the use of L1 in L2 teaching, the debate surrounding the role of L1 in the L2 classroom in general and in the English classroom in particular and recent studies of the issue, this article presents at its core a study that investigated the attitudes of…

  2. The Influence of the Catholic Church on the Eisenhower Administration’s Decision to Directly Intervene in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    the U.S. pressured Emperor Bao Dai to install Ngo Dinh Diem as Premier of South Vietnam. This was based in part on Diem and his family’s Catholic...victory in the region. Unwilling to accept this, the U.S. pressured Emperor Bao Dai to install Ngo Dinh Diem as Premier of South Vietnam. This was...directly to large audiences and facilitated in converting and ultimately baptizing large numbers of Vietnamese.9 Eventually Rhodes created a Romanic

  3. Unplugging Institutional Bottlenecks to Restore Growth: A Policy Discussion Paper Prepared for the 2013 Vietnam Executive Leadership Program (VELP)

    OpenAIRE

    Vu Thanh Tu Anh; David Dapice; Huynh The Du; Pham Duy Nghia; Dwight Perkins; Nguyen Xuan Thanh; Do Thien Anh Tuan; Ben Wilkinson

    2013-01-01

    This paper was prepared for the fourth annual Vietnam Executive Leadership Program (VELP), held at the Harvard Kennedy School from August 26 to 30, 2013. This paper aimed to provide participants, including Vietnamese government officials, scholars, and corporate executives, with a concise assessment of some of the key public policy challenges confronting Vietnam today. This paper is by no means comprehensive; it is not possible to offer an exhaustive analysis of every policy area in a brief s...

  4. Dioxins and related compounds in Vietnamese, Vietnamese food and the environment. Potential relevance of hot spots from recent findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paepke, O. [ERGO Research, Hamburg (Germany); Quynh, Hoang Trong [Institute for Oncology, Ha Noi (Viet Nam); Schecter, A. [Univ. of Texas School of Public Health, Dallas Regional Campus, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Agent Orange, a phenoxyherbicide mixture of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyaceticacid (2,4,5-T) and 2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was sprayed for reasons of defoliation in large amounts on about 10 % of southern Vietnam during the Vietnam war between 1962-1971. 2,4,5-T was contaminated with the highly toxic and persistent 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in the low ppm-range (mg/kg). In samples collected between 1970 and 1973 Baughman et al., 1973 documented elevated levels of TCDD from Agent Orange in milk samples from southern Vietnamese woman as well as in fish and shrimp samples from sprayed areas in this region. Studies have documented the intake of 2,3,7,8-TCDD from Agent Orange in Vietnamese and in among US war veterans. This paper gives an overview on recent findings for PCDDs/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs and in various environmental compartments, in humans and in food. Due to the fact that 2,3,7,8-TCDD is the major dioxin congener in 2,4,5-T, many investigators focused mainly on TCDD. We found from our own investigations, that TCDD in case of dioxin contamination is still the predominant dioxin congener, but in certain instances we also found other elevated congeners as well. In some cases mixed chemical contamination of food or humans was found - originating from Agent Orange and other sources. The paper will explain the potential origin of some of the other contaminations found.

  5. Military service and smoking in a cohort of northern Vietnamese older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korinek, Kim; Loebach, Peter; Trinh, Ha Ngoc

    2017-01-01

    Wide-ranging scholarship demonstrates war's impacts on US veterans' health. We ask whether, among Vietnamese men of a certain age, wartime experiences contributed to initiating smoking, and thus shaped one behavioral pathway linking war exposure and older adult health. We analyze the Vietnam Health and Aging Pilot Study (VHAPS), a survey of adults ages 55 and older (N = 405) conducted in one commune of northern Vietnam. We implement Cox discrete-time proportional hazards models to discern the effects of military service upon the initiation of smoking. Military service results in a heightened risk of initiating smoking within this cohort (HR 2.13, [CI 1.36, 3.35]). Smoking initiation is also significantly gendered and age graded. Socioeconomic position and social capital variables in the models are statistically insignificant. This study finds that, among older northern Vietnamese men whose early adulthood coincided with mass mobilization in the Vietnam War, involvement in formal military service significantly increased the risk of initiating smoking. Military-induced smoking emerges where tobacco products were not provided by the military institution, but where social availability of tobacco was widespread.

  6. Assessment of genetic diversity and population structure of Vietnamese indigenous cattle populations by microsatellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Lan Doan; Do, Duy Ngoc; Binh, Nguyen Trong

    2013-01-01

    Cattle play a very important role in agriculture and food security in Vietnam. A high level of cattle diversity exists and serves different needs of Vietnamese cattle keepers but has not yet been molecularly characterized. This study evaluates the genetic diversity and structure of Vietnamese......) to 17 (ETH185). The level of gene diversity was high indicated by a mean expected heterozygosity (He) across populations and loci of 0.73. Level of inbreeding (mean FIS=0.05) and genetic differentiation (mean FST=0.04) was moderate. The phylogenetic tree based on Reynolds genetic distance reflected...... of genetic diversity and distinct genetic structures. Based on these results, we recommend that for conservation homogenous populations (Nghe An, Thanh Hoa and Phu Yen) can be grouped to reduce costs and U Dau Riu, Lang Son and Ha Giang populations should be conserved separately to avoid loss of genetic...

  7. Supporting Teachers in Vietnam to Monitor Preschool Children's Wellbeing and Involvement in Preschool Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenaerts, Filip; Braeye, Sarah; Nguyen, Thi Lan Huong; Dang, Tuyet Anh; Vromant, Nico

    2017-01-01

    Vietnam is promoting active teaching and learning as a key strategy to enhance children's learning in preschools. This change depends largely on building the capacities of teachers to implement child-centered education in practice and handover the initiative for learning to children. Vietnamese teachers need to be better equipped with pedagogical…

  8. The Vietnamese: An Often-Overlooked Minority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, P.

    1978-01-01

    Almost every one of the Vietnamese immigrants in Canada has experienced problems concerning language, weather, life style, housing, schooling, and employment. Despite the stress and strain, however, family ties and some cultural aspects remain strong and many Vietnamese are optimistic about their future as a community in Canada. (Author/EB)

  9. Vietnamese Students in the Public School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    The purpose of this booklet is to familiarize teachers and administrators with the background of Vietnamese immigrant students in Canadian public schools. A historical and cultural overview is provided which briefly describes Vietnamese customs, attitudes, roles of family members, and religion. The need for supporting and enhancing the self esteem…

  10. Vietnam: expanding the social security system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruzin, D

    1996-01-01

    Viet Nam's shift toward a market-oriented economy has been associated with annual gross domestic product growth of more than 8% over the past 5 years. At the same time, the emergence of private-sector enterprises and subsequent closure of many state-run enterprises have had profound implications for Viet Nam's social protection systems. At present, only 5.6 million of the country's 33 million workers are covered under the state-run social insurance system. In 1995, the government moved to include private enterprises with 10 or more employees in its state benefits system. The International Labor Organization (ILO) has been working with the Vietnamese Government to design and implement a social security system that would extend coverage progressively to excluded sectors and provide support to workers who have become unemployed as a result of the economic transition process. At its Eighth National Congress, the Vietnamese Communist Party approved a 5-year social and economic plan calling for such an expansion of the social insurance system as well as for a guaranteed standard of living for pensioners. To facilitate anticipated changes, activities that were previously divided between the Ministry of Labor, Invalids, and Social Affairs and the Vietnam General Confederation of Labor have been assigned to the newly formed Vietnam Social Insurance (VSI) Organization. Under consideration is a plan to combine some VSI activities with those of the Vietnam Health Insurance Organization. The ILO will assist with training, computerization, and social security fund investing. Noncompliance is a major obstacle to planned expansion of the social security system; about 90% of private firms are still not paying into the system.

  11. Diversity and endemicity in the scorpion fauna of Vietnam. A preliminary synopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Dinh-Sac; Tran, Thi-Hang; Lourenço, Wilson R

    2017-02-01

    A faunistic inventory is proposed for the known Vietnamese scorpion species. The aim of this contribution is to bring an up-to-date checklist of all known species in Vietnam, prior to a more detailed study of the Vietnamese fauna to be performed by one of the authors (T.-H.T.) in the context of the preparation of a doctoral degree. Final taxonomic decisions should be taken at the end of the doctoral dissertation. Copyright © 2016 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Genetic variations in merozoite surface antigen genes of Babesia bovis detected in Vietnamese cattle and water buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Naoaki; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Tuvshintulga, Bumduuren; Hayashida, Kyoko; Igarashi, Ikuo; Inoue, Noboru; Long, Phung Thang; Lan, Dinh Thi Bich

    2015-03-01

    The genes that encode merozoite surface antigens (MSAs) in Babesia bovis are genetically diverse. In this study, we analyzed the genetic diversity of B. bovis MSA-1, MSA-2b, and MSA-2c genes in Vietnamese cattle and water buffaloes. Blood DNA samples from 258 cattle and 49 water buffaloes reared in the Thua Thien Hue province of Vietnam were screened with a B. bovis-specific diagnostic PCR assay. The B. bovis-positive DNA samples (23 cattle and 16 water buffaloes) were then subjected to PCR assays to amplify the MSA-1, MSA-2b, and MSA-2c genes. Sequencing analyses showed that the Vietnamese MSA-1 and MSA-2b sequences are genetically diverse, whereas MSA-2c is relatively conserved. The nucleotide identity values for these MSA gene sequences were similar in the cattle and water buffaloes. Consistent with the sequencing data, the Vietnamese MSA-1 and MSA-2b sequences were dispersed across several clades in the corresponding phylogenetic trees, whereas the MSA-2c sequences occurred in a single clade. Cattle- and water-buffalo-derived sequences also often clustered together on the phylogenetic trees. The Vietnamese MSA-1, MSA-2b, and MSA-2c sequences were then screened for recombination with automated methods. Of the seven recombination events detected, five and two were associated with the MSA-2b and MSA-2c recombinant sequences, respectively, whereas no MSA-1 recombinants were detected among the sequences analyzed. Recombination between the sequences derived from cattle and water buffaloes was very common, and the resultant recombinant sequences were found in both host animals. These data indicate that the genetic diversity of the MSA sequences does not differ between cattle and water buffaloes in Vietnam. They also suggest that recombination between the B. bovis MSA sequences in both cattle and water buffaloes might contribute to the genetic variation in these genes in Vietnam. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Vietnam at the Khmer Frontier: Boundary Politics, 1802–1847

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vũ Đức Liêm

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the challenging spatial organization of Nguyễn Vietnam: the binary relationship between civilizational expansion and the construction of a state boundary at the Khmer frontier. It examines the process whereby the Vietnamese moved southwest into the Khmer world and territorialized a contested terrain as part of a civilizational and imperial project. The process employed the state’s administrative infrastructure and cultural institutions to erase ethnic, political, and cultural diversity in the lower Mekong. This article argues that Vietnamese expansion was not simply an attempt to carry out the will of heaven and Confucian cultural responsibility; rather, it was a search for peripheral security and a response to regional competition. In fact, the seesawing between civilizational mission and territorial consolidation confused the Nguyễn bureaucracy with regard to Cambodia’s political and cultural status and affected Hue’s frontier management. As a result, the Vietnam-Cambodia boundary was the object of frequent shifts and negotiations. Only after facing Siamese invasion and experiencing fierce Khmer resistance did the Vietnamese court gradually replace its civilizational perspective with a more practical approach to border management, out of which emerged the modern borderline.

  14. 31 CFR 500.559 - Accounts of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian or South Vietnamese sole proprietorships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accounts of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian or South Vietnamese sole proprietorships. 500.559 Section 500.559 Money and Finance... Licensing Policy § 500.559 Accounts of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian or South Vietnamese sole...

  15. Molecular epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis in northern Vietnam, 1964-2011: genotype replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Loan Phuong; Bui, Trang Minh; Hasebe, Futoshi; Morita, Kouichi; Phan, Nga Thi

    2015-04-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is an arthropod-borne virus causing serious public health issues in Asia. JEV consists of five genotypes and recent studies have shown the emergence of JEV genotype I (GI) and its replacement of genotype III (GIII). Using an archival JEV collection, we investigated the molecular evolution of JEV in Vietnam over the last 48 years (1964-2012) in humans, mosquitoes, and pigs, within the global context. The nine JEV isolates from humans, pigs, and mosquitoes sequenced in this study and 29 sequences available in GenBank were used to analyze the envelope (E) protein of the Vietnamese JEVs. A collection of 225 cerebrospinal fluid specimens from patients with suspected Japanese encephalitis (JE) was also tested and genotyped with real-time RT-PCR. The 38 E genes identified with sequencing and nine Vietnamese JEV strains genotyped with real-time RT-PCR, belonging to two lineages, evolved in accordance with those in the rest of the world. The first GIII strain was detected in humans in Vietnam in 1964, and in mosquitoes in 1979, whereas GI strains were first detected in humans and mosquitoes in 1990 and 1994, respectively. After 2004, GI was the only genotype detected in Vietnam, demonstrating that the GIIII strains had been displaced by GI strains. Five haplotypes were identified in the Vietnamese JEVs, with SKSS predominant. The S123N and S123R substitutions in the E protein were already present in the Vietnamese JEVs. This study describes the long evolutionary history of JEV in Vietnam over 34 years, which correlates well with the global evolution of JEV. The Vietnamese GIII strains have been replaced by GI strains in mosquitoes, pigs, and humans. The predominant haplotypes of the Vietnamese strains support this genotype displacement in Vietnam. Further surveillance is required to confirm the disappearance of the GIII strains in nature and the emergence of new pathogens causing encephalitis in Vietnam, after the long-term use of JEV

  16. The Labor Market Status of Foreign Born Vietnamese Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Linus Yamane

    2001-01-01

    Vietnamese Americans experience significant wage discrimination and occupational discrimination. Vietnamese men and women earn less than comparable non-Hispanic white Americans. Vietnamese men face discrimination in wages on the order of 10%, and this does not seem to vary significantly by region of residence or level of education. Vietnamese women face varying amounts of discrimination depending on their region of residence and their level of education. Vietnamese men and women are less like...

  17. Sister Lab Program Prospective Partner Nuclear Profile: Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissani, M; Tyson, S

    2006-12-14

    Vietnam's nuclear program began in the 1960s with the installation at Dalat of a 250 kW TRIGA Mk-II research reactor under the U.S. Atoms for Peace Program. The reactor was shut down and its core removed only a few years later, and the nuclear research program was suspended until after the end of the civil war in the late 1970s. The Soviet Union assisted Vietnam in restoring the Dalat reactor to an operational status in 1984, trained a cadre of scientific and technical staff in its operation, and contributed to the development of nuclear science for the medical and agricultural sectors. In the agricultural area in particular, Vietnamese experts have been very successful in developing mutant strains of rice, and continue to work with the IAEA to yield strains that have a shorter growing period, increased resistance to disease, and other desirable characteristics. Rice has always been the main crop in Vietnam, but technical cooperation with the IAEA and other states has enabled the country to become one of the top rice producers in the world, exporting much of its annual crop to over two dozen countries annually. More recently, Vietnam's government has shown increasing interest in developing a civil nuclear program to supplement its fossil fuel and other energy resources. Projections from a variety of open sources, ranging from the IAEA, the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA), the Vietnamese government, energy corporations, and think tanks all predict a massive increase in energy consumption--especially electricity--within Vietnam and the region as a whole. This growth in consumption will require a corresponding increase in energy production, which in Vietnam is currently satisfied mainly by fossil fuels (coal) and renewable energy (hydropower and biomass); Vietnam has a refining capacity of about 800 barrels/day. Most of its crude oil is exported to generate export income, and is not used to generate electricity

  18. VIETNAM IN 1948: AN INTERNATIONAL HISTORY PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ang Cheng Guan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper revisits the year 1948 in an effort to determine whether 1948 can be considered the starting point of the Cold War in Vietnam. Historical periodisation is a tricky affair, and it is often difficult to pinpoint the genesis of events. By reconstructing the political and military developments in 1948 from the indigenous perspective as well as from regional and international perspectives that directly impinged on Vietnam, I hope to ascertain whether Vietnam’s war of liberation was indeed transformed into a “Cold War” from 1948 onwards—in other words, whether it was in 1948 that the Vietnamese struggle assumed an ideological complexion that shifted from nationalist/anti-colonial sentiment to include communist/anti-capitalist sentiment as well. Before we embark on our consideration of the year 1948, it is useful to recount in broad brush-strokes some key developments in Vietnam leading up to 1948. In order to put the year 1948 in context, it is also necessary to consider in some detail two key developments in 1947.

  19. Asbestos and Asbestos-related Diseases in Vietnam: In reference to the International Labor Organization/World Health Organization National Asbestos Profile

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Hai; Lan Tran, Thi Ngoc; Le, Giang Vinh; Movahed, Mehrnoosh; Jiang, Ying; Pham, Nguyen Ha; Ogawa, Hisashi; Takahashi, Ken

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes progress on formulating a national asbestos profile for the country of Vietnam. The Center of Asbestos Resource, Vietnam, formulated a National Profile on Asbestos-related Occupational Health, with due reference to the International Labor Organization/World Health Organization National Asbestos Profile. The Center of Asbestos Resource was established by the Vietnamese Health Environment Management Agency and the National Institute of Labor Protection, with the support of ...

  20. Evaluation of Opportunities to Improve Hematopathology Diagnosis for Vietnam Pathologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayton, Vanessa; Nguyen, Chi Kim; Van, Trinh Thu; Thanh, Nguyen Van; To, Ta Van; Hung, Nguyen Phi; Dung, Nguyen Ngoc; Milner, Danny A

    2017-11-20

    We evaluate the need for, feasibility of, and impediments to improving hematopathology diagnoses for cancer hospitals in Vietnam. Two hematopathologists from the United States visited three major cancer treatment hospitals in Vietnam to workshop a sampling of difficult hematopathology cases. With Vietnamese pathologists, they toured histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and ancillary laboratory facilities. Automated tissue processors and slide staining equipment were documented for each of the three hospitals. Between seven and 11 hematopathology cases were reviewed for each hospital. Exact/complete diagnostic concordance was 50% or less for all three laboratories. The major impediments to accurate specific diagnoses were limitations of immunohistochemical stains, limited stains available in house, and, for one of the hospitals, difficulty with interpretation of the immunohistochemistry. Vietnamese pathologists would benefit from hematopathology training or opportunities to consult with hematopathologists in the United States. Expert hematopathology consultation services are currently unavailable within Vietnam, as postgraduate training for laboratory physicians consists of residency training in anatomic pathology only. Limitations in the quality of histopathology and immunohistochemistry could impose a barrier to success of efforts to improve hematopathology diagnosis. Implementation of a histopathology and immunohistochemistry quality improvement program might overcome this limitation.

  1. “New Wine in an Old Bottle”? – Anniversary Journalism and the Public Commemoration of the End of the War in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Sanko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available April 30th, 2015 marked the 40th anniversary of the end of the war in Vietnam. This article discusses the role of Vietnamese journalism in the coverage of this commemorative date as well as the history and events it is linked with. It addresses the question of how coming to terms with the past plays out in the journalistic field of an increasingly globally connected and economically continuously growing Vietnam. By means of qualitative content analysis and expert interviews with Vietnamese media professionals the paper characterizes the nature of anniversary journalism on this particular event and elaborates on its meaning for the construction of cultural memory in Vietnam. In that context, it also touches upon transnational relations with and controversies of remembrance in Vietnamese diasporic communities. The study found that anniversary journalism in Vietnam goes beyond the mere coverage of a single commemorated day along state ideological lines and constitutes part of a larger context of cultural memory in Vietnam and the diaspora. It is itself subject to change over time and of tensions between state, economic, professional and personal interests in a vastly changing, but still state-controlled media environment. Such tensions can result in ambiguities, vagueness and the coexistence of a variety of narratives in the reporting. Despite slight liberation tendencies, however, anniversary journalism on the contentious meaning of April 30th does not represent a transnational forum for negotiating the past in Vietnam and its diaspora.

  2. East Meets West: The Adaptation of Vietnamese International Students to California Community Colleges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tam Huu Do

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores seven adaptation aspects that include language and communication, cultural awareness, loneliness and isolation, new educational settings, financial concerns, gender-based differences, and the political impact of the anti-communist Vietnamese American community. Based on Person/Environment Interactionism theory, case studies of eight students from Vietnam at two Southern California community colleges are considered utilizing data derived from weekly diaries, individual interviews, a final group meeting, and academic records. The students’ prior assumptions and expectations are identified and their coping strategies to various adaptation issues are documented and analyzed. The ethnic diversity of Orange County generally facilitated the students’ adaptation efforts in the aspects of language and communications, cultural awareness, and loneliness and isolation. The students seemed to readily adapt to the new educational settings and excel academically despite some different educational practices. There were no apparent gender-based differences in the students’ adaptation. However, unwelcoming attitudes from the anti-communist members of the Vietnamese American community adversely impacted the international students’ socialization with Vietnamese Americans, but did not impact their academic performance.

  3. PRONUNCIATION OF CONSONANTS /ð/ AND /θ/ BY ADULT VIETNAMESE EFL LEARNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thien Sao Bui

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the pronunciation of consonants /ð/ & /θ/ by adult Vietnamese learners of English. Ten adult Vietnamese learners of English were selected to be the sample for the audiotape observation, which aimed at identifying the participants’ mistakes in pronouncing /ð/ and /θ/. Secondly, 115 learners of English in Vietnam were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding the causes of their pronunciation errors. The findings indicated that substitution phenomenon was a dominant problem in the students’ pronunciation of /θ/ and /ð/. The most outstanding problem in pronouncing the consonant /θ/ was replacing this sound by Vietnamese /t‘/. With regards to /ð/ sound, it was most frequently mispronounced as /z/. Besides, there was a new kind of mistake found: it was the tendency to pronounce /dʒ/ instead of /ð/, which has not been reported ever. Apart from that, participants also confirmed some causes of their erroneous pronunciation. As perceived by the learners themselves, the most popular causes of their problems were the lack of English exposure and practice, which implicated that an effective environment for using English was highly necessary.

  4. Information Expensiveness Perceived by Vietnamese Patients with Respect to Healthcare Provider's Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan-Hoang, Vuong

    2016-10-01

    Patients have to acquire information to support their decision on choosing a suitable healthcare provider. But in developing countries like Vietnam, accessibility issues remain an obstacle, thus adversely affect both quality and costliness of healthcare information. Vietnamese use both sources from health professionals and friends/relatives, especially when quality of the Internet-based cheaper sources appear to be still questionable. The search of information from both professionals and friends/relatives incurs some cost, which can be viewed as low or high depending low or high accessibility to the sources. These views potentially affect their choices. To investigate the effects that medical/health services information on perceived expensiveness of patients' labor costs. Two related objectives are a) establishing empirical relations between accessibility to sources and expensiveness; and, b) probabilistic trends of probabilities for perceived expensiveness. There is evidence for established relations among the variables "Convexp" and "Convrel" (all p's information sources (experts and friends/relatives) have influence on patients perception of information expensiveness. The use of experts source tends to increase the probability of perceived expensiveness. a) Probabilistic trends show Vietnamese patients have propensity to value healthcare information highly and do not see it as "expensive"; b) The majority of Vietnamese households still take non-professional advices at their own risks; c) There is more for the public healthcare information system to do to reduce costliness and risk of information. The Internet-based health service users communities cannot replace this system.

  5. Taxonomy and conservation of Vietnam's primates: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Mary E; Sterling, Eleanor J; Hurley, Martha M

    2011-11-01

    Vietnam has the highest number of primate taxa overall (24-27) and the highest number of globally threatened primate taxa (minimum 20) in Mainland Southeast Asia. Conservation management of these species depends in part on resolving taxonomic uncertainties, which remain numerous among the Asian primates. Recent research on genetic, morphological, and acoustic diversity in Vietnam's primates has clarified some of these uncertainties, although a number of significant classification issues still remain. Herein, we summarize and compare the major current taxonomic classifications of Vietnam's primates, discuss recent advances in the context of these taxonomies, and suggest key areas for additional research to best inform conservation efforts in a region crucial to global primate diversity. Among the most important next steps for the conservation of Vietnam's primates is a new consensus list of Asian primates that resolves current differences between major taxonomies, incorporates recent research advances, and recognizes units of diversity at scales below the species-level, whether termed populations, morphs, or subspecies. Priority should be placed on recognizing distinct populations, regardless of the species concept in use, in order to foster the evolutionary processes necessary for primate populations to cope with inevitable environmental changes. The long-term conservation of Vietnam's primates depends not only on an accepted and accurate taxonomy but also on funding for on-the-ground conservation activities, including training, and the continued dedication and leadership of Vietnamese researchers and managers. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The impacts of individualism/collectivism on consumer decision-making styles : the case of Finnish and Vietnamese mobile phone buyers

    OpenAIRE

    Hoang, Van Minh

    2015-01-01

    This thesis aims to study the differences of individualism-oriented mobile phone consumers and collectivism-oriented mobile phone consumers in making buying decisions. Finland and Vietnam are the subjective nations of this research, in which Vietnamese mobile phone buyers represent collectivist consumers and Finnish mobile phone buyers represent individualist consumers. The study is based on Hofstede’s theory of individualism/collectivism and its influences on mobile phone buyers in Vietna...

  7. Domestic Waterway Transportation Mater A Case In Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Nam Chu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Vietnams shipping fleet is in a state of surplus of small-tonnage vessels composite cargo vessels while there is a lack of large-scale vessels running international routes and specialized ships carrying cement chemicals and gas. Liquefied. With such a fleet structure the domestic fleet only accounts for 10-12 of the import and export market of which the combined dry bulk market share accounts for 12 containerized cargo accounts for 8. liquid cargo accounts for 8. The export market of the Vietnamese fleet is mainly China Southeast Asia Asia some ships have exported to Eastern Europe but in very small quantity. Some Vietnamese ship owners have large vessels such as Container Vinalines Company East Sea Transportation Company Gemadept Corporation Vietnam Shipping Joint Stock Company have ship to Europe and North America. Most of the dry bulk carriers mainly containerized feeder feeder ships are used in Singapore and Hong Kong while other major markets such as the Americas are owned by foreign shipping lines. The reason for the low market share of Vietnamese shipping is primarily due to subjective factors such as improper fleet structure The technical condition is weak the ship is detained many times abroad The organization of management of service delivery of Vietnamese enterprises is weak lack of linkage between ships cargo owners trade and insurance Difficult financial resources Weak and lack of human resources The habit of buying CIF selling FOB lost the opportunity to rent a means. In addition due to some objective reasons such as the global financial crisis Oil prices fuel prices are unstable and continuously rising The mechanism of government policy is lacking and incomplete.

  8. Exploring Vietnamese co-authorship patterns in social sciences with basic network measures of 2008-2017 Scopus data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Tung Manh; Nguyen, Ha Viet; Vuong, Thu-Trang; Dam, Quang-Minh; Pham, Hiep-Hung; Vuong, Quan-Hoang

    2017-01-01

    Background: Collaboration is a common occurrence among Vietnamese scientists; however, insights into Vietnamese scientific collaborations have been scarce. On the other hand, the application of social network analysis in studying science collaboration has gained much attention all over the world. The technique could be employed to explore Vietnam's scientific community. Methods: This paper employs network theory to explore characteristics of a network of 412 Vietnamese social scientists whose papers can be found indexed in the Scopus database. Two basic network measures, density and clustering coefficient, were taken, and the entire network was studied in comparison with two of its largest components. Results: The networks connections are very sparse, with a density of only 0.47%, while the clustering coefficient is very high (58.64%). This suggests an inefficient dissemination of information, knowledge, and expertise in the network. Secondly, the disparity in levels of connection among individuals indicates that the network would easily fall apart if a few highly-connected nodes are removed. Finally, the two largest components of the network were found to differ from the entire networks in terms of measures and were both led by the most productive and well-connected researchers. Conclusions: High clustering and low density seems to be tied to inefficient dissemination of expertise among Vietnamese social scientists, and consequently low scientific output. Also low in robustness, the network shows the potential of an intellectual elite composed of well-connected, productive, and socially significant individuals.

  9. A syntactic component for Vietnamese language processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuong Le-Hong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a syntactic component for the Vietnamese language. We first discuss the construction of a lexicalized tree-adjoining grammar using an automatic extraction approach. We then present the construction and evaluation of a deep syntactic parser based on the extracted grammar. This is a complete system integrating necessary tools to process Vietnamese text, which permits to take as input raw texts and produce syntactic structures. A dependency annotation scheme for Vietnamese and an algorithm for extracting dependency structures from derivation trees are also proposed. At present, this is the first Vietnamese parsing system capable of producing both constituency and dependency analyses with encouraging performances: 69.33% and 73.21% for constituency and dependency analysis accuracy, respectively. The parser also compares favourably to a statistical parser which is trained and tested on the same data sets.

  10. Perceptions of Health-Related Information on Facebook: Cross-Sectional Study Among Vietnamese Youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Melvyn Wb; Tran, Bach Xuan; Le, Huong Thi; Nguyen, Hinh Duc; Nguyen, Cuong Tat; Tran, Tho Dinh; Latkin, Carl A; Ho, Roger Cm

    2017-09-07

    While health information websites may have previously been the core source of information about health-related conditions on the Internet, social networking sites are increasingly replacing those websites as a source of health-related information. The increasingly popularity of social networking sites among the general population has consequential impact on health policies as well as health-related interventions. To date, there remains a paucity of research conducted in developing countries like Vietnam looking at the influence of social networking sites. Our goal is to establish the baseline use of Facebook among Vietnamese youths and establish their perception of the reliability and usefulness of health-related information that they previously encountered while using the social networking site. An online cross-sectional study was conducted from August 2015 to October 2015. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) technique was used in the recruitment of participants. Sociodemographic, health status, behaviors, Facebook use and belief of information on Facebook, and interpersonal influence of social network sites were collected via an online structured questionnaire. Among 1080 participants, 72.87% (787/1080) reported being interested in health information on Facebook, and 50.74% (548/1080) and 17.50% (189/1080) perceived the information to be reliable and useful, respectively. A total of 10.93% (118/1080) of the participants also reported that they would follow the health advice they obtained from Facebook. Of significance, 7.13% (77/1080) of the participants also reported peer influences on their behavior. Factors that mediate Vietnamese perceptions of the information online include gender, level of perceived stress, age, educational level, and interpersonal influences from Facebook. Our study is perhaps one of the first conducted in Vietnam that looks at the relationship between health information on Facebook and factors that might influence young Vietnamese

  11. Changes and socioeconomic factors associated with attitudes towards domestic violence among Vietnamese women aged 15-49: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2006-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Oanh Thi Hoang; Oh, Juhwan; Choi, Sugy; To, Kien Gia; Van Do, Dung

    2016-01-01

    Understanding factors associated with domestic violence-supportive attitudes among Vietnamese women is important for designing effective policies to prevent this behavior. Previous studies have largely overlooked risk factors associated with domestic violence-supportive attitudes by women in Vietnam. This paper explores and identifies socioeconomic factors that contribute to domestic violence-supportive attitudes among Vietnamese women using data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). Secondary data from two cross-sectional studies (MICS 3, 2006, and MICS 4, 2011) with representative samples (9,471 and 11,663 women, respectively) in Vietnam were analyzed. The prevalence of supportive attitudes toward domestic violence and associations with age, residence region, area, education level, household wealth index, ethnicity, and marital status were estimated using descriptive statistics and multivariate Poisson models, giving estimates of relative risk. Overall, the prevalence of acceptance of domestic violence declined between 2006 and 2011 in Vietnam (65.1% vs. 36.1%). Socioeconomic factors associated with women's condoning of domestic violence were age, wealth, education level, and living area. In particular, younger age and low educational attainment were key factors associated with violence-supportive attitudes, and these associations have become stronger over time. Higher educational attainment in women is an important predictor of women's attitudes toward domestic violence. To date, Doi Moi and the Vietnamese government's commitment to the Millennium Development Goals may have positively contributed to lowering the acceptance of domestic violence. Tailored interventions that focus on education will be important in further changing attitudes toward domestic violence.

  12. EPA Collaboration with Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vietnam, one of Asia’s emerging economies, is an important environmental partner for EPA in Asia. EPA’s current cooperation with Vietnam primarily focuses on dioxin remediation and technical assistance to reduce methane emissions.

  13. WHO antiretroviral therapy guidelines 2010 and impact of tenofovir on chronic kidney disease in Vietnamese HIV-infected patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Mizushima

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The 2010 WHO antiretroviral therapy (ART guidelines have resulted in increased tenofovir use. Little is known about tenofovir-induced chronic kidney disease (CKD in HIV-infected Vietnamese with mean body weight of 55 kg. We evaluated the prevalence and risk factors of CKD in this country. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study was performed. METHODS: Clinical data on HIV-infected Vietnamese cohort were collected twice a year. To evaluate the prevalence of CKD, serum creatinine was measured in 771 patients in October 2011 and April 2012. CKD was defined as creatinine clearance less than 60 ml/min at both time points. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the factors associated with CKD. RESULTS: Tenofovir use increased in Vietnam from 11.9% in April 2011 to 40.3% in April 2012. CKD was diagnosed in 7.3%, of which 7% was considered moderate and 0.3% was severe. Multivariate analysis of October-2011 data identified age per year-increase (OR: 1.229, 95%CI, 1.170-1.291, body weight per 1 kg-decrement (1.286, 1.193-1.386, and tenofovir use (2.715, 1.028-7.168 as risk factors for CKD. CONCLUSIONS: Older age, low body weight and tenofovir use were independent risk factors for CKD in Vietnam. Further longitudinal study is required to evaluate the impact of TDF on renal function in Vietnam and other countries with small-body weight patients.

  14. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Hepatitis B Immunization in Vietnam: Application of Cost-Effectiveness Affordability Curves in Health Care Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tu, Hong Anh T.; de Vries, Robin; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Li, Shu Chuen; Le, Hoa H.; van Hulst, Marinus; Postma, Maarten J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To perform acost-effectiveness analysis and to identify the coseffectiveness affordability levels for a newborn universal vaccination program against hepatitis B virus (HBV) in Vietnam. Methods: By using a Markov model, we simulated a Vietnamese birth cohort using 1,639,000 newborns in

  15. "Only When I Am Not Ashamed of Myself Can I Teach Others": Preservice English-Language Teachers in Vietnam and Code-Switching Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Hai Ha

    2017-01-01

    As the younger generation in Vietnam increasingly switches between the English and the Vietnamese languages, numerous linguistic and sociocultural strictures arise. Foregrounding the preservice English-language teachers of this generation, this article locates them in a dilemma between the discourse of globalization and their code-switching…

  16. Adaptive fisheries management in Vietnam: The use of indicators and the introduction of a multi-disciplinary Marine Fisheries Specialist Team to support implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raakjaer, J.; Son, D.M.; Stæhr, Karl-Johan

    2007-01-01

    or used in Vietnam including the data-collection system. The Vietnamese approach is supported by an institutional structure consisting of a multi-disciplinary advisory system to facilitate the process of using indicators and to introduce knowledge-based management. The article concludes by identifying...

  17. A Democratic Vietnam; Not in the United States’ Core Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    main reasons. First, even with one-party rule, political participation is growing with rising levels of expectation. Second, despite its xenophobic...steering the direction of national governance. Despite the political monopoly of the VCP, political participation in Vietnam has expanded and continues...Vietnamese mindset is to always err to the side of caution and always ensure stability. 91 The VCP’s position on political participation is best

  18. An Analysis of Munitions Support to the U.S. Air Forces during the Vietnam War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    educated in France and Moscow and was a member of the communist party. He was recognized by the Vietnamese people as their ’ liberator * from foreign...1-4 LUjO - =3 LAJ A%0 CD=-4 cp LU mO iI= CT% kD qw CN ’*C V"=U~ 83~_L rather than Vietnam manning. In the Strategic Air Command, manning dropped from

  19. ?Hu Hong? (bad thing): parental perceptions of teenagers? sexuality in urban Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Lan Anh Thi Do; Pimpawun Boonmongkon; Seung Chun Paek; Guadamuz, Thomas E.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Teenagers under 18 years old in Vietnam are considered as minors who usually lack the autonomy to make decisions. They are also sometimes viewed as contributors to social evils including crime, violence and substance use. Moreover, most Vietnamese teenagers have unsafe sex before marriage. The objective of this study is to explore the parental perceptions relating to their teenagers’ sexuality, particularly the social and cultural forces, that may hinder access to sexualit...

  20. Livestock production and manure management on animal farms in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, S.G.; Bui, H.H.; Dalsgaard, Anders

      The Vietnamese and Asian livestock production is increasing these years. In consequence large amounts of manure are produced, which may be a hazard to the environment because the traditional technology and the management practise of manure is not adapted to specialised livestock production...... for transferring pathogens between livestock and from livestock to humans (zoonoses). The objective of this article is to describe manure management at livestock farms in Vietnam. The focus is on presenting the most typical farming concepts, manure management on these farms, environmental and hygienic risks...

  1. The legacy of Agent Orange: empirical evidence from central Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Michael G

    2005-03-01

    This paper seeks to provide a socio-economic impact assessment for Vietnamese victims of the principal US military herbicide, Agent Orange, used during the Vietnam War in the period 1961-71. The study is based on a field survey of 30 affected and 30 unaffected households in Quang Tri province. With this assessment, the paper attempts to address the broader issues of compensation currently available to victims. The coverage and composition of current benefits are deemed inadequate as an effective redress. In view of this, revision of current compensation, the mobilization of an international donor fund and spurred non-governmental support is strongly recommended.

  2. Vietnam: Historians at War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyar, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Although the Vietnam War ended more than thirty years ago, historians remain as divided on what happened as the American people were during the war. Mark Moyar maps the ongoing battle between "orthodox" and "revisionist" Vietnam War historians: the first group, those who depict Vietnam as a bad war that the United States should…

  3. Adverse health consequences of the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W

    2015-01-01

    The 40th anniversary of the end of the Vietnam War is a useful time to review the adverse health consequences of that war and to identify and address serious problems related to armed conflict, such as the protection of noncombatant civilians. More than 58,000 U.S. servicemembers died during the war and more than 150,000 were wounded. Many suffered from posttraumatic stress disorders and other mental disorders and from the long-term consequences of physical injuries. However, morbidity and mortality, although difficult to determine precisely, was substantially higher among the Vietnamese people, with at least two million of them dying during the course of the war. In addition, more than one million Vietnamese were forced to migrate during the war and its aftermath, including many "boat people" who died at sea during attempts to flee. Wars continue to kill and injure large numbers of noncombatant civilians and continue to damage the health-supporting infrastructure of society, expose civilians to toxic chemicals, forcibly displace many people, and divert resources away from services to benefit noncombatant civilians. Health professionals can play important roles in promoting the protection of noncombatant civilians during war and helping to prevent war and create a culture of peace.

  4. Feasibility of a mindfulness-based intervention to address youth issues in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thao N; Trieu, Don T

    2016-06-01

    Youth problems including risky sex, drug use, violence and mental health issues are on the rise in Vietnam. Mindfulness is proposed as one way to address unskillful responses to stress that give rise to these behavioral and psychosocial issues in Vietnam. This study explores the feasibility of a mindfulness program for adolescents and young adults in a central city in Vietnam. The mindfulness-based intervention was comprised 1-h daily session over 3 weeks that was conducted at two different sites, one with handicapped adolescents/young adults at the Vocational School for Handicapped and the other with at-risk youth at a semi-private high school. Forty-two Vietnamese youth participants and five Vietnamese teachers/facilitators who were trained in the mindfulness program provided personal reflections of their experiences. Analyses of the qualitative data suggest that mindfulness was enthusiastically received and accepted by both youth and teachers. There is strong indication that mindfulness is promising as a prevention strategy to help with stress and to build important life skills among Vietnamese youth. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. The Changing Needs for Higher Education Organizations Structure in Vietnam: Evidence from Japanese, Taiwanese, and Thai Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh-Quang Duong

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Organizational change is the process of changing the structure of the organization and the attitudes of members in the organization. During the last decade, both Vietnamese social and educational organizations have slowly changed in their organizational structure as a barrier to the development in the era of globalization and internationalization in Vietnam. This paper is an attempt to discuss the factors which affect Vietnamese higher educational organization. Discussions on the viewpoint of higher educational organization structure of Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand. Furthermore, this paper will contribute to improve educational management, and serve as a useful reference for future higher education’s school mergers.

  6. [An analysis of the pharmaceuticals market in Vietnam].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonet, D

    2001-01-01

    This article sheds a light on the Vietnamese pharmaceutical market. The progress that has been made in the recent years following the opening of the Vietnamese regime to the western world, although not easy, brought a certain number of opportunities for domestic firms and foreign investors. The pharmaceutical Vietnamese industry started to emerge at the beginning of the 1990s. Although, the consumption of drugs is low, it does reach the sum of $ 5.5 per capita. As the majority of these products are imported, foreign companies tend to dominate the market both in volume and in diversity. The state has always played an important role with the implementation of a strict price control strategy and most national drug companies remain state-owned. The production and consumption of drugs were also largely influenced by state policies as the latter also control hospitals. In the second half of the eighties, the progressive liberalisation of the country allowed private drug pharmacies to appear and advertisement campaigns became legal. Because the lack of specific products like antibiotics was clear, the government increased the flow of imports, including private imports by citizens. Sources of imports have become more diverse, although France remains an important source of supply. Fournier, Lipha and Pierre Fabre are among the French drug manufacturers located in Vietnam. Other foreign companies include from India, South Korea, Thailand and Germany. Joint ventures were also created with French and Japanese companies. The import of medical materials is subjected to authorisations from the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Foreign Trade as it is necessary to obtain a licence to do so. Licences are issued on the basis of the production of drugs that do not currently exist on the local market. But Vietnam also exports pharmaceutical products to Laos, Cambodia, and Cuba. Local resources constitute an important source of new products and have stirred a strong interest among

  7. New Species of Orchids (Orchidaceae in the Flora of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid V. AVERYANOV

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes results of joint efforts of professional botanists and orchid enthusiasts on studies of Vietnamese native orchids during years 2013–2016. It provides new original data about the discovery of 1 genus (Grammatophyllum Blume and 29 orchid species new for the flora of Vietnam. Valid name, main synonyms, data on type, ecology, phenology, estimated IUCN Red List status, distribution, studied specimens, as well as brief taxonomic and biological notes are provided for each species and varieties. Eight species (Bidupia khangii, Bulbophyllum striatulum, B. tipula, Cleisostoma dorsisacculatum, Cymbidium repens, Dendrobium congianum, Flickingeria xanthocheila, Podochilus rotundipetala and two varieties (Phreatia densiflora var. vietnamensis, P. formosana var. continentalis are described as new for science. One combination (Bulbophyllum bicolor var. funingense is proposed. An illustrated annotated list of all studied species and varieties is arranged in alphabetical order. Including present data, the known orchid flora of Vietnam comprises currently at least 1210 documented species from 172 genera.

  8. Carbonate platform growth and demise offshore Central Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhn, Michael B.W.; Boldreel, Lars Ole; Nielsen, Lars H.

    2013-01-01

    Miocene carbonate platforms cover a large part of the Central Vietnamese South China Sea margin. Early carbonate deposition took place on two regional platforms separated by a narrow depression developed along the trace of the East Vietnam Boundary Fault Zone. West of the East Vietnam Boundary...... continues on isolated platforms hosting the Paracel Islands farther seawards. The onset of widespread carbonate deposition largely reflects the Early Miocene transgression of the area linked with early post-rift subsidence and the opening of the South China Sea. The mid-Neogene shift in carbonate deposition...... is interpreted as a consequence of regional uplift and denudation of central and south Indochina starting during Middle Miocene time when the Tuy Hoa Carbonate Platform became subaerially exposed. Stressed carbonate growth conditions on the Triton Carbonate Platform probably resulted from increased inorganic...

  9. Early sexual initiation and multiple sexual partners among Vietnamese women: analysis from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinh Thai Son

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Under current HIV transmission mechanisms operating in Vietnam, women are seen as victims of their male partners. Having multiple sexual partners is one of the well-known risk factors for HIV infection. However, little is known about women's risky sexual behaviour and their vulnerability to HIV in Vietnam. This study aims to explore association between early sexual initiation and the number of lifetime sexual partners in Vietnamese women. Although the Vietnamese culture is socially conservative in this area, identifying women's risky sexual behaviour is important for the protection of women at risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. Design: A total of 8,791 women, who reported having had sexual intercourse, were included in this analysis of data from the 2011 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey in Vietnam. Data were collected using two-stage strata sampling, first at the national level and second across six geographical regions (n=8,791. Multivariable logistic regressions describe association between early initiation of a sexual activity and lifetime multiple sexual partners. Results: Early sexual intercourse was significantly associated with having lifetime multiple sexual partners. Women who were aged 19 or younger at first sexual intercourse were over five times more likely to have multiple sexual partners, compared with women whose first sexual intercourse was after marriage; aged 10–14 years (OR=5.9; 95% CI=1.9–18.8 at first intercourse; and aged 15–19 years (OR=5.4; 95% CI=4.0–7.2 at first intercourse. There was significant association with having multiple sexual partners for women of lower household wealth and urban residence, but the association with educational attainment was not strong. Conclusions: The study results call for health and education policies to encourage the postponement of early sexual activity in young Vietnamese women as protection against risky sexual behaviour later in life.

  10. Encouraging Vietnamese Household Recycling Behavior: Insights and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Ninh Nguyen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to provide new insights into various determinants affecting household recycling. By focusing on Vietnam, this research also extends knowledge about sustainable behavior in emerging markets, which are the major culprits in terms of greenhouse gas emissions. Hypotheses were developed as a result of the critical review of relevant studies in the fields of marketing, psychology, and economics, and then tested using a quantitative survey data. Structured questionnaires were administered to Vietnamese respondents which yielded 486 usable responses. Multivariate statistics reveal that all the determinants influenced their recycling behavior except for moral norms. Attitude towards the importance of recycling exerted the strongest influence, followed by subjective norms and warm glow respectively. On the other hand, attitude towards the inconvenience of recycling significantly reduced recycling behavior. The research findings have important implications for strategies aimed at promoting recycling behavior. Communication and education programs should emphasize how household recycling contributes to environmental protection, as well as stress intrinsic rewards when recycling. Public media campaigns should feature opinion leaders and attractive communicators, who can effectively apply social pressure to perform recycling behavior. Organizations should also make every effort to make recycling more convenient.

  11. Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans is the predominant chytrid fungus in Vietnamese salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laking, Alexandra E; Ngo, Hai Ngoc; Pasmans, Frank; Martel, An; Nguyen, Tao Thien

    2017-03-13

    The amphibian chytrid fungi, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and B. salamandrivorans (Bsal), pose a major threat to amphibian biodiversity. Recent evidence suggests Southeast Asia as a potential cradle for both fungi, which likely resulted in widespread host-pathogen co-existence. We sampled 583 salamanders from 8 species across Vietnam in 55 locations for Bsal and Bd, determined scaled mass index as a proxy for fitness and collected environmental data. Bsal was found within 14 of the 55 habitats (2 of which it was detected in 2013), in 5 salamandrid species, with a prevalence of 2.92%. The globalized pandemic lineage of Bd was found within one pond on one species with a prevalence of 0.69%. Combined with a complete lack of correlation between infection and individual body condition and absence of indication of associated disease, this suggests low level pathogen endemism and Bsal and Bd co-existence with Vietnamese salamandrid populations. Bsal was more widespread than Bd, and occurs at temperatures higher than tolerated by the type strain, suggesting a wider thermal niche than currently known. Therefore, this study provides support for the hypothesis that these chytrid fungi may be endemic to Asia and that species within this region may act as a disease reservoir.

  12. Higher Education Learning Experiences among Vietnamese Immigrant Women in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ya-Ling; Wu, Hsing-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Based on a sociocultural approach to adult learning and poststructural feminist theories, this study draws on interviews with 11 married Vietnamese women to explore the higher education learning experiences of Vietnamese immigrant women in Taiwan. On the basis of their husbands' permission and support, Vietnamese immigrant women embraced the…

  13. Bullying the Meek: A Conceptualisation of Vietnamese School Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Paul; Kvist Lindholm, Sofia; Nguyen, Thu Hang

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on ethnographic research conducted at three lower secondary schools in the northern Vietnamese cities of Hanoi and Haiphong, this article provides a contextually nuanced conceptualisation of Vietnamese school bullying. In doing so, the article not only addresses the lack of knowledge about Vietnamese school bullying, but also poses a…

  14. Implications of the legalization of non-commercial surrogacy for local kinship and motherhood in Vietnamese society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibino, Yuri

    2015-02-01

    Until recently, surrogacy was banned in Vietnam for all cases. The government, however, has altered its position on reproductive technology and will soon legalize non-commercial surrogacy among relatives. Motherhood is highly venerated in Vietnamese society and, under this local kinship conception, gestational process is of paramount importance in establishing a connection between the fetus and the woman. The implications of this new government decision for local kinship, motherhood and the individuals concerned will be discussed. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Applying Data Envelopment Analysis and Grey Model for the Productivity Evaluation of Vietnamese Agroforestry Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Nan Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture and forestry play important roles in Vietnam, particularly as they contribute to the creation of food, conservation of forest resources, and improvement of soil fertility. Therefore, understanding the performances of relevant enterprises in this field contributes to the sustainable development of this country’s agroforestry industry. This research proposes a hybrid model, which includes a grey model (GM and a Malmquist productivity index (MPI, to assess the performances of Vietnamese agroforestry enterprises over several time periods. After collecting the data of selected input and output variables for 10 Vietnam agroforestry enterprises in the period of 2011–2014, GM is used to forecast the future values of these input and output variables for the 10 agroforestry enterprises in 2015 and 2016. Following the results of GM, the MPI is used to measure the performance of these enterprises. The MPI scores showed some enterprises will become more efficient, while others will become less efficient. The proposed model gives past–present–future insights in order for decision-makers to sustain agroforestry development in Vietnam. This hybrid approach can be applied to performance analysis of other industries as well.

  16. Water Quality Study on the Hot and Cold Water Supply Systems at Vietnamese Hotels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanako Toyosada

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted as part of the Joint Crediting Mechanism (JCM of the Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, and the Ministry of the Environment project’s preparation in Vietnam. Samples were taken from hot and cold water supplies from guest rooms’ faucets in 12 hotels in Hanoi city, Vietnam, and 13 hotels in Japan for comparison. A simple water quality measurement and determination of Legionella was carried out. The results showed that residual effective chlorine—which guarantees bactericidal properties—was not detected in tap water supplied in hotel rooms in Vietnam, and nitrite (an indicator of water pollution was detected in 40% of buildings. In the hotels in Japan, the prescribed residual chlorine concentration met the prescribed levels, and nitrite was not detected. Additionally, while there was no Legionella detected in the Japanese cases, it was detected in most of the Vietnamese hotels, which were found to manage the hot water storage tank at low temperatures of 40–50 °C. It was found that there were deficiencies in cold and hot water supply quality, and that there was no effective system in place for building operation maintenance and management.

  17. Survival of Salmonella spp. and fecal indicator bacteria in Vietnamese biogas digesters receiving pig slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luu, Huong Quynh; Forslund, Anita; Madsen, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Small-scale biogas digesters are widely promoted worldwide as a sustainable technology to manage livestock manure. In Vietnam, pig slurry is commonly applied to biogas digesters for production of gas for electricity and cooking with the effluent being used to fertilize field crops, vegetables...... Weltevreden (9/138) and Salmonella Rissen (9/138). The Salmonella serovars showed similar antimicrobial resistance patterns to those previously reported from Vietnam. When promoting biogas, farmers should be made aware that effluent should only be used as fertilizer for crops not consumed raw....... and the fecal indicator bacteria, enterococci, E. coli, and spores of Clostridium perfringens in biogas digesters operated by small-scale Vietnamese pig farmers. The serovar and antimicrobial susceptibility of the Salmonella spp. isolated were also established. The study was conducted in 12 farms (6 farms...

  18. Seroepidemiology of leptospirosis in southern Vietnamese children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thai, Khoa T. D.; Binh, Tran Quang; Giao, Phan Trong; Phuong, Hoang Lan; Hung, Le Quoc; van Nam, Nguyen; Nga, Tran Thanh; Goris, Marga G. A.; de Vries, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the seroprevalence of human leptospirosis in southern Vietnam. METHODS: All pupils (n=961) of two primary schools in two communes in southern Vietnam were screened for the presence of serum Leptospira immunoglobulin (Ig)G. Leptospira IgM was tested in 92 randomly selected

  19. Characteristics of the Vietnamese Rural Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    Research report prepared under Component 5 of the Business Sector Development Programme (BSPS), Hanoi, Vietnam and the Agricultural Sector Programme Support (ASPS), 2011......Research report prepared under Component 5 of the Business Sector Development Programme (BSPS), Hanoi, Vietnam and the Agricultural Sector Programme Support (ASPS), 2011...

  20. 2 Powerful Vietnamese Women Build Private Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overland, Martha Ann

    2009-01-01

    Charismatic as well as politically astute, Ton Nu Thi Ninh is a patient woman--up to a point. As a high-ranking member of Vietnam's Communist Party, and regarded as the most powerful woman in the country, she had to be. But for far too long Ms. Ninh has watched the abysmal state of Vietnam's higher education handicap the country's future…

  1. Pesticide use in Vietnamese vegetable production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoi, P.V.; Mol, A.P.J.; Oosterveer, Peter; Brink, van den P.J.; Huong, P.T.M.

    2016-01-01

    Vietnam has had varying success over the past decade with its pesticides policy. Some of the most toxic pesticides have been banned from the market. But while many countries have successfully decreased agricultural pesticide use per hectare, this has not (yet) happened in Vietnam. Due to

  2. Substance use disorders and HIV in Vietnam since Doi Moi (Renovation): an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giang, Le Minh; Ngoc, Lung Bich; Hoang, Vu Huy; Mulvey, Kevin; Rawson, Richard A

    2013-12-01

    Drawing from published and gray literature, this manuscript focuses on the following topics: (1) changing patterns of substance use and abuse in Vietnam since the early 1990s; (2) the roles of substance use in the HIV epidemic; (3) the responses of the Vietnamese government and other entities (both domestic and international) to substance use disorders (SUDs) and HIV; and (4) the current research capacity in Vietnam and ways in which furthering research in Vietnam could enrich our knowledge of the linkages between SUDs and HIV and of effective measures to reduce their public health consequences. A growing number of studies during the past two decades show dynamic and still evolving twin epidemics of SUDs and HIV in Vietnam, including a shift from consumption of opium to heroin and amphetamine-type stimulants, the concurrent use of drugs, and the increasing embrace by the government of internationally recognized effective responses (including harm reduction and methadone substitution therapy). And yet, remaining issues, such as the rapid ascendance of amphetamine-type stimulant use among the country's most vulnerable populations, the lack of effective integration of SUD and HIV services for HIV-infected drug users, and the reliance on international resources for maintaining quality services, among others, are posing challenges for building sustainable Vietnamese responses. Therefore, building local research and training capacity is a crucial foundation to meet these challenges.

  3. Pattern of microbial translocation in patients living with HIV-1 from Vietnam, Ethiopia and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Abdurahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The role of microbial translocation (MT in HIV patients living with HIV from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs is not fully known. The aim of this study is to investigate and compare the patterns of MT in patients from Vietnam, Ethiopia and Sweden. Methods: Cross-sectional samples were obtained from treatment-naïve patients living with HIV-1 and healthy controls from Vietnam (n=83; n=46, Ethiopia (n=9492; n=50 and Sweden (n=51; n=19. Longitudinal samples were obtained from a subset of the Vietnamese (n=24 in whom antiretroviral therapy (ART and tuberculostatics were given. Plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS, sCD14 and anti-flagellin IgG were determined by the endpoint chromogenic Limulus Amebocyte Assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: All three biomarkers were significantly increased in patients living with HIV-1 from all countries as compared to controls. No differences were found between males and females. Vietnamese and Ethiopian patients had significantly higher levels of anti-flagellin IgG and LPS, as compared to Swedes. ART reduced these levels for the Vietnamese. Vietnamese patients given tuberculostatics at initiation of ART had significantly lower levels of anti-flagellin IgG and higher sCD14. The biomarkers were lower in Vietnamese who did not develop opportunistic infection. Conclusions: Higher MT is common in patients living with HIV compared to healthy individuals, and in patients from LMICs compared to patients from a high-income country. Treatment with tuberculostatics decreased MT while higher levels of MT are associated with a poorer clinical outcome.

  4. Vietnam: Water Policy Dynamics under a Post-Cold War Communism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Fforde

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Vietnam is widely seen as a development success, with rather rapid economic growth and a reported reduced role of the state, yet presents many paradoxes to conventional analytical frameworks. Two of relevance are accounts that stress a combination of a strongly hegemonic regime with weak internal sovereignty in terms of both the internal coherence of the apparat and its interactions with the rest of Vietnamese society, and also associated accounts that deny much role to intentionality in explaining apparent development success. This article will contextualise accounts of political intention and policy development towards water issues in Vietnam through an examination of two main empirics: the evolution of formal policy, understood as documents of the state, as well as of political intention, understood as documents of the ruling Party; and the by now extensive series of 'active' case studies that have examined donor as well as other projects in the sector. It will examine the notion, in the contexts suggested by the Vietnamese experience, that attempts to explain Vietnamese water policy, which have shown a tendency to shift away from assumptions that an analytical framework’s categories may easily and without too much risk be extended across different contexts. Rather, comparisons of Vietnamese experience across contexts will tend, if they are to be persuasive, to shift to the use of languages that reflect ontological fluidity, in that what things mean is expected to change over time, without reference to an imagined transcendental and universal 'real'. In this sense, Vietnamese water policy may be usefully understood as an example of how 'success gives voice to the local'.

  5. Bio-politics and the promotion of traditional herbal medicine in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlberg, Ayo

    2006-04-01

    It is often suggested that, in the past 50 years, Vietnam has experienced a traditional medicine 'revival' that can be traced back to late President Ho Chi Minh's 1955 appeal 'to study means of uniting the effects of oriental remedies with those of Europe'. In this article, I demonstrate how traditional herbal medicine came to be recruited as an important component of national efforts to promote the public health of urban and rural populations in Vietnam. Importantly, this has entailed a rejection of a colonial biopolitics that sought to marginalize 'quackery' in favour of a postcolonial bio-politics that aims to promote the 'appropriate' use of traditional herbal medicines. While the Vietnamese case bears many parallels to other countries in this respect, notably China, Vietnam's ancient history of medicine, postcolonial isolation and extensive health delivery network have resulted in a unique strategy that encourages rural populations to become self-sufficient in the herbal treatment of their most common illnesses.

  6. Monitoring Antibiotic Use and Residue in Freshwater Aquaculture for Domestic Use in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Dang Kim; Chu, Jacqueline; Do, Nga Thuy; Brose, François; Degand, Guy; Delahaut, Philippe; De Pauw, Edwin; Douny, Caroline; Nguyen, Kinh Van; Vu, Ton Dinh; Scippo, Marie-Louise; Wertheim, Heiman F L

    2015-09-01

    Vietnam is an important producer of aquaculture products, and aquatic products are essential to the Vietnamese diet. However, Vietnam also has very little enforced regulation pertaining to antibiotic usage in domestic aquaculture, which raises concerns for antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria. In this study, analysis was conducted on the presence of antibiotic residues in domestically sold fish and shrimp raised in freshwater farms in Vietnam, and an assessment of farmers' knowledge of proper antibiotics usage was performed. The results indicated that a quarter of tested aquaculture products were antibiotic screening test positive, and there is a general lack of knowledge about the purpose and proper usage of antibiotics by aquaculture producers. Farmers' decision-making processes about antimicrobial use are influenced by biased sources of information, such as drug manufacturers and sellers, and by financial incentives.

  7. EXPLORING CRITICAL FACTORS FOR SUCCESSFULLY IMPLEMENTING LEAN MANUFACTURING AT MANUFACTURING COMPANIES IN VIETNAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thi Duc Nguyen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on exploring the factors that influence the success of the Lean Manufacturing implementation at manufacturing companies in Vietnam. The mix-research methods are applied, including: reviewing previous studies, in-depth interviewing with experts in manufacturing field and case study-researching at two typical manufacturing companies in Vietnam. The results show that the significant issues, such as: leadership, communication at work, firm's financial capacity, employee's skills and expertise, organizational culture, customer and supplier management are the critical factors leading to the success of Lean Manufacturing implementation at manufacturing companies in Vietnam. Overall, this study provides the suggestions to business managers, especially Vietnamese managers, orienting toward utilizing resource on core activities to efficiently achieve Lean Manufacturing implementation.

  8. Appearance of US-like porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) strains before US outbreaks and genetic heterogeneity of PEDVs collected in Northern Vietnam during 2012-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diep, N V; Sueyoshi, M; Izzati, U; Fuke, N; Teh, A P P; Lan, N T; Yamaguchi, R

    2017-07-30

    Porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) is the aetiologic agent of porcine epidemic diarrhoea (PED), a highly contagious enteric disease that is threatening the swine industry globally. Since PED was first reported in Southern Vietnam in 2009, the disease has spread throughout the country and caused substantial economic losses. To identify PEDVs responsible for the recent outbreaks, the full-length spike (S) gene of 25 field PEDV strains collected from seven northern provinces of Vietnam was sequenced and analysed. The sequence analysis revealed that the S genes of Vietnamese PEDVs were heterogeneous and classified into four genotypes, namely North America and Asian non-S INDEL, Asian non-S INDEL, new S INDEL and classical S INDEL. This study reported the pre-existence of US-like PEDV strains in Vietnam. Thirteen Vietnamese variants had a truncated S protein that was 261 amino acids shorter than the normal protein. We also detected one novel variant with an 8-amino acid insertion located in the receptor-binding region for porcine aminopeptidase N. Compared to the commercial vaccine strains, the emerging Vietnamese strains were genetically distant and had various amino acid differences in epitope regions and N-glycosylation sites in the S protein. The development of novel vaccines based on the emerging Vietnamese strains may be contributive to the control of the current PED outbreaks. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Vietnamese Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is a Vietnamese translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  10. Information Control: Preventing a Vietnamese Spring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    the people also were able to effect regime change. While a number of other regimes remained in power (Jordan, Morocco , Bahrain and Kuwait to name a...Company Brief – Vietnamese Government Weighs Up Free Internet Messaging App Ban.” August 23, 2013. Telecoms . (Accessed August 24, 2013). http

  11. Whole genome analysis of a Vietnamese trio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We here present the first whole genome analysis of an anonymous Kinh Vietnamese (KHV) trio whose genomes were deeply sequenced to 30-fold average ... Wellcome Trust Center for Human Genetics, Oxford University, Oxford, UK; High Performance Computing Center, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, ...

  12. Expressions Shared by Vietnamese in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Carole

    This document is a collection of a list of expressions shared by Vietnamese immigrants who have entered the United States. The expressions concern the following topics: names, formality, cultural influences, touching, tact and diplomacy, shared life, open houses, social standards, manual labor, fatalism, and adaptability. (Author/AM)

  13. Whole genome analysis of a Vietnamese trio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-02-04

    Feb 4, 2015 ... We used standard and high-quality methods and software/ pipelines that had been used in the 1000 Genomes Project and other human genome projects to analyse our KHV trio genomic data. 3.1 Data production. The genomic DNA used in this study was from an anony- mous Kinh Vietnamese (KHV) trio ...

  14. Smoking Media Literacy in Vietnamese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M.; Huong, Nguyen T.; Chi, Hoang K.; Tien, Truong Q.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Smoking media literacy (SML) has been found to be independently associated with reduced current smoking and reduced susceptibility to future smoking in a sample of American adolescents, but not in other populations of adolescents. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess SML in Vietnamese adolescents and to determine the…

  15. A study on the influence of internet addiction and online interpersonal influences on health-related quality of life in young Vietnamese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Bach Xuan; Huong, Le Thi; Hinh, Nguyen Duc; Nguyen, Long Hoang; Le, Bao Nguyen; Nong, Vuong Minh; Thuc, Vu Thi Minh; Tho, Tran Dinh; Latkin, Carl; Zhang, Melvyn Wb; Ho, Roger Cm

    2017-01-31

    Internet addiction (IA) is a common problem found in young Asians. This study aimed to study the influence of IA and online activities on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in young Vietnamese. This study also compared the frequencies of anxiety, depression and other addiction of young Vietnamese with and without IA. This study recruited 566 young Vietnamese (56.7% female, 43.3% male) ranging from 15 to 25 years of age via the respondent-driven sampling technique. Chi-squared, t-test and analysis of variance were used to compare young Vietnamese with and without IA. Regression analyses were used to examine the association between internet usage characteristics and HRQOL. Results from this cross-sectional study showed that 21.2% of participants suffered from IA. Online relationship demonstrated significantly higher influences on behaviors and lifestyles in participants with IA than those without IA. Participants with IA were more likely to have problems with self-care, difficulty in performing daily routine, suffer from pain and discomfort, anxiety and depression. Contrary to previous studies, we found that there were no differences in gender, sociodemographic, the number of participants with cigarette smoking, water-pipe smoking and alcohol dependence between the IA and non-IA groups. IA was significantly associated with poor HRQOL in young Vietnamese. IA is a common problem among young Vietnamese and the prevalence of IA is the highest as compared to other Asian countries. Our findings suggest that gender may not play a key role in IA. This can be an emerging trend when both genders have equal access to the internet. By studying the impact of IA on HRQOL, healthcare professionals can design effective intervention to alleviate the negative consequences of IA in Vietnam.

  16. A study on the influence of internet addiction and online interpersonal influences on health-related quality of life in young Vietnamese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bach Xuan Tran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Internet addiction (IA is a common problem found in young Asians. This study aimed to study the influence of IA and online activities on health-related quality of life (HRQOL in young Vietnamese. This study also compared the frequencies of anxiety, depression and other addiction of young Vietnamese with and without IA. Methods This study recruited 566 young Vietnamese (56.7% female, 43.3% male ranging from 15 to 25 years of age via the respondent-driven sampling technique. Chi-squared, t-test and analysis of variance were used to compare young Vietnamese with and without IA. Regression analyses were used to examine the association between internet usage characteristics and HRQOL. Results Results from this cross-sectional study showed that 21.2% of participants suffered from IA. Online relationship demonstrated significantly higher influences on behaviors and lifestyles in participants with IA than those without IA. Participants with IA were more likely to have problems with self-care, difficulty in performing daily routine, suffer from pain and discomfort, anxiety and depression. Contrary to previous studies, we found that there were no differences in gender, sociodemographic, the number of participants with cigarette smoking, water-pipe smoking and alcohol dependence between the IA and non-IA groups. IA was significantly associated with poor HRQOL in young Vietnamese. Conclusion IA is a common problem among young Vietnamese and the prevalence of IA is the highest as compared to other Asian countries. Our findings suggest that gender may not play a key role in IA. This can be an emerging trend when both genders have equal access to the internet. By studying the impact of IA on HRQOL, healthcare professionals can design effective intervention to alleviate the negative consequences of IA in Vietnam.

  17. Clinician Response to Child Abuse Presentations in the Vietnamese Hospital Emergency Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemington, Tara; Fowler, Cathrine; Tran, Quang Nhat; Fraser, Jennifer

    2017-06-01

    Ongoing fiscal stability has enabled the National Assembly in Vietnam to turn its attention to improving the health and well-being of women and children. Training pediatric health care professionals in the recognition and response to child abuse presentations in the emergency setting has the potential to improve outcomes for the disproportionate number of vulnerable children presenting to the emergency setting with nonaccidental injuries. This study explored the training needs and expectations of the staff preparing to undertake such a clinical training program. This qualitative study is based on semistructured interviews with 16 clinicians from the emergency setting of a leading pediatric hospital in Vietnam. Interview questions focused on current practice in recognizing and responding to child abuse and neglect presentations, the level of training and experience of participants, and subjective reports of confidence in recognizing abuse. Interviews were conducted in English and Vietnamese, with check-translation of transcripts performed by an independent translator. A culture of collegiality and innovative workplace practices was revealed. Analysis revealed two overarching themes that were related to the need for evidence, forensic analysis, respecting families, and consultation. Despite participant confidence in recognizing and reporting child abuse and neglect presentations, knowledge deficits were found. This article presents a critical analysis of the context within which the first evidence-based clinical training program of its kind in Vietnam was developed and implemented in a pediatric children's hospital. Clinicians felt a strong moral obligation to protect children from further harm, however encountered a number of barriers inhibiting this process. Findings significantly shaped the Safe Children Vietnam training program and will also contribute to the development of protocols and improvement of community support services at the study site.

  18. Survival of Ascaris eggs and hygienic quality of human excreta in Vietnamese composting latrines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter K. M.; Phuc, Pham D.; Konradsen, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    Background: For centuries farmers in Vietnam have fertilized their fields with human excreta collected directly from their household latrines. Contrary to the official guideline of six-month storage, the households usually only store human excreta for three to four months before use, since...... this is the length of time that farmers have available to produce fertilizer between two cropping seasons. This study aimed to investigate whether hygienically safe fertilizer could be produced in the latrines within this period of time. Methods: By inoculating eggs of the helminth parasite indicator Ascaris suum...... into heaps of human excreta, a die-off experiment was conducted under conditions similar to those commonly used in Vietnamese latrines. Half a ton of human excreta was divided into five heaps containing increasing concentrations of lime from 0% to 11%. Results: Regardless of the starting pH, which varied...

  19. Molecular genetic diversity and genetic structure of Vietnamese indigenous pig populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, L. D.; Do, Duy Ngoc; Nam, L. Q.

    2014-01-01

    of alleles (MNA = 10.1), gene diversity (He = 0.82), allele richness (5.33) and number of private alleles (10). Thirteen percentage of the total genetic variation observed was due to differences among populations. The neighbour-joining dendrogram obtained from Nei's standard genetic distance differentiated......% (Ha Lang) to 98% (Mong Cai). individuals in indigenous pigs were assigned to their own populations. The results confirmed high level of genetic diversity and shed a new light on genetic structure of Vietnam indigenous pig populations.......The study characterized genetic diversity and genetic structure of five indigenous pig populations (Ha Lang, Muong Te, Mong Cai, Lung and Lung Pu), two wild pig populations (Vietnamese and Thai wild pigs) and an exotic pig breed (Yorkshire) using FAO/ISAG recommended 16 microsatellite markers...

  20. Nemo Solus Satis Sapit: Trends of Research Collaborations in the Vietnamese Social Sciences, Observing 2008–2017 Scopus Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan-Hoang Vuong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available “Nemo solus satis sapit”—no one can be wise enough on his own. This is particularly true when it comes to collaborations in scientific research. Concerns over this issue in Vietnam, a developing country with limited academic resources, led to an in-depth study on Vietnamese social science research, using Google Scholar and Scopus, during 2008–2017. The results showed that more than 90% of scientists had worked with colleagues to publish, and they had collaborated 13 times on average during the time limit of the data sample. These collaborations, both domestic and international, mildly boosted author performance. On the other hand, the modest number of publications by Vietnamese authors was reportedly linked to Vietnamese social scientists’ heavy reliance on collaborative work as non-leading co-authors: for an entire decade (2008–2017, the average author assumes the leading role merely in two articles, and hardly ever published alone. This implies that policy-makers ought to consider promoting institutional collaborations while also encouraging authors to acquire the experience of publishing solo.

  1. Peer and community influences on the acceptance of premarital sex among Vietnamese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Susannah E; Le, Linh Cu; Dao, Hoang Bach; Blum, Robert W

    2014-06-01

    Adolescents in Vietnam have a low level of sexual activity, but this may increase with urbanisation and economic development. The aim of this analysis is to understand trends in correlates of permissive attitudes towards premarital sex among Vietnamese adolescents using an ecological framework. Data from the Survey Assessment of Vietnamese Youth from 2003 (n = 7584) and 2009 (n = 10,044) were analysed using multivariable logistic regressions to examine associations between permissive attitudes towards premarital sex and demographic and contextual factors among adolescents aged 14 to 25. Correlates of having permissive attitudes towards premarital sex in both 2003 and 2009 included being male, older age, living in an urban area, living in the North, having ever used the Internet and perceiving that people in the community were having premarital sex. Variables that were significant in 2009 but not in 2003 included socio-economic status and belonging to an ethnic minority. Statistically significant changes in associations between 2003 and 2009 were observed for age, socio-economic status and belonging to an ethnic minority. The association of permissive attitudes with community norms and certain socio-demographic variables in conjunction with overarching economic development and urbanisation suggests that premarital sex will likely become increasingly common among Vietnamese adolescents. These trends should be further assessed as adolescent sexual activity becomes more common and adolescent friendly health services should be developed to provide appropriate and acceptable sexual and reproductive health care to young people. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  2. Perspectives of pupils, parents, and teachers on mental health problems among Vietnamese secondary school pupils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dat Tan; Dedding, Christine; Pham, Tam Thi; Bunders, Joske

    2013-11-06

    Secondary school can be a stressful period for adolescents, having to cope with many life changes. Very little research has been conducted on the mental health status of secondary school pupils in South East Asian countries, such as Vietnam.The study aimed to explore perceptions of mental health status, risk factors for mental health problems and strategies to improve mental health among Vietnamese secondary school students. A qualitative design was used to address the main study question including: six in-depth interviews conducted with professionals (with two researchers, two psychiatrists, and two secondary school teachers) to learn about their experience of mental health problems among secondary school pupils; 13 focus group discussions (four with teachers, four with parents, and five with pupils); and 10 individual in-depth interviews with pupils who did not take part in the FGDs, to reflect on the collected data and to deepen the authors' understanding. All interviews and FGDs were audio-taped, transcribed and analyzed for the identification of emerging issues using qualitative techniques of progressive coding, analytic memoing and ongoing comparison. Our study confirms the need to pay attention to mental health of pupils in Vietnam. Depression, anxiety, stress, suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts were seen as major problems by all stakeholders. Mental health problems were mainly associated with academic pressure, resulting from an overloaded curriculum and pressure from teachers and parents to succeed. The study found that pupils' mental health demands interventions at many levels, including at the level of government (Ministry of Education and Training), schools, communities, families and pupils themselves. Vietnamese secondary school pupils feel that their mental health status is poor, because of many risk factors in their learning and living environment. The need now is to investigate further to identify and apply strategies to improve students' mental

  3. What Makes Vietnamese (Not) Attend Periodic General Health Examinations? A 2016 Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Quan-Hoang; Vu, Quang-Hoi; Vuong, Thu-Trang

    2017-04-01

    General health examinations (GHE) have become an increasingly common measure for preventive medicine in Vietnam. However, little is known about the factors among Viet-namese people who attend or miss GHE. Budget or time constraints remain to be evaluated for better-informed policy making. This study investigates factors affecting behaviors in attending periodic GHE. The main objectives are as follows: (1) to explore empirical relationships between influencing factors and periodic GHE frequencies, and (2) to predict the probabilities of attending GHE under associated conditions. The study used a 2,068-observational dataset, obtained from a Vietnamese survey in 2016. The analysis was then performed using the methods of baseline-category logits for establishing relationships between predictor and response variables. Significant relationships were found among the expenditure and time consumption, health priority and sensitivity to health data, insurance status, and frequency of GHE, with most p-values = 0.01. Generally, people attended the GHE when they had the resources and health priorities (72.7% probability). Expenditure and time remain key obstacles to the periodic GHE. Health priority and health data are important in improving rates for GHEs. Health insurance should play a positive role in promoting the GHE.

  4. Vietnam Urban Wastewater Review

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    Vietnam is facing the challenge of trying to keep pace with increasing environmental pollution associated with rapid urbanization, especially in the larger cities. Over the past 20 years, the Government of Vietnam has made considerable effort to develop urban sanitation policies, legislations and regulations, and to invest in urban sanitation including wastewater treatment systems. This st...

  5. Relationship at work as a cause of occupational stress: the case of academic women in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Thanh, Le

    2016-01-01

    The present research paper aims to bring deeper understanding and insight to perceptions and experiences of occupational stress from relationships at work in the cultural context of Vietnam. The paper also examines differences in perceptions, experiences of occupational stress from this problem and makes a comparison with perspectives in other cultures. Grounded theory approach is used to study occupational stress by collecting data from in-depth interviews with 42 academic women employed at Vietnamese higher education institutions to understand the meaning, the nature and source of the occupational stress from relationships at work they experience and the impact of occupational stress on their lives. Cultural factors play an important role in occupational stress. Cultural factors such as power distance and hierarchy influence perception, experiences of occupational stress and the ways occupational stress is responded to. The Vietnamese context differs from other cultural contexts in the range of factors perceived as stressors for Vietnamese women. This paper is the first grounded theory study of occupational stress among women academics in Vietnam that determines that the natural of the relationship at work play an important role in how women understand and respond to occupational stress and supports the growing evidence that occupational stress is common, global but different in other cultures.

  6. Assessing potential impacts of the EVFTA on Vietnam's pharmaceutical imports from the EU: an application of SMART analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Huong Thanh

    2016-01-01

    This paper by adopting the Software on Market Analysis and Restrictions on Trade assessed the ex-ante impact of tariff elimination under the European-Vietnam free trade agreement (EVFTA) on Vietnam's pharmaceutical imports from the EU based on two scenarios. The results showed that although Vietnam's tariff removal for the EU's medicines would not result in a significant increase in Vietnam's imports from the EU, Vietnam's deeper integration with ASEAN + 3 and TPP (the Trans-Pacific Partnership) nations would affect quite slightly on its imports from the EU. Therefore, the EU would be still the most important and biggest source of pharmaceuticals for Vietnam in the near future. In addition, there might be an uneven distribution in Vietnam's import increases by the EU nation, pharmaceutical group and product. The simulation results also pointed out that the EVFTA's trade creation effect would be higher than trade diversion effect and therefore the agreement would improve welfare of Vietnam. When Vietnam extends its coverage of tariff elimination to also TPP and ASEAN + 3, Vietnam's welfare would potentially increase more but Vietnam would face with the relatively high increases of pharmaceutical imports from not only the EU but also the US, Australia, South Korea, Thailand and China. Bases on these results, the paper argued that both the Vietnamese government and pharmaceutical enterprises should not neglect the EVFTA and its impacts on the pharmaceutical sector, and perceive clearly the uneven distribution of Vietnam's import changes from the EU by nation and by product to design appropriate business and investment strategy. In addition, Vietnam should take measures to diversify its European import markets to be less dependent on the traditional ones in the current context of the EU. Finally, Vietnam should promote the integration in the pharmaceutical sector with all three groups of nations, especially ASEAN and ASEAN's key partners, to reduce trade diversion

  7. Internet addiction and sleep quality among Vietnamese youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Melvyn W B; Tran, Bach Xuan; Huong, Le Thi; Hinh, Nguyen Duc; Nguyen, Huong Lan Thi; Tho, Tran Dinh; Latkin, Carl; Ho, Roger C M

    2017-08-01

    Internet addiction has been a major behavioral disorder over the past decade. Prior meta-analytic review has demonstrated the association between Internet addiction and psychiatric disorders, as well as sleep related disorders. There remains a paucity of literature about Internet addiction and sleep related disorders in low and middle income countries like Vietnam. It is the aim of this exploratory study to determine the association. An online cross-sectional study was conducted between August through to October 2015. Respondent drive sampling technique was utilized in the recruitment of participants. The short form version of the Young's Internet addiction test was administered and sleep related disorders was ascertained by means of a self-report questionnaire. Chi-squared, t-test and ANOVA were used to determine whether there were any significant differences amongst the variables considered. Multivariate logistic regressions were also used in the analysis, in order to identify factors associated with Internet addiction. 21.2% Of the participants were diagnosed with Internet addiction. 26.7% of those with Internet addiction also reported that they have had sleep related difficulties. 77.2% of these participants were receptive towards seeking medical treatment. Our current study also highlighted that being single and those who were using tobacco products were not at heightened risk of developing associated sleep related issues. Our current study is largely a cross-sectional exploratory study that has shown that there is a significant prevalence of both Internet addiction and sleep related disorders amongst Vietnamese youth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Mental health priorities in Vietnam: a mixed-methods analysis

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    Niemi Maria

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Mental Health Country Profile is a tool that was generated by the International Mental Health Policy and Services Project to inform policy makers, professionals and other key stakeholders about important issues which need to be considered in mental health policy development. The Mental Health Country Profile contains four domains, which include the mental health context, resources, provision and outcomes. We have aimed to generate a Mental Health Country Profile for Vietnam, in order to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the Vietnamese mental health situation, in order to inform future reform efforts and decision-making. Methods This study used snowball sampling to identify informants for generating a Mental Health Country Profile for Vietnam, and the data gathering was done through semi-structured interviews and collection of relevant reports and documents. The material from the interviews and documents was analysed according to qualitative content analysis. Results Marked strengths of the Vietnam mental health system are the aims to move toward community management and detection of mental illness, and the active involvement of several multilateral organizations and NGOs. However, there are a number of shortages still found, including the lack of treatment interventions apart from medications, the high proportion of treatments to be paid out-of-pocket, prominence of large tertiary psychiatric hospitals, and a lack of preventative measures or mental health information to the public. Conclusions At the end of this decade, mental health care in Vietnam is still characterised by unclear policy and poor critical mass especially within the governmental sector. This initial attempt to map the mental health situation of Vietnam suffers from a number of limitations and should be seen as a first step towards a comprehensive profile.

  9. Prioritization of zoonotic diseases of public health significance in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trang, Do Thuy; Siembieda, Jennifer; Huong, Nguyen Thi; Hung, Pham; Ky, Van Dang; Bandyopahyay, Santanu; Olowokure, Babatunde

    2015-12-30

    Prioritization of zoonotic diseases is critical as it facilitates optimization of resources, greater understanding of zoonotic diseases and implementation of policies promoting multisectoral collaboration. This study aimed to establish strategic priorities for zoonotic diseases in Vietnam taking a key stakeholder approach. Two weeks prior to a workshop on zoonotic diseases a questionnaire was developed and posted to key professionals involved in different areas of zoonotic disease management in Vietnam. Respondents were asked to assess the relative priority of 12 zoonotic diseases using a number of evidence-based criteria, and to provide suggestions to strengthen multisectoral collaboration. A response rate of 69% (51/74) was obtained, and 75% (38/51) respondents worked in non-international Vietnamese organizations. Respondents identified the top five diseases for prioritization in Vietnam as: avian influenza, rabies, Streptococcus suis infection, pandemic influenza and foodborne bacterial diseases. The three criteria most used to rank diseases were severity of disease, outbreak potential and public attention. Avian influenza was ranked as the number one priority zoonotic disease in Vietnam by 57% of the respondents, followed by rabies (18%). Respondents identified coordination mechanisms, information sharing and capacity building as the most important areas for strengthening to enhance multisectoral collaboration. This study is the first systematic and broad-based attempt to prioritize zoonotic diseases of public health significance in Vietnam using key stakeholders, and a comparative and transparent method. There is limited literature for policy makers and planners on this topic and the results of this study can be used to guide decision-making.

  10. Continuity and change in premarital sex in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghuman, Sharon; Loi, Vu Manh; Huy, Vu Tuan; Knodel, John

    2006-12-01

    Premarital sexual activity is thought to be rising in Vietnam. However, there is little evidence documenting such an increase, and it is unknown whether levels of premarital sex differ between northern and southern Vietnam and whether premarital sex occurs primarily with a future spouse. Surveys conducted in northern Vietnam (Red River Delta) and southern Vietnam (Ho Chi Minh City and surrounding environs) in 2003-2004 among individuals married during one of three important periods in Vietnamese history (1963-1971, 1977-1985 or 1992-2000) were used to assess trends and regional differences in the prevalence and context of premarital sex. In both regional samples, 31% of men who married in 1992-2000 reported having had premarital sex. The proportion was much lower among women (8% in the South, 12% in the North). The prevalence of premarital sex rose markedly across cohorts in the North but only modestly in the South. Relatively few men had premarital sex with someone other than a future spouse (3-23%). The proportion of the rise in the prevalence of premarital sex that was due to sex exclusively with a future spouse was greater in the North (42%) than in the South (25%). These results suggest that premarital sex is becoming more common in Vietnam but is still not widespread. Better information about the sexual networks of men in the general population and their contacts with high-risk groups (e.g., commercial sex workers) is needed to ascertain the likelihood that HIV/AIDS will spread to the general population.

  11. Cross-Linguistic Analysis of Vietnamese and English with Implications for Vietnamese Language Acquisition and Maintenance in the United States

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    Giang Tang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Two overall goals of this paper are a to provide a linguistic basis for promoting first language maintenance of Vietnamese in a larger United States context and b to stimulate future research in language acquisition of Vietnamese-English speakers. This paper is divided into three sections. Section 1 discusses previous studies on first language (L1 maintenance among Vietnamese Americans. Section 2 presents a cross-linguistic comparison of Vietnamese and English across speech-sound, word, and grammatical language levels. A cross-linguistic analysis may help educators better understand speaking patterns of Vietnamese American students. Based on this cross-linguistic comparison, Section 3 presents potential bi-directional interactions between Vietnamese and English within an individual speaker. These predictions are intended to provide a framework for future empirical studies related to bilingual development.

  12. Vietnamese validation of the short version of Internet Addiction Test

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    Bach Xuan Tran

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: The main goal of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of a Vietnamese version of the short-version of Internet Addiction Test (s-IAT and to assess the relationship between s-IAT scores and demographics, health related qualify of life and perceived stress scores in young Vietnamese. Methods: The Vietnamese version of s-IAT was administered to a sample of 589 participants. Exploratory factor and reliability analyses were performed. Regression analysis was used to identify the associated factors. Results: The two-factor model of Vietnamese version of s-IAT demonstrated good psychometric properties. The internal consistency of Factor 1 (loss of control/time management was high (Cronbach's alpha=0.82 and Factor 2 (craving/social problems was satisfactory (Cronbach's alpha=0.75. Findings indicated that 20.9% youths were addicted to the Internet. Regression analysis revealed significant associations between Internet addiction and having problems in self-care, lower quality of life and high perceived stress scores. Discussion and conclusions: The Vietnamese version of s-IAT is a valid and reliable instrument to assess IA in Vietnamese population. Due to the high prevalence of IA among Vietnamese youths, IA should be paid attention in future intervention programs. s-IAT can be a useful screening tool for IA to promptly inform and treat the IA among Vietnamese youths. Keywords: Factor analysis, Short-version, Internet Addiction Test, Psychometric properties, Vietnamese

  13. Estimating the burden of fungal disease in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardsley, J; Denning, D W; Chau, N V; Yen, N T B; Crump, J A; Day, J N

    2015-10-01

    Data regarding the prevalence of fungal infections in Vietnam are limited yet they are likely to occur more frequently as increasingly sophisticated healthcare creates more iatrogenic risk factors. In this study, we sought to estimate baseline incidence and prevalence of selected serious fungal infections for the year 2012. We made estimates with a previously described actuarial method, using reports on the incidence and prevalence of various established risk factors for fungal infections from Vietnam, or similar environments, supplemented by personal communications. Global data were used if local data were unavailable. We estimated 2,352,748 episodes of serious fungal infection occurred in Vietnam in 2012. Frequent conditions included recurrent vaginal candidiasis (3893/100,000 women annually), tinea capitis (457/100,000 annually) and chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (61/100,000/5 year period). We estimated 140 cases of cryptococcal meningitis, 206 of penicilliosis and 608 of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. This is the first summary of Vietnamese fungal infections. The majority of severe disease is due to Aspergillus species, driven by the high prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis. The AIDS epidemic highlights opportunistic infections, such as penicilliosis and cryptococcosis, which may complicate immunosuppressive treatments. These estimates provide a useful indication of disease prevalence to inform future research and resource allocation but should be verified by further epidemiological approaches. © 2015 The Authors Mycoses Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. CO2 Reduction Potential of Water Saving in Vietnam

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    Takayuki Otani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study, we showed that widespread adoption of water-saving equipment had the potential to reduce CO2 emissions by 1% in Japan. The usage of already diffused equipment was used as an evaluation baseline. This was an evaluation model of developed countries. In order to evaluate the potential benefits of water-saving in developing countries, it is necessary to set the baseline, as cities in developing countries are expected to have the necessary infrastructure in place in the near future. In this paper, the potential for reducing CO2 emissions by water saving in Vietnam was evaluated. Based on the development of water infrastructure, and envisioning a society in which the latest high-efficiency flush toilet bowls and showers installed in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City are used in all Vietnamese houses as a near future baseline, we evaluated the potential reduction when a water-saving project is implemented. Under these conditions, an 8.8% reduction in CO2 emissions in Vietnam would be achieved by the widespread adoption of water-saving equipment. Following the recognition of the large environmental contribution potential of water saving, a water-saving project has been planned for implementation in Vietnam in the near future.

  15. Sun-Earth System Interaction studies over Vietnam: an international cooperative project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Amory-Mazaudier

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available During many past decades, scientists from various countries have studied separately the atmospheric motions in the lower atmosphere, in the Earth's magnetic field, in the magnetospheric currents, etc. All of these separate studies lead today to the global study of the Sun and Earth connections, and as a consequence, new scientific programs (IHY- International Heliophysical Year, CAWSES- Climate and Weather in the Sun-Earth System are defined, in order to assume this new challenge. In the past, many scientists did not have the possibility to collect data at the same time in the various latitude and longitude sectors. Now, with the progress of geophysical sciences in many developing countries, it is possible to have access to worldwide data sets. This paper presents the particularities of geophysical parameters measured by the Vietnamese instrument networks. It introduces a cooperative Vietnamese-IGRGEA (International Geophysical Research Group Europe Africa project, and presents, for the first time, to the international community, the geophysical context of Vietnam. Concerning the ionosphere: since 1963, during four solar cycles, the ionosonde at Phu Thuy (North Vietnam was operating. The Phu Thuy data exhibits the common features for the ionospheric parameters, previously observed in other longitude and latitude sectors. The critical frequencies of the E, F1 and F2 ionospheric layers follow the variation of the sunspot cycle. F2 and E critical frequencies also exhibit an annual variation. The first maps of TEC made with data from GPS receivers recently installed in Vietnam illustrate the regional equatorial pattern, i.e. two maxima of electronic density at 15° N and 15° S from the magnetic equator and a trough of density at the magnetic equator. These features illustrate the equatorial fountain effect. Concerning the Earth's magnetic field: a strong amplitude of the equatorial electrojet was first observed by the CHAMP satellite at the height

  16. Sun-Earth System Interaction studies over Vietnam: an international cooperative project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Amory-Mazaudier

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available During many past decades, scientists from various countries have studied separately the atmospheric motions in the lower atmosphere, in the Earth's magnetic field, in the magnetospheric currents, etc. All of these separate studies lead today to the global study of the Sun and Earth connections, and as a consequence, new scientific programs (IHY- International Heliophysical Year, CAWSES- Climate and Weather in the Sun-Earth System are defined, in order to assume this new challenge. In the past, many scientists did not have the possibility to collect data at the same time in the various latitude and longitude sectors. Now, with the progress of geophysical sciences in many developing countries, it is possible to have access to worldwide data sets. This paper presents the particularities of geophysical parameters measured by the Vietnamese instrument networks. It introduces a cooperative Vietnamese-IGRGEA (International Geophysical Research Group Europe Africa project, and presents, for the first time, to the international community, the geophysical context of Vietnam.

    Concerning the ionosphere: since 1963, during four solar cycles, the ionosonde at Phu Thuy (North Vietnam was operating. The Phu Thuy data exhibits the common features for the ionospheric parameters, previously observed in other longitude and latitude sectors. The critical frequencies of the E, F1 and F2 ionospheric layers follow the variation of the sunspot cycle. F2 and E critical frequencies also exhibit an annual variation. The first maps of TEC made with data from GPS receivers recently installed in Vietnam illustrate the regional equatorial pattern, i.e. two maxima of electronic density at 15° N and 15° S from the magnetic equator and a trough of density at the magnetic equator. These features illustrate the equatorial fountain effect.

    Concerning the Earth's magnetic field: a strong amplitude of the equatorial electrojet was first observed by the

  17. Diarrhoea among Vietnamese refugees in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, S V; Santos Ocampo, P D; Ka, E K; Tecson, L V

    1982-09-01

    A 6-month survey of diarrhoeas in Vietnamese refugee camp children was carried out and was responsible for 32.5% of pediatric consultations. One hundred twenty cases were studied and underwent laboratory work-up. Peak incidence was in the 4-6 years. Diarrhoea was observed to be at its peak in April and June which coincides with the increase in the number of transients and with the rainy season. Diarrhoea with fever and abdominal pain were the most prominent clinical symptoms. Only 8.3% grew bacterial pathogens' enteropathogenic E. coli being the most common followed by Staphylococcus aureus. It is apparent that a causative agent other than a bacterial pathogen such as a virus may play a major role in diarrhoeas in Vietnamese refugee infants and children. The lack of environmental sanitation and health education play a major role in the causation of diarrhoea in these refugee children.

  18. A layer of Dongsonian vocabulary in Vietnamese

    OpenAIRE

    Ferlus, Michel

    2009-01-01

    This is a slightly modified version of the text presented under the same title at 17th Annual Meeting of the Southeast Asian Linguistics Society, University of Maryland, College Park, USA, August 31 - September 2, 2007.; International audience; The present paper aims at demonstrating by means of linguistic evidence how the pestle used to husk rice was invented by the Dongsonians, the ancestors of the Vietnamese. That innovation spread in Southeast Asia as far as India, through the Austroasiat...

  19. Smoking media literacy in Vietnamese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M; Huong, Nguyen T; Chi, Hoang K; Tien, Truong Q

    2011-01-01

    Smoking media literacy (SML) has been found to be independently associated with reduced current smoking and reduced susceptibility to future smoking in a sample of American adolescents, but not in other populations of adolescents. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess SML in Vietnamese adolescents and to determine the association with smoking behavior and susceptibility to future smoking. A cross-sectional survey of 2000 high school students completed the SML scale, which is based on an integrated theoretical framework of media literacy, and items assessing cigarette use. Ordinal logistic regression was used to determine the association of SML with smoking and susceptibility to future smoking. Ordinal logistic regression was also to determine whether smoking in the past 30 days was associated with the 8 domains/core concepts of media literacy which comprise the SML. Smoking media literacy was lower among the Vietnamese adolescents than what has been previously reported in American adolescents. Ordinal logistic regression analysis results showed that in the total sample SML was associated with reduced smoking, but there was no association with susceptibility to future smoking. Further analysis showed that results differed according to school and grade level. There did not appear to be association of smoking with the specific domains/concepts that comprise the SML. The association of SML with reduced smoking suggests the need for further research involving SML, including the testing of media literacy training interventions, in Vietnamese adolescents and also other populations of adolescents. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  20. The role of pharmaceuticals in the privatization process in Vietnam's health-care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolffers, I

    1995-11-01

    The socialist republic of Vietnam had a centrally planned economy and a well-distributed health-care system that was free to all. Since 1989 the government implemented a free market policy (Doi Moi). Authorities tried to shift part of the cost to users of health care and to improve aspects of the health-care system that appeared to be ineffective. Private practice of physicians and pharmacists was introduced in Vietnam. The introduction of privatization had consequences for the public health services at provincial, district, village and hamlet level. This has changed the character of the health-care system. Pharmaceuticals play an important role in the transactions between practitioners and patients, because they are the tangible goods that are exchanged in the transactions between users and providers of health care. Medical anthropologists interprete use and ideas on pharmaceuticals in terms of local cultural categories or as metonymic signs of technologically advanced societies from whence they come. Use of pharmaceuticals can also be understood in a historical and political context. This article describes pharmaceuticals in the process of privatization in Vietnam and the way they are seen by the Vietnamese in the context of political change. Their use carries meanings of medicines about transformations in political economy and as such this can be seen as a metaphor for the changing Vietnamese health-care system.

  1. Vietnam's energy sector: A review of current energy policies and strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tien Minh Do, E-mail: tmdo@eng.uts.edu.au [Hanoi University of Science and Technology (HUST), 1 Dai Co Viet Street, Hai Ba Trung District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Sharma, Deepak [University of Technology, Sydney (UTS), Broadway, Ultimo, NSW 2007 (Australia)

    2011-10-15

    Since the introduction of market-oriented economy in 1986, Vietnam has made noticeable socio-economic progress. In this progress, the energy sector has played a vital role. This role is likely to deepen in the years to come as Vietnam strives to achieve even higher levels in economic progress. Such deepening in the role of energy, this paper argues, will heighten concerns about the security of energy supply, and economic, environmental, social and political consequences. In order to address these issues, Vietnam has over the last decade, developed a suite of energy policies. A deeper review of these policies suggests that they are typified by economic-growth orientation, exclusive focus on a single-sector or single issue, and largely neglect the significance of cross-sectoral and cross-thematic issues arising from the interdependencies between energy, economy, and the polity at large. The existing energy policy settings are, therefore, unlikely to be able to provide a satisfactory redress to the challenges noted above. This paper provides an overview of the current energy policies with a view to identify areas where further policy effort is needed in order to facilitate a sustainable development of the Vietnamese energy sector. - Highlights: > Identifying challenges faced by the Vietnamese energy sector. > Analyzing limitations of the existing energy policy settings (policies, strategies and institutions) in addressing these challenges. > Developing recommendations on improving the existing energy policy settings to provide a satisfactory redress for the challenges noted above.

  2. HIV type 1 Thai subtype E is predominant in South Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menu, E; Truong, T X; Lafon, M E; Nguyen, T H; Müller-Trutwin, M C; Nguyen, T T; Deslandres, A; Chaouat, G; Duong, Q T; Ha, B K; Fleury, H J; Barré-Sinoussi, F

    1996-05-01

    Samples of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 50 HIV-1-infected individuals in South Vietnam were analyzed to determine with which HIV-1 subtype the subjects were infected. Participants were from Ho Chi Minh city and five surrounding provinces; 16 samples from female prostitutes, 32 from IV drug users, and one each from a man and woman not in any HIV risk group. 32 individuals were therefore most likely infected by IV drug use and the rest through sexual contacts. PCR amplification and heteroduplex mobility assay found all but one case to be infected with HIV-1 subtype E. The only nonsubtype E infection was HIV-1 subtype B in a woman sexually infected by her seropositive partner who was most likely exposed to the virus in Europe. HIV-1 subtype E strongly predominates in South Vietnam. The homogeneous geographic distribution of subtype E suggests the recent introduction of the virus into the country. A Thai origin can be considered given the genetic relationship between the Thai and Vietnamese subtypes E. It may be assumed that subtype E infections of Vietnamese prostitutes are related to the progressive entry and spread of HIV-1 subtype E from Thailand to Cambodia and then to southern Vietnam.

  3. Opportunities and barriers to public health nutrition education in Vietnamese universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Quynh Th; Worsley, Anthony; Lawrence, Mark; Marshall, Bernie

    2017-05-01

    A core challenge for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in combating the negative effects of the nutrition transition is to implement appropriate prevention strategies to halt the increasing prevalence of obesity and non-communicable diseases (NCDs), against a background of prevailing under nutrition. There have been several proposals for the enhancement of university nutrition education for future health and related professionals who are expected to communicate knowledge of health risks to the broad community. However, little is known about university nutrition education in LMICs. The present study aimed to investigate professional development opportunities and barriers for university nutrition lecturers to teach public health nutrition (PHN). An online survey was conducted among 242 Vietnamese health and education professionals and university nutrition lecturers across Vietnam. Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants. Comparisons of between the groups' responses were examined via SPSS Crosstabs. The structures of the perceived barriers and desired PHN training topics were examined via factor analyses. Multiple linear regression examined the influences on lecturers' learning interests in nutrition areas. The lecturers' learning interests spanned four areas: basic nutrition, basic food, food policy and 'new' trends (e.g. food policy, marketing). Major impediments to nutrition teaching in universities divided into two groups: resource limitations and professional constraints (e.g. lack of relevant training opportunities). The lecturers' perceptions of professional constraints influenced their interest in learning about 'new' trends. The results highlighted the need and opportunities to enhance PHN professional development for nutrition lecturers in Vietnam.

  4. Changes and socioeconomic factors associated with attitudes towards domestic violence among Vietnamese women aged 15–49: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2006–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Oanh Thi Hoang; Oh, Juhwan; Choi, Sugy; To, Kien Gia; Van Do, Dung

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding factors associated with domestic violence-supportive attitudes among Vietnamese women is important for designing effective policies to prevent this behavior. Previous studies have largely overlooked risk factors associated with domestic violence-supportive attitudes by women in Vietnam. Objective This paper explores and identifies socioeconomic factors that contribute to domestic violence–supportive attitudes among Vietnamese women using data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). Design Secondary data from two cross-sectional studies (MICS 3, 2006, and MICS 4, 2011) with representative samples (9,471 and 11,663 women, respectively) in Vietnam were analyzed. The prevalence of supportive attitudes toward domestic violence and associations with age, residence region, area, education level, household wealth index, ethnicity, and marital status were estimated using descriptive statistics and multivariate Poisson models, giving estimates of relative risk. Results Overall, the prevalence of acceptance of domestic violence declined between 2006 and 2011 in Vietnam (65.1% vs. 36.1%). Socioeconomic factors associated with women's condoning of domestic violence were age, wealth, education level, and living area. In particular, younger age and low educational attainment were key factors associated with violence-supportive attitudes, and these associations have become stronger over time. Conclusion Higher educational attainment in women is an important predictor of women's attitudes toward domestic violence. To date, Doi Moi and the Vietnamese government's commitment to the Millennium Development Goals may have positively contributed to lowering the acceptance of domestic violence. Tailored interventions that focus on education will be important in further changing attitudes toward domestic violence. PMID:26950567

  5. Changes and socioeconomic factors associated with attitudes towards domestic violence among Vietnamese women aged 15–49: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2006–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oanh Thi Hoang Trinh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Understanding factors associated with domestic violence-supportive attitudes among Vietnamese women is important for designing effective policies to prevent this behavior. Previous studies have largely overlooked risk factors associated with domestic violence-supportive attitudes by women in Vietnam. Objective: This paper explores and identifies socioeconomic factors that contribute to domestic violence–supportive attitudes among Vietnamese women using data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS. Design: Secondary data from two cross-sectional studies (MICS 3, 2006, and MICS 4, 2011 with representative samples (9,471 and 11,663 women, respectively in Vietnam were analyzed. The prevalence of supportive attitudes toward domestic violence and associations with age, residence region, area, education level, household wealth index, ethnicity, and marital status were estimated using descriptive statistics and multivariate Poisson models, giving estimates of relative risk. Results: Overall, the prevalence of acceptance of domestic violence declined between 2006 and 2011 in Vietnam (65.1% vs. 36.1%. Socioeconomic factors associated with women's condoning of domestic violence were age, wealth, education level, and living area. In particular, younger age and low educational attainment were key factors associated with violence-supportive attitudes, and these associations have become stronger over time. Conclusion: Higher educational attainment in women is an important predictor of women's attitudes toward domestic violence. To date, Doi Moi and the Vietnamese government's commitment to the Millennium Development Goals may have positively contributed to lowering the acceptance of domestic violence. Tailored interventions that focus on education will be important in further changing attitudes toward domestic violence.

  6. The long-term impact of war on health and wellbeing in Northern Vietnam: some glimpses from a recent survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teerawichitchainan, Bussarawan; Korinek, Kim

    2012-06-01

    War is deemed a major threat to public health; yet, the long-term effects of war on individual health have rarely been examined in the context of developing countries. Based on data collected as a pilot follow-up to the Vietnam Longitudinal Survey, this study examines current health profiles of northern Vietnamese war survivors who entered early adulthood during the Vietnam War and now represent Vietnam's older adult population. To ascertain how war and military service in the early life course may have had long-term impacts on health status of Vietnam's current older adults, we compare multi-dimensional measures of health among veterans and nonveterans, and within these groups, regardless of their military service, between combatants and noncombatants. Multivariate results suggest that despite prolonged exposure to war, veterans and those who served in combat roles are not significantly different from their civilian and noncombatant counterparts on most health outcomes later in life. This is in contrast to American veterans who fought on the opposing side of the war. The near absence of differences in older adult health among northern Vietnamese with varying degrees of war involvement might be explained by the encompassing extent of war; the notion that time heals; and the hardiness and resilience against ill health that are by-products of shared struggle in war and a victorious outcome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ubiquitous Detection of Artificial Sweeteners and Iodinated X-ray Contrast Media in Aquatic Environmental and Wastewater Treatment Plant Samples from Vietnam, The Philippines, and Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yuta; Bach, Leu Tho; Van Dinh, Pham; Prudente, Maricar; Aguja, Socorro; Phay, Nyunt; Nakata, Haruhiko

    2016-05-01

    Water samples from Vietnam, The Philippines, and Myanmar were analyzed for artificial sweeteners (ASs) and iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICMs). High concentrations (low micrograms per liter) of ASs, including aspartame, saccharin, and sucralose, were found in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influents from Vietnam. Three ICMs, iohexol, iopamidol, and iopromide were detected in Vietnamese WWTP influents and effluents, suggesting that these ICMs are frequently used in Vietnam. ASs and ICMs were found in river water from downtown Hanoi at concentrations comparable to or lower than the concentrations in WWTP influents. The ASs and ICMs concentrations in WWTP influents and adjacent surface water significantly correlated (r (2) = 0.99, p rivers in Vietnam. Acesulfame was frequently detected in northern Vietnamese groundwater, but the concentrations varied spatially by one order of magnitude even though the sampling points were very close together. This implies that poorly performing domestic septic tanks sporadically leak household wastewater into groundwater. High acesulfame, cyclamate, saccharin, and sucralose concentrations were found in surface water from Manila, The Philippines. The sucralose concentrations were one order of magnitude higher in the Manila samples than in the Vietnamese samples, indicating that more sucralose is used in The Philippines than in Vietnam. Acesulfame and cyclamate were found in surface water from Pathein (rural) and Yangon (urban) in Myanmar, but no ICMs were found in the samples. The ASs concentrations were two-three orders of magnitude lower in the samples from Myanmar than in the samples from Vietnam and The Philippines, suggesting that different amounts of ASs are used in these countries. We believe this is the first report of persistent ASs and ICMs having ubiquitous distributions in economically emerging South Asian countries.

  8. Attempted suicide in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran Thi Thanh, Huong

    2006-01-01

    Suicide and attempted suicide is currently a major public health problem in rapidly developing countries but there are limited studies on this field in Asian countries. These are the first studies on suicidal behavior in Vietnam. The aim of the studies was to: 1) investigate the prevalence of suicide attempts, plans, ideation and medical attention following a suicide attempt in Vietnam and in nine other countries, 2) investigate the relation between lifetime suicidal tho...

  9. Trends in overweight by socio-economic status in Vietnam: 1992 to 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh Duc; Beresford, Shirley A A; Drewnowski, Adam

    2007-02-01

    To explore socio-economic factors associated with rising rates of overweight among Vietnamese adults. The study was based on three national surveys of socio-economic factors and health conducted over a 10-year period. The studies were: the Vietnamese Living Standard Survey 1992-1993 (11 982 participants); the Vietnamese Living Standard Survey 1997-1998 (15 975 participants); and the Vietnamese National Health Survey 2001-2002 (94 656 participants). Male and female adults >18 years old were stratified by gender, age group, area of residence, occupation, education and relative food expenditures. Overweight was defined using body mass index (BMI) > or = 25 kg m(-2). Overweight rates in Vietnam more than doubled between 1992 and 2002 (from 2.0 to 5.7%). Significant increases were observed for men and women, in urban and rural areas, and for all age groups. In univariate analyses, both age and higher socio-economic status were associated with higher rates of overweight. Using the most recent survey, urban populations were more likely to be overweight than rural ones (odds ratio (OR) = 1.79), white-collar workers were more likely to be overweight than manual labourers (OR = 1.95) and persons in the top level of food expenditures were more likely to be overweight than persons in the bottom level (OR = 4.96) after adjustment for other factors. Education was inversely associated with overweight after adjusting for covariates. Economic growth and improved standard of living are associated with higher rates of overweight in nations in early stages of economic development. In Vietnam, higher rates of overweight were observed among the higher income and occupation groups.

  10. Comparative exploration of learning styles and teaching techniques between Thai and Vietnamese EFL students and instructors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supalak Nakhornsri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Learning styles have been a particular focus of a number of researchers over the past decades. Findings from various studies researching into how students learn highlight significant relationships between learners’ styles of learning and their language learning processes and achievement. This research focuses on a comparative analysis of the preferences of English learning styles and teaching techniques perceived by students from Thailand and Vietnam, and the teaching styles and techniques practiced by their instructors. The purposes were 1 to investigate the learning styles and teaching techniques students from both countries preferred, 2 to investigate the compatibility of the teaching styles and techniques practiced by instructors and those preferred by the students, 3 to specify the learning styles and teaching techniques students with high level of English proficiency preferred, and 4 to investigate the similarities of Thai and Vietnamese students’ preferences for learning styles and teaching techniques. The sample consisted of two main groups: 1 undergraduate students from King Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok (KMUTNB, Thailand and Thai Nguyen University (TNU, Vietnam and 2 English instructors from both institutions. The instruments employed comprised the Students’ Preferred English Learning Style and Teaching Technique Questionnaire and the Teachers’ Practiced English Teaching Style and Technique Questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed using arithmetic means and standard deviation. The findings can contribute to the curriculum development and assist teachers to teach outside their comfort level to match the students’ preferred learning styles. In addition, the findings could better promote the courses provided for students. By understanding the learning style make-up of the students enrolled in the courses, faculty can adjust their modes of content delivery to match student preferences and maximize

  11. Among the Missing: The Experience of Vietnamese American Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilby, Mary Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Non-traditional nursing students, including Vietnamese Americans often face challenges that differ from those of their white counterparts. These challenges have significant impact on academic success and contribute to underrepresentation of minorities in nursing. This study explored the lived experience of 12 Vietnamese American undergraduate…

  12. How Vietnamese Culture Influence on Learning and Teaching English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Phan Thi Thu

    2008-01-01

    Vietnamese has to face a cross-culture issue with the teaching and learning of English as Vietnamese culture is "villagers' culture" which considers relationships in village as family relations and an emphasis "on hierarchical, social order in their dealings with one another" (Ellis, 1995: 9) with a traditional teaching method…

  13. Lion and dragon: four centuries of Dutch-Vietnamese relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinen, J.; van der Zwan, B.; Moors, H.; van Zeeland, T.

    2008-01-01

    Dutch-Vietnamese relations go back as far as the beginning of the seventeenth century. For a long time, relations between the Dutch lion and the Vietnamese dragon have been fragile and even violent. Although the relations were not continuously bad, they remained distant rather than warm. Today

  14. A Bilingual Vocabulary Size Test of English for Vietnamese Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Le Thi Cam; Nation, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of a Vietnamese bilingual version of the Vocabulary Size Test--a test which measures written receptive vocabulary size. The test can be used to measure the English vocabulary size of Vietnamese learners of English. A learner's total vocabulary size is calculated by multiplying their test result…

  15. Effects of Vietnamese Sophora root on growth, adhesion, invasion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Vietnamese Sophora Root mainly contains active constituents such as alkaloids, and it has anti-tumour, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory effects. The objective of the paper was to study the effects of Vietnamese Sophora Root on growth, adhesion, invasion and motility of mouse melanoma B16BL6 cells, and ...

  16. Life Science. A Handbook for Vietnamese Speaking Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindauer, Lawrence; And Others

    This bilingual glossary of the biological/life sciences is one in a series developed to help high school students who are literate in their native Vietnamese, but not in English, to meet graduation requirements. Major biological science concepts and definitions of important and commonly used terms are provided, first in Vietnamese and then in…

  17. Health Information in Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home - Tiếng Việt (Vietnamese) PDF Healthy Living Toolkit: Violence In the Home - Tiếng Việt (Vietnamese) MP3 U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants Child Dental Health Early Childhood Caries - English PDF Early Childhood Caries - Tiếng Việt ( ...

  18. Voices of Dissent: Unpacking Vietnamese International Student Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Le; Koo, Fung Kuen; Arambewela, Rodney; Zutshi, Ambika

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine Vietnamese international students' experiences with the campus learning environment by analysing differences in staff and student perceptions. Design/Methodology/Approach: Two focus groups (n = 12) and ten in-depth interviews were conducted with Vietnamese students and four in-depth interviews with…

  19. Poly-Victimisation among Vietnamese High School Students: Prevalence and Demographic Correlates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh T H Le

    Full Text Available Exposure to multiple forms of violence, including abuse and crime is termed poly-victimisation. There has been increasing research interest in poly-victimisation among children and adolescents in high income countries. However, experiences among adolescents living in low- and lower-middle-income countries are yet to be examined.To establish the prevalence of lifetime exposure to poly-victimisation and demographic characteristics of victims among high school students in Vietnam.A cross-sectional survey with a self-report, anonymous questionnaire was conducted in ten high schools in Hanoi, Vietnam between October 2013 and January 2014. Poly-victimisation was assessed using the Juvenile Victimisation Questionnaire Revised 2 (JVQ R2.A total of 1,606/1,745 (92.0% eligible students provided data and were included in the analyses. Lifetime exposure to at least one form of victimisation was reported by 94.3% (95%CI: 92.5-95.4% of participants and lifetime exposure to more than 10 forms by 31.1% (95%CI: 27.8-33.5%. Poly-victimisation was associated with experiencing more adverse life events, having a chronic disease or disability, living with a step-parent, experiencing family life as unhappy, being disciplined at school, and living in a rural area. Poly-victimisation experiences differed among students from the three types of high schools in Vietnam.These data reveal the prevalence and multi-factorial risks of exposure to poly-victimisation among adolescents in Vietnam. Prevalence rates of different forms of victimisation among Vietnamese students, including those previously un-investigated, were higher than those reported in other settings. Poly-victimisation was also common among them. There were certain subgroups who were more vulnerable to poly-victimisation. Further research to understand the broader aspects of adolescence in Vietnam, including poly-victimisation, is thus recommended. Special attention should be paid to specific subgroups in the

  20. Poly-Victimisation among Vietnamese High School Students: Prevalence and Demographic Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Minh T. H.; Holton, Sara; Nguyen, Huong Thanh; Wolfe, Rory; Fisher, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to multiple forms of violence, including abuse and crime is termed poly-victimisation. There has been increasing research interest in poly-victimisation among children and adolescents in high income countries. However, experiences among adolescents living in low- and lower-middle-income countries are yet to be examined. Aims To establish the prevalence of lifetime exposure to poly-victimisation and demographic characteristics of victims among high school students in Vietnam. Methods A cross-sectional survey with a self-report, anonymous questionnaire was conducted in ten high schools in Hanoi, Vietnam between October 2013 and January 2014. Poly-victimisation was assessed using the Juvenile Victimisation Questionnaire Revised 2 (JVQ R2). Results A total of 1,606/1,745 (92.0%) eligible students provided data and were included in the analyses. Lifetime exposure to at least one form of victimisation was reported by 94.3% (95%CI: 92.5-95.4%) of participants and lifetime exposure to more than 10 forms by 31.1% (95%CI: 27.8-33.5%). Poly-victimisation was associated with experiencing more adverse life events, having a chronic disease or disability, living with a step-parent, experiencing family life as unhappy, being disciplined at school, and living in a rural area. Poly-victimisation experiences differed among students from the three types of high schools in Vietnam. Conclusions These data reveal the prevalence and multi-factorial risks of exposure to poly-victimisation among adolescents in Vietnam. Prevalence rates of different forms of victimisation among Vietnamese students, including those previously un-investigated, were higher than those reported in other settings. Poly-victimisation was also common among them. There were certain subgroups who were more vulnerable to poly-victimisation. Further research to understand the broader aspects of adolescence in Vietnam, including poly-victimisation, is thus recommended. Special attention should be paid

  1. Validation of a Dutch risk score predicting poor outcome in adults with bacterial meningitis in Vietnam and Malawi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewout S Schut

    Full Text Available We have previously developed and validated a prognostic model to predict the risk for unfavorable outcome in Dutch adults with bacterial meningitis. The aim of the current study was to validate this model in adults with bacterial meningitis from two developing countries, Vietnam and Malawi. Demographic and clinical characteristics of Vietnamese (n = 426, Malawian patients (n = 465 differed substantially from those of Dutch patients (n = 696. The Dutch model underestimated the risk of poor outcome in both Malawi and Vietnam. The discrimination of the original model (c-statistic [c] 0.84; 95% confidence interval 0.81 to 0.86 fell considerably when re-estimated in the Vietnam cohort (c = 0.70 or in the Malawian cohort (c = 0.68. Our validation study shows that new prognostic models have to be developed for these countries in a sufficiently large series of unselected patients.

  2. Rebellion and Rule under Consular Optics: Changing Ways of Seeing the China-Vietnam Borderlands, 1874–1879

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Camp Davis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to the continuing discussion concerning the changing relationships between China and its neighbors in the nineteenth century. Focusing on Vietnam, a country within the metaphorical framework of the “tribute system,” it analyzes the complex range of relationships in the borderlands during the 1870s. Following the establishment of French consular offices in northern Vietnam, rebellions, counterinsurgency, communities, and commerce in the borderlands fell under a new kind of official gaze, one that ultimately provided self-serving justification to advocates of French imperialism in Southeast Asia. As emblems of foreign influence, French consulates soon became elements in factional struggles that unfolded within the Vietnamese bureaucracy over the role of China in Vietnam, the employment of surrendered bandits as officials, and borderlands administration.

  3. CASE STUDY: Vietnam — Information brings progress to Vietnam's ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-16

    CASE STUDY: Vietnam — Information brings progress to Vietnam's communes. December 16, 2010. Image. Michelle Hibler. In Vietnam, a .... The strategy, he says, is to concentrate assistance on vulnerable groups, like women-headed households, widows, and invalids. There are 41 such deprived households in Gia Son.

  4. Perceptions of Vietnamese Fathers' Acculturation Levels, Parenting Styles, and Mental Health Outcomes in Vietnamese American Adolescent Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Peter V.

    2008-01-01

    Vietnamese adult and adolescent immigrants in the United States acculturate to the Western culture at different rates. Most Vietnamese parents tend to use the authoritarian parenting method in which dictatorial approaches are enforced, possibly leading to family conflicts and mental health issues. By means of the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity…

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of a Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Strain from Vietnam, HUA-14PED96, with a Large Genomic Deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Se-Eun; Park, Kee-Hwan; Lim, Seong-In; Le, Van Phan; Hien, Nguyen Ba; Thach, Pham Ngoc; Phuong, Le Huynh Thanh; An, Byung-Hyun; Han, Song Hee; Cho, In-Soo; An, Dong-Jun

    2016-02-18

    A highly virulent strain of Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causing severe diarrhea has recently emerged in Vietnam. Genomic sequences from a novel strain, HUA-14PED96, isolated from a Vietnamese piglet with serious diarrhea show relatively high identity with U.S.-like PEDV strains, and have a 72-nt deletion in the open reading frame 1a (ORF1a) gene. Copyright © 2016 Choe et al.

  6. Distributional impacts of the 2008 global food price spike in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKay, Andy; Tarp, Finn

    Agriculture and food cultivation production remains a key sector in the Vietnamese economy in terms of productive activities, income generation, and national export earnings. Higher world market prices should therefore in principle have a beneficial impact on rural farmers. This is based however...... the policy actions taken by the government to help reduce the impact on consumers, as well as to continue to encourage production. We also look at the distributional impact of the resulting domestic price changes, using data from a specialist rural household survey to look at production response. Vietnam...

  7. Efficiency and productivity of hospitals in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thuy Linh

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the relative efficiency and productivity of hospitals during the health reform process. Data envelopment analyses method (DEA) with the input-oriented variable-returns-to-scale model was used to calculate efficiency scores. Malmquist total factor productivity index approach was then employed to calculate productivity of hospitals. Data of 101 hospitals was extracted from databases of the Ministry of Health, Vietnam from the years 1998 to 2006. There was evidence of improvement in overall technical efficiency from 65 per cent in 1998 to 76 per cent in 2006. Hospitals' productivity progressed around 1.4 per cent per year, which was mainly due to the technical efficiency improvement. Furthermore, provincial hospitals were more technically efficient than their central counterparts and hospitals located in different regions performed differently. The paper provides an insight in the performance of Vietnamese public hospitals that has been rarely examined before and contributes to the existing literature of hospital performance in developing countries

  8. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    This report assesses Vietnam's corporate governance policy framework. It highlights recent improvements in corporate governance regulation, makes policy recommendations, and provides investors with a benchmark against which to measure corporate governance in Vietnam. It is an update of the 2006 Corporate Governance ROSC for Vietnam. Good corporate governance enhances investor trust, protec...

  9. Supportive policies to promote high school completion for Vietnamese boys and young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Sharpe, Laura Judith

    2011-01-01

    This study examines ways to improve high school completion rates for Vietnamese-speaking boys in Vancouver. On average, English as a Second Language students have high school completion rates above the provincial average. However, for the past five years, Vietnamese-speaking boys have averaged completion rates 6.1 percentage points behind their non-Vietnamese-speaking peers and 14.4 percentage points behind Vietnamese-speaking girls, a gender gap twice that of non-Vietnamese speakers. Using a...

  10. Pharmaceutical Industry in Vietnam: Sluggish Sector in a Growing Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Angelino

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Vietnam is a fast growing economy in the Asian region with a significantly high population (over 92 million in 2015. Although still expanding (about 1.1% on average during 2000–2015, the Vietnamese population is considered to be entering the ageing stage at a very high rate. The rapid expansion of the middle-income urban class and the ageing people ratio have dramatically pushed up the demand for healthcare goods, particularly in terms of pharmaceutical products. Since the early 1990s the government has addressed the necessities of rising demand for healthcare products by formulating a series of policies aimed at promoting the development of the pharmaceutical industry. However, the implementation of such policies does not seem to have been completely efficient given that the country still needs to import up to 90% of its pharmaceutical consumption. This paper aims to explore the development of the pharmaceutical industry during the years 1990–2015 and to identify a series of weaknesses in the government promotion of the industry. Future developments will also be discussed on how the Vietnamese pharmaceutical industry could increase its participation in the regional supply chain, which is currently being dominated by big players like India and China.

  11. Pharmaceutical Industry in Vietnam: Sluggish Sector in a Growing Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelino, Antonio; Khanh, Do Ta; An Ha, Nguyen; Pham, Tuan

    2017-08-29

    Vietnam is a fast growing economy in the Asian region with a significantly high population (over 92 million in 2015). Although still expanding (about 1.1% on average during 2000-2015), the Vietnamese population is considered to be entering the ageing stage at a very high rate. The rapid expansion of the middle-income urban class and the ageing people ratio have dramatically pushed up the demand for healthcare goods, particularly in terms of pharmaceutical products. Since the early 1990s the government has addressed the necessities of rising demand for healthcare products by formulating a series of policies aimed at promoting the development of the pharmaceutical industry. However, the implementation of such policies does not seem to have been completely efficient given that the country still needs to import up to 90% of its pharmaceutical consumption. This paper aims to explore the development of the pharmaceutical industry during the years 1990-2015 and to identify a series of weaknesses in the government promotion of the industry. Future developments will also be discussed on how the Vietnamese pharmaceutical industry could increase its participation in the regional supply chain, which is currently being dominated by big players like India and China.

  12. The impact of tobacco prices on smoking onset in Vietnam: duration analyses of retrospective data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guindon, G Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of preventing smoking onset are well known, and even just delaying smoking onset conveys benefits. Tobacco control policies are of critical importance to low-income countries with high smoking rates such as Vietnam where smoking prevalence is greater than 55 % in young men between the ages of 25 and 45. Using a survey of teens and young adults, I conducted duration analyses to explore the impact of tobacco price on smoking onset. The results suggest that tobacco prices in Vietnam have a statistically significant and fairly substantial effect on the onset of smoking. Increases in average tobacco prices, measured by an index of tobacco prices and by the prices of two popular brands, are found to delay smoking onset. Of particular interest is the finding that Vietnamese youth are more sensitive to changes in prices of a popular international brand that has had favourable tax treatment since the late 1990s.

  13. USES OF SOCIAL MEDIA TO PROMOTE ASEAN SOCIO-CULTURAL COMMUNITY IN VIETNAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulas Basar Gezgin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The global openness of Vietnam brought out very fast major social changes. The country is a party to a number of international economic agreements and frameworks including World Trade Organization, Trans Pacific Partnership as well as ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations. External economic factors such as those associated with South East Asian integration are coupled with ASEAN’s ambition to set up a socio-cultural community in addition to the economic community. In the meantime, the popularity of social media is rapidly growing in Vietnam with more than 30 million Vietnamese Facebook accounts. Considering these 2 major influences, ie social media and regional integration efforts, this article proposes a number of recommendations to use social media to promote ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community.

  14. Tabula diptycha: Differential HIV knowledge, stigma, and intended behavioural outcomes amongst visitors at Vietnam's Pain and Hope exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, Devaki; Nguyen, Mai Huong; Giang, Le Minh; Hirsch, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Stigma reduction efforts in Vietnam have been encumbered by contradictory and dynamic views of People Living With HIV (PLWH) and the epidemic over the past two decades. World AIDS Day 2010 saw the launch of Pain and Hope, a museum exhibition showcasing the lives and experiences of Vietnamese People Living with AIDS at the Vietnam Museum of Ethnology (VME). Between December 2010 and May 2011, a random sample of visitors completed exit surveys regarding attitudes towards the exhibition and Vietnamese living with HIV/AIDS. The survey sought to determine what kind of visitors the museum and exhibition attracted, and the stigma-related impacts of this kind of exposure and parasocial contact. Of 2,500 Vietnamese visitors randomly selected, 852 completed the computer surveys (response rate of 34.1%), 92.3% of whom had seen Pain and Hope. We found two sub-strata or types of visitors attending the exhibition, with varying demographic characteristics, HIV-related knowledge, some differences in stigma ideation, and clear differences in intended behaviours specifically attributable to the exhibition. Social desirability biases notwithstanding, there has emerged a diptych typology of visitors to the VME, for whom the experience of the exhibition is likely interacting with divergent prior knowledge, experiences, interests and motivations. PMID:22974183

  15. Intraspecific variability of the facultative meiotic parthenogenetic root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne graminicola) from rice fields in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellafiore, Stéphane; Jougla, Claire; Chapuis, Élodie; Besnard, Guillaume; Suong, Malyna; Vu, Phong Nguyen; De Waele, Dirk; Gantet, Pascal; Thi, Xuyen Ngo

    2015-07-01

    Twenty years ago, the facultative meiotic parthenogenetic root-knot nematode (RKN), Meloidogyne graminicola, was recognised as an important rice pathogen in South Vietnam. Although this country is one of the most important rice exporters worldwide, a comprehensive picture of the occurrence of M. graminicola in Vietnamese rice fields is still not available. Therefore a nematode survey was carried out with the aim of better understanding the geographical distribution, and the pathogenic and genetic variability of the RKN in Vietnam. From the fields surveyed in a range of ecosystems, 21 RKN populations were recovered from infected rice roots. A diagnostic SCAR marker was developed showing that all Vietnamese populations belong to M. graminicola. Furthermore, sequencing of the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) of the rDNA genes confirmed this identification. These populations were then characterised using morphometrics and pathogenicity tests (host plant range diversity, reproduction and virulence diversity) revealing intraspecific variability. We showed that morphometric traits are mainly genetically heritable characters with significant differences among the studied populations. Finally, a distinctive trait signature was found for the populations isolated from the upland rice cultures. All together, our study reveals the prevalence of M. graminicola populations in Vietnamese rice. Further investigations need to be developed to explore the population dynamics and evolutionary history of this species in South East Asia. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. EU and Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari

    This paper discusses the changing relationship between the EU and Vietnam, and asks whether there is a shift from a “parental” to a “competitive” relationship. The focus of the paper is on the shift from aid to trade as the main interface between the EU and Vietnam. Aid relationships are often...... understood as hierarchical, linking a benevolent donor to a needy recipient, whereas commercial relationships are typically expected to involve a more competitive relationship. However, we argue that the bilateral relationship was never a “parental” one, even at the time when Vietnam’s relation to the EU...... was limited to aid. The reason is largely Vietnam’s historical experiences from the aid relationship with the Soviet Union, which created dependence and eventually an economic crisis when aid flows dried up in the late 1980s. Instead, there has been substantial tension between the donor community and Vietnam...

  17. Relative socioeconomic advantage and mood during advanced pregnancy in women in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisher Jane RW

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health during pregnancy has not been investigated in Vietnam. Antenatal depression is an established risk factor for postpartum mood disturbance and two representative cohort studies have found rates of depression after childbirth in Vietnam two to three times higher than those in high income countries. Aim The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the prevalence and determinants of depression in a cohort of pregnant Vietnamese women. This was the subsidiary aim of an investigation of sexual beliefs and behaviours in pregnancy in Vietnam. Methods Participants were recruited from antenatal clinics at Hanoi Obstetric Hospital. Inclusion criteria were to be in advanced pregnancy and appear well educated and confident and therefore potentially be willing to discuss sexual matters. Data were collected by individual structured interviews assessing socio-demographic characteristics, reproductive health, quality of intimate relationship and adequacy of support. Emotional wellbeing was assessed by the Vietnamese translation of the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS. Results In total 61/74 (82% of women approached to participate were recruited. The mean EDS score of 5.42 ± 3.8, was similar to that of community cohorts in high income countries and only one participant scored above 15. The cohort was relatively socioeconomically advantaged with high rates of post-secondary education, secure salaried employment, reproductive autonomy and ability to afford higher quality antenatal care. Most participants were able to confide in their husbands and their pregnancies were welcome. Worse mood was associated with insecure casual work, crowded living conditions and experiencing critical coercion in the marital relationship. Conclusion There is an apparently low prevalence of symptoms of depression in relatively socioeconomically advantaged pregnant women in Vietnam.

  18. The Politics of Frontier Mining: Local Chieftains, Chinese Miners, and Upland Society in the Nông Văn Vân Uprising in the Sino-Vietnamese Border Area, 1833–1835

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vũ Đường Luân

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article, part of a longer study of the history of mining in Vietnam, argues that the Nông Văn Vân uprising (1833–1835 in the northern uplands of Vietnam brings into relief the importance of mining in the Vietnamese economy of the nineteenth century. It also highlights the consequences of Emperor Minh Mệnh’s dual agenda of extracting more tax revenues from mining operations and expanding the reach of the state by replacing hereditary tribal chieftains with imperial bureaucrats. While the uprising was quelled, the imperial agenda could not be fully realized in the face of local opposition and declining revenue from mining. The uprising reflected the multiethnic nature of border society, composed as it was of Vietnamese, local minority populations, and a significant number of Chinese mine owners, workers, and providers of goods and services to the mining towns. In ordinary times, the border was regularly flouted as kinship relations, trading networks, and ethnic affinity transcended allegiance to either the Qing or the Nguyễn in this borderland. Although the uprising was formally contained within the Vietnamese territory, rebels were able to seek refuge and recruit new adherents in China. And while the Nguyễn court was eventually able to subdue the rebels, its centralizing policies and attempts at extracting more revenues from mining were ultimately unsuccessful in the face of reemerging local and transborder forces.

  19. Psychological distress among Vietnamese adults attending Vietnamese-speaking general practices in South Western Sydney: prevalence and associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi; Dennis, Sarah; An, Huy; Vagholkar, Sanjyot; Liaw, Siaw Teng

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of psychological distress among Vietnamese adults attending Vietnamese-speaking general practices and explore possible risk factors in this population.Methods: A cross-sectional survey of Vietnamese adult patients was conducted at 25 general practices with Vietnamese-speaking general practitioners (GPs) in south-western Sydney between October 2012 and February 2013. Patients completed the Kessler (K10) scale and a demographic questionnaire, available in Vietnamese or English. Data were analysed using SPSS version 21.Results: Of the 350 patients invited to participate, 247 completed surveys (response rate 71%). One-quarter (25%) of participants had a very high K10 score for psychological distress, nearly twice that reported in the NSW Health Survey. Participants with high exposure to trauma were at increased risk of psychological distress (odds ratio 5.9, 95% confidence interval 2.4-14.4; P speaking general practices is associated with exposure to trauma. This highlights the importance of personal, social and professional support in effective management. Vietnamese-speaking GPs who see Vietnamese or similar refugee groups should actively seek out a history of exposure to trauma, a past history of mental illness and the existence of support systems.

  20. Training Vietnamese diabetes specialists in facilitation methods as part of a train-the-trainer programme in diabetes management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre-Christensen, Ulla; Persson, Frederik; Noctor, Eoin

    2018-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is an important issue in Vietnam, with a doubling in prevalence to 5.4% of the population from 2002 to 2012. Upskilling general practitioners and internal medicine physicians to provide comprehensive, evidence-based diabetes treatment is a key step in addressing this emerging...... challenge. The Vietnamese Association of Diabetes and Endocrinology and Steno Diabetes Center, with Ministry of Health support, deliver a train-the-trainer programme to build diabetes treatment capacity. In this model, an annual 2-day course is delivered to a group of endocrinologists (the ’trainers......’). These doctors then form the faculty for a national training programme on evidence-based diabetes management for general practitioners and internal medicine physicians. In addition to diabetes management topics, various pedagogical methods, with an emphasis on participant interaction, sharing a constructivist...

  1. Physical and Mental Health Consequences of War-related Stressors Among Older Adults: An Analysis of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Arthritis in Northern Vietnamese War Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korinek, Kim; Loebach, Peter; Teerawichitchainan, Bussarawan

    2017-10-01

    We examine the impacts of trauma exposures and family stressors associated with the Vietnam War on musculoskeletal health and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) outcomes in elderly Vietnamese who were widely impacted by the war as young adults. Noting that wars' impacts extend beyond male veterans in most survivor populations, we give attention to male and female war survivors placed in a variety of roles vis-a-vis the war. Utilizing data from the 2010 Vietnam Health and Aging Pilot Study (N = 405), we use logistic and Poisson regression models to estimate the effect of wartime trauma exposures and family stressors on disabling arthritis and PTSD symptoms in male and female northern Vietnamese adults aged 55 and older. The odds of experiencing recent PTSD symptoms are greater in respondents who report involvement in killing/causing severe injury and who observed war atrocities. In women, PTSD is positively correlated with war era child death and spousal separation. Arthritis also exhibits a significant, positive association with killing/causing severe injury. Our study provides insights into the burden of conflict upon health among populations of the global south that survived war and are now entering older adulthood. The pattern of results, indicating greatest suffering among those who inflicted or failed to prevent bodily harm or loss of life, is consistent with the concept of moral injury.

  2. Social influences on physical activity in Anglo- and Vietnamese-Australian adolescent males in a single sex school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew N; Dollman, James

    2007-06-01

    Understanding factors that influence physical activity levels of adolescents can assist the design of more effective interventions. Social support is a consistent correlate of youth physical activity but few studies have examined this in different cultural settings. Male adolescents (n=180, age=13.58+/-0.97 years) from a metropolitan single sex private school participated in this study. Habitual physical activity was estimated using the 3-day physical activity recall (3dPAR), and aspects of social support to be physically active using a specifically designed questionnaire. Comparisons were made between Anglo-Australians (n=118), whose parents were both born in Australia, and Vietnamese-Australians (n=62), whose parents were both born in Vietnam. There was a trend towards higher physical activity among Anglo-Australians, particularly on weekends. Anglo-Australians reported significantly more parental and peer support across most items pertaining to these constructs. Among the whole sample, social support variables explained 5-12% of the total explained variance in physical activity, with items pertaining to father and best friend support emerging as the strongest and most consistent predictors in multiple regression models. Among Anglo-Australians, the prediction models were relatively weak, explaining 0-9% of the total explained variance in physical activity. Prediction models for physical activity among Vietnamese-Australians were much stronger, explaining 11-32% of the total explained variance, with father's support variables contributing consistently to these models. The strong paternal influence on physical activity among Vietnamese-Australians needs to be confirmed in more diverse population groups, but results from this study suggest that interventions promoting physical activity among adolescent boys need to take into account cultural background as a moderator of widely reported social influences.

  3. Social influences on physical activity in Anglo-Australian and Vietnamese-Australian adolescent females in a single sex school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew N; Dollman, James

    2009-01-01

    Social support is a consistent correlate of youth physical activity (PA) but few studies have examined this in cultural sub-groups. Female adolescents (n=113; 13.9+/-0.6years) from a metropolitan single sex private school participated in this study. PA was estimated using the 3 Day Physical Activity Recall (3dPAR), and aspects of social support using a specifically designed questionnaire. Anglo-Australians (n=74), whose parents were both born in Australia, were compared with Vietnamese-Australians (n=39), whose parents were both born in Vietnam. There were non-significant trends towards higher engagement in all measures of PA among Anglo-Australians. Anglo-Australians perceived higher levels of social support to be physically active. In the whole sample and in cultural sub-groups, support by mothers was a consistent predictor of PA. Among Vietnamese-Australians, activities shared with the mother predicted moderate to vigorous PA. Interventions targeting PA among adolescent females should consider interactions of social support and cultural background.

  4. Pre-germinated brown rice reduced both blood glucose concentration and body weight in Vietnamese women with impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thi Nhung; Le, Thi Hop; Nguyen, Do Huy; Tran, Quang Binh; Nguyen, Thi Lam; Le, Danh Tuyen; Nguyen, Do Van Anh; Vu, Anh Linh; Aoto, Hiromichi; Okuhara, Yasuhide; Ito, Yukihiko; Yamamoto, Shigeru; Kise, Mitsuo

    2014-01-01

    We have reported that newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients in Vietnam have a low body mass index (BMI) of around 23 and that the major factor for this is high white rice (WR) intake. Brown rice (BR) is known to be beneficial in the control of blood glucose levels; however, it has the property of unpleasant palatability. Pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) is slightly germinated by soaking BR in water as this reduces the hardness of BR and makes it easier to eat. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of a 4-mo PGBR administration on various parameters in Vietnamese women aged 45-65 y with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Sixty subjects were divided into a WR or PGBR group. For the first 2 wk, WR was replaced by 50% PGBR, then for 2 wk by 75% PGBR and from the second month 100%. Before the beginning of the study and at the end of the study, 1) anthropometric measurements, 2) a nutrition survey for 3 nonconsecutive days by the 24 h recall method and 3) blood biochemical examinations were conducted. Fasting plasma concentrations of glucose and lipids and the obesity-related measurements and blood pressure were favorably improved only in the PGBR diet group. The present results suggest that replacing WR with PGBR for 4 mo may be useful in controlling body weight as well as blood glucose and lipid levels in Vietnamese women with IGT.

  5. Input-output analysis of Vietnamese structural changes (1989-1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yul Kwon

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The pattern and sequencing of economic reform in transition economies have become a major issue of interest since the late 1980s. While Eastern Europe and especially the Soviet Union have experienced difficulties in their transition to a market-based economy, Vietnamese reform has proceeded relatively smoothly and resulted in significant improvement in economic performance and macroeconomic stabilization. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the distinctive features of the gradual reform process in Vietnam, and focused on the empirical study of the significant impacts of structural changes and their characteristics in its transition to a market-oriented economy. This paper then proceeds to a discussion of Vietnamese reform utilizing inter-industry analysis. In this analysis, a series of input-output tables are used, in which 25 sectors grouped into 9 major industries of 1989 and 1995 are classified. These input-output tables demonstrate how the output of each industry is distributed among industries and sectors of the economy. At the same time it shows the input to each industry from other industries and sectors. Derived and listed are the important coefficients and linkage effects for inter-industry relation analysis. The results of inter-industry analysis by using a series of input-output tables are as follows: 1 The ratio of domestic production in total supply of output declined due to increased imports; 2 The share of manufacturing production in domestic output and backward linkage effect to other sectors have declined in the open economy; 3 The agricultural sector has continued to play a greater role in overall production and exports than does the manufacturing sector. We find that the key to achieving sustained development in Vietnam will be the ability of the agriculture sector to yield sufficiently large agricultural surpluses on a consistent basis and then utilize such surpluses for productive investment in the underdeveloped

  6. Current Challenges in the Recruitment and Retention of Seafarers: An Industry Perspective from Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trong Thanh Nguyen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The shortage of seafarers (especially ship officers has already been identified as a global issue that is more likely to worsen in the immediate future. Thus, increasing attention needs to be given to the problems that hinder the effective recruitment and retention of seafarers in order to stabilize the flow of skilled labor to the global shipping industry. The aim of this paper is to discuss the seafarer shortage issue from the perspective of Vietnam which is one of the key emerging sources of crew supply in Asia. Specifically, a case study research involving the Vietnam Ocean Shipping Joint Stock Company (VOSCO is used to highlight the challenges confronting the current recruitment and retention of seafarers in Vietnam. With regards to recruitment, it was found that the low quality of graduates and trained seafarers, as well as the lack of competent onshore crew executives are pertinent issues that need to be addressed by shipping industry employers in Vietnam. In terms of retention, poor working and living conditions on-board ships is a key factor that must be given attention to improve retention among seafarers. This study recommends the development of effective human resource strategies for companies such as VOSCO and other shipping industry employers of Vietnamese seafarers in order to improve their recruitment and retention rates.

  7. VIETNAM: 'N BLOEDIGE LEERSKOOL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    30 Apr 1975 ... The Republic of South Vietnam collapsed in a heap of chaos, and brought to an end a war that spanned three decades. It was also the United. States of America's first major defeat. This article provides insight into the reasons for the defeat. Inleiding. Die onvoorwaardelike oorgawe van Suid-Viet- nam op 30 ...

  8. IDRC in Vietnam

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    , began offering Internet and e-mail. Netnam thrives to this day as a private company run by the original. IDRC-supported team. In the early 2000s, Vietnam's Fisheries. College No. 4 and Canada's College of the North Atlantic created the ...

  9. IDRC in Vietnam

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRCinternAtionAl DeveloPMent reSeArCh Centre. IDRC in Vietnam. IDRC support is helping: □ Disadvantaged groups, including women, access natural resources. □ Migrant women protect their rights. □ Small poultry producers reduce risk under new bird flu controls. □ Farmers find alternatives to growing tobacco.

  10. Rural Credit in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Mikkel Christoffer; Tarp, Finn

    This paper uses a survey of 932 rural households to uncover how the rural credit market operates in four provinces of Vietnam. Households obtain credit through formal and informal lenders, but formal loans are almost entirely for production and asset accumulation. Interest rates fell from 1997...

  11. Doing Business in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Klaus E.; Tran, Thi Thu Yen; Nguyen, Hung Vo

    2005-01-01

    Over the last thirty years, Vietnam evolved from `war after war' to an emerging economy with an attractive foreign investment policy and commitment to a liberalized economy. Although the GDP per capita is still considerably lower than in the Asian Tiger economies, and the institutional framework...

  12. Acculturation gaps in Vietnamese immigrant families: Impact on family relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Joyce; Birman, Dina

    2009-01-01

    Vietnamese immigrants in the United States face acculturation challenges involving the individual, family, and community. Experts suggest that immigrant family members acculturate at different rates resulting in an acculturation gap, which negatively influences family adjustment. In this study we examined the degree and patterns of acculturation differences between 104 first generation immigrant Vietnamese adolescents and their parents, and whether acculturation gap affected family relationships. Operationalizing the “gap” as both absolute value of differences in acculturation and interactions of parent and adolescent acculturation levels, we examined the impact of such gaps in Vietnamese and American language, identity, and behavioral acculturation on family relationships. Results revealed that family cohesion and satisfaction were predicted by gaps in Vietnamese identity acculturation, but not by gaps in other acculturation domains. PMID:20161537

  13. Occupational Adjustment of Refugees: The Vietnamese in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Barry N.

    1979-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed description of the pattern of occupational adjustment of the Vietnamese refugees to the United States and compares their experiences with other recent refugee and immigrant groups. (Author)

  14. Reproductive tract infections in women seeking abortion in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, My Huong; Kurtzhals, Jørgen; Do, Thi Thu Thuy

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Women requesting abortion are at increased risk of developing RTI complications. However, RTI control in many resource-poor countries including Vietnam have been faced with logistical and methodological problems due to lack of standardized definitions of RTIs, lack of well-validated d......BACKGROUND: Women requesting abortion are at increased risk of developing RTI complications. However, RTI control in many resource-poor countries including Vietnam have been faced with logistical and methodological problems due to lack of standardized definitions of RTIs, lack of well......-validated diagnostic criteria, lack of accurate laboratory tests, and lack of diagnostic equipment and skills. This article investigates the prevalence of RTIs among Vietnamese abortion-seeking women, to evaluate the available diagnostic techniques, and to assess antibiotic resistance among aetiological agents of RTI....... METHOD: The study was conducted in Phu-San hospital (PSH) from December 2003 through April 2004 among 748 abortion clients. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-economic and reproductive characteristics. Specimens were collected for laboratory analyses of chlamydia, gonorrhoea...

  15. Misrepresenting Atrocities: "Kill Anything that Moves" and the Continuing Distortions of the War in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Zinoman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nick Turse, Kill Anything that Moves: The Real American War in Vietnam. New York: Picador, 2013. 416 pp. $30 (cloth; $17 (paper; $10 (e-book. While recounting a punishing accumulation of atrocity stories, Kill Anything That Moves advances four relatively straightforward arguments. First, it asserts that this grim dimension of the Vietnam War was ignored at the time, has been neglected in the scholarship, and is today forgotten in popular memory. Second, it claims that American atrocities were pervasive in Vietnam, perpetrated on a massive scale by every military unit, in every theater of battle, during every period of the war. Third, it contends that the proliferation of atrocities and war crimes was largely caused by command policies devised at the highest levels of the U.S. military and government. And fourth, as its subtitle indicates, it suggests that the atrocious record of the U.S. military in Vietnam reveals both the “true nature of the war” (16 and the “true history of Vietnamese civilian suffering” (262 that it left in its wake. In addition to being untrue, these arguments point to the isolation of Turse’s approach from current trends in the historical study of military violence against civilians. For example, most recent work on military atrocities—such as John Horne and Alan Kramer’s magisterial German Atrocities, 1914: A History of Denial (2001—insist that primary and secondary sources on the topic must be treated with special care since they are notoriously vulnerable to politicization and distortion. Turse’s misleading estimate of the size and significance of the existing literature on Vietnam War atrocities flies in the face of this advice. As we will show, academics, lawyers, journalists, activists, and creative artists have been agonizing over American atrocities and war crimes in Vietnam for almost fifty years...

  16. Systematic review on irrational use of medicines in China and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wenhui; Vu, Huyen; Xie, Zening; Chen, Wen; Tang, Shenglan

    2015-01-01

    Irrational use of medicines has been an issue concerned all over the world and the outlooks in developing countries are more severe. This study aimed to assess the different patterns of irrational use of medicines and its influential factors in China and Vietnam. A systematic review was performed on both published and grey literatures in English, Chinese and Vietnamese languages between 1993 and 2013 based on the WHO framework. Quality assessment was conducted on the basis of the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme. Key indicators were analyzed to compare the irrational use of medicines in two countries. A total of 67 published works about China and 29 about Vietnam were included, the majority of which were cross-sectional prescription studies in both China and Vietnam. Irrational use of medicines was found in both the countries but issues with polypharmacy as well as overuse of antibiotics were more severe in Vietnam while overuse of injections was unique to China. Various patterns of irrational use were also indicated between urban and rural areas, and among different levels of hospitals. Rarely does literature focus on the analysis of influential factors of irrational use of medicines. While lack of proper knowledge from both providers and patients were the most recognized influential factors in both countries, economic incentives from pharmaceutical companies in China, and weak control and regulation over prescriptions in Vietnam were the main factors attributed to this issue. Severe irrational use of medicines has been abundantly evidenced in both China and Vietnam, highlighting the importance of policy interventions on the issue. However, limited evidence on the appropriateness or its compliance (conformity) to guidelines of prescription has been found. In addition, convincing evidence on the underlying explanation of this issue is lacking, although economic incentives, health insurance coverage, and knowledge of service providers and users have been implied

  17. Systematic review on irrational use of medicines in China and Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhui Mao

    Full Text Available Irrational use of medicines has been an issue concerned all over the world and the outlooks in developing countries are more severe. This study aimed to assess the different patterns of irrational use of medicines and its influential factors in China and Vietnam.A systematic review was performed on both published and grey literatures in English, Chinese and Vietnamese languages between 1993 and 2013 based on the WHO framework. Quality assessment was conducted on the basis of the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme. Key indicators were analyzed to compare the irrational use of medicines in two countries.A total of 67 published works about China and 29 about Vietnam were included, the majority of which were cross-sectional prescription studies in both China and Vietnam. Irrational use of medicines was found in both the countries but issues with polypharmacy as well as overuse of antibiotics were more severe in Vietnam while overuse of injections was unique to China. Various patterns of irrational use were also indicated between urban and rural areas, and among different levels of hospitals. Rarely does literature focus on the analysis of influential factors of irrational use of medicines. While lack of proper knowledge from both providers and patients were the most recognized influential factors in both countries, economic incentives from pharmaceutical companies in China, and weak control and regulation over prescriptions in Vietnam were the main factors attributed to this issue.Severe irrational use of medicines has been abundantly evidenced in both China and Vietnam, highlighting the importance of policy interventions on the issue. However, limited evidence on the appropriateness or its compliance (conformity to guidelines of prescription has been found. In addition, convincing evidence on the underlying explanation of this issue is lacking, although economic incentives, health insurance coverage, and knowledge of service providers and users

  18. Gender gaps, gender traps: sexual identity and vulnerability to sexually transmitted diseases among women in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Vivian Fei-ling; Quan, Vu Minh; Chung, A; Zenilman, Jonathan; Hanh, Vu Thi Minh; Celentano, David

    2002-08-01

    We conducted a qualitative study to explore the pathways by which traditional gender roles may ultimately affect Vietnamese women's interpretation of sexually transmitted disease (STD) symptoms and health-seeking strategies. Data on gender roles, perceptions of types of sexual relationships, perceptions of persons with STDs, and STD patient experiences were gathered through in-depth interviews and focus groups with 18 men and 18 women in the general population of northern Vietnam. A framework integrating Andersen's behavioral model of health services use and Zurayk's multi-layered model was used to conceptualize women's health-seeking behavior for STD symptoms. Both men and women noted clear gender differences in sexual roles and expectations. According to participants, a woman's primary roles in northern Vietnam are socially constructed as that of a wife and mother-and in these roles, she is expected to behave in a faithful and obedient manner vis à vis her husband. It emerged that men's marital and sexual roles are less clearly defined by traditional norms and are more permissive in their tolerance of premarital and extramarital sex. For women, however, these activities are socially condemned. Finally, since STDs are associated with sexual promiscuity, both men and women expressed anxiety about telling their partners about an STD; women's expressions were characterized more by fear of social and physical consequences, whereas men expressed embarrassment. Community level interventions that work towards disassociating STDs from traditional social norms may enable Vietnamese women to report possible STD symptoms and promote diagnosis and care for STDs.

  19. Male homosexual identities, relationships, and practices among young men who have sex with men in Vietnam: implications for HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Duc Anh; Ross, Michael W; Phan, Ha; Ratliff, Eric A; Trinh, Thang; Sherburne, Lisa

    2009-06-01

    Rapid socioeconomic transformation in Vietnam in last 15 years has been followed by more liberation of sexual expression and representation of sexual identity among young people. There has been an increase in the visibility of homosexual men in major cities of Vietnam who were largely an unknown population until the emergence of the HIV epidemic. Men who have sex with men (MSM) are now considered as one of the target groups in many HIV prevention programs. This qualitative study examines local identities, relationships, and sexual practices among young MSM aged 15-24 in the cities of Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. Our analyses were based on 26 in-depth interviews and 10 focus group discussions with young MSM recruited through public place intercepts and cruising areas. Data document the linguistic classification, sexual relationships and behaviors, identity and process of homosexual identification, and the potential linkage between sexual identity and sexual behaviors of MSM in Vietnam. Data also highlight the stages of homosexual community development in urban Vietnam and important differences between Vietnam and the West in the representation of homosexual identity, relationships, and practices. In light of the findings, we suggest that the continuing development and elaboration of a homosexual community in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City offers significant opportunities for targeted HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the Vietnamese MSM population.

  20. National prevalence and associated risk factors of hypertension and prehypertension among Vietnamese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Ha T P; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Le, Mai B; Kok, Frans J; Feskens, Edith J M

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension has recently been identified as the leading risk factor for global mortality. This study aims to present the national prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension and, their determinants in Vietnamese adults. Nationally representative data were obtained from the National Adult Overweight Survey 2005. This one visit survey included 17,199 subjects aged 25-64 years, with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 20.7 kg/m(2). The overall census-weighted JNC7 (the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure) defined prevalence of hypertension was 20.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 19.4-22.1); the prevalence of prehypertension was 41.8% (95% CI = 40.4-43.1). Hypertension and prehypertension were more prevalent in men. Higher age, overweight, alcohol use (among men), and living in rural areas (among women) were independently associated with a higher prevalence of hypertension, whereas higher physical activity and education level were inversely associated. Age, BMI, and living in rural areas were independently associated with an increased prevalence of prehypertension. Among the hypertensives, 25.9% were aware of their hypertension, 12.2% were being treated, and 2.8% had their blood pressure under control; among the treated hypertensives, 32.4% had their blood pressure controlled. Hypertension and prehypertension are prevalent in Vietnam, but awareness, treatment, and control are low. The findings suggest that lifestyle modifications, including the prevention of overweight, the promotion of physical activity particularly in urban areas, and the reduction of high alcohol consumption, may help to prevent hypertension in Vietnam. Furthermore, increased efforts regarding education, detection, and treatment could be important in management of hypertension and cardiovascular disease risk prevention. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please

  1. 'Hu Hong' (bad thing): parental perceptions of teenagers' sexuality in urban Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Lan Anh Thi; Boonmongkon, Pimpawun; Paek, Seung Chun; Guadamuz, Thomas E

    2017-02-28

    Teenagers under 18 years old in Vietnam are considered as minors who usually lack the autonomy to make decisions. They are also sometimes viewed as contributors to social evils including crime, violence and substance use. Moreover, most Vietnamese teenagers have unsafe sex before marriage. The objective of this study is to explore the parental perceptions relating to their teenagers' sexuality, particularly the social and cultural forces, that may hinder access to sexuality information. Guided by a Community Advisory Board (CAB), this qualitative study uses four focus group discussions (FGDs) consisting of 12 mothers and 12 fathers, as well as twelve individual in-depth interviews (IDIs) with a diverse sample of parents of teens in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. Content and discourse analysis were conducted, based on Foucauldian concepts. Four themes emerged: 1) Meanings of sexuality and sexuality education, 2) Early sexual intercourse destroys teenagers' future, 3) Teenagers are not hu hong (spoil/bad thing), are innocent and virgin, and 4) Policing and controlling of sexual intercourse among teens. Parents did not view their teenage children as sexual beings; those who are sexual are considered hu hong. Parents believed that teens need to be policed and controlled to prevent them from becoming hu hong, particularly girls. Controlling of sexuality information by parents was therefore common in HCMC, but differed by gender and educational levels of parents. For example, fathers more than mothers were not comfortable teaching their teenage children about sex and sexuality. Parents with higher education police their teenage children's usage of the Internet and social media, while parents with lower education control who can be friends with their teenage children. Vietnamese parents in general have negative views of sex and sexuality education for their teenage children. Recognizing that many Vietnamese teenagers have unsafe sex before marriage, parents need to

  2. Health economics of rotavirus immunization in Vietnam: potentials for favorable cost-effectiveness in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Hong-Anh T; Rozenbaum, Mark H; Coyte, Peter C; Li, Shu Chuen; Woerdenbag, Herman J; Postma, Maarten J

    2012-02-14

    Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhoea worldwide. Vietnam is situated in the region of high rotavirus infection incidence and eligible for financial support to introduce rotavirus vaccines into the Expanded Program of Immunization (EPI) from the GAVI. This study was designed to assess the cost-effectiveness of rotavirus immunization in Vietnam, explicitly the use of Rotateq(®) and to assess the affordability of implementing universal rotavirus immunization based on GAVI-subsidized vaccine price in the context of Vietnamese healthcare system for the next 5 years. An age-structured cohort model was developed for the 2009 birth cohort in Vietnam. Two strategies were compared: one being the current situation without vaccination, and the other being mass universal rotavirus vaccination. The time horizon of the model was 5 years with time cycles of 1 month for children less than 1 year of age and annual analysis thereafter. Outcomes included mild, moderate, severe cases and death. Multiple outcomes per rotavirus infection are possible in the model. Monte Carlo simulations were used to examine the acceptability and affordability of the rotavirus vaccination. All costs were expressed in 2009 US$. Rotavirus vaccination would not completely protect young children against rotavirus infection due to partial nature of vaccine immunity, however, would effectively reduce severe cases of rotavirus by roughly 55% during the first 5 years of life. Under GAVI-subsidized vaccine price (US$ 0.3/dose), the vaccine cost would amount to US$ 5.5 million per annum for 3-dose of the Rotateq(®) vaccine. In the base-case, the incremental cost per quality-adjusted-life-year (QALY) was US$ 665 from the health system perspective, much lower than per-capita GDP of ∼US$ 1150 in 2009. Affordability results showed that at the GAVI-subsidized vaccine price, rotavirus vaccination could be affordable for Vietnamese health system. Rotavirus vaccination in Vietnam would be a cost

  3. Knowledge and beliefs about HPV among college students in Vietnam and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Akiko; Trinh, Ha N; Weaver, Shannon; Chernenko, Alla; Wright, Lindsey; Stoddard, Mary; Nourian, Maziar M; Nguyen, Hanh

    2017-06-28

    Any sexually active person has the possibility of contracting the human papillomavirus (HPV) sometime in their lifetime. HPV vaccines are effective in preventing HPV if obtained prior to viral exposure. Research on knowledge and beliefs of HPV and HPV vaccination among college students in Vietnam is significantly scarce. The purpose of this study is to examine the knowledge and beliefs about HPV among college students in Vietnam compared to college students in the US. This cross-cultural comparison will fill a void in current research on this subject. Over 900 college students (N=932: n=495 in Vietnam and n=437 in the US) participated in a self-administered survey on the knowledge and beliefs about HPV in September and October 2016. Vietnamese participants reported lower levels of knowledge and experiences with the HPV virus and vaccines (p<0.01). Additionally, Vietnamese participants also exhibited more barriers in obtaining the vaccination, as well as, HPV risk denial (p<0.01). The level of knowledge is an important predictor of barriers (p<0.01; ηp(2)=0.022) and risk denial (p<0.01; ηp(2)=0.116). On average, both Vietnamese and US participants could correctly answer less than half of the survey questions regarding HPV knowledge. Additionally, provider recommendations are potentially more important than informal connections (e.g. friends, family) to reduce barriers to HPV vaccination (p<0.01; ηp(2)=0.035) and denial of HPV risks (p<0.05; ηp(2)=0.008). The increase of knowledge about HPV prevention, including and vaccination, has the potential to be improved through provider interventions. Vietnam could take action toward promoting HPV vaccinations not only at an individual level but also at a national or local level. Further research may examine the effects of a lack of knowledge on HPV-related health outcomes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Molecular characterization of serotype A foot-and-mouth disease viruses circulating in Vietnam in 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Van Phan; Nguyen, Tung; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; Ko, Young-Joon; Lee, Hyang-Sim; Nguyen, Van Cam; Mai, Thuy Duong; Do, Thi Hoa; Kim, Su-Mi; Cho, In-Soo; Park, Jong-Hyeon

    2010-07-29

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a major cause of endemic outbreaks in Vietnam in recent years. In this work, six serotype A foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDV), collected from endemic outbreaks during January and February of 2009 in four different provinces in Vietnam, were genetically characterized for their complete genome sequences. Genetic analysis based on the complete viral genome sequence indicated that they were closely related to each other and shared 99.0-99.8% amino acid (aa) identity. Genetic and deduced aa analysis of the capsid coding gene VP1 showed that the six Vietnamese strains were all classified into the genotype IX from a total of 10 major genotypes worldwide, sharing 98.1-100% aa identity each other. They were most closely related to the type A strains recently isolated in Laos (A/LAO/36/2003, A/LAO/1/2006, A/LAO/6/2006, A/LAO/7/2006, and A/LAO/8/2006), Thailand (A/TAI/2/1997 and A/TAI/118/1987), and Malaysia (A/MAY/2/2002), sharing 88.3-95.5% nucleotide (nt) identities. In contrast, Vietnamese type A strains showed low nt identities with the two old type A FMDVs, isolated in 1960 in Thailand (a15thailand iso43) and in 1975 in the Philippines (aphilippines iso50), ranging from 77.3 to 80.9% nt identity. A multiple alignment based on the deduced amino acid sequences of the capsid VP1 coding gene of type A FMDV revealed three amino acid substitutions between Vietnamese strains and the strains of other Southeast Asian countries (Laos, Thailand, Malaysia, and the Philippines). Alanine was replaced by valine at residue 24, asparagine by arginine at residue 85, and serine by threonine at residue 196. Furthermore, type A FMDV strains recently isolated in Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, and Malaysia all have one amino acid deletion at residue 140 of the capsid VP1 protein compared with the two old type A FMDV strains from Thailand and the Philippines as well as most other type A representatives worldwide. This article is the first to report on the

  5. Caretaker mental health and family environment factors are associated with adolescent psychiatric problems in a Vietnamese sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Kelcey Jane; Edwards, Alexis Christine; Overstreet, Cassie; Richardson, Lisa; Tran, Trinh Luong; Trung, Lam Tu; Tam, Nguyen Thanh; Tuan, Tran; Buoi, La Thi; Ha, Tran Thu; Thach, Tran Duc; Amstadter, Ananda Beth

    2014-12-15

    Little is known about risk factors for adolescent mental health in Vietnam. The present study investigated the relationship between caretaker mental health and adolescent mental health in a cross-sectional Vietnamese sample. Primary caretakers completed measures of their own mental distress and general health status using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20) as well as reports of adolescent mental health using the parent version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Multivariate regression models were used to examine the relationships between the caretaker and adolescent health variables. The demographic factors of age, sex, ethnicity, religious affiliation, and household wealth status demonstrated significant relationships with SDQ subscale scores. Caretaker mental health was positively associated with adolescent mental health, and this association remained significant even after accounting for other relevant demographic variables and caretaker general health status. Understanding correlates of adolescent mental health difficulties may help identify youth and families at risk for developing psychiatric problems and inform mental health interventions in Vietnam. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. The Vietnam War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godbolt, James; Larsen, Chris Holmsted; Rasmussen, Søren Hein

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the role of the Vietnam War in Danish and Norwegian politics. We argue that Danish and Norwegian membership in NATO and an unstable parliamentary situation may explain why these countries, unlike Sweden, did not take on the lead in the international protest against the war...... in Denmark, Sweden and Norway, and in all three countries powerful protest movements emerged that were remarkably similar. The Vietnam War strengthened the left in general and promoted a leftist politics of solidarity that influenced Swedish, Danish and Norwegian foreign policy-making of the 1970s........ Non-socialistic coalitions came to power in Norway and Denmark in the latter half of the 1960s which to an extent explains why the social democratic parties in both countries became more critical of the US. By the end of the 1960s, foreign policy as well as public attitudes towards the war converged...

  7. Climate Change and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    projects (the majority of them in South and South East Asia); focusing in Vietnam on climate change planning and carbon sequestration markets . 33...enhancement for dairy cattle. 21 In the parallel line of effort, MNRE’s priorities for adaptation programs are agriculture, forestry, coastal zone management...Climate change assistance,” AusAID, 13 June 2013, accessed 15 October 2013, http://www.ausaid.gov.au. 33 IFAD, “ Planning for Climate Change in

  8. Teaching in Vietnam

    CERN Multimedia

    Vitale,B

    1974-01-01

    Monsieur B.Vitale porte depuis plusieurs années un grand interêt aux questions d'enseignement dans les pays du tiers monde et a recemment eu l'occasion de faire un séjour dans la république démocratique du Vietnam. Il va nous faire part de ses impressions dans le domaine de l'enseignement, qu'il a vu, entrevu et essayé de comprendre

  9. DINAMIKA PERDAGANGAN BERAS VIETNAM

    OpenAIRE

    Nugroho, Agus Dwi; Jamhari, Jamhari; Mulyo, Jangkung Handoyo

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study is to analyze the performance of export-import, competitiveness and the factors affecting export-import of Vietnam rice. Type of data used is secondary data of 1980-2009. To determine the fluctuation of export-import trade were applied trend and trade specialization ratio. To find out the analysis of competitiveness were run revealed comparative advantage (RCA) and acceleration ratio (AR). To investigate the factors affecting the export and import used error correction ...

  10. Governance conditions for adaptive freshwater management in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, T. P.; Dieperink, Carel; Dang Tri, Van Pham; Otter, Henriëtte S.; Hoekstra, Piet

    2018-02-01

    The Vietnamese Mekong Delta (VMD) is a region of utmost importance to Vietnam's national food security. However, the availability of required freshwater resources (from both surface and groundwater sources) is currently under great threats due to dry season salinity intrusion, surface water pollution, and over-exploitation of groundwater. Global climate change, sea level rise, and upstream and in situ development activities may worsen the situation. Assuming that adaptive management could be a promising strategy to address the increasingly complex and unpredictable water-related problems in the VMD, we design and apply a framework to identify the extent to which the governance regime in this region exhibits conditions that are likely to promote adaptive freshwater management. Using both primary and secondary data, our analysis reveals that the prospects for adaptive water management in the study area are limited since several conditions were not present. We observe among others limitations in vertical and horizontal integration and public participation, restraints in knowledge and information sharing, inadequate policy development and implementation, and insufficient diversification of financial resources. Following our findings, we conclude the paper with recommendations both for national, regional and local policy interventions and for future research.

  11. The Vietnamese State and Administrative Co-Management of Nature Reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen KimDung

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Vietnamese government has introduced co-management in its national system of special-use forests (SUFs to improve the effectiveness of nature and biodiversity conservation. One of the major challenges is to allow flexibility and local adaptability of co-management coordinated by SUF management boards within the overall still-rigid structure of vertical state networks. Using a critical institutional perspective, this paper examines the influence of the vertical and horizontal linkages that underline the form and function of SUF co-management. Data is presented from a nation-wide survey of 113 SUFs, 22 random in-depth interviews, and four in-depth case studies of SUFs. The results show that the success of co-management in centralized states like Vietnam depends on the greater devolution of allocative power from central to district governments to facilitate horizontal networked collaboration with local communities. Yet the results also indicate that the central state maintains an important role in setting the conditions that allow for the success of these networked collaborations. Based on these findings the conclusions reflect on the need to further develop a critical institutional approach for understanding the purpose, interests, and resources of co-management in the context of centralized states.

  12. A Study on Astrazon Black AFDL Dye Adsorption onto Vietnamese Diatomite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bui Hai Dang Son

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the adsorption of Astrazon Black AFDL dye onto Vietnamese diatomite has been demonstrated. The diatomite was characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, EDS, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms. The results show that diatomite mainly constituted centric type frustules characterized by pores as discs or as cylindrical shapes. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms of dye onto Vietnam diatomite were investigated. The experimental data were fitted well to both Freundlich and Langmuir in the initial concentration range of 400–1400 mg L−1. The average value of maximum adsorption capacity, qm, calculated from Freundlich equation is statistically similar to the average value of maximum monolayer adsorption capacity calculated from Langmuir equation. The thermodynamic parameters evaluated from the temperature dependent on adsorption isotherms in the range of 303–343 K show that the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic. The Webber and pseudo-first/second-order kinetic models were used to analyze the mechanism of adsorption. The piecewise linear regression and Akaike’s Information Criterion were used to analyze experimental data. The results show that the dye adsorption onto diatomite was film diffusion controlled and the goodness of fit of experimental data for kinetics modes was dependent on the initial concentration.

  13. Interaction between Expatriates and Local Vietnamese Managers of MNCs in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull; Dao Thi Thanh, Lam

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the chapter is to present and discuss empirical data on the collaboration of expatriates and local managers: What do they learn from each other and how do they develop a common culture.......The aim of the chapter is to present and discuss empirical data on the collaboration of expatriates and local managers: What do they learn from each other and how do they develop a common culture....

  14. Vietnamese Victims of Agent Orange and U.S.-Vietnam Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-28

    children of exposed female veterans: • Achonodroplasia • Cleft lip and cleft palate • Congenital heart disease • Congenital talipes equinovarus...been postulated that the U.S. military interventions in Afghanistan and Iraq have undermined its global image, and that to restore its image, the

  15. Preparing Vietnamese student teachers for teaching with a student-centered approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.T.; Dekker, R.; Goedhart, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    The Vietnamese curriculum reform which trends toward a student-centered approach requires Vietnamese teacher educators to prepare student teachers for teaching using this approach. In this article, we present a case study of three Vietnamese student teachers working in groups in a methods course to

  16. The Lessons of the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Jerold M., Ed.

    This text book on the Vietnam War is to be used in teaching high students. Each of the volume's 12 chapters is a self-contained unit on an aspect of the War. The chapters are: (1) Introduction to Vietnam: land, history, and culture; (2) America at war in Vietnam: decisions and consequences; (3) Was the Vietnam War legal? (4) who fought for the…

  17. Survival of Salmonella spp. and fecal indicator bacteria in Vietnamese biogas digesters receiving pig slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Luu Quynh; Forslund, Anita; Madsen, Henry; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2014-09-01

    Small-scale biogas digesters are widely promoted worldwide as a sustainable technology to manage livestock manure. In Vietnam, pig slurry is commonly applied to biogas digesters for production of gas for electricity and cooking with the effluent being used to fertilize field crops, vegetables and fish ponds. Slurry may contain a variety of zoonotic pathogens, e.g. Salmonella spp., which are able to cause disease in humans either through direct contact with slurry or by fecal contamination of water and foods. The objective of this study was to evaluate the survival of Salmonella spp. and the fecal indicator bacteria, enterococci, E. coli, and spores of Clostridium perfringens in biogas digesters operated by small-scale Vietnamese pig farmers. The serovar and antimicrobial susceptibility of the Salmonella spp. isolated were also established. The study was conducted in 12 farms (6 farms with and 6 farms without toilet connected) located in Hanam province, Vietnam. Sampling of pig slurry and biogas effluent was done during two seasons. Results showed that the concentration of enterococci, E. coli, and Clostridium perfringens spores was overall reduced by only 1-2 log10-units in the biogas digesters when comparing raw slurry and biogas effluent. Salmonella spp. was found in both raw slurry and biogas effluent. A total of 19 Salmonella serovars were identified, with the main serovars being Salmonella Typhimurium (55/138), Salmonella enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- (19/138), Salmonella Weltevreden (9/138) and Salmonella Rissen (9/138). The Salmonella serovars showed similar antimicrobial resistance patterns to those previously reported from Vietnam. When promoting biogas, farmers should be made aware that effluent should only be used as fertilizer for crops not consumed raw and that indiscriminate discharge of effluent are likely to contaminate water recipients, e.g. drinking water sources, with pathogens. Relevant authorities should promote safe animal manure management

  18. Developing School Psychology in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Phuong; Hagans, Kristi; Powers, Kristin; Hass, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Like China, Vietnam is a communist country with increasingly capitalist economic policies. A fundamental change occurred in these policies with the enactment of Vietnam's "doi moi" (renovation) policy in 1986 that called for a "free market with socialist orientations." However, this economic modernization has inadvertently…

  19. Study of the correlations between fractional exhaled nitric oxide in exhaled breath and atopic status, blood eosinophils, FCER2 mutation, and asthma control in Vietnamese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen-Thi-Bich H

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hanh Nguyen-Thi-Bich,1 Huong Duong-Thi-Ly,2 Vu Thi Thom,2 Nhung Pham-Thi-Hong,2 Long Doan Dinh,2 Huong Le-Thi-Minh,1 Timothy John Craig,3 Sy Duong-Quy3,4 1Department of Immunology, Allergology, and Rheumatology, National Hospital of Pediatrics, Hanoi, Vietnam; 2School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Vietnam National University Hanoi, Vietnam; 3Department of Medicine, Penn State University, Hershey, PA, USA; 4Department of Respiratory Diseases, Lam Dong Medical College, Dalat, Vietnam Introduction: Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO is a biomarker of airway inflammation in asthma. The measurement of FENO is utilized to assist in the diagnosis and treatment of children with asthma, especially for those treated with inhaled corticosteroids. Objectives: The aims of this study were to evaluate the correlations between FENO and atopic status, blood eosinophil levels, FCER2 mutation, and asthma control in Vietnamese children. Subjects and methods: This was a prospective and descriptive study approved by the local Ethical Board. All children with uncontrolled asthma, seen in the National Hospital of Pediatrics (Hanoi, Vietnam, were included. Exhaled breath FENO, blood eosinophils, skin prick test, total IgE, asthma control test (ACT, and FCER2 gene polymorphism were performed at inclusion. They were followed up at 3 months to evaluate clinical status, FENO levels, and ACT. Results: Forty-two children with uncontrolled asthma with a mean age of 10±3 years (6–16 years were included. The male/female ratio was 2.5/1. The mean FENO levels were 26±25 ppb. FENO was significantly higher in patients with a positive skin prick test for respiratory allergens (P<0.05. FENO was significantly correlated with blood eosinophil levels (r=0.5217; P=0.0004. Five of the 32 subjects (15.6% had a mutation of FCER2 gene (rs28364072 SNP. In this group, the levels of FENO were highest (37±10 ppb; P<0.05. The levels of FENO were significantly decreased after 3 months of

  20. Historical droughts in northern Vietnam captured by variability in speleothem δ18O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardt, B. F.; McGee, D.; Burns, S. J.; Hieu, N.; Hieu, D. T.

    2015-12-01

    Speleothem records overlapping with the historical period offer valuable comparisons of documentary evidence with speleothem proxy data. These records provide opportunities to 'ground-truth' the paleo-record, fill in gaps in the historical record, and more confidently extent the paleo-record into deeper time. Here we present isotopic results from a stalagmite collected in northern Vietnam spanning 1200 to 1950 CE, a period with a rich historical record in Vietnam. This sample adds significantly to the relatively sparse paleoclimate record from Southeast Asia. The record includes several multi-decadal positive excursions of ≥1 per mille in calcite δ18O. A preliminary age model, based on six U/Th ages, suggests possible correspondence to noted droughts from the historical record, including the Angkor Droughts, the Ming Dynasty Drought, the Strange Parallels Drought, and the Victorian Holocaust Drought. As modeling studies indicate a strong correlation between rainfall δ18O and both the intensity of summer monsoon winds and summer rainfall over northern Vietnam (e.g., Liu et al., 2014), these excursions are consistent with a decrease in regional precipitation. The Vietnam record shows an overall negative trend during the Little Ice Age. The study site is located well south of the westerly wind belt, ruling out a shift between monsoonal and mid-latitude circulation systems as a likely explanation for the northern Vietnam record. We explore the correspondence between our record and other proxy data from Southeast Asia and suggest possible implications of the differences between Vietnamese and Chinese speleothem records during the Little Ice Age. References cited: Liu Z., Wen X., Brady E. C., Otto-Bliesner B., Yu G., Lu H., Cheng H., Wang Y., Zheng W., Ding Y., Edwards R. L., Cheng J., Liu W. and Yang H. (2014) Chinese cave records and the East Asia Summer Monsoon. Quaternary Science Reviews 83, 115-128.

  1. A LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT PROFILE OF A VIETNAMESE LEARNER OF ENGLISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohani Rohani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a case study to a Vietnamese English learner. The main objective of the study was to describe how the English of a Vietnamese student developed. Interviews were conducted in order to collect the data. The interviews were tape recorded. The recorded data provided information about the learner’s background. Additionally the data served as a sample of the learner’s spoken English. The analysis of the sample revealed that the learner made several grammatical, syntactical, and phonological errors. With a contrastive analysis theory it could be concluded that one of the factors that might have triggered the errors were the difference between English and Vietnamese language. From a personality point of view, the subject of the study showed several positive personalities that supported the development of his English as a second language.

  2. Vietnamese Attitudes and Behavioural Patterns towards Counterfeit Brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giang Huynh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines Vietnamese female consumers’ attitudes towards counterfeit branded products; by investigating the influence of brand image, product involvement and price advantage towards decision-making processes associated with purchasing and ownership. An inductive anti-positivist approach was adopted, employing qualitative methods; drawing from in-depth interviews distilled and synthesized using Word Cloud software, as Geographic Information System (GIS based Spatial Analyses. Findings suggest that Price Advantage plays a determining and predominant role in encouraging consumers’ purchase intention of a counterfeit product. In addition, Brand Image has positive effect on the purchase intention as well; while product involvement plays no significant role in the process. Further observations point to there being paucity of literature that focuses on Vietnamese and ASEAN markets. With this is mind, a new conceptual framework was developed to reflect the nuances of the Vietnamese consumer experience; which it is suggested will be of value to scholars, practitioners and further studies.

  3. Direct and indirect costs of smoking in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang Anh, Pham Thi; Thu, Le Thi; Ross, Hana; Quynh Anh, Nguyen; Linh, Bui Ngoc; Minh, Nguyen Thac

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the direct and indirect costs of active smoking in Vietnam. A prevalence-based disease-specific cost of illness approach was utilised to calculate the costs related to five smoking-related diseases: lung cancer, cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ischaemic heart disease and stroke. Data on healthcare came from an original survey, hospital records and official government statistics. Morbidity and mortality due to smoking combined with the average per capita income were used to calculate the indirect costs of smoking by applying the human capital approach. The smoking-attributable fraction was calculated using the adjusted relative risk values from phase II of the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study (CPS-II). Costs were classified as personal, governmental and health insurance costs. The total economic cost of smoking in 2011 was estimated at 24 679.9 billion Vietnamese dong (VND), equivalent to US$1173.2 million or approximately 0.97% of the 2011 gross domestic product. The direct costs of inpatient and outpatient care reached 9896.2 billion VND (US$470.4 million) and 2567.2 billion VND (US$122.0 million), respectively. The government's contribution to these costs was 4534.3 billion VND (US$215.5 million), which was equivalent to 5.76% of its 2011 healthcare budget. The indirect costs (productivity loss) due to morbidity and mortality were 2652.9 billion VND (US$126.1 million) and 9563.5 billion VND (US$454.6 million), respectively. These indirect costs represent about 49.5% of the total costs of smoking. Tobacco consumption has large negative consequences on the Vietnamese economy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Moral Education or Political Education in the Vietnamese Educational System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Dung Hue

    2005-01-01

    Vietnam has experienced the influences of different social standards and values of Confucianism, Communism and several major religions, such as Buddhism and Catholicism, and has also undergone tremendous social change in recent decades. Consequently, moral education in present-day Vietnam takes various forms and definitions. Nowadays, moral…

  5. National Unity and Ethnic Identity in a Vietnamese University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Linh T.; Walter, Pierre G.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the ways in which Vietnam's educational policies for ethnic minorities are enacted in the bachelor of arts (BA) program in ethnic minority cultures (EMC) at the Hanoi University of Culture (HUC). Hanoi University of Culture is one of only two universities in Vietnam that offer this program. Although the BA is…

  6. Learners' Motivation and Identity in the Vietnamese EFL Writing Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ly Thi

    2007-01-01

    The study reported in this paper explores issues of motivation and learners' identity in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) writing classroom in Vietnam from the perspectives of the learners. It was conducted with thirty English-major students at a university in central Vietnam. While relevant literature appears to place much emphasis on…

  7. Genetic analysis of 55 northern Vietnamese patients with Wilson ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-12-19

    Dec 19, 2017 ... Center for Gene-Protein Research, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam; Department of Biochemistry, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam; Clinical Genetics Unit, Department of Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, 17176 Stockholm, Sweden ...

  8. Tobacco control in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, D T; Kosik, R O; Mandell, G A; Chen, Y A; Su, T P; Chiu, A W; Fan, A P

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the use of tobacco in Vietnam. Review study. Data were collected through a review of tobacco-related literature in Vietnam. Grey literature and web content from agencies such as the World Health Organization and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were consulted. Tobacco smoking is still common in Vietnam, although numerous policies have been issued and implemented over the last two decades. Based on the most recent data (2010), the prevalence of smoking among adults aged >15 years was 23.8%, with a higher percentage among males (47.4%) than females (1.4%). The prevalence of smoking among students aged 13-15 was 3.8% (2007), with a similar gender pattern. The prevalence of exposure to secondhand smoke is of concern, with 73.1% and 55.9% of adults reporting exposure to secondhand smoke at home and at work or other places, respectively. Of the adult respondents, 55.5% believed that smoking may cause lung cancer, stroke and heart disease. Most students (93.4%) and adults (91.6%) had seen anti-smoking media messages. Of the students, 56.4% had seen pro-cigarette advertisements on billboards, 36.9% had seen pro-cigarette advertisements in newspapers or magazines, and 8.2% had been offered free cigarettes by tobacco company representatives. The price of cigarettes decreased by approximately 5% between 1995 and 2006, whereas gross domestic product per capita increased by more than 150%. On average, smokers smoked 13.5 cigarettes per day, and spent US$86 on cigarettes per year. Despite such high levels of tobacco exposure in Vietnam, the total tax on cigarettes remains at 45% of the retail price. Furthermore, only 29.7% of smokers had been advised to quit by a healthcare provider in the past 12 months. Strong enforcement and evidence-based regulations which rounded on MPOWER are needed to help protect current smokers and non-smokers from the devastating effects of tobacco. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by

  9. Business Plan for a Vietnamese Restaurant & Coffee Shop in Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Pham Do, Thien Huong

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the thesis was to invent a practical business plan for setting up a combination of a Vietnamese Restaurant and Coffee Shop which is located in the capital city of Finland – Helsinki and in a very central area of the Antilla Shopping Mall. The main purpose of this study is to determine whether a very unique Vietnamese restaurant is viable to function without any coordination with other Asian cuisines such as Chinese, Thai, etc… This thesis also clarifies the constructive oppor...

  10. VnCoreNLP: A Vietnamese Natural Language Processing Toolkit

    OpenAIRE

    Vu, Thanh; Nguyen, Dat Quoc; Nguyen, Dai Quoc; Dras, Mark; Johnson, Mark

    2018-01-01

    We present an easy-to-use and fast toolkit, namely VnCoreNLP---a Java NLP annotation pipeline for Vietnamese. Our VnCoreNLP supports key natural language processing (NLP) tasks including word segmentation, part-of-speech (POS) tagging, named entity recognition (NER) and dependency parsing, and obtains state-of-the-art (SOTA) results for these tasks. We release VnCoreNLP to provide rich linguistic annotations to facilitate research work on Vietnamese NLP. Our VnCoreNLP is open-source under GPL...

  11. The Russian Chursh Abroad and Vietnam war according to emigre ecclesiastical periodicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anashkin Dmitrii

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Soon after the end of World War II, there arose in the world two opposing systems, between which there began an intense conflict. One manifestation of this confl ict was the outbreak of local wars in different parts of the world. The most violent was certainly the war in Vietnam. For the Russian Church Abroad, which comprised the most conservative elements of the Russian emigration, the war in Vietnam was a war with the evil power of this world: communism. In this war the United States protected not only its own interests but also those of the entire free world against the God-fighters who had seized their homeland, Russia. It was precisely communism that the Russian Church Abroad opposed, not the Vietnamese people, towards whom it was very sympathetic. The church press reported enthusiastically about the heroism of American soldiers, particularly those of Russian heritage serving in the American armed forces. At the same time, it noted various problems among the American soldiers in Vietnam, particularly the widespread use of narcotics. The various anti-war demonstrations were regarded by the Church Abroad as a capitulation of the free world in the face of evil. The peace talks in Indochina were likewise regarded negatively. At the same time, this intense anticommunism had its negative sides, making any objective analysis of events very diffi cult, which in turn led to one-sided views.

  12. Seroprevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis in a South Australian Vietnam veteran cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmanian, Hany; MacFarlane, Alexander C; Rowland, Karen E; Einsiedel, Lloyd J; Neuhaus, Susan J

    2015-08-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis is a parasitic roundworm causing chronic infection that is endemic in Southeast Asia. Vietnam veterans are considered to be at high risk of Strongyloides infection. The prevalence of persistent infection in this group is unknown. This study aimed to establish the seropositivity rate of Strongyloides antibodies in South Australian Vietnam veterans and to identify the most reported symptoms within the seropositive group. This cross-sectional study recruited 309 veterans who had served in Vietnamese territory between 1962 and 1975 and were currently resident in South Australia. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire examining demographics, deployment, somatic symptoms and depression. Venous blood was collected for Strongyloides serology and eosinophil count. Participants who demonstrated positive Strongyloides serology underwent faecal microscopy for parasites. A total of 309 participants were recruited and 256 completed the questionnaire. Strongyloides seropositivity was demonstrated in 29 of 249 participants (11.6%). No participant had Strongyloides larvae detected by faecal microscopy. On multivariate analysis, only dermatological symptoms were associated with positive serology (OR 4.84, 95%CI 1.31-17.92, p-value 0.01). This study found a high seroprevalence (11.6%) of Strongyloides antibodies within the Vietnam veteran community in South Australia. Seropositivity was associated with increased likelihood of dermatological symptoms. Post-deployment screening and eradication therapy for Strongyloides should be offered to ADF staff after service in Strongyloides-endemic areas. This should include those veterans who left the service many years ago. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  13. Exploring the emerging profession of speech-language pathology in Vietnam through pioneering eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Marie; Davidson, Bronwyn; McAllister, Lindy

    2017-04-01

    In September 2012, 18 Vietnamese health professionals graduated as Vietnam's first university qualified speech-language pathologists (SLPs). This study details the reflections of these pioneering health professionals at 12 months following their graduation, drawing attention to their scope of practice as SLPs and to the opportunities and challenges to progressing the practice of speech-language pathology (SLP) in Vietnam. Thirteen graduates participated in small group interviews where they described their work and their perceptions of their emerging practice. Thematic analysis of the interview transcripts was employed to identify key concepts and themes within the data. Four overarching themes were identified-scope of practice, establishing identity, confidence to practise and progressing the profession. Overall analysis revealed evolving professional practice characterised by new learning, fluctuations in confidence and an active forging of professional identity. Mentoring and support by international colleagues and advancing professional recognition were identified as critical to the profession's progression and to the development of context-specific and culturally appropriate services. Participants' reflections draw focus to an important role for the international SLP community as it works in partnership with colleagues to enhance awareness of and services for people with communication disabilities in under-served communities such as Vietnam.

  14. Knowledge and Perceptions of Influenza Vaccinations Among College Students in Vietnam and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Kamimura

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Influenza is a significant worldwide public health issue. Knowledge and perceptions regarding the flu vaccination are associated with whether individuals obtain the vaccination. The purpose of this study was to examine how such perceptions were related to knowledge and self-efficacy regarding influenza and the flu vaccination in Vietnam and the US. Methods College students (n=932 in Vietnam (n=495 and the US (n=437 completed a self-administered survey regarding knowledge and perceptions of influenza vaccinations in September and October 2016. Results Vietnamese participants reported significantly lower levels of awareness about flu risk, higher levels of negative attitudes toward flu vaccination, lower levels of knowledge about the flu and vaccination, and lower levels of self-efficacy than US participants. Higher levels of flu and flu vaccination knowledge and self-efficacy regarding general responsible health practices were associated with lower levels of negative perceptions of flu risk and attitudes toward vaccination. At the same time, self-efficacy regarding responsible health practices was associated with higher levels of awareness of flu risk and lower levels of negative attitudes toward vaccination. Self-efficacy regarding exercise was associated with lower levels of perceptions of flu risk and higher levels of negative attitudes toward vaccination. Conclusions Vietnam could benefit from influenza education based on this comparison with the US. In both countries, knowledge and self-efficacy were found to be important factors influencing perceptions of influenza risk and vaccination.

  15. Molecular evolution of type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses circulating in Vietnam from 2007 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Hai Quynh; Trinh, Dinh Thau; Nguyen, Thi Lan; Vu, Thi Thu Hang; Than, Duc Duong; Van Lo, Thi; Yeom, Minjoo; Song, Daesub; Choe, SeEun; An, Dong-Jun; Le, Van Phan

    2016-11-17

    Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome (PRRS) virus is one of the most economically significant pathogens in the Vietnamese swine industry. ORF5, which participates in many functional processes, including virion assembly, entry of the virus into the host cell, and viral adaptation to the host immune response, has been widely used in molecular evolution and phylogeny studies. Knowing of molecular evolution of PRRSV fields strains might contribute to PRRS control in Vietnam. The results showed that phylogenetic analysis indicated that all strains belonged to sub-lineages 8.7 and 5.1. The nucleotide and amino acid identities between strains were 84.5-100% and 82-100%, respectively. Furthermore, the results revealed differences in nucleotide and amino acid identities between the 2 sub-lineage groups. N-glycosylation prediction identified 7 potential N-glycosylation sites and 11 glycotypes. Analyses of the GP5 sequences, revealed 7 sites under positive selective pressure and 25 under negative selective pressure. Phylogenetic analysis based on ORF5 sequence indicated the diversity of PRRSV in Vietnam. Furthermore, the variance of N-glycosylation sites and position under selective pressure were demonstrated. This study expands existing knowledge on the genetic diversity and evolution of PRRSV in Vietnam and assists the effective strategies for PRRS vaccine development in Vietnam.

  16. Accreditation in Vietnam's Higher Education System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerheijden, Donald F.; Cremonini, Leon; van Empel, Roelien; Harman, Grant; Hayden, Martin; Pham, Thang Nghi

    2010-01-01

    Since the late 1980s the Vietnamese labour market has become increasingly diversified and dynamic, calling for more socially and economically relevant careers. As a result, coordinated efforts to assure the quality of Vietnamese higher education and introduce an accreditation system have recently

  17. CASE STUDY: Vietnam — Information brings progress to Vietnam's ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Vietnam, a community-based monitoring system builds on existing official poverty surveys to better target the poor. The additional data has led to improvements in communities, and in the lives of women in particular.

  18. Knowledge of the health consequences of tobacco smoking: a cross-sectional survey of Vietnamese adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh An, Dao Thi; Van Minh, Hoang; Huong, Le Thi; Giang, Kim Bao; Xuan, Le Thi Thanh; Thi Hai, Phan; Quynh Nga, Pham; Hsia, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Background Although substantial efforts have been made to curtail smoking in Vietnam, the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) revealed that the proportion of male adults currently smoking remains high at 47.4%. Objectives To determine the level of, and characteristics associated with, knowledge of the health consequences of smoking among Vietnamese adults. Design GATS 2010 was designed to survey a nationally representative sample of Vietnamese men and women aged 15 and older drawn from 11,142 households using a two-stage sampling design. Descriptive statistics were calculated and multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between postulated exposure factors (age, education, access to information, ethnic group etc.) and knowledge on health risks. Results General knowledge on the health risks of active smoking (AS) and exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) was good (90% and 83%, respectively). However, knowledge on specific diseases related to tobacco smoking (stroke, heart attack, and lung cancer) appeared to be lower (51.5%). Non-smokers had a significantly higher likelihood of demonstrating better knowledge on health risks related to AS (OR 1.6) and SHS (OR 1.7) than smokers. Adults with secondary education, college education or above also had significantly higher levels knowledge of AS/SHS health risks than those with primary education (AS: ORs 1.6, 1.7, and 1.9, respectively, and SHS: ORs 2.4, 3.9, and 5.7 respectively). Increasing age was positively associated with knowledge of the health consequences of SHS, and access to information was significantly associated with knowledge of AS/SHS health risks (ORs 2.3 and 1.9 respectively). Otherwise, non-Kinh ethnic groups had significantly less knowledge on health risks of AS/SHS than Kinh ethnic groups. Conclusions It may be necessary to target tobacco prevention programs to specific subgroups including current smokers, adults with low education, non-Kinh ethnics in order to increase their

  19. Knowledge of the health consequences of tobacco smoking: a cross-sectional survey of Vietnamese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao Thi Minh An

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although substantial efforts have been made to curtail smoking in Vietnam, the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS revealed that the proportion of male adults currently smoking remains high at 47.4%. Objectives: To determine the level of, and characteristics associated with, knowledge of the health consequences of smoking among Vietnamese adults. Design: GATS 2010 was designed to survey a nationally representative sample of Vietnamese men and women aged 15 and older drawn from 11,142 households using a two-stage sampling design. Descriptive statistics were calculated and multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between postulated exposure factors (age, education, access to information, ethnic group etc. and knowledge on health risks. Results: General knowledge on the health risks of active smoking (AS and exposure to second hand smoke (SHS was good (90% and 83%, respectively. However, knowledge on specific diseases related to tobacco smoking (stroke, heart attack, and lung cancer appeared to be lower (51.5%. Non-smokers had a significantly higher likelihood of demonstrating better knowledge on health risks related to AS (OR 1.6 and SHS (OR 1.7 than smokers. Adults with secondary education, college education or above also had significantly higher levels knowledge of AS/SHS health risks than those with primary education (AS: ORs 1.6, 1.7, and 1.9, respectively, and SHS: ORs 2.4, 3.9, and 5.7 respectively. Increasing age was positively associated with knowledge of the health consequences of SHS, and access to information was significantly associated with knowledge of AS/SHS health risks (ORs 2.3 and 1.9 respectively. Otherwise, non-Kinh ethnic groups had significantly less knowledge on health risks of AS/SHS than Kinh ethnic groups. Conclusions: It may be necessary to target tobacco prevention programs to specific subgroups including current smokers, adults with low education, non-Kinh ethnics in order to

  20. Engineer exchanging project on coal mine technology field in fiscal 1999. International information exchanging project (the overseas workshop in Vietnam); 1999 nendo gijutsusha koryu jigyo (tanko gijutsu bun'ya) kokusai koryu jigyo. Kaigai workshop (Vietnam)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Technical information exchange was performed with Vietnamese engineers related to coal mine technologies through the overseas workshop and the technical tour. At the same time, investigations were executed on the production technology levels and needs in Vietnam, and on possibilities of transfer of Japanese technologies. The 'Overseas workshop (Vietnam)' was held on September 28, 1999 with the 'trends and problems in coal production technologies' as the main theme. Lectures were given in the session related to coal production technologies by Vietnamese coal technology experts, each from VINACOAL and IMSAT, and by two Japanese coal technology experts. A comprehensive discussion was also executed, and items of technical information were exchanged on the coal production technologies. The number of persons actually participated in the workshop counted 58, with the proceedings presented by them distributed. The Mao Khe and Duong Huy coal mines in Quang Ninh Province were visited as the technical tour, whereas the coal mine sites were inspected and opinions were exchanged with the site engineers. Gas analysis was performed in the Mao Khe mine from the viewpoint of a gas control technology, and site investigation was carried out on lock bolts in the Duong Huy mine from the viewpoint of a roof control technology. (NEDO)

  1. Fruit and vegetable consumption in Vietnam, and the use of a 'standard serving' size to measure intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Tan Van; Blizzard, Christopher L; Luong, Khue Ngoc; Truong, Ngoc Le Van; Tran, Bao Quoc; Otahal, Petr; Srikanth, Velandai; Nelson, Mark R; Au, Thuy Bich; Ha, Son Thai; Phung, Hai Ngoc; Tran, Mai Hoang; Callisaya, Michele; Smith, Kylie; Gall, Seana

    2016-07-01

    The aims of the present study were to provide nationally representative data on fruit and vegetable consumption in Vietnam, and to assess the accuracy of the reported numbers of 'standard servings' consumed. Data analysed were from a multi-stage stratified cluster survey of 14 706 participants (46·5 % males, response proportion 64·1 %) aged 25-64 years in Vietnam. Measurements were made in accordance with the WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance of non-communicable diseases (STEPS) protocols. Approximately 80 % of Vietnamese people reported having less than five servings of fruit and vegetables daily in a typical week. Fruit and vegetable intake reported in 'standard serving' sizes was positively correlated with levels of education completed and household income (Pvegetables (r 0·90), and provinces with higher proportions of urban population had higher mean servings of fruit (r 0·40). In conclusion, about eight in ten Vietnamese people aged 25-64 years did not meet WHO recommendations for daily consumption of at least five servings of fruit and vegetables. On the basis of the consistency of the data collected with other estimates and with physical and demographic characteristics of the country, the WHO STEPS instrument has construct validity for measuring fruit and vegetable intake, but with two issues identified. The issues were seasonal variation in reporting and a limitation on the usefulness of the information for associative analyses.

  2. Influence of urbanity on perception of mental illness stigma: a population based study in urban and rural Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Thi Minh Tam; Zieger, Aron; Schomerus, Georg; Cao, Tien Duc; Dettling, Michael; Do, Xuan Tinh; Mungee, Aditya; Diefenbacher, Albert; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Hahn, Eric

    2016-12-01

    To examine, for the first time in Vietnam, whether urbanity of respondents among other socio-demographic factors affects the public perception of stigma attached to persons with mental illness in Hanoi. A general population-based survey was carried out in 2013 in the greater Hanoi area. The perception of stigma attached to people with mental illness was elicited using Link's perceived discrimination and devaluation scale (PDDS) carried out in Vietnamese language. The survey sample (n = 806) was stratified for gender, urban/rural location, age, household size and marital status, in accordance with the 2013 Vietnamese census. Comparing the total score of the PDDS and its single items, we found less perceived stigma and discrimination among the rural population of Hanoi and in respondents who reported religious attainment to either Buddhism or Christianity. Logistic regression analyses found no significant influences of gender, age, household size or marital status regarding the perceived stigma toward persons with mental illness. Less negative perception of stigma attached to persons with mental illness that was observed among the rural population in the Hanoi area may be interpreted in the light of possibly more demanding living conditions in modern urban Vietnam with less opportunities for mentally ill patients and points toward a dynamic interaction with rapidly changing living conditions in Asian megacities. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. The pharmacokinetics of artemisinin suppositories in Vietnamese patients with malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, R.; Duc, D. D.; Kager, P. A.; Khanh, N. X.; Dien, T. K.; de Vries, P. J.; van Boxtel, C. J.

    1998-01-01

    Eight male Vietnamese malaria patients received 600 mg of artemisinin in a single dose of 3 suppositories containing 200 mg each; 24 h later they received a single oral dose of mefloquine, 15 mg/kg. Plasma artemisinin concentrations were measured until 24 h after dosing, and parasites were counted

  4. What Factors Influence Vietnamese Students' Choice of University?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Mai Thi Ngoc; Thorpe, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report the factors that influence Vietnamese students' choice of university in a little researched context where the effects of globalization and education reform are changing higher education. Design/methodology/approach: A quantitative survey was completed by 1,124 current or recently completed university…

  5. The Vietnamese of New Orleans: Problems of America's Newest Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soberano, Rawlein

    New Orleans ranks as the city with the largest Vietnamese community in the nation. With their growing number, problems with the Plaquemines Parish community as well as with some black organizations have developed, particularly in the areas of employment and housing. Several individuals have argued that local businesses hired large numbers of…

  6. Experiments in Language Translation: Technical English-to-Vietnamese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaiko, H. Wallace; Brislin, Richard W.

    This paper documents the results of a series of experiments conducted by the Institute for Defense Analyses on translating technical material from English to Vietnamese. The work was accomplished in support of the Office of the Deputy Director, Research and Engineering, Deputy Director for Southeast Asia Matters. The paper addresses the question…

  7. Key factors driving corporate social responsibility of Vietnamese firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabir, Mohammed Rezaul; Thai Minh, H.

    2016-01-01

    We examine the impact of firm, corporate governance and managerial characteristics on the corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities of Vietnamese listed firms. Our results show that export-oriented firms engage in more CSR activities. As for corporate governance factors, we observe that

  8. Mental innovation space of Vietnamese agro-food firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Koning, Jotte; Crul, Marcel; Engelen, van Johannes; Wever, Renee; Brezet, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - Vietnamese agro-food firms are often small and have short value chains. They are facing increasing competition from multinationals to serve the consumers of the rising middle class. It is assumed that co-creation or open-innovation can be a competitive innovation strategy for the

  9. Silk for silver : Dutch-Vietnamese relations, 1637-1700

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang Anh Tuan,

    2006-01-01

    Against the background of a regional crisis caused by dynastic change in China and the closure of Japan in the middle of the seventeenth century, the Vietnamese kingdom of Tonkin rose to the fore as the major silk producing and exporting region in East Asia. Based on a wealth of so far unused

  10. Vietnamese Women and Domestic Violence: A Qualitative Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuyen D.

    2004-01-01

    This grounded theory qualitative study investigated the major influencing factors in the United States that empowered six Vietnamese women who had been in abusive relationships to take actions, to make changes in their intimate relationships, unlike many of their abused counterparts in their homeland. Interviews of two focus group sessions,…

  11. Transnational Migration of Vietnamese Women in Asia | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Over the last decade, Asia has witnessed rapid growth in the feminization of migration. For example, during that period, more than 100 000 Vietnamese women migrated to other countries to work and a similar number to marry, through commercial arrangements. But, sending countries often lack the appropriate policies and ...

  12. Types of indirect compliments in Russian and Vietnamese communicative cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Нгуен Тху Хыонг

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article studies compliments as speech acts in Russian and Vietnamese communication and discusses the usage of some types of indirect compliments in the communicative cultures of the two. A comparison showing their similarities and differences and frequency in their usage in cross-cultural communication has also been undertaken.

  13. Depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation among Vietnamese secondary school students and proposed solutions: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dat Tan; Dedding, Christine; Pham, Tam Thi; Wright, Pamela; Bunders, Joske

    2013-12-17

    There is a rapidly growing public awareness of mental health problems among Vietnamese secondary school students. This study aims to determine the prevalence of anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation, to identify related risk factors, and to explore students' own proposals for improving their mental health. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1161 secondary students in Can Tho City, Vietnam during September through December, 2011. A structured questionnaire was used to assess anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation and proposed solutions. Depression was measured using the Center for Epidemiology Studies Depression Scale. The prevalence estimates of symptoms reaching a threshold comparable to a diagnosis of anxiety and depression were 22.8% and 41.1%, respectively. Suicide had been seriously considered by 26.3% of the students, while 12.9% had made a suicide plan and 3.8% had attempted suicide. Major risk factors related to anxiety and depression were physical or emotional abuse by the family, and high educational stress. As proposed solutions, nearly 80% of students suggested that the academic workload should be reduced and that confidential counselors should be appointed at schools. About half the students stated that the attitudes of their parents and teachers needed to change. A significant majority said that they would visit a website that provided mental health support for students. Anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation are common among Vietnamese secondary school students. There are strong associations with physical and emotional abuse in the family and high educational stress. Academic curricula and attitudes of parents and teachers need to be changed from a punitive to a more supportive approach to reduce the risk of poor mental health. An internet-based mental health intervention could be a feasible and effective first step to improve students' mental health.

  14. Depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation among Vietnamese secondary school students and proposed solutions: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a rapidly growing public awareness of mental health problems among Vietnamese secondary school students. This study aims to determine the prevalence of anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation, to identify related risk factors, and to explore students’ own proposals for improving their mental health. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1161 secondary students in Can Tho City, Vietnam during September through December, 2011. A structured questionnaire was used to assess anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation and proposed solutions. Depression was measured using the Center for Epidemiology Studies Depression Scale. Results The prevalence estimates of symptoms reaching a threshold comparable to a diagnosis of anxiety and depression were 22.8% and 41.1%, respectively. Suicide had been seriously considered by 26.3% of the students, while 12.9% had made a suicide plan and 3.8% had attempted suicide. Major risk factors related to anxiety and depression were physical or emotional abuse by the family, and high educational stress. As proposed solutions, nearly 80% of students suggested that the academic workload should be reduced and that confidential counselors should be appointed at schools. About half the students stated that the attitudes of their parents and teachers needed to change. A significant majority said that they would visit a website that provided mental health support for students. Conclusions Anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation are common among Vietnamese secondary school students. There are strong associations with physical and emotional abuse in the family and high educational stress. Academic curricula and attitudes of parents and teachers need to be changed from a punitive to a more supportive approach to reduce the risk of poor mental health. An internet-based mental health intervention could be a feasible and effective first step to improve students’ mental health. PMID:24341792

  15. Human bocavirus in children with acute respiratory infections in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dinh Nguyen; Nguyen, Tran Quynh Nhu; Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Hayakawa, Satoshi; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Ushijima, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    Acute respiratory infections are the major cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Human bocavirus (HBoV), a novel virus, is recognized to increasingly associate with previously unknown etiology respiratory infections in young children. In this study, the epidemiological, clinical, and molecular characteristics of HBoV infections were described in hospitalized Vietnamese pediatric patients. From April 2010 to May 2011, 1,082 nasopharyngeal swab samples were obtained from patients with acute respiratory infections at the Children's Hospital 2, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Samples were screened for HBoV by PCR and further molecularly characterized by sequencing. HBoV was found in 78 (7.2%) children. Co-infection with other viruses was observed in 66.7% of patients infected with HBoV. Children 12-24 months old were the most affected age group. Infections with HBoV were found year-round, though most cases occurred in the dry season (December-April). HBoV was possible to cause severe diseases as determined by higher rates of hypoxia, pneumonia, and longer hospitalization duration in patients with HBoV infection than in those without (P-value infection with HBoV did not affect the disease severity. The phylogenetic analysis of partial VP1 gene showed minor variations and all HBoV sequences belonged to species 1 (HBoV1). In conclusion, HBoV1 was circulating in Vietnam and detected frequently in young children during dry season. Acute respiratory infections caused by HBoV1 were severe enough for hospitalization, which implied that HBoV1 may have an important role in acute respiratory infections among children. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. High prevalence and significance of hepatitis D virus infection among treatment-naïve HBsAg-positive patients in Northern Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bui Tien Sy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis D virus (HDV infection is considered to cause more severe hepatitis than hepatitis B virus (HBV monoinfection. With more than 9.5 million HBV-infected people, Vietnam will face an enormous health burden. The prevalence of HDV in Vietnamese HBsAg-positive patients is speculative. Therefore, we assessed the prevalence of HDV in Vietnamese patients, determined the HDV-genotype distribution and compared the findings with the clinical outcome. METHODS: 266 sera of well-characterized HBsAg-positive patients in Northern Vietnam were analysed for the presence of HDV using newly developed HDV-specific RT-PCRs. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were performed for HDV-genotyping. RESULTS: The HDV-genome prevalence observed in the Vietnamese HBsAg-positive patients was high with 15.4% while patients with acute hepatitis showed 43.3%. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated a predominance of HDV-genotype 1 clustering in an Asian clade while HDV-genotype 2 could be also detected. The serum aminotransferase levels (AST, ALT as well as total and direct bilirubin were significantly elevated in HDV-positive individuals (p<0.05. HDV loads were mainly low (<300 to 4.108 HDV-copies/ml. Of note, higher HDV loads were mainly found in HBV-genotype mix samples in contrast to single HBV-infections. In HBV/HDV-coinfections, HBV loads were significantly higher in HBV-genotype C in comparison to HBV-genotype A samples (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: HDV prevalence is high in Vietnamese individuals, especially in patients with acute hepatitis B. HDV replication activity showed a HBV-genotype dependency and could be associated with elevated liver parameters. Besides serological assays molecular tests are recommended for diagnosis of HDV. Finally, the high prevalence of HBV and HDV prompts the urgent need for HBV-vaccination coverage.

  17. The Influence of Culture on Agroecosystem Structure: A Comparison of the Spatial Patterns of Homegardens of Different Ethnic Groups in Thailand and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timsuksai, Pijika; Rambo, A Terry

    2016-01-01

    Different ethnic groups have evolved distinctive cultural models which guide their interactions with the environment, including their agroecosystems. Although it is probable that variations in the structures of homegardens among separate ethnic groups reflect differences in the cultural models of the farmers, empirical support for this assumption is limited. In this paper the modal horizontal structural patterns of the homegardens of 8 ethnic groups in Northeast Thailand and Vietnam are described. Six of these groups (5 speaking Tai languages and 1 speaking Vietnamese) live in close proximity to each other in separate villages in Northeast Thailand, and 2 of the groups (one Tai-speaking and one Vietnamese-speaking) live in different parts of Vietnam. Detailed information on the horizontal structure of homegardens was collected from samples of households belonging to each group. Although each ethnic group has a somewhat distinctive modal structure, the groups cluster into 2 different types. The Tai speaking Cao Lan, Kalaeng, Lao, Nyaw, and Yoy make up Type I while both of the Vietnamese groups, along with the Tai speaking Phu Thai, belong to Type II. Type I gardens have predominantly organic shapes, indeterminate boundaries, polycentric planting patterns, and multi-species composition within planting areas. Type II homegardens have geometric shapes, sharp boundaries, lineal planting patterns, and mono-species composition of planting areas. That the homegardens of most of the Tai ethnic groups share a relatively similar horizontal structural pattern that is quite different from the pattern shared by both of the Vietnamese groups suggests that the spatial layout of homegardens is strongly influenced by their different cultural models.

  18. Vietnam's population: current notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, S E

    1984-06-01

    In an effort to curb the population growth rate, currently estimated at 2.5%/year, the government of Vietnam has stepped up its campaign to implement a national family planning program. 1979 census figures indicate a population of 52.76 million. There is increasing government awareness of the interaction between population growth, employment, and manpower utilization. The demographic realities of Vietnam necessitate a drastic decrease in fertility rates and family size, a redistribution of the population either through internal migration to new economic zones or transborder migration, and a more efficient use of land and exploitation of natural and human resources to support the growing population. Assuming a natural increase rate of less than 2% by 1984-85, the government estimates a total population of nearly 60 million by the end of 1985. It is hoped that a natural growth rate of 1% can be attained in the early 1990s, to achieve a population size below 75 million by the year 2000. However, if the 3-child family remains the norm, the population will approach 80-85 million by 2000. Changes in shortterm fertility patterns seem unlikely without a carefully thought out and sensitively implemented policy involving a deliberate scheme of incentives and disincentives. The Vietnam Fatherland Front (VFF) has recognized the need for a more regorous fertility control campaign and has requested that the Council of Ministers set up a coordinated population and family planning structure with direct linkages from Hanoi to provincial governments and communal administrations. Also recommended were regulations on birth control, population targets and norms, and a system of incentives and disincentives. Data from family planning services in Ho Chi Minh City for 1976-82 suggest a recent decline in IUD, condom, and pill users, largely as a result of procurement difficulties. The number of abortions has also declined because of successful family planning education. The ideal family

  19. Chemistry: A Vietnamese Supplement. A High-School Bilingual Handbook for the Vietnamese Student. Indochinese High-School Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Do Dinh; And Others

    This text is the first of a series of six bilingual handbooks especially designed for the Indochinese student in American high schools. Five of the supplements are in Vietnamese and each deals with a specific subject-area: chemisty, physics, biology, mathematics or U.S. history. The sixth book is in Khmer and is a supplement for U.S. history. The…

  20. Costing of services of Vietnamese hospitals: identifying costs in one central, two provincial and two district hospitals using a standard methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flessa, Steffen; Dung, Nghiem Tran

    2004-01-01

    The People's Republic of Vietnam is currently in a period of transition from a purely socialistic country towards a so-called socialist market economy. Since the introduction of the Doi Moi policy in 1987, health care services have been liberalized, medical practitioners have received the right to open private hospitals and private pharmacies are booming. However, the majority of inhabitants strongly depends on governmental hospital services. These services are currently going through a financial crisis. This demands the quest for efficiency and the wise allocation of public funds. The efficient allocation of funds depends on the quotient between costs and health outcomes, but the costs of health services in Vietnamese hospitals are unknown. Therefore the study analysed five hospitals in Vietnam and determined the average costs as well as the main cost drivers. The full costs of five hospitals were analysed, including depreciation and the value of donations. The costs were allocated to cost centres and cost units by a stepping-stone method. As expected, the average costs per inpatient day at a central hospital are about 300% of the costs of provincial hospitals and about 600% of the costs of district hospitals. However, the costs of some laboratory procedures and operations done at district hospitals are higher than those of provincial or even central hospitals. The main reason for the high costs of some procedures at district hospitals was the low quantity of these procedures at that level. This is a strong indicator that some procedures, in particular major operations, should not be performed in Vietnamese district hospitals.

  1. Whole genome analysis of Vietnamese G2P[4] rotavirus strains possessing the NSP2 gene sharing an ancestral sequence with Chinese sheep and goat rotavirus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Loan Phuong; Doan, Yen Hai; Nakagomi, Toyoko; Gauchan, Punita; Kaneko, Miho; Agbemabiese, Chantal; Dang, Anh Duc; Nakagomi, Osamu

    2015-10-01

    Because imminent introduction into Vietnam of a vaccine against Rotavirus A is anticipated, baseline information on the whole genome of representative strains is needed to understand changes in circulating strains that may occur after vaccine introduction. In this study, the whole genomes of two G2P[4] strains detected in Nha Trang, Vietnam in 2008 were sequenced, this being the last period during which virtually no rotavirus vaccine was used in this country. The two strains were found to be >99.9% identical in sequence and had a typical DS-1 like G2-P[4]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2 genotype constellation. Analysis of the Vietnamese strains with >184 G2P[4] strains retrieved from GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ DNA databases placed the Vietnamese strains in one of the lineages commonly found among contemporary strains, with the exception of the NSP2 and NSP4 genes. The NSP2 genes were found to belong to a previously undescribed lineage that diverged from Chinese sheep and goat rotavirus strains, including a Chinese rotavirus vaccine strain LLR with 95% nucleotide identity; the time of their most recent common ancestor was 1975. The NSP4 genes were found to belong, together with Thai and USA strains, to an emergent lineage (VIII), adding further diversity to ever diversifying NSP4 lineages. Thus, there is a need to enhance surveillance of locally-circulating strains from both children and animals at the whole genome level to address the effect of rotavirus vaccines on changing strain distribution. © 2015 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. First report on prevalence and risk factors of severe atypical pneumonia in Vietnamese children aged 1-15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Phan Le Thanh; Hien, Pham Thu; Lan, Nguyen Thi Phong; Binh, Tran Quang; Tuan, Dao Minh; Anh, Dang Duc

    2014-12-18

    Atypical pathogens such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, and Legionella pneumophila are increasingly recognized as important causes of community acquired pneumonia (CAP) worldwide. Such etiological data for Vietnam is scarce and clinical doctors lack accurate information on which to base their diagnosis and treatment of pneumonia. This study identifies the prevalence and risk factors of severe community acquired pneumonia due to these atypical pathogens (severe-ApCAP) in children aged 1-15 years with CAP in a pediatric hospital in Hanoi, Vietnam. 722 hospitalized children with CAP were recruited for detecting those atypical pathogens, using multiplex PCR and ELISA. Clinical and epidemiological data were collected. Multivariate logistic-regression analyses were performed to evaluate the associations of potential risk factors with severe-ApCAP. Among 215 atypical pathogen-positive CAP cases, 45.12% (97/215) were severe-ApCAP. Among the severe-ApCAP group, 55.67% (54/97) cases were caused by pure atypical pathogens and 44.33% (43/97) resulted from a co-infection with typical respiratory pathogens. M. pneumoniae was the most common, with 86.6% cases (84/97) in the severe-ApCAP group, whereas C. pneumoniae and L. pneumophila were less frequent (6.19% and 7.22%, respectively). The highest rate of severe-ApCAP was in children younger than two years (65.98%). The differences related to age are statistically significant (P = 0.008).The factors significantly associated with severe-ApCAP were age (OR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.75-0.93, P = 0.001), co-infection with typical bacteria (OR = 4.86, 95% CI = 2.17-10.9, P pneumonia (OR = 11.1, 95% CI = 1.06-116, P = 0.044). Severe-ApCAP presented at a significant rate in Vietnamese children. More than 50% of severe-ApCAP cases were associated with pure atypical pathogen infection. M. pneumoniae appeared most frequently. The highest rate of severe-ApCAP was in children younger than two

  3. Profile of Vietnam War Veterans (2015).

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Profile of Vietnam War Veterans uses the 2015 ACS to provide a view into the demographic characteristics and socioeconomic conditions of the Vietnam War Veteran...

  4. Intersecting Homeliness: Vietnamese Australian Reflections of a Suburban Home (Strathfield, NSW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helary Ngo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In year 2013, I lived in Vietnam. Once a year, the Vietnamese people have a particular tradition called khom đất, where the people set out a guest table filled with delicious feast of food and paper clothing, shoes, accessories and money for the spirits of the house. Khom in khom đất means a set of rituals or prayer to bow down and pay respect. Đất means land. It is a ritual which acknowledges the spirits within the home and the agency these spirits have to the home. There would be separate rituals for different types of spirits and incense would burn as an offering to various places. For example, an incense and food offering would be on an alter directly above the fire stove in the kitchen to be grateful to the fire spirit of the home. There is a belief that if the fire spirit gets angry, the spirit may be a danger to the family. The spirit has the agency and a power over the home. It is a ritual to recognise that a home has its ghosts, its history and its spirits that reside long before the current people residents and that they have the power to protect or destroy. Mostly, it is to recognaise that land and place is not to be owned, and matters such as fire or water or wood is not mere commodities. Rather, these materialities are living and only would be at our disposal to help us when they given the respect and recognition that they are living and are powerful agents. Within the Vietnamese language, there is no specific word for differentiate ‘home’ and ‘house’ but rather, use the word ‘house’ to mean both the building and the home – nhà (Rather then state, ‘I go home’ one states literally, ‘I return to the house’ – Tôi về nhà. To state house rather than home could mean that home is not to be possessed but rather, has it’s own agency, vitality and spirit. With this in mind, I will tell you about a particular uncanny phenomenon that has happened in my family home in Strathfield (a loved family home where

  5. Review: Results of studying atmospheric corrosion in Vietnam 1995–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Thi Hong Lien, Pham Thy San and Hoang Lam Hong

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Vietnam is situated in the wet tropical zone; thus, atmospheric conditions are characterized by high temperatures and a long time of wetness (TOW. In addition, the salt air coming in from the sea causes a high chloride concentration in coastal areas. Furthermore, Vietnam is a developing country, which means that air pollution is increasing with the development of industry. These factors result in significant damage to materials by atmospheric corrosion. In this report, the results of a recent study on the corrosion of carbon steel and zinc-galvanized steel at 6–8 testing sites in Vietnam over 10 recent years (1995–2005 are focused on as well as the effects of environmental factors on atmospheric corrosion. The results showed that the corrosion of carbon steel is dominated by TOW, whereas zinc-galvanized-steel corrosion strongly depends on the chloride ion concentration in the air. The corrosion losses of both carbon- and zinc-galvanized steel fit the power model well with high correlation coefficients. In addition, the characteristics of the Vietnamese climate are introduced in the form of distribution maps of temperature (T, relative humidity (RH, total rainfall and TOW. A relationship between TOW, T and RH was found that enabled the calculation of TOW from T and RH data, which are available at meteorological stations. Finally, atmospheric corrosivity is determined on the basis of data on TOW, Cl− and SO2 concentrations, and the carbon steel corrosion rate. It is shown that in Vietnam, TOW is so long that the corrosion rate of carbon steel is in the C3 category; nevertheless, Cl− and SO2 concentrations in the atmosphere are not high.

  6. Pathogenicity and molecular characterization of emerging porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Vietnam in 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metwally, S; Mohamed, F; Faaberg, K; Burrage, T; Prarat, M; Moran, K; Bracht, A; Mayr, G; Berninger, M; Koster, L; To, T L; Nguyen, V L; Reising, M; Landgraf, J; Cox, L; Lubroth, J; Carrillo, C

    2010-10-01

    In 2007, Vietnam experienced swine disease outbreaks causing clinical signs similar to the 'porcine high fever disease' that occurred in China during 2006. Analysis of diagnostic samples from the disease outbreaks in Vietnam identified porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2). Additionally, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus were cultured from lung and spleen, and Streptococcus suis from one spleen sample. Genetic characterization of the Vietnamese PRRSV isolates revealed that this virus belongs to the North American genotype (type 2) with a high nucleotide identity to the recently reported Chinese strains. Amino acid sequence in the nsp2 region revealed 95.7-99.4% identity to Chinese strain HUN4, 68-69% identity to strain VR-2332 and 58-59% identity to strain MN184. A partial deletion in the nsp2 gene was detected; however, this deletion did not appear to enhance the virus pathogenicity in the inoculated pigs. Animal inoculation studies were conducted to determine the pathogenicity of PRRSV and to identify other possible agents present in the original specimens. Pigs inoculated with PRRSV alone and their contacts showed persistent fever, and two of five pigs developed cough, neurological signs and swollen joints. Necropsy examination showed mild to moderate bronchopneumonia, enlarged lymph nodes, fibrinous pericarditis and polyarthritis. PRRSV was re-isolated from blood and tissues of the inoculated and contact pigs. Pigs inoculated with lung and spleen tissue homogenates from sick pigs from Vietnam developed high fever, septicaemia, and died acutely within 72 h, while their contact pigs showed no clinical signs throughout the experiment. Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus was cultured, and PRRSV was re-isolated only from the inoculated pigs. Results suggest that the cause of the swine deaths in Vietnam is a multifactorial syndrome with PRRSV as a major factor. © 2010

  7. Briefing book: Major projects in the upstream, downstream, petrochemical and power sectors of Vietnam. Final definitional mission report. Export trade information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-06

    The purpose of the briefing book is to provide project information to U.S. Businesses who seek cooperative partnerships with Vietnamese officials on a number of major development projects. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) Executive Summary; (2) Overview of Vietnam; (3) Overview of the Upstream Sector; (4) Overview of the Downstream Sector; (5) Overview of the Petrochemical Sector; (6) Overview of the Electric Energy Sector; (7) Project Development Processes; (8) Project Financing; (9) Foreign Competition and U.S. Competitiveness; (10) Project Profiles; (11) Key Contracts; (12) U.S. Commercial Service.

  8. Assessing Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Excreta from Grower-finisher Pigs Fed Prevalent Rations in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van, Vu Thi Khanh; Sommer, Sven G.; Vu, C. C.

    2010-01-01

    , there is a loss of plant nutrients from livestock farms that causes environmental pollution. This study carried out a feed and excretion experiment measuring fecal characteristic, daily fecal production, daily nitrogen and phosphorous excretion from grower-finisher pigs fed prevalent rations in Vietnam....... Furthermore, equations for assessing the excretion were tested, which can be used in farm models for optimal recycling of manure while focusing on reducing pollution. The results indicated that fecal production and nutrient excretion were affected by the different rations tested. This study showed that five...... selected equations for predicting excretion from grower-finisher pigs in Danish conditions can also be used with precision in Vietnamese pig farming systems. The equations have been proven valid and can, therefore, be used as a much needed tool for assessing fecal production and nitrogen in excreta on pig...

  9. Effects of acculturation on lifestyle and health status among older Vietnam-born Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Duong Thuy; Jorm, Louisa; Johnson, Maree; Bambrick, Hilary; Lujic, Sanja

    2015-03-01

    Vietnamese immigrants represent a substantial culturally and linguistically diverse population of Australia, but little is known about the health-related effects of acculturation in this population. This study investigated the relationship between measures of acculturation and lifestyle behaviors and health status among 797 older Vietnam-born Australians who participated in the 45 and Up Study (www.45andup.org.au). The findings suggested that higher degrees of acculturation were associated with increased consumption of red meat, white meat, and seafood; higher levels of physical activities; and lower prevalence of overweight and obesity, type 2 diabetes, and smoking (in men). Targeted health messages could emphasize eating more vegetables, avoiding smoking and alcohol drinking, and increasing levels of physical activity. © 2013 APJPH.

  10. Use of physical/chemical mutagens in plant breeding program in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran Duy Quy; Nguyen Huu Dong; Bui Huy Thuy; Le Van Nha; Nguyen Van Bich [Agricultural Genetics Institute, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2001-03-01

    Among more than 1870 new plant varieties formed by mutation breeding in the world, 44 varieties of different plants were formed by Vietnamese scientists. Research on induced mutation in Vietnam started in 1966, was promoted in Agricultural Institute, Cuu Long Delta Rice Research Institute, Institute of Food Crop Research, and Agriculture Universities, and has produced varieties of rice, maize, soybean, peanut, tomato, jujuba, green bean etc using physical and chemical mutagens: Irradiation with gamma rays or neutrons, and use of such chemicals as dimethylsulfate (DMS), diethylsulfate (DES), ethyleneimine (EI), N-nitrosomethylurea (NUM), N-nitrosoethylurea (NEU), and sodium azide (NaN{sub 3}). In the present report, the results of cytological and genetic effects in M1 plants, the frequency and spectrum of chlorophyll and morphological mutants, the mutants obtained and the genetic nature of the next generation are described, particularly for the case of rice. Radiation dose and dose rate used as mutagens are also reported. (S. Ohno)

  11. Six new species of Begonia (Begoniaceae) from limestone areas in Northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ching-I; Lin, Che-Wei; Yang, Hsun-An; Kono, Yoshiko; Nguyen, Hieu Quang

    2015-12-01

    Species of Begonia are richly represented in limestone karst areas across the Sino-Vietnamese border. More than one hundred species were known, many of which were documented recently. In continuation of our systematic studies of Asian Begonia, we report six species of Begonia that are unknown to science, namely B. caobangensis [sect. Platycentrum], B. circularis, B. melanobullata, B. langsonensis, B.locii and B. montaniformis [sect. Coelocentrum] from Northern Vietnam. Diagnostic features that separate them from morphologically allied species are provided. Somatic chromosome numbers were determined, which supports their placement in the respective sections. Foliar SEM microphotographs were taken and described. A careful study of the literature, herbarium specimens and living plants, both in the wild and in cultivation in the experimental greenhouse, supports the recognition of the six new species, which are described and illustrated.

  12. Thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies in Thua Thien Hue Province, Central Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoa Van; Sanchaisuriya, Kanokwan; Nguyen, Dung; Phan, Hoa Thi Thuy; Siridamrongvattana, Sirivara; Sanchaisuriya, Pattara; Fucharoen, Supan; Fucharoen, Goonnapa; Schelp, Frank P

    2013-01-01

    A community-based assessment of thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies was conducted at the Thua Thien Hue Province, Central Vietnam. By cluster sampling, a total of 410 pregnant women attending the antenatal care service at 30 commune health centers were recruited consecutively from September 2011 to June 2012. Hemoglobin (Hb) analysis was performed using an automated Hb analyzer. α-Thalassemia (α-thal) genes were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques. Out of the 410 pregnant women, 2.7% carried α(0)-thal and 1.2% were β-thal carriers. One woman with the - -(THAI) deletion was also found. Among the females under survey, structural Hb variants with 3.2% Hb E [β26(B8)Glu→Lys, GAG>AAG; HBB: c.78G>C] and 3.7% Hb Constant Spring [Hb CS; α142, Term→Gln, TAA>CAA (α2); HBA2: c.427T>C] were found. Assessing the frequency of thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies by ethnicity, Kinh (Vietnamese) and ethnic minority groups, Hb CS with a high frequency of 24.0% was observed in the ethnic minority groups. These results provide basic population-based information, are useful not only for implementing measures for prevention and control of thalassemias in the region but also for studying the importance of thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies in ethnic minorities within Southeast Asia.

  13. Human papillomavirus vaccine introduction in Vietnam: formative research findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghi, Nguyen Quy; Lamontagne, D Scott; Bingham, Allison; Rafiq, Mirriam; Mai, Le Thi Phuong; Lien, Nguyen Thi Phuong; Khanh, Nguyen Cong; Hong, Duong Thi; Huyen, Dang Thi Thanh; Tho, Nguyen Thi Thi; Hien, Nguyen Tran

    2010-09-01

    Formative research is a useful tool for designing new health interventions. This paper presents key findings from formative research conducted in Vietnam to guide human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine introduction. We explored the sociocultural environment, health system capacity and the policy-making process using a combined quantitative and qualitative methodology. Data collection was done through literature review, in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, observation checklists and a structured questionnaire on knowledge, attitudes and practices. Populations of interest included 11- to 14-year-old girls, their parents, community leaders, teachers, health workers, health and education officials, and policy-makers at all levels. Although HPV vaccines are new, we found high potential acceptance among parents and girls. HPV vaccine introduction was also favourably supported by health professionals if assurances for system preparedness, e.g. cold chain and human resources, were made. There were no significant barriers from the policy perspective that would prevent the introduction of a new vaccine. However, several concerns related to this new vaccine would need to be adequately addressed before implementation. Our findings provide options for potential vaccine delivery strategies, appropriate communication strategies and targeted advocacy strategies to introduce HPV vaccines in the Vietnamese context.

  14. Survival of Ascaris eggs and hygienic quality of human excreta in Vietnamese composting latrines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Peter K M; Phuc, Pham D; Konradsen, Flemming; Klank, Lise T; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2009-12-16

    For centuries farmers in Vietnam have fertilized their fields with human excreta collected directly from their household latrines. Contrary to the official guideline of six-month storage, the households usually only store human excreta for three to four months before use, since this is the length of time that farmers have available to produce fertilizer between two cropping seasons. This study aimed to investigate whether hygienically safe fertilizer could be produced in the latrines within this period of time. By inoculating eggs of the helminth parasite indicator Ascaris suum into heaps of human excreta, a die-off experiment was conducted under conditions similar to those commonly used in Vietnamese latrines. Half a ton of human excreta was divided into five heaps containing increasing concentrations of lime from 0% to 11%. Regardless of the starting pH, which varied from 9.4 to 11.6, a >99% die-off of eggs was obtained after 105 to 117 days of storage for all lime concentrations and 97% of eggs were non-viable after 88 days of storage. The most critical parameter found to determine the die-off process was the amount of ammonia (urine) in the excreta which indicates that longer storage periods are needed for parasite egg die-off if urine is separated from the excreta. By inactivating >99% of all A. suum eggs in human excreta during a storage period of only three months the commonly used Double Vault Composting (DVC) latrine, in which urine is not separated, could therefore potentially provide a hygienic acceptable fertilizer.

  15. Survival of Ascaris eggs and hygienic quality of human excreta in Vietnamese composting latrines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalsgaard Anders

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For centuries farmers in Vietnam have fertilized their fields with human excreta collected directly from their household latrines. Contrary to the official guideline of six-month storage, the households usually only store human excreta for three to four months before use, since this is the length of time that farmers have available to produce fertilizer between two cropping seasons. This study aimed to investigate whether hygienically safe fertilizer could be produced in the latrines within this period of time. Methods By inoculating eggs of the helminth parasite indicator Ascaris suum into heaps of human excreta, a die-off experiment was conducted under conditions similar to those commonly used in Vietnamese latrines. Half a ton of human excreta was divided into five heaps containing increasing concentrations of lime from 0% to 11%. Results Regardless of the starting pH, which varied from 9.4 to 11.6, a >99% die-off of eggs was obtained after 105 to 117 days of storage for all lime concentrations and 97% of eggs were non-viable after 88 days of storage. The most critical parameter found to determine the die-off process was the amount of ammonia (urine in the excreta which indicates that longer storage periods are needed for parasite egg die-off if urine is separated from the excreta. Conclusion By inactivating >99% of all A. suum eggs in human excreta during a storage period of only three months the commonly used Double Vault Composting (DVC latrine, in which urine is not separated, could therefore potentially provide a hygienic acceptable fertilizer.

  16. Electron density variability of nighttime D region ionosphere in Vietnamese and Japanese sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Le Minh; Shiokawa, Kazuo; Thu, Nguyen Ngoc; Ha, Tran Quoc

    2017-06-01

    Recording tweek atmospherics on geomagnetically quiet days in 2014 at Tay Nguyen University (TNU) (12.65°N, 108.02°E), Vietnam, and at Kagoshima (KAG) (31.48°N, 130.72°E), Japan, we investigated the nighttime electron density variability of the D region ionosphere between the equatorial-low-latitude Vietnamese and the low- to middle-latitude Japanese sectors. We estimated the reflection height and electron density of the D region ionosphere using the first-order mode cutoff frequency of tweek atmospherics. The results observed at both stations show that the mean electron density at the reflection height during winter season was higher than that during summer and equinox seasons. The electron density observed at TNU gradually decreased from 20:15 to 4:15 LT from winter to equinox and to summer. The electron density observed at KAG increased from 20:20 to 4:20 LT during summer and winter seasons. The mean electron density during 2014 observed at TNU (25.0 cm-3) was higher by 2.1 cm-3 than that observed at KAG (22.9 cm-3). During 2014, the nighttime electron density variations show a moderate positive correlation with the sunspot number but show weak to no correlation with the galactic cosmic rays. We suggest that the seasonal variations in the nighttime electron density could be significantly caused by the enhancement of geocoronal hydrogen Lyman α intensity and seasonal variation of nitric oxide density in the lower ionosphere.

  17. Microbial ecology of Vietnamese Tra fish (Pangasius hypophthalmus) fillets during processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong Thi, Anh Ngoc; Noseda, Bert; Samapundo, Simbarashe; Nguyen, Binh Ly; Broekaert, Katrien; Rasschaert, Geertrui; Heyndrickx, Marc; Devlieghere, Frank

    2013-10-15

    There are numerous factors that can have an impact on the microbial ecology and quality of frozen Pangasius hypophthalmus fillets during processing in Vietnam. The presence of spoilage bacteria along the processing line can shorten the shelf-life of thawed frozen fish products. Therefore, the spoilage microbiota throughout the processing chain of two companies (BC: large scale factory, chlorine-based process, BW: large scale factory, water-based process and SC: small scale factory, chlorine-based process) was identified by culture-dependent techniques and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The microbiological counts were observed to be insignificantly different (p>0.05) between BC and BW. Surprisingly, chlorine treated fillets from the SC line were revealed to have significantly higher microbial counts than potable water treated fillets at BW line. This was determined to be a result of temperature abuse during processing at SC, with temperatures even greater than 10 °C being recorded from skinning onwards. On the contrary, the microbiota related to spoilage for BC and BW lines was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing to be more diverse than that on the SC line. A total of 174 isolates, 20 genera and 38 species were identified along the processing chains. The genera Aeromonas, Acinetobacter, Lactococcus and Enterococcus were prevalent at various processing steps on all the processing lines evaluated. A diverse range of isolates belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae such as Providencia, Shigella, Klebsiella, Enterobacter and Wautersiella were isolated from fillets sampled on the SC line whereas Serratia was only observed on fillets sampled on the BC and BW lines. The results can be used to improve Good Manufacturing Practices for processed Pangasius fillets and to select effective measures to prolong the shelf-life of thawed Vietnamese Pangasius fillets products. © 2013.

  18. Association between high sensitivity C-reactive protein and dietary intake in Vietnamese young women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ahra; Kim, Hyesook; Han, Chan-Jung; Kim, Ji-Myung; Chung, Hye-Won

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES High sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is a strong independent predictor of future cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. We evaluated the relationship between hsCRP and dietary intake in apparently healthy young women living in southern Vietnam. SUBJECTS/METHODS Serum hsCRP was measured and dietary intake data were obtained using the 1-day 24-hour recall method in women (n = 956; mean age, 25.0 ± 5.7 years) who participated in the International Collaboration Study for the Construction of Asian Cohort of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES) in 2011. RESULTS Women in the high risk group (> 3 mg/L) consumed fewer fruits and vegetables, total plant food, potassium, and folate than those in the low risk group (< 1 mg/L). A multiple regression analysis after adjusting for covariates revealed a significant negative association between hsCRP and fruit and vegetable consumption. A logistic regression analysis showed that the odds ratio (OR) of having a high hsCRP level in women with the highest quartiles of consumption of fruits and vegetables [OR, 0.391; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.190-0.807], potassium [OR, 0.425; 95% CI, 0.192-0.939] and folate [OR, 0.490; 95% CI, 0.249-0.964] were significantly lower than those in the lowest quartiles. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that, in young Vietnamese women, an increased consumption of fruit and vegetables might be beneficial for serum hsCRP, a risk factor for future CVD events. PMID:25110566

  19. Stress faced by gifted Vietnamese students: what might contribute to it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh Hang Thi Nguyen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Gifted students might have to face an abundance of stress. Nevertheless, very little evidence in Vietnam indicates how much stress those students are experiencing and what might predict it. This study aims to examine the stress level in students of the High School for Gifted Students in Hanoi and factors that might contribute to the stress. Participants and procedure This is a cross sectional study with the participation of 150 students from the High School for Gifted Students, Hanoi. Data were collected from March to April 2015. The first measure was the “Stress Level Test”, which was adapted to the Vietnamese culture to measure academic stress in students. The second measure examined factors contributing to stress: 1 social life, 2 family, 3 school work, 4 personal relationships, 5 well-being, 6 adapting skills. Results The results showed that 74% of students were experiencing mild to medium stress, which was found to be higher in girls and in students who lived away from home. The six predicting factors significantly contribute 17.30% to students’ stress experience, of which school work (p = .001 and students’ well-being (p = .011 can individually predict stress. These outcomes suggested that more attention should be focused on this specific population and more actions need to be taken to help them perform better at school. Conclusions Students of the High School for Gifted Students definitely experienced a considerable amount of stress which was related to school pressure and their well-being. For them to have a better high school life, more recreational and leisure time activities outside the classroom need to take place. In addition, more approachable and functional advisors and counseling personnel would be an ideal solution to this problem.

  20. Rising Sino-Vietnamese tensions in the South China Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Dicke, Vera; Holbig, Heike

    2014-01-01

    In May 2014 China started to drill for oil near the Paracel Islands, an area claimed by both Vietnam and China as territorial waters, which led to considerable diplomatic tensions and violent actions against Chinese enterprises in Vietnam. China's recent activity reveals an increasing assertiveness, which has raised concerns about possible military actions in the South China Sea. One could argue that China's latest undertaking is proof of its increasingly threatening behavior, thereby confirm...

  1. Chinese Soot on a Vietnamese Soup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, X.

    2015-12-01

    Black Carbon (BC) is an aerosol emitted as soot during biomass burning and fossil fuels combustion together with other carbonaceous aerosols such as organic carbon (OC) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). While the impacts of BC on health and climate have been studied for many years, studies about its deposition and impact on marine ecosystems are scares. This is rather surprising considering that a large fraction of atmospheric BC deposits on the surface of the ocean via dry or wet deposition. On a global scale, deposition on the ocean is about 45 Tg C per year, with higher fluxes in the northern hemisphere and in inter-tropical regions, following the occurrence of the hot-spots of concentration. In the present study conducted on shore, in Haiphong and Halong cities, North Vietnam, we measured the seasonal variations of atmospheric BC, OC and PAHs during a complete annual cycle. The presentation will discuss the atmospheric results in terms of seasonal variability and sources. Inputs to the marine system are higher during the dry season, concomitantly with the arrival of air masses enriched in BC coming from the North. However, the carbon fingerprint can significantly differ at shorter time periods depending on the air mass pathway and speed. Our work leads to the characterization and the determination of the relative contribution of more specific sources like local traffic, which includes tourism and fishing boats, coal dust emitted from the nearby mine, and long-range transported aerosols. This variable input of carbonaceous aerosols might have consequences for the cycling and the repartition of carbon and nutrients in the marine ecosystem of Halong Bay.

  2. Systematics of the family Plectopylidae in Vietnam with additional information on Chinese taxa (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Stylommatophora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barna Páll-Gergely

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vietnamese species from the family Plectopylidae are revised based on the type specimens of all known taxa, more than 600 historical non-type museum lots, and almost 200 newly-collected samples. Altogether more than 7000 specimens were investigated. The revision has revealed that species diversity of the Vietnamese Plectopylidae was previously overestimated. Overall, thirteen species names (anterides Gude, 1909, bavayi Gude, 1901, congesta Gude, 1898, fallax Gude, 1909, gouldingi Gude, 1909, hirsuta Möllendorff, 1901, jovia Mabille, 1887, moellendorffi Gude, 1901, persimilis Gude, 1901, pilsbryana Gude, 1901, soror Gude, 1908, tenuis Gude, 1901, verecunda Gude, 1909 were synonymised with other species. In addition to these, Gudeodiscus hemmeni sp. n. and G. messageri raheemi ssp. n. are described from north-western Vietnam. Sixteen species and two subspecies are recognized from Vietnam. The reproductive anatomy of eight taxa is described. Based on anatomical information, Halongella gen. n. is erected to include Plectopylis schlumbergeri and P. fruhstorferi. Additionally, the genus Gudeodiscus is subdivided into two subgenera (Gudeodiscus and Veludiscus subgen. n. on the basis of the morphology of the reproductive anatomy and the radula. The Chinese G. phlyarius werneri Páll-Gergely, 2013 is moved to synonymy of G. phlyarius. A spermatophore was found in the organ situated next to the gametolytic sac in one specimen. This suggests that this organ in the Plectopylidae is a diverticulum. Statistically significant evidence is presented for the presence of calcareous hook-like granules inside the penis being associated with the absence of embryos in the uterus in four genera. This suggests that these probably play a role in mating periods before disappearing when embryos develop. Sicradiscus mansuyi is reported from China for the first time.

  3. The comparative study of resonance disorders for Vietnamese and Korean cleft palate speakers using nasometer

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Yu-Jeong; Kim, Yongsoo; Kim, Hyun-Gi

    2017-01-01

    Background Nasalance is used to evaluate the velopharyngeal incompetence in clinical diagnoses using a nasometer. The aim of this study is to find the nasalance differences between Vietnamese cleft palate children and Korean cleft palate children by measuring the nasalance of five oral vowels. Methods Ten Vietnamese cleft palate children after surgery, three Vietnamese children for the control group, and ten Korean cleft palate children after surgery with the same age participated in this exp...

  4. Quality of Antimicrobial Products Used in Striped Catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) Aquaculture in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phu, Tran Minh; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh; Scippo, Marie-Louise; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial usage is common in Asian aquaculture. This study aimed to determine the quality of antimicrobial products used by Vietnamese striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) farmers. Twenty one antimicrobial products (11 products contained a single antimicrobial and 10 products contained a mixture of two different antimicrobials) commonly used by catfish farmers were obtained from so-called chemical shops located in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry was used to analyze concentration of sulfonamides, trimethoprim, amoxicillin, cefalexin and ciprofloxacin whereas concentrations of florfenicol and doxycycline were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with UV detection. Results revealed that only 4/11 products with a single antimicrobial and 2/10 products with a mixture of antimicrobials contained active substances within ±10% of the concentration declared on the product label. Two products with antimicrobial mixtures did not contain any of the declared antimicrobials. Comparing two batches, analysis of 11 products revealed that only one product contained a concentration of active compound that varied with less than 10% in both batches. Several product labels provided inadequate information on how to calculate therapeutic dosage and further stated withdrawal time despite lack of pharmacokinetic data on the antimicrobials in catfish. There is an urgent need to strengthen approval procedures and in particular regularly to monitor the quality of antimicrobials used in Vietnamese aquaculture.

  5. Quality of Antimicrobial Products Used in Striped Catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) Aquaculture in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phu, Tran Minh; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh; Scippo, Marie-Louise; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial usage is common in Asian aquaculture. This study aimed to determine the quality of antimicrobial products used by Vietnamese striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) farmers. Twenty one antimicrobial products (11 products contained a single antimicrobial and 10 products contained a mixture of two different antimicrobials) commonly used by catfish farmers were obtained from so-called chemical shops located in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry was used to analyze concentration of sulfonamides, trimethoprim, amoxicillin, cefalexin and ciprofloxacin whereas concentrations of florfenicol and doxycycline were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with UV detection. Results revealed that only 4/11 products with a single antimicrobial and 2/10 products with a mixture of antimicrobials contained active substances within ±10% of the concentration declared on the product label. Two products with antimicrobial mixtures did not contain any of the declared antimicrobials. Comparing two batches, analysis of 11 products revealed that only one product contained a concentration of active compound that varied with less than 10% in both batches. Several product labels provided inadequate information on how to calculate therapeutic dosage and further stated withdrawal time despite lack of pharmacokinetic data on the antimicrobials in catfish. There is an urgent need to strengthen approval procedures and in particular regularly to monitor the quality of antimicrobials used in Vietnamese aquaculture. PMID:25897517

  6. Prevalence and correlates of probable adolescent mental health problems reported by parents in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstadter, Ananda B; Richardson, Lisa; Meyer, Alicia; Sawyer, Genelle; Kilpatrick, Dean G; Tran, Trinh Luong; Trung, Lam Tu; Tam, Nguyen Thanh; Tuan, Tran; Buoi, La Thi; Ha, Tran Thu; Thach, Tran Duc; Gaboury, Mario; Acierno, Ron

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of probable mental health problems in an epidemiologic study of Vietnamese adolescents. A secondary aim was to examine the correlates of probable mental health caseness. Interviewers visited 1,914 households that were randomly selected to participate in a multi-agency study of mental health in select provinces of Vietnam. Semi-structured interviews assessed adolescent mental health problems using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) parent informant version, and additionally the interviewers collected information on demographic variables (age, gender, ethnic group, religious affiliation, social capital). The final sample included data on 1,368 adolescents (aged 11-18 years). The average score on the total problem composite of the SDQ scale was 6.66 (SD=4.89), and 9.1% of the sample was considered a case (n=124). Bivariate analyses were conducted to determine which demographic variables were related to the SDQ case/non-case score. All variables except gender were significant in bivariate analyses, and therefore were entered into a logistic regression. Results indicated that age, religion, and wealth remained significant predictors of probable caseness. Overall, prevalence estimates of mental health problems generated by the SDQ were consistent with those reported in the US and other Western and non-Western samples. Results of the current study suggest some concordance of risk and protective factors between Western and Vietnamese youth (i.e., age and SES).

  7. Characterization of breast density in Vietnam and its association with demographic, reproductive and lifestyle factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trieu, Phuong Dung (Yun); Mello-Thoms, Claudia; Peat, Jenny; Do, Thuan Doan; Brennan, Patrick C.

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to investigate patterns of breast density among women in Vietnam and their association with demographic, reproductive and lifestyle features. Mammographic densities of 1,651 women were collected from the two largest breast cancer screening and treatment centers in Ha Noi and Ho Chi Minh city. Putative factors associated with breast density were obtained from self-administered questionnaires which considered demographic, reproductive and lifestyle elements and were provided by women who attended mammography examinations. Results show that a large proportion of Vietnamese women (78.4%) had a high breast density. With multivariable logistic regression, significant associations of high breast density were evident with women with less than 55 years old (OR=3.0), having BMI less than 23 (OR=2.2), experiencing pre-menopausal status (OR=2.9), having less than three children (OR=1.7), and being less than 32 years old when having their last child (OR=1.8). Participants who consumed more than two vegetable servings per day also had an increased risk of higher density (OR=2.6). The findings suggest some unique features regarding mammographic density amongst Vietnamese compared with westernized women.

  8. Phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses of porcine circovirus type 2 among pig farms in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, T M L; Nguyen, B H; Nguyen, V G; Dang, H A; Mai, T N; Tran, T H G; Ngo, M H; Le, V T; Vu, T N; Ta, T K C; Vo, V H; Kim, H K; Park, B K

    2014-12-01

    This study demonstrated the prevalence of Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) among pig farms in Vietnam. Analyses of the genome, capsid protein and phylogeny classified all 30 Vietnamese PCV2 strains as the PCV2b genotype, belonging to the clusters of 1A, 1B, 1C and recombinant forms. Each viral genome was 1767 nucleotides long and shared 96.0-100% nucleotide sequence identity. The amino acid substitutions in the capsid protein of the Vietnamese PCV2 strains were in immunodominant regions, and the majority of strains (24/30) contained a lysine extension at the C-terminus. Bayesian phylogeographic analysis revealed epidemic links of the PCV2 recombinant cluster within and among countries, which supports a circulating recombinant form of PCV2. Further analysis by the Jameson-Wolf antigenic index indicated antigenic alterations at important sites in the capsid protein (sites 131-133) among the recombinant cluster and the other clusters of PCV2b. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Evaluation of Three Adolescent Sexual Health Programs in Ha Noi and Khanh Hoa Province, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Pham

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With an increase in sexual activity among young adults in Vietnam and associated risks, there is a need for evidence-based sexual health interventions. This evaluation of three sexual health programs based on the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT was conducted in 12 communes in Ha Noi, Nha Trang City, and Ninh Hoa District. Inclusion criteria included unmarried youth 15–20 years residing in selected communes. Communes were randomly allocated to an intervention, and participants were randomly selected within each commune. The intervention programs included Vietnamese Focus on Kids (VFOK, the gender-based program Exploring the World of Adolescents (EWA, and EWA plus parental and health provider education (EWA+. Programs were delivered over a ten-week period in the communities by locally trained facilitators. The gender-based EWA program with parental involvement (EWA+ compared to VFOK showed significantly greater increase in knowledge. EWA+ in comparison to VFOK also showed significant decrease at immediate postintervention for intention to have sex. Sustained changes are observed in all three interventions for self-efficacy condom use, self-efficacy abstinence, response efficacy for condoms, extrinsic rewards, and perceived vulnerability for HIV. These findings suggest that theory-based community programs contribute to sustained changes in knowledge and attitudes regarding sexual risk among Vietnamese adolescents.

  10. Quality of Antimicrobial Products Used in Striped Catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus Aquaculture in Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Minh Phu

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial usage is common in Asian aquaculture. This study aimed to determine the quality of antimicrobial products used by Vietnamese striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus farmers. Twenty one antimicrobial products (11 products contained a single antimicrobial and 10 products contained a mixture of two different antimicrobials commonly used by catfish farmers were obtained from so-called chemical shops located in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry was used to analyze concentration of sulfonamides, trimethoprim, amoxicillin, cefalexin and ciprofloxacin whereas concentrations of florfenicol and doxycycline were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with UV detection. Results revealed that only 4/11 products with a single antimicrobial and 2/10 products with a mixture of antimicrobials contained active substances within ±10% of the concentration declared on the product label. Two products with antimicrobial mixtures did not contain any of the declared antimicrobials. Comparing two batches, analysis of 11 products revealed that only one product contained a concentration of active compound that varied with less than 10% in both batches. Several product labels provided inadequate information on how to calculate therapeutic dosage and further stated withdrawal time despite lack of pharmacokinetic data on the antimicrobials in catfish. There is an urgent need to strengthen approval procedures and in particular regularly to monitor the quality of antimicrobials used in Vietnamese aquaculture.

  11. The Development of Four Leading Principles of the Convention on the Rights of the Child in Vietnam´s Juvenile Justice

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    Duc Nguyen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper sheds light on the latest development of four CRC principles in the administration of Vietnam’s juvenile justice after the recent amendment of the Penal Code and Criminal Procedural Code of Vietnam. It also assesses the compatibility of the Vietnamese juvenile justice system compared to international standards elaborated by the CRC Committee. At the same time, certain issues are raised regarding the implementation of such principles in practice. Finally, concluding remarks will be provided together with recommendations on how to develop the juvenile justice system in Vietnam. Keywords: Vietnam’s juvenile justice; Children’s rights; CRC leading principles; juvenile offenders; the rights of the child; non-discrimination; best interests of the child; children’s right to life; survival and development; children’s right to be heard.

  12. A comprehensive checklist of earthworm species and subspecies from Vietnam (Annelida: Clitellata: Oligochaeta: Almidae, Eudrilidae, Glossoscolecidae, Lumbricidae, Megascolecidae, Moniligastridae, Ocnerodrilidae, Octochaetidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tung T; Nguyen, Anh D; Tran, Binh T T; Blakemore, Robert J

    2016-07-25

    The comprehensive checklist of earthworms in Vietnam is presented here listing 24 genera and 212 species arranged in eight families. For each species, bibliographic citations are given, including the original descriptions as well as notable citations affecting taxonomic status or distributional reports of a species. Distributions of each species are also provided. The bibliography contains all relevant papers for Vietnamese earthworms. Of 212 species, 114 have been recorded only in Vietnam, and 25 are cosmopolitan. New combinations are made for Amynthas acalifornicus (Do & Huynh, 1991) comb. nov., A. binhgiaensis (Le, 1994) comb. nov., Metaphire catbaensis (Thai & Le, 1993) comb. nov., M. khoii (Do & Tran, 1994) comb. nov., M. phaluongana (Do & Huynh, 1992) comb. nov., and M. mangophila (Nguyen, 2011) comb. nov., M. tripidoporophoratus (Thai & Nguyen, 1993) comb. nov. Additionally, Pheretima paraalexandri Nguyen, 2011 is treated as a junior synonym of Amynthas polychaetiferus (Thai, 1984).

  13. Religious and Spiritual Dimensions of the Vietnamese Dementia Caregiving Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Ladson; Tran, Jane NhaUyen; Tran, Cindy; Hinton, Devon

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role of religion and spirituality in dementia caregiving among Vietnamese refugee families. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with nine Vietnamese caregivers of persons with dementia, then tape-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed for emergent themes. Caregivers related their spirituality/religion to three aspects of caregiving: (1) their own suffering, (2) their motivations for providing care, and (3) their understanding of the nature of the illness. Key terms or idioms were used to articulate spiritual/religious dimensions of the caregivers’ experience, which included sacrifice, compassion, karma, blessings, grace and peace of mind. In their narratives, the caregivers often combined multiple strands of different religions and/or spiritualities: Animism, Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism and Catholicism. Case studies are presented to illustrate the relationship between religion/spirituality and the domains of caregiving. These findings have relevance for psychotherapeutic interventions with ethnically diverse populations. PMID:20930949

  14. Potential collaboration with the private sector for the provision of ambulatory care in the Mekong region, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha Anh Duc

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the past two decades, health insurance in Vietnam has expanded nationwide. Concurrently, Vietnam's private health sector has developed rapidly and become an increasingly integral part of the health system. To date, however, little is understood regarding the potential for expanding public-private partnerships to improve health care access and outcomes in Vietnam. Objective: To explore possibilities for public-private collaboration in the provision of ambulatory care at the primary level in the Mekong region, Vietnam. Design: We employed a mixed methods research approach. Qualitative methods included focus group discussions with health officials and in-depth interviews with managers of private health facilities. Quantitative methods encompassed facility assessments, and exit surveys of clients at the same private facilities. Results: Discussions with health officials indicated generally favorable attitudes towards partnerships with private providers. Concerns were also voiced, regarding the over- and irrational use of antibiotics, and in terms of limited capacity for regulation, monitoring, and quality assurance. Private facility managers expressed a willingness to collaborate in the provision of ambulatory care, and private providers facilites were relatively well staffed and equipped. The client surveys indicated that 80% of clients first sought treatment at a private facility, even though most lived closer to a public provider. This choice was motivated mainly by perceptions of quality of care. Clients who reported seeking care at both a public and private facility were more satisfied with the latter. Conclusions: Public-private collaboration in the provision of ambulatory care at the primary level in Vietnam has substantial potential for improving access to quality services. We recommend that such collaboration be explored by Vietnamese policy-makers. If implemented, we strongly urge attention to effectively managing such

  15. Identification by the DArTseq method of the genetic origin of the Coffea canephora cultivated in Vietnam and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavito, Andrea; Montagnon, Christophe; Guyot, Romain; Bertrand, Benoît

    2016-11-04

    The coffee species Coffea canephora is commercially identified as "Conilon" when produced in Brazil, or "Robusta" when produced elsewhere in the world. It represents approximately 40 % of coffee production worldwide. While the genetic diversity of wild C. canephora has been well studied in the past, only few studies have addressed the genetic diversity of currently cultivated varieties around the globe. Vietnam is the largest Robusta producer in the world, while Mexico is the only Latin American country, besides Brazil, that has a significant Robusta production. Knowledge of the genetic origin of Robusta cultivated varieties in countries as important as Vietnam and Mexico is therefore of high interest. Through the use of Sequencing-based diversity array technology-DArTseq method-on a collection of C. canephora composed of known accessions and accessions cultivated in Vietnam and Mexico, 4,021 polymorphic SNPs were identified. We used a multivariate analysis using SNP data from reference accessions in order to confirm and further fine-tune the genetic diversity of C. canephora. Also, by interpolating the data obtained for the varieties from Vietnam and Mexico, we determined that they are closely related to each other, and identified that their genetic origin is the Robusta Congo - Uganda group. The genetic characterization based on SNP markers of the varieties grown throughout the world, increased our knowledge on the genetic diversity of C. canephora, and contributed to the understanding of the genetic background of varieties from very important coffee producers. Given the common genetic origin of the Robusta varieties cultivated in Vietnam, Mexico and Uganda, and the similar characteristics of climatic areas and relatively high altitude where they are grown, we can state that the Vietnamese and the Mexican Robusta have the same genetic potential to produce good cup quality.

  16. Exposure to Tobacco Advertising, Promotion Among the Adult Population in Vietnam and Its Implications for Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Le Thi Thanh; Long, Tran Khanh; Van Anh, Tran Thi; Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Giang, Kim Bao; Hai, Phan Thi; Huyen, Doan Thu; Khue, Luong Ngoc; Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Nga, Pham Quynh; Quan, Nguyen The; Linh, Tran Nu Quy; Ha, Nguyen Thanh; Van Minh, Hoang

    2017-10-01

    The Law on Tobacco Control and the Law on Advertisement prohibit the advertising of any tobacco product in Vietnam. Tobacco promotion and marketing are alsostrictly prohibited. However, the violation of tobacco adverting and promotion is still common in Vietnam. This article aims at describing the exposure to tobacco advertising and promotion among the population aged 15+ years in Vietnam based on the data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2015 from the view of the community, identifying any possible associations between the exposure to tobacco advertising and promotion and other individual factors, and discussing its possible public health implications. A cross-sectional study with the nationwide scale. Secondary data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2015 was explored and analyzed. Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regressions were applied in the data analysis. The most common type of adults' exposure to tobacco advertising and promotion was points of sale (8.6%); 9.8% adults exposure to one source of tobacco advertising and 4.0% of them exposed to one source of tobacco promotion. Around 13.3% of Vietnamese adults were exposed to tobacco advertisement, while 2.0% were exposed to tobacco promotion, 5.3% were exposed to both tobacco advertising and promotion, and 16.6% were exposed to tobacco advertising or promotion. Gender, educational level, age, occupation, marital status, socioeconomic status, location (urban, rural), and current smoking status were associated with the exposure to tobacco advertising, tobacco promotion, tobacco advertising and promotion, and tobacco advertising or promotion. Although there are comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising and promotion in Vietnam, adults aged 15+ years still reported their exposure to tobacco advertising and promotion. There should be a strict enforcement of the ban on tobacco advertising and promotion in Vietnam.

  17. Potential collaboration with the private sector for the provision of ambulatory care in the Mekong region, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, Ha Anh; Sabin, Lora L.; Cuong, Le Quang; Thien, Duong Duc; Feeley, Rich

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the past two decades, health insurance in Vietnam has expanded nationwide. Concurrently, Vietnam's private health sector has developed rapidly and become an increasingly integral part of the health system. To date, however, little is understood regarding the potential for expanding public-private partnerships to improve health care access and outcomes in Vietnam. Objective To explore possibilities for public-private collaboration in the provision of ambulatory care at the primary level in the Mekong region, Vietnam. Design We employed a mixed methods research approach. Qualitative methods included focus group discussions with health officials and in-depth interviews with managers of private health facilities. Quantitative methods encompassed facility assessments, and exit surveys of clients at the same private facilities. Results Discussions with health officials indicated generally favorable attitudes towards partnerships with private providers. Concerns were also voiced, regarding the over- and irrational use of antibiotics, and in terms of limited capacity for regulation, monitoring, and quality assurance. Private facility managers expressed a willingness to collaborate in the provision of ambulatory care, and private providers facilites were relatively well staffed and equipped. The client surveys indicated that 80% of clients first sought treatment at a private facility, even though most lived closer to a public provider. This choice was motivated mainly by perceptions of quality of care. Clients who reported seeking care at both a public and private facility were more satisfied with the latter. Conclusions Public-private collaboration in the provision of ambulatory care at the primary level in Vietnam has substantial potential for improving access to quality services. We recommend that such collaboration be explored by Vietnamese policy-makers. If implemented, we strongly urge attention to effectively managing such partnerships, establishing a

  18. Vietnam and the regional crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masina, Pietro Paolo

    2002-01-01

    The paper explores the linkages between Vietnam and the regional economy before and after the East Asian financial crisis of 1997 and 1998, indicating that the country is more closely associated with the region than normally assumed. Thus, key indicators, such as falling foreign direct investment...... (including a restructuring of the so-called 'flying geese' pattern) Vietnam's chances of benefitting from closer integration in the world economy will depend on a clearcut industrial and trade policy, rather than on embarking a so-called 'neutral trade regime'. Preliminary evidence seems to indicate...... that Vietnam can successfully exploit market niches opened up by postcrisis regional economic reorganisation, thus offering some optimism for the country's immediate economic future....

  19. A STUDY OF RELATIONSHIP MARKETING IN THE VIETNAMESE BANKING SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thi Thu Hien

    2006-01-01

    Relationship Marketing has been thought of as a new paradigm in marketing over the last few decades. It has been believed by academics and practitioners that companies can achieve success in the long run by maintaining relationship with their customers and business associates. However, much of the work and understanding of relationship or relational marketing to date focuses on the Western perspective, and hardly any work has been done in the Vietnamese or Asian context. The current literatur...

  20. Cultural influences on safety and health education among Vietnamese fishermen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruth, Ann K; Levin, Jeffrey L; Gilmore, Karen; Bui, Thu; Gallardo, Gilbert; Evert, William; Sealey, Lorinda

    2010-10-01

    Every ethnic group has its own cultural background and history that influences how it views health behaviors. By virtue of their work history, many Vietnamese have pursued the fishing industry when migrating to the United States. Even though the fishing trades are among the most dangerous jobs in the world, there has been little attention in the literature to the significant role that culture plays in the expression and experience of occupational health practices among Vietnamese shrimp fishermen. Three focus group sessions were conducted to identify factors that hinder or facilitate receptivity to available training and to guide culturally appropriate content. Participants were recruited using purposive sampling among various Vietnamese shrimp fishermen communities in Texas. Utilizing a series of open-ended questions, sessions were conducted in their native language among owners/captains/deckhands; support infrastructure--adult family members and religious/community leaders; and industry management and insurance representatives. Translations of transcribed documents were compared with simultaneous translations to ensure thematic consistency. Conducting hands-on training among Vietnamese by experienced fishermen, specifically targeting captains, was considered key to safety culture on the vessels. Findings of the study support that training should occur in a variety of formats (hands-on), but should be periodic, current, practical, convenient, taught in the primary language of the audience by an experienced individual, culminate in a certificate of completion, and target captains first. These findings illustrate the importance of considering cultural factors in the design of workplace interventions that focus on changes in safety and occupational health behaviors.

  1. Vietnamese women at solidarity meeting of world women in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This article summarizes experiences of a Vietnamese delegation at a solidarity meeting of world women during April 13-16, 1998, in Cuba. The President of the Viet Nam Women's Union headed the delegation. The advisor was the vice-chairperson of the Vietnamese National Assembly. The delegation participated in 6 forums: women and sustainable economic development; women, health, education, and social security; women, communication and the mass media; women in politics and decision-making; women, violence and discrimination; and national independence, sovereignty, peace, and women. The delegation also participated in sessions on women's issues; implementation issues; women parliamentarians; and migrant and displaced women. The delegation met with delegates from other countries and participated in a world meeting and an Asian-Pacific meeting to support Cuban women. The entire delegation presented a stage show of songs, which was well received by the 3000 participants. The delegation met with Cuban delegates to discuss the formation of women's groups and to build better relations between the women of both countries. The delegation visited a training center of women cadres and the center for gender education. Participants adopted the Havana Declaration, which states the intention of world women to eradicate poverty and war and to promote peace, progress, and happiness in all countries. The Havana Declaration condemned the US embargo against Cuba. Fidel Castro spoke and expressed gratitude for the strong support from world women, especially Vietnamese women.

  2. Homonegative Attitudes and their Correlates Among Vietnamese College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh Nguyen, Toan; Kimura, Kenichi; Morinaga, Yasuko

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated sex differences in homonegativity and their correlates among 197 Vietnamese college students (males = 49, females = 148, M = 20.9 years, SD = 2.9) in Ho Chi Minh City. The survey included Vietnamese-language versions of four scales measuring attitudes toward homosexuality (ATHS), traditional masculinity ideology, knowledge of homosexuality, and contact experiences with homosexuals. An exploratory factor analysis indicated a 3-factor structure for the ATHS: Homonegativity, Tolerance, and Positive Images. Male respondents reported significantly higher scores on homonegativity. Traditional masculinity ideology was positively related to females' homonegativity, but negatively correlated with tolerant attitudes of both males and females. Knowledge about homosexuality was negatively correlated with homonegativity. Media contact with homosexuals was negatively correlated with males' homonegativity, but positively correlated with both females and males' tolerant attitudes. Results suggest that future research develop a new scale to measure Vietnamese's homonegativity and that media contact as well as ample and accurate knowledge about homosexuality can alter homonegativity. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Health care workers' hand contamination levels and antibacterial efficacy of different hand hygiene methods used in a Vietnamese hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Sharon; Truong, Anh Thu; Nguyen, Viet Hung; Pittet, Didier; McLaws, Mary-Louise

    2014-02-01

    Handwashing with soap or another antisepsis disinfectant solution is a common practice in Vietnam, but the availability and quality of tap water is unpredictable. We assessed the risk for hand contamination and compared the efficacy of 5 hand hygiene methods in a tertiary Vietnamese hospital. Five fingertip imprints of the dominant hand of 134 health care workers (HCWs) were sampled to establish the average bacterial count before and after hand hygiene action using (1) alcohol-based handrub (ABHR), (2) plain soap and water handwashing with filtered and unfiltered water, or (3) 4% chlorhexidine gluconate hand antisepsis with filtered and unfiltered water. Average bacterial contamination of hands before hand hygiene was 1.65 log(10). Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus were the most commonly isolated bacterial pathogens. The highest average count before hand hygiene was recovered from HCWs without direct patient contact (2.10 ± 0.11 log(10)). Bacterial counts were markedly reduced after hand hygiene with ABHR (1.4 log(10); P hand, even without direct patient contact. ABHR as an additional step may overcome the effect of high bacterial counts in unfiltered water when soap and water handwashing is indicated. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Two new species of Begonia sect. Coelocentrum, B. guixiensis and B. longa, from Sino-Vietnamese limestone karsts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ching-I; Ku, Shin-Ming; Yang, Hsun-An; Leong, Wai-Chao; Liu, Yan; Nguyen, Tien Hiep; Kono, Yoshiko; Chung, Kuo-Fang

    2014-12-01

    In our recent molecular phylogenetic study of Asian Begonia, two undescribed species, B. guixiensis sp. ined. (S. Guangxi, China) and B. longa sp. ined. (Vietnam), were sampled and placed within the strongly supported clade composed of Begonia sect. Coelocentrum and other co-distributed rhizomatous species in the Sino-Vietnamese limestone karsts. While Begonia sect. Coelocentrum has been recircumscribed based on the phylogenetic relationships, B. guixiensis sp. ined. and B. longa sp. ined. remain illegitimate names. In continuation of our studies in Asian Begonia, these two new species are described and illustrated. Begonia guixiensis resembles B. cylindrica in the peltate, subcoriaceous leaves, differing by the shape of ovary/fruit and the type of placentation. In aspect, B. longa bears a superficial resemblance to B. brevipedunculata in leaf shape in particular, differing by many other features such as the long internodes, shorter petioles and smaller leaves, longer peduncles and 3-locular ovary. The chromosome number of both new species is determined as 2n = 30. A careful study of the literature, herbarium specimens and living plants, both in the wild and in cultivation in the experimental greenhouse, support the recognition of the two new species, which are described and illustrated herein.

  5. ‘Hu Hong’ (bad thing: parental perceptions of teenagers’ sexuality in urban Vietnam

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    Lan Anh Thi Do

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Teenagers under 18 years old in Vietnam are considered as minors who usually lack the autonomy to make decisions. They are also sometimes viewed as contributors to social evils including crime, violence and substance use. Moreover, most Vietnamese teenagers have unsafe sex before marriage. The objective of this study is to explore the parental perceptions relating to their teenagers’ sexuality, particularly the social and cultural forces, that may hinder access to sexuality information. Methods Guided by a Community Advisory Board (CAB, this qualitative study uses four focus group discussions (FGDs consisting of 12 mothers and 12 fathers, as well as twelve individual in-depth interviews (IDIs with a diverse sample of parents of teens in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC, Vietnam. Content and discourse analysis were conducted, based on Foucauldian concepts. Results Four themes emerged: 1 Meanings of sexuality and sexuality education, 2 Early sexual intercourse destroys teenagers’ future, 3 Teenagers are not hu hong (spoil/bad thing, are innocent and virgin, and 4 Policing and controlling of sexual intercourse among teens. Parents did not view their teenage children as sexual beings; those who are sexual are considered hu hong. Parents believed that teens need to be policed and controlled to prevent them from becoming hu hong, particularly girls. Controlling of sexuality information by parents was therefore common in HCMC, but differed by gender and educational levels of parents. For example, fathers more than mothers were not comfortable teaching their teenage children about sex and sexuality. Parents with higher education police their teenage children’s usage of the Internet and social media, while parents with lower education control who can be friends with their teenage children. Conclusions Vietnamese parents in general have negative views of sex and sexuality education for their teenage children. Recognizing that many

  6. Challenges of the introduction of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages at foreign-language universities in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viet anh Nguyen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In today’s globalized world, it seems necessary, or even indispensable for the teaching/learning of foreign languages to be based on international standards proposed by the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFRL. The present article deals with issues of integration of the CEFRL in the Vietnamese context by analyzing the results of a study of training programs at six universities specializing in foreign languages, which are based in three regions of the country (Northern, Central and Southern Vietnam. Despite some positive changes and the dynamism characteristic of the approach, a mechanical and rigid introduction of CEFRL in foreign-language universities in Vietnam has actually caused several problems. These include (1 the inconsistency between the levels established by the CEFRL and the organization of teaching/learning; (2 the risk of teaching/learning becoming too “utilitarian” and too function-oriented and (3 excessive attention given to the evaluation and assessment of linguistic knowledge and of performance level  rather than on the ability to use various resources as well as to long-term process of competence development. The study results show some possible ways for the development of a referential frame for learning/teaching French in Vietnam.

  7. Genotypic characterization and species identification of Fasciola spp. with implications regarding the isolates infecting goats in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh Giang Thi; Van De, Nguyen; Vercruysse, Jozef; Dorny, Pierre; Le, Thanh Hoa

    2009-12-01

    Ribosomal RNA sequences (361 or 362bp) of the second internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2) and a portion of mitochondrial cox1 (423bp) for Fasciola spp. obtained from specimens collected in indigenous and hybrid goats and sheep in Vietnam were characterized for genotypic status and hybridization/introgression. Alignment of 48 ITS-2 sequences (also those from goats and sheep in this study) indicates that F. gigantica and F. hepatica differ typically from each other at seven sites whereas one of these is a distinguishing deletion (T) at the 327th position in F. gigantica relative to F. hepatica. The isolates from the mountainous goats in the North of Vietnam (Yen Bai province) showed the ITS-2 composition relatively identical to that of F. hepatica. The ITS-2 sequences from populations of Fasciola isolates in goats had probably experienced introgression/hybridization as reported previously in other ruminants and humans. All Vietnamese goat-of-origin specimens had high pairwise percentage of mitochondrial cox1 sequences to F. gigantica (97-100%), and very low identity to F. hepatica (91-93%), suggesting their maternal linkage to be traced to F. gigantica. The presence of hybrid and/or introgressed populations of liver flukes bearing genetic material from both F. hepatica and F. gigantica in the goats/sheep in Vietnam, regardless of indigenous or imported hosts, appears to be the first demonstration from a tropical country.

  8. Legal Adaptation among Vietnamese Refugees in the United States: How International Migrants Litigate Civil Grievances during the Resettlement Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Jeremy; Beger, Randall R.

    2001-01-01

    Examines how Vietnamese refugees use the American legal system to address grievances arising during resettlement and how resettlement affects the pace of their legal adaptation. Data from state and federal civil cases involving Vietnamese litigants indicate that several aspects of Vietnamese litigation match their resettlement process, such as…

  9. Heterogeneity and genetic variations of serotypes O and Asia 1 foot-and-mouth disease viruses isolated in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Van Phan; Nguyen, Tung; Park, Jong-Hyeon; Kim, Su-Mi; Ko, Young-Joon; Lee, Hyang-Sim; Nguyen, Van Cam; Mai, Thuy Duong; Do, Thi Hoa; Cho, In-Soo; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong

    2010-10-26

    Six field foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDVs), including four serotype O and two serotype Asia 1 strains, were collected from endemic outbreaks in 2005, 2006, and 2007 from four different provinces in Vietnam. The viruses were isolated and genetically characterized for their complete genomic sequences. The genetic analysis based on the complete genomic coding sequences revealed that the four serotype O FMDVs were related to each other, sharing 95.2% nucleotide (nt) identity and 97.5-97.6% amino acid (aa) identity. Genetic analysis and a phylogenetic tree, based on the VP1 gene of FMDV, showed that the four present Vietnamese serotype O strains have a high level of identity with other serotype O representatives of the Mya-98 lineage of the Southeast Asian (SEA) topotype. The four viruses were all clustered into the Mya-98 lineage of the SEA topotype, sharing 92.3-95.6% nt and 93.4-96.7% aa identity. This finding of the Mya-98 lineage was different from previous reports that the Vietnamese serotype O strains belonged to the Cam-94 lineage of the SEA topotype and two other topotypes, Middle East-South Asia (ME-SA) and Cathay. For the two serotype Asia 1 FMDVs, the genetic analysis based on the complete genomic coding sequences as well as on the VP1 gene revealed that they belonged to two genogroups, IV and V. Of note, the As1/VN/QT03/2007 strain of genogroup V, isolated in 2007, was very closely related to the pandemic Asia 1 strain which caused FMD outbreaks in China (Asia1/WHN/CHA/06, FJ906802) and Mongolia (Asia1/MOG/05, EF614458) in 2005, sharing 99.0-99.3% nt and 99.5-100% aa identity. In contrast, the second strain As1/VN/LC04/2005 of genogroup IV, isolated in 2005, was closely related to all referenced Vietnamese serotype Asia 1 strains found in the GenBank databases, sharing 86.4-100% nt and 90.9-100% aa identity with each. This study is the first description of the full-length genomic sequence of Vietnamese FMDV serotypes O and Asia 1 and may provide the

  10. From Combat to Legacies: Novels of the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Larry R.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses novels of the Vietnam War, their usefulness, and the interest they hold for students. Considers four categories of Vietnam novels: the Vietnam experience, the war at home, the refugee experience, and the war's effect on the next generation. (SR)

  11. Paragonimus heterotremus Chen and Hsia (1964), in Vietnam: a molecular identification and relationships of isolates from different hosts and geographical origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thanh H; Van De, Nguyen; Blair, David; McManus, Donald P; Kino, Hideto; Agatsuma, Takeshi

    2006-04-01

    Paragonimus heterotremus Chen and Hsia (1964), and paragonimiasis caused by this species is a newly detected disease in Vietnam. Twelve samples of Paragonimus (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda: Digenea: Paragonimidae) from different life-stages (eggs, miracidia, metacercariae, adults from natural and experimental hosts) and host species (crab, dog, cat and human) were collected in different geographical locations in Vietnam. DNA sequences were obtained from each for partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) (387 bp) and the entire second ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) (361 bp). The ITS-2 sequences were identical among all specimens, including those previously reported in GenBank. For cox1, there were sequence differences between specimens from Vietnam (four provinces, different locations) and those from Guangxi (China) and Saraburi (Thailand). Phylogenetic trees inferred from cox1 and ITS-2 sequences using sequence data for 15 P. heterotremus and for other Paragonimus spp. revealed that all P. heterotremus originating from Vietnam, Thailand and China form a distinct group. This information also confirms the identity of the Vietnamese specimens as P. heterotremus.

  12. Greening textile industry in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen Thi Phuong, L.

    2011-01-01

        The textile and garment industry has made a remarkable contribution to the economic development of Vietnam and employs currently a large labor force of 2.5 million people.However, the textile industry is also seen as a most polluting and unsustainable industry due to the use of

  13. What Teachers Say about Addressing Culture in Their EFL Teaching Practices: The Vietnamese Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Long; Harvey, Sharon; Grant, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines Vietnamese EFL teachers' beliefs about the role of culture in language teaching. It also considers how they address culture in their teaching practices in a Vietnamese university. Ethnographic data collected from semi-structured interviews indicated that opportunities for culture to find its way into EFL classroom activities…

  14. Common mutations in G6PD of Vietnamese-Kinh deficient patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DANG THI LAN ANH

    2013-03-20

    Mar 20, 2013 ... This study was conducted to identify the common mutations occurring within the G6PD gene in the G6PD -. Vietnamese deficient patients, which may be the main causative mutations of the G6PD deficiency in. Vietnamese-kinh. Sequencing was performed to detect mutations in the coding region of G6PD ...

  15. Code-Switching in Vietnamese University EFL Teachers' Classroom Instruction: A Pedagogical Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Lynn E.; Nguyen, Thi Hang

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the under-explored phenomenon in Vietnamese tertiary settings of code-switching practised by EFL (English as a foreign language) teachers in classroom instruction, as well as their awareness of this practice. Among the foreign languages taught and learned in Vietnamese universities, English is the most popular. The research…

  16. Common mutations in G6PD of Vietnamese-Kinh deficient patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to identify the common mutations occurring within the G6PD gene in the G6PD - Vietnamese deficient patients, which may be the main causative mutations of the G6PD deficiency in Vietnamese-kinh. Sequencing was performed to detect mutations in the coding region of G6PD gene for 30 ...

  17. Credit Constraints and Determinants of the Cost of Capital in Vietnamese Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the extent to which borrowing constraints restrict firm access to credit and identifies individual, firm, and loan characteristics, which determine the cost of capital in Vietnamese manufacturing. Using direct information from a Vietnamese enterprise survey the paper shows...

  18. HIV and Syphilis Prevalence Among Transgender Women in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Donn; Nguyen, Ngoc Anh; Le, Bao; Toan, Trang; Thien, Dinh Duc; Huyen, Hoang Thi; Mai, Thi Doan Anh; Friedman, Mackey R; Stall, Ron

    2016-12-01

    Globally, transgender women have higher risk for HIV than the general population and men who have sex with men, but there is little data on this population in Vietnam. In 2015 we conducted a biological and behavioral survey of 205 transgender women in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Factors associated with HIV and syphilis infection were assessed through multivariable logistic regression models. Median age was 25 years (range 18-64). Overall prevalence was 18.0 % for HIV and 17.6 % for syphilis. Factors independently associated with HIV infection included risky alcohol use [adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) 3.55, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.53-8.21], amphetamine stimulant use (aOR 2.90, 95 % CI 1.27-6.61), sex with male sex workers (aOR 4.73, 95 % CI 1.72-13.0), and history of sex with an adult before the age of 18 years (aOR 2.97, 95 % CI 1.06-8.34). Two factors associated with syphilis infection were HIV infection (aOR 2.37, 95 % CI 1.03-5.45) and condomless anal sex with casual partners (aOR 2.27, 95 % CI 1.03-5.00). In order to address the HIV and syphilis epidemics in Vietnamese transgender women, interventions are needed to make HIV and sexually transmitted infection screening and treatment more accessible.

  19. Longitudinal associations between bullying and mental health among adolescents in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Ha Thi Hai; Nguyen, Huong Thanh; Campbell, Marilyn A; Gatton, Michelle L; Tran, Nam T; Dunne, Michael P

    2017-02-01

    This study measured bullying roles across an academic year and examined how change in bullying experiences is associated with symptoms of depression, psychological distress, and suicidal ideation among adolescents in Vietnam. 1424 students in middle and high schools completed two self-administered questionnaires, six months apart in 2014-2015. Students who were victimised often and those who were classified as highly involved as both victims and bullies at one or both survey times showed significantly higher levels of depression, psychological distress, and suicidal ideation than other students. The mental health of adolescents who were involved in bullying as a victim or bully remained at low levels was generally similar to those not involved in any bullying. However, females who had stable but low level in victimisation or bully-victim status had worse mental health than males with stable-low-level exposure. This is the first longitudinal analysis of bullying among adolescents in Vietnam. Persistent and frequent bullying was strongly linked with poor mental health for males and females. A new observation is that Vietnamese girls appear to be more sensitive to low level but long-term bullying involvement than were boys.

  20. The Hidden Burden of Trichinellosis in Vietnam: A Postoutbreak Epidemiological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nga Vu Thi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted in Muong Lat town (Thanh Hoa province, North Vietnam, following the confirmed diagnosis of trichinellosis in six patients from that town who had eaten hunted wild boar meat during the Vietnamese lunar year celebration. All inhabitants who declared to have eaten undercooked or raw wild boar meat at the celebration and showed at least one clinical symptom compatible with trichinellosis were included in the study and blood sampled. Anti-Trichinella IgG were determined by ELISA and Western Blot. Seropositive persons were given appropriate albendazole treatment and were followed up. A total of 100 inhabitants met the inclusion criteria. Among these, 30 (30% had antibodies to Trichinella. Serologically confirmed cases had fever (90.0%, myalgia (86.7%, facial oedema (63.3%, diarrhoea (53.3%, and pain of the masseter muscles (43.3%. Eosinophilia was detected in 83.3% of these individuals. Clinical symptoms resolved in all patients during albendazole treatment. The results suggest that only a proportion of the trichinellosis cases had sought health care during the outbreak. There is a need to implement surveillance and better diagnosis for trichinellosis and to set up educational programs to prevent infection in North Vietnam.

  1. The association between child maltreatment and emotional, cognitive, and physical health functioning in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nhu K; Van Berkel, Sheila R; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Alink, Lenneke R A

    2017-04-19

    There is a paucity of research on correlates of child maltreatment in limited-resource countries with a relatively high tolerance of harsh discipline. This Vietnamese study aimed to investigate associations between different types of child maltreatment and child emotional, cognitive, and physical health functioning as well as moderation effects of gender and ethnicity. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 1851 randomly selected students aged 12-17 years. Both self-report and more objective measures (weight, height, study ranking, and a memory test) were used. All types of child maltreatment were associated with emotional dysfunctioning. Life time and past year experiences of physical abuse and life time experiences of sexual abuse and neglect were related to poorer perceived physical health. The study did not find associations between any type of child maltreatment and overweight or underweight status. Regarding cognitive functioning, life time experience of sexual abuse and neglect were related to poorer working memory performance. Noticeably, emotional abuse was related to better academic performance, which might be an indication of "tiger parenting" practice in Vietnam, implying academic performance stimulation at the expense of emotional security. No significant moderation effects by gender and ethnicity were found. Even in a culture in which harsh discipline is normative, child maltreatment was related to negative aspects of child wellbeing including emotional, cognitive, and physical health functioning. Efficient and low-cost interventions on child maltreatment should be developed and conducted in Vietnam as well as other countries with similar contexts.

  2. Alcohol Consumption in Vietnam, and the Use of 'Standard Drinks' to Measure Alcohol Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bui, Tan; Blizzard, C Leigh; Luong, Khue Ngoc; Van Truong, Ngoc Le; Tran, Bao Quoc; Otahal, Petr; Srikanth, Velandai; Nelson, Mark R; Au, Thuy Bich; Ha, Son Thai; Phung, Hai Ngoc; Tran, Mai Hoang; Callisaya, Michele; Gall, Seana

    2016-03-01

    To provide nationally representative data on alcohol consumption in Vietnam and to assess whether reported numbers of 'standard drinks' consumed have evidence of validity (particularly in rural areas where home-made alcohol is consumed from cups of varying size). A nationally representative population-based survey of 14,706 participants (46.5% males, response proportion 64.1%) aged 25-64 years in Vietnam. Measurements were made in accordance with WHO STEPS protocols. Data were analysed using complex survey methods. Among men, 80% reported drinking alcohol during the last year, and 40% were hazardous/harmful drinkers. Approximately 60% of men and alcohol during the last week, with one-in-four of the men reporting having consumed at least five standard drinks on at least one occasion. Numbers of standard drinks reported by men were associated with blood pressure/hypertension, particularly in rural areas (P alcohol consumption was provided by binary responses to questions on whether or not alcohol had been consumed during the reference period. Alcohol use and harmful consumption were common among Vietnamese men but less pronounced than in Western nations. Self-reports of quantity of alcohol consumed in terms of standard drinks had predictive validity for blood pressure and hypertension even in rural areas. However, using detailed measures of consumption resulted in only minor improvements in prediction compared to simple measures. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  3. Plantation livelihoods in central Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulstrup, Andreas Waaben

    2014-01-01

    Social vulnerability to disturbances is influenced by the economic and political context in which actors and institutions both enable and constrain household access to productive resources. These resources are crucial as a means for mitigating, coping, and responding to impacts of natural...... disturbances. The Vietnamese Government has formulated policies aimed at achieving dual objectives of socio-economic development and environmental protection through the expansion of plantation forests. Negative social impacts and worrying environmental trends have been noted by a number of scholars. However...

  4. The Use of Traditional Vietnamese Medicine Among Vietnamese Immigrants Attending an Urban Community Health Center in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Long T; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Davis, Roger B; Nguyen, Giac; Pham, Van; Tringale, Stephen M; Loh, Yen Lin; Gardiner, Paula

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about Traditional Vietnamese Medicine (TVM) and its use among Vietnamese immigrants in the United States. This study aimed to characterize TVM and improve understanding of its use among Vietnamese outpatients attending an urban clinic. This cross-sectional observation study was performed by mailing bilingual surveys to a stratified random sample of 400 Vietnamese adult patients (≥18 years of age) who had visited a community health center in Boston, Massachusetts, at least once in the prior 12 months. The data were analyzed by using descriptive and multivariable regression statistics. The use of TVM and the factors influencing their use were reported. Among the 216 respondents, 68% reported using TVM. Of those users, the median age was 56 years and 68% were female, 51% had lived in the United States for less than 13 years, and 91% spoke English "not well or not at all." Among the 89% who reported using TVM of indigenous origin, 62% used "wind scraping," 35% used herbal pills/products, and 30% used "wind snatching." Sixty-one percent used therapies of foreign origin; of those, 51% used Asian-originated TVM (herbs, 25%; Eastern massage, 23%) and 38% used Western-influenced TVM (diet supplements, 28%; Western massage, 8%). TVM was mostly used for pain conditions (57%), "staying well" (38%), and cough/colds (27%). Forty-five percent ignored the question on revealing TVM use to providers; of those who answered, 57% said "no." Fifty-one percent of TVM users reported using Western medicine for the same problem, while 46% used TVM and Western medicine within 2 days of each other. Self-rated health (odds ratio [OR], 2.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.34-5.06), household size (OR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.04-4.22), and education (OR, 2.65; 95% CI, 1.03-6.80) were associated with TVM use. TVM is an important component of the healthcare of urban Vietnamese and needs to be further investigated. Healthcare providers need to encourage open discussion to better care for

  5. Exploring the Function of the Anti-communist Ideology in the Vietnamese American Diasporic Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Le

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-communist ideology in the Vietnamese American community is increasingly perceived as a destabilizing force. Specifically, there is a shift from a number of younger Vietnamese American scholars in imposing a “critical perspective” on particular formulas and narratives, such as immigrant assimilation, American exceptionalism, “we-win-even-when-we-lose,” and “refugees as a showcase for democracy.” From this perspective, the anti-communist ideology needs to be replaced by a new progressive ideology that can better promote the advancement of the Vietnamese people, here and elsewhere. In this article, the above call to cover the Vietnamese lives from more complex and critical perspectives is seen as an opportunity to revisit the function of the anti-communist ideology, which is embedded in the Vietnamese American diasporic community.

  6. Mineral resources of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kušnír Imrich

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Vietnam je bohatý na nerastné suroviny, ktoré sa nachádzajú prevažne na severe krajiny. Ložiská bauxitov, fosfátov, vzácnych zemín (REE, majú svetový význam. Ale i zásoby celého radu ïalších surovín (ropy, uhlia, zlata, železných rúd, chromitu, cínu, ilmenitu, medi, grafitu, atï. sú významné, ekonomicky ažite¾né a ich potenciál je obrovský. Za uvedené nerastné bohatstvo je „zodpovednᓠrozmanitá geologická stavba krajiny. Taktiež i morfológia a klíma (vlhká, tropická prispeli ku vytvoreniu niektorých ložísk (bauxity v krasových priehlbniach, atï.. Súèasná produkcia, okrem ropy (3,5 Mt/rok, zahròuje: 10,7 Mt uhlia, 3,5 Mt chromitu, asi 1 000 kg zlata, grafitu, kaolínu a mnohé iné minerály. Napriek tomu, je banícky priemysel v porovnaní so surovinovou základòou slabo vyvinutý. K jeho rozvoju urèite prispeje i úèas zahranièných spoloèností, odnedávna prítomných pri prieskume a ažbe surovín urèených pre export. Okrem struèného úvodu do geológie krajiny, obsahuje tento èlánok krátky popis nerastného bohatstva Vietnamu.

  7. Influence of traditional Vietnamese culture on the utilisation of mainstream health services for sexual health issues by second-generation Vietnamese Australian young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, Helen; Liamputtong, Pranee

    2009-03-01

    The present paper discusses the impact the traditional Vietnamese culture has on the uptake of mainstream health services for sexual health matters by Vietnamese Australian young women. It is part of a wider qualitative study that explored the factors that shaped the sexual behaviour of Vietnamese Australian young women living in Australia. A Grounded Theory methodology was used, involving in-depth interviews with 15 Vietnamese Australian young women aged 18 to 25 years who reside in Victoria, Australia. The findings demonstrated that the ethnicity of the general practitioner had a clear impact on the women utilising the health service. They perceived that a Vietnamese doctor would hold the traditional view of sex as held by their parents' generation. They rationalised that due to cultural mores, optimum sexual health care could only be achieved with a non-Vietnamese health professional. It is evident from the present study that cultural influences can impact on the sexual health of young people from culturally diverse backgrounds and in Australia's multicultural society, provision of sexual health services must acknowledge the specific needs of ethnically diverse young people.

  8. Entry modes of European firms in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Simonet

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to explore the entry modes of EU firms setting up operations in Vietnam. Design/methodology/approach: we use a case study approach on Haymarket, Cadbury, Creative Education, Fairchild, Aventis and Artemisinin and Farming International using interviews from managerial professionals in Vietnam. Findings: Despite the fact that Vietnam has been opening up for more than 20 years, licensing is the preferred entry mode because of the risks involved in ventur...

  9. Launching Nuoc Phan Lan brand in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Huydong

    2015-01-01

    Environmental issues are emerging as another side of economic development in Vietnam. From Finland, through its strong network in South East Asia, Finnish Water Forum recognised the opportunity and the need of having a Finnish brand promoting Finnish water expertise in the environmental sector, especially water treatment in Vietnam. The research objective is to launch the brand successfully in Vietnam within 2014. In order to achieve that, this paper describes carefully the process of bu...

  10. Quality of life outcomes of antiretroviral treatment for HIV/AIDS patients in Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bach Xuan Tran

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study assessed health-related quality of life (HRQOL and its related factors in HIV/AIDS patients taking antiretroviral treatment (ART in Vietnam. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1016 patients (36.2% women, mean age = 35.4 in three epicenters of Vietnam, including Hanoi, Hai Phong, and Ho Chi Minh City. HRQOL was assessed using the Vietnamese version of the WHOQOL-HIV BREF. Factor analysis classified measure items into six HRQOL dimensions, namely Physical, Morbidity, Social, Spirituality, Performance, and Environment. Tobit censored regression models were applied to determine associations of patient's characteristics and HRQOL domain scores. RESULTS: Internal consistency reliability of the six domains ranged from 0.69 to 0.89. The WHOQOL-HIV BREF had a good discriminative validity with patient's disease stages, CD4 cell counts, and duration of ART. In a band score of (4, 20, six domains were moderate; "Environment" had the highest score (13.8±2.8, and "Social" had the lowest score (11.2±3.3. Worse HRQOL were observed in patients at provincial and district clinics. Those patients who were male, had higher educational attainment, and are employed, reported better HRQOL. In reduced regression models, poorer HRQOL was found in patients who had advanced HIV infection and had CD4 cell count <200 cells/mL. Patients reported significantly poorer Physical and Social in the 1(st year ART, but moderately better Performance, Morbidity, Spirituality, and Environment from the 2(nd year ART, compared to those not-yet-on ART. CONCLUSION: Strengthening the quality of ART services at the provincial and district levels, gender-specific impact mitigation, and early treatment supports are recommended for further expansion of ART services in Vietnam. Regular assessments of HRQOL may provide important indicators for monitoring and evaluating HIV/AIDS services.

  11. mHealth information for migrants: an e-health intervention for internal migrants in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Lan Thi Hoang; Nguyen, Ngan Thi Kim; Tran, Hanh Thi Duc; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2016-05-14

    Socio-economic development in Vietnam has resulted in increased internal migration particularly among young women seeking employment opportunities in cities. Vietnamese female migrants who enter new environments often encounter the loss or neglect of their right to access sexual and reproductive health services. To address this, a mobile health (mHealth) intervention model was implemented over 12 months (2013-2014) in a factory in the Long Bien industrial zone of Hanoi, Vietnam. The intervention provided sexual and reproductive health services for female migrants through text messaging, information booklets accompanied maps, and free counseling via a hotline. To evaluate the impact of the intervention, pre- and post-intervention data were collected to measure changes in women's knowledge and practices related to sexual and reproductive health. Qualitative data in the form of personal interviews were also collected. The sample size for the baseline survey was 411 women, and for the post-intervention survey it was 482 women (the intervention involved an open cohort). The majority of women were unmarried and under the age of 25. Results indicate that there was high uptake of the intervention services and that most women found the services important and useful. In addition, there was evidence that the intervention (1) increased women's knowledge of sexual and reproductive health (e.g., proper use of condoms, identification of high-risk behaviors such as having unprotected sex), and (2) fostered improved practices related to sexual and reproductive health (e.g., increased gynecological check-ups and use of condoms). The study demonstrated the feasibility of implementing a multi-faceted intervention for migrant women working in an industrial zone in Hanoi, Vietnam as well as its successful uptake and some early positive effects. This can be used to inform future design and implementation of mHealth/eHealth intervention models for migrant and other vulnerable/hard to

  12. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastroduodenal diseases in Vietnam: a cross-sectional, hospital-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tung L; Uchida, Tomohisa; Tsukamoto, Yoshiyuki; Trinh, Dung T; Ta, Long; Mai, Bang H; Le, Song H; Thai, Ky D; Ho, Dung D; Hoang, Hai H; Matsuhisa, Takeshi; Okimoto, Tadayoshi; Kodama, Masaaki; Murakami, Kazunari; Fujioka, Toshio; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Moriyama, Masatsugu

    2010-09-30

    The rate of H. pylori infection in Vietnam is reportedly high, but the spectrum of H. pylori-associated gastroduodenal diseases has not been systematically investigated. Moreover, despite the similarities of ethnicity and diet, the age-standardized incidence rate of gastric cancer in the northern city of Hanoi is higher than that in the southern city of Ho Chi Minh, but the reason for this phenomenon is unknown. The virulence of Vietnamese H. pylori has also not been investigated in detail. Individuals undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy were randomly recruited. H. pylori infection status was determined based on the combined results of culture, histology, immunohistochemistry, rapid urine test and serum ELISA. Peptic ulcer (PU) and gastroesophageal reflux disease was diagnosed by endoscopy, and chronic gastritis was determined histologically. H. pylori virulence factors were investigated by PCR and sequencing. Among the examined patients, 65.6% were infected with H. pylori. The prevalence of infection was significantly higher in those over 40 years of age than in those aged ≤40. Chronic gastritis was present in all H. pylori-infected individuals, 83.1% of whom had active gastritis, and 85.3% and 14.7% had atrophy and intestinal metaplasia, respectively. PU was present in 21% of infected patients, whereas its incidence was very low in non-infected individuals. The prevalence of PU was significantly higher in Hanoi than in Ho Chi Minh. The prevalence of vacA m1, which has been identified as an independent risk factor for PU in Vietnam, was significantly higher among H. pylori isolates from Hanoi than among those from Ho Chi Minh. H. pylori infection is common in Vietnam and is strongly associated with PU, active gastritis, atrophy and intestinal metaplasia. vacA m1 is associated with an increased risk for PU and might contribute to the difference in the prevalence of PU and gastric cancer between Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh.

  13. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastroduodenal diseases in Vietnam: a cross-sectional, hospital-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The rate of H. pylori infection in Vietnam is reportedly high, but the spectrum of H. pylori-associated gastroduodenal diseases has not been systematically investigated. Moreover, despite the similarities of ethnicity and diet, the age-standardized incidence rate of gastric cancer in the northern city of Hanoi is higher than that in the southern city of Ho Chi Minh, but the reason for this phenomenon is unknown. The virulence of Vietnamese H. pylori has also not been investigated in detail. Methods Individuals undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy were randomly recruited. H. pylori infection status was determined based on the combined results of culture, histology, immunohistochemistry, rapid urine test and serum ELISA. Peptic ulcer (PU) and gastroesophageal reflux disease was diagnosed by endoscopy, and chronic gastritis was determined histologically. H. pylori virulence factors were investigated by PCR and sequencing. Results Among the examined patients, 65.6% were infected with H. pylori. The prevalence of infection was significantly higher in those over 40 years of age than in those aged ≤40. Chronic gastritis was present in all H. pylori-infected individuals, 83.1% of whom had active gastritis, and 85.3% and 14.7% had atrophy and intestinal metaplasia, respectively. PU was present in 21% of infected patients, whereas its incidence was very low in non-infected individuals. The prevalence of PU was significantly higher in Hanoi than in Ho Chi Minh. The prevalence of vacA m1, which has been identified as an independent risk factor for PU in Vietnam, was significantly higher among H. pylori isolates from Hanoi than among those from Ho Chi Minh. Conclusions H. pylori infection is common in Vietnam and is strongly associated with PU, active gastritis, atrophy and intestinal metaplasia. vacA m1 is associated with an increased risk for PU and might contribute to the difference in the prevalence of PU and gastric cancer between Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh. PMID

  14. The incidence of primary antibiotic resistance of Helicobacter pylori in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binh, Tran Thanh; Shiota, Seiji; Nguyen, Lam Tung; Ho, Dung D Q; Hoang, Hai H; Ta, Long; Trinh, Dung T; Fujioka, Toshio; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2012-01-01

    Goals To determine the susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from a Vietnamese population to 5 antibiotics. Background The incidence of antibiotic resistance in H. pylori infection is increasing worldwide and has become a leading cause for failure of treatment. Antibiotic susceptibility testing is very important to provide optimal regimens in a clinical setting. Study We isolated 103 H. pylori strains from the gastric mucosa of H. pylori-infected patients from 2 areas in Vietnam (Ho Chi Minh and Hanoi) in 2008. Epsilometer test was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations of amoxicillin (AMX), clarithromycin (CLR), metronidazole (MNZ), levofloxacin (LVFX), and tetracycline (TC). Results Among the 103 strains, the resistance rates were 0% (AMX), 33% (CLR), 69.9% (MNZ), 18.4% (LVFX), and 5.8% (TC). The resistant strains showed a high-level of resistance (≥256 μg/mL) to CLR, 23.5% (8/34), and MNZ, 29.1% (21/72). The resistance rate for CLR was significantly higher in Ho Chi Minh than in Hanoi (49% vs. 18.5%, P = 0.001). Resistance to both CLR and MNZ was most commonly observed (24.3%). Two strains (1.9%) were resistant to 4 of the 5 antibiotics. No significant association was observed between antibiotic resistance rates and age, gender, or clinical outcomes of the patients. Conclusions High incidence of resistance to CLR and MNZ suggests that standard triple therapies may not be useful as first-line treatment in Vietnam. Alternative strategies such as bismuth-based quadruple therapies or sequential therapy may be more effective in Vietnam. PMID:23090037

  15. Nutritional status and feeding practices in gastrointestinal surgery patients at Bach Mai Hospital, Hanoi, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lorraine S; Huong, Pham Thi Thu; Lam, Nguyen Thi; Thu, Nghiem Nguyet; Van, Ha Thi; Hanh, Nguyen Lien; Tuyen, Le Danh; Lien, Dinh Thi Kim; Hoc, Tran Hieu; Tuyet, Chu Thi; Anh, Nguyen Quoc; Henry, Elizabeth G; Lenders, Carine M; Gura, Kathleen M; Bigornia, Sherman J; Apovian, Caroline M; Ziegler, Thomas R

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives The nutritional status and hospital feeding practices of surgical patients in Vietnam are not well documented. Based on a cross-sectional study at Bach Mai Hospital (BMH), the prevalence of malnutrition was found to be 33% in the surgical ward using a body mass index (BMI<18.5 kg/m2. We conducted an observational study over a three month period to evaluate the feeding practices in the gastrointestinal (GI) surgery ward at Bach Mai Hospital (BMH) in Hanoi, Vietnam. Methods and Study Design Investigators from the U.S. and the Vietnamese National Institute of Nutrition (NIN) enrolled 72 subjects admitted for elective GI surgery in an observational study at BMH. Baseline anthropometrics and changes over time, body mass index (BMI), Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) and daily kcal and protein intake from oral diet, tube feeding, and parenteral nutrition (PN) from admission until discharge were documented. Results A total of 50% of subjects scored a B or C on the SGA; 48% of subjects had a BMI<18.5, while mean mid upper arm circumference was in the low-normal range (24±4 cm). Nearly all patients (98%) were given PN postoperatively, with oral feeding starting on an average of postoperative day 4. Only one patient was tube fed. Mean daily total calorie intake was 15 kcal/kg/day and protein intake was 0.61 g/kg/day during hospitalization. Micronutrient supplementation was minimal in subjects receiving PN. Conclusions Hospital malnutrition in surgical patients in Vietnam is a significant problem, peri-operative feeding appears suboptimal and use of early postoperative PN was routine. PMID:27440685

  16. Betel quid chewing, oral cancer and other oral mucosal diseases in Vietnam: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichart, P A; Nguyen, X H

    2008-10-01

    Betel quid chewing (BQC) in Vietnam is still prevalent, however, no detailed information about its association with oral cancer and pre-cancer are available in the English literature. Respective online searches (PubMed, Medline) were negative. Relevant publications in Vietnamese were collected by the authors and translated. Visits to cancer centres and institutes of odontology (Ho Chi Minh City, Hanoi) were made and seminars with respective scientists were held. Field excursions to local markets and interviews with betel quid vendors and individual BQ chewers gave further insights. Generally, BQC is on the decline in Vietnam. 6.7% of the female population still seems to indulge in this habit. In an earlier study, a prevalence of 0.06% of oral cancer was reported. In a study of 1084 cases of oral cancer, the male:female ratio was 1.05:1 (1997). The age group between 60 and 75 years is most often affected by oral cancer. In BQ chewing women, the buccal mucosa (27.9%), tongue (23.1%) and lips (22.4%) are most often affected. Verrucous carcinoma is seen in the age group 70-79 years with women most often being affected (male:female ratio 1:3.4). The most important risk factor for oral cancer in women is BQC compared with men where smoking, alcohol drinking or combined smoking and drinking habits are the most common risk factors. Oral leukoplakia in BQ chewers is observed in 3.8%, oral submucous fibrosis in 13%. BQC in Vietnam is on the decline. Association between BQC and oral cancer in elderly women is still of importance. Eventually, the BQC habit will vanish and only play a role in socio-ritual contexts.

  17. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastroduodenal diseases in Vietnam: a cross-sectional, hospital-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okimoto Tadayoshi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate of H. pylori infection in Vietnam is reportedly high, but the spectrum of H. pylori-associated gastroduodenal diseases has not been systematically investigated. Moreover, despite the similarities of ethnicity and diet, the age-standardized incidence rate of gastric cancer in the northern city of Hanoi is higher than that in the southern city of Ho Chi Minh, but the reason for this phenomenon is unknown. The virulence of Vietnamese H. pylori has also not been investigated in detail. Methods Individuals undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy were randomly recruited. H. pylori infection status was determined based on the combined results of culture, histology, immunohistochemistry, rapid urine test and serum ELISA. Peptic ulcer (PU and gastroesophageal reflux disease was diagnosed by endoscopy, and chronic gastritis was determined histologically. H. pylori virulence factors were investigated by PCR and sequencing. Results Among the examined patients, 65.6% were infected with H. pylori. The prevalence of infection was significantly higher in those over 40 years of age than in those aged ≤40. Chronic gastritis was present in all H. pylori-infected individuals, 83.1% of whom had active gastritis, and 85.3% and 14.7% had atrophy and intestinal metaplasia, respectively. PU was present in 21% of infected patients, whereas its incidence was very low in non-infected individuals. The prevalence of PU was significantly higher in Hanoi than in Ho Chi Minh. The prevalence of vacA m1, which has been identified as an independent risk factor for PU in Vietnam, was significantly higher among H. pylori isolates from Hanoi than among those from Ho Chi Minh. Conclusions H. pylori infection is common in Vietnam and is strongly associated with PU, active gastritis, atrophy and intestinal metaplasia. vacA m1 is associated with an increased risk for PU and might contribute to the difference in the prevalence of PU and gastric cancer between

  18. Road traffic related mortality in Vietnam: Evidence for policy from a national sample mortality surveillance system

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    Ngo Anh D

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Road traffic injuries (RTIs are among the leading causes of mortality in Vietnam. However, mortality data collection systems in Vietnam in general and for RTIs in particular, remain inconsistent and incomplete. Underlying distributions of external causes and body injuries are not available from routine data collection systems or from studies till date. This paper presents characteristics, user type pattern, seasonal distribution, and causes of 1,061 deaths attributable to road crashes ascertained from a national sample mortality surveillance system in Vietnam over a two-year period (2008 and 2009. Methods A sample mortality surveillance system was designed for Vietnam, comprising 192 communes in 16 provinces, accounting for approximately 3% of the Vietnamese population. Deaths were identified from commune level data sources, and followed up by verbal autopsy (VA based ascertainment of cause of death. Age-standardised mortality rates from RTIs were computed. VA questionnaires were analysed in depth to derive descriptive characteristics of RTI deaths in the sample. Results The age-standardized mortality rates from RTIs were 33.5 and 8.5 per 100,000 for males and females respectively. Majority of deaths were males (79%. Seventy three percent of all deaths were aged from 15 to 49 years and 58% were motorcycle users. As high as 80% of deaths occurred on the day of injury, 42% occurred prior to arrival at hospital, and a further 29% occurred on-site. Direct causes of death were identified for 446 deaths (42% with head injuries being the most common cause attributable to road traffic injuries overall (79% and to motorcycle crashes in particular (78%. Conclusion The VA method can provide a useful data source to analyse RTI mortality. The observed considerable mortality from head injuries among motorcycle users highlights the need to evaluate current practice and effectiveness of motorcycle helmet use in Vietnam. The high number of

  19. Expenditure Analysis of HIV Testing and Counseling Services Using the Cascade Framework in Vietnam.

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    Van Thu Nguyen

    Full Text Available Currently, HIV testing and counseling (HTC services in Vietnam are primarily funded by international sources. However, international funders are now planning to withdraw their support and the Government of Vietnam (GVN is seeking to identify domestic funding and generate client fees to continue services. A clear understanding of the cost to sustain current HTC services is becoming increasingly important to facilitate planning that can lead to making HTC and other HIV services more affordable and sustainable in Vietnam. The objectives of this analysis were to provide a snapshot of current program costs to achieve key program outcomes including 1 testing and identifying PLHIV unaware of their HIV status and 2 successfully enrolling HIV (+ clients in care.We reviewed expenditure data reported by 34 HTC sites in nine Vietnamese provinces over a one-year period from October 2012 to September 2013. Data on program outcomes were extracted from the HTC database of 42,390 client records. Analysis was carried out from the service providers' perspective.The mean expenditure for a single client provided HTC services (testing, receiving results and referral for care/treatment was US $7.6. The unit expenditure per PLHIV identified through these services varied widely from US $22.8 to $741.5 (median: $131.8. Excluding repeat tests, the range for expenditure to newly diagnose a PLHIV was even wider (from US $30.8 to $1483.0. The mean expenditure for one successfully referred HIV client to care services was US $466.6. Personnel costs contributed most to the total cost.Our analysis found a wide range of expenditures by site for achieving the same outcomes. Re-designing systems to provide services at the lowest feasible cost is essential to making HIV services more affordable and treatment for prevention programs feasible in Vietnam. The analysis also found that understanding the determinants and reasons for variance in service costs by site is an important

  20. Challenges in detection and treatment of multidrug resistant tuberculosis patients in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Thuy Thi Thanh; Nguyen, Nhung Viet; Dinh, Sy Ngoc; Nguyen, Hoa Binh; Cobelens, Frank; Thwaites, Guy; Nguyen, Huong Thien; Nguyen, Anh Thu; Wright, Pamela; Wertheim, Heiman F L

    2015-09-29

    Vietnam is ranked 14(th) among 27 countries with high burden of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). In 2009, the Vietnamese government issued a policy on MDR-TB called Programmatic Management of Drug-resistant Tuberculosis (PMDT) to enhance and scale up diagnosis and treatment services for MDR-TB. Here we assess the PMDT performance in 2013 to determine the challenges to the successful identification and enrollment for treatment of MDR-TB in Vietnam. In 35 provinces implementing PMDT, we quantified the number of MDR-TB presumptive patients tested for MDR-TB by Xpert MTB/RIF and the number of MDR-TB patients started on second-line treatment. In addition, existing reports and documents related to MDR-TB policies and guidelines in Vietnam were reviewed, supplemented with focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with MDR-TB key staff members. 5,668 (31.2 %) of estimated 18,165 MDR-TB presumptive cases were tested by Xpert MTB/RIF and second-line treatment was provided to 948 out of 5100 (18.7 %) of MDR-TB patients. Those tested for MDR-TB were 340/3224 (10.5 %) of TB-HIV co-infected patients and 290/2214 (13.1 %) of patients who remained sputum smear-positive after 2 and 3 months of category I TB regimen. Qualitative findings revealed the following challenges to detection and enrollment of MDR-TB in Vietnam: insufficient TB screening capacity at district hospitals where TB units were not available and poor communication and implementation of policy changes. Instructions for policy changes were not always received, and training was inconsistent between training courses. The private sector did not adequately report MDR-TB cases to the NTP. The proportion of MDR-TB patients diagnosed and enrolled for second-line treatment is less than 20 % of the estimated total. The low enrollment is largely due to the fact that many patients at risk are missed for MDR-TB screening. In order to detect more MDR-TB cases, Vietnam should intensify case finding of MDR-TB by a

  1. The informal sector wage gap among Vietnamese micro-firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torm, Nina Elisabeth; Rand, John

    2012-01-01

    Based on unique firm survey data from 2009, this paper examines the wage differential between formal and informal manufacturing household enterprises in Vietnam. Using the Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition method, we investigate whether the wage gap is attributed mostly to differences in observable...

  2. Anemia, malaria and hookworm infections in a Vietnamese ethnic minority

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Hung, Q.; de Vries, Peter J.; Giao, Phan T.; Binh, Tran Q.; Nam, Nguyen V.; Kager, Piet A.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anemia and evaluate the relationship of malaria and helminth infections on anemia status in Phan Tien village, a mountainous ethnic minority community in southern Vietnam. This longitudinal study was performed from April 1997 to 2000 by

  3. Impact of Transport Costs on Vietnamese Textile Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Huong, Trinh Thi Thu

    2017-01-01

    Transport cost is a critical component that structure price of goods at destination points in international trade. This research explored and analysed transport cost and its impact on export by investigating the relationship between transport cost and export of textile (a specific sector) in Vietnam (a developing country) from 2012 to 2014.

  4. Evaluation of the optimum protein requirements for Vietnamese pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, K.T.

    2010-01-01

    The studies reported in this thesis were carried out in Central Vietnam where pig production plays an important role and pig farmers face a general dietary protein shortage for their animals. The objectives of the work presented were (1) to investigate the crude protein (CP) supply to local Mong Cai

  5. The impact of minimum wage adjustments on Vietnamese wage inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Rand, John; Torm, Nina

    Using Vietnamese Labour Force Survey data we analyse the impact of minimum wage changes on wage inequality. Minimum wages serve to reduce local wage inequality in the formal sectors by decreasing the gap between the median wages and the lower tail of the local wage distributions. In contrast, local...... wage inequality is increased in the informal sectors. Overall, the minimum wages decrease national wage inequality. Our estimates indicate a decrease in the wage distribution Gini coefficient of about 2 percentage points and an increase in the 10/50 wage ratio of 5-7 percentage points caused...

  6. Juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus onset patterns in Vietnamese children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dung, Nguyen Thi Ngoc; Loan, Huynh Thoai; Nielsen, Susan

    2013-01-01

    to have systemic lupus erythematosus (f/m = 4/1) were referred to the Ho Chi Minh City Children's Hospital No.1 during a 12-month period in 2009. RESULTS: The mean age at diagnosis was 12.8 years (SD = 2.5). Thirty-seven (82%) fulfilled criteria for lupus nephritis (LN). At diagnosis, impressively high...... No. 1 during a16 month period from 2008-2009. These patients had a strikingly high prevalence of Coombs positive anaemia, a high prevalence of lupus nephritis, and very high SLEDAI and ECLAM scores at the time of diagnosis. While there may be referral biases, our Vietnamese SLE patients appear...

  7. Willingness to Pay for Social Health Insurance in Central Vietnam

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    Lan Hoang Nguyen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundA social health insurance (SHI program was implemented in Vietnam in 1992. Participation is compulsory for some groups, such as formal-sector workers and voluntary for other groups. In 2013, 68% of the total population was covered by SHI, with most enrollees from compulsory groups. Enrollment has remained low among persons whose enrollment is voluntary. As a result, households face financial risk due to high out-of-pocket payments for health care. The goal of this study is to identify willingness to pay (WTP for the SHI scheme among persons whose enrollment is voluntary and to examine factors that influence their choice.MethodThree hundred thirty-one uninsured persons from three districts and one city of Thua Thien Hue province were interviewed face to face using a structured questionnaire. Contingent valuation technique was used to assess the WTP among the study participants. Each individual was asked to choose the maximum premium they were willing to pay for a health insurance card per year with three copayment levels of 0, 10, and 20%. Seven premium levels were offered ranging from 0 to 900,000 Vietnamese Dong (VND (42.12 USD. The mean WTP of respondents for each scenario was estimated. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to identify factors influencing WTP for SHI.ResultsThe survey found that 73.1, 72.2, and 71.6%, respectively, for each copayment level, of the respondents would agree to participate in the SHI scheme and are willing to pay an annual premium of 578,926 VND (27.1 USD; 473,222 VND (22.1 USD; and 401,266 VND (18.8 USD at the copayment levels of 0, 10, and 20%, respectively. The WTP for SHI is influenced by knowledge of SHI at all copayment levels (p value < 0.05. The more knowledge about SHI individuals have, the higher the WTP amount. Chronic disease was related to WTP only at a copayment level of 20% (p = 0.049.ConclusionEnhanced awareness of the benefits of SHI among the population should contribute

  8. The comparative study of resonance disorders for Vietnamese and Korean cleft palate speakers using nasometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yu-Jeong; Kim, Yongsoo; Kim, Hyun-Gi

    2017-12-01

    Nasalance is used to evaluate the velopharyngeal incompetence in clinical diagnoses using a nasometer. The aim of this study is to find the nasalance differences between Vietnamese cleft palate children and Korean cleft palate children by measuring the nasalance of five oral vowels. Ten Vietnamese cleft palate children after surgery, three Vietnamese children for the control group, and ten Korean cleft palate children after surgery with the same age participated in this experimentation. Instead of Korean control, the standard value of Korean version of the simplified nasometric assessment procedures (kSNAP) was used. The results are as follows: (1) the highest nasalance score among the Vietnamese normal vowels is the low vowel /a/; however, that of Korean normal vowels is the high vowel /i/. (2) The average nasalance score of Korean cleft palate vowels is 18% higher than that of Vietnamese cleft palate vowels. There was a nasalance score of over 45% among the vowels /e/ and /i/ in Vietnamese cleft palate patients and /i/, /o/, and /u/ in Korean cleft palate patients. These different nasalance scores of the same vowels seem to cause an ethnic difference between Vietnamese and Korean cleft palate children.

  9. Economic Instruments and the Pollution Impact of the 2006-2010 Vietnam Socio-Economic Development Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Tarp, Finn; Xuan, Hong Vu

    The current study derives optimal growth paths for pollution emission charges, in order to control future water pollution emissions in the Vietnamese manufacturing sector. The study builds on a prior study, which estimated the manufacturing sector pollution impact of the 2006- 2010 SEDP development...... plan for Vietnam (Jensen et al.; 2008). The current study demonstratesthat effective implementation and moderate expansion of optimal emission charges, under certain conditions, could have been used, as part of the 2006-2010 SEDP development plan, to control pollution emissions at 2005 levels. Moreover......, such a scenario would have been accompanied by a moderate expansion in fiscal revenues and a relatively minor economy-wide efficiency loss. The current study, therefore, suggests that effective implementation and gradual expansion of pollution emission charges should be incorporated into future SEDP development...

  10. Exchange rate determination in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Thai-Ha Le

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the determinants of the exchange rate in Vietnam and suggests policy implications. Gregory-Hansen cointegration tests and generalised variance decomposition (VDC) analysis were applied to monthly data from July 2004 to December 2013. The model was built based on the three popular approaches to exchange rate determination, which are purchasing power parity (PPP) approach, balance of payment (BOP) approach, and monetary and portfolio approach. This study finds that the p...

  11. Why do adult women in Vietnam take iron tablets?

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    Zhao Yun

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conducting iron supplementation programs has been a major strategy to reduce iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy. However, only a few countries have reported improvements in the anemia rate at a national level. The strategies used for control of nutrition problems need regular review to maintain and improve their effectiveness. The objective of this study was to analyze the factors in compliance with taking iron tablets, where daily doses of iron (60 mg and folic acid (400 μg were distributed in rural Vietnamese communes. Methods A cross sectional survey was conducted in Nghe An province, Vietnam in January, 2003. The study population was adult women aged less than 35 years who delivered babies between August 1st 2001 and December 1st 2002 (n = 205, of which 159 took part in the study. Data for the study were collected from a series of workshops with community leaders, focus group discussions with community members and a questionnaire survey. Results Improvements in the rate of anemia was not given a high priority as one of the commune's needs, but the participants still made efforts to continue taking iron tablets. Two major factors motivated the participants to continue taking iron tablets; their experience of fewer spells of dizziness (50%, and their concern for the health of their newborn baby (54%. When examining the reasons for taking iron tablets for at least 5–9 months, the most important factor was identified as 'a frequent supply of iron tablets' (OR = 11.93, 95% CI: 4.33–32.85. Conclusion The study found that multiple poor environmental risk factors discouraged women from taking iron tablets continuously. The availability (frequent supply of iron tablets was the most effective way to help adult women to continue taking iron tablets.

  12. Reproductive tract infections in women seeking abortion in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, My Huong; Kurtzhals, Jørgen; Do, Thi Thu Thuy; Rasch, Vibeke

    2009-01-29

    Women requesting abortion are at increased risk of developing RTI complications. However, RTI control in many resource-poor countries including Vietnam have been faced with logistical and methodological problems due to lack of standardized definitions of RTIs, lack of well-validated diagnostic criteria, lack of accurate laboratory tests, and lack of diagnostic equipment and skills. This article investigates the prevalence of RTIs among Vietnamese abortion-seeking women, to evaluate the available diagnostic techniques, and to assess antibiotic resistance among aetiological agents of RTI. The study was conducted in Phu-San hospital (PSH) from December 2003 through April 2004 among 748 abortion clients. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-economic and reproductive characteristics. Specimens were collected for laboratory analyses of chlamydia, gonorrhoea, trichomoniasis, vaginal candidiasis (VC), bacterial vaginosis (BV) and syphilis. To assess the validity of the obtained results, the study was repeated among 100 women and the duplicate samples were analysed at PSH and Copenhagen University Hospital (CUH). In all 54% of the women were diagnosed as having an RTI, including 3.3% with sexually transmitted infections. Endogenous infections were most prevalent (VC 34% and BV 12%) followed by chlamydia (1.3%) and trichomoniasis (0.7%). The sensitivity of culture for VC and BV was 30% and 88%, respectively, when tests in PSH were measured against tests in CUH. Antibiotic resistance was common among bacterial isolates. RTIs are common among women seeking abortion. The presence of RTIs is associated with an increased risk of developing iatrogenic infections, routine administration of prophylactic antibiotic to all women undergoing abortion should be considered. However, the choice of routine prophylactic antibiotics should be based on relevant surveillance data of antibiotic resistance. Moreover, since the accuracy of diagnosis is doubtful and to

  13. Quality of life profile of general Vietnamese population using EQ-5D-5L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Long Hoang; Tran, Bach Xuan; Hoang Le, Quynh Ngoc; Tran, Tung Thanh; Latkin, Carl A

    2017-10-11

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is a vital benchmark to assess the effects of health interventions and policies. Measuring HRQOL of the general population is essential to establish a reference for health outcomes evaluations. However, evidence on HRQOL of general populations in low and middle income countries is very limited. This study aimed to measure HRQOL of the Vietnamese population by using the EuroQol-5 dimensions-5 levels (EQ-5D-5L) instrument and determine its associated factors. A cross-sectional study was performed in Hanoi with 1571 residences in Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam. EQ-5D-5L and EQ- visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) were used to assess HRQOL. Potential covariates included socio-demographic characteristics, having acute symptoms in the last four weeks, chronic diseases in the last three months, having multiple health issues, and health service utilisation in the last twelve months. A generalized linear model was employed to identify the association between HRQOL and covariates. Overall, the mean EQ-5D utility index was 0.91 (SD = 0.15), and the mean EQ-VAS score was 87.4 (SD = 14.3). The highest proportion of respondents reporting any problems was in Usual activities (24.3%), followed by Anxiety/Depression (15.2%) and Pain/Discomfort (10.0%), while the lowest percentage was in Self-care (2.5%). Lower HRQOL composite scores were related to unemployment, lower income, higher education, living in urban areas, having chronic diseases, having multiple health issues and using health service. For any health problem self-reported by respondents, the health utility reduced by 0.02 (respiratory diseases) to 0.15 (musculoskeletal diseases). Health utility of the general population and reductions for self-reported health problems in this study are useful for future population health evaluations and comparisons. It also informs the development of interventions to reduce health problems of the general population.

  14. AB103. Phenotype and genotype of urea cycle defect in a Vietnamese referral center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Khanh Ngoc; Bui, Huong Thi; Vu, Dung Chi; Can, Ngoc Thi Bich; Bui, Thao Phuong; Nguyen, Mai Chi; Daut, Hung Viet; Dang, Tuan Anh; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Kim, Gu-Hwan; Yoo, Han Wook

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective Urea cycle disorders (UCDs) are inborn errors of ammonia detoxification/arginine synthesis due to defects affecting the catalysts of the Krebs-Henseleit cycle. Clinical spectrum of UCDs is variant from mild to severe form. To describe clinical spectrum and genotype of UCDs in Vietnamese patients. Methods Case series report of 20 patients with UCDs from 2005 to 2014 at National Hospital of Pediatrics, Hanoi, Vietnam. Results During 10 years, we have 20 cases with UCDs including 2 case of argininosuccinic ciduria; 6 cases of citrullinemia type 1; 12 cases with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTC). Ten cases (two with argininosuccinic aciduria, five cases with citrullinemia type 1 and three cases with OTC) were newborn onset form. The remaining 10 cases were late onset form. All of newborn onset patients presented with poor feeding, irritability, then coma and dyspnea with hyperammonemia (415-1,254 µg/dL). Clinical symptoms of late onset patients were variant: acute encephalopathy (6/10), recurrent vomiting (5/10), convulsion (4/10), development delay (4/10), hemiplegia (3/10), elevated transaminase (10/10), coagulation disorders (10/10), hyperammonemia (200-1,200 µg/dL) with onset age from 4 to 18 months. Only one case of newborn onset form is survival with normal development (OTC deficiency—20 months old boy), 9/10 cases of late onset form is survival with normal development and mild development delay. Mutation Analysis was identified three causative hemizygote mutations c.77G > A (p.R26Q), c.298+5G>C (IVS3+5G > C) and c.422G > A (p.R141Q) of OTC in three probands and a nonsense homozygous mutation in exon 14 c.1030C > T (p.R344X) of ASS gene in one proband. Conclusions UCDs can occur at any age with non-specific neurological, hepatic—gastrointestinal, psychiatric symptoms. UCDs had good prognosis if early diagnosis and adequate management

  15. Association between vitamin D insufficiency and tuberculosis in a vietnamese population

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    Nguyen Dung H

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent in vitro evidence suggests a link between vitamin D status and the risk of tuberculosis (TB. This study sought to examine the association between vitamin D status, parathyroid hormone (PTH and the risk of TB in a Vietnamese population. Methods The study was designed as a matched case-control study, which involved 166 TB patients (113 men and 53 women, who were age-and-sex matched with 219 controls (113 men and 106 women. The average age of men and women was 49 and 50, respectively. TB was diagnosed by the presence of acid-fast bacilli on smears from sputum, and the isolation of M. tuberculosis. All patients were hospitalized for treatment in a TB specialist hospital. Controls were randomly drawn from the general community within the Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam. 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] and PTH was measured prior to treatment by an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA on a Roche Elecsys. A serum level of 25(OHD below 30 ng/mL was deemed to be vitamin D insufficient. Results The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency was 35.4% in men with TB and 19.5% in controls (P = 0.01. In women, there were no significant differences in serum 25(OHD and serum PTH levels between TB patients and controls. The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in women with TB (45.3% was not significantly different from those without TB (47.6%; P = 0.91. However, in both genders, serum calcium levels in TB patients were significantly lower than in non-TB individuals. Smoking (odds ratio [OR] 1.25; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10 - 14.7, reduced 25(OHD (OR per standard deviation [SD]: 1.14; 95% CI 1.07 - 10.7 and increased PTH (OR per SD 1.13; 95% CI 1.05 - 10.4 were independently associated with increased risk of TB in men. Conclusion These results suggest that vitamin D insufficiency was a risk factor for tuberculosis in men, but not in women. However, it remains to be established whether the association is a causal relationship.

  16. Subjective Social Status in select Ukrainians, Vietnamese, and Mongolians living in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacková, Jitka; Veleminsky, Milos; Brabcová, Iva; Záleská, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses methods of examining subjective social status (SSS), which is based on the concept of social determinants of health described by Wilkinson and Marmot in 1998. SSS research was conducted with Cooperation from the Scientific and Technical Research (COST) program, with financial support from the Czech Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports. This study is part of a project entitled the "Health and Social Status of Immigrants and Asylum Seekers in the Czech Republic" (registration number OC 10031), which was started in 2010 and concluded in May 2011. The study included 246 respondents of which: 69 (28.1%) had emigrated from Vietnam; 93 (37.8%) from the Ukraine; and 84 (34.1%) from Mongolia. In terms of qualitative strategies, 13 individual immigrants and asylum seekers were personally interviewed. This research was thus conceived as being both quantitative-qualitative, which included the use of the appropriate technical tools (i.e., questionnaires and interviews with select immigrants and asylum seekers). SSS was determined using the Pearson's chi-square test, as well as through correspondence and cluster analyzes. Sign schemes were used to detect select significant relationships in contingency tables. The minimum significance level chosen was α ≤ 0.05. When examining the SSS of select nationalities, differences were observed in the perception of subjective social status. The correspondence analysis results clearly show that Ukrainians best perceived their social status (within the selected parameters). One measure of subjectively perceived social status related to Czech language proficiency (i.e., one criterion was the comprehension of spoken Czech; e.g., whether the respondent could read or speak Czech, or how they assessed their own Czech proficiency). The SSS study clearly revealed typical links among select nationalities living in the Czech Republic, and highlighted risks related to the degree of integration (and its relationship to

  17. Potential Transmission Opportunity of CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli in Large-scale Chicken Farm in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui Thi Kim, Ngan; Bui Thi Mai, Huong; Ueda, Shuhei; Le Danh, Tuyen; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa; Hirai, Itaru

    2017-10-10

    Extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli has been spread out worldwide. We investigated blaCTX-M-positive E. coli in a Vietnamese large-size chicken farm, and evaluated whether there was any different prevalence and molecular characters of blaCTX-M-positive E. coli between the large size chicken farm and a Vietnamese community. Fecal samples were collected from 24 human individuals and 38 chickens of a large-scale chicken farm, and from 51 human and 36 chickens of a community. All samples were collected between June, 2013 and June 2014 in the Bavi province in the Red River Delta region of Vietnam. Molecular characterizations of CTX-M-producing E. coli and genetic relatedness among the isolates were evaluated by conventional typing methods Antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was evaluated by disc diffusion test. The prevalence of blaCTX-M-positive E. coli was 83.3%, 71.1%, 54.9% and 13.9% in farm workers, farm chickens, community individuals and community backyard chicken, respectively. On average, blaCTX-M-positive E. coli isolates obtained from the farm chicken were resistant to 8.3 different antibiotics. The average number of detected aminoglycoside modifying enzyme (AME) genes (3.1 genes) and detection rate of the plasmid colistin resistance gene, mcr-1 (33.3%) were higher in blaCTX-M-positive E. coli isolated from the farm chicken than other sampling groups. In addition, two types of indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns were observed in six blaCTX-M-65-positive E. coli and three blaCTX-M-55-positive E. coli from the farm chicken. Our results suggested more frequent transmission opportunity of blaCTX-M-positive E. coli in the Vietnamese large-scale chicken farm. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. English-based Pediatric Emergency Medicine Software Improves Physician Test Performance on Common Pediatric Emergencies: A Multicenter Study in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Lin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Global health agencies and the Vietnam Ministry of Health have identified pediatric emergency care and health information technology as high priority goals. Clinical decision support (CDS software provides physicians with access to current literature to answer clinical queries, but there is limited impact data in developing countries. We hypothesized that Vietnamese physicians will demonstrate improved test performance on common pediatric emergencies using CDS technologies despite being in English.Methods: This multicenter, prospective, pretest-posttest study was conducted in 11 Vietnamese hospitals enrolled a convenience sample of physicians who attended an 80-minute software training on a pediatric CDS software (PEMSoft. Two multiple-choice exams (A, B were administered before and after the session. Participants, who received Test A as a pretest, received Test B as a posttest, and vice versa. Participants used the CDS software for the posttest. The primary outcome measure was the mean percentage difference in physician scores between the pretest and posttest, as calculated by a paired, two-tailed t-test.Results: For the 203 participants, the mean pretest, posttest, and improvement scores were 37% (95% CI: 35-38%, 70% (95% CI: 68-72%, and 33% (95% CI: 30-36%, respectively, with p<0.0001. This represents an 89% improvement over baseline. Subgroup analysis of practice setting, clinical experience, and comfort level with written English and computers showed that all subgroups equivalently improved their test scores.Conclusion: After brief training, Vietnamese physicians can effectively use an English-based CDS software based on improved performance on a written clinical exam. Given this rapid improvement, CDS technologies may serve as a transformative tool in resource-poor environments. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(5:471–476.

  19. Naval Forces, Vietnam Monthly Historical Summary for January 1966

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Vietnamese students under the auspices of thtf Vietnamese-American Association, . • t . •^. . w ■ * ’ . , ■ , i • *. ’ .■■ ■ I • 1...tvsnsBttssians« enforce strict circuit disciplinsf and mplqr propsr voles procedure* It In believed that success in thess sress wouM solve half the...laborers about ths compound. 2. One U.S. Kavy lieutenant conducted weekly English classes for twenty-two Vietnamese students . ’ ■’ ,1

  20. Transport and bioaccumulation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans at the Bien Hoa Agent Orange hotspot in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Thuong, Nguyen; Hung, Nguyen Xuan; Mo, Nguyen Thi; Thang, Nguyen Manh; Huy, Pham Quang; Van Binh, Hoang; Nam, Vu Duc; Van Thuy, Nguyen; Son, Le Ke; Minh, Nguyen Hung

    2015-10-01

    The Bien Hoa airbase (south of Vietnam) is known as one of the Agent Orange hotspots which have been seriously contaminated by Agent Orange/dioxin during the Vietnam War. Hundreds of samples including soil, sediment and fish were collected at the Bien Hoa Agent Orange hotspot for assessment of the environmental contamination caused by dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). The toxicity equivalency quotient (TEQ) concentration of PCDD/Fs in soil and sediment varied from 7.6 to 962,000 and 17 to 4860 pg/g dry wt, respectively, implying very high contamination of PCDD/Fs in several areas. PCDD/F levels in fish ranged between 1.8 and 288 pg/g TEQ wet wt and was generally higher than advisory guidelines for food consumption. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (2,3,7,8-TCDD) contributed 66-99 % of TEQ for most of the samples, suggesting 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) from Agent Orange as the major source of the contamination. The vertical transport of PCDD/Fs was observed in soil column with high TEQ levels above 1000 pg/g dry wt (Vietnamese limit for necessary remediation activities- TCVN 8183:2009 (2009)) even at a depth of 1.8 m. The vertical transport of PCDD/Fs has probably mainly taken place during the "Ranch Hand" defoliant spray activities due to the leaks and spills of phenoxy herbicides and solvents. The congener patterns suggest that transports of PCDD/Fs by weathering processes have led to their redistribution in the low-land areas. Also, an estimate for the total volume of contaminated soil requiring remediation to meet Vietnamese regulatory limits is provided.

  1. Road traffic injury among young people in Vietnam: evidence from two rounds of national adolescent health surveys, 2004–2009

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    Linh Cu Le

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Based on previous data, road traffic injury (RTI was a leading cause of non-fatal injury in all-age groups in Vietnam, and among the top causes of injury in children and adolescents. Specific analysis on RTIs in young people, however, has yet to be fully investigated. Using the results of two surveys in 2004 and 2009, the present study aims to describe the current situation of non-fatal, unintentional RTIs among Vietnamese youths. In addition, it explores RTI-related risk and protective factors. Methods: This study utilized the nationally representative Survey Assessment of Vietnamese Youth 2009 (SAVY2 of 10,044 youths aged 14 to 25 from all 63 provinces in Vietnam. The indicators were compared with data from SAVY1 in 2004 of 7,584 youths. Bivariate and multivariable statistical techniques were applied. Results: Overall, 75% of youths used a motorcycle in SAVY2 compared with 54.2% in SAVY1. Of the SAVY2 sample, the proportion that had experienced an RTI was 10.6% vs. 14.1% in SAVY1. While the proportion of RTIs for both sexes decreased, the decline was greater for males (11.9% vs. 17.8% in SAVY1 than in females (9.2% vs. 10.4%. The proportion of rural youths aged 22–25 who experienced an RTI increased slightly in the 5 years between the two study intervals. The percentage of youths reporting frequent helmet use increased significantly from 26.2% in SAVY1 to 73.6% in SAVY2. Factors related to the likelihood of ever having experienced an RTI included: older age, male, ever being drunk, and ever riding motorcycles after drinking. Conclusion: While improvements in RTIs appear to have occurred between 2004 and 2009, more attention should be paid, particularly, in maintenance and supervision of law enforcement to helmet use and drunk driving.

  2. Association between physical activity and metabolic syndrome: a cross sectional survey in adolescents in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

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    van der Ploeg Hidde P

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emerging epidemic of overweight/obesity in adolescents in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam underlines the importance of studying the metabolic syndrome in Vietnamese adolescents who are becoming progressively more inactive. No study in Vietnam has examined the association of metabolic syndrome with moderate to vigorous physical activity (PA levels among adolescents. We aimed to examine this association in a sample of urban adolescents from Ho Chi Minh City. Methods A cross-sectional assessment was conducted in 2007 on a representative sample of 693 high-school students from urban districts in Ho Chi Minh City. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation criteria and physical activity was measured with Actigraph accelerometers. The association between physical activity and metabolic syndrome was assessed by using multiple logistic regression models. Results Overall 4.6% of the adolescents and 11.8% of the overweight/obese adolescents had metabolic syndrome. Elevated BP was the most common individual component of the metabolic syndrome (21.5%, followed by hypertriglyceridemia (11.1%. After adjusting for other study factors, the odds of metabolic syndrome among youth in the lowest physical activity group (103 minutes/day (AOR = 5.3, 95% CI: 1.5, 19.1. Metabolic syndrome was also positively associated with socioeconomic status (AOR = 9.4, 95% CI: 2.1, 42.4. Conclusions A more physically active lifestyle appears to be associated with a lower odds of metabolic syndrome in Vietnamese adolescents. Socio-economic status should be taken into account when planning interventions to prevent adolescent metabolic syndrome.

  3. Teaching the Vietnam War: A Sociological Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Jerold M.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that, because of its importance in modern U.S. history, over 300 college courses are taught on the Vietnam War. Asserts that studying the war helps students develop critical thinking skills needed for citizenship. Describes the texts, formats, and assignments used in a college sociology course on the Vietnam War. (CFR)

  4. L’Homme, un itinéraire vietnamien. Humanisme et sujet humain au xxe siècle Man, a Vietnamese Itinerary. Humanism and the Human Subject in the 20th Century

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    Daniel Hémery

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude interroge la confrontation qui s’est instaurée au Vietnam depuis le milieu du xixe siècle – et sans doute bien avant – entre la conception de l’homme-individu importée par les Occidentaux en Asie orientale et les philosophies du sujet qui s’y étaient développées depuis l’antiquité chinoise. Cette confrontation a-t-elle abouti dans la culture vietnamienne à une réévaluation socialement acceptée du statut du sujet et sur une nouvelle figure de l’humanisme ? Quel bilan provisoire dresser ?This paper examines the mid 19th century encounter in Vietnamese culture of the concept of the individual imported by Westerners to Far East Asia with the philosophical tradition of the human subject that has developed in China since the classic period. Did this conflictual encounter result in a new, socially acceptable evaluation of the human statute and in a renewed Vietnamese humanism? This article concludes with a provisional assessment of a cultural confrontation.

  5. Joint malaria surveys lead towards improved cross-border cooperation between Savannakhet province, Laos and Quang Tri province, Vietnam

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    Pongvongsa Tiengkham

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Savannakhet province, Laos and Quang Tri province, Vietnam, malaria is still an important health problem and most cases are found in the mountainous, forested border areas where ethnic minority groups live. The objectives of this study were to obtain a better joint understanding of the malaria situation along the border and, on the basis of that, improve malaria control methods through better cooperation between the two countries. Methods Fourteen villages in Savannakhet and 22 villages in Quang Tri were randomly selected within 5 km from the border where a blood survey for microscopic diagnosis (n = 1256 and n = 1803, respectively, household interviews (n = 400, both sides and vector surveys were conducted between August and October 2010. Satellite images were used to examine the forest density around the study villages. Results Malaria prevalence was significantly higher in Laos (5.2% than in Vietnam (1.8% and many other differences were found over the short distance across the border. Bed net coverage was high (> 90% in both Laos and Vietnam but, while in Laos more than 60% of the nets were long-lasting insecticide-treated, Vietnam used indoor residual spraying in this area and the nets were untreated. Anopheles mosquitoes were more abundant in Laos than in Vietnam, especially many Anopheles dirus were captured in indoor light traps while none were collected in Vietnam. The forest cover was higher around the Lao than the Vietnamese villages. After this study routine exchange of malaria surveillance data was institutionalized and for the first time indoor residual spraying was applied in some Lao villages. Conclusions The abundance of indoor-collected An. dirus on the Laos side raises doubts about the effectiveness of a sole reliance on long-lasting insecticide-treated nets in this area. Next to strengthening the early detection, correct diagnosis and prompt, adequate treatment of malaria infections, it is

  6. Joint malaria surveys lead towards improved cross-border cooperation between Savannakhet province, Laos and Quang Tri province, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongvongsa, Tiengkham; Ha, Hoang; Thanh, Le; Marchand, Ron P; Nonaka, Daisuke; Tojo, Bumpei; Phongmany, Panom; Moji, Kazuhiko; Kobayashi, Jun

    2012-08-03

    In Savannakhet province, Laos and Quang Tri province, Vietnam, malaria is still an important health problem and most cases are found in the mountainous, forested border areas where ethnic minority groups live. The objectives of this study were to obtain a better joint understanding of the malaria situation along the border and, on the basis of that, improve malaria control methods through better cooperation between the two countries. Fourteen villages in Savannakhet and 22 villages in Quang Tri were randomly selected within 5 km from the border where a blood survey for microscopic diagnosis (n = 1256 and n = 1803, respectively), household interviews (n = 400, both sides) and vector surveys were conducted between August and October 2010. Satellite images were used to examine the forest density around the study villages. Malaria prevalence was significantly higher in Laos (5.2%) than in Vietnam (1.8%) and many other differences were found over the short distance across the border. Bed net coverage was high (> 90%) in both Laos and Vietnam but, while in Laos more than 60% of the nets were long-lasting insecticide-treated, Vietnam used indoor residual spraying in this area and the nets were untreated. Anopheles mosquitoes were more abundant in Laos than in Vietnam, especially many Anopheles dirus were captured in indoor light traps while none were collected in Vietnam. The forest cover was higher around the Lao than the Vietnamese villages. After this study routine exchange of malaria surveillance data was institutionalized and for the first time indoor residual spraying was applied in some Lao villages. The abundance of indoor-collected An. dirus on the Laos side raises doubts about the effectiveness of a sole reliance on long-lasting insecticide-treated nets in this area. Next to strengthening the early detection, correct diagnosis and prompt, adequate treatment of malaria infections, it is recommended to test focal indoor residual spraying and the

  7. Enhancing the Competitiveness of Vietnamese Industry Through Trade Liberalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    out less developed countries. The WTO Review of Vietnam noted, “Its international competitiveness seems to have come under threat in recent years...it to market forces. This transfer of power may not come naturally to conservative Party members who subscribe to the communist ideals of a single...banking reform,” East Asia Forum, 15 April 2013, p2 28 Banyan, “Vietnam’s state capitalism, A boomerang for zombies ,” Economist, Banyan blog, 3

  8. The Insufficient Issues In Development Of Vietnamese Ship Fleet

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    Xuan Nam Chu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the Vietnam Maritime Administration in 2015 the total volume of transport carried was about 118.7 million tons an increase of 9.5 compared to 2014 - the biggest increase in recent years. However the fleet of Vietnam has taken only 27.8 of total cargo through the port more than 70 of the market share of foreign shipping. By the end of April 2017 the Seal of Memorandum of Understanding PSC of the Asia-Pacific Region Tokyo-MOU comprising 20 members Australia Canada Chile China Fiji Hong Kong China Indonesia Japan South Korea Malaysia Marshall Islands New Zealand Papua New Guinea Peru Philippines Russian Federation Singapore Thailand Vanuatu and Vietnam presented the results of this organization in 2016. Accordingly in 2016 members of Tokyo-MOU conducted 31678 PSC inspections of 17503 flag-nautical vessels of 101 countries to regional ports. In 31678 PSC inspections 18943 defect detection ships affected safety security maritime labor conditions environmental pollution prevention and 1090 of flagged vessels from 69 countries. Kept due to serious defects the average retention of the entire region was 3.44 down from 3.67 in 2015 and 3.96 in 2014.

  9. Energy and macronutrient intakes in preschool children in urban areas of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

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    Sibbritt David W

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity has been documented in preschool children in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC, Vietnam. However, little is known about what preschool children in HCMC eat or how well their nutrient intake meets nutrient recommendations. This study aims to describe the energy and macronutrient intake and compare these nutrient intakes with the recommendations for Vietnamese children aged four to five years. Methods The data comes from the baseline measurement of a one year follow-up study on obesity in 670 children attending kindergartens in HCMC. Dietary information for each child at the school and home settings was collected using Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQs, by interviewing teachers and parents or main caregivers. The average energy and nutrient intake in a day was calculated. The proportion of children with energy intake from macronutrients meeting or exceeding the recommendations was estimated based on the 2006 recommended daily allowance (RDA for Vietnamese children in this age group. Results The dietary intake of the participants contained more energy from protein and fat, particularly animal protein and fat, and less energy from carbohydrates, than the RDA. Most children (98.1% had mean energy intake from protein greater than the recommended level of 15%, and no child obtained energy from animal fat that was in accordance with the recommendation of less than 30% of the total fat intake. Nearly one half of children (46.5% consumed less than the advised range of mean energy intake from carbohydrate (60%–70%. Conclusion In this preschool child population in HCMC, in which obesity is emerging as major public health problem, there is an imbalance in dietary intake. Healthy eating programs need to be developed as a part of an obesity prevention program for young children in HCMC.

  10. Energy and macronutrient intakes in preschool children in urban areas of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Dieu T T; Dibley, Michael J; Sibbritt, David W; Tran, Hanh T M

    2008-10-18

    An increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity has been documented in preschool children in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. However, little is known about what preschool children in HCMC eat or how well their nutrient intake meets nutrient recommendations. This study aims to describe the energy and macronutrient intake and compare these nutrient intakes with the recommendations for Vietnamese children aged four to five years. The data comes from the baseline measurement of a one year follow-up study on obesity in 670 children attending kindergartens in HCMC. Dietary information for each child at the school and home settings was collected using Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQs), by interviewing teachers and parents or main caregivers. The average energy and nutrient intake in a day was calculated. The proportion of children with energy intake from macronutrients meeting or exceeding the recommendations was estimated based on the 2006 recommended daily allowance (RDA) for Vietnamese children in this age group. The dietary intake of the participants contained more energy from protein and fat, particularly animal protein and fat, and less energy from carbohydrates, than the RDA. Most children (98.1%) had mean energy intake from protein greater than the recommended level of 15%, and no child obtained energy from animal fat that was in accordance with the recommendation of less than 30% of the total fat intake. Nearly one half of children (46.5%) consumed less than the advised range of mean energy intake from carbohydrate (60%-70%). In this preschool child population in HCMC, in which obesity is emerging as major public health problem, there is an imbalance in dietary intake. Healthy eating programs need to be developed as a part of an obesity prevention program for young children in HCMC.

  11. Strategic Options for Vietnamese Tea Processors in the Global Value Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull; Luong Thi Ngoc, Oanh; Nguyen Thi Hai, Yen

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the chapter is to study the position of Vietnamese tea producers, processors and traders in the Global Value CHain for tea and analyse the strategic options at various levels of the chain. The dominant governance at the Vietnamese level is found to be the market and this puts constraints...... on the possibilities for upgrading and for identifying a local driver of the chain. A few transnational companies dominate the global value chain for tea....

  12. Solvent Free Preparation of p-Cymene from Limonene Using Vietnamese Montmorillonite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thao-Tran Thi; Duus, Fritz; Le, Thach Ngoc

    2013-01-01

    p-Cymene, an important intermediate in industrial chemistry, has been prepared in good yields by thermally induced dehydrogenation of limonene under solvent-free reaction conditions using Vietnamese montmorillonite as an efficient green catalyst.......p-Cymene, an important intermediate in industrial chemistry, has been prepared in good yields by thermally induced dehydrogenation of limonene under solvent-free reaction conditions using Vietnamese montmorillonite as an efficient green catalyst....

  13. Biogas Production from Vietnamese Animal Manure, Plant Residues and Organic Waste: Influence of Biomass Composition on Methane Yield

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    T. T. T. Cu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion is an efficient and renewable energy technology that can produce biogas from a variety of biomasses such as animal manure, food waste and plant residues. In developing countries this technology is widely used for the production of biogas using local biomasses, but there is little information about the value of these biomasses for energy production. This study was therefore carried out with the objective of estimating the biogas production potential of typical Vietnamese biomasses such as animal manure, slaughterhouse waste and plant residues, and developing a model that relates methane (CH4 production to the chemical characteristics of the biomass. The biochemical methane potential (BMP and biomass characteristics were measured. Results showed that piglet manure produced the highest CH4 yield of 443 normal litter (NL CH4 kg−1 volatile solids (VS compared to 222 from cows, 177 from sows, 172 from rabbits, 169 from goats and 153 from buffaloes. Methane production from duckweed (Spirodela polyrrhiza was higher than from lawn grass and water spinach at 340, 220, and 110.6 NL CH4 kg−1 VS, respectively. The BMP experiment also demonstrated that the CH4 production was inhibited with chicken manure, slaughterhouse waste, cassava residue and shoe-making waste. Statistical analysis showed that lipid and lignin are the most significant predictors of BMP. The model was developed from knowledge that the BMP was related to biomass content of lipid, lignin and protein from manure and plant residues as a percentage of VS with coefficient of determination (R-square at 0.95. This model was applied to calculate the CH4 yield for a household with 17 fattening pigs in the highlands and lowlands of northern Vietnam.

  14. Biogas Production from Vietnamese Animal Manure, Plant Residues and Organic Waste: Influence of Biomass Composition on Methane Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cu, T. T. T.; Nguyen, T. X.; Triolo, J. M.; Pedersen, L.; Le, V. D.; Le, P. D.; Sommer, S. G.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an efficient and renewable energy technology that can produce biogas from a variety of biomasses such as animal manure, food waste and plant residues. In developing countries this technology is widely used for the production of biogas using local biomasses, but there is little information about the value of these biomasses for energy production. This study was therefore carried out with the objective of estimating the biogas production potential of typical Vietnamese biomasses such as animal manure, slaughterhouse waste and plant residues, and developing a model that relates methane (CH4) production to the chemical characteristics of the biomass. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomass characteristics were measured. Results showed that piglet manure produced the highest CH4 yield of 443 normal litter (NL) CH4 kg−1 volatile solids (VS) compared to 222 from cows, 177 from sows, 172 from rabbits, 169 from goats and 153 from buffaloes. Methane production from duckweed (Spirodela polyrrhiza) was higher than from lawn grass and water spinach at 340, 220, and 110.6 NL CH4 kg−1 VS, respectively. The BMP experiment also demonstrated that the CH4 production was inhibited with chicken manure, slaughterhouse waste, cassava residue and shoe-making waste. Statistical analysis showed that lipid and lignin are the most significant predictors of BMP. The model was developed from knowledge that the BMP was related to biomass content of lipid, lignin and protein from manure and plant residues as a percentage of VS with coefficient of determination (R-square) at 0.95. This model was applied to calculate the CH4 yield for a household with 17 fattening pigs in the highlands and lowlands of northern Vietnam. PMID:25557826

  15. Epstein-Barr virus genetic variation in Vietnamese patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma: full-length analysis of LMP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Van, Do; Ernberg, Ingemar; Enrberg, Ingemar; Phan-Thi Phi, Phi; Tran-Thi, Chinh; Hu, LiFu

    2008-10-01

    Genetic variation in tumor virus genes and its impact on function might contribute to the understanding of geographic differences in risks for virus-associated tumors. This is particularly true for the genes known to contribute to the biology of the tumor. It is has been proposed that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) gene variation has a role in the high risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in South-East Asia. NPC is among the five most common cancers in Vietnam. EBV-NPC cells always express EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) and also frequently latent membrane protein 1 and 2 (LMP1 & LMP2). To investigate EBV gene variation in Vietnamese NPC patients we analyzed the full length of LMP1 gene including its promoter region, and the N-termini of both EBNA1 and LMP2A genes from five NPC biopsies. We detected two EBV variants V1 and V2 based on the LMP1 nucleotide sequence pattern compared with the prototype B95-8 and some available sequences including Chinese variants. The V1 variant shows strong similarity to a variant dominant in Southern China (China 1), while the V2 variant is similar to a Thai variant SEA 2 and partly identity with GD1 in the C-terminus. The promoter region and transmembrane domain of the SEA 2-like samples contained some specific differences compared with previously published variants. In contrast, analysis of EBNA1 N- and LMP2A N-termini only revealed minor changes. Our findings reinforces that the polymorphisms of whole LMP1 sequence should be considered in future EBV molecular epidemiology studies in different geographic populations.

  16. Biogas production from vietnamese animal manure, plant residues and organic waste: influence of biomass composition on methane yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cu, T T T; Nguyen, T X; Triolo, J M; Pedersen, L; Le, V D; Le, P D; Sommer, S G

    2015-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an efficient and renewable energy technology that can produce biogas from a variety of biomasses such as animal manure, food waste and plant residues. In developing countries this technology is widely used for the production of biogas using local biomasses, but there is little information about the value of these biomasses for energy production. This study was therefore carried out with the objective of estimating the biogas production potential of typical Vietnamese biomasses such as animal manure, slaughterhouse waste and plant residues, and developing a model that relates methane (CH4) production to the chemical characteristics of the biomass. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomass characteristics were measured. Results showed that piglet manure produced the highest CH4 yield of 443 normal litter (NL) CH4 kg(-1) volatile solids (VS) compared to 222 from cows, 177 from sows, 172 from rabbits, 169 from goats and 153 from buffaloes. Methane production from duckweed (Spirodela polyrrhiza) was higher than from lawn grass and water spinach at 340, 220, and 110.6 NL CH4 kg(-1) VS, respectively. The BMP experiment also demonstrated that the CH4 production was inhibited with chicken manure, slaughterhouse waste, cassava residue and shoe-making waste. Statistical analysis showed that lipid and lignin are the most significant predictors of BMP. The model was developed from knowledge that the BMP was related to biomass content of lipid, lignin and protein from manure and plant residues as a percentage of VS with coefficient of determination (R-square) at 0.95. This model was applied to calculate the CH4 yield for a household with 17 fattening pigs in the highlands and lowlands of northern Vietnam.

  17. Viral etiologies of acute respiratory infections among hospitalized Vietnamese children in Ho Chi Minh City, 2004-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anh Ha Lien Do

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The dominant viral etiologies responsible for acute respiratory infections (ARIs are poorly understood, particularly among hospitalized children in resource-limited tropical countries where morbidity and mortality caused by ARIs are highest. Improved etiological insight is needed to improve clinical management and prevention.We conducted a three-year prospective descriptive study of severe respiratory illness among children from 2 months to 13 years of age within the largest referral hospital for infectious diseases in southern Vietnam.Molecular detection for 15 viral species and subtypes was performed on three types of respiratory specimens (nose, throat swabs and nasopharyngeal aspirates using a multiplex RT-PCR kit (Seeplex™ RV detection, Seegene and additional monoplex real-time RT-PCRs.A total of 309 children were enrolled from November 2004 to January 2008. Viruses were identified in 72% (222/309 of cases, including respiratory syncytial virus (24%, influenza virus A and B (17%, human bocavirus (16%, enterovirus (9%, human coronavirus (8%, human metapneumovirus (7%, parainfluenza virus 1-3 (6%, adenovirus (5%, and human rhinovirus A (4%. Co-infections with multiple viruses were detected in 20% (62/309 of patients. When combined, diagnostic yields in nose and throat swabs were similar to nasopharyngeal aspirates.Similar to other parts in the world, RSV and influenza were the predominant viral pathogens detected in Vietnamese hospitalized children. Combined nasal and throat swabs are the specimens of choice for sensitive molecular detection of a broad panel of viral agents. Further research is required to better understand the clinical significance of single versus multiple viral coinfections and to address the role of bacterial (co-infections involved in severe respiratory illness.

  18. Viral etiologies of acute respiratory infections among hospitalized Vietnamese children in Ho Chi Minh City, 2004-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Anh Ha Lien; van Doorn, H Rogier; Nghiem, My Ngoc; Bryant, Juliet E; Hoang, Thanh Hang thi; Do, Quang Ha; Van, Tan Le; Tran, Tan Thanh; Wills, Bridget; Nguyen, Vinh Chau van; Vo, Minh Hien; Vo, Cong Khanh; Nguyen, Minh Dung; Farrar, Jeremy; Tran, Tinh Hien; de Jong, Menno D

    2011-03-24

    The dominant viral etiologies responsible for acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are poorly understood, particularly among hospitalized children in resource-limited tropical countries where morbidity and mortality caused by ARIs are highest. Improved etiological insight is needed to improve clinical management and prevention. We conducted a three-year prospective descriptive study of severe respiratory illness among children from 2 months to 13 years of age within the largest referral hospital for infectious diseases in southern Vietnam. Molecular detection for 15 viral species and subtypes was performed on three types of respiratory specimens (nose, throat swabs and nasopharyngeal aspirates) using a multiplex RT-PCR kit (Seeplex™ RV detection, Seegene) and additional monoplex real-time RT-PCRs. A total of 309 children were enrolled from November 2004 to January 2008. Viruses were identified in 72% (222/309) of cases, including respiratory syncytial virus (24%), influenza virus A and B (17%), human bocavirus (16%), enterovirus (9%), human coronavirus (8%), human metapneumovirus (7%), parainfluenza virus 1-3 (6%), adenovirus (5%), and human rhinovirus A (4%). Co-infections with multiple viruses were detected in 20% (62/309) of patients. When combined, diagnostic yields in nose and throat swabs were similar to nasopharyngeal aspirates. Similar to other parts in the world, RSV and influenza were the predominant viral pathogens detected in Vietnamese hospitalized children. Combined nasal and throat swabs are the specimens of choice for sensitive molecular detection of a broad panel of viral agents. Further research is required to better understand the clinical significance of single versus multiple viral coinfections and to address the role of bacterial (co-)infections involved in severe respiratory illness.

  19. A Systems Analysis View of the Vietnam War 1965 - 1972. Volume 3. Viet Cong - North Vietnamese Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-02-18

    5 (footnote s/)-* e/ OASD(S/) Statistical Tabla , 4B, and CO(C) tatisticil. SMary, Table 50. Table 3 indicates that eney actions against Rehear Forces...Corps 278 lI 29 195 223 n1 Corps 197 191 1.62 1-3 60 III Corpq 37• 91 152 118. IV Corps i1426 390 159 278 114’. Total 3d8! :005 1%1 733 3 *As Tabla ...than the murder rates of the three worst US cities (28 per 100,000, compared to rates of 18.6 in Charlotte , N.C., and 18.1 for Columbia, S.C., t, and

  20. Neurology in the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Carl H; Daroff, Robert B

    2016-01-01

    Between December 1965 and December 1971, the United States maintained armed forces in Vietnam never less than 180,000 men and women in support of the war. At one time, this commitment exceeded half a million soldiers, sailors, and airmen from both the United States and its allies. Such forces required an extensive medical presence, including 19 neurologists. All but two of the neurologists had been drafted for a 2-year tour of duty after deferment for residency training. They were assigned to Vietnam for one of those 2 years in two Army Medical Units and one Air Force facility providing neurological care for American and allied forces, as well as many civilians. Their practice included exposure to unfamiliar disorders including cerebral malaria, Japanese B encephalitis, sleep deprivation seizures, and toxic encephalitis caused by injection or inhalation of C-4 explosive. They and neurologists at facilities in the United States published studies on all of these entities both during and after the war. These publications spawned the Defense and Veterans Head Injury Study, which was conceived during the Korean War and continues today as the Defense and Veterans Head Injury Center. It initially focused on post-traumatic epilepsy and later on all effects of brain injury. The Agent Orange controversy arose after the war; during the war, it was not perceived as a threat by medical personnel. Although soldiers in previous wars had developed serious psychological impairments, post-traumatic stress disorder was formally recognized in the servicemen returning from Vietnam. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Immunogenicity of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine among infants in two developing countries in Asia, Bangladesh and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sunheang; Anh, Dang Duc; Zaman, K; Yunus, M; Mai, Le Thi Phuong; Thiem, Vu Dinh; Azim, Tasnim; Victor, John C; Dallas, Michael J; Steele, A Duncan; Neuzil, Kathleen M; Ciarlet, Max

    2012-04-27

    We evaluated the immunogenicity of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (PRV) in two GAVI-eligible Asian countries, Bangladesh and Vietnam, nested in a larger randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled efficacy trial conducted over a two-year period from 2007 through 2009. 2036 infants were randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, to receive three oral doses of PRV or placebo approximately at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age. Concomitant use of EPI vaccines, including oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) and diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis (DTwP) vaccine, was encouraged in accordance to the local EPI schedule. A total of 303 infants were evaluated for immunogenicity and blood samples were collected before the first dose (pD1) and approximately 14 days following the third dose (PD3). The seroresponse rates (≥3-fold rise from pD1 to PD3) and geometric mean titers (GMTs) were measured for anti-rotavirus immunoglobulin A (IgA) and serum neutralizing antibody (SNA) to human rotavirus serotypes G1, G2, G3, G4, and P1A[8], respectively. Nearly 88% of the subjects showed a ≥3-fold increase in serum anti-rotavirus IgA response in the analysis of the two countries combined. When analyzed separately, the IgA response was lower in Bangladeshi children (78.1% [95% CI: 66.0, 87.5]) than in Vietnamese children (97.0% [95% CI: 89.6, 99.6]), with a PD3 GMT of 29.1 (units/mL) and 158.5 (units/mL), respectively. In the combined population, the SNA responses to the individual serotypes tested ranged from 10 (G3) to 50 (G1) percentage points lower than the responses shown in the developed countries. However, the SNA response to G3 in Vietnamese subjects was 37.3% (95% CI: 25.8, 50.0), which was similar to the G3 response rate in developed countries. Three oral doses of PRV were immunogenic in two GAVI-eligible Asian countries: Bangladesh and Vietnam. The GMTs of both the serum anti-rotavirus IgA and SNA responses were generally higher in Vietnamese than in Bangladeshi children. The SNA

  2. Comparison of antifungal activities of Vietnamese citrus essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hung, Pham; Chi, Pham Thi Lan; Phi, Nguyen Thi Lan

    2013-03-01

    Citrus essential oils (EOs) are volatile compounds from citrus peels and widely used in perfumes, cosmetics, soaps and aromatherapy. In this study, inhibition of citrus EOs extracted from Vietnamese orange (Citrus sinensis), mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco), pomelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) and lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) on the growth of plant pathogenic fungi, Mucor hiemalis, Penicillium expansum and Fusarium proliferatum was investigated. The EOs of the citrus peels were obtained by cold-pressing method and the antifungal activity of EOs was evaluated using the agar dilution method. The results show that the EOs had significant antifungal activity. Lime EO was the best inhibitor of M. hiemalis and F. proliferatum while pomelo EO was the most effective against P. expansum. These results indicate that citrus EOs can be used as antifungal natural products in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.

  3. The impact of minimum wage adjustments on Vietnamese wage inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Rand, John; Torm, Nina

    Using Vietnamese Labour Force Survey data we analyse the impact of minimum wage changes on wage inequality. Minimum wages serve to reduce local wage inequality in the formal sectors by decreasing the gap between the median wages and the lower tail of the local wage distributions. In contrast, local...... wage inequality is increased in the informal sectors. Overall, the minimum wages decrease national wage inequality. Our estimates indicate a decrease in the wage distribution Gini coefficient of about 2 percentage points and an increase in the 10/50 wage ratio of 5-7 percentage points caused...... by the adjustment of the minimum wages from 2011to 2012 that levelled the minimum wage across economic sectors....

  4. Further Highly Hydroxylated Steroids from the Vietnamese Starfish Archaster typicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanh, Tran Thi Hong; Vien, Le Thi; Vinh, Le Ba; Thanh, Nguyen Van; Cuong, Nguyen Xuan; Nam, Nguyen Hoai; Thung, Do Cong; Kiem, Phan Van; Minh, Chau Van

    2016-01-01

    Eight highly hydroxylated steroids (1-8), including three new compounds as sodium salts of (24S)-5α-cholestane-3β,4β,5,6α,7β,8,14,15α,24-nonaol 6-sulfate (1), (24E)-5α-cholest-24-ene-26-yde-3β,6α,8,14,15α-pentaol 15-sulfate (2), and 5α-cholest-3β,6α,8,14,15α,24,25,26-octaol 15-sulfate (3), were isolated and elucidated from the methanol extract of the Vietnamese starfish Archaster typicus. The structure elucidation was done by spectroscopic methods including one and two dimensional (1D-, 2D-)NMR and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR)-MS. The isolated compounds can be used as chemical markers for taxonomic identification of the starfish A. typicus.

  5. Gender matters: Private sector training in Vietnamese SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifkovic, Neda; Bjerge, Benedikte Alkjærsig; Torm, Nina

    In many developing countries the skill base is a cause of concern with respect to international competition. Firm-provided training is generally seen as an important tool for bridging the skills gap between labour force and private sector demand. Yet little is known about how successful such trai......In many developing countries the skill base is a cause of concern with respect to international competition. Firm-provided training is generally seen as an important tool for bridging the skills gap between labour force and private sector demand. Yet little is known about how successful...... such training may be in closing the gender wage gap. We use a matched employer–employee panel dataset to assess why firms train and whether formal training affects wage outcomes in Vietnamese SMEs. Training is generally found to be firm-sponsored and specific in nature. We find that training is associated...

  6. Vietnam | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    As a generation of Vietnamese economists realized that their skills were ill-suited for the new market system, we responded with training in non-Marxist economic ... build ecohealth leadership in Southeast Asia; reduce food insecurity and chronic malnutrition; produce complementary and therapeutic foods for 15,000 ...

  7. Vung Tau - Co Gong dam, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekens, B.; Meerdink, L.; Meijer, G.J.; Sirks, E.; Van Vliet, R.

    2011-01-01

    The area around Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) faces flooding and salt intrusion problems. Flooding problems are caused by intensive rainfall in the city, high river discharges and high tides on sea. Dr. Hoc, the vice-minister of MARD (Vietnamese Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development) proposed to

  8. Globalization, industrialization, and labor markets in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørlund, Irene; Tran, *Angie Ngoc

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the dilemmas of reaching the Vietnamese goal of ‘civilized and equitable’ society expressed from central planning towards a ‘socialist market economy under state guidance’ with deeper integration into the global capitalist system, and their impacts on the labor markets. Us...

  9. Firm-Level Corruption in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    This paper uses a unique panel dataset on firm-level corruption. It contains quantitative information on bribe payments by a sample of formal and informal Vietnamese firms. We show that bribe incidence is highly associated with firm-level differences in (i) visibility, (ii) sunk costs, (iii...

  10. Cancer incidence in Australian Vietnam veterans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, E.; Horsley, K. [Australian Government Department of Veterans' Affairs (Australia); Hoek, R. van der [Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (Australia)

    2004-09-15

    Australian Defence Force (ADF) personnel participated in the Vietnam Conflict from 1962 to 1973, involving nearly 60,000 personnel, of whom over 500 died during service and 3131 were severely physically wounded. Service in the Vietnam conflict presented distinct health challenges. Besides the hazards of combat conditions for extended periods, herbicides and other toxic chemicals were used extensively. The United States military sprayed more than 76,000,000L of herbicide over Vietnam in their Air Force Ranch Hand and Operation Trail Dust programs. The most heavily used herbicide was Agent Orange, contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-pdioxin. Since the Vietnam conflict, ex-Service organisations (ESOs) have maintained that Vietnam service adversely affected the health of veterans. Initial studies showed no excess risk attributable to their service. However, more recent studies have shown that Vietnam veterans have excess incidence and mortality rates from several conditions such as cancers and heart disease. This paper describes the first cancer incidence study for all ADF Vietnam veterans.

  11. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking and Gastric Cancer Risk among Vietnamese Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Thi Minh Lai

    Full Text Available The association of waterpipe tobacco (WPT smoking with gastric cancer (GC risk was suggested.A hospital-based case-control study was conducted to examine the association of WPT with GC risk among Vietnamese men, in Hanoi city, during the period of 2003-2011. Newly-diagnosed GC cases (n = 454 and control patients (n = 628 were matched by age (+/- 5 years and the year of hospitalization. Information on smoking and alcohol drinking habits and diet including salty food intake and fruits/vegetables consumption were obtained by the interview. Maximum likelihood estimates of odds ratios (ORs and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (Cis were obtained using conditional logistic regression models.The group with the highest consumption of citrus fruits showed a significantly low GC risk (OR = 0.6, 95%CI = 0.4-0.8, P for trend = 0.002. However, there was no association of raw vegetable consumption with GC risk. Referring to never smokers, GC risk was significantly higher in current WPT smokers (OR = 1.8, 95%CI = 1.3-2.4, and it was more evident in exclusively WPT smokers (OR = 2.7, 95%CI = 1.2-6.5. GC risk tended to be higher with daily frequency and longer duration of WPT smoking but these trends were not statistically significant (P for trend: 0.144 and 0.154, respectively. GC risk of those who started smoking WPT before the age of 25 was also significantly high (OR = 3.7, 95%CI = 1.2-11.3. Neither cigarette smoking nor alcohol drinking was related to GC risk.The present findings revealed that WPT smoking was positively associated with GC risk in Vietnamese men.

  12. Building workforce capacity to detect and respond to child abuse and neglect cases: A training intervention for staff working in emergency settings in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemington, Tara; Fraser, Jennifer

    2017-09-01

    Too many children are brought to hospital emergency departments on numerous occasions before they are recognised as victims of child abuse and neglect. For this reason, improving knowledge and response behaviors of emergency staff at all levels is likely to have a significant impact on better outcomes. An Australian based training programme was the first of its kind to address this issue in a Vietnamese Emergency Department. Titled 'Safe Children Vietnam', the programme aimed to improve knowledge, attitudes and reporting behaviors concerning child abuse in the emergency setting. A pre-post test design was used to evaluate the impact of 'Safe Children Vietnam' on emergency staff knowledge, attitudes and intentions to report child abuse and neglect. Emergency staff including doctors, nurses and healthcare staff (n=116) participated in the clinical training programme. Linear Mixed Model analyses showed that on programme completion, they were more likely to recognise serious cases of all types of abuse. The 'Safe Children Vietnam' programme was effective at improving emergency staff knowledge of child abuse and neglect. A systems wide approach may be necessary to impact on emergency staff attitudes towards reporting cases of abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence of comorbidities and their impact on hospital management and short-term outcomes in Vietnamese patients hospitalized with a first acute myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoa L Nguyen

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Vietnam. We conducted a pilot study of Hanoi residents hospitalized with a first acute myocardial infarction (AMI at the Vietnam National Heart Institute in Hanoi for purposes of describing the prevalence of cardiovascular (CVD and non-CVD comorbidities and their impact on hospital management, in-hospital clinical complications, and short-term mortality in these patients.The study population consisted of 302 Hanoi residents hospitalized with a first AMI at the largest tertiary care medical center in Hanoi in 2010.The average age of study patients was 66 years and one third were women. The proportions of patients with none, any 1, and ≥ 2 CVD comorbidities were 34%, 42%, and 24%, respectively. Among the CVD comorbidities, hypertension was the most commonly reported (59%. There were decreasing trends in the proportion of patients who were treated with effective cardiac medications and coronary interventions as the number of CVD comorbidities increased. Patients with multiple CVD comorbidities tended to develop acute clinical complications and die at higher rates during hospitalization compared with patients with no CVD comorbidities (Odds Ratio: 1.40; 95% Confidence Interval: 0.40-4.84.Our data suggest that patients with multiple cardiac comorbidities tended to experience high in-hospital death rates in the setting of AMI. Full-scale surveillance of Hanoi residents hospitalized with AMI at all Hanoi hospitals is needed to confirm these findings. Effective strategies to manage Vietnamese patients hospitalized with AMI who have multiple comorbidities are warranted to improve their short-term prognosis.

  14. Prevalence of comorbidities and their impact on hospital management and short-term outcomes in Vietnamese patients hospitalized with a first acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoa L; Nguyen, Quang Ngoc; Ha, Duc Anh; Phan, Dat Tuan; Nguyen, Nguyen Hanh; Goldberg, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Vietnam. We conducted a pilot study of Hanoi residents hospitalized with a first acute myocardial infarction (AMI) at the Vietnam National Heart Institute in Hanoi for purposes of describing the prevalence of cardiovascular (CVD) and non-CVD comorbidities and their impact on hospital management, in-hospital clinical complications, and short-term mortality in these patients. The study population consisted of 302 Hanoi residents hospitalized with a first AMI at the largest tertiary care medical center in Hanoi in 2010. The average age of study patients was 66 years and one third were women. The proportions of patients with none, any 1, and ≥ 2 CVD comorbidities were 34%, 42%, and 24%, respectively. Among the CVD comorbidities, hypertension was the most commonly reported (59%). There were decreasing trends in the proportion of patients who were treated with effective cardiac medications and coronary interventions as the number of CVD comorbidities increased. Patients with multiple CVD comorbidities tended to develop acute clinical complications and die at higher rates during hospitalization compared with patients with no CVD comorbidities (Odds Ratio: 1.40; 95% Confidence Interval: 0.40-4.84). Our data suggest that patients with multiple cardiac comorbidities tended to experience high in-hospital death rates in the setting of AMI. Full-scale surveillance of Hanoi residents hospitalized with AMI at all Hanoi hospitals is needed to confirm these findings. Effective strategies to manage Vietnamese patients hospitalized with AMI who have multiple comorbidities are warranted to improve their short-term prognosis.

  15. Renovating Early Childhood Education Pedagogy: A Case Study in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thao, Dang Phuong; Boyd, Wendy Anne

    2014-01-01

    Since 2003, the Vietnamese government has prioritised curriculum reform efforts and commitment to improving the quality of the national curriculum. The Vietnamese early childhood education renovation has encountered considerable changes and challenges, particularly in the area of pedagogical approaches. Many early childhood teachers continue to…

  16. Consequences of infertility in developing countries: results of a questionnaire and interview survey in the South of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhu Nguyen

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study explores the psychological, socio-cultural and economic consequences of infertility on couples' life. The purpose of this research is to improve knowledge about the potentially serious implications of infertility in the South of Vietnam. Methods This study included 118 infertile couples who filled in questionnaires and 28 men and women who were interviewed. Results Data of the questionnaire show men and women do not differ in their responses and attitudes towards infertility. Almost one-third of the participants require psychological support. Interviewees experience secrecy, social pressure and economic hardship. Conclusion Offspring are very important to Vietnamese couples. Their future depends on children. Family plays an important role in the experiences of the infertile couple. Economic consequences are a particular distressing factor. There is a need for psychological counselling in the treatment of infertile couples in the South of Vietnam. It should be realised that in developing countries, despite overpopulation, unwanted childlessness is an important social and economical burden that needs attention.

  17. Wealth index and risk of childhood overweight and obesity: evidence from four prospective cohorts in Peru and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M; Miranda, J Jaime; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    To estimate the incidence and risk of childhood overweight and obesity according to socioeconomic status in Peruvian and Vietnamese school-aged children. Longitudinal data from the Young Lives study were analyzed. Exposure was wealth index in tertiles. Outcome was overweight and obesity. Cumulative incidence per 100 children-years, relative risks (RR), and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) were calculated. A hierarchical approach, including child- and family-related variables, was followed to construct multivariable models. The cumulative incidence of overweight and obesity was 4.8 (95 % CI 4.1-5.5) and 1.7 (95 % CI 1.3-2.2) in the younger and older Peruvian cohort, respectively; and in Vietnam 1.5 (95 % CI 1.2-1.8) and 0.3 (95 % CI 0.2-0.5), respectively. The incidence of overweight and obesity was higher at the top wealth index tertile in all samples. In the older cohorts, comparing highest versus bottom wealth index tertile, RR of overweight and obesity was four to nine times higher: 4.25 in Peru (95 % CI 2.21-8.18) and 9.11 in Vietnam (95 % CI 1.07-77.42). The results provide important information for childhood obesity prevention in countries moving ahead with economic, epidemiological and nutritional transitions.

  18. The Sustainable Role of the E-Trust in the B2C E-Commerce of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongrok Choi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Vietnam, as a new emerging market, especially in e-business, has been promoting its emerging e-commerce market in Southeast Asia using aggressive players such as Lazada. Nonetheless, Vietnam has strong cultural background of risk-averse attitudes, like other developing countries, thereby deferring sustainable transformation into the e-business revolution. Therefore, it is necessary to examine the factors leading to the sustainable performance of e-commerce businesses, because highly risk-avert attitudes still cause many problems due to low levels of trust. In this perspective of trust, this research may contribute to promoting Vietnamese online shopping trends and suggesting ways for sustainable business to achieve success in B2C e-commerce. The purpose of this research is to examine whether or not the characteristics of e-service quality (usefulness, convenience, security, responsiveness, and assurance have a positive influence on customer loyalty, one of the sustainable success factors in this growing e-commerce industry in Asian markets. Using questionnaires and structural equation modelling, we concluded that it is crucial to promote e-trust as a vital element, because it lacks, in the short-run, an initial e-trust.

  19. Understanding the 'four directions of travel': qualitative research into the factors affecting recruitment and retention of doctors in rural Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witter Sophie

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Motivation and retention of health workers, particularly in rural areas, is a question of considerable interest to policy-makers internationally. Many countries, including Vietnam, are debating the right mix of interventions to motivate doctors in particular to work in remote areas. The objective of this study was to understand the dynamics of the health labour market in Vietnam, and what might encourage doctors to accept posts and remain in-post in rural areas. Methods This study forms part of a labour market survey which was conducted in Vietnam in November 2009 to February 2010. The study had three stages. This article describes the findings of the first stage - the qualitative research and literature review, which fed into the design of a structured survey (second stage and contingent valuation (third stage. For the qualitative research, three tools were used - key informant interviews at national and provincial level (6 respondents; in-depth interviews of doctors at district and commune levels (11 respondents; and focus group discussions with medical students (15 participants. Results The study reports on the perception of the problem by national level stakeholders; the motivation for joining the profession by doctors; their views on the different factors affecting their willingness to work in rural areas (including different income streams, working conditions, workload, equipment, support and supervision, relationships with colleagues, career development, training, and living conditions. It presents findings on their overall satisfaction, their ranking of different attributes, and willingness to accept different kinds of work. Finally, it discusses recent and possible policy interventions to address the distribution problem. Conclusions Four typical 'directions of travel' are identified for Vietnamese doctors - from lower to higher levels of the system, from rural to urban areas, from preventive to curative health and

  20. Understanding the 'four directions of travel': qualitative research into the factors affecting recruitment and retention of doctors in rural Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, Sophie; Thi Thu Ha, Bui; Shengalia, Bakhuti; Vujicic, Marko

    2011-08-17

    Motivation and retention of health workers, particularly in rural areas, is a question of considerable interest to policy-makers internationally. Many countries, including Vietnam, are debating the right mix of interventions to motivate doctors in particular to work in remote areas. The objective of this study was to understand the dynamics of the health labour market in Vietnam, and what might encourage doctors to accept posts and remain in-post in rural areas. This study forms part of a labour market survey which was conducted in Vietnam in November 2009 to February 2010. The study had three stages. This article describes the findings of the first stage - the qualitative research and literature review, which fed into the design of a structured survey (second stage) and contingent valuation (third stage). For the qualitative research, three tools were used - key informant interviews at national and provincial level (6 respondents); in-depth interviews of doctors at district and commune levels (11 respondents); and focus group discussions with medical students (15 participants). The study reports on the perception of the problem by national level stakeholders; the motivation for joining the profession by doctors; their views on the different factors affecting their willingness to work in rural areas (including different income streams, working conditions, workload, equipment, support and supervision, relationships with colleagues, career development, training, and living conditions). It presents findings on their overall satisfaction, their ranking of different attributes, and willingness to accept different kinds of work. Finally, it discusses recent and possible policy interventions to address the distribution problem. Four typical 'directions of travel' are identified for Vietnamese doctors - from lower to higher levels of the system, from rural to urban areas, from preventive to curative health and from public to private practice. Substantial differences in

  1. Applying DEA sensitivity analysis to efficiency measurement of Vietnamese universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Thanh Huyen Nguyen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this study is to measure the technical efficiency of 30 doctorate-granting universities, the universities or the higher education institutes with PhD training programs, in Vietnam, applying the sensitivity analysis of data envelopment analysis (DEA. The study uses eight sets of input-output specifications using the replacement as well as aggregation/disaggregation of variables. The measurement results allow us to examine the sensitivity of the efficiency of these universities with the sets of variables. The findings also show the impact of variables on their efficiency and its “sustainability”.

  2. Epidemiology and care of epilepsy in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tuan, Nguyen Anh

    2010-01-01

    Epilepsy is often considered the most common serious chronic neurological disorder estimated to affect 50 million people globally. Although the majority of these live in developing countries, data on the epidemiology of epilepsy from such countries are scarce. This is true also for Vietnam. The overall objective of this project, Epidemiology and Care of Epilepsy in Ba Vi (EPIBAVI), was therefore to provide essential epidemiological data on epilepsy in Vietnam as a basis for ...

  3. Vietnam Land Policy - Adjusting to Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Conflicts over Land in Vietnam’s Red River Delta," Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, (2007): 317, accessed 6 September 2013, JSTOR . 5...Responsibility and No Rice,”: The Rise and Fall of Agricultural Collectivization in Vietnam,” Agricultural History: vol 82, no. 1, (2008), 54, JSTOR . 18...Performance and Communist Legitimacy,” World Politics, vol. 38 no. 3, (1986): 463, accessed 22 October 2013, JSTOR . 32 Ibid., 463. 33 Elliott

  4. Life time suicidal thoughts in an urban community in Hanoi, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leenaars Antoon

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicidal thought is a risk factor and a stage in the suicidal process from planning to attempting and dying by suicide. To date, studies on suicidal thought in the general population, especially in Asian communities, have been limited. Method The WHO SUPRE-MISS (the multisite intervention study on suicidal behaviours community survey questionnaire was filled in for 2,280 randomly selected residents of the DongDa district of Hanoi, Vietnam by means of face-to-face interviews. This multi-factor questionnaire includes such variables as sociodemographic information, suicidal thought and history of suicide attempts, physical health, alcohol consumption and medication. Results Prevalence rates for life time suicidal thoughts, suicide plans and suicide attempts were 8.9%, 1.1% and 0.4% respectively. Suicidal thoughts are associated with multiple characteristics, such as female gender, single/widowed/separated/divorced marital status, low income, lifestyle (use of alcohol, sedatives and pain relief medication, but not with low education or employment status. Having no religion and being a Buddhist appear to be protective factors for suicidal thought. The ratio of suicidal thoughts, suicide plans and suicide attempts on a lifetime basis is 22.3:2.8:1. Conclusion In Vietnam, as in Western and other Asian countries, suicidal thoughts are associated with similar negative psychosocial risk factors, lifestyle and emotional problems, which implies that suicide preventive measure developed elsewhere can be adjusted to Vietnamese condition. Understanding the unique and common risks in a culture may assist in prediction and control.

  5. The association between child maltreatment and emotional, cognitive, and physical health functioning in Vietnam

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    Nhu K. Tran

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a paucity of research on correlates of child maltreatment in limited-resource countries with a relatively high tolerance of harsh discipline. This Vietnamese study aimed to investigate associations between different types of child maltreatment and child emotional, cognitive, and physical health functioning as well as moderation effects of gender and ethnicity. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted with 1851 randomly selected students aged 12–17 years. Both self-report and more objective measures (weight, height, study ranking, and a memory test were used. Results All types of child maltreatment were associated with emotional dysfunctioning. Life time and past year experiences of physical abuse and life time experiences of sexual abuse and neglect were related to poorer perceived physical health. The study did not find associations between any type of child maltreatment and overweight or underweight status. Regarding cognitive functioning, life time experience of sexual abuse and neglect were related to poorer working memory performance. Noticeably, emotional abuse was related to better academic performance, which might be an indication of “tiger parenting” practice in Vietnam, implying academic performance stimulation at the expense of emotional security. No significant moderation effects by gender and ethnicity were found. Conclusion Even in a culture in which harsh discipline is normative, child maltreatment was related to negative aspects of child wellbeing including emotional, cognitive, and physical health functioning. Efficient and low-cost interventions on child maltreatment should be developed and conducted in Vietnam as well as other countries with similar contexts.

  6. Preschool overweight and obesity in urban and rural Vietnam: differences in prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Loan Minh; Tran, Toan Khanh; Eriksson, Bo; Petzold, Max; Nguyen, Chuc T K; Ascher, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity may soon be an equally important health threat as undernutrition and infectious diseases. Accurate information about prevalence and risk factors of obesity in children is important for the design of prevention. The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence of overweight and obesity for preschool children in two Vietnamese areas, one urban and one rural, and to identify risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted in urban Dong Da and rural Ba Vi districts, Hanoi, Vietnam. Totally, 2,677 children, 1,364 urban and 1,313 rural, were weighed and measured. Caregivers were interviewed. Background information about children and families was obtained from regular household surveys. The prevalence of overweight and obesity combined were 21.1% (95% CI 18.9-23.3) in the urban area and 7.6% (95% CI 6.2-9.2) in the rural. Multiple logistic regression revealed that at the individual level, in both sites, the risk increased with increased child age. The identified urban risk factors were being a boy, consuming large amounts of food, eating fast, and indoor activity less than 2 hours per day. The rural risk factors were frequent consumption of fatty food. At the family level, significant association was found in rural areas with frequent watching of food advertisements on television. Overweight and obesity are emerging problems in Vietnam, particularly in the urban context. Prevention programs should focus on education about healthy eating habits at early preschool age and need to be tailored separately for urban and rural areas since the risk factors differ. Non-healthy food advertisement needs to be restricted.

  7. Preschool overweight and obesity in urban and rural Vietnam: differences in prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loan Minh Do

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood obesity may soon be an equally important health threat as undernutrition and infectious diseases. Accurate information about prevalence and risk factors of obesity in children is important for the design of prevention. Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence of overweight and obesity for preschool children in two Vietnamese areas, one urban and one rural, and to identify risk factors. Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted in urban Dong Da and rural Ba Vi districts, Hanoi, Vietnam. Totally, 2,677 children, 1,364 urban and 1,313 rural, were weighed and measured. Caregivers were interviewed. Background information about children and families was obtained from regular household surveys. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity combined were 21.1% (95% CI 18.9–23.3 in the urban area and 7.6% (95% CI 6.2–9.2 in the rural. Multiple logistic regression revealed that at the individual level, in both sites, the risk increased with increased child age. The identified urban risk factors were being a boy, consuming large amounts of food, eating fast, and indoor activity less than 2 hours per day. The rural risk factors were frequent consumption of fatty food. At the family level, significant association was found in rural areas with frequent watching of food advertisements on television. Conclusions: Overweight and obesity are emerging problems in Vietnam, particularly in the urban context. Prevention programs should focus on education about healthy eating habits at early preschool age and need to be tailored separately for urban and rural areas since the risk factors differ. Non-healthy food advertisement needs to be restricted.

  8. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the indigenous I pig ( in Vietnam

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    Hieu Duc Nguyen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective The I pig is a long nurtured longstanding breed in Vietnam, and contains excellent indigenous genetic resources. However, after 1970s, I pig breeds have become a small population because of decreasing farming areas and increasing pressure from foreign breeds with a high growth rate. Thus, there is now the risk of the disappearance of the I pigs breed. The aim of this study was to focus on classifying and identifying the I pig genetic origin and supplying molecular makers for conservation activities. Methods This study sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome and used the sequencing result to analyze the phylogenetic relationship of I pig with Asian and European domestic pigs and wild boars. The full sequence was annotated and predicted the secondary tRNA. Results The total length of I pig mitochondrial genome (accession number KX094894 was 16,731 base pairs, comprised two rRNA (12S and 16S, 22 tRNA and 13 mRNA genes. The annotation structures were not different from other pig breeds. Some component indexes as AT content, GC, and AT skew were counted, in which AT content (60.09% was smaller than other pigs. We built the phylogenetic trees from full sequence and D loop sequence using Bayesian method. The result showed that I pig, Banna mini, wild boar (WB Vietnam and WB Hainan or WB Korea, WB Japan were a cluster. They were a group within the Asian clade distinct from Chinese pigs and other Asian breeds in both phylogenetic trees (0.0004 and 0.0057, respectively. Conclusion These results were similar to previous phylogenic study in Vietnamese pig and showed the genetic distinctness of I pig with other Asian domestic pigs.

  9. Health care providers' adherence to tobacco treatment for waterpipe, cigarette and dual users in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, Donna; Kumar, Pritika; Lee, Lawrence; Nguyen, LinhThi; Nguyen, Trang Thi; VanDevanter, Nancy; Cleland, Charles M; Nguyen, Nam Truong

    2017-01-01

    Almost half of adult men in Vietnam are current cigarette smokers. Recent surveys also suggest a high prevalence of water pipe use, particularly in rural areas. Yet services to treat tobacco dependence are not readily available. The purpose of this study was to characterize current tobacco use treatment patterns among Vietnamese health care providers and factors influencing adherence to recommended guidelines for tobacco use screening and cessation interventions for water pipe, cigarette and dual users. We conducted cross sectional surveys of 929 male current tobacco users immediately after they completed a primary care visit at one of 18 community health centers. Thirty-four percent of smokers used cigarettes only, 24% water pipe only, and 42% were dual users. Overall 12% of patients reported that a provider asked them if they used tobacco products during the visit. Providers were significantly more likely to screen cigarette smokers compared with water pipe or dual users (16%, 9% and 11% respectively). Similarly, 9% of current cigarette smokers received advice to quit compared to 6% of water pipe and 5% of dual users. No patients reported that their health care provider offered them assistance to quit (e.g., self-help materials, referral). Despite ratifying the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, Vietnam has not made progress in implementing policies and systems to ensure smokers are receiving evidence-based treatment. High rates of water pipe and dual use indicate a need for health care provider training and policy changes to facilitate treatment for both cigarette and water pipe use. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Perspectives of midwives and doctors on adolescent sexuality and abortion care in Vietnam.

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    Klingberg-Allvin, Marie; Nga, Nguyen Thu; Ransjö-Arvidson, Anna-Berit; Johansson, Annika

    2006-01-01

    Vietnam has one of the highest abortion rates in the world and adolescent abortions are thought to constitute at least one-third of all cases. Lack of balanced reproductive health information and services to adolescents and negative social attitudes towards adolescent sexuality are contributing factors to the high abortion rates. Health providers are important in guiding and counselling adolescents on how to protect their reproductive health. There is a lack of studies on health providers' perspectives on their work in adolescent reproductive health care. To explore the perspectives of midwives and doctors on adolescent sexuality and abortion, and what they considered to be quality abortion care for adolescents and the barriers to it, as well as to their own training needs. Observations of care in abortion clinics and focus-group discussions (FGD) were used to collect data. Doctors and midwives from three healthcare facilities in Quang Ninh province in Northern Vietnam participated in a total of eight FGDs. Data were analysed using latent content analysis. Major barriers identified for quality abortion care were of technical and managerial nature. Participants considered that counselling unmarried clients in connection with abortion should focus on warning against the risks and dangers of abortion and pre-marital sexual relations, which they strongly disapproved of. However, they also expressed a pragmatic and caring attitude towards the unmarried girls and couples coming for abortion. Adolescent sexuality and abortion are morally sensitive issues in the Vietnamese culture. The contradictions between cultural norms and the reality facing health providers while counselling unmarried adolescents need to be addressed in education and training programmes.

  11. Copper use and accumulation in catfish culture in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

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    Marcussen, Helle; Løjmand, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders; Hai, Dao M; Holm, Peter E

    2014-01-01

    Aquaculture of Pangasius hypophthalmus (striped catfish) in Vietnam reached 1.1 million tonnes in 2011 and catfish fillets are exported worldwide. The intensive cultures of catfish mainly in earth ponds have made it necessary to apply CuSO4 and other chemicals to control external parasites and other pathogens. However, accumulation of Cu in aquaculture ponds may pose a hazard to growth of fish or to the aquatic environment. The aim of this study was to determine accumulation of Cu in sediment, water and fish in a catfish pond with a history of repeated treatment with CuSO4 in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Copper concentrations in pond sediment were in the interval 21.3-45.7 mg kg(-1) dw and did not exceed the Vietnamese values for soil to be used for agricultural production (70 mg kg(-1) dw.). During three samplings the total mean concentration of Cu in pond water (4 μg L(-1)) did not exceed the LC50-value (70 μg L(-1)) for catfish and the mean dissolved concentration of Cu (0.986 μg L(-1)) did not seem to constitute a risk for the stability of the aquatic ecosystem. No significant variation in Cu concentrations between sampling sites in the pond and depth of sediment profile were determined. The accumulation of Cu in catfish was highest in the liver compared to the skin, gills and muscle tissue. With the current practice of removing pond sludge three to four times during a production cycle little if any Cu seems to accumulate in catfish ponds despite repeated anti-parasite treatments with CuSO4. Further studies are needed to assess the eco-toxicity and impact on agricultural production when pond sediment is discharged into aquatic recipients and used as soil fertilizer.

  12. Community-university partnership: key elements for improving field teaching in medical schools in Vietnam.

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    Hoat, Luu N; Wright, E P

    2008-01-01

    Medical education in many countries includes periods that students spend in the community. In Vietnam, a move towards more community-oriented teaching has increased the need for rural community-based education for medical students during recent years. At the same time, new policies and social changes have created difficulties for community-based education. The eight main medical schools have worked together since 1999 to improve their curriculum, including sharing and adopting new approaches in their field teaching programs. To establish more systematic, integrated and participatory field teaching in rural communities in the curricula of eight medical schools, based on community-university partnerships. Eight medical schools together analyzed their field teaching programs and identified issues still needing attention. A pilot intervention explored how to involve community and local health staff actively in field teaching programs. From the results of the workshop and the pilot intervention, plans were made for sets of activities to improve weaknesses. Feedback and evaluation surveys among local health staff and students who participated in field training were performed after 3 years' intervention, to check the appropriateness of the field teaching programs and methods. All eight schools had made improvements in selected aspects of their community-based education programs. There was still considerable variation in the programs but all were more systematic and better integrated into the revised curriculum. Stakeholders' concerns and interests related to field teaching were analyzed and taken into consideration when they were involved in field teaching. The community-university partnership has become a key element for field teaching in these medical schools. In the new social context of Vietnam, along with more community-based education periods, more active participation of all stakeholders is increasingly necessary to work towards more effective community

  13. "Home Tonight? What? Where?" An Exploratory Study of the Meanings of House, Home and Family Among the Former Vietnamese Refugees in a Canadian City

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    Huyen Dam

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the meaning of place and home among Vietnamese refugees now settled in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada: a situation shared by the first author. We begin with a review of the meaning of place and home and their possible implications for this group. Initially designed as a case study, the research process was influenced by the conventional paradigm assumptions of an emerging design and was later transformed into an autoethnography as the first author journeyed to Vietnam and reflected on her experience, as well as that of her 12 respondents. The first author's own journey to understand home played a critical part in this investigation. Her tacit knowledge together with the stories of these 12 refugees reflect a co-created understanding of home—a definition that is characterized by a process of being uprooted, relocated and embedded into place. Yet at the core of home, its comprehension and value is grounded in culture and family, and as this article suggests, these two factors enable home to remain fluid for these migrants. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1202193

  14. Data on Vietnamese patients׳ behavior in using information sources, perceived data sufficiency and (non)optimal choice of health care provider.

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    Vuong, Quan Hoang

    2016-06-01

    This data article introduces a data set containing 1459 observations that can enable researchers to examine issues related to and perform statistical investigations into questions of relationships between sources of health care information, data sufficiency, trust levels between patients and healthcare experts (and the advice). The data set also records assessment of Vietnamese patients on whether their choice of health care provider is best available (optimal vs. nonoptimal). The data come from a survey in many hospitals in Hanoi and several neighboring provinces/cities in the North of Vietnam, during the last quarter of 2015. Variables that can be useful for future analysis include sources and availability of information, cost, and amount of time for seeking information. The quality of information and health professionals' credibility are critical factors in helping patients choose a health care provider. Mendeley Data, v1 http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/gmbz53tpwc.1; and can enable the modeling after useful discrete data models such as BCL, with one example being provided in this data article.

  15. CLINICAL AND LABORATORY CHARACTERISTICS OF CHRONIC HEPATITIS C IN VIETNAM ON THE EXAMPLE OF HO CHI MINH CITY HEPATOLOGY CLINIC

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    D. A. Lioznov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To provide clinical  and laboratory  characteristics of chronic  hepatitis C in Vietnam.Materials and  methods. A retrospective analysis of data about  1870 HCV  patients observed at Hepatology Clinic  in Ho Chi Minh  City, Vietnam from 2010 to 2015.Results. Among observed patients, HCV  genotype 1 is predominant (48.8%, genotype 6 was  registered in 29,7% of patients, and genotype 2 – 18,7%. Advanced fibrosis (F3 and cirrhosis (F4 were detected in 52% of patients. The rate of chronic  co-infection with  hepatitis B viruse  and  hepatitis C virus is at 6% of patients. Nearly  one-tenth of all observed HCV patients (9%  were diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma. In the  group  of patients who completed the  full course  of treatment, non-responsers to therapy and  have  virologic  breakthrough, SVR-24  was registered at 73,7% and 75,1% of patients treated with  simple or pegylated interferon, respectively. Thus,  combination therapy with interferonalpha  and  ribavirin  for the  indigenous Vietnamese population has been showed relatively high efficiency.Conclusion. The  findings about  clinical  and  laboratory characteristics of patients with  chronic  hepatitis C, and  the effectiveness of antiviral therapy, have practical importance for preparation a long-term strategy for the  elimination of hepatitis C in Vietnam.

  16. Prevalence and correlates of hyperglycemia in a rural population, Vietnam: implications from a cross–sectional study

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    Quang Binh Tran

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes in urban areas, relatively little has been known about its actual prevalence and its associations in rural areas, Vietnam. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, diabetes and their risk factors in a rural province, Vietnam. Methods A cross–sectional study with a representative sample was designed to estimate the hyperglycemia prevalence, using 75–g oral glucose tolerance test. Potential risk factors for hyperglycemia were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression, taken into account influences of socio–economic status, anthropometric measures, and lifestyle–related factors. Results The age and sex–adjusted prevalence rates (95% CI of isolated IFG, isolated IGT, combined IFG–IGT, and diabetes were 8.7 (7.0–10.5, 4.3 (3.2−5.4, 1.6 (0.9−2.3, and 3.7% (2.7–4.7%, respectively. There were still 73% of diabetic subjects without knowing the condition. Blood pressure, family history of diabetes, obesity–related measures (waist circumference, waist–hip ratio, body fat percentage, and abdominal obesity were the independent risk factors for hyperglycemia (IFG, IGT, and diabetes. Conclusions The prevalence of hyperglycemia in rural areas has not been as sharply increased as that reported in urban cities, Vietnam. Blood pressure and obesity–related measures were the most significant predictors for hyperglycemia level and they can be taken into account in building prognosis models to early detection of diabetes in rural Vietnamese populations.

  17. Contested Sovereignty: Local Politics and State Power in Territorial Conflicts on the Vietnam-China Border, 1650s-1880s

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    Vũ Đường Luân

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes territorial disputes and political relationships at the border between China and Vietnam from the seventeenth to the nineteenth centuries. Predominant Western scholarship argues that, owing to the tributary relationship among states and polities, there was no territorial boundary in premodern Asia; furthermore, it suggests, the concept of the “geo-body” of a nation or sovereign state only arose with the transfer of new mapping technology from Europe. This article argues instead that the absence of lines of demarcation on Vietnamese and Chinese maps before the late nineteenth century does not connote a lack of consciousness of the existence of borders. The quest for autonomy throughout history by local communities living between China and Vietnam gave rise to border conflicts, which led to the intervention by and expansion of these two states, as well as negotiations and territorial division between them. The transformation of the China-Vietnam border from a premodern to a modern form thus did not depend solely on its cartographic representation; it also involved the power of the state to control space. Additionally, this article demonstrates that tensions over the border did not simply involve central governments but often resulted from a combination of local conflicts and the complicated relations between local actors and the state. The article suggests a new approach to exploring the history of state borders from the perspective of local people, in which the “in-between communities” are not seen as passive objects of border demarcation but are also a driving force in the establishment of a frontier. While the “in-between communities” discussed in this article were behind conflicts over land and its division into national territories, their manipulations of ethnic identity and transgressive mobility also helped blur the border between the two countries.

  18. The genetic match between vaccine strains and circulating seasonal influenza A viruses in Vietnam, 2001-2009.

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    Vuong, Cuong D; Hoang, Phuong M V; Nguyen, Hang L K; Nguyen, Hien T; Nguyen, Thach C; Le, Thanh T; Dennis, David T; Kapella, Bryan K; Kile, James C; Le, Mai Q

    2013-11-01

    Vietnam is currently developing domestic capability to manufacture influenza vaccines but information on the genetic and antigenic characteristics of locally circulating seasonal influenza viruses is limited. To assess the relevance of WHO recommended vaccine strains to the situation in Vietnam, we analyzed the genetic relatedness of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of seasonal influenza A viruses circulating in Vietnam from 2001 to 2009 to WHO recommended vaccine strains over the same period. We sequenced the HA gene of 32 H1N1 and 44 H3N2 seasonal influenza A isolates from laboratory-based sentinel surveillance sites in Hanoi from 2001 to 2005 and from a national influenza surveillance system from 2005 to 2009. H1 and H3 HA phylogenetic trees rooted to vaccine strains A/Beijing/295/1995 (H1N1) and A/Moscow/10/1999 (H3N2), respectively, were constructed with contemporary HA sequences of isolates from neighboring countries. We found some genetic differences between seasonal influenza H3N2 viruses and three WHO influenza vaccine strains recommended for use in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres for the 2001-2004 and 2007-2008 seasons and close genetic identity of circulating H3N2 strains with the recommended WHO Southern Hemisphere vaccine strains for 2004 and 2009 seasons. The genetic similarity of circulating H1N1 strains with the WHO recommended vaccine strains are described for the study period 2001-2009. The HA gene of seasonal influenza virus strains in Vietnam (especially influenza A/H3N2) showed varying degrees of genetic identity compared with those of the Northern or Southern Hemisphere vaccine strains recommended by WHO. The close relatedness of the HA of Vietnamese strains and contemporary strains from nearby countries indicate a good genetic match of circulating strains during study period. Greater representation of virus isolates from South East Asia in the vaccine strain selection process is desirable of influenza vaccine development in Vietnam. © 2012

  19. Development of the First Language Is Not a Barrier to Second-Language Acquisition: Evidence from Vietnamese Immigrants to the United States.

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    Nguyen, Anne; Shin, Fay; Krashen, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Elementary and middle school children in California who speak Vietnamese as a first language reported high levels of oral competence in Vietnamese and a desire to maintain Vietnamese language and culture. There was no evidence that the development of the first language was a barrier to second language acquisition. (Author/VWL)

  20. Teacher Development: A Real Need for English Departments in Vietnam.

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    Hiep, Pham Hoa

    2001-01-01

    Examines English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) teacher training and teacher development in Vietnam. Suggests ways to promote professional development among EFL teachers in Vietnam, which may be applicable to similar situations in other countries. (Author/VWL)